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^ ^ ^ c c u p a tio n a ^ W a g ^ S u ^ e y

SOUTH BEND, INDIANA
APRIL I960

Bulletin No. 1265-38




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clagua, Commisaonar




Occupational Wage Survey




SOUTH BEND, INDIANA
APRIL 1960

B u lle tin No. 1265-38

June 1960

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clagua, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. - Price 25 cents




P r e fa c e

Contents
Page

T h e C om m u n ity W age

Survey P r o g r a m
I n t r o d u c t i o n _____________________________________________________________________

T h e B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s r e g u l a r l y con du ct s
a r e a w i d e w a g e s u r v e y s in a n u m b er o f i m p o r t a n t i n d u s ­
tr ia l centers.
T h e stu d ie s , m a d e f r o m la te f a l l to e a r l y
s p rin g , r e l a t e to o c c u p a tio n a l e a r n i n g s and r e l a t e d s u p p l e ­
m en ta ry benefits.
A p r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t i s a v a i l a b l e on
c o m p l e t i o n o f the study in e a c h a r e a , u s u a lly in the m onth
f o l l o w i n g the p a y r o l l p e r i o d stu died. T h i s b u l l e t i n p r o v i d e s
a d d itio n a l data not in c lu d e d in the e a r l i e r r e p o r t . A c o n ­
s o lid a te d a n a l y t i c a l b u l l e t i n s u m m a r i z i n g the r e s u l t s o f a l l
o f the y e a r ' s s u r v e y s i s i s s u e d a f t e r c o m p l e t i o n o f the
f i n a l a r e a b u l l e t i n f o r the c u r r e n t round o f s u r v e y s .
T h i s r e p o r t w a s p r e p a r e d in the B u re a u 's r e g i o n a l
o f f i c e in C h i c a g o , 111. , by W o o d r o w C . L in n , un der the d i ­
r e c t i o n o f G e o r g e E . V o t a v a , R e g i o n a l W a g e and I n d u s t r i a l
Relation s A n a lyst.




1

T a b l e s:
1.

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s and w o r k e r s w ith in s c op e

o f s u r v e y ___________

2

A:

O c c u p a tio n a l e a r n i n g s : *
A -l.
O f f i c e o c c u p a t i o n s _____________________________________________
A - 2 . P r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s ___________________
A - 3.
M a in t e n a n c e and p o w e r p l a n t o c c u p a t i o n s __________________
A-4.
C u s t o d i a l and m a t e r i a l m o v e m e n t o c c u p a t i o n s __________

4
6
7
8

B:

E s t a b l i s h m e n t p r a c t i c e s and s u p p l e m e n t a r y w a g e
p ro v isio n s :*
B -l.
Shift d i f f e r e n t i a l s ______________________________________________
B -2 . M in im u m entrance s a la r ie s fo r w o m e n
o f f i c e w o r k e r s ______ __________________________________________
B-3.
S ch ed ule d w e e k l y h o u r s ______________________________________
B -4.
P a i d h o lid a y s __________________________________________________
B-5.
P a i d v a c a t i o n s __________________________________________________
B-6.
H ealt h , in s u r a n c e , and p e n s io n p l a n s _____________________

A p p e n d ix :

O c c u p a tio n a l d e s c r i p t i o n s _______________________________________

*NO TE:
S i m i l a r ta b u la tion s f o r th e s e and o t h e r i t e m s
a r e a v a i l a b l e in the r e p o r t s f o r s u r v e y s in o t h e r m a j o r
a r e a s . A d i r e c t o r y i n d i c a t i n g date o f study and the p r i c e
o f the r e p o r t s is a v a i l a b l e upon r e q u e s t .

U n io n s c a l e s , i n d i c a t i v e o f p r e v a i l i n g pay l e v e l s ,
a r e a l s o a v a i l a b l e f o r 7 s e l e c t e d b u ild in g t r a d e s in the
South B en d a r e a .

iii

9
10
10
11
12
14

15




O c c u p a tio n a l W a g e S u r v e y — South B e n d , Ind.
Introduction

This area is one of sev er a l im portant industrial cen ters in
which the U .S . D epartm ent of L ab or’ s B ureau of Labor S ta tistics has
conducted su rveys of occupational earnings and related wage benefits
on an areaw ide b a s is . In this area, data w ere obtained by personal
v isits of B ureau field econ om ists to rep resen tative estab lish m en ts
within six broad industry d ivision s: M anufacturing; tran sp orta tio n ,1
com m u nication, and other public u tilities; w h olesale trade; reta il
trade; fin an ce, in su ran ce, and real estate; and s e r v ic e s . M ajor in ­
dustry groups excluded from th ese stu dies are governm ent operations
and the con struction and extractive in d u stries. E stab lish m en ts having
few er than a p rescrib ed num ber of w orkers are om itted also because
they furnish in su fficien t em ploym ent in the occupations studied to w a r­
rant in clu sion . W herever p o ssib le, separate tabulations are provided
for each of the broad industry d iv isio n s.
T hese su rveys are conducted on a sam ple b a sis because of the
u n n ecessary co st involved in surveying a ll esta b lish m en ts. To obtain
appropriate accu racy at m inim um co st, a greater proportion of large
than of sm a ll estab lish m en ts is studied. In com bining the data, how ­
ever, all estab lish m en ts are given their appropriate w eight. E stim a tes
based on the estab lish m en ts studied are p resented, th erefo re, as r e ­
lating to a ll estab lish m en ts in the industry grouping and area, e x ­
cept for those below the m inim um siz e studied.
O ccupations and E arnings
The occupations selec te d for study are com m on to a variety
of m anufacturing and nonm anufacturing in d u stries. O ccupational c la s ­
sification is based on a uniform se t of job d escrip tion s designed to
take account of in terestab lish m en t variation in duties within the sam e
job. (See appendix for listin g of th ese d escrip tio n s.) E arnings data are
p resented (in the A -s e r ie s tab les) for the follow ing types of occupa­
tions: (a) O ffice c le rica l; (b) p ro fession a l and technical; (c) m ain te­
nance and powerplant; and (d) cu stod ial and m aterial m ovem ent.
O ccupational em ploym ent and earnings data are shown for
fu ll-tim e w ork ers, i. e . , those hired to work a regular w eekly sch ed ­
ule in the given occupational c la ssifica tio n . E arnings data exclude
prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on w eekends, h olid ays, and

late sh ifts. Nonproduction bonu ses are excluded a lso , but c o st-o fliving bonuses and incentive earnings are included. W here w eekly
hours are reported, as for office c le r ic a l occu p ation s, referen ce is
to the work sched ules (rounded to the n ea rest half hour) for which
straigh t-tim e sa la rie s are paid; average w eekly earnings for th ese
occupations have been rounded to the n ea rest half d ollar.
A verage earnings of m en and wom en are presen ted sep arately
for selected occupations in which both se x e s are com m only em ployed.
D ifferen ces in pay le v e ls of m en and wom en in th ese occupations are
la rg ely due to (l) d ifferen ces in the distribution of the sex es among
in d u stries and estab lish m en ts; (2) d ifferen ces in sp ecific duties p er­
form ed, although the occupations are appropriately c la ssifie d w ithin
the sam e survey job description; and (3) d ifferen ces in length of s e r v ­
ice or m erit review when individual sa la r ie s are adjusted on this basis.
L onger average serv ic e of m en would re su lt in. higher average pay
when both sex es are em ployed within the sam e rate range. Job
d escrip tion s used in cla ssify in g em p loyees in these su rveys are u su ­
ally m ore gen era lized than those u sed in individual estab lish m en ts to
allow for m inor d ifferen ces am ong estab lish m en ts in sp ecific duties
perform ed.
O ccupational em ploym ent estim a tes rep resen t the total in all
estab lish m en ts within the scope of the study and not the num ber actu­
ally su rveyed . B ecau se of d ifferen ces in occupational stru ctu re am ong
estab lish m en ts, the estim a tes of occupational em ploym ent obtained
from the sam ple of estab lish m en ts studied serv e only to indicate the
relative im portance of the jobs studied. T hese d ifferen ces in o ccu ­
pational structure do not m a teria lly affect the accu racy of the ea rn ­
ings data.

E stab lish m en t P ra c tic es and Supplem entary Wage P ro v isio n s
Inform ation is p resen ted a lso (in the B -s e r ie s tab les) on s e ­
lected estab lish m en t p ra ctices and supplem entary b en efits as they r e ­
late to office and plant w o rk ers. The term "office w o rk ers, " as used
in this bulletin, includes working su p erv iso rs and non su p ervisory
w orkers perform ing c le r ic a l or related functions, and exclu d es adm in­
istr a tiv e , ex ecu tive, and p ro fession a l p erson n el. "Plant w orkers" in ­
clude working forem en and all n on su p ervisory w orkers (including lea d m
1
R ailroad s, form erly excluded from the scope of th ese stu d ies, en and tra in ees) engaged in nonoffice functions. A d m in istrative,
execu tive, and p ro fession a l em p lo y ees, and force-acco u n t con stru ction
have been added in n early a ll of the areas to be studied during the
w inter of 1959-60; railroad s w ill be added in the rem aining areas next
em p loyees who are u tilized as a sep arate work force are excluded .
y ea r. F or scope of survey in this area, see footnote to "transporta­
C afeteria w orkers and routem en are excluded in m anufacturing in d u s­
tion, com m unication, and other public u tilities" in table 1.
tries, but are included as plant w orkers in nonm anufacturing industries.




2




T a b le

1.

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s a n d w o r k e r s w it h in s c o p e o f s u r v e y a n d n u m b e r s t u d ie d in S ou th B e n d , I n d . , 1 b y m a j o r in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , 2 A p r i l I 9 6 0
M in im u m
e m p lo y m e n t
in e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n t s in s c o p e
o f stu d y

In d u s try d iv is io n

A ll d iv is io n s

__

_

.

.

M a n u fa c t u r in g _
....
_ .
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g
....
_ .
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , co m m u n ic a tio n , and o th e r
p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s 5 ________________________________________
W h o l e s a le t r a d e
_ ...
.
. .
R e t a i l t r a d e ____________________________ ________________
F i n a n c e , in s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e
S e r v i c e s 7 _________________________________________________

N u m b e r o f e s ta b lis h m e n ts
W it h in
scop e of
s tu d y 3

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s
W it h in s c o p e o f s tu d y

S t u d ie d

S tu d ie d
T o ta l4

O ffice

P la n t

T o t a l4

51

137

74

48, 700

7, 900

31, 800

4 2, 620

51
51

56
81

32
42

3 8 , 0 00
10, 7 0 0

5, 5 0 0
2 ,4 0 0

2 6, 300
5, 5 0 0

35, 720
6, 9 0 0

51
51
51
51
51

22
12

17
5
10
4
6

3 ,4 0 0
1, 0 0 0
3 ,4 0 0
1, 8 0 0
1, 1 00

500

26
6
15

( 6)
( )
( 6)
( 6)

1, 7 0 0
( 6)
( )
( 6)
( 6)

2, 510
420
1, 9 2 0
1, 5 7 0
480

1 T h e S ou th B e n d M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a (S t. J o s e p h C o u n t y ). T h e " w o r k e r s w it h in s c o p e o f s t u d y " e s t i m a t e s s h o w n in t h is t a b le p r o v i d e a r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p ­
t i o n o f th e s i z e a n d c o m p o s i t i o n o f th e l a b o r f o r c e i n c lu d e d in the s u r v e y .
T h e e s t i m a t e s a r e n ot in t e n d e d , h o w e v e r , t o s e r v e a s a b a s i s o f c o m p a r i s o n w it h o t h e r a r e a
e m p l o y m e n t in d e x e s t o m e a s u r e e m p l o y m e n t t r e n d s o r l e v e l s s i n c e ( l ) p la n n in g o f w a g e s u r v e y s r e q u i r e s th e u s e o f e s t a b l is h m e n t d a ta c o m p i l e d c o n s i d e r a b l y in a d v a n c e
o f th e p a y r o l l p e r i o d s t u d ie d , a n d (2 ) s m a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a r e e x c l u d e d f r o m th e s c o p e o f the s u r v e y .
2 T h e 1957 r e v i s e d e d i t i o n o f th e S t a n d a r d I n d u s t r ia l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n M a n u a l w a s u s e d in c l a s s i f y i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s b y i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n . M a j o r c h a n g e s f r o m th e e a r l i e r
e d i t i o n (u s e d in th e B u r e a u * s l a b o r m a r k e t w a g e s u r v e y p r o g r a m p r i o r t o th e w in t e r o f 1 9 5 8 - 5 9 ) a r e th e t r a n s f e r o f m i l k p a s t e u r i z a t i o n p la n t s a n d r e a d y - m i x e d c o n c r e t e
e s t a b l i s h m e n t s f r o m t r a d e ( w h o l e s a le o r r e t a i l ) to m a n u fa c t u r i n g , a n d th e t r a n s f e r o f r a d i o a n d t e l e v i s i o n b r o a d c a s t i n g f r o m s e r v i c e s t o th e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t io n ,
a n d o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s d i v i s i o n .
3 I n c l u d e s a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w it h t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t a t o r a b o v e the m i n i m u m - s i z e li m i t a t i o n .
A l l o u t le t s (w ith in th e a r e a ) o f c o m p a n i e s in s u c h in d u s t r i e s a s t r a d e ,
f i n a n c e , a u t o r e p a i r s e r v i c e s , a n d m o t i o n - p i c t u r e t h e a t e r s a r e c o n s i d e r e d a s 1 e s t a b l is h m e n t .
4 I n c l u d e s e x e c u t i v e , p r o f e s s i o n a l , a n d o t h e r w o r k e r s e x c l u d e d f r o m th e s e p a r a t e o f f i c e a n d p la n t c a t e g o r i e s .
5 R a i l r o a d s w e r e in c lu d e d ; t a x i c a b s a n d s e r v i c e s i n c id e n t a l to w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t io n w e r e e x c l u d e d .
6 T h is i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n i s r e p r e s e n t e d in e s t i m a t e s f o r " a l l i n d u s t r i e s " a n d " n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ” in th e S e r i e s A a n d B t a b l e s , a lt h o u g h c o v e r a g e w a s i n s u f f i c i e n t to
j u s t i f y s e p a r a t e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f d a ta .
7 H o t e l s ; p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s ; b u s i n e s s s e r v i c e s ; a u t o m o b i le r e p a i r s h o p s ; m o t i o n p i c t u r e s ; n o n p r o fi t m e m b e r s h i p o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; a n d e n g in e e r in g a n d a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s .

3
S h ift d iffe r e n t ia l d ata (ta b le B - l ) a r e lim it e d to m a n u fa c tu rin g
in d u s tr ie s . T h is in fo r m a tio n is p r e s e n te d both in te r m s o f (a ) e s t a b ­
lis h m e n t p o lic y , 2 p r e s e n te d in t e r m s o f to ta l p la n t w o r k e r e m p lo y ­
m e n t, and (b ) e f fe c t iv e p r a c t ic e , p r e s e n te d on the b a s is o f w o r k e r s
a c tu a lly e m p lo y e d on the s p e c ifie d s h ift at the tim e o f the s u r v e y .
In e s ta b lis h m e n ts h a vin g v a r ie d d if fe r e n t ia ls , the am oun t a p p ly in g to
a m a jo r it y w as u sed o r , i f no am ou n t a p p lie d to a m a jo r it y , the c l a s ­
s ific a t io n '’o t h e r " w as u s e d .
In e s ta b lis h m e n ts in w h ich som e la t e s h ift h ou rs a r e p a id at n o r m a l r a t e s , a d if fe r e n t ia l w as r e c o r d e d o n ly
i f it a p p lie d to a m a jo r it y o f the s h ift h o u rs .

M in im u m e n tr a n c e r a te s (ta b le B - 2 ) r e la t e o n ly to the e s ta b ­
lis h m e n ts v is it e d .
T h e y a r e p r e s e n te d on an e s ta b lis h m e n t, r a th e r
than on an e m p lo y m e n t b a s is .
P a id h o lid a y s ; p aid v a c a tio n s ; and
h e a lth , in s u r a n c e , and p e n s io n p lans a r e tr e a te d s t a t is t ic a lly on the
b a s is th at th e s e a r e a p p lic a b le to a ll p lan t o r o f f ic e w o r k e r s i f a m a ­
j o r i t y o f such w o r k e r s a r e e lig ib le o r m a y e v e n tu a lly q u a lify f o r the
p r a c t ic e s lis t e d . S c h ed u le d h o u rs a r e tr e a te d s t a t is t ic a lly on the b a s is
th at th es e a r e a p p lic a b le to a ll p lan t o r o f f ic e w o r k e r s i f a m a jo r it y
a r e c o v e r e d . 3 B e c a u s e o f rou n d in g, sum s o f in d iv id u a l ite m s in th ese
ta b u la tio n s m a y n ot e q u a l to ta ls .

T h e f i r s t p a r t o f the p a id h o lid a y s ta b le p r e s e n ts the n u m ­
b e r o f w h o le and h a lf h o lid a y s a c tu a lly p r o v id e d .
The secon d p a rt
c o m b in e s w h o le and h a lf h o lid a y s to sh ow to ta l h o lid a y t i m e .

T h e s u m m a r y o f v a c a tio n plans is lim it e d to f o r m a l a r r a n g e ­

m e n ts , e x c lu d in g in fo r m a l plans w h e r e b y tim e o f f w ith p ay is g ra n te d
at the d is c r e t io n o f the e m p lo y e r .
S e p a r a te e s tim a te s a r e p r o v id e d
a c c o r d in g to e m p lo y e r p r a c t ic e in c o m p u tin g v a c a tio n p a y m e n ts , such
as tim e p a y m e n ts , p e r c e n t o f annual e a r n in g s , o r fla t - s u m a m ou n ts.
H o w e v e r , in the tab u la tion s o f v a c a tio n a llo w a n c e s , p a y m e n ts n ot on
a tim e b a s is w e r e c o n v e r te d ; f o r e x a m p le , a p a y m e n t o f 2 p e r c e n t o f
annual e a r n in g s w a s c o n s id e r e d as the e q u iv a le n t o f 1 w e e k 's p a y .

D a ta a r e p r e s e n te d f o r a ll h e a lth , in s u r a n c e , and p e n s io n
plans f o r w h ich at le a s t a p a r t o f the c o s t is b o r n e b y the e m p lo y e r ,
e x c e p tin g o n ly le g a l r e q u ir e m e n ts such as w o r k m e n 1s c o m p e n s a tio n
and s o c ia l s e c u r it y . Such p lans in c lu d e th o s e u n d e r w r itte n b y a c o m ­
m e r c ia l in s u r a n c e c o m p a n y and th o s e p r o v id e d th ro u gh a union fund o r
paid d ir e c t ly b y the e m p lo y e r ou t o f c u r r e n t o p e r a tin g funds o r f r o m
a fund s e t a s id e f o r th is p u r p o s e .
D eath b e n e fits a r e in c lu d e d as a
f o r m o f l i f e in s u r a n c e .
S ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u ra n c e is lim it e d to th at typ e o f in ­
s u ra n c e u n der w h ich p r e d e te r m in e d c a s h p a y m e n ts a r e m a d e d i r e c t l y
to the in s u r e d on a w e e k ly o r m o n th ly b a s is d u rin g i lln e s s o r a c c id e n t
d is a b ilit y .
In fo r m a tio n is p r e s e n te d f o r a ll such p lans to w h ich the
e m p lo y e r c o n tr ib u te s .
H o w e v e r , in N e w Y o r k and N e w J e r s e y , w h ich
h a ve e n a c te d t e m p o r a r y d is a b ilit y in s u ra n c e la w s w h ich r e q u ir e e m ­
p lo y e r c o n t r ib u t io n s ,4 p lans a r e in c lu d e d o n ly i f the e m p lo y e r ( l ) c o n ­
tr ib u te s m o r e than is le g a l l y r e q u ir e d , o r (2 ) p r o v id e s the e m p lo y e e
w ith b e n e fits w h ich e x c e e d the r e q u ir e m e n ts o f the la w . T a b u la tio n s
o f p aid s ic k - le a v e plans a r e lim it e d to f o r m a l plans 5 w h ich p r o v id e
fu ll p ay o r a p r o p o r tio n o f the w o r k e r 's p ay d u rin g a b s e n c e f r o m w o r k
b e c a u s e o f illn e s s .
S e p a r a te ta b u la tio n s a r e p r o v id e d a c c o r d in g to
( l ) plans w h ich p r o v id e fu ll p ay and no w a itin g p e r io d , and (2 ) plans
p r o v id in g e it h e r p a r t ia l pay o r a w a itin g p e r io d .
In a d d itio n to the
p r e s e n ta tio n o f the p r o p o r tio n s o f w o r k e r s w ho a r e p r o v id e d s ic k n e s s
and a c c id e n t in s u ra n c e o r p aid s ic k le a v e , an u n d u p lic a ted to ta l is
show n o f w o r k e r s w ho r e c e i v e e it h e r o r both ty p e s o f b e n e fit s .
C a ta s tr o p h e in s u r a n c e , s o m e tim e s r e f e r r e d to as e x te n d e d
m e d ic a l in s u r a n c e , in c lu d e s th ose p lans w h ich a r e d e s ig n e d to p r o t e c t
e m p lo y e e s in c a s e o f s ic k n e s s and in ju r y in v o lv in g e x p e n s e s b e yo n d
the n o r m a l c o v e r a g e o f h o s p it a liz a tio n , m e d ic a l, and s u r g ic a l p la n s .
M e d ic a l in s u ra n c e r e f e r s to plans p r o v id in g f o r c o m p le te o r p a r tia l
p a y m e n t o f d o c t o r s ’ f e e s . Such plan s m a y b e u n d e r w r itte n b y c o m m e r ­
c ia l in s u ra n c e c o m p a n ie s o r n o n p r o fit o r g a n iz a tio n s o r th ey m a y be
s e lf- in s u r e d .
T a b u la tio n s o f r e t ir e m e n t p e n s io n p lans a r e lim it e d to
th ose p lans th at p r o v id e m o n th ly p a y m e n ts f o r the r e m a in d e r o f the
w o rk e r ' s l i f e .

A n e s ta b lis h m e n t w as c o n s id e r e d as h a vin g a p o lic y i f it m e t
4 T h e te m p o r a r y d is a b ilit y la w s in C a l i fo r n i a and R h o d e Is la n d
e ith e r o f the fo llo w in g c o n d itio n s : ( l ) O p e r a te d la te s h ifts at the tim e
do n ot r e q u ir e e m p lo y e r c o n tr ib u tio n s .
o f the s u r v e y , o r (2 ) had f o r m a l p r o v is io n s c o v e r in g la te s h ifts .
5 A n e s ta b lis h m e n t w a s c o n s id e r e d as h a v in g a f o r m a l p lan i f
3
S c h ed u le d w e e k ly h o u rs f o r o f f ic e w o r k e r s ( f i r s t s e c t io n o t e s ta b lis h e d at le a s t the m in im u m n u m b er o f d ays o f s ic k le a v e th at
if
ta b le B - 3 ) in s u r v e y s m ad e p r io r to la te 1957 and e a r l y 1958 w e r e
c o u ld be e x p e c te d b y e a c h e m p l o y e e . Such a p lan n e e d n ot b e w r it t e n ,
p r e s e n te d in te r m s o f the p r o p o r tio n o f w o m e n o f f ic e w o r k e r s e m ­
but in fo r m a l s ic k - le a v e a llo w a n c e s , d e te r m in e d on an in d iv id u a l b a s is ,
p lo y e d in o f f ic e s w ith the in d ic a te d w e e k ly h o u rs f o r w o m e n w o r k e r s .
w e r e e x c lu d e d .




A* Occupational Earnings

4

Table A -l. O ffice Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d o n an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s tr y d iv is io n , South B end, Ind. , A p r i l I96 0 )

See fo o tn o te at end o f ta b le .




5
Table A -l. O ffice Occupations-Continued
(A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a rn in g s fo r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d i v is i o n , South B en d , Ind. , A p r il i9 6 0 )

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS 0 F S e x , o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s t r y d iv is io n

N um ber
of
workers

W eekly i
(Standard)

W eekly j
earnings
(Standard)

$
|■ $ n
4 0 . 00 4 5 . 00 50 . 00
ade
u nnd r
4 5 . 00 _50. 00 55. 00

S

6 0 . 00

6 5 . 00

70

S
$
$
$
9 0 . 00 9 5 . 00 1 0 0 . 0 0 10 5 . 00 n o .

$

7 5 . 00

8 0 . 00 8 5 . 00

. o o ; 7 5 . 00 , 8 0 . 00

8 5 . 00 9 0 . 00

60. 00 $6 5 . 00 | 7 0 . 00

55. 00

9 5 . 00 1 0 0 . 0 0 105 . 00 1 1 0 . 0 0
i
l
i

|

j

W o m e n — C on tin u ed

!
C l e r k s , p a y r o ll
M a n u fa ctu r in g
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g

98
77
21

4 0 . 5 $ 7 3 . 00
4 0 . 0 7 6 . 00
4 1 . 5 63. 50

8

-

8
_
-

;
i
!

2
2
1

7
7

20
16
4

10
! 9
1
!

1
;

1
1

C o m p to m e t e r o p e r a t o r s .
M a n u fa ctu r in g
______

40
36

40. 0
40. 0

7 3 . 50
7 3 . 50

D u p lic a t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s
(M im e o g r a p h o r D itto)
---------M a n u fa ctu r in g
-----------------------

32
20

40. 0
40. 0

6 7 . 50
7 5 . 50

3
"

i

2

5
1

3
2

161
100

40. 0
40. 0

6 8 . 50
7 4 . 50

2

13
-

9
-

11
1

1 15
4

37
! 29

35

40. 0

61. 50

5

1

1

4

15

88.
93.
75.
89.

-

-

7
i
1 21
1
21

K e y p u n ch o p e r a t o r s
M a n u fa ctu r in g
O ffi c e g ir ls

S e c r e t a r ie s -------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g _______
N on m a n u fa c tu rin g —
P u b lic u t ilit ie s 2 _

468
34 3
125
18

40.
40.
40.
40.

S te n o g ra p h e rs, g en era l
M a n u fa ctu r in g
--------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ----

438
351
87

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

7 4 . 00
7 7 . 00
60. 00

2

S w itc h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s
M a n u fa ctu r in g
------

55
37
18

40. 0
40. 0
39. 5

6 7 . 00
7 3 . 00
54. 50

2
2

S w itc h b o a r d o p e r a t o r - r e c e p t i o n is t s
M a n u fa ctu r in g
------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g -------------------------

45
28
17

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

6 4 . 00
65. 00
62. 00

3
-

T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s A

21

40. 0

9 8 . 50 ,
1
8 5 . 00 !
8 6 . 0 0 1------i
62. 50
6 7 . 50 I .
7 7 . 00
7 8 . 50 i
60. 00

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

0
0
0
0

T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s B
M a n u fa ctu r in g
-------------------------------------

18
17

40. 0
40. 0

T r a n s c r ib in g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , g e n e r a l
M a n u fa ctu r in g
-------------------------------------------

73
46

40. 0
39. 5

174
158
16

40. 0
40. 0
40. 5

T y p is t s , c l a s s A -----M a n u fa ctu r in g
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
T y p is t s , c l a s s B
M a n u fa ctu r in g

322
121

4 0. 0
4 .'. 0

50
50
50
50

57. 50
69. 00

— :—

-

48

f
i
!
t

i

-

17
2
15

22
10

i 8
1 2
1 4
6
! 4
2
_

3
2

6
6
-

;
]

3

3

9
-

7
-

i
l

9
9

58
7

62
11

j-------------- j ------------

!

-

21
13
8

j 55
28
27
3
3
-

_

j

12

!

1

8
2

1 4
! i

2

3

1

6

6
6
!

i 33
! 8
I 25
1
i 46
35
11

!

1
!
!
i
1

i
i

j
I
1
|

6

2
4

1

6
5
1

1

1

1

4
3

-

13
8

1

20

2

!
1

2
23

17
5
5
38
18

3
i
I

i
1

4
4

|

2
2

6
s

i
■

i

! 31
24
i
! 2

20
19
.

1
!
!

| 13
13

: 29
i 10
1 19

37
23
14

3
3

i
j

j

4

j 58
t"5 5 —

i
1

i

54
49
5

|

1

2
I
1

! 10
8
2

!
!

1

;

! 32
! 32
! 42
j 31

!

5
5

!

3

9
7

7
7

_

| 17
! 17

j

6
5
1

-

2
1
1

■

!

1

!
i

9
6
3

1

!
’

3
1
2

8
7
1

|

i

19
17
2

!
!

1
j

i

9
8
1
5
3
2

1

1

2
1

!
;

7
7

5
5

!

4
3

! 18
I 15
! 3
i 13
! 13

: 34
! 31
j 3
i 10
10

!
i

38
26

-

3
1

■

_
■

.
*

_
■

2
2

.
"

.
■

_

3
3
_

6
6

1
1

_

-

.
_

! 49
46

98
90

81
69
12
8

31
30
1
1

12

_
-

2
1
1

1
i 1
! 24
1 24
*
20
20

J_________

-

8

3
-

54
54

1

I

26
26

-

_
_
i
1
i
1 5
; 5
! 5
1 5
i 35
! 35
j
i 8
| 8

I
1

i

1 12

;
, 14
i4
.

-

1
1
1

1
1
3

-

_

■

_

_
'

_

_
"

.
-

_
_

_
_

_
-

15
14
1
1

3
3

4
4

5
5

.
-

1
1
_
.

4

.
_

i
1

:

!
1

S ta n d a rd h o u r s r e f le c t the w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p lo y e e s r e c e iv e th e ir r e g u la r s t r a ig h t - t im e s a la r i e s and the e a rn in g s c o r r e s p o n d to th e s e w e e k ly h o u r s .
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o th e r p u b lic u t il it i e s .




4

-

_
18
15
3

.
-

-

i
-

I
j

1
1

_
*
1

_
-

1

.
-

6

1
1

-

1

3
3
.
I
i
1
!
!

2

$
$
$
115 . 00 1 2 0 . 0 0 125 . 00
and
1 2 0 . 0 0 125 . 0H o v e r

i

2
2

-

3
i
2

•
1
s
!

!

1
1

-

4
4
I
!
!

6
6

115.00

-

s

| 12
!
2
|
j 70
; 66
|
4

2

00

_
-

-

-

'

-

.

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

*
-

2
2

-

-

6

Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

(Average straight-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, South Bend, Ind. , April I960)
Average
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF
80.
Weekly Under ?5. 0 0 $ 0 0 *85. 0 0 9 0 . 0 0 *95.00 1 0 0 . 0 0 1*05.00 1 1 0 . 0 0 115.00 ^ 2 0 . 0 0 1 25.00 *130.00 f 35.00 *140.00 *145.00 *150.00 *155.00 ^,60.0oJ^65.0oj^70.00 jl 7 5.0 0
Weekly
hours1 earnings1
and
and
(Standard) (Standard) $
75. 00 under 85. 00 9 0 . 0 0 95. 00 1 0 0 . 0 0 105.00 1 1 0 . 0 0 115.00 1 2 0 . 0 0 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00 150.00 155.00 1 6 0 . 0 0 165.00 170.00 175.00 ' over
80. 0 0
I

Men
411
403

40. 0 $138.00
138.50

Draftsmen, ju n io r-----------------------------Manufacturing -------------------------------

222
210

40. 0 1 0 1 . 0 0
40. 0 102.50

11
11

o
o'

Draftsmen, senior ___________ *_______
Manufacturing __ ----------------._______

2

25
19

Women

1
1

8

4

!

. I
3
!
3 i
5
31
29 ! 5
I
j

2
2

20
20

: 9 i 15
15 !
!----7
! 15 ' 27
15
27

1 35 i 40
17 } 33 1 40
.
7
9
7
9
-

9 i 13
9 13
23
23




29
28

40. 0 92.50
40. 0 ' 92.50
i

3
33

2
2

_

7

1

6

16
16

1
1

.

21

7
7

-

i

1

.

.

28
28

25 ! 4 4
25 44

14
14

18
18

30
30

35
35

10
10

!

"

-

-

-

.

.

.

_

. i
1 ;

34
34

.
!
|
i
1
1______
Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-tim e salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
Workers were distributed as follows: 5 at under $60; 17 at $60 to $65; 1 at $65 to $70; 2 at $70 to $75.
All w orkers were at $65 to $70.

Nurses, industrial (registered)_______
Manufacturing ------------------------------ ,

1
2
3

i

1

1

. !
!

.
1

9
9

9
9

41
41

7
Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations

(Average straight-tim e hourly earnings for men in selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, South Bend, Ind. , April I960)
Occupation and industry division

N um ber
of
w orkers

A verage
hourly
earnings

N U M B E R O F W O R K E R S R E C E IV IN G S T R A IG H T -T IM E H O U R L Y E A R N IN G S O F—

$ 2. 00 $2. 10 $2. 20 S 2. 30 1$2. 40 ij 8 2. 50 1$ 2. 60 $ 2. 70 $ 2. 80 $ 2. 90 $
!
1
3. 00 |1$ 3. 10
2. 10 2. 20 2. 30.. 2. 40 2. 50 i 2.60 | 2. 70 2.80 2. 90 3. 00. _ 3. 10 j .3. 20
j
1
! _
3
22
2
3
| 2
15
! 3 1
2 ;
2 ! 15
1 3
22 j1 10
9
"
_
_
_
_
_ , 5
3
18 i 8 : 1 9
25
92 ' 46
3
8 j 19 ! 25
! 5 ; 18
92 ; 46
“
“
"
I
.
1
5
! 2
1
2 ! 7
12
2 i 6
1
12
- I 2 1 1
_
_ ^ ____1 i
_
4
3
12
10
3 ! 6 ! 10 ; 8
L i
4
!
3
10
3 ! 6 i 10 I 8 ! 12
~
i
i
ii
1
_
8
8
2
8
"
4 . 7
_ j! 2 |
7
8
8
2 i 8
2
!
_
_
_
_
_
_ ! 30
_
2
1
31
3
1 :
2
1
31
"
"
- || 30
3
_
_
_
_
_
_
1
i
7
13
3
8
4
1 i "
1
7
13 j
8
3
4
"
i
|
1
j
2
6 ____ 2__ 4 I____ 1 22
14
37
32
1 __ “___1 ____ 1 2
_
16
1
2
2
2
2 1 1 ! 3 1 12
6
32
- 1
!
14 ! _
- 1 10
14 1 37
3
14 |
10
37
- !
14
_
_
_
_
_
2
11
10
3
68
2 ! 2
2 j1 2
25
3
10
68
11
"
_
_
_
41
1
1
5
1
7
28
115
50
1
1
41
5
7
28
1
1 15
50
~
~
"
"

, $ 1.80 $1.90
and
under
1. 90 2^ 00

Carpenters, maintenance ---------------------------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------Electricians, maintenance -------------------------Manufacturing ----------------------------------------

60
59
216
216

$ 2. 98
2. 97
2. 98
2. 98

Engineers, stationary -------------------------------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------Firem en, stationary boiler ------------------------Manufacturing ----------------------------------------

30
24
57
57

2. 83
2. 94
2. 62
2. 62

Helpers, trades, maintenance -------------------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------M achine-tool operators, toolroom --------------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------M achinists, maintenance ---------------------------Manufacturing ----------------------------------------

39
35
67
67
44
44

2. 34
2. 37
2. 85
2. 85
2. 86
2. 86

Mechanics, automotive (maintenance) ---------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ----------------------------------Public u tilities2 -------------------------------Mechanics, maintenance ----------------------------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------Millwrights -----------------------------------------------Manufacturing ----------------------------------------

140
62
78
75
125
123
251
251

2. 77
2. 78
2. 77
2. 78
2. 98
2. 99
2. 98
2. 98

O ilers ----------------------------------------- -------- ----Manufacturing ----------------------------------------

54
54

2. 48
2. 48

.
"

.
"

_
■

.

Painters, maintenance ------------------------------Manufacturing ----------------------------------------

35
35

2.92
2. 92

_
~

_
"

_

_
~

_

Pipefitters, maintenance ---------------------------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------Sheet-m etal w orkers, maintenance -------------Manufacturing ----------------------------------------

158
158
41
41

3. 01
3. 01
3. 00
3. 00

.

_
_

_

_
i “

Tool and die m akers ----------------------------------Manufacturing ----------------------------------------

279
279

3. 22
3. 22

_
“

_
-

_

In—.........
Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.




_
“

-

4
4

!
_ ii

_
_
"
!
1

-

.
_
■

6
6

12
12

.

_
“

2
2

32
32

3
3

_

4
4
_

21
21
4
4

~

1 ■ 24
1
24
1
j
- 1 4 i 4
4 ! 4

5
5

5
5

_
"

~

6 1 9
6
9
s

“
!
1

1

$ 3. 20 $ 3. 30 $ 3. 40 $ 3. 50
3.30 i 3. 40 __3._50 3. 60
j '" '
i
- 3
1
1 3
!
|
i!
_
:
"
_
-

_

_
"

_
-

"
_
_
-

_
_

_
7
7

_
_
-

_
2
2

_
_
_
-

_
2
2
_

_
_
-

-

5
5

_
_

_
-

84
84
25
25

49
49
4
4

_
"

_
-

14
14

10
10

221
221

9
9

_
-

_
-

8

Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations

Occupation 1 and industry division
Elevator operators, passenger
(women) __________________________________
Nonmanufacturing _______________________
Guards _____________________________________
Manufacturing ___________________________
Janitors, p orters, and cleaners (men) ______
Manufacturing __________________________
Nonmanufacturing -----------------------------------Public utilities 3 --------------------------------Janitors, p orters, and cleaners
(women) _________________________ _______
Manufacturing _____________________ ___ Laborers, m aterial handling _______________
Manufacturing __________________________
Nonmanufacturing _______________________
Public utilities 3 ---------------------------------O rder fillers _______________________________
Manufacturing ___________________________
Nonmanufacturing -----------------------------------Packers, shipping __________________________
Manufacturing ----------------------------------------Receiving clerks ---------------------------------------Manufacturing __________________ _______
Nonmanufacturing -----------------------------------Shipping clerks ------------------------------------------T ruckdrivers4 _____________________________
Manufacturing ---------------------------- ---------Nonmanufacturing -----------------------------------Public u tilities3 ---------------------------------T ruckdrivers, medium ( l 1^ to and
including 4 tons) _______________________
Manufacturing -------------- ------------------Nonmanufacturing ____________________
T ruckdrivers, heavy (over 4 tons,
trailer type) ___________________________
Nonmanufacturing ___ _______________
T ruckers, power (forklift) __________________
Manufacturing ---------------------------------------Watchmen -------------------------------------------------Manufacturing __________________________
1
2
3
4

Number
of
workers

(Average straight-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, South Bend, Ind. , April I960)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
Average, $ 80 $ 90 $1. 00 $ 10 $ 20 $ 30 $
$
$
hourly 0.
0.
1.
1.
1.
1.40 1. 50 $ 60 $ 70 $ 80 $1. 90 $ 00 $ 10 $ 20 $ 30 $ 40 $ 50 $ 60 $ 70 $ 80 2. 90
1.
1.
1.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
earnings
■
"
“
■
“
~
"
"
“
“
and
under "
. 90 1. 00 1. 10 1. 20 1. 30 1.40 1 LJ50_ J^60_J 1. 70 1. 80 U90
_
S2. 10 -2, 20 __ 2. 30 2.40 2^5Q_ JL_6£L_JL__70_ 2.80 2. 90 over
-

- ----- ----] "
.
_
4 1 2
'
4
16 20
..A*,, , 16
6 i 1
10 i 19
7 ! 13 ! 14
9 i 2
3
2 1 13
-

-

8
8
_
.
-

3
3
-

6
6

-

10
4
6
1

158
40
402
288
114
52
212
130
82
148
145
103
86
17
124
288
77
211
108

1. 28
1. 90
2. 38
2. 35
2.44
2. 73
2. 24
2. 31
2. 13
2. 30
2. 30
2. 40
2.46
2. 06
2.41
2. 57
2.45
2. 61
2. 81

_
-

91
_
-

7
2
2

14
12
-

_

-

-

_

_
_
"
_
_

_

1
1
_

-

-

-

-

-

7 ! 1 1 1 1
I - 1---- -— 1
i
. 10
7 1 3 |
- 10
7 S 3
- i
|
j
"
_
_ i 33 25
I
- !---- ~----!----- =“ “ 25
1
33
! 1
- ___ :__! - 1 1
!
1
_
.
2
1
1
2
.
_
_
_
_
5
1
1
“

77
32
45

2.46
2. 38
2. 51

~

_

-

"

"

■

■

"

■

"

56
47
366
360
30
22

2. 50
2.47
2.43
2.43
1. 85
2. 08

-

-

.

-

-

-

-

-

5
1

2

"
_

3
3

"
_

_

-

3
3

|
_
- 1
5 .A ? .!
l i1 10
5 18
13
-

-

-

Data limited to men workers except where otherwise indicated.
Excludes prem ium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes all drivers regardless of size and type of truck operated.




i

20 $0. 97
20
.97
193 2. 39
191 2.40
537 2. 08
427 2. 23
110 1. 53
21 1. 73

|r
i
;

10
-

1

i

-

-

- |
1 9 10
_
9 ! 10
23 13
29
24
22 10
5
3
1
1 1
1

37
37
34
34
-

6
- ------ 6~1
14
5
14
2
3 j

_
195
195
-

"
131
131
100
100
-

_
_
-

_
57
56
1
"
21
21
4
4
4
4
7
8
8
-

6
6
50
37
13
89
52
37
28
25
23
23
18
85
53
32
-

_
60
55
5
28
28
32
32
53
53
77
41
6
35
~

13
13
"

17
4
13

2
2
"

-

-

15
15

-

12 22
6 22
254 254 _ _

23
23
_

1
1
_

7
5
2
_

1
_
_

-

5 10
5 ! 10
82 43
44 43
38
2 14
4
- 1 2 10
_ 50 33
50 33
_ 14
3
3
3
- 11
_ 12
1
1 36
1
1
1
2
- 34
"

1
1
"

■

1
1
"

1
1

19
2
17

8
8
-

1
1
-

-

'
19
19
_

10
10

14
14
37
33
1
1

29
29
4
4

_
- I
.
4

3
3

*
.
_
_
_
_
1
1
_
4
2
2

_
_
_
_
43
43
43
_
1
1
_
-

_
_
_
-

_
_
_
-

.
- 7 19
- 17
7 2
7 2
. _
- - _ _
- _ _
- _ _
1
no
2 1
108 108 -

B: Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Table B-l. Shift Differentials
( P e r c e n t o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g p la n t w o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v in g f o r m a l p r o v i s io n s f o r s h if t w o r k , a n d in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s
a c t u a ll y o p e r a ti n g l a te s h if t s b y ty p e a n d a m o u n t o f d i f f e r e n t i a l , S o u th B e n d , In d . , A p r i l I9 6 0 )
In e s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v in g f o r m a l
p r o v i s io n s 1 f o r —

S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l

In e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a c t u a ll y
o p e r a ti n g —

S e c o n d s h if t
wo rk

T h ird o r o th e r
s h if t w o r k

T o ta l ___________________________________________________

95. 2

85. 9

1 4. 2

7 .9

W ith s h if t p a y d i f f e r e n t i a l

94. 8

85. 9

1 4. 1

7 .9

5 5 .9

4 9 .9

1 0. 5

6. 8

1 .8
1 4. 3
6. 8
9 .8

1 4. 3

_ _.

.... ..

U n if o r m c e n t s ( p e r h o u r ) _____________________
5 c e n t s __________________________________________
6 c e n t s __________________________________________
8 c e n t s __________________________________________
10 c e n t s _______________________________________
10 1 /2 c e n t s _____________________________ _____
12 c e n t s ______ ________________________________
1 3 c e n t s ________________________________________
14 c e n t s ________________________________________
1 5 c e n t s ________________________________________
1 52/5 c e n t s ____________________________________
U n if o r m p e r c e n t a g e

-

21. 3
1 .4
.5

___________________________

38. 8

5 p e r c e n t ----------------------------------------------------------8 p e r c e n t _______________________________________
10 p e r c e n t --------------------------------------------------------

3. 7
29. 6
5. 6

N o s h if t p a y d i f f e r e n t i a l ___________________________

.5

_

S e c o n d s h if t

T h ird o r o th e r
s h if t

_

1 .9
1 .8
2 .4
4. 3
.1
.1

1 .9
.8
.4
.1
3. 2

3. 6

1. 2

36. 0

1 .0
1. 5
1. 1

_

-

1. 2

-

.1

-

-

5. 4
1 .7
2 .9
21. 3
_
3. 8
.5
36. 0
_

_

.3
.1

-

1 I n c lu d e s e s t a b l i s h m e n t s c u r r e n t l y o p e r a ti n g l a t e s h if t s , a n d e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w ith f o r m a l p r o v i s i o n s c o v e r in g l a t e s h if t s e v e n
th o u g h th e y w e r e n o t c u r r e n t l y o p e r a ti n g l a t e s h i f t s .




10

Table B-2. Minimum Entrance Salaries for W om en O ffice W orkers

(D istrib u tion of estab lish m en ts studied in a ll in d u stries and in in dustry d iv isio n s by m inim um entrance sa la ry for selec ted ca te g o r ie s
of in ex p erien ced w om en o ffice w ork ers, South Bend, Ind. , A p ril I960)
Inexperienced ty p ists
M anufacturing
N onm anufacturing
M inim um w eek ly s a la r y 1

A ll
in d u stries

E stab lish m en ts studied ---------------------------- -------- -.............................
E stab lish m en ts having a sp ecified m inim um ........------------------$ 40. 00 and under $ 42. 50 ----------------------------------------------------$ 4 2 .5 0 and under $ 4 5 .0 0 ----------------------------------------------------$ 4 5 .0 0 and under $ 4 7 .5 0 ___________________________________
$ 4 7 .5 0 and under $ 5 0 .0 0 ----------------------------------------------------$ 5 0 .0 0 and under $ 5 2 .5 0 ----------------------------------------------------$ 52. 50 and under $ 5 5 .0 0 ----------------------------------------------------$ 5 5 .0 0 and under $ 5 7 .5 0 ----------------------------------------------------$ 5 7 .5 0 and under $ 60. 00 ----------------------------------------------------$ 6 0 .0 0 and under $ 6 2 .5 0 ----------------------------------------------------$ 62. 50 and under $ 65. 00 ----------------------------------------------------$ 6 5 .0 0 and under $ 6 7 .5 0 ----------------------------------------------------$ 6 7 .5 0 and under $ 70. 00 ----------------------------------------------------O ver $ 70. 00 --------------------------------------------------------------------------E stab lish m en ts having no sp ecified m inim um ----------------------E stab lish m en ts w hich did not em ploy w ork ers
in th is category --------------------- -------------------------------------------------

B ased on standard w eekly hours 3 of—
A ll
A ll
40
40
sch ed u les
sch ed u les

Other in ex p erien ced c le r ic a l w o rk ers 2
M anufacturing
N onm anufacturing
A ll
in d u stries

B ased on standard w eek ly hours 3 of—
A ll
A ll
40
40
sch ed u les
sch ed u les

9

32
15
1
1
1
2
3
1
2
1
3
6

XXX
13
1
1
1
2
2
2
1
3
XXX

42
22
6
2
1
3
4
1
3
1
1
3

XXX
18
5
1
1
2
4
1
2
1
1
XXX

28

11

XXX

17

XXX

74
28
3
5
2
1
3
4
2
1
1
4
2
"
7

32
13
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
4
4

XXX
11
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
"
XXX

42
15
2
4
1
2
3
1
2
3

XXX
13
2
3
1
1
3
1
2
XXX

74
37
7
3
2
2
6
4
1
2
2
6
1
1

39

15

XXX

24

XXX

1 L ow est sa la ry rate form ally esta b lish ed for hiring in ex p erien ced w ork ers for typing or other c le r ic a l job s.
2 R ates ap plicab le to m e s s e n g e r s, o ffice g ir ls , or sim ila r su b cle r ic a l jobs are not con sid ered .
3 H ours r e fle c t the w orkw eek for w hich em p loyees r e ce iv e th eir regular stra ig h t-tim e s a la r ie s. D ata are p resen ted for a ll w orkw eeks com bined, and for the m o st com m on w orkw eek reported .

Table B-3. Scheduled W e e k ly Hours

(P ercen t d istrib u tion of o ffice and plant w ork ers in a ll in d u stries and in in dustry d iv isio n s by scheduled w eekly hours
of fir s t-sh ift w ork ers, South Bend, Ind. , A p ril I960)
W eekly hours
A ll w ork ers ................. .......... ............. .......................
Under 373/2 hours -------------------------- ----------37x/2 hours ............................ ........................................
O ver 371/ 2 and under 40 hours —........................
40 hours ---------------------------------------------------44 hours ---------------------------------------------------45 hours ---------------------------------------------------48 hours -------------------------------------- ----- --------

OI’TICi; WORKERS
All industries1
100

_
i

2
95
2

(4)

Manufacturing

PLANT WORKERS
Public utilities 2

100

100

1
2
97

All industries 3

98

-

_
"

_
_
3
_

-

i
i

Manufacturing

100
1
1
1
91
2
(4)

3

3 Includes data for w h o lesa le trade; r e ta il trade; finance, in su ra n ce, and real estate; and s e r v ic e s in addition to th ose in dustry d iv isio n s shown sep arately.
T ransportation , com m unication, and other public u tilitie s.
Includes data for w h o lesa le trad e, r e ta il trad e, real e sta te, and s e r v ic e s in addition to th ose in dustry d iv isio n s shown sep arately.
4 L e ss than 0. 5 p ercen t.




too

_
_

Public utilities 2
100

98

89
11

2

-

11

Table B-4. Paid Holidays

(P ercen t distrib u tion of office and plant w ork ers in a ll in d u stries and in in dustry d iv isio n s by num ber of paid holidays
provided annually, South Bend, Ind. , A pril I960)
PLA N T W O RK ERS

O h 1 ( E W ORKERS

Item

A ll w ork ers _____________________________ ______
W orkers in esta b lish m en ts providing
paid holidays _________________________________
W orkers in esta b lish m en ts providing
no paid holidays _______________________________

A ll in d u str ies1

M an u factu rin g

P u b lic u tilitie s 2

All in d u stries 3

M an u factu rin g

P u b lic u tilities 2

100

100

100

100

100

100

99

99

100

99

99

100

1

(4)

(4 )
1

(4)
1
12

'

1

(4)

“

(4)

6
25
60

Number of days

L e ss than
5 h olidays
6 holidays
7 h olidays
8 holidays
9 holidays

5 holidays ----------------------------------------_______________________________________
________________ ____________________
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
---- ----------------- ----------------------------------

32
65

1
(4 )

86

(4 )

-

44
41
16
"

1
(4 )

19
75
1
2

13
83
1
2

10

~

Total holiday time5

9 days ------------------------- --------------- -------------------8 or m ore days -------------------------------------------------or m ore days ------------- ---------------------------------6 or m ore days _ ------------- — --------------------5 or m ore days ------- ---------------------------------------4 or m ore days -------------------------------------------------2 or m ore days _________________________________
1 or m ore days __________ _____________________

7

(4 )
1

67
98
99
99
99
99

(4)

87
99
99
99
99
99

16

56

100
100
100
100
100

2

3
78
97
97
98
98
99

2
2

86
99
99
99
99
99

10

69
94
94
94

100
100

1 Includes data for w h o lesale trade; r eta il trade; finance, in su ra n ce, and real estate; and s e r v ic e s in addition to th ose in dustry d iv isio n s shown sep a ra tely .
2 T ransportation , com m un ication , and other public u tilitie s.
3 Includes data for w h o lesale trad e, r e ta il trad e, real e sta te , and s e r v ic e s in addition to th ose industry d ivision s shown sep arately.
4 L e ss than 0. 5 p ercen t.
5 A ll com binations of fu ll and half days that add to the sam e am ount are com bined; for exam p le, the proportion of w ork ers receiv in g a total of 7 days in clu d es th ose w ith 7 fu ll days and
no half days, 6 full days and 2 half days, 5 fu ll days and 4 half days,, and so on. P rop ortion s w ere then cum ulated. No haif-u ay holidays w ere rep orted in the South Bend area.




12

Table B-5. Paid Vacations

(P ercent distribution of office and plant w orkers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
provisions, South Bend, Ind. , A pril I960)
V acation p o licy

A ll w o rk ers ---------------------------------------------- -------

OFFICE W O R K E R S
A ll in d u stries 1

M an u factu rin g

PLAN T W ORKERS
P u b lic u tilities 2

All in d u stries 2

M an u factu rin g

P u b lic u tilities 2

100

100

100

100

100

100

100
97
2

100
96
3
1

100
100

99
32
68

100
98
2

“

"

(4)

100
20
80

_
55

Method off payment

W orkers in esta b lish m en ts providing
paid vacation s -----------------------------------------------L e n g th -o f-tim e paym ent --------------------------P ercen ta g e paym ent ----------------------------------F la t-su m paym ent ....................... ........................
Other .................. .........................................................
W orkers in esta b lish m en ts providing
no paid vacation s -------------------------------------------

(4)
"

-

-

~

“

Amount off vacation p ay5

A fter 6 m onths of se r v ic e
Under 1 w eek ---------------------------------------------------1 w eek --------------------------------------------------------------O ver 1 and under 2 w eek s ------------------------------

5
20
2

7
19
2

_
44
3

5
5

6

"

2
"

A fter 1 year of se r v ic e
1 w eek --------------------------------------------------------------O ver 1 and under 2 w eek s -----------------------------2 w eek s -------------------------------------------------------------

19
(4 )
81

12
(4 )
88

82
18

51
46
2

43
55
1

93
7

A fter 2 y e a r s of ser v ice
1 w eek --------------------------------------------------------------O ver 1 and under 2 w eek s -----------------------------2 w eeks ------------------------------------------------------------O ver 2 and under 3 w eeks ------------------------------

10
1
89
-

8

91
-

(4 )

39
4
58
“

37
48
14
(4 )

38
57
5
1

32
68
“

2
5
93

_
100
“

11
55
32
1

12
66
22
1

4
96

-

1
8
91
-

(4)
82
1
16

(4 )
75
1
23

_
97
-

2
1
49
47
1

2
1
40
56
2

_
100
-

A fter 3 y e a r s of ser v ice
1 w eek --------------------------------------------------------------O ver 1 and under 2 w eek s -----------------------------2 w eek s ------------------------------------------------------------O ver 2 and under 3 w eek s -----------------------------A fter 5 y e a r s of se r v ic e
1 w eek -------------------------------------------------------------Over 1 and under 2 w eeks -----------------------------2 w eeks ------------------------------------------------------------O ver 2 and under 3 w eek s -----------------------------3 w eek s -------------------------------------------------------------

See footnotes at end of table.




3

-

-

13
Table B-5. Paid Vacations-Continued

(P ercen t d istrib u tion of o ffice and plant w ork ers in a ll in d u stries and in in dustry d iv isio n s by vacation pay
p r o v isio n s, South B end, Ind. , A pril I960)

Vacation policy

PLANT WORKERS

OFFUTi WORKERS
All industries 1

Manufacturing

I’ubt.c utilities 2

•Mindustries3
l

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

A m ount off v a c a tio n p a y 5— C ontinued
After 10 years of service
1 week _____________________________________
2 weeks ------------------------------------------------------Over 2 and under 3 weeks ---------------------------3 weeks -------------------------------------------------------Over 3 and under 4 weeks ---------------------------After 15 years of service
1 week --------------------------------------------------------2 weeks _____________________________________
Over 2 and under 3 weeks ---------------------------3 weeks _____________________________________
Over 3 and under 4 weeks ---------------------------'4 weeks _____________________________________

32
32
35
(4)
11
88
1

-

21
46
32
1

-

7
92
1
■

After 20 years of service
1 week --------------------------------------------------------2 weeks -------------------------------------------------------Over 2 and under 3 weeks ---------------------------3 weeks ____________________________________
Over 3 and under 4 weeks ---------------------------4 weeks ____________________________________

_
11
85
1
3

7
90
1
l

After 25 years of service
1 week ______________________________________
2 weeks _____________________________________
Over 2 and under 3 weeks ---------------------------3 weeks ____________________________________
Over 3 and under 4 weeks ---------------------------4 weeks ------------------------------------------------------

11
77
1
11

-

7
81
1
11

-

-

97
3
~

-

5
95
~
5
85
10

-

5
70
26

(4)
37
28
10
24

30
33
7
30

-

100
"

(4)
13
19
38
28
1

9
22
34
33
2

100
-

-

~

1
|
(4)
13
19
37
28
3
(4)
13
19
21
29
17

!

-

9
22
34
33
2

-

9
22
16
35
18

-

82
18
-

-

72
28

1 Includes data for w h o lesa le trade; r eta il trade; fin an ce, in su ra n ce, and real estate; and s e r v ic e s in addition to th ose in dustry d iv isio n s shown sep arately.
2 T ransportation , com m un ication , and other public u tilitie s.
3 Includes data for w h o lesa le trad e, r e ta il trad e, real e sta te , and s e r v ic e s in addition to th ose in dustry d iv isio n s shown sep a ra tely .
4 L e ss than 0. 5 p ercen t.
5 P erio d s of se r v ic e w ere a r b itra rily ch osen and do not n e c e ss a r ily r e fle c t the individual p rovisio n s for p r o g r e ssio n s. F or exam p le, the changes in prop ortion s in dicated at 10 y e a r s'
s e r v ic e include changes in p ro v isio n s occu rrin g betw een 5 and 10 y e a r s.
NOTE: In the tabulations of vacation allo w an ces by y e a rs of s e r v ic e , paym ents other than "length of tim e ," such as percen ta ge of annual earnin gs or fla t-su m p aym en ts, w ere converted
to an equivalent tim e b a sis; for exam p le, a paym ent of 2 p ercen t of annual earnin gs w as con sid ered as 1 w eek 's pay.




14
Table B-6. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
(P ercen t of o ffice and plant w ork ers in a ll in d u stries and in in dustry d iv isio n s em ployed in esta b lish m en ts providing
health, in su ra n ce, or pen sion b en efits, South Bend, Ind. , A p ril I960)
OFFICE WORKERS

Type of benefit

A ll w o rk ers ----------------------------------------------------W orkers in esta b lish m en ts providing:
L ife in su ran ce ------------------------------------------A ccid en tal death and d ism em b erm en t
in su ra n ce ------------------------------------------------S ick n ess and acciden t in su ran ce or
sick leave or b oth 4 --------------------------------S ick n ess and acciden t in su ra n ce -------Sick lea v e (full pay and no
w aiting period) ----------------------------------Sick lea v e (p artial pay or
w aiting period) ----------------------------------H osp italization in su ran ce ------------------------Su rgical in su ra n ce -----------------------------------M edical in su ra n ce -----------------------------------C atastrophe in su ra n ce -----------------------------R etirem en t pen sio n -------------------------------—
No health, in su ra n ce, or pen sion plan —

All industries *

Manufacturing

100

100

98

99
94
97
80
84

79
96
65
81
5
97
96
84
69
75
(5 )

(5 )
99
99
87
71
86
(5)

PLANT WORKERS
Public utilities 2

100
94
58
94
24
33
53
51
51
33
10
66
(5)

All industries 3

Manufacturing

Public utilities- 2

100

100

100

96
88
95

99
93
96
95
1

96
73
96
24
62
10
38
38
14
4
89

89
9
2
95
93
76
27
81
1

99
97
83
28
87
1

1 Includes data for w h o lesa le trade; r eta il trade; finance, in su ra n ce, and real estate; and s e r v ic e s in addition to th ose in dustry d iv isio n s shown sep arately.
2 T ransportation , com m un ication , and other public u tilitie s.
3 Includes data for w h o lesa le trad e, r eta il trad e, real e sta te, and s e r v ic e s in addition to th ose in dustry d iv isio n s shown sep arately.
4 U nduplicated total of w o rk ers receiv in g sick lea v e or sic k n e ss and accid en t in su rance shown sep a ra tely below . S ick -le a v e plans are lim ited to th ose w hich d efin itely e sta b lish at le a st
the m inim um num ber of d a y s1 pay that can be expected by each em p loyee. Inform al sic k -le a v e allo w an ces determ in ed on an individual b a sis are excluded.
5 L e ss than 0. 5 p ercen t.




15

Appendix:

Occupational Descriptions

T h e p r im a r y p u r p o s e o f p r e p a r i n g j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s f o r t h e B u r e a u ’ s w a g e s u r v e y s i s t o a s s i s t i t s
f ie ld s t a f f in c l a s s i f y i n g in to a p p r o p r ia te o c c u p a t io n s w o r k e r s w h o a r e e m p lo y e d u n d e r a v a r ie t y o f p a y r o ll
t i t l e s a n d d i f f e r e n t w o r k a r r a n g e m e n t s fr o m e s t a b l i s h m e n t t o e s t a b l i s h m e n t a n d fr o m a r e a t o a r e a . T h i s i s
e s s e n t i a l i n o r d e r t o p e r m it t h e g r o u p in g o f o c c u p a t i o n a l w a g e r a t e s r e p r e s e n t i n g c o m p a r a b l e j o b c o n t e n t .
B e c a u s e o f t h is e m p h a s is o n in te r e s t a b lis h m e n t a n d in te r a r e a c o m p a r a b ility o f o c c u p a t io n a l c o n t e n t , th e
B u r e a u ’ s j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s m a y d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y fr o m t h o s e in u s e in i n d i v i d u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s o r t h o s e
p r e p a r e d f o r o t h e r p u r p o s e s . In a p p l y i n g t h e s e j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s , t h e B u r e a u ’ s f i e l d e c o n o m i s t s a r e
in s t r u c t e d to e x c lu d e w o r k in g s u p e r v is o r s , a p p r e n t ic e s , le a r n e r s , b e g in n e r s , t r a in e e s , h a n d ic a p p e d w o r k e r s ,
p a r t-tim e , te m p o r a r y , a n d p r o b a tio n a r y w o r k e r s .

OFFICE

BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

P r e p a r e s s t a t e m e n t s , b i l l s , a n d i n v o i c e s o n a m a c h in e o th e r
th a n a n o r d in a r y or e le c t r o m a t ic t y p e w r it e r . M ay a l s o k e e p r e c o r d s a s
to b i ll i n g s or s h ip p in g c h a r g e s or p er fo rm o th e r c l e r i c a l w o r k in c id e n t a l
t o b illin g o p e r a t io n s . F o r w a g e s t u d y p u r p o s e s , b i ll e r s , m a c h in e , a r e
c l a s s i f i e d b y ty p e o f m a c h in e , a s f o llo w s :

O p e r a t e s a b o o k k e e p in g m a c h in e (R e m in g to n R a n d , E l l i o t t
F is h e r , S u n d s tr a n d , B u r r o u g h s, N a t io n a l C a s h R e g is t e r , w ith o r w it h o u t
a ty p e w r ite r k e y b o a r d ) to k e e p a r e c o r d o f b u s in e s s t r a n s a c t io n s .

B iller, machine (billing m achine) —

U s e s a s p e c ia l b illin g m a ­
c h in e (M o o n H o p k in s , E l l i o t t F is h e r , B u r r o u g h s , e t c . , w h ic h a r e
c o m b in a t io n t y p in g a n d a d d in g m a c h in e s ) to p r e p a r e b i l l s a n d i n ­
v o i c e s fr o m c u s t o m e r s ’ p u r c h a s e o r d e r s , i n t e r n a l l y p r e p a r e d o r d e r s ,
s h ip p in g m e m o r a n d u m s, e t c . U s u a lly in v o lv e s a p p lic a t io n o f p r e d e ­
te r m in e d d i s c o u n t s a n d s h ip p in g c h a r g e s a n d e n t r y o f n e c e s s a r y
e x t e n s io n s , w h ic h m a y or m a y n o t b e c o m p u te d on th e b illin g m a ­
c h in e , a n d t o t a ls w h ic h a r e a u t o m a t ic a lly a c c u m u la te d b y m a c h in e .
T h e o p e r a tio n u s u a lly i n v o l v e s a la r g e n u m b er o f c a r b o n c o p i e s o f
th e b ill b e in g p r e p a r e d a n d i s o fte n d o n e o n a f a n fo ld m a c h in e .

Biller, machine (bookkeeping m achine) — U s e s a b o o k k e e p i n g
m a c h in e ( S u n d s tr a n d , E l l i o t t F i s h e r , R e m in g t o n R a n d , e t c . , w h ic h
m a y or m a y n o t h a v e ty p e w r ite r k e y b o a r d ) to p r e p a r e c u s t o m e r s ’
b ills a s p art o f th e a c c o u n t s r e c e iv a b le o p e r a tio n . G e n e r a lly in ­
v o lv e s th e s im u lta n e o u s e n tr y o f fig u r e s o n c u s t o m e r s ’ le d g e r r e c ­
o r d . T h e m a c h in e a u t o m a t i c a l l y a c c u m u la t e s f ig u r e s o n a n u m b e r
o f v e r t ic a l c o lu m n s a n d c o m p u te s a n d u s u a lly p r in ts a u t o m a t ic a lly
th e d e b it or c r e d it b a la n c e s . D o e s n o t in v o lv e a k n o w le d g e o f b o o k ­
k e e p in g .
W o r k s fr o m u n if o r m a n d s t a n d a r d t y p e s o f s a l e s a n d
c r e d it s l ip s .




C lass A — K e e p s a s e t o f r e c o r d s r e q u i r i n g a k n o w l e d g e o f
a n d e x p e r i e n c e in b a s i c b o o k k e e p i n g p r i n c i p l e s a n d f a m i l i a r i t y w it h
th e s tr u c tu r e o f th e p a r tic u la r a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m u s e d . D e te r m in e s
p ro p er r e c o r d s a n d d is tr ib u tio n o f d e b it a n d c r e d it ite m s to b e u s e d
in e a c h p h a s e o f th e w o r k . M ay p r e p a r e c o n s o lid a t e d r e p o r t s , b a la n c e
s h e e t s , a n d o th e r r e c o r d s b y h a n d .
C lass B — K e e p s a r e c o r d o f o n e o r m o r e p h a s e s o r s e c t i o n s o f
a s e t o f r e c o r d s u s u a lly r e q u ir in g l i t t l e k n o w le d g e o f b a s i c b o o k ­
k e e p in g .
P h a s e s or s e c t io n s in c lu d e a c c o u n t s p a y a b le , p a y r o ll,
c u s t o m e r s ’ a c c o u n t s (n o t in c lu d in g a s im p le ty p e o f b illin g d e s c r ib e d
u n d e r b ille r , m a c h in e ) , c o s t d is t r ib u t io n , e x p e n s e d is t r ib u t io n , in ­
v e n to r y c o n t r o l, e t c . M a y c h e c k or a s s i s t in p r e p a r a tio n o f t r ia l
b a l a n c e s a n d p r e p a r e c o n t r o l s h e e t s fo r th e a c c o u n t in g d e p a r tm e n t .

CLERK, ACCOUNTING
C lass A — U n d e r g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n o f a b o o k k e e p e r o r a c c o u n t ­
a n t, h a s r e s p o n s ib ilit y fo r k e e p in g o n e o r m o re s e c t i o n s o f a c o m ­
p le t e s e t o f b o o k s or r e c o r d s r e la tin g to o n e p h a s e o f a n e s t a b l is h ­
m e n t 's b u s i n e s s t r a n s a c t i o n s . W ork i n v o l v e s p o s t i n g a n d b a la n c in g
s u b s id ia r y le d g e r or le d g e r s s u c h as a c c o u n t s r e c e iv a b le or a c c o u n t s

16

CLERK, ACCOUNTING— Continued
p a y a b le ; e x a m in in g a n d c o d in g i n v o i c e s or v o u c h e r s w it h p r o p e r a c ­
c o u n t i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n ; r e q u i r e s j u d g m e n t a n d e x p e r i e n c e in m a k i n g
p ro p e r a s s ig n a t io n s a n d a llo c a t io n s . M ay a s s i s t in p r e p a r in g , a d ­
ju s tin g a n d c lo s in g jo u r n a l e n tr ie s ; m ay d ir e c t c l a s s B a c c o u n tin g
c le r k s .

C lass B — U n d e r s u p e r v i s i o n , p e r f o r m s o n e o r m o r e r o u t i n e a c ­
c o u n t in g o p e r a tio n s s u c h a s p o s t in g s im p le jo u r n a l v o u c h e r s o r a c ­
c o u n t s p a y a b le v o u c h e r s , e n t e r in g v o u c h e r s in v o u c h e r r e g i s t e r s ;
r e c o n c ilin g b an k a c c o u n ts ; p o s tin g s u b s id ia r y le d g e r s c o n tr o lle d
b y g e n e r a l le d g e r s , or p o s tin g s im p le c o s t a c c o u n tin g d a ta . T h is
jo b d o e s n o t r e q u ir e a k n o w le d g e o f a c c o u n t in g a n d b o o k k e e p in g
p r i n c i p l e s b u t i s f o u n d i n o f f i c e s in w h i c h t h e m o r e r o u t i n e a c c o u n t ­
in g w o rk is s u b d iv id e d o n a f u n c t io n a l b a s is a m o n g s e v e r a l w o r k e r s .

CLERK, PAYROLL
C o m p u te s w a g e s o f co m p a n y e m p lo y e e s a n d e n te r s th e n e c e s ­
s a r y d a ta o n th e p a y r o ll s h e e t s . D u t ie s in v o lv e : C a lc u la t in g w o r k e r s ’
e a r n in g s b a s e d o n tim e o r p r o d u c tio n r e c o r d s ; p o s t i n g c a l c u la t e d d a ta
o n p a y r o l l s h e e t , s h o w i n g i n f o r m a t io n s u c h a s w o r k e r ’ s n a m e , w o r k i n g
d a y s , tim e , r a t e , d e d u c t io n s fo r in s u r a n c e , a n d t o t a l w a g e s d u e . M ay
m a k e o u t p a y c h e c k s a n d a s s i s t p a y m a s t e r in m a k i n g u p a n d d i s t r i b u t ­
in g p a y e n v e l o p e s . M a y u s e a c a lc u la t in g m a c h in e .

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
P r im a r y d u t y i s t o o p e r a t e a C o m p t o m e t e r t o p e r f o r m m a t h e m a ­
t i c a l c o m p u t a t i o n s . T h i s j o b i s n o t t o b e c o n f u s e d w it h t h a t o f s t a t i s ­
t ic a l or o th e r ty p e o f c le r k , w h ic h m a y in v o lv e fr e q u e n t u s e o f a C o m p ­
t o m e te r b u t, in w h ic h , u s e o f t h is m a c h in e i s i n c i d e n t a l to p e r fo r m a n c e
o f o th e r d u t ie s .

CLERK, FILE
C lass A — I n a n e s t a b l i s h e d f i l i n g s y s t e m c o n t a i n i n g a n u m ­
b er o f v a r ie d s u b j e c t m a tte r f i l e s , c l a s s i f i e s a n d in d e x e s c o r r e s ­
p o n d e n c e or o th e r m a te r ia l; m a y a ls o f ile t h is m a te r ia l. M ay k e e p
r e c o r d s o f v a r i o u s t y p e s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w it h f i l e s o r m a y s u p e r ­
v i s e o t h e r s in f i l i n g a n d l o c a t i n g m a t e r i a l in t h e f i l e s . M a y p e r ­
fo r m i n c i d e n t a l c l e r i c a l d u t i e s .
C lass B — P e r f o r m s r o u t i n e f i l i n g , u s u a l l y o f m a t e r i a l t h a t h a s
a lr e a d y b e e n c l a s s i f i e d or w h ic h i s e a s i l y id e n t if ia b le , o r l o c a t e s
o r a s s i s t s in l o c a t i n g m a t e r ia l in f i l e s . M a y p e r fo r m i n c i d e n t a l
c le r ic a l d u tie s .

CLERK, ORDER
R e c e iv e s c u s t o m e r s ’ o r d e r s fo r m a te r ia l o r m e r c h a n d is e b y m a il,
p h o n e , o r p e r s o n a l l y . D u t i e s i n v o l v e any combination o f the follow ing:
Q u o tin g p r ic e s to c u s t o m e r s ; m a k in g o u t a n o r d e r s h e e t l i s t i n g th e it e m s
to m a k e u p th e o rd er; c h e c k in g p r ic e s a n d q u a n titie s o f ite m s o n o rd er
s h e e t ; d is tr ib u tin g o rd er s h e e t s to r e s p e c t iv e d e p a r tm e n ts to b e f ille d .
M ay c h e c k w ith c r e d it d e p a r tm e n t to d e t e r m in e c r e d it r a t in g o f c u s t o m e r ,
a c k n o w le d g e r e c e ip t o f o r d e r s fr o m c u s t o m e r s , f o l l o w u p o r d e r s t o s e e
th a t th ey h a v e b e e n f ille d , k e e p f ile o f o rd ers r e c e iv e d , a n d c h e c k s h ip ­
p in g i n v o i c e s w ith o r ig in a l o r d e r s .




DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
U n d e r g e n e r a l s u p e r v is io n a n d w ith n o s u p e r v is o r y r e s p o n s i ­
b i l i t i e s , r e p r o d u c e s m u ltip le c o p ie s o f ty p e w r itte n or h a n d w r itte n m a tter ,
u s i n g a M im e o g r a p h o r D i t t o m a c h i n e . M a k e s n e c e s s a r y a d j u s t m e n t s u c h
a s fo r in k a n d p a p e r f e e d c o u n te r a n d c y lin d e r s p e e d . I s n o t r e q u ir e d to
p r e p a r e s t e n c il or D itto m a s te r . M ay k e e p f ile o f u s e d s t e n c i l s or D itto
m a s t e r s . M ay s o r t, c o l l a t e , a n d s t a p le c o m p le te d m a te r ia l.

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
U n d e r g e n e r a l s u p e r v is io n a n d w ith n o s u p e r v is o r y r e s p o n s i ­
b i li t i e s , r e c o r d s a c c o u n tin g a n d s t a t is t ic a l d a ta o n ta b u la tin g c a r d s b y
p u n c h i n g a s e r i e s o f h o l e s i n t h e c a r d s in a s p e c i f i e d s e q u e n c e , u s i n g
a n a lp h a b e t ic a l or a n u m e r ic a l k e y p u n c h m a c h in e , f o llo w in g w r itte n in ­
fo r m a tio n o n r e c o r d s . M a y d u p lic a t e c a r d s b y u s in g t h e d u p lic a t in g d e ­
v i c e a tt a c h e d to m a c h in e . M ay k e e p f i l e s o f p u n c h c a r d s . M a y v e r if y
ow n w ork or w ork o f o th e r s.

OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
P e r fo r m s v a r io u s r o u tin e d u t ie s s u c h a s r u n n in g e r r a n d s , o p ­
e r a t i n g m in o r o f f i c e m a c h i n e s s u c h a s s e a l e r s o r m a i l e r s , o p e n i n g a n d
d i s t r i b u t i n g m a i l , a n d o t h e r m in o r c l e r i c a l w o r k .

17

SECRETARY

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR

P e r f o r m s s e c r e t a r i a l a n d c l e r i c a l d u t i e s f o r a s u p e r i o r in a n a d ­
m in is t r a t iv e or e x e c u t iv e p o s i t i o n . D u t ie s in c lu d e m a k in g a p p o in tm e n t s
fo r s u p e r io r ; r e c e iv i n g p e o p le c o m in g in t o o f f i c e ; a n s w e r in g a n d m a k in g
p h o n e c a l l s ; h a n d l i n g p e r s o n a l a n d im p o r t a n t o r c o n f i d e n t i a l m a i l , a n d
w r itin g r o u tin e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e o n o w n i n it ia t iv e ; t a k in g d ic t a t io n (w h e r e
t r a n s c r i b i n g m a c h i n e i s n o t u s e d ) e i t h e r in s h o r t h a n d o r b y S t e n o t y p e o r
s i m i l a r m a c h i n e , a n d t r a n s c r i b i n g d i c t a t i o n o r t h e r e c o r d e d i n f o r m a t io n
r e p r o d u c e d on a t r a n s c r ib in g m a c h in e . M ay p r e p a r e s p e c i a l r e p o r ts or
m e m o r a n d u m s fo r in fo r m a tio n o f s u p e r io r .

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
P r im a r y d u ty i s to t a k e d i c t a t i o n fro m o n e o r m o re p e r s o n s ,
e i t h e r in s h o r t h a n d o r b y S t e n o t y p e o r s i m i l a r m a c h i n e , i n v o l v i n g a n o r ­
m a l r o u tin e v o c a b u la r y , a n d to t r a n s c r ib e t h is d ic t a t io n o n a t y p e w r it e r .
M a y a l s o t y p e fr o m w r i t t e n c o p y . M a y a l s o s e t u p a n d k e e p f i l e s i n o r ­
d e r , k e e p s i m p l e r e c o r d s , e t c . Does not include transcribing-m achine
work ( s e e t r a n s c r i b i n g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r ) .

STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL
P r im a r y d u t y i s t o t a k e d i c t a t i o n f r o m o n e o r m o r e p e r s o n s
e it h e r in s h o r th a n d or b y S t e n o t y p e o r s im ila r m a c h in e , i n v o lv in g a v a r ie d
t e c h n i c a l o r s p e c i a l i z e d v o c a b u l a r y s u c h a s in l e g a l b r i e f s o r r e p o r t s o n
s c ie n t if ic r e s e a r c h a n d to tr a n s c r ib e t h is d ic ta tio n on a ty p e w r ite r . M ay
a l s o t y p e fr o m w r i t t e n c o p y . M a y a l s o s e t u p a n d k e e p f i l e s in o r d e r ,
k e e p s i m p l e r e c o r d s , e t c . Does not include transcribing-m achine work

.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
O p e r a te s a s in g le - or m u ltip le -p o s itio n te le p h o n e s w itc h b o a r d .
D u tie s in v o lv e h a n d lin g in c o m in g , o u tg o in g , a n d in tr a p la n t or o f f ic e c a l l s .
M a y r e c o r d t o l l c a l l s a n d t a k e m e s s a g e s . M a y g i v e i n f o r m a t io n t o p e r ­
s o n s w h o c a l l in , or o c c a s io n a lly ta k e t e le p h o n e o r d e r s . F o r w o r k e r s
w h o a ls o a c t a s r e c e p t io n is t s s e e s w itc h b o a r d o p e r a to r -r e c e p tio n is t.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In a d d i t i o n t o p e r f o r m i n g d u t i e s o f o p e r a t o r , o n a s i n g l e p o s i ­
tio n or m o n ito r -ty p e s w it c h b o a r d , a c t s a s r e c e p t io n is t a n d m a y a l s o ty p e
or p er fo rm r o u tin e c l e r i c a l w o r k a s p a r t o f r e g u la r d u t ie s . T h is ty p in g
or c l e r i c a l w o r k m a y ta k e th e m a jo r p a r t o f t h is w o r k e r 's tim e w h ile a t
s w itc h b o a r d .




C lass A — O p e r a t e s a v a r i e t y o f t a b u l a t i n g o r e l e c t r i c a l a c ­
c o u n t in g m a c h in e s , t y p ic a lly in c lu d in g s u c h m a c h in e s a s th e ta b u ­
la to r , c a lc u la t o r , in te r p r e te r , c o lla t o r a n d o th e r s . P e r fo r m s c o m ­
p le t e r e p o r tin g a s s ig n m e n t s w ith o u t c l o s e s u p e r v is io n , a n d p e r fo r m s
d i f f i c u l t w ir i n g a s r e q u i r e d . T h e c o m p l e t e r e p o r t i n g a n d t a b u l a t i n g
a s s ig n m e n t s t y p ic a lly in v o lv e a v a r ie ty o f lo n g a n d c o m p le x r e ­
p o r ts w h ic h o fte n a r e o f ir r e g u la r or n o n r e c u r r in g t y p e r e q u ir in g
s o m e p la n n in g a n d s e q u e n c in g o f s t e p s to b e ta k e n . A s a m o re
e x p e r ie n c e d o p e r a to r , i s t y p i c a l l y in v o lv e d in tr a in in g n e w o p e r a ­
t o r s in m a c h i n e o p e r a t i o n s , o r p a r t i a l l y t r a i n e d o p e r a t o r s i n w ir i n g
fr o m d i a g r a m s a n d o p e r a t i n g s e q u e n c e s o f l o n g a n d c o m p l e x r e p o r t s .
Does not include w o r k i n g s u p e r v i s o r s p e r f o r m i n g t a b u l a t i n g - m a c h i n e
o p e r a t i o n s and d a y - t o - d a y s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e w o r k a n d p r o d u c t i o n o f
a g ro u p o f ta b u la tin g -m a c h in e o p e r a to r s .
C lass B — O p e r a t e s m o r e d i f f i c u l t t a b u l a t i n g o r e l e c t r i c a l a c ­
c o u n tin g m a c h in e s s u c h a s th e ta b u la to r a n d c a lc u la t o r , in a d d itio n
to th e s o r te r , r e p r o d u c e r , a n d c o lla to r . T h is w ork i s p er fo rm ed u n d er
s p e c i f i c in s t r u c t io n s a n d m a y in c lu d e th e p e r fo r m a n c e o f s o m e w ir ­
i n g fr o m d i a g r a m s . T h e w o r k t y p i c a l l y i n v o l v e s , f o r e x a m p l e , t a b u ­
la tio n s in v o lv in g a r e p e t it iv e a c c o u n tin g e x e r c i s e , a c o m p le te b u t
s m a ll ta b u la tin g s t u d y , or p a r ts o f a lo n g e r a n d m o re c o m p le x r e p o r t.
S u c h r e p o r ts a n d s t u d i e s a r e u s u a lly o f a r e c u r r in g n a tu r e w h e r e
th e p r o c e d u r e s a re w e ll e s t a b lis h e d . M ay a ls o in c lu d e th e tr a in in g
o f n e w e m p l o y e e s in t h e b a s i c o p e r a t i o n o f t h e m a c h i n e .
C lass C — O p e r a t e s s i m p l e t a b u l a t i n g o r e l e c t r i c a l a c c o u n t ­
in g m a c h in e s s u c h a s th e s o r te r , r e p r o d u c in g p u n c h , c o lla t o r , e t c .,
w it h s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s . M a y i n c l u d e s i m p l e w i r i n g f r o m d i a g r a m s
a n d s o m e f ilin g w o r k . T h e w o rk t y p ic a lly in v o lv e s p o r tio n s o f a
w o r k u n it, fo r e x a m p le , in d iv id u a l s o r t in g or c o l l a t in g r u n s , or r e ­
p e t it iv e o p e r a tio n s .

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
P r im a r y d u t y i s t o t r a n s c r i b e d i c t a t i o n i n v o l v i n g a n o r m a l r o u t i n e
v o c a b u l a r y f r o m t r a n s c r i b i n g - m a c h i n e r e c o r d s . M a y a l s o t y p e fr o m w r i t t e n
c o p y a n d d o s im p le c l e r i c a l w o r k . W o rk ers t r a n s c r ib in g d ic t a t io n in ­
v o lv in g a v a r ie d t e c h n ic a l or s p e c ia liz e d v o c a b u la r y s u c h a s le g a l b r ie fs
or r ep o rts on s c ie n t if ic r e s e a r c h a re n o t in c lu d e d . A w o rk er w h o ta k e s
d i c t a t i o n in s h o r t h a n d o r b y S t e n o t y p e o r s i m i l a r m a c h i n e i s c l a s s i f i e d
a s a s te n o g r a p h e r , g e n e r a l.

18

TYPIST— Continued

TYPIST
U ses a typew riter to make copies of various m aterial or to make
out bills after calculations have been made by another person. May in­
clude typing of ste n c ils, m ats, or sim ilar m aterials for use in duplicat­
ing p ro cesses. May do clerical work involving little sp ecial training,
such as keeping sim ple records, filing records and reports, or sorting
and distributing incoming mail.
— Performs on e or more o f the fo llo w in g : Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining m aterial from several
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, sy llab icatio n , puncC la s s A

tuation, etc., of tech n ical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; planning layout and typing of com plicated s ta tis tic a l tables
to m aintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine
form letters varying d etails to su it circum stances.
C la s s B — Perform s on e or more o f the fo llo w in g : Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance p o licies,
etc.; setting up sim ple standard tabulations, or copying more com­
plex tables already set up and spaced properly.

PR O FE S SIO N A L AND T E C H N IC A L

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR

(A ssistan t draftsm an)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by d rafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
U ses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare draw ings
from sim ple plans or sk etch es, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsm an.

DRAFTSMAN, LEADER
P lans and d irects activ ities of one or more draftsm en in prep­
aration of working plans and d etail drawings from rough or prelim inary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. D uties
involve a com bination o f the fo llo w in g : Interpreting blueprints, sk etches,
and w ritten or verbal orders; determ ining work procedures; assigning
duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif­
ficult problem s. May a s s is t subordinates during em ergencies or as a
regular assignm ent, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad­
m inistrative nature.

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and d etail draw ings from notes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or m anufacturing pur­
poses. D uties involve a com bination o f the fo llo w in g : Preparing work­
ing plans, detail draw ings, maps, cro ss-sectio n s, etc ., to scale by use
of drafting instrum ents; making engineering com putations such as those




DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR— Continued
involved in strength of m aterials, beam s and tru sse s; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dim ensions, m aterials to be used, and q u an tities;
w riting sp ecificatio n s; making adjustm ents or changes in drawings or
sp ecificatio n s. May ink in lines and letters on pencil draw ings, prepare
d etail units of com plete draw ings, or trace draw ings. Work is frequently
in a sp ecialized field such as architectural, electrical, m echanical, or
structural drafting.

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
em ployees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
prem ises of a factory or other establishm ent. D uties involve a com bina­
tion o f the fo llo w in g : Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of em ployees’ inju ries; keeping records of p atients
treated; preparing accident reports for com pensation or other purposes;
conducting physical exam inations and health evaluations of applicants
and em ployees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environm ent, or other
activ ities affecting the health, w elfare, and safety of a ll personnel.

TRACER
C opies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or p en cil. U ses
T -square, com pass, and other drafting too ls. May prepare sim ple draw­
ings and do sim ple lettering.

19

MAINTENANCE

D POW ERPLANT

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipm ent such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, sta irs, casin gs, and trim
made of wood in an establishm ent. Work involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g :
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, draw ings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’s handtools, portable
power tools, and standard m easuring instrum ents; making standard shop
com putations relating to dim ensions of work; selectin g m aterials n ec­
essary for the work. In general, the work of the m aintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

F ires stationary boilers to furnish the establishm ent in which
employed with heat, power, or steam . F eeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a m echanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks w ater and safety
valves. May clean, oil, or a s s is t in repairing boilerroom equipm ent.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE
Perform s a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installatio n , m aintenance, or repair of equipm ent for the generating, d is­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishm ent. Work
involves m ost o f the fo llo w in g : Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipm ent such as generators, transform ers, sw itchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit system s,
or other transm ission equipm ent; working from blueprints, draw ings, lay­
out, or other sp ecificatio n s; locating and diagnosing trouble in the e le c ­
trical system or equipm ent; working standard com putations relating to
load requirem ents of wiring or electrical equipm ent; using a variety of
electrician ’s handtools and m easuring and testin g instrum ents. In gen­
eral, the work of the m aintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
O perates and m aintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (m echanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishm ent in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: O perating and m aintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, motors
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipm ent, steam boilers and
boiler-fed w ater pumps; making equipm ent repairs; keeping a record of
operation of m achinery, tem perature, and fuel consum ption. May a ls o
supervise these operations. H ea d or c h i e f en g in e e r s in e s ta b lish m e n ts
em p loyin g more than o n e en g in eer are e x c lu d e d




.

HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE
A ssist? one or more workers in the skilled m aintenance trades,
by performing specific or general duties of le sse r sk ill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with m aterials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipm ent; assistin g worker by holding m aterials or tools;
performing other unskilled task s as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is perm itted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is oermitted to perform sp ecialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are also performed by workers on a full-tim e b asis.

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
S pecializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling m achines in the construction of m achine-shop tools, gauges,
jig s, fixtures, or d ies. Work involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g : Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing item s reauiring
com plicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision m easuring instrum ents; selectin g feeds, sp eed s, tooling and op­
eration sequence; making n ecessary adjustm ents during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dim ensions. May be required to recog­
nize when tools need dressing, to dress too ls, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, m achine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this classificatio n .

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
Produces replacem ent parts and new parts in making repairs of
m etal parts of m echanical equipment operated in an establishm ent. Work
involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g : Interpreting w ritten instructions and
sp ecific atio n s; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
ch in ist’s handtools and precision m easuring instrum ents; settin g up and

20

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE— Continued
operating standard machine tools; shaping of m etal parts to close toler­
ances; m akin g stan d ard sh o pcom p u tatio nsrelating to dim ensions of work,
•ooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working prop­
erties of the common m etals; selectin g standard m aterials, p arts, and
equipment required for his work; fitting and assem bling parts into me­
chanical equipm ent. In general, the m achinist’s work normally requires
a rounded training in m achine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
R epairs autom obiles, b uses, m otortrucks, and tractors of an e s ­
tablishm ent. Work involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g : Examining autom otive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassem bling equipm ent and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as w renches,
gauges, d rills, or sp ecialized equipm ent in disassem bling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassem bling and installin g the various assem blies in the vehicle
and making n ecessary adjustm ents; alining w heels, adjusting brakes and
lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the autom otive
m echanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
R epairs machinery or m echanical equipment of an establishm ent.
Work involves most o f the fo llo w in g : Examining m achines and m echan­
ical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dism antling or partly d is ­
m antling m achines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with item s obtained from stock; ordering the production of a rep lace­
ment part by a m achine shop or sending of the machine to a m achine shop
for major repairs; preparing w ritten sp ecificatio n s for major repairs or
for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassem bling ma­
chines; and making all n ecessary adjustm ents for operation. In general,
the work of a m aintenance m echanic requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classificatio n are workers
whose primary d u ties involve settin g up or adjusting m achines.

MILLWRIGHT
In stalls new m achines or heavy equipm ent and dism antles and
in sta lls m achines or heavy equipm ent when changes in the plant layout




MILLWRIGHT— Continued

are required. Work involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g : Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other sp ecificatio n s; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop com putations re­
lating to stre s se s , strength of m aterials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipm ent; selectin g standard tools, equipm ent, and parts
to be used; installin g and m aintaining in good order power transm ission
equipm ent such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the m ill­
w right’s work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

OILER
L u bricates, with oil or g rease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of m echanical equipm ent of an establishm ent.

PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
P ain ts and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishm ent. Work in v o lv e s the fo llo w in g : Knowledge of surface pecu­
lia rities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in
nail holes and in terstices; applying p aint with spray gun or brush. May
mix colors, o ils, w hite lead, and other p aint ingredients to obtain proper
color or consistency. In general, the work of the m aintenance painter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
In stalls or repairs w ater, steam , g as, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishm ent. Work involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g :
Laying out of work and m easuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other w ritten sp ecificatio n s; cutting various siz e s of pipe to correct
lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxy acetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma­
chine; threading pipe with stocks and d ies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven m achines; assem bling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop com putations relating to p ressu res,
flow, and size of pipe required; making standard te s ts to determ ine
whether finished pipes meet sp ecificatio n s. In general, the work of the
m aintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers prim arily en g a g ed in in sta llin g and repairing building
san ita tion or heatin g s y s t e m s are e x c lu d e d

.

21

TOOL AND DIE MAKER

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
K eeps the plumbing system of an establishm ent in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installatio n of
vents and traps in plumbing system ; in stallin g or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’s snake. In
general, the work of the m aintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and experience.

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
F ab ricates, in sta lls, and m aintains in good repair the sheetm etal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, v entilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishm ent. Work involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g : Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-m etal m aintenance work from blueprints, m odels,
or other specifications; setting up and operating all available types of
sheet-m etal-w orking m achines; using a variety of handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assem bling; installin g sheetm etal articles as required. In general, the work of the m aintenance
sheet-m etal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

(D iem aker; jig maker; toolm aker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
C onstructs and repairs m achine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
involves m ost o f the fo llo w in g : Planning and laying out of work from
m odels, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written sp ecificatio n s;
using a variety of tool and die maker’s handtools and precision m eas­
uring instrum ents, understanding of the working properties of common
m etals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipm ent; making necessary shop com putations relating to dim ensions
of work, sp eed s, feeds, and tooling of m achines; heattreating of m etal
parts during fabrication as w ell as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required q u alities; working to close tolerances; fitting and assem bling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; selectin g appropriate
m aterials, tools, and p ro cesses. In general, the tool and die maker’s
work requires a rounded training in m achine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classificatio n .

CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT

ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER— Continued

T ransports passengers betw een floors of an office building,
apartment house, departm ent store, hotel or sim ilar establishm ent.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

GUARD

or other establishm ent. D uties involve a com bin ation o f the fo llo w in g :
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipm ent, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor m ainte­
nance serv ices; cleaning lavatories, show ers, and restroom s. Workers
who sp ecialize in window w ashing are excluded.

men who are sta tio n e d at ga te and ch e c k on id e n tity o f e m p lo y e e s and

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING

Performs routine police d u ties, either at fixed post or on tour,
m aintaining order, using arms or force where n ecessary . In clu d es g a te -

.
JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
oth er person s en terin g

(Sweeper; charwoman; jan itress)
C leans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washroom s, or prem ises of an office, apartm ent house, or commercial




(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or w arehouse helper)
A worker employed in a w arehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishm ent whose duties involve on e or more o f the fo llo w ­
in g: Loading and unloading various m aterials and m erchandise on or

22

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING— Continued
from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing m aterials or m erchandise in proper storage location; tran s­
porting m aterials or m erchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow.
L o n g sh o rem en

,

w ho load and unload sh ip s are e x c lu d e d .

ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; w arehouse stockm an)
F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
m erchandise in accordance with specificatio n s on sales slip s, custom ers’
orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indi­
cating item s filled or om itted, keep records of outgoing orders, req u isi­
tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform
other related duties.

PACKER, SHIPPING
P repares finished products for shipm ent or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container em ployed, and method of shipm ent. Work requires the
placing of item s in shipping containers and may in v o lv e on e or more o f
the fo llo w in g : Knowledge of various item s of stock in order to verify
content; selectio n of appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other m aterial to prevent
breakage or dam age; closing and sealing container; applying lab els or
entering identifying data on container. P a c k e r s who a ls o m ake w ood en
b o x e s or cra tes are e x c lu d e d .

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
P repares m erchandise for shipm ent, or receives and is respon­
sible for incom ing shipm ents of m erchandise or other m aterials. Shipping
work in v o l v e s : A knowledge of shipping procedures, p ractices, routes,
available m eans of transportation and rates; and preparing records of the
goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping
charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or a s s is t in
preparing the m erchandise for shipm ent. R e c e iv in g work i n v o l v e s : V eri­
fying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipm ents ag ain st
bills of lading, invoices, or other records; checking for shortages and
rejecting damaged goods; routing m erchandise or m aterials to proper de­
partm ents; m aintaining necessary records and file s.




SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK— Continued
For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssifie d as follows:
R e c e iv i n g clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and r e c e iv in g clerk

TRUCKDRIVER
D rives a truck within a city or ind u strial area to transport ma­
terials, m erchandise, equipm ent, or men betw een various types of e sta b ­
lishm ents such as: M anufacturing p lants, freight depots, w arehouses,
w holesale and retail establishm ents, or between retail establishm ents
and custom ers’ houses or places of b u sin ess. May also load or unload
truck with or w ithout helpers, make minor m echanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers

are excluded.

For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size
and type of equipm ent, as follow s: (T ractor-trailer should be rated on
the b asis of trailer capacity.)
T ru ckdriver (com bin a tion o f s i z e s l i s t e d s e p a r a te ly )
Truckdriver, ligh t (under lV2 t o n s )
T ru ckdriver, medium ( l l 2 to and in clu din g 4 to n s )
/
Truckdriver, h e a v y (o v e r 4 to n s, trailer t y p e )
Truckdriver, h e a v y ( o v e r 4 to n s, oth er than trailer t y p e )

TRUCKER, POWER
O perates a manually controlled gaso lin e- or electric-pow ered
truck or tractor to transport goods and m aterials of all kinds about a
w arehouse, m anufacturing plant, or other establishm ent.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of
truck, as follow s:
Trucker, p o w e r (fo rk lift)
Trucker, p o w e r (oth er than fo rk lift)

WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of prem ises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illeg al entry.
*

U.S. G O V E R N M E N T P R I N T I N G OF F IC E : I 9 6 0 0 — 5 5 3 9 7 7

Occupational Wage Surveys

O ccupational wage surveys are being conducted in 60 major labor markets during late 1959 and early I960. T hese bulletins, when av ailable,
may be purchased from the Superintendent of Docum ents, U.S. Government Printing O ffice, Washington 25, D .C., or from any of the BLS regional
sales offices shown on the inside front cover.
A summary bulletin containing data for all labor m arkets, combined with additional an aly sis, w ill be issu ed early in 1961.
B ulletins for the areas listed below are now available.




Baltim ore, Md., September 1959—BLS B ull. 1265-7, price 15 cents
Boston, M ass., October 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-8, price 25 cents
Buffalo, N .Y ., October 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-4, price 20 cents
Canton, Ohio, December 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-10, price 25 cents
C incinnati, Ohio—Ky., February I960—BLS B ull. 1265-31, price 25 cents
C leveland, Ohio, September 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-1, price 20 cents
D allas, T ex., October 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-3, price 20 cents
Dayton, Ohio, December 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-9, price 25 cents
Denver, C olo., December 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-11, price 25 cents
Des M oines, Iowa, February I960—BLS Bull. 1265-30, price 25 cents
D etroit, Mich., January I960—BLS Bull. 1265-25, price 20 cents
Fort Worth, T ex., November 1959—BLS B ull. 1265-13, price 25 cents
Indianapolis, Ind., January I960—BLS Bull. 1265-22, price 25 cents
Jackson, M iss., February I960—BLS Bull. 1265-26, price 25 cents
Jacksonville, F la ., December 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-14, price 25 cents
K ansas C ity, Mo.—K ans., January I960—BLS B ull. 1265-23, price 25 cents
Memphis, Tenn., January I960—BLS Bull. 1265-19, price 25 cents
Miami, F la ., December 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-6, price 20 cents
M inneapolis—St. Paul, Minn., January I960—BLS Bull. 1265-21, price 25 cents
Newark and Jersey City, N .J., February I960—BLS Bull. 1265-28, price 25 cents
P hiladelphia, P a ., November 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-16, price 25 cents
Pittsburgh, P a ., December 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-20, price 25 cents
Portland, Maine, November 1959—BLS B ull. 1265-12, price 20 cents
Richmond, V a., February I960—BLS Bull. 1265-24, price 25 cents
St. L ouis, Mo., October 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-5, price 25 cents
San B ernardino—R iverside—Ontario, C alif., November 1959—
BLS B ull. 1265-15, price 25 cents
San F ran cisco —Oakland, C alif., January I960—BLS Bull. 1265-17, price 25 cents
S eattle, Wash., August 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-2, price 25 cents
Sioux F a lls, S. D ak., February I960—BLS Bull. 1265-29, price 20 cents
W ashington, D .C .—Md.—V a., December 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-18, price 25 cents
York, P a ., February I960—BLS Bull. 1265-27, price 25 cents





Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102