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Occupational Wage Survey

MUSKEGON-MUSKEGON HEIGHTS, MICHIGAN
MAY 1960

Bulletin Mo. 1265-55




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Claguo, Commissioner




New England R egion
18 O liver Street
Boston 10, Mass.
Liberty 2-2115________

Occupational Wage Survey
MUSKEGON-MUSKEGON HEIGHTS, MICHIGAN




MAY 1960

B ulletin No. 1265-55
August I960

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents/ U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C.

Price 25 cents




P r e fa c e

C o n te n ts

The C om m unity W age Survey P ro g ra m

In tro d u ctio n _________________________________________________________

The B ureau of L abor S ta tistic s r e g u la r ly conducts
areaw id e w age su rv e y s in a num ber of im p ortan t in d u stria l
c e n te r s . The stu d ies, m ade from la te fa ll to ea r ly sp rin g,
re la te to occu p ation al ea rn in gs and rela ted su p p lem en tary
b en efits. A p relim in a ry rep ort is ava ila b le on co m p letion
of the study in ea ch a rea , u su a lly in the m onth follow in g
the p ay roll p eriod stu d ied . T his b u lletin p ro vid es addition al
data not in clu d ed in the e a r lie r rep o rt. A co n so lid a ted
a n a ly tica l b u lletin su m m arizin g the r e su lts of a ll of the
year*s su rv e y s is is su e d after co m p letion of the fin al a rea
b u lletin for the cu rren t round of su r v e y s.

P age
1

T ables:

T h is rep ort w as p rep ared in the Bureau* s region al
o ffice in C h icago, ELI. , by W oodrow C. L inn, under the
d ire ctio n of G eorge E . V otava, R egion al W age and In d u strial
R elation s A n a ly st.




1.

E sta b lish m en ts and w o rk ers w ithin sco p e o f s u r v e y ____

A: O ccupational ea rn in gs:*
A - l . O ffice occu p ation s ---------------------------------------------------A - 2. P r o fe ssio n a l and tech n ica l occu p ation s __________
A - 3. M aintenance and pow erplant occu p ation s ________
A - 4 . C u stod ial and m a te r ia l m ovem en t o c c u p a tio n s __

2
4

5
6
7

B: E sta b lish m en t p r a c tic e s and su p p lem en ta ry w age
p ro v isio n s:*
B - 1. Shift d iff e r e n tia ls ___________________________________
B -2 . M inim um en tran ce s a la r ie s for w om en o ffice
w o rk ers _____________________________________________
B -3 . Sch eduled w eek ly h o u r s ____________________________
B -4 . P aid h olid ays _______________________________________
B -5 . P aid v a c a t io n s ______________________________________
B - 6 . H ealth, in su ra n ce, and p en sion plans ____________

9
10
11
13

Appendix: O ccupational d escr ip tio n s ____________________________

15

* NOTE: S im ila r tab u lation s for th ese and oth er ite m s are
ava ila b le in the rep o rts for su rv e y s in oth er m ajor a r e a s .
A d ir e c to r y in d icatin g date of study and the p ric e of the
rep o rts is a v a ila b le upon req u est.

iii

8
9




O c c u p a t io n a l

W

a g e

S u r v e y < --M u s lc e g o n -M u s k e g o n

H e ig h ts ,

M ic h .

Introduction

T his area is one of se v e r a l im portant in d u strial cen ters in
w hich the U .S . D epartm ent of Labor* s B ureau of Labor S ta tistic s has
conducted su rveys of occupational earnings and related wage ben efits
on an areaw ide b a s is . In this area, data w ere obtained by personal
v isits of B ureau field econ om ists to rep resen tative estab lish m en ts
w ithin six broad industry division s: M anufacturing; tran sp ortation , 1
com m u nication, and other public u tilities; w h olesale trade; reta il
trade; fin an ce, in su ran ce, and rea l estate; and s e r v ic e s . M ajor in ­
dustry groups excluded from th ese stu d ies are governm ent operations
and the con struction and ex tractive in d u stries. E stab lish m en ts having
few er than a p rescrib ed num ber of w ork ers are om itted a lso becau se
they furnish in su fficien t em ploym ent in the occupations studied to w a r­
rant in clu sion . W herever p o ssib le, sep arate tabulations are provided
for each of the broad industry d iv isio n s.
T hese su rveys are conducted on a sam ple b a sis b ecau se of the
u n n ecessa ry c o st involved in surveying a ll esta b lish m en ts. To obtain
appropriate accu racy at m inim um c o st, a greater proportion of large
than of sm a ll estab lish m en ts is studied. In com bining the data, how ­
ever, a ll estab lish m en ts are given their appropriate w eight. E stim a tes
b ased on the estab lish m en ts studied are p resen ted , th erefo re, as r e ­
lating to a ll estab lish m en ts in the industry grouping and area, e x ­
cep t for those below the m inim um s iz e studied.
O ccupations and E arnings
The occupations se lec te d for study are com m on to a variety
of m anufacturing and nonm anufacturing in d u stries. O ccupational c la s ­
sifica tio n is based on a uniform s e t of job d escrip tion s designed to
take account of in terestab lish m en t variation in duties w ithin the sam e
job. (See appendix for listin g of th ese d escrip tio n s.) E arnings data are
p resen ted (in the A -s e r ie s tab les) for the follow ing types of occupa­
tions: (a) O ffice c le r ic a l; (b) p ro fessio n a l and technical; (c) m ain te­
nance and pow er plant; and (d) custod ial and m aterial m ovem ent.
O ccupational em ploym ent and earnings data are shown for
fu ll-tim e w o rk ers, i. e . , those h ired to work a regu lar w eekly sch ed ­
ule in the given occupational cla ssific a tio n . E arnings data exclude
prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on w eeken ds, h olid a ys, and
1 R ailroads, fo rm erly excluded from the scope of th ese stu d ies,
have been added in n ea rly a ll of the area s to be studied during the
w in ter of 1959-60; ra ilroad s w ill be added in the rem aining area s next
y ea r. F or scope of su rvey in this area, se e footnote to "transporta­
tion, com m unication, and other public u tilities" in table 1 .




late sh ifts. Nonproduction b onu ses are excluded a lso , but c o st-o fliving bonuses and incen tive earn in gs are inclu ded. W here w eekly
hours are reported, as for office c le r ic a l occu p ation s, referen ce is
to the work sch ed u les (rounded to the n ea rest half hour) for which
stra ig h t-tim e sa la r ie s are paid; average w eekly earnings for th ese
occupations have been rounded to the n ea rest half d ollar.
A verage earnings of m en and wom en are p resen ted sep arately
for selec te d occupations in which both se x e s are com m only em ployed.
D ifferen ces in pay le v e ls of m en and w om en in th ese occupations are
la rg ely due to (l) d ifferen ces in the distrib u tion of the se x e s am ong
in d u stries and estab lish m en ts; (2 ) d ifferen ces in sp ecific duties p er­
form ed, although the occupations are ap propriately c la ss ifie d w ithin
the sam e su rvey job descrip tion ; and (3) d ifferen ces in length of s e r v ­
ice or m erit review when individual sa la r ie s are adjusted on this b asis.
L onger average se r v ic e of m en would r e su lt in higher average pay
when both se x e s are em ployed within the sam e rate ran ge. Job
d escrip tion s used in cla ssify in g em p lo yees in th ese su rveys are u su ­
ally m ore g en era lized than those u sed in individual estab lish m en ts to
allow for m inor d ifferen ces am ong estab lish m en ts in sp ecific duties
perform ed.
O ccupational em ploym ent estim a tes rep resen t the total in all
estab lish m en ts w ithin the scop e of the study and not the num ber actu­
ally su rveyed . B ecau se of d ifferen ces in occupational stru ctu re am ong
esta b lish m en ts, the estim a tes of occupational em ploym ent obtained
from the sam ple of estab lish m en ts studied serv e only to indicate the
relative im portance of the jobs stu died. T h ese d ifferen ces in o ccu ­
pational stru ctu re do not m a teria lly affect the accu racy of the ea rn ­
ings data.
E stab lish m en t P r a c tic e s and Supplem entary Wage P ro v isio n s
Inform ation is p resen ted a lso (in the B -s e r ie s tab les) on s e ­
lected estab lish m en t p ra ctices and supplem entary b en efits as they r e ­
late to office and plant w o rk ers. The term "office w o rk ers, " as u sed
in this bu lletin , inclu des w orking su p erv iso rs and n on su p ervisory
w orkers perform ing c le r ic a l or related fu n ction s, and exclu d es adm in­
istr a tiv e , ex ecu tiv e, and p ro fession a l p erson n el. "Plant w ork ers" in ­
clude w orking forem en and all n on su p ervisory w ork ers (including lea d m en and tra in ees) engaged in nonoffice fu n ction s. A d m in istrative,
ex ecu tive, and p ro fession a l em p lo y ees, and force-a cco u n t con stru ction
em p loyees who are u tilized as a sep arate w ork force are excluded .
C afeteria w orkers and routem en are excluded in m anufacturing in d u s­
tries, but are included as plant w ork ers in nonm anufacturing in d u stries.

2

T a b le 1.

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s a n d w o r k e r s w it h in s c o p e o f s u r v e y a n d n u m b e r s t u d ie d in M u s k e g o n — u s k e g o n H e i g h t s , M i c h . , 1 b y m a j o r in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , 2 M a y I 9 6 0
M

Industry d iv isio n

A ll d iv isio n s ---------------------------- ------------ — - - - ------- - M anufacturing ---------- ------- __ — —
— — — —
N onm anufacturing __ __ __ __ _________ __ -------------T ran sp ortation , com m u n ication , and other
public u tilitie s 5 ------------------- —
— -----W h olesale trad e ----------- __ — - - ----- - - —
R etail trad e ___________ _____________ _____ — --------F in an ce, in su ra n ce, and re a l e sta te ______________ ___
S e r v ic e s 7 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

N um ber of e sta b lish m en ts

M inim um
em p loym en t
in e sta b lish ­
m en ts of sco p e
of study

W ithin
sco p e of
study 3

51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51

78
47
31
8
4
13
4
2

Studied
52
31
21
8
2
7
2
2

W orkers in e sta b lish m en ts
W ithin sco p e o f study
T o ta l4
2 8 ,5 7 0
2 4 ,2 0 0
4, 370
2, 070
300
1,400
400
200

Studied

O ffice

P lant

T o ta l4

3, 100

21, 500

26, 050

2, 100
1,000
500
(J)
(*)
( 6)

1 9 .1 0 0

2 2 ,3 9 0
3, 660
2, 070
190
960
240
200

2 ,4 0 0
900
(‘>
(*)
0
( >

1 T h e M u s k e g o n —M u s k e g o n H e ig h t s M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a (M u s k e g o n C o u n t y ).
T h e " w o r k e r s w it h in s c o p e o f s t u d y " e s t i m a t e s s h o w n in t h is t a b l e p r o v i d e a r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f
th e s i z e a n d c o m p o s i t i o n o f th e l a b o r f o r c e i n c lu d e d in th e s u r v e y .
T h e e s t i m a t e s a r e n o t in t e n d e d , h o w e v e r , t o s e r v e a s a b a s i s o f c o m p a r i s o n w it h o t h e r a r e a e m p l o y m e n t i n d e x e s t o m e a s u r e
e m p l o y m e n t t r e n d s o f l e v e l s s i n c e (1 ) p la n n in g o f w a g e s u r v e y s r e q u i r e s t h e u s e o f e s t a b l is h m e n t d a t a c o m p i l e d c o n s i d e r a b l y in a d v a n c e o f t h e p a y r o l l p e r i o d s t u d ie d a n d (2 ) s m a l l e s t a b l is h m e n t s
a r e e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e s c o p e o f th e s u r v e y .
2 T h e 1957 r e v i s e d e d i t io n o f th e S t a n d a r d I n d u s t r ia l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n M a n u a l w a s u s e d in c l a s s i f y i n g e s t a b l is h m e n t s b y in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n .
M a j o r c h a n g e s f r o m th e e a r l i e r e d i t io n ( u s e d in th e
B u r e a u 's l a b o r m a r k e t w a g e s u r v e y p r o g r a m p r i o r t o th e w in t e r o f 1 9 5 8 - 5 9 ) a r e th e t r a n s f e r o f m i l k p a s t e u r i z a t i o n p la n t s a n d r e a d y - m i x e d c o n c r e t e e s t a b l is h m e n t s f r o m t r a d e ( w h o l e s a l e o r r e ­
t a il) t o m a n u fa c t u r i n g , a n d th e t r a n s f e r o f r a d i o a n d t e l e v i s i o n b r o a d c a s t i n g f r o m s e r v i c e s t o th e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s d i v i s i o n .
3 I n c l u d e s a ll e s t a b l is h m e n t s w it h t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t at o r a b o v e t h e m i n i m u m - s i z e li m i t a t i o n .
A l l o u t le t s (w it h in t h e a r e a ) o f c o m p a n i e s in s u c h i n d u s t r i e s a s t r a d e , f i n a n c e , a u to r e p a i r
s e r v i c e , a n d m o t i o n - p i c t u r e t h e a t e r s a r e c o n s i d e r e d a s 1 e s t a b l is h m e n t .
4 I n c l u d e s e x e c u t i v e , p r o f e s s i o n a l , a n d o t h e r w o r k e r s e x c l u d e d f r o m th e s e p a r a t e o f f i c e a n d p la n t c a t e g o r i e s .
5 R a i l r o a d s w e r e in c lu d e d ; t a x i c a b s a n d s e r v i c e s in c id e n t a l t o w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n w e r e e x c l u d e d .
4 T h is in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n i s r e p r e s e n t e d in e s t i m a t e s f o r " a l l i n d u s t r i e s " a n d 1 o n m a n u f a c t u r in g " in th e S e r i e s A a n d B t a b l e s , a lt h o u g h c o v e r a g e w a s i n s u f f i c i e n t t o j u s t i f y s e p a r a t e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f
'n
d a ta .
7 H o t e l s ; p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s ; b u s i n e s s s e r v i c e s ; a u t o m o b i le r e p a i r s h o p s ; m o t i o n p i c t u r e s ; n o n p r o fi t m e m b e r s h i p o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; a n d e n g in e e r in g a n d a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s .




3

The sum m ary of vacation plans is lim ited to form al arran ge­
m en ts, excluding inform al plans w hereby tim e off with pay is granted
at the d iscretio n of the em p lo yer. Separate e stim a tes are provided
accord ing to em ployer p ractice in com puting vacation paym ents, such
as tim e paym ents, percen t of annual ea rn in gs, or fla t-su m am ou n ts.
H ow ever, in the tabulations of vacation a llow an ces, paym ents not on
a tim e b a sis w ere converted; for exam p le, a paym ent of 2 p ercen t of
annual earnings w as co n sid ered as the equivalent of 1 w eek 1 s pay.

D ata are presen ted for a ll h ealth , in su ran ce, and pen sion
plans for which at le a st a part of the c o st is borne by the em p lo y er,
excepting only leg a l req u irem en ts such as w orkm en 1 s com p en sation
and so cia l secu r ity . Such plans include those underw ritten by a co m ­
m er cia l in su ran ce com pany and th ose provided through a union fund or
paid d irectly by the em p loyer out of cu rren t operating funds or from
a fund s e t asid e for this pu rp ose. Death b en efits are included as a
form of life in su ran ce.
S ick n ess and accid en t in su ran ce is limited* to that type of in ­
surance under which pred eterm in ed ca sh paym ents are m ade d irectly
to the insured on a w eekly or m onthly b a sis during illn e s s or accid en t
d isa b ility . Inform ation is p resen ted for all such plans to which the
em ployer con trib u tes. H ow ever, in New York and New J e r se y , which
have enacted tem porary d isab ility in su ran ce law s which req u ire e m ­
ployer con trib u tion s , 4 plans are included only if the em p loyer ( 1 ) co n ­
trib u tes m ore than is leg a lly req u ired , or \2) p rovides the em ployee
with b en efits w hich ex ceed the req u irem en ts of the law . Tabulations
of paid sic k -le a v e plans are lim ited to form al p la n s 5 w hich provide
full pay or a proportion of the w o rk er's pay during ab sen ce from work
b ecau se of illn e s s . Separate tabulations are provided accord ing to
(l) plans which provide fu ll pay and no w aiting p eriod, and ( 2 ) plans
providing eith er partial pay or a w aiting period . In addition to the
presentation of the proportions o f w ork ers who are provided sick n e ss
and accid en t insuran ce or paid sick lea v e, an unduplicated total is
shown of w ork ers who receiv e eith er or both typ es of b en efits.
C atastrophe in su ran ce, so m etim es re ferred to a s t extended
m ed ical in su ran ce, inclu des those plans which are d esign ed to p rotect
em p lo yees in c a se of sick n e ss and injury involving ex p en ses beyond
the norm al co vera ge of h osp italiza tio n , m ed ica l, and su rg ica l p lan s.
M edical insuran ce re fe r s to plans providing for com p lete or p artial
paym ent of d o c to rs 1 f e e s . Such plans m ay be underw ritten by co m m e r­
cia l insuran ce com panies or nonprofit organ ization s or they m ay be
se lf-in su r e d . T abulations of retirem en t pen sion plans are lim ited to
those plans that provide m onthly paym ents for the rem ain d er of the
w o rk er 's life .

2 An estab lish m en t w as co n sid ered as having a policy if it m et
eith er of the follow ing conditions: (1) O perated late sh ifts at the tim e
of the su rvey, or (2 ) had form al p ro vision s coverin g late sh ifts.
3 Scheduled w eekly hours for office w ork ers (fir st sectio n of
table B -3 ) in su rveys m ade p rior to late 1957 and ea rly 1958 w ere
p resen ted in term s of the proportion of w om en office w ork ers e m ­
ployed in o ffices with the indicated w eekly hours for w om en w o rk er s.

4 The tem porary d isab ility law s in C aliforn ia and Rhode Island
do not require em p loyer con trib u tion s.
5 An estab lish m en t w as co n sid ered as having a form al plan if
it esta b lish ed at le a st the m inim um num ber of days of sic k lea ve that
could be exp ected by each em p loyee • Such a plan need not be w ritten ,
but inform al sic k -le a v e allow an ces, d eterm in ed on an individual b a s is ,
w ere excluded .

Shift d ifferential data (table B - l ) are lim ited to m anufacturing
in d u stries. T his inform ation is presen ted both in term s of (a) esta b ­
lish m en t p olicy, 2 p resented in term s of total plant w orker em p loy­
m ent, and (b) effectiv e p ra ctice, presen ted on the b a sis of w orkers
actually em ployed on the sp ecified sh ift at the tim e of the su rvey.
In estab lish m en ts having varied d ifferen tia ls, the am ount applying to
a m ajority w as used o r, if no am ount applied to a m ajority, the c la s ­
sifica tio n "other" was u sed . In estab lish m en ts in which som e la te sh ift hours are paid at norm al ra te s, a d ifferen tial was record ed only
if it applied to a m ajority of the sh ift hours.
M inim um entrance rates (table B -2 ) relate only to the esta b ­
lish m en ts v isited . They are p resen ted on an estab lish m en t, rather
than on an em ploym ent b a sis. P aid holidays; paid vacations; and
health , in su ran ce, and pension plans are treated sta tistic a lly on the
b a sis that th ese are applicable to a ll plant or office w orkers if a m a­
jority of such w orkers are elig ib le or m ay eventually qualify for the
p ra ctices liste d . Scheduled hours are treated sta tistic a lly on the b a sis
that th ese are applicable to all plant or office w orkers if a m ajority
are co v ere d . 3 B ecau se of rounding, sum s of individual item s in these
tabulations m ay not equal to ta ls.
The fir s t part of the paid holidays table p resen ts the num ­
b er of w hole and half holidays actually provided. The secon d part
com b in es whole and half holidays to show total holiday tim e .




A* Occupational Earnings

4

Table A-l. Office Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a rn in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d o n an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d i v is i o n ! M u s k e g o n — u s k e g o n H e ig h t s , M ic h . , M a y i9 6 0 )
M
Average
S ex , o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s t r y d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIG|HT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

$
Weekly i
Weekly i 4 0 . 00
hours
earnings
(Standard) (Standard)
4 5 . 00

$
5 0 .0 0

$
4 5 .0 0
5 0 ,0 0

$
60. 00

55,.Q.(L

$
6 5 .0 0

$
7 0 .0 0

“
7 0 . 00

$
55. 00

"

$
7 5. 00

$
8 0 .0 0

“
SQJM l. 8 5. 00

$
8 5 .0 0

~

9 0 .0 0

$
90. 00

$

$
$
$
$
$
$
9 5 .0 0 1 0 0 .0 0 105. 00 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 1 2 5 .0 0

“
_
“
■
_95,J)fL 1 0 0 .0 0 .AfliLJlO n o . 00 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 1 2 5 .0 0 1 3 0 .0 0

M en
46
41

40. 0
4 0 .0

$ 1 0 8 .5 0
1 0 9 .0 0

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

_

-

"

-

-

-

“

-

*

-

-

19
19

40. 0
40. 0

1 0 4 .0 0
1 0 4 .0 0

-

_________________

16

40. 0

8 9. 00

B i l l e r s , m a c h in e (b illin g m a ch in e ) ---------------------------- —
N on m a n u fa c tu rin g ------------ ------------- -------------- —--------

19
15

4 0 .0
40. 5

C l e r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c l a s s A
----------------M a n u fa ctu r in g

--------------------------------------------------- --------- ------------------ — -

C le rk s , o r d e r
______________________
__________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g

__• __________ ______
__ __________________

T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s B

3
3

1
1

6
4

2
2

6

i

14
14

1

2
2

4
4

1

4

l

6
'— 5—

6
4

1
1

2
2

4
” 4'

1

_

2

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

“

-

-

1
1

1

-

1
1

_

-

1

2
2

.

.

-

1

1

_

1

2

_

2

2

6 2. 00
6 0. 00

-

2
2

1
1

2
1

9
9

2
1

1
1

2
-

-

-

_

-

_

. _

_

_

_

_

-

"

"

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W om en

'

'

B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s A

______________

22

4 0 .0

7 3 . 00

-

-

2

4

1

3

1

1

3

6

1

-

_

,

-

_

_

_

B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s B

______________

44

40. 0

57. 00

_

10

10

15

4

2

1

_

2

_

_

_

_

.

_

.

.

_

C l e r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c l a s s A ---------------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g ---------- -- --------_------ -----------------------------------N on m a n u fa c tu rin g ------------------------------------------------------------

44
22
22

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

8 3. 00
8 1. 00
8 5. 00

5
5

10
7
3

6
5
1

4
3
1

2
2

2
2
-

8

5
1
4

1
1

C l e r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c l a s s B ---------------------------------------- M a n u fa ctu r in g
------------ ------------------- ---------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g -----------------------------------------------------------

84
34
50

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

7 4 .0 0
6 9 .0 0
7 7. 50

.
-

1

6
2
4

7
2
5

12
1
11

13
1
12

4
4

C l e r k s , f i le , c l a s s A

------ ------------- __ __________________

18

40. 0

58. 50

-

_
_

.
_
-

_
_
-

.
_
-

_
_

C le rk s , p a y ro ll
____________________ — ---------- -------------M a n u fa ctu r in g
-------------------------------------------------- --------------

66
56

40. 0
40. 0

6 8. 00
67. 50

C o m p to m e t e r o p e r a t o r s ____ .__________ _________ _______
M a n u fa ctu r in g -------------------------------------------------------------------

58
58

40. 0
40. 0

7 2 . 50
7 2 . 50

_

K e y p u n ch o p e r a t o r s ------------------------------------------ -------------—
M a n u fa ctu r in g --------------------------------------------------- ---------------

49
44

40. 0
40. 0

64. 50
6 5. 00

-

S e c r e t a r ie s ______________________ — — -------------- ------------M a n u fa ctu r in g ----------------------------- — ---------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ------------------------------------------------------------

167
136
31

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

8 2. 00
8 3 . 50
7 6 . 00

_
-

S t e n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l ____________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _- ___ __ ________________________ ____ _____
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ----------------- ------------------------------------------

166
142
24

40. 0
40. 0
4 0 .0

6 9. 50
7 0 . 50
6 5 .0 0

-

----------------------------- ----------------------------

17

42. 0

60. 50

24

S w it c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r - r e c e p t i o n i s t s ---------- -------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g
— ---------------------------— ----------------------- -

31
27

40. 0
4 0 .0

65. 50
63. 50

T r a n s c r ib in g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , g e n e r a l ------------ -----M a n u fa ctu r in g
---------------------------- ------------------------------------

17
17

40. 0
40. 0

59. 50
59. 50

T y p is t s , cla s s A
M a n u fa ctu r in g

----------------------------------- ------------------------------------------ — — ----------------------------

86
83

40. 0
40. 0

T y p is t s , c l a s s B
M a n u fa ctu r in g

------------------------------ ---------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

111
94

40. 0
40. 0

-

S w itc h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s

4
3
1

_
-

_
-

1
1
-

2
2

8

2

12
6
6

3

7

2

2

1

1

1

1

-

6
5—
_

.

_

-

-

7
7

7
7

10
8

13
9

11
10

10
io

6
4

1
1

2
2

4
4

7
7

10
10

8
8

1
1

2
2

1
-----j------

3
2

4
2

7
7

10
10

13
13

2
2

8
6

_
"

1
1

5
1
4

5
4
1

18
15
3

27
17
10

2
2

10
8
2

16
11
5

43
40
3

25
20
5

2

1

3

1

1

1
1

2
2

5
5

12
12

-

1
1

6
6

3
3

7 5. 50
7 6. 00

_

_

1
-

56. 00
57. 00

1
■

35
27

-

-

-

10
6

6

-

-

1
“

.

.

.

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

23
2*

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

*

-

2
2

-

.

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

~

-

22
17
5

15
13
2

21
20
1

27

5
4
1

1
1

16
16

-

-

-

28
26
2

_
-

4

9
8
1

1
1
-

1
1

16
12

4

-

17
17
1
1
-

-

-

2
1

2
2

3
3

3
-

1
1

.

-

4
4

1
1

“

1
1

1
1

4
4

13
13

7
7

10
10

8
6

43
43

36
32

22
22

7
7

_

_

6

10
-----3

.

.

;

-

-

-

-

-

1
1
-

1

-

-

-

-

.

.

-

-

-

•-

-

~

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

,

_

_

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

■

"

_

_

_

'

"

~

1 S ta n d a rd h o u r s r e f l e c t the w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p lo y e e s r e c e i v e t h e ir r e g u la r s t r a i g h t - t im e s a la r i e s and the e a r n in g s c o r r e s p o n d to th e s e w e e k ly h o u r s .
2 A ll w o r k e r s w e r e at $ 3 0 to $ 4 0 .




t

26
1

.

'

_

_
-

_

_

■

"

5
Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a r n in g s f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d iv is io n , M u s k e g o n — u s k e g o n H e ig h ts, M i c h . , M a y I96 0 )
M
Avekaoe
Sex, o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s tr y d i v is i o n

Number
of
workers

W eek ly
(Standard)

N U M B ER OP W O RK ERS R E CE IVIN G S T R A IG H T -T IM E W E E K L Y E A RN ING S OF—

Weekly
earnings1
(Standard)

$
6 5 . 00
and
u n d er
7 0 .0 0

$
70. 00

_
75. 00

$
8 5 .0 0

$
$
90. 00 9 5 .0 0

8 0 .0 0 _8 5 i 00 _ 9 0 ,0 0

9 5 .0 0 1 0 0 .0 0

$
7 5. 00

$
8 0. 00

$
$
$
1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
1 1 5 .0 0 120. 00 1 2 5 .0 0 130. 00 135. 00 1 4 0 .0 0 1 4 5 .0 0 1 5 0 .0 0
and
1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 _1 15. 0 0 120. 00 1_25._00 130. 00 1 3 5 .0 0 140. 00 1 4 5 .0 0 1 5 0 .0 0 o v e r

n o . oo

M en

4 0 . 0 $ 1 3 3 .5 0
4 0. 0
133 .50

.

_

_

“

"

■

4 0 .0
4 0. 0

111 .00
111 .00

_

.

~

-

-

1
1

63
63

40. 0
40. 0

8 7.5 0
8 7 .5 0

4
4

9
9

6
6

22
22

40. 0
4 0 .0

8 5 .0 0
8 5.0 0

2
2

4
4

1
1

D r a ft s m e n , le a d e r ------------------------------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g ----------------------------------------------------------------

15
15

D r a ft s m e n , s e n io r ------------- —
__ — ------------- -----M a n u fa ctu r in g ----------------------------------------------------------------

109
109

.
D r a ft s m e n , ju n io r ------------- ----------------- a — — -------- _
M a n u fa ctu r in g ----------------------------------------------------------------

.

.

“

■

“

■

3
3

1
1

2
2

2
2

-

1
1

1
1

2
2

3
3

9
9

5
5

14
14

17
17

21
21

10
10

19
19

4
4

5
5

1
1

-

-

-

6
6

8
8

12
12

8
8

8
8

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

“

-

"

“

1
1

4
4

8
8

_

2
2

_

.

.

.

_

.

W om en

N u r s e s , in d u s t r ia l (r e g i s t e r e d ) ------------------ -----------------M a n u fa ctu r in g
— -------- ------------------ ------------- ------

1 Sta n da rd h o u r s r e f le c t the w o rk w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p lo y e e s r e c e i v e t h e ir r e g u la r s t r a ig h t - t im e s a la r i e s and the e a r n in g s c o r r e s p o n d to t h e s e w e e k ly h o u r s .
2 W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r ib u t e d a s f o l lo w s : 2 at $ 155 to $ 160; 1 at $ 160 and o v e r .




.

23
3

6
Table A~3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations

(A verage straigh t-tim e hourly earnings for m en in selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, M uskegon—M uskegon H eigh ts, M ich., May I960)
N U M B E R O F W O R K E R S R E C E IV IN G S T R A IG H T -T IM E H O U R L Y E A R N IN G S O F —
O ccupation and industry division

N um ber
of
w orkers

Average
hourly ,
earnings

Under
$
1.70

C arp en ters, m aintenance _____________ — -------------------M anufacturing --------- -------------------------- ----------------------------

29
28

$2. 63
2. 60

E le c tr ic ia n s , m aintenance __ ------------------ -------------------M anufacturing ------------------------------------------------ __ ------------

126
125

2. 68
2. 68

F irem en , stationary b o ile r ----------- -----------------M anufacturing ------------------------------------------------

48
45

2. 27
2. 36

H elp ers, tra d es, m aintenance
________________
M anufacturing -------------------------- ------------------

19
18

2. 28
2. 28

M ach in e-tool op e r a to r s , to o lro o m
___________
M anufacturing ____________________ ________

74
74

2. 88
2. 88

_

M achinists, m aintenance ______________________
M anufacturing
------------------- — ------------------

110
105

2. 82
2. 82

$
1.80

i .7 0
and
under
1.80

_

...2^00

$
2. 00

3

4
4

.

_

“

_

11
11

2
2

3
3

10
10

7
7

3
3

.

_

!
1

14
13

3
3

-

i

i

_

_

!
|
!

_

60
37
23
23

2. 63
60
2. 69
2. 69

_
■

■

M echanics, m aintenance
------------ -----------------M anufacturing -------------------------- ------------------

130
128

2. 58
2. 58

.

.

.

!
!

_

"

■

■

■

2.66
2. 66

_

_

_

“

■

■

2. 31
2. 31

.

_

_

■

_

M illw rights --------------------------------------------------------M anufacturing -----------------------------------------------O ilers -----------------------------------------------------------------M anufacturing ---------------------------------- -------------

99
99
39
39

Z.

P a in ters, m aintenance -------------------------------------M anufacturing -----------------------------------------------

17
15

2. 78
2. 76

P ip efitters, m aintenance — ---------------------------M anufacturing ----------------- ----------------------------

54
54

2. 63
2. 63

,

|
i
1

-

-

j
|

-

“
■
-

j

1
i
!

_
-

1
!
1

9
9
"

_

_

_

"

*

l
l

1
1

.
"

13
13

_

.

.

_

_

“

~

■

_

_

_

156
156

2. 94
2. 94

.

_

_

2. 90

3. 00

3. 10

3. 20

3. 30

"

-

-

14
14

43
42

8
8

9
9

32
32

“

-

-

„
-

15
15

-

-

-

-

.

_

.

.

.

-

7
7

2
2

10
10

9
9

1
1

22
22

17
17

-

-

6
6

4
1

38
38

9

11
11

_

40
40

2
"

"

-

6
4
2
2

5
2
3
3

.
"

.
-

.
_
"

_
-

6
6
----- 6 ------ ------ 6 -----

-

-

-

"

"

1
:

.

_

.

.

2

'

"

5
5

37
35

_

.

"

•

_

j

_
■

!
_

19
19

i

.

8

55
55

3
3

"

.

46
46

2
2

27
27

-

4
4

~

"

1
10
10
1
1

!
!

I
i

!

1
j
j

1
1

j

2
2
2

26
18
8
8

;
1 10
2
8

.

------------- 1




1

_

!

13
n
3

"

"

-

2

_

_

_

■

“

-

6
6

7
7

4
4

17
17

.
-

_

"

| 57
57
i

2
2

32
32

11
11

41
41

9
9

.

.

-

i
1

3

E xcludes prem ium pay fo r o vertim e and fo r w ork on w eekends, holidays, and late shifts
Tran sportation, com m unication, and other public u tilitie s.

$3. 30
and
over

-

.

!

7
7

21
21

_
!

2. 70____ 2. 80

1
1

2
~

1
1

_

;

$
3. 20

10
10

18
18

10
10

■

_

$
3. 10

2
2

“

“

.

$
3. 00

6
6

!
t

_

1
j

$
2. 90

9

“

.

$
2. 80

2
2

_

i
!

1
1

■

$
2. 70

■

2
2

'

2
2

'

$
2. 60

"

_

1

!
T ool and die m akers _____________ ____________
M anufacturing ------------------------------------------------

|

-

_______

■

M echanics, autom otive (m aintenance) -----------M an u factu rin g--------------------------------------------------------------------------N onm anufacturing __________________________________________
P ublic utilities 2 _______________________________________

_

_

~
_

-

“

_
■

_ 2 . 30 _ _ 2.40 _ _2, 50____ 2. 60

6
6

■

i _____ :_____ _____ :______
_
1

“

2^ 20

$
2. 50

$
2.40

1
1

"

-

$
2. 30

■

_

"

$
2. 20

1
1

-

■

2. 10

7
7

■

_

_
■

$

2. JO__

■

"

"

$
1. 90

1. 90

$

I

-

7
Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(A verage straigh t-tim e hourly earnings fo r selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, M uskegon— uskegon H eights, M ich. , May I960)
M
N U M B E R O F W O R K E B S R E C E IV IN G S T R A IG H T -T IM E H O U R L Y E A R N IN G S O F—

1.60

$
-J
O

1.50

S
1.60
. 1 ,7 0 __

1. 80

1S

1 1.90
1

1.90

1

$

!

2. 00

$

2. 10
2. 20

0

$
1.50

"H

$
1. 40

$
1. 30
and
under
1.40

Under
$
1. 30

00
°

A verage
hourly
earnings 2

0

N um ber
of
workers

O

O ccup ation1 and industry d ivision

$ 2. 30

$
2. 40

2. 40

2. 20

2.50

_ 2 . 60

1
1

32
32

2. 30_

$

$

2. 50

2. 60

$

$
2. 80

2. 80

_ ?i_70

2. 70

2. 90

$
2. 90
and
over

1
M anufacturing --------------------------------------------------------------------

92
92

$ 2. 24
2 .2 4

7
-

-

-

7

"

-

-

13
13

i . 1 3 ..
L
; 13

!
!

16
16

1
1

9
9

1

1

Jan itors, p o rte rs , and clea n ers (men) -------------M anufacturing --------- ------------ -----------------Nonmanufacturing — --------------------------------P ublic u tilities 3 -------------------------------------

287
240
47
19

2. 04
2. 10
1.77
2.05

56
35
21

1.69
1.88
1. 36

L a b orers, m aterial handling -------------------------M anufacturing ----------------------------------------------

356
338

2. 14
2. 15

O rder fille r s -------------- ----------------------------------M anufacturing ----------------------------------------------

36
25

2. 25
2. 12

Janitors, p o rte rs , and clea n ers (women) -----M anufacturing ---------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing -------- ------- ------------------

2
2
-

3
3
-

2
2
2

.
*

14
2
12
2

1

10
10
-

5

4
1

8
8

_
-

-

_
-

-

"

-

2
2
“
1
-

16
f-1 6

-

11
4 11

_

l
1 :------—

!
j

10
10
■
16
15
2
2

------------------------------------------------ — ------- ------------------

216
211

2. 14
2. 12

.

.

.
:

.
-

!
1

22
22
2
2

-

17
16
1

20
19

16
16

! 12
i
1

i
1

1

1
■

"

8
8

!
1

32
32

!

,

6
6

30
30

,
1

40
36

2 .2 4
2. 25

.

.

_

!

-

-

-

-

Shipping cle rk s -----------------------------------------------M anufacturing ------------------------ ------------------

22
19

2. 37
2.46

_

_

_

_

j

-

-

“

"

!

T r u c k d r iv e r s 5 ------------- --------- ------------ — —
M anufacturing ----------------------------------------------

62
50

2. 39
2. 36

-

-

-

3
2

16
! 13

.

i 25
| 25

14
14

!
1

j

-

"

j
!
i

j

1
"

~

|

6
6

3

i
i

1

!
1

3
3

j
15

2.4 2

-

-

T ru ck ers, pow er (forklift) ___________________
M anufacturing
-------------------------------------------

139
136

2. 21
2. 21

-

-

T ru ck ers, pow er (other than fo rk lift) -----------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------------W atchmen --------------------------------------------------------Manufacturing -------------- ------- ------- --------

65
65
23
17

2. 19
2. 19
1.88
1.93

-

-

1

i
I
1

_
"
1

.

-

i
~

■

1----- :— 1

;
'

4
1

■
6
6

1

3
3

3
3
2
1

i

!

"

65
65
j 1
r~7—

7
7

5
5

-

7
4

|
_

3
3

"
!
I

-

_
“

_
“

-

-

-

_
_

9
9

4

2
2

i

i

1
1

! 96
1 96
l

.

1
1

3

7
7

j
1

2
2

4
4

2

i

\
'

.

4
4

3

1

|
!
i

6
6

!
!

.
15
■ 15

1
'

2
17
14

^
15
3

3

1

1
34
34

.
*
1
1

)

58
58

:

_

18
18

29
29

"




_
-

_
-

-

-

_

_

3

2
-

1
1

_
-

2
2

2
2

1
1

1
1

~

2
-

6
-

1
1

_
"

z
2
1 2
2

1

1

10
10

6
-

5
5

-

4

4

2

5
5
|
1
1
:
j

1
:

!
j

2
2
i

Data lim ited to men w o rk e rs except w here otherw ise indicated.
E xcludes prem iu m pay fo r overtim e and fo r w ork on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Transportation, com m unication, and other public u tilities.
W orkers w ere distributed as fo llo w s : 1 at $ 1 to $ 1 . 10; 10 at $ 1. 10 to $ 1. 2 0 .
Includes all d r iv e r s re g a rd le ss o f size and type o f truck operated.

.
-

3

2
r * —
j

-

-

5

-

.

.

.

-

'

"

'

4
4

1
I
1

!
i
2
— :—
i

1
2
3
4
5

.
-

_
-

I

3

.
-

-

_

i
!
!

19

1 20

3

93
1 93

1
1

1

i
!

-

|

i
1

9
;
i
I
!
1

"

1

T ru ck d riv ers, m edium ( 1V 2 to and
including 4 tons) __________________________

; 115
: 112
! 3

124
! 110

4
4

3
2

;

;

_

-

"

!

36
36

!

1

R eceiving cle r k s ---------------------------------------------M anufacturing — — — ------ — -------------

!:

|

i
1

1

P a ck ers, shipping
M anufacturing

1 23
!
j 20
;
3
-

46
34

.
-

1

!
i
i

:

-




8

B: Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Table B-l. Shift Differentials

(P e rc e n t of m anufacturing plant w o rk ers in esta b lish m e n ts having form al p r o v isio n s for shift w ork, and in e sta b lish m en ts
a ctu ally op eratin g late sh ifts by type and am ount of d iffe r e n tia l, M uskegon -M u sk egon H eigh ts, M ic h ., M ay I960)
Shift d ifferen tia l

In esta b lish m e n ts having form al
p r o v is io n s 1 for—

In esta b lish m e n ts actu ally
op erating—

Second shift
w ork

T hird or oth er
shift w ork

Second shift

T hird or oth er
shift

T otal ..........................................................................................

9 8 .4

8 7 .7

1 5 .4

4. 8

W ith shift pay d iffe r e n tia l _____________________

9 8 .4

87. 7

15. 4

4. 8

U niform c e n ts (per hour) ---------------------------5 cen ts ---- -----------------------------------------------6 cen ts -----------------------------------------------------7 cen ts ___________________________________
7x/2 c en ts ________ _______________________
8 cen ts ------------------------------------------ --------10 cen ts — -----------------------------------------------11 c en ts ------------------------------------------------ 12 cen ts _________________________________ 1 /z cen ts _____________ ________________
14 cen ts ------- — ---------------------------------15 c en ts ____________________ ____________
18 c en ts __________________________________

6 9 .4

11. 2

4. 3

3 1 .6
2 1 .7
9 .6
.6
.3
2 .6
_
1 .5
1 .4

6 3 .9
7. 1
16. 2
11. 3
1. 1
19. 8
1 .7
3 .8
.6
.9
1 .4

6. 0
2. 6
1. 7
.3
( 2)
.3
_
.1
.2

.9
_
1 .6
( 2)
.3
.2
1. 0
_
.1
.2

U niform p ercen ta ge --------------- ------------------5 p ercen t ------------ ----------------------------------

6 .4
6 .4

1 .0
1. 0

1. 0
1. 0

( 2)
(2)

F u ll d a y's pay for reduced hours ---------------

22. 7

-

3. 3

-

O ther fo rm a l pay d iffe r e n tia l ---------------------

-

22. 7

-

.4

No shift pay d iffe r e n tia l _______________________

-

-

-

-

1 In clu d es esta b lish m e n ts cu rren tly op erating late sh ifts, and esta b lish m e n ts w ith fo rm a l p r o v isio n s cov erin g late
even though th ey w ere not cu rren tly op erating la te sh ifts.
2 L e ss than 0. 05 p ercen t.

sh ifts

9
Table B-2. Minimum Entrance Salaries for W om en O ffice W orkers

(D istrib u tion of e sta b lish m en ts studied in a ll in d u str ie s and in in d u stry d iv isio n s by m inim um entran ce sa la r y for se le c te d c a te g o r ie s
of in ex p erien ced w om en office w o rk ers, M uskegon—M uskegon H eigh ts, M ic h ., M ay I960)

M inim um w eek ly s a la r y 1

A ll
in d u stries

Inexp erien ced ty p ists
M anufacturing
N onm anufacturing
B ased on standard w eek ly hours 3 of—
A ll
A ll
40
40
sch ed u les
sch ed u les

A ll
mdu str ie s

Other in ex p erien ced c le r ic a l w o rk ers 2
M anufacturing
N onm anufacturing
B ased on standard w eek ly hours 3 of—
A ll
A ll
40
40
sch ed u les
sch ed u les

52

31

XXX

21

XXX

52

31

XXX

21

XXX

E sta b lish m en ts having a sp ecified m inim um ------------------------$ 3 7 .5 0 and under $ 4 0 . 00 ------------------------------------------------------$ 4 0 . 00 and under $ 42. 50 ____________________________________
$ 4 2 .5 0 and under $ 4 5 .0 0 ---------------- ----------------------------------$ 45. 00 and under $ 47. 50 ------------------------------------------------------$ 4 7 .5 0 and under $ 5 0 .0 0 ____________________________________
$ 50. 00 and under $ 52. 50 ------------------------------------------------------$ 5 2 .5 0 and under $ 5 5 .0 0 ____________________________________
$ 55. 00 and under $ 5 7 .5 0 ------------------------------------------------------$ 5 7 .5 0 and under $ 60. 00 ------------------------------------------------------$ 6 0 .0 0 and under $ 62. 50 ------------------------------------------------------$ 62. 50 and under $ 65. 00 -------------------------- ---------------------$ 65. 00 and under $ 6 7 .5 0 -------------------------------------------------------

24
_
4
1
3
3
7
1
1
2
1
1

7
_
3
2
1
1
1

28
1
5
2
6
2
7
1
2
1
1

9

17
_
1
1
3
3
5
1
1
1
1
XXX

7
_
3
2
1
1
-

E sta b lish m en ts having no sp e c ifie d m inim um ------------------------E sta b lish m en ts w hich did not em p loy w o rk ers
in th is category -----------------------------------------------------------------------

17
_
1
1
3
3
5
1
1
1
1
8

XXX

9

17
_
1
1
5
2
5
1
1
1
8

17
_
1
1
5
2
5
1
1
1
XXX

11
1
4
1
1
_
2
_
1
1
1

11
1
4
1
1
2
_
1
1
XXX

19

6

XXX

13

XXX

15

6

XXX

9

XXX

E sta b lish m en ts studied

------------------------------------------------ -------

1 L ow est sa la ry rate fo rm a lly e sta b lish ed for hiring in ex p erien ced w o rk ers for typing or other c le r ic a l job s.
2 R ates ap p licab le to m e s s e n g e r s, office g ir ls , or sim ila r su b cle r ic a l job s are not con sid ered .
3 H ours r e fle c t the w orkw eek for w hich em p lo y e e s r e ce iv e th eir regu lar str a ig h t-tim e s a la r ie s. D ata a re p resen ted for a ll w orkw eeks com bined, and for the m o st com m on w orkw eek reported .
Table B-3. Scheduled W e e k ly Hours

(P ercen t d istrib u tion of o ffice and plant w o rk ers in a ll in d u str ie s and in in dustry d iv isio n s by sch edu led w eek ly hours
of fir s t-s h ift w o rk ers, M uskegon—M uskegon H eigh ts, M ic h ., M ay I960)
OFFICE WORKERS
W eekly hours
All industries

A ll w o rk ers ------------------------------------------------------40 hours -----------------------------------------------------------42, 42 xlz, or 44 hours ----------------------------------45 hours -----------------------------------------------------------48 hours -----------------------------------------------------------O ver 48 hours --------------------------------------------------1
3
4

100
98
2
-

(4 )

3

Manufacturing

100
99
1

PLANT WORKERS

Public utilities 2

All industries3

100
100
-

-

-

-

-

1

100
83
1
2
13

Manufacturing

100
83
1
2
13
1

Includes data for w h o lesa le trad e; r e ta il trad e; finance, in su ra n ce, and rea l e sta te; and s e r v ic e s in addition to th o se in d u stry d iv isio n s shown sep a r a te ly .
T ransportation , com m unication, and oth er public u tilitie s.
Includ es data for w h o lesa le trad e, r e ta il trad e, r e a l e sta te , and s e r v ic e s in addition to th ose in dustry d iv isio n s show n sep a ra tely .
L e ss than 0. 5 p ercen t.




Public utilities 2

100
93
5
1

10
Table B-4. Paid Holidays

(P e rc e n t d istrib u tion of o ffic e and plant w o rk ers in a ll in d u str ie s and in in d u stry d iv isio n s by num ber of paid holidays
provided annually. M uskegon—M uskegon H eigh ts. M ich. , M ay I960)
OFFICE WORKERS
Item

A ll w o r k e r s

—

—

All industries*

Manufacturing

PLANT WORKERS
Public utilities 2

All industries3

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

100

— — —

W o r k e r s in e s ta b lish m e n ts p rovid in g
paid h olid ays --------------------------------------------------------W o r k e r s in esta b lish m e n ts p rovidin g
no p aid h olid ays — ______________________________

100

100

100

100

100

99

100

100

99

100

100

-

■

(4 )

(4 )
'

Number of days
3 h o lid a y s

-

—

— — — — —

-----

— —

6 h olid ays -----------------------------------------------------------------6 h olid ays p lus 2 h a lf days ---------------------------------7 h o lid a y s ------------------ - ~ - — ----- -------8 h o lid a y s -----------------------------------------------------------------9 h o lid a y s ------------------ — _
_
— 10 h o l i d a y s ----------------------------------------------------------------

8
59
20
3
6

!

7
83
7

7

13
69
14
3
-

9

3
"

3
-

19
81
-

“

3
-

93
-

-

77

11

'

Total holiday timo5

10

d ays
—
9 or m o r e d ays
or m o r e d ays
7 o r m o r e d ays
o r m o r e d ays
3 o r m o r e d ays

8

6

— — — —
- _
-------- -------- __ —
---------- _
__ __ — __ _ _
----------------------------------------------------------------_ __ — — — — - — ---------_________ _____ __ _ _
--------

3
9

12
92
99
99

3
93

100
100

93

100
100

3

86

99
99

3
91

100
100

81

100
100

1 Includes data for w h o le sa le trade; r e ta il trad e, fin an ce, in su ra n ce, and r e a l estate; and s e r v ic e s in addition to th ose in d u stry d iv isio n s show n sep a r a te ly .
2 T ran sp ortation , com m un ication , and oth er public u tilitie s .
3 Includes data for w h o le sa le trad e, r e ta il tr a d e, re a l e sta te , and s e r v ic e s in addition to th ose in d u stry d iv isio n s show n sep a r a te ly .
4 L e ss than 0. 5 p e rcen t.
5 A ll com b ination s of fu ll and h alf days that add to the sam e am ount a re com bined; for exam p le, the p rop ortion of w ork ers r e ce iv in g a total of 7 days in clu d es th ose w ith 7 full days and
no half d a ys, 6 full days and 2 h a lf d a y s, 5 fu ll days and 4 half d a ys, and so on. P rop ortion s w ere then cum ulated.




11
Table B-5. Paid Vacations
(P e r c e n t d istr ib u tio n o f o ffic e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u str ie s and in in d u stry d iv is io n s by v acatio n pay
p r o v is io n s , M u skegon —M u sk e gon H eig h ts, M i c h . , M ay I9 60 )

PLANT WORKER8

OFFICE WORKERS

V acation p o licy

All industries1

100

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

All industries2

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

100

100

100

100

100

100

99

100
100

100

100

-

65
35

62
38

100
100
-

-

-

-

“

-

-

4
61
1

6
72
2

7

_

43
3
1

47

14
5

22
(4 )
76
1

6
1
91
2

70
27
2
1
"

67
30

4
(4 )
94
1

2
1
95
2

89

61
28
10
1
-

65
30
3
1
-

2
(4)
96
1

2
1
95
2

95

28
53
17
1
-

31
59
9
1
-

(4 )
97
3

1
96
3

100

(4)
2
74
22
1

2
73
25
(4)

M e th o d o f p a y m o n t
W ork ers in esta b lish m e n ts providing
paid vacation s -----------------------------------------------------------L en g th -o f-tim e paym ent ---------------------------------P ercen ta g e paym ent -------------------------------------------W ork ers in esta b lish m e n ts providing
no paid vacation s -----------------------------------------------------

99
99
(4)

1

A m o u n t o f v o c a t io n p a y 5
A fter 6 m onths of s e r v ic e
Under 1 w eek
--------- ---------------------------------------------_ __
____ 1 w p p Jt O ver 1 and under 2 w eek s ____________________ —
A fter 1 year of s e r v ic e
1 w eek __________________________________________
O ver 1 and under 2 w eek s ________________________
2 w eek s --------------- — --------- ---------------------------------O ver 2 and under 3 w eek s ---------------------------------3 w e e k , ------------------ -----------------------------------------------------A fter 2 y e a r s o f se r v ic e
1 w eek ------------------------------------------------------------------------------O ver 1 and under 2 w eek s ----- ---------------------------2 w eek s —--------------- — — — ---------------------- --------O ver 2 and under 3 w eek s ---------------------------------3 w eek s --------------------------------------------------------------------- —
A fter 3 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w eek ------------------------------------------------------------------------------O ver 1 and under 2 w eek s ------------------------------------2 w eek s ------------------------- --------- ---------------------------------O ver 2 and under 3 w eek s ________________________
3 w eek s — ,----------------------------------------------------------------------A fter 5 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 u/» aV
O ver 1 and under 2 w eek s -----------------------------2 w eek s -_-________________ _________ __________
O ver 2 and under 3 w eek s --------------------------— 3 w eek s --------------- — --------------------------------------

See foo tn otes at end of table,




-

89
11
-

11
-

-

5
-

-

-

_

-

-

1
1

1
1

-

_

-

91
9
_

26
_
74
-

7
_

93

_

-

100
-

12
Table B-5. Paid Vacations-Continued

(P e rc e n t d istrib u tion of o ffice and plant w o rk ers in a ll in d u str ie s and in in d u stry d iv isio n s by vacation pay
p r o v isio n s, M uskegon—M uskegon H eigh ts, M ic h ., M ay I960)
OFFICE WORKERS

V acation p o licy

PLANT WORKERS

All industries1

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

(4)
46
26
28

1
45
38
17

68
32

(4 )
11
_
88
-

1
9
91
-

(4)
11
84
4

(4)
11
78
10

All industries3

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

(4 )
33
49
17

33
55
12

59
41

6
94

-

(4)
9
4
85
1

9
5
86
1

_
_
100
-

1
9
89
2

6
83
10

(4)
4
6
77
8
5

3
7
79
9
2

84
_
16

1
9
87
4

6
64
30

(4 )
4
6
71
8
11

3
7
75
9
6

54
_
46

Amount off vacation p a y 5 — Continued

A fter 10 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w eek ______________________ _______________-__
2 w eek s _____________ — _____________________
O ver 2 and under 3 w eek s ___________________
3 w eek s -----------------------------------------------------------A fter 15 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
! w eek _________________________________________
2 w eek s --------------------------------------------------- -----O ver 2 and under 3 w eek s -------------------------3 w eek s ------------------ ------- __ --------------------O ver 3 and under 4 w eek s ----------------------------A fter 20 y e a r s of ser v ice
! w eek _________________________________________
2 wp.p> s
k
_
O ver 2 and under 3 w eek s ---------------- *----------3 w eek s --------------- — --------------------- --------------O ver 3 and under 4 w eek s ----------------------------4 w ee k s ------------------------------------------------------------

_

_

A fter 25 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek ________ _________________________________
2 w eek s _______________________________________
O ver 2 and under 3 w eek s ----------------------------3 w eek s -----------------------------------------------------------O ver 3 and under 4 w eek s ----------------------------4 w eek s ____________________ _________________

_
_

1 Includ es data for w h o lesa le trad e; r e ta il trad e; fin an ce, in su ra n ce, and r e a l e sta te ; and s e r v ic e s in addition to th ose in d u stry d iv isio n s show n sep a r a te ly .
2 T ran sp ortation , com m un ication , and oth er public u tilitie s.
3 Includ es data for w h o le sa le trad e, r e ta il trad e, r e a l e sta te , and s e r v ic e s in addition to th ose in d u stry d iv isio n s shown sep a ra tely .
4 L e ss than 0. 5 p e rcen t.
5 P er io d s of se r v ic e w ere a r b itr a r ily ch osen and do not
n e c e s s a r ily
r e fle c t the individual p r o v isio n s for p r o g r e s sio n s . F or exam p le, the chan ges in p rop ortion s in d icated at 10y e a r s'
s e r v ic e in clude chan ges in p r o v isio n s o c cu rrin g betw een 5 and 10 y e a r s.
NOTE: In th e tab ulation s of vacation allo w a n ces by y e a r s of s e r v ic e , paym ents other than "length of tim e, " such as p ercen ta ge o f annual earn in gs or fla t-su m p aym en ts, w e r e converted
to an equ ivalent tim e b a sis; for exam p le, a paym ent of 2 p ercen t
of annual earn in gs w as con sid ered a s
1 w e ek 's pay.




13
Table B-6. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans

(P e rc e n t of office and plant w ork ers in a ll in d u stries and in in dustry d iv isio n s em p loyed in esta b lish m en ts providing
health, in su ra n ce, or p en sio n b en efits, M uskegon—M uskegon H e ig h ts, M ic h ., M ay I960)
PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS
Type of benefit

All industries1

Manufacturing

100

100

L ife in su ra n ce
A ccidental death and d ism em b erm en t
in s u r a n c e ____________________ ______________
S ick n ess and accid en t in su ra n ce or
sick lea v e or both4 __ ___________________

99
77
96

S ick n ess and acciden t in su ra n ce ----------Sick le a v e (fu ll pay and no
w aiting period) ---- ----------------------------Sick le a v e (p artial pay or
w aiting period ) --------------------------------------

Public utilities 2

Manufacturing

All industries3

Public utilities 2

100

100

100

100

100

95
69
100

98
77
96

100

79
95

93
63
100

56
48
4

61
46
4

66
34

79
11

83

54

9
15

46

88
88
86
31
78
( 5)

99
99
97
43
75

43
43
43
5
87

98
98
92
34
80

67
67
60
7
79

W orkers in esta b lish m en ts providing:

H osp italisation in su ra n ce __________________
Su rgical in su ra n ce -------------------------------------M edical in su ra n ce ----------------------------------------C atastrophe in su ra n ce --------------------------------R etirem en t p en sion ________________________
No health, in su ra n ce, or pen sion plan ____

80
98

15
92
92
87
31
79
1

i

i
!
!
!

1 Includes data for w h o lesa le trade; r e ta il trade; fin an ce, in su ra n ce, and real estate; and s e r v ic e s in addition to th ose in dustry d iv isio n s shown sep a r a te ly .
2 T ransportation , com m un ication , and other public u tilitie s.
3 Includes data for w h o lesa le trad e, r e ta il trad e, re a l e sta te , and s e r v ic e s in addition to th ose in dustry d iv isio n s shown sep a r a te ly .
4 U nduplicated total of w ork ers r e ce iv in g sic k le a v e or sic k n e ss and accid en t in su ra n ce shown sep a r a te ly below . S ick -le a v e plans are lim ited , to th ose w hich d efin itely e sta b lish at le a st
the m inim um num ber of d a ys' pay that can be exp ected by each em p loyee. Inform al s ic k -le a v e allo w an ces d eterm in ed on an individual b a sis are exclud ed.
5 L e ss than 0. 5 p ercen t.







15

Appendix: Occupational Descriptions
The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’s wage surveys is to a s s is t its
field staff in classify in g into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
title s and different work arrangem ents from establishm ent to establishm ent and from area to area. T his is
esse n tia l in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing Comparable job content.
B ecause of this em phasis on interestablishm ent and interarea com parability of occupational content, the
Bureau’s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishm ents or those
prepared for other purposes in applying th e se job descriptions, the B ureau's field econom ists are
instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, train ees, handicapped w orkers,
part-tim e, temporary, and probationary w orkers.
O F F IC E

BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

P repares statem ents, b ills, and invoices on a m achine other
than an ordinary or electrom atic typew riter. May also keep records a s
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work inciden­
tal to billing operations. For wage study purposes, b illers, m achine,
are classified by type of m achine, a s follow s:
Biller, machine (billing machine} — U ses a sp ecial billing ma­
chine (Moon H opkins, E llio tt F ish er, Burroughs, e tc ., which are
combination typing and adding m achines) to prepare b ills and in­
voices from custom ers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandum, etc. U sually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and to tals which are autom atically accum ulated by m achine.
The operation usually involves a large number of car Don copies
of the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold m achine.

O perates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, E llio tt
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, N ational C ash R egister, with or w ith­
out a typew riter keyboard) to keep a record of b u sin ess tran sactio n s.

Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine)— Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, E llio tt F ish er, Remington Rand, e tc ., which
may or may not have typew riter keyboard) to prepare custom ers’
b ills as part of the accounts receivable operation. G enerally in­
volves the sim ultaneous entry of figures on custom ers’ ledger
record. The m achine autom atically accum ulates figures on a num­
ber of vertical columns and computes and usually prints auto­
m atically the debit or credit b alan ces. D oes not involve a knowl­
edge of bookkeeping. Works from uniform and standard types of
sales and credit slip s.




Class A— K eeps a s e t of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and fam iliarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. D eter­
mines proper records and distribution of debit and credit item s to
be used in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated re­
ports, balance sh eets, and other records by hand.
Class B— K eeps a record of one or more p h ases or sectio n s
of a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of b asic
bookkeeping. P h ases or sectio n s include accounts payable, pay­
roll, custom ers’ accounts (not including a sim ple type of billing
described under biller, machine), co st distribution, expense d is­
tribution, inventory control, etc. May check or a s s is t in prep­
aration of trial balances and prepare control sh eets for the ac­
counting departm ent.
CLERK, ACCOUNTING

Class A — Under general direction of a bookkeeper or a c ­
countant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sectio n s of a
com plete s e t of books or records relating to one phase of an e s ­
tablishm ent’s b u sin ess transactions. Work involves posting and

16

CLERK, ACCOUNTING— Continued
balancing subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receiv ­
able or accounts payable; examining and coding invoices or vouch­
ers with proper accounting distribution; requires judgment and ex­
perience in making proper assig n ation s and allocatio n s. May
a s s is t in preparing, adjusting, and closing journal entries; may
direct c la ss B accounting clerks.

Class B — Under supervision, performs one or more routine
accounting operations such as posting sim ple journal vouchers,
accounts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher reg isters;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers. T his job does not require a knowledge of
accounting and bookkeeping principles but is found in offices in
which the more routine accounting work is subdivided on a func­
tional b asis among several workers.
CLERK, FILE
Class A — R esponsible for m aintaining an estab lish ed filing

system . C lassifies and indexes correspondence or other m aterial;
may also file this m aterial. May keep records of various types
in conjunction with files or supervise others in filing and locating
m aterial ih the files. May perform incidental clerical d u ties.

Class
Performs routine filing, usually of m aterial that
has already been classified , or locates or a s s is ts in locating ma­
terial in the files. May perform incidental clerical duties.
CLERK, ORDER
R eceives custom ers' orders for m aterial or m erchandise by
mail, phone, or personally. D uties involve any combination of the
following: Quoting prices to custom ers; making out an order sh eet
listing the items to make up the order; checking prices and quantities
of items on otder sheet; distributing order sh eets to resp ective de­
partments to be filled. May check with credit departm ent to d eter­
mine credit rating of custom er, acknowledge receipt of orders from
custom ers, follow up orders to see that they have been filled, keep
file of orders received, and -check shipping invoices with original
orders.




CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes w ages of company em ployees and enters the n eces­
sary data on the payroll sh eets. D uties involve: C alculating w orkers’
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sh eet, showing information such as worker’s name, working
days, tim e, rate, deductions for insurance, and to tal w ages due. May
make out paychecks and a s s is t paym aster in making up and d istrib ­
uting pay envelopes. May use a calculating m achine.

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Prim ary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform m athe­
m atical com putations. This job is not to be confused with that of
s ta tis tic a l or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of
a Comptometer but, in which, use of this m achine is incidental to
performance of other duties.

DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
Under general supervision and with no supervisory respon­
sib ilities, reproduces multiple copies of typew ritten or handwritten
m atter, using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjust­
ments such as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is
not required to prepare sten cil or D itto m aster. May keep file of used
sten cils or D itto m asters. May sort, co llate, and stap le com pleted
m aterial.

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory resp o n si­
b ilities, records accounting and sta tistic a l data on tabulating cards
by punching a series of holes in the cards in a specified sequence,
using an alphabetical or a num erical keypunch m achine, following
w ritten information on records. May duplicate cards by using the
duplicating device attached to machine. May keep files of punch
cards. May verify own work or work of others.

OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands,
operating minor office m achines such as sealers or m ailers, opening
and distributing mail, and other minor clerical work.

17

SECRETARY

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST

Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an
adm inistrative or executive position. D uties include making appoint­
ments for superior; receiving people coming into office; answ ering and
making phone c alls; handling personal and im portant or confidental
mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiativ e; taking
dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand
or by Stenotype or sim ilar machine, and transcribing dictation or the re­
corded information reproduced on a transcribing m achine. May pre­
pare sp ecial reports or memorandums for information of superior.

In addition to performing d uties of operator, on a single posi­
tion or monitor-type sw itchboard, acts as receptionist and may also
type or perform routine clerical work as part of regular d u ties. T his
typing or clerical work may take the major part of this w orker's time
while at sw itchboard.

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR
STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar m achine, involving a
normal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a type­
writer. May also type from w ritten copy. May also s e t up and keep
files in order, keep sim ple records, etc. Does not include transcribing machine work (see transcribing-m achine operator).

STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar m achine, involving a
varied technical or sp ecialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or
reports on scien tific research and to transcribe this dictation on a
typew riter. May also type from w ritten copy. May also se t up and keep
files in order, keep sim ple records, etc. Does not include transcribing *
machine work.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
O perates a single- or m ultiple-position telephone sw itchboard.
D uties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office
calls. May record toll calls and take m essag es. May give information to
persons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders. For workers
who also act as receptionists see sw itchboard operator-receptionist.




O perates machine that autom atically analyzes and tran slates
information punched in groups of tabulating cards and prints tran s­
lated data on forms or accounting records; se ts or ad justs m achine;
does sim ple wiring of plugboards according to estab lish ed practice
or diagram s; places cards to be tabulated in feed m agazine and sta rts
machine. May file cards after they are tabulated. May, in addition ,
operate auxiliary m achines.

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal
routine vocabulary from transcribing-m achine records. May also type
from w ritten copy and do sim ple clerical work. Workers transcribing
dictation involving a varied tech n ical or sp ecialized vocabulary such
as legal briefs or reports on scien tific research are not included. A
worker who takes dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar
machine is classified as a stenographer, general.

TYPIST
U ses a typewriter to make copies of various m aterial or to
make out bills after calculations have been made by another person.
May do clerical work involving little sp ecial training, such a s keeping
sim ple records, filing records and reports or sorting and distributing
incoming mail.

18
TYPIST— Continued

TYPIST— Continued

C la ss A — Perform s one or more o f the follow in g: Typing material in final form from very rough and involved draft; copying
from plain or corrected copy in which there is a frequent and varied
use of tech n ical and unusual words or from foreign-language copy;
combining material^ from sev eral sources, or planning layout of
com plicated s ta tis tic a l tab les to m aintain uniformity and balance

in spacing; typing tab les from rough draft in final form. May type
routine form letters, varying d etails to su it circum stances.
C lass fi_ P e rfo rm s one or more o f the follow in g: Typing from
relatively clear or typed drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance
p o licies, e tc ., setting up sim ple standard tabulations, or copying
more complex tab les already s e t up and spaced properly.

P R O F E S S IO N A L A N D

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(Assistant draftsman)

Draws to scale units or parts of draw ings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or m anufacturing purposes.
U ses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare draw ings
from sim ple plans or sk etch es, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsm an.
DRAFTSMAN, LEADER

P lan s and d irects activ ities of one or more draftsm en in prep­
aration of working plans and d etail draw ings from rough or prelim inary
sketches for engineering, construction, or m anufacturing purposes. D uties
involve a com bination o f the follo w in g : Interpreting blueprints, sk etch es,
and w ritten or verbal orders; determ ining work procedures; assigning
duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif­
ficult problem s. May a s s is t subordinates during em ergencies or as a
regular assignm ent, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad­
m inistrative nature.
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR

Prepares working plans and d etail drawings from n o tes, rough
or detailed sk etches for engineering, construction, or m anufacturing pur­
p o ses. D uties involve a com bination o f the follow in g: Preparing work­
ing plans, d etail draw ings, m aps, c ro ss-se c tio n s, e tc ., to scale by use
of drafting instrum ents; making engineering com putations such as those
involved in strength of m aterials, beam s and tru sse s; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dim ensions, m aterials to be used, and q u an tities;




T E C H N IC A L

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR— Continued

writing specificatio n s; making adjustm ents or changes in drawings or
sp ecifications. May ink in lines and letters on pencil draw ings, prepare
d etail units of complete draw ings, or trace draw ings. Work is frequently
in a sp ecialized field such as architectural, electrical, m echanical, or
structural drafting.
NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)

A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
em ployees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
prem ises of a factory or other establishm ent. D uties involve a com bina­
tion o f the follow in g: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending .o
subsequent dressing of em ployees’ injuries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for com pensation or other purposes;
conducting physical exam inations and health evaluations of applicants
and em ployees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environm ent, or other
activ ities affecting the health, w elfare, and safety of all personnel.
TRACER

Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or p encil. U ses
T-square, com pass, and other drafting too ls. May prepare sim ple draw­
ings and do sim ple lettering.

19
M AINTENANCE

D PO W E R PL A N T

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER

Performs the carpentry duties n ecessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipm ent such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, sta irs, casin gs, and trim
made of wood in an establishm ent. Work involves m ost o f the follow in g:
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, draw ings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’s handtools, portable
power too ls, and standard measuring instrum ents; making standard shop
com putations relating to dim ensions of work; selectin g m aterials n ec­
essary for the work. In general, the work of the m aintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

F ires stationary boilers to furnish the establishm ent in which
employed with heat, power, or steam . F eeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a m echanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks w ater and safety
valves. May clean, oil, or a s s is t in repairing boilerroom equipm ent.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE
Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installatio n , m aintenance, or repair of equipm ent for the generating, d is­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishm ent. Work
involves m ost o f the follow in g: Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipm ent such as generators, transform ers, sw itchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit system s,
or other transm ission equipment; working from blueprints, draw ings, lay­
out, or other specificatio n s; locating and diagnosing trouble in the e lec­
trical system or equipm ent; working standard com putations relating to
load requirem ents of wiring or electrical equipm ent; using a variety of
electrician ’s handtools and measuring and testin g instrum ents. In gen­
eral, the work of the m aintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
O perates and m aintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (m echanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishm ent in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and m aintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, motors
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipm ent, steam boilers and
boiler-fed w ater pumps; making equipm ent repairs; keeping a record of
operation of machinery, tem perature, and fuel consum ption. May a lso
supervise these operations. H ead or c h ie f en gin eers in e sta b lish m e n ts
em ployin g more than one en gin eer are ex clu d ed .




HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE
A ssists one or more workers in the skilled m aintenance trades,
by performing specific or general duties of le sse r sk ill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with m aterials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipm ent; a ssistin g worker by holding m aterials or tools;
performing other unskilled task s as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is perm itted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform sp ecialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are also performed by workers on a full-tim e b asis.

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling m achines in the construction of m achine-shop tools, gauges,
jigs, fixtures, or d ies. Work involves m ost o f the follow in g: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing item s requiring
com plicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision m easuring instrum ents; selectin g feeds, sp eed s, tooling and op­
eration sequence; making n ecessary adjustm ents during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dim ensions. May be required to recog­
nize when tools need dressing, to dress too ls, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, m achine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this classificatio n .

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
Produces replacem ent parts and new parts in making repairs of
m etal parts of m echanical equipment operated in an establishm ent. Work
involves m ost o f the follow in g: Interpreting w ritten instructions and
sp ecificatio n s; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
ch inist’s handtools and precision m easuring instrum ents; settin g up and

20

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE— Continued
operating standard machine tools; shaping of m etal parts to close toler­
ances; making standard shop com putations relating to dim ensions of work,
tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working prop­
erties of the common m etals; selecting standard m aterials, p arts, and
equipment required for his work; fitting and assem bling parts into me­
chanical equipm ent. In general, the m achinist’s work normally requires
a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
R epairs autom obiles, b uses, m otortrucks, and tractors of an e s ­
tablishm ent. Work involves most of the following: Examining autom otive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassem bling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as w renches,
gauges, d rills, or specialized equipment in disassem bling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassem bling and installing the various assem blies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustm ents; alining w heels, adjusting brakes and
lig h ts , or tig h te n in g body bolts. In general, the work of the autom otive
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
R epairs machinery or m echanical equipment of an establishm ent.
Work involves most o f the following: Examining m achines and m echan­
ical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dism antling or partly d is­
m antling m achines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with item s obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replace­
ment part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a m achine shop
for major repairs; preparing w ritten specificatio n s for major repairs or
for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassem bling ma­
chines; and making all n ecessary adjustm ents for operation. In general,
the work of a m aintenance m echanic requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classificatio n are workers
whose primary duties involve settin g up or adjusting m achines.

MILLWRIGHT
In stalls new m achines or heavy equipment and dism antles and
in stalls m achines or heavy equipm ent when changes in the plant layout




MILLWRIGHT— Continued

are required. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other sp ecificatio n s; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop com putations re­
lating to stre sse s, strength of m aterials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipm ent; selectin g standard tools, equipm ent, and parts
to be used; installing and m aintaining in good order power transm ission
equipm ent such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the m ill­
w right’s work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

OILER
L ubricates, with oil or g rease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of m echanical equipm ent of an establishm ent.

PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
P ain ts and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishm ent. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface pecu­
lia rities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in
nail holes and in terstices; applying paint with spray gun or brush. May
mix colors, o ils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper
color or consistency. In general, the work of the m aintenance painter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
In stalls or repairs w ater, steam , g as, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishm ent. Work involves most o f the following:
Laying out of work and m easuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other w ritten specifications; cutting various siz es of pipe to correct
lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma­
chine; threading pipe with stocks and d ies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven m achines; assem bling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop com putations relating to p ressures,
flow, and size of pipe required; making standard te s ts to determ ine
whether finished pipes meet sp ecificatio n s. In general, the work of the
m aintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building
sanitation or heating system s are excluded .

21

TOOL AND DIE MAKER

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishm ent in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installatio n of
vents and traps in plumbing system ; installin g or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’s snake. In
general, the work of the m aintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and experience.

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
F abricates, in stalls, and m aintains in good repair the sheetm etal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, m etal roofing) of an
establishm ent. Work involves m ost o f the follow in g: Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-m etal m aintenance work from blueprints, m odels,
or other specificatio n s; setting up and operating all available types of
sheet-m etal-w orking m achines; using a variety of handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assem bling; installin g sheetm etal articles as required. In general, the work of the m aintenance
sheet-m etal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

(D iem aker; jig maker; toolm aker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
C onstructs and repairs m achine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
involves m ost o f the follow in g: Planning and laying out of work from
m odels, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and w ritten specificatio n s;
using a variety of tool and die maker’s handtools and precision m eas­
uring instrum ents, understanding of the working properties of common
m etals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipm ent; making necessary shop com putations relating to dim ensions
of work, speed s, feeds, and tooling of m achines; heattreating of metal
parts during fabrication as w ell as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required q u alities; working to clo se tolerances; fitting and assem bling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; selectin g appropriate
m aterials, tools, and p ro cesses. In general, the tool and die maker’s
work requires a rounded training in m achine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classificatio n .

C U S T O D IA L A N D M A T E R IA L M O V E M E N T

ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER— Continued

T ransports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartm ent house, departm ent store, hotel or sim ilar establishm ent.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

or other establishm ent. D uties involve a com bination o f the follow in g:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipm ent, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor m ainte­
nance serv ices; cleaning lavatories, show ers, and restroom s. Workers
who sp ecialize in window w ashing are excluded.

GUARD

Performs routine police d u ties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where n ecessary . In clu des g a te-

men who are sta tio n e d at g a te and ch eck on id e n tity o f em plo yees and
oth er persons entering.

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER

(Sweeper; charwoman; jan itress)
C leans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or prem ises of an office, apartm ent house, or commercial




LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or w arehouse helper)
A worker employed in a w arehouse, m anufacturing plant, store,
or other establishm ent whose duties involve one or more o f the fo llo w ­
ing: Loading and unloading various m aterials and m erchandise on or

22

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING— Continued

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK— Continued

fr o m f r e i g h t c a r s , t r u c k s , o r o t h e r t r a n s p o r t i n g d e v i c e s ; u n p a c k i n g , s h e l v ­
in g , o r p l a c i n g m a t e r ia ls o r m e r c h a n d is e in p r o p e r s t o r a g e l o c a t i o n ; t r a n s ­
p o r tin g m a t e r ia ls o r m e r c h a n d is e b y h a n d tr u c k , c a r , o r w h e e lb a r r o w .
L on g sh orem en

, who

load and unload s h ip s are e x c lu d e d

.

ORDER FILLER
F i l l s s h i p p i n g o r t r a n s f e r o r d e r s f o r f i n i s h e d g o o d s fr o m s t o r e d
m e r c h a n d is e in a c c o r d a n c e w ith s p e c i f i c a t i o n s o n s a l e s s l i p s , c u s t o m e r s ’
o r d e r s , or o th e r in s t r u c t io n s . M a y , in a d d it io n to f i ll i n g o r d e r s a n d in d i­
c a tin g ite m s f ille d o r o m itte d , k e e p r e c o r d s o f o u tg o in g o r d e r s , r e q u is i­
t io n a d d it io n a l s t o c k , o r r e p o r t s h o r t s u p p l i e s t o s u p e r v is o r , a n d p er to rm
o th e r r e la te d d u tie s .

PACKER, SHIPPING
P r e p a r e s f in is h e d p r o d u c ts fo r s h ip m e n t o r s t o r a g e b y p la c in g
th e m in s h ip p in g c o n t a in e r s , th e s p e c i f i c o p e r a t io n s p e r fo r m e d b e in g
d e p e n d e n t u p o n th e ty p e , s i z e , a n d n u m b er o f u n its to b e p a c k e d , th e
t y p e o f c o n t a in e r e m p lo y e d , a n d m e th o d o f s h ip m e n t . W ork r e q u ir e s th e
p l a c i n g o f i t e m s i n s h i p p i n g c o n t a i n e r s a n d m ay in v o lv e on e or more o f
the fo llo w in g : K n o w l e d g e o f v a r i o u s i t e m s o f s t o c k in o r d e r t o v e r i f y
c o n t e n t ; s e l e c t i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e ty p e a n d s i z e o f c o n t a i n e r ; i n s e r t i n g
e n c l o s u r e s in c o n t a in e r ; u s in g e x c e l s i o r o r o th e r m a t e r ia l to p r e v e n t
b r e a k a g e or d a m a g e ; c l o s i n g a n d s e a l i n g c o n t a in e r ; a p p ly in g l a b e l s or
e n t e r i n g i d e n t i f y i n g d a t a o n c o n t a i n e r . P a c k e r s w ho a ls o m ake w ood en

.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
P r e p a r e s m e r c h a n d is e fo r s h ip m e n t, o r r e c e iv e s a n d i s r e s p o n ­
s i b l e f o r i n c o m i n g s h i p m e n t s o f m e r c h a n d i s e o r o t h e r m a t e r i a l s . Shipping
work i n v o l v e s : A k n o w l e d g e o f s h i p p i n g p r o c e d u r e s , p r a c t i c e s , r o u t e s ,
a v a ila b le m e a n s o f t r a n s p o r ta tio n a n d r a t e s ; a n d p r e p a r in g r e c o r d s o f th e
g o o d s s h ip p e d , m a k in g u p b i l l s o f la d in g , p o s t in g w e ig h t a n d s h ip p in g
c h a r g e s , a n d k e e p i n g a f i l e o f s h i p p i n g r e c o r d s . M a y d i r e c t o r a s s i s t in
p r e p a r i n g t h e m e r c h a n d i s e f o r s h i p m e n t . R e c e iv i n g work i n v o l v e s : V e r i ­
f y in g or d ir e c t in g o th e r s in v e r if y in g th e c o r r e c t n e s s o f s h ip m e n t s a g a i n s t
b i ll s o f la d in g , i n v o i c e s , o r o th e r r e c o r d s ; c h e c k in g fo r s h o r t a g e s a n d
r e j e c t in g d a m a g e d g o o d s ; r o u tin g m e r c h a n d is e o r m a te r ia ls to p ro p e r d e ­
p a r tm e n ts; m a in ta in in g n e c e s s a r y r e c o r d s a n d f i l e s .




R e c e i v i n g clerk
Shipping clerk
S hipping and r e c e iv in g clerk

TRUCKDRIVER

(O r d er p ic k e r ; s t o c k s e le c t o r ; w a r e h o u s e s t o c k m a n )

b o x e s or c ra tes are e x c lu d e d

F o r w a g e stu d y p u r p o se s , w o rk ers a re c la s s if ie d a s fo llo w s :

D r iv e s a tr u c k w it h in a c i t y o r in d u s t r ia l a r e a to tr a n s p o r t m a ­
t e r ia ls , m e r c h a n d is e , e q u ip m e n t, or m en b e tw e e n v a r io u s t y p e s o f e s t a b ­
lis h m e n t s s u c h a s : M a n u fa c tu r in g p la n t s , f r e ig h t d e p o t s , w a r e h o u s e s ,
w h o le s a le a n d r e t a il e s t a b lis h m e n t s , or b e tw e e n r e ta il e s ta b lis h m e n ts
a n d c u s t o m e r s ’ h o u s e s o r p l a c e s o f b u s i n e s s . M a y a l s o l o a d o r u n lo a d
t r u c k w it h o r w i t h o u t h e l p e r s , m a k e m in o r m e c h a n i c a l r e p a i r s , a n d k e e p
t r u c k in g o o d w o r k i n g o r d e r . D r iv e r -s a le s m e n and o v er -th e -r o a d d rivers
are e x c lu d e d

.

F o r w a g e s t u d y p u r p o s e s , tr u c k d r iv e r s a r e c l a s s i f i e d b y s i z e
a n d ty p e o f e q u ip m e n t, a s f o llo w s : (T r a c to r -tr a ile r s h o u ld b e r a te d on
th e b a s is o f tr a ile r c a p a c it y .)
T ru ckdriver (com bin a tion o f s i z e s l i s t e d s e p a r a te ly )
Truckdriver, ligh t (under lV2 t o n s )
Truckdriver, medium (1% to and in clu din g 4 to n s )
Truckdriver, h e a v y ( o v e r 4 to n s, trailer t y p e )
Truckdriver, h e a v y ( o v e r 4 to n s, oth er than trailer t y p e )

TRUCKER, POWER
O p e r a te s a m a n u a lly c o n t r o lle d g a s o l i n e - or e le c t r ic - p o w e r e d
tr u c k or tr a c to r to tr a n s p o r t g o o d s a n d m a te r ia ls o f a ll k in d s a b o u t a
w a r e h o u s e , m a n u fa c tu r in g p la n t , or o th e r e s t a b lis h m e n t .
F o r w a g e stu d y p u r p o se s, w ork ers are c la s s ifie d
tru c k , a s fo llo w s :

b y ty p e o f

Trucker, p o w e r (fo rk lift)
Trucker, p o w e r (o th er than fo rk lift)

WATCHMAN
M a k e s r o u n d s o f p r e m is e s p e r i o d i c a ll y in p r o t e c t in g p r o p e r ty
a g a in s t fir e , th e ft, a n d ille g a l e n tr y .
* U .S . GO V ER N M E NT P R IN T IN G O FFIC E : 1 9 6 0 0 — 5 6 0 7 2 3







Occupational Wage Surveys

O c c u p a t i o n a l w a g e s u r v e y s a r e b e i n g c o n d u c t e d i n 6 0 m a j o r la b o r m a r k e t s d u r in g l a t e 1 9 5 9 a n d e a r l y I 9 6 0 . T h e s e b u l l e t i n s , w h e n a v a i l a b l e ,
m a y b e p u r c h a s e d fr o m t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f D o c u m e n t s , U . S . G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , W a s h in g t o n 2 5 , D . C . , o r fr o m a n y o f t h e B L S r e g i o n a l
s a l e s o f f i c e s s h o w n o n th e in s id e fro n t c o v e r .
A s u m m a r y b u l l e t i n c o n t a i n i n g d a t a f o r a l l la b o r m a r k e t s , c o m b in e d w it h a d d i t i o n a l a n a l y s i s , w i l l b e i s s u e d e a r l y i n 1 9 6 1 .
B u lle t in s fo r th e a r e a s l i s t e d b e lo w a r e n o w a v a ila b le .

A l l e n t o w n — B e t h l e h e m —E a s t o n , P a . —N . J . , M a r c h I 9 6 0 —
B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 -3 3 , p r ic e 2 5 c e n t s
B a l t i m o r e , M d ., S e p t e m b e r 1 9 5 9 — B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 7 , p r i c e 1 5 c e n t s
B ir m in g h a m , A l a . , M a r c h I 9 6 0 — B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 3 7 , p r i c e 2 5 c e n t s
B o s t o n , M a s s ., O c to b e r 1 9 5 9 — B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 - 8 , p r ic e 2 5 c e n t s
B u ffa lo , N .Y ., O c to b e r 1 9 5 9 — B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 -4 , p r ic e 2 0 c e n t s

M i n n e a p o l i s —S t . P a u l , M in n ., J a n u a r y I960 — B L S B u l l . 1265-21,
p r i c e 25 c e n t s
N e w a r k a n d J e r s e y C i t y , N . J . , F e b r u a r y I960 — B L S B u l l . 1265-28,
p r i c e 25 c e n t s
N e w O r l e a n s , L a . , F e b r u a r y I960 — B L S B u l l . 1265-32, p r i c e 25 c e n t s
N e w Y o r k , N . Y . , A p r i l I960 — B L S B u l l . 1265-44, p r i c e 25 c e n t s

C a n to n , O h io , D e c e m b e r 1 9 5 9 — B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 - 1 0 , p r ic e 2 5 c e n t s
C i n c i n n a t i , O h i o —K y . , F e b r u a r y I 9 6 0 — B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 3 1 ,
p r ic e 3 5 c e n t s
C le v e la n d , O h io , S e p te m b e r 1 9 5 9 — B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 - 1 , p r ic e 2 0 c e n t s
D a lla s , T e x ., O c to b e r 1 9 5 9 — B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 -3 , p r ic e 2 0 c e n t s
D a y to n , O h io , D e c e m b e r 1 9 5 9 — B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 - 9 , p r ic e 2 5 c e n t s

P h i l a d e l p h i a , P a . , N o v e m b e r 1959— B L S B u l l . 1265-16, p r i c e 25 c e n t s
P h o e n i x , A r i z . , A p r i l I960 — B L S B u l l . 1265-42, p r i c e 25 c e n t s
P i t t s b u r g h P a . , D e c e m b e r 1959— B L S B u l l . 1265-20, p r i c e 25 c e n t s
P o r t l a n d , M a i n e , N o v e m b e r 1959— B L S B u l l . 1265-12, p r i c e 20 c e n t s
P r o v i d e n c e , R . I . — M a s s . , M a r c h i 960 — B L S B u l l . 1265-34, p r i c e 25 c e n t s
R ic h m o n d , V a . , F e b r u a r y I960 — B L S B u l l . 1265-24, p r i c e 25 c e n t s

D e n v e r , C o l o . , D e c e m b e r 1 9 5 9 —B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 1 1 , p r i c e 2 5 c e n t s
D e s M o in e s , I o w a , F e b r u a r y I 9 6 0 — B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 -3 0 , p r ic e 2 5 c e n t s
D e t r o i t , M i c h ., J a n u a r y I 9 6 0 — B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 2 5 , p r i c e 2 0 c e n t s
F o r t W o r th , T e x . , N o v e m b e r 1 9 5 9 — B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 1 3 , p r i c e 2 5 c e n t s
I n d ia n a p o lis , I n d ., J a n u a r y I 9 6 0 — B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 - 2 2 , p r ic e 2 5 c e n t s
J a c k s o n , M is s ., F e b r u a r y I 9 6 0 — B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 -2 6 , p r ic e 2 5 c e n t s
J a c k s o n v ille , F la ., D e c e m b e r 1 9 5 9 — B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 -1 4 , p r ic e 2 5 c e n t s

S t . L o u i s , M o ., O c t o b e r 1959— B L S B u l l . 1265-5, p r i c e 25 c e n t s
S a n B e r n a r d i n o —R i v e r s i d e —O n t a r i o , C a l i f . , N o v e m b e r 1959—
B L S B u l l . 1265-15, p r i c e 25 c e n t s
S a n F r a n c i s c o —O a k l a n d , C a l i f . , J a n u a r y I960 — B L S B u l l . 1265-17,
p r i c e 25 c e n t s
S e a t t l e , W a s h ., A u g u s t 1959— B L S B u l l . 1265-2,
p r i c e 25 c e n t s

K a n s a s C i t y , M o .—K a n s . , J a n u a r y I 9 6 0 — B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 2 3 ,
p r ic e 2 5 c e n t s
L o s A n g e l e s —L o n g B e a c h , C a l i f . , A p r i l I 9 6 0 — B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 3 5 ,
p r ic e 2 5 c e n t s
M e m p h is , T e n n ., J a n u a r y I 9 6 0 — B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 - 1 9 , p r ic e 2 5 c e n t s
M ia m i, F l a . , D e c e m b e r 1 9 5 9 — B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 6 , p r i c e 2 0 c e n t s
M i l w a u k e e , W i s ., A p r i l I 9 6 0 — B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 4 3 , p r i c e 2 5 c e n t s

S i o u x F a l l s , S . D a k . , F e b r u a r y I960 — B L S B u l l . 1265-29,
p r ic e 2 0 c e n t s
S o u t h B e n d , I n d . , A p r i l I960 — B L S B u l l . 1265-38, p r i c e 25 c e n t s
W a s h in g t o n , D . C . —M d .—V a . , D e c e m b e r 1959 — B L S B u l l . 1265-18,
p r i c e 25 c e n t s
W a t e r b u r y , C o n n . , M a r c h i 960— B L S B u l l . 1265-36, p r i c e 25 c e n t s
Y o r k , P a . , F e b r u a r y I960 — B L S B u l l . 1265-27, p r i c e 25 c e n t s








Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102