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Occupational Wage Survey
RICHMOND, VIRGINIA
FEBRUARY 1960

Bulletin No. 1265-24




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan C lague, Comamrioner




Occupational Wage Survey




RICHMOND, VIRGINIA
FEBRUARY 1960

Bulletin No. 1265-24
April I960
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Claguo, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C.

Price 25 cents




Preface

Contents
Page

T h e C o m m u n ity W a g e S u r v e y P r o g r a m

In trod u ction

T h e B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s r e g u la r ly c o n d u c ts
a r e a w id e w a g e s u r v e y s in a n u m b e r o f im p o r ta n t in d u s t r ia l
c e n te r s.
T h e s t u d ie s , m a d e fr o m la te f a ll to e a r ly s p r in g ,
r e la t e to o c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s a n d r e la t e d s u p p le m e n ta r y
b e n e f it s . A p r e lim in a r y r e p o r t i s a v a ila b le on c o m p le tio n
o f th e s tu d y in e a c h a r e a , u s u a lly in th e m o n th fo llo w in g
th e p a y r o ll p e r io d s t u d ie d . T h is b u lle t in p r o v id e s a d d itio n a l
d a ta n o t in c lu d e d in th e e a r lie r r e p o r t . A c o n s o lid a te d
a n a ly tic a l b u lle tin s u m m a r iz in g th e r e s u lt s o f a ll o f th e
y e a r *s s u r v e y s i s i s s u e d a f t e r c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e f i n a l a r e a
b u lle tin fo r th e c u r r e n t r o u n d o f s u r v e y s .

T a b le s :

1

1.

E s ta b lis h m e n ts and w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e o f s u r v e y

___ _________

2

A:

O cc u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s :*
A -l.
O ffic e o c cu p a tio n s __
A -2 . P r o fe s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l o c cu p a tio n s ________ ____________
A - 3 . M ain ten an ce and p ow erp la n t o c c u p a t io n s ____________________
A - 4 . C u sto d ia l and m a te r ia l m o v e m e n t o c cu p a tio n s ______ ______

4
6
7
8

B:

T h i s r e p o r t w a s p r e p a r e d i n t h e B u r e a u ’s r e g i o n a l
o f f i c e in A t la n t a , G a . , b y D o n a ld C r u s e , u n d e r t h e d i r e c ­
tio n o f L o u is B . W o y ty c h , R e g io n a l W a g e a n d I n d u s tr ia l
R e la tio n s A n a ly s t.




__________ ________________________________________________________

E s ta b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and su p p le m e n ta ry w age
pr o v is io n s :*
B - 1 . Shift d iffe r e n t ia ls __________________________________—
___
B -2 . M in im u m en tra n ce s a la r ie s fo r w o m e n o ffic e
w o r k e r s ____________________________________________ ___ - ______
B -3 o S ch ed u led w e e k ly h ou rs _______________________________________
B -4 .
P a id h o lid a y s __________________________________________________
B -5 .
P a id v a c a tio n s ________________________________________________
B -6 . H ealth , in s u r a n c e , and p e n sio n p la n s ______________________

A pp en dix:

O ccu p a tio n a l d e s c r ip t io n s ______________________________________

* N O T E : S im ila r ta b u la tio n s fo r m o s t o f t h e s e it e m s a r e
a v a ila b le in th e R ic h m o n d a r e a r e p o r t fo r O c to b e r 1 9 5 1 , a s
w e l l a s in s i m i la r r e p o r t s fo r o th e r m a jo r a r e a s . A d i r e c ­
t o r y , in d ic a tin g d a te o f stu d y a n d th e p r ic e o f th e r e p o r t s ,
i s a v a ila b le u p o n r e q u e s t .
A c u r r e n t r e p o r t o n o c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s a n d s u p ­
p le m e n t a r y w a g e p r a c t ic e s in th e R ic h m o n d a r e a i s a l s o
a v a i l a b l e f o r a u t o d e a l e r r e p a i r s h o p s ( M a y 1 9 5 8 ) . U n io n
s c a l e s , in d ic a tiv e o f p r e v a ilin g p a y l e v e l s , a r e a v a ila b le
fo r th e fo llo w in g t r a d e s o r in d u s t r ie s : B u ild in g c o n s t r u c ­
t io n , p r in tin g , l o c a l - t r a n s i t o p e r a tin g e m p l o y e e s , a n d
m o to r tr u c k d r iv e r s an d h e lp e r s .

iii

10
11
11
12
13
15
17




Occupational Wage Survey—Richmond, Va.
Introduction

T h is a r e a i s o n e o f s e v e r a l im p o r ta n t in d u s tr ia l c e n t e r s in
w h ic h th e U .S . D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r ' s B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s h a s
c o n d u c te d s u r v e y s o f o c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s a n d r e la te d w a g e b e n e fits
o n a n a r e a w id e b a s i s . In t h is a r e a , d a ta w e r e o b t a in e d b y p e r s o n a l
v is it s o f B u r e a u fie ld e c o n o m is ts to r e p r e s e n ta tiv e e s ta b lis h m e n ts
w ith in s i x b r o a d in d u s t r y d iv is io n s : M a n u fa c tu r in g ; t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ,1
c o m m u n ic a t io n , a n d o t h e r p u b lic u t i l it i e s ; w h o le s a le tr a d e ; r e t a il
tr a d e ; fin a n c e , in s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s ta te ; an d s e r v ic e s . M a jo r in ­
d u s tr y g r o u p s e x c lu d e d fr o m th e s e s tu d ie s a r e g o v e r n m e n t o p e r a tio n s
a n d th e c o n s t r u c t io n a n d e x t r a c t iv e i n d u s t r i e s . E s t a b lis h m e n t s h a v in g
f e w e r th a n a p r e s c r ib e d n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s a r e o m itte d a ls o b e c a u s e
th e y fu r n is h in s u f f ic ie n t e m p lo y m e n t in th e o c c u p a tio n s s tu d ie d to w a r ­
r a n t i n c lu s io n . W h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e , s e p a r a t e t a b u la tio n s a r e p r o v id e d '
fo r e a c h o f th e b r o a d in d u s tr y d iv is io n s .
T h e s e s u r v e y s a r e c o n d u c te d o n a s a m p le b a s is b e c a u s e o f th e
u n n e c e s s a r y c o s t in v o lv e d in s u r v e y in g a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s . T o o b ta in
a p p r o p r ia te a c c u r a c y a t m in im u m c o s t , a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t io n o f la r g e
th a n o f s m a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s i s s tu d ie d . In c o m b in in g th e d a ta , h o w ­
e v e r , a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s a r e g iv e n t h e ir a p p r o p r ia te w e ig h t . E s t i m a t e s
b a s e d o n th e e s t a b lis h m e n t s s tu d ie d a r e p r e s e n t e d , t h e r e f o r e , a s r e ­
la t in g to a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in th e in d u s t r y g r o u p in g a n d a r e a , e x ­
c e p t fo r th o s e b e lo w th e m in im u m s iz e s tu d ie d .
O c c u p a tio n s a n d E a r n in g s
T h e o c c u p a tio n s s e le c t e d fo r stu d y a r e c o m m o n to a v a r ie ty
o f m a n u fa c tu r in g a n d n o n m a n u fa c tu r in g i n d u s t r i e s . O c c u p a tio n a l c l a s ­
s if ic a t io n i s b a s e d o n a u n ifo r m s e t o f jo b d e s c r ip t io n s d e s ig n e d to
ta k e a c c o u n t o f in t e r e s t a b lis h m e n t v a r ia t io n in d u tie s w ith in th e s a m e
jo b . (S e e a p p e n d ix f o r l is t in g o f t h e s e d e s c r ip t io n s .) E a r n in g s d a ta a r e
p r e s e n t e d (in th e A - s e r i e s t a b le s ) f o r th e f o llo w in g t y p e s o f o c c u p a ­
t i o n s : ( a ) O f f i c e c l e r i c a l ; (b ) p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d t e c h n i c a l ; ( c ) m a i n t e ­
n a n c e a n d p o w e r p l a n t ; a n d (d ) c u s t o d i a l a n d m a t e r i a l m o v e m e n t .
O c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t a n d e a r n in g s d a ta a r e s h o w n f o r
f u ll- t im e w o r k e r s , i . e . , th o s e h ir e d to w o r k a r e g u la r w e e k ly s c h e d ­
u le in th e g iv e n o c c u p a t io n a l c la s s i f ic a t i o n . E a r n in g s d a ta e x c lu d e
p r e m iu m p a y fo r o v e r t im e a n d f o r w o r k o n w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , a n d

la te s h if t s . N o n p r o d u c tio n b o n u s e s a r e e x c lu d e d a ls o , b u t c o s t - o f liv in g b o n u s e s a n d in c e n tiv e e a r n in g s a r e in c lu d e d . W h e r e w e e k ly
h o u r s a r e r e p o r te d , a s fo r o ffic e c le r ic a l o c c u p a tio n s , r e fe r e n c e is
to th e w o r k s c h e d u le s (r o u n d e d to th e n e a r e s t h a lf h o u r ) f o r w h ic h
s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r i e s a r e p a id ; a v e r a g e w e e k l y e a r n i n g s f o r t h e s e
o c c u p a t io n s h a v e b e e n r o u n d e d to th e n e a r e s t h a lf d o lla r .
A v e r a g e e a r n in g s o f m e n a n d w o m e n a r e p r e s e n te d s e p a r a t e ly
f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s i n w h ic h b o t h s e x e s a r e c o m m o n l y e m p l o y e d .
D if f e r e n c e s in p a y l e v e l s o f m e n a n d w o m e n in t h e s e o c c u p a t io n s a r e
l a r g e ly d u e to (1 ) d if f e r e n c e s in th e d is t r ib u t io n o f th e s e x e s a m o n g
in d u s t r ie s a n d e s t a b lis h m e n t s ; (2 ) d if f e r e n c e s in s p e c if ic d u t ie s p e r ­
f o r m e d , a lth o u g h th e o c c u p a t io n s a r e a p p r o p r ia t e ly c l a s s i f i e d w ith in
th e s a m e s u r v e y jo b d e s c r ip t io n ; a n d (3 ) d if f e r e n c e s in le n g t h o f s e r v ­
ic e o r m e r i t r e v ie w w h e n in d iv id u a l s a l a r i e s a r e a d ju s te d o n th is b a s is .
L o n g e r a v e r a g e s e r v i c e o f m e n w o u ld r e s u l t i n h ig h e r a v e r a g e p a y
w h e n b o th s e x e s a r e e m p lo y e d w ith in th e s a m e r a te r a n g e . J o b
d e s c r ip t io n s u s e d in c la s s if y in g e m p lo y e e s in t h e s e s u r v e y s a r e u s u ­
a lly m o r e g e n e r a liz e d th a n th o s e u s e d in in d iv id u a l e s t a b lis h m e n t s to
a llo w f o r m in o r d if f e r e n c e s a m o n g e s t a b lis h m e n t s in s p e c if ic d u tie s
p e r fo r m e d .
O c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t e s t i m a t e s r e p r e s e n t th e t o ta l in a ll
e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith in th e s c o p e o f th e s tu d y a n d 'n o t th e n u m b e r a c t u ­
a lly s u r v e y e d . B e c a u s e o f d if f e r e n c e s in o c c u p a tio n a l s tr u c tu r e a m o n g
e s t a b lis h m e n t s , th e e s t im a t e s o f o c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t o b ta in e d
f r o m th e s a m p le o f e s t a b lis h m e n t s s tu d ie d s e r v e o n ly to in d ic a t e th e
r e la t iv e im p o r t a n c e o f th e jo b s s t u d ie d . T h e s e d if f e r e n c e s in o c c u ­
p a tio n a l s t r u c t u r e d o n o t m a t e r ia lly a f f e c t th e a c c u r a c y o f th e e a r n ­
in g s d a ta .
E s t a b lis h m e n t P r a c t ic e s a n d S u p p le m e n ta r y W a g e P r o v is io n s

I n f o r m a t io n i s p r e s e n t e d a l s o (in th e B - s e r i e s t a b l e s ) o n s e ­
le c t e d e s t a b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s a n d s u p p le m e n ta r y b e n e fits a s th e y r e ­
la t e to o f f i c e a n d p la n t w o r k e r s . T h e t e r m " o ffic e w o r k e r s , " a s u s e d
in th is b u lle tin , in c lu d e s w o r k in g s u p e r v is o r s a n d n o n s u p e r v is o r y
w o r k e r s p e r fo r m in g c le r ic a l o r r e la te d fu n c tio n s , a n d e x c lu d e s a d m in ­
i s t r a t iv e , e x e c u t iv e , a n d p r o f e s s io n a l p e r s o n n e l. " P la n t w o r k e r s " i n ­
c lu d e w o r k in g f o r e m e n a n d a ll n o n s u p e r v is o r y w o r k e r s (in c lu d in g l e a d 1
R a ilr o a d s , f o r m e r ly e x c lu d e d fr o m th e s c o p e o f t h e s e s t u d ie s , e n a n d t r a in e e s ) e n g a g e d in n o n o ffic e fu n c tio n s . A d m in is t r a t iv e ,
m
h a v e b e e n a d d e d in n e a r ly a ll o f th e a r e a s to b e s t u d ie d d u r in g th e
e x e c u tiv e , an d p r o fe s s io n a l e m p lo y e e s , a n d fo r c e -a c c o u n t c o n s tr u c tio n
w in te r o f 1 9 5 9 -6 0 ; r a ilr o a d s w ill b e a d d e d in th e r e m a in in g a r e a s n e x t
e m p lo y e e s w h o a r e u t iliz e d a s a s e p a r a te w o r k fo r c e a r e e x c lu d e d .
y e a r . F o r s c o p e o f s u r v e y in th is a r e a , s e e fo o tn o te to " tr a n s p o r ta ­
C a fe te r ia w o r k e r s a n d r o u te m e n a r e e x c lu d e d in m a n u fa c tu r in g in d u s ­
t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , a n d o th e r p u b lic u t i l it i e s " in ta b le 1 .
t r ie s , b u t a r e in c lu d e d a s p la n t w o r k e r s in n o n m a n u fa c tu r in g in d u s t r ie s .




2
T A B L E 1.

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s a n d w o r k e r s w it h in s c o p e o f s u r v e y a n d n u m b e r s t u d ie d in R i c h m o n d ,

In d u s try d iv is io n

M i n im u m
e m p lo y m e n t
in e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n t s in s c o p e
o f stu d y

V a .,

b y m a j o r in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , 2 F e b r u a r y I 9 6 0

N u m b e r o f e s ta b lis h m e n ts
W ith in
scope of
stu d y 3

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s
W ith in s c o p e o f s t u d y

S t u d ie d

S t u d ie d
T o ta l 4

O ffice

P la n t

T o ta l 4

A l l d i v i s i o n s _____________________________________________________________

51

344

116

73, 800

1 3, 9 0 0

4 5, 700

4 8 , 5 70

M a n u f a c t u r i n g -------------------- ------------------------------------- -------- -------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g -------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------T r a n s p o r ta tio n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o th e r
p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s 5 ____________________________________ ____________
W h o l e s a le t r a d e ____________________________________________________
R e t a i l t r a d e _______________________________________ _________________
F i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e ---------------------------------------S e r v i c e s 7 ______________________________________________ ____________

51
51

125
219

43
73

3 4 , 8 00
3 9, 0 0 0

2, 7 0 0
1 1 ,2 0 0

2 6 , 2 00
1 9 ,5 0 0

22, 980
2 5 , 590

51
51
51
51
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33
51
66
42
27

16
15
17
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9

1 1,
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1 2,
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3, 4 0 0

5, 300

600
2 00
100
900
2 00

( 6)

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( 6)

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0

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130
2 70
780
6 90
720

1 T h e R ic h m o n d M e tr o p o lita n A r e a (R ic h m o n d C ity , C h e s t e r fie ld an d H e n r ic o C o u n t ie s ).
T h e " w o r k e r s w it h in s c o p e o f s t u d y " e s t i m a t e s s h o w n in t h is t a b l e p r o v i d e a r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e
d e s c r i p t i o n o f th e s i z e a n d c o m p o s i t i o n o f th e l a b o r f o r c e in c l u d e d in th e s u r v e y .
T h e e s t i m a t e s a r e n o t in t e n d e d , h o w e v e r , t o s e r v e a s a b a s i s o f c o m p a r i s o n w it h o t h e r a r e a e m p l o y m e n t
in d e x e s to m e a s u r e e m p l o y m e n t t r e n d s o r l e v e l s s i n c e (1 ) p la n n in g o f w a g e s u r v e y s r e q u i r e s th e u s e o f e s t a b l is h m e n t d a t a c o m p i l e d c o n s i d e r a b l y in a d v a n c e o f th e p a y r o l l p e r i o d s t u d ie d , a n d
(2 ) s m a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a r e e x c l u d e d f r o m th e s c o p e o f th e s u r v e y .
2 T h e 1 95 7 r e v i s e d e d i t i o n o f th e S t a n d a r d I n d u s t r ia l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n M a n u a l w a s u s e d in c l a s s i f y i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s b y i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n .
M a j o r c h a n g e s f r o m th e e a r l i e r e d i t i o n ( u s e d in
th e B u r e a u 's l a b o r m a r k e t w a g e s u r v e y p r o g r a m p r i o r t o th e w in t e r o f 1 9 5 8 - 5 9 ) a r e th e t r a n s f e r o f m i l k p a s t e u r i z a t i o n p la n t s a n d r e a d y - m i x e d c o n c r e t e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s f r o m t r a d e ( w h o l e s a l e
o r r e t a i l ) t o m a n u f a c t u r i n g , a n d th e t r a n s f e r o f r a d i o a n d t e l e v i s i o n b r o a d c a s t i n g f r o m s e r v i c e s t o th e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s d i v i s i o n .
3 I n c l u d e s a ll e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w it h t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t at o r a b o v e th e m i n i m u m - s i z e l i m i t a t i o n .
A l l o u t le t s (w it h in th e a r e a ) o f c o m p a n i e s in s u c h i n d u s t r i e s a s t r a d e , f i n a n c e , a u to r e p a i r
s e r v i c e , an d m o t io n - p ic t u r e th e a t e r s a r e c o n s id e r e d a s 1 e s ta b lis h m e n t.
4 I n c l u d e s e x e c u t i v e , p r o f e s s i o n a l , a n d o t h e r w o r k e r s e x c l u d e d f r o m th e s e p a r a t e o f f i c e a n d p la n t c a t e g o r i e s .
5 R a i l r o a d s w e r e in c lu d e d ; t a x i c a b s a n d s e r v i c e s i n c id e n t a l t o w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n w e r e e x c l u d e d .
R i c h m o n d 's g a s u t ilit y is m u n i c i p a l l y o p e r a t e d a n d is e x c l u d e d b y d e f i n i t i o n f r o m the s c o p e
o f th e s t u d y .
6 T h is in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n i s r e p r e s e n t e d in e s t i m a t e s f o r " a l l i n d u s t r i e s " a n d " n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g " in th e S e r i e s A a n d B t a b l e s , a lt h o u g h c o v e r a g e w a s i n s u f f i c i e n t t o j u s t i f y s e p a r a t e
p r e s e n t a t io n o f d a ta .
7 H o t e l s ; p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s ; b u s i n e s s s e r v i c e s ; a u t o m o b i le r e p a i r s h o p s ; m o t i o n p i c t u r e s ; n o n p r o f i t m e m b e r s h i p o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; a n d e n g i n e e r i n g a n d a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s .




3
S h ift d if f e r e n t ia l d a ta (ta b le B - l ) a r e l im it e d to m a n u fa c tu r in g
in d u s t r i e s . T h is in f o r m a t io n i s p r e s e n t e d b o th in t e r m s o f (a ) e s t a b ­
lis h m e n t p o lic y , 2 p r e s e n t e d in t e r m s o f t o t a l p la n t w o r k e r e m p lo y ­
m e n t , a n d (b ) e f f e c t i v e p r a c t i c e , p r e s e n t e d o n t h e b a s i s o f w o r k e r s
a c t u a lly e m p lo y e d o n th e s p e c if ie d s h if t a t th e tim e o f th e s u r v e y .
In e s t a b lis h m e n t s h a v in g v a r ie d d i f f e r e n t i a l s , th e a m o u n t a p p ly in g to
a m a j o r it y w a s u s e d o r , if n o a m o u n t a p p lie d to a m a j o r it y , d ie c l a s ­
s i f i c a t i o n " o th e r " w a s u s e d . In e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in w h ic h s o m e l a t e s h if t h o u r s a r e p a id a t n o r m a l r a t e s , a d if f e r e n t ia l w a s r e c o r d e d o n ly
if it a p p lie d to a m a j o r it y o f th e s h if t h o u r s .
M in im u m e n t r a n c e r a t e s (ta b le B - 2 ) r e la t e o n ly to th e e s t a b ­
lis h m e n ts v is ite d .
T h e y a r e p r e s e n te d o n an e s ta b lis h m e n t, r a th e r
th a n o n a n e m p lo y m e n t b a s is .
P a id h o lid a y s ; p a id v a c a t io n s ; a n d
h e a lth , in s u r a n c e , a n d p e n s io n p la n s a r e tr e a te d s t a t is t ic a lly o n th e
b a s is th a t t h e s e a r e a p p lic a b le to a ll p la n t o r o f f ic e w o r k e r s i f a m a ­
j o r it y o f s u c h w o r k e r s a r e e li g i b l e o r m a y e v e n t u a lly q u a lify f o r th e
p r a c t ic e s l is t e d . S c h e d u le d h o u r s a r e tr e a t e d s t a t is t ic a lly o n th e b a s is
th a t t h e s e a r e a p p lic a b le to a ll p la n t o r o f f ic e w o r k e r s i f a m a j o r it y
a r e c o v e r e d .3 B e c a u s e o f r o u n d in g , s u m s o f in d iv id u a l i t e m s in t h e s e
ta b u la tio n s m a y n o t e q u a l t o t a ls .
T h e f i r s t p a r t o f th e p a id h o lid a y s ta b le p r e s e n t s th e n u m ­
b e r o f w h o le a n d h a lf h o lid a y s a c t u a lly p r o v id e d .
T he seco n d p art
c o m b in e s w h o le a n d h a lf h o lid a y s to s h o w t o t a l h o lid a y t i m e .

D a ta a r e p r e s e n te d fo r a ll h e a lth , in s u r a n c e , a n d p e n s io n
p l a n s f o r w h ic h a t l e a s t a p a r t o f t h e c o s t i s b o r n e b y t h e e m p l o y e r ,
e x c e p tin g o n ly le g a l r e q u ir e m e n ts s u c h a s w o r k m e n 's c o m p e n s a tio n
a n d s o c i a l s e c u r it y . S u c h p la n s in c lu d e th o s e u n d e r w r it t e n b y a c o m ­
m e r c ia l in s u r a n c e c o m p a n y a n d t h o s e p r o v id e d th r o u g h a u n io n fu n d o r
p a id d i r e c t l y b y t h e e m p l o y e r o u t o f c u r r e n t o p e r a t i n g f u n d s o r f r o m
a fu n d s e t a s id e f o r t h is p u r p o s e . D e a th b e n e f it s a r e in c lu d e d a s a
fo r m o f life in s u r a n c e .
S ic k n e s s a n d a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e i s lim it e d to th a t ty p e o f i n ­
s u r a n c e u n d e r w h ic h p r e d e t e r m i n e d c a s h p a y m e n t s a r e m a d e d i r e c t l y
to th e i n s u r e d o n a w e e k ly o r m o n t h ly b a s i s d u r in g i l l n e s s o r a c c id e n t
d i s a b i l i t y . I n f o r m a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d f o r a l l s u c h p l a n s t o w h ic h t h e
e m p lo y e r c o n t r ib u t e s . H o w e v e r , in N e w Y o r k a n d N e w J e r s e y , w h ic h
h a v e e n a c t e d t e m p o r a r y d is a b ilit y in s u r a n c e la w s w h ic h r e q u ir e e m ­
p lo y e r c o n t r ib u t i o n s ,4 p la n s a r e in c lu d e d o n ly i f th e e m p lo y e r (1 ) c o n ­
t r ib u t e s m o r e th a n i s l e g a l l y r e q u ir e d , o r (2 ) p r o v id e s th e e m p lo y e e
w ith b e n e f it s w h ic h e x c e e d th e r e q u ir e m e n t s o f th e la w . T a b u la tio n s
o f p a id s i c k - l e a v e p la n s a r e l im i t e d to f o r m a l p la n s 5 w h ic h p r o v id e
f u ll p a y o r a p r o p o r tio n o f th e w o r k e r 's p a y d u r in g a b s e n c e f r o m w o r k
b e c a u s e o f i l l n e s s . S e p a r a t e t a b u la tio n s a r e p r o v id e d a c c o r d in g to
( l ) p la n s w h ic h p r o v id e f u ll p a y a n d n o w a it in g p e r io d , a n d (2 ) p la n s
p r o v id in g e it h e r p a r t ia l p a y o r a w a itin g p e r io d . In a d d itio n to th e
p r e s e n ta tio n o f th e p r o p o r tio n s o f w o r k e r s w h o a r e p r o v id e d s ic k n e s s
a n d a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e o r p a id s i c k l e a v e , a n u n d u p lic a te d t o t a l i s
sh o w n o f w o r k e r s w h o r e c e iv e e ith e r o r b o th ty p e s o f b e n e f it s .

T h e s u m m a r y o f v a c a t io n p la n s i s lim it e d to f o r m a l a r r a n g e ­
m e n t s , e x c lu d in g in f o r m a l p la n s w h e r e b y tim e o ff w ith p a y i s g r a n te d
a t th e d is c r e t io n o f th e e m p lo y e r . S e p a r a t e e s t im a t e s a r e p r o v id e d
a c c o r d in g to e m p lo y e r p r a c t ic e in c o m p u tin g v a c a tio n p a y m e n ts , su c h
a s tim e p a y m e n ts , p e r c e n t o f a n n u a l e a r n in g s , o r f la t - s u m a m o u n ts .
H o w e v e r , in th e ta b u la tio n s o f v a c a tio n a llo w a n c e s , p a y m e n ts n o t o n
a tim e b a s is w e r e c o n v e r te d ; fo r e x a m p le , a p a y m e n t o f 2 p e r c e n t o f
a n n u a l e a r n in g s w a s c o n s id e r e d a s th e e q u iv a le n t o f 1 w e e k 's p a y .

C a t a s t r o p h e in s u r a n c e , s o m e t im e s r e f e r r e d to a s e x t e n d e d
m e d ic a l in s u r a n c e , in c lu d e s t h o s e p la n s w h ic h a r e d e s ig n e d to p r o t e c t
e m p lo y e e s in c a s e o f s ic k n e s s a n d in ju r y in v o lv in g e x p e n s e s b e y o n d
th e n o r m a l c o v e r a g e o f h o s p it a liz a t io n , m e d ic a l, a n d s u r g ic a l p la n s .
M e d ic a l in s u r a n c e r e f e r s to p la n s p r o v id in g f o r c o m p le t e o r p a r t ia l
p a y m e n t o f d o c t o r s ' f e e s . S u c h p la n s m a y b e u n d e r w r itte n b y c o m m e r ­
c ia l in s u r a n c e c o m p a n ie s o r n o n p r o fit o r g a n iz a tio n s o r th e y m a y b e
s e lf-in s u r e d .
T a b u la tio n s o f r e t ir e m e n t p e n s io n p la n s a r e lim it e d to
t h o s e p la n s th a t p r o v id e m o n th ly p a y m e n t s f o r th e r e m a in d e r o f th e
w o r k e r 's lif e .

2 A n e s t a b lis h m e n t w a s c o n s id e r e d a s h a v in g a p o lic y if it m e t
e it h e r o f th e f o llo w in g c o n d it io n s : (1 ) O p e r a te d la t e s h if t s a t th e tim e
o f th e s u r v e y , o r (2 ) h a d fo r m a l p r o v is io n s c o v e r in g la te s h if t s .
3 S c h e d u le d w e e k ly h o u r s fo r o f f ic e w o r k e r s ( f ir s t s e c t io n o f
ta b le B - 3 ) in s u r v e y s m a d e p r io r to la te 1 9 5 7 a n d e a r ly 1 9 5 8 w e r e
p r e s e n t e d in t e r m s o f th e p r o p o r t io n o f w o m e n o f f ic e w o r k e r s e m ­
p lo y e d in o f f i c e s w ith th e in d ic a t e d w e e k ly h o u r s f o r w o m e n w o r k e r s .

4 T h e t e m p o r a r y d is a b ilit y la w s in C a lif o r n ia a n d R h o d e I s la n d
d o n o t r e q u ir e e m p lo y e r c o n tr ib u tio n s .
5 A n e s t a b lis h m e n t w a s c o n s id e r e d a s h a v in g a f o r m a l p la n if
i t e s t a b lis h e d a t l e a s t th e m in im u m n u m b e r o f d a y s o f s ic k le a v e th a t
c o u ld b e e x p e c t e d b y e a c h e m p lo y e e . S u c h a p la n n e e d n o t b e w r it t e n ,
b u t in f o r m a l s i c k - l e a v e a llo w a n c e s , d e t e r m in e d o n a n in d iv id u a l b a s i s ,
w e r e e x c lu d e d .




4

A* Occupational Earnings
Table A -l. O ffice Occupations

(Average straigh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Richmond, Va. , February I960)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

A erage
v

S e x , o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s t r y d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

Weekly
Weekly
hours 1 earnings 1
(Standard) (Standard)

$
35. 00
and
u n d er
4 0 . 00

$
$
4 0 . 00 4 5 . 00

$
50. 00

$

$

50 . 00

55. 00

60. 00

65. 00

4 5 . 00

55. 00

60. 00

$

65. 00

$
7 0. 00

70. 00

7 5. 00

$

75. 00
8 0. J)0

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
8 0. 00 8 5. 00 90. 00 95. 00 100. 00 105. 00 1 1 0 .0 0 115. 00 1 2 0 .0 0
and
85. 00

90. 00

95. 00 1 0 0 .0 0 105. 00 110. 00 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0

over

M en
102 .00
103.50
100 .50
1 05.50

-

-

-

0
0
5
0

8 0 .5 0
9 1 .0 0
7 4.5 0
8 5 .5 0

_
-

1
-

75
65

41. 0
41. 0

7 9.5 0
7 6.0 0

37

39. 0

8 5 .0 0

C l e r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c l a s s A _______________________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g _____________________________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g ________________________________________________
P u b lic u t ilit ie s 3 --------------------------------------------------------------------

206
90
116
53

39.
39.
39.
40.

5
0
5
0

C l e r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c l a s s B _______________________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g __________________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g ________________________________________
P u b lic u t ilit ie s 3 ______________________________________

119
45
74
35

39.
39.
39.
40.

C l e r k s , o r d e r ________________________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ________________________________________
C l e r k s , p a y r o l l _______ _____________

______________________

$

-

-

-

9
9
-

10
10
5

2
2
2

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

.

23
23
-

43
39
7

1

i
1

-

_
"
14
------- 6~n
8
1

-

-

6
-

1
-

12
2
10
5

12
3
9
2

35
23
12
1

29
20
9
6

11
4
7
3

14
2
12
5

21
6
15
11

6
3
3
-

12
4
8
2

8
7
1
-

7
2
5
2

7
1
6
6

8
5
3
2

2
1
1
1

18
4
14
11

5
2
3
3

19
19

6
6

6
-

1
1

2
2

1
-

-

9

_

5

2

1

-

-

6

1

_

-

9
9

16
16

-

12
12

-

2

6

3

6

2

_

23
19
4

16
10
-

5
5
-

-

8
8
8

-

9
8
8

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

.

19
6
13

10

2

37
22
15
6

-

2
2
-

-

-

-

1

2

-

7

9
2
7
4

8

*8
-

1

_

-

-

O ffic e b o y s ____________________________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ------------------------ --------------------------------P u b lic u t ilit ie s 3 ______________________________________

127
112
27

40. 0
40. 0
39. 5

5 3.0 0
5 2 .5 0
6 5 .0 0

T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s A _________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ________________ ______________________

36
26

38. 5
38. 0

9 8 .0 0
9 4 .5 0

-

-

-

-

-

-

•-

-

-

-

-

"

6
6

3
3

3
2

-

5

-

10
7

3
2

-

-

1
-

-

-

-

3
1

T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s B _________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g -------------------------------------------------------------

87
63

39. 0
39. 0

8 3 .0 0
7 8 .5 0

-

_

_

_

-

-

4
4

12
7

2
2

31
28

4

4
2

6
4

4
2

3
2

7
5

_

-

3
3

5

-

-

2
-

4
-

B i l l e r s , m a c h in e (b illin g m a c h in e ) ________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ________________ __________ _______ -

54
44

39. 5
40. 0

5 6 .5 0
5 2.5 0

_

7
7

10
10

15
15

7
7

7
4

3
"

1
-

_

1
-

_

_

1
1

2
-

. ■

_

_

_

-

-

B i l l e r s , m a c h in e (b o o k k e e p in g m a c h in e ) ------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ________________________________________

152
131

38. 5
38. 5

5 6 .5 0
5 4 .0 0

-

-

33
33

48
45

34
31

17
15

2
1

5
-

8
6

-

1

_

_

_

-

2
-

.

-

2
-

-

-

B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s A ________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g ____________________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g ------------- ---------------------------------------- -

90
36
54

38. 5
39. 5
38. 0

6 7 .5 0
7 0 .5 0
6 5 .5 0

' -

-

16
7
9

26
8
18

3
3

7
6
1

16
9
7

7
3
4

1
1
-

2
1
1

1
1

-

2
2

-

_
-

“

9
9

-

-

-

B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s B ________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g ____________________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g --------------------------------------------------------- -

183
34
149

39. 0 .
39. 0
39. 0

5 7 .0 0
6 1 .5 0
5 6 .0 0

1
1

33
3
30

44
4
40

39
10
29

27
5
22

29
8
21

1
1

-

-

_

_

_
-

_
-

_

_

-

9
3
6

-

"

C l e r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c l a s s A ------------------------------------------- M a n u fa c t u r in g ____________________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g -----------------------------------------------------------P u b lic u t i l i t i e s 3 --------------------------------------------------------------------

224
29
195
107

38.
39.
38.
38.

5
0
5
5

7 5 .5 0
7 9 .0 0
7 5 .0 0
7 7 .0 0

1

-

-

8

-

1

22
5
17
4

44
9
35
16

44
31

42
1
41
26

C l e r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c l a s s B ------------------------------------------------------M a n u fa c t u r in g ------------------------------------ — --------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g --------------------------------------------------------- _
P u b lic u t ilit ie s 3 ______________________________________

704
67
637
227

39.
39.
39.
39.

0
0
0
0

6 0 .5 0
7 0 .5 0
5 9 .5 0
6 4 .0 0

C l e r k s , f i l e , c l a s s A ------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ________________________________________

110
100

38. 0
38. 0

5 9.5 0
5 8 .5 0

-

-

W om en

See footnotes at end of table,




~
-

-

.
-

~
-

_

-

-

44

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

-

-

29
1
28
12

7
2
5
3

10
6
4
3

3
1
2
1

6
4
2

3
3
3

7
1
6
1

_

_

-

-

~

8
3

23
23
-

64
64
5

140
2
138
48

149
149
49

166
28
138
68

63
9
54
14

26
8
18
7

12
8
4
-

13
7
6
4

12
1
11
6

3
3

16
16

29
29

27
27

12
10

6
3

5
3

3
2

3
1

1
1

-

-

3
3

_
-

21
21
20

4
2
2
2

1
1
-

5
5

_

.

3

-

-

.
-

-

5

-

5
5

_
-

_

_

-

-

_

_

5
Table A -l. O ffice Occupations-Continued
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d iv is io n , R ich m o n d , V a . , F e b r u a r y I960)

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

Average
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—
$
$ 00 $ 00 45. 00 $ 00 $ 00 $ 0 0 $ 00 $ 00 $ 00 80. 00 $ 00 $9 0 . 0 0 $95. 00 $0 0 . 0 0 $
40.
60.
55.
50.
35.
65.
70.
75.
85.
1
105.00 $ o . oo $
n
Weekly* earnings * and
115.00 1$2 0 . 0 0
Weekly
hours (Standard) under
and
(Standard)
40. 00 45. 00 50. 00 55. 00 6 0 . 0 0 65, 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 0 0 _85. 00 9 0 . 0 0 95. 00 1 0 0 . 0 0 105.00 n o . oo 115.00 1 2 0 . 0 0 over

Women—Continued
Clerks, file, class B --------------------------------------------Manufacturing ----------------------------.--------------------Nonmanufacturing ----------------------------------------------Public utilities 3 --------------------------------------------Clerks, order -------------------------------------------------------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------------------Clerks, payroll -------------------------------------------------- __
Manufacturing ---------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ---------------------------------------------Comptometer operators -----------------------------------------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ---------------------------------- ----------Keypunch operators -----------------------------------------------Manufacturing --------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing _______________________________
Public utilities 3 ------------------------------------------Office girls -----------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ----------- ---------------------------------Secretaries __________________________ _____________
Manufacturing ---------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ----------------------------------------------Public utilities 3 -------------------------------------------Stenographers, general ------------------------------------------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ----------------------------------------------Public utilities 3 -------------------------------------------Switchboard operators ----- ------------------------------------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ----------------------------------------------Public utilities 3 -------------------------------------------Switchboard operator-receptionists -------------------------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ----------------------------------------------Tabulating-machine operators, class B ____________
Nonmanufacturing ----------------------------------------------Tabulating-machine operators, class C ____________
Nonmanufacturing ----------------------------------------------Transcribing-m achine operators, general __________
Nonmanufacturing -----------------------------------------------

279
52
227
67
47
29
153
64
89
150
38
112

335
54
281
86

49
46
893
327
566
137
7 35
289
446
165
158
32
126
31
n o

46
64
86

75
70
67
107
85

38. 5
39.5
38. 0
38.5
39.5
39.5
39. 0
39.5
39. 0
39.5
39.5
39.5
38.5
39.5
38.5
39. 0
38. 0
38. 0
39. 0
39. 5
38. 5
40. 0
39. 0
39.5
38. 5
39.5
40. 0
39.5
40. 0
39.5
39.5
39.5
39.5
38.5
38. 0
37. 0
37. 0
39. 0
38.5

$51. 50
61.50
49.50
53. 00
65.50
66.50
70. 50
72. 00
70. 00
6 1 . 00
62. 0 0
61. 0 0
6 6 . 00
75. 00
64. 50
78. 00
52. 00
51. 00
81. 50
8 6 . 50
78. 50
93. 00
72. 0 0
75. 00
70. 50
85. 00
62. 0 0
75. 50
58. 50
78. 00
60. 50
63. 00
59. 0 0
6 8 , 50
6 8 . 00
54. 50
53. 50
61. 50
60. 0 0

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
5
5
6

6

_
-

_

_
_

44
44
2

_
5
1
4
3
3
13
13
_
_
"
_
29
29
“
_
-

_

11
11

_

75
3
72
9
9
5
5
3
2

15
8
7
18
18
17
17
_
_
17
1
16

-

2
-

2
1

7
7

_
9
9
23
23

100

24
7
17
4
_
-

6

30
6
24
51
9
42

37
11
26
29
5
24
57
4
53

8

6

16

1

2

78

11
11

9
3
40
7
33
6

10

25
25
2

12
1
11

4
2
4

18
18
18
18
29
19

13
87
50
3
“
17
8
9
29
6
23
70
1
69

1

10
6
1

5
33
8
25

_
28
3
25

"
105
12
93

83
14
69
5
24

148
33
115
14
18

74
34
40

2
22

8
10
1

1
8

12

3

26
3
23

21
12

18
3
15

1
1

12
12

20
16

15
15
19
17

14
14
12

15
15
17

10

10

9

1

12
66
11

6

9

5
15
5
10

15
9
3
2

9
9

5
4
1
_
8
2
6

19
2
17
10

5
5
_
-

3
3
_
5
4
1

5
3

2

2

2

11

9
2
1

75
45
30
7

_
125
35
90
15
99
90
9
4

8
2
6
2

12
10
2
2

12

3

10 0

24
76
6

7
5
15
15
1
1

4
4
7
2
5

1
2
20
20

-

35
7
28
25
5
5
129
76
53
12

52
31
21
17
5
5
-

-

2

2
2

_
12

4
8
2
2

7

1
6

3
_
98
69
29
4
30
7
23
23
9
1
8
8

6

_
4
3
1
6
2

4
_
59
36
23
5
28
3
25
21

5
_
“
6

6

-

_
“

-

-

1
1

8
8

_

_
_

_

.
.
-

.
_
.
-

.
-

6

2
2

1

2
1
1

_
4
4
-

_
_
-

_
41
23
18
7

_
"
33
5
28

_
_
_
25
3

20
8
12
12

8

1

-

-

1
1

1
1

_
"
3
3
4
1
3
30
4
26
26
_
30
11
19
12

49
7
42
41
_
_
“
1
1

_

-

1

-

1

-

-

-

10

9

4

6

4

2

2
2

1
1

1
1

1

1
1
8

7

5
2
3
2

_
-

_

16

5
3
3
_
_
-

-

6

22
21

5
3
2

2

_
_
-

_
_
_
13
3
10
9
1
1

1
1

_
-




_
_
.
.
20
12
8

7
.
_
_
-

-

_

-

1

_

_

-

-

_
-

.

_

_

.

_

-

_

_

_

‘

See fo o t n o t e s at en d o f t a b le .

_
.
-

6
Table A -l. O ffice Occupations-Lontinued
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d o n an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d iv is io n , R ic h m o n d , V a . , F e b r u a r y I960)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

A ebage
v

S ex , o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s tr y d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

Weekly
Weekly
hours 1 earnings 1
(Standard) (Standard)

$

$

$

$

35. 00

4 0 . 00

u n d er
4 0 . 00

"

4 5. 00

-

1

5

-

1

5

-

20
2
18

111
15
96
5

4 5. 00
-

50. 00

“

5 0 .0 0

$

$

55. 00

■

55. 00

6 0. 00

$

$

60. 00

65. 00

_

-

65. 00

7 0. 00

70. 00

_

$
7 5. 00

_

75. 00

8 0. 00

$
80. 00

$
85. 00
-

8 5 .0 0

$
90. 00
-

9 0 .0 0

$
$
$
9 5 . 00 100. 00 105. 00
-

-

-

-

9 5. 00 1 0 0 .0 0 105. 00

n o . oo

$
n o . oo

$

$

115. 00 120. 00
and
115. 00 1 2 0 .0 0 o v e r

W om en — C on tin u ed
T y p is t s , c l a s s A ----------------------------------------------------------Manufacturing

-

...... -

- - -

N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g --------------------------------------------------P u b lic u t ilit ie s ^

............

T y p is t s , c l a s s B __________________________________________
M a n u fa ctu rin g ---------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g -------------------------------------------------------P u b lic u t i l i t i e s 3

221
41
180
35

38.
38.
38.
38.

0
5
0
5

403
66
337
31

38.
39.
38.
40.

0
0
0
0

$62.
70.
60.
65.

00
00
00
50

54. 00
55. 50
53. 50
7 1 .0 0

36
1
35
9

79
6
73
5

37
12
25
9

25
6
19
4

14
1
13
2

13
9
4
1

-

141
21
120
8

65
6
59
1

33
12
21

9
5
4

2
1
1

5
4
1

-

i

2
2

2

-

3

2
2

1
1

3
3

_

5

9

-

-

-

-

5
5

9
9

1
1

1
1

1

1

1

1

_

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

3
3

-

-

-

1

1 S ta n da rd h o u r s r e f l e c t the w o rk w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p lo y e e s r e c e iv e t h e ir r e g u la r s t r a ig h t - t im e s a la r i e s and the e a r n in g s c o r r e s p o n d to th e s e w e e k ly h o u r s .
2 W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d a s fo l lo w s : 22 at $ 1 2 0 to $ 1 3 0 ; 6 at $ 1 30 to $ 1 4 0 ; 5 at $ 1 4 0 to $ 1 5 0 ; 4 at $ 1 5 0 and o v e r .
3 T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .
4 W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d a s fo l lo w s : 2 at $ 120 to $ 125; 2 at $ 125 to $ 130; 4 at $ 130 to $ 135.

Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d iv is io n , R ic h m o n d , V a. , F e b r u a r y I960)

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Men
Draftsmen, sen io r_________________________________
M anufacturing_______ _________________________
Nonmanufacturing_______________________________
P u b lic u t ili t ie s 2
... _ _ _ . . . ____ _
Draftsmen, junior _________________________________
M anufacturing---------------------------------------------------Women
N urses, industrial (registered) ____________________
M anufacturing----------------------------------------------------

Number
of
workers

164
112
52
47

Average
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—
$ 0 0 $ 00 $ 00 $ 00 $' 0 0 $85. 00 $ 0 . 0 0 $95. 00 1$ 0 . 0 0 105. 00 $
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
60.
65.
70.
75.
80.
9
Weekly^ earnings 1
Weekly
0
1 1 0 . 0 0 115. 00 1 2 0 . 0 0 125.00 130.00 135. 00 140.00
(Standard) (Standard) under “
65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 0 0 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 1 0 0 . 0 0 105. 00 n o . o o 115. 00 1 2 0 . 0 0 125. 00 130. 00 135. 00 140.00 145. 00

85

40. 0 $123.00
40. 0 120.50
40.0 128.00
40. 0 129.50
40. 0 89.50
40. 0 87.00

52
40

39. 5
40. 0

102

95.00
97.50

_
-

_
-

4
4

8

-

-

5

1

-

1
1

1
1

5
4
3
2

1

12
12

5
4

2
2

-

16
16
8

3

_
8
8

3

3

3

4

1
2
2

1
1

8
1
1

13

4

11
11

10
8

3

12

7
5

9

22
22

-

12

7
5
1

3

7
4

1
1

5
4

2
1
6

16
12
4
4

14

30

8
6

20
10
10

6

6
6

-

-

-

7
7

3

3

_

12
6
6
6

7
_
7
7

-

-

1 S ta n d a rd h o u r s r e f l e c t the w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p lo y e e s r e c e i v e t h e ir r e g u la r s t r a ig h t - t im e s a la r i e s and the e a r n in g s c o r r e s p o n d to t h e s e w e e k ly h o u r s .
2 T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o t h e r p u b lic u t il it i e s .
3 W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r ib u t e d a s fo l lo w s : 1 at $ 1 4 5 to $ 1 5 0 ; 4 at $ 1 5 0 to $ 1 5 5 ; 1 at $ 1 6 5 to $ 1 7 0 .




17
15

$
145. 00
and
over

-

-

_

_

_

2

-

14
8
6

7
Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a rn in g s f o r m e n in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s tr y d i v is i o n , R ic h m o n d , V a . , F e b r u a r y I960)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
O c c u p a tio n and in d u str y d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

$

$
Average $
1. 00
1. 10
hourly
earnings1 and
u n d er
1. 20
1. 10

C a r p e n t e r s , m a in t e n a n c e ________________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g ----------------------------------------------------

92
70

$ 2 .4 6
2. 57

E l e c t r i c i a n s , m a in t e n a n c e -----------------------------------M a n u fa c t u r in g ----------------------------------------------------

197
177

2. 78
2. 78

E n g in e e r s , s t a t io n a r y -------------------------------------------M a n u fa c t u r in g ----------------------------------------------------

77
58

2 .2 9
2. 31

F ir e m e n , s ta tio n a r y b o i l e r _______________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g ---------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ---------------------------------------------

113
78
35

1. 67
1. 76
1 .4 7

H e lp e r s , t r a d e s , m a in t e n a n c e ----------------------------M a n u fa c t u r in g ---------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ______________________________

251
202
49

M a c h in is t s , m a in t e n a n c e _________________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g __________________________________

1. 20

$

1. 30

1 .4 0

1. 30

$
1 .4 0

$

1. 50 | 1 .6 0

-

3
3

.

-

-

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

26
5
21

6
6
-

1. 92
1 .8 9
2. 03

17
12
5

266
262

2. 78
2. 78

-

M e c h a n ic s , a u t o m o tiv e (m a in t e n a n c e )__________
M a n u fa c t u r in g __________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ______________________________
P u b lic u t ilit ie s 2 -------------------------------------------

275
35
240
207

2.
2.
2.
2.

18
04
20
22

-

_
-

3
3
-

M e c h a n ic s , m a in te n a n ce _________________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g __________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ---------------------------------------------

656
630
26

2. 63
2. 63
2. 56

_
-

_
-

3
3

O i l e r s ________________________________________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g ----------------------------------------------------

86
85

1. 91
1. 91

13
13

_

1
1

$
2. 20

$
2. 30

$
2 .4 0

$
2. 50

$
2. 60

1. 80

1. 90 ! 2. 00
1

2. 10

2. 20

2 .3 0

2 .4 0

2. 50

2. 60

2. 70

_
-

4
4

-

1
1

4
4
-

48
45
3

-

-

-

4
4

1
1

1
1

1
-

2
2

-

_

-

-

1
1

1
1

1
-

9
4

19
16
3

"

14
12
2

-

6
6
"

19
17
2

8
7
1

1
1
-

2
2

-

1
|

1
1

106
78
28

2. 38
2. 65
1. 66

_
-

_
-

_
*

18
18

P ip e f it t e r s , m a in t e n a n c e --------------------------------------M a n u fa c t u r in g ----------------------------------------------------

109
108

2. 86
2. 86

_

_

_
-

47
47

2. 88
2. 88

_

_

.

8
I
1

i

1

_
-

4
4

1

.
| "

_

|
i _______

1 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
2 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.

_
-

-

i

-

i
j

$
2. 80

$
2. 90

2. 80

2. 90

3. 00

$

3. 00

$
3. 10
and

3. 10

over

9
6

2
-

1
-

8
5

4
3

-

10
10

6
3

33
33

6
4

-

-

1
1

6
5

4
4

13
9

1
1

1
-

42
41

11
10

_

79
79

32
21

1

12
10

4
4

10
6

5
4

-

11
10

12
11

3
3

-

2
-

-

-

-

3
2

11
11
-

_
-

12
12
-

7
7

2
2
"

4
4
~

_
-

_
-

2
2

_
-

_
"

_
-

-

5
2
3

9
6
3

3
3
“

107
103
4

2
2
-

21
21

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

1
1

6
6

5
5

9
9

6
5

5
5

-

87
87

14
14

1
1

43
43

87
84

2
2

44
M
5
n
39 i 20
34 | 14

47
1
46
46

17
1
16
15

6
6
5

16
12
4
4

15
15
12

6
6
6

6
3
3
“

63
63
58

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

6
6
-

11
11

36
36
-

8
8
-

33
33
-

6
6
-

4
4
"

88
85
3

187
187

99
99
"

18
18
-

149
131
18

1
1
*

"

6
6

3
3

4
4

30
30

_

1
1

_

_

.

-

-

-

-

14
14

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

6
6
-

-

*

5
2
3

-

6
3
3

8
7
1

'

3
2
1

2
2
*

"

56
55
1

-

'

“

-

-

1
1

-

27
27

5
5

-

75
74

-

-

-

_

_

1
1

-

6
6

3
3

29
29

7

7

-

-

9
3
6
5 1
I
1 !
1
"

10
2
8
8

—
j

4
4
'

2
6
5 :
2
|
2 i
------ : —
1 1
1 ,

1
i

2. 70

-

|

1
8
-

2
2

-

S h e e t -m e t a l w o r k e r s , m a in t e n a n c e _____________
M a n u fa c t u r in g __________________________________

_
-

$

-

-

-

-

j '

-

P a i n t e r s , m a in t e n a n c e ------------------------------------------M a n u fa c t u r in g __________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ---------------------------------------------




$2. 10

1
-

-

3
3

J_______

$2. 00

_

-

!

$
i$
1. 80
1. 90

-

6
-

_

$
1. 70

-

-

-

1. 60
1. 70

$

1. 50

!

i
j

!

"
5
5
-

]

|

1
1

1

-

-

-

-1

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

1 _______

"

-

-

-

8
Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s tr y d iv is io n , R ic h m o n d , V a . , F e b r u a r y I960)

Occupation1 and industry division

Number
of
workers

$
$
$
$
$
Average $
hourly
earnings 2 0. 50 0. 60 0. 70 0. 80 0. 90 1.00
and
under . 70 . 80 . 90 1.00 1.10
.60

Elevator operators, passenger
(women) __________________________________
Nonmanufacturing-----------------------------------

58
56

$0. 74
. 72

Guards -------------------------------------------------------

97

2. 23

.

-

_

Janitors, porters, and cleaners (men) ______
M anufacturing----------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing----------------------------------Public u tilities4 ---------------------------------

880
372
508
106

1. 32
1.53
1. 17
1.60

6
6

11
11

12
12

Janitors, porters, and cleaners
(women) __________________________________
M anufacturing-------- -----------------------------Nonmanufacturing------------------------------------

27 5
76
199

1.05
1. 16
1.01

Laborers, m aterial handling ----------------------M anufacturing __________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing-----------------------------------Public u tilities4 ______________________

1, 536
766
770
98

Order fillers _______________________________
M anufacturing ---------------------------------Nonmanufacturing -----------------------------

312
87
225

1
31
31 — 1----

-

■

1. 38
1.48 j— : —
1. 27 |
1.96
1.60
1.79
1. 52

-

-

63
63
-

-

;

■

5 | 8
j
8
5
!
-

"

-

i

413
116
297

|
’

■

-

: -

1; 3

“ |

3 ■ _

'

-

_

“

-

~

-

"

"

-

11

2

5

10

8

19

.

_

.

3 33

| 33 | 34
| 30 ’ 33
, 3 ! 1
! 2
“

48
48
"

15
1
14
13

38
23
15
15

“

1
1
1

2
2
2

-

-

" ;
.

59
50
9
4

|
1
i
1
|

22
10
12
8

2 j
2 :

1
2
- 1 2

-

4----

— 5

“

-

7
7

-

-

-

-

-

~

-

60
54
6
6

|

7
3
4

144 1 9 o ;1 196 ! 105
65 ' 113 117 ~ 4 0
79 77
79 ! 65
"

“

~

47
6
41 !
23 J
I
!

128
112
16
16

8
8
8

66
66
"

30
26
4
4

27
27

1
1

12
12

.

.

-

-

"

42
30
12

~

.

.
S

.

-

-

15
15
15

22
16
6

-

“

7
1
6

12
6
6

8
1
7

4
4

4
4
_

9
3
6

12
8
4

15
15

3
3
■

12
12

.
"

3
3
'
3
3

_
"
1
~

2
2
"
_
”

_
-

38
38
30

54
54
54

_
-

.
"

_

_
“

_
-

-

4
4

4
4

_
“

1
1
~

22
6
16

8
8

_

11
5
6

11
5
6

16
10
6

22
6
16

10
7
3

11
2
9

_
"

9
6

1
1

13
9

1
-

4
3

5
4

7
7

_

16
15

_

38 275
11 65
27 210
30
5

84
21
63
25

50
23
27
15

14 290
11
7
3
283
283

26
10
16
16

34
8
26
26

44
44
-

95
1
94
94

4
3

Shipping and receiving c lerk s----------------------M anufacturing___________________________

60
48

1.92
1.95

-

“

-

Truckdrivers 6 _____________________________
M anufacturing----------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing----------------------------------Public u tilities4 _____________________

1, 252
253
999
579

1.69
1.60
1. 72

-

-

-

1

. 1 "

1
1 :
—

.
"

.
-

_
-

2
-

-

i

2

i

101
32
69

54
17
37

48
48
1

J______

_

_
~

_
-

.
■

-

“

9
3
6

_
"

1.96
1.96
1.95

-

8
8

_
“

125
59
66

12
12
5 12

12
12

11
3
8

16

-

_

18
18
~

i 23
- 1 6
16 17
1 12
1 12

.
-

Shipping clerks ____________________________
M anufacturing___________________________
Nonmanufacturing------------------------------------

-

_

-

_
■

.
■

-

-

27
19
8

23
4
19

18

j 1
4

1

j
I

-

2. 16
1. 78

-

50
12
38

49
11
38

;
i

109
51
58

17
5
12

116
41
75

-

-

30
7
23

30
2
28

19
1

1
1
!

■

~
_

-

-

"

-

Receiving clerks ___________________________
M anufacturing___________________________
Nonmanufacturing------------------------------------




~

-

1. 34
1.40
1.29

S ee fo o t n o t e s at en d o f t a b le .

-

-

124
51
73

1 .9 8

1

|

"

-

Packers, shipping -------------------------------M anufacturing___________________________
Nonmanufacturing_______________________

1.9 2

5

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
i$
1 1. 50 1. 60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2. 00 2. 10 2. 20 2. 30 $
2.40 2. 50 2. 60
and
1 1.60
1.70 J 1.80 _1 .90__ 2. 00 2. 10 2, 20_ _2, 30_ _2. 40 2. 50 2. 60 over
|

16 !
30
5
3
89
18 : 47 !------5 [ 27
2 1 2 !----- 2
1
9
11 18 i 28
3 i 1
17 ! 42

9
1 9

!

5

$
j
j$
1.20 1. 30 $1.40
, 11, 30 J 1.40 __1.- 50
1

83 ! 126
73 75
47 1 126
30 | 22 j 55
45 I 25 |
"
47 i! 96 | 61 71
28 : 50
8 1 16 ! 8 , 29 1

69
69
-

-

■

-

8
10 ;
8 ! 8 !
_ 1 _ ,

3
3
.

"

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

i$
j 1. 10
j .
11, 20

J ---------

1
1

9
Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations-Continued
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a rn in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d o n an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d iv is io n , R ich m o n d , V a. , F e b r u a r y I960)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

of
workers

O c c u p a t io n 1 and in d u s tr y d iv is io n

T r u c k d r iv e r s :6— C on tin u ed
T r u c k d r iv e r s , lig h t (u n d er I V 2 ton s) _______
Nnnm arm fart.uri ng

hourly ,
earnings z

$
5 ,
0. 50 0. 60
and
u n d er
.6 0
. 70

$
0. 70

$
0. 80

. 80

.9 0

-

$
1 .6 0

$
1 .7 0

$
1 .8 0

$
1 .9 0

$
2. 00

$
2. 10

$
2. 20

$
2. 30

$
2 .4 0

$
2. 50

$
2. 60

1 .8 0

1.90

2. 00

2. 10

2. 20

2. 30

2. 40

2. 50

2. 60

and
over

2

1

2
2

-

-

-

16
10
6
6

31'
5
26
26

23
23

93
1
92
92

_

-

_
-

71
69

10
10

1

8

-

2

33
33

19
19

0.9 0

$
1 .0 0

$
1. 10

$
1 .2 0

$
1 .3 0

$
1 .4 0

1 .0 0

1 .1 0

1 .2 0

1. 30

1 .4 0

1. 50

2
2

1
1

7
3

16
16

18
18

19
19

16
8

15
7

4
4

-

-

-

_
-

29
18
11

28
17
11

25

17
11
6
5

230
51
179
30

51
6
45
15

31
13
18
10

11
11

19
5
14
14

5
5

2
2

29
23

15
11

5
5

3
3

16
8
8

8
7
1

65
40
25

50
38
12

53
30
23

17
5
12

2

3
2
1

29
22
7

20
15
5

5
4
1

2
2

8
5
3

103
80

$ 1.35
1 .3 1

-

1 .6 4
1. 58
1 . 66
1 .9 4

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

...

608
174
434
199

T r u c k d r iv e r s , h e a v y (o v e r 4 to n s ,
t r a il e r ty p e) --------------------------------------------------------------- —
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g __________________________________

157
136

1 .7 5
1. 74

-

T r u c k e r s , p o w e r (f o r k lif t ) ______________________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g ____________________________________________
N n n m a n n fa rtu rin g

310
214
96

1 .6 2
1 .6 3
1. 59

W a t c h m e n _____________________________________________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g ___________________________________
N o n m a n u fa rtiirin g .......
.......

170
112
58

1 .4 3
1 .6 3
1 .0 4

-

$

$

1. 50

_1.60__ _ l . J 0 _

-

1/z

T r u c k d r iv e r s , m e d iu m (1
to and
in clu d in g 4 ton s) _______________________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g ________________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g __________________________________
P u b lic u t ili t ie s 4

.. .. ..

-

-

-

"

“

.

.

.

.

.

-

-

-

-

-

3
3

-

9

!
6

1

_

-

6

9

-

j

-

1

1

D a t a l i m i t e d to m e n w o r k e r s e x c e p t w h e r e o t h e r w i s e i n d i c a t e d .

2
3
4
5
6

E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and la te s h ift s .
A ll w o r k e r s w e r e at $ 2. 70 to $ 2. 80.
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o th e r p u b lic u t il it i e s .
A ll w o r k e r s w e r e at $ 2. 60 to $ 2 . 7 0 .
In clu d e s a ll d r iv e r s r e g a r d le s s
s iz e and ty p e o f t r u c k o p e r a t e d .




-

-

"

-

"

~

16
15
1

30
10
20

1

10
9

1

2
-

2

-

25

-

-

12
12

-

1

-

-

1

5

-

-

-

*

"

“

8
8

6

10
10

.

.

.

-

-

-

_

-

_

_

.

-

-

-

-

-

5

40
40

4
3

6

_
-

_

-

_
-

10




B: Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Table B-l. Shift Differentials
( P e r c e n t o f m a n u fa c t u r i n g p la n t w o r k e r s i n e s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v in g f o r m a l p r o v i s i o n s f o r s h i ft w o r k , a n d in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s
a c t u a ll y o p e r a t i n g la t e s h i ft s b y t y p e a n d a m o u n t o f d i f f e r e n t i a l , R i c h m o n d , V a . , F e b r u a r y I 9 6 0 )
In e s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v in g f o r m a l
p r o v is io n s 1 fo r—

In e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a c t u a ll y
o p e r a tin g —

S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l
S e c o n d s h ift
w ork

T h ir d o r o th e r
s h ift w o r k

T h ir d o r o th e r
s h ift

S e c o n d s h ift

72. 5

45. 2

1 3 .9

5. 0

------------------------------------------- -

72. 5

45. 2

1 3 .9

5 .0

---------------------------------------

28. 6

1 6 .9

6. 1

2. 2

4 c e n t s --------------------------------------------------------------------5 c e n t s ______________________________________________
6 cen ts
--------------------------------------------------------------------8 c e n t s --------------------------------------------------------------------10 c e n t s
-----------------------------------------------------------------12 c e n t s
-----------------------------------------------------------------12
c e n t s -------------------------------------------------------------cen ts
-------------------------------------------------------------15 c e n t s -------------------------------------------------------------------16 c e n t s --------------------------------------------------------------------

T ota l

. 9
7. 7
3. 7
5. 6
4 .4
1. 8
2. 2
1. 6
. 7
-

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

W it h s h ift p a y d i f f e r e n t i a l
U n if o r m c e n t s ( p e r h o u r )

1/ 2
I 3 1/i

U n if o r m p e r c e n t a g e

O th er

_

. 7
.9
3. 8
2. 2
7. 7

1 .9
.9
1 .9

-

1. 6

_

. 2
-

.4
. 2
1. 2

-

.2
. 3
. 7
.2

-

. 2

"

4 2 .7

7. 8

2. 7

1. 5
2. 6
22. 0

( 2)
5. 1
2. 7

( 2)
2. 7

1. 2

___________________________________________________

26. 1

1. 5
24. 3
16. 9

--------------------------------------------------

6 p e r c e n t ----------------------------------------------------------------8 p e r c e n t ----------------------------------------------------------------________________________ ________________
10 p e r c e n t

N o s h i ft p a y d i f f e r e n t i a l

_

2. 2

. 1

-

-----------------------------------------------

1 I n c lu d e s e s t a b lis h m e n t s c u r r e n t ly o p e r a tin g
t h o u g h t h e y w e r e n o t c u r r e n t l y o p e r a t i n g la t e s h i f t s .
2 L e s s th a n 0 . 05 p e r c e n t .

la t e

s h ifts ,

a n d e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w it h f o r m a l p r o v i s i o n s

co v e rin g

la t e

s h ifts

even

11

Table B-2. Minimum Entrance Salaries for W om en O ffice W orkers
( D i s t r i b u t i o n o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s s t u d ie d in a l l in d u s t r i e s a n d in in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s b y m in i m u m e n t r a n c e s a l a r y f o r s e l e c t e d c a t e g o r i e s
o f i n e x p e r i e n c e d w o m e n o f f i c e w o r k e r s , R i c h m o n d , V a . , F e b r u a r y i9 6 0 )

In exp erien ced ty p ists
M anufacturing
N onm anufacturing

M inim um w eek ly sa la r y 1

A ll
in d u str ie s

116
E sta b lish m en ts s tu d ie d ______________________________________
52
E sta b lish m e n ts having a sp e c ifie d m in im u m --------------------$ 32. 50 and under $ 35. 00 ---------------------------------------------$ 35. 00 and under $ 37. 50 ------------------------------------------------$ 37. 50 and under $ 4 0 . 00 ________________________________
$ 4 0 . 00 and under $ 4 2 . 50 ------------------------------------------------9
$ 4 2 . 50 and tinder $ 4 5 . 00 ------------------------------------------------6
7
$ 4 5 . 00 and under $ 4 7 . 50 ________________________________
3
$ 4 7 . 50 and under $ 5 0 . 00 ------------------------------------------------16
$ 50. 00 and under $ 52. 50 ______________________________
2
$ 52. 50 and tinder $ 55. 00 ________________________________
1
$ 55. 00 and under $ 57. 50 ------------------------------------------------2
$ 57. 50 and tinder $ 60. 00 ---------------------------------------------2
$ 60. 00 a n d u n d e r $ 62. 50 _____________________________________________
1
$ 6 2 . 50 a n d u n d e r $ 6 5 . 00 --------------------------------------------------------------------1
$ 65. 00 a n d u n d e r $ 67. 50 _____________________________________________
1
$ 67. 50 a n d u n d e r $ 7 0 .0 0 _____________________________________________
$ 70. 00 a n d o v e r -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
15
E s t a b li s h m e n t s h a v in g n o s p e c i f i e d m i n i m u m ----------------------------E s t a b l i s h m e n t s w h ic h d id n o t e m p l o y w o r k e r s
in t h is c a t e g o r y ---------------------------------------------------------------------------1
2
3

49

O ther in ex p erien ced c le r ic a l w o rk ers 2
N onm anufacturing
M anufacturing
A ll

B a sed on standard w eek ly hours 3 of—
A ll
AH
40
37 V2
sch ed u les
sch ed u les

A ll
sch ed u les

40

43

XXX

73

XXX

XXX

18
3
1

13
2
1

34
6
6
6
3
8
2

10
4
1
1
4

17
5
2
1
4
2

-

8
1
2
1
1
-

1
6
19

-

6
-

2
1
-

1

XXX
XXX

-

-

-

1
1
1
9
30

-

-

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

-

-

-

XXX

XXX

33
1
1
10
1
10
1
4
2

10
4
1
2
1
2
-

18
1
5
5
2
2

-

-

-

-

4
-

-

-

-

-

55

-

73

8
2
1

-

1
1
1
1
18

-

1
1
1

XXX

10
3
1
5

-

40

43

116
43
1
1
13
1
11
1
9
2

-

B a sed on standard w eek ly hours 3 of—
A ll
40
37 Vz
sch ed u les

-

1

-

1
1

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
10
30

-

8

XXX

25

XXX

L o w e s t s a l a r y r a t e f o r m a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d f o r h i r i n g i n e x p e r i e n c e d w o r k e r s f o r t y p in g o r o t h e r c l e r i c a l j o b s .
R a te s a p p lic a b le to m e s s e n g e r s , o f f ic e g i r l s , o r s im ila r s u b c l e r i c a l jo b s a r e not c o n s id e r e d .
H o u r s r e f l e c t th e w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e t h e i r r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r i e s .
D a ta a r e p r e s e n t e d f o r a ll w o r k w e e k s c o m b in e d ,

-

-

-

-

-

XXX

XXX

a n d f o r th e m o s t c o m m o n w o r k w e e k s r e p o r t e d .

Table B-3. Scheduled W e e k ly Hours
( P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o f f i c e a n d p la n t w o r k e r s in a l l in d u s t r i e s a n d in in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s b y s c h e d u l e d w e e k l y h o u r s
o f f i r s t - s h i f t w o r k e r s , R i c h m o n d , V a . , F e b r u a r y I9 6 0 )

PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS
W e e k ly h o u r s

A l l w o r k e r s ----------------------------------------------------------------U n d e r 36 h o u r s ----------------------------------------------------------3 6 V 4 h o u r s -----------------------------------------------------------------36*/z h o u r s -----------------------------------------------------------------3 7 V 2 h o u r s -----------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 3 7 V 2 a n d u n d e r 4 0 h o u r s -----------------------------4 0 h o u r s _______________________________________________
O v e r 4 0 a n d u n d e r 4 4 h o u r s ______________________
4 4 h o u r s _______________________________________________
4 5 h o u r s _______________________________________________
O v e r 4 5 a n d u n d e r 4 8 h o u r s ______________________
4 8 h o u r s _______ ______________________________________
50 h o u r s ------------------------------------------------------------------------

2
«

All industries 1

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

100

100

100

3

2

All industries 3

_

10

5

3
23

13

54

79

6

(4 )

-

1

-

_

_

-

33

3

3

-

73
4
5
4

-

-

3
_
3

12

-

-

_
_

-

78
3

8

-

_

88
3

2

-

-

-

-

1

I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e ; a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d i t io n t o t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , an d o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .
I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e , r e t a i l t r a d e , r e a l e s t a t e , a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d i t io n t o t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a te lv
L e s s th a n 0. 5 p e r c e n t .




100

_

(4 )
-

-

Public utilities 2

100

-

-

-

Manufacturing

100

1
66
-

r

j•

1

XXX

XXX

1
1

-

-

7
-

12
Table B-4. jPaidL Holidays
( P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o f f i c e a n d p la n t w o r k e r s in a l l i n d u s t r i e s a n d in in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s b y n u m b e r o f p a i d h o l id a y s
p r o v i d e d a n n u a lly , R i c h m o n d , V a , , F e b r u a r y I 9 6 0 )

OFFICE WORKERS
Ite m

A ll w ork ers

All industries 3

---------------------------------------------------------------

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g
p a i d h o l i d a y s ---------------------------------------------------------W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g
n o p a i d h o l id a y s -----------------------------------------------------

Manufacturing

PLANT WORKERS
Public utilities 2

All industries 3

10 0

10 0

10 0

10 0

97

10 0

10 0

93

3

'

'

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

10 0

10 0

97

10 0

7

3

-

10

8
2

8

-

-

16

18

.

Number of days
L e s s th a n
5 h o lid a y s
5 h o lid a y s
6 h o lid a y s
6 h o lid a y s
6 h o lid a y s
7 h o lid a y s
7 h o lid a y s
8 h o lid a y s
8 h o lid a y s
9 h o lid a y s

5 h o l i d a y s --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------p l u s 1 h a l f d a y -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------p lu s 1 h a lf d a y — ------ -------------------------p lu s 2 h a l f d a y s ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------p l u s 1 h a lf d a y ------------------------------------___________________________________________
p lu s 1 h a l f d a y ________________________
-----------------------------------------------------------------

8
1

2
2
1

5
15

32
3

8

1

10

-

4

1
26
4

2

3
3
46

3
23

58

33

31
-

14
-

20

6

34
4

1

~

'

'

'

27

-

1
22

-

-

-

-

-

52
23

~

Total holiday time4
9 days

--------------------------------------------------------------------------

8 V 2 o r m o r e d a y s ---------------------------------------------------8 o r m o r e d a y s --------------------------------------------------------

7l /z

7

or
6 1/ 2
6 or
5V 2
5 or
4 or
3 or
2 or
1 or

or m ore days

__________________________________
m ore days
_____________________________________
o r m o r e d a y s ---------------------------------------------------m o r e d a y s -------------------------------------------------------o r m o r e d a y s __________________________________
m o r e d a y s -------------------------------------------------------m o r e d a y s -------------------------------------------------------m o r e d a y s -------------------------------------------------------------m o re days
-------------------------------------------------------------m o r e d a y s --------------------------------------------------------------

1
2
3
4

1

_

7

4
37

28
30
57

37

_

_

31
31
90
90

14
14
49
53
79
79
84
87
87
90
93

60

63
71

93
94
96
97
97
97
97

86

10 0

91
92
100
100
100
100

100
100
100
100
100
100

_
-

20
20
68
71
87
87
89
93
93
97
97

_
23
23
74
74
92
92
92
92
92
92
100

I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e ; a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d i t io n t o t h o s e i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , an d o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .
I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e , r e t a i l t r a d e , r e a l e s t a t e , a n d s e r v i c e s i n a d d i t io n t o t h o s e i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
.
, .
. .. - , , , .
.
.
A l l combinations of full and half days that add to the same amount are combined; for example, the proportion of w orkers receiving a to ta l o f 7 d ays In clu d es those with 7 full days and

no half days, 6 full days and 2 half days,




5 full days and 4 half days,

and so on.

Proportions were then cumulated.

13

Table B-5. Paid Vacations
( P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o f f i c e a n d p la n t w o r k e r s in a l l in d u s t r i e s a n d in in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s b y v a c a t i o n p a y
p r o v is i o n s , R ic h m o n d , V a . , F e b r u a r y I96 0 )

PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS
V a c a t io n p o l i c y

All industries

A l l w o r k e r s __________________________________________

M eth od

1

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

All industries 3

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

100

100

100

100

100

100

97
97
-

100
100
-

100
100
-

97
92
2
3

100
1 00
-

-

98
94
1
1
2

3

■

■

2

3

■

7
48
3
3

3
61
10

_
47
-

9
26
_
4

10
23
_
7

13
25
_

1
54
3
38
2

_

_

44
3
47
3

98
_
2

1
34
9
52
2

28
9
57
3

1
23
7
65
2

_

_

20
8
65
4

33
_

o f paym ont

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v id i n g
p a id v a c a t i o n s --------------------------------------- -------------L e n g t h - o f - t i m e p a y m e n t _____________________
P e r c e n t a g e p a y m e n t -----------------------------------------F l a t - s u m p a y m e n t --------------------------------------------O t h e r _____________________________________________
W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v id i n g
n o p a id v a c a t i o n s _________________________________

A m ount o f v a c a tio n

-

-

-

p a y 4

A fte r 6 m o n th s o f s e r v i c e
U n d e r 1 w e e k ________________________________________
1 w e e k _______________ _______________________________
O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s __________ ___________
2 w e e k s ______________________________________________
A fte r 1 y e a r o f s e r v ic e
U n d e r 1 w e e k ________________________________________
1 w e e k ________________________________________________
O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s _______
_____
_ _
2 w e e k s __________________ _ ------------------------O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s _______________________

_

_

_

34
3
58
2

14
2
34

96
_
4

-

-

-

A fte r 2 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
U n d e r 1 w e e k _______________________________ ______
1 w e e k _________ _______________________________________
O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s -----------------------------------2 w e e k s __________________________ __________________
O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s _______________________

_

_

10
7
78
2

7
2
91
-

_
20
28
52
-

_

_
49
13
38
-

A fte r 3 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
U n d e r 1 w e e k _____________________________________ _
1 w e e k ________________________________________________
O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s _______________________
2 w e e k s ______________________________________________
O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s _______________________

_

_

_

6
1
88
2

4
2
94

16
_
84

-

-

_

_

1

3
_
94
_

67
-

A fte r 5 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
U n d e r 1 w e e k ________________________________________
1 w e e k ____________________________ __________________
O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s _______________________
2 w e e k s ______________________________________________
O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s _______________________
3 w e e k s ______________________________________________

S ee fo o t n o t e s at en d o f t a b le .




( 5)
84
10
2

2

_
_
_
100
_

1
12
3
78
2
2

10
_
81
4
1

_
_
100
_

14
Table B-5. Paid Vpcations-Continued
( P e r c e n t d is trib u tio n o f o f fi c e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u s tr ie s and in in d u stry d iv is io n s by v a c a tio n pay
p r o v is io n s , R ich m o n d , V a . , F e b r u a r y I960)
OFFICE WORKERS

PLANT WORKERS

V a c a t io n p o l i c y
All industries1

A m o u n t off v a c a t i o n

pay4 —

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

All industries 3

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

C o n tin u e d

A f t e r 10 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e
U n d e r 2 w e e k s ______________ ____________ ___________
2 w eeks
O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ............................................
3 w eeks
_____________________________________________

_

1
58
12
26

?
46
24
28

1
16
5
75

2
29

8

-

-

-

69
-

1
16

2
27

8

-

-

-

66
2
12

56

13
41
5
38

10
32
9
46

92

13
24
2
58

-

(5)

10
23
3
60
1

92

13
23
2
40

10
21
3
46

-

-

-

-

_

15

-

20

17

4

1
16

2
27

8

-

-

-

57

55

91

13
23
2
31
3
26

10
21
3
33
6
24

100
-

-

_

100

A f t e r 15 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e
U nder 2 w eek s
_____
. . . ...
2 w eeks
................................................... ............................ .
O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ...........................................
3 w eeks
........ ............................................................................
4 w e e k s ....................................................................................

_

7
_

93
-

A f t e r 20 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e
U n d e r 2 w e e k s ___
................ .......................................
2 w eeks
_____________ __________ _____ ____ __________
O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ........- ................... ..............
3 w eeks
_____________________________________________
O v e r 3 a n d u n d e r 4 w e e k s -----------------------------------4 w eeks
________ ____ _____ ________ - ------------------------

_

7
_

89

A f t e r 25 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e
U n d e r 2 w e e k s ................................ .................................... .
2 w eeks
______________________________________________
O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s _______________________
3 w eeks
............... ................................................. ................. .
O v e r 3 a n d u n d e r 4 w e e k s ............................................
4 w eeks
------------------------ -------- ------------------------------------

1
2
3
4
s e r v ic e
*

-

23

-

16

_
-

1

In clu d es data f o r w h o le s a le tr a d e ; r e t a il t r a d e ; fin a n ce , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta te ; and s e r v ic e s in a dd ition to th o s e in d u s try d iv is io n s show n s e p a r a te ly .
T ra n sp o rta tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .
In clu d es data f o r w h o le s a le tra d e , r e t a il tr a d e , r e a l e sta te , and s e r v ic e s in ad d ition to th o s e in d u s try d iv is io n s show n s e p a r a te ly .
P e r io d s o f s e r v ic e w e r e a r b it r a r ily c h o s e n and do not n e c e s s a r il y r e fle c t the in d ivid u a l p r o v is io n s f o r p r o g r e s s io n s .
F o r e x a m p le,
the ch a n ges
in clu d e ch a n g e s in p r o v is io n s o c c u r r in g be tw e e n 5 and 10 y e a r s .
L e s s than 0. 5 p e r c e n t .

N O T E : In the ta b u la tio n s o f v a ca tip n a llo w a n c e s by y e a r s o f s e r v ic e , p aym en ts o th e r than "le n g th o f tim e , " su ch as p e r c e n ta g e o f annual e a r n in g s
to an equ ivalen t tim e b a s is ; f o r e x a m p le , a paym en t o f 2 p e r c e n t o f annual e a rn in g s w a s c o n s id e r e d as 1 w e e k 's pay.




_
7
_

87
_

6

in p r o p o r t io n s in d ica te d

o r f la t -s u m pa ym en ts w e r e

at 10

years'

c o n v e r te d

15
Table B-6. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
(P e r c e n t o f o f fi c e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u s tr ie s and in in d u s try d iv is io n s e m p lo y e d in e s ta b lis h m e n ts p r o v id in g
health, in s u r a n c e , o r p e n s io n b e n e fits , R ich m o n d , Va. , F e b r u a r y I960)

PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS
T yp e o f b e n e fit

A ll w o r k e r s ______________________________________

All industries 1

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

All industries 3

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

100

100

100

100

100

100

64

W o r k e r s in esta b lis h m e n ts p r o v id in g :
L ife i n s u r a n c e ------------------------------------------------A c c id e n t a l death and d is m e m b e r m e n t
in s u r a n c e --------------------------- ----------------------S ick n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e o r
s ic k le a v e o r b o t h 4 ________________________

87

91

71

80

83

41

31

50

32

24

52

83

75

78

64
25

99

75

S ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t i n s u r a n c e ________
S ick le a v e (fu ll pay and no
w aiting p e r io d ) ___________________ ______
S ick le a v e (p a r tia l pay o r
w aiting p e r i o d ) -----------------------------------------

27

58

8

52

59

61

51

61

19

2

17

11

6

31

24

33

23

H os p ita liz a tio n in s u r a n c e ____________________
S u r g ic a l in s u r a n c e ----------------------------------------M e d ica l i n s u r a n c e -----------------------------------------C a ta strop h e in s u r a n c e ---------------------------------R e tir e m e n t p en s io n __________________________
No health, in s u r a n c e , o r p e n s io n plan ------

65
65
41
29
67
3

81
80
58
34
72
1

67
67
62
4
46

67
64
42
14
61
8

76
70
49
10
64
8

77
77
66
8
55

1 In clu d es data f o r w h o le s a le tra d e ; r e t a il tra d e ; fin a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e sta te ; and s e r v ic e s in a dd ition to th o se in d u stry d iv is io n s show n s e p a r a te ly .
2 T r a n sp o rta tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .
3 In clu d es data f o r w h o le s a le tr a d e , r e t a il t r a d e , r e a l e s ta te , and s e r v ic e s in a d d itio n to th o s e in d u stry d iv is io n s show n s e p a r a te ly .
4 U n du plica ted to ta l o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s ic k le a v e o r s ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e show n s e p a r a te ly b e lo w .
S ic k -le a v e plans a r e lim it e d to th ose w h ich d e fin ite ly e s t a b lis h at le a s t
the m in im u m nu m ber o f d a y s ' pay that ca n be e x p e c te d b y e a c h e m p lo y e e .
In fo rm a l s i c k -l e a v e a llo w a n c e s d e te r m in e d on an in d ivid u al b a s is a r e ex c lu d e d .







17

Appendix: Occupational Descriptions
The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’s wage surveys is to a s s is t its
field staff in classify in g into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
title s and different work arrangem ents from establishm ent to establishm ent and from area to area. T his is
essen tial in order to perm it the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
B ecause of this em phasis on interestablishm ent and interarea com parability of occupational content, the
Bureau’s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishm ents or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the B ureau's field econom ists are
instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped w orkers,
part-tim e, temporary, and probationary workers.
O F F IC E

BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statem ents, b ills, and invoices on a machine otner
than an ordinary or electrom atic typew riter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, b illers, m achine, are
classified by type of machine, as follow s:
Biller, machine (billing machine)— U ses a sp ecial billing ma­
chine (Moon H opkins, E llio tt F ish er, Burroughs, e tc ., which are
combination typing and adding m achines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from custom ers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. U sually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are autom atically accum ulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of
the bill being prepared and is often done oh a fanfold machine.
Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine)— U ses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, E llio tt F ish er, Remington Rand, e tc ., which
may or may not haVe typew riter keyboard) to prepare custo m ers’
b ills as part of the accounts receivable operation. G enerally in ­
volves the sim ultaneous entry of figures on custom ers’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine autom atically accum ulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and com putes and usually prints autom atically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping. Works from uniform and standard types of sales and
credit slip s.

O perates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, E llio tt
F ish er, Sundstrand, Burroughs, N ational C ash R egister, with or without
a typew riter keyboard) to keep a record of bu sin ess tran sactio n s.




Class A— Keeps a se t of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in b asic bookkeeping principles and fam iliarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. D eterm ines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit item s to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance
sh eets, and other records by hand.
Class B— K eeps a record of one or more phases or sectio n s of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of b asic book­
keeping* P h ases or sectio n s include accounts payable, payroll,
custom ers’ accounts (not including a sim ple type of billing described
under biller, m achine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or a s s is t in preparation of tria l
balances and prepare control sh eets for the accounting departm ent.
CLERK, ACCOUNTING

Class A— Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sectio n s of a com­
plete se t of books or records relating to one phase of an e sta b lish ­
m ent's b usiness tran sactio n s. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

18

CLERK, ACCOUNTING—.Continued
payable; exam ining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper a c ­
counting distribution; requires judgment and experience in making
proper assig n ation s and allo catio n s. May a s s is t in preparing, ad­
justing and closing journal en tries; may direct c la ss B accounting
clerks.

Class B — Under supervision, performs one or more routine a c ­
counting operations such as posting sim ple journal vouchers or a c ­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher reg isters;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers, or posting sim ple co st accounting d ata. T his
job does not require a knowledge of accounting and bookkeeping
principles but is found in offices in which the more routine account­
ing work is subdivided on a functional b asis among sev eral w orkers.
CLERK, FILE
Class A — In an estab lish ed filing system containing a num­

ber of varied su bject m atter file s, c la ssifie s and indexes co rres­
pondence or other m aterial; may aliso file this m aterial. May keep
records of various types in conjunction with files or may super­
vise others in filing and locating m aterial in the file s. May per­
form incidental clerical d u ties.
Class B — Performs routine filing, usually of m aterial th a t has
already been classified or which is easily identifiable, or lo cates
or a s s is ts in locating m aterial in file s. May perform incidental
clerical d u ties.

CLERK, ORDER
R eceives custom ers* orders for m aterial or m erchandise by m ail,
phone, or personally. D uties involve any combination o f the following:
Quoting prices to custom ers; making out an order sh eet listin g the item s
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of item s on order
sheet; distributing order sh eets to respective departm ents to be filled.
May check with credit departm ent to determ ine credit rating of custom er,
acknow ledge receipt of orders from custom ers, follow up orders to see
that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check ship­
ping invoices with original orders.




CLERK, PAYROLL
Com putes w ages of company em ployees and enters the n eces­
sary data on the payroll sh e e ts. D uties involve: C alculating workers*
earnings based on time or production records; posting calcu lated data
on payroll sh eet, showing information such as w orker's name, working
days, tim e, rate, deductions for insurance, and total w ages due. May
make out paychecks and a s s is t paym aster in making up and d istrib ut­
ing pay envelopes. May use a calculating m achine.

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform m athem a­
tic al com putations. This job is not to be confused with that of s ta tis ­
tic al or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tom eter but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to perform ance
of other du ties.

DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
Under general supervision and with no supervisory resp o n si­
b ilitie s, reproduces m ultiple copies of typew ritten or handw ritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or D itto m achine. Makes n ecessary adjustm ent such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare ste n c il or D itto m aster. May keep file of used ste n c ils or D itto
m asters. May sort, co llate, and staple com pleted m aterial.

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory resp o n si­
b ilitie s, records accounting and sta tis tic a l data on tabulating cards by
punching a series of holes in the cards in a specified sequence, using
an alphabetical or a num erical keypunch m achine, following w ritten in­
formation on records. May duplicate cards by using the duplicating de­
vice attached to m achine. May keep files of punch card s. May verify
own work or work of others.

OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Perform s various routine duties such as running errands, op­
erating minor office m achines such as sealers or m ailers, opening and
distributing m ail, and other minor clerical work.

19

SECRETARY
Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an ad­
m inistrative or executive position. D uties include making appointm ents
for superior; receiving people coming into office; answ ering and making
phone calls; handling personal and important or confidential m ail, and
writing routine correspondence on own initiativ e; taking dictation (where
transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
sim ilar machine, and transcribing dictation or the recorded information
reproduced on a transcribing m achine. May prepare sp ecial reports or
memorandums for information of superior.

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar m achine, involving a nor­
mal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a typew riter.
May also type from w ritten copy. May also se t up and keep files in or­
der, keep sim ple records, etc. Does not include transcribing-m achine
work (see transcribing-m achine operator).

STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar m achine, involving a varied
technical or sp ecialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on
scientific research and to transcribe this dictation on a typew riter. May
also type from w ritten copy. May also se t up and keep files in order,
keep sim ple records, etc. Does not include transcribing-m achine work .

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
O perates a single- or m ultiple-position telephone sw itchboard.
D uties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office c a lls.
May record toll calls and take m essag es. May give information to per­
sons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders. For workers
who also act as receptionists see sw itchboard operator-receptionist.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single p o si­
tion or monitor-type sw itchboard, acts as receptionist and may also type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular d u ties. T his typing
or clerical work may take the major part of this w orker's time w hile at
sw itchboard.




TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Class A — O perates a variety of tabulating or electrical ac­
counting m achines, typically including such m achines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignm ents w ithout clo se supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The com plete reporting and tabulating
assignm ents typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of step s to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagram s and operating sequences of long and complex reports.
Does not include working supervisors performing tabulating-m achine
operations and day-to-day supervision of the work and production of
a group of tabulating-m achine operators.
Class B — O perates more difficult tabulating or electrical ac­
counting m achines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. T his work is performed under
specific instructions and may include the perform ance of some wir­
ing from diagram s. The work typically involves, for exam ple, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting ex ercise, a com plete but
sm all tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are w ell estab lish ed . May also include the training
of new em ployees in the basic operation of the m achine.
C lass C— O perates sim ple tabulating or e lectrical account­
ing m achines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with specific instructions. May include sim ple w iring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for exam ple, individual sorting or collating runs, or re­
petitive operations.

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Prim ary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from transcribing-m achine records. May also type from written
copy and do sim ple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation in­
volving a varied tech n ical or sp ecialized vocabulary such as legal briefs
or reports on scien tific research are not included. A worker who takes
dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar machine is classified
as a stenographer, general.

20

TYPIST

TYPIST— Continued

U ses a typew riter to make copies of various m aterial or to make
out bills after calculations have been made by another person. May in­
clude typing of ste n c ils, m ats, or sim ilar m aterials for use in duplicat­
ing p ro cesses. May do clerical work involving little sp ecial training,
such as keeping sim ple records, filing records and reports, or sorting
and distributing incoming m ail.
Class A —

Performs one or more o f the fo llo w in g : Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining m aterial from sev eral
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, sy llab icatio n , punc-

tuation, e tc ., of tech n ical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; planning layout and typing of com plicated s ta tis tic a l tab les
to m aintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine
form letters varying d etails to su it circum stances.
C lass B — Perform s one or more o f the fo llo w in g : Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance p o licies,
etc.; settin g up sim ple standard tabulations, or copying more com­
plex tab les already se t up and spaced properly.

PR O FE S SIO N A L AND T E C H N IC A L

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR

(A ssistan t draftsm an)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by d rafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or m anufacturing purposes.
U ses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare draw ings
from sim ple plans or sk etch es, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsm an.

DRAFTSMAN, LEADER
P lans and d irects activ ities of one or more draftsm en in prep­
aration of working plans and d etail drawings from rough or prelim inary
sketches for engineering, construction, or m anufacturing purposes. D uties
involve a combination o f the fo llo w in g : Interpreting blueprints, sk etch es,
and w ritten or verbal orders; determ ining work procedures; assig n in g
duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif­
ficult problem s. May a s s is t subordinates during em ergencies or a s a
regular assignm ent, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad­
m inistrative nature.

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and d etail draw ings from n o tes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or m anufacturing pur­
p o ses. D uties involve a com bination o f the fo llo w in g : Preparing work­
ing plans, detail draw ings, maps, cro ss-sectio n s, e tc ., to scale by use
of drafting instrum ents; making engineering com putations such as those



DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR— Continued
involved in strength of m aterials, beam s and tru sse s; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dim ensions, m aterials to be used, and q u an tities;
w riting sp ecificatio n s; making adjustm ents or changes in draw ings or
sp ecificatio n s. May ink in lines and letters on pencil draw ings, prepare
d etail units of com plete draw ings, or trace draw ings. Work is frequently
in a sp ecialized field such as architectural, electrical, m echanical, or
structural drafting.

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
A registered nurse who gives nursing serv ice to ill or injured
em ployees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accid en t on the
prem ises of a factory or other establishm ent. D uties involve a combiner
tio n o f the fo llo w in g : Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of employees* inju ries; keeping records of p atients
treated; preparing accid en t reports for com pensation or other purposes;
conducting physical exam inations and health evaluations of applicants
and em ployees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environm ent, or other
activ ities affecting the h ealth, w elfare, and safety of a ll personnel.

TRACER
Copies plans and draw ings prepared by others, by placing trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or p en cil. U ses
T -square, com pass, and other drafting tools* May prepare sim ple draw­
ings and do sim ple lettering.

21
MAINTENANCE

D POW ERPLANT

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipm ent such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, sta irs, casin g s, and trim
made of wood in an establishm ent. Work involves m ost o f the follow in g:
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, draw ings, m odels, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’s handtools, portable
power tools, and standard m easuring instrum ents; making standard shop
computations relating to dim ensions of work; selectin g m aterials n ec­
essary for the work. In general, the work of the m aintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

F ires stationary boilers to furnish the establishm ent in which
employed with heat, power, or steam . F eeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a m echanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks w ater and safety
valves. May clean, oil, or a s s is t in repairing boilerroom equipm ent.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE
Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, m aintenance, or repair of equipm ent for the generating, d is­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishm ent. Work
involves m ost o f the follow in g: Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipm ent such as generators, transform ers, sw itchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit system s,
or other transm ission equipment; working from blueprints, draw ings, lay­
out, or other specifications ;.locating and diagnosing trouble in the e le c ­
trical system or equipm ent; working standard com putations relating to
load requirem ents of wiring or electrical equipm ent; using a variety of
electrician ’s handtools and m easuring and testin g instrum ents. In gen­
eral, the work of the m aintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
O perates and m aintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (m echanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishm ent in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: O perating and m aintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, motors
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipm ent, steam boilers and
boiler-fed w ater pumps; making equipm ent repairs; keeping a record of
operation of machinery, tem perature, and fuel consum ption. May a lso
supervise these operations. H ead or c h ie f en gin eers in e sta b lish m e n ts
em ployin g more than one en gin eer are exclu ded.




HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE
A ssists one or more workers in the skilled m aintenance trades,
by performing specific or general duties of le sse r sk ill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with m aterials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipm ent; a ssistin g worker by holding m aterials or tools;
performing other unskilled task s as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is perm itted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are also performed by workers on a full-tim e b asis.

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
S pecializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling m achines in the construction of m achine-shop tools, gauges,
jig s, fixtures, or d ies. Work involves m ost o f the follow in g: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing item s requiring
com plicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision m easuring instrum ents; selectin g feeds, sp eed s, tooling and op­
eration sequence; making necessary adjustm ents during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dim ensions. May be required to recog­
nize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, m achine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this classificatio n .

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
Produces replacem ent parts and new parts in making repairs of
m etal parts of m echanical equipment operated in an establishm ent. Work
involves m o st o f the follow in g: Interpreting written instructions and
sp ecificatio n s; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
ch in ist’s handtools and precision m easuring instrum ents; settin g up and

22
MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE— Continued
operating standard machine tools; shaping of m etal parts to close toler-*
ances; making standard shop com putations relating to dim ensions of work,
tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working prop­
erties of the common m etals; selectin g standard m aterials, p arts, and
equipment required for his work; fitting and assem bling parts into me­
chanical equipm ent. In general, the m achinist’s work normally requires
a rounded training in m achine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
R epairs autom obiles, b uses, m otortrucks, and tractors of an e s ­
tablishm ent. Work involves most o f the fo llo w in g : Examining autom otive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassem bling equipm ent and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as w renches,
gauges, d rills, or sp ecialized equipment in disassem bling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassem bling and installing the various assem blies in the vehicle
and making n ecessary adjustm ents; alining w heels, adjusting brakes and
lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the autom otive
m echanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
R epairs machinery or m echanical equipment of an establishm ent.
Work involves most o f the fo llo w in g : Examining m achines and m echan­
ical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dism antling or partly d is­
mantling m achines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with item s obtained from stock; ordering the production of a rep lace­
ment part by a m achine shop or sending of the machine to a m achine shop
for major repairs; preparing w ritten sp ecificatio n s for major repairs or
for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassem bling ma­
chines; and making a ll n ecessary adjustm ents for operation. In general,
the work of a m aintenance m echanic requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classificatio n are w orkers
whose primary duties involve settin g up or adjusting m achines.

MILLWRIGHT
In stalls new m achines or heavy equipm ent and dism antles and
in sta lls m achines or heavy equipm ent when changes in the plant layout



MILLWRIGHT— Continued

are required. Work involves most o f the fo llo w in g : Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other sp ecificatio n s; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop com putations re­
lating to s tre sse s, strength of m aterials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipm ent; selectin g standard tools, equipm ent, and parts
to be used; installin g and m aintaining in good order power transm ission
equipm ent such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the m ill­
w right’s work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

OILER
L ubricates, with oil or g rease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of m echanical equipm ent of an establishm ent.

PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
P ain ts and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an e s­
tablishm ent. Work invo lves the fo llo w in g : Knowledge of surface pecu­
lia rities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in
nail holes and in terstices; applying p aint with spray gun or brush. May
mix colors, o ils, white lead, and other p aint ingredients to obtain proper
color or consistency. In general, the work of the m aintenance painter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
In stalls or repairs w ater, steam , g as, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishm ent. Work involves most o f the fo llo w in g :
Laying out of work and m easuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other w ritten sp ecificatio n s; cutting various siz e s of pipe to correct
lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma­
chine; threading pipe with stocks and d ies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven m achines; assem bling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop com putations relating to p ressures,
flow , and size of pipe required; making standard te s ts to determ ine
w hether finished pipes meet sp ecificatio n s. . In general, the work of the
m aintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers p rim a rily engaged in in s ta llin g and repairing b u ild in g
s a n ita tio n or heating systems are excluded .

23

TOOL AND DIE MAKER

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishm ent in good order.
Work, involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installatio n of
vents and traps in plumbing system ; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’s snake. In
general, the work of the m aintenance plumber requires rounded training
a n d ‘experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and experience.

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
F ab ricates, in sta lls, and m aintains in good repair the sheetm etal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishm ent. Work involves m ost o f the follow in g: Planning and lay­
ing out a ll types of sheet-m etal m aintenance work from blueprints, m odels,
or other specifications; setting up and operating all available types of
sheet-m etal-w orking m achines; using a variety of handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assem bling; installin g sheetm etal articles as required. In general, the work of the m aintenance
sheet-m etal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

(D iem aker; jig m aker;toolm aker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
C onstructs and repairs m achine-shop too ls, gauges, jig s, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
involves m ost o f the follow in g: Planning and laying out of work from
m odels, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and w ritten sp ecificatio n s;
using a variety of tool and die maker’s handtools and precision m eas­
uring instrum ents, understanding of the working properties of common
m etals and alloys; settin g up and operating of machine tools and related
equipm ent; making n ecessary shop com putations relating to dim ensions
of work, sp eed s, feeds, and tooling of m achines; heattreating of m etal
parts during fabrication as w ell as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required q u alities; working to clo se tolerances; fitting and assem bling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; selectin g appropriate
m aterials, tools, and p ro cesses. In general, the tool and die maker’s
work requires a rounded training in m achine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classificatio n .

CUSTODIAL AND M ATERIAL MOVEMENT

ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER— Continued

T ransports passengers betw een floors of an office building,
apartm ent house, departm ent store, hotel or sim ilar establishm ent.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

or other establishm ent. D uties involve a com bination o f the follow in g:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipm ent, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor m ainte­
nance serv ices; cleaning lavatories, show ers, and restroom s. Workers
who sp ecialize in window w ashing are excluded.

GUARD

Performs routine police d u ties, either at fixed post or on tour,
m aintaining order, using arms or force where n ecessary . In clu des g a te-

men who are sta tio n e d at g ate and ch eck on id e n tity o f em plo yees and
oth er persons en tering.

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER

(Sweeper; charwoman; jan itress)
C lea n s and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or p rem ises o f an o ffic e , apartm ent house, or commercial




LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stack er; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehousem an or w arehouse helper)
A worker employed in a w arehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishm ent w h ose d u tie s involve one or more o f the fo llo w ­
ing: Loading and unloading various m aterials and m erchandise on or

24

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING—-Continued
from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting dev ices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing m aterials or m erchandise in proper storage location; tran s­
porting m aterials or m erchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow.
Longshoremen , who load and unload ships are excluded .

ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; w arehouse stockm an)
F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
m erchandise in accordance with specifications on sa le s slip s, customers*
orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indi­
cating item s filled or om itted, keep records of outgoing orders, req u isi­
tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform
other related duties.

PACKER, SHIPPING
P repares finished products for shipm ent or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, siz e, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container em ployed, and method of shipm ent. Work requires the
placing of item s in shipping containers and may in vo lve one or more o f
the fo llo w in g : Knowledge of various item s of stock in order to verify
content; selectio n of appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other m aterial to prevent
breakage or dam age; closing and sealing container* applying lab els or
entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make wooden
boxes or crates are excluded .

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares m erchandise for shipm ent, or receiv es and is respon­
sible for incom ing shipm ents of m erchandise or other m aterials. Shipping
work in vo lve s: A knowledge of shipping procedures, p ractices, routes,
available m eans of transportation and rates; and preparing records of the
goods shipped, making up b ills of lading, posting w eight and shipping
charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or a s s is t in
preparing the m erchandise for shipm ent. R eceiving work in v o lv e s : V eri­
fying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipm ents ag ain st
b ills of lading, invoices, or other records; checking for shortages and
rejecting damaged goods; routing m erchandise or m aterials to proper de­
partm ents; m aintaining necessary records and file s.




SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK—-Continued
For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follow s:
R e ce ivin g clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and re ce ivin g clerk

TRUCKDRIVER
D rives a truck within a city or in d u strial area to transport ma­
terials, m erchandise, equipm ent, or men betw een various types of e stab ­
lishm ents such as: M anufacturing p lants, freight depots, w arehouses,
w holesale and retail establishm ents, or betw een retail establishm ents
and custom ers’ houses or places of b u sin ess. May also load or unload
truck with or w ithout h elpers, make minor m echanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. D river-salesm en and over-the-road drivers
are excluded.

For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size
and type of equipm ent, as follow s: (T ractor-trailer should be rated on
the b asis of trailer capacity.)
T ru ckd rive r (com bination o f sizes lis te d separately)
T ruckdriver, lig h t (under l l 2 to n s )
/
T ru ckd river, medium ( l l to and in c lu d in g 4 tons)
A
T ru ckd river , heavy (over 4 tons, tr a ile r type)
T ruckdriver, heavy (ove r 4 tons, other than tra ile r type)

TRUCKER, POWER
O perates a manually controlled g aso lin e- or electric-pow ered
truck or tractor to transport goods and m aterials of a ll kinds about a
w arehouse, m anufacturing plant, or other establishm ent.
For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssifie d by type of
truck, as follow s:
Trucker, power ( fo r k lift)
Trucker, power (other than fo r k lift)

WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of prem ises periodically in protecting property
ag ain st fire, theft, and illeg al entry.
☆ U.s.

G O V E R N M E N T P R IN T IN G O F F IC E : i 9 6 0 0 — 5 4 7 7 1 0

Occupational Wage Surveys

O ccupational wage surveys are being conducted in 60 major labor markets during late 1959 and early I960, T hese b u lletin s, when av ailable,
may be purchased from the Superintendent of D ocum ents, U.S. Government Printing Office, W ashington 25, D .C., or from any of the BLS regional
sales offices shown below.
A summary bulletin containing data for all labor m arkets, combined with additional an aly sis, w ill be issu ed early in 1961.
B ulletins for the areas listed below are now available.
C leveland, Ohio, September 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-1, price 20 cents
Seattle, Wash., August 1959-B LS Bull. 1265-2, price 25 cents
D allas, T ex., O ctober 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-3, price 20 cents
Buffalo, N.Y., October 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-4, price 20 cents
St. L ouis, Mo., O ctober 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-5, price 25 cents
Miami, F la., Decem ber 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-6, price 20 cents
Baltimore, Md., September 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-7, price 15 cents
Boston, M ass., O ctober 1959-B LS Bull. 1265-8, price 25 cents




Dayton, Ohio, December 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-9, price 25 cents
Canton, Ohio, December 1959-B L S Bull. 1265-10, price 25 cents
Denver, C olo., December 1959-B L S Bull. 1265-11, price 25 cents
Portland, Maine, November 1959-B L S Bull, 1265-12, price 20 cents
Fort Worth, T ex., November 1959-B L S Bull. 1265-13, price 25 cents
Jacksonville, F la., December 1959-B L S Bull. 1265-14, price 25 cents
San Bernardino—R iverside—Ontario, Calif*, November 1959-4
—
BLS Bull. 1265-15, price 25 cents





Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102