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Occupational Wage Survey

JACKSON, MISSISSIPPI
FEBRUARY I960

Bu letin No. 1265-26




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Cla0u«, Com«ntsskm«r




Occupational Wage Survey




JACKSON, MISSISSIPPI
FEBRUARY 1960

Bulletin No. 1265-26
A pril 1960

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU O F LA BO R STATISTICS
Ew an Clagu e, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C.

Price 25 cents

(e




Contents

Preface

Page
T he C om m u n it y W a ge S u r v e y P r o g r a m

In tr oduction

The B ureau of L a b o r Statis tic s r e g u l a r l y conducts
a r e a w i d e w ag e s u r v e y s in a number of im p o rta n t in d u s tr ial
c e n te r s . The stu dies, m ade f r o m late f a l l to e a r l y s p rin g,
r e l a t e to occupational earnings and r e l a t e d s u p p le m e n ta ry
b e n e fits . A p r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t is a v a i l a b l e on c o m p le t io n
of the study in each a r e a , u s u all y in the month f o l l o w i n g
the p a y r o l l p e r i o d studied. This b ull etin p r o v i d e s ad ditional
data not included in the e a r l i e r r e p o r t .
A c on so lid ate d
a n a ly t ic a l b ull etin s u m m a r i z i n g the r e s u lt s of a l l of the
y e a r ’ s s u r v e y s is issued a f t e r c o m p le t io n of the fin a l a r e a
b ull etin f o r the c u r r e n t round of s u r v e y s .

T ab les:

This r e p o r t was p r e p a r e d in the B u re a u 's r e g i o n a l
o f f i c e in A tla n ta, Ga. , by Donald C r u s e , under the d i r e c ­
tion of L ou is B. W o ytyc h , R e g i o n a l W a g e and Ind u s trial
R e lation s A n a ly s t.

B:




----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1

1.

E s ta b lis h m en ts and w o r k e r s with in s cop e of s u r v e y ------------------

2

A:

O ccupational e a r n i n g s : *
A - 1. O f f ic e occupations ---------------------------------------------------------A - 2 . P r o f e s s i o n a l and te c h n ica l occup ations --------------------------A - 3. M ain ten ance and p o w e r p la n t occup ations ------------------------A-4.
C usto d ial and m a t e r i a l m o v e m e n t occup ations ---------------

4
5
6
7

E s ta b lis h m e n t p r a c t i c e s and s u p p le m e n ta ry w ag e
p rovision s:*
B -1.
Shift d i f f e r e n t i a l s -----------------------------------------------------------B - 2 . M in im u m entr an ce s a l a r i e s f o r w o m e n o f f i c e w o r k e r s ---B -3. Scheduled w e e k l y h o u r s -------------------------------------- -----------B-4.
P a id holid ays -----------------------------------------------------------------B -5.
P a i d v a c a t i o n s ---------------------------------------------------------------B - 6 . Health , in s u ran ce , and pensio n plans -----------------------------

8
9
9
10
11
13

A p p e nd ix:

O ccup ational d e s c r ip tio n s

--------------------------------------------------

* N O T E : S i m i l a r tabulations f o r these and ot her ite m s a r e
a v a i l a b l e in the r e p o r ts f o r s u r v e y s in ot her m a j o r a r e a s .
A d i r e c t o r y ind icatin g date of study and the p r i c e of the
r e p o r t s is a v a i l a b l e upon req u e s t .

Union s c a l e s , in d ic a tiv e of p r e v a i l i n g pay l e v e l s ,
a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r the f o l l o w i n g tr a d e s or in d u s trie s : B u i l d ­
ing c on struction, p rin tin g , l o c a l - t r a n s i t op e r atin g e m p l o y ­
e es, and m o t o r t r u c k d r i v e r s and h e l p e r s .

iii

15




Occupational Wage Survey—Jackson, Miss.
Introduction

T his area is one of se v e r a l im portant in dustrial cen ters in
which the U. S. D epartm ent of L ab or’ s B ureau of Labor S ta tistic s has
conducted su rveys of occupational earnings and related wage b en efits
on an areaw ide b a s is . In this area, data w ere obtained by personal
v isits of B ureau field econ om ists to rep resen tative estab lish m en ts
within six broad industry d ivisions: M anufacturing; tra n sp o rta tio n ,1
com m unication, and other public u tilities; w h olesale trade; reta il
trade; fin an ce, in su ran ce, and real estate; and s e r v ic e s . M ajor in ­
dustry groups excluded from these stu dies are governm ent operations
and the con struction and extractive in d u stries. E stab lish m en ts having
few er than a p rescrib ed num ber of w orkers are om itted also b ecau se
they furnish in su fficien t em ploym ent in the occupations studied to w a r­
rant in clu sion . W herever p o ssib le, separate tabulations are provided
for each of the broad industry d iv isio n s.
T hese su rveys are conducted on a sam ple b a sis because of the
u n n ecessary co st involved in surveying a ll esta b lish m en ts. To obtain
appropriate accu racy at m inim um c o st, a greater proportion of large
than of sm a ll estab lish m en ts is studied. In com bining the data, how ­
ever, all estab lish m en ts are given their appropriate w eight. E stim a tes
b ased on the estab lish m en ts studied are presen ted , th erefo re, as r e ­
lating to all estab lish m en ts in the industry grouping and area, e x ­
cept for those below the m inim um siz e studied.
O ccupations and E arnings
The occupations selec te d for study are com m on to a variety
of m anufacturing and nonm anufacturing in d u stries. O ccupational c la s ­
sifica tio n is based on a uniform se t of job d escrip tion s designed to
take account of in terestab lish m en t variation in duties w ithin the sam e
job. (See appendix for listin g of th ese d escrip tio n s.) E arnings data are
p resen ted (in the A -s e r ie s tab les) for the follow ing types of occupa­
tions: (a) O ffice cle r ic a l; (b) p ro fessio n a l and techn ical; (c) m ain te­
nance and powerplant; and (d) cu stod ial and m aterial m ovem ent.
O ccupational em ploym ent and earnings data are shown for
fu ll-tim e w o rk ers, i. e . , those h ired to work a regular w eekly sch ed ­
ule in the given occupational cla ssific a tio n . E arnings data exclude
prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on w eeken ds, holid ays, and

late sh ifts. N onproduction b onu ses are excluded a lso , but c o st-o fliving bonuses and incen tive earn in gs are included. Where w eekly
hours are reported, as for office c le r ic a l occu p ation s, referen ce is
to the work sched ules (rounded to the n ea rest half hour) for which
stra ig h t-tim e sa la r ie s are paid; average w eekly earnings for th ese
occupations have been rounded to the n ea rest half d ollar.
A verage earnings of m en and wom en are presen ted sep arately
for selec te d occupations in which both sex es are com m only em ployed.
D ifferen ces in pay le v e ls of m en and wom en in th ese occupations are
la rg ely due to (1) d ifferen ces in the d istribution of the sex es am ong
in d u stries and estab lish m en ts; (2) d ifferen ces in sp ecific duties p er­
form ed, although the occupations are appropriately c la ssifie d within
the sam e su rvey job description; and (3) d ifferen ces in length of s e r v ­
ice or m erit review when individual sa la r ie s are adjusted on this b asis.
Longer average se r v ic e of m en would re su lt in higher average pay
when both se x e s are em ployed within the sam e rate range. Job
d escrip tion s used in cla ssify in g em p loyees in th ese su rveys are u su ­
ally m ore g en era lized than those used in individual estab lish m en ts to
allow for m inor d ifferen ces am ong estab lish m en ts in sp ecific duties
perform ed.
O ccupational em ploym ent estim a tes rep resen t the total in all
estab lish m en ts within the scope of the study and not the num ber actu­
ally su rveyed . B ecau se of d ifferen ces in occupational stru ctu re among
esta b lish m en ts, the estim a tes of occupational em ploym ent obtained
from the sam ple of estab lish m en ts studied serv e only to indicate the
relative im portance of the jobs studied. T h ese d ifferen ces in o ccu ­
pational structure do not m a teria lly affect the accu racy of the ea rn ­
ings data.

E stab lish m en t P ra c tic es and Supplem entary Wage P ro v isio n s
Inform ation is p resen ted a lso (in the B -s e r ie s tab les) on s e ­
lected estab lish m en t p ra ctices and supplem entary b en efits as they r e ­
late to office and plant w o rk ers. The term "office w o rk ers, " as used
in this b ulletin, includes working su p erv iso rs and non su p ervisory
w orkers perform ing c le r ic a l or related fun ction s, and exclu d es adm in­
istr a tiv e , ex ecu tive, and p ro fession a l -personnel. "Plant w orkers" in ­
clude working forem en and all n on su p ervisory w orkers (including lea d 1
R ailroad s, fo rm erly excluded from the scope of th ese stu d ies, en and tra in ees) engaged in nonoffice functions. A d m in istrative,
m
have been added in n ea rly all of the area s to be studied during the
ex ecu tive, and p ro fession a l em p lo y ees, and force-a cco u n t con stru ction
w inter of 1959-60; ra ilroad s w ill be added in the rem aining area s next
em p loyees who are u tilized as a sep arate work force are excluded .
y ear. F or scope of su rvey in this a rea, see footnote to "transporta­
C afeteria w orkers and routem en are excluded in m anufacturing in d u s­
tion, com m unication, and other public u tilities" in table 1.
tries, but are included as plant w orkers in nonm anufacturing ind u stries.




2

T A B L E 1.

E s t a b li s h m e n t s a n d w o r k e r s w it h in s c o p e o f s u r v e y a n d n u m b e r s t u d ie d in J a c k s o n ,

In d u s try d iv is io n

A ll d iv is io n s

M in im u m
e m p lo y m e n t
in e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n t s in s c o p e
o f s tu d y

M i s s . , 1 b y m a j o r in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , 2 F e b r u a r y I 9 6 0

N u m b e r o f e s t a b l is h m e n t s
W ith in
scope o f
s tu d y 3

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s
W ith in s c o p e o f s t u d y

S tu d ie d

S tu d ie d
T o t a l4

O ffic e

P la n t

T o ta l4

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

51

132

77

19, 100

3, 5 0 0

12, 300

14, 7 5 0

M a n u fa c t u r in g ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t io n , an d
o t h e r p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 5 -------------------------------------------------------------W h o le s a le tr a d e
----------------------------------------------------------------------------R e ta il t r a d e
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e ---------------------------------------S e r v i c e s 7 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

51
51

48
84

28
49

8, 0 00
11, 100

7 00
2, 800

6, 200
6, 100

6, 330
8, 4 2 0

51
51
51
51
51

13
16
29
14
12

11
8
13
9
8

8 00

1, 5 00

3, 360
670
1, 8 00
1, 390
1, 200

3,
1,
3,
1,
1,

500
2 00
100
7 00
7 00

(M
(6)
(6)
(6)

(* )
(6)
(6 )
( 6)

1 T h e J a c k s o n M e t r o p o l it a n A r e a (H in d s C o u n t y ).
T h e " w o r k e r s w it h in s c o p e o f s t u d y " e s t i m a t e s s h o w n in t h is t a b l e p r o v i d e a r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f th e s i z e a n d c o m p o s i t i o n
o f th e l a b o r f o r c e i n c lu d e d in th e s u r v e y .
T h e e s t i m a t e s a r e n ot in te n d e d , h o w e v e r , to s e r v e a s a b a s i s o f c o m p a r i s o n w it h o t h e r a r e a e m p l o y m e n t in d e x e s t o m e a s u r e e m p l o y m e n t t r e n d s o r
l e v e l s s i n c e (1 ) p la n n in g o f w a g e s u r v e y s r e q u i r e s th e u s e o f e s t a b l is h m e n t d a ta c o m p i l e d c o n s i d e r a b l y in a d v a n c e o f th e p a y r o l l p e r i o d s t u d ie d , a n d (2 ) s m a l l e s t a b l is h m e n t s a r e e x c l u d e d f r o m
th e s c o p e o f th e s u r v e y .
2 T h e 1957 r e v i s e d e d i t io n o f th e S t a n d a r d I n d u s t r ia l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n M a n u a l w a s u s e d in c l a s s i f y i n g e s t a b l is h m e n t s b y i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n .
M a j o r c h a n g e s f r o m th e e a r l i e r e d i t io n ( u s e d in
th e B u r e a u 's l a b o r m a r k e t w a g e s u r v e y p r o g r a m p r i o r t o th e w in t e r o f 1 9 5 8 - 5 9 ) a r e th e t r a n s f e r o f m i l k p a s t e u r i z a t i o n p la n t s a n d r e a d y - m i x e d c o n c r e t e e s t a b l is h m e n t s f r o m t r a d e ( w h o l e s a l e
o r r e t a il ) t o m a n u fa c t u r i n g , a n d th e t r a n s f e r o f r a d i o a n d t e l e v i s i o n b r o a d c a s t i n g f r o m s e r v i c e s t o th e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t io n , a n d o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s d i v i s i o n .
3 I n c l u d e s a l l e s t a b l is h m e n t s w it h t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t at o r a b o v e th e m i n i m u m - s i z e li m i t a t i o n .
A l l o u t le t s (w ith in th e a r e a ) o f c o m p a n i e s in s u c h i n d u s t r i e s a s t r a d e , f i n a n c e , a u to r e p a i r
s e r v i c e s , a n d m o t i o n - p i c t u r e t h e a t e r s a r e c o n s i d e r e d a s 1 e s t a b l is h m e n t .
4 I n c l u d e s e x e c u t i v e , p r o f e s s i o n a l , a n d o t h e r w o r k e r s e x c l u d e d f r o m th e s e p a r a t e o f f i c e a n d p la n t c a t e g o r i e s .
5 R a i l r o a d s w e r e in c lu d e d ; t a x i c a b s a n d s e r v i c e s i n c id e n t a l t o w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n w e r e e x c l u d e d .
6 T h is i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n i s r e p r e s e n t e d in e s t i m a t e s f o r " a l l i n d u s t r i e s " a n d " n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g " in th e S e r i e s A a n d B t a b l e s ,
a lt h o u g h c o v e r a g e w a s i n s u f f i c i e n t t o j u s t i f y s e p a r a t e
p r e s e n t a t i o n o f d a ta .
7 H o t e l s ; p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s ; b u s i n e s s s e r v i c e s ; a u t o m o b i le r e p a i r s h o p s ; m o t io n p i c t u r e s ; n o n p r o fi t m e m b e r s h i p o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; a n d e n g in e e r in g a n d a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s .




3

The sum m ary of vacation plans is lim ited to form al arran ge­
m en ts, excluding inform al plans w hereby tim e off with pay is granted
at the d iscretio n of the em p loyer. Separate estim a tes are provided
according to em ployer p ractice in com puting vacation paym ents, such
as tim e paym ents, percent of annual earn in gs, or fla t-su m am ounts.
H ow ever, in the tabulations of vacation allow an ces, paym ents not on
a tim e b a sis w ere converted; for exam p le, a paym ent of 2 percen t of
annual earnings w as co n sid ered as the equ ivalent of 1 w eek 1s pay.

Data are presen ted for a ll h ealth , in su ran ce, and pension
plans for which at le a st a part of the c o st is borne by the em p lo yer,
excepting only leg a l req u irem en ts such as w ork m en 's com p ensation
and so cia l secu rity . Such plans include those underw ritten by a co m ­
m ercia l insuran ce com pany and those provided through a union fund or
paid d irectly by the em ployer out of cu rren t operating funds or from
a fund se t asid e for this purpose. Death b en efits are included as a
form of life in su ran ce.
S ick n ess and accid en t in su ran ce is lim ited to that type of in ­
surance under which predeterm ined ca sh paym ents are m ade d irectly
to the insured on a w eekly or m onthly b a sis during illn e s s or accident
d isab ility. Inform ation is p resen ted for all such plans to which the
em ployer con trib u tes. H ow ever, in New York and New J e r se y , which
have enacted tem porary d isab ility insuran ce law s which require e m ­
ployer co n trib u tio n s,4 plans are included only if the em p loyer (1) co n ­
tributes m ore than is leg a lly req u ired , or (Z) provides the em ployee
with b en efits which ex ceed the req u irem en ts of the law . Tabulations
of paid sic k -le a v e plans are lim ited to form al p la n s5 w hich provide
full pay or a proportion of the w ork er's pay during absence from work
because of illn e s s . Separate tabulations are provided accord ing to
(l) plans which provide full pay and no w aiting period, and (2) plans
providing eith er partial pay or a w aiting period. In addition to the
presentation of the proportions of w ork ers who are provided sick n e ss
and accident insuran ce or paid sick lea v e, an unduplicated total is
shown of w orkers who re ceiv e eith er or both types of b en efits.
C atastrophe in su ran ce, so m etim es referred to as .exten d ed
m ed ical in su ran ce, inclu des those plans which are d esign ed to p rotect
em p loyees in ca se of sick n e ss and injury involving ex p en ses beyond
the norm al co verage of h osp italization , m ed ica l, and su rg ica l plans.
M edical insuran ce re fe rs to plans providing for com p lete or partial
paym ent of d octors' fe e s . Such plans m ay be underw ritten by co m m er­
cia l insuran ce com panies or nonprofit organ ization s or they m ay be
self-in su r ed . T abulations of retirem en t pen sion plans are lim ited to
those plans that provide m onthly paym ents for the rem ainder of the
w o rk er's life .

An estab lish m en t was co n sid ered as having a policy if it m et
eith er of the follow ing conditions: (1) O perated late sh ifts at the tim e
of the su rvey, or (2) had form al p ro vision s coverin g late sh ifts.
3
Scheduled w eekly hours for office w orkers (first sectio n
table B -3 ) in su rveys m ade prior to late 1957 and ea rly 1958 w ere
p resen ted in term s of the proportion of w om en office w orkers e m ­
ployed in o ffices with the indicated w eekly hours for w om en w o rk ers.

4 The tem porary d isab ility law s in C a lifo rn ia and Rhode Island
do not require em p loyer con trib u tion s.
5 An estab lish m en t w as co n sid ered as having a form al plan if
of estab lish ed at le a st the m inim um num ber of days of sick leave that
it
could be expected by each em p lo yee. Such a plan need not be w ritten ,
but inform al sic k -le a v e a llow an ces, d eterm in ed on an individual b a s is ,
w ere excluded.

Shift differen tial data (table B - l) are lim ited to m anufacturing
in d u stries. This inform ation is presented both in term s of (a) esta b ­
lish m en t policy, 2 presented in term s of total plant w orker em p loy­
m ent, and (b) effectiv e p ra ctice, presented on the b a sis of w orkers
actually em ployed on the sp ecified sh ift at the tim e of the su rvey.
In estab lish m en ts having varied d ifferen tia ls, the amount applying to
a m ajority w as used o r, if no am ount applied to a m ajority, the c la s ­
sifica tio n "other" was u sed . In estab lish m en ts in which som e la te sh ift hours are paid at norm al ra tes, a d ifferential was record ed only
if it applied to a m ajority of the shift hours.
M inim um entrance rates (table B -2 ) relate only to the esta b ­
lish m en ts v isited . They are presen ted on an estab lish m en t, rather
than on an em ploym ent b a sis. P aid holidays; paid vacations; and
health, in su ran ce, and pension plans are treated sta tistica lly on the
b a sis that th ese are applicable to all plant or office w orkers if a m a­
jority of such w orkers are elig ib le or m ay eventually qualify for the
p ra ctices liste d . Scheduled hours are treated sta tistica lly on the b a sis
that th ese are applicable to all plant or office w orkers if a m ajority
are c o v e r e d .3 B ecau se of rounding, sum s of individual item s in these
tabulations m ay not equal to ta ls.
The fir s t part of the paid holidays table p resen ts the num ­
b er of whole and half holidays actually provided. The secon d part
com b ines whole and half holidays to show total holiday tim e .




A* Occupational Earnings

4

Table A-l. Office Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d iv is io n , J a c k s o n , M i s s . , F e b r u a r y I96 0 )

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

A verage

N um ber
of
workers

S ex , o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s tr y d i v is i o n

W eekly j
hours
(Standard)

W eekly j
earnings
(Standard)

$
4 0. 00
and
under

Under
to . 00

I s . 00

l o . 00

$
5 5 .0 0

i o . 00

1 5 .0 0

l o . 00

$
7 5 .0 0

l o . 00

I 5 .O O

50. 00

5 5 .0 0

A Q .0 0

6 5. 00

70. 00

75. 00

8 0 .0 0

JS 5.00

90^00

4
4

4

2
1

5
1

1
1

3
2

3
3

1

-

-

-

3
3

3
3

3
3

7
5

3

_

2

_

_

_

_

1

-

-

-

-

-

5
1
4

4
-

_

-

_

2
-

2
2

-

4

-

2

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

_

_

_

$9 5 . 00

1 0 0 .0 0

$
10 5 .0 0

$
1 1 0 .0 0

$
1 1 5 .0 0

120. 00

. 9 5 , 00 _ 1 0 0 . 0 0

1 0 5 .0 0

110. 00

H 5 .0 0

120. 00

over

| o . 00

and

4 5 . 00

C le r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c l a s s A
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ________

29
15

40. 0
4 0 .0

$ 9 2 . 00
94. 00

C le r k s , a cc o u n tin g , c l a s s B
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g

29
20

40. 5
40. 5

7 7. 00
7 4. 50

-

C le r k s , o r d e r
_______________
M a n u fa ctu r in g ------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ________

56
18
38

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

7 6. 00
7 4. 00

_

_

-

-

2
-

7 7 . 00

-

-

2

O ffic e b o y s
----------------- -----------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ________

17
17

3 9 .5
3 9 .5

57. 50
57. 50

_

4
4

4

1
-

-

-

-

-

.

_

.

_

7

-

8

“

2
-

3
2

9
-

5
2

1
-

2
-

3
-

1

9

3

6
4
2

1

2

3

4
2
2

2
2

_

3
3

_

_

4
4

_

_

13

7
7

9
6

1
1

8
8

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

1
1

3
3

_

4

1
1

3
3

1

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

_

_

_

_

_

.
-

5
3

4

"

_

1

B i ll e r s , m a c h in e (b illin g m a c h in e )
______
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g -------------------------------------

47
42

38. 5
38. 5

58. 00
58. 00

B i l l e r s , m a c h in e (b o o k k e e p in g m a ch in e )
N on m a n u fa c tu rin g
-----------------------------------

18

17

40. 0
40. 0

5 3. 00
52. 50

B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s A
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
_______________________

27
16

40. 0
40. 0

1 6 2 .5 0

B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s B
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
-----------------------------------

75

40. 0
40. 0

49. 50
48. 00

3 9 .5
40. 0
3 9 .5

75.
76.
75.
82.

3
3

-■
_

!
!
i

11

4

_

!
1

4

-

6
6

10
9
6
3

_

5 9 . 50

1

9

-

8
7

10

_

1

*

6
4

-

-

-

2

2

_

2

_

1

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

1
1

3

1
1

_

_

_

.

_

_

_

.

-

4
3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

6
3
3

9
2
7

9
5
4
3

10
2
8
1

15
3
12

8
1
7
7

2
-

5
3
2

1
1
-

_

.

_

2

1

-

_

_
_

1

9
6
3
1

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

49
1
48

6

1

2

_

_

_

_

6

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

_

1

_

_

_

_

_

1

C l e r k s , a cc o u n tin g , c l a s s A _______________
M a n u fa ctu r in g
____________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ------------------------------------P u b lic u t ilit ie s 2 ---------------------------------C l e r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c l a s s B
--------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g
..............................................—
N on m a n u fa c tu rin g
----------------------------------C le r k s , f i l e ,

69
75
26
-

49
15

39. 0

_
-

:
!

24
24

29
29

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

50
00
50
50

-

-

-

-

-

-

5 8. 00

_

26

58

1

7

20
2

-

5
53

55
2

36

-

56
6
50

53

29

18

_

3

3

6

2

4
4

5
5

;

-

1

309
31
278

39. 0
40. 0
39. 0

60. 50
57. 50

3 9 .5

5 6. 00

cla s s A

-----------------------------------

15

C le r k s , f i le , c l a s s B
N on m a n u fa c tu rin g

----------------------------------_______________________

65

38. 5

46. 00

65

38. 5

4 6 . 00

25

1
-

.

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

1

C le rk s , o r d e r

-----------------------------------------------

15

40. 0

58. 00

C l e r k s , p a y r o l l ______________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
-----------------------------------

49
37

3 9 .5

66. 50
6 5 . 00

C o m p to m e t e r o p e r a t o r s ------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
----------------------------------

34
34

40. 0

53. 50
5 3 . 50

K e y p u n ch o p e r a t o r s _________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
-----------------------------------

60
44

3 9 .5
3 9 .5

5 7 .5 0
5 5 .0 0

39. 0
40. 0

4
4
1

_

-

_
-

_

j

30
30

21




-

-

■

-

-

!

7

1

1
1

3

2

_

1

_

_

_

4
4

i

9

8

!

4

6

1

2

2
2

10
8

5
4

3
1

1
1

2
2

-

-

-

'

1
1

2
2

1

_

_

_

_

_

.

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

*

-

5

4

_

_

_

_

_

_

21
i
1

j

1
1
3

7

i

4

,

19

6

i

4

!

™

6

n
10

6

i

n

3

1
See fo o t n o t e s at end o f ta b le ,

-

1

1

n

3

20
14

|

3

1

_

_

-

_

-

_

_

-

1

.

5

Table A-1. O ffice O ccupations-Continued

(Average straigh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area b asis
by industry division, Jackson, M is s ,, February I960)

1 S ta n da rd h o u r s r e f le c t the w o rk w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p lo y e e s r e c e iv e t h e ir r e g u la r s t r a ig h t - t im e s a la r i e s and the e a rn in g s c o r r e s p o n d to t h e s e w e e k ly h o u r s .
2 T r a n s p o r t a t io n , co m m u n ic a t io n , and o t h e r p u b lic u t il it i e s .
3 W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r ib u t e d a s f o l lo w s : 16 at $ 30 to $ 35; 8 at $ 35 to $ 4 0 .




Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s tr y d iv is io n , J a c k s o n , M is s . , F e b r u a r y I960)
n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g s t r a i g h t -t i m e w e e k l y e a r n i n g s o f —

Average

S e x , o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s tr y d iv is io n

N um ber
of
workers

$

W eekly,
W eekly , 55. 00
hours
earnings
and
(Standard) (Standard) un d er

$
$
60. 00 65. 00

60. 00 - 6 5 ,0 0

$
70. 00

$
75. 00

$
80. 00

$
85. 00

$
9 0 . 00

7 0 .0 0

75. 00

8 0 .0 0

8 5 .0 0

9 0 .0 0

9 5. 00 1 0 0 .0 0

_

1

5

4

3

1

2

_

1

_

$
$
S
$
9 5. 00 100. 00 105. 00

n o . oo

105. 00 110. 00 115. 00 120. 00

M en
D r a ft s m e n , s e n io r ________________________________________

26

40. 0

$ 9 3 . 50

D r a ft s m e n , ju n io r ________________________________________

19

40. 0

64. 50

1

6

9

3

$
1 1 5 .0 0

3

5

1 S ta n d a rd h o u r s r e f l e c t the w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p lo y e e s r e c e i v e t h e ir r e g u la r s t r a i g h t - t im e s a la r i e s and the e a r n in g s c o r r e s p o n d to t h e se w e e k ly h o u r s .

Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r m e n in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d i v is i o n , J a c k s o n , M i s s . , F e b r u a r y I960)

N U M B E R O F W O R K E R S R E C E IV IN G S T R A IG H T -T IM E H O U R L Y E A R N IN G S O F—
O c c u p a t io n and in d u s t r y d iv is io n

N um ber
of
workers

A verage
hourly . $ 1. 10
ea rn in gs1
and
u n d er
1. 20

$ 1 . 20

$ 1. 30

1. 30

$

1 .4 0

E l e c t r i c i a n s , m a in t e n a n c e -----------------------------------------------M a n u fa c t u r in g -----------------------------------------------------------------------

25
23

$ 2 .4 8
2 .4 4

"

---------------------------------------

16

2. 07

2

2

M a c h i n i s t s , m a in t e n a n c e ---------------------------------------------------M a n u fa c t u r in g ----------------------------------- -------------------------------

29
25

2 .4 6
2 .4 4

"

M e c h a n ic s , a u t o m o tiv e (m a in t e n a n c e )_________
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g -------------------------------------------P u b lic u t ilit ie s 2 ------------------------------------------

83
69
56

2. 13
2. 17
2. 19

1
1
“

M e c h a n ic s , m a in t e n a n c e ------------ -------- -----------M a n u fa c t u r in g __________________________________

62
57

2. 20
2. 14

1. 50

"

E n g in e e r s , s t a t io n a r y ----------------

1. 50
1. 60

"

1. 60
1. 70

$

$

1. 70
1 .8 0

1. 80
1. 90

$

$

2. 00

$ 2. 10

$2. 20

$2. 30

2. 00

2. 10

2. 20

2. 30

2 .4 0

~

1. 90

~

1
1

"

5
5

1
1

■

_

2

_

_

1

2

1

"

_

_

_

■
_

$

"

■

■

3
3

3
2
2

7
6
4

20
19
19

4
4
4

5
5
5

6
5
“

2
2

7
7

.

"

_

2
-

3
“

-

—

6
6

1 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e an d f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and la te s h ift s .
2 T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , an d o t h e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .




$

1 .4 0

-

;

9
9

_

i

1
1

$

2 .4 0
2. 50

$

2. 50
2. 60

$

2. 60
2. 70

$

2 .7 0
2. 80

$

2 .8 0
and
over

2
2

8
8

1
1

4
4

3
1

2

_

1

1

2

3
1

2
"

4
4

-

15
15
15

_

.

4

16
~

16

4
3

~

1
~

2
2

5
4
4

5
3
3

7
7

7
7

4
3

6
6

10
10

-

Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(A verage straigh t-tim e hourly earnings fo r s elected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry d ivision , Jackson, M is s ., F eb ru ary I960)
N U M B E R O F W O R K E R S R E C E IV IN G S T R A IG H T -T IM E H O U R L Y E A R N IN G S O F—

Number
of
workers

O c c u p a t io n 1 and in d u s tr y d iv is io n

Average
hourly
earnings L

$

U n der 0 . 60
and
$
u n d er
0 . 60
. 70

E le v a t o r o p e r a t o r s , p a s s e n g e r (w o m e n ) -----------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ----------------------------------------------

58
58

$ 0 . 58
. 58

3 39
39

4
4

J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , and c l e a n e r s ( m e n ) -------------M a n u fa c t u r in g ----------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ---------------------------------------------P u b lic u t ilit ie s 5 ____________________________

259
85
174
21

1. 03
1 .2 9
. 91
1. 36

4 30

6

30
-

-

6

J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , and c l e a n e r s ( w o m e n ) --------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ----------------------------------------------

66
54

. 80
. 74

6 20
20

12
12

L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l h a n d lin g -------------------------------M a n u fa c t u r in g ---------------------- --------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ----------------------------------------------

4 09
302
107

1. 25
1. 21
1. 36

_
-

O r d e r f i l l e r s ------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ---------------------------------------------

97
83

1. 22
1. 21

_

R e c e iv in g c l e r k s ----------------------------------- ---------------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ----------------------------------------------

2.8
18

1 .4 1
1. 33

-----

20

1. 84

Shippin g and r e c e iv in g c l e r k s ------------------------------M a n u fa c t u r in g ---------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ----------------------------------------------

42
16
26

1. 88
2. 24
1. 66

T r u c k d r iv e r s 7 -------------------------------------------------------M a n u fa c t u r in g ---------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ---------------------------------------------P u b lic u t ilit ie s 5 -------------------------------------------

373
180
193
75

T r u c k d r iv e r s , lig h t (u n d e r l V 2 t o n s ) -------------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g -----------------------------------------------

83
53

1. 07
1. 06

T r u c k d r iv e r s , m e d iu m ( l V 2 to
and in clu d in g 4 t o n s ) ----------------- ------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g -----------------------------------------------

89
50

1 .4 6
1. 65

T r u c k e r s , p o w e r ( f o r k l i f t ) ________________________ —
M a n u fa c t u r in g --------------------------------------------------------------

71
62

1. 31
1. 30

W a t c h m e n _____________________________________ ____
M a n u fa c t u r in g ---------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g --------------------------- ----------------

67
50
17

1. 23
1. 25
1. 16

S h ippin g c l e r k s ------------------------------------------------

1.
1.
1.
2.

61
38
82
61

0 . 80

1 . 00

$

. 80

1 . 00

_
" i

_

3
3

11
11

1
1

44
13
31
2

38
27
11 !
3

6

9
9
-

11
11

51
51

8

.

"
_

8

-

-

16
7

4
4
-

_
- 1

3
3

_

_

_

-

.

.

_

-

_

1 . 20

%

1. 30

$

1 .4 0

$

1. 50

-

"

-

-

"

-

-

-

-

2

2

2

2
-

2
"

2
2

.
-

_
-

-

-

-

_
-

"

1
"

_

_

_

_

.

.

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

.
-

1
1

"

-

-

14
14

-

_

_

_

.

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

_

2

.

_

-

6
4
_
-

100
49
51

156
144
12

47
45
2

29
24
5

16
10
6

8
1
7

6
4
2

13
13

37
27

29
27

12
12

_

_

"

-

6
4

_

_

-

-

6
4

2
-

_

_

.

_

10
9
1

_
~

2
2

_
-

3
2

1
-

6
6

3
2

1
-

_

_

-

2

_

1

6

5

_

3

3

_

_

_

_

_

-

3
1
2

5
4
1

2
2

2
1
1

2
2

5
3
2

1
1
“

2
2

_

2
2
"

1
1
"

5
1
4
-

2
1
1

2
2
-

1
1
1

14
14
1

25
12
13
11

1
1
-

62
62
62

_

-

1
1

1
1

-

9
9

8
8

4
2
2

76
76
-

6
4
2
“

-

"

-

-

36
24

27
9

2
2

2
2

-

2
2

-

-

-

1
-

52
20

8
8

2

-

-

-

23
23

3
3

34
30

4
"

27
27

3
1
2

_

_

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

1
-

_

_

-

-

-

-

2
1
1

23
12
11

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

2. 70

15
12
3

-

_

:

2 .4 0

-

6
6

_

J . 80

“

3
3

_

-

5

-

_

1 .7 0

1
1

4
4

-

2 . 60

-

19
9
10

-

2 . 60

5
5

88
59
29
-

_

2. 50

-

51
13
38
-

-

2. 30

$

8
8

6
6

_

$
2. 50

3
3
-

3
3
"

-

2 . 20

$
$
2. 30
2 .4 0

-

4
4
-

-

2 . 10

2 . 20

$

"

-

-

2 . 00 $2 . 10

7
1

“

.

1. 90

2 . 00

$

-

-

_

$
1. 90

-

-

-

1 . 80

$

12
29
24
5 ! 12
_ 1 10

1. 50 _.1._60.

1
1

_

1. 70

1 .4 0

2
2

_

$

1 . 60

L30J

-

-

$

1
-

D ata li m it e d to m e n w o r k e r s e x c e p t w h e r e o t h e r w is e in d ic a t e d .
E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and la te s h ift s .
W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d a s fo l lo w s : 18 at $ 0. 30 to $ 0. 4 0 ; 1 3 at $ 0. 4 0 to $ 0. 50; 8 at $ 0. 50 to $ 0. 60.
W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d a s fo l lo w s : 3 at $ 0. 30 to $ 0. 4 0; 25 at $ 0. 40 to $ 0. 50; 2 at $ 0. 50 to $ 0. 60.
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .
W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r ib u t e d a s fo llo w s : 8 at $ 0. 4 0 to $ 0. 50; 12 at $ 0. 50 to $ 0. 60.
In clu d e s a ll d r iv e r s r e g a r d le s s o f s i z e and ty p e o f t r u c k o p e r a t e d .




$

-

-

_

1 . 10
1 . 20

-

-

$

1 . 10

-

-

-

_

$

-

j_

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

$
0. 90

. 90

$
0. 70

-

3
3
-

!

_
-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

-

3
-

-

1
1

5
4

-

1
1

-

-

-

_

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

1
1

-

_
-

6
6
1
1

-

-

5
4
1

-

-

-

-

“

-

"

"

5
5

11
11

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

.4
4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

'

-




B: Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions

8

Table B-1. Shift Differentials
( P e r c e n t o f m a n u fa c t u r in g p la n t w o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s h a v in g f o r m a l p r o v is i o n s f o r sh ift w o r k , and in e s t a b lis h m e n t s
a c t u a lly o p e r a t in g la t e s h ift s b y ty p e and a m ou n t o f d i ff e r e n t ia l , J a c k s o n , M i s s . , F e b r u a r y I9 6 0 )
In e s t a b lis h m e n t s h a v in g f o r m a l
p r o v is io n s 1 fo r —

In e s t a b lis h m e n t s a c t u a lly
o p e r a t in g —

S hift d i ff e r e n t ia l
S e c o n d sh ift
w ork

T ota l

S e c o n d sh ift

T h ir d o r o t h e r
sh ift

7 1 .0

6 7 .4

19. 2

2. 8

__________________________

63. 5

5 9 .9

17. 6

1 .4

—........................................

58. 6

55. 0

1 5 .4

1 .4

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------__________________________________________
—-------------------- ------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------------------------------------------------------------------

4. 7
1 1 .6
2 8 .4
1. 1
8. 1

- .................. - ............................. ............................ .............

W ith sh ift p a y d i f f e r e n t ia l

U n ifo r m c e n t s ( p e r h o u r )

2 cen ts
4 cen ts
5 cen ts
6 ce n ts
7 cen ts
9 ce n ts
10 c e n t s
12 c e n t s

T h ir d o r o t h e r
sh ift w o r k

.6
4. 1

---------------------------------------------

4 .9

--------------------------------------------------------

U n ifo r m p e r c e n t a g e

10 p e r c e n t

-

2 9 .4
1 9 .7
1 .2
.6
4. 1

N o s h ift p a y d i f f e r e n t ia l

--------------------------------------------

-

. 1
2 .4
9. 1
. 3
3. 0
-

.7
.6
. 1

. 1
.4

-

4 .9

2. 2

-

4. 9

4 .9

2. 2

-

7. 5

7. 5

1. 6

1 .4

1
I n c lu d e s e s t a b lis h m e n t s c u r r e n t l y o p e r a t in g la t e
th ou g h t h e y w e r e not c u r r e n t l y o p e r a t in g la t e s h ift s .

s h ift s ,

-

and e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith f o r m a l p r o v i s i o n s c o v e r i n g la t e s h ift s e v e n

9
Table B-2. Minimum Entrance Salaries for W om en O ffice W orkers
(D i s t r i b u t i o n o f e s t a b l is h m e n t s s t u d ie d in a l l i n d u s t r i e s a n d in i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s b y m in i m u m e n t r a n c e s a l a r y f o r s e l e c t e d c a t e g o r i e s
o f in e x p e r ie n c e d w o m e n o f f ic e w o r k e r s , J a c k s o n , M is s . , F e b r u a r y I96 0 )
I n e x p e r ie n c e d ty p is ts
M a n u fa c t u r in g
M in im u m w e e k l y s a l a r y 1

A ll
in d u s t r ie s

B a s e d o n s t a n d a r d v/ e e k l y h o u r s 3 o f —
A ll
s c h e d u le s

E s t a b li s h m e n t s s t u d i e d -----------------------------------------------------------------------

77

E s t a b li s h m e n t s h a v in g a s p e c i f i e d m i n i m u m ____________________
U n d e r $ 3 5 . 0 0 _______________________________________________________
$ 3 5 . 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 3 7 .5 0 ________________________________________
$ 37. 50 a n d u n d e r $ 4 0 . 00 ------------------------------------------------------------$ 4 0 . 00 a n d u n d e r $ 4 2 . 50 ------------------------------------------------------------$ 4 2 . 50 a n d u n d e r $ 4 5 . 00 ------------------------------------------------------------$ 4 5 . 00 a n d u n d e r $ 4 7 . 50 ________________________________________
$ 4 7 . 50 a n d u n d e r $ 5 0 . 00 ________________________________________
$ 5 0 . 00 a n d u n d e r $ 5 2 . 50 ________________________________________
$ 5 2. 50 a n d u n d e r $ 5 5. 00 ------------------------------------------------------------$ 5 5 . 00 a n d u n d e r $ 5 7 . 50 ________________________________________
$ 5 7 . 50 a n d u n d e r $ 6 0 . 00 ------------------------------------------------------------$ 6 0 . 00 a n d u n d e r $ 6 2 . 50 ------------------------------------------------------------$ 6 2 . 50 a n d o v e r _______ __________________________________________
E s t a b li s h m e n t s h a v in g n o s p e c i f i e d m i n i m u m -----------------------------E s t a b li s h m e n t s w h ic h d id n ot e m p l o y w o r k e r s
in t h is c a t e g o r y -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

26
1
9
2
6
1

1
2
3

3

O th er in e x p e r ie n c e d c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s 2
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g

40

28

XXX

A ll
s c h e d u le s

49

M a n u fa c t u r in g
A ll
in d u s t r ie s

A ll
sc h e d u le s

40

XXX

12
_
1
5
2
2
1
1

28

XXX

10
_
4
1

10
4
1

3

3

1
1
3

1
_
1
-

15

XXX

1
1
3

XXX

36
1
2
3
15
1
7
1
2
1
1
2
7

29

XXX

34

9
3
1

3

3

3

-

-

3

2
1
1
6

1

1

1
-

1
-

3

45

16

1

40

77

XXX

9
3
1

17
1
6
1

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

B a se d on sta n d a rd w e e k ly h o u r s 3 o f—

L o w e s t s a l a r y r a t e f o r m a l l y e s t a b l is h e d f o r h i r in g i n e x p e r i e n c e d w o r k e r s f o r t y p in g o r o t h e r c l e r i c a l j o b s .
R a t e s a p p l i c a b l e t o m e s s e n g e r s , o f f i c e g i r l s , o r s i m i l a r s u b c l e r i c a l j o b s a r e n ot c o n s i d e r e d .
H o u r s r e f l e c t th e w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e t h e ir r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r i e s .
D a ta a r e - p r e s e n t e d f o r a l l w o r k w e e k s c o m b i n e d ,

A ll
s c h e d u le s

40

49

XXX

XXX

26
1
2
3
11
4
1
2
_
2
4

18
1
1
9
2
1
2
_
2
XXX

XXX

19

XXX

a n d f o r th e m o s t c o m m o n w o r k w e e k

re p orted .

Table B-3. Scheduled W e e k ly Hours
( P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o f f i c e a n d p la n t w o r k e r s in a l l in d u s t r ie s a n d in i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s b y s c h e d u l e d w e e k l y h o u r s
o f f i r s t - s h i f t w o r k e r s , J a c k s o n , M i s s . , F e b r u a r y I96 0 )

PLA N T W O RK ERS

O F FICE W O R K E R S

W e e k ly h o u r s

A ll in d u stries 1

A l l w o r k e r s ---------------------------------------------------------------35 h o u r s ----------------------------------------------------------------------37
h o u r s -----------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 3 7 V 2 a n d u n d e r 4 0 h o u r s -----------------------------4 0 h o u r s --------------- ------------------------- -----------------------O v e r 4 0 a n d u n d e r 4 4 h o u r s ______________________
4 4 h o u r s --------------------- ----------------------------------------------4 5 h o u r s -----------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 4 5 a n d u n d e r 4 8 h o u r s ---------------------------------4 8 h o u r s ----------------------------------------------------------------------50 h o u r s ----------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 50 h o u r s ------------------------------------------------------------

l /z

100
(4 )
21
8
62
1
4
2
1
1
(4 )

P u b lic u tilitie s 2

A ll in d u stries 3

100

100

100

100

_

_

_

.

-

47

2
1
62
1
3
4
6
7
7
7

4

-

-

-

M an u factu rin g

1
83

-

53

-

-

7
1
5
3
-

-

"

-

M an u factu rin g

1 I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e ; a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d i t io n t o t h o s e i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
2 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s .
3 I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e , r e t a i l t r a d e , r e a l e s t a t e , a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d it io n t o t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
L e s s th a n 0 . 5 p e r c e n t .

4




79
2
-

4
3
1
4
5

P u b lic u tilitie s 2

100
_

95
5
-

■

10
Table B-4. Paid Holidays
( P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o f f i c e a n d p la n t w o r k e r s in a l l in d u s t r i e s a n d in in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s b y n u m b e r o f p a id h o l id a y s
p r o v i d e d a n n u a lly , J a c k s o n , M i s s . , F e b r u a r y I 9 6 0 )
OFFICE WORKERS

PLANT WORKERS

Item
All industries *

A l l w o r k e r s ----------------------------------------------------------------

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g
p a id h o l i d a y s -----------------------------------------------------------W o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g
n o p a i d h o l i d a y s ____________________________________

Public utilities 2

All industries 3

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

100

100

100

100

100

100

1 00

100

100

86

91

84

14

9

16

2
1
3
10

2
4
14

-

'

N um ber o f

Manufacturing

'

'

_

.

days

1
2
3
4
4
5
5
5
6
6
6

h o l i d a y ---------------------------------------------------------------------h o l i d a y s ____________________ _______________________
h o l i d a y s --------------------------------------------------------------------h o l i d a y s ------------------ ----------------------------------------------h o l id a y s p lu s 1 h a l f d a y -------------------------------------h o l i d a y s --------------------------------------------------------------------h o l id a y s p lu s 1 h a lf d a y -------------------------------------h o l id a y s p lu s 2 h a lf d a y s ________________________
h o l i d a y s --------------------------------------------------------------------h o l id a y s p lu s 1 h a lf d a y -------------------------------------h o l id a y s p lu s 2 h a lf d a y s ________________________
h o l i d a y s _____________________________________________
8 h o l i d a y s _____________________________________________

7

_
(4 )
2
5
(4)
49
3
(4 )
10
3
3
23
2

(4 )
5
17
28
4
20
-

17
6
3

-

-

-

-

-

-

3
-

29
1
20
1
4
13
2

13
2
36
8
8

-

2
19
20
40
41
70
70
80
83
85
86

3
18
18
54
56
70
70
84
88
91
91

-

8
12
77

3

-

9
7
68

'

Total holiday time5
8 d a y s ---------------------------------------------------------------------------o r m o r e d a y s ----------------------------------------------------------6 V 2 o r m o r e d a y s _________ _______________________
6 o r m o r e d a y s ------------------- -----------------------------------5 V 2 o r m o r e d a y s ----------------------------------------------------5 o r m o r e d a y s --------- ------------------------------------------------4 V 2 o r m o r e d a y s ___________________________________
4 o r m o r e d a y s --------------------------------------------------------o r m o r e d a y s ______________________________________
o r m o r e d a y s ---------------------------------------------------------o r m o r e d a y s ______________________________________

7

3
2
1

2
28
30
41
44
93
93
98
100
100
100

3
26
26
46
49
77
77
94
100
100
100

_
77
89
97
97
100
100
100
100
100
100

1 I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; f i n a n c e , in s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e ; a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d i t io n t o t h o s e i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s sh o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
2 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s .
3 I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e , r e t a i l t r a d e , r e a l e s t a t e , a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d i t io n t o t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
4 L e s s th a n 0. 5 p e r c e n t .
5 A l l c o m b in a t i o n s o f fu l l a n d h a lf d a y s th a t a d d t o th e s a m e a m o u n t a r e c o m b in e d ; f o r e x a m p l e , th e p r o p o r t i o n o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g a t o t a l o f 7 d a y s i n c lu d e s
n o h a lf d a y s , 6 f u l l d a y s a n d 2 h a lf d a y s , 5 f u l l d a y s a n d 4 h a lf d a y s , a n d s o o n .
P r o p o r t i o n s w e r e th e n c u m u l a t e d .




.
68
75
84
84
84
84
84
84
84
84

t h o s e w it h 7 fu l l d a y s a n d

11
Table B-5. Paid Vacations
( P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o f f i c e a n d p la n t w o r k e r s in a l l in d u s t r i e s a n d in in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s b y v a c a t i o n p a y
p r o v i s i o n s , J a c k s o n , M i s s . , F e b r u a r y i 960 )

OFFICE WORKERS
V a c a t io n p o l i c y

A ll w o r k e r s

--------------------------------------------------------------

A ll in d u str ie s 1

M an u factu rin g

PLA N T W ORKERS
P u b lic u tilitie s 2

AHin d u stries 3

M an u factu rin g

P u b lic u tilities 2

100

100

100

100

100

100

100
100
-

100
100

100
100
-

86
75
11

-

-

-

91
81
8
2
-

100
100

-

-

"

■

9

14

(5 )
49
-

5
14
3

8
1

5
46

-

-

2
70
19
-

Method of paymont
W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v id i n g
p a id v a c a t i o n s
----------------------------------------------------L e n g t h - o f - t i m e p a y m e n t ------------------------------P e rce n ta g e paym ent
-------------------------------------F l a t - s u m p a y m e n t ------------------------------------------O t h e r ------------------------------------------------------------------W o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s p r o v id i n g
n o p a id v a c a t i o n s
-----------------------------------------------

-

-

-

-

-

Amount of vocation p a y 4
A fte r 6 m on th s o f s e r v i c e
U n d e r 1 w e e k _______________________________________
1 w eek
---------------------------------------------------------------------2 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------------------------------

_

(5)
55
1

17

(5)
32
67

2
41
57

_
67
33

(5)

-

-

(5)
11
3
85

2
20
_
78

2
47
2
40

_

_

8
12
80

49
5
32

28
_
72

( S)

-

-

-

-

-

-

A fte r 1 y e a r o f s e r v ic e
U n d e r 1 w e e k -----------------------------------------------------------1 w eek
------------------------------------------------------------------- 2 w eeks
------------------------------------------------------------------3 w eeks
-------------------------------------------------------------------

_

_

80
6

70
30

-

-

A fte r 2 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
U n d e r 1 w e e k _______________________________________
1 w e e k ____________________ ___________________________
O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ----------------------------------2 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------------------3 w e e k s _____________________________________________

_

A fte r 3 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
U n der 1 w eek
_
1 w eek
--------------- -----------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 and u n d er 2 w e e k s
---------------------------------2 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------------------3 w e e k s _____________________________________________

_
8
( 5)
91
(5)

_

_

.

_
_
100

2
35
2
52

_

19
2
79
-

36
5
45

19
81

-

-

-

-

9

_
100

A fte r 5 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
U n d e r 1 w e e k _______________________________________
1 w eek
______ - ______________________________________
2 w eeks
---------------------------------- ---------------------------------3 w e e k s _____________________________________________

S e e f o o t n o t e s at e n d o f ta b le ,




_
5
91
3

_
7
93

_
-

100

2

19 '
70

77

12
Table B-5. Paid Vacations-Continued
( P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o f f i c e a n d p la n t w o r k e r s in a l l in d u s t r i e s a n d in in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s b y v a c a t i o n p a y
p r o v i s i o n s , J a c k s o n , M i s s . , F e b r u a r y i9 6 0 )

O F F IC E W O R K E R S

PLAN T W O RK ERS

V a c a t io n p o l i c y
All industries

*

M anufacturing

Public utilities 2

All industries 3

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

Amount of vacation p a y 4— Continued
A f t e r 10 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e
U n d e r 1 wfip.k
_ ............ .. ...
. _
1 w e e k _________________________________________________
2 w e e k s ------------------------------------------------------------------------3 w e e k s ________________________________________________

_

_

5
82
13

7
87
6

_
5
29
65

_

_

7
70
23

5
95

-

100
-

_

2
19
65
5

9
73
4

2
19
37
33

_

.

9
40
37

11
89

2
19
37
29
4

10
40
35
1

2
19
37
26
7

10
40
31
5

_
100
-

A f t e r 15 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e
U n d e r 1 w e e k _________________________________________
1 w e e k --------------------------------------------------------------------------2 w e e k s ------------------------------------------------------------------------3 w e e k s ________________________________________________

-

_

A f t e r 20 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e
U n d e r 1 w e e k -------------------------------------------------------------1 w e e k --------------------------------------------------------------------------2 w e e k s ________________________________________________
3 w e e k s ________________________________________________
4 w e e k s ________________________________________________

_

_

5
29
61
4

7
70
20
3

_

_
7
70
16
7

_
5
95
-

_

_

_
11
80
9

A f t e r 25 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e
U n d e r 1 w e e k -------------------------------------------------------------1 w e e k ______ ___________________________________________
2 w e e k s ------------------------------------------------------------------------3 w e e k s ________________________________________________
4 w e e k s ________________________________________________

1
2
3
4
s e r v ice
5

5
27
43
24

-

5
95

I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e ; a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d i t io n t o t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s .
I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e , r e t a i l t r a d e , r e a l e s t a t e , a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d i t io n t o t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
P e r io d s o f s e r v ic e w e re a r b itr a r ily ch o s e n and do not n e c e s s a r ily
r e f l e c t t h e in d iv id u a l p r o v i s i o n s f o r p r o g r e s s i o n s .
F o r e x a m p l e , th e c h a n g e s in p r o p o r t i o n s
in c lu d e c h a n g e s in p r o v i s i o n s o c c u r r i n g b e t w e e n 5 a n d 10 y e a r s .
L e s s th a n 0. 5 p e r c e n t .

N O T E : In th e t a b u la t io n s o f v a c a t i o n a l l o w a n c e s b y y e a r s o f s e r v i c e ,
p a y m e n t s o t h e r th a n " le n g t h o f t i m e , " s u c h a s p e r c e n t a g e o f a n n u a l e a r n i n g s
t o a n e q u iv a le n t t i m e b a s i s ; f o r e x a m p l e , a p a y m e n t o f 2 p e r c e n t o f a n n u a l e a r n i n g s w a s c o n s i d e r e d a s 1 w e e k 's p a y .




_
_
11
80
9

_

in d ic a t e d

o rfla t-s u m p a y m e n ts ,

w ere

at 10

years'

co n v e rte d

13
Table B-6. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
( P e r c e n t o f o f f i c e a n d p la n t w o r k e r s in a l l in d u s t r i e s a n d in in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s e m p l o y e d in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g
h e a lt h , i n s u r a n c e , o r p e n s io n b e n e f i t s , J a c k s o n , M i s s . , F e b r u a r y I 9 6 0 )

OFFICE WORKERS
T y p e o f b e n e fit

A ll w o rk e r s

--------------------- —-------------------------------------

All industries 1

Manufacturing

PLANT WORKERS
Public utilities2

All industries 3

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

100

100

100

100

100

100

89

76

88

64

55

86

65

37

88

33

23

86

76

76

87

61

62

84

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g :

L i f e in s u r a n c e
—-------------------------------------------—
A c c id e n t a l d ea th and d is m e m b e r m e n t
in s u ra n ce
------------------------------------------------------S ic k n e s s a n d a c c i d e n t i n s u r a n c e o r
s i c k le a v e o r b o t h 4 ----------------------------------------

S ic k n e s s a n d a c c i d e n t i n s u r a n c e ----------S ic k l e a v e ( f u l l p a y a n d n o
w a it in g p e r i o d )
-------------------------------------- S ic k l e a v e ( p a r t i a l p a y o r
w a it in g p e r i o d ) -----------------------------------------

33

47

28

38

37

33

45

35

21

9

2

14

14

11

47

18

24

36

H o s p i t a l i z a t i o n i n s u r a n c e -----------------------------S u rg ica l in s u ra n ce
----------------------------------------M e d i c a l i n s u r a n c e ------------------------------------------C a t a s t r o p h e in s u r a n c e ----------------------------------R e t i r e m e n t p e n s i o n ----------------------------------------N o h e a lt h , in s u r a n c e , o r p e n s io n p la n -----

83
83
39
47
75
3

84
84
42
25
56
7

52
52
29
27
81
2

80
80
21
27
43
13

88
88
28
32
50
12

64
64
31
18
81

1 I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e ; a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d it io n t o t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
2 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t io n , a n d o t h e r p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s .
3 I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e , r e t a i l t r a d e , r e a l e s t a t e , a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d i t io n t o t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
4 U n d u p lic a t e d t o t a l o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g s i c k le a v e o r s i c k n e s s a n d a c c i d e n t in s u r a n c e s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y b e l o w .
S i c k - l e a v e p l a n s a r e l i m i t e d t o t h o s e w h ic h d e f i n i t e l y e s t a b l i s h
th e m in i m u m n u m b e r o f d a y s ' p a y th a t c a n b e e x p e c t e d b y e a c h e m p l o y e e .. I n f o r m a l s i c k - l e a v e a l l o w a n c e s d e t e r m i n e d o n a n in d iv i d u a l b a s i s a r e e x c l u d e d .




at l e a s t




15

Appendix: Occupational Descriptions
The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the B u re au s wage surveys is to a s s is t its
field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangem ents from establishm ent to establishm ent and from area to area. T his is
e ssen tial in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
B ecause of this em phasis on interestablishm ent and interarea com parability of occupational content, the
Bureau’s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishm ents or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the B ureau’s field econom ists are
instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped w orkers,
part-tim e, temporary, and probationary workers.
O FFICE

BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statem ents, b ills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electrom atic typew riter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, b illers, m achine, are
classified by type of m achine, as follow s:
B iller machine (hilling m achine)— U ses a sp ecial billing ma­
chine (Moon H opkins, E llio tt F ish er, Burroughs, etc ., which are
combination typing and adding m achines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from custom ers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. U sually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are autom atically accum ulated by m achine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold m achine.
Biller, machine (bookkeeping m achine)— U ses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstraiid, E llio tt F ish er, Remington Rand, e tc ., which
may or may not have typew riter keyboard) to prepare custom ers*
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. G enerally in ­
volves the sim ultaneous entry of figures on, customers* ledger rec­
ord. The machine autom atically accum ulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and com putes and usually prints autom atically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping. Works from uniform and standard types of sales and
credit slip s.

O perates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, E llio tt
F ish er, Sundstrand, Burroughs, N ational C ash R egister, with or w ithout
a typew riter keyboard) to keep a record of b usiness tran sactio n s.




,

C lass A — Keeps a se t of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in b asic bookkeeping principles and fam iliarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. D eterm ines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit item s to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance
sh eets, and other records by hand.
C lass B — K eeps a record of one or more phases or sectio n s of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of b asic book­
keeping- P h ases or sectio n s include accounts payable, payroll,
custom ers’ accounts (not including a sim ple type of billing described
under biller, m achine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or a s s is t in preparation of trial
balances and prepare control sh eets for the accounting departm ent.

CLERK, ACCOUNTING
C lass A — Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sectio n s of a com­
plete se t of books or records relating to one phase of an e sta b lish ­
m ent's business tran sactio n s. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

16
CLERK, ACCOUNTING— Continued
payable; exam ining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper a c ­
counting distribution; requires judgment and experience in making
proper assig n ation s and allo catio n s. May a s s is t in preparing, ad­
justing and closing journal en tries; may direct c la ss B accounting
clerks.

Class B — Under supervision, performs one or more routine a c ­
counting operations such as posting sim ple journal vouchers or a c ­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher reg isters;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers, or posting sim ple co st accounting d ata. T his
job does not require a knowledge of accounting and bookkeeping
principles but is found in offices in which the more routine account­
ing work is subdivided on a functional b asis among sev eral w orkers.
CLERK, FILE
Class A — In an estab lish ed filing system containing a num­

ber of varied su bject m atter file s, c la ssifie s and indexes co rres­
pondence or other m aterial; may also file this m aterial. May keep
records of various types in conjunction with files or may super­
v ise others in filing and locating m aterial in the file s. May per­
form incidental clerical d u ties.
Class B — Performs routine filing, usually of m aterial th at has
already been classified or which is easily identifiab le, or lo cates
or a s s is ts in locating m aterial in file s. May perform incidental
clerical d u ties.

CLERK, ORDER
R eceives cu sto m ers'o rd ers for m aterial or m erchandise by m ail,
phone, or personally. D uties involve any combination o f the following:
Quoting prices to custom ers; making out an order sh eet listin g the item s
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of item s on order
sheet; distributing order sh eets to respective departm ents to be filled.
May check with credit departm ent to determ ine credit rating of custom er,
acknowledge receipt of orders from custom ers, follow up orders to see
that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check ship­
ping invoices with original orders.




CLERK, PAYROLL
Com putes w ages of company em ployees and enters the n eces­
sary data on the payroll sh e e ts. D uties involve: C alculating w orkers'
earnings based on time or production records; posting calcu lated data
on payroll sh eet, showing inform ation such as w orker's name, working
days, tim e, rate, deductions for insurance, and total w ages due. May
make out paychecks and a s s is t paym aster in making up and d istrib u t­
ing pay envelopes. May use a calculating m achine.

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform m athem a­
tic al com putations. This job is not to be confused with that of s ta tis ­
tic al or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tom eter but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to perform ance
of other du ties.

DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
Under general supervision and with no supervisory resp o n si­
b ilitie s, reproduces m ultiple copies of typew ritten or handw ritten m atter,
using a Mimeograph or D itto m achine. Makes n ecessary adjustm ent such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare ste n c il or D itto m aster. May keep file of used ste n c ils or Ditto
m asters. May sort, co llate, and staple com pleted m aterial.

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory resp o n si­
b ilitie s, records accounting and sta tis tic a l data on tabulating cards by
punching a series of holes in the cards in a specified sequence, using
an alphabetical or a num erical keypunch m achine, following w ritten in­
formation on records. May duplicate cards by using the duplicating de­
vice attached to m achine. May keep files of punch card s. May verify
own work or work of others.

OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Perform s various routine duties such as running errands, op­
erating minor office m achines such as sealers or m ailers, opening and
distributing m ail, and other minor clerical work.

17

SECRETARY

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an ad­
m inistrative or executive position. D uties include making appointm ents
for superior; receiving people coming into office; answ ering and making
phone calls; handling personal and important or confidential m ail, and
writing routine correspondence on own in itia tiv e ; taking dictation (where
transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
sim ilar machine, and transcribing dictation or the recorded information
reproduced on a transcribing m achine. May prepare sp ecial reports or
memorandums for information of superior.

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar m achine, involving a nor­
mal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a typew riter.
May also type from w ritten copy. May also se t up and keep files in or­
der, keep sim ple records, etc. Does not include transcribing-m achine
work (see transcribing-m achine operator).

STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar m achine, involving a varied
technical or sp ecialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on
scien tific research and to transcribe this dictation on a typew riter. May
also type from w ritten copy. May also se t up and keep files in order,
keep sim ple records, etc. Does not include transcribing-m achine work

.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
O perates a single- or m ultiple-position telephone sw itchboard.
D uties involve handling incom ing, outgoing, and intraplant or office c a lls.
May record toll calls and take m essag es. May give information to per­
sons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders. For w orkers
who also act as receptionists see sw itchboard operator-receptionist.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single p o si­
tion or monitor-type sw itchboard, acts as receptio nist and may also type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular du ties. T his typing
or clerical work may take the major part of this worker’s time w hile at
sw itchboard.




C lass A — O perates a variety of tabulating or electrical ac­
counting m achines, typically including such m achines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator and others. Perform s com­
plete reporting assignm ents w ithout clo se supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The com plete reporting and tabulating
assignm ents typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagram s and operating sequences of long and complex reports.
D oes not include working supervisors performing tabulating-m achine
operations and day-to-day supervision of the work and production of
a group of tabulating-m achine operators.
C lass B — O perates more difficult tabulating or electrical ac­
counting m achines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter,,reproducer, and collator. T his work is performed under
specific instructions and may include the perform ance of some wir­
ing from diagram s. The work typically involves, for exam ple, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting ex ercise, a com plete but
sm all tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are w ell estab lish ed . May also include the training
of new em ployees in the basic operation of the m achine.
C lass C— O perates sim ple tabulating or e lectrical account­
ing m achines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with specific instructions. May include sim ple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for exam ple, individual sorting or collating runs, or re­
petitive operations.

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Prim ary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from transcribing-m achine records. May also type from written
copy and do sim ple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation in­
volving a varied tech n ical or sp ecialized vocabulary such as legal briefs
or reports on scien tific research are not included. A worker who takes
dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar m achine is classified
as a stenographer, general.

18
TYPIST

TYPIST— Continued

U ses a typew riter to make copies of various m aterial or to make
out bills after calcu latio n s have been made by another person. May in­
clude typing of s te n c ils , m ats, or sim ilar m aterials for use in duplicat­
ing p ro cesses. May do clerical work involving little sp ecial training,
such as keeping sim ple records, filing records and reports, or sorting
and distributing incoming m ail.
C lass A — Perform s one or more o f the follow ing: Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining m aterial from sev eral
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, sy llab icatio n , punc-

tuation, e tc ., of tech n ical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; planning layout and typing of com plicated s ta tis tic a l tables
to m aintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine
form letters varying d etails to su it circum stances.
C lass B — Perform s one or more o f the follow ing: Copy typing
from rough or clear d rafts; routine typing of form s, insurance p o lic ie s,
etc.; settin g up sim ple standard tabulations, or copying more com­
plex tab les already se t up and spaced properly.

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR

(A ssistan t draftsm an)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by d rafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or m anufacturing purposes.
U ses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare draw ings
from sim ple plans or sk etch es, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsm an.

DRAFTSMAN, LEADER
P lans and d irects activ ities of one or more draftsm en in prep­
aration of working plans and d etail drawings from rough or prelim inary
sketches for engineering, construction, or m anufacturing purposes. D uties
involve a combination o f the follow ing: Interpreting blueprints, sk etch es,
and w ritten or verbal orders; determ ining work procedures; assigning
duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif­
ficult problem s. May a s s is t subordinates during em ergencies or a s a
regular assignm ent, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad­
m inistrative nature.

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and d etail draw ings from n o tes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or m anufacturing pur­
p o ses. D uties involve a combination o f the following: Preparing work­
ing plans, d etail draw ings, m aps, cro ss-sectio n s, e tc ., to scale by use
of drafting instrum ents; making engineering com putations such as those




DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR— Continued
involved in strength of m aterials, beam s and tru sse s; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dim ensions, m aterials to be used, and q u an tities;
w riting sp ecificatio n s; making adjustm ents or changes in drawings or
sp ecificatio n s. May ink in lin es and letters on pencil draw ings, prepare
d etail units of com plete draw ings, or trace draw ings. Work is frequently
in a sp ecialized field such as architectural, electrical, m echanical, or
structural drafting.

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
A registered nurse who gives nursing serv ice to ill or injured
em ployees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
prem ises of a factory or other establishm ent. D uties involve a combina
tion o f the follow ing: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of em ployees' injuries; keeping records of p atients
treated; preparing accident reports for com pensation or other purposes;
conducting physical exam inations and health evaluations of applicants
and em ployees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environm ent, or other
activ ities affecting the health, w elfare, and safety of a ll personnel.

-

TRACER
Copies plans and draw ings prepared by others, by placing trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or p en cil. U ses
T -square, com pass, and other drafting to o ls. May prepare sim ple draw­
ings and do sim ple lettering.

19

MAINTENANCE

D POW ERPLANT

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipm ent such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, sta irs, casin gs, and trim
made of wood in an establishm ent. Work involves most o f the following:
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, draw ings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carp en ter's handtools, portable
power tools, and standard m easuring instrum ents; making standard shop
com putations relating to dim ensions of work; selectin g m aterials nec­
essary for the work. In general, the work of the m aintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

F ires stationary boilers to furnish the establishm ent in which
employed with heat, power, or steam . F eeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a m echanical stoker, g as, or oil burner; checks water and safety
valves. May clean, oil, or a s s is t in repairing boilerroom equipment.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE
Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
in stallatio n , m aintenance, or repair of equipm ent for the generating, d is­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishm ent. Work
involves most o f the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipm ent such as generators, transform ers, sw itchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit system s,
or other transm ission equipment; working from blueprints, draw ings, lay­
out, or other specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in the e lec­
trical system or equipm ent; working standard com putations relating to
load requirem ents of wiring or electrical equipm ent; using a variety of
electrician 's handtools and measuring and testin g instrum ents. In gen­
eral, the work of the m aintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
O perates and m aintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (m echanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishm ent in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and m aintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, motors
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipm ent, steam boilers and
boiler-fed w ater pumps; making equipm ent repairs; keeping a record of
operation of machinery, tem perature, and fuel consum ption. May also
supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers in establishments
employing more than one engineer are excluded .




HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE
A ssists one or more workers in the skilled m aintenance trades,
by performing specific or general duties of le sse r sk ill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with m aterials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipm ent; assistin g worker by holding m aterials or tools;
performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is perm itted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts ot a trade
that are also performed by workers on a full-tim e b asis.

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
S pecializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling m achines in the construction of m achine-shop tools, gauges,
jig s, fixtures, or d ies. Work involves most o f the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing item s requiring
com plicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision m easuring instrum ents; selectin g feeds, speed s, tooling and op­
eration sequence; making n ecessary adjustm ents during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dim ensions. May be required to recog­
nize when tools need dressing, to dress too ls, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, m achine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this classificatio n .

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
Produces replacem ent parts and new parts in making repairs of
m etal parts of m echanical equipment operated in an establishm ent. Work
involves most o f the following: Interpreting written instructions and
sp ecific atio n s; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
c h in ist's handtools and precision m easuring instrum ents; settin g up and

20

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE— Continued
operating standard machine tools; shaping of m etal parts to close toler­
ances; making standard shop com putations relating to dim ensions of work,
tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working prop­
erties of the common m etals; selecting standard m aterials, p arts, and
equipment required for his work; fitting and assem bling parts into me­
chanical equipm ent. In general, the m achinist’s work normally requires
a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
R epairs autom obiles, buses, m otortrucks, and tractors of an e s ­
tablishm ent. Work involves m ost o f the follow ing: Examining autom otive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassem bling equipm ent and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as w renches,
gauges, d rills, or specialized equipment in disassem bling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassem bling and installing the various assem blies in the vehicle
and making n ecessary adjustm ents; alining w heels, adjusting brakes and
lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the autom otive
m echanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
R epairs machinery or m echanical equipment of an establishm ent.
Work involves m ost o f the follow ing: Examining m achines and m echan­
ical equipm ent to diagnose source of trouble; dism antling or partly d is­
m antling m achines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with item s obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replace­
ment part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop
for major repairs; preparing w ritten sp ecificatio n s for major repairs or
for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassem bling ma­
chines; and making all n ecessary adjustm ents for operation. In general,
the work of a m aintenance m echanic requires rounded training and ex*
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classificatio n are workers
whose primary duties involve settin g up or adjusting m achines.

MILLWRIGHT
In stalls new m achines or heavy equipm ent and dism antles and
in sta lls m achines or heavy equipm ent when changes in the plant layout




MILI .WRIGHT— Continued

are required. Work involves m ost o f the following: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specificatio n s; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop com putations re­
lating to stre sse s, strength of m aterials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipm ent; selectin g standard tools, equipm ent, and parts
to be used; installin g and m aintaining in good order power transm ission
equipm ent such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the m ill­
w right’s work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

OILER
L ubricates, with oil or g rease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of m echanical equipm ent of an establishm ent.

PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
P ain ts and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an e s­
tablishm ent. Work involves the follow ing: Knowledge of surface pecu­
lia rities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in
nail holes and in terstices; applying paint with spray gun or brush. May
mix colors, o ils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper
color or consistency. In general, the work of the m aintenance painter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
In stalls or repairs w ater, steam , gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishm ent. Work involves m ost o f the following:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other w ritten specifications; cutting various siz es of pipe to correct
lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma­
chine; threading pipe with stocks and d ies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven m achines; assem bling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop com putations relating to p ressures,
flow, and size of pipe required; making standard te s ts to determ ine
whether finished pipes meet sp ecificatio n s. In general, the work of the
m aintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building
sanitation or heating system s are excluded.

21
TOOL AND DIE MAKER

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishm ent in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system ; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’s snake. In
general, the work of the m aintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and experience.

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
F abricates, in stalls, and m aintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishm ent. Work involves m ost o f the following: Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-m etal m aintenance work from blueprints, m odels,
or other specifications; setting up and operating all available types of
sheet-m etal-w orking m achines; using a variety of handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assem bling; installin g sheetm etal articles as required. In general, the work of the m aintenance
sheet-m etal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
C onstructs and repairs m achine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
involves m ost o f the following: Planning and laying out of work from
m odels, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and w ritten specificatio n s;
using a variety of tool and die maker’s handtools and precision m eas­
uring instrum ents, understanding of the working properties of common
m etals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipm ent; making necessary shop com putations relating to dim ensions
of work, sp eed s, feeds, and tooling of m achines; heattreating of metal
parts during fabrication as w ell as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required q u alities; working to close tolerances; fitting and assem bling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; selecting appropriate
m aterials, tools, and p ro cesses. In general, the tool and die maker’s
work requires a rounded training in m achine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classificatio n .

CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT

ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER— Continued

T ransports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel or sim ilar establishm ent.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

or other establishm ent. D uties involve a combination of the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipm ent, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor m ainte­
nance serv ices; cleaning lavatories, show ers, and restroom s. Workers
who sp ecialize in window w ashing are excluded.

GUARD

Performs routine police du ties, either at fixed post or on tour,
m aintaining order, using arms or force where n ecessary . Includes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity o f em ployees and
other persons entering.

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER

(Sweeper; charwoman; jan itress)
C leans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or prem ises of an office, apartm ent house, or commercial




LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a w arehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishm ent whose duties involve one or more o f the follow ­
ing: Loading and unloading various m aterials and m erchandise on or

22
LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING— Continued
from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting d evices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing m aterials or m erchandise in proper storage location; trans­
porting m aterials or m erchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow.
Longshorem en who load and unload sh ip s are excluded.

,

ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; w arehouse stockm an)
F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
m erchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slip s, customers*
orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indi­
cating item s filled or om itted, keep records of outgoing orders, requisi­
tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform
other related duties.

PACKER, SHIPPING
P repares finished products for shipm ent or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container em ployed, and method of shipm ent. Work requires the
placing of item s in shipping containers and may involve one or more o f
the following: Knowledge of various item s of stock in order to verify
content; selection of appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other m aterial to prevent
breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; applying lab els or
entering identifying data on container. P ackers who also make wooden
boxes or crates are excluded.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares m erchandise for shipm ent, or receives and is respon­
sible for incom ing shipm ents of m erchandise or other m aterials. Shipping
work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, p ractices, routes,
available m eans of transportation and rates; and preparing records of the
goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping
charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or a s s is t in
preparing the m erchandise for shipm ent. R eceiving work involves: Veri­
fying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipm ents against
b ills of lading, invoices, or other records; checking for shortages and
rejecting damaged goods; routing m erchandise or m aterials to proper de­
partm ents; m aintaining necessary records and file s.




SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK— Continued
For wage study purposes, workers are c lassified as follows:
R eceivin g clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk

TRUCKDRIVER
D rives a truck within a city or ind u strial area to transport ma­
terials, m erchandise, equipm ent, or men betw een various types of e sta b ­
lishm ents such a s: M anufacturing p lants, freight depots, w arehouses,
w holesale and retail establishm ents, or betw een retail establishm ents
and customers* houses or places of b u sin ess. May also load or unload
truck with or w ithout helpers, make minor m echanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. D river-salesm en and over-the-road drivers
are excluded.
For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size
and type of equipm ent, as follow s: (T ractor-trailer should be rated on
the b asis of trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver (combination o f s iz e s liste d separately)
Truckdriver, light (under 1% tons)
Truckdriver, medium ( l lA to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)

TRUCKER, POWER
O perates a manually controlled g aso lin e- or electric-pow ered
truck or tractor to transport goods and m aterials of all kinds about a
w arehouse, m anufacturing plant, or other establishm ent.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of
truck, as follow s:
Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)

WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of prem ises periodically in protecting property
ag ainst fire, theft, and illeg al entry.
* U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : I960 0 — 548073

Occupational Wage Surveys

Occupational wage surveys are being conducted in60 major labor markets during late 1959 and early I960. These bulletins, when available,
may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C., or from any of the BLS regional
sales offices shown below.
A summary bulletin containing data for all labor markets, combined with additional analysis, will be issued early in 1961.
Bulletins for the areas listed below are now available.
Cleveland, Ohio, September 1959— BLS Bull. 1265-1, price 20 cents Canton, Ohio, December 1959— BLS Bull. 1265-10, price 25 cents
Denver, Colo., December 1959— BLS Bull. 1265-11, price 25 cents
Seattle, Wash., August 1959— BLS Bull. 1265-2, price 25 cents
Dallas, Tex., October 1959— BLS Bull. 1265-3, price 20 cents
Portland, Maine, November 1959— BLS Bull. 1265-12, price 20 cents
—
Buffalo, N.Y*,'October 1959— BLS Bull. 1265-4, price 20 cents
Fort Worth, Tex., November 1959-—BLS Bull. 1265-13, price 25 cents
St. Louis, Mo., October 1959— BLS Bull. 1265-5, price 25 cents
Jacksonville, Fla., December 1959— BLS Bull. 1265-14, price 25 cents
Miami, Fla., December 1959— BLS Bull. 1265-6, price 20 cents
San Bernardino-Riverside—
Ontario, Calif., November 1959—
Baltimore, Md., September 1959— BLS Bull. 1265-7, price 15 cents
BLS Bull. 1265-15, price 25 cents
Boston, Mass., October 1959— BLS Bull. 1265-8, price 25 cents
Dayton, Ohio, December 1959— BLS Bull. 1265-9, price 25 cents








Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102