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Occupational Wage Survey
YORK, PENNSYLVANIA
FEBRUARY 1960

Bu letin No. 1265-27




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clagua, Commissionar




Occupational Wage Survey




YORK, PENNSYLVANIA
FEBRUARY 1960

Bulletin No. 1265-27
April I960
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STAnSTICS
Ewan C la gvc, Commissioner

For sob by l b

Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. - Price

25

cents




Contents

Preface
The Com m unity v^age Survey P rogram
The Bureau, of Labor S ta tistics regularly conducts
areaw ide wage su rveys in a number of im portant indus­
tria l cen ters. The stu d ies, made from late fall to early
spring, relate to occupational earnings and related supple­
m entary b en efits. A p relim inary report is available on
com pletion of the study in each area, usually in the month
follow ing the payroll period studied. T his bulletin provides
additional data not included in the ea r lie r report. A con­
solidated an alytical bulletin sum m arizing the resu lts of a ll
of the year*s su rveys is issu ed after com pletion of the
final area bulletin for the current round of su rveys.
T his report w as prepared in the B ureau^ regional
office in New York, N. Y. , by E lliott A. B row ar, under the
d irection of F red erick W. M ueller, R egional W age and In­
d u strial R elations A n alyst.




Page
Introduction ______________________________________________________________
1
T ables:
1. E stab lish m en ts and w ork ers w ithin scope of survey ......................

2

A: O ccupational earnings:*
A - 1. O ffice occupations _______________________________________
A -2. P ro fessio n a l and tech n ical o ccu p a tio n s__________________
A -3. M aintenance and power plant occu p a tio n s________________
A -4. C ustodial and m aterial m ovem ent o c c u p a tio n s__________
B: E stablishm en t p ra ctices and supplem entary wage
p rovision s:*
B - 1. Shift d iffe r e n tia ls ___________
B -2 . M inim um entrance sa la rie s for w om en
office w ork ers ___________________________________________
B -3 . Scheduled w eekly hours __________________________________
B -4 . Paid holidays _____________________________________________
B -5 . Paid v a c a tio n s _____________
B -6 . Health, in su ran ce, and pension plans ___________________

8
9
9
10
11
13

Appendix: O ccupational d escrip tion s __________________________________

15

* NOTE: Sim ilar tabulations for th ese and other item s are
available in the rep orts for su rveys in other m ajor a r e a s.
A d irectory indicating date of study and the price of the
rep orts is available upon request.
Union sc a le s, indicative of prevailing pay le v e ls,
are a lso available for seven selected building trad es in
the York area.

iii

4
5
6
7




O c c u p a tio n a l W a g e

S u rv e y — Y o rk , P a .

Introduction

This area is one of sev er a l im portant industrial cen ters in
which the U .S . D epartm ent of L ab or's B ureau of Labor S ta tistics has
conducted su rveys of occupational earnings and related wage benefits
on an areaw ide b a sis. In this area, data w ere obtained by personal
v isits of Bureau field econ om ists to rep resen tative estab lish m en ts
within six broad industry d ivisions: M anufacturing; tra n sp o rta tio n ,1
com m unication, and other public u tilities; w h olesale trade; retail
trade; finance, in su ran ce, and real estate; and s e r v ic e s . M ajor in ­
dustry groups excluded from these stu dies are governm ent operations
and the con struction and extractive in d u stries. E stablishm en ts having
few er than a p rescrib ed num ber of w orkers are om itted also because
they furnish in su fficien t em ploym ent in the occupations studied to w a r­
rant in clu sion . W herever p o ssib le, separate tabulations are provided
for each of. the broad industry d ivision s.
T hese su rveys are conducted on a sam ple b asis because of the
u n n ecessary co st involved in surveying all esta b lish m en ts. To obtain
appropriate accuracy at m inim um co st, a greater proportion of large
than of sm all estab lish m en ts is studied. In com bining the data, how ­
ever, all estab lish m en ts are given their appropriate w eight. E stim ates
based on the estab lish m en ts studied are presented, th erefore, as r e ­
lating to all estab lish m en ts in the industry grouping and area, e x ­
cept for those below the m inim um siz e studied.
O ccupations and E arnings
The occupations selected for study are com m on to a variety
of m anufacturing and nonm anufacturing in d u stries. O ccupational c la s ­
sifica tio n is based on a uniform se t of job d escrip tion s designed to
take account of in terestab lish m en t variation in duties within the sam e
job. (See appendix for listin g of these d escrip tio n s.) E arnings data are
presented (in the A -s e r ie s tab les) for the follow ing types of occupa­
tions: (a) O ffice c le rica l; (b) p ro fession a l and technical; (c) m ain te­
nance and powerplant; and (d) custodial and m aterial m ovem ent.
O ccupational em ploym ent and earnings data are shown for
fu ll-tim e w ork ers, i. e . , those hired to work a regular w eekly sch ed ­
ule in the given occupational c la ssifica tio n . E arnings data exclude
prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on w eekends, h olidays, and
1 R ailroads, form erly excluded from the scope of these stu d ies,
have been added in nearly all of the areas to be studied during the
w inter of 1959-60; railroad s w ill be added in the rem aining areas next
year. F or scope of survey in this area, see footnote to "transporta­
tion, com m unication, and other public u tilities" in table 1.




late sh ifts. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded a lso , but c o st-o fliving bonuses and incentive earnings are included. Where w eekly
hours are reported, as for office cle r ic a l occupations, referen ce is
to the work sched ules (rounded to the n ea rest half hour) for which
straigh t-tim e sa la rie s are paid; average w eekly earnings for these
occupations have been rounded to the n ea rest half d ollar.
A verage earnings of m en and wom en are presented sep arately
for selected occupations in which both sex es are com m only em ployed.
D ifferen ces in pay lev els of m en and wom en in these occupations are
largely due to (l) d ifferen ces in the distribution of the sex es among
industries and estab lish m en ts; (2) d ifferen ces in sp ecific duties p er­
form ed, although the occupations are appropriately c la ssifie d within
the sam e survey job description; and (3) d ifferen ces in length of s e r v ­
ice or m erit review when individual sa la rie s are adjusted on this b asis.
Longer average serv ic e of m en would resu lt in higher average pay
when both sex es are em ployed within the sam e rate range. Job
d escrip tion s used in cla ssify in g em p loyees in these su rveys are u su ­
ally m ore gen eralized than those used in individual estab lish m en ts to
allow for m inor d ifferen ces among estab lish m en ts in specifip duties
perform ed.
O ccupational em ploym ent estim a tes rep resen t the total in all
estab lish m en ts within the scope of the study and not the num ber actu­
ally surveyed. B ecau se of d ifferen ces in occupational structure among
estab lish m en ts, the estim a tes of occupational em ploym ent obtained
from the sam ple of estab lish m en ts studied serv e only to indicate the
relative im portance of the jobs studied. T hese d ifferen ces in occu ­
pational structure do not m aterially affect the accuracy of the earn**
ings data.
E stablishm en t P ra c tic es and Supplem entary Wage P rovision s
Inform ation is presented also (in the B -s e r ie s tab les) on s e ­
lected estab lish m en t p ra ctices and supplem entary ben efits as they r e ­
late to office and plant w ork ers. The term "office w ork ers, " as used
in this bulletin, includes working su p erv iso rs and nonsupervisory
w orkers perform ing c le r ic a l or related functions, and exclu d es adm in­
istr a tiv e, ex ecu tive, and p rofession al p erson n el. "Plant w orkers" in ­
clude working forem en and all nonsu p ervisory w orkers (including lead m en and train ees) engaged in nonoffice functions. A d m in istrative,
execu tive, and p rofession al em p lo yees, and force-acco u n t construction
em ployees who are u tilized as a sep arate work force are excluded.
C afeteria w orkers and routem en are excluded in m anufacturing indus­
tries, but are included as plant w orkers in nonm anufacturing industries.

2




Table 1.

Establishments

Minimum
employment
in establish­
ments in scope
of study

Industry division

A ll divisions _

_

_

and workers within scope of survey

_

M anufacturing_____________________________
Nonmanufacturing _
Transportation, communication,
and other public utilities* __________
Wholesale trade _______________________
Retail trade ____________________________
Finance, insurance, and
real estate _ _____ __________________
S e rv ic e s 7 . _______________ ___________

and number studied in York, Pa. , 1 by major industry division, 2 February I960

Number of establishments
Within
scope of
study 3

Workers in establishments
Within scope of study

Studied

Studied
T otal4

Office

Plant

T otal4

51

237

86

45, 100

6, 000

3 2 ,9 0 0

26, 080

51
51

169
68

55
31

37, 000
8, 100

4, 500
1, 500

2 8 ,2 0 0
4, 700

21, 520
4, 560

51
51
51

23
5
24

13
2
9

3 ,3 0 0
600
2, 700

500
(?)
( 6)

1,800
( 6)
(* )

2 ,4 5 0
250
1, 080

51
51

7
9

3
4

700
800

(* )
(6)

(M
( 6)

330
450

1 The York Metropolitan A rea (York County). The "w orkers within scope of study" estim ates shown in this table provide a reasonably accurate
descrip­
tion of the size and composition of the labor force included in this survey.
The estim ates are not intended, however, to serve as a basis of comparison with other
area employment indexes to m easure employment trends or levels since ( l ) planning of wage surveys requires the use of establishment data compiled considerably in advance
of the payroll period studied and (2) sm all establishments are excluded from the scope of the survey.
2 The 1957 revised edition of the Standard Industrial Classification Manual was used in classifying establishments by industry division. Major changes from the earlier
edition (used in the Bureau’ s labor market wage survey program prior to the winter of 1958-1959) are the transfer of milk pasteurization plants and ready-m ixed concrete
establishments from trade (wholesale or retail) to manufacturing, and the transfer of radio and television broadcasting, from services to the transportation, communica­
tion, and other public utilities division.
3 Includes all establishments with total employment at or above the m inim um -size limitation. A ll outlets (within the area) of companies in such industries as trade,
finance, auto repair service, and motion-picture theaters are considered as 1 establishment.
4 Includes executive, professional, and other workers excluded from the separate office and plant categories.
5 Railroads were included; taxicabs and services incidental to water transporation were excluded.
4 This ihdustry division is represented in estim ates for "a ll industries" and "nonmanufacturing" in the Series A and B tables, although coverage was insufficient to
justify separate presentation of data.
7 Hotels; personal services; business service s; automobile repair shops; motion pictures; nonprofit membership organizations; and engineering and architectural services.

3

The sum m ary of vacation plans is lim ited to form al arran ge­
m en ts, excluding inform al plans w hereby tim e off with pay is granted
at the d iscretio n of the em p loyer. Separate estim a tes are provided
according to em ployer practice in com puting vacation paym ents, such
as tim e paym ents, percen t of annual earn in gs, or fla t-su m am ounts.
H ow ever, in the tabulations of vacation allow an ces, paym ents not on
a tim e b a sis w ere converted; for exam p le, a paym ent of 2 p ercen t of
annual earnings w as con sid ered as the equivalent of 1 w e ek 's pay.

Data are presen ted for all health , in su ran ce, and pension
plans for which at le a st a part of the c o st is borne by the em p lo yer,
excepting only leg al req u irem en ts such as w ork m en 's com p ensation
and so cia l secu rity . Such plans include those underw ritten by a co m ­
m ercia l insuran ce com pany and those provided through a union fund or
paid d irectly by the em ployer out of cu rren t operating funds or from
a fund s e t asid e for this purpose. Death b en efits are included as a
form of life in su ran ce.
S ick n ess and accident insuran ce is limited* to that type of in ­
surance under which predeterm ined ca sh paym ents are m ade d irectly
to the insured on a w eekly or m onthly b a sis during illn e s s or accident
d isab ility. Inform ation is p resen ted for all such plans to which the
em ployer con trib u tes. H ow ever, in New York and New J e r se y , which
have enacted tem porary d isab ility insuran ce law s which require e m ­
ployer co n trib u tio n s,4 plans are included only if the em p loyer (1) con ­
tributes m ore than is leg a lly req u ired , or (2) provides the em ployee
with ben efits which ex ceed the req u irem en ts of the law . Tabulations
of paid sic k -le a v e plans are lim ited to form al p la n s5 w hich provide
full pay or a proportion of the w ork er's pay during absence from work
b ecause of illn e s s . Separate tabulations are provided accord ing to
(l) plans which provide fu ll pay and no waiting period, and (2) plans
providing eith er partial pay or a w aiting period. In addition to the
presentation of the proportions of w ork ers who are provided sick n ess
and accident insurance or paid sick lea v e, an unduplicated total is
shown of w orkers who receiv e eith er or both types of b en efits.
C atastrophe in su ran ce, so m etim es referred to as extended
m edical in su ran ce, inclu des those plans which are d esign ed to p rotect
em p loyees in ca se of sick n ess and injury involving ex p en ses beyond
the norm al coverage of h osp italization , m ed ica l, and su rgical plans.
M edical insurance re fe rs to plans providing for com p lete or partial
paym ent of d octors' fe e s . Such plans m ay be underw ritten by co m m er­
cia l insuran ce com panies or nonprofit organ ization s or they m ay be
self-in su r ed . Tabulations of retirem en t pen sion plans are lim ited to
those plans that provide m onthly paym ents for the rem ainder of the
w o rk er's life .

2 An estab lish m en t was co n sid ered as having a policy if it m et
eith er of the follow ing conditions: (1) O perated late sh ifts at the tim e
of the su rvey, or (2) had form al p rovision s coverin g late sh ifts.
3 Scheduled w eekly hours for office w orkers (first sectio n of
table B -3 ) in su rveys m ade prior to late 1957 and ea rly 1958 w ere
p resen ted in term s of the proportion of wom en office w orkers e m ­
ployed in o ffices with the indicated w eekly hours for w om en w o rk ers.

4 The tem porary d isab ility law s in C aliforn ia and Rhode Island
do not require em ployer con trib u tion s.
5 An estab lish m en t w as co n sid ered as having a form al plan if
it estab lish ed at le a st the m inim um num ber of days of sick leave that
could be expected by each em p lo yee. Such a plan need not be w ritten ,
but inform al sick -lea v e allow an ces, d eterm in ed on an individual b a s is ,
w ere excluded.

Shift differen tial data (table B - l) are lim ited to m anufacturing
in d u stries. This inform ation is presented both in term s of (a) esta b ­
lish m en t p o lic y ,2 p resen ted in term s of total plant w orker em p loy­
m ent, and (b) effectiv e p ra ctice, presented on the b a sis of w orkers
actually em ployed on the sp ecified sh ift at the tim e of the su rvey.
In estab lish m en ts having varied d ifferen tia ls, the amount applying to
a m ajority was used o r, if no am ount applied to a m ajority, the c la s ­
sification "other11 was u sed . In estab lish m en ts in which som e la te shift hours are paid at norm al ra te s, a d ifferential was record ed only
if it applied to a m ajority of the shift hours.
M inim um entrance rates (table B -2 ) relate only to the esta b ­
lish m en ts v isited . They are p resented on an estab lish m en t, rather
than on an em ploym ent b a sis. P aid holidays; paid vacations; and
health, in su ran ce, and pension plans are treated sta tistica lly on the
b a sis that th ese are applicable to all plant or office w orkers if a m a­
jority of such w orkers are elig ib le or m ay eventually qualify for the
p ra ctices liste d . Scheduled hours are treated sta tistica lly on the b a sis
that these are applicable to all plant or office w orkers if a m ajority
are c o v e r e d .3 B ecau se of rounding, sum s of individual item s in these
tabulations m ay not equal to tals.
The fir s t part of the paid holidays table p resen ts the num ­
b er of whole and half holidays actually provided. The second part
com b ines whole and half holidays to show total holiday tim e .




4

A* Occupational Earnings
Table A -l. O ffic e Occupations
(Average straight-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, York, Pa. , February I960)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—
Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

W
eekly
hours*
(Standard)

s
$
$
S
$
$
*
t
S
s
S
$
t
i;—
Weekly, 40.00 45.00 *50.00 *55.00 60.00 65.00 *70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 *30.00
earnings1 and
(Standard) under
45.00 50.00 55.00 60.00 65.00 70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00

Men
_

_

_

_

.

-

-

-

_
-

1
-

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

102.50
102.50

-

-

3 9 .5
39. 5
3 9 .5

59.50
63.50
52.50

11
7
4

23
19

40. 0
40. 0

62.00
63.00

Bookkeeping-machine operators,
class B ------------------------------------------------------M anufacturing---------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing----------------------------------

55
23
32

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

C lerks, accounting, class A ----------Manufacturing__________________________

30
24

C lerks, accounting, class B -------------------M anufacturing----------------------------------------

C lerks, accounting, class A _____________
M anufacturing__________________________

30
28

40. 0 $ 9 2 .5 0
40. 0

91.00

-

C lerks, accounting, class B ___________ M anufacturing_________________________ _

37
32

40. 0
40. 0

70.00
68.00

"

9
9

C lerks, order ______________________________
Manufacturing__________________________

56
48

40. 0
40. 0

74.50
74.50

_
"

C lerk s, p a y r o ll____________________________
M anufacturing----------------------------------------

27
23

40. 0
40. 0

77.00
76.00

Tabulating-machine operators,
class A _______________ _________________
M anufacturing__________________________

17
17

40. 0
40. 0

B ille rs, machine (billing machine) __ .
M anufacturing__________________________
Nonmanufacturing __ __ __ _ _____

68
45
23

Bookkeeping-machine operators,
class A __________ ________ _____ ___ ___
Manufacturing _ ________________________

_

1
-

_

_
-

_

_

-

-

“

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

"

1
-

_
-

_

_

-

-

_
-

-

-

1
1

-

-

1
1

3
3

2
2

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5
3
-

3
3
_

_
_

1
1
_

_
_

"

-

-

-

_

_
-

_

-

-

"

-

-

_

.

_

1
1

3
3

1
1

10
10

4
4

4
4

4
4

8
8

5
4

4
3

1
-

1
1

10
10

21
19

10
6

11
9

_

.

-

-

1
1

5
5

1
1

2
-

11
11

3
2

-

-

-

-

-

~

3
3

3
3

4
4

11
6
5

7
7

3
3
-

20
17
3

2
2
-

10
10
"

-

-

2
-

7
7

8
8

4
2

-

55.50
54.50
56.50

4
2
2

10
6
4

10
4
6

14
7
7

10
2
8

5
5

39. 5
39. 5

77.00
78.00

_
-

_
-

1
-

-

50
40

40. 0
39. 5

55.00
58.50

10
-

"

17
17

7
7

C lerks, file, class B ----- — --------------------M anufacturing__________________________
Nonmanufacturing----------------------------------

77
25
52

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

49.00
60.00
43.50

41
1
40

19
7
12

2
2
-

C lerks, order_____________ _________________
Manufacturing___ __
_ _______
_

64
52

40. 0
40. 0

57.50
58.50

2
2

C lerk s, p a y r o ll____________________________
M anufacturing__________________________

98
85

3 9 .5
3 9 .5

66.50
66.00

6
-

4
2

Keypunch operators
— — — ----- —
Manufacturing . . . .
. . ___ ______

51
44

40. 0
40. 0

66.00
67.50

3
3

2
2

S e creta ries_________________________________
M anufacturing---------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing___ _. ____ ___
Public utilities 2 -------------------------------

214
181
33
21

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
40. 5
40. 5

83.50
85700
70.50
70.50

_

_

-

Stenographers, gen eral------ _. . . . —
M anufacturing---------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing
------. . -----

212
nnr
26

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
39. 0

66.00
55750
63.50

12
12
“

_

!

2
2

2
2

1

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

3
3

_

_
-

3
3

_
-

.
-

1
1

-

3
3

_
“

_
-

-

_
-

2
2

-

-

-

-

"

2
2
-

-

16
13

1
1

2
2

1
1

7
7

4
4

2
2

3
3

-

_
. -

-

-

2
2
-

2
2
-

7
7
-

2
2
-

2
2
-

_

_

-

-

3
3

26
26

18
12

9
9

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

9
9

22
22

15
11

14
12

10
9

8
8

6
4

5
3

2
2

8
r

13
13

1
1

5
4

_

5
5

6
6

8
8

_

-

-

5
5
5

5
4
1
-

7
2
5
1

16
10
6
6

10
10
-

30
23
7
4

48
41
7
4

15
14
1
"

3
2
1

16
16
■

23
16
7

41
37
4

39
31
8

35
31
4

19
18
1

13
12
1

9
9
“

_

4
4

!
1

_

_

Women

See footnotes at end of table.




—

-

_

-

-

_
-

_

.
.

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

3
3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

34
34
-

25
25
-

10
10
-

9
8
1
1

-

_
-

-

_
-

-

2
2
"

_
-

_
“

.
“

-

_
-

-

-

-

‘

'

_

-

_

-

_

-

_

-

-

_

-

_

-

5
T ab le A-1. O ffic e O ccupations-C ontinued
(Average straigh t-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, York, P a ., February I960)
A nuai
Sex, occupation, and industry division

Num
ber
of
w
orkers

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF-

s

s
s
s
S
t
s
S
S
s
1
1
S
S
S
S
S
I
S
40. 00 45. 00 5 0 .0 0 5 5 .0 0 60. 00 6 5 .0 0 7 0 .0 0 7 5 .0 0 80. 00 8 5 .0 0 9 0 .0 0 9 5.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00
S K m1 and
(Standard) (StuuuSri) under
4 5 .0 0 5 0 .0 0 5 5 .0 0 6 0 .0 0 6 5 .0 0 7 0 .0 0 7 5 .0 0 8 0 .0 0 85. 00 9 0 .0 0 9 5 .0 0 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00

W om en— Continued
36
25
11

23
17
6

21
18
3

2
1
1

15
12
3

3
3
-

1
1
-

2
2
-

3
3
-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

5
3

-

2
2

-

2
2

1
1

6
6

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
-

6
3

6
6

13
11

14
13

2
1

7
7

2
2

3
3

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

-

"

-

-

-

-

"

-

-

3
3

Switchboard o p erator-recep tion ists -----Manufacturing -------------------------------------N o n m an u factu rin g --------- -----------------------

122
89
33

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .0

$ 5 9 .0 0
6 0 .5 0
5 4 .5 0

3
1
2

13
6
7

Tabulating-m achine op erators,
c la ss B
_________ ___________ ___ — ___ ___
Manufacturing ---------------------------------------

19
17

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

7 7 .5 0
7 9 .5 0

-

40. 0
3 9 .5

6 5 .0 0
67. 00

-

T ranscribing-m achine operators,
general ------------------------------------------- ______
Manufacturing ----------------—------ —---------

55
------- 45“

-

-

_

T y pists, c la ss A -----------------------------------—
Manufacturing --------------------------------------

98
95

3 9 .5
3 9 .5

5 9 .5 0
6 o .o o

-

6
6

35
32

11
11

17
17

17
17

8
8

1
1

T ypists, cla ss B
. . . -----------------.
Manufacturing
-------- --------- - — Nonmanufacturing — ----------------------------

137
107
30

4 0 .0
40. 0
4 0 .0

5 6 .0 0
5 8 .0 0
4 7 .5 0

29
13
16

23
21
2

14
7
7

21
17
4

21
21
“

15
14
1

5
5

9
9
■

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

■

_

_

-

■

“

■

"

“

“

_

_

■

_

_
_

_

_

_

_

_

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which em ployees receive their regular straigh t-tim e salaries and the earnings correspond to these w eekly hours.
2 Transportation, com m unication, and other public u tilities.

Tab le A -2. Professional and Technical Occupations
(A verage straigh t-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, York, P a ., February I960)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING 8TRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS O F-

A nuoi
Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

s
$
s
*
S
55. 00 60. 00 6 5 .0 0 7 0 .0 0 7 5 .0 0 80. 00 8 5 .0 0 9 0 .0 0
_
and

s

Weekly. Weekly.
hours earnings
(Standard) (Standard) u n d e r

t

s

s

s

s

S

s

S

S

s

s

95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 *135.00 140.00 *145.00
_
_
_
_
_
.
_
and

_

_

6 0 .0 0 6 5 .0 0 7 0 .0 0 7 5 .0 0 8 0 .0 0 85. 00 9 0 .0 0 9 5 .0 0 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00

over

M en
40. 0 $126 .50
128.00
4 0 .0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

2
2

2
2

7
5

3
3

16
6

4
4

7
7

40. 0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

104.00
105.50
9 2.50

.

-

-

10
10
■

35
35
■

28
22
6

30
30
“

41
34
7

2
2
~

-

“

10
10
■

2
2

-

7
7
-

12
12

-

5
1
4

6

_

141
101
40

4 0 .0
3 9 .5
40. 0

83.00
86.00
75.00

2
2

8
4
4

20
5
15

5
5

17
17

32
19
13

16
16

3
3

3
3

3
3

17
17

40. 0
40. 0

78.00
78.00

3
3

1
1

_

3

4
4

.

-

D raftsm en, l e a d e r ----- —
M a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------

50
37

D raftsm en, s e n i o r ----- —
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------Nonmanufacturing ------

195
17*
23

D raftsm en, junior ---------Manufacturing -----------Nonmanufacturing —

.

-

6

15
15

17
11
6

5

1
1

-

3
2

5
5

i
i

-

6
6

■

"

‘

-

-

-

-

-

■

■

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

W om en
N u rses, industrial (registered )
Manufacturing -----------------------

3
~

5

‘

1

Standard hours reflect the workweek for which em ployees receive their regular straigh t-tim e salaries and the earnings correspond to these w eekly hours.




6
Table A -3. Maintenance apd Powerplant Occupations
(Average straight>time hourly earnings for men in selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, York, P a ., February I960)
NUM
BER 07 W
ORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIM HOURLY EARNINGS O —
E
F
Occupation and industry division

N m er
u b
of
w rk
o er*

A g
vera e
h rly . Under
ou
e rn g
a in s
$
1.40

$1.40
and
under
1.50

$1.50
1.60

Carpenters, maintenance
. . . -----Manufacturing --------------------------------------------

36
36

$ 2 . 36
2. 36

Electricians, maintenance ------------------- ---------Manufacturing -------- . . . .
----

135
135

2.47
2.47

-

-

81
79

1.94
1.95

3
1

15
15

7
7

Helpers, trades, maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Manufacturing _____________________________
Nonmanufacturing —---- — — ----------------— —
Public utilities 2 . . . . . - . --------- ---------

171
121
50
48

1.87
1.93
1.72
1.72

7
7
-

1
1
~

Machine-tool operators, toolroom . . . . --------- Manufacturing -------- —___
____ —

82
82

2.49
2.49

Machinists, maintenance
. . . . . . . . . ---- . . .
Manufacturing --------------------------------------------

80
76

Mechanics, automotive (maintenance) —— ---Manufacturing
---------- . . . . . . . .
....
Nonmanufacturing _____—-------------------------- .
Public utilities 2 -------------------------------------

Firemen, stationary boiler
Manufacturing
. -------

.... ...........
. . . . . —------ — —

$1.60
...li 7.9__

$ 1.70

* 1 .8 0

*1 .9 0

*2. 00

*2. 10

*2. 20

S2. 30

*2.40

$ 2.50

$2.60

* 2 .7 0

*2.80

*2.90

1.80

1.90

2. 00

2. 10

2.20

2. 30

2.40

2.50

2.60

2.70

2.80

2. 90

3.00

*3.00
and
over

10
10

2
2

10
10

9
9

-

4
4

-

1

-

10
10

12
12

9
9

13
13

21
21

15
15

34
34

6
6

13
13

_

.

-

-

6
6

15
15

_

.

_

_

_

_

-

-

9
9

_

n

12
12

“

-

-

-

-

15
14
1
1

57
47
10
10

12
12
-

10
9
1
1

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

.
-

.
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

.

-

.
-

-

-

2
2

.

_

-

-

3
3

13
1
12
10

21
2
19
19

9
9
-

26
19
7
7

n

_

_

.

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

12
12

6
6

13
13

38
38

5
5

6
6

_

-

-

2
2

2.40
2. 38

_

_

_

_

.

-

-

-

-

1
1

5
5

7
7

1
1

9
9

14
14

8
8

24
21

3
3

5
5

2
2

1
-

_

-

75
20
55
51

2.46
2.45
2.46
2.48

_
-

.
-

_
"

_
-

2
2
-

3
3
3

-

_
-

4
4
-

5
5
5

6
6
6

14
12
2
2

31
1
30
30

2
2
-

5
5
5

3
3
-

.
-

_
-

Mechanics, maintenance
------ . . -------- . . . .
Manufacturing --------------------------------------------

218
207

2.46
2.46

_

_

2
---- 2------

_

13
13

19
19

9
4

16
16

9
9

28
22

102
102

7
7

_

_

-

11
11

_

-

2
2

_

-

-

-

M illw r ig h ts -------- — -----------— ---------------- . . . . . .
Manufacturing --------------------------------------------

42
42

2.50
2.50

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

7
7

3
3

7
7

10
10

_

-

3
3

_

-

7
7

_

-

5
5

-

-

Oilers
------------------------ -------- ---------------------------Manufacturing ------ . . . . . .
.
. .

31
31

1.93
1.93

3
3

_

5
5

4
4

_

3
3

2
2

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

13
13

.

-

1
1

-

"

Painters, maintenance — ------— --------- ---- ------Manufacturing
— ------ - . . -----------

23
23

2.09
2.09

.

_

_

1
1

5
5

9
9

_
-

1
1

-

2
2

2
2

_
-

_
-

.

_

-

3
3

_

-

_
-

-

Pipefitters, maintenance
Manufacturing

------------------------------. ......

46
46

2. 37
2. 37

4
4

6
6

-

1
1

8
8

_
-

7
7

_

.
-

------- ----------------- --------. . . ------ . . . . . . ------- — .

110

2.63
2.63

7

17
17

10
10

14
14

14
14

13
13

21
21

12
12

2

no

Tool and die makers
Manufacturing .

-

_

_

_

-

~

-

.
-

.
-

_
-

.
-

3
3

17
17

_

.

_

.

.

_

-

_

_

Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts,
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.




_■

7

-

-

_

-

-

2

7
Table A-4. Custodial and M aterial Movement Occupations
(Average straight-time hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, York, P a ., February I960)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
Occupation1 and industry division

Guards----------------------------------------------------------------Manufacturing ------ . . — — ------- . .

Number
of
worker*

—

$
$
$
$
$
, Under 1.00 1. 10 1.20 1. 30 1.40
ea in * *
rn g
and
$
under
1. 00
1. 10 1. 20 1. 30 1.40 1. 50
Avenge
hourly

$ 1 .8 4
58
v M ...
1r ~

-

*

-

-

2
“

1.60

1.70

15
15

5
5

*
1.80

$
1.90

1.80

1. 90

2. 00

.

t

$

1.70

2

$
1.50 *1.60

-

12
12

6
6

2
2

-

$
S
t
t
2. 00 *2. 10 2. 20 2. 30 2.40
2. 10

2. 20

2. 30
.

2.40

$
$
$
*
$
$
2. 50 2. 60
2.70 2.80 2. 90 3. 00
and
2.80 2.90
2. 50 2. 60 2.70
3. 00 over

14
14

.

.

_

.

.

.

-

-

-

“

-

-

-

-

Janitors, porters, and cleaners (men)------------Manufacturing --------- . . . . .
Nonmanufacturing-----------------------------------------Public utilities 5 ---------------------------------------

289
237
52
17

1.64
1.71
1. 32
1.47

3
3
-

11
2
9
-

7
1
6
3

38
29
9
3

14
12
2
*

17
9
8
2

12
8
4
2

32
26
6
4

50
48
2
-

55
52
3
3

14
14

30
30

6
6

Janitors, porters, and cleaners (women)-------Manufacturing---- - - . ------------ — —

38
25

1.42
1.53

3
-

6
4

3
1

4
1

2
2

6
6

_

4
1

2
2

5
5

_

3
3

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

.

.

-

"

"

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Laborers, material handling----------------------------Manufacturing-----------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing-----------------------------------------Public utilities3 ---- —
- - —

732
609
123
109

1.86
1.78
2.25
2.29

_
-

26
26
-

32
32
-

33
33
-

8
8
-

9
9
-

1.93
2.04
1.74

-

4
4

11
3
8

19
5
14

9
9
”

9
9
■

61
61
2
2
“

192
190
2
105
105
“

92
1
91

38
36
2
_
'

124
120
4
2

300
183
117

24
22
2
_
"

48
39
9
3

Order fille rs. . . —
. — —
Manufacturing-----------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing---. . . .

19
19
_
"

4
4
"

102
14
88
88
“

12
12
12
_
-

4
4
4
_
■

_
~

.
*

.
_
“

_
45
45
■

_
_
-

_
"

Packers, shipping (m en )-----------------------------------Manufacturing---. . .
Nonmanufacturing----------------------------------- ------

248
230
18

1.88
1.93
1.28

_
■

6
6

19
11
8

14
14
“

5
5
~

12
12
“

7
7
"

7
7
■

3
3
"

93
93
“

5
3
2

5
3
2

_
-

20
20

16
16

-

6
6

30
30

_
-

_
-

_
-

.
-

60
60

1.48
1.48

.

8
8

9
9

4
4

4
4

1
1
"

3
3
“

3
1
2

5
5
“

9
7
2

23
18
5

8
8
■

9
9
~

9
7
2

"

“

“

2
2
■

“

-

1

5
5
"

3
3

1.99
2.11
1. 65

10
10
■

21
21

77
57
20

_
-

■

Shipping clerk s---------------------------------------------------Manufacturing------------------------------------------------

54
46

2. 09
2. 10

_

5
3

3
1

2
-

11
11

8
6

-

3
3

3
3

_

-

2
2

_

-

6
6

_

~

4
4

_

-

1
1

------- 1
r

-

4
4

_

-

1
1

Shipping and receiving clerks —
Manufacturing . . .
.

41
31

1. 65
1.81

_

4
-

2
-

7
7

_
-

_
-

7
7

.

_

.

-

-

.

.

-

5
sri

_

“

4
-

_

-

Truckdrivers 4 --------------------------------—----------------Manufacturing-----------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing-----------------------------------------Public utilities 3
. ..

444
91
353
258

2. 19
1.82
2. 28
2. 39

_
-

2
2
-

2
2
-

8
8
-

4
4
-

Truckdrivers, medium ( l 1/* to
and including 4 tons)
Manufacturing------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing . . . .

100
47
53

2.00
1.88
2. 10

-

2
2

-

5
5

-

Truckdrivers, heavy (over 4 tons,
trailer type) _
. . . . . .
Manufacturing — -------- --------- ------—------- ----Nonmanufacturing-------------------------------------

87
23
64

2. 13
1.72
2. 28

-

Truckers, power (forklift)--------------------------------Manufacturing----------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing----------------— ------— ------------

251
226
25

2. 04
2 .05
2.02

“
_

-

_

-

-

-

Watchmen_______________________________________
Manufacturing — --------- —................... — -----—

186
184

1.64
1.64

3
3

6
6

Packers, shipping (women) — —
Manufacturing ------- .
Receiving clerks------— —
Manufacturing
.
Nonmanufacturing . — _

1
1
J
4

----- — . . . .

.. ~ — -

1
-

_

_
“

_

>
"

-

9
9

-

23
21

18
18

-

Data limited to men workers except where otherwise indicated.
Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes all drivers regardless of size and type of truck operated.




-

-

12

_

T T

-

15
11
4
-

8
8
-

10
10 .
-

i
i
-

4
3
1
1

13
11
2
-

76
7
69
-

22
18
4
-

20
8
12
12

138
4
134
126

121
121
119

.
-

_
-

-

.
-

_
-

-

3
3

2
2

1
1

i

3
3

11
9
2

34
34

19
15
4

9
6
3

8

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

i

8

2

“

“

*

■

■

■

2

25
2
23

11

-

32

-

-

-

-

-

-

“
50
46
4

32

1
1
“

"

-

23
20
3

3
3
*
50
48
2

-

-

-

-

“

-

-

"

2
2

3
3

—

8
8
-

6
6
-

-

18
18

3
3

15
15

—

-

"
49
49

15
48
15 ----- 48^

i

54
38
16
32
32

i

9
-

*

3
3

12
12
“




B: Establishment Practices and Supplementary W age Provisions
Table B-l. Shift D ifferentials
(Percent of manufacturing plant workers in establishments having form al provisions for shift work, and in establishments
actually operating late shifts by type and amount of differential, York, P a ., February I960)
In establishments having form al
p rovision s1 for—

In establishments actually
operating—

Shift differential
Second shift
work

Second shift

7 3 .0

5 1 .4

1 2 .6

— -------------------------------

7 3 .0

5 1 .4

1 2 .6

5. 2

-----------------------------------

4 6 .9

28. 3

8 .5

4 .0

4 cents ------------------------------------------------------------5 cents ________________________________________
6 cents ------------------------------------------------------------7 cents ------ ---------------------------------------------------7Vt cents --------------------------------------------------------8 cents — ______ ______________ ____________ __ _
9 cents ------------------------------------------------------------10 cents
---------------------------------------- --------------—
12 cents
------ --------------------------------------- ----15 cents
........................................... .......................
18 cents —.......... —---------- ----------------------------------20 cents
— ---------------------------------------------------------------------24 cents -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Total

Third or other
shift work

1 .0
12 .5
2 .6
1 .4
2 .0
3 .9

_
-

.4
3 .4
.6

........................................................................................

With shift pay differential
Uniform cents (per hour)

Uniform percentage

— ------------------------------------------- -------

-

1 7 .9
2 .5
2 .4
.7
1 8 .9

.7
.8
1 5 .4
7 .5
1 .5

.
-

.7
2. 1
.7
.6

2 .4
1 4 .8

3 .4

-

. 2
.8
1 .9

Other form al pay differential — ----------------------------------

7. 2

8. 3

.7

'

'

1

. 1
2 .4
1. 2

.
. 3

.5

1 4 .8

.

_
.

_

(2)
-

3 .0
1 2 .9

1

5. 2

-

4 percent — ------ ---------------------------------------- ---------- —
5 percent
------------------- ------------------------------------------ --l xh percent -------------------------------------------------------------------------10 percent ------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1 .9

Third or other
shift

1

. 0

1

. 0

. 2

No shift pay differential — ------------------------------------ -------. . . . .

1 Includes establishments currently operating late shifts,
though they were not currently operating late shifts.
2 L e ss than 0. 05 percent.

'

and establishments with form al provisions covering late shifts even

9
Table B-2. Minimum Entrance Salaries for W om en O ffice W orkers
^Distribution of establishments studied in all industries and in industry divisions by minimum entrance salary for selected categories
of inexperienced women office workers, York, P a ., February I960)
Other inexperienced clerical workers

Inexperienced typists

M inim um w eek ly s a la r y 1

A ll
in d u stries

E stab lish m en ts studied -------------------------------------------------------------E stab lish m en ts having a sp e cified m inim um -------------------------Under $ 4 0 . 00 ----------------------------------------------------------------------$ 4 0 . 00 and under $ 4 2 . 50 ........... ...........................................................
$ 4 2 . 50 and under $ 4 5 .0 0 ----------------------------------------------------$ 45. 00 and under $ 47. 50 ----------------------------------------------------$ 4 7 . 50 and under $ 5 0 .0 0 ----------------------------------------------------$ 50. 00 and under $ 5 2 .5 0 ----------------------------------------------------$ 52. 50 and under $ 5 5 .0 0 ---------------------------------------------------------------------$ 5 5 . 00 and under $ 57. 50 ---------------------------------------------------------------------$ 5 7 . 50 and under $ 60. 00 ---------------------------------------------------------------------$ 6 0 . 00 and under $ 62. 50 ---------------------------------------------------------------------$ 6 2 .5 0 and under $ 6 5 .0 0 ---------------------------------------------------------------------$ 65. 00 and under $ 67. 50 ---------------------------------------------------------------------E stab lish m en ts having no sp e cified m inim um .................................................
E stab lish m en ts w hich did not em p loy w o rk ers in
th is category ------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------

86
16
-

5
2
2
3
1
1
1
1
11
59

M anufacturing
N onm anufacturing
B ased on standard w eek ly hours 3 of—
A ll
AH
40
40
sch ed u les
sch ed u les
XXX
55
XXX
31
5
5
11
11
2
2
3
3
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
1
1
_
1
1
1
1
1
1
.
1
1
4
XXX
7
XXX
37

XXX

22

A ll
in d u stries
86
34
1
12
2
9
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
39
13

XXX

2

M anufacturing
N onm anufacturing
B ased on standard w eek ly hours 31 of—
A ll
A ll
40
40
sch ed u les
sch ed u les
55
X XX
31
XXX
21
17
13
11
1
4
5
7
6
1
1
1
1
4
2
7
2
_
2
2
1
1
1
1
_
.
1
1
1
1
_
1
1
1
1
_
1
1
1
1
XXX
XXX
14
25
9

Lowest salary rate form ally established for hiring inexperienced workers for typing or other clerical jobs.
2 Rates applicable to m essen gers, office girls, or sim ilar subclerical jobs are not considered.
3 Hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-tim e salaries. Data are presented for all workweeks combined,

X XX

4

X XX

1

and for the m ost common workweek reported

Table B-3. Scheduled W e e k ly Hours
(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by scheduled weekly hours
of first-sh ift w orkers, York, P a ., February I960)

OFFICE WORKERS

W eekly hours
A ll w ork ers -----------------------------------------------------Under 37l/z hours -------------------------------------------37V 2 hours -------------------------------------------------------O ver 37l /z and under 40 hours -----------------------40 hours ------------------------------------------------------------O ver 40 and under 44 hours ---------------------------44 hours ------------------------------------------------------------O ver 44 and under 48 hours -------------------------—
48 hours --------------- -------------------------- ---------------O ver 48 hours --------------------------------------------------1
2
3
4

Ail industries 3

100
5
6
2
86

(4 )
1
-

-

PL A N T W O R K E R S

M anufacturing

Public u tilities2

100
3
3
2
91
(4)
1
-

100
2
12
-

86

-

All industries 3

100
2
2
1
78
1
(4)
1
7
8

M anufacturing

100
1
1
78
1
9
10

Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
L ess than 0 .5 percent.




Public utilities 2

100
_
-

97
2
1

10
Table B-4. Paid Holidays
(Percent distribution o£ office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by number of paid holidays
provided annually, York, Pa. , February I960)

O
FFICE W O R K E R 8

Item
All in du stries1

M anufacturing

PLANT W ORKERS
Public u tilities 2

All industries 3

M anufacturing

Public utilities 2

100
W orkers in e sta b lish m en ts providing
paid h o lid a y s ----------------------------- --------------------W orkers in e sta b lish m en ts providing
no paid h o lid a y s ------- — -------------------------------

100

100

100

100

100

99
1

100

100

96
4

97
3

100

4
24
1
8
24

4
21
2
11
26
6
12
18
-

10
31
2

10
32
2
6
28
5
2
12

‘

~

Number of days

L e ss than 6 h o lid a y s ------------------------------------------6 h o lid a y s ________________________________________
6 holidays plus 1 h a lf d a y ---------------- --------------6 holidays plus 2 h alf d a y s --------------------------------7 h o lid a y s ________________________________________
7 holidays plus 1 h alf d a y ----- -------------------------7 ho lid ay s plus 2 h alf d a y s --------------------------------8 h o lid a y s--------------------- ------------------------------------10 holid ays — ------------ ------------ --------------------11 holid ays ________________ — -------------------------------------12 h o lid a y . ---------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------

5

9
18
1
5
1

-

-

7
38
46
9
-

5

28
4
2
13
1
-

-

_

3
-

-

37
-

40
20
-

'

Total holiday lima4

12 d a y s ------------------- ---------------------------------- ------------------------------11 or m o re days --------------------------------------------------- ---------- 10 or m o re days ------------------------------------ ------------------------------8 or m o re d a y s ------------------------- ---------- — --------------------7l/z or m o re days ------------------------------------------------------------------7 or m o re d a y s -------------------------------------------------------------------------61
or m o re d a y s ------------------------------------------------------------------6 or m o re d a y s -------------------------------------------------------------------------5 or m o re d a y s ---------- — ---------------------------------------------------4 or m o re d a y s -------------------------------------------------------------------------3 or m o re d a y s -------------------------------------------------------------------------1 or m o re d a y s -------------- ---------- — — - — - —
fz

1
7
33
38
70
71
95
97
98
99
99
6

_
-

30
36
74
75
96
99
99
100
100

-

9
56
56
93
93
100
100
100
100
100

-

1
16
20
53
55
86
91
92
94
96

_
-

14
19
53
55
87
92
93
95
97

_
-

20
60
60
97
97
100
100
100
100
100

1 Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
2 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
3 Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
4
A ll combinations of full and half days that add to the sam e amount are combined; for example, the proportion of workers receiving a total of 7 days includes those with 7 full days and
no half days, 6 full days and 2 half days, 5 full days and 4 half days, and so on.
Proportions were then cumulated.




11
Table B-5. Paid Vacations

(P ercen t d istrib u tion of office and plant w o rk ers in a ll in d u stries and in in dustry d iv isio n s by vacation pay
p r o v isio n s, Y ork, P a ., F eb ruary I960)
PL A N T W O RK E R S

O FF IC E W O RK ER S

V acation p o licy

A ll w o rk ers -------------------------------------------------------

1

Public utilities 2

100

100

100

100
95
5

100
93
7

100
100
-

M anufacturing

Public utilities 2

100

100

100

100
87
13

100
85
15

100
100
-

-

M anufacturing

All industries

All industries 2

■

24
9
4
3

30
-

Method of payment

W orkers in esta b lish m en ts providing
paid vacation s -----------------------------------------------L en g th -o f-tim e paym ent ---------------------------P ercen ta g e paym ent ----------------------------------W orkers in esta b lish m en ts providing
no paid vacation s ----------------- -------------------------

-

Amount of vacation p a y 4

A fter 6 m onths o f s e r v ic e
Under 1 w eek ____________________________ _____
1 w e e k ____________________ ________________ ___
O ver 1 and under 2 w eek s -----------------------------2 w eek s --------------- ------------------------------------------A fter 1 year of s e r v ic e
Under 1 w eek ------ ------------------------------------------1 w eek ---- ---------------------------------------- — ------O ver 1 and under 2 w eek s -----------------------------2 w eek s ------------------------------------------------------------A fter 2 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
Under 1 w eek __________________________________
1 w eek ____________________ ____________________
O ver 1 and under 2 w eek s -----------------------------2 w eek s — -------------------------- ----------------- --------A fter 3 y e a r s of se r v ic e
Under 1 w eek __________________________________
1 w eek __________________________________________
O ver 1 and under 2 w eek s -----------------------------2 w eek s --------------- ------------ ---------------------------A fter 5 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
Under 1 w eek --------------------- — ---------------------1 w eek - -------- ------- ------- ------------------------O ver 1 and under 2 w eek s ---------------------------2 w eek s ____________________ __________________
O ver 2 and under 3 w eek s -------------------------------

See footnotes at end o f table,




15
23
7
8

12
23
10
7

33
12
-

24
9
3
3

1
56
2
41

1
53
2
44

_
88
12

3
80
8
9

3
79
9
9

.
100
_
-

1
48
3
48

1
46
4
49

_
61
5
34

3
70
15
12

3
71
17
9

77
3
20

1
30
15
54

1
26
19
54

_
41
_
59

3
45
24
28

3
43
28
26

_
77
_
23

1
7

1
4
2
92
1

_

1
11
6
80
2

1
9
8
81
1

_
1

1

89
1
1

-

-

93
7

_

99
-

12
Table B-5. Paid Vacations-Continued

(P e rc e n t d istrib u tion of office and plant w ork ers in a ll in d u stries and in in dustry d iv isio n s by vacation pay
p r o v isio n s, Y ork, P a. , F eb ru ary I960)
V acation p o licy

OFFICE WORKERS
All industries1

PLANT WORKERS

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

9
41
30
20

7
37
38
18

_
83
17

9
17
( 5)
73
-

7
16
( 5)
77
"

9
17
( 5)
58
3
13

7
16
( 5)
58
4
14

1
7
2
16
( S)
51
6
19

1
4
2
14
( 5)
56
7
16

All industries 3

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

14
58
18
10

13
59
21
7

1
79
20

_
7
93
-

12
30
1
56
1

13
32
1
53
1

1
_
_
99
-

_
7
83

12
30
1
45
3
9

13
32
1
44
4
6

66
_
33

1
7
4
28
1
40
5
14

1
7
5
31
1
40
6
9

1
_
_
_
38
61

A m o u n t o f v a c a t io n p a y 4 — C o n tin u e d
A fter 10 y ea rs of s e r v ic e
U nder 2 w e e k s ___________________________________
2 w e e k s ----------------------------------- -------------------------O ver 2 and under 3 w e e k s ______________________
3 w e e k s __________ ___________ _________________
A fter 15 y e a rs of s e r v ic e
U nder 2 w e e k s ___________________________________
2 w e e k s ------------------------- — ------- ------- ----------O ver 2 and under 3 w e e k s ---------------------------------3 w e e k s _______________ __________ ______ ______
O ver 3 and under 4 w e e k s ______________________
A fter 20 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
U nder 2 w e e k s ___________________________________
2 w eek s --------------------------------- -------------------------O ver 2 and under 3 w eek s ------------------------------3 w e e k s _______________ ___________________________
O ver 3,and under 4 w e e k s ---------------------------------4 w e e k s ------------ -------------------------------------------------A fter 25 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
Under 1 w e e k ______ _____ — _________________
T. w e e k ___________ _______ _____________________ __
O ver 1 and under 2 w eek s -------------- ----------- _
2 w e e k s -------------- ----------- ---------------------------- O ver 2 and under 3 w e e k s ---------------------------------3 w e e k s _____________________________________
O ver 3 and under 4 w e e k s ---------------------------------4 w e e k s _____ -________________ _____ __________

1
2
3
4
s e r v ic e
5

-

9
.
-

7
62
30

1
_
_

Includes data for w h o lesa le trade; r e ta il trade; fin an ce, in su ra n ce, and r ea l esta te; and s e r v ic e s in addition to th ose in d u stry d iv isio n s shown sep a ra tely .
T ran sp ortation , com m un ication , and oth er public u tilitie s.
Includes data for w h o lesa le tra d e, r e ta il tra d e, re a l e sta te , and s e r v ic e s in addition to th o se in d u stry d iv isio n s show n sep a ra tely .
P er io d s of s e r v ic e w ere a r b itr a r ily ch o sen and do not n e c e ss a r ily r e fle c t the individual p r o v isio n s for p r o g r e ssio n s. F o r exam p le, the chan ges in prop ortion s in dicated at 10 y e a r s'
in clude chan ges in p r o v isio n s occu rrin g betw een 5 and 10 y e a r s.
L e ss than 0. 5 p ercen t.

NOTE: In the tab ulation s of vacation a llo w an ces by y e a r s of s e r v ic e , paym ents oth er than "length of tim e ," such a s p ercen ta ge of annual earnin gs of fla t-su m p a ym en ts, w ere con verted
to an equ ivalent tim e b a sis; for ex a m p le, a paym ent of 2 p ercen t of annual earnin gs w as c o n sid ered a s 1 w eek 's pay.




13
Table B-6. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans

(P ercen t of o ffice and plant w o rk ers in a ll in d u stries and in in dustry d iv isio n s em ployed in e sta b lish m en ts providing
health, in su ra n ce, or pen sion b en efits, York, P a ., F eb ru ary I960)
PL A N T W O RK ER S

O FF IC E W O RK ERS

A ll w ork ers -----------------------------------------------------W orkers in esta b lish m en ts providing:
L ife in su ran ce --------------------------------------------A ccid en tal death and dism em b erm en t
in su ran ce -------------------------------------------------S ick n ess and acciden t in su ra n ce or
sic k lea v e or both4 ----------------------------------S ick n ess and acciden t in su ra n ce --------Sick lea v e (full pay and no
w aiting period) -----------------------------------Sick lea v e (p artial pay or
w aiting period) -----------------------------------H osp italization in su rance __________________
S u rgical in su rance - -------------------- ---------M edical in su ran ce --------------------------------------C atastrophe in su rance _____________________
R etirem en t pen sion --------------- ------------------No health, in su ra n ce, or pen sion plan ___

All industries 1

M anufacturing

o
o

Type of benefit

100

100

94
69
95

99
76
98

79
35
93

79
56
2

91
61
1

39
60

97
96
59
31
67

99
99
58
34
72

Public utilities 2

85
85
52
10
50

All industries 3

M anufacturing

Public utilities 2

100

100

100

97
66
94
87

100
69
94
94
6

85
34
94
43
50

98
98
52
23
55

71
71
49
8
91

9
2
95
94
52
21
56

1 Includes data for w h o lesa le trade; r e ta il trade; finance, in su ra n ce, and r ea l esta te; and s e r v ic e s in addition to th ose in dustry d iv isio n s shown sep a ra tely .
2 T ransportation , com m un ication , and oth er public u tilitie s.
3 Includes data for w h o lesa le trad e, r e ta il trad e, r ea l e sta te , and s e r v ic e s in addition to th ose in dustry d iv isio n s shown sep a ra tely .
4 U nduplicated total of w ork ers receiv in g sic k lea v e or sic k n e ss and accid en t in su ra n ce shown sep a ra tely below . S ick -le a v e plans are lim ited to th ose w hich d efin itely esta b lish at le a st the
m inim um num ber of days' pay that can be exp ected by each em p lo y ee. Inform al s ic k -le a v e a llo w an ces determ in ed on an individual b a sis are exclud ed.







15

Appendix: Occupational Descriptions
The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’s wage surveys is to a s s is t its
field staff in classify in g into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangem ents from establishm ent to establishm ent and from area to area. T his is
essen tial in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
B ecause of this em phasis on interestablishm ent and interarea com parability of occupational content, the
Bureau’s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishm ents or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the B ureau's field econom ists are
instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped workers,
part-tim e, temporary, and probationary workers.
O FFIC E

BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statem ents, b ills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electrom atic typew riter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, b illers, machine, are
classified by type of machine, as follow s:
Biller, machine (hilling machine)— U ses a sp ecial billing ma­
chine (Moon H opkins, E llio tt F ish er, Burroughs, etc., which are
combination typing and adding m achines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from custom ers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. U sually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are autom atically accum ulated by m achine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of
the bill being prepared and is often done oh a fanfold machine.
Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine)— U ses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, E llio tt F ish er, Remington Rand, e tc ., which
may or may not have typew riter keyboard) to prepare custom ers’
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. G enerally in ­
volves the sim ultaneous entry of figures on custom ers’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine autom atically accum ulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and com putes and usually prints autom atically
the debit or credit b alances. D oes not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping. Works from uniform and standard types of sa le s and
credit slip s.

O perates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, E llio tt
F isher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, N ational C ash R egister, with or without
a typew riter keyboard) to keep a record of b u sin ess tran sactio n s.




Class A— K eeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in b asic bookkeeping principles and fam iliarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. D eterm ines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit item s to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated rep o rts, balance
sh eets, and other records by hand.
Class B— K eeps a record of one or more phases or sectio n s of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of b asic book­
keeping* P h ases or sectio n s include accounts payable, payroll,
custom ers’ accounts (not including a sim ple type of billing described
under biller, m achine), co st distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or a s s is t in preparation of tria l
balances and prepare control sh eets for the accounting departm ent.

CLERK, ACCOUNTING
Class A — Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sectio n s of a com­
plete se t of books or records relating to one phase of an e sta b lish ­
ment’s b usiness tran sactio n s. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

16
CLERK, ACCOUNTING—.Continued
payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper ac­
counting distribution; requires judgment and experience in making
proper assignations and allocations. May assist in preparing, ad­
justing and closing journal entries; may direct class B accounting
clerks.
Class B— Under supervision, performs one or more routine ac­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or ac­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers, or posting simple cost accounting data. This
job does not require a knowledge of accounting and bookkeeping
principles but is found in offices in which the more routine account­
ing work is subdivided on a functional basis among several workers.

CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the neces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers*
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker’ s name, working
days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and distribut­
ing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
of other duties.

CLERK, FILE
Class A— In an established filing system containing a num­
ber of varied subject matter files, classifies and indexes corres­
pondence or other material; may also file this material. May keep
records of various types in conjunction with files or may super­
vise others in filing and locating material in the files. May per­
form incidental clerical duties.
Class B— Performs routine filing, usually of material that has
already been classified or which is easily identifiable, or locates
or assists in locating material in files. May perform incidental
clerical duties.

CLERK, ORDER
Receives customers9orders for material or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination o f the following:
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order
sheet; distributing older sheets to respective departments to be filled.
May check with credit department to determine credit rating of customer,
acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow up orders to see
that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check ship­
ping invoices with original orders.




DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file of used stencils or Ditto
masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material.

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards by
punching a series of holes in the cards in a specified sequence, using
an alphabetical or a numerical keypunch machine, following written in­
formation on records. May duplicate cards by using the duplicating de­
vice attached to machine. May keep files of punch cards. May verify
own work or work of others.

OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands, op­
erating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and
distributing mail, and other minor clerical work.

17

SECRETARY

TABLE ATING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an ad­
m inistrative or executive position. D uties include making appointm ents
for superior; receiving people coming into office; answ ering and making
phone c alls; handling personal and important or confidential m ail, and
writing routine correspondence on own initiative; taking dictation (where
transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
sim ilar machine, and transcribing dictation or the recorded information
reproduced on a transcribing m achine. May prepare sp ecial reports or
memorandums for information of superior.

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar m achine, involving a nor­
mal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a typew riter.
May also type from written copy. May also se t up and keep files in or­
der, keep sim ple records, etc. Does not include transcribing-m achine
work (see transcribing-m achine operator).

STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar m achine, involving a varied
technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on
scien tific research and to transcribe this dictation on a typew riter. May
also type from w ritten copy. May also se t up and keep files in order,
keep sim ple records, etc. Does not include transcribing-m achine work

.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
O perates a single- or m ultiple-position telephone sw itchboard.
D uties involve handling incom ing, outgoing, and intraplant or office c a lls.
May record toll calls and take m essages. May give information to per­
sons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders. For workers
who also act as receptio nists see sw itchboard operator-receptionist.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single p o si­
tion or monitor-type sw itchboard, acts as receptio nist and may a lso type
or perform routine clerical work a s part of regular d u ties. T his typing
or clerical work may take the major part of this w orker's time w hile at
sw itchboard.




C lass A — O perates a variety of tabulating or electrical ac­
counting m achines, typically including such m achines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignm ents without close supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The com plete reporting and tabulating
assignm ents typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagram s and operating sequences of long and complex reports.
D oes not include working supervisors performing tabulating-m achine
operations and day-to-day supervision of the work and production of
a group of tabulating-m achine operators.
C lass B— O perates more difficult tabulating or electrical ac­
counting m achines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. T his work is performed under
specific instructions and may include the performance of some wir­
ing from diagram s. The work typically involves, for exam ple, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting ex ercise, a com plete but
sm all tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are well estab lish ed . May also include the training
of new em ployees in the basic operation of the m achine.
C lass C— O perates sim ple tabulating or electrical account­
ing m achines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with specific instructions. May include sim ple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for exam ple, individual sorting or collating runs, or re­
petitive operations.

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from transcribing-m achine records. May also type from written
copy and do sim ple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation in­
volving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal briefs
or reports on scien tific research are not included. A worker who takes
dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar m achine is classified
as a stenographer, general.

18
TYPIST

TYPIST—-Continued

U ses a typew riter to make copies of various m aterial or to make
out bills after calcu latio n s have been made by another person. May in­
clude typing of s te n c ils , m ats, or sim ilar m aterials for use in duplicat­
ing p ro cesses. May do clerical work involving little sp ecial training,
such as keeping sim ple records, filing records and reports, or sorting
and distributing incoming mail.
C lass A— Performs one or more o f the follow ing: Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining m aterial from sev eral
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, sy llab icatio n , punc-

tuation, e tc ., of tech n ical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; planning layout and typing of com plicated s ta tis tic a l tables
to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine
form letters varying d etails to su it circum stances.
C lass B — Performs one or more o f the follow ing: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance p o licies,
etc.; setting up sim ple standard tabulations, or copying more com­
plex tab les already se t up and spaced properly.

PRO FESSIO NAL AND TECHNICAL

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR

(A ssistan t draftsm an)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by d rafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or m anufacturing purposes.
U ses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare draw ings
from sim ple plans or sk etch es, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsm an.

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR— Continued
involved in strength of m aterials, beam s and tru sse s; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dim ensions, m aterials to be used, and quantities;
writing sp ecificatio n s; making adjustm ents or changes in drawings or
sp ecificatio n s. May ink in lines and letters on pencil draw ings, prepare
d etail units of com plete draw ings, or trace draw ings. Work is frequently
in a sp ecialized field such as architectural, electrical, m echanical, or
structural drafting.

DRAFTSMAN, LEADER

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)

Plans and d irects activ ities of one or more draftsm en in prep­
aration of working plans and d etail drawings from rough or prelim inary
sketches for engineering, construction, or m anufacturing purposes. D uties
involve a combination o f the follow ing: Interpreting blueprints, sk etch es,
and written or verbal orders; determ ining work procedures; assigning
duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif­
ficult problem s. May a s s is t subordinates during em ergencies or as a
regular assignm ent, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad­
m inistrative nature.

A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
em ployees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
prem ises of a factory or other establishm ent. D uties involve a combina
tion o f the follow ing: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of em ployees’ injuries; keeping records of p atients
treated; preparing accident reports for com pensation or other purposes;
conducting physical exam inations and health evaluations of applicants
and em ployees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environm ent, or other
activ ities affecting the health, w elfare, and safety of a ll personnel.

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and d etail drawings from n o tes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
p o ses. D uties involve a combination o f the following: Preparing work­
ing plans, d etail draw ings, m aps, cro ss-sectio n s, e tc ., to scale by use
of drafting instrum ents; making engineering com putations such as those




-

TRACER
Copies plans and draw ings prepared by others, by placing trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or p en cil. U ses
T -square, com pass, and other drafting to o ls. May prepare sim ple draw­
ings and do sim ple lettering.

19

M A INTENANCE

D PO W E R PL A N T

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER

Perform s the carpentry duties n ecessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipm ent such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, sta irs, casin g s, and trim
made of wood in an establishm ent. Work involves most o f the following:
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, draw ings, m odels, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’s handtools, portable
power too ls, and standard m easuring instrum ents; making standard shop
com putations relating to dim ensions of work; selectin g m aterials nec­
essary for the work. In general, the work of the m aintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

F ires stationary boilers to furnish the establishm ent in which
employed with heat, power, or steam . F eed s fuels to fire by hand or
operates a m echanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks w ater and safety
valves. May clean, oil, or a s s is t in repairing boilerroom equipm ent.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE
Perform s a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installatio n , m aintenance, or repair of equipm ent for the generating, d is­
tribution, or u tilization of electric energy in an establishm ent. Work
involves most o f the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipm ent such as generators, transform ers, sw itchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit system s,
or other transm ission equipm ent; working from blueprints, draw ings, lay­
out, or other specifications;.locating and diagnosing trouble in the e le c ­
trical system or equipm ent; working standard com putations relating to
load requirem ents of w iring or electrical equipm ent; using a variety of
electrician ’s handtools and m easuring and testin g instrum ents. In gen­
eral, the work of the m aintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
O perates and m aintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (m echanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishm ent in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: O perating and m aintaining
equipm ent such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, motors
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipm ent, steam boilers and
boiler-fed w ater pumps; making equipm ent repairs; keeping a record of
operation of m achinery, tem perature, and fuel consum ption. May also
supervise th ese operations. Head or chief engineers in establishments
employing more than one engineer are excluded .




HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE
A ssists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing sp ecific or general duties of le sse r sk ill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with m aterials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipm ent; assistin g worker by holding m aterials or tools;
performing other unskilled task s as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is perm itted to perform v aries from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working area s; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform sp ecialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are a ls o performed by workers on a full-tim e b asis.

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
S pecializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or m illing m achines in the construction of m achine-shop tools, gauges,
jig s, fixtures, or d ie s. Work involves most o f the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing item s requiring
com plicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision m easuring instrum ents; selectin g feeds, sp eed s, tooling and op­
eration sequence; making necessary adjustm ents during operation to
achieve req u isite tolerances or dim ensions. May be required to recog­
nize when tools need dressing, to dress too ls, and to se le c t proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, m achine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this classificatio n .

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
Produces replacem ent parts and new parts in making repairs of
m etal parts of m echanical equipm ent operated in an establishm ent. Work
involves most o f the following: Interpreting w ritten instructions and
sp ecificatio n s; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
ch in ist’s handtools and precision m easuring instrum ents; settin g up and

20

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE— Continued
operating standard machine tools; shaping of m etal parts to close tolerances; making standard shop com putations reflating to dim ensions of work,
tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working prop­
erties of the common m etals; selectin g standard m aterials, p arts, and
equipment required for his work; fitting and assem bling parts into me­
chanical equipm ent. In general, the m achinist’s work normally requires
a rounded training in m achine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
R epairs autom obiles, b uses, m otortrucks, and tractors of an e s ­
tablishm ent. Work involves m ost o f the follow ing: Examining autom otive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassem bling equipm ent and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as w renches,
gauges, d rills, or sp ecialized equipment in disassem bling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassem bling and installing the various assem blies in the vehicle
and making n ecessary adjustm ents; alining w heels, adjusting brakes and
lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the autom otive
m echanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
R epairs machinery or m echanical equipment of an establishm ent.
Work involves m ost o f the follow ing: Examining m achines and m echan­
ical equipm ent to diagnose source of trouble; dism antling or partly d is­
mantling m achines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with item s obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replace­
ment part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a m achine shop
for major repairs; preparing w ritten specificatio n s for major repairs or
for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassem bling ma­
chines; and making all necessary adjustm ents for operation. In general,
the work of a m aintenance m echanic requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classificatio n are workers
whose primary duties involve settin g up or adjusting m achines.

MILLWRIGHT
In stalls new m achines or heavy equipm ent and dism antles and
in stalls m achines or heavy equipm ent when changes in the p lant layout




MILLWRIGHT— Continued

are required. Work involves m ost o f the following: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other sp ecificatio n s; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop com putations re­
lating to s tre s se s , strength of m aterials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipm ent; selectin g standard tools, equipm ent, and parts
to be used; installin g and m aintaining in good order power transm ission
equipm ent such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the m ill­
w right’s work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

OILER
L ubricates, with oil or g rease, the moving parts or w earing sur­
faces of m echanical equipm ent of an establishm ent.

PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
P ain ts and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishm ent. Work involves the follow ing: Knowledge of surface pecu­
lia rities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in
nail holes and in terstices; applying p aint with spray gun or brush. May
mix colors, o ils, w hite lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper
color or consistency. In general, the work of the m aintenance painter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
In stalls or repairs w ater, steam , g as, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishm ent. Work involves m ost o f the follow ing:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from draw ings
or other w ritten sp ecificatio n s; cutting various siz e s of pipe to correct
lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma­
chine; threading pipe with sto ck s and d ie s; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven m achines; assem bling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop com putations relating to p ressures,
flow , and size of pipe required; making standard te s ts to determ ine
w hether finished pipes meet specifications* In general, the work of the
m aintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building
sanitation or heating system s are excluded

.

21
TOOL AND DIE MAKER

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishm ent in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding in stallatio n of
vents and traps in plumbing system ; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’s snake. In
general, the work of the m aintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and experience.

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
F abricates, in sta lls, and m aintains in good repair the sheetm etal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelv es, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chu tes, ducts, m etal roofing) of an
establishm ent. Work involves m ost o f the following: Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-m etal maintenance work from blueprints, m odels,
or other specifications; setting up and operating all available types of
sheet-m etal-w orking m achines; using a variety of handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assem bling; installin g sh eetm etal articles as required. In general, the work of the m aintenance
sheet-m etal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

(D iem aker; jig maker; toolm aker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
C onstructs and repairs m achine-shop tools, gauges, jig s, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
involves m ost o f the following: Planning and laying out of work from
m odels, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written sp ecificatio n s;
using a variety of tool and die maker’s handtools and precision m eas­
uring instrum ents, understanding of the working properties of common
m etals and alloys; settin g up and operating of machine tools and related
equipm ent; making necessary shop com putations relating to dim ensions
of work, sp eed s, feeds, and tooling of m achines; heattreating of m etal
parts during fabrication as w ell as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required q u alities; working to clo se tolerances; fitting and assem bling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; selectin g appropriate
m aterials, tools, and p ro cesses. In general, the tool and die maker’s
work requires a rounded training in m achine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.

.

For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classificatio n .

CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT

ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER— Continued

T ransports passengers betw een floors of an office building,
apartm ent house, departm ent store, hotel or sim ilar establishm ent.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

or other establishm ent. D uties involve a combination o f the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipm ent, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor m ainte­
nance serv ices; cleaning lavatories, show ers, and restroom s. Workers
who sp ecialize in window w ashing are excluded.

GUARD

Performs routine police d u ties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maititaining order, using arms or force where n ecessary . Includes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity o f em ployees and
other persons entering

.

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER

(Sweeper; charwoman; jan itress)
C leans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washroom s, or prem ises of an office, apartm ent house, or commercial




LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or w arehouse helper)
A worker employed in a w arehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishm ent whose duties involve one or more o f the follow ­
ing: Loading and unloading various m aterials and m erchandise on or

22
LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING— Continued

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK— Continued

from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing m aterials or merchandise in proper storage location; tran s­
porting m aterials or m erchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow.
Longshoremen who load and unload ships are excluded

,

.

ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; w arehouse stockm an)
F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
m erchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slip s, customers*
orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indi­
cating item s filled or om itted, keep records of outgoing orders, requisi­
tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and pertorm
other related duties.

PACKER, SHIPPING
P repares finished products for shipm ent or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, siz e, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container em ployed, and method of shipm ent. Work requires the
placing of item s in shipping containers and may involve one or more o f
the following: Knowledge of various item s of stock in order to verify
content; selectio n of appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other m aterial to prevent
breakage or dam age; closing and sealing container; applying lab els or
entering identifying data on container. P ackers who also make wooden
boxes or crates are excluded

.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares m erchandise for shipm ent, or receives and is respon­
sible for incoming shipm ents of m erchandise or other m aterials. Shipping
work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, p ractices, routes,
available means of transportation and rates; and preparing records of the
goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping
charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or a s s is t in
preparing the m erchandise for shipm ent. R eceiving work involves: V eri­
fying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipm ents ag ain st
b ills of lading, invoices, or other records; checking for shortages and
rejecting damaged goods; routing m erchandise or m aterials to proper de­
partm ents; m aintaining necessary records and file s.




For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:
R eceivin g clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk

TRUCKDRIVER
D rives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, m erchandise, equipm ent, or men between various types of estab ­
lishm ents such as: Manufacturing p lants, freight depots, w arehouses,
w holesale and retail establishm ents, or between retail establishm ents
and customers* houses or places of b u sin ess. May also load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor m echanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. D river-salesm en and over-the-road drivers
are excluded

.

For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size
and type of equipm ent, as follows: (T ractor-trailer should be rated on
the b asis of trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver (combination o f s iz e s liste d separately)
Truckdriver, light (under ] l/ 2 tons)
Truckdriver, medium (IV 2 to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)

TRUCKER, POWER
O perates a manually controlled g asoline- or electric-pow ered
truck or tractor to transport goods and m aterials of all kinds about a
w arehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishm ent.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of
truck, as follow s:
Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than fo rklift)

WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of prem ises periodically in protecting property
ag ainst fire, theft, and illeg al entry.
* U .S . GOVER N M ENT P R IN T IN G O FFIC E : 1 9 6 0 0 — 5 4 8 6 9 7

Occupational Wage Surveys

O c c u p a t i o n a l w a g e s u r v e y s a re b e in g c o n d u c t e d in 6 0 m a jo r la b o r m a r k e t s d u r in g la t e 1 9 5 9 a n d e a r ly I 9 6 0 . T h e s e b u ll e t in s , w h e n a v a i l a b l e
m a y b e p u r c h a s e d from th e S u p e r in t e n d e n t o f D o c u m e n t s , U .S . G o v e r n m e n t P r in t in g O f f i c e , W a s h in g to n 2 5 , D .C . , or from a n y o f th e B L S r e g i o n a l
s a l e s o f f i c e s s h o w n on th e in s id e front c o v e r .
A s u m m a r y b u lle t in c o n t a in i n g d a t a for a l l la b o r m a r k e t s , c o m b in e d w it h a d d i t i o n a l a n a l y s i s , w il l b e i s s u e d e a r ly in 1 9 6 1 .
B u l l e t i n s for th e a r e a s l i s t e d b e lo w a re n o w a v a i l a b l e .




C l e v e l a n d , O h io , S e p t e m b e r 1 9 5 9 —B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 - 1 , p r ic e 2 0 c e n t s
S e a t t l e , W a s h ., A u g u s t 1 9 5 9 —B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 2 , p r i c e 2 5 c e n t s
D a l l a s , T e x ., O c to b e r 1 9 5 9 —B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 -3 , p r ic e 20 c e n t s
B u ffa lo , N .Y ., O cto b e r 1 9 5 9 - B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 -4 , p rice 20 c e n t s
S t. L o u i s , M o ., O c t o b e r 1 9 5 9 —B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 5 , p r ic e 2 5 c e n t s
M ia m i, F l a ., D e c e m b e r 1 9 5 9 - B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 -6 , p r ic e 2 0 c e n t s
B a lt im o r e , M d ., S e p t e m b e r 1 9 5 9 - B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 - 7 , p r ic e 15 c e n t s
B o s to n , M a s s ., O cto b e r 1 9 5 9 - B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 -8 , p rice 25 c e n t s
D a y to n , O h io , D e c e m b e r 1 9 5 9 - B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 -9 , p ric e 25 c e n t s
C a n to n , O h io , D e c e m b e r 1 9 5 9 - B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 -1 0 , p rice 25 c e n t s
D e n v e r , C o lo ., D e c e m b e r 1 9 5 9 - B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 -1 1 , p rice 25 c e n t s
P o r tla n d , M a in e, N o v e m b e r 1 9 5 9 - B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 -1 2 , p rice 20 c e n t s
F o r t W orth, T e x . , N o v e m b e r 1 9 5 9 - B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 1 3 , p r ic e 2 5 c e n t s
J a c k s o n v ille , F la ., D e c e m b e r 1 9 5 9 - B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 -1 4 , p rice 25 c e n t s
S a n B e r n a r d i n o —R i v e r s i d e —O n t a r i o , C a l i f . , N o v e m b e r 1 9 5 9 B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 -1 5 , p rice 25 c e n ts
P h ila d e lp h ia , P a ., N o v e m b e r 1 9 5 9 - B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 -1 6 , p rice 25 c e n t s
S a n F r a n c i s c o —O a k l a n d , C a l i f . , J a n u a r y I 9 6 0 — B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 1 7 ,
p ric e 25 c e n ts
W a sh in g to n , D .C .- M d .- V a ., D e c e m b e r 1 9 5 9 - B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 1 8 ,
p r ic e 2 5 c e n t s
M e m p h is , T e n n ., J a n u a r y I 9 6 0 —B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 1 9 , p r ic e 2 5 c e n t s
P ittsb u r g h , P a ., D e c e m b e r 1 9 5 9 - B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 -2 0 , p rice 25 c e n ts
M i n n e a p o l i s —S t . P a u l , M i n n . , J a n u a r y 1 9 6 0 - B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 2 1 ,
p rice 25 c e n ts
I n d i a n a p o l i s , I n d ., J a n u a r y I 9 6 0 —B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 - 2 2 , p r ic e 25 c e n t s





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