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Occupational Wage Survey

PITTSBURGH, PENNSYLVANIA
DECEMBER 1959

Bulletin No. 1265-20




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner




Occupational Wage Survey
PITTSBURGH, PENNSYLVANIA




DECEMBER 1959

Bulletin No, 1265-20
April I960
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C.

Price 25 cents




Preface

Contents
P age

The Com m unity Wage Survey P rogram
The B ureau of Labor S ta tistics reg u la rly conducts
areaw id e w age su rv ey s in a num ber of im portant in d u strial
cen ters. The stu d ies, m ade from late fa ll to ea rly spring,
rela te to occupational earnings and related supplem entary
b en efits. A p relim in ary rep ort is ava ilab le on com p letion
of the study in each area, u su ally in the m onth follow ing
the p ayroll p eriod studied. T his b u lletin p ro vid es additional
data not included in the e a r lie r report. A consolidated
an alytical b u lletin sum m arizing the r e su lts of a ll of the
y e a r ’s su rveys is issu e d after com p letion of the fin al area
b u lletin for the curren t round of su rveys.
T his rep ort w as prepared in the B ureau’s region al
office in New York, N. Y. , by E lliott A. B row ar, under the
d irection of F red erick W. M ueller, R egional W age and
Industrial R elations A n alyst.




ta b le s :
1. E stab lish m en ts and w o rk ers w ithin scop e of su rvey _________
A: O ccupational earn in gs:*
A - 1. O ffice occupations _______________________________________
A - 2. P ro fessio n a l and tech n ical occupations ________________
A -3. M aintenance and pow erplant o c c u p a tio n s_______________
A -4. C ustodial and m a teria l m ovem en t o c c u p a tio n s ________
B: E stab lish m en t p ra ctices and supplem entary w age
p ro v isio n s:*
B - 1. Shift d if f e r e n tia ls ________________________________________
B -2 . M inim um entrance s a la r ie s for w om en office
w ork ers _________________________________________________
B -3 . Scheduled w eek ly hours _________________________________
B -4 . P aid holidays ____________________________________________
B -5 . P aid v a c a t io n s ____________________________________________
B -6 . Health, in su ran ce, and p en sion plans __
Appendix: O ccupational d escrip tio n s _________________________________

* NOTE: S im ilar tabulations for m o st of th ese item s are ava ila­
ble in the P ittsburgh area rep orts for N ovem ber 1951 and D e­
cem ber 1956. A d irecto ry indicating date of study and the p rice
of the rep orts, a s w e ll a s rep orts for other m ajor a r ea s, is
available upon req u est.
Current rep orts on occupational earn in gs and su p p le­
m entary w age p ra ctices in the P ittsb u rgh area are a lso a v a ila ­
ble for the m ach in ery in d u stries (January 1959), auto d ea ler
rep air shops (M ay 1958), and gray iron foundries (A pril 1959).
Union s c a le s , indicative of p revailin g pay le v e ls , are availab le
for the follow ing trades or in d u stries: B uilding con stru ction ,
printing, lo c a l-tr a n sit operating em p lo y ees, and m otortru ck
d riv ers and h elp ers.
iii

2
4
8
8
10
12
13
14
15
16
18
19




Occupational Wage Survey—Pittsburgh, Pa.
Introduction

T his area is one of se v e r a l im portant in d u strial cen ters in
which the U. S. D epartm ent of L a b o r's B ureau of Labor S ta tistic s has
conducted su rveys of occupational earn in gs and related wage b en efits
on an areaw ide b a s is . In this area, data w ere obtained by p erson al
v isits o f B ureau field eco n o m ists to rep resen tative estab lish m en ts
w ithin s ix broad industry d ivision s: M anufacturing; tra n sp o rta tio n ,1
com m u nication, and other public u tilities; w h olesale trade; reta il
trade; fin an ce, in su ran ce, and re a l estate; and s e r v ic e s . M ajor in ­
dustry groups excluded from th ese stu d ies are governm ent operations
and the con stru ction and ex tractive in d u stries. E stab lish m en ts having
few er than a p rescrib ed num ber of w ork ers are om itted a lso b ecau se
they furnish in su fficien t em ploym ent in the occupations studied to w a r­
rant in clu sion . W herever p o ssib le, sep arate tabulations are provided
for each of the broad industry d iv isio n s.
T h ese su rveys are'conducted on a sam ple b a sis b ecau se of the
u n n ecessa ry c o st involved in surveying a ll e sta b lish m en ts. To obtain
appropriate accu ra cy at m inim um c o st, a greater proportion of large
than of sm a ll estab lish m en ts is studied. In com bining the data, how ­
ever, a ll estab lish m en ts are given their appropriate w eight. E stim a tes
b ased on the estab lish m en ts studied are p resen ted , th erefo re, as r e ­
lating to a ll esta b lish m en ts in the industry grouping and area, e x ­
cep t for those below the m inim um s iz e studied.
O ccupations and E arnings
The occupations se lec te d for study are com m on to a variety
of m anufacturing and nonm anufacturing in d u stries. O ccupational c la s ­
sifica tio n is b ased on a uniform , se t of job d escrip tion s designed to
take account of in terestab lish m en t variation in duties w ithin the sam e
job. (See appendix for listin g of th ese d escrip tio n s.) E arnings data are
p resen ted (in the A -s e r ie s tab les) for the follow ing types of occu p a­
tions: (a) O ffice c le r ic a l; (b) p ro fessio n a l and techn ical; (c) m ain te­
nance and pow er plant; and (d) cu stod ial and m aterial m ovem ent.
O ccupational em ploym ent and earnings data are shown for
fu ll-tim e w o rk ers, i. e . , those h ired to work a regu lar w eekly sch ed ­
ule in the given occupational c la ssific a tio n . E arnings data exclude
prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on w eeken ds, h olid a ys, and

late sh ifts. N onproduction b onu ses are excluded a lso , but c o s t-o fliving bonuses and incen tive earn in gs are inclu ded. W here w eekly
hours are reported, as for office c le r ic a l occu p ation s, referen ce is
to the work sch ed u les (rounded to the n ea rest half hour) for which
stra ig h t-tim e sa la r ie s are paid; average w eekly earn in gs for th ese
occupations have been rounded to the n ea rest half d olla r.
A verage earnin gs of m en and wom en are p resen ted sep arately
for selec te d occupations in which both sex es are com m only em p loyed .
D ifferen ces in pay le v e ls of m en and w om en in th ese occupations are
la rg ely due to (1) d ifferen ces in the d istrib u tion of the se x e s am ong
in d u stries and estab lish m en ts; (2) d ifferen ces in sp ecific duties p er­
form ed, although the occupations are appropriately c la ss ifie d w ithin
the sam e su rvey job descrip tion ; and (3) d ifferen ces in length of s e r v ­
ice or m erit review when individual sa la r ie s are adjusted on this b asis.
Longer average se r v ic e of m en would r e su lt in. higher average pay
when both se x e s are em ployed within the sam e rate range. Job
d escrip tion s used in cla ssify in g em p lo yees in th ese su rveys are u su ­
ally m ore gen era lized than those u sed in individual esta b lish m en ts to
allow for m inor d ifferen ces am ong estab lish m en ts in sp ecific duties
perform ed.
O ccupational em ploym ent e stim a tes rep resen t the total in all
estab lish m en ts w ithin the scope of the study and not the num ber actu ­
ally su rveyed . B ecau se of d ifferen ces in occupational stru ctu re am ong
esta b lish m en ts, the e stim a tes of occupational em ploym ent obtained
from the sam ple of estab lish m en ts studied serv e only to indicate the
relative im portance of the jobs studied. T h ese d ifferen ces in o ccu ­
pational stru ctu re do not m a teria lly affect the accu racy of the earn**
ings data.

E stab lish m en t P r a c tic e s and Supplem entary Wage P ro v isio n s
Inform ation is p resen ted a lso (in the B -s e r ie s tab les) on s e ­
lected estab lish m en t p ra ctices and supplem entary b en efits as they r e ­
late to office and plant w o rk ers. The term "office w o rk ers, " as used
in this bu lletin , inclu des w orking su p erv iso rs and n on su p ervisory
w orkers perform ing c le r ic a l or related fu n ction s, and exclu d es adm in­
istr a tiv e , ex ecu tiv e, and p ro fessio n a l p erson n el. "Plant w ork ers" in ­
clude w orking forem en and all n on su p ervisory w ork ers (including lea d m
1
R ailroad s, fo rm erly excluded from the scope of th ese stu d ies, en and tra in ees) engaged in nonoffice fu n ction s. A d m in istrative,
have been added in n ea rly a ll of the area s to be studied during the
ex ecu tive, and p ro fessio n a l em p lo y ees, and fo rce-a cco u n t con stru ction
w in ter of 1959-60; ra ilroad s w ill be added in the rem aining a rea s next
em p lo yees who are u tilized as a sep arate w ork force are exclu d ed .
y ea r. F or scope of su rvey in this a rea, se e footnote to "transporta­
C afeteria w ork ers and routem en are excluded in m anufacturing in d u s­
tion, com m u nication, and other public u tilities" in table 1.
tries, but are included as plant w ork ers in nonm anufacturing in d u stries.




2

Table 1. E stab lish m en ts and w orkers within scope of survey and num ber studied in Pittsburgh, P a. , 1 by m ajor industry division, 2 D ecem ber 1959

Industry division
A ll d iv is io n s --------------------------------------------------------------M anufacturing --------------------------- -------- -------N onm anufacturing-----------------------------------------------------Transportation, com m unication, and other
public u tilities 5 ----------------------------------------------W holesale trade ___________________________________
R etail trade _______________________________________
Finance, insuran ce, and real estate _____________
S ervices 7 _________________________________________

M inimum
em ploym ent
in esta b lish ­
m ents in scope
of study
-

101
”
101
51
101
51
51

W orkers in establishm ents
Within scope of study

Number of estab lish m en ts
Within
scope of
study 3

Studied

Studied

Total 4

Office

Plant

Total 4

823

207

432, 300

65, 600

303, 300

274, 200

364
459
54
145
57
82
121

83
124
24
31
23
23
23

294, 000
138,300
54, 100
16,100
32, 200
17,400
18,500

34, 600
31, 000
8, 400
5, 300
3, 000
11,200
(8)

223, 500
79,800
36, 100
5, 900
26, 000
6 1, 300
(8)

180, 090
94, 110
46, 260
4, 770
25, 980
10, 750
6, 350

1 The Pittsburgh M etropolitan A rea (A llegheny, B eaver, Washington, and W estm oreland Counties). The "workers within scope of study" estim ates shown in this table
provide a reasonably accurate d escrip tion of the siz e and com position of the labor force included in the survey. The estim ates are not intended, how ever, to serve as a
b a sis of com parison with other area em ploym ent indexes to m easu re em ploym ent trends or le v e ls sin ce (1) planning of wage surveys req u ires the u se of establishm ent data
com piled considerably in advance of the p ayroll period studied, and (2) sm all estab lish m en ts are excluded from the scope of the survey.
2 The 1957 rev ised edition of the Standard Industrial C lassification Manual w as used in classifyin g estab lish m en ts by industry division. Major changes from the earlier
edition (used in the B ureau’s labor m arket wage survey program prior to the w inter of 1958-59) are the tran sfer of m ilk pasteurization plants and ready-m ixed concrete
establishm ents from trade (w h olesale or retail) to m anufacturing, and the tran sfer of radio and telev isio n broadcasting from ser v ice s to the transportation, com m unication,
and other public u tilities d ivision.
Includes all estab lish m en ts with total em ploym ent at or above the m in im u m -size lim itation. A ll outlets (within the area) of com panies in such industries as trade,
finance, auto repair serv ice, and m otion-picture th eaters are considered as 1 establishm ent.
4 Includes executive, p rofession a l, and other w orkers excluded from the sep arate office and plant categories.
R ailroads w ere included; taxicabs and se r v ic e s incidental to w ater transportation w ere excluded.
6
E stim ate rela tes to rea l estate estab lish m en ts only.
H otels, person al serv ices; b u sin ess ser v ice s; autom obile repair shops; m otion p ictu res; nonprofit m em b ership organizations; and engineering and architectural ser v ice s.
8
This industry d ivision is rep resen ted in estim ates for "all industries" and "nonmanufacturing" in the S eries A and B tables, although coverage w as insufficient to
justify separate presentation of data.
5

7




3

The sum m ary of vacation plans is lim ited to form al a rra n g e­
m ents , excluding in form al plans w hereby tim e off with pay is granted
at the d iscretio n of the em p loyer. Separate e stim a te s are provided
accord in g to em p loyer p ractice in com puting vacation p aym ents, such
as tim e paym en ts, percen t of annual earn in gs, or fla t-su m am ounts.
H ow ever, in the tabulations of vacation allo w an ces, paym ents not on
a tim e b a sis w ere converted; for exam p le, a paym ent of 2 p ercen t of
annual earn in gs w as con sid ered as the equ ivalen t of 1 w e e k 's pay.

Data are p resen ted for all health, in su ran ce, and pension
plans for which at le a s t a part of the c o st is borne by the em p lo y er,
excep tin g only leg a l req u irem en ts such as w ork m en 's com pensation
and so c ia l sec u r ity . Such plans include those underw ritten by a co m ­
m e r c ia l in su ran ce com pany and those provided through a union fund or
paid d irectly by the em p loyer out of cu rren t operating funds or from
a fund s e t asid e for this purpose. Death b en efits are included as a
form of life in su ran ce.
S ick n ess and acciden t insuran ce is lim ited - to that type of in ­
suran ce under which pred eterm ined ca sh paym ents are m ade d irectly
to the in su red on a w eek ly or m onthly b a sis during illn e s s or accid en t
d isa b ility . Inform ation is p resen ted for all such plans to which the
em p loyer con trib u tes. H ow ever, in New York and New J e r se y , w hich
have enacted tem p orary d isa b ility insuran ce law s w hich require e m ­
p loyer co n tr ib u tio n s,4 plans are included only if the em p loyer (1) co n ­
trib u tes m ore than is le g a lly required, or (2) provides the em ployee
with b en efits w hich ex ceed the req u irem en ts of the law . T abulations
of paid sic k -le a v e plans are lim ited to form al p la n s5 w hich provide
full pay or a proportion of the w ork er's pay during ab sence from w ork
b ecau se of illn e s s . Separate tabulations are provided according to
(1) plans which provide fu ll pay and no w aiting period, and (2) plans
providing eith er p artial pay or a w aiting period. In addition to the
p resen tation of the proportions of w ork ers who are provided sic k n e ss
and accid en t in su ran ce or paid sic k lea v e, an unduplicated total is
shown of w ork ers who r ec eiv e eith er or both typ es of b e n efits.
C atastrophe in su ran ce, so m etim e s refe rr ed to as, extended
m ed ical in su ran ce, inclu d es those plans w hich are design ed to p rotect
em p loyees in c a se of sic k n e ss and injury involving ex p en ses beyond
the n orm al covera ge of h osp italization , m e d ica l, and su rg ica l p lan s.
M edical in su ran ce r e fe r s to plans providing for com p lete or partial
paym ent of d octors' fe e s . Such plans m ay be underw ritten by c o m m er ­
c ia l in su ran ce com panies or nonprofit organ ization s or they m ay be
s e lf-in su r e d . Tabulations of retirem en t pension plans are lim ited to
those plans that provide m onthly paym ents for the rem aind er of the
w o r k e r's life .

2 An estab lish m en t w as con sid ered as having a p olicy if it m et
eith er of the follow in g conditions: (l) O perated late sh ifts at the tim e
of the su rv ey , or (2) had form a l p rovisio n s coverin g late sh ifts.
3 Scheduled w eek ly hou rs for office w ork ers (first sec tio n of
table B -3 ) in su rvey s m ade prior to late 1957 and e a rly 1958 w ere
p resen ted in term s of the proportion of w om en office w ork ers e m ­
ployed in o ffic es w ith the in d icated w eek ly hours for w om en w o rk ers.

4 The tem p orary d isa b ility law s in C aliforn ia and Rhode Island
do not req u ire em p loyer con trib u tion s.
5 An esta b lish m en t w as co n sid ered as having a form al plan if
it esta b lish ed at le a s t the m inim um num ber of days of sic k leav e that
could be exp ected by each em p lo y ee. Such a plan need not be w ritten ,
but in form al sic k -le a v e a llo w a n ces, d eterm in ed on an individual b a s is ,
w ere exclu d ed .

Shift d ifferen tial data (table B - l) are lim ited to m anufacturing
in d u stries. T his in form ation is p resen ted both in term s of (a) e sta b ­
lish m en t p o lic y ,2 p resen ted in te rm s of total plant w orker em p loy­
m ent, and (b) effectiv e p ra ctice, p resen ted on the b a sis of w orkers
actually em ployed on the sp ecified sh ift at the tim e of the su rvey .
In esta b lish m en ts having varied d ifferen tia ls, the am ount applying to
a m ajority w as u sed o r , if no am ount applied to a m a jority , die c la s ­
sific a tio n "other" w as u sed . In esta b lish m en ts in which som e la te sh ift hours are paid at n orm al r a te s, a d ifferen tia l w as record ed only
if it applied to a m ajority of the sh ift h ou rs.
M inim um entrance rates (table B -2 ) relate only to the esta b ­
lish m en ts v isite d . They are p resen ted on an estab lish m en t, rather
than on an em ploym ent b a s is . P aid holid ays; paid vacation s; and
health , in su ran ce, and p ension plans are treated sta tistic a lly on the
b a sis that th ese are applicable to all plant or office w ork ers if a m a ­
jority of such w ork ers are elig ib le or m ay even tu ally qualify for the
p r a ctic es liste d . Scheduled hours are trea ted sta tistic a lly on the b a sis
that th ese are app licable to all plant or office w ork ers if a m ajority
are c o v e r e d .3 B eca u se of rounding, sum s of individual item s in these
tabulation s m ay not equal to ta ls.
The fir s t part of the paid holid ays table p resen ts the num ­
b er of whole and h alf holid ays actu ally provided. The secon d part
com b in es w hole and half h olid ays to show total holiday tim e .




A* Occupational Earnings

4

Table A-l. Office Occupations
(A verage straigh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings fo r s elected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry d ivision , Pittsburgh, Pa. , D ecem ber 1959)
N U M B E R O F W O R K E R S R E C E IV IN G ST R A IG H T -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S O F

Average
Sex, occupation, and industry division

N um ber
of
workers

$
105.00
115.00
125.00 130.00 535.00 140.00
W eekly
W eekly Under *40.00 *45.00 *50.00 *55.00 *60.00 *65.00 *70.00 *75.00 *80.00 *85.00 *90.00 $ 95.00
hours 1 earnings 1
and
, and
(Standard) (Standard)
under
l o .o o
105.00
45.00 50.00 55.00 60.00 65.00 70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00
125.00 130.00 135.00 Il40.00! over
115.00
!

100.00

100.00

120.00

110.00

120.00

110.00

Men
!
C lerk s, accounting, cla ss A ----------------M an u factu rin g-----------------------------------N onm anufacturing----------------------------Pu blic u tilities 3 ------------------- ---F in a n ce4 ---------------------------------------

860
601
259
64
78

39.
40.
39.
39.
37.

5 $111.50
0 117.00
98. 50
0
0 113.50
87. 50
5

.
-

.
-

_
-

_
"

C lerk s, accounting, cla s s B ----------------M an u factu rin g_______________________
N onm anufacturing___________________
Pu blic utilities 3 ------------------------

612
369
24 3
163

40.
40.
39.
39.

0
0
5
5

98.00
93. 00
101.00

_
"

1
1

5
5

8
7
1

C lerk s, file , cla s s B -----------------------------

61

40. 0

67. 50

_

C lerk s, ord er ----------------------------------------M an u factu rin g-----------------------------------N onm anufacturing----------------------------W holesale tr a d e _________________

220
114
111

40.
40.
40.
40.

0
0
0
0

103.50
. 50
. 50

98.00
86
86

-

C lerk s, p a y r o l l _________________________
M an u factu rin g_______________________
N onm anufacturing----------------------------Public utilities 3 _________________

383
331
52
26

40.
40.
40.
40.

0
0
0
0

105.50
107.50
93.50
100.50

_
~

D uplicating-m ach ine op erators
(M im eograph or Ditto) ------------------------

334

96.00

2
8
~ i
|
------------1----------1
2
2
-

-

"

_
-

_
-

_

"

1
2
2

5
5

-

182
135

39. 5 109-50
40. 0 ' l l 3."50

_

T abulating-m achine o p e ra to rs,
cla s s B ----------------------------------------------------------------------M an u factu rin g------ ------------------------------------N onm anufacturing___________ ______
Pu blic utilities 3 _______ ___ ___
Finance 4 ---------------------------------------

301
167
134
27
78

39.
40.
38.
39.
38.

94.00
5
0 1 101.50
5 ! 85.00
93. 00
0
77. 50
0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Tabulating-m achine o p e ra to rs,
cla ss C ______________________________________________

71

65.00

-

T abulating-m achine o p e ra to rs,
c la s s A ______________________________________________
M an u factu rin g ------------------------------------------------------

57
54

39. 5

-

1

18

3

5

44

46

33

38
16
15

64
36
28

17
-

-

2
11

_
"

7

20
20
2

14
lo
4

_
-

64. 50

7

1

2

25
25
-

61.00
64 . 50
59. 00
71. 50
52. 50

202

6

9
4

1

3
-

7
7
-

39.
40.
39.
39.
39.

5
0
0
0
0

15

4

"

40. 0

61
320
118

O ffice boys ______________________________
M an u factu rin g-----------------------------------N onm anufacturing ___________________________
Pu blic utilities 3 ---------------------------------------Finance 4 __________________________________

3
3
-

-

18
14
4
-

12

3
9

15

48
24
24
-

2

13
9

11
20

25
14

7
13
-

11
“

-

2

9
31

38

53
13
-

22
2

24

11

~

30

66

15
15
-

8

2
2

16

20

31

1

20

7
13
9

3
5
4

14

2

10
20

2
12
12
12

16

29
29

30

_

4
16
16
4
7

1

22

16
9
4
17

10

7
7
_
-

75
30
45

48

22

28

2
12

26
4
5

16
3
3

53

52

86

20
33
20
1
12
12
-

-

-

8

-

-

-

-

!

-

8

-

10

-

13
13

19
14

"

-

10
56
45

24
17
7
3

-

-

3

9

"

-

"

“

*

-

9

19

17

-

9

18

-

-

15
3

"

9

18

12

34
4
30
7
14

13

-

7
3
3

11
1
6

17

7

7

5

1

2

5

1 _________
_

1

“

12
8

4

-

2

-

-

7

56
46

1
1
1
1

-

10
10
10

71
69

7

1
2
1
1
1

-

9

39
32
7
7

1

9

24

2
21
21

2

2

10

6

3

10
6




-

-

5
3

6

3
3

_

_

-

-

70
65
5
4

1
!

35
31
4

i

20

16
4

!

4

1

24
24
-

4

4
4
- !
19
19
“

2

4
4
-

3
3
3

9

37
34
3

-

17
14
3
3

8
8
_
"

7
7
_
"

69

2 62
7
6
"

10
10
.

2
2
17
17
~

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

.

.

.

.

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

'

-

-

“

6
6

2
2

16
15

48
45
S

44

1 39
5

1 1 4
1

2

-

24

9
7

17
15

28

17
13

15

8
6

3
3

-

2
2

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

ri

13
5
5

-

18

12

4
1

3

1

1

__________ __________,

E stim ates fo r all in du stries, nonm anufacturing, and public utilities include data fo r ra ilroa d s (SIC 40), om itted fro m the scope
of all labor m arket wage surveys m ade be fo re the w inter o f 1959-60.
W here significant, the effect of the inclusion of r a il­
roads is greatest on the data shown separately fo r the public utilities division .
The trend of earnings in selected occupational
groups in all in du stries, excluding r a ilro a d s , appears in table 2.

2

5
5

-

17

11

See footnotes at end o f table.

NOTE:

-

-

"

6

_

"

-

47
41

8

10

11
11
47
47
-

105
97

10
2

15

_

23

71
61

10
7
2

2

61
50
50

14

6
8

82
72

81
62
19
17

48
41
7
7

-

29

20
11
4
1

6
2

6

111

_

2

26
19
7

7

3

15

17

5
5

21

60
26
26

"

6

79
47
32

31
31

44
28
16
15

13
7

-

11

21

"

1

12

-

5
Table A-l. Office Occupations-Continued

(Average straight-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Pittsburgh, P a., December 1959)
Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

NUMBER
AvEBA.dE
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Weeklv Weekly U n d e r 4 0 . 00 4 5 . 00 5 0 . 00 5 5 . 00 6 0 . 00 6 5 . 00 7 0 . 00
earnings1
hours
and
(Standard) (Standard)
under
f o . o o 4 5 . 0 0 5 0 . 0 0 5 5 . 0 0 6 0 . 00 6 5 . 00 7 0 . 0 0 7 5 . 0 0

OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
«
s
$
7 5 . 00 8 0 . 00 *8 5 . 00 19 0 . 0 0 9 5 . 0 0 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 . 0 0 1 1 0 . 0 0 1 1 5 . 0 0 1 2 0 . 0 0 1 2 5 . 0 0 1 3 0 .0 0 1 3 5 . 0 0 1 4 0 . 0 0
and
8 0 . 00 8 5 . 0 0 9 0 . 00 9 5 . 0 0 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 . 0 0 1 2 0 . 0 0 1 2 5 . 0 0 1 3 0 . 0 0 1 3 5 .0 0 1 4 0 . 0 0 o v e r
1

1

Billers, machine (billing machine)
Manufacturing ----------------------Nonmanufacturing------------------Wholesale trade ----------------Billers, machine (bookkeeping
machine) --------------------------------M anufacturing------------------------Nonmanufacturing------------------Bookkeeping-machine operators,
class A --------------------------------Nonm anufacturing------------------Bookkeeping-machine operators,
class B ______________________
M anufacturing________________
Nonm anufacturing------------------Wholesale trade -----------------Finance 4 _________________
Clerks, accounting, class A ------Manufacturing ---------------------Nonmanufacturing ------------------Wholesale trade ......................
Clerks, accounting, class B ____
Manufacturing ---------------------Nonmanufacturing------------------Public utilities 3 ___________
Wholesale trade ----------------Retail trade ---------------------Finance 4 _________________
Services --------------------------Clerks, file, class A -----------------M anufacturing------------------------Nonmanufacturing ------------------Finance 4 ---------------------------Clerks, file, class B -----------------Manufacturing -----------------------Nonm anufacturing------------------Wholesale trade ----------------Retail trade ---------------------Finance 4 --------------------------Clerks, order ---------------------------M anufacturing------------------------Nonmanufacturing------------------Retail trade --------------------See footnotes at end of table.




215
84
131
66

39.5
40. 0
39. 5
39. 5

$71.00
85.50
61.50
58.00

184
50
13 4

40. 0
39.5
40. 0

63.50
69.50
61.00

3 1... .12
12
3

218
172

38. 5
38 . 5

69.50
70.00

_
.
_
24
24

6 36
162
474
107
290

38.
3938.
39 .
37.

5
61.50
5 ! 69.50
5 j 58.50
5 ! 58.50
5
58.50

437
243
194
80

39.
40.
38.
38 .

5
0
5
0

1 ,2 6 8
542
726
80
94
250
19 4
108

39.
40.
39.
40.
40.
39.
38.
39.

25 0
95
155
56

39.
40.
38.
37.

72.50
5
0 ! 84.50
63.50
0
0
87.50 !
0
71.00 !
62.00 |
5
57.00
0
54.50 |
5
; 67.50 i
0
0
76.50
5 ; 62.00
5 j 63.00

801
232
569
112
90
345

39.
40.
39.
40.
40.
38.

0
0
0
0
0
5

58.50
72.50
53.00
55.00
52.00
52.50

303
112
191
120

39.5
39. 5
39.5
40. 0

72.50
90.00
62.00
60.50

1
[
i
;
1

90.50
101.00
78.00
80.50

_
-

2
2
-

_

22 ■
| 22
: 12
' 6
_
- 1
-

i 17
;
1 17 |
j
1
; 4
! 2 [
3 i
24 1 8
_
- i
- 1
|
40
83
- 1
40
83
12 |
8 ! 13
30 1 56 1
_
-

"

8
3

25
25
16

35
6
29
28

44
11
33
11

I
1
____1 3 j
1 !
12
4 !

6

19
19

33
25
8

44
44

17
17

19
6
13

.
~

20
~

24
24

61
55

30
30 !

8

36
4
32
8
8
_
83
3
80
4
27
33
16
12

84
84
18
63

51
31
20
! 15

25
7
18
4

167
49
118
8
80
19
11

81
33
48
~
9
17
16
6

57
14
43
16

45
5
40
29

12
6
6
4

128 128
15
48
11 3
80
31
3
22 1 I 7
59 1 60

66
43
23
4
19

34
21
13
9
3

47
42
5
3
2

28 111
10 ! 5
18 | 106
14 j 94

18
5
13
1

16
16

21
4
17

16

10

-

-

16

60
41
19
10 ,
- i
2 !
1
6

10
2
8

4
4
4

!

18
6
2
1
4
17
*
!
4
125 172
48
9
116 1 12 4
2
8
12
4
38
51
55
48
11
11

10 5
I
105
30
17
50

-

10
4

4
4
_
_
18
13
5
4

5 2 i 21
23 15
6
29
_
16
4
13
28 46
- 17
28 29
12 16

1
6 ! 11
5
11
1
_
33
59
21
19
38
14
21
3

104 82
56 39
48 43
1
7
9 31
11 1 1
14 !
13 ! 4
10 15
6 1 11
4
4
2
2

-

"

26
20
6
! 2

64
44
20
14
2

9
3
2
1
7

7

7

_

|

61
30
31
16

46
32
14
7
3
5
! 4
- .

3
1

8
7
1
1
16
16
-

12

;

2
5
1

,
1

10
8
2
4
4
_

6
6
4
4

j

1
1------~---- 1 =
-

4
1
3
_
-

I
j

107
51 (
56 I
14
33

6
4

4
2

17
13

149
29
120
29
69

.
-

3
1

20
20

lf

j

1
1
’

18 1
6
16 !

|

;
j

-

6
5
1

9
2
7

!

-

_
_
-

5
5
-

10
6
4

1
J

5
5
-

11
11
_

i
;

21
21
_
"

3
2
1
-

20
20
_
-

140
19
121
10
94

37
7
30
118
14
10 4
18
12
66

12

18
6
2 !
6
16 ! _
4
-

_

|
i
- 1
24
24
_
97
88
9
2
4
3
7
! 4
3
- I
|
j 12
! 12
_ i
1

1
1
|

j

I
!
1

9
7
8
6
1 l 1
1
1

1
-

1

1
|

1

1
1 26
26 |
~

1

13
13
39
26
13
6
4
3
1
1

_
-

4
4

_
-

_
_
-

_
_

_
_
-

_
_

_
_
'

-

- j
1

-

-

-

_
-

|

1
1
1 1

* |
_

_
_
_
|
_
! ! 31
37 ! 18
37 j 18
i 30
_ 1
! 1
j
| 51
' 43 - 5 ■
_
8
5
_
2
> 6
_
1
_
2
1
j
2
_
_
1 4
1
3
- i _
4 :
4 1
_ j ;
i
_
|
_
_
-

_
_
_

1

-

|
:
!
'
!
|
|

1
1

_

_

-

-

10
9
1
'

_
_
_
_
-

_

12
12

6
6

5
5

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_
_

-

“

'

1

_
_
.
_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_
_ 1
_ 1
_
_
_
_
*
.
.
_
_
.
.
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
_
"
_
-

_
_
_
_
_
_
-

:

_
_

1

_
_

“

6
Table A-1. Office Occupatbns-Continued
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d o n an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d iv is io n , P it t s b u r g h , P a . , D e c e m b e r 1959)

Average

Sex, occu pation, aud in d u stry d iv isio n

Number
of
workers

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF
$
S
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
*
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Weekly Weekly U n d e r 4 0 . 00 4 5 . 00 5 0 . 00 55. 00 6 0 . 0 0 6 5 . 00 7 0 . 00 7 5 . 00 8 0 . 00 8 5 . 0 0 9 0 . 00 9 5 . 0 0 1 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 5 . 0 0 1 1 0 . 0 0 1 1 5 . 0 0 1 2 0 . 0 0 1 2 5 . 0 0 1 3 0 . 0 0 1 3 5 . 0 0 1 4 0 . 0 0
hours 1 earnings 1
and
(Standard) (Standard) $
and
under
4 0 . 00 4 5 . 00 50. 00 5 5 . 00 6 0 . 00 6 5 . 0 0 7 0 . 0 0 7 5 . 00 8 0 . 00 8 5 . 00 9 0 . 00 9 5 . 00 1 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 5 . 0 0 1 1 0 . 0 0 1 1 5 . 0 0 1 2 0 . 0 0 1 2 5 . 0 0 1 3 0 . 0 0 1 3 5 . 0 0 1 4 0 . 0 0 o v e r

W om en :— C o n t i n u e d
C l e r k s , p a y r o l l ______________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _____ _______________
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 3 _____________________
R e t a i l t r a d e ___________________________
F i n a n c e 4 ______________________________

658
415
243
30
82
53

39.
39.
39.
39.
39.
38.

5 $ 8 1 . 50
5 8 6 . 50
5 7 3 . 00
0 8 8 . 00
5 7 2 . 50
5 6 6 . 50

C o m p t o m e t e r o p e r a t o r s ___________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e _____________________
R e t a i l t r a d e __________________________

438
176
262
89
120

39.
40.
39.
40.
39.

5
0
5
0
0

D u p lica tin g -m a ch in e o p era to rs
( M i m e o g r a p h o r D it t o ) ----------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________________________

95
81

K e y p u n c h o p e r a t o r s ________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 3 _____________________
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e ___________________
F i n a n c e 4 ______________________________

943
476
467
142
107
168

O f f i c e g i r l s ___________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________

270
130
140

34
4
30
9
5

85
47
38
27
4

64 ! 69
33 ! 49
31
20
3
3
4
5
15
7

26
17
9
1
2

57
44
13
7
4
2

18
4
14
11
2

72
2
70
20
47

71
34
37
16
19

71
69
47
23
24 1 46
16
16
7
13

27
12
15
3

-

00
00
50
00
00

6
6
6

1
1.
"

12
12
8

17
4
13
8
3

39. 5
40. 0

6 9 . 00
7 1 . 50

-

6
2

10
6

8
8

14
9

22
21

4
4

12
12

39.
40.
38.
39.
40.
38.

7 2 . 00
7 8 . 50
6 6 . 00
71.00
6 8 . 50
59. 50

_
-

2
2
2

33
33
33

43
43
15
4
22

107
19
88
22
38
20

137
46
91
17
16
37

129
51
78
23
15
38

90
57
33
19
3
6

135
104
31
12
5
10

72.
77.
68.
67.
67.

5
0
5
0
0
0

55. 50
58. 00
5 3 . 50

39. 5
40. 0
39. 0

.

S e c r e t a r i e s ___________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 3 _____________________
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e _____________________
R e t a i l t r a d e ___________________________
F i n a n c e 4 ______________________________
S e r v i c e s _______________________________

3, 0 4 5
1, 6 8 2
1, 36 3
225
312
101
46 1
264

39.
40.
39.
39.
39.
40.
38.
39.

5
0
0
5
5
5
0
5

8 9 . 50
! 94.00
! 84.00
i 99.50
8 4 . 00
1 71.00
1 80.00
81.50

S t e n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l ___________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g _______________________ _
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g _____________________
P u b lic u t ilit ie s 3 _____________________
W h o le s a le t r a d e _____________________
R e t a il tra d e ----------------------------------------F in a n c e 4 ___________________________
S e r v i c e s ____________________________

2, 9 2 8
1, 621
1, 307
380
369
98
35 0
110

39.
40.
39.
38.
40.
40.
37.
40.

5
0
0
5
0
0
0
0

75.
79.
70.
79.
71.
63.
65.
63.

-

S t e n o g r a p h e r s , t e c h n ic a l ________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g __________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g _____________________

196
116
80

40. 0
40. 0
39. 5

50 i
50
50
00
50
50
50
00

8 5 . 00
8 9 . 00
7 9 . 00
1




25
10
15
5
5

-

_
_
-

See footnotes at end of table.

42
10
32
4
8
9

26
18
8
2
3

_
-

i

25
19
6

52
6
46

85
48
37

51
13
38

_
18
18
8
8
2

23
23
16
7

16
16
4
12
148
20
128
12
44
11
42
19

65
15
50
3
8
8
17
14

1
1
!
1
i
:

_

38
4
34
1
8
6
13
6

_

!

1

_
-

1

i
J _______
_

6
6
235
85
150
3
56
21
31
39

234
371
165
109
12 5
206
33
35
25
47
5 1 29
52 ! 58
10
37

-

-

18
18
175
53
12 2
16
4
58
44

1

1
i

14

7
7

j
1

36
23
13
2
3
“

47
40
7
3
3
1

20
15
5
2
2

33
22
11
5

17
13
4
1

5
5

4
4

10
10

-

-

70
49
21
5
8
-

46
31
15
13
2
“

128
109
19
3
16
-

15
3
12
12
-

8
7
1
1
_
338
229
109
33
19
4
39
! 14
118
10 2
16
15
1
-

2
2
315
174
141
18
44
15
42
22

7
7

1
1

14 4
67
77
7
4
10
48
8

6
6
254
108
146
6
38
11
63
28

267
137
13 0
29
28
2
43
28

282
144
138
21
39
3
63
12

2
2
353
251
102
23
29
3
28
19

392
185
207
37
88
2
67
13

324
180
144
32
41
30
34
7

322
211
111
37
29
2
35
8

256
174
82
44
6
3
25
4

193
122
71
50
10
1
6
4

16 7
95
72
56
10

285
199
86
22
60

22

12
6
6

33
15

31
4
27

18

11
11

15
3
12

18

14
4

1
l
!
;
!

5
10
7
3

|

4
27
23

56
47
9
8
-

33
20
13
6
3
-

.

.
-

-

_
-

26
26
-

26
25
1
1
-

1
1
- 1
1 j
j
1
|
(
1
i

3
3

~ 1
I
j
* i

-

13
13

2
2

14
14

.
-

|
j
!

i
!
I

.
90
62
67 1 4 4
23
18
7
11
6
9
1
_
1
6
23
22
1
1
-

4
4
-

-

-

.

.
- 1
“
281 1 9 6
208
69
73
27
35
15
5
3
1
2
6
3
1
29

-

3

-

.

i
!
;
|
;
- |
- 1

!
i
i
1

35
29
6
6 :
- j
- j

5
2
3
1
-

_

1
1
_
-

_
-

.
-

_
-

.
-

.
-

-

~
_
-

_
-

_ j
- 1
- 1
j

.

- |
"
27
19
8
6
2
-

9
5
4
3
1
-

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

.

_

_

4

j

t

"

1 _______
_

~

_

_

I
!i
i
i

_
-

;

:
l

5
3
2
2
_

_
-

_

_
_
-

_
-

“
8
4
4
3
1
_
-

_

_
_
_
-

_
-

7
Table A -l. O ffice Occupations-Continued

Sex, occupation, and industry division

(Average straight-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Pittsburgh, Pa. , December 1959)
Averaqk
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF
Number Weekly^
$
$
$
$
s
$
$
Weekly Under $40.00 $45.00 $50.00 $55.00 $60.00 $65.00 $70.00 $75.00 $80.00 $85.00 $9 0 . 0 0 $ 95.00 $0 0 . 0 0 $
1
105.00 1 1 0 . 0 0 115.00 1 2 0 . 0 0 125.00 130.00 135.00|140.00
(Standard) (Standard) 40. 0 0
- 1 and
$
45.00 50.00 55.00 60.00 65.00 70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 1 0 0 . 0 0 105.00 1 1 0 . 0 0 115.00 1 2 0 . 0 0 125.00 130,00S135.001140.00 over

Women—Continued
Switchboard operators _______________
M anufacturing_____________________
Nonmanufacturing_______________
Public utilities 3 ______________
Retail tr a d e ------------------- -------Finance 4 _______________________

535
187
348
103
61
72
71
392
178
214
117

Switchboard operator-receptionists___
Manufacturing ___________________
Nonmanufacturing_________________
Wholesale trad e _______________
Tabulating-machine operators,
class A _____________________________
51
Tabulating-machine operators,
class B ___________________________
176
M anufacturing___________________
109
Nonmanufacturing__________ __ _
67
Tabulating-machine operators,
class C - __________________________
121
Nonmanufacturing_________________
91
Transcribing-m achine operators,
general ------------------------------------------399
80
M anufacturing------------------------------Nonmanufacturing_____________ _
319
Wholesale trad e ---------------------146
713
Typists, class A _____________________
M anufacturing------------------------- __
394
Nonmanufacturing_________________
319
Public utilities 3 --------------------41
TTi na nrp^
161
Typists, class B ---------------------------------------------1,6 8 8
M anufacturing -------------------------------------------------720
Nonmanufacturing_____________ _
968
43
Public utilities 3 ----------------------------W ir pc^ 1p traH
V tl
p
312
Retail traH
p
134
Finance 4 __________________ __
370
Services______________________
109

39. 5 $74.00
40. 0 81.50
39. 5 69.50
39. 5 82.00
40. 5 57.00
37. 5 69.50
39 5 64 00
39. 5 6 9 . 0 0
39. 5 70.50
39. 5 67.50
39.5 67.00
40. 0

10 0 .0 0

39.5
40. 0
39. 0

83.00
87.00
76.00

38. 5
38. 0

6 6 .0 0

63.50

39. 5 64.50
39. 5 71.00
39. 5 62.50
40. 0 6 9 . 0 0
39. 5 75.00
40. 0 77.50
39. 0 71.50
39. 0 1 74.50
38. 5 j 61.50
39. 5 62.50
39.5 67.50
39. 0 58.50
38. 5 63.50
40. 0 61.50
40. 0 56.50
38. 0 55.00
39. 5 60.50

iI

-

4
4
_
4
-

12

.
"

7
7
-

29
10
19
16

-

-

-

-

"

20

76
6
70
8
18
5
29
81
49
32
15

67
14
53
11
17
15
46
13
33
15

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4
4

16
16

18

10

10
8

9

35
13

1

-

7
7

31
31

23

1
1

53
4
49
4
29
4
29
4
23
16 84 142
7 16
13
9 - 6 8 129
g 16
19
17
19
1
21
79
12
14

30
6
24
"
27
5

48
4
44

-

12

-

11
1

_

19
5
14
12
2

]0

-

10

54
6
48
5
17
18
37
37

8

16
228
56
172
8
74
6
76

52
17
35
4
25
348
91
257
6
80
33
118

8

20

22
6

12

33
33

81 64
10
61 54
39 27
83 81
41 35
42 46
1
6
28 38
301 144
154 94
147 50
13
6
16 16
4
53
54
6
11
18
20

51
29

22
11

5
3
66

50
16
8

55
34

61
22
i: 39

61
13
48
46

21

1
5
! 5
50 18
13 1 1
37
7
2
29
11
1

2

53
52

11
1

1
1

2

21
11

13

_

4
4
4
_

4
4
_
_

6

2
2

4
8
5

25
12
13
7

3
3
-

4
4
-

6

1

7

3

9

20

22

28
25
3

8
1

16
4

18
3

6
2

1
1

1
1

12
8

19
12
7

4
3

57 29
2
11
55 18
42 18
57 142
43 115
14 27
3 4
15
10
135
120
88
88
32 47
8
12
18
_
15
12
14

12

4
4
37
24
13

26
25
1
-

6

22
20
2
-

-

2

_

99
51
48
471




_
_

_
_

- J

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

_

_
_
-

_

_

-

-

24

3

3

4

10
8
2

19
14
5

2
1

i
3 I 2
2
| "

2
2

-

-

_

_

-

-

_
_

_
-

_

2

-

145
69
76

28
18

2
2
-

10

11

-

44
39
5

4

-

_

_

2

-

1

2
2
2

-

_
_

-

-

_

1
-

-

_

_
_

-

-

r^ —
-

1
!— 1— 1--_
i— :—
i _

-

-

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-tim e salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.

Workers were distributed as follows: 49 at $ 140 to $145; 13 at $145 and over.
3 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
4 Finance, insurance, and real estate.

1

_
_

2

2
2

4
1

_
_

1

-

1

6

1
_

-

_
-

_
-

_

_

l

-

-

-

_

-

1

i

-

_
_
-

-

_

_

_
_
_

*

_

-

_

_

8
Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations

(Average straight-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Pittsburgh, Pa. , December 1959)
N U M B E R O F W O R K E R S R E C E IV IN G ST R A IG H T -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S O F

A v er a g e

Sex, occupation, and industry division
Men
Draftsmen, leader ----------------------------M anufacturing------------------------------Draftsmen, sen io r-------- ----------------M anufacturing____________________
Nonm anufacturing--------------------------Public utilities 2 _______________
Draftsmen, junior -------- --------------- _
M anufacturing____________________
Nonm anufacturing_________________
Public utilities 2 _______________
Women
Nurses, industrial (registered) ---------M anufacturing____________________

N um ber
of
workers

506
46F
1, 667
1, 395
272
45
932
727
205
46
323

297

W eekly ^ W eekly
earnings 1
(Standard) (Standard)

40. 0 1$ 162.50
40. 0 163.50
40. 0 131.50
40. 0 134.50
40. 0 117.50
39. 0 117.50
40. 0 9 6 . 0 0
40. 0 99.50
39.5 84.50
39.0 93.00
40. 0 98.50
40. 0 ! 9 9 . 0 0

$
$
$
$
S
$
$
$
$
S
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
s
60. 0 0 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 0 0 85. 00 9 0 . 0 0 95.00 1 0 0 . 0 0 105.00 1 1 0 . 0 0 115.00 1 2 0 . 0 0 130.00 140.00 150.00 1 6 0 . 0 0 170.00 180.00 $9 0 . 0 0 $0 0 . 0 0 !I2 1 0 . 0 0
1
2
and
and
70. 00 75. 00 80. 0 0 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 1 0 0 . 0 0 105.00 1 1 0 . 0 0 115.00 1 2 0 . 0 0 130.00 140.00 150.00 1 6 0 . 0 0 170.00 180.00 1 9 0 . 0 0 2 0 0 . 0 0 2 1 0 . 0 0 over
_

_

_

-

_
7
7

_
21

_
"
27

8

21
6

-

2

1

4

13

!
1

3

_

- . .

_
97
41
56

2
2

84
47
37

21

17
4
"

19 2

12

41
36

3

14
12

150
42
7

20

23

_
36
32
4
129
114
15

84
44
40
5
35
34

1

74
37
37
4
36
21
15
15

42
40

29
26

41
40

j

_

1
1

98
78
20
10

59
55
4

.

1

133
117
16
4
80
77
3

i

~

67
63

66

90
51
39
9
81
75
6

-

53
53

67
222

175
47
3
35
32
3
3

4

3

2

55
49
298
227
263 207
35 2 0
3
6
37 1 2
35 1 2
2
-

80 93
72 91
217 141
207 141
10
1
_
_
-

31
17

2

-

-

-

2

43
37
4
4
_
-

-

_

_
i

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-tim e salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
2 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
NOTE: See note on p. 4, relative to the inclusion of railroads.

16

16

6
— 6

10
10

1
1

_
-

----

_
-

“

_

1

98
98
9
9
_
-

16

16
_
_
-

_

_

_

_

______

Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations

(Average straight-tim e hourly earnings for men in selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Pittsburgh, Pa. , December 1959)
Occupation and industry division
C arpenters, m aintenance___________________
M anufacturing----------------------------------------Nonm anufacturing-----------------------------------Public u tilities 2 ..................
.... .
Electricians, maintenance __________________
M anufacturing_____________________._____
Nonm anufacturing_______________________
P u b lic

u tilitie s 2

Engineers, stationary ______________________
M anufacturing___________________________
Nonmanufacturing_______________________
Public u tilities 2 ______________________
Retail trade --------------------------------------Finance 3 -------------------------------------------

of

Number

956
738
218
147
2, 567
2, 145
422
377
765
563
202
45
50
63

Average
hourly
earnings

$ 2 . 81
2. 84
2. 73
2. 52
2. 97
3. 01
2. 77
2. 72
2 . 80
2. 8 6
2 . 62
2. 55
3. 01
2. 57

1

$
1.80
and
under
1.90

$

$

.
2 . 10

.90
2 . 00

2 00

1

_
- !
I
4
4
2
2
i

_
3
-

3
3

13
13
|

i
i

18
15
3

$
2 . 20
2. 30
2. 30 2. 40

$

S

. 10
2 . 20
2

-

-

34

17

34 1 17
,

|
45 43 i
2
2
! 19 2 1 |
26 i 2 2 !
1 !
l 1
_
l 1
-

1

20

1

See footnotes at end of table.




______

16
ii
3
3
42
42
17
8
9
1

2
1

N UM BER OF WO RK ERS R E CE IVIN G ST R A IG H T-TIM E HOURLY E A RN ING S OF—

i $ 40 |$2. 50 $ . 60
2.
2
| ~ : - | l.2. 50 1 2 . 60 2. 70
|
165 58
77
31 ! 57
73
134
4
1 !
1 !
3
i 120
40 . 245 189
33 ' 85
54
135
1 7 , 160
! 160 135
34 ! 39 123
24 ! 26
90
! 33
i io ;1 13 ! 2 0
j
4
1 !
7
9

1

!$
$
$
$
$
$
$
2.70 11 $ . 80 ! 2 . 9 0 3. 00 I $ 10 3. 20 3. 30 3. 40 3. 50 $3. 60 $3. 70 $3. 80
2
3.
i 2. 90 ; 3.- oo j - | 2.80
ii * ■ : _3. 1 0 . 1 3. 20 3. 30 3. 40 3. 50 3. 60_ J h 70 3.8 0 3.90
i
60 307 113 1 15 1 1
40 30 18
13
7
13
51 291 1 0 6 i 14
36 26 18
9
16
7 | 1
2
4
4
13
13
7
9
1
6
2 1
4
7 ;
I
204 145 469 1 373 219 1 6 0 2 0 0 41
20
64 2 2 62
201
20
14
64 2 2 56
109 465 : 369 194 159 1 9 2
36
4 1 4 25
21
6
8
1
6
3 !
1
J
1
28
4 ! 3 24
21
1
1
4
7 1 0 1 13
2
63 ; 1 1 6 51 ! 1 0 1 1 54
16
9
4
36
97 51 1 T o o 29 l
4
5 10
11
2
16
25
5
2
2
27 | 19
! i j
13 1
i
_ i i 25
5
2
2
1
13
19

$
3. 90
and
over
3
_
3

9
8
1
1

9
Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations-Continued

(Average straight-tim e hourly earnings for men in selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Pittsburgh, P a., December 1959)
N U M B E R O F W O R K E R S R E C E IV IN G S T R A IG H T -T IM E H O U R L Y E A R N IN G S O F—

Occupation and industry division

Number
of
workers

Average,
hourly
earnings'1

$
$
1$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
S
1.80 $
and 1.90 2. 00 2 10 2. 20 2. 30 2. 40 2. 50 2. 60 2.70 2.80 2. 90 3. 00 3. 10 3. 20 3. 30 3.40 3. 50 3. 60 3. 70 3.80
under
1.90 2. 00 2. 10 2 20 2. 30 2, 40 . 2. 50 2.60 2.70. _ 2. 80 2. 90 3. 00 _ JL 10 _ 3, 20_ 3. 30 _3. 40 3t 50 3. 60 3^70 3j 80 3. 90

Firem en, stationary boiler ---------------------------Manufacturing -----------------------------------------Helpers, trades, maintenance ----------------------Manufacturing -----------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing-------------------------------------Machine-tool operators, toolroom -----------------Manufacturing -----------------------------------------Machinists, maintenance ------------------------------Manufacturing -----------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing -------------------------------------Mechanics, automotive (maintenance) -----------Manufacturing ----------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing-------------------------------------Public u tilities2 ----------------------------------Mechanics, maintenance -----------------------------Manufacturing ----------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing-------------------------------------Public u tilities2 _______________________
Millwrights --------------------------------------------------Manufacturing -----------------------------------------Oilers ---------------------------------------------------------Manufacturing -----------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------------Public u tilities2 -----------------------------------Painters, maintenance ---------------------------------Manufacturing -----------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------------Public utilities 2......... .................. -—..............
Pipefitters, maintenance ------------------------------Manufacturing -----------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing -------------------------------------Plum bers, m aintenance--------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------------Public utilities 2 ------------------------............
Sheet-metal w orkers, maintenance ----------------Manufacturing -----------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing-------------------------------------Tool and die m akers ---------- ------------------------—
Manufacturing -----------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing--------------------------------------

583
546
3, 137
2, 680
457
933
933
2, 332
2, 134
198
803
393
410
293
2, 927
2, 857
70
30
1, 343
1, 341
785
731
54
54
550
414
136
65
1, 304
1, 254
50
98
53
35
243
173
70
1, 090
1, 001
89

$ 2. 64
2. 65
2. 46
2. 48
2. 34
3. 07
3. 07
3. 03
3. 07
2. 62
2.79
2. 88
2. 70
2.69
2. 90
2. 90
2. 94
2. 84
3. 00
3. 00
2. 51
2. 52
2. 46
2. 46
2. 67
2. 69
2. 58
2. 69
2. 87
2. 87
2. 80
2. 70
2. 64
2. 61
2. 83
2. 90
2. 65
3. 12
3. 16
2. 58

14
14
27
4 25
2
_
6
6
1 _
.
; _
i !
! _
_
.

-

_
-

1
.
_
-

,
i
,
1
!
!
!
i

4
4
60
60
1S
15
21
21
_
_
_

_

-

4 22
4 22
149 117
142 82
7 35
_
_
_
_
.
23
23
88 28
i 51
88 28
: 51_
_
2
2
I 12
24 58
12
24 ' 42
- 16
- ! - 16
_ 11
1
- ! 6
1 ! 5
_ ! _
4
4
- j
1
1 ! 1
1
1j i
21 6
3
-j 6
r~ T ~
2
1 - 1 _
| 17
9
42
39
3
2
2

1
1
:
|

72
72
1516|
1165,
351;
ill
n

i

9
3
6
6
14
; I2
1 2
19
19
228
228 1
i
-'
i| 31 i!
31
i
ii
i
9
i
9i
-j
1 7!
3I
3I
1--------|
! 2
1 2

i
J--------- J--------Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Finance, insurance, and real estate.
Includes 7 workers at $ 1.60 to $ 1.70.
NOTE: See note on p. 4, relative to the inclusion of railroads,




71
59
160
160
“
12
12
13
12
1
45
10
35
34
58
53
5
1
12
12
78
78
76
31
45
28
44
43
1
4
4
9
8
1
2
2

75
67
395
347
48
54
54
189
13
176
i 89
! 34
55
47

54
53
. 374 ;
! 374 1
" .
. 59 .
' 59 i
70
' 67
3
j 80
I 29^H
! 21
! 51 i

380
1 92 ! 366
91
1 14
1
5
41 i 48
41 i 48
, 89 : 1 0 6
| 52 | 106
1 37 '
! 37 1
: 40 I 51
! 36 | 46
I 4 ! 5
2
i 4
j 65 ! 120
1 45 I 120
i 20
36
! 25 1 7
3
25 ! 3
i1 52 ! 20
i io 14
6
1 42
101 1 11
i 14 ! 9
87 ! 2
j------- j---------

!
S
|
!
;
j

84 25
82 20
124 144
124 144
"
53 60
53 60
36 331
36 ! 325
6
187 96
20 79
167 17
1
167
115 202
110 197
5i 5
3; 3
36 77
36 ! 77
80 25
79 25
1i
.
1
201 42
181 40
2
20
2
13
97 642
91 630
6 12
4
8
2
3
1
17 19
14 1 3
3 6
15 113
15 113

12 124
j i 2 | 124
1 85 ' 4
' 74' 4
~
11
i 97 ; 85
1 97 , 85
163 : 986
160 985
3 1
135 ■ 67
,
■ 108 66
27 1 1
4
1
1050 , 222
10 30; 222
20
17 : 483 i 160
i 483 160
66 i
66 j
-

4
4
-

33 8
! 24
3
1 9 5
7 "
97 67
97 67
19 4
6 1
1 "
24 72
15 71
9 1
114 224
j 114 224

8
8
_
-

_
_
;
i
- | I
- ;
2
j 135 265
; 135 “ 265 j 2
j 109 224
55
101 224
55
8 ; - I
9 j
11 1 4
TTj
9 ;
■
_i 1
204 | 137 174 i
1 202~1 133 173 i
1
4
I 2
- !
j
20 i 22 217 1
20 22 217
_
_
_
s
12
11
9
6
10
2
5
9
9
"
"
12
73 10
12
63
9
10
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
_
_
16
16 !
63 156
18
63 156
18

- _ .
- - 50 40
50 40
28 2
28 2
18 _
- is 12 11 73
8 70
3 3
52 6
52 4
_ _
- - 1 2
- 1 2
- 14 50
14 50
2
- _

-

166 95
166 95

“
_
_
_
_
14
16 96
14
16 96
_
_
20
20
_ 17
5
- 17
5
_ ! . i _
88
88
"
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
3
3
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

$ 90
3.
and
over
_
"
8
8
.
6
6
_
_
_
_
“
_
-

_

10
10

10
Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d iv is io n , P it t s b u r g h , P a . , D e c e m b e r 1959)

Occupation1 and industry division
Elevator operators, passenger
(men) ---------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing-------------------------Elevator operators, passenger
(women) -----------------------------------------M anufacturing------------------------------Guards --------------------------------------------M anufacturing____________________
N onm anufacturing------------------------Public utilities 4 _______________

Number
of
workers

N U M B E R OF W O R K ER S R E C E IV IN G ST R A IG H T -T IM E H O U R L Y E A R N IN G S O F—

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
S
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
S
$
$
$
$
$
Average
hourly
earnings 2 Under 1. 10 1. 20 1. 30 1.40 1. 50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2. 00 2. 10 2. 20 2. 30 2. 40 2. 50 2. 60 2. 70 2. 80 2. 90 3. 00 3. 10 3. 20 3.30 3. 40 3. 50
and
$
and
1. 10 under 1.30 1.40 1. 50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2. 00 2. 10 2. 20 2. 30 2. 40 2. 50 2. 60 2. 70 2. 80 2. 90 3. 00 3. 10 3. 20 3. 30 3. 40 3. 50 over
1.20

219
209

$ 1.74
1.72

38
8

-

- 18
18

17
16

20
20

20
20

55
55

4
4

64
64

_

1
1

3
3

9

186
T58~
1, 654
1, 532
122
54

1. 53
1. 51
2. 43
2. 43
2. 41
2. 69

12
12
_
-

“
_
-

- 36
- 36
_ _
- -

1
1
17
16
1

53
53
11
8
3

59
56
8
8
-

20 5
5 5
14 28
25
14 3

-

-

-

-

-

33
33
5
4
24

149 51
30 119 51
14
42 21
10 6
67 10

140 209 27 5 241
5 41 79
140 204 234 162
7 - 8
8 23
18 12
8
38
4 172 13
50 35 40 104
27 145 14 14

120 64
17 7
103 57
3 -14
58 7
2 2
2 8
2 8
- !
- 2 8
1 _
- 1 1 - i
_ 2 i
- - 2
- 2

328
5
323
52
86
170
12
12
8
5
5I
4i
1
9!
1
9,

Janitors, porters, and cleaners
(men) ______________________________ 4, 319
1.93 77
M anufacturing____________________
2, 700
2. 08
Nonmanufacturing -------------------------- 1, 619
1. 68 77
Public u tilities4 _______________
308
2. 00
Wholesale trade -----------------------110
1.74
1. 56 12
Retail trade -----------------------------349
1.73
Finance 5 ______________________
429
Services _______________________
423
1.48 65
Janitors, porters, and cleaners
(women) ____________________________ 1, 603
1.49 3 247
M anufacturing------------------------------425
1. 83
7
Nonmanufacturing _________________ 1, 178
1.36 240
1. 55
Public u tilities4 -----------------------166
Retail trade ____________________
187
1. 31 28
400
Finance 5 --------------------------------1.49 12
2. 23 3 22
Laborers, m aterial handling _________ 4, 775
M anufacturing____________________
2. 21
3, 329
Nonm anufacturing-------------------------- 1,446
2. 27 22
Public utilities 4 ----------------------2. 35
449
2. 25
603
Wholesale trade _______________
372
2. 28 22
Retail trade -----------------------------_
Order fillers ________________________ 1, 787
2. 31
551
2. 22
M anufacturing------------------------------2. 34
Nonm anufacturing-------------------------- 1, 236
814
2. 21
Wholesale trade ----------------------421
2. 59
Retail trade -----------------------------_
2. 33
Receiving clerks ____________________
439
2. 36
M anufacturing------------------------------243
Nonm anufacturing_________________
196
2. 29
2. 38
Wholesale trade -----------------------89
93
Retail trade -----------------------------2. 29
Shipping clerks - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 489- - - - - - - 2.- 44- - - - - - _
- - - - M anufacturing____________________
2. 48
357
Nonmanufacturing _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 132_ _ _ _ 2. _ 32 _ _
_
_
Wholesale trade - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 82- - - - - - 2. 24
- - 2. 45
50
Retail trade ____________________

-

-




419
194
225
54
12
11
140
8

15 21
15 9
12
-

490 11655 !
34711560 i
143 1 95 i
87 i 72 I
1: 3 !

228
157
71 :
7
20
1
33
10
39 !
31 !
8

i

- 1
o

45

228 i
213 !
15 I
5!
10
-

;

!

-

-

-

168 404 241 190
167 400 | 178 190
63
4 44
1 1
■
4
1 1

32 i 71 ! 13 !
1--- 14 70
28
1 13
19 1 1 ! 12
8
I 1
i 1

18 !
i

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

.
" '
|
-

5
5
5

_

_
-

_
-

8
8
"

_
"

2
2
"

-

-

-

-

,

- -

7
1
i— n i fn 1
71 i
!

- i

v

i

-

I

-

-

-

-

!

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

]

1

84
4
80
1
26
26
10
_
_
4
4

-

_

_

-

4

-

-

-

-

-

433
113
320
69
7
214
35
35

40
19
21
16

i

-

-

83 78
76 78
71
5 -

42 1 9
40 1
2
2 I 55

|
4

_

-

|

-

33
2
2 i;
2!
9!
9 ii
8
- |
5
1
1! - i !
;
4
-i
41
i
i

S ee fo o t n o t e s at en d o f ta b le .

6 131 183 179
2 126 171 ; 174
4 5 12
5

59
57
2

-

39 256 198
212 167
39 44 31
4
16 39 28 27
14 29 207
- 10 97
14 19 110
12 16 52
3 58
2
2 50
- 9
2 41
2 41
i
3 13
2
i
1 13
- 8
1 5

-

274
249
25
- 16 .
9
160
16
144
108
36
15
6
9
6
3
7
7
4
3

505
293
212
1
206
5
112
18
94
58
36
26
18
8
6
2
14
5
9
8
1

1247
1025
222
77
136
9
347
119
228
219
9
36
19
17
14
3
81
51
30
27
3

57 5
430
145
108
32
5
181
130
51
8
43
43
28
15
8
4
35
30
5
2
3

663 267 120
573 - 98 33
90 169 87
15 155 87
4
73
2 10
277 45 47
56 29 13
221 16 34
218 15 32
2
3
1
70 59 61
61 31 50
9 28 11
8 28 11
1
68 21 92
12 72
63
5
9 20
20
2
8
3
1

76 122
51 98
25 24
1
24 24
_
45
45
5
13
3
13
2
1
58 26
54 26
4
3
1

91
18
73
72
1
72
72
72
4
4
-

-

15
15

52
34
18

-

48
2
46

27
6
21
-

-

-

18
62
62 62
9
1
8
88
8

46 2 1
45 ! 102
j
18
84
4
-5 44 84

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

“
6
3
3

3

-

6

4

2
2

46
46
1
45
27
27
27
5
5
5
11
1
10
10

20
20
-

20
7
7
7
_
20
20
20
8
2
6
6

4
4

40
40
-

- -

-

4
_
-

1
1
1
3
3
-

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

“
3
3

-

-

11
Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations-Continued
(A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t im e h o u r ly e a rn in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d iv is io n , P it t s b u r g h , P a . , D e c e m b e r 1959)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

Occupation1 and industry division
Shipping and receiving c lerk s_________
M anufacturing____________________
Nonm anufacturing_________________
Public utilities 4 ______________
Truckdrivers 6 _______________________
M anufacturing___________________
Nonm anufacturing_________________
Public u tilities4 -----------------------Wholesale tra d e ____________ __
Retail tra d e ____________________
Truckdrivers, light
(under 11/z tons) _________________
Nonmanufacturing--------------------T ruckdrivers, medium (IV 2 to
and including 4 tons)_____________
M anufacturing__________________
Nonm anufacturing--------------------Public utilities 4 ------------------Wholesale trad e _____________
Retail trade _________________
T ruckdrivers, heavy (over
4 tons, trailer type) _____________
M anufacturing--------------------------Nonmanufacturing--------------------Public u tilities4 ------------------Truckdrivers, heavy (over
4 tons, other than trailer type)___
M anufacturing------------------------Nonmanufacturing--------------------T ruckers, power (forklift)-----------------M anufacturing_____________ ____
Nonm anufacturing----------------------Truckers, power (other than
forklift)__________________________
M anufacturing----------------------------Nonmanufacturing_________________
Watchmen____________________________
M anufacturing------------------------------Nonmanufacturing_________________
Retail tra d e __________________

Number
of
workers

Average Linder $1. 10 $1. 20 $1. 30 $1.40 $1. 50 $1.60 $1. 70 S1.80 $1.90 $2. 00 $2. 10 $2. 20 $2. 30 $2.40 $2. 50 $2. 60 $2. 70 $2. 80 $2. 90 $3. 00 $3. 10 $3. 20 $3. 30 $3.40
hourly
earnings2 $
and
1. 10 under 1. 30 1.40 1. 50 1. 60 1. 70 1. 80 1. 90 2. 00 2. 10 2. 20 2. 30 2. 40 2. 50 2. 60 2. 70 2. 80 2. 90 3. 00 3. 10 3. 20 3. 30 3. 40 3. 50
1. 20

225 $2. 37
67 2.46
158 2. 33
65 2. 35
4,239 2. 68
1,572 2. 73
2,667 2. 65
1, 309 2. 57
728 2. 64
580 2. 87

-

8
8

2
2

2
2

_
-

_
-

_
"

_
-

_
-

_
-

1
1
1
-

440
203
237

2. 53
2. 64
2.43

-

"

-

"

-

-

1
1

2
2

7
7

-

24
24

12
12

2, 160
801
1,359
771
409
139

2. 64
2. 85
2. 51
2. 50
2. 56
2.48

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5
5
5
-

27
7
20
3
8

4
4
4
-

18
10
8
8

855
209
646
353

2.91
2. 62
3. 01
2. 84

290
230
60
2, 104
2, 031
73

2. 57
2. 58
2. 56
2. 38
2. 37
2. 66

1,475
1,348
127
630
442
188
52

2. 69
2. 72
2.43
1. 89
1. 99
1. 64
1. 74

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_
-

_
"

11
10
1

_

"
12
12

"
25
17
8

“
42
8
34
28

"

_
"
3 62 18
48 14 18
_

-

2

2

-

28
5
23
6

"
_

9
9
1




4,

e x ce p t w h ere

o t h e r w is e

"

9
9
-

23
16
7
1

in d ic a t e d .

r e la t iv e to the in c lu s io n o f r a il r o a d s .

and la te s h ift s .

2
2

-

177 28
177 28
“
73 73 - 16 62
4 45
12 17
4

—

24 177
3 24
21 153

40 114
40 114
-

10 147 1 126
9 26 J 61
1 121 i 65
1 21 ! 9
84 | 56
: 16
-

85
45
40
4
36
-

965
38
927
723
74
100

184
111
73
71
2

3
3

D a ta lim it e d

S ee note on p .

14 12 29 36 24 22 18 22
- 6
3 15 12 17
1 22 14
6 29 33 9 10
1
1 19 31
1
1
1 "
"
“
"
24 268 212 151 1690 288 262 256 26 349 I ll 329 173
3
11 58 130 78 322 204 232 67 24 218 28 172
13 210 82 73 1368 84 30 189 2 131 83 157 170
- 66 72
- 2 1 102 14 35 999
- 24
12 84 68 36 90 82 30 186 - 88
_ 249
2 - 4 3 | 83 67 98
2
- 16

-

E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m pay f o r o v e r t im e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s ,
A ll w o r k e r s w e r e at $1 an h o u r .
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o t h e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .
F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e .
In clu d e s a ll d r iv e r s r e g a r d le s s o f s iz e and type o f tru c k o p e r a t e d .

NOTE:

23
8
15
7
48
16
32
24
8

2
2

1

w ork ers

3
3
1
4
4
4
-

-

2
3
4
5
6

to m e n

7
7
7
-

8
r
2
2
36
9
27
6
4
8

-

4
2
2
2

355
138
217
213

48
48
-

9
9
-

17 134
7 90
10 44
~
67 315 127 167 592 293 117
66 308 121 161 583 287 112
1
5
6
6
7
9 6

70
70
~
91
83
8

52 415 102
52 414 100
2
1
_
30 6
30 6
-

26
26
-

6
r

2
2

9
1
8

31
31

27 30 134
27 30 29
"
" 105
50 140 43
47 131 37
3
6
9

30
21
9

4
4

62
62
"
60
48
12
4

-

-

29 134
29 67
- 67
- 64
2
-

1 198
- 198
1 1 -

2
2
2

-

-

-

$3. 50
and
over

1
1
1

3
3
3

-

"

3
3
3

"

28 196
28 172
- 24
- 24
-

6
6
-

40
40
-

83 133 173
3
83 133 170
- 66 72

1
1
-

"

19
- 18
1
3 8
3 8
"

3
3
20
6
14

~
80
76
4

-

-

5
3

3
3

“
"

"
“

17 11 358
17 11 358
"

74
70
4

17
7
4 ----6
1
13

"

61
60
1
-

2

2

_

_

-

-

2
2
2

2

_

-

_

-

-

-

-

-




12

B: Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Table B-l. Shift Differentials

(Percent of manufacturing plant w orkers in establishm ents having form al provisions for shift work, and in establishm ents
actually operating late shifts by type and amount of differential, Pittsburgh, Pa. , December 1959)
In e s t a b lis h m e n t s h a v in g f o r m a l
p r o v is io n s 1 fo r —

In e s t a b l is h m e n t s a c t u a lly
o p e r a t in g —

S h ift d i f f e r e n t ia l
S e c o n d sh ift
w ork

T h ir d o r o t h e r
sh ift w o r k

S e c o n d sh ift

T h ir d o r o t h e r
sh ift

....................- -------- ------------ -------- —...........................-

95. 8

9 4. 5

20. 6

12. 5

W ith sh ift p a y d i f f e r e n t ia l ------------------------------------

95. 1

9 4. 5

20. 3

12. 5

86. 7

86. 5

18. 8

12. 0

.8
.8
.9
10. 0
1 .0
1 .5
59. 2
2 .9
3. 8

. 2
. 2
.4
2. 4
. 3
. 3
12. 8
. 3
.
.
.
.
.

_
. 1
. 1
.4
. 2
1 .6
.4

.8

_
.7
.9
1 .8
1 .0
9. 6
3. 6
1.
62. 0
3. 6
2. 1

................................... — ........

8. 4

8. 0

1. 5

8. 8
. 2
. 2
.5

-----------------------------------------------------7 p e r c e n t -----------------------------------------------------10 p e r c e n t .................................................... ............
15 p e r c e n t -----------------------------------------------------

1 .4
,
6. 0
.4

. 1
1 .4
( 2)

( 2)
.
"

T ota l

U n ifo r m c e n t s ( p e r h ou r)

-------------------------------

3 c e n t s ................... - ..........- ........ ...........................—
4 c e n t s _______________________________________
5 c e n t s ----------------------------------------------- --------—
6 c e n t s _______________________________________
6x/ 2 c e n t s ------------------------------------------------------7x/ 2 c e n t s ------------------------------ ------------ - .............
8 c e n t s -----------------------------------------------------------8V 2 c e n t s ------------------------------------------------------9 c e n t s -----------------------------------------------------------10 c e n t s ---------------------------------------------------------11 c e n t s --------------------------------------------------------12 c e n t s ----- -------------------------------------------------x/ 2 c e n t s --------------------------------------- - .............
O v e r 1 / 2 c e n t s -------------------------------------------

12

21

U n ifo r m p e r c e n t a g e

5 p ercen t

N o s h ift p a y d i f f e r e n t i a l

--------------------------------------

.4

2. 3
2. 3

6

.7

2

8
6
6. 6
.
.

-

8
3
3
2
3

.

( 2)

-

5

3

1 Includes establishm ents currently operating late shifts, and establishm ents with form al provisions covering late shifts even
though they w ere not currently operating late shifts.
2 Less than 0. 05 percent.

13
Table B-2. Minimum Entrance Salaries for W om en O ffice W orkers

(D istribution of establishm ents studied in all in du stries and in industry divisions by m inim um entrance salary for selected categories
of inexperienced women office w orkers, P ittsburgh, Pa. , D ecem ber 1959)
I n e x p e r ie n c e d ty p is ts

M in im um w e e k ly s a l a r y 1

M anufacturin g
A ll

B a s e d on stan dard w e e k ly h o u rs 3 o f—

A ll
t r ie s

O ther in e x p e r ie n c e d c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s 2

N on m anufacturing

M anufacturin g

A ll
sched­
u le s

40

t r ie s

A ll
sch ed­
u le s

40

37 V 2

N on m an u factu rin g

B a sed on stan dard w eek ly h ou rs 3 o f—
A ll
sch ed­
u les

40

A ll
sch ed­
u les

37V 2

40

E sta b lish m en ts s t u d i e d ___________________________________

207

83

XXX

124

XXX

XXX

207

83

XXX

124

XXX

XXX

E sta b lish m en ts having a s p e c ifie d m in im u m ___________

121

59

53

62

15

40

129

62

54

67

17

43

50 ____________ _____________________________
under $ 4 0 . 00 _____________________________
under $ 4 2 . 50 _____________________________
under $ 4 5 . 00 ____ _______________________
u nd er $ 4 7 .5 0 _____________________________
under $ 5 0 .0 0 _____________________________
under $ 5 2 .5 0 _____________________________
u nd er $ 55. 00 _____________________________
under $ 5 7 .5 0 _____________________________
under $ 60. 00 _________________________ ___
under $ 6 2 . 50 _____________________________
under $ 65. 00 _________________ __________
under $ 67. 50 _____________________________
under $ 7 0 .0 0 _____________________________
under $ 7 2 .5 0 --------------------------------------------unde r $ 7 5 .0 0 ____________________________
unde r $ 7 7 .5 0 _____________________________
under $ 8 0 . 00 _____________________________
o v e r _______________________________________

_
2
14
5
14
4
19
9
5
15
5
6
3
5

_
6
1
1
2
8
5
3
9
3
3
2
5

_
5
1
8
5
3
8
2
3
2
5

.
2
8
4
13
2
11
4
2
6
2
3
1

_
1
1
1
3
3
2
1
1
1
1

_
1
5
3
8
2
6
2
1
5
3

1
1
5
3
9
3
6
4
1
3
2

6
1
3
1

6
1
3
1

1
2
1

_
5
1
1
8
5
3
8
2
3
2
5
6
1
4
-

_
2
1
5
4
2
1
1
1

7
1
5
2

_
6
1
3
1
10
5
3
9
3
3
2
5
6
1
4
-

1
3
8
4
16
3
11
6
1
4
2
2
1

1
2
1

1
3
14
5
19
4
21
11
4
13
5
5
3
5
1
7
1
6
1

E sta b lish m en ts having no s p e c ifie d m in im u m _________

40

11

XXX

29

XXX

XXX

42

12

XXX

30

E sta b lish m en ts w hich did not e m p lo y w o r k e r s
in this c a t e g o r y --------------- ----------------------------------------------

45

13

XXX

32

XXX

XXX

35

9

XXX

26

XXX

XXX

In form a tion not a v a i l a b l e ------ -------------------------------------------

1

XXX

1

XXX

XXX

1

XXX

1

XXX

XXX

U nder $3 7 .
$ 3 7 . 50 and
$ 4 0 . 00 and
$ 4 2 . 50 and
$ 4 5 .0 0 and
$ 4 7 .5 0 and
$ 5 0 .0 0 and
$ 52. 50 and
$ 5 5 .0 0 and
$ 57. 50 and
$ 6 0 . 00 and
$ 62. 50 and
$ 65. 00 and
$ 6 7 .5 0 and
$ 7 0 .0 0 and
$ 7 2 . 50 and
$ 7 5 .0 0 and
$ 7 7 . 50 and
$ 8 0 . 00 and

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

-

1
1
2
1

XXX

-

1
1
_
2
1
XXX

Lowest salary rate form ally established for hiring inexperienced w orkers for typing or other c lerical jobs.
R ates applicable to m essen g ers, office g irls, or sim ilar subclerical jobs are not considered.
Hours reflect the workweek for which em ployees receive th eir reg u lar straig ht-tim e sala ries. Data are presented for all workweeks combined, and for the m ost common workweeks reported.
NOTE: See note on p. 14, relative to the inclusion of railro ad s.




14
Table B-3. Scheduled W e e k ly Hours

(P ercen t distribution of office and plant w orkers in all in du stries and in industry divisions by scheduled weekly hours
of first-sh ift w orkers, Pittsburgh, P a ., D ecem ber 1959)
OFFICE WORKERS'
W e e k ly h o u rs

All x
industries

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

100

35 h o u r s ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------36V4 h ou rs ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------O ver 36 V4 and under 37Vz h o u rs ------------------------------3 7 V 2 h ou rs ------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------O ver 3 7 V 2 and under 383/4 h ou rs ----------------------------383/4 h o u rs ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------O v er 383/4 and under 40 h o u rs -----------------------------------40 h ou rs ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------O v er 40 and und er 44 h o u rs --------------------------------------44 and under 48 h o u rs --------------------------------------------------48 h ou rs ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1
1
1
17
2
1
2
75

A ll w o r k e r s

1
2
3
4
5

PLANT WORKERS

Manufacturing

Public 2
utilities

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

Finance 3

100

100

100

100

100

4
-

2
-

-

(5)
-

3
3
1

36

2

5

4
3
3
56

1

-

-

7

-

-

-

-

2
62

12
22

( 5)

(5
~)

93

(!)
(5)

-

( 5)

-

-

89

-

(5)

1
85
5

( 5)

( 5)

-

-

-

Services

All 4
industries

100

Manufacturing

Public 2
utilities

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

100

100

100

100

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

94
2
1
1

95
2

92
1
6
1

( 5)

-

-

1

-

Includes data for serv ices in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
T ransportation, com m unication, and other public u tilities.
Finance, insurance, and real estate.
Includes data for real estate and serv ices in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
L ess than 0. 5 percent.




NOTE: E stim ates for all in dustries and public u tilities include data for railro ad s (SIC 40), om itted from the scope of all labor m arket
wage surveys m ade before the w inter of 1959-60. W here significant, the effect of the inclusion of railro ad s is g reatest on the
data shown separately for the public u tilities division.

-

n

_
-

94

-

6

-

87
7
2
4

Services

15
Table B-4. Paid Holidays
(P e r c e n t d is trib u tio n o f o f fic e and plant w o r k e r s in all in d u s tr ie s and in in d u stry d iv is io n s by num ber o f paid h olid a y s
p r o v id e d annually, P ittsb u rg h , P a . , D e c e m b e r 1959)

Item

All w o rk e rs -------------------------------------------- ----W orkers in establishm ents providing
paid holidays _______________________________
W orkers in establishm ents providing
no. paid holidays ____________________________

OFFICE WORKERS

PLANT WORKERS
industries 4

AH

Manufacturing

100

100

100

100

-

100
-

98
2

(5)
1
37

1
25
5
11
37

3
72
25

22
15
23
2
“

21
-

-

_
55
7
7
2
14
4
2

_
2
25
25
40
40

_
-

_
-

All
industries 1

Manufacturing

Public
utilities 2

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

Finance 3

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100
-

100

100

100

100
-

100
~

100
"

92
8

-

-

(5)
14
10
5
48
4
3
7
2
2
1
3
n
(5)

.
8
1
4
70
7
4
5
1

1
16
1
1
67
1
1
7
1
2

_
11
1
1
77
1
1

1
5
60
1
15

6
14
7
42
3
28

7
53
32
-

12

-

"

n
()
(5)

_
0
(5)
1
1
10
18

2
2
2
2

_
-

_
-

_
-

6

3
3
11
12
81
8297
97
98
98
98

_
1
1

28
30
80
80
94
94
100
100
100

32
32
85
85
85
87
92

Services

Public
utilities

2

Services

Number of d ays

L ess than 6 holidays -------------------------------------6 holidays ------------------ ------------------------------6 holidays plus 1 half d a y -----------------------------6 holidays plus 2 or 3 half d a y s ---------------------7 holidays ____________________________________
7 holidays plus 1 half d a y ------------------------------7 holidays plus 2 half days ----------------------------8 holidays ____________________________________
8 holidays plus 1 half d a y ------------------------------9 holidays -------------------------------------------- -----9 holidays plus 1 half d a y -----------------------------10 h o lid ay s___________________________________
10 holidays plus 1 half day ------ ---------------- _
12 holidays -----------------------------------------------------

(5)

“

-

-

"

-

-

9

-

6
-

1
1
“

6
-

-

-

Total h o lid a y tim e 6

12 d a y s ---------------------------------------------------------IIV 2 or m ore days ---- -------------------- ---------11 or m ore d a y s --------------------------------------------IOV2 or m ore days __________________________
10 or m ore d a y s ------ -------------------------------------9 V 2 or m ore d a y s ------------- ---------------------------------------9 or m ore days ------------------------------------------------------------------8 V 2 or m ore d a y s ____________________________________ ___
8 or m ore days --------------------------------- -----------------------------7 V 2 or m ore d a y s ____ _____________ __________ ______
7 or m ore days _____________________________ _____________
6 V 2 or m ore d a y s ----------------------------------------6 or m ore days __ ---------- ------------- _ --------5 V 2 or m ore d a y s ------ -----------------------------------5 or m ore days ______________________________
4 or m ore days ---- ------------ _ ---------------- __
1 or m ore days ----- -----------------------------------

1
4
4
7

9

24
75
86
99
99
99
99
100
19

92
92

100
100
100
100
100

62
62
99

99
99
99
100
100
100

-

21
21
69
74
99
99
100
100
100

-

25
25
97
97
97
97
100

2

6

20
22
25
36
91
100
100
100
100
100

2
2

2
2
9

10
88
89
100
100
100
100
100

_
12
12
17
17
32
33
94
94
99
99
100
100
100

-

-

1 In clu des data fo r s e r v ic e s in add ition to th o s e in d u stry d iv is io n s show n se p a r a te ly .
2 T ra n sp o rta tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and o th e r p u b lic u tilit ie s .
3 F in a n ce, in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e sta te .
4 Inclu des data f o r r e a l estate and s e r v ic e s in add ition to th o se in d u stry d iv is io n s show n s e p a r a te ly .
5 L e s s than 0. 5 p e r c e n t.
6 A ll co m b in a tio n s o f fu ll and h alf days that add to the sam e am ount a re co m b in e d ; fo r e x a m p le , the p r o p o r t io n o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g a total o f 7 days in c lu d e s th ose w ith 7 fu ll days and
no h alf d ays, 6 fu ll days and 2 h alf d a y s, 5 fu ll days and 4 h alf d ays, and so on.
P r o p o r t io n s w e re then cu m u lated.
N OTE:

See note on p. 14, re la tiv e to the in c lu s io n o f r a ilr o a d s .




16
Table B-5. Paid Vacations
(P e r c e n t d is trib u tio n o f o f fic e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u s tr ie s and in in d u stry d iv is io n s by v a ca tion pay
p r o v is io n s , P itts b u r g h , P a . , D e c e m b e r 1959)

Vacation policy

All w orkers ---------------------------------------------------

All
industries 1 Manufacturing

OFFICE WORKERS
Wholesale
Public ,
Retail trade
trade
utilities c

Finance 3

Services

All
industries 4 Manufacturing

PLANT WORKERS
Wholesale
Public ,
utilities c
trade

Retail trade

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

99
99
(5)
-

100
100
"

100
100
-

100
100
~

100
100
-

100
93
7
(5)
“

100
100
-

100
98
2
-

~

100
94
6
(5)
~

100
100
-

(5)

99
99
1

-

-

-

5
37
16
1

4
47
12
“

23
12
-

_

5
31
16
-

8
31
_
-

9
20
38
“

3
6
(5)
(5)

3
2
(5)

2
19
_
-

10
9
3
-

5
10
_
-

23
2
74
1

17
3
79
-

63
1
36
-

24
76
-

61
39
-

(5)
95
5

92
2
6
“

96
1
3

92
2
6
-

65
35
-

81
19
“

9
3
87
1

9
2
88
-

21
12
68
-

8
92
-

6
1
93
-

_
95
5

74
10
16

87
8
5
-

42
16
41
-

32
17
51

35
8
57
-

7
2
88
3

6
3
87
3

21
79
-

2
90
8

3
97
-

_
95
5

24
48
28

24
64
12

35
65
-

9
20
71

10
90

-

-

( 5)

( 5)

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_
92
8

M eth o d of p a y m e n t
W orkers in establishm ents providing
paid v a c a tio n s_____________________________
L ength-of-tim e paym ent_____ ____________
P ercentage p ay m en t_____________________
F lat-su m paym ent------------------------------------O th e r_____________________________________
W orkers in establishm ents providing
no paid vacations __________________________
A m ount of v a c a tio n p a y 6
A fter 6 months of service
Under 1 week -----------------------------------------------1 w e e k _______________________________________
Over 1 and under 2 w eek s---- ---------------------2 w eek s_________ ____________________________
A fter 1 y ear of service
1 w e e k _______________________________________
Over 1 and under 2 w eek s____________________
2 w eek s______________________________________
Over 2 and under 3 w eek s____________________
A fter 2 y ears of service
1 w e e k _______________________________________
Over 1 and under 2 w eek s___________________
2 w eek s______________________________________
Over 2 and under 3 w eek s___________________
A fter 3 y ears of service
1 w e e k _______________________________________
Over 1 and under 2 w eek s____________________
2 w eek s---------------------------------------------------------O ver 2 and under 3 w eek s___________________
3 w eek s---------------------------------------------------------A fter 5 years of service
1 w e e k _______________________________________
Over 1 and under 2 w eek s___________________
2 w eek s--------------------- --------------------------------Over 2 and under 3 w eek s___________________
3 w eek s___________________________ ___________

See foo tn o te s at end o f ta b le.




2

-

92

3
3

3

91

3
3

100
-

3

91
6

_
90
5
5

-

-

( 5)

(5)

2

2

1
95
1
1

1
95
1
1

_
100
-

_
10
90
-

9

87
4

17
Table B-5. Paid Vacations-Continued
(P e r c e n t d is trib u tio n o f o f fic e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u s tr ie s and in in d u stry d iv is io n s by v a ca tion pay
p r o v is io n s , P ittsb u rg h , P a ., D e c e m b e r 1959)

Vacation policy

All
industriesx

Manufacturing

A fter 10 y ears of service
1 week ---------------------------------------------------------2 weeks ---------------------------------------------------------Over 2 and under 3 weeks -----------------------------3 weeks --------------------------------------------------------Over 3 and under 4 weeks ------------------------------

(5)
59
21
19
1

_
47
37
16

A fter 15 y ears of service
1 week ---------------------------------------------------------2 weeks -------------------------------------------------------Over 2 and under 3 weeks -----------------------------3 weeks --------------------------------------------------------Over 3 and under 4 weeks ___________________
4 weeks ---------------------------------------------------------

(5)
10
1
86
1
1

A fter 20 y ears of service
1 week ---------------------------------------------------------2 weeks -------------------------------------------------------Over 2 and under 3 weeks -----------------------------3 weeks ------------------------- 1-------------------------------Over 3 and under 4 weeks ___________ ______ _
4 weeks ---------------------------------------------------------A fter 25 y ears of service
1 week — ----------------------------------------------------2 weeks ---------------------------------------------------------Over 2 and under 3 weeks -----------------------------3 weeks ---------------------------------------------------------Over 3 and under 4 weeks -----------------------------4 weeks ----------------------------------------------------------

OFFICE WORKERS
Wholesale
Public
Retail trade
trade
utilities 2

Finance 3

Services

All
industries4

Manufacturing

PLANT WORKERS
Wholesale
Public
utilities 2
trade

Retail trade

Services

A m ount of v a c a tio n p a y 6-*. C ontinued

1
2
3
4
5
6
in clu d e

77
23
"

_

_
77
9
14
-

2
66
32
~

_
66
5
24
5

1
42
47
11
"

32
62
6
-

83
17
"

_
52
19
29
-

_
9
89
(5)
1

_
3
5
92
-

_
10
90
-

2
1
97
"

_
15
80
5
-

1
3
(5)
93
1
1

_
2
_
95
1
2

_
100
-

6
_
94
_
-

(5)
7
84
2
6

_
5
90
2
3

_
3
90
5
2

_
10
82
7

2
1
62
_
35

_
11
72
5
12

1
2
(5)
88
2
7

1
94
2
3

(5)
7
51
20
22

4
41
35
19

2
1
45
52

11
65
5
19

1
2
(5)
37
44
17

1
28
59
12

_

_

3
56
41

_

10
72
8
10

_

In clu d es data f o r s e r v ic e s in add ition to th o s e in d u stry d iv is io n s show n s e p a r a te ly .
T ra n sp o rta tio n , co m m u n ica tio n , and o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .
F in a n ce, in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e sta te .
In clu d es data f o r r e a l esta te and s e r v ic e s in add ition to th o s e in d u stry d iv is io n s shown s e p a r a te ly .
L e s s than 0. 5 p e r c e n t.
P e r io d s o f s e r v ic e w e r e a r b it r a r ily c h o s e n and do not n e c e s s a r il y r e fle c t the in divid u al p r o v is io n s f o r p r o g r e s s io n s .
ch an ges in p r o v is io n s o c c u r r in g betw een 5 and 10 y e a r s .

_

_

_

_

_

94
_
6

_
-

76
24

_

_

6
_
80
_
14

_

6
68
2
24

6
51
_
43
6
10
_
84
6
4
_
53
_
37
6
4
41
49

F o r ex a m p le, the ch an ges in p r o p o r t io n s in d ica te d at 10 y e a r s ' s e r v ic e

N O T E : See note on p. 14, re la tiv e to the in c lu s io n o f r a ilr o a d s . In the tabu lation s o f v a c a tio n a llo w a n c e s by y e a r s o f s e r v ic e , p aym en ts oth er than "len gth o f t im e " such as p e r c e n ta g e o f
annual ea rn in gs o f fla t -s u m pa ym e n ts, w e r e c o n v e r te d to an equ ivalen t tim e b a s is ; f o r e x a m p le , a paym ent o f 2 p e r c e n t o f annual ea rn in g s w a s c o n s id e r e d as 1 w e e k 's pay.




18
Table B-6. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
(P e r c e n t o f o f fic e and plant w o r k e r s in all in d u s tr ie s and in in d u stry d iv is io n s e m p lo y e d in e s ta b lis h m e n ts p r ov id in g
health, in s u r a n c e , o r p e n sio n b e n e fits , P ittsb u rg h , P a ., D e c e m b e r 1959)

OFFICE WORKERS
Type o f b e n e fit

Wholesale
trade

A
U i
industries1

Manufacturing

Public
utilities 2

100

100

100

100

L ife in s u r a n c e ------------------- ------- --------------------A c c id e n ta l death and d is m e m b e rm e n t
in s u r a n c e ____________________________________
S ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e o r
s ic k lea v e o r b o t h 5 _________________________

93

97

68

41

34

32

84

87

68

S ick n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u ra n ce _ --------S ick le a v e (fu ll pay and no
w aiting p e rio d ) __________________________
S ick le a v e (p a r tia l pay o r
w aiting p e rio d ) ________ __________________

38

46

70
1
81
79
48
32
85
( 6)

A ll w o r k e r s -----------------------------------------------------------

PLANT WORKERS
Retail trade

Finance 3

Services

A11
industries 4
*

Manufacturing

Public
utilities 2

Wholesale

Retail trade

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

93

95

100

92

99

48

80

91

63

78

46

37

30

28

58

74

92

89

81

89

96

49

76

86

22

53

69

12

84

96

27

57

72

71

64

85

14

81

6

( 6)

17

32

28

-

-

4

15

-

4

1

18

4

4

98
97
59
29
93
( 6)

70
63
59
53
64

71
70
42
23
65
4

84
84
13
15
71
2

44
42
21
37
90

94
94
41
15
84
1

98
98
35
9
94

81
81
70
61
48

75
75
52
12
66
11

Services

84
84
40
4
69
9

W o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts p ro v id in g :

H o s p ita liz a tio n i n s u r a n c e ___________________
S u r g ic a l i n s u r a n c e __________ _______________
M ed ica l in s u r a n c e ___________________________
C a ta strop h e in s u r a n c e __
__________ ______
R e tir e m e n t p e n s i o n __________________________
No health, in s u r a n c e , o r p e n s io n p l a n ____

1 In clu d es data f o r s e r v ic e s in a d d ition to th o se in d u stry d iv is io n s show n s e p a r a te ly .
2 T r a n sp o rta tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .
3 F in a n ce, in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta te .
4 In clu des data f o r r e a l e sta te and s e r v ic e s in a dd ition to th o se in d u stry d iv is io n s show n s e p a r a te ly .
5 U n du plica ted total o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s ic k le a v e o r s ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u ra n ce show n s e p a r a te ly b e lo w .
S ic k -le a v e plans a r e lim ite d to th ose w h ich d e fin ite ly e s ta b lis h at le a s t
the m in im u m num ber o f d a y s ' pay that can be e x p e c te d b y e a ch e m p lo y e e .
In fo rm a l s ic k -le a v e a llo w a n c e s d e te r m in e d on an in divid u al b a s is a r e e x clu d e d .
6 L e s s than 0. 5 p e r c e n t.
N O TE:

See note on p. 14, r e la tiv e to the in c lu s io n o f r a ilr o a d s .




19

Appendix: Occupational Descriptions
The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to assist its
field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau's field economists are
instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped workers,
part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.

O FFIC E
BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
classified by type of machine, as follows:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.

B ille r , machine (h illin g machine) — Uses a special billing ma­

chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, etc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.
B ille r, machine (bookkeeping machine)— Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, etc., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers*
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers ’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping.
Works from uniform and standard types of sales and
credit slips.




Class A — Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the, particular accounting system used. Determines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance
sheets, and other records by hand.
C lass B — Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping* Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers’ accounts (not including a simple type of billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation of trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.
CLERK, ACCOUNTING
C lass A — Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a com­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase of an establish­
ment’ s business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

20

CLERK, ACCOUNTING— -Continued

payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper ac­
counting distribution; requires judgment and experience in making
proper assignations and allocations. May assist in preparing, ad­
justing and closing journal entries; may direct class B accounting
clerks.
Class B— Under supervision, performs one or more routine ac­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or ac­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers, or posting simple cost accounting data. This
job does not require a knowledge of accounting and bookkeeping
principles but is found in offices in which the more routine account­
ing work is subdivided on a functional basis among several workers.

CLERK, PAYROLL

Computes wages of company employees and enters the neces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers'
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker's name, working
days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and distribut­
ing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.
COMPTOMETER OPERATOR

Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
of other duties.

CLERK, FILE

Class A— In an established filing system containing a num­
ber of varied subject matter files, classifies and indexes corres­
pondence or other material; may also file this material. May keep
records of various types in conjunction with files or may super­
vise others in filing and locating material in the files. May per­
form incidental clerical duties.
Class B— Performs routine filing, usually of material that has
already been classified or which is easily identifiable, or locates
or assists in locating material in files. May perform incidental
clerical duties.

CLERK, ORDER

Receives customers'orders for material or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination o f the following:
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order
sheet; distributing order sheets to respective departments to be filled.
May check with credit department to determine credit rating of customer,
acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow up orders to see
that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check ship­
ping invoices with original orders.




DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)

Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file of used stencils or Ditto
masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material.

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR

Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards by
punching a series of holes in the cards in a specified sequence, using
an alphabetical or a numerical keypunch machine, following written in­
formation on records. May duplicate cards by using the duplicating de­
vice attached to machine. May keep files of punch cards. May verify
own work or work of others.
OFFICE BOY OR GIRL

Performs various routine duties such as running errands, op­
erating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and
distributing mail, and other minor clerical work.

21
SECRETARY
Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an ad­
m inistrative or executive position. D uties include making appointm ents
for superior; receiving people coming into office; answ ering and making
phone calls; handling personal and im portant or confidential m ail, and
writing routine correspondence on own initiativ e; taking dictation (where
transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
sim ilar machine, and transcribing dictation or the recorded information
reproduced on a transcribing m achine. May prepare sp ecial reports or
memorandums for information of superior.

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Prim ary duty is to take dictation from one or more perso n s,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar m achine, involving a nor­
mal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a typew riter.
May also type from w ritten copy. May also se t up and keep file s in or­
der, keep sim ple records, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine
work (see transcribing-m achine operator).

STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar m achine, involving a varied
technical or sp ecialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on
scien tific research and to transcribe this dictation on a typew riter. May
also type from w ritten copy. May also s e t up and keep files in order,
keep sim ple records, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine work.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
O perates a single- or m ultiple-position telephone sw itchboard.
D uties involve handling incom ing, outgoing, and intraplant or office c a lls.
May record toll calls and take m essag es. May give information to per­
sons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders. For workers
who also act as receptio nists see sw itchboard operator-receptionist.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single p o si­
tion or monitor-type sw itchboard, acts as receptio nist and may also type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular d u ties. T his typing
or clerical work may take the major part of this worker’s time w hile at
sw itchboard.




TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Class A— O perates a variety of tabulating or electrical a c ­
counting m achines, typically including such m achines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignm ents without close supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The com plete reporting and tabulating
assignm ents typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagram s and operating sequences of long and complex reports.
Does not include working supervisors performing tabulating-m achine
operations and day-to-day supervision of the work and production of
a group of tabulating-m achine operators.
Class B— O perates more difficult tabulating or electrical ac­
counting m achines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter,,reproducer, and collator. T his work is performed under
specific instructions and may include the perform ance of some wir­
ing from diagram s. The work typically involves, for exam ple, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting ex ercise, a com plete but
sm all tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies ^re usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are w ell estab lish ed . May also include the training
of new em ployees in the basic operation of the m achine.
Class C— O perates sim ple tabulating or electrical account­
ing m achines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with specific instructions. May include sim ple wiring from diagram s
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for exam ple, individual sorting or collating runs, or re­
petitive operations.
TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Prim ary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from transcribing-m achine records. May also type from written
copy and do sim ple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation in­
volving a varied tech n ical or specialized vocabulary such as legal briefs
or reports on scien tific research are not included. A worker who takes
dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar m achine is classified
as a stenographer, general.

22
TYPIST

TYPIST— Continued

U ses a typew riter to make copies of various m aterial or to make
out b ills after calcu latio n s have been made by another person. May in­
clude typing of s te n c ils , m ats, or sim ilar m aterials for use in d uplicat­
ing p ro cesses. May do clerical work involving little sp ecial training,
such as keeping sim ple records, filing records and reports, or sorting
and distributing incoming m ail.

Class A— Perform s one or more of the following: Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining m aterial from sev eral
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, sy llab icatio n , punc-

tuation, etc., of tech n ical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; planning layout and typing of com plicated s ta tis tic a l tab les
to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine
form letters varying d etails to su it circum stances.

Class B— Perform s one or more of the following: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance p o licies,
etc.; settin g up sim ple standard tabulations, or copying more com­
plex tab les already set up and spaced properly.

P R O FE S SIO N A L AND T E C H N IC A L

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR

(A ssistan t draftsm an)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by d rafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
U ses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare draw ings
from sim ple plans or sk etch es, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsm an.

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR— Continued
involved in strength of m aterials, beam s and tru sse s; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dim ensions, m aterials to be used, and q uantities;
w riting sp ecificatio n s; making adjustm ents or changes in drawings or
sp ecificatio n s. May ink in lines and letters on pencil draw ings, prepare
d etail units of com plete draw ings, or trace draw ings. Work is frequently
in a sp ecialized field such as architectural, electrical, m echanical, or
structural drafting.

DRAFTSMAN, LEADER

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)

P lans and d irects a ctiv ities of one or more draftsm en in prep­
aration of working plans and d etail draw ings from rough or prelim inary
sketches for engineering, construction, or m anufacturing purposes. D uties
involve a combination of the following: Interpreting blueprints, sk etch es,
and w ritten or verbal orders; determ ining work procedures; assigning
duties to subordinates and inspecting their vork; performing more dif­
ficult problem s. May a s s is t subordinates du ing em ergencies or a s a
regular assignm ent, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad­
m inistrative nature.

A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
em ployees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
prem ises of a factory or other establishm ent. D uties involve a combina­
tion of the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of em ployees' inju ries; keeping records of p atients
treated; preparing accident reports for com pensation or other purposes;
conducting physical exam inations and health evaluations of applicants
and em ployees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environm ent, or other
activ ities affecting the health, w elfare, and safety of a ll personnel.

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and d etail draw ings from n o tes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or m anufacturing pur­
p o ses. D uties involve a combination of the following: Preparing work­
ing plans, detail draw ings, m aps, cro ss-sectio n s, e tc ., to scale by use
of drafting instrum ents; making engineering com putations such as those




TRACER
Copies plans and draw ings prepared by others, by placing trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or p en cil. U ses
T -square, com pass, and other drafting to o ls. May prepare sim ple draw­
ings and do sim ple lettering.

23

MAINTENANCE

D POW ERPLANT

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER

Performs the carpentry duties n ecessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipm ent such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, sta irs, casin g s, and trim
made of wood in an establishm ent. Work involves most o f the following:
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, draw ings, m odels, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’s handtools, portable
power tools, and standard measuring instrum ents; making standard shop
computations relating to dim ensions of work; selectin g m aterials n ec­
essary for the work. In general, the work of the m aintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

F ires stationary boilers to furnish the establishm ent in which
employed with heat, power, or steam . F eeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a m echanical stoker, g as, or oil burner; checks w ater and safety
v alves. May clean, oil, or a s s is t in repairing boilerroom equipm ent.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE
Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installatio n , m aintenance, or repair of equipm ent for the generating, d is­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishm ent. Work
involves most o f the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipm ent such as generators, transform ers, sw itchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit system s,
or other transm ission equipment; working from blueprints, draw ings, lay­
out, or other sp ecificatio n s; locating and diagnosing trouble in the e le c ­
trical system or equipm ent; working standard com putations relating to
load requirem ents of wiring or electrical equipm ent; using a variety of
electrician ’s handtools and m easuring and testin g instrum ents. In gen­
eral, the work of the m aintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
O perates and m aintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (m echanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishm ent in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: O perating and m aintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, motors
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipm ent, steam boilers and
boiler-fed w ater pumps; making equipm ent repairs; keeping a record of
operation of m achinery, tem perature, and fuel consum ption. May also
supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers in establishments
employing more than one engineer are excluded .




HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE
A ssists one or more workers in the skilled m aintenance trades,
by performing specific or general duties of le sse r sk ill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with m aterials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipm ent; a ssistin g worker by holding m aterials or tools;
performing other unskilled task s as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is perm itted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform sp ecialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are also performed by workers on a full-tim e b asis.

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
S pecializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or m illing m achines in the construction of m achine-shop tools, gauges,
jig s, fixtures, or d ies. Work involves most o f the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing item s requiring
com plicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision m easuring instrum ents; selectin g feeds, speeds, tooling and op­
eration sequence; making n ecessary adjustm ents during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dim ensions. May be required to recog­
nize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to se le c t proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, m achine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this classificatio n .

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
Produces replacem ent parts and new parts in making repairs of
m etal parts of m echanical equipment operated in an establishm ent. Work
involves m ost o f the following: Interpreting w ritten instructions and
sp ecific atio n s; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
ch in ist’s handtools and precision m easuring instrum ents; settin g up and

24

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE— Continued
operating standard machine tools; shaping of m etal parts to close toler**
ances; making standard shop com putations relating to dim ensions of work,
tooling, feeds and speeds of m achining; knowledge of the working prop**
erties of the common m etals; selectin g standard m aterials, p arts, and
equipm ent required for his work; fitting and assem bling parts into me­
chanical equipm ent. In general, the m achinist’s work normally requires
a rounded training in m achine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
R epairs autom obiles, b u ses, m otortrucks, and tractors of an e s ­
tablishm ent. Work involves most of the following: Examining autom otive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassem bling equipm ent and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as w renches,
gauges, d rills, or sp ecialized equipm ent in disassem bling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassem bling and installing the various assem blies in the vehicle
and making n ecessary adjustm ents; alining w heels, adjusting brakes and
lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the autom otive
m echanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
R epairs machinery or m echanical equipment of an establishm ent.
Work involves most of the following: Examining m achines and mechan­
ical equipm ent to diagnose source of trouble; dism antling or partly d is ­
m antling m achines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with item s obtained from stock; ordering the production of a rep lace­
ment part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop
for major repairs; preparing w ritten sp ecificatio n s for major repairs or
for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassem bling ma­
chines; and making all n ecessary adjustm ents for operation. In general,
the work of a m aintenance m echanic requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. E xcluded from this classificatio n are w orkers
whose primary duties involve settin g up or adjusting m achines.

MILLWRIGHT
In stalls new m achines or heavy equipm ent and dism antles and
in sta lls m achines or heavy equipm ent when changes in the plant layout




MILLWRIGHT— Continued

are required. Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop com putations re­
lating to stre s se s , strength of m aterials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipm ent; selectin g standard tools, equipm ent, and parts
to be used; in stallin g and m aintaining in good order power transm ission
equipm ent such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the m ill­
w right’s work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

OILER
L u bricates, with oil or g rease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of m echanical equipm ent of an establishm ent.

PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
P ain ts and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishm ent. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface pecu­
lia rities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in
nail holes and in terstices; applying paint with spray gun or brush. May
mix colors, o ils, white lead, and other p aint ingredients to obtain proper
color or consistency. In general, the work of the m aintenance painter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
In stalls or repairs w ater, steam , g as, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishm ent. Work involves most of the following:
Laying out of work and m easuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other w ritten sp ecificatio n s; cutting various siz e s of pipe to correct
lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma­
chine; threading pipe with sto ck s and d ies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven m achines; assem bling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop com putations relating to p ressures,
flow , and size of pipe required; making standard te s ts to determ ine
w hether finished pipes meet sp ecificatio n s. In general, the work of the
m aintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers primarily engaged r installing and repairing building
sanitation or heating systems are excluded.

25

TOOL AND DIE MAKER

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
K eeps the plumbing system of an establishm ent in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installatio n of
vents and traps in plumbing system ; installin g or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plum ber's snake. In
general, the work of the m aintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and experience.

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
F abricates, in sta lls, and m aintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, m etal roofing) of an
establishm ent. Work involves most of the following: Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-m etal m aintenance work from blueprints, models,
or other specificatio n s; setting up and operating all available types of
sheet-m etal-w orking m achines; using a variety of handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assem bling; installin g sheetm etal articles as required. In general, the work of the m aintenance
sheet-m etal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

(D iem aker; jig maker; toolm aker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
C onstructs and repairs m achine-shop tools, gauges, jig s, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most of the following: Planning and laying out of work from
m odels, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and w ritten sp ecificatio n s;
using a variety of tool and die m aker's handtools and precision m eas­
uring instrum ents, understanding of the working properties of common
m etals and alloys; settin g up and operating of machine tools and related
equipm ent; making necessary shop com putations relating to dim ensions
of work, sp eed s, feeds, and tooling of m achines; heattreating of m etal
parts during fabrication as w ell as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required q u alities; working to close tolerances; fitting and assem bling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; selectin g appropriate
m aterials, tools, and p ro cesses. In general, the tool and die m aker's
work requires a rounded training in m achine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classificatio n .

CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT

ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER
T ransports passengers betw een floors of an office building,
apartm ent house, departm ent store, hotel or sim ilar establishm ent.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

GUARD

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER— Continued
or other establishm ent. D uties involve a combination of the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipm ent, furniture, or fix tu res;p o lish ­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor m ainte­
nance serv ices; cleaning lavatories, show ers, and restroom s. Workers
who sp ecialize in window w ashing are excluded.

Performs routine police d u ties, either at fixed post or on tour,
m aintaining order, using arms or force where n ecessary . Includes gate-

men who are stationed at gate and check on identity of employees and LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
other persons entering.

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER

(Sweeper; charwoman; jan itress)
C leans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or prem ises of an office, apartm ent house, or commercial




(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or w arehouse helper)

A worker employed in a w arehouse, m anufacturing plant, store,
or other establishm ent whose duties involve one or more of the follow­
ing: Loading and unloading various m aterials and m erchandise on or

26
LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING— Continued
from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting dev ices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing m aterials or m erchandise in proper storage location; tran s­
porting m aterials or m erchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow.

Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded.

ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; w arehouse stockm an)
F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
m erchandise in accordance with specificatio n s on sa le s slip s, customers*
orders, or other instru ctio n s. May, in addition to filling orders and indi­
cating item s filled or om itted, keep records of outgoing orders, req u isi­
tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and pertorm
other related duties.

PACKER, SHIPPING
Prepares finished products for shipm ent or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, siz e, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container em ployed, and method of shipm ent. Work requires the
placing of item s in shipping containers and may involve one or more of
the following: Knowledge of various item s of stock in order to verify
content; selectio n of appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other m aterial to prevent
breakage or dam age; closing and sealin g container; applying lab els or
entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make wooden

boxes or crates are excluded.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares m erchandise for shipm ent, or receiv es and is respon­
sible for incom ing shipm ents of m erchandise or other m aterials. Shipping
work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, p ractices, routes,
available m eans of transportation and rates; and preparing records of the
goods shipped, making up b ills of lading, posting w eight and shipping
charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or a s s is t in
preparing the m erchandise for shipm ent. Receiving work involves: V eri­
fying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipm ents ag ain st
b ills of lading, invoices, or other records; checking for shortages and
rejecting damaged goods; routing m erchandise or m aterials to proper de­
partm ents; m aintaining necessary records and file s.




SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK— Continued
For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follow s:

Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk
TRUCKDRIVER
D rives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, m erchandise, equipm ent, or men betw een various types of e sta b ­
lishm ents such as: M anufacturing p lants, freight depots, w arehouses,
w holesale and retail establishm ents, or betw een retail establishm ents
and customers* houses or places of b u sin ess. May also load or unload
truck with or w ithout helpers, make minor m echanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers

are excluded.

For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size
and type of equipm ent, as follow s: (T ractor-trailer should be rated on
the b asis of trailer capacity.)

Truckdriver (combination of sizes listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under 1% tons)
Truckdriver, medium (1% to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)
TRUCKER, POWER
O perates a manually controlled gaso lin e- or electric-pow ered
truck or tractor to transport goods and m aterials of all kinds about a
w arehouse, m anufacturing plant, or other establishm ent.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of
truck, as follow s:

Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)
WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of prem ises periodically in protecting property
ag ain st fire, theft, and illeg al entry.
*

U .S . GO V ER N M E NT P R IN T IN G O F F IC E : 1 9 6 0 0 — 5 4 7 0 9 6

Occupational Wage Surveys

O ccupational wage surveys are being conducted in 60 major labor m arkets during late 1959 and early I960. T hese bulletins, when av ailable,
may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D .C., or from any of the BLS regional
sales offices shown below.
A summary bulletin containing data for all labor m arkets, combined with additional an aly sis, w ill be issu ed early in 1961.
B ulletins for the areas listed below are now available.
C leveland, Ohio, September 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-1, price 20 cents
Seattle, Wash., August 1959—BLS Bull. 1265*2, price 25 cents
D allas, T ex., October 1959—BLS Bull. 1265*3, price 20 cents
Buffalo, N.Y., October 1959—BLS Bull. 1265*4, price 20 cents
St. L ouis, Mo., October 1959—BLS Bull. 1265*5, price 25 cents
Miami, F la., December 1959—BLS Bull. 1265*6, price 20 cents
Baltimore, Md., September 1959—BLS Bull. 1265*7, price 15 cents
Boston, M ass., October 1959—BLS Bull. 1265*8, price 25 cents




Dayton, Ohio, December 1959—BLS Bull. 1265*9, price 25 cents
Canton, Ohio, December 1959—BLS Bull. 1265*10, price 25 cen ts
Denver, Colo., December 1959—BLS Bull. 1265*11, price 25 cen ts
Portland, Maine, November 1959—BLS Bull. 1265*12, price 20 cents
Fort Worth, T ex., November 1959—BLS Bull. 1265*13, price 25 cen ts





Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102