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Occupational Wage Survey
i

WATERBURY, CONNECTICUT
MARCH I960

Bulletin No. 1265-36




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner




Bureau of Labor Statistics Regional Offices

I INew England Region
18 Oliver Street
Boston 10, Mass.
Liberty 2-2115

Occupational Wage Survey
WATERBURY, CONNECTICUT




MARCH 1960

Bulletin No. 1265-36
June 1960
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing O ffice, Washington 25, D.C.

Price 25 cents




Contents

Preface

Page
T h e C o m m u n ity W a g e S u rv e y P r o g r a m
I n t r o d u c t io n ______________________________________________________________________




T a b le s :
1.

E s ta b lis h m e n ts and w o r k e r s w ith in sc o p e o f s u r v e y ____________

A:

O c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s :*
A - 1. O ffic e o c c u p a t io n s _____________________________________
A - 2 . P r o f e s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l o c c u p a tio n s ___________
A - 3 . M a in ten a n c e and p o w e r p la n t o c c u p a tio n s __________
A - 4 . C u s to d ia l and m a t e r i a l m o v e m e n t o c c u p a t io n s ___

B:

E s ta b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and s u p p le m e n ta ry w a g e
p r o v is io n s ; *
B - 1.
S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l s ______________________________________________
B - 2 . M in im u m e n tr a n c e s a la r ie s f o r w o m e n
o f f ic e w o r k e r s ______________________________
B -3 .
S ch ed u led w e e k ly h o u r s __-___________________________________
B -4 .
P a id h o lid a y s __________________________________________________
B -5 .
P a id v a c a t i o n s _________________________________________________
B -6 .
H e a lth , in s u r a n c e , and p e n s io n p lan s ______________________

A p p e n d ix :

O c c u p a tio n a l d e s c r ip tio n s ______________________________________

* NO TE:
S im ila r ta b u la tio n s f o r th e s e and o th e r ite m s
a r e a v a ila b le in the r e p o r t s f o r s u r v e y s in o th e r m a jo r
a r e a s . A d ir e c t o r y in d ic a tin g date o f study and the p r ic e
o f the r e p o r t s is a v a ila b le upon r e q u e s t .

iii

2

oo

T h is r e p o r t w a s p r e p a r e d in the B ureau *s r e g io n a l
o ffic e in B o s to n , M a s s . , b y L e o E p s te in , under the d i r e c ­
tio n o f P a u l V . M u lk e rn , R e g io n a l W a g e and In d u s tr ia l
R e la tio n s A n a ly s t.

1

x f so

T h e B u re a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s r e g u la r ly con du cts
a r e a w id e w a g e s u r v e y s in a n u m b er o f im p o r ta n t in d u s ­
t r i a l c e n te r s .
T h e s tu d ie s , m a d e f r o m la te f a l l to e a r ly
s p rin g , r e la te to o c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s and r e la t e d s u p p le ­
m e n ta r y b e n e fits .
A p r e lim in a r y r e p o r t is a v a ila b le on
c o m p le tio n o f the study in e a c h a r e a , u s u a lly in th e m onth
fo llo w in g the p a y r o ll p e r io d s tu d ied . T h is b u lle tin p r o v id e s
a d d itio n a l data not in c lu d e d in the e a r l i e r r e p o r t . A c o n ­
s o lid a te d a n a ly t ic a l b u lle tin s u m m a r iz in g the r e s u lt s o f a ll
o f the y e a r ’ s s u r v e y s is is s u e d a f t e r c o m p le t io n o f the
fin a l a r e a b u lle tin f o r the c u r r e n t roun d o f s u r v e y s .

10
11
11
12
13
15

17




Occupational Wage Survey—Water bury, Conn.
Introduction

T his area is one of sev er a l im portant in d u strial cen ters in
which the U .S . D epartm ent of L a b o r's B ureau of Labor S ta tistic s has
conducted su rveys of occupational earnings and related wage benefits
on an areaw ide b a s is . In this area, data w ere obtained by personal
v isits of B ureau field econ om ists to rep resen tative estab lish m en ts
w ithin six broad industry division s: M anufacturing; tra n sp o rta tio n ,1
com m unication, and other public u tilities; w h olesale trade; reta il
trade; fin an ce, in su ran ce, and real estate; and s e r v ic e s . M ajor in ­
dustry groups excluded from th ese stu dies are governm ent operations
and the con struction and extractive in d u stries. E stab lish m en ts having
few er than a p rescrib ed num ber of w orkers are om itted also b ecau se
they furnish in su fficien t em ploym ent in the occupations studied to w a r­
rant in clu sion . W herever p o ssib le, separate tabulations are provided
for each of the broad industry d iv isio n s.
T hese su rveys are conducted on a sam ple b a sis b ecause of the
u n n ecessary co st involved in surveying all estab lish m en ts. To obtain
appropriate accu racy at m inim um c o st, a greater proportion of large
than of sm a ll estab lish m en ts is studied. In com bining the data, how ­
ever, a ll estab lish m en ts are given their appropriate w eight. E stim a tes
b ased on the estab lish m en ts studied are presen ted , th erefo re, as r e ­
lating to all estab lish m en ts in the industry grouping and area, e x ­
cep t for those below the m inim um siz e studied.
O ccupations and E arnings
The occupations selec te d for study are com m on to a variety
of m anufacturing and nonm anufacturing in d u stries. O ccupational c la s ­
sifica tio n is based on a uniform set of job d escrip tion s designed to
take account of in terestab lish m en t variation in duties w ithin the sam e
job. (See appendix for listin g of th ese d escrip tio n s.) E arnings data are
presen ted (in the A -s e r ie s tab les) for the follow ing types of occupa­
tions: (a) O ffice cle r ic a l; (b) p ro fession a l and technical; (c) m ain te­
nance and power plant; and (d) custodial and m aterial m ovem ent.
O ccupational em ploym ent and earnings data are shown for
fu ll-tim e w ork ers, i. e . , those hired to work a regular w eekly sch ed ­
ule in the given occupational c la ssifica tio n . E arnings data exclude
prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on w eekends, h olidays, and

late sh ifts. N onproduction bonuses are excluded a lso , but c o st-o fliving bonuses and incen tive earn in gs are included. W here w eekly
hours are reported, as for office c le r ic a l occu p ation s, referen ce is
to the work sched ules (rounded to the n ea rest half hour) for which
straigh t-tim e sa la rie s are paid; average w eekly earnings for th ese
occupations have been rounded to the n ea rest half d ollar.
A verage earnings of m en and wom en are presented sep arately
for selected occupations in which both sex es are com m only em ployed.
D ifferen ces in pay le v e ls of m en and w om en in th ese occupations are
la rg ely due to (l) d ifferen ces in the distribution of the sex es am ong
in d u stries and estab lish m en ts; (2) d ifferen ces in sp ecific duties p er­
formed', although the occupations are appropriately c la ssifie d w ithin
the sam e survey job description; and (3) d ifferen ces in length of s e r v ­
ice or m erit review when individual sa la r ie s are adjusted on this basis.
Longer average serv ic e of m en would resu lt in higher average pay
when both sex es are em ployed w ithin the sam e rate range. Job
d escrip tion s used in cla ssify in g em p loyees in th ese su rveys are u su ­
ally m ore gen era lized than those u sed in individual estab lish m en ts to
allow for m inor d ifferen ces am ong estab lish m en ts in sp ecific duties
perform ed.
O ccupational em ploym ent estim a tes rep resen t the total in all
estab lish m en ts within the scope of the study and not the num ber actu­
ally su rveyed . B ecau se of d ifferen ces in occupational structure among
estab lish m en ts, the estim a tes of occupational em ploym ent obtained
from the sam ple of estab lish m en ts studied serv e only to indicate the
relative im portance of the jobs studied. T hese d ifferen ces in o ccu ­
pational structure do not m a teria lly affect the accu racy of the ea rn ­
ings data.

E stablishm en t P ra c tic es and Supplem entary Wage P ro v isio n s
Inform ation is p resen ted a lso (in the B -s e r ie s tab les) on s e ­
lected estab lish m en t p ra ctices and supplem entary ben efits as they r e ­
late to office and plant w o rk ers. The term "office w ork ers, " as used
in this bulletin, includes working su p erv iso rs and n on su p ervisory
w orkers perform ing c le r ic a l or related functions, and exclu d es adm in­
istr a tiv e, ex ecu tive, and p ro fession a l p erson n el. "Plant w orkers" in ­
clude working forem en and all n on su p ervisory w orkers (including lea d m
1
R ailroads, fo rm erly excluded from the scope of th ese stu d ies, en and tra in ees) engaged in nonoffice functions. A d m in istrative,
have been added in n early a ll of the areas to be studied during the
execu tive, and p ro fession a l em p lo y ees, and force-acco u n t con stru ction
w inter of 1959-60; ra ilroad s w ill be added in the rem aining area s next
em p loyees who are u tilized as a sep arate work force are excluded .
C afeteria w orkers and routem en are excluded in m anufacturing in d u s­
y ea r. F or scope of su rvey in this area, se e footnote to "transporta­
tries, but are included as plant w orkers in nonm anufacturing in d u stries.
tion, com m unication, and other public u tilitie s " in table 1.




2

Table 1. Establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied in Waterbury, Conn. , 1 by major industry division, 2 March I960
Number of establishments
Workers in establishments
Minimum
employment
Within scope of study
Studied
Industry division
in establish­
Within
ments in scope
Studied
scope of
of study
study 3
Total4
Office
Plant
Total 4
All divisions -----------------------------------------------Manufacturing ______________________________
Nonmanufacturing _ -------------------------------------Transportation, communication, and
other public utilities 5_____________________
Wholesale trade ---------------------------------------Retail trade ------ ------------------------------------Finance, insurance, and real estate _________
Services 7________________________________

51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51

117
78
39
8
2
19
7
3

57
33
24
8
1
9
3
3

41,300
35,800
5, 500
2,000
200
2,000
1,000
300

5,200
4, 300
900
300
(M
(*)
(6)
(6)

30,000
26, 700
3, 300
1,300
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6;

32,500
28,490
4,010
1,960
120
1,090
570
270

1 The Waterbury Metropolitan area (Waterbury city; Naugatuck borough; Beacon Falls, Cheshire, Middlebury, Prospect, and Wolcott towns in New Haven County;
Thomaston and Watertown towns in Litchfield County). The "workers within scope of study" estimates shown in this table provide a reasonably accurate description of
the size and composition of the labor force included in this survey. The estimates are not intended, however, to serve as a basis of comparison with other area employment
indexes to measure employment trends or levels since (l) planning of wage surveys requires the use of establishment data compiled considerably in advance of the payroll
period studied, and (2) small establishments are excluded from the scope of the survey.
The 1957 revised edition of the Standard Industrial Classification Manual was used in classifying establishments by industry division. Major changes from the earlier
edition (used in the Bureau's labor market wage survey program prior to the winter of 1958— are the transfer of milk pasteurization plants and ready-mixed concrete
59)
establishments from trade (wholesale or retail) to manufacturing, and the transfer of radio and television broadcasting from services to the transportation, communication,
and other public utilities division.
3 Includes all establishments with total employment at or above the minimum-size limitation. Alloutlets (within the area) of companies in such industries as trade,
finance, auto repair service, and motion-picture theaters are considered as 1 establishment.
4 Includes executive, professional, and other workers excluded from the separate office and plant categories.
5 Railroads were included; taxicabs and services incidental to water transportation were excluded.
6 This industry division is represented in estimates for "all industries" and "nonmanufacturing" in the Series A and B tables, although coverage was insufficient to
justify separate presentation of data.
7 Hotels; personal services; business services; automobile repair shops; motion pictures; nonprofit membership organizations; and engineering and architectural services.




3

The sum m ary of vacation plans is lim ited to form al arran ge­
excluding inform al plans w hereby tim e off with pay is granted
at the d iscretio n of the em p loyer. Separate estim a tes are provided
according to em ployer practice in com puting vacation paym ents, such
as tim e paym ents, percent of annual earn in gs, or fla t-su m am ounts.
H ow ever, in the tabulations of vacation allow an ces, paym ents not on
a tim e b a sis w ere converted; for exam ple, a paym ent of 2 p e r c e n t of
annual earnings w as con sid ered as the equivalent of 1 w eek’s pay.

Data are presen ted for all health , in su ran ce, and pension
plans for which at le a st a part of the c o st is borne by the em p loyer,
excepting only leg al req u irem en ts such as w ork m en 's com p ensation
and so cia l secu rity . Such plans include those underw ritten by a co m ­
m ercia l insuran ce com pany and those provided through a union fund or
paid d irectly by the em ployer out of cu rren t operating funds or from
a fund se t asid e for this purpose. Death b en efits are included as a
form of life in su ran ce.
S ick n ess and accident insuran ce is lim ited' to that type of in ­
surance under which predeterm ined ca sh paym ents are m ade d irectly
to the insured on a w eekly or m onthly b a sis during illn e s s or accident
d isab ility. Inform ation is p resen ted for all such plans to which the
em ployer con trib u tes. -H ow ever, in New York and New J e r se y , which
have enacted tem porary d isab ility insuran ce law s which require e m ­
ployer co n trib u tio n s,4 plans are included only if the em p loyer (1) con ­
tributes m ore than is leg a lly required, or (2) provides the em ployee
with b en efits which ex ceed the req u irem en ts of the law . Tabulations
of paid sick -lea v e plans are lim ited to form al plans 5 w hich provide
full pay or a proportion of the w ork er's pay during absence from work
b ecau se of illn e s s . Separate tabulations are provided accord ing to
(l) plans which provide full pay and no waiting period, and (2) plans
providing eith er partial pay or a w aiting period. In addition to the
presentation of the proportions o f w orkers who are provided sick n ess
and accident insurance or paid sick le a v e ,' an unduplicated total is
shown of w orkers who receiv e eith er or both types of b en efits.
C atastrophe in su ran ce, som etim es referred to as extended
m ed ical in su ran ce, inclu des those plans which are designed to p rotect
em p loyees in ca se of sick n ess and injury involving ex p en ses beyond
the norm al coverage of h osp italization , m ed ica l, and su rgical plans.
M edical insuran ce re fe rs to plans providing for com p lete or partial
paym ent of d octors' fe e s . Such plans m ay be underw ritten by co m m er­
cia l insurance com panies or nonprofit organizations or they m ay be
self-in su r ed . Tabulations of retirem en t pension plans are lim ited to
those plans that provide m onthly paym ents for the rem ainder of the
w o rk er's life .

2 An estab lish m en t was co n sid ered as having a policy if it m et
eith er of the follow ing conditions: (1) O perated late sh ifts at the tim e
of the su rvey, or (2) had form al p rovision s coverin g late sh ifts.
3 Scheduled w eekly hours for office w orkers (first sectio n of
table B -3 ) in su rveys m ade prior to late 1957 and ea rly 1958 w ere
p resen ted in term s of the proportion of w om en office w orkers e m ­
ployed in o ffices with the indicated w eekly hours for w om en w o rk ers.

4 The tem porary d isab ility law s in C aliforn ia and Rhode Island
do not require em ployer con trib u tion s.
5 An estab lish m en t w as con sid ered as having a form al plan if
it estab lish ed at le a st the m inim um num ber of days of sick leave that
could be expected by each em p lo yee. Such a plan need not be w ritten ,
but inform al sic k -le a v e allow an ces, d eterm in ed on an individual b a s is ,
w ere excluded.

Shift differential data (table B - l) are lim ited to m anufacturing
in d u stries. T his inform ation is presented both in term s of (a) esta b ­
lish m en t p o lic y ,2 p resented in term s of total plant w orker em p loy­
m ent, and (b) effective p ra ctice, p resented on the b a sis of w orkers
actually em ployed on the sp ecified sh ift at the tim e of the su rvey.
In estab lish m en ts having varied d ifferen tia ls, the amount applying to
a m ajority w as used o r, if no amount applied to a m ajority, the c la s ­
sification "other" was u sed . In estab lish m en ts in which som e la te shift hours are paid at norm al ra te s, a d ifferential was record ed only
if it applied to a m ajority of the shift hours.
M inim um en tran ce */ates (table B -2 ) relate only to the esta b ­
lish m en ts v isited . They are presented on an estab lish m en t, rather
than on an em ploym ent b a sis. P aid holidays; paid vacations; and
health, in su ran ce, and pension plans are treated sta tistica lly on the
b a sis that th ese are applicable to all plant or office w orkers if a m a­
jority of such w orkers are elig ib le or m ay eventually qualify for the
p ra ctices liste d . Scheduled hours are treated sta tistica lly on the b a sis
that th ese are applicable to all plant or office w orkers if a m ajority
are c o v e r e d .3 B ecau se of rounding, sum s of individual item s in these
tabulations m ay not equal to ta ls.
The fir s t part of the paid holidays table p resen ts the num ­
b er of whole and half holidays actually provided. The second part
com b ines whole and half holidays to show total holiday tim e .
m e n ts ,




A * O c c u p a t io n a l E a r n in g s

4

Table A-l. Office Occupations

(Average straigh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, W aterbury, Conn. , M arch I960)
Average
Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

Weekly
Weekly
hours 1 earnings1
(Standard) (Standard)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Under 40.00 45.00 50.00 55.00 60.00 65. 00 70. 00 75.00 80.00 85.00 90. 00 95.00 100.00 105.00 n o . oo 115. 00 120.00
$
~
“
”
"
“
_
40. 00 45.00 50.00 55.00 60.00 65.00 70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00

Men
C lerks, accounting, cla ss A ------------ -------------------------M anufacturing----- ---- -------------------------------- --------

33
23

4 0 .0 $92. 00
39.0 92.00

.

Office boys ----------------------------------------------------------- ------M anufacturing-----------------------------------------------------------

28
24

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

60. 50
63.00

.

Tabulating-m achine operators, cla ss B _______________

18

4 0 .0

86. 50

Women
B ille r s, m achine (billing machine) ------------------------------

19

39.5

62. 00

Bookkeeping-m achine operators, c la ss A ___ ___

23

39.0

Bookkeeping-m achine operators, c la ss B ____________

47

C lerks, accounting, c la ss A ___________________________
M anufacturing___ _________________________________
N onm anufacturing--------------------------------- --------- -------

.

.
“

.
'

"

_
~

.
"

2
1

3
3

4
1

4
4

7
6

3
6
2 ------_

3
2

-

3
3

4
4

5
5

6
6

1
1

.
-

.
-

.
-

-

-

-

-

_

2

3

'5

2

2

.

2

2

.

1

_

_

_

_

_

------j—

2
-

5
4

_

2
1
_

_

_

.

2

3

1

4

2

_

3

2

1

_

66.00

6

2

3

1

3

3

4

1

40. 0

61. 50

11

15

11

3

3

1

3

109
90
19

4 0 .0
40. 5
39.5

84. 50
84. 50
86.00

-

“

~

-

2
2
“

2
2

2
2
_

1
1
*

10
6
4

28
28
~

19
15
4

10
9
1

14
14
■

4
4
~

8
8

5
5
■

2
2

2
■ "i

C lerks, accounting, c la ss B ___________________________
M anufacturing__________ _________________ __ ____
N onm anufacturing---------------- -----------------------__

111
97
14

4 0.0
40.0
39. 5

66. 50
67. 50
59. 50

1
1

2
2

6
5
1

9
8
1

14
13
1

21
1$
3

14
13
1

7
4
3

21
21
■

9
8
1

5
5

1
1
“

1
1

_
-

_
■

_
~

-

C lerks, file, c la ss A _________________________ ____ M anufacturing__________________ ___________

26
25

4 0 .0
4 o .o

68.00
67.00

-

.

.
"

2
2

2
2

3
3

13
13

4
4

_
_

.
-

-

C lerks, file, c la ss B ____________________________ ,___ M anufacturing________ ____ ___ ____ ____
N onm anufacturing-------------------------- __ ------- -------

57
39.5 54.00
25----- ■ 4o;o_ ' 58. 50
32
39. 5 50.00

3
3

2
2

15
2
13

15
----7----8

9
7
2

2
2

5
4
1

5
3
2

1

!
1
.
“

C lerks, order __________________________________________
M anufacturing---------------- ------------------------- -

60
53

40. 5
41.0

71. 00
72. bO

_
~

-

_
“

_

8
6

8
4

15
15

12
12

6
6

C lerks, p a y r o ll_________ __ ______ ____ ____ ___
M anufacturing---------------- ------------------------------------ _

108
101

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

77. 50
78. 50

.
-

_
*

_

_
-

8
6

11
7

19
19

11
11

Com ptom eter operators -------- ------- ------- — __ __ _
M anufacturing----- ------- ------- ---------- -----

54
37

39.5
37. 5

65. 50
66.00

.

2

_

_

2

10
7

32
28

7
1

See footnote at end of table.




”

.
“

.
-

-

-

“

"

-

-

4
4

3
3

3
3

_
’

.
-

1
"

14
14

10
10

12
12

12
12

6
6

2
2

1
1

_

.

_

_

.

”

-

_
■

'

_
~

-

_
-

~

-

■

-

~

_
-

_
-

.
■

3
2

_
-

_
-

.
-

_

.

_

.

5
Table A-1. Office Occupations-Continued

(A verage straigh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, W aterbury, Conn., M arch I960)
Avebaqb
Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

$
$
S
$
$
$
$
$
$
40. 00 45. 00 50.00 55.00 6 0 . 00 65.00 70.00 $75. 00 $80. 00 *85. 00 $9 0 .0 0 $ 95.00 1 0 0 .0 0 $
105.00 $ 1 0.0 0 $
1
115.00 1 2 0.0 0
and
40.00 under 50.00 55.00 6 0 .0 0 65.00 70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 1 0 0.0 0 105.00 1 1 0.0 0 115.00 12 0.0 0 125.00
45.00

Weekly Weekly . Under
noun
earnings 1
(Standard) (Standard) $

Wom en— Continued
Duplicating-m achine operators
(M im eograph or Ditto)
— — -------------------------Manufacturing ----- — ----------------------------------------------

20
20

40. 0
40. 0

$67. 00
67. 00

-

-

1
1

-

4
4

2
2

5
5

3
3

5
5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Keypunch operators ----------- — ----------------------------------M anufacturing --------------------------------------------------------

91
75

4 0 .0
. 40. 0

70. 50
71. 50

.
-

.
-

.
-

3
1

11
6

12
10

17
15

10

9

26
26

6

4

1

1
1

1
1

.
-

.

.
-

"

-

S ecretaries — — — ------------- — — -----------------------M anufacturing ------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing -------------------------------------------------

226
200
26

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

91 . 00
93. 00
73. 50

"

r“

*

2
2

2
1

3

5
3

15
8
7

12
12

33
24
9

12
1

13

35
33

19
19
■

17
17
■

19
18

17

2

16
1

13
13
"

9
9
-

z 14
14
-

Stenographers, general --------- --------------- . .--------------M anufacturing -------------------------------*----------------------Nonmanufacturing -------------------------------------------------

219
204
15

40. 0
40. 0
38. 0

75.50
75. 50
77. 00

-

1
1

■

-

1
1

5
5
■

28
28
*

23

17
17
'

25
23

24
24
~

32
28
4

32
29
3

22
1

4

6
2

1
1

■

_

■

.
-

.
“

.
"

.
"

1

1

1

_
"

12

2
2

7
7

5
5

13
13

8
13
8 . 13

_
-

_
■

5

2

"

4
4

4

6

4
1

4
3

3
3

5
5

6
6

11
11

.
"

_

.
"

.
"

-

4

5

5

5

9
9

.
"

.
_

.
“

.

_
■

.
"

.

.

~

.

3
3

3
3

9
9

_
“

1
1

_
"

_
“

.
"

_
“

2
2

7
7

_

_

_

_

_

"

"

1
1

.

■

11
11

.
_

.

4
4

_

_

;

2

22
1

~
2

Stenographers, technical ----------------------------------------M anufacturing -------------------------------------------------------

62
62

40. 0
40. 0

92.50
92. 50

.
-

Switchboard operators ----------------------------------------------M anufacturing -------------------------------------------------------

50
37

39.5
39.5

7 3. 50
79.50

-

-

Switchboard op erator-recep tion ists ----------------- ,------Manufacturing -----------------------------------------------------

39
34

40. 0
40. 0

65.00
66. 50

-

1
-

7
6

2
2

4

6

4
4

_

Tabulating-m achine operators, c la ss B ------------------M anufacturing -------------------------------------------------------

17
17

39.5
39.5

88. 50
88. 50

-

_
"

.
■

.
“

_
"

.
~

1
1

_
"

T ranscribing-m achine operators, general ---- --------M anufacturing ----------------------- -----------------------------

26

32

40. 0
40. 0

71.00
75. 00

-

-

4

7
5

3
3

3
3

2

3
3

T ypists, cla ss A --------------------------- *---------------------------------------M anufacturing -----------------------------------------------------

69
65

40. 0
4 0 .0

73. 00
7 3. 50

-

\_
-

3
3

12
10

8
8

9
7

26
26

T ypists, cla ss B -------------------------------------------------------------------M anufacturing

143
131

40. 0
40. 0

62. 00
62.00

-

"

li

9

23

20

22

20

1

34

33

24
20

2

14
14

12

11
11

5

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which em ployees receive their regular straigh t-tim e salaries and the earnings correspond to th ese w eekly hours.
1 Includes 5 w orkers at $ 125 and over.




23

1

"

1
1

_
.

"

_

.

.

.

.

.

"

“

"

~

~

“

_

_

_

_

.

_

Table A-2. Professional and Technical.Occupations
( A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e w e e k ly h ou rs and ea rn in g s fo r s e le c te d o c cu p ation s stud ied on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u str y d iv is io n , W a t e r b u r y , C onn . , M a r c h I9 60 )

S e x , occu p ation , and in d u stry d iv isio n

Number
of
workers

Aviraq*
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STKAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$ x $
$
Weeklyi Weekly 65. 00 7 0 .0 0 75. 00 8 0 .0 0 85. 00 9 0 .0 0 95. 00 1 0 0 .0 0 105. 00 n o . do 115. 00 1 2 0 .0 0 125. 00 130 .0 0
(Standard) (Standard) un3er
7 0 .0 0 75. 00 8 0 .0 0 8 5 .0 0 90. 00 9 5 .0 0 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 115. 00 1 20.0 0 125.0 0 130 .0 0 135 .0 0

M en
D r a ftsm e n , s e n i o r ----------- ----------------------------------------------M anufacturing _ — — ----- - --------- - ----- — -

94
94

40. 0 $113. 50
4 0 .0
113. 50

_ ---------—
—

79
78

40. 0
40. 0

86. 50
6
86. 50 — 5—

36
35

40. 0
40. 0

91. 50
9 1 .0 0

D r a ftsm e n , ju n ior
M anufacturing

-----

“

~

"

1
1

2
2

2
2

13
13

8
8

11
11

9
9

6

14
13

13
13

7
7

9
9

7
7

13
13

2
2

2
2

4
4

8
8

8
8

9
9

1
1

3
2

1
1

6

7
7

W om en
N u r s e s, in d u stria l (r e g iste r e d ) -----------------------------------M anufacturing - — — —
- — — —




1

2
2

.

Stan dard h o u r s r e f le c t the w ork w eek fo r w hich e m p lo y e e s r e c e iv e th e ir r e g u la r s t r a ig h t -t im e , s a la r ie s and th e e a rn in g s c o r r e s p o n d to t h e s e w e e k ly h o u r s .

16
16

“

12
12

13
13
■

7
Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(A verage straigh t-tim e hourly earnings for m en in selected occupations studied on an area b asis
by industry division, Waterbury, Conn. , M arch I960)
Occupation and industry division

Number
of
workers

$
Average
hourly
earnings 1 Under 1.60
and
$
under
1. 60
1. 70

C arpenters, m aintenance __________ __ _____
M anufacturing----------------------------------------------E lectrician s, m aintenance --------------------------- _
M anufacturing----- --------------------- ------- ----

64
62
179
172

$ 2 .4 1
£. 42
2.66
2. 65

_
■

E ngineers, stationary ______
__ ___ ____
M anufacturing--------------------- — -----------------Firem en, stationary boiler -----------------------------M anufacturing___ __ ------------------- ------H elpers, trad es, m aintenance __________ ___
M anufacturing------------- ---- ---- ---- ---N onm anufacturing____ __ ___
______
Public u tilities 3 _________________________
M achinists, m aintenance ------— — ---M anufacturing---- -------------------— ----

66
61
50
42
105
83
22
22
271
269

2. 76
2. 78
1.96
1.95
2. 10
2.08
2. 14
2. 14
2.63
2. 63

_
2 14
11
4
4
_
-

.
-

M echanics, autom otive (m aintenance) ________
M anufacturing------- ---------------- -----------------N onm anufacturing---- __ —
--------Public u tilities 3 ___ ______
__ ____
M echanics, m a in ten an ce_________ __________
M anufacturing___ __ ---- ---- ----------

100
34
66
64
123
114

2.43
2 .45
2.42
2.44
2.59
2. 57

.
_
-

_
-

M illwrights ___ _______ _____________________
M anufacturing---------- __
--------- -----------O ilers -------------- ------------------------------------ -------M anufacturing----------------------------------------------P ainters, m aintenance ------------------------------------M anufacturing_____ ___
__ __ ----

102
102
34
34
33
32

2. 56
2. 56
2. 31
2. 31
2. 39
2 .42

_
_
1
■

55
2. 51
P lum bers, m aintenance ----------- —
Manufacturing __ — — __ __
--------- — -----33----- 2. 51
30
2. 72
Sheet-m etal w orkers, m ain ten an ce____________
30
M anufacturing------------ — ------------------2. 72

.
.

Tool and die m akers --------- __
-------------M anufacturing-----------------------------------------------

_

1
2
3

600
3ffo

2. 80
2. 80

_
*

3
3
_
-

.

.
.

$
1.80

$1.90

1. 80

1.90

2. 00

2. 10

1
_
-

7
7
1
1
.
1
1
9
6
3
3
1
1

4
4
2
2

5
5
5
5

6
6
4
4

16
l6

.
2
2
6
4
2
2
6
6

_
1
1
12
9
3
3
12
12

.
10
10
9
2
7
7
4
4

.
6
6
6
4
2
2
25
25

.
"
_

2
2
2
2

2
2
3
3

.
4
4

3
3
3
2
2

2
2
1
1
1
1

2
2
_

4
4
3
3
_
"

3
3
2
2
_
-

5
5
13
13
5
5

_

4
4
_
~

2
2
_
“

_

_

_

1
“
4
4
14
14
_
-

_
"

_
-

_

.

_
"
.

E xcludes p rem iu m pay for overtim e and for w ork on w eekends, holidays, and late sh ifts.
W ork ers w ere distributed as follow s: 2 at $ 1 to $ 1. 20; 3 at $ 1. 20 to $ 1 .4 0 ; 9 at $ 1. 40 to $ 1 .6 0 .
tra n sp ortation , com m unication, and other public u tilities.




NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
$2. 00 $2. 10 $
2. 20 $2. 30 $2 .40 $2. 50 2. 60 *2.70 *2.80

$1.70

2. 20

2
------- T *
2
2

2. 30

$
3.00

$3. 10

3.00

3. 10

3. 20

$3. 20
and
over

2. 50

2. 60

2. 70

2. 80

2 .90

5
4
7
7

5
5
6
6

8
8
12
12

3
3
45
45

11
19
18

9
9
14
13

36
36

12
7

_
-

.
-

.
_

17
17
_
6
6
-

5
5
_
3
3
-

13
9
_
_
-

“
_
-

57
56

27
27

2
2
_
_
11
11

_
_
_
-

21
20

12
12
_
_
44
44

10
10

28
28
18
18

3
3
12
7
5
5
5
11
11

31
31

_
-

3
3
_
_
*
3
3

18
18
18
_
-

26
8
18
18
1
1

17
15
2
2
8
8

15
4
11
11
20
20

6
5
1
1
60
6o •

.
"
6
6

6
6
6
13
8

2
2
2
_

3
3
3
4
-

.
_
-

"
_

1
1
3
3
3
3

1
1
_
3
3

12
12
_

17
17
2
2
1
1 r

29
29
10
10
8
6

3
3
_
1
1

23
23
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

T -

8
8
8
8

.
4
4

_
"

_
■

.
_
■

115
115

72
72

69
69

50
5b

13
13

4
4
.
6
6

2 .4 0

$2.90

10
10

3
5
17
-------— ------5----- -----17---_
6
1
6
1
■
33
33

37
37

57
57

7
3
7 -------3—
4
7
4
7
64
64

82
82

"

8
Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations

(Average straigh t-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, W aterbury, C onn., M arch I960)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

Occupation 1 and industry division

Number
of
workers

Average,
hourly
Aiming*

$
$
$
$
$
$
S
$
*
$
$
$
% $
Under 1 .0 0 1 . 10 1 .2 0 1.30 1.40 1.50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2 .0 0 2 . 10 2 . 20 2. 30 $2.40 $2.50 $2 . 60 *2. 70 $ 2.80 $2. 90 *3. 00 $3. 10 $ 3. 20 $ 3. 30 t 3.40
and
$
under
and
1 .0 0 1 .1 0 1 .2 0 1. 30 1.40 1.50 1.6 0 1.70 1.80 1 .90 2 .0 0 2 . 10 2 . 20 2. 30 2. 40
2.50 2.60 2.70 2.80 2.90 3.00 3. 10 3. 20 3. 30 3.40 over

E levator operators, passenger -----------

18

$ 1. 27

Guards -------------------------------------------------

97
92

2 . 08
2. 07

442
325

1.82
1. 92

-

11
2

1

5

42

6

48
13

Janitors, porters, and cleaners
(women) ----------------------------------------------

17

1.45

-

4

2

2

-

L aborers, m aterial handling -------------M anufacturing ---------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ----------------------------------

398
329
69
35

1.95
1 .9 8
1.84
2. 30

-

6

9
3

7
2
5

2
2
-

Order fille r s __________________________

82

2 . 19

2. 29

"

6

6

4
4

P ack ers, shipping (men) -------------------------M anufacturing -------------- ---------------------------

189
185

2 . 12

_
■

_

P ack ers, shipping (women) ---------------------M anufacturing ------------------------------------------

39
39

1 .8 6
1 .86

.

R eceiving clerk s -----------------------------------------Manufacturing ------------------------------------------

47
37

2 . 00
2 . 00

Janitors, porters, and cleaners
(men) ---------------------------------- --------------

PiiVili r n f ilii’ifia ^

M a n u fa c tu r in g -----------------------------------------

68

2. 13

Shipping clerk s ---------------------------------Manufacturing ----- -----------------------

35
32

2 . 18

Shipping and receiving clerk s ------------M anufacturing --------------------------- ------

64
62

2. 27
2 . 26

T ru ck d rivers 4 ------- -------- ------ -------M anufacturing ---------------------------------Nonmanufacturing --------------------------Public u tilities 5 ------------------------T ruckdrivers, light (under
1 V 2 tons) ------- ------ --------- ---M a m ifa r tn r in g . . .

See footnotes at end of table,




2. 24

9

4

2

2

3
3

2
2

7
7

23
23

19
19

29
26

38
29

36
30

26
19

81
76

3

1

-

-

1

-

4

9
7
2

13

56
48

8

31
27
4

18
18

24
24

31
31
-

“

“

"

4
2

~

_
-

_
“

_
“

2

20

.

■

_
~

1
1

3
3

.
"

.
"

.
~

_
“

_

.
-

.

.

1

.

■

2. 16
2. 10
2. 23
2. 36

-

38
38

1.87
1.87

_

-

1
12

-

-

23
23

5

2
2

90
90

5

1

1
1

10
10

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

59
59
-

50
50
-

35
17
18
18

3
12
12

15

7
2
5

5
5

1
1

6
6

3
3

4
4

5
5

3

8

2

"

'

4
4

29
29

18

15
15

10
10

4
4

10
10

13
13

84
84

1
1

.
“

2
2

1
1

3
3

4
4

3
3

12
12

2
2

4
4

1
1

.

5
3

6
3

2
2

2
2

11

5
5

.

11
11

.

.

-

1

4
2

3
3

3
3

.

1
1

3
3

6

_

_

_

3

3

1
1

1
1

-

-

-

2
2

5

3
3

_
“

_

18
18

3

3
3

-

-

6

.

.

_

'

.

"

238
137
101
75

3

32
32

"

■

-

_
-

-

_

_

_

~

-

_

"

9

6

2
2

10
10

.

1
1

.
■

.
"

3
"

6
6

-

4
4

1
1

1
1

3
3

3
3

3
3

6
6

9
9

22
22

8
6

5
5

6
6

3
3

6
4
2

39
15
24

10
10
-

8
8

10
10
-

41
41
-

80
27
53
53

20
20
20

9
7
2
2

6
6
— 5 ~ — g-

-

_

9

_

6
---- g—

4

6

6
6

9

-

4

6

1

1

.
"

-

-

2
2

14
14

-

-

-

-

-

3
3
.

1
1

-

-

-

-

1
1

-

-

3
3

“

-

"

-

-

-

9
Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations-Continued

(A verage straigh t-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, W aterbury, Conn. , M arch I960)

1
2
3
4

Data lim ited to m en w orkers except where otherw ise indicated.
E xcludes prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on w eekends, holidays, and late shifts.
T ransportation, com m unication, and other public u tilities.
Includes all drivers regard less of siz e and type of truck operated.







B: Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Table B-l. .Shift Differentials

(P e rc e n t of m anufacturing plant w o rk ers in esta b lish m en ts having form al p r o v isio n s for shift w ork, and in esta b lish m en ts
actu ally operating la te sh ifts by type and am ount of d ifferen tia l, W aterbury, C on n ., M arch I960)
In esta b lish m en ts having form al
p r o v isio n s 1 for—
Second shift
T hird or other
w ork
shift w ork

In e sta b lish m en ts actu ally
operating—
Third or other
Second shift
shift

------------------- ------ — — --------------------

8 9 .5

7 9 .4

18. 5

5. 6

W ith shift pay d ifferen tia l -----------------------------

8 9 .5

7 9 .4

18. 5

5. 6

U niform cen ts (per hour) -------------------------5 cen ts _________________________ _______
6 c ent s _-_______________________________
7 cen ts
----------------------------------------------7 V 2 cen ts ----------------- — — --------------9 nftnts _
_ ____ __ __ _____
10 cen ts ---------- — ------------ ---------------1 3 cen ts ----------------- — --------------------13V3 cen ts — --------------------------------- 15 cen ts — ------- ~ __ --------------------16 cen ts ------------------------------------------------O ver 16 cen ts — — ------ — ----------

65. 0
6 .0
1 3 .5
4. 2
1 9 .2
1 4 .7
5 .4
1. 2
.8
-

65. 7

14. 1

5. 2

1 7 .4
_
3 .4
_
26. 0
3 .5
14. 7
.7

3 .7
.4
4 .5
3 .5
.4
.4
.2
~

U niform p ercen ta ge -------------------------5 p ercen t - ---------------- — -------------6V2 p ercen t _ — --------- ---- ---------7 p ercen t ------ ------ — — -----------7V2 p ercen t _ — — ___ __________
8V2 p ercen t --------------------------------------10 p ercen t -----------------------------------------

2 0 .6
15. 0
3 .6

3 .4
1 .9
.5

2 .0

13. 7
1. 6
5. 6
4. 2
.8
1 .5

Other form al pay d if f e r e n t ia l ----------------No shift pay d ifferen tia l _ — - -----

3 .9

-

1.0

-

'

'

'

T otal

-

_

1 .0

1.0

_

1 .4
.2
1. 7
1. 8

.1
.4

.3
.1
“

“

1
Includ es esta b lish m en ts cu rren tly op erating late sh ifts, and e sta b lish m en ts w ith form al p r o v isio n s coverin g la te sh ifts
even though th ey w ere not cu rren tly op erating la te sh ifts.

11
Table B-2. Minimum Entrance Salaries for W om en O ffice W orkers
(D istrib u tio n of e sta b lish m e n ts studied in a ll in d u str ie s and in in d u stry d iv isio n s by m in im u m en tran ce s a la r y fo r se le c te d c a te g o r ie s
o f in ex p er ien c ed w om en o ffic e w o r k e r s , W a terb u ry , C o n n ., M a r c h I960)
In exp erien ced ty p ists

M in im u m w ee k ly s a l a r y

1

1

B a se d on standard w eekly h ours

A ll
in d u str ie s

A ll
sch e d u les

O ther in ex p erien c ed c le r ic a l w o r k e r s

N onm anufacturing

M anuf ac tarin g

40

3

of—

M an ufacturing

B a se d on standard w ee k ly h ours

A ll
in d u strie s

A ll
sch e d u les

A ll
sc h e d u les

40

2

N on m anufacturing

40

3

of—

A ll
sch e d u les

40

E sta b lish m e n ts s t u d ie d -----------------------------------------------------------------------

57

33

X XX

24

XXX

57

33

XXX

24

XXX

E sta b lish m e n ts having a s p e c ifie d m i n im u m ____________________

26

17

15

9

6

35

21

17

14

11

2
2

_
-

_
-

_

2

_

5
-

4
-

3

3
3

3
3

2
2
1
2
1

2

1

-

15

1
10

XXX

16

6

XXX

Under $ 4 0 . 0 0 ....................................
„ __
$ 4 0 . 00 and under $ 4 2 . 50
__ —
$ 4 2 . 50 and under $ 4 5 . 00
....................
$ 4 5 . 00 and under $ 4 7 . 50 ________________________________________
$ 4 7 . 50 and under $ 50 . 00
$ 5 0 . 00 and under $ 52. 50 ________________________________________
$ 5 2 . 50 and under $ 5 5 . 0 0
.............................................
......
...................
$ 5 5 . 00 and under $ 5 7 . 50
_
$ 5 7 . 50l and ove r
E s ta b lish m e n ts having no s p e c ifie d m in im u m

-

9

2

4

2
2

------

E sta b lish m e n ts w hich did not e m p lo y w o r k e r s
----in this c a te g o r y _

1
2
3

8

6

2

1
1
2
1

2
5
1
10
2
6

_

-

_
-

-

1

7
3
3
3

-

4

1

2

1

5

XXX

15

1
10

1
2
2
1
1

XXX

5

XXX

10

XXX

7

2

XXX

5

XXX

1

3

9
-

4
3
3

1
2
2
1
1

L o w e st s a la r y rate fo r m a lly e s ta b lish e d fo r h irin g in ex p erien c ed w o r k e r s fo r typing o r other c le r ic a l jo b s .
R a te s a p p licab le to m e s s e n g e r s , o ffic e g i r ls , o r s im ila r su b c le r ic a l jo b s a r e not c o n sid e r e d .
H ou rs r e fle c t the w ork w eek f o r w hich e m p lo y e e s r e c e iv e th e ir re g u la r s t r a ig h t -t im e s a la r ie s .
D ata a r e p r e se n te d fo r a ll w ork w eek s com b in ed , and fo r the m o s t c o m m o n w ork w eek r ep o rted .

Table B-3. Scheduled Weekly Hours,
(P e r c e n t d istrib u tion o f o ffic e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u str ie s and in in d u stry d iv isio n s b y schedu led w eek ly h ours
o f f i r s t - s h i f t w o r k e r s , W a ter b u r y , C o n n ., M a r c h I9 60 )

OFFICE WORKERS
W e ek ly h ours

A ll

w ork ers .

35

Under
h ou rs
— 35 h ours
371/* h ours
O ver
and u nder 40 h ou rs 40 h ou rs
— O ve r 40 and under 4 4 h o u r s _____________________
4 4 sfnd under 4 8 h ours
4 8 h ours
O ver 4 8 h ours
___ ^

373/2

1
2
s
4

All industries1

Manufacturing

PLANT WORKERS
Public utilities 2

100

100

100

_

_

_

1

1
1
13
84
1

-

5
13
80

1

(1!
n

-

-

2
98
-

■

All industries 3
100

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

100

100

(4)
4
4

2
69
7
3
9
2

In cludes data f o r w h o lesa le tra d e ; r e ta il tra d e ; fin a n ce, in su r a n ce , and r e a l e sta te ; and s e r v ic e s in addition to th ose in d u str y d iv isio n s shown s e p a r a te ly .
T r a n sp o r ta tio n , com m u n ic a tio n , and oth er public u tilit ie s .
In clud es data f o r w h o le sa le tr a d e , r e t a il tr a d e , r e a l e s t a t e , and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in d u stry d iv isio n s shown se p a r a te ly .
L e s s than 0 . 5 p e r c e n t.




.

4
4
-

72
7

1
10

2

-

91

-

6
3

12
Table B-4. Paid Holidays
( P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o f f i c e an d p la n t w o r k e r s in a ll i n d u s t r i e s a n d in i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s b y n u m b e r o f p a id h o l id a y s
p r o v i d e d a n n u a lly , W a t e r b u r y , C o n n . , M a r c h I 9 6 0 )
OFFICE WORKERS

PLANT WORKERS

Item
All industries 1

A ll w o rk e r s

------- ----- -------

-------------------

-----

W o r k e r s i n e s t a b l is h m e n t s p r o v id i n g
p a id h o l id a y s ------ — --------------------------------- —
W o r k e r s i n e s t a b l is h m e n t s p r o v id i n g
n o p a i d h o l id a y s ------------------- -----------------------------

N um ber o f

9
3
5
6
6
7
7
8
8
9
9

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

All industries3

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

2
3
2
79

13
-

days

h a lf h o l id a y s --------------------------------------------------------h o l id a y s --------------------------------------------------------------h o l id a y s —___ - ___ _____ ____________ _ _ _ __
_ _ _ _
h o lid a y s . —------------------------------------------------------------h o l id a y s p lu s 1 h a lf d a y ----- ----------------------------h o l id a y s ___ _____ _______ _____ _________
h o l id a y s p l u s 2 h a lf d a y s ---------- -----------------h o l id a y s ________ _ ______ ______________ _______ _
_
_
h o l id a y s p lu s 1 h a lf d a y --------- ------------------------h o l id a y s __________________________________________
h o l id a y s p lu s 1 h a lf d a y ------------------ ---------------h o l id a y s
-----------------------------------------------------

(; )
2

(*)

62
11
12
1
4
1
7

1
(4)
71
13
12
1
1
-

3
29
68
-

(4 )
(4 )
3
4
2
75
-

11
1
3
-

-

-

11
2
1
-

36
51
-

'

T ota l h o lid a y

9 or

8V 2
8 or

—

6
1
/
z
4
l/
z
7 or

6 or
5 or

3 or

tim e 5

— __ — __ -------- ---------------------------— ------------- .------------------------------m o r e d a y s -----------------------------------------------------or m ore days
— --------- —----------------m o r e d a y s ---------------------------------- --------------- m o r e d a y s ---------------- ------------------------------------o r m o r e d a y s ------------------------------------------------m o r e d a y s -----------------------------------------------------m o r e d a y s ------------------ ----------------------------------o r m o r e d a y s — -------------------------------------—----m o r e d a y s .— —---------------------------------------------

11 d a y s

9V 2 o r m o r e d a y s

1

'

7
8
12
13
36
98
98
99
99
99
100

.

1

2
28
98
99
100
100
100
100

_

_

_

.

68
97
100
100
100
100
100
100

3
5
16
91
93
97
99
100
100

1
3
13
92
95
98
100
100
100

51
51
87
87
87
100
100
100
100

I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; fi n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e ; an d s e r v i c e s in a d d it io n t o t h o s e i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s sh o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t io n , a n d o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s .
I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e , r e t a i l t r a d e , r e a l e s t a t e , a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d it io n t o t h o s e i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
L e s s th a n 0 . 5 p e r c e n t .
A l l c o m b in a t i o n s o f f u l l a n d h a lf d a y s th a t a d d t o th e s a m e a m o u n t a r e c o m b in e d ; f o r e x a m p le , th e p r o p o r t i o n o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g a t o t a l o f 7 d a y s in c lu d e s t h o s e w it h 7 f u l l d a y s an d
n o h a l f d a y s , 6 f u l l d a y s a n d 2 h a l f d a y s , 5 f u l l d a y s a n d 4 h a lf d a y s , a n d s o o n . P r o p o r t i o n s w e r e t h e n c u m u la t e d .
2
3
4

*




13

Table B-5. Paid Vacations
( P e r c e n t d i s t r ib u t io n o f o f f i c e a n d p la n t w o r k e r s in a l l i n d u s t r ie s a n d in i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s b y v a c a t i o n p a y
p r o v i s i o n s , W a t e r b u r y , C o n n . , M a r c h I9 6 0 )

PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS
V a c a t io n p o l i c y

A ll w o r k e r s

__

— —

All industries 1

— -

-

--------—

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

All industries3

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

100

100

100

100

100

100

100
100
-

100
100
-

100
100
_

99
30
67
2

100
23
75
2

100
100
-

1

■

■

M e th o d o f p o y m o n t

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s p r o v id i n g
p a id v a c a t i o n s
-----------------------------------------------------L e n g t h - o f - t i m e p a y m e n t ___ ________________
P e r c e n t a g e p a y m e n t -------- __ ------------------- F l a t - s u m p a y m e n t ----------- „
__ __ -------- _
O t h e r ____ _____________ _____ _____ _____ _
W o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g
n o p a id v a c a t i o n s
--------- __ ------------------------------

A m ount o f v a c a tio n

"

"
■

“

3
78
8
1

1
83
9
1

27
-

47
11
-

50
9
-

36
-

“

-

-

-

9
90

4
95

65
35

91
2
5

94
2
3

69
31

3
( 5)
96

3
96

2
7
91

73
11
14

78
13
8

22
78

3
97

3
97

2
98

52
12
35

56
13
31

22
78

.

2
2
94
-

2
2
96
-

100
-

pay4

A fte r 6 m on th s o f s e r v ic e
U nder 1 w eek
__ _____ _____
_________________
1 w p p It
_
............. .
O v e r 1 a n d t in d e r 2 w e e k s _______________________
2 w e e k s ___________ ___ ___________________________

_

_

A fte r 1 y e a r o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek
_____________________________ _____________ O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s _____ _ ____________ _
_
2 w e e k s ____________________ _____ ________________

A fte r 2 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek
____________ ___ _____ — -------------------- O v e r 1 an d u n d e r 2 w e e k s _____ ___________ —
2 w e e k s -------- — -------- -------- — ------------------------

A fte r 3 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek
--------------------- — — — __ -----------------------O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ----------------------------------2 w e e k s ------------------------- —-------- — ------------------------

A fte r 5 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w e e k --------------- ------------------ __ __ — _ -----------O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ----------------------------------2 w e e k s ________________________ ___________________
O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ________________________
3 w e e k s ________________________ ___________________

S e e f o o t n o t e s at en d o f t a b le .




( 5)
98
1
1

_

100
-

92
8

_

14
Table B-5. Paid Vacations-Continued
( P e r c e n t d i s t r ib u t io n o f o f f i c e a n d p la n t w o r k e r s in a l l i n d u s t r i e s a n d in in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s b y v a c a t i o n p a y
p r o v i s i o n s , W a t e r b u r y , C o n n . , M a r c h I9 6 0 )

OFFICE WORKERS
V a c a t io n p o l i c y

A m ou n t o f v a c a tio n

p a y 4—

All industries 1

Manufacturing

PLANT WORKERS
Public utilities2

All industries 3

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

C o n tin u e d

A f t e r 10 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e
1 w e e k _______________ ___________________________ __
2 w e e k s _____ _______________________________________
O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ________________________
3 w e e k s _ __________________ __ ___________________

(*)

32
41
27

_

_

33
48
19

37
-

63

2
45
37
15

2
44
41
13

2
7
90

2
5
93

2
6
90
1

2
5
93

2
6
68
22

2
5
71
21

53

_

47

A f t e r 15 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e

1

w e e k __________ ____________ _______________________
2 w e e k s _______________
__ ___ __ ________ __
3 w e e k s _________________ ________ _____________________

( 5)

4
96

_

_

3
97

6
94

_
3

_
6

96
2

94

.
_
100

A f t e r 20 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e
1 w e e k _____________________________________________________
w e e k s _______________ _________________________________
3 w e e k s ------------------------------------------------------- -------------------4 w e e k s ____________________ ________ __ __ __________

2

( 5)

4
93
3

“

_
_
96
4

-

A f t e r 25 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e
1 w e e k _____________________________________

2 w eeks

_________

3 w e e k s ___________________________________________ __
4 w e e k s _____________________ _______________________

*
2
3
4
se r v ice
5

( 5)
4
78
18

_
3
81
16

_
6
38
55

I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; f i n a n c e , in s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e ; a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d it io n t o t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t io n , a n d o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s .
I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e , r e t a i l t r a d e , r e a l e s t a t e , a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d it io n t o t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
P e r i o d s o f s e r v i c e w e r e a r b i t r a r i l y c h o s e n a n d d o n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t th e in d iv id u a l p r o v i s i o n s f o r p r o g r e s s i o n s .
F o r e x a m p le , th e c h a n g e s in p r o p o r t i o n s
in c lu d e c h a n g e s in p r o v i s i o n s o c c u r r i n g b e t w e e n 5 a n d 10 y e a r s .
L e s s th a n 0 . 5 p e r c e n t .

N O T E : In th e t a b u la t io n s o f v a c a t i o n a ll o w a n c e s b y y e a r s o f s e r v i c e , p a y m e n t s o t h e r th a n " le n g t h o f t i m e , " s u c h a s p e r c e n t a g e o f a n n u a l e a r n i n g s
t o a n e q u iv a le n t t im e b a s i s ; f o r e x a m p le , a p a y m e n t o f 2 p e r c e n t o f a n n u a l e a r n i n g s w a s c o n s i d e r e d a s 1 w e e k 's p a y .




_

_
49
51

in d ic a t e d

o r fla t -s u m p a y m en ts,

w ere

at 10

years'

co n v e r te d

15
Table B-6. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
( P e r c e n t o f o f f i c e an d p la n t w o r k e r s in a l l i n d u s t r ie s an d in in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s e m p l o y e d in e s t a b l is h m e n t s p r o v id i n g
h e a lt h , i n s u r a n c e , o r p e n s io n b e n e f it s , W a t e r b u r y , C o n n . , M a r c h I9 6 0 )
OFFICE WORKERS

PLANT WORKERS

T y p e o f b e n e fit
All industries *

A l l w o r k e rs

-------------------------------------------------------------

Manufacturing

100

100

100

Public utilities 2

All industries 3

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

100

100

100

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s p r o v id i n g :

98

99

100

97

100

100

83

92

37

81

87

47

98

99

100

94

96

95

S ic k n e s s a n d a c c i d e n t in s u r a n c e ----------S ic k l e a v e (f u l l p a y a n d n o
w a it in g p e r i o d ) --------------------- ---------------S ic k le a v e ( p a r t i a l p a y o r
------------------w a it in g p e r i o d ) ----------------

46

50

67

88

94

64

87

90

45

8

4

31

1

1

15

16

"

H o s p i t a l iz a t io n in s u r a n c e ----------------------------S u r g i c a l in s u r a n c e ------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------M e d i c a l in s u r a n c e
C a t a s t r o p h e i n s u r a n c e ----------------------------------R e t i r e m e n t p e n s io n --------- ---------------------------N o h e a lth , in s u r a n c e , o r p e n s io n p la n -----

93
93
88
43
94
1

99
99
98
43
97
1

95
95
92
14
88
2

100
100
97
14
91

69
69
69
39
95

L if e in s u r a n c e - --------------------------------------------A c c i d e n t a l d e a t h an d d i s m e m b e r m e n t
in s u r a n c e --------------------------------------------------------S ic k n e s s a n d a c c i d e n t i n s u r a n c e o r
s i c k l e a v e o r b o t h 4 --------------------------------------

79
79
79
62
81

1 I n c lu d e s d a t a f o r w h o le s a l e t r a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; fi n a n c e , in s u r a n c e , an d r e a l e s t a t e ; and s e r v i c e s in a d d i t io n t o t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
2 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t io n , a n d o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s .
3 I n c lu d e s d a t a f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e , r e t a i l t r a d e , r e a l e s t a t e , an d s e r v i c e s in a d d it io n t o t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
4 U n d u p lic a t e d t o t a l o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g s i c k l e a v e o r s i c k n e s s an d a c c i d e n t in s u r a n c e s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y b e lo w .
S i c k - l e a v e p la n s a r e li m i t e d t o t h o s e w h ic h d e f i n i t e l y
th e m in im u m n u m b e r o f d a y s ' p a y th a t c a n b e e x p e c t e d b y e a c h e m p l o y e e . I n f o r m a l s i c k - l e a v e a l l o w a n c e s d e t e r m in e d o n a n in d iv id u a l b a s i s a r e e x c l u d e d .




e s t a b l i s h at le a s t




17

Appendix: Occupational Descriptions
The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’s wage surveys is to a s s is t its
field staff in classify in g into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangem ents from establishm ent to establishm ent and from area to area. T his is
essen tial in order to perm it the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
B ecause of this em phasis on interestablishm ent and interarea com parability of occupational content, the
Bureau’s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishm ents or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying th ese job d escriptions, the B ureau's field econom ists are
instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped w orkers,
part-tim e, temporary, and probationary workers.
O F F IC E

BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

P repares statem ents, b ills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electrom atic typew riter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, b illers, m achine, are
classified by type of m achine, as follow s:
B ille r , m achine (h illin g m achine)— U se s a sp ecial billing ma­
chine (Moon H opkins, E llio tt F ish er, Burroughs, etc ., which are
com bination typing and adding m achines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from custom ers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums etc. U sually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and to tals which are autom atically accum ulated by m achine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of
the bill being prepared and is often done oh a fanfold m achine.
B ille r , machine (b o o k k e e p in g m ach in e ) — U ses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, E llio tt F ish er, Remington Rand, e tc ., which
may or may not have typew riter keyboard) to prepare custom ers*
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. G enerally in ­
volves the sim ultaneous entry of figures on custom ers ’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine autom atically accum ulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and com putes and usually prints autom atically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping. Works from uniform and standard types of sa le s and
credit slip s.

O perates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, E llio tt
F ish er, Sundstrand, Burroughs, N ational C ash R egister, with or w ithout
a typew riter keyboard) to keep a record of b u sin ess tran sactio n s.




C la s s A — K eeps a s e t of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in b asic bookkeeping principles and fam iliarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. D eterm ines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit item s to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated rep o rts, balance
sh eets, and other records by hand.
C la s s B — K eeps a record of one or more phases or sectio n s of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of b asic book­
keeping* P h ases or sectio n s include accounts payable, payroll,
custom ers’ accounts (not including a sim ple type of billing described
under biller, m achine), co st distribution, expense d istribution, in ­
ventory control, etc. May check or a s s is t in preparation of tria l
balances and prepare control sh eets for the accounting departm ent.

CLERK, ACCOUNTING
CZoss A — Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­

ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sectio n s of a com­
plete se t of books or records relating to one phase of an e sta b lish ­
m ent's b u sin ess tran sactio n s. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

18

CLERK, ACCOUNTING— Continued
payable; exam ining and coding invoices or vouchers w ith proper a c ­
counting distribution; requires judgment and experience in making
proper assig n ation s and allo catio n s. May a s s is t in preparing, ad­
justing and closing journal en tries; may d irect c la s s B accounting
clerks.

Class B — Under supervision, performs one or more routine a c ­
counting operations such as posting sim ple journal vouchers or a c ­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher reg isters;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers, or posting sim ple co st accounting d ata. T his
job does not require a knowledge of accounting and bookkeeping
principles but is found in offices in which the more routine account­
ing work is subdivided on a functional b asis among sev eral w orkers.
CLERK, FILE
Class A — In an estab lish ed filing system containing a num­

ber of varied su bject m atter file s, c la ssifie s and indexes co rres­
pondence or other m aterial; may also file this m aterial. May keep
records of various types in conjunction with files or may super­
v ise others in filing and locating m aterial in the file s. May per­
form incidental clerical d u ties.
Class B — Perform s routine filing, usually of m aterial th at has
already been classified or which is easily identifiab le, or lo cates
or a s s is ts in locating m aterial in file s. May perform incidental
clerical d u ties.

CLERK, ORDER
R eceives custom ers9 orders for m aterial or m erchandise by m ail,
phone, or personally. D uties involve any combination o f the following:
Quoting prices to custom ers; making out an order sh eet listin g the item s
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of item s on order
sheet; distributing older sh eets to respective departm ents to be filled.
May check with credit departm ent to determ ine credit rating of custom er,
acknowledge receipt of orders from custom ers, follow up orders to see
that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check ship­
ping invoices with original orders.




CLERK, PAYROLL
Com putes w ages of company em ployees and en ters the n eces­
sary data on the payroll sh e e ts. D uties involve: C alculating w orkers9
earnings based on time or production records; posting calcu lated data
on payroll sh eet, showing information such as worker’s name, working
days, tim e, rate, deductions for insurance, and to tal w ages due. May
make out paychecks and a s s is t paym aster in making up and d istrib ut­
ing pay envelopes. May use a calculating m achine.

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tic al com putations. T his job is not to be confused with th at of s ta tis ­
tic al or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tom eter but, in w hich, use of this machine is incidental to perform ance
of other du ties.
DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
Under general supervision and with no supervisory resp o n si­
b ilitie s, reproduces m ultiple copies of typew ritten or handw ritten m atter,
using a Mimeograph or D itto m achine. Makes n ecessary adjustm ent such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare ste n c il or D itto m aster. May keep file of used ste n c ils or D itto
m asters. May sort, co llate, and staple com pleted m aterial.

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory resp o n si­
b ilitie s, records accounting and s ta tis tic a l data on tabulating cards by
punching a series of holes in the cards in a sp ecified sequence, using
an alphabetical or a num erical keypunch m achine, following w ritten in­
formation on records. May duplicate cards by using the duplicating de­
vice attached to m achine.'M ay keep files of punch card s. May verify
own work or work of others.

OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Perform s various routine duties such as running errands, op­
erating minor office m achines such as sealers or m ailers, opening and
distributing m ail, and other minor clerical work.

19

SECRETARY
Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an ad­
m inistrative or executive position. D uties include making appointm ents
for superior; receiving people coming into office; answ ering and making
phone calls; handling personal and important or confidential m ail, and
writing routine correspondence on own in itiativ e; taking dictation (where
transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
sim ilar machine, and transcribing dictation or the recorded information
reproduced on a transcribing m achine. May prepare sp ecial reports or
memorandums for inform ation of superior.

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Prim ary duty is to take dictation from one or more p ersons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar m achine, involving a nor­
mal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a typew riter.
May also type from w ritten copy. May also set up and keep files in or­
der, keep sim ple records, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine
work (see transcribing-m achine operator).

STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar m achine, involving a varied
technical or sp ecialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on
scien tific research and to transcribe this dictation on a typew riter. May
also type from w ritten copy. May also se t up and keep files in order,
keep sim ple records, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine work .

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
O perates a single- or m ultiple-position telephone sw itchboard.
D uties involve handling incom ing, outgoing, and intraplant or office c a lls.
May record toll calls and take m essag es. May give information to per­
sons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders. For w orkers
who also act as receptio nists see sw itchboard operator-receptionist.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single p o si­
tion or monitor-type sw itchboard, acts as receptionist and may also type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular du ties. T his typing
or clerical work may take the major part of this w orker's time w hile at
sw itchboard.




TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Class A— O perates a variety of tabulating or electrical a c ­
counting m achines, typically including such m achines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignm ents w ithout clo se supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The com plete reporting and tabulating
assignm ents typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of step s to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagram s and operating sequences of long and complex reports.
Does not include working supervisors performing tabulating-m achine
operations andday-to-day supervision of the work and production of
a group of tabulating-m achine operators.
Class B— O perates more difficult tabulating or electrical ac­
counting m achines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter,,reproducer, and collator. T his work is performed under
specific instructions and may include the perform ance of some wir­
ing from diagram s. The work typically involves, for exam ple, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting ex ercise, a com plete but
sm all tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are well estab lish ed . May also include the training
of new em ployees in the basic operation of the machine.
Class C— O perates sim ple tabulating or electrical account­
ing m achines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with specific instructions. May include sim ple wiring from diagram s
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for exam ple, individual sorting or collating runs, or re­
petitive operations.
TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from transcribing-m achine records. May also type from w ritten
copy and do sim ple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation in­
volving a varied tech n ical or sp ecialized vocabulary such as legal briefs
or reports on scien tific research are not included. A worker who takes
dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar machine is classified
as a stenographer, general.

20

TYPIST

TYPIST— Continued

U ses a typew riter to make copies of various m aterial or to make
out b ills after calcu latio n s have been made by another person. May in­
clude typing of s te n c ils , m ats, or sim ilar m aterials for use in duplicat­
ing p ro cesses. May do clerical work involving little sp ecial training,
such as keeping sim ple records, filing records and reports, or sorting
and distributing incom ing m ail.
— Perform s on e or more o f the fo llo w in g : Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining m aterial from sev eral
sources or resp o n sib ility for correct spelling, sy llab icatio n , puncC la s s A

tuation, e tc ., of tech n ical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; planning layout and typing of com plicated s ta tis tic a l tab les
to m aintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine
form letters varying d etails to su it circum stances.
C la s s B — Perform s on e or more o f the fo llo w in g : Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance p o licies,
etc.; settin g up sim ple standard tabulations, or copying more com­
plex tab les already se t up and spaced properly.

P R O FE S SIO N A L AND T E C H N IC A L

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR

(A ssistan t draftsm an)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by d rafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or m anufacturing purposes.
U ses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare draw ings
from sim ple plans or sk etch es, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsm an.

DRAFTSMAN, LEADER
P lans and d irects activ ities of one or more draftsm en in prep­
aration of working plans and d etail drawings from rough or prelim inary
sketches for engineering, construction, or m anufacturing purposes. D uties
involve a com bination o f the fo llo w in g : Interpreting blueprints, sk etch es,
and w ritten or verbal orders; determ ining work procedures; assigning
duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif­
ficult problem s. May a s s is t subordinates during em ergencies or a s a
regular assignm ent, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad­
m inistrative nature.

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and d etail draw ings from n o tes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or m anufacturing pur­
p o ses. D uties involve a com bin ation o f the fo llo w in g : Preparing work­
ing plans, d etail draw ings, m aps, cro ss-sectio n s, e tc ., to scale by use
of drafting instrum ents; making engineering com putations such as those




DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR— Continued
involved in strength of m aterials, beam s and tru sse s; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dim ensions, m aterials to be used, and q u an tities;
w riting sp ecificatio n s; making adjustm ents or changes in draw ings or
sp ecificatio n s. May ink in lines and letters on pencil draw ings, prepare
d etail units of com plete draw ings, or trace draw ings. Work is frequently
in a sp ecialized field such as architectural, electrical, m echanical, or
structural drafting.

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
A registered nurse who gives nursing serv ice to ill or injured
em ployees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accid en t on the
prem ises of a factory or other establishm ent. D uties involve a com bina tion o f the fo llo w in g : Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of em ployees' inju ries; keeping records of p atients
treated; preparing accid en t reports for com pensation or other purposes;
conducting p hysical exam inations and health evaluations of applicants
and em ployees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environm ent, or other
activ ities affecting the h ealth, w elfare, and safety of a ll personnel.

TRACER
Copies plans and draw ings prepared by others, by placing trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or p en cil. U ses
T -square, com pass, and other drafting to o ls. May prepare sim ple draw­
ings and do sim ple lettering.

21
M A IN TEN A N CE

D PO W E R PL A N T

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER

Perform s the carpentry duties n ecessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipm ent such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, sta irs, casin g s, and trim
made of wood in an establishm ent. Work involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g :
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, draw ings, m odels, or
verbal instru ctio n s; using a variety of carpenter’s hand tools, portable
power tools, and standard measuring instrum ents; making standard shop
com putations relating to dim ensions of work; selectin g m aterials nec­
essary for the work. In general, the work of the m aintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

F ires stationary boilers to furnish the establishm ent in which
employed with heat, power, or steam . F eed s fuels to fire by hand or
operates a m echanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks w ater and safety
valves. May clean, oil, or a s s is t in repairing boilerroom equipm ent.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE
Perform s a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installatio n , m aintenance, or repair of equipm ent for the generating, d is­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishm ent. Work
involves m o st o f th e fo llo w in g : Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipm ent such as generators, transform ers, sw itchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit system s,
or other transm ission equipm ent; working from blueprints, draw ings, lay­
out, or other specifications;.locating and diagnosing trouble in the e le c ­
trical system or equipm ent; working standard com putations relating to
load requirem ents of wiring or electrical equipm ent; using a variety of
electrician ’s handtools and m easuring and testin g instrum ents. In gen­
eral, the work of the m aintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
O perates and m aintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (m echanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishm ent in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: O perating and m aintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, motors^
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipm ent, steam boilers and
boiler-fed w ater pumps; making equipm ent repairs; keeping a record of
operation of m achinery, tem perature, and fuel consum ption. May a ls o
supervise these operations. H ea d or c h i e f en g in e e r s in e s ta b lish m e n ts
em p loyin g more than o n e en g in eer are e x c lu d e d




.

HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE
A ssists one or more workers in the sk illed m aintenance trades,
by performing specific or general duties of le sse r sk ill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with m aterials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipm ent; assistin g worker by holding m aterials or tools;
performing other unskilled task s as directed by journeym an. The kind of
work the helper is perm itted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform sp ecialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are also performed by workers on a full-tim e b asis.

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
S pecializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling m achines in the construction of m achine-shop tools, gauges,
jig s, fixtures, or d ies. Work involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g : Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing item s requiring
com plicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision m easuring instrum ents; selectin g feeds, sp eed s, tooling and op­
eration sequence; making necessary adjustm ents during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dim ensions. May be required to recog­
nize when tools need dressing, to dress too ls, and to se le c t proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, m achine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this classificatio n .

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
Produces replacem ent parts and new parts in making repairs of
m etal parts of m echanical equipment operated in an establishm ent. Work
involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g : Interpreting w ritten instructions and
sp ecificatio n s; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
ch in ist’s handtools and precision m easuring instrum ents; settin g up and

22

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE— Continued
operating standard machine tools; shaping of m etal parts to clo se toler­
ances; making standard shop com putations relating to dim ensions of work,
tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working prop­
erties of the common m etals; selectin g standard m aterials, p arts, and
equipm ent required for his work; fitting and assem bling parts into me­
chanical equipm ent. In general, the m achinist’s work normally requires
a rounded training in m achine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
R epairs autom obiles, b u ses, m otortrucks, and tractors of an e s ­
tablishm ent. Work involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g : Examining autom otive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassem bling equipm ent and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as w renches,
gauges, d rills, or sp ecialized equipm ent in disassem bling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassem bling and installing the various assem blies in the vehicle
and making n ecessary adjustm ents; alining w heels, adjusting brakes and
lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the autom otive
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
R epairs m achinery or m echanical equipm ent of an establishm ent.
Work involves m ost o f the fo llo w in g : Examining m achines and mechan­
ical equipm ent to diagnose source of trouble; dism antling or partly d is­
m antling m achines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with item s obtained from stock; ordering the production of a rep lace­
ment part by a m achine shop or sending of the machine to a m achiue shop
for major repairs; preparing w ritten sp ecificatio n s for major repairs or
for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassem bling ma­
chines; and making all n ecessary adjustm ents for operation. In general,
the work of a m aintenance m echanic requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classificatio n are workers
w hose primary d u ties involve settin g up or adjusting m achines.

MILLWRIGHT
In stalls new m achines or heavy equipm ent and dism antles and
in sta lls m achines or heavy equipm ent when changes in the plant layour




MILLWRIGHT— Continued

are required. Work involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g : Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other sp ecificatio n s; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop ^computations re­
lating to s tre s se s , strength of m aterials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipm ent; selectin g standard tools, equipm ent, and parts
to be used; installin g and m aintaining in good order power transm ission
equipm ent such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the m ill­
w right’s work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

OILER
L ubricates, with oil or g rease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of m echanical equipm ent of an establishm ent.

PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
P ain ts and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishm ent. Work in v o lv e s the fo llo w in g : Knowledge of surface pecu­
lia rities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in
n ail holes and in terstices; applying p aint with spray gun or brush. May
mix colors, o ils, w hite lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper
color or consistency. In general, the work of the m aintenance painter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
In stalls or repairs w ater, steam , g as, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishm ent. Work involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g :
Laying out of work and m easuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other w ritten sp ecificatio n s; cutting various siz e s of pipe to correct
lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma­
chine; threading pipe with stocks and d ies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven m achines; assem bling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop com putations relating to p ressu res,
flow, and size of pipe required; making standard te s ts to determ ine
whether finished pipes meet sp ecificatio n s. In general, the work of the
m aintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. W orkers prim arily en ga g ed in in sta llin g and repairing building
sa n ita tion or h eatin g s y s t e m s are e x c lu d e d

.

23

TOOL AND DIE MAKER

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishm ent in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installatio n of
vents and traps in plumbing system ; installin g or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’s snake. In
general, the work of the m aintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and experience.

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
F ab ricates, in sta lls, and m aintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
sh elv es, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishm ent. Work involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g : Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-m etal maintenance work from blueprints, models,
or other specifications; setting up and operating all available types of
sheet-m etal-w orking m achines; using a variety of handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assem bling; installin g sh eetm etal articles as required. In general, the work of the m aintenance
sheet-m etal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

(D iem aker; jig maker; toolm aker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
C onstructs and repairs m achine-shop tools, gauges, jig s, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
involves m ost o f the fo llo w in g : Planning and laying out of work from
m odels, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written sp ecificatio n s;
using a variety of tool and die maker’s handtools and precision m eas­
uring instrum ents, understanding of the working properties of common
m etals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipm ent; making necessary shop com putations relating to dim ensions
of work, sp eed s, feeds, and tooling of m achines; heattreating of m etal
parts during fabrication as w ell as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required q u alities; working to clo se tolerances; fitting and assem bling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; selectin g appropriate
m aterials, tools, and p ro cesses. In general, the tool and die maker’s
work requires a rounded training in m achine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classificatio n .

CUSTODIAL AND M ATERIAL MOVEMENT

ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER— Continued

T ransports passengers betw een floors of an office building,
apartm ent house, departm ent store, hotel or sim ilar establishm ent.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

or other establishm ent. D uties involve a com bin ation o f the fo llo w in g :
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipm ent, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor m ainte­
nance serv ices; cleaning lavatories, show ers, and restroom s. Workers
who sp ecialize in window w ashing are excluded.

GUARD

Performs routine police d u ties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where n ecessary . In clu d es g a te men who are sta tio n e d at g a te and c h eck on id e n tity o f e m p lo y e e s and
oth er persons en terin g

.
JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER

(Sweeper; charwoman; jan itress)
C leans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or prem ises of an office, apartm ent house, or commercial




LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a w arehouse, m anufacturing plant, store,
or other establishm ent whose duties involve on e or more o f the fo llo w ­
in g: Loading and unloading various m aterials and m erchandise on or

24

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING— Continued

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK—.Continued

from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing m aterials or m erchandise in proper storage location; tran s­
porting m aterials or m erchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow.
L o n g sh o rem en

,

w ho load and unload sh ip s are e x c lu d e d

.

ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; w arehouse stockm an)
F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
m erchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slip s, custom ers’
orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indi­
cating item s filled or om itted, keep records of outgoing orders, req u isi­
tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform
other related duties.

PACKER, SHIPPING
P repares finished products for shipm ent or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container em ployed, and method of shipm ent. Work requires the
placing of item s in shipping containers and may in v o lv e on e or more o f
the fo llo w in g : Knowledge of various item s of stock in order to verify
content; selectio n of appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other m aterial to prevent
breakage or dam age; closing and sealing container; applying lab els or
entering identifying data on container. P a c k e r s who a ls o make w ood en
b o x e s or cra tes are e x c lu d e d

.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
P repares m erchandise for shipm ent, or receives and is respon­
sible for incom ing shipm ents of m erchandise or other m aterials. Shipping
work i n v o l v e s : A knowledge of shipping procedures, p ractices, routes,
available m eans of transportation and rates; and preparing records of the
goods shipped, making up b ills of lading, posting w eight and shipping
charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or a s s is t in
preparing the m erchandise for shipm ent. R e c e iv in g work in v o l v e s : V eri­
fying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipm ents ag ain st
b ills of lading, invoices, or other records; checking for shortages and
rejecting damaged goods; routing m erchandise or m aterials to proper de­
partm ents; m aintaining necessary records and file s.




For wage study purposes, workers are c lassified as follows:
R e c e iv i n g clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and r e c e iv in g clerk

TRUCKDRIVER
D rives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, m erchandise, equipm ent, or men betw een various types of esta b ­
lishm ents such as: M anufacturing p lants, freight depots, w arehouses,
w holesale and retail establishm ents, or betw een retail establishm ents
and custom ers’ houses or places of b u sin ess. May also load or unload
truck with or w ithout helpers, make minor m echanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. D r iv e r -s a le s m e n and o v e r -th e -r o a d drivers
are e x c lu d e d

.

For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size
and type of equipm ent, as follow s: (T ractor-trailer should be rated on
the b asis of trailer capacity.)
T ru ckdriver (com bin a tion o f s i z e s li s t e d se p a r a te ly )
Truckdriver, ligh t (under 1% t o n s )
Truckdriver, medium ( 1
to and in clu din g 4 to n s)
Truckdriver, h e a v y ( o v e r 4 to n s, trailer t y p e )

%

Truckdriver, h e a v y ( o v e r 4 to n s, o th er than trailer ty p e )

TRUCKER, POWER
O perates a manually controlled gaso lin e- or electric-pow ered
truck or tractor to transport goods and m aterials of all kinds about a
w arehouse, m anufacturing plant, or other establishm ent.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of
truck, as follow s:
Trucker, p o w e r (fo rk lift)
Trucker, p o w e r (o th er than fo rk lift)

WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of prem ises periodically in protecting property
ag ainst fire, theft, and illeg al entry.
*

U S. G O V ER N M E N T P R IN T IN G O F F IC E : 1 9 6 0 OF — 5 5 3 5 5 5

Occupational Wage Surveys
O c c u p a t i o n a l w a g e s u r v e y s a r e b e i n g c o n d u c t e d i n 60 m a j o r la b o r m a r k e t s d u r i n g l a t e 1959 a n d e a r l y I960. T h e s e b u l l e t i n s , w h e n a v a i l a b l e ,
m a y b e p u r c h a s e d fr o m t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f D o c u m e n t s , U . S . G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , W a s h in g t o n 25, D . C . , o r fr o m a n y o f t h e B L S r e g i o n a l
s a le s o f f ic e s sh o w n o n in s id e fro n t c o v e r .

A summary bulletin containing data for all labor m arkets, combined with additional an aly sis, will be issu ed early in 1961.
B ulletins for the areas listed below are now available.
Baltim ore, Md., September 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-7, price 15 cents
Boston, M ass., October 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-8, price 25 cents
Buffalo, N.Y., O ctober 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-4, price 20 cents
Canton, Ohio, Decem ber 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-10, price 25 cents
C leveland, Ohio, Septem ber 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-1, price 20 cents
D a l l a s , T e x . , O c t o b e r 1959— L S B u l l . 1265-3, p r i c e 20 c e n t s
B
D a y t o n , O h i o , D e c e m b e r 1959—B L S B u l l . 1265-9, p r i c e 25 c e n t s
D e n v e r , C o l o . , D e c e m b e r 1959—B L S B u l l . 1265-11, p r i c e 25 c e n t s
D e t r o i t , M i c h ., J a n u a r y I960—B L S B u l l . 1265-25, p r i c e 20 c e n t s
F o r t W o r th , T e x . , N o v e m b e r 1959— L S B u l l . 1265-13, p r i c e 25 c e n t s
B
I n d i a n a p o l i s , I n d . , J a n u a r y I960—B L S B u l l . 1265-22, p r i c e 25 c e n t s




J a c k s o n , M i s s . , F e b r u a r y I960—B L S B u l l . 1265-26, p r i c e 25 c e n t s
J a c k s o n v i l l e , F l a . , D e c e m b e r 1959—B L S B u l l . 1265-14, p r i c e 25 c e n t s
K a n s a s C i t y , M o .—K a n s . , J a n u a r y I960—B L S B u l l . 1265-23, p r i c e 25 c e n t s
M e m p h is , T e n n . , J a n u a r y I960—B L S B u l l . 1265-19, p r i c e 25 c e n t s
M ia m i F l a . , D e c e m b e r 1959—B L S B u l l . 1265-6, p r i c e 20 c e n t s

M inneapolis-S t. P aul, Minn., January 1960-B LS Bull. 1265-21, price 25 cents
P hiladelphia, P a., November 1959-B LS Bull. 1265-16, price 25 cents
Pittsburgh, P a ., December 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-20, price 25 cents
Portland, Maine, November 1959-B LS Bull. 1265-12, price 20 cents
Richmond, V a., February 1960-B LS Bull. 1265-24, price 25 cents
St. L ouis, Mo., October 1959-B LS Bull. 1265-5, price 25 ceflts
San Bernardino—R iverside—Ontario, C alif., November 1959BLS Bull. 1265-15, price 25 cents
San F ran cisco —Oakland, C alif., January 1960-B L S Bull. 1265-17, price 25 cents
S eattle, W ash., August 1959-B LS Bull. 1265-2, price 25 cents
W ashington, D .C .-M d .-V a., December 1959-B LS B u l l . 1265-18, price 25 cents
York, P a ., February 1960-B LS Bull, i 265-27, price 25 cents





Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102