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Occupational Wage Survey

MILWAUKEE, WISCONSIN
APRIL 1960

Bu letin No. 1265-43




UNITED STA TES DEPARTM ENT O F LABOR
Jam es P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner




Occupational Wage Survey
MILWAUKEE, WISCONSIN




APRIL 1960

B u lle t in N o . 12651-43
June I9 60

UNITED STA TES DEPARTM ENT O F LABO R
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague/ Commissioner

F or s a le b y th e S u p e rin te n d e n t of D ocum ents, U.S. G o v e rn m e n t P rin tin g O ffic e , W a s h in g to n 25 , D .C .

P ric e 2 5 cen ts




Preface

The Com m unity Wage Survey P rogram
The Bureau of Labor S ta tistics regu larly conducts
areaw ide wage su rveys in a number of im portant industrial
cen ters. The stu d ies, m ade from late fall to ea rly spring,
relate to occupational earnings and related supplem entary
ben efits. A prelim in ary report is available on com pletion
of the study in each area, usually in the month follow ing
the payroll period studied. This bulletin provides additional
data not included in the ea r lie r report. A consolidated
analytical bulletin sum m arizing the resu lts of a ll of the
y ea r's su rveys is issu ed after com pletion of the final area
bulletin for the current round of su rveys.
T his report w as prepared in the B ureau's regional
office in C hicago, 111. , by W oodrow C. Linn, under the
direction of G eorge E. Votava, R egional Wage and Indus­
tria l R elations A nalyst.




Contents

Page
Introduction ________________________________________________________________ 1
Wage trends for selected occupational g r o u p s ------------------------------------------ 4
Tables:
1. E stab lish m en ts and w orkers w ithin scope of s u r v e y _____________ 3
2. Indexes of standard w eekly sa la r ie s and straigh t-tim e
hourly earnings for selected occupational groups,
and percen ts of in crea se for selected p e r io d s __________________ 3
A: O ccupational earnings: *
A - l. O ffice o c cu p a tio n s___________________________________________ 5
A -2 . P ro fessio n a l and tech n ical occupations ___________________ 7
A -3. M aintenance and powerplant occupations __________________ 8
A -4. C ustodial and m aterial m ovem ent o c c u p a tio n s____________ 9
B: E stablishm en t p ra ctices and supplem entary wage
provisions: *
B - l. Shift d iffe r e n tia ls ___________________________________________ 11
B -2 . M inim um entrance sa la rie s for w om en
office w orkers _____________________________________________ 12
B -3 . Scheduled w eekly h o u r s _____________________________________ 12
B -4 . Paid holidays _______________________________________________ 13
14
B - 5.
P a id v a c a t i o n s _________________________________________________
B -6 . Health, insu ran ce, and pension p la n s______________________ 16
Appendix: O ccupational d escrip tion s ____________________________________ 17
* NOTE: Sim ilar tabulations are availab le in the M ilwaukee
area reports for M arch 1952, A pril 1953, A p ril 1954, No­
vem ber 1955, A pril 1957, May 1958, and A p ril 1959. The
1957 report w as lim ited to the earnings of plant w ork ers
in m anufacturing. M ost of the rep orts a lso include data on
th ese or related estab lish m en t p ra ctices and supplem entary
wage p ro vision s. A d irectory indicating date of study and
the price of the reports, as w ell a s rep orts for other m ajor
a r ea s, is available upon request
A current report on occupational earnings and sup­
plem entary wage p ra ctices in the M ilwaukee area is also
available for the m ach inery in d u stries (M arch I960). Union
s c a le s, indicative of prevailing pay le v e ls, are available for
the follow ing trades or in d u stries: Building construction,
printing, lo c a l-tr a n sit operating em p loyees, and m otortruck
d riv ers and h elp ers.




Occupational Wage Survey—Milwaukee, Wis.
Introduction

This area is one of sev er a l im portant industrial cen ters in
which the U .S . D epartm ent of L ab or's B ureau of Labor S ta tistics has
conducted su rveys of occupational earnings and related wage benefits
on an areaw ide b a sis. In this area, data w ere obtained by personal
v isits of B ureau field econ om ists to rep resen tative estab lish m en ts
within six broad industry d ivisions: M anufacturing; tran sp orta tio n ,1
com m unication, and other public u tilities; w h olesale trade; reta il
trade; fin an ce, in su ran ce, and rea l estate; and s e r v ic e s . M ajor in ­
dustry groups excluded from th ese stu dies are governm ent operations
and the con struction and extractive in d u stries. E stab lish m en ts having
few er than a p rescrib ed num ber of w orkers are om itted also b ecau se
they furnish in su fficien t em ploym ent in the occupations studied to w a r­
rant in clu sion . W herever p o ssib le, separate tabulations are provided
for each of the broad industry d iv isio n s.
T hese su rveys are conducted on a sam ple b a sis because of the
u n n ecessary c o st involved in surveying all esta b lish m en ts. To obtain
appropriate accu racy at m inim um co st, a greater proportion of large
than of sm all estab lish m en ts is studied. In com bining the data, how ­
ever, all estab lish m en ts are given their appropriate w eight. E stim a tes
based on the estab lish m en ts studied are presented, th erefore, as r e ­
lating to all estab lish m en ts in the industry grouping and area, e x ­
cept for those below the m inim um siz e studied.
O ccupations and E arnings
The occupations selec te d for study are com m on to a variety
of m anufacturing and nonm anufacturing in d u stries. O ccupational c la s ­
sification is based on a uniform se t of job d escrip tion s designed to
take account of in terestab lish m en t variation in duties within the sam e
job. (See appendix for listin g of th ese d escrip tio n s.) E arnings data are
presented (in the A -s e r ie s tab les) for the follow ing types of occupa­
tions: (a) O ffice c le rica l; (b) p ro fession a l and technical; (c) m ain te­
nance and powerplant; and (d) custodial and m aterial m ovem ent.
O ccupational em ploym ent and earnings data are shown for
fu ll-tim e w ork ers, i. e . , those h ired to work a regular w eekly sch ed ­
ule in the given occupational c la ssifica tio n . E arnings data exclude
prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on w eekends, h olid ays, and
1 R ailroads, form erly excluded from the scope of th ese stu d ies,
have been added in n early a ll of the areas to be studied during the
w inter of 1959-60; railroad s w ill be added in the rem aining areas next
year. F or scope of survey in this area, see footnote to "transporta­
tion, com m unication, and other public u tilities" in table 1.




late sh ifts. Nonproduction bonu ses are excluded a lso , but c o st-o fliving bonuses and incentive earnings are included. Where w eekly
hours are reported, as for office c le r ic a l occupations, referen ce is
to the work sched ules (rounded to the n ea rest half hour) for which
straigh t-tim e sa la rie s are paid; average w eekly earnings for these
occupations have been rounded to the n ea rest half d ollar.
A verage earnings of m en and wom en are p resen ted sep arately
for selected occupations in which both sex es are com m only em ployed.
D ifferen ces in pay le v e ls of m en and w om en in th ese occupations are
largely due to (l) d ifferen ces in the distribution of the sex es among
in d u stries and estab lish m en ts; (2) d ifferen ces in sp ecific duties p er­
form ed, although the occupations are appropriately c la ssifie d w ithin
the sam e survey job description; and (3) d ifferen ces in length of s e r v ­
ice or m erit review when individual sa la rie s are adjusted on this basis.
L onger average serv ic e of m en would resu lt in higher average pay
when both sex es are em ployed within the sam e rate range. Job
d escrip tion s used in cla ssify in g em p loyees in these su rveys are u su ­
ally m ore gen eralized than those used in individual estab lish m en ts to
allow for m inor d ifferen ces among estab lish m en ts in sp ecific duties
perform ed.
O ccupational em ploym ent estim a tes rep resen t the total in all
estab lish m en ts within the scope of the study and not the num ber actu­
ally su rveyed . B ecau se of d ifferen ces in occupational stru ctu re among
estab lish m en ts, the estim a tes of occupational em ploym ent obtained
from the sam ple of estab lish m en ts studied serv e only to indicate the
relative im portance of the jobs studied. T h ese d ifferen ces in occu ­
pational structure do not m a teria lly affect the accu racy of the ea rn ­
ings data.
E stablishm en t P ra c tic es and Supplem entary Wage P ro v isio n s
Inform ation is p resen ted a lso (in the B -s e r ie s tab les) on s e ­
lected estab lish m en t p ra ctices and supplem entary ben efits as they r e ­
late to office and plant w o rk ers. The term "office w ork ers, " as used
in this bulletin, includes working su p erv iso rs and non su p ervisory
w orkers perform ing c le r ic a l or related fun ction s, and exclu d es adm in­
istra tiv e , ex ecu tive, and p ro fession a l p erson n el. "Plant w orkers" in ­
clude working forem en and all n on su p ervisory w orkers (including lead m en and tra in ees) engaged in nonoffice functions. A d m in istrative,
ex ecu tive, and p ro fession a l em p lo yees, and force-acco u n t construction
em p loyees who are u tilized as a sep arate work force are excluded .
C afeteria w orkers and routem en are excluded in m anufacturing in d u s­
tries, but are included as plant w orkers in nonm anufacturing ind u stries.

The sum m ary of vacation plans is lim ited to form al arran ge­
m en ts, excluding inform al plans w hereby tim e off with pay is granted
at the d iscretio n of the em p loyer. Separate estim a tes are provided
accord ing to em ployer p ractice in com puting vacation paym ents, such
as tim e paym ents, percent of annual earn in gs, or fla t-su m am ounts.
H ow ever, in the tabulations of vacation allow an ces, paym ents not on
a tim e b a sis w ere converted; for exam p le, a paym ent of 2 percen t of
annual earnings w as co n sid ered as the equivalent of 1 w e e k 1 a pay.

Data are p resen ted for all health , in su ran ce, and pension
plans for which at le a st a part of the c o st is borne by the em p loyer,
excepting only leg a l req u irem en ts such as w ork m en 's com p ensation
and so cia l secu rity . Such plans include th ose underw ritten by a co m ­
m er cia l insuran ce com pany and those provided through a union fund or
paid d irectly by the em ployer out of cu rren t operating funds or from
a fund s e t asid e for this purpose. Death b en efits are included as a
form of life in su ran ce.
S ick n ess and accident insuran ce is limited* to that type of in ­
surance under which predeterm ined ca sh paym ents are m ade d irectly
to the insured on a w eekly or m onthly b a sis during illn e s s or accid en t
d isab ility. Inform ation is p resen ted for all such plans to which the
em ployer con trib u tes. H ow ever, in New York and New J e r se y , which
have enacted tem porary d isab ility insuran ce law s w hich require e m ­
ployer co n trib u tio n s,4 plans are included only if the em p loyer (1) con ­
tributes m ore than is leg a lly required, or (2) provides the em ployee
with b en efits which ex ceed the req u irem en ts of the law . T abulations
of paid sick -lea v e plans are lim ited to form al p la n s5 w hich provide
full pay or a proportion of the w ork er's pay during absence from work
b ecau se of illn e s s . Separate tabulations are provided accord ing to
(l) plans which provide full pay and no w aiting period, and (2) plans
providing eith er partial pay or a w aiting period. In addition to the
presentation of the proportions o f w ork ers who are provided sick n ess
and accident insurance or paid sick lea v e, an unduplicated total is
shown of w orkers who receiv e eith er or both types of b en efits.
C atastrophe in su ran ce, so m etim es referred to as, extended
m ed ical in su ran ce, inclu des those plans w hich are d esign ed to p rotect
em p loyees in ca se of sick n ess and injury involving ex p en ses beyond
the norm al co verage of h osp italization , m ed ica l, and su rgical p lan s.
M edical insuran ce re fe rs to plans providing for com p lete or p a r ti^
paym ent of d o c to rs1 fe e s . Such plans m ay be underw ritten by co m m er­
cia l insurance com panies or nonprofit organ ization s or they m ay be
self-in su r ed . Tabulations of retirem en t pension plans are lim ited to
those plans that provide m onthly paym ents for the rem ainder of the
w o rk er 's life .

2 An estab lish m en t was co n sid ered as having a policy if it m et
eith er of the follow ing conditions: (1) O perated late sh ifts at the tim e
of the su rvey, or (2) had form al p rovision s coverin g late sh ifts.
3 Scheduled w eekly hours for office w orkers (first sectio n of
table B -3 ) in su rveys m ade prior to late 1957 and ea rly 1958 w ere
p resen ted in term s of the proportion of w om en office w orkers e m ­
ployed in o ffices with the indicated w eekly hours for w om en w o rk ers.

4 The tem porary d isab ility law s in C aliforn ia and Rhode Island
do not require em ployer con trib u tion s.
5 An estab lish m en t w as con sid ered as having a form al plan if
it estab lish ed at le a st the m inim um num ber of days of sic k lea ve that
could be expected by each em p lo yee. Such a plan need not be w ritten ,
but inform al sic k -le a v e a llow an ces, d eterm in ed on an individual b a s is ,
w ere excluded.

Shift d ifferen tial data (table B - l) are lim ited to m anufacturing
in d u stries^ This inform ation is p resented both in term s of (a) esta b ­
lish m en t p o lic y ,2 presen ted in term s of total plant w orker em p loy­
m ent, and (b) effectiv e p ra ctice, p resented on the b a sis of w orkers
actually em ployed on the sp ecified sh ift at the tim e of the su rvey.
In estab lish m en ts having varied d ifferen tia ls, the amount applying to
a m ajority w as used o r, if no am ount applied to a m ajority, the c la s ­
sifica tio n "other" was u sed . In estab lish m en ts in which som e la te sh ift hours are paid at norm al ra te s, a d ifferential was record ed only
if it applied to a m ajority of the shift hours.
M inim um entrance rates (table B -2 ) relate only to the esta b ­
lish m en ts v isited . They are presen ted on an estab lish m en t, rather
than on an em ploym ent b a sis. P aid holidays; paid vacations; and
health , in su ran ce, and pension plans are treated sta tistica lly on the
b a sis that th ese are applicable to all plant or office w orkers if a m a­
jority of such w orkers are elig ib le or m ay eventually qualify for the
p ra ctices liste d . Scheduled hours are treated sta tistica lly on the b a sis
that th ese are applicable to all plant or office w orkers if a m ajority
are c o v e r e d .3 B ecau se of rounding, sum s of individual item s in these
tabulations m ay not equal to ta ls.
The fir s t part of the paid holidays table p resen ts the num ­
b er of whole and half holidays actually provided. The secon d part
com b ines whole and half holidays to show total holiday tim e .




T ab le 1. E sta b lish m e n ts and w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e o f s u r v e y and n u m b er stu d ie d in M ilw a u k e e , W is. , 1 by m a jo r in d u str y d iv is io n , 2 A p r il I960
N u m b er o f e s ta b lish m e n ts

M in im u m
In d u stry d iv is io n

in e s t a b lis h ­
m e n ts in s c o p e
o f stu d y

W ithin
sco p e of
stu d y 3

W o r k er s in e sta b lis h m e n ts
W ithin s c o p e o f stu d y

S tu d ied

S tu d ied

T o ta l4

O ffice

P la n t

T o ta l 4

A ll d iv is io n s _____________________________________

51

777

184

2 6 0 ,4 0 0

4 3 ,8 0 0

1 7 7 , 600

1 7 3 ,8 9 0

M an u factu rin g __ ________________________________
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g _____________________________
T r a n sp o r ta tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and
o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s 5 --------------------------------W h o le sa le tra d e ---------------- ------------------ —
R e ta il tra d e ---------------------------- — — ---------F in a n c e , in su r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta te ______
S e r v ic e s 7 ----------------------------------------------------------

51
51

402
375

91
93

1 8 2 ,8 0 0
7 7 ,6 0 0

2 4 ,8 0 0
1 9 ,0 0 0

1 3 4 ,1 0 0
4 3 ,5 0 0

1 2 4 ,5 9 0
4 9 ,3 0 0

51
51
51
51
51

50
79
127
55
64

20
17
25
14
17

9, 600
2 7 ,8 0 0
1 0 ,1 0 0
8 ,2 0 0

4 ,2 0 0
(6 )
(?)
(*)
(6 )

2 1 ,9 0 0

1 2 ,4 0 0
( 6)
<!>
(*)
(6 )

1 8 ,8 1 0
3 ,2 6 0
1 7 ,9 2 0
6 ,2 2 0
3 ,0 9 0

1 T he M ilw a u k ee M e tr o p o lita n A r e a (M ilw au k ee and W au k esh a C o u n tie s). T he " w o rk ers w ith in sco p e o f stud y" e s t im a te s sh ow n in th is ta b le p ro v id e a r e a so n a b ly
a c c u r a te d e s c r ip tio n o f th e s iz e and c o m p o s itio n o f the la b o r fo r c e in clu d e d in th e s u r v e y . T he e s t im a te s a r e n ot in te n d ed , h o w e v e r , to s e r v e a s a b a s is o f c o m p a r is o n
w ith o th er a r e a e m p lo y m e n t in d e x e s to m e a s u r e e m p lo y m en t tr e n d s o r le v e ls s in c e (1) plan n in g o f w age s u r v e y s r e q u ir e s the u s e o f e s ta b lis h m e n t d ata c o m p ile d c o n s id e r a b ly
in ad v a n ce o f th e p a y r o ll p e r io d stu d ie d and (2) s m a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts a r e e x c lu d e d fr o m the sco p e o f th e s u r v e y .
2 T he 1957 r e v is e d e d itio n o f the S tan d ard In d u str ia l C la s s ific a t io n M anu al w as u s e d in c la s s ify in g e sta b lis h m e n ts b y in d u str y d iv is io n . M ajor c h a n g e s fr o m th e e a r lie r
e d itio n (u se d in the B u r e a u 's la b o r m a r k e t w age s u r v e y p r o g r a m p r io r to the w in te r o f 1958—59) a r e the tr a n s fe r of m ilk p a ste u r iz a tio n p lan ts and r e a d y -m ix e d c o n c r e te
e s ta b lis h m e n ts fr o m tr a d e (w h o le sa le o r r e ta il) to m a n u fa c tu r in g , and the tr a n sfe r o f ra d io and t e le v is io n b r o a d c a stin g fr o m s e r v ic e s to the tr a n sp o r ta tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n ,
and o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s d iv is io n .
3 In c lu d e s a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith to ta l e m p lo y m e n t at o r ab ove th e m in im u m -s iz e lim ita tio n . A ll o u tle ts (w ith in th e a r e a ) o f c o m p a n ie s in su c h in d u s tr ie s a s tr a d e ,
fin a n c e , au to r e p a ir s e r v ic e , and m o tio n -p ic tu r e th e a te r s a r e c o n s id e r e d a s 1 e s ta b lish m e n t.
4 In c lu d e s e x e c u tiv e , p r o fe s s io n a l, and o th e r w o r k e r s e x c lu d e d fr o m the se p a r a te o ffic e and p lan t c a te g o r ie s .
5 R a ilr o a d s w e r e in clu d ed ; ta x ic a b s and s e r v ic e s in c id e n ta l to w a te r tr a n sp o r ta tio n w e r e e x c lu d e d .
4 T h is in d u str y d iv isio y i is r e p r e se n te d in e s t im a te s fo r "all in d u s tr ie s " and "n on m an u factu rin g" in the S e r ie s A and B ta b le s , alth ou gh c o v e r a g e w a s in s u ffic ie n t to
ju s tify s e p a r a te p r e s e n ta tio n o f d a ta .
7 H o te ls; p e r s o n a l s e r v ic e s ; b u s in e s s s e r v ic e s ; a u to m o b ile r e p a ir sh o p s; m o tio n p ic tu r e s; n o n p ro fit m e m b e r sh ip o r g a n iz a tio n s; and e n g in e e r in g and a r c h ite c tu r a l s e r v i c e s .

T a b le 2 . In d ex e s o f sta n d a rd w e e k ly s a la r ie s and s tr a ig h t-tim e h o u r ly e a r n in g s fo r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n a l gro u p s in M ilw a u k e e , W is .,
A p r il I9 6 0 and A p r il 195 9 , and p e r c e n ts o f in c r e a s e fo r s e le c t e d p e r io d s
In d u stry and o c c u p a tio n a l group

In d ex es
(A p ril 1953 = 100)
A p r il I960

A p r il 1959

A p r il 1959
to
A p r il I960

M ay 1958
to
A p r il 1959

P e r c e n t in c r e a s e s fr o m —
N o v e m b e r 1955 A p r il 1954
to
to
M ay 1958
N o v e m b e r 1955

A p r il 1953
to
A p r il 1954

M arch 1952
to
A p r il 1953

A ll in d u s tr ie s :
O ffice c le r ic a l (w om en ) -------------------------- —
In d u str ia l n u r s e s (w om en) ---------------------------S k ille d m a in ten a n c e (m en ) ---------------------------U n s k ille d p la n t (m en ) -------------------------------------

1 3 3 .4
1 4 0 .2
139. 7
134. 5

128. 7
1 3 7 .0
1 3 3 .2
1 3 1 .2

3 .6
2 .3
4 .9
2 .5

2 .9
4 .2
3 .9
3. 8

13. 6
1 4 .4
1 3 .5
13. 7

5 .3
9 .0
6. 7
6 .2

4. 5
5 .5
5 .9
4. 6

6. 5
5 .8
7 .4
9 .9

M an u factu rin g:
O ffic e c le r ic a l (w om en ) ________ ___________
In d u str ia l n u r s e s (w om en ) ------------------------ S k ille d m a in ten a n c e (m en ) ---------------------------U n s k ille d p la n t (m en ) ------ ------------------------------

136. 7
1 40. 9
140. 6
1 3 4 .8

1 3 2 .0
1 3 7 .0
1 3 4 .2
1 3 1 .6

3. 6
2 .9
4 .8
2 .4

3. 8
4 .2
4 .2
3 .2

1 3 .0
1 4 .4
1 3 .4
1 2 .3

6. 7
9 .0
6 .9
7 .4

5. 5
5 .5
6 .3
5 .8

6. 8
6. 7
6. 8
1 0 .4




4
W ait Trends for Selected Occupational Groups

P resen ted in table 2 are indexes of sa la r ie s of office c le r ic a l
w ork ers and industrial n u r se s, and of average earnings of selected
plant w orker groups.
F or office c le r ic a l w orkers and industrial n u r se s, the indexes
relate to average w eek ly sa la r ie s for norm al hours of w ork, that is ,
the standard w ork sched ule for which stra ig h t-tim e sa la rie s are paid.
F or plant w orker groups, they m easu re changes in stra ig h t-tim e hourly
ea rn in gs, excluding prem ium pay for overtim e and for w ork on w eek ­
end s, h olid ays, and late sh ifts. The* indexes are based on data for
selected k ey occupations and include m o st of the n u m erically im portant
jobs w ithin each group. The office c le r ic a l data are based on w om en in
the follow ing 18 jobs: B ille r s , m achine (billing m achine); bookkeepingm achine o p erators, c la ss A and B; C om ptom eter operators; c le r k s, file ,
c la s s -A and B; c le r k s, order; c le r k s, payroll; keypunch operators;
office g irls; secr e ta r ie s; sten ograp h ers, general; sw itchboard opera­
tors; sw itchboard o p era to r-recep tio n ists; tabulating-m achine operators;
tran scrib in g-m ach in e op erators, general; and ty p ists, c la ss A and B.
The in d u strial n u rse data are based on w om en industrial n u r se s. M en
in the follow ing 10 sk illed m aintenance jobs and 3 unskilled jobs w ere
included in the plant w orker data: Skilled— carpenters; electricia n s;
m ach in ists; m echanics; m ech a n ics, autom otive; m illw righ ts; painters;
p ip efitters; sh eet-m eta l w orkers; and tool and die m akers; unskilled-—
jan ito rs, p o r te rs, and clean ers; la b o rers, m a teria l handling; and
w atchm en.
A verage w eekly sa la r ie s or average hourly earnings w ere
com puted for each of the selected occupations. The average sa la rie s
or hourly earnings w ere then m ultiplied by the average of 1953 and
1954 em ploym ent in the job. T hese w eighted earnings for individual
occupations w ere then totaled to obtain an aggregate for each occupa­
tional group. F in ally, the ratio of th ese group aggregates for a given
year to the aggregate for the b a se period (su rvey m onth, w in ter 1952-53)




w as com puted and the r e su lt m u ltip lied by the b a se year index (l0 0 );to
get the index for the given y ea r.
A djustm ents have b een m ade w h ere n e c e ssa r y to m aintain
com parability. F or exam p le, in m o st of the a rea s su rveyed , railroad s
w ere included in the coverage of the su rveys for the fir s t tim e this
y ea r. In com puting the in d exes, data relatin g to the railroad industry
w ere excluded.
The indexes m ea su r e, p rin cip ally, the effects of (1) g en era l
sa la ry and w age changes; (2) m er it or other in cr ea ses in pay receiv ed
by individual w ork ers w h ile in the sam e job; and (3) changes in the
labor fo rce such as labor turnover, fo rce exp an sion s, fo rce red u c­
tion s, and changes in the proportion of w ork ers em ployed by esta b ­
lish m en ts w ith different pay le v e ls. Changes in the labor fo rce can
cause in cr ea ses or d e c rea se s in the occupational averag es w ithout
actual w age changes. F or exam p le, a fo rce expansion m ight in cr ea se
the proportion of low er paid w ork ers in a sp ecific occupation and r e ­
su lt in a drop in the a v era g e, w h ereas a reduction in the proportion
of low er paid w ork ers would have the opposite effect. The m ovem en t
of a high-paying estab lish m en t out of an area could cau se the average
earnings to drop, even though no change in rates occurred iik other
area esta b lish m en ts.
The u se of constant em ploym ent w eights elim in a tes die effects
of changes in the proportion of w ork ers rep resen ted in each job in ­
cluded in the data. N or are the in d exes influenced by changes in
standard w ork sch ed u les or in prem ium pay fo r overtim e, sin ce they
are based on pay for stra ig h t-tim e h ou rs.
Indexes for the period 1953 to 1959 for w ork ers in 17 m ajor
labor m ark ets appeared in BLS B u ll. 1240-22, W ages and R elated
B en efits, 20 Labor M ark ets, W inter 1958-59.

A * O c c u p a t io n a l E a r n in g s
Table A -l. O ffice Occupations
(A verage straigh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings fo r se le cte d occupations studied on an area basis
by industry d ivision , M ilwaukee, W is. , A p ril I960)

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

Men
C lerks, accounting, cla ss A ____________________________ 433
Manufacturing ___ _
314
Nonmanufacturing _
•_ ___
119
Public u tilitie s 2
___ _ _
_
. .....
34
C lerks, accounting, class B
__
....
203
Manufacturing -------------------------------------------------------------168
C lerks, order ____________________________________________
290
Manufacturing __
..._ _
157
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________________
133
C lerks, p a y r o ll_________
83
Manufacturing __ _ _i__ _
......
68
Office boys ...
_ ...........
193
Manufacturing _
...........................
138
N onm anufacturing ___ _____________ ______________
55
Tabulating-m achine op erators, cla ss A ________________
144
Manufacturing _______________________________________
100
Tabulating-m achine operators, c la ss B
119
Manufacturing ________________________________________
66
Nonmanufacturing _ ___
_ _
_
...
51 •
Tabulating-m achine operators, cla ss C
50
Women
B illers, m achine (billing m achine) _ _
146
Manufacturing _________________________________ ______ ------ 54“
Nonmanufacturing
__ _
82
Public u tilitie s 2 __________________ ____ ______
25
B illers, m achine (bookkeeping m achine) _______________
95
N onm anufacturing ____ ____________ ________ ___
71
Bookkeeping-m achine operators, cla ss A _____________
113
Manufacturing ________________________________________
66
Bookkeeping-m achine operators, c la ss B ____________
385
Manufacturing ________________________________________
131
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________________
254
C lerks, accounting, c la ss A ____________________________
301
Manufacturing _______________________________________
173
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________________
128
Public u tilities 2 ___________________________________
33
C lerks, accounting, cla ss B _________________ ___
964
M anufacturing ________________________________________
342
Nonmanufacturing
62 2
Public u tilities 2 _______________________________
156

Avbbao*
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—
$
$
$
$
$
$
Weekly Weekly Under 45. 00 $ 00 55. 00 $ UG $ 00 $ 00 $ 00 $ 00 $ 00 $ 0 .0 0 $95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 $
50.
60.
65.
70.
75.
85.
80.
9
120.00 125.CO
hours1
and
(Standard) (Standard) I s . 00 under
and
50. 00 55. 00 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 over
40. 0 $109.50
40. 0 111.So
40. 0 103.50
4 2 .0 107.00
40. 0 83.50
40. 0
8 i. So
4 0 .0
93.50
4 0 .0
9S. SO
40. 0 91.50
40. 0 96.00
4 0 .0
93.50
39.5
59.00
4 0 .0
6 9 . So
39.5
5 9 .0 0
39.5 104.50
39.5 104.50
39.5
89.50
40. 0 9 0 .0 0
3 9 .0
89.50
39.5
73.50
40. 0
40. 0
40. 0
40. 0
40. 0
40. 0
40. 0
5$. 5
40. 0
40. 0
40. 0
40. 0
40. 0
39.5
41. 0
39.5
40. 0
39.5
40. 0

_
-

_
-

_
-

_

"

_

-

_

-

-

_
-

.
-

_

_

_

-

57
43
14

30
27
3

9
-------8
3
3
_
27
19
8

_

_

_
-

_
-

-

-

1
_

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

-

-

_

_

_

2

64. 00 4
67. 00 2
62. 00 2
62. 50
66.50 _
63. 00 78. 00 _
83. 00 67.50 _
6 9 .0 0
67. 00 87. 00 _
6 9 .0 0
85.00 87. 00
66.50 19
71.00 64.50 19
70.50 -

1
1
1
1
1

2
2

17
4
13
5
11
11
4
29
8

21

21
8
13
4
5
5
3
1
34
14

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

_

4

52
ll
41
6

_
-

2
1
1
1
1
19
11
8

8
21

_

_

1
1
5

6
1
5
12

-

90
24
66
17

20

-

120

36
84
7

_
_
-

"
n
9
3

_

3
2
2
29

15
39
11 -------5“
28
9
9
41
11
31
ii
5
16
5
3
95
106
16
49
57
79
10
10

10

9

1

142
164
49 — 58“
115
104
30
12

_
_
-

1
1

_

13
37
10 -----33“
9
29
3
25
6
4
4
2
2
4
6
2
-------T “
1
1
_
2
2
12
9------- 5
8
4
4
4
18
31
17
14
4
15
11
19
12
17
7
10

23
14
9
125
65"
60
22

15
15
-

-

_

20
9
51
12
39
27
14
13
112

32
80
45

10
32
14
8
4
11
2
21
10
8
45
31
27
42
30
17
40
21
37
10
14
18
30
3
23
_
21
9
17
9
10
12
_
10
12
10
6
13
5*
4
5
16
18
21
-------9 ~ ----- T3” ----- 13“
5
7
8
3
3
2
_
-

1
1
16
8
32
8
24
73
39
34
19
74
38
36
8

1
1

-

-

_

7
5
17
15

2

50
35
15
3
38
25
13
7

2
2
2
10
11
11
_
-

33
6
27
5
16
12
4
2

62
45
17
3
15
9
51
25
26
11
11

68
48
20
5
4
4
50
30
20
11
8

58
36
22
7
4
3
8
4
4
13
11

81
70
11
2
3
3
15
1
14
3
2

36
34
2
2

_

_

_

_

20
18
23
16
17
19
17
6
2
T ~ — r~ -------1“
1
9
_
_
1




-

_

20
20
-

_

_

21
16
4
1
3
_

18
10
3
1
2
_

7
3
1
1
_

_
_
-

_
-

_

_

-

-

_

_

_

6
3
3
------- j—
2
_

-

_
-

_

_

_

6
6

3
3

1
1

2
2

_

_

_

-

-

-

•

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

_
-

•

10

21
21
-

7
2
5

_
-

»
-

3
3

■

_
"

31

-

-

-

20
11

7
3

_

-

5
7
7

~

1

1

1

-

-

-

2
2

_

See footnotes at end o f table.
NOTE:

2
2
6
1

51
39
12
5

_
_
-

-

_

_

20
18
2
2
2
1
1
-

E stim ates fo r all industries, nonm anufacturing, and public u tilities include data fo r ra ilroa d s (SIC 40), om itted fro m the scop e
o f all labor m arket wage surveys m ade b e fo re the w inter o f 1959-60.
W here significant, the effe c t o f the inclu sion of r a il­
roads is g reatest on the data shown separately fo r the public u tilities division .
The trend of earnings in selected occupational
groups in all industries, excluding r a ilro a d s, appears in table 2 .

-

3
3
-

"
2
2
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"
_

-

6
Table A -l. O ffice Occupations-Continued
(A verage straigh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings fo r se le cte d occupations studied on an area basis
by industry d ivision , M ilwaukee, W is. , A p ril I960)

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
worker*

Atbkaox

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—
S
$
$
$
$
Under $ 00 $ 00 S 00 $ oo $ 00 $ 00 $ 00 $ 00 $ 00 $ 00 $95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 $
45.
50.
55.
6o.
65.
70.
75.
80.
85.
90.
115.00 12c.00 125.00
Weekly,* Weekly,
hour*
and
and
(Standard) (Standard) 45. 00 under
50. 00 55.00 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75.00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 over

W om en— Continued
C lerks, file , cla s s A ___________________________________
M anufacturing _____________________________________ :---Nonm anufacturing .................................................. ................
C lerk s, file , cla s s B ____________________________________
M anufacturing ________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________________
P u blic u tilities 2 ___________________________________
C lerks, o r d e r ____________________________________________
M anufacturing ________________________________________
Nonm anufacturing ____________________________________
C lerks, p a y ro ll __________________________________________
M anufacturing ________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________________
Pu blic u tilities 2 ___________________________________
C om ptom eter op erators _________________________________
M anufacturing ________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________________
D uplicating-m achine op erators
(M im eograph o r Ditto) _______________________________—
M anufacturing ________________________________________
Nonm anufacturing ____________________________________
Keypunch o p e r a t o r s ______________________________________
M anufacturing ________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________________
P u blic u tilities 2 ___________________________________
O ffice g i r l s ______________________ i._______________________
M anufacturing ________________________________________
N onm anufacturing ____________________________________
S e c r e t a r ie s _______________________________________________
M anufacturing _________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________________
Pu blic utilities 2 ___________________________________
Stenographers, g e n e r a l---------------------------------------------------M anufacturing_________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________________
Pu blic utilities 2 ___________________________________
Sw itchboard o p e r a t o r s ___________________________________
M anufacturing ________________________________________
N onm anufacturing ____________________________________
Pu blic u tilities 2 ___________________________________
Sw itchboard o p e r a t o r -r e c e p t io n is t s _____________________
M anufacturing ________________________________________
N onm anufacturing ____________________________________

See footnotes at end o f table.




141
83
58
726
240
486
54
419
149
270
579
441
138
53
685
232
453
127
60
67
688
408
280
59
186
68
118
1,464
845
619
62
2,297
1,276
1, 021
171
250
79
171
33
430
224
206

39. 0
*9.§
3 8.5
39.5
4 0 .0
39.5
4 0 .5
40. 0
40. 0
4 0 .0
40. 0
4o. 0
40. 0
4 0 .0
39.5
40. 0
39. 0

$ 6 8 .5 0
71. 00
64. 00
56.50
66.50
52. 00
59. 00
63.50
6 6 .6 0
62.00
72.50
I t, 00
73.00
75.00
67.00
70. 00
65. 00

39.5
60. 50
62.50
40. 0
58.50
39. 0
3 9.5
67.50
40. 0
71700
39. 0 . 62.50
40. 0
66.50
53. 00
39. 0
40. 0
58. 00
39. 0 50. 00
39.5
89.00
4 0 .0
91. 6o
39.5
85. 00
40. 0 100.00
39.5
71.50
40. 0
74. 6'0
39.5
67. 50
40. 0
74.50
67.50
40. 0
40. 0
79. 60
40. 0
62. 00
40. 0
76. 00
39.5
66.50
40. 0
70.50
39.5
61.50

45
45
3
3
5
5
_
14
4
10
_
2
2
_
18
1
17
_
_
_
_
11
11
7
7

1
1
146
5
141
43
43
8
7
1
3
3
11
1
10
25
8
17
42
4
38
4
4
27
10
17
2
2
17
17

12
12
222
43
179
30
81
25
56
32
30
2
1
53
8
45

22
9
13
126
63
63
7
42
18
24
60
36
22
6
30
19
61

26
31
15
14
12
16
83
107
23
50
60
57
13
8
27
71
26
19
52
1
13
13
9
13
4
142
266
ro6~
24
160
118
5
20
35
33
1
34
33
2
44
56
- -----22
44
34

26
16
10
52
16
36
3
81
40
41
101
81
20
2
158
35
123

25
20
5
27
10
17
9
34
12
22
80
64
16
6
144
66
78

8
4
4
58
54
4
4
69
24
45
64
42
22
10
93
3l
62

22
16
6
16
16
"
28
17
11
54
39
15
11
63
25
38

26
9
17
111
56
55
14
13
4
9
32
10
22
378
162
216
18
38
4
34
2
72
29
43

17
11
6
82
63
19
"
8
8

10
5
5
98
57
41
12
6
6
"
131
41
90
1
346
232
114
27
34
14
20
11
73
6l
12

.
-

72
22
50
268
153
115
21
24
5
19
4
70
60
10

55
46
9
1
_
-

"
143
71
72
325
218
107
27
22
22
47
24
23

12
8
4
27
27
10
2
8
61
43
18
10
33
17
16
5
4
1
66
53
13
6
_
-

168
80
88
9
197
129
68
10
18
14
4
2
12
8
4

10
8
2
7
6
i
l
4
3
1
30
25
5
3
35
21
14
'
30
26
4
1
1
186
120
66
1
149
89
60
21
21
7
14
12
14
9
5
-

2
1
1
_
20
4
16
26
to
6
8
5
3
.
19
15
4
4
-

191
148
43
9
104
77
27
13
3
3
10
4
6

_
2
2
25
18
7
3
1
1
.
9
8
1
1
_
173
125
48
14
61
46
15
9
7
7
7
6
1

1
"
_
2
2
27
26
1
1
>
.
-

_
_
3
t
1
.
-

128
88
40
6
17
15
2
"
2
2
"

.
_
_
82
67
25
10
11
9
2
"
.
"

_

_

I
1
-

-

-

_
_
3
1
2

_
-

_
-

_
_
-

_
-

_
"

_
-

1
1

.
-

_
_
—
50
35
15
6
3
3
_
-

_
"
_
44
22
22
1
1
_
- /
-

1
1

-

_
_
'
_
_
27
15
12
4
2
l
_
_

-

.
"
_
_
.
"
_
"
7
2
5
2
_
"
-

_

-

7
Table A-1. O ffice Occupations-Continued

(Average straigh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, M ilwaukee, W is., A pril I960)
Number
of
workers

Sex, occupation, and industry division
Wom en — Continued
Tabulating-m achine operators, c la ss R ...
................
Nonmanufacturing _ Tabulating-m achine op erators, class C
Nonmanufacturing ______________________________
T ranscribing-m achine operators, general ...
Manufacturing _____________________________ ____
Nonmanufacturinpr
_ . ...........
T ypists, cla ss A ___________________________________ —
M anufacturing __________________________________
N onm anufacturing______________________________ —
P ublic u tilitie s 2
__ _
......
T ypists, cla ss B _____ ______________________ ____
Nianuxactunng _ __ ___ .
Nonmanufacturing
. . . . ...

Arc R C
AK
Weekly ,
earnings Under
$
(Standard) (Standard) 45. 00

100
73
64
53
307
162
145
796
529
267
46
1,511
651
45

P u b li c u t i l i t i e s 2

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

$
$
$
$
$
*
$
45. 00 50. 00 55. 00 60. 00 $ 00 $ 00 $ 5 .0 0 t 00 $ 00 $ 00 S95.00 $
65.
70.
7
80.
85.
90.
100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 $
125.00
and
under
and
50. 00 55. 00 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 over
$

_

39.5 $ 7 5 .0 0
73. 00
39. 0
39.5
70. 00
39. 0
69 00
39.5
66. 00
40. 0
6 9 .0 0
39.5
62.50
40. 0
72. 00
40. 0
76.60
39.5
64. 00
40. 0
66 . 50
39.5
60 . 00
40. 0 • 63. 00
39.5
56. 00
40. 0
58. 00

_

_

-

1
1

-

-

42
14
28
37
37

8
3
6
6

5

185
55
130

5

11

17

10
10
28
17
11

87
26
61
4

361
268
132 " 175
93
229
6
23

22
22

34

2

10

8
14
12
87
38
49
138
73
65
23

10
8
43
19
24

8
8
16

7
7
29
27

15 ’

6
44
25
19

2
2
1

-

1

-

-

-

-

1

31
2
29 — r ~

2
2'

1
1

_
-

_
-

_

_

2

_
-

-

21
2

1

_
_
_
_
-

_
*
“

_
-

-

_
_
.
-

_
3
------—
-

_
_
-

1

6

2

102

50
36
g
186
109
77

88
Q
7

12

6

4
3
3
2
6

-

62
195
47
72 ---- 53 — r 187 ■ 34
30
8
13
9
g
3
161
62 ------ 3 59
j
140
51
62

86

221

22

-

_
~

_
_
_
"

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which em ployees receive their regular straigh t-tim e salaries and the earnings correspond to th ese weekly hours.
2 Transportation, com m unication, and other public u tilities.
Table A -2. Professbnal and Technical Occupations
(A verage straigh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings fo r s e le cte d occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Milwaukee, W is. , A p ril I960)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF

Averaob
Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

Weekly . earnings j Under
hours Weekly
(Standard) (Standard) ?5. 00

S
S
s
S
s
*
t
\
S
$
$
1
S
%
S
%
<
s
$
$
1
65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00 150.00 155.00 160.00 165.00
and
and
under
70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 90. 00 95. 00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00 150.00 155.00 160.00 165.00 ov er

Men
_
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

_
2
2

40. 0
40. 0

93. 00
17
93. 00 — r r

15
12

24
— 2r

24

zl

40. 0
40. 0

73. 00
74. 00

347

210

37
37

46
46

32
32

243
218

40. 0
40. 0

8 9.50
89. 6 0

_

1
-

12

22
19

117
D raftsm en, lea d e r --------------------------------M anufacturing _______________________ ------ ITT
D raftsm en, sen io r _____________________
Manufacturing _____________________

1, 077
1 , 0l6

683
D raftsm en, j u n i o r ______________________
Manufacturing _______________________ ------ 5FT
T r a c e r s _________ _____________________
Manufacturing _____________________

219

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

$148.00
148700
118.00
117. 50

38

_
3
3

.
14
9

_
20
19

Id

159
154

85
83

158

135

62

26
26

18
18

10
10

1
1

2
2

45
43

63
62

39
36

20

16
16

56
-----34"

_
62

2
2

~ T J T ~ — 52“

4
4

24
24

4
4

2
2

102
99

131
121

107
104

104
93

_

33
33
_

9
8
_

7
7
_

8
4
_

-

-

"

-

-

18
"1 4 ""

6
4

■

2
2

2
1

8
8

5
5

27
27

5
5

*32
32

32
30

17
16

6
6

8
8

1
1
*
-

1
■

_
51
45

134
131
48

37 1

1
1
-

74
70

50
45

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"
-

-

"

“

-

-

Women
N urses, industrial (reg istered ) -----------M anufacturing _____________________

-

5

18

“

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which em ployees receive their regular straigh t-tim e salaries and the earnings correspond to th ese weekly hours.
2 W orkers w ere distributed as follow s: 20 at $165 to $175; 10 at $175 to $185; 2 at $185 and over.
3 W orkers w ere distributed as follow s: 2 at $50 to $55; 32 at $55 to $60; 13 at $60 to $65.

NOTE: See note on p. 5, relative to the inclusion of railroad s.




~

“

“

'

8
Table A -3. M aintenance and Powerplant Occupations

(Average straigh t-tim e hourly earnings for m en\in selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, M ilwaukee, W is. , A pril I960)
Occupation and industry division

Number
of
workers

Average1
hourly Under
$
1. 70

C arpenters, m aintenance ______________________
331 $2. 79
M anufacturing----------------------------------------------- .......ill "
2 .8 4
N onm anufacturing_________ ________ ______
120
2. 69
56
Public u tilities 2 -------------------------------------2.43
E lectrician s, m aintenance ________ __________ 1, 135
3. 04
93lT 3.01
M anufacturing . __ ____ _______ _________
E ngineers, stationary _________________________
276
2. 79
M anufacturing_________ 1____________________
210
2. 86
N onm anufacturing___ ____ _______________
66
2. 58
Firem en, stationary b o ile r _________ _______
584
2. 44
M anufacturing_______________________________
501 “ 2747“
N onm anufacturing___________________________
83
2. 29
H elpers, trad es, m aintenance ________ ______
M anufacturing________________ ____________
N onm anufacturing___________________________
Public u tilitie s 2 ...............................................
M achine-tool operators, to o lr o o m ____________
M anufacturing________________ ____________
M achinists, m aintenance ___ ________________
M anufacturing___ __ ___________ _________
M echanics, autom otive (m aintenance) ________
M anufacturing________ _____ ________________
N onm anufacturing___________________________
Public u tilities 2 — ------- ------------------------

526
308
218
185
711
651
749
718
554
166
388
354

2. 20
2. 15
2. 26
2. 37
2 .94
2.97
3. 16
3. 17
2.79
2. 81
2. 77
2. 79

M echanics, m a in ten an ce__ ___________________ 1,009
2. 81
M anufacturing _ ____ ______________________
949“ 2. 8o
M illwrights ____________ „ ___________________
511
2. 88
M anufacturing_______________________________ — w r "2.88374
2. 53
O ilers __________________ .. ___________________
M anufacturing_______________________________
314 2. $3
P ain ters, m aintenance ________________________
202
2. 88
M anufacturing_______________________________
152
2. 88v
N onm anufacturing___________________________
50
2. 87
P ip efitters, m aintenance ______________________
356
2. 93
326“ 2. 94
M anufacturing _______________________________
Sh eet-m etal w orkers, m a in ten an ce____________
M anufacturing _ ____ ________ ___________

137
132

2.97
2.97

Tool and die m akers ____________ ____________
M anufacturing-----------------------------------------------

1,563
1,562

3. 31
3. 32

_
_
_
33
9
3 24
_
_
_
_
_
_
'
_
*
_
'
_

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
1.70 1. 80 1.90 2. 00 2. 10 2. 20 2. 30 2. 40 2. 50 2. 60 2. 70 2. 80 2 .90 3.00 3. 10 3. 20 3. 30 3.40 3. 50 $3. 60 S3 .70
and
and
under 1. 90
1. 80
2. 00 2. 10 2. 20 J2. 30 _ 2.^40 2. 50 2. 60 2. 70 2. 80 __2. 90 3. 00 3. 10 3. 20 3. 30 3. 40 3. 50 3. 60 3.70 over
.

_
_
-

_
55
31
24

13
11.
2

48
43
5
_
_
_
"
_

14
14
_
.
_
_

_
_
_
"
_
_
_

_
8
8
_
"
_
_
_

_
_
11
11
-

_
_
8
4' '
4

6
6
_
_
5
5
_
_
*
.
.
“
_
“
_

36
34
2
_
_
_
_
_
18
18
_
~

_

_

'
_

10
10
3
2
_
11
9
2

47
8
4
5
4
42
41
“
1
14
13
1
>
13
3
10
70
117
66 “ TIT” \
4
6

34 119
26 T o o
8 19
7 18
_
_
_
_
~
_
_
-

130
40
90
90
6
6
9
9
5
1
4
4

3 14
3 14
_
4
- -----3 ~
6 28
6 28
_
1
1
_
6
6
"
_
_
_
_

1 Excludes prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on w eekends, holidays, and late shifts.
2 Transportation, com m unication, and other public u tilities.
3 Workers w ere distributed as follow s: 4 at $ 1. 40 to $ 1. 50; 16 at $ 1. 50 to $ 1. 60; and 4 at $ 1. 60 to $ 1. 70.
NOTE: See note on p. 5, relative to the inclusion of railroad s.




22
17
5
50
46
43
19
24
51
51
■

12
6
6
3
35
27
9
6
3
53
i9
24

74 19
13 10
61
9
61
9
36 92
36 34
_ 16
- ------9“
17 96
17 17
- 79
72
-

28 182
21
21
28 182
31
28 29
31 ----- I T ~ W ~
41 65
85
86
4T 65
14 12
4
4
9 12
5
8 10
3
8
5
3
! ;i
1
_

"
_

54
52
22
6
23
18
37
24
13
68
64
4

13
32 18
9
15
25 15 ------ T
7
3
6
67
81 149
139
66
75 143
118
54
8
42 51
54
8
30 49
12
2
_
10
24 93
8 — n i 93
2
ii
_
_
_
6
5
6
5
76
51 101
58 51
76
51 101
58 49
17 47
12 47
49
-------5“ " " 47' — r r 55 -----48~
97 23
5
39 221
37 13
30
4
1
60
10
4
9 217
51
7 207
4
9
107
99
41
41
13
15
19
8
11
27
24

64
43
21
287
207
17
17
_
_
no
no
51
37
10
10
-

25
25
97
95
_
_
_
42
42
336
"336 '
36
36
“

66 160
98
228 48
17
86
16
215 44
62 152
90 84
20 83
72
29
27 — W " T 4 “ — m ~ “ 81“ — n r
_
_
6
10
76
18
1b
6
Id
10
16
28
2
47
38 20
36
14
35
6
2'5
2
3 14
3
2
11
17 79
53
58 48
1 1 19
50
44 48
"

4 11
4 — -r 8
126
2 57
22
99
_
_
2
2
_
_
_
_
_
2
2
_
45 32
45 i i
153
8
4
i'53 ------7~ — r i
_
_
25
24
_
*
_
1
1
47
4i

l

9
9

12
12

30
29

9
5

25
25

35
35

15
15

_
-

9
3
_
_
~
_
-

_

8
8

9
8

52
52

40
40

120
120

215
215

212
212

241
241

301
301

1

_
_
_
-

2
2
“
4
4
~

_
_
11
- — rr
_
_
"
_
_
-

.
■
_
-

2
_
_
■
“
_
"

■
■
_
-

325
325

28
28

12
12

_
_
-

i
_
_
-

9
Table A -4. Custodial and M aterial Movement Occupations

(A verage straigh t-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area b asis
by industry division, M ilwaukee, W is., A pril I960)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
Average $
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
t
hourly 4 1 .0 0 $1 . 10 $1 . 20 $1. 30 $1.40 $1.50 $1 .6 0 $
1.70 1.80 1.90 2 . 00 2 . 10 2 . 20 2. 30 $2.40 2. 50 $2 . 60 % 70 < . 80 $ .9 0 $
2.
2
2
3.00 3.10
earnings and
under
1 .1 0 1 . 20 1. 30 1.40 1.50 1 .6 0 J ..7 0 1.80 1.90 2 .0 0 2 . 10 2 . 20 2.30 2.40 2. 50 2 . 60_ 2. 70 2 . 80 2. 90 3.00 3. 10 over

O ccupation 1 and industry division

Number
of
worker*

E levator op erators, passen ger (w om en)-.--------

64
57

$ 1 . 21
1 . 12

34
34

5
5

15
15

4
3

Guards --------------------------------------------------------------M anufacturing-----------------------------------------------

519
493

2 . 18
2 .2 2

“

-

3
3

6

2.063
1,561
502
143

1.97
2.05
1.71
2.03

18
1
17
•

37
22
15

36
9
27
“

17
44
“

21

Janitors, p o rters, and cleaners (w om en)---- — 1 .0 0 2
M anufacturing----------------------------------------------422
580
171
Public u tilities 3 -------------------------------------

1 .5 4
1 .8 8
1.29
1.44

41
3
38
"

85 220
2 11
83 209
9
"

4. 370
3, 135
1, 235
440

2 . 21
2 . 20
2. 25
2. 57

80
80
“

8
_
8

Order fille r s
------1. 378
M anufacturing----- —----------------- --------------------438
Nonmanufacturing — .. --------------------------940

2 . 20

2. 29
2. 33

-

Janitors, p o rters, and cleaners (m en).
M anufacturing
—.
Nonmanufacturing
__ ..
P ublic u tilitie s 3 - - — -

L aborers, m aterial h a n d lin g --------------------------Manufacturing . — _ — ---Nonmanufacturing
P ublic u tilitie s 3
—
-

25

5
1

3
-

30
9
‘

121

121

2

51
70
4

184
5
179
108

54
50
4
~

58
16
42
34

42
38
4
“

7
_
7
-

142
133
9
“

14
_
14
-

64
48

8
8

9
9
-

2
2

21

“

4
4

1

~

-

3

61

12

“

4

1

1

38
83

16

"

16
5

5
3 ,

44

45

35
35

13
13

92
92

115
115

2
2

85
85

79
79

1
1

5
5

-

“

-

-

81
39
42
4

112

160
48
35

228
211
17
“

265
207
58
45

362
341

341
321
20
18

173
156
17
7

26
15

11
8

_
*

3
. 3
“

■

*

-

■

_
■

6
6

49
49

73
61

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

131
127
4
4

23
23

“

36
31
5
4

133 117
103 58
3C 59
“
•

202

382 733
514
218 244
387 462
208 M n S n 397 “ i n n r i s r i 327
65
61
16 36
67 170
187
31
5
3
48 56
"
“

93
23
70
-

248
101
147
105

231
38
193
192

284
284
"

5
5
-

-

4
4
-

9
4
5

28
7
21

35
10
25

44
14
30

_

1
1

_
-

_

20

24
4

57
53
4

4
4
“

12
12

18

10

"

**

12
12

128
17

21
20

164
62

142
70
72

193
40
153

230
32
198

3
123

160
8

162
162
"

103
6l
42

48

60
12

13
13
“

23
20
3

23
17

17
17
“

-

-

200

111

102

128
72

35
15
20

85
45
40

151
147
4

17
9

44
43

1

2
.
2

15
7

9

8

8
1

“

-

-

-

-

3
3

16

P ack ers, shipping (men) - - Manufacturing —
Nonmanufacturing - ---- — ----- ------- ----

958
797
161

2. 23
2.13

5
5

“

8
8

-

2
2

22
22

“

1

22
20
2

P ack ers, shipping (women) - - ----M anufacturing ------------- ------------------------Nonmanufacturing
— — --------- -------

333
189
144

1 .7 2
1.87
1.51

18
18

4
4

22
12
10

20
20

29
14
15

75
50
25

13
13

2
16

R eceiving c le r k s ----------------------------------------------M anufacturing----------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing — — — .. ---- .. .

338
186
152

2. 33
2. 32
2. 35

-

“

-

-

-

-

2
2

-

1
1

15
7
S

28
14
14

10
10

21
12

26
14

42
34

10
8
2

86

8

58
28

19
19
"

12

39
27

32
4
28

“

Shipping clerk s ----------------------------------------------M anufacturing-----------------------------------------------

287
247

2. 44
2. 42

-

-

-

-

-

8
8

!
-

*

9
9

2
1

7
7

24
24

23
23

45
45

46
32

40
40

34
15

28
25

-

Shipping and receiving clerks ------ -----------M anufacturing---------- — — — — --------Nonm anufacturing-----------------------------------------

251
134
117

2. 38
2. 47
2. 27

-

-

-

1
1

2
1
1

-

56
8
48

24

-

3
3

14

-

11
10
1

25
17

15
8
7

15
6
9

21

See footnotes at end of table.




2.2 1

-

5
5

8

16
-

16

9

12

8
6

168

32
rf~~

126

6

8
16

"

8

”

“

“

38
17

22
22

6

1
1

1

18
18

“

-

-

“

“
1

**

9
9

10

Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations-Continued
(Average straight-time hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Milwaukee, W is ., April I960)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

Occupation1 and industry division

N m er
u b
of
w rk
o ers

Avenge $
h rly , 1.00
ou
ea in s* and
rn g

$
$
$
1. 10 1. 20 1. 30

$
1.40

1. 30

1. 50

1. 20

1.40

$
1.50

s
1. 60

1. 60 J. .70

$
1.70

$
1.80

$
1.90

$
2.00

$
2.10

$
2. 20

$
2. 30

$
2. 40

J.80__ L 90 _ 2.00

_2. 10

2.20

2.30

2.40

2. 50

32
27
5
“

112
110
2
"

92
61
31
28

59
34
25
10

230
88
142
74

13
9

96
96

11
11

9
2

2. 50

$
2. 60

$
2.70

t
2. 80

I
2.90

$
3.00

S
3. 10
and

2. 60

2. 70

2. 80

2. 90

3.00

3. 10

over

468
191
277
26

891
256
635
421

1038
1
1037
937

39
27

81
£

356

%

-

"

24
24
"

17
.
17
“

24
.
24

8
8
“

16
10
6
“

2
2
“

2.52
2. 30

_

_

.

1

.

_

6

_

2.4 4
2. 40
2.47
2. 67

-

-

24
24

16
16

24
24

8
8

10
10
-

_
-

10
10
-

21
9
12

12
12
-

14
14
-

75
48
27
24

38
25
13
a

102
47
55
11

155
70
85
1Q
7

1

192
78
114
72

232
1
231
225

2.
2.
2.
2.

74
62
77
78

_

_

_

-

_

-

_

-

-

“

”

-

“

■

”

■

-

~

“

2
2
“

7
7
“

17
5
12
“

20
3
17
7

190
118
72
“

538

“

6
6
"

.

Nonmanufacturing-----------------------------------—
Public utilities3
---------- —

G72
177
695
499

Truckdrivers, heavy (over 4 tons,
other than trailer type)
- —
Nonmanufacturing------------- ------------- ----------

421
270

2. 60
2. 62

-

-

"

-

-

"

-

2
2

1
1

-

1
1

2
2

-

3
3

-

191
100

Truckers, power (fork lift)-------------------------------Manufacturing-----------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing
Dnklir nKItfiaa ^

857
592
165
84

2.
2.
2.
2.

.
-

_
-

6
6

8
8
-

25
24
1

94
94
-

62
62
-

157
157
-

72
32
40
39

.219
166
53
5

Truckers, power (other than forklift)-------------- Manufacturing-------------------------------------------------

415
392

2. 35
2. 35

11
11

17
17

11
11

28
28

.39
36

185
179

80
66

3
3

W atchm en-----------------------------------------------------------Manufacturing -..... - ----- -------------------------------

515
285

1.70
2.05

14
14

50
50

15
15

36
26

24
24

10
10

— — ---- —
Truckdrivers4 ------Manufacturing — -------- -----------— _
— — — ------- __
Nonmanufacturing ---Public utilities3
— ---— —

3. 163
856
2, 307
1,496

$2. 58
2. 46
2. 63
2.71

Truckdrivers, light (under 1 l /2 ton s)----------

629
its

“

( l l /z

-

to
--------------------

Truckdrivers, heavy (over 4 tons,
trailer ty p e )------------------------------------------------

_ 936
324
612
359

45
44
48
59

3

.

8

-

“

158

_

-

29
7

6

3

-

5
5
-

“

■

4

*

1
_______
Data limited to men workers except where otherwise indicated.
Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes all drivers regardless of size and type of truck operated.

NOTE: See note on p. 5, relative to the inclusion of railroads.




_

■

!
3
1
------ 1—

61
59
2
-

57
_
57
-

_
.
-

_
_
-

-

3
3

_
.

_
_

54

_

_

538
492

38
36
2
"

54
“

-

“

153
93

68
68

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
“

29
27
2

83
30
53
40

52
50
2

7
7
-

6
6
-

24
24
-

15
15

8
8

18
18

-

-

'

'

'

"

i
1
!

U

Truckdrivers, medium
and including 4 tons)
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing
DiiKli/* nfilifi oe ^

1
2
3
4

21
9
12
■

11
10
1.
"

26
18

-

61
55

“

17
17
c

76
~ ~ U ~

'

B : E sta b lish m e n t P ra c tic e s a n d S u p p le m e n ta ry W a g e P ro v isio n s

11

Table B-1. Shift Differentials
(P e r c e n t o f m a n u fa c tu r in g

p la n t w o r k e r s

a c t u a lly o p e r a t in g la te

in e s t a b lis h m e n t s h a v in g f o r m a l p r o v is i o n s

s h ifts b y ty p e a n d a m o u n t o f d iffe r e n t ia l,

fo r

M ilw a u k e e ,

In e s t a b lis h m e n t s h a v in g f o r m a l
p r o v is io n s 1 fo r —

s h ift w o r k ,

a n d in e s t a b lis h m e n t s

W is . , A p r il

I9 6 0 )

In e s t a b lis h m e n t s a c t u a lly
o p e r a tin g —

S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l
S e c o n d s h ift
w ork

T h ir d o r o th e r

S econ d

s h ift w o r k

s h ift

T h ir d

o r oth er
s h ift

T o t a l _____________________________________________________________

93. 0

8 6 .4

1 9 .6

5. 5

W ith

91. 3

8 5 .4

19. 4

5 .4

6 9 .9

57. 1

1 3 .8

2 .7

s h ift p a y d iff e r e n t ia l

U n ifo r m

cen ts

T

(p e r h o u r )

U n d e r 5 c e n t s ______________________________________
5 c e n t s _________________________________________________
6 cen ts

_

.9
8 .6

-

_________________________________________________

-

1 .5

-

. 5

-

7 c e n t s _______________________________
______________
7
c e n t s _____________________________________________

5. 5
1. 0

-

5 .4

-

1. 0

-

-

.2

8 cen ts
9 cen ts

1. 1
. 3

1f z

___________________ ____________________ _____ ___
_
___

1 0 c e n t s _____ __________________________________________

20. 3

1 1 c e n t s _______________________________________________
1 2 c e n t s _______________________________________________

2.
7.
3.
3.

U n ifo r m

p ercen ta g e

.6

3 .2
. 1
2 .7

( 2)
.8

9. 3

10. 1

1 4 c e n t s ________________________________________________
_____
1 5 c e n t s _______________________________________
O v e r 1 5 c e n t s _________________ ___________________

1. 6

14. 6

1. 3

1 3 c e n t s ________________________________________________

. 1
1 .7
. 5
.7

( 2)
( 2)
. 8
. 5

1 .7

2 .4
12. 0
.7

1
0
5
3

1. 3
16. 3

1 9 .5

19. 5

5. 1

5 percen t

_______________________ _____________________

13. 1

-

6 percen t
7 percen t

_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________

5. 8
-

-

3 .9
1. 1
-

.6

3. 1
3. 6
12. 8

O t h e r f o r m a l p a y d i f f e r e n t i a l ____________________

1 .9

N o s h i f t p a y d i f f e r e n t i a l ________________________________

1 .7

-

9 p e r c e n t _____________________________________________
1 0 p e r c e n t ____________________________________________

1
even

_

. 1

-

In c lu d e s

e s t a b lis h m e n t s

c u r r e n tly

th ou g h th e y w e r e n ot c u r r e n tly
2 L e s s th a n 0. 05 p e r c e n t .




o p e r a tin g

o p e r a tin g

la t e

la te

_
. 1
.4

. 5

1. 0

1. 0

s h ifts , a n d

1 .2

8. 8

s h ifts .

. 1

.2

( 2)

e s t a b lis h m e n t s

w ith

fo r m a l p r o v is io n s

c o v e r in g

la te

s h ifts

12
Table B-2. Minimum Entrance Salaries for Women O ffice W orkers
(Distribution of establishments studied in all industries and in industry divisions by minimum entrance salary for selected categories
of inexperienced women office w orkers, Milwaukee, W is. , April I960)
Inexperienced typists
Manufacturing
Minimum weekly salary 1

Eased on standard weekly h o u rs3 < f—
o

A ll
industries

A ll
schedules
Establishments stud ied________________________________

Other inexperienced clerical workers 2
Nonmanufacturing

184

91
51
1
6
6

Establishments having a specified m in im u m ________
Under $ 4 0 . 00 _______________________________________
$ 4 0 . 00 and under $ 4 2 . 50 __________________________
$ 4 2 . 50 and under $ 4 5 . 00 __________________________
$ 45. 00 and under $ 4 7 .5 0 __________________________
$ 47. 50 and under $ 50. 00 __________________________
$ 50. 00 and under $ 52. 50 __________________________
$ 5 2 .5 0 and under $ 55. 00 __________________________
$ 55. 00 and under $ 5 7 .5 0 __________________________
$ 57. 50 and under $ 60. 00 ________ ________________
$ 60. 00 and under $ 62. 50 __________________________
$ 6 2.50 and unde r $ 6 5 .0 0 __________________________
$ 6 5 .0 0 and under $ 67. 50 __________________________
$ 67. 50 and under $7 0. 00 __________________________
$ 7 0 . 00 and under $ 7 2 . 50 __________________________
$ 7 2 . 50 and under $ 7 5 . 00 __________________________
$ 7 5 . 00 and o v e r ____________________________________
Establishments having no specified m inim um _______
Establishments which did not employ workers

92
1
2
1
14
12
21
7
14
5
5
5
2
1
1
1
30

19

in t h is c a t e g o r y ___________________________________________

62

21

9

4
13
4
2
2
2
1
1
-

-

40

XXX

Manufacturing
A ll
industries

A ll
schedules

A ll
schedules

40

93

XXX

184

53
1
2
5
8
10
4
10
4
4
1
2
1
1
22
16

XXX

1
11

XXX

XXX

41

XXX

40

36
1
1
5
5
12
3
1
1
3
3
-

-

-

-

1

40

91

102
2
5
9
14
13
20
7
12
5
7
1
1
2
1
1
2
42

47
1
5
6
7
4
12
4
2
2
2
1
1
-

41
1
1
1
8
6
12
3
1
1
3
3
-

Nonmanufacturing

Based on standard weekly hours 3 < f—
o

XXX

A ll
schedules

40

93

XXX

4V
2
4
7
9
5
10
3
2
1
3
1

43
1

-

-

2

XXX

2
20

XXX

XXX

24

XXX

49
1
2
4
8
8
4
9
4
4
1
2
1
1
-

4
7
6
4
10
2
2
1
3
1

1 Lowest salary rate form ally established for hiring inexperienced workers for typing or other clerical jobs.
2 Rates applicable to m essen gers, office g irls, or sim ilar subclerical jobs are not considered.
3 Hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-tim e salaries. Data are presented for all workweeks combined, and for the m ost common workweek
NOTE:

See note on table B -3 ,

reported.

relative to the inclusion of railroads.

Table B-3. Scheduled W eekly Hours
(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by scheduled weekly hours
of first-sh ift w orkers, Milwaukee, W is. , April I960)
OFFICE WORKERS

W eekly ho u rs
All industries

A ll w o rk e rs ___________________________________
U nder 37V 2ho u rs ____________________________
37V2 h o u rs ___________________________________
O ver 37V 2and under 40 ho u rs _______________
40 h o u rs ______________________________________
42 h o urs ______________________________________
O ver 42 and under 45 h o u r s --------------------------45 h o urs ______________________________________
O ver 45 h o u r s ________________________________
1
2
3
4

100
1
8
5
85
(4)
1
“

*

Manufacturing

100
(4 )
3
4
93
“

PLANT WORKERS
Public utilities

100

_

100
“

2

All industries

100
1
3
91
1
1
2
2

3

Manufacturing

100
1
2
94
2
1

Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
L ess than 0 .5 percent.




NOTE:

Estim ates for all industries and public utilities include data for railroads (SIC 40), omitted from the scope of all labor market
wage surveys made before the winter of 1959-60.
Where significant, the effect of the inclusion of railroads is greatest on the
data shown separately for the public utilities division.

Public utilities

100
.
-

93
7
-

-

"

2

13
Table B-4. Paid Holidays
( P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o f f i c e a n d p la n t w o r k e r s in a l l i n d u s t r i e s a n d in in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s b y n u m b e r o f p a id h o l id a y s
p r o v i d e d a n n u a lly , M ilw a u k e e , W i s . , A p r i l I9 6 0 )

OFFICE WORKERS

PLANT WORKERS

Item
All in u trie 1
da a

A ll workers ____________________________________
Workers in establishments providing
paid holidays _ ________________________________
Workers in establishments providing
no paid holidays ______________________________

M ufactu g
an
rin

P
ublic u
tilities2

All in u
d stries 3

M ufactu g
an
rin

P
ublic u
tilities 2

100

100

100

100

100

100

99

100

100

100

100

96

(4 )

"

“

4

(4 )

(4 )

22
7
24
32
2
1
3
1
1
4
2

10
1
34
43
2
4
1
4

_
13
31
56
”

1
23
1
26
37
1
( 4)
4
3

2
11
1
32
44
1
5
4

1
37
17
45
“

2
6
9
13
15
70

4
4
5
9
11
89

87

3
3
3
7
8
71

4
4
4
9
10
86

61

77
99
99
99

90
99
99
100

87
100
100
100

72
95
95

87
98
99
1 00

61
99
100
100

“

N um ber o f d a y s
L ess than 6 holidays____________________________
6 holidays _______________________________________
6 holidays plus 1 half day __ __________________
6 holidays plus 2 half days _________________ _
7 holidays _______________________________________
7 holidays plus 1 half d a y ______________________
7 holidays plus 2 half d a ys_____________________
8 holidays _______________________________________
8 holidays plus 2 half days ____________________
9 holidays __ ________________________________ ___
9 holidays, plus 1 half day ____________________
9 holidays, plus 2 half d a y s ___________________
10 holidays _ ____________________________________

(4 )

Total h o lid a y t i m e 5
10 day8
_______________________________________
V or more days _______________________________
9 or more days _________ _____ __ ____________
8 or more days ____ _____________ ____________
71/ 2 or more d a y s ___________ _________________
7 or more days _________ ______ _______ _____
V or more days ______ _ ________ „ __ __

9 2

6 2

6 o r m o r e d a y s ________________ _________
_ _
_
3 o r m ore days
________________ ________ _
1 o r m o r e d a y s ____________________________________

1
2
3
4
5
n o h a lf

_

96

_

I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r w h o le s a l e t r a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; fi n a n c e , in s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e ; a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d i t io n to t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t io n , a n d o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s .
I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r w h o le s a l e t r a d e , r e t a i l t r a d e , r e a l e s t a t e , a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d i t io n t o t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
L e s s th a n 0. 5 p e r c e n t .
A l l c o m b in a t i o n s o f fu l l a n d h a lf d a y s th a t a d d t o th e s a m e a m o u n t a r e c o m b in e d ; f o r e x a m p le , th e p r o p o r t i o n o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g a t o t a l o f 7 d a y s in c l u d e s t h o s e w ith 7 f u l l d a y s
d a y s , 6 fu l l d a y s a n d 2 h a lf d a y s , 5 fu l l d a y s a n d 4 h a lf d a y s , a n d s o o n .
P r o p o r t i o n s w e r e t h e n c u m u la t e d .

NOTE:

See




n o te o n p . 1 2 ,

r e l a t i v e t o th e i n c l u s i o n o f r a i l r o a d s .

and

14

Table B-5. Paid Vacations
(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
provisions, Milwaukee, W i s ., April I960)
OFFICE WORKERS

PLANT WORKERS

V a c a t io n p o l i c y
All industries1

A ll w o rk e r s

____

___________________________________

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

All industries3

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

100

100

100

100

100

100

99
99
-

100
100
-

99
99
-

99
85
14
-

100
82
18
-

100
99
( 4)
-

M e th o d o f p a y m en t
W o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s p r o v id i n g
p a id v a c a t i o n s ___________________________________ _
L e n g t h - o f - t i m e p a y m e n t ________________________
P e r c e n t a g e p a y m e n t _____________________________
O th er
_ _
W o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s p r o v id i n g
n o p a id v a c a t i o n s __
__ _
______

A m ount o f v a c a tio n

1

( 4)

( 4)

_

“

~

p a y5

A f te r 6 m on th s o f s e r v i c e
U n d e r 1 w e e k ____________________________________
1 w e e k , ______________________________________________
O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s __________________ ___

_

5
50
1

7
49
-

31
-

16
8
-

21
1

46
1
53

48
1
51

67
32

89
4
7

92
4
4

81
_

8
3
88
( 4)
1

9
2
88
-

7
10
83
-

64
15
21

73
19
8
-

35
.
65
-

“

“

“

“

2
3
94

2
4
94

2
98

30
39
31
-

21

-

18
"

A fte r 1 y e a r o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek
_____ ___________________________________ _
O v e r 1 an d u n d e r 2 w e e k s __________________ ____
2 w e e k s --------------- ........................... .............................

19

A fte r 2 y e a rs o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek
O v e r 1 and u n d er 2 w eek s
____
________
2 w eeks
___________________________ ____
____ * O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s __________________________
____________________
3 w e e k s __ _______________________

( 4)

A fte r 3 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w e e k _________________________ ____ ___________________
O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s __________________________
2 w eeks
O v e r 2 and u n d e r 3 w e e k s _
_ „ ________ ____
3 w eeks
_________ ___________________ __ __ ____

( 4)
1

-

-

~

_

_
( 4)
89
4

_
99
-

( 4)

“

( 4)
91
3
6

27
30
42

-

79
"

A fte r 5 y e a rs o f s e r v ic e
1 w e e k __________________________________________________
O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s _______ _
_
__ __
2 w e e k s --------------------------- -------------------------------------------O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ______ _____ ______________
3 w e e k s ______________________________ ________________

See footnotes at end of table,




7

1
1
86
5

7

( 4)
85

7
7

_
93
-

7

15
Table B-5. Paid Vacations-Continued
(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
provisions, Milwaukee, W i s ., April I960)
OFFICE WORKERS

PLANT WORKERS

Vacation policy
All in
dustries1

M ufactu g
an
rin

_
48
16
33
3

_
45
28
24
4

_
54
45
-

_
7
( 4)
88
1
4

P
ublic u
tilities 2

A in u
ll d stries 3

M ufactu g
an
rin

-

1
42
29
23
2
3

<4)
41
38
13
3
4

_
3
_
91
2
4

_
4
95
1
-

1
8
( 4)
81
5
4

( 4)
5
_
84
6
5

7
( 4)
74
2
16
( 4)

_
3
80
4
13
1

_
4
_
51
1
44
-

1

8
( 4)
66
7
17
( 4)

( 4)
5
_
70
9
15
<4)

_
42
_
58
-

5
<4)
38
1
55
1

_
3
_
33
2
61
1

4
_
51
1
44

( 4)
5

_
_
_
41
_
59

P
ublic utilities2

Am ount o f v a c a tio n p a y 9 — Continued
After 10 years of service
1 week _____________________________________________
2 weeks __________________________________________
Over 2 and under 3 weeks _
i___________ __________
3 w eek s____________________________________________
Over 3 and under 4 w e e k s_______________________
4 weeks ____________________________________________

55
_
45
"

After 15 years of service
1 week _____________________________________________
2 weeks ____________________________________________
Over 2 and under 3 w e e k s________________________
3 weeks ____________________________________________
Over 3 and under 4 w e e k s ________________________
4 w eek s__________________________________________ _

_
100
~

After 20 years of service
1 week ____________________ ___ _______ ________ __
2 w »*1ca
Over 2 and under 3 weeks ____ ___________________
3 week8 ______ _____________ _______________ ___
Over 3 and under 4 w eek s__ __ __ _________
4 w«f>kR
Over 4 weeks _____________________________________
After 25 years of Service
1 week _______________________________________ _______
2 weeks ____ ____ ___ _________ _____ ______________
Over 2 and under 3 w e e k s________________ __ __
3 w e e k s___ _ _ __________ ________
_______
Over 3 and under 4 w e e k s_______ ___ __ _____
4 weeks _ __ _______ __ __ ___________ ______
Over 4 weeks

1
2
3
4
5
service

1
8
(4)
33
5
51
2

_

32
6
54
3

Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Less than 0. 5 percent.
Periods of service were arbitrarily chosen and do not necessarily reflect the individual provisions for progressions.
For example, the changes in proportions indicated at 10 years'
include changes in provisions occurring between 5 and 10 years.

NOTE: See note on p. 12, relative to the inclusion of railroads.
In the tabulations of vacation allowances by years of service, payments other than "length of tim e " such as percentage
of annual earnings or flat-su m payments, were converted to an equivalent time basis; for example, a payment of 2 percent of annual earnings was considered as 1 week's pay.




16
Table B-6. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
(Percent of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions employed in establishments providing
health, insurance, or pension benefits, Milwaukee, W is. , April I960)
O F F IC E W O R K E R S

PLAN T W ORKERS

T y p e o f b e n e fit
All industries

A l l w o r k e r s ______________________

________________

1

100

M anufacturing

100

Public utilities 2

100

All industries3

Manufacturing

100

100

100

80

Pu blic utilities 2

W o r k e r ^ f n e s t a b l is h m e n t s p r o v id i n g :
L if e in s u r a n c e __________________________________
A c c i d e n t a l d e a th a n d d i s m e m b e r m e n t
in s u ra n ce
S ic k n e s s a n d a c c i d e n t i n s u r a n c e o r
s i c k le a v e o r b o t h 4 ___________________________

95

99

89

93

97

53

69

43

52

59

39

82

92

99

89

93

95

S ic k n e s s a n d a c c i d e n t i n s u r a n c e ________
S ic k l e a v e ( f u ll p a y a n d no
w a it in g p e r i o d ) ____________________________
S ic k le a v e ( p a r t ia l p a y o r
w a it in g p e r i o d ) _________________________

65

91

41

81

92

39

44

40

91

6

1

38

2

-

3

5

1.

36

H o s p i t a l iz a t io n in s u r a n c e ____________________
S u r g i c a l i n s u r a n c e __________________________
M e d i c a l in s u r a n c e
C a t a s t r o p h e i n s u r a n c e ________________________
R e t i r e m e n t p e n s i o n ________________ _________
N o h e a lt h , i n s u r a n c e , o r p e n s io n p l a n ____

92
91
73
26
82
1

99
99
84
10
86

67
67
55
40
78
1

96
94
74
8
74
1

( 5)

100
98
81
5
79

81
81
75
37
79

1 Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
2 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
3 Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
4 Unduplicated total of workers receiving sick leave or sickness and accident insurance shown separately below. Sick-leave plans are lim ited to those which definitely establish at least
the minimum number of days1 pay that can be expected by each employee.
Informal sick-leave allowances determined on an individual basis are excluded.
5 L ess than 0. 5 percent.
NOTE:

See note on p. 12,




relative to the inclusion of railroads.

17

Appendix: Occupational Descriptions
The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to assist its
field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’ s field economists are
instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped workers,
part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.

O FFIC E
B IL L E R , M A CH IN E

B O O K K E E P IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R

Prepares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
classified by type of machine, as follows:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.

Biller, machine (billing machine)— Uses a special billing ma­

chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, etc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of
the bill being prepared and is often done oh a fanfold machine.

Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine

) — Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, etc., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers’
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers ’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping.
Works from uniform and standard types of sales and
credit slips.




Class A

— Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance
sheets, and other records by hand.

Class B—

Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping* Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers’ accounts (not including a simple type of billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation of trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.
C L E R K , A C C O U N T IN G

Class A

— Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a com­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase of an establish­
ment’ s business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

18

CLERK, ACCOUNTING— Continued
payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper ac­
counting distribution; requires judgment and experience in making
proper assignations and allocations. May assist in preparing, ad­
justing and closing journal entries; may direct class B accounting
clerks.
C la s s B — Under supervision, performs one or more routine ac­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or ac­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers, or posting simple cost accounting data. This
job does not require a knowledge of accounting and bookkeeping
principles but is found in offices in which the more routine account­
ing work is subdivided on a functional basis among several workers.

CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the neces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers9
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker’s name, working
days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and distribut­
ing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.
COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
of other duties.

CLERK, FILE
C la s s A — In an established filing system containing a num­
ber of varied subject matter files, classifies and indexes corres­
pondence or other material; may also file this material. May keep
records of various types in conjunction with files or may super­
vise others in filing and locating material in the files. May per­
form incidental clerical duties.
C la s s B — Performs routine filing, usually of material that has
already been classified or which is easily identifiable, or locates
or assists in locating material in files. May perform incidental
clerical duties.

CLERK, ORDER
Receives customers’ ordersformaterialor merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve an y com bin ation o f the fo llo w in g :
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order
sheet; distributing older sheets to respective departments to be filled.
May check with credit department to determine credit rating of customer,
acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow up orders to see
that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check ship­
ping invoices with original orders.




DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file of used stencils or Ditto
masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material.
KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards by
punching a series of holes in the cards in a specified sequence, using
an alphabetical or a numerical keypunch machine, following written in­
formation on records. May duplicate cards by using the duplicating de­
vice attached to machine. May keep files of punch cards. May verify
own work or work of others.
OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands, op­
erating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and
distributing mail, and other minor clerical work.

19

SECRETARY
Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an ad­
m inistrative or executive position. D uties include making appointm ents
for superior; receiving people coming into office; answ ering and making
phone calls; handling personal and important or confidential mail, and
writing routine correspondence on own initiativ e; taking dictation (where
transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
sim ilar machine, and transcribing dictation or the recorded information
reproduced on a transcribing m achine. May prepare sp ecial reports or
memorandums for information of superior.

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar m achine, involving a nor­
mal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a typew riter.
May also type from w ritten copy. May also se t up and keep files in or­
der, keep sim ple records, etc. D o e s n o t in c lu d e tr a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e
w o rk (see transcribing-m achine operator).

STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar m achine, involving a varied
technical or sp ecialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on
scientific research and to transcribe this dictation on a typew riter. May
also type from w ritten copy. May also se t up and keep files in order,
keep sim ple records, etc. D o e s n o t in c lu d e tra n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e w o rk .

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
O perates a single- or m ultiple-position telephone sw itchboard.
D uties involve handling incom ing, outgoing, and intraplant or office c a lls.
May record toll calls and take m essag es. May give information to per­
sons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders. For workers
who also act as receptionists see sw itchboard operator-receptionist.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single p o si­
tion or monitor-type sw itchboard, acts as receptio nist and may also type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular du ties. T his typing
or clerical work may take the major part of this w orker's time while at
sw itchboard.




TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR
C la s s A — O perates a variety of tabulating or electrical a c ­
counting m achines, typically including such m achines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignm ents without clo se supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The com plete reporting and tabulating
assignm ents typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagram s and operating sequences of long and complex reports.
D o e s n o t in c lu d e working supervisors performing tabulating-m achine
operations a n d day-to-day supervision of the work and production of
a group of tabulating-m achine operators.
C la s s B — O perates more difficult tabulating or electrical ac­
counting m achines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. T his work is performed under
specific instructions and may include the perform ance of some wir­
ing from diagram s. The work typically involves, for exam ple, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting ex ercise, a com plete but
sm all tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are w ell estab lish ed . May also include the training
of new em ployees in the basic operation of the m achine.
C la s s C — O perates sim ple tabulating or e lectrical account­
ing m achines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with specific instructions. May include sim ple w iring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for exam ple, individual sorting or collating runs, or re­
petitive operations.

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Prim ary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from transcribing-m achine records. May also type from written
copy and do sim ple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation in­
volving a varied tech n ical or specialized vocabulary such as legal briefs
or reports on scien tific research are not included. A worker who takes
dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar m achine is classified
as a stenographer, general.

20

TYPIST

TYPIST— Continued

U ses a typew riter to make copies of various m aterial or to make
out bills after calcu latio n s have been made by another person. May in­
clude typing of s te n c ils , m ats, or sim ilar m aterials for use in d uplicat­
ing p ro cesses. May do clerical work involving little sp ecial training,
such as keeping sim ple records, filing records and reports, or sorting
and distributing incoming m ail.
— Perform s o ne o r m ore o f th e f o llo w in g : Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining m aterial from sev eral
sources o r responsibility for correct spelling, sy llab icatio n , puncC la s s A

tuation, e tc ., of tech n ical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; planning layout and typing of com plicated s ta tis tic a l tab les
to m aintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine
form letters varying d etails to su it circum stances.
C la s s B — Perform s o ne o r m ore o f th e f o llo w in g : Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance p o licies,
etc.; settin g up sim ple standard tabulations, or copying more com­
plex tables already se t up and spaced properly.

PR O FESSIO NAL AND TECH NICAL

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR

(A ssistan t draftsm an)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by d rafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
U ses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare draw ings
from sim ple plans or sk etch es, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsm an.

DRAFTSMAN, LEADER
P lans and d irects activ ities of one or more draftsm en in prep­
aration of working plans and d etail drawings from rough or prelim inary
sketches for engineering, construction, or m anufacturing purposes. D uties
involve a c o m b in a tio n o f th e f o llo w in g : Interpreting blueprints, sk etch es,
and w ritten or verbal orders; determ ining work procedures; assig n in g
duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif­
ficult problem s. May a s s is t subordinates during em ergencies or as a
regular assignm ent, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad­
m inistrative nature.

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and d etail draw ings from n o tes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or m anufacturing pur­
p o ses. D uties involve a c o m b in a tio n o f th e f o llo w in g : Preparing work­
ing plans, detail draw ings, maps, cro ss-sectio n s, e tc ., to scale by use
of drafting instrum ents; making engineering com putations such as those




DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR— Continued
involved in strength of m aterials, beam s and tru sse s; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dim ensions, m aterials to be used, and qu an tities;
w riting sp ecificatio n s; making adjustm ents or changes in drawings or
sp ecificatio n s. May ink in lines and letters on pencil draw ings, prepare
d etail units of com plete draw ings, or trace draw ings. Work is frequently
in a sp ecialized field such as architectural, electrical, m echanical, or
structural drafting.

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
em ployees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accid en t on the
prem ises of a factory or other establishm ent. D uties involve a c o m b in a tio n o f th e f o llo w in g : Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of em ployees' injuries; keeping records of p atients
treated; preparing accident reports for com pensation or other purposes;
conducting physical exam inations and health evaluations of applicants
and em ployees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant e r ironm ent, or other
activ ities affecting the health, w elfare, and safe* f a ll personnel.

TRACER
Copies plans and draw ings prepared by
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing v
T -square, com pass, and other drafting to o ls. 1
ings and do sim ple lettering.

lacing trac\c il. U ses
^le draw-

21
M AINTENANCE

D POW ERPLANT

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipm ent such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, sta irs, casin g s, and trim
made of wood in an establishm ent. Work involves m o s t o f th e f o llo w in g :
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, draw ings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’s handtools, portable
power tools, and standard m easuring instrum ents; making standard shop
com putations relating to dim ensions of work; selectin g m aterials nec­
essary for the work. In general, the work of the m aintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

F ires stationary boilers to furnish the establishm ent in which
employed with heat, power, or steam . F eeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a m echanical stoker, g as, or oil burner; checks water and safety
valves. May clean, oil, or a s s is t in repairing boilerroom equipm ent.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE
Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installatio n , m aintenance, or repair of equipm ent for the generating, d is­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishm ent. Work
involves m o s t o f th e fo llo w in g : Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipm ent such as generators, transform ers, sw itchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating u n its, conduit system s,
or other transm ission equipm ent; working from blueprints, draw ings, lay­
out, or other specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in the e le c ­
trical system or equipm ent; working standard com putations relating to
load requirem ents of wiring or electrical equipm ent; using a variety of
electrician ’s handtools and m easuring and testin g instrum ents. In gen­
eral, the work of the m aintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
O perates and m aintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (m echanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishm ent in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: O perating and m aintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, motors
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipm ent, steam boilers and
boiler-fed w ater pumps; making equipm ent repairs; keeping a record of
operation of m achinery, tem perature, and fuel consum ption. May a ls o
supervise these operations. H e a d o r c h i e f e n g in e e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts
e m p lo y in g m ore th a n o n e e n g in e e r a re e x c lu d e d .




HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE
A ssists one or more workers in the sk illed m aintenance trades,
by performing specific or general duties of le sse r sk ill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with m aterials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipm ent; a ssistin g worker by holding m aterials or tools;
performing other unskilled task s as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is perm itted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform sp ecialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are also performed by workers on a full-tim e b asis.

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
S pecializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or m illing m achines in the construction of m achine-shop tools, gauges,
jig s, fixtures, or d ies. Work involves m o s t o f th e f o llo w in g : Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing item s requiring
com plicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision m easuring instrum ents; selectin g feeds, sp eed s, tooling and op­
eration sequence; making n ecessary adjustm ents during operation to
achieve req u isite tolerances or dim ensions. May be required to recog­
nize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, m achine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this classificatio n .

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
Produces replacem ent parts and new parts in making repairs of
m etal parts of m echanical equipment operated in an establishm ent. Work
involves m o s t o f th e f o llo w in g : Interpreting w ritten instructions and
sp ecificatio n s; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
ch in ist’s handtools and precision m easuring instrum ents; settin g up and

22

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE— Continued
operating standard machine tools; shaping of metstl.parts to clo se toler­
ances; making standard shop com putations relating to. dim ensions of work,
tooling, feeds and speeds of m achining; knowledge of the working prop­
erties of the common m etals; selectin g standard m aterials, p arts, and
equipm ent required for his work; fitting and assem bling parts into me­
chanical equipm ent. In general, the m achinist’s work normally requires
a rounded training in m achine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
R epairs autom obiles, b u ses, m otortrucks, and tractors of an e s ­
tablishm ent. Work involves m o s t o f th e f o llo w in g : Examining autom otive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassem bling equipm ent and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as w renches,
gauges, d rills, or sp ecialized equipm ent in disassem bling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassem bling and installing the various assem blies in the vehicle
and making n ecessary adjustm ents; alining w heels, adjusting brakes and
lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the autom otive
m echanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
R epairs m achinery or m echanical equipment of an establishm ent.
Work involves m o s t o f th e f o llo w in g : Examining m achines and m echan­
ical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dism antling or partly d is ­
m antling m achines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with item s obtained from stock; ordering the production of a rep lace­
ment part by a m achine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop
for major repairs; preparing w ritten sp ecificatio n s for major repairs or
for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassem bling ma­
chines; and making a ll n ecessary adjustm ents for operation. In general,
the work of a m aintenance m echanic requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classificatio n are workers
whose p rim a ry d u tie s involve settin g up or adjusting m achines.

MILLWRIGHT
In stalls new m achines or heavy equipm ent and dism antles and
in sta lls m achines or heavy equipm ent when changes in the plant layout




MILLWRIGHT— Continued

are required. Work involves m o s t o f th e f o llo w in g : Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other sp ecificatio n s; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop com putations re­
lating to s tre s se s , strength of m aterials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipm ent; selectin g standard tools, equipm ent, and parts
to be used; installin g and m aintaining in good order power transm ission
equipm ent such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the m ill­
w right’s work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

OILER
L u bricates, with oil or g rease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of m echanical equipm ent of an establishm ent.

PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
P ain ts and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishm ent. Work in v o lv e s th e f o llo w in g : Knowledge of surface pecu­
lia rities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in
nail holes and in terstices; applying paint with spray gun or brush. May
mix colors, o ils, w hite lead, and other p aint ingredients to obtain proper
color or consistency. In general, the work of the m aintenance painter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
In stalls or repairs w ater, steam , g as, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishm ent. Work involves m o s t o f th e f o llo w in g :
Laying out of work and m easuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other w ritten sp ecificatio n s; cutting various siz e s of pipe to correct
lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma­
chine; threading pipe with stocks and d ies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven m achines; assem bling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop com putations relating to p ressu res,
flow, and size of pipe required; making standard te s ts to determ ine
whether finished pipes meet sp ecificatio n s. In general, the work of the
m aintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. W o rkers p r im a r ily e n g a g e d in i n s t a l l in g a n d r e p a ir in g b u ild in g
s a n it a tio n o r h e a tin g s y s te m s a re e x c lu d e d .

23

TOOL AND DIE MAKER

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishm ent in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system ; installin g or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’s snake. In
general, the work of the m aintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and experience.

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
F abricates, in stalls, and m aintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishm ent. Work involves m o s t o f th e f o llo w in g : Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-m etal m aintenance work from blueprints, m odels,
or other specifications; setting up and operating all available types of
sheet-m etal-w orking m achines; using a variety of handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assem bling; installin g sheetm etal articles as required. In general, the work of the m aintenance
sheet-m etal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
C onstructs and repairs m achine-shop tools, gauges, jig s, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
involves m o s t o f th e fo llo w in g : Planning and laying out of work from
m odels, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifications;
using a variety of tool and die maker’s handtools and precision m eas­
uring instrum ents, understanding of the working properties of common
m etals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipm ent; making necessary shop com putations relating to dim ensions
of work, sp eed s, feeds, and tooling of m achines; heattreating of m etal
parts during fabrication as w ell as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required q u alities; working to close tolerances; fitting and assem bling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; selectin g appropriate
m aterials, tools, and p ro cesses. In general, the tool and die maker’s
work requires a rounded training in m achine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classificatio n .

CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT

ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER— Continued

Transports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel or sim ilar estab lish m en t.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

or other establishm ent. D uties involve a c o m b in a tio n o f th e f o llo w in g :
Sweeping, mopping o r scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipm ent, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor m ainte­
nance serv ices; cleaning lavatories, show ers, and restroom s. Workers
who sp ecialize in window w ashing are excluded.

GUARD

Performs routine police d u ties, either at fixed post or on tour,
m aintaining order, using arms or force where n ecessary . In c lu d e s g a t e men w ho a re s ta t io n e d a t g a te a n d c h e c k on id e n t it y o f e m p lo y e e s a n d
o th e r persons e n te rin g .

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER

(Sweeper; charwoman; jan itress)
C leans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, onprem ises of an office, apartm ent house, or commercial




LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a w arehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishm ent whose duties involve o ne o r m ore o f th e f o llo w ­
in g : Loading and unloading various m aterials and m erchandise on or

24
LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING— Continued
from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing m aterials or m erchandise in proper storage location; tran s­
porting m aterials or m erchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow.
L o n g s h o re m e n , w h o lo a d a n d u n lo a d s h ip s a re e x c lu d e d .

ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; w arehouse stockm an)
F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
m erchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slip s, customers*
orders, or other instru ctio n s. May, in addition to filling orders and indi­
cating item s filled or om itted, keep records of outgoing orders requisi­
tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform
other related duties.

PACKER, SHIPPING
P repares finished products for shipm ent or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container em ployed, and method of shipm ent. Work requires the
placing of item s in shipping containers and m a y in v o lv e one o r m ore o f
th e f o llo w in g : Knowledge of various item s of stock in order to verify
content; selection of appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other m aterial to prevent
breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; applying lab els or
entering identifying data on container. P a c k e r s w ho a ls o m a k e w o o d e n
b o x e s o r c ra te s a re e x c lu d e d .

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares m erchandise for shipm ent, or receives and is respon­
sible for incom ing shipm ents of m erchandise or other m aterials. S h ip p in g
w o rk in v o lv e s : A knowledge of shipping procedures, p ractices, routes,
available means of transportation and rates; and preparing records of the
goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping
charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or a s s is t in
preparing the m erchandise for shipm ent. R e c e iv in g w o rk in v o lv e s : V eri­
fying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipm ents ag ain st
b ills of lading, invoices, or other records; checking for shortages and
rejecting damaged goods; routing m erchandise or m aterials to proper de­
partm ents; m aintaining necessary records and file s.




SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK— Continued
For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:
R e c e iv in g c le r k
S h ip p in g c le r k
S h ip p in g a n d r e c e iv in g c le r k

TRUCKDRIVER
D rives a truck within a city or ind u strial area to transport ma­
terials, m erchandise, equipm ent, or men betw een various types of e stab ­
lishm ents such as: M anufacturing plants, freight depots, w arehouses,
w holesale and retail establishm ents, or betw een retail establishm ents
and custom ers' houses or places of b u sin ess. May also load or unload
truck with or w ithout helpers, make minor m echanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. D r iv e r -s a le s m e n a n d o v e r -th e -r o a d d riv e rs
a re e x c lu d e d .

For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by s iz e
and type of equipm ent, as follow s: (T ractor-trailer should be rated on
the b asis of trailer capacity.)

Truckdriver (combination o f sizes listed separately)
T r u c k d r iv e r , lig h t (u n d e r l l 2 t o n s )
/
T r u c k d r iv e r , m ed iu m ( 1 % to a n d in c lu d in g 4 to n s )
T r u c k d r iv e r , h e a v y ( o v e r 4 to n s , t r a i l e r t y p e )
T r u c k d r iv e r , h e a v y ( o v e r 4 to n s , o th e r th a n t r a i l e r t y p e )

TRUCKER, POWER
O perates a manually controlled g aso lin e- or electric-pow ered
truck or tractor to transport goods and m aterials of all kinds about a
w arehouse, m anufacturing plant, or other establishm ent.
For wage study purposes, workers are c lassified by type of
truck, as follow s:
T ru c k e r , p o w e r ( f o r k l i f t )
T r u c k e r , p o w e r (o t h e r th a n f o r k l i f t )

WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of prem ises periodically in protecting property
ag ainst fire, theft, and illeg al entry.
* U .S . G OVER N M ENT P R IN T IN G O FFIC E : 19 60 0 — 5 5 7 1 1 0

Occupational Wage Surveys

O ccupational wage surveys are being conducted in 60 major labor markets during late 1959 and early I960. These bulletins, when available,
may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing O ffice, W ashington 25, D .C ., or from any of the BLS regional
sales offices shown on the inside front cover.
A summary bulletin containing data for all labor m arkets, combined with additional an aly sis, w ill be issued early in 1961.
B ulletins for the areas listed below are now available.




A llen tow n —Bethlehem—Easton, P a .—N .J ., March I960—B LS B ull. 1265**33» price 25 cents
Baltim ore, Md., September 1959—B LS Bull. 1265-7, price 15 cents
Birmingham, A la ., March I9 6 0 —BLS B ull. 1265*37, price 25 cents
Boston, M ass., October 1959—B LS B ull. 1265-8, price 25 cents
B u ffa lo, N .Y ., October 1959—B LS B ull. 1265-4, price 20 cents
Canton, Ohio, Decem ber 1959—B LS B ull. 1265-10, price 25 cents
C incinn ati, Ohio—K y., February I960—B LS B ull. 1265*31» price 25 cents
C levelan d , Ohio, September 1959—B LS B ull. 1265-1, price 20 cents
D a lla s, T e x ., October 1959—BLS Bull. 1265*3, price 20 cents
Dayton, Ohio, Decem ber 1959—B LS B ull. 1265-9, price 25 cents
D enver, C o lo ., December 1959—B LS B ull. 1265-11, price 25 cents
Des Moines, Iow a, February I960—B LS B ull. 1265-30, price 25 cents
D etroit, M ich., January I960—B LS B ull. 1265-25, price 20 cents
Fort Worth, T e x ., November 1959—B LS B ull. 1265-13, price 25 cents
Indianapolis, Ind., January I960—B LS Bull. 1265-22, price 25 cents
Jackson, M iss., February I960—BLS B ull. 1265*26, price 25 cents
Jack son ville, F la ., December 1959—B LS Bull. 1265-14, price 25 cents
Kansas C ity , Mo.—K ans., January I960—B LS B ull. 1265-23, price 25 cents
L o s A n g e le s —Long Beach, C a lif., A p ril I960—BLS B ull. 1265*35, price 25 cents
Memphis, T en n ., January I960—B LS B ull. 1265*19, price 25 cents
Miami, F la ., December 1959—B LS B ull. 1265-6, price 20 cents
M inneapolis—St. P au l, Minn., January I960—B LS Bull. 1265*21, price 25 cents
Newark and Jersey C ity, N .J ., February I960—BLS Bull. 1265*28, price 25 cents
N ew Orleans, L a ., February I960—B LS Bull. 1265*32, price 25 cents
P h ilad elp h ia, P a ., November 1959—B LS Bull. 1265-16, price 25 cents
Pittsburgh, P a ., December 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-20, price 25 cents
Portlan d, Maine, November 1959—B LS B ull. 1265-12, price 20 cents
Richmond, V a ., February I960—B LS B ull. 1265*24, price 25 cents
St. L o u is, Mo., October 1959—B LS B ull. 1265“ 5, price 25 cents
San Bernardino—R iv e rs id e —Ontario, C a lif., November 1959—
BLS B ull. 1265-15, price 25 cents
San F ra n cisco—Oakland, C a lif., January I96 0 —B LS B u ll. 1265-17, price 25 cents
S eattle, Wash., August 1959—BLS B ull. 1265*2, price 25 cents
Sioux F a lls , S. Dak., February I960—B LS B ull. 1265-29, price 20 cents
South Bend, Ind., A p ril I96 0 —B LS B u ll. 1265*38, price 25 cents
Washington, D .C .—Md.—V a ., December 1959—B LS B ull. 1265-18, price 25 cents
Waterbury, Conn., March I960—BLS B ull. 1265*36, price 25 cents
York, P a ., February I96 0 —BLS B ull. 1265-27, price 25 cents





Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102