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Occupational Wage Survey

PORTLAND, MAINE
NOVEMBER 1959

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clagua, Commissionar




Occupational Wage Survey




PORTLAND, MAINE
NOVEMBER 1959

Bulletin No. 1265-12
February 1960
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents/ U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C.

Price 20 cents




Contents

Preface

Page

T h e B u re a u of L a b o r S t a ti s ti c s r e g u l a r l y conducts
a r e a w i d e w a g e s u r v e y s in a n u m b e r o f i m p o r t a n t in d u s t r i a l
centers.
T h e stu dies, m a d e f r o m la te f a l l to e a r l y s p r i n g ,
r e l a t e to oc c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s and r e l a t e d s u p p l e m e n t a r y
ben efits.
A p r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t is a v a i l a b l e on c o m p l e t i o n
o f the study in eac h a r e a , u s u a lly in the m onth f o l l o w i n g
the p a y r o l l p e r i o d stu d ie d . T h is b u l l e ti n p r o v i d e s a d d ition al
data not i n c lu d e d in the e a r l i e r r e p o r t .
A con solidated
a n a l y t i c a l b u l l e ti n s u m m a r i z i n g the r e s u l t s o f a ll o f the
y e a r ’ s s u r v e y s is i s s u e d a f t e r c o m p l e t i o n o f the fin al a r e a
b u lle tin f o r the c u r r e n t round o f s u r v e y s .

T h i s r e p o r t w as p r e p a r e d in the B u r e a u ’ s r e g i o n a l
o f f i c e in B os ton , M a s s . , b y L e o E p s t e in , un der the d i r e c ­
tio n o f P a u l V . M u l k e r n , R e g i o n a l W a g e and I n d u s tr i a l
Relation s A n a lyst.




I n tr o d u c tio n

_______________________________________ _______________________________

1

Tables:
1.

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s and w o r k e r s with in s c op e o f s u r v e y

A:

O c c u p a tio n a l e a r n i n g s : *
A - 1. O f f i c e oc c u p atio ns _______________________________________________
A - Z . P r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n ic a l oc c u p atio n s ___
A - 3. M a in t e n a n c e and p o w e r p l a n t oc c u p atio n s __
A - 4 . C u s tod ia l and m a t e r i a l m o v e m e n t oc c u p atio n s ____________

CMJ1 41

S u rv e y P r o g r a m

E s t a b l i s h m e n t p r a c t i c e s and s u p p l e m e n t a r y w a g e
p ro v isio n s :*
B - 1. Shift d i f f e r e n t i a l s ________________________________________________
B - 2 . M i n i m u m e n tr a n c e s a l a r i e s f o r w o m e n o f f i c e
w o r k e r s __________________________________________________________
B - 3 . Sch eduled w e e k l y hours ________________________________________
B - 4 . P a i d h o l i d a y s _____________________________________________________
B - 5 . P a i d v a c a t i o n s ___________________________________________________
B - 6 . H e alth , in s u r a n c e , and p e n s io n plans _______________________

1
1

B:

A p p e nd ix:

_____________

O c c u p ation al d e s c r i p t i o n s ________________________________________

* NOTE:
S i m i l a r ta bulations
a r e a v a i l a b l e in the r e p o r t s
areas.
A d i r e c t o r y in d ic atin g
of the r e p o r t s is a v a i l a b l e upon

f o r th e s e and o th e r i t e m s
f o r s u r v e y s in othe r m a j o r
date o f study and the p r i c e
request.

Union s c a l e s , i n d i c a t i v e o f p r e v a i l i n g
in the P o r t l a n d a r e a , a r e a l s o a v a i l a b l e f o r
b u il d in g t r a d e s .

pay l e v e l s
7 selected

2

4

-4

C o m m u n ity W a g e

N O vO oo 00

The

13




Occupational Wage Survey—Portland, Maine
Introduction

T his area is one of sev era l im portant industrial cen ters in
which the U .S . D epartm ent of L ab or's Bureau of Labor S ta tistics has
conducted su rveys of occupational earnings and related wage benefits
on an areaw ide b a sis. In this area, data w ere obtained by personal
v isits of Bureau field econ om ists to rep resen tative estab lish m en ts
w ithin six broad industry divisions: M anufacturing; tran sp orta tio n ,1
com m unication, and other public u tilities; w h olesale trade; reta il
trade; finance, insuran ce, and real estate; and s e r v ic e s . M ajor in ­
dustry groups excluded from these studies are governm ent operations
and the construction and extractive in d u stries. E stablishm en ts having
few er than a p rescrib ed num ber of w orkers are om itted also because
they furnish in sufficient em ploym ent in the occupations studied to w ar­
rant in clu sion . W herever p o ssib le, separate tabulations are provided
for each of the broad industry d ivision s.
T hese surveys are conducted on a sam ple b asis because of the
u n n ecessary co st involved in surveying all estab lish m en ts. To obtain
appropriate accuracy at m inim um co st, a greater proportion of large
than of sm all establishm ents is studied. In com bining the data, how ­
ever, all estab lish m en ts are given their appropriate w eight. E stim ates
based on the estab lish m en ts studied are presented, th erefore, as r e ­
lating to all estab lish m en ts in the industry grouping and area, e x ­
cept for those below the m inim um size studied.
O ccupations and E arnings
The occupations selected for study are com m on to a variety
of m anufacturing and nonm anufacturing in d u stries. O ccupational c la s ­
sification is based on a uniform se t of job descrip tion s designed to
take account of in terestab lish m en t variation in duties within the sam e
job. (See appendix for listin g of these d escrip tion s.) E arnings data are
presented (in the A -s e r ie s tables) for the follow ing types of occupa­
tions: (a) O ffice cle rica l; (b) p rofession al and technical; (c) m ain te­
nance and power plant; and (d) custodial and m aterial m ovem ent.
O ccupational em ploym ent and earnings data are shown for
fu ll-tim e w ork ers, i. e . , those hired to work a regular w eekly sch ed ­
ule in the given occupational cla ssifica tio n . E arnings data exclude
prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on w eekends, holidays, and

late sh ifts. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded a lso , but c o st-o fliving bonuses and incentive earnings are included. Where w eekly
hours are reported, as for office c le rica l occupations, referen ce is
to the work schedules (rounded to the n ea rest half hour) for which
straigh t-tim e sa la rie s are paid; average w eekly earnings for these
occupations have been rounded to the n ea rest half d ollar.
A verage earnings of m en and wom en are presented sep arately
for selected occupations in which both sex es are com m only em ployed.
D ifferen ces in pay le v e ls of m en and wom en in th ese occupations are
largely due to (l) differen ces in the distribution of the sex es among
industries and estab lish m en ts; (2) d ifferen ces in sp ecific duties p er­
form ed, although the occupations are appropriately c la ssifie d within
the sam e survey job description; and (3) d ifferen ces in length of s e r v ­
ice or m erit review when individual sa la rie s are adjusted on this b asis.
Longer average serv ic e of m en would resu lt in higher average pay
when both sex es are em ployed within the sam e rate range. Job
d escriptions used in cla ssify in g em p loyees in th ese su rveys are usu ­
ally m ore gen eralized than those used in individual estab lish m en ts to
allow for m inor d ifferen ces among estab lish m en ts in sp ecific duties
perform ed.
O ccupational em ploym ent estim a tes rep resen t the total in all
estab lish m en ts within the scope of the study and not the num ber actu­
ally surveyed. B ecau se of d ifferen ces in occupational structure among
estab lish m en ts, the estim a tes of occupational em ploym ent obtained
from the sam ple of estab lish m en ts studied serv e only to indicate the
relative im portance of the jobs studied. T hese d ifferen ces in occu ­
pational structure do not m aterially affect the accu racy of the ea rn ­
ings data.

E stablishm en t P ra c tic es and Supplem entary Wage P rovision s
Inform ation is presented also (in the B -s e r ie s tab les) on s e ­
lected estab lish m en t p ractices and supplem entary b en efits as they r e ­
late to office and plant w ork ers. The term "office w ork ers, " as used
in this bulletin, includes working su p erviso rs and nonsupervisory
w orkers perform ing c le r ic a l or related functions, and exclu d es adm in­
istr a tiv e, execu tive, and p rofession al p erson n el. "Plant w orkers" in ­
clude working forem en and all nonsu p ervisory w orkers (including lead 1
R ailroads, form erly excluded from the scope of these stu d ies, en and train ees) engaged in nonoffice functions. A d m in istrative,
m
have been added in n early all of the areas to be studied during the
execu tive, and p rofession al em p lo yees, and force-acco u n t construction
w inter of 1959-60; railroads w ill be added in the rem aining areas next
em ployees who are u tilized as a separate work force are excluded.
year. For scope of survey in this area, see footnote to "transporta­
C afeteria w orkers and routem en are excluded in m anufacturing indus­
tion, com m unication, and other public u tilities" in table 1.
tries, but are included as plant w orkers in nonm anufacturing industries.




2




T a b le

1.

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s a n d w o r k e r s w it h in s c o p e o f s u r v e y a n d n u m b e r s t u d ie d in P o r t la n d , M a in e ,

b y m a j o r in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , 2 N o v e m b e r 1959

M in im u m
e m p lo y m e n t
in e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n t s in s c o p e
o f stu d y

W it h in
scope of
s tu d y 3

________

51

129

70

2 1 , 100

3, 300

13, 7 0 0

15, 9 0 0

M a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , co m m u n ic a tio n , and
o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s 5
W h o le s a le t r a d e
....... .
_ ...
R e t a il tra d e
F in a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e
S e r v i c e s 7 ___________________ ______________________

51
51

42
87

25
45

10, 100
11, 000

800
2 ,5 0 0

7 ,3 0 0
6 ,4 0 0

8 ,3 7 0
7, 5 3 0

51
51
51
51
51

19
26
23
11
8

14
11
10
6
4

3, 8 0 0
1, 7 0 0
3, 3 0 0
1 ,4 0 0
800

2, 200
( 6)
(‘ )
( )
( 6)

3 ,5 7 0
800
1, 6 7 0
940
550

In d u s try d iv is io n

A l l d i v i s i o n s _______________________________

N u m b e r o f e s ta b lis h m e n ts

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s
W ith in s c o p e o f stu d y

S tu d ie d

S tu d ie d
T o ta l4

O ffic e

700
( 6)
(6)
( 6)
( 6)

P la n t

T o ta l4

1 T h e P o r t l a n d M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a ( P o r t l a n d , S ou th P o r t l a n d , W e s t b r o o k c i t i e s ; C a p e E l iz a b e t h a n d F a l m o u t h t o w n s in C u m b e r l a n d C o u n t y ). T h e " w o r k e r s w it h in s c o p e
o f s t u d y " e s t i m a t e s s h o w n in t h is t a b le p r o v i d e a r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f th e s i z e a n d c o m p o s i t i o n o f th e l a b o r f o r c e i n c lu d e d in th e s u r v e y . T h e e s t i m a t e s a r e
n o t in te n d e d , h o w e v e r , t o s e r v e a s a b a s i s o f c o m p a r i s o n w it h o t h e r a r e a e m p l o y m e n t in d e x e s t o m e a s u r e e m p l o y m e n t t r e n d s o r l e v e l s s i n c e ( l ) p la n n in g o f w a g e s u r v e y s
r e q u i r e s th e u s e o f e s t a b l is h m e n t d a ta c o m p i l e d c o n s i d e r a b l y in a d v a n c e o f th e p a y r o l l p e r i o d s t u d ie d , a n d (2 ) s m a ll e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a r e e x c l u d e d f r o m th e s c o p e o f th e s u r v e y .
2 T h e 1957 r e v i s e d e d i t io n o f th e S t a n d a r d I n d u s t r ia l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n M a n u a l w a s u s e d in c l a s s i f y i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s b y i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n . M a j o r c h a n g e s f r o m th e e a r l i e r
e d i t io n (u s e d in th e B u r e a u 's l a b o r m a r k e t w a g e s u r v e y p r o g r a m p r i o r t o th e w in t e r o f 1 9 5 8 - 5 9 ) a r e th e t r a n s f e r o f m il k p a s t e u r i z a t i o n p la n t s a n d r e a d y - m i x e d c o n c r e t e e s t a b ­
li s h m e n t s f r o m t r a d e (w h o l e s a le o r r e t a i l ) t o m a n u fa c t u r i n g , a n d th e t r a n s f e r o f r a d i o a n d t e l e v i s i o n b r o a d c a s t i n g f r o m s e r v i c e s t o th e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d
o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s d i v i s i o n .
3 I n c l u d e s a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w it h t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t a t o r a b o v e th e m i n i m u m - s i z e li m i t a t i o n .
A l l o u t le t s (w ith in th e a r e a ) o f c o m p a n i e s in s u c h i n d u s t r i e s a s t r a d e ,
fin a n c e , a u to r e p a ir s e r v i c e , and m o t io n - p ic t u r e t h e a te r s a r e c o n s id e r e d a s 1 e s ta b lis h m e n t.
4 I n c l u d e s e x e c u t i v e , p r o f e s s i o n a l , a n d o t h e r w o r k e r s e x c l u d e d f r o m th e s e p a r a t e o f f i c e a n d p la n t c a t e g o r i e s .
5 R a i l r o a d s w e r e in c lu d e d ; t a x i c a b s a n d s e r v i c e s in c id e n t a l t o w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n w e r e e x c l u d e d .
6 T h is in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n i s r e p r e s e n t e d in e s t i m a t e s f o r " a l l i n d u s t r i e s " a n d " n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g " in th e S e r i e s A a n d B t a b l e s , a lt h o u g h c o v e r a g e w a s i n s u f f i c i e n t t o
ju s t if y s e p a r a te p r e s e n ta tio n o f d a ta .
7 H o t e l s ; p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s ; b u s i n e s s s e r v i c e s ; a u t o m o b i le r e p a i r s h o p s ; m o t i o n p i c t u r e s ; n o n p r o fi t m e m b e r s h i p o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; a n d e n g in e e r in g a n d a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s .

3

The sum m ary of vacation plans is lim ited to form al arran ge­
ments* excluding inform al plans whereby tim e off with pay is granted
at the d iscretio n of the em ployer. Separate estim a tes are provided
according to em ployer practice in com puting vacation paym ents, such
as tim e paym ents, percent of annual earnings, or fla t-su m am ounts.
H ow ever, in the tabulations of vacation allow an ces, paym ents not on
a tim e b a sis w ere converted; for exam ple, a paym ent of 2 percent of
annual earnings was con sid ered as the equivalent of 1 w eek 's pay.

Data are presented for all health, in su ran ce, and pension
plans for which at lea st a part of the c o st is borne by the em p loyer,
excepting only leg al requirem ents such as w ork m en 's com pensation
and so cia l secu rity . Such plans include those underw ritten by a com ­
m ercia l insurance com pany and those provided through a union fund or
paid d irectly by the em ployer out of curren t operating funds or from
a fund se t aside for this purpose. Death b en efits are included as a
form of life insuran ce.
S ick n ess and accident insurance is lim ited to that type of in ­
surance under which predeterm ined ca sh paym ents are m ade d irectly
to the insured on a w eekly or m onthly b&sis during illn e ss or accident
d isab ility. Inform ation is presen ted for all such plans to which the
em ployer contributes. H ow ever, in New York and New J e rse y , which
have enacted tem porary d isab ility insurance law s which require e m ­
ployer co n trib u tion s,4 plans are included only if the em ployer (1) con ­
tributes m ore than is leg a lly required, or (2) provides the em ployee
with benefits which exceed the requirem ents of the law . Tabulations
of paid sick -lea v e plans are lim ited to form al p la n s5 which provide
full pay or a proportion of the w orker's pay during absence from work
because of illn e s s . Separate tabulations are provided according to
(1) plans which provide full pay and no waiting period, and (2) plans
providing eith er partial pay or a w aiting period. In addition to the
presentation of the proportions of w orkers who are provided sick n ess
and accident insurance or paid sick lea v e, an unduplicated total is
shown of w orkers who receiv e eith er or both types of b en efits.
C atastrophe in su ran ce, som etim es referred to as extended
m ed ical insuran ce, includes those plans which are designed to protect
em ployees in ca se of sick n ess and injury involving exp en ses beyond
the norm al coverage of h osp italization , m ed ical, and su rgical plans.
M edical insurance refers to plans providing for com p lete or partial
paym ent of doctors* fe e s . Such plans m ay be underw ritten by co m m er­
cia l insurance com panies or nonprofit organizations or they m ay be
self-in su r ed . Tabulations of retirem en t pension plans are lim ited to
those plans that provide m onthly paym ents for the rem ainder of the
w o rk er's life .

2 An estab lish m en t was con sid ered as having a policy if it m et
eith er of the follow ing conditions: (1) O perated late shifts at the tim e
of the su rvey, or (2) had form al provisions coverin g late sh ifts.
3 Scheduled w eekly hours for office w orkers (first section of
table B -3 ) in surveys made prior to late 1957 and ea rly 1958 w ere
p resen ted in term s of the proportion of wom en office w orkers e m ­
ployed in o ffices with the indicated w eekly hours for wom en w o rk ers.

4 The tem porary d isab ility law s in C alifornia and Rhode Island
do not require em ployer contributions.
5 An estab lish m en t was con sid ered as having a form al plan if
it estab lish ed at le a st the m inim um num ber of days of sick leave that
could be expected by each em p lo yee. Such a plan need not be w ritten ,
but inform al sick -lea v e allow an ces, determ ined on an individual b a sis,
w ere excluded.

Shift differential data (table B - l) are lim ited to m anufacturing
in d u stries. This inform ation is presented both in term s of (a) esta b ­
lishm ent policy, 2 presented in term s of total plant worker em ploy­
m ent, and (b) effective p ra ctice, presented on the b a sis of w orkers
actually em ployed on the sp ecified shift at the tim e of the survey.
In estab lish m en ts having varied d ifferen tia ls, the amount applying to
a m ajority was used or, if no amount applied to a m ajority, the c la s ­
sification "other" was used. In estab lish m en ts in which som e la teshift hours are paid at norm al ra tes, a differential was recorded only
if it applied to a m ajority of the shift hours.
M inim um entrance rates (table B -2) relate only to the estab ­
lish m en ts v isited . They are presented on an estab lish m en t, rather
than on an em ploym ent b a sis. P aid holidays; paid vacations; and
health, insurance, and pension plans are treated sta tistica lly on the
b a sis that these are applicable to all plant or office w orkers if a m a­
jority of such w orkers are elig ib le or m ay eventually qualify for the
p ra ctices liste d . Scheduled hours are treated sta tistica lly on the b asis
that th ese are applicable to all plant or office w orkers if a m ajority
are covered . 3 B ecau se of rounding, sum s of individual item s in these
tabulations m ay not equal totals.
The fir s t part of the paid holidays table p resen ts the num ­
ber of whole and half holidays actually provided. The second part
com bines whole and half holidays to show total holiday tim e .




A* Occupational Earnings
Table A -l. Office Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a rn in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ied on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s tr y d iv is io n , P o r t la n d , M a in e, N o v e m b e r 1959)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

Average
Sex, o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s tr y d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

Weekly, Weekly
hours 1 earnings1
(Standard) (Standard)

$
35. 00
and
tinder
40. 00

$
40. 00

$
45. 00

$
50. 00

$
$
$
$
$
55. 00 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00

45. 00

50, 0Q_ 5 5 ,0 0 -60.00

65. 00

$
80. 00

20, Q _ _75.„QO_ 60. 0Q_ .85, 00
Q

$
85. 00

$
$
$
$
$
$
95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00
and
90. 00. ,95. 00_ 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 over
$
90. 00

M en
C le r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c l a s s A ___________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ____________________________

44
30

3 9.5
39. 5

$100. 50
97. 50

C le r k s , o r d e r
_________ ________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ___________________________

26
23

41. 0
41. 0

85. 00
86. 00

O ffic e b o y s
------------- -------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ____________________________

22
16

39. 5
39. 5

51. 00
52. 50

_
“

-

-

4
4

3
3

3
3

8
5

6
6

4
2

_
_
“

3
3
_
1
“

_
■

W om en

2
_
-

1
1

2
2

_
_
-

_
_
-

5
2
_

_
_
-

10
9

2
2

13
12

6
6

4
-

2
2

20
17
_
-

43
42

15
14

2
2

3
-

2
1

_
-

2
2

8
8

18
18

7
7

13
13

8
6

20
18

50
00
50
00

26
26
-

42
5
37
-

27
3
24
1

29
4
25
6

18
3
15
13

15
14
1
1

20
9
11
11

5
5

24
9
15
11
_
-

4
4

7

2

1

1
1
-

13
9
4
-

6
6
-

B i l l e r s , m a c h in e (b illin g m a c h in e ) ___________
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g ____________________________

38
32

38. 0
38. 0

53. 00
52. 50

B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s B ___
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g ------------------------------------------

85
76

39. 5
39. 5

47. 50
47. 00

C le r k s , a cc o u n tin g , c l a s s A __________________
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g ___________________________

86
77

38. 5
38. 5

68. 50
67. 00

C le r k s , a cco u n tin g , c l a s s B ___________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g ________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ____________________________
P u b lic u t ilit ie s 2 __________________________

217
49
168
48

38.
39.
37.
38.

54.
65.
51.
66.

.

4
_
_

1
1
_
_
-

3

C le r k s , p a y r o l l ---------------------------------------------------M a n u fa c t u r in g _________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g -------------------------------------------

78
41
37

39. 0
39. 5
38. 0

59. 50
64. 00
55. 00

4
4

5
3
2

6
4
2

16
7
9

13
3
10

10
6
4

3
1
2

C o m p to m e t e r o p e r a t o r s ________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ____________________________
P u b lic u t i l i t i e s 2 ___________________________

61
47
30

38. 5
38. 5
39. 0

65. 50
67. 50
74. 50

4
2
-

3
3
3

8
7
5

12
5
4

10
9
1

4
2
-

K e y p u n ch o p e r a t o r s -------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ------------------------------------------P u b lic u t ilit ie s 2 ----------------------------------------

73
67
33

38. 5
38. 5
39. 5

61. 50
60. 50
75. 00

13
13
5

3
3
1

4
4
4

3
1
1

3
-

1
-

115
30
85

39. 0
39. 0
39. 0

67. 50
76. 00
64. 50

14
14
_

13
13
3

S e c r e t a r ie s ----------------------------------------------------------M a n u fa c t u r in g ________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ____________________________

3

-

3

14
1
13

21
3
18

18
3
15

17
1
16 '

8
6
2

17
7
10

5
2
3

S t e n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l ________________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g ________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ____________________________
P u b lic u t ilit ie s 2 ----------------------------------------

125
37
88
20

39.
39.
39.
40.

62.
66.
61.
72.

2
2
_
_
.
_

3

20
2
18

15
3
12

11
1
10
4

4

4
1

1
1

4
2

S w itc h b o a rd o p e r a t o r s __________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ____________________________

59
51

39. 0
39. 0

51. 00
49. 00

16
16

15
15

7
6

3
2

4
4

4

S w itc h b o a rd o p e r a t o r - r e c e p t i o n i s t s __________
M a n u fa c t u r in g ________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ___________________________

37
15
22

39. 5
39. 5
40. 0

54. 00
51. 50
56. 00

10
6
4

6
3
3

5
1
4

7
3
4

6
1
5

_

_
_

14
7
7
4

1

-

22
10
12
5

4

-

19
4
15
2

8
8

3

-

T r a n s c r ib in g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , g e n e r a l __
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ___________________________

27
24
20
20
115
104

38.
38.
39.
39.
38.
38.

50.
50.
58.
58.
48.
48.

4
4

4
4

12
10

7
6

-

-

T y p is t s , c l a s s B ________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g -------------------------------------------

5
5
0
0
0
0

50
50
00
00
50
00

4
4

_
-

_
7
7

_

26
22

5
5

35
35

-

5
5

4
4

32
29

11
8

3
3
4
3

1
1
-

3
3
3 '

-

5
5
5
_

-

-

-

5
3
2

-

-

_
_
_
-

1
1

1
1

_

2

3
3

1
1

_

2

-

-

-

-

_
_
-

_
-

_
-

2

-

-

-

S ta n da rd h o u r s r e f l e c t the w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p lo y e e s r e c e i v e t h e ir r e g u la r s t r a ig h t - t im e s a la r i e s and the e a r n in g s c o r r e s p o n d to t h e s e w e e k ly h o u r s .
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .




_
_
-

15
15
15
11
11
11

8
8

2

-

_
1
_

2
2
2

30
29

1

_
-

4
4
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_
_
_

_
-

15
12

2

50
oo1
00
00

_
_
-

_
-

8
8

55. 00

_

-

1
1
_
_

13
13
_
_

_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_

2
2
_

5
1
1
_

~

.
_
-

_
-

48. 00
48. 50

5
5
5
0

4
4
_

_
-

37. 5
37. 5
39. 0

-

4
4
_

1
1
1
_
_

18

-

6
6
_

1
1
_
_
_
_

71
67

-

2
2

5
_
_
_
-

C le r k s , f i le , c l a s s B ___________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ____________________________

-

3
3

_
_
_
_
_
_
-

C le r k s , o r d e r ____________________________________

-

7
4

-

15
2
13
4
_
-

T y p is t s , c l a s s A ________________________________
N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g ___________________________

0
5
5
5

.

_
-

“

_
_

_
_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

2

1

-

-

2

1
1
-

1

-

4
2
2
1

_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
_
-

3
3
-

_
1
1

_
-

_
-

-

_
_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

5
Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a r n in g s fo r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
by in d u str y d i v is i o n , P o r t la n d , M a in e , N o v e m b e r 1959)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$

Avebaqh

Number
of
workers

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Weekly
Weekly
hours 1 earnings 1
(Standard) (Standard)

$
$
$
$
Under 50. 00 55.00 60.00 65.00
and
$
under
50.00 55.00 60.00^ _65_._00_ 70.00

70.00
75.00

75.00
80^.00

80.00
85.00

85.00
90.00

1

5

_

_

$

$

$

$

90.00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00
and
95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 over

Women
N urses, industrial ( r e g is t e r e d ) ________

_________

—

9

4 0 .0

_

$ 76.92

_

.

.

2

_

_

_

.

.

1

.

1 S ta n d a rd h o u r s r e f l e c t the w o r k w e e k fo r w h ic h e m p lo y e e s r e c e i v e t h e ir r e g u la r s t r a i g h t - t im e s a la r i e s and the e a r n in g s c o r r e s p o n d to th e s e w e e k ly h o u r s .

Table A-3. Maintenance apd Powerplant Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s for m e n in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d iv is io n , P o r t la n d , M a in e , N o v e m b e r 19 59)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
Number
of
workers

O c c u p a t io n and in d u s tr y d iv is io n

Average
hourly ,
earnings

$
U n der
$
1 .4 0

1 .4 0
and
under
1 .5 0

$

$
1 .5 0

1 .6 0

1 .6 0

1 .7 0

$

1 .7 0
1 .8 0

1 .8 0

$

1 .9 0

$

2 .0 0

12

4

2
-

4
4

4
4

11
10

10
10

1
1
-

_
-

17
1
1

4
4
4

20
5
1

_
~

6
6
"

12
12
"

8
4
4

2 .2 0
2 .2 3

2
2

-

"

E n g i n e e r s , sta t io n a r y ____________________________
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g ______________________________
P u b lic u t ilit ie s 2 ______ __ _____ _____ __

61
22
15

2 .0 8

_
"

_
-

4
-

2 .0 3

4
4
3

3
3
3

71
------ 43----22

1 .8 7
1 .7 4
2 . 14

6
4
2

12
12

1
1

13
10
3

“

__

75

1 .8 5

1

4

_

1

1

30

37

1

M e c h a n ic s , a u t o m o tiv e (m a in te n a n c e ) _________
M a n u fa c t u r in g _____ _____ ____________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ________ ______ _______ __
P u b lic u t ilit ie s 2 ___________________________

82
16
66
50

2 .0 9
2 .0 2
2 .1 1
2 .0 2

"

2
2
■

8
8
8

6
3
3
■

12
3
9
7

6
6
6

-

6
3
3

M e c h a n ic s , m a in te n a n ce
_____ _________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g ___________ _______ ________ _

78
65

2 .1 3
2 .0 8

.

.

"

4
4

1
1

2
2

3
$

P a i n t e r s , m a in te n a n ce

23

1 .8 4

_

8

_

2

4

H e lp e r s , t r a d e s , m a in te n a n ce

_______

__

___________________________

_

1
-

1 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m pay fo r o v e r t im e and fo r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and la te s h ift s .
2 T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and oth er p u b lic u t ilit ie s .




1

‘

$

2 .3 0

$

2 .4 0

$

2 .5 0

16

43
3$

_

2 .2 0

9

E l e c t r i c i a n s , m a in te n a n ce ____ _________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g _____ _________ _________ _ __

_____ _________
________ __ __

$

2

2 . 10

$ 2 .0 7

F ir e m e n , st a t io n a r y b o il e r
M a n u fa c t u r in g _____ ________
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g
________

2 .1 0

2 .0 0

48

1

$

1 .9 0

C a r p e n t e r s , m a in te n a n ce --------------------------------------

2.06

2

$

2. 20

2. 30

2. 40

2. 50

2 .6 0

$

2 .6 0
2 .7 0

$

2 .7 0
2 .8 0

$
2 .8 0
2 .9 0

$

2 .9 0
3. 00

$
3 .0 0
and
over

1

3
--------- 5—

-

-

2
2

7
3
2

_
"

_
-

_
"

6
6

_
"

_
“

_

_

_

_

3

10
5
5
5

12
12
12

8
1
7
7

3
3

16
16

19
17

18
10

5

1

_

2

4
4

-

"

"

_

_

_

-

-

-

1
1
1

_
-

6
6

_
"

_
-

1
1
“

-

.

_

_

_

-

_

2
2
2

“

■

“

-

7
1
6
“

3
3
“

6
6

3

_

_

_

1
"

2
■

"

_

_

_

_

_

*

“
_

_

1

_

6
Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s fo r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
by in d u s tr y d i v is i o n , P o r t la n d , M a in e , N o v e m b e r 1959)
NUMBER OF WORKEBS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
Number
of
workers

O c c u p a t io n 1 and in d u s t r y d iv is io n

Average $
hourly ,
1 .0 0
earnings
and
under
1 .1 0

$

$

$

$

$

1 .1 0

1 .2 0

1 .3 0

1 .4 0

1 .5 0

1 .2 0

1 .3 0

1 .4 0

1 .5 0

1 .6 0

_

_

E le v a t o r o p e r a t o r s , p a s s e n g e r (w o m e n ) _______
N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g
________ __ __ _____ __

32
31

$ 1 .0 2
1 .6 2

27
27

4
3

1
1

_
■

-

202
119
83

1 .5 3
1 .7 3
1 .2 5

35
1
3 34

10
3
7

9
9

26
5
21

12
8
4

J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , an d c l e a n e r s ( w o m e n ) _____
N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g
__ __ _ _____ „ __

71
57

1 .2 0
1 .1 4

35
35

7
4

17
l3

-

L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l h a n d l i n g __ ________
___
M a n u fa ctu r in g __________ _ _
______ ______
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g
__
___ __________ ___
P u b lic u t ilit ie s 5 ___________________________

346
106
240
49

1 .7 7
1 .6 7
1 .8 2
2 .2 7

32
4
428
-

48
17
3d
-

13
13
-

O rd e r fille r s
M a n u fa ctu r in g _____ _____ ____
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
____ ______

_____ ______
__

236
73
163

1 .7 4
1 .8 5
1 .6 9

3
3

3
3

4
4

_______ ___
__ ___________

103
26

1 .7 8
1 .1 2

18
10

7
5

15

-

11

-

R e c e iv in g c l e r k s __ _ __ „ _ _______ ________
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g ____________________________

41

58

1 .7 4
1 .7 1

2
2

8
8

5
5

1
1

-

S hipping c l e r k s ___________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ____ __ ___________________

46
36'

1 .8 6
1 .8 1

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

S hipping an d r e c e iv in g c l e r k s
M a n u fa ctu r in g ________ ___

37
25

1 .7 1
1 .8 7

-

8
-

4
4

215
2 .0 4
------51----- " T : 7 3
164
2 .1 3
64
2 .2 9

7
7

,
1 .6 0
1 .7 0

“

J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , and c l e a n e r s (m e n ) ---------M a n u fa c t u r in g __________________________________
N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g
___ ____ _ __

$

P a c k e r s , sh ip p in g (m e n )
_ __
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g __ __

__________________
____ ______ _____

T r u c k d r i v e r s 6 ............................... _
.......................
__ __
__ _ _____
M a n u fa ctu r in g ____ __
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
__
___ __ _____
P u b lic u t ilit ie s 5 ____________________________

7

—

_

-

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

.
-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

“

4
4

-

“

-

-

-

-

23
21
2
-

7
6
1
1

6
5
1
1

59
59
13

32
20
12
12

22
22
22

_
-

2
2

12
12

18
18

-

-

_
-

_
-

27
27

52
52

_
-

_
-

-

-

2
2
-

1
1
-

-

1
-

-

7
-

45
-

9
-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

9
4

3
2

1

-

1
1

1

_

_

-

15
15

_

-

-

-

-

-

1

3
-

3
2

1

_

_

.

_

-

13
12

-

"

-

-

1
-

-

6
4

2
2

9
9

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

_
-

62
62
62
26
25

_
-

12
12

-

-

-

2
2

-

-

_
-

58
2
56

3
3
-

24
6
18

59
32
27

-

-

1
-

-

-

9
6

2
2

1

-

-

7
6

11
li

5
5

1
-

-

1
-

5
"5

-

-

-

4
4
-

6
6
-

2
2

4
4

_

_

_

-

-

“

-

-

2
2

1
1

6
------2-----4

-

-

-

123
37

1 .8 6
1 .8 $

_

3

-

-

v-

_

.
-

8
8

7
2

3
3

11

1

_

_

1

~

“

■

“

1 Data lim ited to m en w orkers except w here otherw ise indicated.
a E xcludes prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on w eekends, holidays, and late sh ifts.
Includes 4 w orkers at under $1.
Includes 8 w orkers at under $1.
T ransportation, com m unication, and other public u tilities.
6 Includes a ll drivers regard less of size and type of truck operated.
7 W orkers w ere distributed as follow s: 8 at $ 2 .7 0 to $2 .8 0 and 35 at $ 2 .8 0 to $ 2 .9 0 .

1

6
9
9
------- 5— ------ 2------ --------5— ”
4
4
1
-

10
4

over

_
"

8
6
2
-

-

2 .7 0

-

4
1
3
“

-

2 .6 0

_
-

13
" '8
5
“

-

2 .5 0

-

30
4
26

-

2 .7 0
and

_
-

17
14
3
-

-

2 .6 0

10
6
4

"

2 .5 4
2 .5 $

$

2 .5 0

3
3

-

-

$

$
2 .4 0

.

-

“
2
1

*

_

-

17
1
16
18------ ------- 9— ------ 1-----8
4
-

1
-

_

_

-

-

2
2
-

11
n —
-

9
1
8

1
------ j-------

-

4
4

i
-

2

_

6
_

3

16
16

'

5
------- 3—
2
2

.

_

-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

_
-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

23
23

3
-

-

60
-

1

-

19
19

_

_

-

_

_

_

_

_

~

"

■

6
6

_

7 43
43
-

"

1

-

2
2
-

-

~

-

.

$

_

-

76
7o




2 .4 0

_

-

T r u c k d r i v e r s , h e a v y (o v e r 4 t o n s ,
t r a il e r type) ____ ________ ___ ______ ___________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
_
_

3
4
5

2. 30

3
-

13
1
12

4
9
3------ ------- 3-----

2. 20

4
-

-

1 .4 7
” “ 58” - —

2 . 10

-

-

48
— 53—

$
2 .3 0

1
i

-

_

2 .2 0

$

-

*

____
. -

2 .1 0

■

1 .8 0
1 .8 0
1 .8 0

W a tch m e n
_
_ __
N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g _

$
2 .0 0

-

59
18
41

__

2 .0 0

$

72
71
1

T r u c k d r i v e r s , m e d iu m (lV a to and
in clu d in g 4 to n s )
----- .
M a n u fa ctu r in g _____________________________
N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g
_
__ __

____

_

1 .9 0

14
14
“

1

N on m a n u fa ctu rin g _

1 .9 0

$

6
6
■

1 .9 0
1 .9 2

T ru ck e rs , power (fo rk lift!

1 .8 0

5
5
-

47
39

-

1 .8 0

$

_

T r u c k d r i v e r s , lig h t (u n d er lVa t o n s ) ______
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _________________________

-

1 .7 0

_

10
18
— ------ 3-----6
15
“
-

-

$

-

_
-

-

43
43

6

_

_

-

-

-

_

_

_




B * Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
«
Table B-1. Shift Differentials
( P e r c e n t o f m a n u fa c t u r i n g p la n t w o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s h a v in g f o r m a l p r o v i s i o n s f o r s h i ft w o r k , an d in e s t a b l is h m e n t s
a c t u a l l y o p e r a t i n g la t e s h i ft s b y ty p e a n d a m o u n t o f d i f f e r e n t i a l , P o r t l a n d , M a in e , N o v e m b e r 1 9 5 9 )
In e s t a b l is h m e n t s h a v in g f o r m a l
p r o v is io n s 1 fo r —

In e s t a b l is h m e n t s a c t u a ll y
o p e r a tin g —

S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l
T h ir d o r o t h e r
s h i ft

S e c o n d s h ift
w ork

T h ir d o r o t h e r
s h i ft w o r k

T o t a l -----------------------------------------------------------------------------

74. 0

6 6 .4

16. 7

8. 4

W ith s h ift p a y d i f f e r e n t i a l -------------------------------------

37. 7

3 2 .7

8 .4

0 .9

U n ifo r m c e n t s ( p e r h o u r ) ----------------------------------

37. 7

30. 3

8 .4

.9

5 c e n t s --------------------------------------------------------------10 c e n t s -----------------------------------------------------------12 c e n t s -----------------------------------------------------------15 c e n t s -----------------------------------------------------------16 c e n t s ------------------------------------------------------------

9 .0
1 9 .0
5. 8

2. 6
2. 5
1 .8

. 5
.4

-

-

3 .9

7. 8
1 2 .6
5. 8
4. 1
"

1 .5

"

U n if o r m p e r c e n t a g e --------------------------------------------

-

-

-

-

F u ll d a y 's p a y f o r r e d u c e d h o u r s ------------------

-

2 .4

-

-

36. 4

33. 7

8. 3

7. 5

N o s h i ft p a y d i f f e r e n t i a l -----------------------------------------

-

1
I n c lu d e s e s t a b l is h m e n t s c u r r e n t l y o p e r a t i n g la t e
e v e n th o u g h t h e y w e r e n o t c u r r e n t l y o p e r a t i n g la t e s h i f t s .

s h i f t s , an d e s t a b l is h m e n t s

S e c o n d s h ift

w it h f o r m a l p r o v i s i o n s

co v e rin g

la t e

s h ift s

8
Table B-2. Minimum Entrance Salaries for W om en O ffice W orkers
(D i s t r i b u t i o n o f e s t a b l is h m e n t s s t u d ie d in a l l in d u s t r i e s a n d in in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s b y m in i m u m e n t r a n c e s a l a r y f o r s e l e c t e d c a t e g o r i e s
o f i n e x p e r i e n c e d w o m e n o f f i c e w o r k e r s , P o r t l a n d , M a in e , N o v e m b e r 1959)

M in im u m w eek ly s a la r y 1

A ll
in d u s tr ie s

E s ta b lis h m e n ts s tu d ie d ________ _______________
E s ta b lis h m e n ts hav in g a s p e c ifie d
m in im u m _______________________________________
U nder $ 37. 50 ________________________________
$ 3 7 . 50 and u n d e r $ 40. 00 ___________________
$ 4 0 . 00 and u n d er $ 4 2 . 50 ___________________
$ 4 2 . 50 an d under $ 45. 00 ___________________
$ 4 5 . 00 and u n d e r $ 4 7 . 50 ___________________
$ 4 7 . 50 an d u n d e r $ 5 0 . 00 ___________________
$ 5 0 . 00 and un d er $ 52. 50 ___________________
$ 5 2 . 50 and u n d er $ 5 5 . 00 ___________________
$ 5 5 . 00 and u n d er $ 5 7 . 50 ___________________
$ 5 7 . 50 and u n der $ 6 0 . 00 ___________________
$ 6 0 . 00 and un d er $ 6 2 . 50 __________________
$ 6 2 . 50 and o v e r __________ _________________
E s ta b lis h m e n ts having no s p e c ifie d
m in im u m _______________________________________
E s ta b lis h m e n ts w hich did not em p lo y
w o rk e rs in th is c a t e g o r y ______________________
1
2
3

In e x p e rie n c e d ty p is ts
M a n u fa c tu rin g
N o n m an u fa c tu r ing
B a se d on s ta n d a rd w e e k ly h o u rs 3 of—
A ll
sc h e d u le s

40

A ll
s c h e d u le s

70

25

XXX

45

XXX

XXX

28
1
5
5
4
3
3
1
1
2
3
17
25

6
1
1
1
1
-

5
1
1
1
-

6
3
1
1
-

-

-

22
1
5
4
3
2
2
1
2

10
1
4
2
1

1
1
10

XXX

9

-

1
1

XXX

2

7
16

-

40

37Vz

-

1
-

2

XXX
XXX

XXX
XXX

O th e r in e x p e rie n c e d c le r ic a l w o rk e rs 2
M a n u fa c tu rin g
N o n m an u fa c tu rin g
B a se d on s ta n d a rd w e e k ly h o u rs 3 of—

A ll
in d u s tr ie s

A ll
sc h e d u le s

40

A ll
s c h e d u le s

70

25

XXX

45

XXX

XXX

30
1
5
7
5
4
3
1

8
2
2
1
1
-

7
2
2
1
-

6
3
1
1
1

-

-

22
1
5
5
3
3
2
1
-

10
1
5
2
-

1
-

1
1
12

3

19
21

5

-

1
1

-

2

7
16

XXX
XXX

37 Va

40

-

-

2

XXX
XXX

XXX
XXX

L o w e s t s a l a r y r a t e f o r m a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d f o r h i r in g i n e x p e r i e n c e d w o r k e r s f o r t y p in g o r o t h e r c l e r i c a l j o b s .
R a te s a p p lic a b le to m e s s e n g e r s , o ff ic e g ir ls , o r s im ila r s u b c le r ic a l jo b s a r e not c o n s id e r e d .
H o u r s r e f l e c t th e w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e t h e ir r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r i e s . D a ta a r e p r e s e n t e d f o r a l l w o r k w e e k s c o m b i n e d , a n d f o r th e m o s t c o m m o n w o r k w e e k s r e p o r t e d .

Table B-3. Scheduled W e e k ly Hours
( P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o f f i c e a n d p la n t w o r k e r s in a l l i n d u s t r ie s a n d in in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s b y s c h e d u l e d w e e k l y h o u r s
o f f i r s t - s h i f t w o r k e r s , P o r t l a n d , M a in e , N o v e m b e r 1 9 5 9 )

OFFICE WORKERS
W e e k ly h o u r s

A l l w o r k e r s --------------------------------------------------- --------------35 h o u r s -----------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 35 a n d u n d e r 3 7 l/a h o u r s ------------------------------3 7 Va h o u r s -------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 3 7Va a n d u n d e r 4 0 h o u r s ------------------------------40 h o u r s ------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 40 and u n d e r 42 h o u r s -----------------------------------42 h o u r s ------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 42 a n d u n d e r 4 5 h o u r s -----------------------------------4 5 h o u r s ------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 45 a n d u n d e r 50 h o u r s -----------------------------------50 h o u r s ------------------------------------------------------------------------1
2
3
4

PLANT WORKERS

All industries1

Manufacturing

100

100

100

6
_

1
-

3

38

-

90

60

All industries 3

_

10
3
23
7
52
1
1
2
(4 )
1
"

Public utilities 2

-

-

1
(4 )

-

-

1
1
_
-

100

100

6
6

Public utilities 2

_

100

4

50
1

54
_

77

24
5
3
2
3

35
3
4
_

_

I n c lu d e s d a ta f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , an d r e a l e s t a t e ; an d s e r v i c e s in a d d i t io n to t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t io n , and o t h e r p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s .
I n c lu d e s da ta f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e , r e t a i l t r a d e , r e a l e s t a t e ,- an d s e r v i c e s in a d d i t io n to t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
L e s s th a n 0 . 5 p e r c e n t .




Manufacturing

sh ow n s e p a r a t e ly .

10
8
5

9
Table B-4. Paid Holidays
( P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o f f i c e a n d p la n t w o r k e r s in a l l in d u s t r i e s a n d in in u d s t r y d i v i s i o n s b y n u m b e r o f p a id h o l id a y s
p r o v i d e d a n n u a lly , P o r t la n d , M a in e , N o v e m b e r 1 9 5 9 )

PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS
Item
All industries *

A ll w o r k e r s _______ _ _________ ___

_________

W o rk e rs in es ta b lis h m e n ts pro v id in g
paid h o lid a y s ____________ _____________________
W o r k e r s in esta b lis h m e n ts p ro v id in g no
paid h o lid a y s _________ _ . ___________________

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

All industries3

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

100

100

100

100

100

100

99

100

100

91

97

90

9

3

10

3
4
5
11
51
6
14
4
-

8
27
10
42
-

1

N um ber o f d a y s

3 h olid a y s
4 h o l id a y s __________________________________________
5 h olid a y s _________________________________________
6 h o l id a y s ________________ __________________________
7 h o l id a y s __________________________________________
8 h o l id a y s __________________________________________
9 h o l id a y s ___________ _____ ______________________
9 h olid a y s plus 1 h alf d a y ___________ ___________
9 h olid a y s plus 2 h a lf d a y s _______________________
10 h o lid a y s _____________________ __________________

(4)
5
16
13
48
15
1
1

(4 )
8
63
8
18
3
-

1
6
48
38
4
3

1
2
3
10
35
16
21
2
(4 )

7
45
94
99
99
100
100
100
100

(4 )
3
23
39
74
85
87
89
91

2

Total holiday time5
10 o r m o r e days ___________ _

__ ______________

9 V2 o r m o r e days ___________________________ _____

9
8
7
6
5
4
3

or
or
or
or
or
or
or

m ore
m ore
m ore
m ore
m ore
m ore
m o re

1
2
3
4
5
n o h a lf

d a y s ____________________________________
d a y s ______________ ____________________
d a y s ____________________________________
d a y s ____________________________________
d a y s ____________________________________
d a y s ____________________________________
days __________________________________

2
16
65
77
93
99
99
99
99

3
21
29
92
100
100
100
100

.
4
18
24
75
86
91
95
97

2
2
44
54
82
90
90
90
90

I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; f i n a n c e , in s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e ; an d s e r v i c e s in a d d i t io n t o t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t io n , a n d o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s .
I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e , r e t a i l t r a d e , r e a l e s t a t e , and s e r v i c e s in a d d i t io n t o t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s sh o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
L e s s th a n 0 .5 p e r c e n t .
A l l c o m b in a t i o n s o f fu l l an d h a lf d a y s th a t a d d t o th e s a m e a m o u n t a r e c o m b in e d ; f o r e x a m p l e , th e p r o p o r t i o n o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g a t o t a l o f 7 d a y s i n c l u d e s t h o s e w it h 7 f u l l d a y s a n d
d a y s , 6 fu l l d a y s a n d 2 h a lf d a y s , 5 f u l l d a y s an d 4 h a lf d a y s , an d s o o n .
P r o p o r t i o n s w e r e th e n c u m u l a t e d .




10
Table B-5. Pqid Vacations

(P e r c e n t d istrib u tion of office and plant w ork ers in a ll in d u str ie s and in in dustry d iv isio n s
by vacation pay p r o v isio n s, P ortland, M aine, N ovem ber 1 95 9)

PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS
V a c a t io n p o l i c y

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

100

1 00

100

100

1 00

100

99
99
-

99
99
-

100
100
-

98
86
12
-

99
78
21
-

100
98
2
-

( 4)

( 4)

-

2

( 4)

7
32
6
8

13
65
-

_

15
12
4

29
6
-

-

10
38

23
( 4)
74

26

41

-

-

67
( 4)
27

53
47

All industries 1

A l l w o r k e r s __________________________________________

All industries 3

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

Method of payment
W o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s p r o v id i n g
p a id v a c a t i o n s ___ _____ ____________________________
L e n g t h - o f - t i m e p a y m e n t ---------------------------------P e r c e n t a g e p a y m e n t ____________________________
F l a t - s u m p a y m e n t ______ ______ _________________
O t h e r ........................... ........ .......... ............................... ........
W o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s p r o v id i n g
n o p a id v a c a t i o n s __________________________________

Amount of vacation pay

-

5

A fte r 6 m on th s o f s e r v i c e
U nder 1 w eek
1 w e e k ------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s ---------------------------------2 w e e k s --------- --------------------------------------------------------------

-

_
11
25

A fte r 1 y e a r o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek
O ver 1
2 w eeks
O ver 2
3 w eeks

-----------------------------------------------------------------------and u n d e r 2 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------and u n d e r 3 w e e k s —
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1 w eek
O ver 1
2 w eeks
O ver 2
3 w eeks

________________________________________________
and u n d e r 2 w e e k s ------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------- —
and u n d e r 3 w e e k s ----------- -------------------_______________________________________________

73

59

_

-

_

-

87
12
-

2

-

-

3

-

-

22
( 4)
68
5
4

22
77
-

39
1
60
-

80
4
15
-

34
8
58
-

-

-

59
3
29
( 4)
6

-

-

15

10
89

39
1
60

24
5
62

23
9
67

34
3
63

-

-

-

( 4)
6

-

-

2

6

_

( 4)
85
5
7

-

-

91

100

7
2
75

7
4
83

100

-

-

( 4)
13

-

-

_

A fte r 2 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e

A fte r 3 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek
O ver 1
2 w eeks
O ver 2
3 w eeks

----- -------------- --------------- ------------------------------------and u n d e r 2 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------and u n d e r 3 w e e k s ---------------------------------_______________________________________________

1 w eek
O ver 1
2 w eeks
O ver 2
3 w eeks

-----------------------------------------------------------------------and u n d e r 2 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------and u n d e r 3 w e e k s ------------ -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

( 4)
75
5
4

-

-

A fte r 5 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e




3

5

_
-

11
Table B-5. Paid Vacations-Continued
( P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o f f i c e a n d p la n t w o r k e r s in a l l i n d u s t r i e s a n d in in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s
b y v a c a t i o n p a y p r o v i s i o n s , P o r t la n d , M a in e , N o v e m b e r 1 9 5 9 )

PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS
V a c a t io n p o l i c y

All industries1

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

All industries 3

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

Amount of vocation p a y 5 Continued
—
A f t e r 10 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e

1 w e e k -------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s
------------------- --------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 and u n d e r 3 w e e k s ______________________
3 w e e k s ________________________________________________

---------------------------

2w eeks

2
( 4)
62
5
30

-

-

35
_
58

95
_
5

2
23
5
69

6
23
_
70

11
_

2
23
5
66

6
23
70

6

7

7

(4)
50
(4)
40

92
_

-

46
_
46

8

A f t e r 15 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e

1 w e e k ------ ----------------------------------------------- -------------------2 w e e k s ----------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 and u n d e r 3 w e e k s ---------------------------------3 w e e k s _______________________________________________

89

7
30
1
60

11
85
4

7
29
( 4)
57
5

7

7

10
_

28
( 4)

27
_
22
43

7
31
_

17
6
77

61

A f t e r 20 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e

1 w eek

________________________________________________
------------------------------------------------------------------O ver
an d u n d e r 3 w e e k s --------- --------------------w e e k s ____________________ ____ _____________________
4 w e e k s __________ ____________________________________

2 w eeks

3

2

3

[

7
28
_

17
_

64

80

3

"

A f t e r 25 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e

1 w e e k _________________________________________________
2 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 and u n d e r 3 w e e k s ______________________
w e e k s ----- --------------------------------------------------------------4 w e e k s ____________________________________________

3

2
19
5
56
17

6
20
_
20
53

77

33

13

30

I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; f i n a n c e , in s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e ; a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d i t io n t o t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t io n , a n d o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s .
I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e , r e t a i l t r a d e , r e a l e s t a t e , a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d i t io n t o t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
th a n 0. 5 p e r c e n t .
5 P e r i o d s o f s e r v i c e w e r e a r b i t r a r i l y c h o s e n a n d d o n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t th e in d iv id u a l p r o v i s i o n s f o r p r o g r e s s i o n s .
F o r e x a m p le , th e c h a n g e s in
s e r v i c e in c lu d e c h a n g e s in p r o v i s i o n s o c c u r r i n g b e t w e e n 5 a n d 10 y e a r s .

17
_

70
13

1
2
3

4 L ess

N O T E ; In th e t a b u la t io n s o f v a c a t i o n s a l l o w a n c e s b y y e a r s o f s e r v i c e , p a y m e n t s o t h e r th a n " l e n g t h - o f - t i m e , "
t o a n e q u iv a le n t t im e b a s i s ; f o r e x a m p le , a p a y m e n t o f 2 p e r c e n t o f a n n u a l e a r n i n g s w a s c o n s i d e r e d a s 1 w e e k 's p a y .




such as p e rce n ta g e

o f a n n u al e a rn in g s

p r o p o r t io n s

o r fla t-s u m

in d ic a t e d a t

p a y m e n ts,

w ere

10

years'

co n v e rte d

12
Table B-6. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
( P e r c e n t o f o f f i c e a n d p la n t w o r k e r s in a l l in d u s t r i e s a n d in i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s e m p l o y e d in e s t a b l is h m e n t s p r o v id i n g
h e a lt h , i n s u r a n c e , o r p e n s io n b e n e f i t s , P o r t l a n d , M a in e , N o v e m b e r 19 5 9 )

OFFICE WORKERS
T y p e o f b e n e fit

A ll w o r k e r s

_________________________________________

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s p r o v id i n g ;
L i f e i n s u r a n c e __________________________________
A c c i d e n t a l d e a th a n d d i s m e m b e r m e n t
in s u r a n c e ______________________________________
S ic k n e s s a n d a c c i d e n t in s u r a n c e o r
s i c k l e a v e o r b o th 4 __________________________
S ic k n e s s a n d a c c i d e n t in s u r a n c e -----------S ic k l e a v e ( f u ll p a y a n d n o
_________________________
w a it in g p e r i o d )
S ic k le a v e (p a r t ia l p a y o r
w a it in g p e r io d ) ____________________________
H o s p i t a l iz a t io n i n s u r a n c e ___________________
S u r g i c a l in s u r a n c e ____________________________
M e d i c a l in s u r a n c e
_______________________ _
_
C a t a s t r o p h e i n s u r a n c e ___________________ __
R e t i r e m e n t p e n s io n
N o h e a lt h , i n s u r a n c e , o r p e n s io n p l a n ____

All industries 1

Manufacturing

100

100

86
62
87
29
71

89
72
93
38
73

-

90
81
77
42
76

79
68
47
33
66
2

-

PLANT WORKERS
Public utilities 2

All industries 3

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

100

100

100

100

61
53

85
64
81
59
21
7
75
69
41
8
54

93
69
90
79
9
6
93
84
43
4
65

65
57
67
17
30
25
68
68
62
15
49

99
9
95
-

58
58
57
10
58

4

1 I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e ; a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d i t io n t o t h o s e i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s sh o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
2 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d o t h e r p u b lic u t i l i t i e s .
3 I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e , r e t a i l t r a d e , r e a l e s t a t e , a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d i t io n to t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
4 U n d u p lic a t e d t o t a l o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g s i c k l e a v e o r s i c k n e s s a n d a c c i d e n t in s u r a n c e s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y b e l o w .
S i c k - l e a v e p la n s a r e l i m i t e d t o t h o s e w h ic h d e f i n i t e l y
m in im u m n u m b e r o f d a y s ' p a y th a t c a n b e e x p e c t e d b y e a c h e m p l o y e e .
I n f o r m a l s i c k - l e a v e a l l o w a n c e s d e t e r m i n e d o n a n in d iv id u a l b a s i s a r e e x c l u d e d .




e s t a b l i s h at le a s t the

13

Appendix:

Occupational Descriptions

The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’s wage surveys is to a s s is t its
field staff in classify in g into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangem ents from establishm ent to establishm ent and from area to area. T his is
essen tial in order to perm it the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
B ecause of this em phasis on interestablishm ent and interarea com parability of occupational content, the
Bureau’s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishm ents or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the B ureau's field econom ists are
instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped w orkers,
part-tim e, temporary, and probationary workers.
O FFIC E

BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statem ents, b ills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electrom atic typew riter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, b illers, m achine, are
classified by type of machine, as follow s:
Biller, machine (hilling machine)— U ses a sp ecial billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, E llio tt F ish er, Burroughs, e tc ., which are
combination typing and adding m achines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from custom ers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. U sually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are autom atically accum ulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.
Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine) — U ses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, E llio tt F ish er, Remington Rand, e tc ., which
may or may not have typew riter keyboard) to prepare custom ers’
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. G enerally in ­
volves the sim ultaneous entry of figures on custom ers’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine autom atically accum ulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and com putes and usually prints autom atically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping. Works from uniform and standard types of sales and
credit slip s.

O perates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, E llio tt
F ish er, Sundstrand, Burroughs, N ational C ash R egister, with or w ithout
a typew riter keyboard) to keep a record of b u sin ess tran sactio n s.




Class A— Keeps a se t of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in b asic bookkeeping principles and fam iliarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. D eterm ines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit item s to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated rep o rts, balance
sh eets, and other records by hand.
Class B— Keeps a record of one or more phases or sectio n s of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of b asic book­
keeping- P h ases or sectio n s include accounts payable, payroll,
custom ers’ accounts (not including a sim ple type of billing described
under biller, machine), co st distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or a s s is t in preparation of tria l
balances and prepare control sh eets for the accounting departm ent.
CLERK, ACCOUNTING

Class A— Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sectio n s of a com­
plete se t of books or records relating to one phase of an e sta b lish ­
m ent's bu sin ess tran sactio n s. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

14

CLERK, ACCOUNTING— Continued
payable; exam ining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper a c ­
counting distribution; requires judgment and experience in making
proper assig n ation s and allo catio n s. May a s s is t in preparing, ad­
justing and closing journal en tries; may direct c la ss B accounting
clerks.

Class B— Under supervision, performs one or more routine a c ­
counting operations such as posting sim ple journal vouchers or a c ­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher reg isters;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers, or posting sim ple co st accounting d ata. T his
job does not require a knowledge of accounting and bookkeeping
principles but is found in offices in which the more routine account­
ing work is subdivided on a functional b asis among sev eral w orkers.

CLERK, PAYROLL
Com putes w ages of company em ployees and enters the n eces­
sary data on the payroll sh e e ts. D uties involve: C alculating w orkers'
earnings based on time or production records; posting calcu lated data
on payroll sh eet, showing inform ation such as w orker's name, working
days, tim e, rate, deductions for insurance, and to tal w ages due. May
make out paychecks and a s s is t paym aster in making up and distrib ut­
ing pay envelopes. May use a calculating m achine.

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Prim ary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform m athem a­
tic a l com putations. T his job is not to be confused with th at of s ta tis ­
tic al or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tom eter but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to perform ance
of other d u ties.

CLERK, FILE

Class A— In an estab lish ed filing system containing a num­
ber of varied su bject m atter file s, c la ssifie s and indexes co rres­
pondence or other m aterial; may also file this m aterial. May keep
records of various types in conjunction with files or may super­
v ise others in filing and locating m aterial in the file s. May per­
form incidental clerical d u ties.
Class B— Perform s routine filing, usually of m aterial th at h as
already been classified or which is easily identifiable, or lo cates
or a s s is ts in locating m aterial in file s. May perform incidental
clerical d u ties.
CLERK, ORDER
R eceives cu sto m ers'o rd ers for m aterial or m erchandise by m ail,
phone, or personally. D uties involve any combination of the following:
Quoting prices to custom ers; making out an order sh eet listin g the item s
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of item s on order
sheet; distributing order sh eets to respective departm ents to be filled.
May check with credit departm ent to determ ine credit rating of custom er,
acknowledge receipt of orders from custom ers, follow up orders to see
that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check ship­
ping invoices with original orders.




DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
Under general supervision and with no supervisory resp o n si­
b ilitie s, reproduces m ultiple copies of typew ritten or handw ritten m atter,
using a Mimeograph or D itto m achine. Makes n ecessary adjustm ent such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare ste n c il or D itto m aster. May keep file of used ste n c ils or D itto
m asters. May sort, co llate, and staple com pleted m aterial.

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory resp o n si­
b ilitie s, records accounting and sta tis tic a l data on tabulating cards by
punching a series of holes in the cards in a sp ecified sequence, using
an alphabetical or a num erical keypunch m achine, following w ritten in­
formation on records. May duplicate cards by using the duplicating de­
vice attached to m achine. May keep files of punch card s. May verify
own work or work of others.

OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Perform s various routine duties such as running errands, op­
erating minor office m achines such as sealers or m ailers, opening and
distributing m ail, and other minor clerical work.

15

SECRETARY
Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an ad­
m inistrative or executive position. D uties include making appointm ents
for superior; receiving people coming into office; answ ering and making
phone calls; handling personal and im portant or confidential m ail, and
writing routine correspondence on own in itiativ e; taking dictation (where
transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
sim ilar m achine, and transcribing dictation or the recorded information
reproduced on a transcribing m achine. May prepare sp ecial reports or
memorandums for information of superior.

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar m achine, involving a nor­
mal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a typew riter.
May also type from w ritten copy. May also se t up and keep files in or­
der, keep sim ple records, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine
work (see transcribing-m achine operator).

STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL
Prim ary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar m achine, involving a varied
technical or sp ecialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on
scien tific research and to transcribe this dictation on a typew riter. May
also type from w ritten copy. May also s e t up and keep files in order,
keep sim ple records, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine work.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
O perates a single- or m ultiple-position telephone sw itchboard.
D uties involve handling incom ing, outgoing, and intraplant or office c a lls.
May record toll calls and take m essag es. May give information to per­
sons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders. For workers
who also act as receptio nists see sw itchboard operator-receptionist.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single p o si­
tion or monitor-type sw itchboard, acts as receptionist and may also type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular d u ties. T his typing
or clerical work may take the major part of this w o rk ers time w hile at
sw itchboard.




TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Class A— O perates a variety of tabulating or electrical ac­
counting m achines, typically including such m achines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignm ents without clo se supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The com plete reporting and tabulating
assignm ents typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of step s to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagram s and operating sequences of long and complex reports.
Does not include working supervisors performing tabulating-m achine
operations and day-to-day supervision of the work and production of
a group of tabulating-m achine operators.
Class B— O perates more difficult tabulating or electrical ac­
counting m achines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. T his work is performed under
specific instructions and may include the perform ance of some wir­
ing from diagram s. The work typically involves, for exam ple, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting ex ercise, a com plete but
sm all tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are w ell estab lish ed . May also include the training
of new em ployees in the basic operation of the m achine.
Class C— O perates sim ple tabulating or e lectrical account­
ing m achines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with specific instructions. May include sim ple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for exam ple, individual sorting or collating runs, or re­
petitive operations.
TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Prim ary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from transcribing-m achine records. May also type from w ritten
copy and do sim ple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation in­
volving a varied technical or sp ecialized vocabulary such as legal briefs
or reports on scien tific research are not included. A worker who takes
dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar m achine is classified
as a stenographer, general.

16
TYPIST

TYPIST—-Continued

U ses a typew riter to make copies of various m aterial or to make
out bills after calcu latio n s have been made by another person. May in­
clude typing of ste n c ils, m ats, or sim ilar m aterials for use in duplicat­
ing p ro cesses. May do clerical work involving little sp ecial training,
such as keeping sim ple records, filing records and reports, or sorting
and distributing incoming m ail.

Class A— Performs one or more of the following: Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining m aterial from sev eral
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, sy llab icatio n , punc-

tuation, e tc ., of tech n ical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; planning layout and typing of com plicated s ta tis tic a l tab les
to m aintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine
form letters varying d etails to su it circum stances.

Class B— Perform s one or more of the following: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance p o licies,
etc.; settin g up sim ple standard tab ulation s, or copying more com­
plex tab les already se t up and spaced properly.

PR O FE S SfO N A L AND T E C H N IC A L

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR

(A ssistan t draftsm an)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by d rafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
U ses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare draw ings
from sim ple plans or sk etch es, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsm an.

DRAFTSMAN, LEADER
Plans and d irects activ ities of one or more draftsm en in prep­
aration of working plans and d etail drawings from rough or prelim inary
sketches for engineering, construction, or m anufacturing purposes. D uties
involve a combination of the following: Interpreting blueprints, sk etch es,
and written or verbal orders; determ ining work procedures; assig n in g
duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif­
ficult problem s. May a s s is t subordinates during em ergencies or a s a
regular assignm ent, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad­
m inistrative nature.

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and d etail draw ings from no tes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or m anufacturing pur­
poses. D uties involve a combination of the following: Preparing work­
ing plans, detail draw ings, maps, cro ss-sectio n s, e tc ., to scale by use
of drafting instrum ents; making engineering com putations such as those




DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR— Continued
involved in strength of m aterials, beam s and tru sse s; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dim ensions, m aterials to be used, and qu an tities;
w riting sp ecificatio n s; making adjustm ents or changes in drawings or
sp ecificatio n s. May ink in lin es and letters on pencil draw ings, prepare
d etail units of com plete draw ings, or trace draw ings. Work is frequently
in a sp ecialized field such as architectural, electrical, m echanical, or
structural drafting.

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
em ployees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accid en t on the
prem ises of a factory or other establishm ent. D uties involve a combination of the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of em ployees' inju ries; keeping records of p atients
treated; preparing accident reports for com pensation or other purposes;
conducting physical exam inations and health evaluations of applicants
and em ployees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environm ent, or other
activ ities affecting the health, w elfare, and safety of a ll personnel.

TRACER
C opies plans and draw ings prepared by others, by placing trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or p en cil. U ses
T -square, com pass, and other drafting too ls. May prepare sim ple draw­
ings and do sim ple lettering.

17
M A INTENANCE

D PO W E R PL A N T

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER

Performs the carpentry duties n ecessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipm ent such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, sta irs, casin gs, and trim
made of wood in an establishm ent. Work involves most of the following:
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, draw ings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’s handtools, portable
power tools, and standard measuring instrum ents; making standard shop
com putations relating to dim ensions of work; selectin g m aterials nec­
essary for the work. In general, the work of the m aintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

F ires stationary boilers to furnish the establishm ent in which
employed with heat, power, or steam . F eed s fuels to fire by hand or
operates a m echanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks w ater and safety
valves. May clean, oil, or a s s is t in repairing boilerroom equipm ent.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE
Perform s a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installatio n , m aintenance, or repair of equipm ent for the generating, d is­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishm ent. Work
involves most of the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipm ent such as generators, transform ers, sw itchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit system s,
or other transm ission equipment; working from blueprints, draw ings, lay­
out, or other sp ecificatio n s; locating and diagnosing trouble in the e le c ­
trical system or equipm ent; working standard com putations relating to
load requirem ents of wiring or electrical equipm ent; using a variety of
electrician ’s handtools and m easuring and testin g instrum ents. In gen­
eral, the work of the m aintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
O perates and m aintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (m echanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishm ent in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: O perating and m aintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, motors
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipm ent, steam boilers and
boiler-fed w ater pumps; making equipm ent repairs; keeping a record of
operation of machinery, tem perature, and fuel consum ption. May also
supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers in establishments

employing more than one engineer are excluded.




HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE
A ssists one or more workers in the skilled m aintenance trades,
by performing specific or general duties of le sse r sk ill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with m aterials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipm ent; a ssistin g worker by holding m aterials or tools;
performing other unskilled task s as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is perm itted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform sp ecialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are also performed by workers on a full-tim e b asis.

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
S pecializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or m illing m achines in the construction of m achine-shop tools, gauges,
jig s, fixtures, or d ies. Work involves most of the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing item s requiring
com plicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision m easuring instrum ents; selectin g feeds, speed s, tooling and op­
eration sequence; making n ecessary adjustm ents during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dim ensions. May be required to recog­
nize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, m achine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this classificatio n .

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
Produces replacem ent parts and new parts in making repairs of
m etal parts of m echanical equipment operated in an establishm ent. Work
involves most of the following: Interpreting w ritten instructions and
sp ecific atio n s; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
ch in ist’s handtools and precision m easuring instrum ents; settin g up and

18
MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE— Continued
operating standard machine tools; shaping of m etal parts to close toler­
ances; making standard shop com putations relating to dim ensions of work,
tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working prop­
erties of the common m etals; selectin g standard m aterials, p arts, and
equipment required for his work; fitting and assem bling parts into me­
chanical equipm ent. In general, the m achinist's work normally requires
a rounded training in m achine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
R epairs autom obiles, b u ses, m otortrucks, and tractors of an e s ­
tablishm ent. Work involves most of the following: Examining autom otive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassem bling equipm ent and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as w renches,
gauges, d rills, or sp ecialized equipment in disassem bling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassem bling and installing the various assem blies in the vehicle
and making n ecessary adjustm ents; alining w heels, adjusting brakes and
lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the autom otive
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
R epairs machinery or m echanical equipment of an establishm ent.
Work involves most of the following: Examining m achines and m echan­
ical equipm ent to diagnose source of trouble; dism antling or partly d is ­
m antling m achines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with item s obtained from stock; ordering the production of a rep lace­
ment part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop
for major repairs; preparing w ritten sp ecificatio n s for major repairs or
for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassem bling ma­
chines; and making all n ecessary adjustm ents for operation. In general,
the work of a m aintenance m echanic requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classificatio n are w orkers
whose primary duties involve settin g up or adjusting m achines.

MILLWRIGHT
In stalls new m achines or heavy equipm ent and dism antles and
in stalls m achines or heavy equipm ent when changes in the plant layout




MILLWRIGHT— Continued

are required. Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other sp ecificatio n s; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop com putations re­
lating to stre sse s, strength of m aterials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipm ent; selectin g standard tools, equipm ent, and parts
to be used; in stallin g and m aintaining in good order power transm ission
equipm ent such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the m ill­
w right's work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

OILER
L ubricates, with oil or g rease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of m echanical equipm ent of an establishm ent.

PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
P ain ts and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an e s­
tablishm ent. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface pecu­
lia rities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in
n ail holes and in terstices; applying paint with spray gun or brush. May
mix colors, o ils, white lead, and other p aint ingredients to obtain proper
color or consistency. In general, the work of the m aintenance painter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
In stalls or repairs w ater, steam , g as, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishm ent. Work involves most of the following:
Laying out of work and m easuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other w ritten sp ecificatio n s; cutting various siz e s of pipe to correct
lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma­
chine; threading pipe with sto ck s and d ies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven m achines; assem bling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop com putations relating to p ressu res,
flow , and size of pipe required; making standard te s ts to determ ine
w hether finished pipes meet specifications* In general, the work of the
m aintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building

sanitation or heating systems are excluded.

19

TOOL AND DIE MAKER

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishm ent in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installatio n of
vents and traps in plumbing system ; installin g or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plum ber's snake. In
general, the work of the m aintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and experience.

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
F ab ricates, in stalls, and m aintains in good repair the sheetm etal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishm ent. Work involves most of the following: Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-m etal m aintenance work from blueprints, m odels,
or other specificatio n s; setting up and operating all available types of
sheet-m etal-w orking m achines; using a variety of handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assem bling; in stallin g sheetm etal articles as required. In general, the work of the m aintenance
sheet-m etal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

(D iem aker; jig maker; toolm aker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
C onstructs and repairs m achine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most of the following: Planning and laying out of work from
m odels, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and w ritten sp ecificatio n s;
using a variety of tool and die m aker's handtools and precision m eas­
uring instrum ents, understanding of the working properties of common
m etals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipm ent; making necessary shop com putations relating to dim ensions
of work, sp eed s, feeds, and tooling of m achines; heattreating of metal
parts during fabrication as w ell as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required q u alities; working to close tolerances; fitting and assem bling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; selectin g appropriate
m aterials, tools, and p ro cesses. In general, the tool and die m aker's
work requires a rounded training in m achine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classificatio n .

CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT

ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER
T ransports passengers betw een floors of an office building,
apartm ent house, departm ent store, hotel or sim ilar establishm ent.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

GUARD

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER— Continued
or other establishm ent. D uties involve a combination of the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipm ent, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor m ainte­
nance serv ices; cleaning lavatories, show ers, and restroom s. Workers
who sp ecialize in window w ashing are excluded.

Performs routine police du ties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where n ecessary . Includes gate-

men who are stationed at gate and check on identity of employees and LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
other persons entering.

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER

(Sweeper; charwoman; jan itress)
C leans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or prem ises of an office, apartm ent house, or commercial




(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)

A worker employed in a w arehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishm ent whose duties involve one or more of the follow­
ing: Loading and unloading various m aterials and m erchandise on or

20
LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING— Continued
from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting d evices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing m aterials or m erchandise in proper storage location; tran s­
porting m aterials or m erchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow.

Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded.
ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; w arehouse stockm an)

F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
m erchandise in accordance with specifications on sa le s slip s, customers*
orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indi­
cating item s filled or om itted, keep records of outgoing orders, req u isi­
tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform
other related duties.

PACKER, SHIPPING
P repares finished products for shipm ent or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, siz e, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container em ployed, and method of shipm ent. Work requires the
placing of item s in shipping containers and may involve one or more of
the following: Knowledge of various item s of stock in order to verify
content; selectio n of appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other m aterial to prevent
breakage or dam age; closing and sealing container; applying lab els or
entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make wooden

boxes or crates are excluded.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares m erchandise for shipm ent, or receiv es and is respon­
sible for incom ing shipm ents of m erchandise or other m aterials. Shipping
work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, p ractices, routes,
available means of transportation and rates; and preparing records of the
goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting w eight and shipping
charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or a s s is t in
preparing the m erchandise for shipm ent. Receiving work involves: V eri­
fying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipm ents ag ain st
b ills of lading, invoices, or other records; checking for shortages and
rejecting damaged goods; routing m erchandise or m aterials to proper de­
partm ents; m aintaining necessary records and file s.




SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK— Continued
For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:

Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk
TRUCKDRIVER
D rives a truck within a city or in d u strial area to transport ma­
terials, m erchandise, equipm ent, or men betw een various tvpes of esta b ­
lishm ents such as: M anufacturing p lants, freight depots, w arehouses,
w holesale and retail establishm ents, or betw een retail establishm ents
and custom ers’ houses or places of b u sin ess. May also load or unload
truck with or w ithout helpers, make minor m echanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers

are excluded.

For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size
and type of equipm ent, as follow s: (T ractor-trailer should be rated on
the b asis of trailer capacity.)

Truckdriver (combination of sizes listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under l l/2 tons)
Truckdriver, medium (ll/2 to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)
TRUCKER, POWER
O perates a manually controlled gaso lin e- or electric-pow ered
truck or tractor to transport goods and m aterials of all kinds about a
w arehouse, m anufacturing plant, or other establishm ent.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of
truck, as follow s:

Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)
WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of prem ises periodically in protecting property
ag ainst fire, theft, and illeg al entry.
☆

U .S . GOVER N M ENT P R IN T IN G O FFIC E : I9 6 0 0 — 5 4 1 9 2 2

Occupational Wage Surveys

O ccupational wage surveys are being conducted in 60 major labor markets during late 1959 and early I960. T hese bu lletin s, when av aila­
ble, may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing O ffice, Washington 25, D. C ., or from any of the BLS regional
sales offices shown below.
A summary bulletin containing data for all labor m arkets, combined with additional an aly sis, w ill be issu ed early in 1961.
B ulletins for the areas listed below are now available.




Cleveland, Ohio, September 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-1, price 20 cents
Seattle, W ash., A ugust 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-2, price 25 cents
D allas, T ex., O ctober 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-3, price 20 cents





Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102