View PDF

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

Occupational Wage Survey
i
!

SIOUX FALLS, SOUTH DAKO TA
FEBRUARY 1960

Bulletin No. 1265-29




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clagua, Commissionar




B ureau of Labor Statistics R e gio n a l O ffices

Occupational Wage Survey
SIOUX FALLS, SOUTH DAKOTA




FEBRUARY 1960

Bulletin No. 1265-29
April 1960

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C.

Price 20 cents

%J§§

$




Contents

Preface

The Com m unity Wage Survey P rogram
The B ureau of Labor S ta tistics regu larly conducts
areaw id e w age su rveys in a num ber of im portant in d u strial
cen ters. The stu d ies, m ade from late fa ll to ea rly spring,
relate to occupational earnings and related supplem entary
b en efits. A p relim in ary rep ort is availab le on .com pletion
of the study in each area, u su ally in the m onth follow ing
the p ayroll p eriod studied. This bulletin p rovid es additional
data not included in the ea rlier report. A consolidated
an alytical b u lletin sum m arizing the re su lts of a ll of the
y e a r's su rveys is issu ed after com p letion of the fin al area
bulletin for the curren t round of su rveys.
This rep ort w as prepared in the B ureau's region al
office in Chicago, 111. , by W oodrow C. Linn, under the
d irection of G eorge E. Votava, R egional Wage and Industrial
R elations A n alyst.




P age
Introduction ________________________________________________________________ 1
T ables:
1.

E stab lish m en ts and w ork ers w ithin scop e of su rvey ____________

2

A: O ccupational earnings: *
A - l. O ffice occupations --------------------------------------------------------------A -2. P ro fessio n a l and tech n ical occupations ____________________
A -3. M aintenance and pow erplant occupations -------------------------A -4. C ustodial and m a teria l m ovem ent occupations ___________

4
5
5
5

B: E stab lish m en t p ra ctices and supplem entary wage
p ro vision s: *
B - 1. Shift d ifferen tia ls __________________________________________ 6
B -2 . M inim um entrance sa la r ie s for w om en office w o r k e r s----- 7
B -3 . Scheduled w eekly hours ____________________________________ 7
B -4 . Paid h o lid a y s ________________________________________________ 8
B -5 . Paid vacation s ______________________________________________ 9
B -6 . Health, insuran ce, and pen sion p la n s -------------------------------- 11
Appendix: O ccupational d escrip tio n s -------------------------------------------------------- 13

* NOTE: Sim ilar tabulations for th ese and other item s
are available in the rep orts for su rveys in other m ajor
a rea s. A d irectory indicating date of study and the p rice
of the rep orts is availab le upon req u est.
Union sc a le s, in d icative of p revailin g pay le v e ls,
are a lso availab le for 7 selected building trad es.

iii




Occupational Wage Survey—Sioux Falls, S. Dak.
Introduction

T his area is one of se v e r a l im portant in d u strial cen ters in
which the U .S . D epartm ent of Labor* s B ureau of L abor S ta tistic s has
conducted su rveys of occupational earnings and related wage b en efits
on an areaw ide b a s is . In this area, data w ere obtained by personal
v isits of B ureau field econ om ists to rep resen tative estab lish m en ts
w ithin six broad industry d ivision s: M anufacturing; tra n sp o rta tio n ,1
com m u nication, and other public u tilities; w h olesale trade; reta il
trade; fin an ce, in su ran ce, and rea l estate; and s e r v ic e s . M ajor in ­
d ustry groups excluded from th ese stu d ies are governm ent operations
and the con stru ction and ex tractive in d u stries. E stab lish m en ts having
few er than a p rescrib ed num ber of w orkers are om itted a lso b ecau se
they furnish in su fficien t em ploym ent in the occupations studied to w a r­
rant in clu sion . W herever p o ssib le, sep arate tabulations are provided
for each of the broad industry d iv isio n s.
T h ese su rveys are conducted on a sam ple b a sis b ecau se of the
u n n ecessary c o st involved in surveying a ll esta b lish m en ts. To obtain
appropriate accu racy at m inim um c o st, a greater proportion of large
than of sm a ll estab lish m en ts is studied. In com bining the data, how ­
ever, a ll estab lish m en ts are given their appropriate w eight. E stim a tes
b ased on the estab lish m en ts studied are p resen ted , th erefo re, as r e ­
lating to a ll estab lish m en ts in the industry grouping and area, e x ­
cep t for those below the m inim um s iz e studied.
O ccupations and E arnings
The occupations se lec te d for study are com m on to a variety
of m anufacturing and nonm anufacturing in d u stries. O ccupational c la s ­
sifica tio n is based on a uniform se t of job d escrip tion s d esigned to
take account of in terestab lish m en t variation in duties w ithin the sam e
job. (See appendix for listin g of th ese d escrip tio n s.) E arnings data are
p resen ted (in the A -s e r ie s tab les) for the follow ing types of occupa­
tions: (a) O ffice c le r ic a l; (b) p ro fessio n a l and techn ical; (c) m ain te­
nance and pow er plant; and (d) cu stod ial and m a terial m ovem ent.
O ccupational em ploym ent and earnings data are shown for
fu ll-tim e w o rk ers, i. e . , those h ired to work a regu lar w eekly sch ed ­
ule in the given occupational cla ssific a tio n . E arnings data exclude
prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on w eeken ds, h olid ays, and

late sh ifts. N onproduction bonu ses are excluded a lso , but c o st-o fliving bonuses and incen tive earn in gs are inclu ded. W here w eekly
hours are reported, as for office c le r ic a l occu p ation s, referen ce is
to the work sch ed u les (rounded to the n ea rest half hour) for which
stra ig h t-tim e sa la r ie s are paid; average w eekly earn in gs for th ese
occupations have been rounded to the n ea rest half d olla r.
A verage earnings of m en and wom en are p resen ted sep arately
for selec te d occupations in which both se x e s are com m only em ployed.
D ifferen ces in pay le v e ls of m en and w om en in th ese occupations are
la rg ely due to (1) d ifferen ces in the d istrib u tion of the sex es am ong
in d u stries and estab lish m en ts; (2) d ifferen ces in sp ecific duties p er­
form ed, although the occupations are ap propriately c la ss ifie d w ithin
the sam e su rvey job description; and (3) d ifferen ces in length of s e r v ­
ice or m erit review when individual sa la r ie s are adjusted on this b asis.
L onger average se r v ic e of m en would re su lt in higher average pay
when both se x e s are em ployed w ithin the sam e rate range. Job
d escrip tion s used in cla ssify in g em p loyees in th ese su rveys are u su ­
ally m ore g en era lized than those u sed in individual estab lish m en ts to
allow for m inor d ifferen ces am ong estab lish m en ts in sp ecific duties
perform ed.
O ccupational em ploym ent estim a tes rep resen t the total in all
estab lish m en ts w ithin the scop e of the study and not the num ber actu ­
ally su rveyed . B ecau se of d ifferen ces in occupational stru ctu re am ong
estab lish m en ts, the estim a tes of occupational em ploym ent obtained
from the sam ple of estab lish m en ts studied serv e only to indicate the
relative im portance of the jobs studied. T h ese d ifferen ces in o ccu ­
pational stru ctu re do not m a teria lly affect the accu racy of the ea rn ­
ings data.

E stab lish m en t P r a c tic e s and Supplem entary Wage P ro v isio n s
Inform ation is p resen ted a lso (in the B -s e r ie s tab les) on s e ­
lected estab lish m en t p ra ctices and supplem entary b en efits as they r e ­
late to office and plant w o rk ers. The term "office w o rk ers, " as u sed
in this b ulletin, inclu d es w orking su p erv iso rs and n on su p ervisory
w orkers perform ing c le r ic a l or related fu n ction s, and exclu d es adm in­
istr a tiv e , ex ecu tive, and p ro fessio n a l p erso n n el. "Plant w ork ers" in ­
clude w orking forem en and all n on su p ervisory w ork ers (including lea d m
1
R ailroad s, fo rm erly excluded from the scope of th ese stu d ies, en and tra in ees) engaged in nonoffice functions. A d m in istrative,
have been added in n ea rly a ll of the area s to be studied during the
ex ecu tive, and p ro fession a l em p lo y ees, and fo rce-a cco u n t con stru ction
w in ter of 1959-60; ra ilroad s w ill be added in the rem aining a rea s next
em p lo yees who are u tilized as a sep arate work force are excluded .
y ea r. F or scope of su rvey in this area, se e footnote to "transporta­
C afeteria w orkers and routem en are excluded in m anufacturing in d u s­
tion, com m unication, ‘and other public u tilities" in table 1.
tries, but are included as plant w ork ers in nonm anufacturing in d u stries.







T A B L E 1.

E s t a b li s h m e n t s a n d w o r k e r s w it h in s c o p e o f s u r v e y a n d n u m b e r s t u d ie d in S io u x F a l l s , S. D a k . , 1 b y m a j o r in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , 2 F e b r u a r y I 9 6 0
M in im u m
e m p lo y m e n t
in e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n t s in s c o p e
o f s tu d y

In d u s try d iv is io n

A ll d iv is io n s

_

-

____ _
_

M a n u fa c t u r in g ____________________ ________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g _
^
T
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , an d o th e r
p u b lic u t i l i t i e s 5 _
W h o le s a le tra d e
_________
_ __
_ _
________
R e t a il t r a d e ________________________ __ _
_________P
F in a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , an d r e a l e s t a t e
S e rv ice s 7

51

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s

N u m b e r o f e s ta b lis h m e n ts
W it h in
scope of
stu d y 3
53

W it h in s c o p e o f s tu d y

S tu d ie d

S tu d ie d
T o t a l4

O ffic e

P la n t

50

8 ,7 0 0

1 ,1 0 0

5 ,9 0 0

8 ,4 6 0

400
700

3 ,7 0 0
2 ,2 0 0

4 ,5 0 0
3 ,9 6 0

300

800

1 ,7 3 0
470
1 ,3 0 0
2 70
190

51
51

18
35

16
34

4 ,7 0 0
4 ,0 0 0

51
51
51
51
51

11
7
13
3
1

10
7
13
3
1

1 ,8 0 0
400
1 ,3 0 0
300
200

(‘ )
( )
1‘ )
(6)

(M
( )
( )
(6)

T o ta l 4

1
T h e S io u x F a l l s M e t r o p o l it a n A r e a (M in n e h a h a C o u n t y ).
T h e " w o r k e r s w it h in s c o p e o f s t u d y " e s t i m a t e s s h o w n in t h is t a b le p r o v id e a r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n
o f the s i z e a n d c o m p o s i t i o n o f th e l a b o r f o r c e i n c lu d e d in th e s u r v e y .
T h e e s t i m a t e s a r e n o t in t e n d e d , h o w e v e r , t o s e r v e a s a b a s i s o f c o m p a r i s o n w it h o t h e r a r e a
e m p l o y m e n t in d e x e s t o m e a s u r e e m p l o y m e n t t r e n d s o r l e v e l s s i n c e ( l )
p la n n in g o f w a g e s u r v e y s r e q u i r e s th e u s e o f e s t a b l is h m e n t da ta c o m p i l e d c o n s i d e r a b l y in a d v a n c e
o f th e p a y r o l l p e r i o d s t u d ie d , a n d (2 ) s m a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a r e e x c l u d e d f r o m th e s c o p e o f th e s u r v e y .
T h e 1957 r e v i s e d e d i t io n o f the S t a n d a r d I n d u s t r ia l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n
M a n u a l w a s u s e d in c l a s s i f y i n g e s t a b l is h m e n t s b y i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n .
M a j o r c h a n g e s f r o m th e e a r l i e r
e d i t io n (u s e d in th e B u r e a u 's l a b o r m a r k e t w a g e s u r v e y p r o g r a m p r i o r
to th e w in t e r o f 1 9 5 8 - 5 9 )
a r e th e t r a n s f e r o f m i l k p a s t e u r iz a t io n p la n t s a n d r e a d y - m i x e d c o n c r e t e
e s t a b l is h m e n t s f r o m t r a d e (w h o l e s a le o r r e t a i l ) to m a n u fa c t u r i n g , a n d t h e t r a n s f e r o f r a d i o a n d t e l e v i s i o n b r o a d c a s t i n g f r o m s e r v i c e s t o th e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n ,
a n d o t h e r p u b lic u t il it i e s d i v i s i o n .
3 I n c lu d e s a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w it h t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t a t o r a b o v e th e m i n i m u m - s i z e li m i t a t i o n .
A l l o u t le t s (w ith in th e a r e a ) o f c o m p a n i e s in s u c h i n d u s t r i e s a s t r a d e ,
fin a n c e , a u to r e p a ir s e r v i c e s , a n d m o t io n - p i c t u r e t h e a te r s a r e c o n s id e r e d a s 1 e s ta b lis h m e n t.
4 I n c l u d e s e x e c u t i v e , p r o f e s s i o n a l , a n d o t h e r w o r k e r s e x c l u d e d f r o m th e s e p a r a t e o f f i c e a n d p la n t c a t e g o r i e s .
5 R a i l r o a d s w e r e in c lu d e d ; t a x i c a b s a n d s e r v i c e s i n c id e n t a l t o w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t io n w e r e e x c l u d e d .
6 T h is in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n i s r e p r e s e n t e d in e s t i m a t e s f o r " a l l i n d u s t r i e s " a n d " n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g " in th e S e r i e s A a n d B t a b l e s , a lt h o u g h c o v e r a g e w a s i n s u f f i c i e n t
t o j u s t i f y s e p a r a t e p r e s e n t a t io n o f d a t a .
7 H o t e l s ; p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s ; b u s i n e s s s e r v i c e s ; a u t o m o b i le r e p a i r s h o p s ; m o t i o n p i c t u r e s ; n o n p r o f i t m e m b e r s h i p o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; a n d e n g in e e r in g a n d a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s .

3

The sum m ary of vacation plans is lim ited to form al arran ge­
m en ts, excluding inform al plans w hereby tim e off with pay is granted
at the d iscretio n of the em p lo yer. Separate estim a tes are provided
accord ing to em ployer p ractice in com puting vacation paym ents, such
as tim e paym ents, percent of annual ea rn in gs, or fla t-su m am ounts.
H ow ever, in the tabulations of vacation allow an ces, paym ents not on
a tim e b a sis w ere converted; for exam ple, a paym ent of 2 percen t of
annual earnings w as co n sid ered as the equivalent of 1 w e e k 's pay.

Data are presen ted for a ll health , in su ran ce, and pension
plans for which at le a st a part of the c o st is borne by the em p lo yer,
excepting only leg a l req u irem en ts such as w ork m en 's com p ensation
and so cia l secu r ity . Such plans include those underw ritten by a co m ­
m er cia l insuran ce com pany and those provided through a union fund or
paid d irectly by the em p loyer out of cu rren t operating funds or from
a fund se t asid e for this purpose. Death b en efits are included as a
form of life in su ran ce.
S ick n ess and accident in su ran ce is limited* to that type of in ­
surance under which predeterm ined ca sh paym ents are m ade d irectly
to the insured on a w eekly or m onthly b a sis during illn e s s or accident
d isab ility. Inform ation is p resen ted for all such plans to which the
em ployer con trib u tes. H ow ever, in New York and New J e r se y , which
have enacted tem porary d isab ility insuran ce law s which require e m ­
ployer co n trib u tio n s,4 plans are included only if the em p loyer (1) con ­
tributes m ore than is leg a lly req u ired , or (2) provides the em ployee
with b en efits which ex ceed the req u irem en ts of the law . Tabulations
of paid sic k -le a v e plans are lim ited to form al p la n s5 w hich provide
full pay or a proportion of the w ork er's pay during ab sen ce from work
b ecau se of illn e s s . Separate tabulations are provided accord ing to
(l) plans which provide fu ll pay and no w aiting period, and (2) plans
providing eith er partial pay or a w aiting period. In addition to the
presentation of the proportions of w ork ers who are provided sick n ess
and accid en t insuran ce or paid sick lea v e, an unduplicated total is
shown of w ork ers who re ceiv e eith er or both types of b en efits.
C atastrophe in su ran ce, so m etim es referred to as, extended
m ed ical in su ran ce, inclu des those plans which are d esign ed to p rotect
em p lo yees in ca se of sick n e ss and injury involving ex p en ses beyond
the norm al co vera ge of h osp italization , m ed ica l, and su rgical plan s.
M edical insuran ce re fe rs to plans providing for com p lete or p artial
paym ent of d octors' fe e s . Such plans m ay be underw ritten by com m er*
cia l insuran ce com panies or nonprofit organ ization s or they m ay be
se lf-in su r e d . Tabulations of retirem en t pen sion plans are lim ited to
those plans that provide m onthly paym ents for the rem ainder of the
w o rk er 's life .

An estab lish m en t was co n sid ered as having a policy if it m et
eith er of the follow ing conditions: (1) O perated late sh ifts at the tim e
of the su rvey, or (2) had form al p ro vision s coverin g late sh ifts.
3
Scheduled w eekly hours for office w orkers (first sectio n
table B -3 ) in su rveys m ade prior to late 1957 and ea rly 1958 w ere
p resen ted in term s of the proportion of w om en office w orkers e m ­
ployed in o ffices with the indicated w eekly hours for w om en w o rk ers.

4 The tem porary d isab ility law s in C aliforn ia and Rhode Island
do not require em p loyer con trib u tion s.
5 An estab lish m en t w as co n sid ered as having a form al plan if
of esta b lish ed at le a st the m inim um num ber of days of sick leave that
it
could be expected by each em p lo y ee. Such a plan need not be w ritten ,
but inform al sic k -le a v e a llow an ces, d eterm in ed on an individual b a s is ,
w ere excluded.

Shift d ifferen tial data (table B - l) are lim ited to m anufacturing
in d u stries. This inform ation is presen ted both in term s of (a) esta b ­
lish m en t p olicy, 2 p resen ted in term s of total plant w orker em p loy­
m ent, and (b) effectiv e p ra ctice, presented on the b a sis of w orkers
actually em ployed on the sp ecified sh ift at the tim e of the su rvey.
In estab lish m en ts having varied d ifferen tia ls, the am ount applying to
a m ajority w as u sed o r, if no am ount applied to a m ajority, the c la s ­
sifica tio n "other" was u sed . In estab lish m en ts in which som e la te sh ift hours are paid at norm al ra te s, a d ifferen tial was record ed only
if it applied to a m ajority of the shift hours.
M inim um entrance rates (table B -2 ) relate only to the esta b ­
lish m en ts v isite d . They are p resen ted on an estab lish m en t, rather
than on an em ploym ent b a sis. P aid holidays; paid vacations; and
health, in su ran ce, and pension plans are treated sta tistica lly on the
b a sis that th ese are applicable to all plant or office w orkers if a m a­
jority of such w orkers are elig ib le or m ay eventually qualify for the
p ra ctices liste d . Scheduled hours are treated sta tistic a lly on the b a sis
that th ese are applicable to all plant or office w orkers if a m ajority
are c o v e r e d .3 B ecau se of rounding, sum s of individual item s in these
tabulations m ay not equal to ta ls.
The fir s t part of the paid holidays table p resen ts the num ­
b er of whole and half holidays actually provided. The secon d part
com b ines whole and half holidays to show total holiday tim e .




A* Occupational Earnings

4

Table A -l. Office Occupations
-(A v e ra g e s t r a ig h t - t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d iv is io n , S iou x F a lls , S. D a k ., F e b r u a r y I9 6 0 )

N U M B E R O F W O R K E R S R E C E IV IN G S T R A IG H T -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S OF—

Avbrags
Sex, o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s t r y d i v is i o n

N um ber
of
workers

W eek ly,
hours
(Standard)

$
W eekly . 3 5 .0 0
earnings
and
(Standard) u n d er
4 0 .0 0

$
4 0. 00

$
4 5 . 00

$
5 0. 00

$
5 5 .0 0

$

6 0. 00

$
6 5 .0 0

$
7 5 .0 0

$
8 0 .0 0

$
8 5 .0 0

4 5. 00

5 0 .0 0

5 5 .0 0

6 0 . 00

65. 00

7 0 .0 0 _25jJ)Q_ 8 0 .0 0

8 5 .0 0

9 0 . 00

S
7 0 .0 0

$
$
$
$
$
9 0. 00 9 5 .0 0 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 n o .

$

$

oo 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0
and

9 5 .0 0 1 0 0 .0 0 105. 00 1 1 0 .0 0 1L5..00 1 2 0 .0 0

over

M en

C le r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c l a s s A ------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g - — — -------- ----------------------- --------

24
18

4 0. 0
4 0. 0

$ 9 7 . 00
9 9. 50

.

_

-

-

C l e r k s , a cc o u n tin g , c l a s s B

20

4 0. 5

77. 50

_

_

—--------------------------------------—

_

_

2
2

3
1

-

1
-

3
2

.

-

2
2

_

*
_

1

_

3

.

3

6

2

1

2

10

.

5

.

.

.

.

.

1

.

12
11

5
5

4

2

-

1
1

.

-

2
2

.

~

3
1

_

-

3
3

_

-

2
2

2
2

4
4

2
1

-

-

1
1

4

-

1
1

_

12
2
10

10
4

7
5
2

1
1

1
1

_

6

1
1

-

_

-

4
4

-

-

3
3

4
*4

1

_

1

_

_

_

2

W om en

B i l l e r s , m a c h in e (b illin g m a c h in e ) — ----------------------------

16

4 0. 0

4 8 . 00

B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s B -----------------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ------------- -------------------------------

32
23

4 0. 0
4 0. 0

5 4 .5 0
5 2. 00

C l e r k s , a cc o u n tin g , c l a s s A ------------------------------------------N on m a n u fa c tu rin g ------ 1- -------------------------- ------------ _

19
16

4 0. 0
40. 5

6 9 .5 0
6 9. 50

C le r k s , a cc o u n tin g , c l a s s B ------ ------------------- -------- _
M a n u fa ctu r in g — —
------------- — ------------------- -----N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ---------------------------------------------------------

53
21
32

4 0. 0
4 0. 0
4 0. 0

5 9. 00
7 0. 00
5 1 .5 0

-

9
9

C le r k s , f i le , c l a s s B --------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ---------------------------------------------------------

18
16

40. 0
40. 0

4 7. 00
4 5. 00

1
1

9
9

1

5
5

1
1

-

-

S e c r e t a r ie s ____ _____________________________________________

27

4 0. 5

7 4. 00

_

_

1

1

5

3

S te n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l ___________________________________
N on m a n u fa c tu rin g
----------------- — ---------------------------P u b lic u t ilit ie s 3 ------------------- ----------------------------------

85
58
20

4 0. 0
40. 0
4 0. 0

6 3 .5 0
5 9 . 50
70. 00

-

5
5
2

13
10

"

13
12
2

12
7
3

T y p is t s , c l a s s B ____________________ - ______________ _ ____
N on m a n u fa c tu rin g ---------------------------------------------------------

41
33

40. 0
4 0. 0

5 2. 50
5 0 .0 0

11
11

12
9

8
6

2
2

.

-

_

.

.

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

1
1

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

4
4

3
3

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5
3
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

1

_

_

_

_

_

.

_

_

-

"

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

2

_

6

3

_

1

_

_

1

_

1

9
9
1

4
4
2

1
1

11
3
3

10
4
4

3
1
1

3
1
1

-

1
1
1

-

-

-

-

3
3

1

1
1

1

_

2

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

2

"

-

-

1 Sta n da rd h o u r s r e f l e c t the w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p lo y e e s r e c e i v e t h e ir r e g u la r s t r a ig h t - t im e s a la r i e s and the e a r n in g s c o r r e s p o n d to t h e s e w e e k ly h o u r s .
2 W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d a s fo l lo w s : 1 at $ 120 to $ 125; 1 at $ 125 to $ 1 30; 2 at $ 1 30 to $ 1 35.
3 T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o t h e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .




.

-

-

-

5

Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations

S a la r ie s o f p r o f e s s io n a l an d t e c h n ic a l w o r k e r s a r e o m it t e d
f r o m th is r e p o r t .
D ata d o n ot m e e t p u b lic a t io n c r i t e r i a .

Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r m e n in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d o n an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d iv is io n , S io u x F a l ls , S. D a k . , F e b r u a r y I96 0 )

Occupation and industry division
■
M echanic s 9 autom otive (m aintenancej —-------—
—
1

N um ber
of
w orkers

A verage
hourly ,
ea rn in g s1

$2. 41

23

$1. 50
and
under
1. 60
1

$

1.60

$1.70

1.70

1. 80

$

1. 80
_
1. 90
2

$1.90
.
2.00

$2.00
2, 10

$ 2. 10
2. 20
2

$ 2. 20
2. 30
8

$2. 30
2.40
.

$2.40
2.50
_

$2. 50
2. 60
_

$2.60
2.70
3

$2. 70
2. 80
_

$2. 80
2 .90

$2 .90
3.00

___ 6___

$ 3. 00 $3. 10
3. 10 _3__2Q_,
_
1

E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and la te s h ift s .

Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d o n an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s tr y d iv is io n , S io u x F a l ls , S. D a k ., F e b r u a r y I96 0 )
NUMBER OF WORKEBS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
O c c u p a t io n 1 and in d u s t r y d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

Average
*1. 00
hourly
earnings 2 and
u n d er
1. 10

*1. 10

$1. 20

*1. 30

1. 20

1 .3 0

$1. 60

$ 1 .7 0

$ 1 .8 0

1. 60

1. 70

1. 80

1. 90

1. 50

6
2
4

5
1
4

5
3
2

9
8
1

6
6

1
1

2
2

13
12

8
6

11
9

20
4

2
2

3
3

3
3

14
— n —
3

4
2
2

33
11
22

_

_
-

4
4

_

-

-

5
------- 2—

$ 1 . 57
1. 76
1 .4 0

9
1
8

7

L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l h a n d lin g ------------------------------M a n u fa c t u r in g _________________________________

158
82

1. 88
1. 86

_

_

-

-

O rd er fille r s
--------------------------------------------------------M a n u fa c t u r in g ___________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g „ ---------------- ---------------- __

69
33
36

1. 71
1. 78
1. 64

_
-

_
-

T r u c k d r iv e r s 3 ___________________________________ _
M a n u fa c t u r in g __________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ______________________________

105
51
54

2. 05
2. 17
1 .9 3

_
-

-

-

T r u c k d r iv e r s , m e d iu m (l V g to and
in clu d in g 4 ton s)
____________________________

62

2. 20

-

-

-

T r u c k d r iv e r s , h e a v y ( o v e r 4 to n s ,
t r a i l e r ty p e) __________________________________

28

1 .8 3

-

_

_

-

7

-

1
-

$

1 .9 0

$2 .0 0

*2. 10

$2. 20

$ 2. 30

$ 2. 40

$2. 50

$2. 60

2. 00

2. 10

2. 20

2. 30

2. 40

2. 50

2 .6 0

2. 70

1
1
-

14
14
-

!

.
-

.
-

.
-

------ 1
j-------

36
36

_

2

_

_

_

-

-

-

_
-

8
8
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

1
1

22
18
4

.

4

-

-

15
~ n —
2
1
1

25
10
— 2-------------g----17
8

4
49
_
-

18
-

_
-

4
4
------5------ ------ 3------

-

1

-

-

_
-

.
-

_
8
-------5—
2

-

'
3

-------

T~

-

3

1

-

-

2

-

10

1

18

_

_

_

8

_

22

1

3

_

1

_

11

7

-

_

4

_

-

1

_

1

D ata li m it e d to m e n w o r k e r s .
E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k o n w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and la t e s h ift s .
3 In c lu d e s a ll d r i v e r s r e g a r d le s s o f s i z e and ty p e o f t r u c k o p e r a t e d .




* 1 .5 0

1. 40

74
36
38

1

1. 40

7
6
1

J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , and c l e a n e r s ________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g _________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g _______________________ _____

z

$

18

-

1




B: Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Table B-1. Shift Differentials
( P e r c e n t o f m a n u fa c t u r i n g p la n t w o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s h a v in g f o r m a l p r o v i s i o n s f o r s h ift w o r k , a n d in e s t a b l is h m e n t s
a c t u a ll y o p e r a t i n g la t e s h i ft s b y t y p e a n d a m o u n t o f d i f f e r e n t i a l , S io u x F a l l s , S . D a k . , F e b r u a r y I 9 6 0 )
In e s t a b l is h m e n t s h a v in g f o r m a l
p r o v is io n s 1 fo r —

In e s t a b l is h m e n t s a c t u a ll y
o p e r a tin g —

S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l
S e c o n d s h ift
w ork

S e c o n d s h ift

93. 0

69. 9

4. 6

0. 5

----------------------------------------

93. 0

69. 9

4. 6

0. 5

-------------------------------------

93. 0

67. 2

4. 6

.4

5 c e n t s ___________________________________________
7 c e n t s -----------------------------------------------------------------7 l /z c e n t s -------------------------------------------------------------10 c e n t s
_________________________________________
12 c e n t s
---------------------------------------------------------------

T ota l

T h ir d o r o th e r
s h i ft w o r k

1 2 .7
2. 0
6. 1
5. 0
67. 2

_____________________________________________________

W ith s h ift p a y d i f f e r e n t i a l

U n ifo r m ce n ts (p e r h o u r)

O th e r fo r m a l p a y d iffe r e n t ia l

N o s h i ft p a y d i f f e r e n t i a l

-------------------------

-

_

_

-

.8
-

-

-

-

-

-

. 5
3. 3

67. 2

2. 7

-

--------------------------------------------

1
I n c l u d e s e s t a b l is h m e n t s c u r r e n t l y o p e r a t i n g la t e
t h o u g h t h e y w e r e n o t c u r r e n t l y o p e r a t i n g la t e s h i f t s .

T h ir d o r o th e r
s h ift

-

s h ifts ,

1

•

a n d e s t a b l is h m e n t s w it h f o r m a l p r o v i s i o n s

-

.4

. 1

c o v e r in g

la t e

s h i ft s

even

7

Table B-2. Minimum Entrance Salaries for Women Office Workers
( D i s t r i b u t i o n o f e s t a b l is h m e n t s s t u d ie d in a l l i n d u s t r i e s a n d in i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s b y m in i m u m e n t r a n c e s a l a r y f o r s e l e c t e d c a t e g o r i e s
o f i n e x p e r i e n c e d w o m e n o f f i c e w o r k e r s , S io u x F a l l s , S. D a k . , F e b r u a r y I 9 6 0 )

I n e x p e r ie n c e d ty p is ts
M a n u fa ctu "; ng
M in im um w e e k ly s a la r y 1

B a s e d on standard w e e k ly h o u rs 3 o f—

A ll
in d u s tr ie s

A ll
sch e d u le s
E s ta b lis h m en ts studied

$ 3 7 . 50 and un d er $ 4 0 . 00 ___________________________________
$ 4 0 . 00 and under $ 4 2 . 50 ___________________________________
$ 4 2 . 50 and under $ 4 5 . 00 ___________________________________
$ 4 5 . 00 and u nd er $ 4 7 . 50 ________________________________________________
$ 4 7 . 50 and under $ 5 0 . 00 ___________________________________
$ 5 0 . 00 and under $ 5 2 . 50 --------------------------------------------------------------------------$ 52. 50 and under $ 5 5 . 00 ___________________________________
$ 5 5 . 00 and under $ 5 7 . 50 -----------------------------------------------------$ 5 7 . 50 and under $ 6 0 . 00 ___________________________________
$6 0 . 00 and under $ 6 2 . 50 -----------------------------------------------------O ver $ 62. 50 ------- --------------- --------------------------------------------------E sta b lish m en ts having no s p e c ifie d m in im u m ________________
E sta b lish m en ts w h ich did not e m p lo y w o r k e r s
in this c a t e g o r y ------------------------------------------------------- ---------- --------

1
2
3

B a s e d on stan dard w e e k ly h ou rs 3 o f—
A ll
s ch e d u le s

A ll
s c h e d u le s

40

A ll
s ch e d u le s

XXX

34

XXX

50

16

XXX

34

XXX

16

16

22

5

5

17

17

1
10
3
3
1
2
1
1

_

1
8
2
3
1
1
1
XXX
XXX

40

16

20

------------------------------------

2

N on m anufacturing

M an u factu rin g
A ll
in d u s tr ie s

50

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

E sta b lish m en ts having a s p e c ifie d m in im u m

O th er in e x p e r ie n c e d c le r i c a l w o r k e r s
N onm an u factu rin g

4

4

_

_

.

_

_

9
3
3
1
2
1
1

1
1

1
1
1
1

8
2
3

XXX
XXX

4

1
1
2

XXX

8
2
3
1
1
1
2

26

10

XXX

16

-

1

1
1
-

40

2
1

2
1

-

-

1
1

4

1
1
2

XXX

1
8
2
3
1
1
1
2

24

9

XXX

40

15

L o w e s t s a l a r y r a t e f o r m a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d f o r h i r in g i n e x p e r i e n c e d w o r k e r s f o r t y p in g o r o t h e r c l e r i c a l j o b s .
R a te s a p p lic a b le to m e s s e n g e r s , o f f ic e g ir ls , o r s im ila r s u b c le r ic a l jo b s a r e not c o n s id e r e d .
H o u r s r e f l e c t th e w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e t h e i r r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r i e s . D a ta a r e p r e s e n t e d f o r a l l w o r k w e e k s c o m b i n e d , a n d f o r t h e m o s t c o m m o n w o r k w e e k r e p o r t e d .

Table B-3. Scheduled W eekly Hours
( P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o f f i c e a n d p la n t w o r k e r s in a l l in d u s t r ie s a n d in in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s b y s c h e d u l e d w e e k l y h o u r s
o f f i r s t - s h i f t w o r k e r s , S io u x F a l l s , S. D a k . , F e b r u a r y I 9 6 0 )

OFFICE WORKERS

PLA N T W ORKERS

W e e k ly h o u r s

A ll in d u stries 1

A ll w o r k e r s

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

40hours
40

45

O ver
and u n d er
h o u r s ------------------------------------------h o u r s --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------h o u r s --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------h o u r s ____________________________________________
O ver
h o u r s ---------------------------------------------------------.---------------------

45
46
48

48
1
2
3
4

M an u factu rin g

P u b lic u tilitie s 2

A ll in d u str ies3

M an u factu rin g

P u b lic u tilitie s 2

100

100

100

100

100

100

92
4

95

100

79

92

9

2
2

79

-

4
4

3

3
-

(4 )

-

3
-

1

-

-

3
1

I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e ; a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d i t io n t o t h o s e i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s .
I n c l u d e s datja f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e , r e t a i l t r a d e , r e a l e s t a t e , a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d i t io n t o t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
L e s s th a n 0.| 5 p e r c e n t .




_
-

-

11

2
8
_

8
Table B-4. Pqid Holidays
( P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o f f i c e „a n d p la n t w o r k e r s in a l l i n d u s t r i e s a n d in in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s b y n u m b e r o f p a id h o l id a y s
p r o v i d e d a n n u a lly , S io u x F a l l s , S. O a k . , F e b r u a r y I 9 6 0 )

OFFICE WORKERS
Item

All industries 1

Manufacturing

PLANT WORKERS
Public utilities 2

All industries 3

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

------------------------------------------------------

W o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts p r o v id in g
paid h o lid a y s ----------------------------------------------------W o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts p r o v id in g
no pa id h o lid a y s -----------------------------------------------

100

100

100

100

100

100

99

99

100

98

98

100

(4 )

1

~

2

2

_

1

A ll w ork e rs

_
1

_

-

_
4

-

-

Number of days
4 h o lid a y s

V ir»iiday«

______ __ ______________________ __ ______

6 h o lid a y s __________ ____________ _______________ _
7 h o lid a y s ------------------------------------------------------------7 h o lid a y s plu s 1 h a lf day ---------------------------------7 h o lid a y s plu s 2 h a lf days --------------------------------8 h o lid a y s
----- — — — — ------------------ — _

_

2
23
47
1

8
43

6

-

24
46

3
2
1
21
24

19

47

21
8

4
43

68

4

25
27
74
97
99
99
99

47
47
90
97
97
99
99

29
29
76
100
100
100
100

47
47
71
92
93
96
98

68
68
91
95
95
98
98

81
100
100
100
100

(4 )

-

(4 )

-

3
23

-

-

19
48

-

28

Total holiday time5
8 days - --------- — — — — ---------------------—-----l l !z o r m o r e days — ----------------------------------- —
7 o r m o r e d a ys __ ------ --------------------------6 o r m o r e days ------- — — -------- ----------------5 o r m o r e d ays __ — ----------------------------- -----4 o r m o r e days --------------------------------------------------2 o r m o r e days ---------------------------------------------------

33
33

1 I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e ; a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d i t io n t o t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
2 T r a n s p o r ta tio n , co m m u n ic a tio n , and o t h e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .
3 I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e , r e t a i l t r a d e , r e a l e s t a t e , a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d i t io n t o t h o s e i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
4 L e s s th a n 0 , 5 p e r c e n t .
5 A l l c o m b in a t i o n s o f fu ll a n d h a l f d a y s th a t a d d t o th e s a m e a m o u n t a r e c o m b i n e d ; f o r e x a m p le , th e p r o p o r t i o n o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g a t o t a l o f 7 d a y s in c l u d e s t h o s e w it h 7 f u l l d a y s a n d n o
h a lf d a y s , 6 f u l l d a y s a n d 2 h a l f d a y s , 5 f u l l d a y s a n d 4 h a l f d a y s , a n d s o o n . P r o p o r t i o n s w e r e t h e n c u m u l a t e d .




9
Table B-5. Paid Vacations
( P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o f f i c e a n d p la n t w o r k e r s in a l l i n d u s t r i e s a n d in in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s b y v a c a t i o n p a y
p r o v i s i o n s , S io u x F a l l s , S. D a k ., F e b r u a r y I 9 6 0 )

OFFICE WORKERS
V a c a t io n p o l i c y

A ll w o rk e r s

---------

----------------------------------------------- —

All industries1

Manufacturing

PLANT WORKERS

1

Public utilities

,

All industries 3

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

100

100

100

100

100

100

94
94
-

100
100
-

100
100
-

99
99
-

100
100
-

100
100
-

6

"

“

1

-

14

-

5

1

-

51
43

29
71

88
12

89
6

96
3

86
14

18
2
74

16
3
81

19
4
77

70
1
28

91
1
8

28
72

5
1
88

9
3
88

1
-

15
1
83

14
1
85

20
80

i
92
1

_
3
96
1

1
1
94
3

1
1
96
2

99
-

1
38
60

23
77

1
16
81
1

10
89
1

Method of payment
W o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g
p a i d v a c a t i o n s -------------------------------------------------------L e n g t h - o f - t i m e p a y m e n t ---------------------------------O th er —
— --------------- — ----------- -------------—
W o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s p r o v id i n g
n o p a id v a c a t i o n s -----------------------------------------------—

“

Amount of vacation p a y 5
A fte r 6 m on th s o f s e r v i c e
1 w eek

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

( 6)

A fte r 1 y e a r o f s e r v ic e
1 w e e k ________________________________________________
2 w e e k s ---------------------- — -------- --------------------------A fte r 2 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e

]

O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s - --------------------------------2 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------------------A fte r 3 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w e e k ------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ------------------------------------2 w eeks
---------------------------------------------------------------------

99

A fte r 5 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w e e k ------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ------------------------------------2 w e e k s - ______________ _____ ______ __ ___ _____ _
_
_
3 w e e k s ------------------------------------------------------------------------

_
100
-

(6)

A f t e r 10 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e
1 w e e k --------------------------------------------------------------------------2 w e e k s _______________________________________________
3 w e e k s ------------------------------------------------------------------------

_

_

_

57
37

47
53

58
42

_

(6)
69
30

A f t e r 15 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e
1
2
3
4

w e e k ------------ --------------------------------------------------------w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------------------w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------------------w eeks
---------------------------------------------------------------------

S e e f o o t n o t e s at e n d o f t a b l e




_

_

_

19
74

18
81
1

11
89

( 6)

_

(J )
( 6)
99

10
Table B-5. Paid Vacations-Continued
( P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o f f i c e a n d p la n t w o r k e r s in a l l i n d u s t r i e s an d in in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s b y v a c a t i o n p a y
p r o v i s i o n s , S io u x F a l l s , S. D a k ., F e b r u a r y I 9 6 0 )

PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS

V a c a t io n p o l i c y

All industries 1

Manufacturing

Public utilities,2

All industries 3

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

Amount of vacation p a y 5-— Continued
A f t e r 20 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e
1
2
3
4

w e e k ------------------ ----------- :----- ------ ------------------- --------w e e k s ------------------------ — ------— — ------ *-------------- w e e k s --------- ——
-------------------------- ....— -------------w e e k s ----- ---- ---------- -----------------------------—

-

19
67
8

-

-

18

11
68

81
1

21

1

_

16
78

4

10
89
1

1
16
25
57

10
16
74

(6)
(6)
87
12

A f t e r 25 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e
1
2
3
4

w e e k --------- ---- -------------- ,------------------------------------------w e e k s — ---------------- ------------------- ------ ------------- ----------w e e k s --------- ----------------------------------------------------------- w e e k s —--------------- ------ — ..------------ -------------------------- -

_

_

_

19
38
37

18

11
51
38

30
52

_

I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; fi n a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e ; an d s e r v i c e s in a d d it io n t o t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t io n , a n d o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s .
I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e , r e t a i l t r a d e , r e a l e s t a t e , a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d i t io n t o t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
I n c l u d e s p r o p o r t i o n s o f w o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w h ic h d id n o t p r o v i d e v a c a t i o n s u n t il a f t e r 2 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e .
5 P e r i o d s o f s e r v i c e w e r e a r b i t r a r i l y c h o s e n a n d d o n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t th e in d iv i d u a l p r o v i s i o n s f o r p r o g r e s s i o n s .
F o r e x a m p le , th e c h a n g e s in p r o p o r t i o n s
s e r v i c e in c lu d e c h a n g e s in p r o v i s i o n s o c c u r r i n g b e t w e e n 5 an d 10 y e a r s ..
6 L e s s th a n 0 . 5 p e r c e n t .

( 6)
( 6)
68
31

1
2
*

*




in d ic a t e d at

10 y e a r s '

11
Table B-6. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
( P e r c e n t o f o f f i c e a n d p la n t w o r k e r s in a l l i n d u s t r i e s a n d in in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s e m p l o y e d in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g
h e a lt h , i n s u r a n c e , o r p e n s io n b e n e f i t s , S io u x F a l l s , S. D a k . , F e b r u a r y I 9 6 0 )

OFFICE WORKERS
T y p e o f b e n e f it

A ll w o r k e r s

------------------------------------------------------------

All industries

1

Manufacturing

PLANT WORKERS
Public utilities 2

All industries 3

100

100

1 00

100

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

100

100

91

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s p r o v id i n g :
L i f e i n s u r a n c e ------------- --------------- -----------------A c c id e n t a l d ea th and d is m e m b e r m e n t
in s u r a n c e
-------------------- --------------------------------S ic k n e s s a n d a c c i d e n t i n s u r a n c e o r
s i c k l e a v e o r b o t h 4 --------------------------------------

87

98

85

94

99

48

25

69

29

20

63

88

93

100

94

95

91

S ic k n e s s a n d a c c i d e n t i n s u r a n c e ----------S ic k l e a v e ( f u l l p a y a n d n o
w a i t in g p e r i o d )
---------------------------------------S ic k l e a v e ( p a r t i a l p a y o r
------------ ---------------------------w a it in g p e r i o d )

32

29

32

31

25

31

54

74

47

17

3

25

17

1

43

53

71

37

79
78
74
39
68

97
97
87
32
62

39
39
39
27
74

82
81
76
22
70
1

96
96
88
13
77

44
44
44
23
80

H o s p i t a l i z a t i o n in s u r a n c e -----------------------------S u r g i c a l in s u r a n c e ------------------------------------------M e d i c a l in s u r a n c e -------------------------------------------C a t a s t r o p h e in s u r a n c e — ------------------------------R e t i r e m e n t p e n s i o n ----------------------------------------N o h e a lt h , in s u r a n c e , o r p e n s io n p l a n ------

1 I n c lu d e s d a ta f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e ; a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d it io n t o t h o s e i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
2 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s .
3 I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e , r e t a i l t r a d e , r e a l e s t a t e , a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d it io n t o t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
4 U n d u p lic a t e d t o t a l o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g s i c k l e a v e o r s i c k n e s s a n d a c c i d e n t in s u r a n c e s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y b e lo w .
S i c k - l e a v e p la n s a r e l i m i t e d t o t h o s e w h ic h d e f i n i t e l y e s t a b l i s h at l e a s t
th e m in i m u m n u m b e r o f d a y s ' p a y th a t c a n b e e x p e c t e d b y e a c h e m p l o y e e . I n f o r m a l s i c k - l e a v e a l l o w a n c e s d e t e r m i n e d o n a n in d iv i d u a l b a s is a r e e x c l u d e d .







13

Appendix: Occupational Descriptions
The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to assist its
field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’ s field economists are
instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped workers,
part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.

O FFIC E
BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
classified by type of machine, as follows:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.

Biller machine (billing machine}

,
— Uses a special billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, etc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of
the bill being prepared and is often done oh a fanfold machine.

Biller machine (bookkeeping machine)— Uses

,
a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrahd, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, etc., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers’
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping.
Works from uniform and standard types of sales and
credit slips.




Class A

— Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance
sheets, and other records by hand.

Class B

— Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping* Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers’ accounts (not including a simple type of billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation of trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.
CLERK, ACCOUNTING

Class A

— Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a com­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase of an establish­
ment’ s business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

14
CLERK, ACCOUNTING— Continued

payable; exam ining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper a c ­
counting distribution; requires judgm ent and experience in making
proper assig n ation s and allo catio n s. May a s s is t in preparing, ad­
justing and closing journal en tries; may direct c la ss B accounting
clerks.

Class B— Under supervision, performs one or more routine a c ­
counting operations such as posting sim ple journal vouchers or a c ­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher reg isters;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers, or posting sim ple co st accounting d ata. T his
job does not require a knowledge of accounting and bookkeeping
principles but is found in offices in which the more routine accou n t­
ing work is subdivided on a functional b asis among sev eral w orkers.

CLERK, PAYROLL

Com putes w ages of company em ployees and enters the n e c e s­
sary data on the payroll sh e e ts. D uties involve: C alculating w orkers'
earnings based on time or production records; posting calcu lated data
on payroll sh eet, showing inform ation such as w orker's name, working
days, tim e, rate, deductions for insurance, and to tal w ages due. May
make out paychecks and a s s is t paym aster in making up and d istrib u t­
ing pay envelopes. May use a calculating m achine.
COMPTOMETER OPERATOR

Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform m athem a­
tic a l com putations. This job is not to be confused with that of s ta tis ­
tic al or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent u se of a Comp­
tom eter but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to perform ance
of other du ties.

CLERK, FILE

Class A— In an estab lish ed filing system containing a num­
ber of varied subject m atter file s, c la ssifie s and indexes co rres­
pondence or other m aterial; may also file this m aterial. May keep
records of various types in conjunction with files or may super­
vise others in filing and locating m aterial in the file s. May per­
form incidental clerical d u ties.
Class B— Perform s routine filing, usually of m aterial th at h as
already been classified or which is easily identifiable, or lo cates
or a s s is ts in locating m aterial in file s. May perform incidental
clerical d u ties.
CLERK, ORDER

R eceives cu sto m ers'o rd ers for m aterial or m erchandise by m ail,
phone, or personally. D uties involve any combination o f the following:
Quoting prices to custom ers; making out an order sh eet listin g the item s
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of item s on order
sheet; distributing order sh eets to respective departm ents to be filled.
May check with credit departm ent to determ ine credit rating of custom er,
acknowledge receipt of orders from custom ers, follow up orders to see
that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check ship­
ping invoices with original orders.




DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)

Under general supervision and with no supervisory resp o n si­
b ilitie s, reproduces m ultiple copies of typew ritten or handw ritten m atter,
using a Mimeograph or D itto m achine. Makes n ecessary adjustm ent such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare ste n c il or D itto m aster. May keep file of used ste n c ils or D itto
m asters. May sort, co llate, and staple com pleted m aterial.
KEYPUNCH OPERATOR

Under general supervision and with no supervisory resp o n si­
b ilitie s, records accounting and s ta tis tic a l data on tabulating cards by
punching a series of holes in the cards in a sp ecified sequence, using
an alphabetical or a num erical keypunch m achine, following w ritten in­
formation on records. May duplicate cards by using the duplicating de­
vice attached to machine. May keep files of punch card s. May verify
own work or work of others.
OFFICE BOY OR GIRL

Perform s various routine duties such as running errands, op­
erating minor office m achines such as sealers or m ailers, opening and
distributing m ail, and other minor clerical work.

15

SECRETARY
Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an ad­
m inistrative or executive position. D uties include making appointm ents
for superior; receiving people coming into office; answ ering and making
phone calls; handling personal and important or confidential m ail, and
writing routine correspondence on own initiativ e; taking dictation (where
transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
sim ilar m achine, and transcribing dictation or the recorded information
reproduced on a transcribing m achine. May prepare sp ecial reports or
memorandums for inform ation of superior.

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar m achine, involving a nor­
mal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a typew riter.
May also type from w ritten copy. May also se t up and keep files in or­
der, keep sim ple records, etc* D o e s n o t in c lu d e tra n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e
w o rk (see transcribing-m achine operator).

STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar m achine, involving a varied
technical or sp ecialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on
scien tific research and to transcribe this dictation on a typew riter. May
also type from w ritten copy. May also se t up and keep files in order,
keep sim ple records, etc. D o e s n o t in c lu d e tra n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e w o rk .

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
O perates a single- or m ultiple-position telephone sw itchboard.
D uties involve handling incom ing, outgoing, and intraplant or office c a lls.
May record toll calls and take m essag es. May give information to per­
sons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders. For workers
who also act as receptio nists see sw itchboard operator-receptionist.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single p o si­
tion or monitor-type sw itchboard, acts as receptio nist and may also type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular du ties. T his typing
or clerical work may take the major part of this w orker's time w hile at
sw itchboard.




TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR
C la s s A — O perates a variety of tabulating or electrical a c ­
counting m achines, typically including such m achines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignm ents without close supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The com plete reporting and tabulating
assignm ents typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagram s and operating sequences of long and complex reports.
D o e s n o t in c lu d e working supervisors performing tabulating-m achine
operations and day-to-day supervision of the work and production of
a group of tabulating-m achine operators.
C la s s B — O perates more difficult tabulating or electrical ac­
counting m achines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. T his work is performed under
specific instructions and may include the perform ance of some wir­
ing from diagram s. The work typically involves, for exam ple, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting ex ercise, a com plete but
sm all tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are w ell estab lish ed . May also include the training
of new em ployees in the basic operation of the m achine.
C la s s C — O perates sim ple tabulating or e lectrical account­
ing m achines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with specific instructions. May include sim ple w iring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for exam ple, individual sorting or collating runs, or re­
petitive operations.

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from transcribing-m achine records. May also type from w ritten
copy and do sim ple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation in­
volving a varied tech n ical or sp ecialized vocabulary such as legal briefs
or reports on scien tific research are not included. A worker who takes
dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar m achine is classified
as a stenographer, general.

16

TYPIST

TYPIST— Continued

U ses a typew riter to make copies of various m aterial or to make
out b ills after calcu latio n s have been made by another person. May in­
clude typing of s te n c ils , m ats, or sim ilar m aterials for use in duplicat­
ing p ro cesses. May do clerical work involving little sp ecial training,
such as keeping sim ple records, filing records and reports, or sorting
and distributing incoming m ail.

Class A— Perform s one or more of the following: Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining m aterial from sev eral
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, sy llab icatio n , puncP R O F E S S IO N A L
DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR

(A ssistan t draftsm an)
Draws to scale units or parts of draw ings prepared by d rafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or m anufacturing purposes.
U ses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare draw ings
from sim ple plans or sk etch es, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsm an.
DRAFTSMAN, LEADER

P lans and d irects activ ities of one or more draftsm en in prep­
aration of working plans and d etail draw ings from rough or prelim inary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing p urposes. D uties
involve a combination of the following: Interpreting blueprints, sk etch es,
and w ritten or verbal orders; determ ining work procedures; assig n in g
duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif­
ficult problem s. May a s s is t subordinates during em ergencies or a s a
regular assignm ent, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad­
m inistrative nature.

tuation, e tc ., of tech n ical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; planning layout and typing of com plicated s ta tis tic a l tab les
to m aintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine
form letters varying d etails to su it circum stances.

Class B— Perform s one or more of the following: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance p o licies,
etc.; settin g up sim ple standard tab ulation s, or copying more com­
plex tab les already se t up and spaced properly.
AND T E C H N IC A L
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR— Continued

involved in strength of m aterials, beam s and tru sse s; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dim ensions, m aterials to be used, and q u an tities;
w riting sp ecificatio n s; making adjustm ents or changes in draw ings or
sp ecificatio n s. May ink in lines and letters on pencil draw ings, prepare
d etail units of com plete draw ings, or trace draw ings. Work is frequently
in a sp ecialized field such as architectural, electrical, m echanical, or
structural drafting.
NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)

A registered nurse who gives nursing serv ice to ill or injured
em ployees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accid en t on the
prem ises of a factory or other establishm ent. D uties involve a combination of the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of employees* inju ries; keeping records of p atien ts
treated; preparing accident reports for com pensation or other purposes;
conducting p h ysical exam inations and health evaluations of applicants
and em ployees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environm ent, or other
activ ities affecting the health, w elfare, and safety of a ll personnel.

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR

Prepares working plans and d etail draw ings from n o tes, rough
or detailed sk etches for engineering, construction, or m anufacturing pur­
p o ses. D uties involve a combination of the following: Preparing work­
ing plans, d etail draw ings, m aps, cro ss-sectio n s, e tc ., to scale by use
of drafting instrum ents; making engineering com putations such as those




TRACER

C opies plans and draw ings prepared by others, by placing trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or p en cil. U ses
T -square, com pass, and other drafting to o ls. May prepare sim ple draw­
ings and do sim ple lettering.

17

MAINTENANCE

D

POW ERPLANT

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipm ent such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, sta irs, casin gs, and trim
made of wood in an establishm ent. Work involves most of the following:
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, draw ings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’s handtools, portable
power tools, and standard m easuring instrum ents; making standard shop
com putations relating to dim ensions of work; selectin g m aterials n ec­
essary for the work. In general, the work of the m aintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

F ires stationary boilers to furnish the establishm ent in which
employed with heat, power, or steam . F eeds fuels to fire by lmnd or
operates a m echanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water and safety
valves. May clean, oil, or a s s is t in repairing boilerroom equipm ent.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE
Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installatio n , m aintenance, or repair of equipm ent for the generating, d is­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishm ent. Work
involves most of the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipm ent such as generators, transform ers, sw itchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit system s,
or other transm ission equipment; working from blueprints, draw ings, lay­
out, or other specifications;.locating and diagnosing trouble in the e le c ­
trical system or equipm ent; working standard com putations relating to
load requirem ents of wiring or electrical equipm ent; using a variety of
electrician ’s handtools and m easuring and testin g instrum ents. In gen­
eral, the work of the m aintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
O perates and m aintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (m echanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishm ent in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: O perating and m aintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, motors
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipm ent, steam boilers and
boiler-fed w ater pumps; making equipm ent repairs; keeping a record of
operation of m achinery, tem perature, and fuel consum ption. May also
supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers in establishments

employing more than one engineer are excluded.




HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE
A ssists one or more workers in the skilled m aintenance trades,
by performing specific or general duties of le sse r sk ill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with m aterials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipm ent; assistin g worker by holding m aterials or tools;
performing other unskilled task s as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is perm itted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform sp ecialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are also performed by workers on a full-tim e b asis.

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
S pecializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling m achines in the construction of m achine-shop tools, gauges,
jig s, fixtures, or d ies. Work involves most of the following: Planning
a'nd performing difficult machining operations; processing item s requiring
com plicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision m easuring instrum ents; selectin g feeds, speed s, tooling and op­
eration sequence; making necessary adjustm ents during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dim ensions. May be required to recog­
nize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, m achine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this classificatio n .

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
Produces replacem ent parts and new parts in making repairs of
m etal parts of m echanical equipment operated in an establishm ent. Work
involves most of the following: Interpreting w ritten instructions and
sp ecificatio n s; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
c h in ist’s handtools and precision m easuring instrum ents; setting up and

18
MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE— Continued

operating standard machine tools; shaping of m etal parts to close tolerances; making standard shop com putations relating to dim ensions of work,
tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working prop­
erties of the common m etals; selectin g standard m aterials, parts, and
equipment required for his work; fitting and assem bling parts into me­
chanical equipm ent. In general, the m achinist’s work normally requires
a rounded training in m achine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
R epairs autom obiles, buses, m otortrucks, and tractors of an e s ­
tablishm ent. Work involves most of the following: Examining autom otive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassem bling equipm ent and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as w renches,
gauges, d rills, or sp ecialized equipment in disassem bling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassem bling and installing the various assem blies in the vehicle
and making n ecessary adjustm ents; alining w heels, adjusting brakes and
lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the autom otive
m echanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
R epairs machinery or m echanical equipm ent of an establishm ent.
Work involves most of the following: Examining m achines and m echan­
ical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dism antling or partly d is ­
m antling m achines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with item s obtained from stock; ordering the production of a rep lace­
ment part by a m achine shop or sending of the machine to a m achine shop
for major repairs; preparing w ritten sp ecificatio n s for major repairs or
for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassem bling ma­
chines; and making all n ecessary adjustm ents for operation. In general,
the work of a m aintenance m echanic requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classificatio n are workers
whose primary duties involve settin g up or adjusting m achines.

MILLWRIGHT
In stalls new m achines or heavy equipm ent and dism antles and
in sta lls m achines or heavy equipm ent when changes in the plant layout




MILLWRIGHT— Continued

are required. Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other sp ecificatio n s; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop com putations re­
lating to s tre s se s , strength of m aterials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipm ent; selectin g standard tools, equipm ent, and parts
to be used; installin g and m aintaining in good order power transm ission
equipm ent such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the m ill­
w right’s work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

OILER
L u bricates, with oil or g rease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of m echanical equipm ent of an establishm ent.

PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
P ain ts and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishm ent. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface pecu­
lia rities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in
nail holes and in terstices; applying paint with spray gun or brush. May
mix colors, o ils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper
color or consistency. In general, the work of the m aintenance painter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
In stalls or repairs w ater, steam , g as, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishm ent. Work involves most of the following:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other w ritten sp ecificatio n s; cutting various siz e s of pipe to correct
lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma­
chine; threading pipe with stocks and d ies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven m achines; assem bling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop com putations relating to p ressu res,
flow, and size of pipe required; making standard te s ts to determ ine
whether finished pipes meet sp ecificatio n s. In general, the work of the
m aintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building

sanitation or heating systems are excluded.

19

TOOL AND DIE MAKER

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
K eeps the plumbing system of an establishm ent in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installatio n of
vents and traps in plumbing system ; installin g or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’s snake. In
general, the work of the m aintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and experience.

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
F ab ricates, in sta lls, and m aintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, ch u tes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishm ent. Work involves most of the following: Planning and lay­
ing out a ll types of sheet-m etal m aintenance work from blueprints, models,
or other sp ecificatio n s; setting up and operating all available types of
sheet-m etal-w orking m achines; using a variety of handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assem bling; installin g sheetm etal articles as required. In general, the work of the m aintenance
sheet-m etal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
C onstructs and repairs m achine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most of the following: Planning and laying out of work from
m odels, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specificatio n s;
using a variety of tool and die maker’s handtools and precision m eas­
uring instrum ents, understanding of the working properties of common
m etals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipm ent; making necessary shop com putations relating to dim ensions
of work, sp eed s, feeds, and tooling of m achines; heattreating of m etal
parts during fabrication as w ell as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required q u alities; working to close tolerances; fitting and assem bling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; selectin g appropriate
m aterials, tools, and p ro cesses. In general, the tool and die maker’s
work requires a rounded training in m achine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classificatio n .

CUSTODIAL AND M ATERIAL MOVEMENT

ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER— Continued

T ransports passengers betw een floors of an office building,
apartm ent house, departm ent store, hotel or sim ilar establishm ent.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

or other establishm ent. D uties involve a combination of the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipm ent, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing m etal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte*
nance serv ices; cleaning lavatories, show ers, and restroom s. Workers
who sp ecialize in window w ashing are excluded.

GUARD

Performs routine police d u ties, either at fixed post or on tour,
m aintaining order, using arms or force where n ecessary . Includes gate-

men who are stationed at gate and check on identity of employees and LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
other persons entering.

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER

(Sweeper; charwoman; jan itress)
C leans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washroom s, or prem ises of an office, apartm ent house, or commercial




(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or w arehouse helper)

A worker employed in a w arehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishm ent whose duties involve one or more of the follow­
ing: Loading and unloading various m aterials and m erchandise on or

20

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING— Continued
from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting dev ices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing m aterials or m erchandise in proper storage location; tran s­
porting m aterials or m erchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow.

Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded.
ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; w arehouse stockm an)

F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
m erchandise in accordance with specificatio n s on sa le s slip s, customers*
orders, or other instru ctio n s. May, in addition to filling orders and indi­
cating item s filled or om itted, keep records of outgoing orders, req u isi­
tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform
other related duties.

PACKER, SHIPPING
P repares finished products for shipm ent or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, siz e, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container em ployed, and method of shipm ent. Work requires the
placing of item s in shipping containers and may involve one or more of
the following: Knowledge of various item s of stock in order to verify
content; selectio n of appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other m aterial to prevent
breakage or dam age; closing and sealing container; applying lab els or
entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make wooden

boxes or crates are excluded.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
P repares m erchandise for shipm ent, or receiv es and is respon­
sible for incom ing shipm ents of m erchandise or other m aterials. Shipping
work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, p ractices, routes,
available m eans of transportation and rates; and preparing records of the
goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting w eight and shipping
charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or a s s is t in
preparing the m erchandise for shipm ent. Receiving work involves: V eri­
fying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipm ents ag ain st
b ills of lading, invoices, or other records; checking for shortages and
rejecting damaged goods; routing m erchandise or m aterials to proper de­
partm ents; m aintaining n ecessary records and file s.




SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK— Continued
For wage study purposes, workers are c lassified as follow s:

Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk
TRUCKDRIVER
D rives a truck within a city or ind u strial area to transport ma­
terials, m erchandise, equipm ent, or men betw een various types of e sta b ­
lishm ents such as: M anufacturing plants, freight depots, w arehouses,
w holesale and retail establishm ents, or betw een retail establishm ents
and custom ers’ houses or places of b u sin ess. May also load or unload
truck with or w ithout helpers, make minor m echanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. D r iv e r -s a le s m e n a n d o v e r -th e -r o a d d riv e rs
a re e x c lu d e d .

For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are c lassified by size
and type of equipm ent, as follow s: (T ractor-trailer should be rated on
the b asis of trailer capacity.)

Truckdriver (combination of sizes listed separately)
Truckdriver, medium (IV2 to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)
T r u c k d r iv e r , lig h t (u n d e r 1% t o n s )

TRUCKER, POWER
O perates a manually controlled g aso lin e- or electric-pow ered
truck or tractor to transport goods and m aterials of all kinds about a
w arehouse, m anufacturing plant, or other establishm ent.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of
truck, as follow s:

Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)
WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of prem ises periodically in protecting property
ag ain st fire, theft, and illeg al entry.
*

U .S. G O VER N M ENT P R IN T IN G O F F IC E : 1 9 60 0 — 5 4 9 6 6 4

Occupational Wage Surveys

O ccupational wage surveys are being conducted in 60 major labor m arkets during late 1959 and early I960. T hese bulletins, when av aila­
ble, may be'purchased from the Superintendent of D ocum ents, U.S. Government Printing Office, W ashington 25, D .C ., or from any of the BLS regional
sales offices shown on inside front cover.
A summary bulletin containing data for all labor m arkets, combined with additional an aly sis, w ill be issued early in 1961.
B ulletins for the areas listed below are now available.




Baltim ore, Md., September 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-7, price 15 cents
Boston, M ass., October 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-8, price 25 cents
Buffalo, N.Y., October 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-4, price 20 cents
Canton, Ohio, December 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-10 price 25 cents
C leveland, Ohio, September 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-1, price 20 cents
D allas, T ex., October 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-3, price 20 cents
Dayton, Ohio, December 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-9, price 25 cents
Denver, C olo., December 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-11, price 25 cents
Fort Worth, T ex., November 1959—BLS Bull. 1265*13, price 25 cents
Indianapolis, Ind., January I960—BLS B ull. 1265-22, price 25 conts
Jacksonville, F la ., December 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-14, price 25 cents
Memphis, Tenn., January I960—BLS Bull. 1265-19, price 25 cents
Miami, F la ., December 1959—BLS Bull. 1265*6, price 20 cents
M inneapolis—St. Paul,M inn., January I960—BLS Bull. 1265-21, price 25 cents
Philadelphia, P a., November 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-16, price 25 cents
Pittsburgh, P a ., December 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-20, price 25 cents
Portland, Maine, November 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-12, price 20 cents
St. L ouis, Mo., October 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-5, price 25 cents
San Bernardino—R iverside—Ontario, C alif., November 1959—
BLS Bull. 1265-15, price 25 cents
San F rancisco-O akland, C alif., January I960—BLS Bull. 1265-17, price 25 cents
S eattle, Wash., August 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-2, price 25 cents
W ashington, D .C .—Md.—Va., January I960—BLS Bull. 1265-18, price 25 cents





Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102