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O c c u p a tio n a l Wage S u r v e y

S E A T T L E , W A S H IN G T O N
A U G U ST

1 9 5 9

Bulletin N o . 1265-2




I
I

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner




Occupational Wage Survey




S E A T T L E , W A S H IN G T O N
A UG UST 1959

B u lle tin N o . 1 2 6 5 - 2
D e c e m b e r 1959

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D - Price 25 cents
.$.
.C.




Preface

Contents
P age

The

C o m m u n ity

W age

Su rvey

P ro g ra m

The

B u reau

w age

of L ab or

su rveys

S ta tistic s

a num ber

ce n ters.

The

re la te

o cc u p a tio n a l e a rn in g s

to

b e n e fits.
of

th e

th e

A

stu d ie s,

in

p re lim in a ry

stu d y

in

each

p a y ro ll p e rio d

d ata

not

in c lu d e d

a n a ly tica l
y e a r 's

in

fo r

th e

is

fro m

la te

and

r e p o r t is

area,

stu d ie d .

b u lle tin

su rveys

b u lle tin

m ade

th e

cu rren t

rou n d

in

th e

b u lle tin

e a r lie r
after

to

p ro v id e s
A

re s u lts

co m p le tio n
of

of

p rep ared

F ra n c isco ,

C a lif.,

th e

d ire c tio n

In d u stria l

R e la tio n s




of

John

L .

groups

----------------------------------

1.

E sta b lish m e n ts
P ercen t changes

a d d itio n a l

and w o rk e rs
in

w ith in

stan d ard

scope

w e e k ly

o f s u r v e y ______

s a la rie s

c o n so lid a te d

c le r ic a l and s tra ig h t-tim e h o u rly e a rn in g s
s e le c t e d p la n t o c c u p a tio n a l g r o u p s ,

of

fo r

th e

a ll

of

th e

s e le c te d

p e rio d s

fo r

2

o ffice

fo r

-------------------------------------------------------------------------

2

fin a l a r e a

in th e

by

B u r e a u 's

W illia m

D ana,

P .

R e g io n a l

*

A - 1.

P ro fe ssio n a l

and te c h n ic a l o ccu p a tio n s —

A -3 .

M a in te n a n c e

and

A -4 .

and

A n a ly s t.

O ffice

A -2 .

re g io n a l

O 'C o n n o r ,
W age

O c cu p a tio n a l e a rn in g s:

o ccu p a tio n s

C u sto d ia l

^ sO h

rep ort w as

San

under

o cc u p a tio n a l

su rv eys.

T h is
in

s e le c te d

2.

fo llo w in g

A:

o ffice

fo r

T a b le s:

sp rin g ,

co m p le tio n

m on th

rep o rt.
th e

e a rly
on

3

tren d s

co n d u cts
in d u stria l

su p p le m e n ta ry

a v a ila b le

su m m a rizin g
is s u e d

fa ll

re la te d

u s u a lly
T h is

re g u la rly

of im p o rta n t

1

W age

a re a w id e

I n t r o d u c t i o n ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

p o w e rp la n t o ccu p a tio n s

and m a te r ia l m o v e m e n t

o c c u p a tio n s

A p p e n d ix:

__________________________

_____________________________________________

O c cu p a tio n a l d e s c rip tio n s

8

_______________________________

11

* N O T E :
S i m i l a r ta b u la tio n s a r e a v a ila b le in th e S e a tt le
a r e a re p o rts fo r S e p te m b e r 1951 and A u g u st of each y e a r
s in ce

1956.

ta b lish m e n t
A

M ost

d ire c to ry
as

a v a ila b le

w e ll

upon

U n io n

as

rep o rts

a lso

in c lu d e

su p p le m e n ta ry

d ate

of

rep o rts

sca le s,

a v a ila b le

in g

co n stru ctio n ,
and

and

stu d y
fo r

d ata

w age

and

th e

o th er

on

e s ­

p ro v isio n s.
p rice

m a jo r

of

th e

a rea s,

is

req u est.

are

m

th e

in d ic a tin g

rep o rts,

p lo y e e s,

of

p ra c tic e s

fo r

th e

in d ica tiv e

fo llo w in g

p rin tin g ,

m o to rtru ck

of

p re v a ilin g

trad es

or

lo c a l-tra n s it

d riv e rs

and

pay le v e ls ,

in d u s trie s:

B u ild ­

o p e ra tin g

h e lp e rs.

e m ­




Occupational W a ge Survey— Seattle, Wash.
Introduction
T h is a r e a is o n e o f s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t in d u s t r i a l c e n t e r s in
w h i c h th e U .S . D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r 's B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s
c o n d u c ts s u r v e y s of o c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s a n d r e la te d w a g e b e n e f its
on a n a r e a b a s is .
T h e b u lle tin p r e s e n t s c u r r e n t o c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t an d
e a r n i n g s i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d l a r g e l y b y m a i l f r o m th e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s
v i s i t e d b y B u r e a u f i e l d e c o n o m i s t s in th e l a s t p r e v i o u s s u r v e y f o r o c c u ­
p a tio n s r e p o r te d in th a t e a r l i e r s tu d y .
P e r s o n a l v i s i t s W e re m a d e
to n o n r e s p o n d e n t s a n d to t h o s e r e s p o n d e n t s r e p o r t i n g u n u s u a l c h a n g e s
s i n c e th e p r e v i o u s s u r v e y .
In e a c h a r e a , d a ta a r e o b t a i n e d f r o m r e p r e s e n t a t i v e e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n t s w i t h i n s i x b r o a d i n d u s t r y d i v is io n s : M a n u f a c t u r in g ; t r a n s p o r ­
t a t i o n , 1 c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s ; w h o l e s a l e t r a d e ; r e ­
ta i l tra d e ; fin a n c e , in s u r a n c e , an d r e a l e s ta te ; and s e r v i c e s .
M a jo r
in d u s tr y g ro u p s e x c lu d e d f r o m th e s e s tu d ie s a r e g o v e r n m e n t o p e r a tio n s
a n d th e c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d e x t r a c t i v e i n d u s t r i e s .
E s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v in g
f e w e r t h a n a p r e s c r i b e d n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s a r e o m it t e d a l s o b e c a u s e
t h e y f u r n i s h i n s u f f i c i e n t e m p l o y m e n t in th e o c c u p a ti o n s s t u d i e d to w a r ­
r a n t in c lu s io n .
W h e re v e r p o s s ib le , s e p a r a te ta b u la tio n s a r e p ro v id e d
f o r e a c h o f th e b r o a d i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s .
T h e s e s u r v e y s a r e c o n d u c te d o n a s a m p l e b a s i s b e c a u s e o f th e
u n n e c e s s a r y c o s t i n v o lv e d i n s u r v e y i n g a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s .
T o o b ta in
a p p r o p r i a t e a c c u r a c y a t m i n i m u m c o s t , a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n of l a r g e
th a n of s m a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s is s t u d i e d .
In c o m b in in g th e d a t a , h o w ­
e v e r , a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a r e g iv e n t h e i r a p p r o p r i a t e w e i g h t. E s t i m a t e s
b a s e d on th e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s s t u d i e d a r e p r e s e n t e d , t h e r e f o r e , a s r e ­
l a t i n g to a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in th e i n d u s t r y g r o u p i n g a n d a r e a , e x ­
c e p t f o r t h o s e b e lo w th e m in i m u m s i z e s t u d i e d .
O c c u p a t io n s a n d E a r n i n g s

s i f i c a t i o n i s b a s e d o n a u n i f o r m s e t o f j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s d e s i g n e d to
t a k e a c c o u n t o f i n t e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t v a r i a t i o n in d u t i e s w i t h i n th e s a m e
jo b . (S e e a p p e n d i x f o r l i s t i n g o f t h e s e d e s c r i p t i o n s . ) E a r n i n g s d a t a a r e
p r e s e n t e d (i n th e A - s e r i e s t a b l e s ) f o r th e f o llo w in g t y p e s o f o c c u p a ­
tio n s : ( a ) O ffic e c l e r i c a l ; (b ) p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d t e c h n i c a l; ( c ) m a i n t e ­
n a n c e a n d p o w e r p l a n t ; a n d (d ) c u s t o d i a l a n d m a t e r i a l m o v e m e n t .

O c c u p a t io n a l e m p l o y m e n t a n d e a r n i n g s d a t a a r e s h o w n f o r
f u l l - t i m e w o r k e r s , i . e . , t h o s e h i r e d to w o r k a r e g u l a r w e e k l y s c h e d ­
u l e in th e g i v e n o c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .
E a r n in g s d a ta e x c lu d e
p re m iu m p a y f o r o v e rtim e a n d f o r w o rk on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and
la te s h if ts .
N o n p r o d u c t io n b o n u s e s a r e e x c l u d e d a l s o , b u t c o s t - o f liv i n g b o n u s e s a n d i n c e n t i v e e a r n i n g s a r e i n c l u d e d .
W h e re w e e k ly
h o u r s a r e r e p o r t e d , a s f o r o f f ic e c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s , r e f e r e n c e is
to th e w o r k s c h e d u l e s (r o u n d e d to th e n e a r e s t h a l f h o u r ) f o r w h ic h
S t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r i e s a r e p a id ; a v e r a g e w e e k l y e a r n i n g s f o r t h e s e
o c c u p a ti o n s h a v e b e e n r o u n d e d t o th e n e a r e s t h a l f d o l l a r .

A v e r a g e e a r n i n g s of m e n a n d w o m e n a r e p r e s e n t e d s e p a r a t e l y
f o r s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s in w h ic h b o th s e x e s a r e c o m m o n ly e m p lo y e d .
D if f e r e n c e s in p a y le v e ls of m e n a n d w o m e n in th e s e o c c u p a tio n s a r e
l a r g e l y d u e to ( l ) d i f f e r e n c e s i n th e d i s t r i b u t i o n of th e s e x e s a m o n g
i n d u s t r i e s a n d e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ; ( 2 ) d i f f e r e n c e s in s p e c i f i c d u t i e s p e r ­
f o r m e d , a lt h o u g h th e o c c u p a ti o n s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e l y c l a s s i f i e d w i t h in
th e s a m e s u r v e y j o b d e s c r i p t i o n ; a n d ( 3 ) d i f f e r e n c e s i n l e n g t h o f s e r v ­
i c e o r m e r i t r e v i e w w h e n i n d iv i d u a l s a l a r i e s a r e a d j u s t e d o n t h i s b a s i s .
L o n g e r a v e r a g e s e r v i c e o f m e n w o u ld r e s u l t in h i g h e r a v e r a g e p a y
w h e n b o t h s e x e s a r e e m p l o y e d w i t h i n th e s a m e r a t e r a n g e .
Jo b
d e s c r i p t i o n s u s e d in c l a s s i f y i n g e m p l o y e e s i n t h e s e s u r v e y s a r e u s u ­
a l l y m o r e g e n e r a l i z e d t h a n t h o s e u s e d i n i n d i v i d u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s to
a ll o w f o r m i n o r d i f f e r e n c e s a m o n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in s p e c i f i c d u t ie s
p e rfo rm e d .

T h e o c c u p a ti o n s s e l e c t e d f o r s t u d y a r e c o m m o n to a v a r i e t y
o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g a n d n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s . O c c u p a t io n a l c l a s -

1 R a ilr o a d s , f o r m e r l y e x c lu d e d f r o m th e sc o p e of th e s e s tu d ie s ,
h a v e b e e n a d d e d i n n e a r l y a l l o f th e a r e a s to b e s t u d i e d d u r i n g th e
w i n t e r o f 1 9 5 9 - 6 0 ; r a i l r o a d s w i l l b e a d d e d i n th e r e m a i n i n g a r e a s n e x t
y e a r . F o r s c o p e o f s u r v e y in t h i s a r e a , s e e f o o t n o te to " t r a n s p o r t a ­
t io n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s * ' i n t a b l e 1 .




O c c u p a t io n a l e m p l o y m e n t e s t i m a t e s r e p r e s e n t th e t o t a l i n a l l
e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w i t h in th e s c o p e o f th e s t u d y a n d n o t t h e n u m b e r a c t u ­
a lly s u r v e y e d . B e c a u s e of d if f e r e n c e s in o c c u p a tio n a l s t r u c t u r e a m o n g
e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , th e e s t i m a t e s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t o b ta in e d
f r o m th e s a m p l e o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s s t u d i e d s e r v e o n ly t o i n d i c a t e th e
r e la ti v e im p o r ta n c e of th e jo b s s tu d ie d .
T h e s e d if f e r e n c e s in o c c u ­
p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e d o n o t m a t e r i a l l y a f f e c t th e a c c u r a c y o f th e e a r n ­
in g s d a ta .




2

T a b le 1.

E s t a b lis h m e n t s and w o r k e r s w ithin sc o p e of su r v e y and n u m b er stu d ie d in S e a t tle , "Wash. , 1
by m a jo r in d u stry d iv isio n , 2 A u gu st 1959
N u m b er o f e s t a b lis h m e n t s

In d u stry d iv isio n

W o rk e rs in e st a b lis h m e n t s

Within sc o p e
of stu d y 3

S tu d ied

A ll d iv isio n s ------------------------- ------ -------------------------------

557

138

166, 300

118, 060

M an u fa ctu rin g _____________________ _________________________
N on m a n u factu rin g --------------------------------- ------- --------------T r a n s p o r t a tio n , co m m u n ic atio n , and
o th e r pu blic u t ilit ie s 4 _________________________________
W h o lesale tra d e 5 ________________________________________
R e t a il tra d e _____________________________________________
F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e 5 _________________
S e r v ic e s 5 * 6 ______________________________________________

185
3 72

48
90

9 9 ,2 0 0
67, 100

8 2 ,0 9 0
35, 970

57
84
115
55
61

23
13
27
14
13

1 7 ,2 0 0
9 ,0 0 0
2 3 ,2 0 0
1 0 ,3 0 0
7 ,4 0 0

1 2 ,3 8 0
2 ,2 6 0
1 3 ,5 6 0
5 ,2 6 0
2 , 510

Within sc o p e
o f stu dy

,

S tu d ied

1 The S e a ttle M e tro p o lita n A r e a (K ing C o un ty).
The " w o r k e r s w ithin sc o p e of stu d y " e s t im a t e s show n in th is tab le
p ro vid e a r e a so n a b ly a c c u r a t e d e s c r ip tio n of the s iz e and co m p o sitio n o f the la b o r fo r c e in c lu d ed in the s u r v e y . The e s t im a t e s
a r e not in ten d ed , h o w ev er, to s e r v e a s a b a s i s of c o m p a r iso n with o th er a r e a em p lo y m en t in d e x e s to m e a s u r e em p lo y m en t
tr e n d s o r le v e l s sin c e (1) planning o f w age s u r v e y s r e q u ir e s the u se o f e st a b lis h m e n t d a ta co m p ile d c o n s id e r a b ly in ad v an ce
of the p a y r o ll p e r io d stu d ie d , and (2) s m a ll e st a b lis h m e n t s a re e x c lu d e d fr o m the sc o p e of the su r v e y .
2 The 1957 r e v is e d ed itio n of the S ta n d a r d I n d u str ia l C la s s if ic a t io n M an u al w as u se d in c l a s s if y in g e st a b lis h m e n t s by
in d u str y d iv isio n .
M a jo r c h a n g e s fr o m the e a r l i e r ed itio n u se d in p r e v io u s su r v e y s a r e the t r a n s f e r of m ilk p a s te u r iz a tio n
p la n ts and r e a d y m ix e d c o n c r e te e s t a b lis h m e n t s fr o m tr a d e (w h o lesale o r r e t a il) to m a n u fa c tu r in g , and the t r a n s f e r o f ra d io
an d t e le v is io n b r o a d c a s t in g fr o m s e r v i c e s to the t r a n s p o r t a t io n , co m m u n ic a tio n , an d o th er pu b lic u t ilit ie s d iv isio n .
3 In c lu d e s a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s with to ta l em p lo y m en t a t o r ab ove the m in im u m - siz e lim ita tio n (51 e m p lo y e e s). A ll o u tle ts
(w ithin the a r e a ) o f c o m p a n ie s in su ch in d u s t r ie s a s t r a d e , fin a n c e , auto r e p a ir s e r v i c e s , and m o tio n - p ic tu r e th e a t e r s a r e c o n ­
s id e r e d a s 1 e sta b lis h m e n t.
4 R a ilr o a d s w ere ex clu d e d fr o m the s u r v e y a s w ere t a x i c a b s , and s e r v i c e s in c id e n ta l to w ate r tr a n sp o r t a t io n .
5 T h is in d u str y d iv isio n is r e p r e s e n te d in e s t im a t e s fo r " a ll in d u s t r ie s " and "n o n m a n u fa c tu rin g " in the S e r i e s A t a b le s ,
alth ough c o v e r a g e w as in su ffic ie n t to ju s t ify s e p a r a t e p r e se n ta tio n o f d a ta .
® H o te ls; p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s ; b u s in e s s s e r v i c e s ; au to m o b ile r e p a ir sh o p s; m o tio n p ic t u r e s ; n o n p ro fit m e m b e r sh ip o r g a n i­
z a t io n s ; and e n g in e e rin g and a r c h it e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s .

T a b le 2 .

P e r c e n t c h a n g e s in sta n d a r d w eekly s a l a r i e s fo r o ffic e c l e r i c a l and s t r a ig h t- tim e h o u rly e a r n in g s
fo r s e le c t e d p lan t o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p s in S e a t t le , W a s h ., fo r s e le c t e d p e r io d s
P e r c e n t i n c r e a s e s fr o m —

In d u stry and o c c u p a tio n a l gro u p

A u g u st 1958 A u g u st 1957 A u g u st 1956 S e p te m b e r 1951 S e p te m b e r 1951
to
to
to
to
to
A u gu st 1959 A u g u st 1958 A u g u st 1957 A u g u st 1956
A u g u st 1959

A ll in d u s t r ie s :
O ffice c l e r i c a l (w om en) -------------------------------------------S k ille d m a in ten a n c e (m en) _____________________________
U n sk ille d p lan t (m en) ___________________________________

5. 1
4. 5
5. 7

4. 9
1 5. 3
5. 7

5. 0
*4 . 5
4 .9

2 3 .6
1 2 0 .6
2 3 .0

4 3 .2
3 8 .8
4 4 .0

M an u fa ctu rin g :
O ffic e c l e r i c a l (w om en) _________________________________
S k ille d m a in te n a n c e (m en) _____________________________
U n sk ille d p lan t (m en) -----------------------------------------------

4. 3
3. 5
4 .4

5. 3
5. 9
5. 5

3 .9
4. 0
5. 3

2 2 .2
2 0 .8
1 5 .2

3 9 .4
37. 7
33. 6

R e v is e d e s t im a te .

3
W Trends for Selected Occupational Groups
age

P resen ted
w om en
p lan t

o ffice

w ork er

in

ta b le

2

are

percents

of

change

in

sa la rie s

of

w ork ers

and

in

average

ea rn in g s

of

selected

each

o ccu p a tion a l

groups.

for

a

the

cle rica l

d ifferen ce

from
F or
average
ard

w ork

p la n t
ends,

groups,

h o lid a y s,

p ortan t jo b s
in

key

cle rk s ,

punch

m a ch in e
ty p ists,
job s

file ,

la te

3

office

and

tool

la b o re rs,

are

based

m ost of

office

cla ss

B;

A

cle rk s,

m a ch in e
and

M en

jo b s

B;

in

w ere

in clu d e d

p a in ters;
and

(b illin g

cle rk s,

p ip e fitte rs;

10

based

p la n t

op era ­
k ey ­

g en era l;

ta b u la tin g-

betw een

re ce iv e d

la b or

force

F in a lly ,

the

ra tio

aggregate

for

oth er

the

resu lt

and

in

the

fect.

by

100

the

and

of

cause

occu rred

the

in

low er
of

average
in

a

or

other

a

of

p a id

in

low er

in

the

w ork ers

h ig h -p a y in g

e a rn in g s
area

to

and

change

the

the

ex a m p le,
p a id

drop,

of

w ork ers
in the

occu p a tion a l
a force

have

the

a
a

sp ecific
re d u ctio n

op p osite

out

th ou gh

a v­

e x p a n sio n

in

w hereas

even

and

expan­

Changes

w ork ers

w o u ld

jo b ;

force

p ro p o rtio n
the

of

in crea ses

sam e

pay le v e ls .
in

effects

other

no

of

an

e f­
area

change

in

e s ta b lish m e n ts.

data:

sh eet-m eta l
and

The

w ork ers;
cle a n e rs;

of

changes
in
in

use

in

the

the

o f co n s ta n t e m p lo y m e n t w eig h ts
p ro p o rtio n

data.

N or

standard

w ork

are

based

on

are

of

w ork ers
the

sch ed u les
pay

for

or

e lim in a te s

represen ted

percents

of

change

in p r e m i u m

for

B e n e fits,




of

m ech a n ics,

clu d e d

to

or

e sta b lish m e n t

I n d e x e s f o r the p e r i o d 1 9 5 3 to
m arkets
appeared
in B L S B u ll.

to ta le d

percent

in

average,

la b or

then

aggregates

com puted

tu rn over,

the

F or

o r h o u r ly e a r n in g s w e r e th en m u lt ip lie d b y the a v e r a g e o f S e p t e m b e r
1951 a n d A u g u s t 1 9 5 6 e m p l o y m e n t in the j o b .
T h e s e w e ig h te d e a rn in g s
w ere

la b o r

decreases

changes.
drop

m e rit

d iffe re n t

th ey

in d iv id u a l o c c u p a tio n s

the

w h ile

as

changes
w ith

p ro p o rtio n

m ovem ent

rates

such

in crea ses

resu lt

p ro p o rtio n

w ork ers

force

actu al w age

and

cou ld

w atch m en .

or
average
occu p a tion s.

group

w as

p rin cip a lly ,

(2)

sin ce
sa la rie s
selected

these

years
is

m easu res,

changes;

in d iv id u a l
la b o r

cause

in crea se

The

change
w age

esta b lish m e n ts

can

occu p a tio n

of

and

the

w ith o u t

changes
a verage
w e e k ly
c o m p u t e d f o r e a c h o f the

of

another.

re d u ctio n s ,

by

force

erages
m ig h t

in

and

w ork er

to

percent

m a in ten a n ce

g en era l;

m ech a n ics;
porters,

on

m a ch in e );

pa y roll;

s k ille d

the

in

u n sk ille d — ja n ito r s ,

h a n d lin g ;

are

the

sa la ry

changes

sion s,

operators,

m a ch in ists;

pay

em p loy ed

sten ograph ers,

fo llo w in g

(3)

im ­

o p e ra to r-re ce p tio n ists;

the

in

data

C om ptom eter

order;

h ou rly

on w eek ­

general

on

data

to

p eriod

The
(l)

n u m e rica lly

the

cle r ic a l

secreta ries;

e le ctricia n s;

m akers;

m a te ria l

and
g irls;

m illw rig h ts;
die

percentages

group.

year

to

F or

stra ig h t-tim e
w ork

one

stand­

p a id .

for

B ille rs,

sw itch b oa rd

B.

u n sk ille d

and

job s:

in

are

re la te

the

and

an d in clu d e
The

change

that i s ,

s a la rie s

o v e rtim e

The

of

of w ork,

tra n scrib in g -m a ch in e

and

S k illed — c a r p e n te r s ;
a u to m o tiv e ;

A

percents

changes

pay for

operators,

cla ss

operators;
A

m easure

group.
18

the
hours

s tra ig h t-tim e

sh ifts.

each

operators;

cla ss

and

they

fo llo w in g

operators;

sw itch b o a rd

w h ich

occu p a tion s

b o o k k e e p in g -m a ch in e
tors;

norm al

p re m iu m

and

w ith in

the

w ork ers,

for

for

ex clu d in g

selected

w om en

clerica l

s a la rie s

sch ed u le

w ork er

ea rn in g s,
for

o ffice

w e e k ly

giv en

stra ig h t-tim e

in

the

each

e ffe cts
jo b

in flu e n ce d

pay for

in ­
by

o v e rtim e ,

hours.

h ou rly ea rn in g s w e re
The average
sa la rie s

ob ta in

an a g g reg a te

for

20

L abor

M arkets,

W in ter

1959 fo r
1 2 4 0 -2 2 ,

1 9 5 8 -5 9 .

w o r k e r s in 17 m a j o r
W ages
and
R ela ted

A *

4

O c c u p a tio n a l

E a r n in g s

Ta b le A - l. O ffic e Occupations
(A verage straigh t-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an a r e a b a s is ,
by in dustry division , S eattle , W ash., August 1959)
Average
Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

$
W
eekly!
W
eekly t 40. 00
hours
and
earnings
(Standard) (Standard) under
45. 00

$
45. 00

$
50. 00

$
55. 00

50. 00

55. 00

60. 00

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120 .0 0 125.00
and
65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125 .0 0 over

Men
-

-

"

"

C le rk s, accounting, c la ss A ---------------------------------M anufacturing -----------------------------------------------N on m an ufactu rin g-------------------------------------------Public u tilities 2 ------------------------------------------

179
62
117
36

40. 0
40. 0
3 9 .5
40. 0

100.00
103.00
98. 50
98. 50

C le rk s, accounting, c la s s B ---------------------------------

31

40. 0

87. 50

-

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

15
9
6

18
8
10

15
15

-

-

-

2
2
1

11
E
5

17
6
11
6

36
----- 7
29
6

27
11
16
5

29
9
20
13

37
4
33
4

6
6
-

8
8
-

2
1
1
1

4
4
-

-

-

1

3

8

12

2

1

-

4

-

-

_

.

_
-

_
-

2
2
1

8
8
-

22
1
21

18
16
2

9
8
1

11
11
2
-

3
3
-

5
2
“

C le rk s, o rd er _______________________________________
N on m an ufactu rin g-------------------------------------------C le rk s, p a y r o ll--------------------------------------------------Office boys --------------------------------------------------------M anufacturing -----------------------------------------------N on m an ufactu rin g-------------------------------------------

192
171
31
101
45
56

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0
3 9 .5
40. 0
39. 5

95. 50
9 4 .0 0
98. 00
60. 00
62.50
58.00

_
"
-

3
3

13
13
7
-

27
18
5
1
1

74
1T
1
-

24
20
1
-

24
23
7
-

1
5
-

_
-

Tabulating-m achine o p erato rs ------------------------------N on m an ufactu rin g--------------------------------------------

123
52

4 0 .0
40. 0

9 1 .0 0
93. 50

-

-

"

1
1

-

2
2

1
-

12
2

8
2

18
12

45
5

18
12

16
14

2
2

-

-

-

-

71
60
35

40. 0
40. 0
4 0 .0

71.00
71.00
75. 50

-

-

3
3
3

10
10
-

85
B ille r s , m achine (bookkeeping m a c h in e )----------------Nonmanufacturing -------------------------------------------- ---- M
56
R etail trade ------------------------------------------------

39. 5
40. 0
40. 0

69.00
68. 00
68. 00

"

30
27
12

3
-

5
-

16
16
16

4
4
4

"

-

-

-

-

14
10
9

7
4
2

16
16
14

4
4
4

4
-

1
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

32
23
20

_
"

_
-

2
2
2

5
5
5

-

Bookkeeping-m achine o p e ra to rs, c la s s A --------------Nonmanufacturing --------------------------------------------

108
93

40. 0
40. 0

73.'50
72.00

-

-

”

5
5

12
11

29
29

13
13

30
25

9
6

6
"

“

-

4
4

“

■

“

-

~

Bookkeeping-m achine o p e rato rs, c la s s B --------------M anufacturing ------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing -------------------------------------------R etail trade ------------------------------------------------

540
38
502
66

40.
40.
40.
40.

0
0
0
0

61.00
72.00
60. 00
62.00

8
8

46
46
"

62
62
"

145
145
32

116
2
114
14

94
14
80
10

27
6
21
9

— n —

25

12
"

12
3
9
-

1
1
1

-

4
4
-

“

-

-

-

-

“

C le rk s, accounting, c la s s A -------------------------------M anufacturing -----------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------------------Public u tilities 2 ----------------------------------------R etail trade ----------------------------------------------

283
36
247
108
58

40.
40.
39.
40.
40.

0
0
5
0
0

81.5 0
90. 50
80. 00
83. 50
73. 50

-

-

"

"

38
38
38

12
1
11
6
~

28
28
7
4

37
1
36
17
3

41
3
38
11
"

88
ll
77
63
-

23
17
6
6

2
1
1
1
-

4
4
4

5
5
3

1
1
-

-

4
1
3
3
-

-

C le rk s, accounting, c la s s B --------------------------------M anufacturing -----------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------------------P ublic u tilities 2 ----------------------------------------R etail trade -----------------------------------------------

560
141
419
96
117

39.
40.
39.
40.
40.

5
0
5
0
0

71.50
80. 50
68. 50
73. 50
69.00

-

16
16
~
-

16
16
8
4

33
1
32
18

131
6
125
10
47

75
13
62
2
14

61
8
53
4
21

75

36
19
5

67
35
32
6
24

68
3l
37
29
2

10
b
4
-

4
2
2
-

4
4
-

-

-

-

-

_
-

C le rk s, file , c la s s A -----------------------------------------N on m an ufactu rin g-------------------------------------------

143
59

3 9 .5
39. 0

77. 50
71.00

-

"

3
3

3
3

14
14

8
8

15
14

37
1

37
' ir

22
4

4
1

"

■

-

“

-

-

_

C le rk s, file , c la s s B ------------------------------------------M anufacturing ----------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------------------Public u tilities 2 -----------------------------------------R etail trade

616
TW
426
36
76

39. 5
40. 0
3 9 .0
40. 0
40. 0

61.00
73. 00
56. 00
67. 00
58. 50

37
37
-

93
3
90
~

77

113
2
111
12
28

63
1
62
11
21

57
39
18
2
2

95
80 '
15
2

55
46
9
3
“

25
14
11
8
“

1
1
"

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

'

‘

'

Women
B ille r s , m achine (billing m achine) -----------------------Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------------------Public u tilities 2 ------------------------------------------

See footnotes at end of table,




5

72
23

3
9

'

'

'

'

5

Ta b le A - l. O ffic e O ccupa tio ns-C ontinued
(A verage straigh t-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an a r e a b a s is ,
by industry division , S eattle, Wash. , August 1959)
Average
Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
w
orkers

W
eekly
W
eekly 4 0 .0 0
hours 1 earnings 1 and
(Standard) (Standard) under
4 5 .0 0

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
4 5 .0 0 50.00 55.00 60.00 1 5 .00 I 70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115. 00 120.00 125.00
and
50.00 55.00 60.00 65.00 70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 over

Women— Continued
C le rk s, o rd er _______________________________________
M anufacturing ___________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ________________________________
R etail trade ___ ______________________________

231
50
181
65

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

72.00
72.00
72.00
69. 50

_
-

_
_
-

3
3
3

_
-

69
23
46
31

25
13
12
4

71
71
3

15
5
10
3

38
4
34
20

9
4
5
1

_
-

_
_
-

_
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

1
1
_
-

C le rk s, payroll -------------------------------------------------M anufacturing ___________________________________
Nonm anufacturing ________________________________
P ublic u tilities 2 ---------------------------------------R etail trade ----------------------------------------------

253
100
153
28
57

39-5
4 0 .0
39-5
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

77.50
80.00
75. 50
78.00
76. 50

_
_
-

_
-

2
2
2
-

9
9
_
-

22
6
16
3
1

38
16
22
6
3

23
7
16
3
6

78
35
43
37

24
6
18
2
5

21
7
14
8
3

10
6
4
1
2

13
11
2
-

10
3
7
3
-

1
1
_
-

1
1
_
"

_
_
-

1
1
_
-

_
-

C om ptom eter o p e rato rs --------------------------------------M anufacturing ___________________________________
Nonm anufacturing ________________________________
R etail trade ___________________________________

490
107
383
172

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

72.50
78.00
71.00
68. 50

_
-

_
-

3
3
2

33
1
31
9

91
1
90
73

49
9
40
13

126
19
107
38

46
24
22
7

99
39
60
30

24
9
15
-

15
15
-

4
4
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

Duplic.ating-machine o p erato rs
(M imeograph or Ditto) _____________________________
Nonmanufacturing ________________________________

50
46

39.0
39. 0

57.50
57. 50

8
8

-

8
8

16
12

2
2

16
16

_
“

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

Keypunch o p erato rs ------------------------------------------M anufacturing ___________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ________________________________
Public u tilities 2 ----------------------------------------

409
216
193
60

3 9.5
4 0 .0
39. 5
4 0 .0

73.50
76. 50
70.00
77.00

_
-

8
8
-

_
_
“

35
2
33
“

69
23
46
10

22
---- 3---19
4

86
44
42
33

18
7
11
7

13
8
5

_
-

157
28
129

53.50
39. 5
46. OH 63.50
3 9.5
51.00

19
19

52
4
48

28
3
25

16
3
13

17
2
15

15
9
6

5
2
3

5
5

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

_
-

Office g ir ls ------------------------------------------------------M anufacturing ----------------------------------------------Nonm anufacturing ________________________________

2
2
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

S e c r e ta r ie s _______________ _____________ ____________
M anufacturing ___________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ________________________________
Public u tilities 2 ______________________________
R etail trade ___________________________________

1,293
731
562
157
60

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
39.5
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

90.00
94.50
84.00
90.50
81.00

_
_
-

_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_

_
_
-

16
_
16
_
-

38
4
34
6
8

81
4
77
15
8

112
18
94
17
9

188
65
123
22
18

200
129
71
18
4

244
199
45
23
5

191
135
56
27
7

110
96
14
3
1

42
30
12
12

38
35
3
3
-

13
11
2
2

13
2
11
7
-

7
3
4
2

S ten ograp h ers, gen eral ________________ ____________
M anufacturing ___________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ________________________________
Public u tilities 2 _________________*____________
R etail trade ___________________________________

1,829
1,223
60 6
105
39

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
3 9 .5
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

77. 50
79. 50
73.50
73.50
73.00

46
1
45
7
-

99
24
75
11
9

166
30
136
25
5

3 52
247
105
12
7

50 7
396
111
26
11

369
314
55
14
4

190
T to
30
10
3

76
47
29
_
-

15
1
14
_
-

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

70.00
77.00
68. 50
80.00
69. 50

5
_
5
_

11
_
11
_
6

89
10
79
_
21

60
9
51
_
4

25
_
25
8
2

34
4
30
5
23

24
11
13
13
-

15
10
5
2
-

7
4
3
_
-

1
1
_
_
-

8
2
6
_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
“

_
-

271
49
222
28
56

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
-

Sw itchboard o p erato rs ______________ ________________
M anufacturing ___________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ________________________________
P ublic u tilities 2 ______________________________
R etail trade ----------------------------------------------

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
-

1
1
_
_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
_
_
-

Sw itchboard o p e rato r-re ce p tio n ists _________________
M anufacturing ___________________________________
Nonmanufacturing -----------------------------------------P ublic u tilities 2 ______________________________
R etail trade ----------------------------------------------

267
69
198
52
43

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
39. 5
4 0 .0
40.0

68. 50
70.50
67. 50
70.00
71.00

.

12
4
8
_
-

7
7
_
-

22
5
17
2
-

80
19
61
16
19

57
14
43
13
3

24
8
16
11
4

22
8
14
_
7

23
23
3
10

13

3
3
-

1
1
-

_
_
-

_

_

~

3
1
2
-

_

_
_
-

-

-

-

_
-

Tabulating-m achine o p erato rs -----------------------------Nonm anufacturing ________________________________

75
38

3 9.5
3 9.5

83.50
78. 50

_

_

_

_

_

6
5

7
3

15
11

18
2

1

1

_

_

_

_

“

13
13

6

"

8
4

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

See footnotes at end of table.




"

78
78
51---- ~ Z 3 ---14
15
6
-

6
7
7

_
-

_
_
_
_
-

_
-

6

Ta b le A - l. O ffic e Ojccupations-Continued
(Average straigh t-tim e weekly hours and earn in gs fo r sele cted occupations studied on an a r e a b a s is ,
by industry division , S eattle, W ash., August 1959)

S ex , occupation, and industry division

Number
of
w
orkers

Average
$
$
$
$
W
eekly
W
eekly 40.0 0 4 5 .0 0 50.00 55.00
hours 1 earnings1 and
(Standard) (Standard) under
4 5 .0 0 50.00 55.00 60.00

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
65.00 70.00 75.00 80. 00 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00
and
65.00 70.00 75.00 80.00 85. 00 90.00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 over
60.00

Women— Continued
_

3
3

7
— 7

25
16

38
37

15
15

6
1

15
15

8
8

_
-

_

_

_
-

_
"

_

_
"

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

19
2
17

59
2
57
12

103
9
94
6

210
163
47
6

175
133
42
5

36
32
4
-

3
3
"

3
3
-

1
1
-

1
1
-

1
1
-

_
"

54
_
54
_
"

120
4
116
2
3

188
31
157
7
3

155
13
142
19
38

178
101
77
6
33

82
53
29
25

8
3
5
5

11
2
9
9

1
1
"

_
_

1
1
1

_
-

_
_

_
"
_
_
_

_
-

7
_
7
-

_
_
-

_
"

_
"

T ran scribin g-m ach in e o p e ra to rs, gen eral ___________
Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------------------

117
104

38. 5
38. 5

70.00
7 0 .6o

-

T y p ists, c la s s A ____________________________________
M anufacturing ----------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ________________________________
P ublic u tilities 2 ______________________________

611
3 50
261
29

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
39.0
4 0 .0

73.00
76.00
68. 50
68.50

T y p ists, c la s s B -----------------------------------------------M anufacturing — ________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ________________________________
Public u tilities 2 ______________________________
R etail trade -----------------------------------------------

80 5
207
598
34
117

39. 5
4 0 .0
39- 5
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

61.00
67.00
59.00
62.00
68.00

1 Standard hours re fle c t the workweek for which em ployees receiv e their reg u la r straigh t-tim e s a la r ie s and the earn in gs co rresp o n d to these weekly h ou rs.
2 T ran sp ortation (excluding r a ilro a d s), com m unication, and other public u tilitie s.

Ta b le A -2. Pro fessiona l apd Technical Occupations
(Average straigh t-tim e weekly hours and earn in gs fo r sele cted occupations studied on an a r e a b a s is ,
by in dustry division , S eattle , Wash. , August 1959)
Average
S ex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

W
eekly
W
eekly 65.00
hours 1 earnings1 and
(Standard) (Standard) under
70. 00

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
70.00 75.00 80.00 85. 00 90.00 95.00 100.00 105. 00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00 150.00
and
75. 00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95. 00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140 00 145 00 150 00

Men
D raftsm en , lea d er __________________ ______________
M anufacturing ____________________________________

218
218

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

$
126.00
126.00

_

........
D raftsm en , s e n i o r ____________
M anufacturing ____________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ________________________________

856
764
92

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

105.50
102.50
129.50

D raftsm en , ju n io r ___________________________________
M anufacturing ____________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ________________________________

410
308
102

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

8 9.00
82.5 0
108.50

3
3

78
70

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

98. 50
100.00

_

-

_

-

-

-

-

_

2
2

4
4

186
"TITS
-

49
48
1

5
2

_

_

-

-

34
34

61
61
-

131
131

3

_

-

•
-

-

-

-

21
21

35
35

69
6$

39
39

19
19

14
14

5
5

148
148
-

137
137
-

137
135
2

81
78
3

31
30“
1

27
9
18

50
30
20

24
_
24

17
1
16

-

8

27
25
2

17
6
11

44

_

12
_
12

8

24
_
24

_

_

.

_

.
_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

“ 52

_

44

*

4
2

.

8

Women
N u rse s, in d u strial ( r e g i s t e r e d ) ______________________
M anufacturing

_

62

2
2

.

1
1

Stan dard hours re fle c t the workweek for which em ployees receiv e their regu la r straigh t-tim e s a la r ie s and the earn in gs co rresp o n d to these weekly h ou rs.




_

•3
3

13
“ 13

8

4
4

7

Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(A vera g e stra ig h t-tim e h o u rly earn in g s fo r m en in s e le c te d o ccupation s studied on an a r e a b a s is ,
by in d u stry d iv isio n , S ea ttle, W a sh ., A ugust 1959)
NUMBER OF WORKEKS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
O ccupation and in d u stry d iv isio n

Number
of
workers

C a rp e n te rs , m aintenance __________________
M anufacturing -----------------------------------------N onm anufacturing _____________________
P u b lic u tilitie s 2 ----------------------------------

150
98
52
27

E n g in e e r s, sta tio n a ry ---------------------------------M anufacturing -----------------------------------------N onm anufacturing -------------------------------------

208
174
34

F ire m e n , sta tio n a ry b o ile r ________________
M anufacturing ------------------------------------------

70
56

H e lp e rs, tr a d e s , m a in te n a n c e ______________
M anufacturing _________________________

199
197

Average $
1 .7 0
hourly
earningst
and
under
1.80

$ 2 .73
2. 67
2 .8 5
. 79

1 .90

2 .0 0

2 .0 0
2 . 10

$

2 .1 0
2 .2 0

$

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

“

2 .7 5
2. 74
81

-

"

"

-

"

-

6
6

2

2 .3 8
2 .3 9
2 .2 5
2 .2 5

9
9
.

2 9
2 ..889

M ec h a n ic s, au to m o tive, m ain ten an ce ________
M anufacturing -----------------------------------------N onm anufacturing _____________________
P u b lic u tilitie s 2 ____________________

509
124
385
323

2 .7 4
2 .7 1
2. 75
.7 6

M ec h an ic s, m ainten an ce -------------------------------M anufacturing ------------------------------------------

323
3U2

2.82
2.8 3

M illw rig h ts ______________________________
M anufacturing ------------------------------------------

136
136

2. 72
2. 72

O ile r s __________________________________
M anufacturing _________________________

111
111

T ool and die m a k e rs 3 ------------------------------------M anufacturing ------------------------------------------

$
1 .90

“

174
F55

110

1.80

-

M a ch in ists, m ainten an ce __________________
M anufacturing ------------------------------------------

P a in te r s , m aintenan ce ----------------------------------M anufacturing -----------------------------------------N onm anufacturing -------------------------------------

$

"

4
4

-

-

.

“

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

-

-

"

“

-

2.3 3
2.3 3

.

_

.

.

2 .8 1
2 .7 2

_
“

_
_

.

.

58
52

2 .90

2 74
2 74

3.00
3.00

$2.40

$2 .50

$2 . 60

$ 2.70

2.30

2.40

2. 50

2 . 60

2.70

2 . 80

8
6

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

17
---- 17

11
11
-

90
90

60
60

11
11

.

.

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1
1

-

3
3

18
18

21

9

6

8

7
7

22

2.80

$ 2. 90

$3.00

2.90

3. 00

3. 10

47
7
40

3
3
-

74
73

17

20

$

3. 10

$
3.20

3.20

3.30

1
1

-

-

-

„
-

-

-

2

9
9
"

6
6

-

-

2
2

-

2
2

-

-

“

-

"

.

.
-

-

-

-

"

-

9
9

24
24

-

6
6

-

-

3

-

_
-

.

2
1

4
4

6
6

-

59

6

2
2

53

86

30
30

12

82

338
106
232
231

73
73
71

6

5

22
1
21

1

1
"

28
27

18
4

47
47

164
164

35
35

24
24

2
2

24
24

4
4

75
75

-

31
31

“

-

5
5

.

.
"

-

-

-

43
42

47
9
38

1
6

3
3

“

127
127

.

-

_

"

2

1
1

-

11
11

18
18

.

"

3.40
and
over

38
36

-

-

_
-

3.40

$

5

-

_
"

3. 30

12

1

2

-

1
1

$

-

15
7

5
4

7
5

$

70
70
"

15

24
24

23

_
“

69
---- 59---- -------

.

4
4
"

1 E x clu d es p rem iu m pay fo r o vertim e and fo r w ork on w eek en ds, h o lid a y s, and late s h ifts .
2 T ra n sp o rta tio n (excluding r a ilr o a d s ), com m u n ication , and oth er public u tilit ie s .
3 C e rta in m an ufacturin g w o rk e rs exclu d ed in e a r lie r re p o rts w ere r e c la s s ifie d and included in the c u rre n t re p o rt.
ings would have been $ 2 .9 1 .




5
5
-

15
3

-

2

$2 . 30

'

.

-

-

2 .2 0

12
1
11

.
-

$

8
_
■
_

1
1
_

3

2

1

1

_

7

110
110

_
-

_

2
“

-

-

-

-

.
-

2
2

.
-

30
30

3
3

4
4

Had they been included in the re p o rt fo r A ugust 1958, the a v e ra g e h o u rly e a r n ­

8

Table A-4. Custodial and Mqterial Movement Occupations
(A vera g e stra ig h t-tim e h o u rly earn in g s fo r se le c te d occupation s studied on an a r e a b a s is ,
by in d u stry d iv isio n , S e a ttle , W ash. , A ugust 1959)

O c c u p a tio n 1 and in d u stry d iv isio n

Number
of
workers

Average $
1.4 0
hourly
earnings 2
and
under
1.5 0

$

$
1.60

1 . 60

1 .7 0

1.80

95
95

2
2

-

64
64
38

-

21
21

E le v a to r o p e ra to rs , p a sse n g e r (w om en )______
N onm anufacturing ------------------------------------R e ta il trade --------------------------- -----------

184
184
55

$ 1.6 0
l . 6o
1 .5 7

G u a r d s __________________________________
M anufacturing _________________________
N onm anufacturing _____________________

349
319
30

2. 27
2.30
1 .9 7

2
2

2
2

J a n ito rs , p o rte rs , and c le a n e rs (men) _______
M anufacturing -----------------------------------------N onm anufacturing _____________________
P u b lic u tilitie s 3 ____________________
R e ta il trade -----------------------------------------

1 ,2 7 1
586
5
130
153

1 .8 8
2 .0 0
1 .7 8
1 .90

_
_

31
31

68

1. 77

$

1. 50

-

2
6

16

1.70

-

6

172

206
------14
192
23
51

428
261
167
16

132
34

10
162

5
61

1

14
14
7

272
2 72
27

27
27

L a b o r e r s , m a te ria l handling _______________
M anufacturing -----------------------------------------N onm anufacturing _____________________
P u b lic u tilitie s 3 ----------------------------------R e ta il trade -----------------------------------------

1, 794
793

2. 24

1 ,00 1

.
_
-

3
3
3

75
75
-

.
-

O rd e r f il le r s ------------------------------------------------M anufacturing -----------------------------------------N onm anufacturing _____________________
R e ta il trade ________________________

775
123
652
73

_

-

-

-

2.30

4
4

P a c k e r s , shipping (men) -------------------------------M anufacturing --------------------------------------- _
N onm anufacturing _____________________

280
189
91

2 . 18
2 . 16
2 .2 1

P a c k e r s , shipping (women) ________________
M anufacturing _________________________
N onm anufacturing _____________________
R e ta il trad e -----------------------------------------

244
118
126
65

R e c e iv in g c le r k s ------------------------------------------M anufacturing -----------------------------------------N onm anufacturing _____________________
R e ta il trade ________________________

538
392
146
74

Shipping c le r k s __________________________
M anufacturing _________________________
N onm anufacturing _____________________
R e ta il trade -----------------------------------------

140
42
98
28

Shipping and re c e iv in g c le r k s ______________
M anufacturing -----------------------------------------N onm anufacturing _____________________

See footnotes at end of ta b le.




122
86

36

2 .2 1

1 .9 5
2.03

1 .8 8
1.9 4

2 . 16
2 . 11

-

-

.

.

_

_

62

-

-

-

-

-

-

62
8

-

“

1
1

1
_
-

-

-

2. 37
2 .3 9
2 .3 6
2.3 3

_
_
_
-

_

2

.

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

_

21
-

22

29

40
37
3

16
3
8
_
-

120
75
100
67
20 8
4
6
12
4
_
1

21
21

12

5
4

7
7
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
_

_
-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

344
4
340
323

2
2
2

17

-

-

_
-

231
131

119
31

-

-

-

-

-

4
-

-

3
-

3
3

8
8
8

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

6
6

3

_

25

-

-

12
13

100

37

_
-

9
-

9

100
12
88
46

81
3
78
15

8
8

26
26
-

1
1

108
72
36
24

4
4
-

-

-

_

_

-

-

88 12

'

24
18

_
_

_

_
-

88

76

6
31
21

-

3

2

328
311
17
5

-

-

-

-

-

100

-

-

_
-

78

-

2
2

_
-

13
4
9

57
57

-

_
-

6
6

_

2
2

_
-

43
43
3

11

3.00

4
4

2 60
2 60

288
32
256
42

80
69

$
2.90

-

331
F9
312
-

66
21
21

2 . 80
2 . 90

-

.
-

45

2.80

$

“

101

-

2. 70

2. 70

-

100
1 11

68

2 . 60

$

-

527
139
388
-

_

1

47
31

7

2.50

-

349
282
67
49

----- 58“
-

-

-

_
-

2.40

-

-

-

4
4

2

18
5
13
13

.

-

2.30

-

-

-

-

2 .2 0

-

2

-

-

2
2 .2 0

-

29

-

.

2 .0 0
2 . 10

-

84
84
67
5

2
12
12

-

1
2 .0 0

168

6

-

-

_

1

.
-

2 .2 9
2 .2 9

. 39
2 .4 5
2 .2 4

1

4

12
12

2
2

-

3
3

2.2 3
2.3 8

1
1

1

1 .7 5
1 .6 9
1 .6 1

2 .42
2. 14

1. 90

-

478
352
38

2 .2 0
. 28
2

NUMBER OF WORKEBS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
. 10
2. 30
.90
2.40
2.50
. 60

$

1.80

6

J a n ito rs , p o rte rs , and c le a n e rs (w o m e n )_____
N onm anufacturing ________ ____________
R e ta il trade -----------------------------------------

414
189

$

.
-

2
2

.

$

3.00

$
3. 10
and

3. 10

over

-

-

.
-

-

-

-

.
_
_
-

_
_

_
"

.
-

28
28
-

-

-

-

-

58
58
-

-

.
-

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

-

.
-

_
-

-

-

.
-

_

_

_

.

.

.

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3
3
-

-

-

-

_

_

.

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4

10
6

-

“

4
7
4

3
3

48
46

10
10

11

2

-

1
1

8

-

11

4
9
7

-

2
2
2

_

-

-

-

-

7
7

_

-

-

-

3
-

2
2

-

1
1

_
-

-

-

>
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

23

-

_

-

-

-

3
3

_

_

-

-

9
Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations-Continued
(A vera g e stra ig h t-tim e h o u rly earn in g s fo r s e le c te d occupation s studied on an a r e a b a s is ,
by in d u stry d iv isio n , S e a ttle , W ash. , A ugust 1959)
NUMBER OF WORKEBS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
O c cu p a tio n 1 and in d u stry d iv isio n

T r u c k d r iv e r s 4 --------------------------------------------M anufacturing ----------------------------------------N onm anufacturing _____________________
P u b lic u tilitie s 3 --------------------------------R e ta il trade _______________________

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
earnings

2 ,4 5 6
471
1, 985
1, 319
281

$

1.40
2 and
under
1. 50

$ 2 .5 7
2.70
2. 54
2 .4 9
2. 64

$

1. 50

$

1.60

$

1. 70

1 . 60

1. 70

1.80

_
-

_
-

_
-

_

1.80

1 . 90

_
-

.

$

$

1 .90

2 .0 0

$

2 .0 0
2 . 10

_
-

2
2
2

-

-

-

.

_

_

“

~

-

1

2 . 10 $ 2 .2 0
2 .2 0 2.30
24
24
-

12

16
4
12

"

-

-

859
92
767
665

2.48
2. 65
2 .4 6
2 .4 5

_
-

_
-

_
“

_
-

_
-

"

“

“

4
4
-

T r u c k d r iv e r s , h eav y (over 4 ton s,
tr a ile r type) _________________________
M anufacturin g _____________________
N onm anufacturing ------------------------------P u b lic u tilitie s 3 _________________

713
------ E T
646
320

2. 65
. 69
2 .6 4
2 .5 9

-

_
_

_
-

_
_

-

"

-

-

"

-

-

T r u c k d r iv e r s , h eav y (over 4 tons,
o th er than t r a ile r type) --------------------------M anufacturin g _____________________
N onm anufacturing __________________

259
58

2. 65
2.60
. 66

T r u c k e r s , pow er ( fo r k lift) _________________
M anufacturing ________________________
N onm anufacturing _____________________
R e ta il trade _______________________

624
413

211

25

2.3 3
2.2 9
2.43
2 .4 5

T r u c k e r s , pow er (other than fo rk lift) -----------M anufacturing ________________________

153
153

2.28
2 .28

W atchm en ______________________________
M anufacturing ________________________

72
60

2 .0 1
2 .0 1

1
2
3
4

201

2

-

_

"

-

-

-

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

_

.

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

18
18
-

26
25

246
244

45
9
36

.

.

_

.

_

_

31

-

“

"

-

-

-

“

105
105

31

.

2

5

1

_

6
6

34
34

1

2

4

D ata lim ite d to m en w o rk e rs ex cep t w h ere o th erw ise in d icated.
E x clu d es p rem ium pay fo r o vertim e and fo r w ork on w eek en d s, h o lid a ys, and late s h ifts .
T ra n sp o rta tio n (excluding r a ilr o a d s ), com m u n ication , and oth er public u tilit ie s .
Includes a ll d r iv e r s r e g a r d le s s of s iz e and type of tru ck o p era ted .




1
1

-

-

1
1

21

16

-

12

-

-

2.50

12
12

T r u c k d r iv e r s , m edium (1 x to and
Jz
including 4 tons) ___ _________________
M anufacturin g ------------------------------------N onm anufacturin g ------------------------------P u b lic u tilitie s 3 -----------------------------

2

2.40

.

2.3 3
2725"

~

2. 40

$

_

-

60
48

24
24

2. 30

1148
7
1141
1132
9

T r u c k d r iv e r s , lig h t (under \ x tons) --------/z
N onm anufacturing ______________ ___

-

$

3
3
-

.
-

_

1
1

$

2

_

669
669
660

$

2.50

$ 2.60

2 . 60

2.70

259
58

487
139
348

201
104
21
20
12
101

36
65
-

$

2.70

$

$

2.80

2 .90

3.00

$

3. 10
and
over

3. 10

123
7

32
31

71

77
-

“

17
17
17

_

2

2

_

_

_

-

-

“

-

“

-

-

-

2

139

54
24
30

344

222
122

6
6

116

2

-

1
1

21
21

3
3
3

109
5
104
92

275
46
229
-

29
29
“

5
5
-

29

127
39

95

209

1

-

2

-

11
10
1
1

117
4
113
74

2

$

3. 00

2.80

153
153

155

2 .9 0

1

17
17

-

"

-

"

88

93

"

255
92
163
19

25
16
9

_

_

5

"

"

5
5
"

16
16

_

_

_
-

1
1

_

"

_

_

_

_

_

_

4
4
-

-

_

_

“

~

_

_

-

_

_




11

Appendix: Occupational Descriptions
The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to a s s i s t its
field s ta ff in c la ssify in g into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishm ent to establishm ent and from area to area. T his is
e sse n tia l in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
B ecau se of this em phasis on interestablishm ent and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significan tly from those in use in individual establishm ents or those
prepared for other purposes in applying th ese job d escriptio n s, the Bureau’ s field econom ists are
instructed to exclude working superv isors, apprentices, learners, beginners, train ees, handicapped workers,
part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.
O F F IC E

BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statem ents, b ills, and in v oices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electrom atic typewriter. May a lso keep records a s
to billin gs or shipping charges or perform other cle rica l work inciden­
tal to billing operations. For wage study pu rpo ses, b illers, machine,
are c la ssifie d by type of machine, a s follow s:

O perates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, E llio tt
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National C ash R eg iste r, with or with­
out a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of b u sin e ss tran sactio n s.

B i l l e r , m a c h i n e ( b i l l i n g m a c h i n e ) — U se s a s p e c ia l billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, E llio tt F ish e r, Burroughs, e tc ., which are
combination typing and adding m achines) to prepare b ills and in­
vo ices from custom ers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. U sually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of n ecessary
exten sion s, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and to tals which are autom atically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carton co p ies
of the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.
B i l l e r , m a c h i n e ( b o o k k e e p i n g m a c h i n e ) — U se s a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, E llio tt Fish er, Remington Rand, e tc ., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare cu stom ers’
b ills a s part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the sim ultaneous entry of figures on custom ers’ ledger
record. The machine autom atically accum ulates figures on a num­
ber of vertical columns and computes and usually prints auto­
m atically the debit or credit b alan ces. D oes not involve a knowl­
edge of bookkeeping. Works from uniform and standard types of
s a le s and credit s lip s .




C l a s s A — K eeps a se t of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in b asic bookkeeping p r i n c i p l e s and fam iliarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system u sed . Deter­
mines proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to
be used in each phase of the work. May prepare con solidated re­
ports, balance sh e e ts, and other records by hand.
C l a s s B — K eeps a record of one or more p h ase s or sectio n s
of a se t of records usually requiring little knowledge of b a sic
bookkeeping. P h a se s or sectio n s include accounts payable, pay­
roll, cu stom ers’ accounts (not including a sim ple type of billing
described under biller, machine), co st distribution, expense d is ­
tribution, inventory control, etc. May check or a s s i s t in prep­
aration of trial b alan ces and prepare control sh e e ts for the a c ­
counting department.

CLERK, ACCOUNTING
C l a s s A — Under general direction of a bookkeeper or a c ­
countant, has respon sibility for keeping one or more se ctio n s of a
complete s e t of books or records relating to one ph ase of an e s ­
tablishm ent’ s b u sin ess tran sactions. Work involves posting and

12

C LER K , ACCOUNTING— Continued

balancing subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receiv­
able or accounts payable; examining and coding invoices or vouch­
ers with proper accounting distribution; requires judgment and ex­
perience in making proper assignations and allocations. May
assist in preparing, adjusting, and closing journal entries; may
direct class B accounting clerks.
Class B —Under supervision, performs one or more routine
accounting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers,
accounts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers. This job does not require a knowledge of
accounting and bookkeeping principles but is found in offices in
which the more routine accounting work is subdivided on a func­
tional basis among several workers.

C L E R K , PA Y R O LL

Computes wages of company employees and enters the neces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers*
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker’s name, working
days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and distrib­
uting pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine. •
COMPTOMETER OPERATOR

Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathe­
matical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of
statistical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of
a Comptometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to
performance of other duties.
DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)

C LER K , F IL E

Class A— Responsible for maintaining an established filing

system. Classifies and indexes correspondence or other material;
may also file this material. May keep records of various types
in conjunction with files or supervise others in filing and locating
material in the files. May perform incidental clerical duties.
Class B — Performs routine filing, usually of material that
has already been classified, or locates or assists in locating ma­
terial in the files. May perform incidental clerical duties.

C L E R K , ORDER

Receives customers’ orders for material or merchandise by
mail, phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination of the
following: Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet
listing the items to make up the order; checking prices and quantities
of items on order sheet; distributing order sheets to respective de­
partments to be filled. May check with credit department to deter­
mine credit rating of customer, acknowledge receipt of orders from
customers, follow up orders to see that they have been filled, keep
file of orders received, and check shipping invoices with original
orders.




Under general supervision and with no supervisory respon­
sibilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten
matter, using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine.--Makes necessary adjust­
ments such as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is
not required to prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file of used
stencils or Ditto masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed
material.
KEYPUNCH OPERATOR

Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards
by punching a series of holes in the cards in a specified sequence,
using an alphabetical or a numerical keypunch machine, following
written information on records. May duplicate cards by using the
duplicating device attached to machine. May keep files of punch
cards. May verify own work or work of others.
O FFIC E BOY OR GIRL

Performs various routine duties such as running errands,
operating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening
and distributing mail, and other minor clerical work.

13

SECRETA RY

SWITCHBOARD O PERA TO R-RECEPTIO N IST

Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an
administrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint­
ments for superior; receiving people coming into office; answering and
making phone calls; handling personal and important or confidental
mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative; taking
dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand
or by Stenotype or similar machine, and transcribing dictation or therecorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine. May pre­
pare special reports or memorandums for information of superior.

In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single posi­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also
type or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties. This
typing or clerical work may take the major part of this worker's time
while at switchboard.

TABULATING-MACHINE
STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL

Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a
normal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a type­
writer. May also type from written copy. May also set up and keep
files in order, keep simple records, etc. Does not include transcribingmachine work (see transcribing-machine operator).

OPERATOR

Operates machine that automatically analyzes and translates
information punched in groups of tabulating cards and prints trans­
lated data on forms or accounting records; sets or adjusts machine;
does simple wiring of plugboards according to established practice
or diagrams; places cards to be tabulated in feed magazine and starts
machine. May file cards after they are tabulated. May, in addition,
operate auxiliary machines.

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL

Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype O similar machine, involving a
r
varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or
reports on scientific research and to transcribe this dictation on a
typewriter. May also type from written copy. May also set up and keep
files in order, keep simple records, etc. Does not include transcribingmachine work.
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR

Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office
calls. May record toll calls and take messages. May give information to
persons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders. For workers
who also act as receptionists see switchboard operator-receptionist.




Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal
routine vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May also type
from written copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing
dictation involving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such
as legal briefs or reports on scientific research are not included. A
worker who takes dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar
machine is classified as a stenographer, general.

T Y P IST

Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to
make out bills after calculations have been made by another person.
May do clerical work involving little special training, such as keeping
simple records, filing records and reports or sorting and distributing
incoming mail.

14

T Y PIST — Continued

TYPIST-—Continued

Class A— Performs one or more of the following: Typing ma­
terial in final form from very rough and involved draft; copying
from plain or corrected copy in which there is a frequent and varied
use of technical and unusual words or from foreign-language copy;
combining material from several sources, or planning layout of
complicated statistical tables to maintain uniformity and balance
P R O F E S S IO N A L

in spacing; typing tables from rough draft in final form. May type
routine form letters, varying details to suit circumstances.
C lass B — Performs one or more of the following: Typing from
relatively clear or typed drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance
policies, etc., setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying
more complex tables already set up and spaced properly.

AND TECHNICAL

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR— Continued

(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings
from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsman.

writing specifications; making adjustments or changes in drawings or
specifications * May ink in lines and letters on pencil drawings, prepare
detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings. W is frequently
ork
in a specialized field such as architectural, electrical, mechanical, or
structural drafting.

DRAFTSMAN, LEA D ER

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REG ISTERED )

Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep­
aration of working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. Duties
involve a combination of the following: Interpreting blueprints, sketches,
and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures; assigning
duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif­
ficult problems. May assist subordinates during emergencies or as a
regular assignment, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad­
ministrative nature.
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR

Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
poses. Duties involve a combination of the following: Preparing work­
ing plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-sections, etc., to scale by use
of drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as those
involved in strength of materials, beams and trusses; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quantities;




A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combina­
tion of the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of employees9 injuries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;
conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants
and employees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other
activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel.
TRA CER

Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil. Uses
T-square, compass, and other drafting tools. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

15

MAINTENANCE

D POWERPLANT

CA R PEN TER , MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BO ILER

Perforins the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim
made of wood in an establishment. W involves most of the following:
ork
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’s handtools, portable
power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; selecting materials nec­
essary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water and safety
valves. May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom equipment.

ELECTR ICIA N , MAINTENANCE

Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, dis­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. W
ork
involves most of the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other specifications;.locating and diagnosing trouble in the elec­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; using a variety of
electrician’ s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In gen­
eral, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.
ENGINEER, STATIONARY

Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. W
ork involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air compressors, generators, motors
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a record of
operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May also
supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers in establishments
employing more than one engineer are excluded.




H E L P E R , TRA D ES, MAINTENANCE

A ssists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing specific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools;
performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are also performed by workers on a full-time basis.
MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM

Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools, gauges,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. W involves most of the following: Planning
ork
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and op­
eration sequence; making necessary adjustments during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to recog­
nize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating oils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this classification.
MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE

Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. W
ork
involves most of the following: Interpreting written instructions and
specifications; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
chinist’s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and

16

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE— Continued

MILLWRIGHT— Continued

operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to close toler­
ances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work,
tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working prop­
erties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts, and
equipment required for his work; fitting and assembling parts into me­
chanical equipment. In general, the machinist’ s work normally requires
a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

are required. W involves most of the following: Planning and laying
ork
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment, and parts
to be used; installing and maintaining in good order power transmission
equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the mill­
wright’s work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)

Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an es­
tablishment. W involves most of the following: Examining automotive
ork
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assemblies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; alining wheels, adjusting brakes and
lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the automotive
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE

Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
W involves most o f the following: Examining machines and mechan­
ork
ical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly dis­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replace­
ment part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop
for major repairs; preparing written specifications for major repairs or
for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling ma­
chines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In general,
the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classification are workers
whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.
MILLWRIGHT

Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout




O ILER

Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.
PA IN TER, MAINTENANCE

Paints and redecorates walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. W involves the following: Knowledge of surface pecu­
ork
liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in
nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray gun or brush. May
mix colors, oils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper
color or consistency. In general, the work of the maintenance painter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
P IP E F IT T E R , MAINTENANCE

Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. W involves most of the following:
ork
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe to correct
lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma­
chine; threading pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to pressures,
flow, and size of pipe required; making standard tests to determine
whether finished pipes meet specifications. In general, the work of the
maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building
sanitation or heating systems are excluded.

17

TOOL AND DIE MAKER

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’ s snake. In
general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and experience.
SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishment. Work involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g : Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints, models,
or other specifications; setting up and operating all available types of
sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; installing sheetmetal articles as required. In general, the work of the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
involves m ost o f the fo llo w in g : Planning and laying out of work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifications;
using a variety of tool and die maker’ s handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding of the working properties of common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal
parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to close tolerances; fitting and assembling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allowances; selecting appropriate
materials, tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die maker’ s
work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT
ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER— Continued

Transports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

or other establishment. Duties involve a com bin ation o f the fo llo w in g :
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte­
nance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Workers
who specialize in window washing are excluded.

GUARD
Performs routine police duties, either at fixed £ost or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. In c lu d es g a te men who are sta tio n e d at g a te and ch e c k on id e n tity o f e m p lo y e e s and

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING

oth er person s en terin g .

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial




(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve on e or more o f the fo llo w ­
in g: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or

18

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING— Continued
from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location; trans­
porting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow.
L o n g sh o rem en , who load and unload s h ip s are e x c lu d e d .

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK— Continued
For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:
R e c e iv i n g clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and r e c e iv in g clerk

ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
Fills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, customers*
orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indi­
cating items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing orders, requisi­
tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform
other related duties.

TRUCKDRIVER
Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of estab­
lishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and customers* houses or places of business. May also load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. D r iv e r -s a le s m e n and o v er -th e -r o a d drivers
are ex c lu d ed .

PACKER, SHIPPING
Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing of items in shipping containers and may in v o lv e on e or more o f
the fo llo w in g : Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify
content; selection of appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; applying labels or
entering identifying data on container. P a c k e r s who a ls o mak w ood en

For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size
and type of equipment, as follows: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the basis of trailer capacity.)
T ru ckdriver
Truckdriver,
Truckdriver,
Truckdriver,

(com bin a tion o f s i z e s l i s t e d s e p a r a te ly )
ligh t (under l l 2 t o n s )
/
medium ( l l 2 to and in clu din g 4 to n s )
/
h e a v y ( o v e r 4 to n s , trailer t y p e )

Truckdriver, h e a v y ( o v e r 4 to n s , oth er than trailer t y p e )

TRUCKER, POWER

b o x e s or c ra tes are e x c lu d e d .

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­
sible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Shipping
work i n v o l v e s : A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices, routes,
available means of transportation and rates; and preparing records of the
goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping
charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or assist in
preparing the merchandise for shipment. R e c e iv in g work i n v o l v e s : Veri­
fying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipments against
bills of lading, invoices, or other records; checking for shortages and
rejecting damaged goods; routing merchandise or materials to proper de­
partments; maintaining necessary records and files.




Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of
truck, as follows:
Trucker, p o w e r (fo rk lift)
Trucker, p o w e r (oth er than fo rk lift)

WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.
* U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1959 0 — 534803

Occupational Wage Surveys
Occupational wage surveys are being conducted in60 major labor markets during late 1959 and early I960. These bulletins, when available,
may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C., or from any oftheBLS regional
sales offices shown below.
A summary bulletin containing data for all labor markets, combined with additional analysis will be issued early in 1961.








Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102