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O c c u p a tio n a l W a g e S u r v e y
CANTON, OHIO
DECEM BER

Bulletin No




1 9 5 9

1 26 5- 10

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Ja m e s P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTIC
S
Ewan Clagtft, Commissioner




Occupational Wage Survey




CANTON, OHIO
D E C E M B E R 1959

B u lle tin N o. 1 2 6 5 -1 0
F e b ru a ry I 9 6 0

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Ja m e s P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU
E w an

OF

LA BO R

C la g u e ,

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C.

STATISTICS

C om m issioner

Price 25 cents




Contents

Preface

P age
T h e C o m m u n ity W a g e S u r v e y P r o g r a m

T h is r e p o r t w a s p r e p a r e d in th e B u r e a u ’ s r e g io n a l
o f f ic e in C h ic a g o , 111. , b y W o o d r o w C . L in n , u n d er the
d ir e c t io n of G e o r g e E . V o t a v a , R e g io n a l W a g e and I n d u s tr ia l
R e la tio n s A n a ly s t .




--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1

T a b le s :

__________ _

1.

E s t a b li s h m e n t s and w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e o f s u r v e y

A:

O c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s :*
A -l.
O f fic e o c c u p a tio n s _ ________________________
_
A - 2 . P r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n ic a l o c c u p a tio n s .
A - 3 . M a in te n a n c e and p o w e r p la n t o c c u p a tio n s
A - 4.
C u s t o d ia l and m a t e r i a l m o v e m e n t o c c u p a tio n s _____________

B:

E s t a b li s h m e n t p r a c t i c e s and s u p p le m e n ta r y w a g e
p r o v isio n s: *
B -l.
S h ift d iff e r e n t ia ls __________________________________________________
B -2 .
M in im u m e n tr a n c e s a l a r i e s f o r w o m e n o ffic e w o r k e r s -----B -3 .
S ch e d u le d w e e k ly h o u r s ____________________________________________
B -4 -.
P a id h o lid a y s
_____________________________________________________

B -5.

P a id v a c a tio n s

B -6 .

H e a lth , i n s u r a n c e , and p e n s io n p la n s

A p p e n d ix :

_______________________________________________

O c c u p a tio n a l d e s c r ip t io n s

7

8
9
9
10

11

________________________

13

___________________________________________

15

* NOTE:
S i m i l a r ta b u la tio n s
a r e a v a ila b le in the r e p o r t s
areas.
A d i r e c t o r y in d ic a tin g
of the r e p o r t s i s a v a ila b le upon

iii

2

IT) vO

T h e B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s r e g u la r l y c o n d u c ts
a r e a w id e w a g e s u r v e y s in a n u m b e r o f im p o r ta n t in d u s tr ia l
ce n te rs.
T h e s t u d ie s , m a d e f r o m la te f a l l to e a r ly s p r in g ,
r e la t e to o c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s and r e la t e d s u p p le m e n ta r y
b e n e fit s .
A p r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t is a v a ila b le on c o m p le tio n
of the stu d y in e a c h a r e a , u s u a lly in the m o n th fo llo w in g
th e p a y r o l l p e r io d s tu d ie d . T h is b u lle t in p r o v id e s a d d itio n a l
d ata n ot in c lu d e d in the e a r l i e r r e p o r t .
A c o n s o lid a t e d
a n a ly tic a l b u lle tin s u m m a r iz in g the r e s u l t s o f a ll o f the
y e a r ’ s s u r v e y s is is s u e d a ft e r c o m p le tio n o f the fin a l a r e a
b u lle tin f o r the c u r r e n t rou n d o f s u r v e y s .

In tr o d u c tio n

f o r th e s e and o th e r i t e m s
f o r s u r v e y s in o th e r m a jo r
d a te o f stu d y and the p r i c e
re q u e st.




Occupational Wage Survey—Canton, Ohio
Introduction
T h is a r e a is one o f s e v e r a l im p o r ta n t in d u s t r ia l c e n t e r s in
w h ich the U . S . D e p a r tm e n t o f L a b o r 's B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s h a s
co n d u c te d s u r v e y s o f o c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s and r e la t e d w age b e n e fit s
on an a r e a w id e b a s i s . In th is a r e a , d a ta w e r e o b ta in e d b y p e r s o n a l
v i s i t s o f B u r e a u f ie l d e c o n o m is t s to r e p r e s e n t a t iv e e s t a b li s h m e n t s
w ith in s i x b r o a d in d u s tr y d iv is io n s :
M a n u fa c t u r in g ; t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ,1
c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o th e r p u b lic u t i li t i e s ;
w h o le s a le t r a d e ;
r e t a il
tr a d e ; f in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e ; and s e r v i c e s . M a j o r i n ­
d u s tr y g r o u p s e x c lu d e d f r o m th e s e s tu d ie s a r e g o v e r n m e n t o p e r a tio n s
and the c o n s t r u c t io n and e x t r a c t iv e i n d u s t r i e s . E s t a b li s h m e n t s h a v in g
f e w e r th an a p r e s c r i b e d n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s a r e o m itte d a l s o b e c a u s e
th e y f u r n is h in s u f fi c ie n t e m p lo y m e n t in the o c c u p a tio n s stu d ie d to w a r ­
ra n t in c lu s io n . W h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e , s e p a r a te ta b u la tio n s a r e p r o v id e d
f o r e a c h o f the b r o a d in d u s tr y d i v i s i o n s .
T h e s e s u r v e y s a r e c o n d u c te d on a s a m p le b a s i s b e c a u s e o f the
u n n e c e s s a r y c o s t in v o lv e d in s u r v e y in g a l l e s t a b li s h m e n t s .
T o o b ta in
a p p r o p r ia t e a c c u r a c y at m in im u m c o s t , a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t io n o f la r g e
than o f s m a l l e s t a b li s h m e n t s is s tu d ie d .
In c o m b in in g the d a ta , h o w ­
e v e r , a ll e s t a b li s h m e n t s a r e g iv e n th e ir a p p r o p r ia te w e ig h t. E s t i m a t e s
b a s e d on the e s t a b li s h m e n t s stu d ie d a r e p r e s e n t e d , t h e r e f o r e , a s r e ­
la tin g to a l l e s t a b li s h m e n t s in th e in d u s tr y g r o u p in g and a r e a , e x ­
c e p t f o r th o s e b e lo w the m in im u m s i z e s tu d ie d .

O c c u p a tio n s

and E a r n in g s

T h e o c c u p a tio n s s e le c t e d f o r stu d y a r e c o m m o n to a v a r ie t y
o f m a n u fa c tu r in g and n o n m a n u fa c tu r in g i n d u s t r i e s . O c c u p a tio n a l c l a s ­
s if ic a t io n i s b a s e d on a u n ifo r m s e t o f jo b d e s c r ip t io n s d e s ig n e d to
take a c c o u n t o f in t e r e s t a b lis h m e n t v a r ia t io n in d u tie s w ith in the s a m e
j o b . (See a p p e n d ix f o r lis t in g o f th e s e d e s c r i p t i o n s .) E a r n in g s d a ta a r e
p r e s e n te d (in the A - s e r i e s t a b l e s ) f o r the fo llo w in g ty p e s o f o c c u p a ­
tio n s : (a) O f fi c e c l e r i c a l ; (b) p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n ic a l; (c ) m a in t e ­
n an ce and p o w e r p la n t; and (d) c u s t o d ia l and m a t e r i a l m o v e m e n t .
O c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t and e a r n in g s d a ta a r e sh ow n f o r
f u l l - t i m e w o r k e r s , i . e . , th o s e h ir e d to w o r k a r e g u la r w e e k ly s c h e d ­
u le in the g iv e n o c c u p a tio n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .
E a r n in g s d a ta e x c lu d e
p r e m iu m p ay f o r o v e r t im e and f o r w o r k o n w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and

1 R a i l r o a d s , f o r m e r l y e x c lu d e d f r o m the s c o p e o f th e s e s t u d ie s ,
h av e b e e n ad d ed in n e a r ly a l l o f the a r e a s to b e stu d ie d d u rin g the
w in te r o f 1 9 5 9 - 6 0 ; r a il r o a d s w ill b e a d d ed in the r e m a in in g a r e a s n e x t
y e a r . F o r s c o p e o f s u r v e y in th is a r e a , s e e fo o tn o te to "t r a n s p o r t a ­
tio n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o t h e r p u b lic u t i l i t i e s " in ta b le 1 .




la te s h i f t s .
N o n p r o d u c tio n b o n u s e s a r e e x c lu d e d a l s o , bu t c o s t - o f liv in g b o n u s e s and in c e n tiv e e a r n in g s a r e in c lu d e d .
W h e r e w e e k ly
h o u r s a r e r e p o r t e d , as f o r o f f ic e c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t io n s , r e f e r e n c e is
to the w o r k s c h e d u le s (ro u n d e d to the n e a r e s t h a lf h o u r) f o r w h ich
s t r a i g h t -t i m e s a l a r i e s a r e p a id ; a v e r a g e w e e k ly e a r n in g s fo r th e se
o c c u p a tio n s h av e b e e n ro u n d ed to the n e a r e s t h a lf d o l l a r .

A v e r a g e e a r n in g s o f m e n and w o m e n a r e p r e s e n te d s e p a r a t e ly
f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n s in w h ich b o th s e x e s a r e c o m m o n ly e m p lo y e d .
D if f e r e n c e s in pay l e v e l s o f m e n and w o m e n in th e s e o c c u p a tio n s a r e
l a r g e ly due to ( l ) d iff e r e n c e s in the d is tr ib u tio n o f the s e x e s a m o n g
in d u s t r ie s and e s t a b li s h m e n t s ; (2) d iff e r e n c e s in s p e c if ic d u tie s p e r ­
f o r m e d , alth o u g h t h e . o c c u p a tio n s a r e a p p r o p r ia t e ly c l a s s i f i e d w ith in
the s a m e s u r v e y jo b d e s c r ip t io n ; and (3) d if f e r e n c e s in le n g th o f s e r v ­
ic e o r m e r i t r e v ie w w hen in d iv id u a l s a l a r i e s a r e a d ju s te d o n th is b a s is .
L o n g e r a v e r a g e s e r v i c e o f m e n w o u ld r e s u l t in h ig h e r a v e r a g e pay
w h en both s e x e s a r e
e m p lo y e d w ith in the s a m e r a te r a n g e .
Job
d e s c r ip t io n s u s e d in c l a s s i f y i n g e m p lo y e e s in th e se s u r v e y s a re u s u ­
a lly m o r e g e n e r a li z e d than th o se u s e d in in d iv id u a l e s t a b li s h m e n t s to
a llo w f o r m in o r d if f e r e n c e s a m o n g e s t a b li s h m e n t s in s p e c if ic d u tie s
p e r fo r m e d .

O c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t e s t i m a t e s r e p r e s e n t the to ta l in a ll
e s t a b li s h m e n t s w ith in the s c o p e o f the stu d y and n ot the n u m b e r a c tu ­
a lly s u r v e y e d . B e c a u s e o f d iff e r e n c e s in o c c u p a tio n a l s tr u c t u r e a m o n g
e s t a b li s h m e n t s , the e s t i m a t e s o f o c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t o b ta in e d
f r o m the s a m p le o f e s t a b li s h m e n t s stu d ie d s e r v e o n ly to in d ic a te the
r e la t iv e im p o r ta n c e o f the jo b s s tu d ie d .
T h e s e d if f e r e n c e s in o c c u ­
p a tio n a l s tr u c t u r e do n o t m a t e r i a l l y a f f e c t the a c c u r a c y o f the earn**
in g s d a ta .

E s t a b li s h m e n t P r a c t i c e s

and S u p p le m e n t a r y W a g e P r o v i s i o n s

I n fo r m a tio n is p r e s e n te d a l s o (in the B - s e r i e s t a b le s ) on s e ­
le c t e d e s t a b li s h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and s u p p le m e n ta r y b e n e fit s a s th e y r e ­
la te to o f f ic e and p la n t w o r k e r s . T h e t e r m "o f f i c e w o r k e r s , " a s u s e d
in th is b u lle t in , in c lu d e s w o r k in g
a u p e r v is o r s and n o n s u p e r v is o r y
w o r k e r s p e r fo r m i n g c l e r i c a l o r r e la t e d f u n c t io n s , and e x c lu d e s a d m in ­
i s t r a t i v e , e x e c u t i v e , and p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n n e l. " P l a n t w o r k e r s " in ­
clu d e w o rk in g f o r e m e n and a ll n o n s u p e r v is o r y w o r k e r s (in clu d in g l e a d m e n and t r a i n e e s ) e n g a g e d in n o n o ffic e fu n c tio n s .
A d m in istr a tiv e ,
e x e c u t i v e , and p r o f e s s io n a l e m p l o y e e s , and f o r c e - a c c o u n t c o n s tr u c tio n
e m p lo y e e s w ho a r e u t iliz e d a s a s e p a r a t e w o r k f o r c e a r e e x c lu d e d .
C a f e t e r ia w o r k e r s and r o u te m e n a r e e x c lu d e d in m a n u fa c tu r in g in d u s ­
t r ie s , but a r e in c lu d e d a s p la n t w o r k e r s in n o n m a n u fa c tu rin g in d u s tr ie s .

2




TA BLE 1.

E sta b lish m en ts and w o rk ers w ithin sco p e of su r v e y and num ber studied in Canton, Ohio,

Industry d iv isio n

A ll d i v i s i o n s -------------------------------------M a n u fa c tu r in g --------- ----------------------- --N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ------------- -----------------T ran sp ortation , com m u n ication , and
other pub lic u tilitie s 5 --------------------W h olesale trad e -----------------------------R etail t r a d e ------ ----------------------------F in an ce, in su ra n ce, and r e a l e s t a t e -----S e r v ic e s 7 ------------------------------------ -

M inim um
em p loym en t
in e s t a b lis h ­
m en ts in sco p e
of study
51

by m ajor in d u stry d iv is io n ,2 D ecem b er 1959

N um ber of e sta b lish m e n ts
W ithin
sco p e of
study 3
183

W orkers in e sta b lish m en ts
W ithin sco p e of study

Studied

Studied
T o ta l4

O ffice

79

6 5 ,4 0 0

51
51

102
81

43
36

5 1 ,9 0 0
1 3 ,5 0 0

51
51
51
51
51

13
15
38
8
7

10
4
14
4
4

4, 800
1 ,5 0 0
5, 50 0
1 ,1 0 0
60 0

P lant

T o ta l4

7, 300

4 9 ,7 0 0

4 9 ,4 9 0

5, 40 0
1 ,9 0 0

4 0 ,7 0 0
9. 00 0

4 0 ,9 6 0
8, 53 0

700
(M
(*)
(*)
(6 )

2 ,9 0 0
(M
(6 )
(*)
(6 )

4 , 66 0
510
2 ,2 9 0
650
420

1 The Canton M etropolitan A rea (Stark County). The "w orkers w ithin sco p e of study" e s tim a te s show n in this table p rovid e a re a so n a b ly a c c u r a te d e sc r ip tio n of the
s iz e and co m p o sitio n of the lab or fo r c e in clud ed in the su r v ey . The e s tim a te s a re not intended, h o w ev er, to s e r v e as a b a sis of co m p a riso n w ith other a re a em p loym en t
in d exes to m e a s u r e em p loym en t tren d s or le v e ls sin c e ( l ) planning of w age s u r v e y s r e q u ir e s the u se of e sta b lish m en t data co m p iled co n sid era b ly in advance of the pay period
stud ied, and (2 ) s m a ll esta b lis h m e n ts a r e exclu ded from the sco p e of the su r v ey .
2 The 1 9 5 7 r e v is e d ed ition of the Standard Ind u strial C la s sific a tio n Manual w as u sed in c la ss ify in g e sta b lish m e n ts by in d u stry d iv isio n . M ajor ch an ges fro m the e a r lie r
ed ition (used in the B u reau 's lab or m a rk et w age su r v ey p ro g ra m p rio r to the w in ter of 1 9 5 8 - 5 9 ) a re the tr a n sfe r of m ilk p a ste u r iz a tio n plants and rea d y -m ix ed co n cr ete
e sta b lish m e n ts from trad e (w h o le sa le or r e ta il) to m an ufacturin g, and the tr a n sfe r of radio and te le v is io n b ro a d ca stin g from s e r v ic e s to the tra n sp o rta tio n , com m u n ication,
and oth er p ub lic u tilitie s d iv isio n .
3 Includes a ll esta b lis h m e n ts w ith to ta l em p lo y m en t at or above the m in im u m - s iz e lim ita tio n . A ll o u tlets (w ithin the a re a ) of co m p a n ies in such in d u str ie s as trad e,
fin a n ce, auto re p a ir se r v ic e , and m o tio n -p ictu re th ea ters a re c o n s id e r e d as 1 esta b lish m e n t.

4

5
4
ju stify
7

Includes executive, professional, and other workers excluded from the separate office and plant categories.

R a ilro a d s w e r e included; ta x ica b s and s e r v ic e s in cid en ta l to w a ter tra n sp o rta tio n w ere ex clu ded.
This in d u stry d iv is io n is re p r e se n te d in e s tim a te s fo r " all in d u str ie s " and "nonm anufacturing" in the S e r ie s A and B ta b le s , although co v e ra g e w as in su fficie n t to
s ep a ra te p re se n ta tio n of data.
H otels; p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s ; b u s in e s s s e r v ic e s ; au tom obile re p a ir shops; m o tio n p ictu re s; n onp rofit m em b ersh ip org a n iza tio n s; and en g in ee rin g and a r c h ite c tu r a l s e r v ic e s .

3

Shift differential data (table B -l) are limited to manufacturing
industries. This information is presented both in terms of (a) estab­
lishment policy, 2 presented in terms of total plant worker employ­
ment, and (b) effective practice, presented on the basis of workers
actually employed on the specified shift at the time of the survey.
In establishments having varied differentials, the amount applying to
a majority was used or, if no amount applied to a majority, the clas­
sification '’other" was used. In establishments in which some lateshift hours are paid at normal rates, a differential was recorded only
if it applied to a majority of the shift hours.
Minimum entrance rates (table B-2) relate only to the estab­
lishments visited. They are presented on an establishment, rather
than on an employment basis. Paid holidays; paid vacations; and
health, insurance, and pension plans are treated statistically on the
basis that these are applicable to all plant or office workers if a ma­
jority of such workers are eligible or may eventually qualify for the
practices listed. Scheduled hours are treated statistically on the basis
that these are applicable to all plant or office workers if a majority
are covered.3 Because of rounding, sums of individual items in these
tabulations may not equal totals.
The first part of the paid holidays table presents the num­
ber of whole and half holidays actually provided. The second part
combines whole and half holidays to show total holiday time.

Data are presented for all health, insurance, and pension
plans for which at least a part of the cost is borne by the employer,
excepting only legal requirements such as workmen's compensation
and social security. Such plans include those underwritten by a com­
mercial insurance company and those provided through a union fund or
paid directly by the employer out of current operating funds or from
a fund set aside for this purpose. Death benefits are included as a
form of life insurance.
Sickness and accident insurance is limited to that type of in­
surance under which predetermined cash payments are made directly
to the insured on a weekly or monthly basis during illness or accident
disability. Information is presented for all such plans to which the
employer contributes. However, in New York and New Jersey, which
have enacted temporary disability insurance laws which require em­
ployer contributions,4 plans are included only if the employer (1) con­
tributes more than is legally required, or (2) provides the employee
with benefits which exceed the requirements of the law. Tabulations
of paid sick-leave plans are limited to formal plans 5 which provide
full pay or a proportion of the worker's pay during absence from work
because of illness. Separate tabulations are provided according to
(1) plans which provide full pay and no waiting period, and (2) plans
providing either partial pay or a waiting period. In addition to the
presentation of the proportions of workers who are provided sickness
and accident insurance or paid sick leave, an unduplicated total is
shown of workers who receive either or both types of benefits.

The summary of vacation plans is limited to formal arrange­
ments excluding informal plans whereby time off with pay is granted
at the discretion of the employer. Separate estimates are provided
according to employer practice in computing vacation payments, such
as time payments, percent of annual earnings, or flat-sum amounts.
However, in the tabulations of vacation allowances, payments not on
a time basis were converted; for example, a payment of 2 percent of
annual earnings was considered as the equivalent of 1 week's pay.

Catastrophe insurance, sometimes referred to as, extended
medical insurance, includes those plans which are designed to protect
employees in case of sickness and injury involving expenses beyond
the normal coverage of hospitalization, medical, and surgical plans.
Medical insurance refers to plans providing for complete or partial
payment of doctors' fees. Such plans may be underwritten by commer­
cial insurance companies or nonprofit organizations or they may be
self-insured. Tabulations of retirement pension plans are limited to
those plans that provide monthly payments for the remainder of the
worker's life.

An establishment was considered as having a policy if it met
either of the following conditions: (l) Operated late shifts at the time
of the survey, or (2) had formal provisions covering late shifts.
3
Scheduled weekly hours for office workers (first section
table B-3) in surveys made prior to late 1957 and early 1958 were
presented in terms of the proportion of women office workers em­
ployed in offices with the indicated weekly hours for women workers.

4 The temporary disability laws in California and Rhode Island
do not require employer contributions.
5 An establishment was considered as having a formal plan if
of established at least the minimum number of days of sick leave that
it
could be expected by each employee. Such a plan need not be written,
but informal sick-leave allowances, determined on an individual basis,
were excluded.




4

A* Occupational Earnings
Table A -l. Office Occupations
(Average straight-tim e w eekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area b asis
by industry d iv isio n , Canton, Ohio, D ecem ber 1959)

NUMBER O W
F ORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIM W
E EEKLY EARNINGS OF—

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Men
Clerks, accounting, class A ___________
Manufacturing ____________ _____

Num
ber
of
w
orkers

W
eekly
W
eekly
hours 1 earnings1
(Standard) (Standard)

$
%
$
$
$
$
$
$
s
$
$
$
S
$
$
$
%
$
$
$
S
Under 40. Q0 4 5 .0 0 5 0 .0 0 5 5 .0 0 6 0 .0 0 6 5 .0 0 7 0 .0 0 7 5 .0 0 8 0 .0 0 8 5 .0 0 9 0 .0 0 9 5 .0 0 100 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 1 2 5 .0 0 130 .0 0 1 3 5 .0 0 1 4 0 .0 0
and
and
$
under
4 0 .0 0 4 5 .0 0 5 0 .0 0 5 5 .0 0 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. C 90. C 95. 00 L O 00 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5.00 1 2 0 .0 0 1 2 5 .0 0 1 3 0 .0 0 1 3 5 .0 0 1 4 0 .0 0 over
O.
O
C

83
66

4o.o

4 0 .5

$ 1 1 6 .0 0
1 1 9 .0 0

-

-

-

-

-

Clerks, accounting, class B _________
Manufacturing _
_ _

61

3 9 .5
3 9 .5

1 1 0 .0 0
1 1 0 .5 0

-

-

59

-

-

Clerks, order

39

4 1 .0

1 0 0 .0 0

_

Clerks, payroll ___________________
Manufacturi ng

49
49

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 0 7 .5 0

_

lo t . 56

Tabulating-machine operators,
class A _________________________
Manufacturing __________________

28
26

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 1 4 .0 0

li5.ob

-

-

-

-

Tabulating-machine operators,
class B
Manufacturing
_
__
_______

38
37

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

9 8 .0 0
9 8 .5 0

-

-

-

Women
Billers, machine (billing m achine) ____

32

4 0 .0

6 1 .0 0

-

-

Bookkeeping-machine operators,
class B
Manufacturing _ __
_ _ _ _ _
Nonmanufacturing _________________

138
31
107

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .5

4 8 .5 0
5$. 5o
4 5 . 50

-

Clerks, accounting, class A ____________
Manufacturing

68
44

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

7 6 .5 0
74. 50

137
115
57
35

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
3 9 .5
4 0 .0

6 6 . 56

Clerks, p a y ro ll___________________
Manufacturing
_ _ __ __ ___

116
100

Comptometer operators_______________
Manufacturing __________________

_

_

_

_

_

4
-

2

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

3
3

2
2

2
2

6
6

-

2
2

8
3

12
4

-

-

1
1

_

2

_

7
7

10
10

9
9

9

9

18
18

_

_

_

_

7

3

_

5

_

6

2

14

_

4
4

_

_

_

-

-

4
4

13
13

7

-

1

-

-

-

-

2
1

1

"

i

2
2

5
4

3
— r i

3
3

5
5

4
4

1
— r~

8
8

5

-

16

10

5
5

l6

16

4

--- 7

5

_

_

_

_

1

1

_

_

_

_

11
11

7
7

1
1

2
2

-

6

6

6
6

2
2

1

2
2

-

1
1

r ~

6
6

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

4

7

----5“

-

_

_

_

_

"

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

11

2

3

5

3

-

6

-

-

-

2

-

_

-

.

-

_

_

_

_

49
49

54
6
45

11
9
2

4
4

4
4

-

1
1

-

1
1

-

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
_

_
_

_
_

-

-

-

13
2
11
“

3
-

4
4

2

20

2o

22

6
4

3
5'

3

4

~2

-

i
i

_
"

_
-

_
"

_
-

_
-

_
-

7 5 .5 0
7 $ .0 0
5 6 .5 0

-

9
4

7
7
12
2

18
12

9
4

5
5
-

6

l

5
— 5—
2

6

7

12
“5
5
5

4
4

9

10
7
4
2

5
5

9
7

25
21
5
4

2

1
1

-

19
19
-

4
4
-

5
5
_

3
3
-

_
-

_
_

_
_

_
_
_

_

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

8 1 .0 0
$ 3 . 5o

_

2
2

4
4

9
?

5
2

9
6

9
4

8
8

18

l6

9
6

5
4

4
4

3
3

24
24

_
-

2
2

1
1

2
2

_
-

_
"

_
-

t

82
70

4 0 .5
4 0 .5

6 5 .5 0
6 8 .0 0

_
-

6
"

14
14

-

12
6

12
12

4
4

12
12

14
14

2
2

_
-

3
3

1

1
1

1
1

_
-

_
-

_

1

-

_
-

139

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

70. 50

_

3
8
— 3— --- 7

19
19

23
17

19
14

22
21

11
11

3
3

4
4

20
20

4
4

1
1

_
-

_
-

_

t l. 5o

2
2

_

TZl

_
-

_
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

Secretaries ___________________________
Manufacturing _
. . __
Nonmanufacturing ____

319
223
96

4 0 .0
3 9 .5
4 0 .0

8 2 .5 0
8 6 .0 0
74. 50

_

_

11

-

28
19
9

31
’ 24
7

23
21
2

18
12
6

_
-

1

-

3
3
-

_
-

3

16
9
7

-

9

57
45
12

7

9

31
24
7

1

-

18
10
8

9
8

-

21
15
6

... 20 -

1

13
4
9

1

-

1

-

3
3
-

Stenographers, general
_ ___
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing
Public utilities* ___________ ______

323
220
103
50

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 1 .0
4 0 .0

6 9 .5 0
7 1 .5 0
6 6 .0 0
7 5 .5 0

_
-

_
-

3

27

53
2$
24
5

55
42
13
8

50
29
21
11

33
30
3
3

46
40
6
6

16
13
3
3

4

14
12
2
2

11
11

3
3

11
2
9
9

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
*

_
-

_
-

_
-

26
26

3 9 .5
3 9 .5

8 1 .5 0
8 1 . 5o

1
1

5
5

4

3
3

1
1

4

1
1

-

1
1

1

1
1

_

-

_

_

_

4

'

"

Clerks, accounting, class B
Manufacturing
Clerks, file, class B _____

_ _ __

Mannfa rfuring

Keypunch operators
Manufacturing

. ..

Stenographers, technical
Manufacturing

-

-

-

3

See footnotes at end of table.




-

11

16
-

_

_

_

"

________ ______

9

'

‘

_

_

4

4
'

l6

4

1

-

"

—

1

1

;

"

1

.

-

_

2

1

5
Table A-l. Office Occupations-Continued
(A verage straight-tim e w eekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area b asis
by industry d ivision , Canton, Ohio, Decem ber 1959)
F
NUMBER OF W
ORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIM W
E EEKLY EARN![NGS O -

A erage
v
Sex, occupation, and industry d ivision

Num
ber
of
w
orkers

s
$
s
$
$
$
$
$
s
$
$
S
s
$
$
$
%
$
$
$
S
W
eekly
W
eekly Under 4 0 .0 0 4 5 .0 0 5 0 .0 0 5 5 .0 0 6 0 .0 0 6 5 .0 0 7 0 .0 0 7 5 .0 0 8 0 .0 0 8 5 .0 0 9 0 .0 0 9 5 .0 0 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 10.00 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 1 2 5 .0 0 1 3 0 .0 0 1 3 5 .0 0 1 4 0 .0 0
hours 1 earnings1
and
and
(Standard) (Standard)
under
4 0 .0 0 4 5 .0 0 5 0 .0 0 5 5 .0 0 6 0 .0 0 65. 00 7 0 .0 0 7 5 .0 0 8 0 .0 0 8 5 .0 0 9 0 .0 0 9 5 .0 0 100.00 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 115.00 1 2 0 .0 0 1 2 5 .0 0 1 3 0 .0 0 P 5 . 00 1 4 0 .0 0

Women— C ontinue d
Switchboard o p e r a to r s __ _____________
Manufacturing _____________________
Nonmanufacturing _________________
Switchboard op era to r- rece p tio n ists____
Manufacturing _____________________

58
27
31
81
---- 5T“

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

$ 6 7 .5 0
7 9 .5 0
5 7 .0 0

2
2

13
13

4 0 .5
4 0 .0

6 3 .5 0
6 6 .5 0

_
“

5
3

6 6 .5 0

-

2
2

_

_

Transcribing-m achine op erators,
general
____ __ _______ _____ _
_
Manufacturing
__ _____________ __

53
49

4 0 .0
4 0 .5

66.50

__________
T yp ists, cla ss A _______
Manufacturing ______________________

108
91

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

7 1 .5 0
7 3 .5 0

T yp ists, c la ss B ___________________
M anufacturing_______ _____________
Nonmanufacturing __________________

160
91
69

4 0 .5
4 0 .0
4 1 .5

5 7 .0 0
6 2 .0 0
5 0 .5 0

_
-

8
8

-

_

3
1
2

6
1
5

“

5
3

3
2
1
1
"

5
5

-

1
1

8
7

1
1

8
8

-

2
2

4
--- r -

21
18

6
6

8
8

8
8

i
i

2
2

9
8

18
17

20

16

5
4
1

5

-

2

4
4

6
6

3
3

7

3

~

3
3

1
1
“

7
3
4

3
2
1

8
8
"

l

17
12

7
2

8
6

19
13

2
2

10
8

--- 6 _
£

8
8

5
4

8
2

21
l6

35
14

55
23
32

lb

“
7

I2
1

b

l

9
b

4

4

"

"

-

-

-

-

_

■

“

1
1

1

-

-

-

-

*

-

1

*

-

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1 Standard hours re flect the workweek for which em ployees receiv e their regular straigh t-tim e sa la ries and the earnings correspond to these w eekly hours.
* Transportation, com m unication, and other public u tilities.

Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations
(A verage straight-tim e w eekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area b asis
by industry division, Canton, Ohio, D ecem ber 1959)

Sex, occupation, and industry d ivision

Num
ber
of
w
orkers

Men
56
D raftsm en, leader _________________ _
— 5r~
Manufacturing ________ ___________

NUMBER O W
F ORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIM W
E EEKLY EARNINGS O
F
Average
$
$
s
S
$
*
$
$
$
s
$
$
$
$
S
s
$
eekly , Under *75.00 8 0 .0 0 *8 5 .0 0 9 0 .0 0 * 9 5 .0 0 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 1 2 5 .0 0 1 3 0 .0 0 1 3 5 .0 0 1 4 0 .0 0 1 4 5 .0 0 1 5 0 .0 0 1 5 5 .0 0 1 6 0 .0 0 165 .0 0 1 7 0 .0 0 1 7 5 .0 0
Weekly, W
earnings
hours
and
and
(Standard) (Standard) $
7 5 .0 0 under 8 5 .0 0 9 0 .0 0 9 5 .0 0 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 1 2 5 .0 0 1 3 0 .0 0 1 3 5 .0 0 1 4 0 .0 0 1 4 5 .0 0 1 5 0 .0 0 1 5 5 .0 0 1 6 0 .0 0 1 6 5 .0 0 1 7 0 .0 0 1 7 5 .0 0 over
8 0 .0 0
4 0 .0
4 6 .6

$ 1 5 3 .0 0
1 1 5 3 .0 0

-

-

-

|

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

1
1

2
2

5
6

3
3

-

-

-

-

10
10
-

18
18
-

16
10
6
6

24
23
1
1

20
11
9
9

20
13
7
7

24
19
5
5

16
16
-

-

-

_

9

9

3

b

b

l

22
22

5

-

S
-

12
12
-

16
16

6
6

4
4

■

“

Draftsm en, senior ____________________
Manufacturing _____________________
Nonmanufacturing _________________
Public u t ilitie s 3 _________________

224
196
28
28

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 2 8 .0 0
1 2 9 .5 0
1 1 8 .5 0
1 1 8 .5 0

-

1
1

-

!

D raftsm en, junior ____________________
M anufacturing______________________

194
184

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 0 1 .5 0
1 0 2 .$ 0

18
18

16
14

9

-- 7--

18

15
12

23
23

16
l6

10
10

15
15

24
24

5
5

3
3

5
6

3
3

Women
N u rses, industrial (reg istered ) ______
Manufacturing _ „ ________________

66
66

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

93. 50
93 . 50

4
4

4
4

4
4

ii
ii

18
18

3
3

7
7

15

-

-

"

-

.
■

_

“

T5

Standard hours reflect the workweek for which em ployees receiv e their regular straigh t-tim e sa la ries and the earnings correspond to th ese w eekly hours.
W orkers w ere distributed as follows: 5 at $ 1 7 5 to $18 0 and 5 at $ 1 8 5 and over.
Transportation, com m unication, and other public u tilities.




3
3

2
2

5
5

2
2

a10
10

5
5
-

8
3
-

-

6
6
-

2
2
-

2
2

2

_
-

_

_
-

_
-

■

“

-

■

-

-

-

l

-

-

~

6

Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(Average straight-tim e hourly earnings for men in selected occupations studied on an area b a sis
by industry division, Canton, Ohio, D ecem b er 1959)

Number
of
workers

Occupation and industry division

C arpenters, maintenance _
Manufacturing
. _

. . .. ....

__ _

Average
Under
hourly
earnings 1 $
1. 90

137
11)5

2 .8 9
2 .8 9

_

102
89

2 .6 6
2 .6 6

.

__

F irem en , stationary b oiler __
. ._
Manufacturing _ ______________________ __

127
116

2 .4 8
2 .5 0

2
•

M achine-tool op erators, to o lr o o m ___________
M anufacturing________ _ _________________

202
202

2 .9 9
2 .9 9

M achinists, maintenance
Manufacturing ................... .

........ ..............

415
415

M echanics, autom otive (maintenance) _______
Manufacturing _
—
Nonmanufacturing ___________
_ __ __
Public u tilitie s 2 __ _______
____ __

151
T04
47
39

M echanics, m aintenance _____________________
Manufacturing _
____ _________________
M illw rights _
... _ _ . __
M anufacturing___ __ ____________________

1. 90
un3er
2. 00

$
2. 00

$
2. 10

-2L..1Q .

2^2.0

$ 2 .6 9
2 .8 0

403
396

$

_
_

E le ctric ia n s, maintenance
Manufacturing

_.

E n gin eers, stationary _
............ .
Manufacturing .
____ _____________

2 .2 0
2 .3 0

_

$
3 .2 0
3 .3 0

$
$
$
3 .3 0
3 .4 0
3 .5 0
and
*_____ ■j cn
-V 40 —j • ?v_ _over

34
2

9
9

5
5

8
8

4
4

40
40

29
29

2
2

2
2

'

3
3

.

"

NUMBER OF W
ORKEBS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIM HOURLY EARNINGS O
E
F—
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
2 .3 0
2 .4 0
2 .5 0
2. 60
2. 70
2. 80
2. 90
3. 00
3. 10
■
“
"
"
“
~
"
~
2 .4 0
2 .5 0
2 .6 0
2. 70
2. 80
2. 90
3. 00 . 3. 10
3 .2 0

4
4
2
2

6
6

17
17

14
14

21
16

47
45

100
100

96
96

56
56

3
3

23
23

.
“

4
-

7
7

10
10

10
3

29
29

20
18

8
8

“

-

4
4

“

■

-

-

22
22

"

'

"

"

“

“

15
----15

.

.

_

~

10
10

.
-

15
15

-

20
20

16
9

21
21

19
19

10
8

2
2

-

-

-

_
"

.
-

_
-

"

8
8

_
-

1
1

13
13

16
16

14
14

11
11

a
8

52
52

9
9

63
63

5
5

1
1

1
1

3 .0 1
3 .0 1

“

_

_

_

_
■

_
■

7
7

3
3

4
4

14
14

33
33

66
66

273
273

_
“

14
14

1
1

_
-

_
“

2 .5 6
2 .4 6
2 .4 6

_
"

2
2
2

5
2
3
2

1
1
1

31
27
4
4

6
6
6

15
7
8
8

14
5
9
2

18
13
5
5

. 32
28
4
4

9
4
5
5

u
li
-

-

“

“

-

"

-

“

218
214

2 .7 1
2. 70

“

”

4
4

20
20

31
31

6
6

31
31

35
33

8
8

6
6

16

25
2$

7
7

27
27

“

-

377
377

2 .8 5
2 .8 5

.

_

.

"

'

"

3
3

6
6

■

24
24

30
30

36
36

112
112

U2
132

5
6

22
22

7
7

-

-

-

-

2.61

'

.

.

O ilers
_ __
_
_
M anufacturing____________________________

65
65

2 .3 4
2 .3 4

.
-

.
-

P ainters, maintenance _
__
Manufacturing _ _______ ____

72
62

2 .6 7
2 .7 1

_
“

_

____ __

■

P ip efitters, m ain ten an ce... _________________
M anufacturing___ _______________________

162
15?

2 .8 7
2 .8 7

_

_
“

_

_

Tool and die m akers _ _______________________
_______________________
Manufacturing _

251
251

2 .9 4
2 .9 4

_

.

5
5

1

21
21

_

_

_

~

■

_

1

18
8
12
— is — --- g---- — 12—

16

-

-

-

-

-

-

.

6
6

2
1

.

“

l
l

.
"

44
44

.
“

4
4

7
7

9
9

8
8

84

35
35

12
12

18
18

22
22

21
21

_
"

.

.

-

2

.

-

3
3

_

7
7

.

16
7

“

E xcludes prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on w eekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Transportation, com m unication, and other public u tilities.




$

.
“

_
•

21
21
-

,

14
14

15
15

_

.

_
“

26
26

19
*T 9" “

24
24

37
37

27
27

5
5

5
5

7

Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(Average straight-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area b a sis
by industry d ivision, Canton, Ohio, D ecem ber 1959)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
O c c u p a tio n 1 a n d in d u s t r y d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

$
$
Average
$
hourly
00
1. 10
1 .2 0
earnings'* U n d e r 1. n d
a
$
under
1. 0 0
1. 10
1 .2 0
1. 3 0

E l e v a t o r o p e r a t o r s , p a s s e n g e r (w o m e n )
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g __________________________

42
42

$ 0 . 95
.9 5

G u a r d s __________________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ______________________________

352
338

2 .3 7
2 .4 3

J a n i t o r s , p o r t e r s , a n d c l e a n e r s ( m e n ) ________
M a n u fa c tu r in g ______________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g __________________________
P u b lic u t i l i t i e s 4 _________________________

604
508
96
26

2 . 00
2 . 09
1 .5 7
1 .9 1

3 24
24
3
3
-

J a n i t o r s , p o r t e r s , a n d c l e a n e r s ( w o m e n ) ____
M a n u fa c tu r in g ______________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g __________________________

128
56
72

1 .5 2
1 .9 5
1. 18

L a b o r e r s , m a t e r i a l h a n d lin g
M a n u fa c tu r in g ______________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g __________________________
P u b lic u t il it ie s 4 __________________________
O rd e r f ille r s

1, 007
§99
108
29

2 .2 0
2 .2 4
1. 94
2 .2 8

16

35
4
31

8
8

3
3

_

5
5
-

-

2
2
_

2
2
-

-

_
-

R e c e iv in g c l e r k s
____
M a n u fa c tu r in g ______________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
..................

85
54
31

2 .2 8
2 .4 6
1 .9 6

S h ip p in g c l e r k s ________________________________
M a n u fa c tu r in g ______________________________

2 . 51
2 .5 2

S h ip p in g a n d r e c e iv in g c l e r k s
M a n u fa c tu r in g ______________________________

97
89
84
63

T r u c k d r i v e r s 5 .... _
_
_
. ...
M a n u fa c tu r in g
_ .......................
...............
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g __________________________
P u b lic u t i l i t i e s 4 _____ _________________

768
361
407
166

2 .2 5
2 . 32
2 .2 0
2 .2 3

T r u c k d r i v e r s , m e d iu m ( 1 V2 to a n d
in c lu d in g 4 t o n s )
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _______________________

376
T59

2 .2 2
2 . 13

-

-

T r u c k d r i v e r s , h e a v y (o v e r 4 to n s ,
t r a i l e r t y p e ) ______________________________
M a n u fa c tu r in g ___________________________

162
87

2 .3 9
2 .3 3

-

T r u c k d r i v e r s , h e a v y (o v e r 4 to n s ,
o t h e r th a n t r a i l e r t y p e ) ___________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _____ _____________________

86
38

2 .2 4
2 . 15

T r u c k e r s , p o w e r (f o r k li f t ) ____________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ______________________________

375
356

2 .2 8
2 .2 8

-

T r u c k e r s , p o w e r (o t h e r th a n f o r k l if t )
M a n u fa c tu r in g _ ________ __________________

192
192

2 .4 9
2 .4 9

33

1. 78

-

_

$
1. 7 0

$
1. 8 0

$
1 .9 0

$
2 . 00

$
2 . 10

$
2 .2 0

1 .7 0

1. 8 0

1. 90

2 . 00

2 . 10

2 .2 0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

6
6

30
30

18
18

9
9

14
14

2
2

12
5
7

10
10
25
25

10
8
2

14
14
18
18

2
2
8
4

4
4

3
2
1

_

12
12

1
6
------ 6 ^

7
8
2 ----5
2
10
- ’ 6 h
8
8
8
8

-

69
59
24
23
1
1
226
224
2
-

7
7

$
3 . 00
and
over

4
4

2
2

"
1
1

10
ib

-

1
1

9
4

7
3

17
17

15
13

39
25
14
4

92
48
44
2

6
4
2
-

145
13
132
1

188
136
52
4

87
17
70
70

75
73
2
-

1
34
32
2
2

"
22
22
22

1
1
1

1
-

6
-

10
10

57
42

5
2

135
129

132
-

2
-

23
“

-

-

-

-

■

7
7

-

-

30
30

-

4
4

2
2

73
3

14
12

31
29

-

1
"

-

-

-

12
12

-

24
24

45
26

12
12

56
56

45
45

"
99
99

3
3

-

-

1 2

-

4
4

3
3

4
4

19
19

146
146

6
6

-

49
49

32
32

50
2

9
9

25
25

-

-

2

7

6

-

-

-

-

_

7
4

1
1

9
9

-

_

Data lim ited to men w ork ers except where otherw ise indicated.
Excludes prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on w eekends, holidays, and late shifts.
W orkers w ere distributed as follows: 3 at under $ 0. 80; 3 at $ 0 . 8 0 to $ 0 .9 0 ; 18 at $ 0 . 9 0 to $ 1 .
Transportation, com munication, and other public u tilities.
Includes all d riv ers reg a rd less of size and type of truck operated.




1

27
27

28
6
22
22

-

2

121

5
5

-

-

4

3
1
2
-

-

19
19
-

35
35

1
1
_
51
7
44
38

-

-

"
-

47
33
14
2

2
2
-

-

-

7
7
335
334
1
1

12

6
6

"
4
4
2
2
-

24
24
108
75
33
17

14
10

-

_

153
153
11
7
4
4
-

3
2
1

8

-

_

13
13
'
62
57
5
5
-

2
2
27
27
-

8

“

3 .0 0

.

178
172
6
1

8

-

2. 90

_

144
141
3
3

2
2

6
6
-

2 . 80

.

43
37
6
6

.
-

8
7
1

2 .7 0

18
6
12
-

35
35
117
109
8
-

"

-

1
1

-

$
2 . 90

72
72

_
-

1
1
2
3
4
5

23
7
16
12

-

6

.

.

$
2 .8 0

15
9
6

12
12

2
-

-

2 . 60

.

2 .4 0

2. 70

14
14

_

1
1
12
12
_

4
4

2
2
3
-

4

2 . 50

2 . 30

$

-

46
28
18
3

_
5
5
-

-

$
2 . 60

$
2 .4 0

52
52
-

8
8
8
6
2
.

12
2
10

-

$
2 .5 0

$
2 .3 0

.

12
7
5
-

12
12

-

1 .6 0

5
5
2
2
-

8
8
8
-

2 . 15

1 .5 0

$
1. 6 0

.

6
6
6
-

2 . 32
2 .3 2

1 .4 0

1 .4 0

11
11
-

155

W a tc h m e n ___________________________________ _

1 .3 0

$
1 .5 0

.

16

171
167

$

.

2
2

P a c k e r s , sh ip p in g
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ______________________________

2 .2 0
2 .2 4

$

_

-

4

-

-

-

-




8

B : E s t a b l i s h m e n t P r a c t i c e s a n d S u p p l e m e n t a r y W a g e P r o v i s io n s
T a b le B-L Shift D ifferen tials
(P e r c e n t of m a n u fa c tu rin g p lan t w o rk e rs in e s ta b lis h m e n ts having fo rm a l p ro v is io n s fo r sh ift w ork, and in e s ta b lis h m e n ts
a c tu a lly o p e ra tin g la te sh ifts by type and am o u n t of d iffe re n tia l, C anton, Ohio, D e c e m b e r 1 9 5 9 )
In e s ta b lis h m e n ts having fo rm a l
p ro v is io n s 1 fo r—
Shift d iffe re n tia l

In e s ta b lis h m e n ts a c tu a lly
op e ra tin g —

Second sh ift
w o rk

T h ird o r o th er
sh ift w ork

Second shift

T hird o r o th e r
sh ift

T o t a l ------------------------------------------------------------

94. 8

9 0 .9

2 5 .5

1 4 .2

W ith sh ift pay d i f f e r e n tia l-------------------- ---- — -

9 3 .3

9 0 .9

25. 1

1 4 .2

U niform c en ts (p e r h o u r ) -------------------------

9 0 .2

87. 8

2 3 .9

1 3 .4

5 c e n t s ------------------------------- --------------6 c e n t s -----------------------------------------------7V* c e n t s --------------------------------------------8 c en ts -----------------------------------------------9 c en ts — ------- ------------------------------------10 c e n t s ----------------------------------------- ---10Va c e n t s -------------------------------------------11 c e n t s ---------------------------------------------12 c en ts ---------------------------------------------15 c e n t s --------------------------------- -----------O v er 15 c e n t s ---------------------------------------

7. 6
3. 5
2 .9
5 4 .2
1 4 .3
7. 7
-

3 .2
6 .8
2 .8
5 .4
1 .5
.8
6 4. 0
2. 5
.8

2 .2
.9
.9
1 3 .4
4 .8
1 .8
"

.5
.7
.1
.3
.1
.1
1 1 .2
.4

U niform p e r c e n t a g e ---------------------------------

3. 1

3. 1

1 .2

.8

5 p e rc e n t --------------------------------------------10 p e rc e n t ------------------------------------------

3. 1

.
3. 1

1 .2
-

_
.8

No s h ift pay d i f f e r e n t i a l -------------------------------

1 .5

-1

.4

1 In cludes e s ta b lis h m e n ts c u rr e n tly o p e ra tin g la te s h ifts , and e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith fo rm a l p ro v is io n s c o v e rin g la te sh ifts
even though th ey w e re n o t c u rr e n tly o p e ra tin g la te s h ifts .

9
Table B-2. Minimum Entrance Salqries for W o m e n O ffice W o rk e rs
(D istrib u tio n of e sta b lish m e n ts studied in a ll in d u str ie s and in in d u stry d iv isio n s by m in im u m en tran ce s a la r y fo r s e le c te d c a te g o r ie s
of in ex p er ien ced w om en o ffice w o r k e r s, Canton, Ohio, D ecem b er 1 9 5 9 )
In ex p erien ced ty p ists
M anufacturing
M in im u m w e e k l y s a l a r y 1

Other in ex p er ien ced c le r ic a l w o rk ers a
Nonm anuf a ctur ing

Manufa ctur ing

B a s e d o n s t a n d a r d w e e k ly h o u r s 3 o f—

A ll
in d u s trie s

A ll
s c h e d u le s

40
79

43

46
1
17
6
3
3
2
5
2
1
1

26

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s s t u d i e d ------------------------------

79

43

XXX

36

XXX

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v in g a s p e c i f i e d m in i m u m —
U n d e r $ 4 0 .0 0
......................................
$40. 00 a n d u n d e r $42. 50 -------------- --------$42. 50 a n d u n d e r $45. 00 ----------------------$45. 00 a n d u n d e r $47. 50 ----------------------$47. 50 a n d u n d e r $50. 00 ----------------------$50. 00 a n d u n d e r $52. 50 ----------------------$52. 50 a n d u n d e r $55. 00 ----------------------$55. 00 a n d u n d e r $57. 50 ----------------------$57. 50 a n d u n d e r $60. 00 ----------------------$60. 00 a n d u n d e r $6 2 .5 0 ----------------------$62. 50 a n d u n d e r $65. 00 ----------------------$65. 00 a n d u n d e r $67. 50 ----------------------$67. 50 a n d u n d e r $70. 00 ----------------------$70.00 a n d o v e r ---------------------------------E s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v in g n o
s p e c i f i e d m i n i m u m --------------------------------E s t a b l i s h m e n t s w h ic h d id n o t e m p l o y
w o r k e r s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y --------------------------

46
1
17
6
4
3

26

24

15
1

7
2
3
2
2
3
2

7
1
2
2
2
3
2

20
1
10
4
1
1

-

-

2

2

1

1

-

2
5
2
1
1

-

1

-

-

2

1

-

-

4

-

XXX

5

XXX

-

-

4

4

13

8
9

8

-

1

-

20

A ll
s c h e d u le s

A ll
s c h e d u le s

40

XXX

7

1
3
2
2
3
2

-

A ll
s c h e d u le s

40

XXX

36

XXX

23

20
1
10

15
1

5
-

2

40

-

7

2
2
2
3
2

8

1
-

1

-

2
-

2

-

1

1

4

4

4

-

18

11

XXX

7

XXX

6

XXX

9

XXX

1

-

-

1

XXX

11

N onm anufacturing

B a s e d on s t a n d a r d vw eekly h o u r s 3 of

A ll
in d u s trie s

1

15

1

-

-

1 L ow est s a la r y rate fo r m a lly es ta b lis h e d fo r h irin g in ex p er ien ced w o rk ers fo r typing or other c le r ic a l jo b s.
a R ates ap p licab le to m e s s e n g e r s , offic e g ir ls , or s im ila r s u b c le r ic a l jobs a re not co n sid ere d .
3 H ours r e fle c t the w ork w eek fo r w hich em p lo y e es r e c e iv e th eir re g u la r str a ig h t- tim e s a la r ie s . Data are p resen ted fo r a ll w ork w eek s com b in ed , and fo r the m o s t com m on w ork w eek rep o rted .

Table B-3. Scheduled W e e k ly Hours
(P e r c e n t d istrib u tio n of o ffic e and plant w o rk ers in a ll in d u stries and in in d u stry d iv isio n s by sch ed u led w eek ly hours
of f ir s t - s h if t w o r k e r s , Canton, Ohio, D ecem b er 1 9 5 9 )
OFFICE WORKERS

W eekly hours

A ll w o r k e r s ----------------------------------------------------------U nder 37V a h o u r s -------------------------------------------------3 7 Va h o u r s ------------------------------------------------------------O ver 37V a and under 4 0 h o u r s ---------------------------4 0 h ours ---------------------------------------------------------------O ver 4 0 and under 4 4 h o u r s ------------------------------4 4 h ours ---------------------------------------------------------------O ver 4 4 h o u r s ------------------------------------------------------1
*
3
4

PLANT WORKERS

All industries 1

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

All industries 3

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

100

100

100

100

100

100

(4 )

3

6
88
(4 )

3

(4 )

(4 )

4
3
91

.

"

-

1

2
2

_

_

99

88

_

"

Includes data fo r w h o le s a le trade; r e ta il trade; fin a n ce, in su ra n ce, and r e a l esta te; and s e r v ic e s in addition to th o se in d u stry d iv isio n s shown se p a r a te ly .
T ran sp ortation , com m u n ication , and other p ub lic u t ilit ie s .
Includes data for w h o le s a le tra d e, r e ta il trad e, r e a l e s ta te , and s e r v ic e s in addition to th o se i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
L e ss than 0 . 5 p er c e n t.




_

1

94

99
-

i4 )

(4 )
1
(4 )

-

_

12

10

Table B~4. Paid Holidays
(Percen t distribution of office and plant w orkers in all industries and in industry divisions by number of paid holidays
provided annually, Canton, Ohio, D ecem ber 1959)
OFFICE WORKERS

Item

All industries 1

Manufacturing

PLANT WORKERS
Public utilities 2

All industries3

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

A ll w o rk ers ----------------------------------------

100

100

100

100

100

100

W ork ers in e sta b lish m e n ts provid in g
paid h olid ays -----------------------------------W ork ers in e sta b lish m e n ts p rovid in g
no paid h o lid a y s ----------------------------------

99

99

100

96

97

92

4

3

8

1
1
16

_
1
7

_

-

-

8
61
2
1
5

10
69
3
1
6

1

(4 )

(4 )
1
24
2
7
43
14
4
3

1
15
(4 )
7
49
19
6
2

N u m b er o f d a y s
L e s s than 5 h olid a y s ----------------------------5 h olid ays -----------------------------------------6 h olid ays -----------------------------------------6 h olid ays plus 1 h alf d a y -----------------------6 h olid ays plus 2 h alf days ---------------------7 h olid ays -----------------------------------------7 h olid ays plus 1 h alf d a y -----------------------7 h olid ays plus 2 h alf d a y s ----------------------8 h o lid a y s -------------------------------------------

_
-

4

-

-

77
-

19

-

1
-

80
11

T otal h o lid a y tim e 5
8 d a y s ----------------------------------------------------------------------

7l/z or m o r e d a y s --------------------------------------------------

7 or m o r e d a y s --------------------------------------- -------------67a or m o re d a y s ----------------------------------- -------------6 or m o re d a y s --------------------------------------- -------------5 or m o re days ----------------------------------------------------3 or m o re d ays ----------------------------------------------------2 or m o r e days -----------------------------------------------------

7

8

22

27
83
83
98
99
99
99

71
73
98
99
99
99

19
19
97
97
100
100
100
100

7

7

9

10
89
89
96
97
97
97

78

78
94
95
96
96

11
11
91
91
92
92
92
92

1 Includes data fcrr w holesale trade; reta il trade; finance, insurance, and re a l estate; and se r v ic e s in addition to those industry divisions shown sep arately .
a T ransportation, communication, and other public u tilities.
3 Includes data for w holesale trad e, re ta il trad e, rea l e sta te, and se rv ic e s in addition to those industry divisions shown sep arately.
4 L e ss than 0. 5 percent.
* All combinations of full and half days that add to the sam e amount a re combined; for exam ple, the proportion of w orkers receiving a total of 7 days includes those with 7 full days and
no half days, 6 full days and 2 half day s, 5 full days and 4 half days, and so on. Proportions were then cumulated.




11

Table B-5. Paid Vacations
(P e r c e n t d istrib u tio n of o ffic e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u str ie s and in in d u stry d iv is io n s by v a ca tio n pay

p rovision s, Canton, Ohio, Decem ber 1959)
PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS

V acation p olicy
All industries 1

A ll w o rk ers _______________________ ___________

Manufacturing

Public utilities *

All industries 3

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

100

100

100

100

100

100

100
100
-

100
100
-

100
100
-

99
82
17
-

100
79
21
-

100
100
-

■

“

"

1

”

-

5
34
35

1
37
43

18
-

22
4
( 5)

25
1
-

14
-

( 5)
24
1
75

_
14
86

_
59
17
24

2
88
5
4

2
91
6
1

_
67
14
15

_
12
5
83
-

_
10
1
88
-

_
2
44
54

1
77
9
12
1

1
86
8
4
1

_
7
41
52
-

7
3
90
-

5
5
90
-

_
100
-

25
53
21
1

27
64
7
1

_
8
92

2

_
100

5

-

4
86
5
3

4

93

96
4

M e th o d o f p a y m e n t
W ork ers in esta b lis h m e n ts providing
paid v a ca tio n s
_____________________________
L en gth -of-tim e paym ent ______________ ___
P e r c e n ta g e paym ent ___________________ __
F la t-su m paym ent
__ ____________________
W ork ers in esta b lis h m e n ts providing
no paid v a ca tio n s ___________________________

Am ount o f v a c a t io n p a y 4
A fter 6 m onths of s e r v ic e
Under 1 wrp Ic
1 w eek ________________________________________
Over 1 and under 2 w eek s
______________ ___
A fter 1 y ear of s e r v ic e
U n d er 1 w eek
_ __
_
1 w eek _______________________ __
,
Over 1 and under 2 w eek s ___________________
2 w eek s ________ ____________________________
A fter 2 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
U n d er 1 w eek ------------- _ ____________________
1 w eek
____ ________________________________
Over 1 and under 2 w eek s ___________________
2 w eek s _____________________________ _______
Over 2 and under 3 w eek s
________ _______
A fter 3 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w eek
---------- ------------------------------Over 1 and under 2 w eek s
__________ _______
2 w eek s _______________________________________
Over 2 and under 3 w eek s
_________________
A fter 5 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
w eek ________________________________________
2 w eek s _________________ ________________ _____
Over 2 and under 3 w eek s ____________________
3 w eek s ___________ _______________ __________
l

S ee footn otes at end of ta b le.




2
93
4
2

90

6

12

Table B-5. Paid Vqcations-Continued
(P e r c e n t d istrib u tio n of o ffic e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u str ie s and in in d u stry d iv is io n s by v a ca tio n pay
p r o v is io n s , C anton, O hio, D ecem b er 1 9 5 9 )
PLA N T WORKERS

OFFICE W ORKERS

V a catio n p o licy
All industries 3

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

All industries 3

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

Amount off vacation pay 4—Continued
A fte r 10 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w eek
O ver 1 and under 2 w eek s ____________________
2 w e e k s ____ __
O ver 2 and under 3 w eek s ________
__ __ __
3 w eek s ______________ ______ _______ __________
4 w eek s
__
__ ______

1
41
20
39
"

1
33
27
40
"

_
76
24
-

3
1
31
54
11
( 5)

2
1
27
65
4
-

1
15
83
1

!
8
91
-

_
2
98
_

3
1
6
13
73
2
1

2
1
6
16
73
2

_
_
_
93

-

7

1
15
81
_
3

1
8
91
-

2
1

_
_
_

1
15
36
17
31

1
8
34
24
33

_
79
17
4

A fter 15 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w eek
____ _ ____________ _ _____ ___ __
O ver 1 an d under 2 w e e k s _____________________
2 w eek s _______________________________________
O ver 2 and under 3 w eek s ____________________
3 w eek s
_ __ __ _ _ _ ^
O ver 3 an d under 4 w eek s ____________________
4 w eek s _______ _ __
_

-

A fter 20 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w eek
___________________ _________________
O ver 1 and under 2 w eek s
2 w eek s
O ver 2 and under 3 w eek s
3 w eek s
O ver 3 and under 4 w eek s
__ _
4 w eek s -----------------------------------------------------

( 5)

_

_
2
98
_
-

3
1

5

4

13
67
2
9

16
70
2

3
1

2
1

4

93

7

A fte r 25 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w eek ________________________________________
O ver 1 an d under 2 w e e k s
2 w eek s . .
O ver 2 an d under 3 w eek s ____________________
3 w eek s
___
___________
__ _
O ver 3 and under 4 w eek s ____________________
4 w eek s

1
*
3
4
s e r v ic e
5

_
2
58
40

5
2
31
44
14

4

_

_
_

_
_

2
29

64

8

36

54

Inclu d es data for w h o le s a le trade; r e ta il trade; fin a n ce, in su r a n c e , and r e a l esta te; and s e r v ic e s in a d dition to th o se in d u stry d iv is io n s show n se p a r a te ly .
T ra n sp o r ta tio n , com m u n ication , and other public u tilit ie s .
Inclu d es data for w h o le s a le trad e, r e ta il trad e, r e a l e s ta te , and s e r v ic e s in a d dition to th o se in d u stry d iv is io n s shown s e p a r a te ly .
P e r io d s of s e r v ic e w e r e a r b itr a r ily c h o sen and do not n e c e s s a r ily r e fle c t the in d ivid u al p r o v isio n s for p r o g r e s s io n s .
F or ex a m p le , the ch a n g es in p ro p o rtio n s in d ica ted at 10
in clu d e ch a n g es in p ro v is io n s o ccu rrin g b etw een 5 and 10 y e a r s .
L e s s than 0 . 5 p ercen t.

NOTE: In the tab u lation s of v a ca tio n a llo w a n c e s by y e a r s of s e r v ic e , p aym en ts other than "length of t im e ," such a s p erc en ta g e o f annual ea r n in g s
to an eq u ivalen t tim e b a sis; for e x a m p le , a paym ent of 2 p ercen t of annual e a r n in g s w a s c o n sid e r e d a s 1 w e e k ’s pay.




years’

or fla t- su m paym ents, w e r e co n v er te d

13
Table B-6. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
(P e r c e n t of o ffic e and plant w o rk ers in a ll in d u str ie s and in in d u stry d iv is io n s em p lo y ed in e s ta b lis h m e n ts p roviding
h ealth , in su ra n ce, or p en sio n b en efits, Canton, Ohio, D ecem b er 19 5 9 )
PLA N T WORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS

Type of b en efit
All industries 1

A ll w o rk ers __________________________________

100

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

100

100

All industries 3

Manufacturing

Public utilities

100

100

2

100

W orkers in esta b lis h m e n ts providing:
L ife in s u r a n c e _____________________________
A ccid e n ta l death and d ism em b erm en t
in s u r a n c e ___ _________ ___________________
S ick n ess and a cc id en t in su ra n ce or
sick le a v e or b o th 4 ______________________

94

99

55

94

99

59

43

43

15

38

39

30

91

98

55

90

97

59

S ick n ess and a cc id en t in su ra n ce _______
Sick le a v e (fu ll pay and no
w aiting p erio d )________________________
Sick le a v e (p a r tia l pay or
w aitin g p e r i o d ) _______________________

61

72

20

83

96

18

47

45

42

4

-

15

8

7

13

5

3

37

H o sp ita liza tio n in su ran ce _________________
S u rgical in su ra n ce ________________________
M ed ical in s u r a n c e _________________________
C atastroph e in su ra n ce ____________________
R etire m en t p e n s i o n _______________________
No h ealth , in su ra n ce, or p en sion p l a n ___

89
87
57
11
76
1

99
99
63
9
83

86
86
83
17
53

93
91
64
2
71
1

99
98
69
1
77

77
77
66
14
59

1
2
3
4
lis h at

In clu d es data for w h o le s a le trade; r e ta il trade; fin a n ce, in su ra n ce, and r e a l esta te; and s e r v ic e s in addition to th o se in d u stry d iv is io n s shown s ep a ra tely .
T ran sp ortation , com m u n ication , and oth er public u t ilitie s .
In clu d es data for w h o le sa le trad e, r e ta il tra d e, r e a l e s ta te , and s e r v ic e s in addition to th o se in d u stry d iv is io n s shown sep a ra tely .
U nduplicated to ta l of w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g sick le a v e or sick le a v e or s ic k n e s s and a cc id en t in su ra n ce shown s ep a ra tely b elo w . S ick -lea v e p lan s a re lim ite d to th o se w hich d efin ite ly e s ta b ­
le a s t the m in im u m num ber of days* pay that can be ex p ected by ea ch em p lo y e e
Inform al s ic k - le a v e a llo w a n ce s d eterm in ed on an ind ivid u al b a s is a re ex clu d ed .







15

Appendix:

T h e p r im a r y
fie ld

sta ff

title s

and

o f p re p a rin g

jo b d e s c r ip t i o n s fo r th e B u r e a u ’ s w a g e s u r v e y s i s to a s s i s t i t s

in c l a s s i f y i n g in t o a p p r o p r i a t e o c c u p a t i o n s w o r k e r s w h o a r e e m p lo y e d u n d e r a v a r i e t y o f p a y r o l l
d iffe r e n t

e s s e n t i a l in

o rd er

B e c a u s e o f th is
B u re au ’s

p u rp o se

Occupational Descriptions

jo b

w o r k a r r a n g e m e n t s fr o m e s t a b l i s h m e n t t o e s t a b l i s h m e n t a n d fro m a r e a to a r e a .

to

p e r m it th e

e m p h a sis

on

d e s c r ip tio n s

T h is is

g r o u p in g o f o c c u p a t io n a l w a g e r a t e s r e p r e s e n t in g c o m p a r a b le jo b c o n te n t.

in te r e s ta b lis h m e n t

and

in te r a re a

c o m p a r a b ilit y o f o c c u p a t io n a l c o n te n t , th e

m a y d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y fro m t h o s e in u s e in i n d i v i d u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s o r t h o s e

p r e p a r e d fo r o th e r p u r p o s e s .
In a p p l y i n g t h e s e j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s , t h e B u r e a u ’ s f i e l d e c o n o m i s t s a r e
in s t r u c t e d to e x c lu d e w o r k in g s u p e r v i s o r s , a p p r e n t ic e s , l e a r n e r s , b e g in n e r s , t r a i n e e s , h a n d ic a p p e d w o r k e r s ,
p a r t-tim e , te m p o r a r y , a n d p r o b a tio n a r y w o r k e r s .

O FFIC E
B I L L E R , M A C H IN E
P rep ares
th a n

an

B O O K K E E P IN G -M A C H IN E

state m e n ts,

b ills,

o r d in a ry o r e le c t r o m a t ic

and

in v o ic e s

ty p e w r ite r .

M ay

on a m a c h in e
a lso

o th e r

k eep reco rd s a s

to b il lin g s or s h ip p in g c h a r g e s or p erfo rm o th e r c l e r i c a l w o rk in c id e n ta l
to

b illin g

o p e ra tio n s.

F or w age

stu d y

O p e ra te s

B ille r

,

m a c h in e

c o m b in a tio n

(h illin g

H o p k in s,
ty p in g

and

F ish e r ,

a d d in g

b o o k k e e p in g

m a c h in e

(R e m in g to n

a

ty p e w r ite r

k ey b o ard )

to

keep

a

reco rd

of

R an d,

E llio tt

R e g i s t e r , w ith o r w ith o u t
of

reco rd s

b u sin e ss

tr a n sa c tio n s.

p u r p o s e s , b il le r s , m a c h in e , a re
C la s s

m a c h in e )

E llio tt

a

F is h e r , S u n d stra n d , B u rro u g h s, N a tio n a l C a s h

c l a s s i f i e d b y ty p e o f m a c h in e , a s fo llo w s :

c h in e (M o o n

O PERATO R

— U s e s a s p e c ia l b illin g m a­
B u rro u g h s,

m a c h in e s)

e t c .,

to p re p a re

w h ic h

are

b ills an d in ­

A

— K eeps

a

set

r e q u ir in g

a

k n o w le d g e o f

a n d e x p e r i e n c e in b a s i c b o o k k e e p i n g p r i n c i p l e s a n d f a m i l i a r i t y w ith
th e s tr u c tu r e o f th e p a r t ic u l a r a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m
p ro p e r r e c o r d s a n d d istr ib u tio n

u se d .

D e te r m in e s

o f d e b it a n d c r e d it it e m s to b e u s e d

v o i c e s fr o m c u s t o m e r s ’ p u r c h a s e o r d e r s , i n t e r n a l l y p r e p a r e d o r d e r s ,

in e a c h p h a s e o f th e w o r k .

sh ip p in g m e m o r a n d u m s, e t c . U s u a l l y

s h e e t s , a n d o th e r r e c o r d s b y h a n d .

te r m in e d

d isc o u n ts

e x t e n s io n s , w h ic h
c h in e , a n d

and

sh ip p in g

m ay

in v o lv e s

ch arg es

a p p lic a tio n

and

e n try

of p red e­

of n ece ssa ry

o r m ay n o t b e c o m p u te d on th e b il lin g

u su a lly

th e b i l l

p rep ared

b e in g

in v o lv e s a la r g e n um ber o f c a rb o n c o p ie s o f
and

is

o fte n

done

on

a

fa n fo ld

C la s s

m a­

t o t a l s w h ic h a r e a u t o m a t ic a lly a c c u m u la t e d b y m a c h in e .

T h e o p e ra tio n

m a c h in e .

a

set

m a c h in e
m ay

as

v o lv e s
o rd .

m a c h in e

(b o o k k e e p in g

(S u n d stra h d ,

or

b ills

,

m ay

not

have

p a r t o f th e
th e

The

E llio tt

m a c h in e

F ish e r ,

ty p e w r ite r

a c c o u n ts

s im u lta n e o u s

k e e p in g .

W o rk s

s lip s.




fro m

to

a

b o o k k e e p in g

R a n d , e t c . , w h ic h
G e n e r a lly in ­

fig u r e s

on a n um ber

an d u s u a lly p r in ts a u to m a tic a lly

and

u s u a lly

r e q u ir in g

little

k n o w le d g e

of b a sic

book­

b ille r ,

v e n to ry

m a c h in e ), c o s t

c o n tr o l,

e tc .

b a la n c e s an d p rep are

M ay

d istr ib u tio n ,
ch eck

ex p en se

or a s s is t

c o n tro l s h e e t s

in

d istr ib u tio n , in ­

p r e p a ra tio n

o f tr ia l

fo r th e a c c o u n t i n g d e p a r t m e n t .

C L E R K , A C C O U N T IN G

on c u s to m e r s ’ le d g e r r e c ­

D o e s n o t in v o lv e a k n o w le d g e o f b o o k ­

u n ifo r m

— K e e p s a r e c o r d o f o n e o r m o re p h a s e s o r s e c t i o n s o f

p rep are c u sto m e r s’

o p e r a tio n .

a c c u m u la te s

o f v e r t ic a l c o lu m n s a n d c o m p u te s

c r e d it

k ey b o ard )

o f fig u re s

a u to m a tic a lly

— U se s

R e m in g to n

r e c e iv a b le

e n try

th e d e b it o r c r e d it b a l a n c e s .

m a c h in e )

B

of reco rd s

k e e p in g *
P h a s e s or s e c t i o n s in c lu d e a c c o u n t s p a y a b le , p a y r o ll,
c u s t o m e r s ’ a c c o u n t s (n o t in c lu d in g a s im p le ty p e o f b illin g d e s c r ib e d
un der

B ille r

M ay p re p a re c o n s o lid a te d r e p o r t s , b a la n c e

sta n d a rd

ty p e s

of

sa le s

and

C la s s

A

— U n d e r g e n e r a l d ir e c tio n

a n t, h a s r e s p o n sib ility

o f a b o o k k eep er or a c co u n t­

fo r k e e p in g o n e o r m o re s e c t i o n s

of a com ­

p le te s e t o f b o o k s or r e c o r d s r e la tin g to o n e p h a s e o f a n e s t a b lis h ­
m e n t’ s b u s in e s s

tr a n sa c tio n s.

W o rk i n v o l v e s p o s t i n g a n d b a l a n c i n g

s u b s id ia r y le d g e r or le d g e r s s u c h a s a c c o u n ts r e c e iv a b le

or a c c o u n ts

16

C L E R K , A C C O U N T IN G — C o n tin u e d

C LER K , PA Y RO LL

p a y a b l e ; e x a m in in g a n d c o d in g i n v o i c e s o r v o u c h e r s w ith p r o p e r a c ­
c o u n tin g

d istr ib u tio n ; r e q u ir e s

ju d g m e n t a n d

p roper a ss ig n a tio n s

and

ju s tin g

jo u r n a l e n t r i e s ; m ay d ir e c t c l a s s

and c lo sin g

a llo c a tio n s .

e x p e rie n c e

M ay a s s i s t in

in

m a k in g

p re p a rin g , a d ­
B a c c o u n tin g

c le r k s.

C o m p u te s
s a r y d a ta on
e a r n in g s

th e

b a se d

w ages

on

tim e

m ake
C la s s

— U n d e r s u p e r v i s i o n , p e r f o r m s o n e o r m o re r o u t in e a c ­

B

c o u n ts

p a y a b le

r e c o n c ilin g
by

v o u ch ers,

bank

does

p o stin g

a

p r i n c i p l e s b u t i s f o u n d in o f f i c e s

in

vou ch er r e g iste r s;

s u b s id ia r y

s im p le

k n o w le d g e

le d g e r s

in fo r m a tio n

d e d u c tio n s

p a y e n v e lo p e s.

and

fo r

a ssist

su ch

a s w o r k e r 's n a m e ,

in su ra n c e ,
p a y m a ste r

w o r k in g

and to tal w a g e s d u e.
in

m a k in g

M ay

u p an d d istr ib u t­

M ay u s e a c a lc u la t in g m a c h in e .

a c c o u n tin g

COM PTO M ETER O PERA TO R

c o n tr o lle d

c o s t a c c o u n tin g d a t a .

of

out p ay ch eck s

in g

rate ,

C a lc u la tin g w o rk e rs'

jo u r n a l v o u c h e r s o r a c ­

v o u ch ers

p o stin g

or p o stin g

n o t r e q u ir e

s im p le

e n te r in g

a c co u n ts;

g e n e ra l le d g e r s,

jo b

as

tim e ,

D u tie s in v o lv e :

o r p r o d u c tio n r e c o r d s ; p o s tin g c a lc u la t e d d a ta

on p a y r o ll s h e e t , sh o w in g
d ay s,

c o u n tin g o p e r a tio n s s u c h

o f c o m p a n y e m p lo y e e s a n d e n t e r s th e n e c e s ­

p a y r o ll s h e e t s .

T h is

a n d b o o k k e e p in g

in w h ic h t h e m o re r o u t in e a c c o u n t ­

in g w o rk i s s u b d iv id e d on a fu n c t io n a l b a s i s a m o n g s e v e r a l w o r k e r s .

P rim a ry
tic a l

d u ty

c o m p u ta tio n s .

t ic a l or o th e r
to m e te r

i s to o p e r a te a C o m p to m e te r to p e rfo rm m a th e m a ­

T h is

jo b

i s n o t to b e c o n f u s e d w ith t h a t o f s t a t i s ­

ty p e o f c le r k , w h ic h m ay in v o lv e fr e q u e n t u s e o f a C o m p ­

b u t, in w h ic h , u s e o f t h i s m a c h in e i s i n c i d e n t a l t o p e r f o r m a n c e

o f o th e r d u t ie s .
C LER K ,

F IL E
C la s s

ber

— In

A

o f v a r ie d

pondence
reco rd s
v ise
fo rm

an

e sta b lish e d

s u b je c t

m atte r

or o th e r m a te r ia l; m ay
o f v a rio u s

o th e rs

in

ty p e s

filin g

and

in

filin g

file s,

sy ste m

c la ssifie s

a lso

file

c o n ju n c t io n

lo c a tin g

c o n ta in in g
and

th is m a te r ia l.
w ith

m a t e r i a l in

file s
th e

a num ­

D U P L IC A T IN G -M A C H IN E

file s.

U nder

M ay k e e p

or m ay su p e r­
M ay p e r­

or

— P e r fo r m s r o u tin e f i l i n g , u s u a l l y o f m a t e r ia l t h a t h a s

B

been

a ssists

c la ssifie d

in

lo c a tin g

o r w h ic h
m a te r ia l

su p e rv isio n

u s i n g a M im e o g ra p h o r D it t o m a c h i n e .
p rep are

C la s s

gen eral

is
in

e a sily
file s.

s te n c il

m aste rs.

M ay

p e rfo rm

in c id e n ta l

KEYPUNCH

p u n c h in g

C LER K , ORDER

or D itto m a s t e r .

gen eral

R e c e i v e s c u s t o m e r s 'o r d e r s fo r m a t e r ia l o r m e r c h a n d is e b y m a il,
in v o lv e

an y

c o m b in a tio n

o f th e

fo llo w in g :

Q u o tin g p r i c e s to c u s t o m e r s ; m a k in g o u t a n o r d e r s h e e t l i s t i n g th e it e m s
up

th e

o rd er;

d istr ib u tin g

M a k e s n e c e s s a r y a d ju s tm e n t s u c h
I s n o t r e q u ir e d to

M ay k e e p f il e o f u s e d s t e n c i l s or D itto

su p e rv isio n

a c c o u n tin g

and

a s e r i e s o f h o l e s in t h e c a r d s

fo r m a tio n o n r e c o r d s .
v ic e a tt a c h e d to

M ay

m a c h in e .

w ith

no su p e rv iso r y r e s p o n s i­

an d s t a t i s t i c a l d a ta on ta b u la tin g c a r d s by

a n a lp h a b e t ic a l o r a n u m e r ic a l

sh e e t;

su p e rv iso r y r e s p o n s i­

O PERATO R

U nder

to m a k e

no

M ay s o r t , c o lla t e , a n d s t a p le c o m p le te d m a te r ia l.

b ilitie s, reco rd s

D u tie s

w ith

id e n tifia b le , o r lo c a t e s

c le r ic a l d u tie s.

p h o n e, or p e r so n a lly .

and

b i l i t i e s , r e p r o d u c e s m u ltip le c o p i e s o f ty p e w r itte n o r h a n d w r itte n m a tte r,
a s fo r in k a n d p a p e r f e e d c o u n t e r a n d c y lin d e r s p e e d .

in c id e n ta l c le r ic a l d u t ie s .

a lr e a d y

O P E R A T O R (M IM E O G R A P H O R D IT T O )

in d e x e s c o r r e s ­

in a s p e c i f i e d s e q u e n c e , u s i n g

k e y p u n c h m a c h in e , fo llo w in g w r itte n in ­

d u p lic a te c a r d s b y u s in g th e d u p lic a tin g d e ­
M ay

keep

file s

of punch

card s.

M ay v e rify

ow n w o rk o r w o rk o f o t h e r s .

c h e c k in g p r ic e s a n d q u a n titie s o f ite m s on o rd e r

ord er

s h e e t s to r e s p e c t i v e d e p a rtm e n ts to b e f i l le d .

O F F IC E B O Y O R G IR L

M a y c h e c k w ith c r e d i t d e p a r t m e n t to d e t e r m in e c r e d i t r a t i n g o f c u s t o m e r ,
a c k n o w le d g e

r e c e ip t

o f o rd ers

fro m

P e rfo rm s

c u s t o m e r s , fo llo w u p o r d e r s to s e e

o ffic e

r o u tin e

d u tie s

su ch

e ra tin g

p i n g i n v o i c e s w ith o r i g i n a l o r d e r s .

d i s t r i b u t i n g m a i l , a n d o t h e r m in o r c l e r i c a l w o r k .




m in o r

v a rio u s

th a t th e y h a v e b e e n f ille d , k e e p file o f o r d e r s r e c e iv e d , a n d c h e c k s h ip ­

a s r u n n in g e r r a n d s , o p ­

m a c h in e s s u c h a s s e a l e r s o r m a ile r s , o p e n in g

and

17
SECRETA RY
Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an ad­
ministrative or executive position. Duties include making appointments
for superior; receiving people coming into office; answering and making
phone c a lls ; handling personal and important or confidential m ail, and
writing routine correspondence on own in itiative; taking dictation (where
transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
sim ilar machine, and transcribing dictation or the recorded information
reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare sp e c ia l reports or
memorandums for information of superior.
STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more p erson s,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar machine, involving a nor­
mal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter.
May a lso type from written copy. May a lso se t up and keep file s in or­
der, keep sim ple records, etc. D o e s n o t i n c l u d e t r a n s c r i b i n g - m a c h i n e
w o rk (se e transcribing-machine operator).
STENOGRAPHER, TECH N ICA L
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar machine, involving a varied
technical or sp ecialize d vocabulary such a s in legal briefs or reports on
scien tific research and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter. May
a lso type from written copy. May a lso se t up and keep file s in order,
keep sim ple records, etc. D o e s n o t i n c l u d e t r a n s c r i b i n g - m a c h i n e w o r k .
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Operates a single- or m ultiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office c a lls .
May record toll c a lls and take m e ssa g e s. May give information to per­
son s who c a ll in, or occasion ally take telephone orders. For workers
who a lso act a s reception ists see switchboard operator-receptionist.
SWITCHBOARD O PERA TO R-RECEPTIO N IST
In addition to performing duties of operator, on a sin gle p o si­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, a c ts a s receptionist and may a ls o type
or perform routine clerical work a s part of regular duties. T his typing
or clerical work may take the major part of this worker's time while at
switchboard.




TABLLATING-M ACHINE OPERATOR
C l a s s A — Operates a variety of tabulating or ele ctrical a c ­
counting machines, typically including such machines a s the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignm ents without clo se supervision, and performs
difficult wiring a s required. The complete reporting and tabulating
assignm ents typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of ste p s to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagram s and operating sequen ces of long and complex reports.
D o e s n o t i n c l u d e working supervisors performing tabulating-machine
operations andday-to-day supervision of the work and production of
a group of tabulating-machine operators.
C l a s s B — Operates more difficult tabulating or e lectrical a c ­
counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. T his work is performed under
sp ecific instructions and may include the performance of some wir­
ing from diagram s. The work typically in volves, for exam ple, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting e x e rcise , a complete but
sm all tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are well estab lish ed . May a lso include the training
of new em ployees in the b asic operation of the machine.
C l a s s C — Operates simple tabulating or e le ctrica l account­
ing machines such a s the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with sp ecific instructions. May include sim ple wiring from diagram s
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for exam ple, individual sorting or collatin g runs, or re­
petitive operations.

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, G EN ERA L
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May a ls o type from written
copy and do sim ple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation in­
volving a varied technical or sp ecializ e d vocabulary such a s legal briefs
or reports on scie n tific research are not included. A worker who takes
dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar machine is c la ssifie d
a s a stenographer, general.

18

T Y P IST

T Y P IST — Continued

U ses a typewriter to make co p ies of various m aterial or to make
out b ills after calcu lation s have been made by another person. May in­
clude typing of ste n c ils, m ats, or sim ilar m aterials for use in duplicat­
ing p ro c e sse s. May do clerical work involving little s p e c ia l training,
such a s keeping sim ple records, filing records and reports, or sorting
and distributing incoming mail.
C la s s A —

Performs o n e o r m o r e o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining m aterial from sev eral
sources o r respon sibility for correct spellin g, syllab icatio n , punc-

tuation, e tc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; planning layout and typing of com plicated s ta tis tic a l tab les
to maintain uniformity and balance in sp acin g. May type routine
form letters varying d e tails to su it circum stances.
C l a s s B — Performs o n e o r m o r e o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance p o lic ie s,
e tc .; settin g up sim ple standard tabulation s, or copying more com­
plex tab les already se t up and spaced properly.

P R O F E S S IO N A L AND T E C H N IC A L
DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(A ssista n t draftsman)
Draws to sc a le units or parts of drawings prepared by d rafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
U se s various types of drafting tools a s required. May prepare drawings
from sim ple plans or sk e tch e s, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsman.
DRAFTSMAN, LEA D ER
P lan s and d irects activ itie s of one or more draftsmen in prep­
aration of working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary
sketch es for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. D uties
involve a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : Interpreting blueprints, sk e tch e s,
and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures; a ssig n in g
duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif­
ficult problems. May a s s i s t subordinates during em ergencies or a s a
regular assignm ent, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad­
m inistrative nature.
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plan s and detail drawings from notes, rough
or detailed sketch es for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
p o se s. Duties involve a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : Preparing work­
ing p lan s, detail drawings, m aps, cro ss-se ctio n s, e tc ., to s c a le by use
of drafting instruments; making engineering computations such a s those




DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR— Continued
involved in strength of m aterials, beam s and tr u ss e s; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dim ensions, m aterials to be used, and q uan tities;
writing sp ecific atio n s; making adjustm ents or changes in drawings or
sp ecificatio n s. May ink in lin es and letters on pencil draw ings, prepare
detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings. Work is frequently
in a sp ecializ e d field such a s architectural, e le ctrical, m echanical, or
structural drafting.
NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (R EG ISTERED )
A registered nurse who g iv es nursing serv ice to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an acciden t on the
prem ises of a factory or other establishm ent. Duties involve a c o m b i n a •
t io n o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent d ressin g of em ployees' in ju ries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;
conducting ph ysical exam inations and health evaluations of applican ts
and em ployees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other
activ itie s affecting the health, w elfare, and safety of a ll personnel.

TRACER
C opies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pen cil. U se s
T-square, com pass, and other drafting to o ls. May prepare sim ple draw­
ings and do sim ple lettering.

19
M A IN TEN A N C E

D

P O W E R P LA N T

CA R PEN TER , MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BO ILER

Performs the carpentry duties n e c e ssary to constructand main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such a s bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, sta irs, c a sin g s, and trim
made of wood in an establishm ent. Work involves m o s t o f t h e f o l l o w i n g :
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, m odels, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter's handtools, portable
power to o ls, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; selectin g m aterials n ec­
e ssary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

F ire s stationary boilers to furnish the establishm ent in which
employed with heat, power, or steam . F e e d s fu els to fire by hand or
operates a m echanical stoker, g a s, or oil burner; checks water and safety
v a lv e s. May clean , oil, or a s s i s t in repairing boilerroom equipment.

ELECTRICIA N , MAINTENANCE
Performs a variety of e lectrical trade functions such as the
in stallation , maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, d is ­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishm ent. Work
involves m o s t o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipment such a s generators, transform ers, sw itchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit sy stem s,
or other transm ission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other sp ecification s;,lo catin g and diagnosing trouble in the e le c ­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; using a variety of
electrician ’ s handtools and measuring and testin g instruments. In gen­
eral, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.
ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may a lso supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (m echanical or electrical) to su p­
ply the establishm ent in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work in volves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such a s steam engines, air com pressors, generators, motors
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a record of
operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May a l s o
supervise these operations. H e a d o r c h i e f e n g i n e e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s
e m p l o y i n g m o r e t h a n o n e e n g i n e e r care e x c l u d e d .




H E L P E R , TRA D ES, MAINTENANCE
A s s is t s one or more workers in the sk illed maintenance trades,
by performing sp ecific or general duties of le s se r sk ill, such a s keeping
a worker supplied with m aterials and to o ls; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; a ss is tin g worker by holding m aterials or to ols;
performing other unskilled ta sk s a s directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working a re a s; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform sp ecialize d machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are a ls o performed by workers on a full-time b a s is .
MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
S p e cializ e s in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such a s jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lath es,
or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop to ols, gau ges,
jig s , fixtu res, or d ie s. Work involves most o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; p rocessin g items requiring
complicated setu ps or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selectin g fe ed s, sp e e d s, tooling and op­
eration sequen ce; making n ecessary adjustm ents during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dim ensions. May be required to recog­
nize when tools need dressin g, to d ress to o ls, and to se le c t proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this c la ssific a tio n .
MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of m echanical equipment operated in an establishm ent. Work
involves m o s t o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : Interpreting written instructions and
sp e cific atio n s; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
ch in ist’ s handtools and precision measuring instrum ents; settin g up and

20

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE— Continued

MILLWRIGHT— Continued

operating standard machine to ols; shaping of metal parts to clo se toler­
an ces; making standard shop computations relating to dim ensions of work,
tooling, feeds and sp eed s of machining; knowledge of the working prop­
erties of the common m etals; selectin g standard m aterials, parts, and
equipment required for his work; fitting and assem bling parts into me­
chanical equipment. In general, the m achinist’ s work normally requires
a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

are required. Work involves m o s t o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints x/f other sp ecificatio n s; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to s tr e s s e s , strength of m aterials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipment; selectin g standard to ols, equipment, and parts
to be used; in stallin g and maintaining in good order power transm ission
equipment such a s drives and speed reducers. In general, the mill­
wright’ s work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
R epairs autom obiles, b u se s, motortrucks, and tractors of an e s ­
tablishment. Work involves m o s t o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassem b lin g equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools a s w renches,
gau ges, d rills, or sp ecializ e d equipment in d isassem b lin g or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
v a lv e s; reassem blin g and in stallin g the various asse m b lies in the vehicle
and making n ecessary adjustm ents; alining w heels, adjusting brakes and
lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the automotive
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
R epairs machinery or m echanical equipment of an establishm ent.
Work involves m o s t o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : Examining machines and mechan­
ic a l equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly d is ­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replace­
ment part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop
for major repairs; preparing written sp ecificatio n s for major repairs or
for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassem bling ma­
ch in es; and making all n ecessary adjustm ents for operation. In general,
the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this cla ssific a tio n are workers
whose p r im a r y d u t i e s involve settin g up or adjusting machines.
MILLWRIGHT
In stalls new machines or heavy equipment and dism antles and
in sta lls machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout




OILER
L u b ricates, with oil or g re a se , the moving parts or wearing sur­
fa c e s of m echanical equipment of an establishm ent.
PA INTER, MAINTENANCE
P ain ts and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an e s ­
tablishm ent. Work i n v o l v e s t h e f o l l o w i n g : Knowledge of surface pecu­
lia ritie s and types of paint required for different application s; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in
nail holes and in terstices; applying paint with spray gun or brush. May
mix colors, o ils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper
color or con sisten cy. In general, the work of the maintenance painter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
P IP E F IT T E R , MAINTENANCE
In stalls or repairs water, steam , g a s , or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishm ent. Work involves m o s t o f t h e f o l l o w i n g :
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other written sp ecific atio n s; cutting various s iz e s of pipe to correct
lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma­
chine; threading pipe with sto ck s and d ie s; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven m achines; assem bling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to p ressu re s,
flow, and siz e of pipe required; making standard te sts to determine
whether finished pipes meet sp ecific atio n s. In general, the work of the
maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. W o rk e r s p r i m a r i l y e n g a g e d in i n s t a l l i n g a n d r e p a i r i n g b u i l d i n g
s a n ita tio n o r h e a tin g s y s t e m s a r e e x c lu d e d .

21
TOOL AND DIE MAKER

PLUM BER, MAINTENANCE
K eeps the plumbing system of an establishm ent in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system ; in stallin g or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber's snake. In
general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and experience.
SHEET-M ETAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
F ab ricate s, in sta lls, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such a s machine guards, grease pans,
sh e lv es, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishm ent. Work involves m o s t o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : Planning and lay­
ing out a ll types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints, models,
or other sp ecificatio n s; setting up and operating all availab le types of
sheet-metal-working m achines; using a variety of handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assem bling; in stallin g sheetmetal articles a s required. In general, the work of the maintenance
sheet-m etal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

(Die maker; jig maker; toolm aker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gau ges, jig s , fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
involves m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g : Planning and laying out of work from
m odels, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written sp ecific atio n s;
using a variety of tool and die m aker's handtools and precision m eas­
uring instruments, understanding of the working properties of common
m etals and allo y s; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making n ecessary shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, sp e e d s, feeds, and tooling of m achines; heattreating of metal
parts during fabrication as well a s of finished tools and dies to achieve
required q u a litie s; working to clo se toleran ces; fitting and assem bling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; selectin g appropriate
m aterials, to ols, and p ro c e sse s. In general, the tool and die maker's
work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this c la ssific a tio n .

C U ST O D IA L AND M A T E R IA L M OVEM ENT
ELEV A TO R OPERATOR, PASSENGER

JANITOR, PO R TER , OR CLEA N ER — Continued

Transports p assen gers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel or sim ilar establishm ent.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such a s
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

or other establishm ent. Duties involve a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e f o l l o w i n g :
Sweeping, mopping o r scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish ­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing su pplies and minor mainte­
nance se rv ic e s; cleaning lav atories, show ers, and restroom s. Workers
who sp ecializ e in window washing are excluded.

GUARD
Performs routine police d uties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where n ecessary . I n c l u d e s g a t e m en w h o a r e s t a t i o n e d a t g a t e a n d c h e c k

on id e n tity

o f e m p lo y e e s a n d

LA BO RER, MATERIAL HANDLING

o th e r p e rso n s e n te r in g .

JANITOR, PO R TER , OR C LEA N ER
(Sweeper; charwoman; jan itress)
C lean s and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or prem ises of an office, apartment house, or commercial




(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishm ent whose duties involve o n e o r m o r e o f t h e f o l l o w ­
i n g : Loading and unloading various m aterials and merchandise on or

22

LA BO RER, MATERIAL HANDLING— Continued

from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location; trans­
porting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow.
Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded.
ORDER F IL L E R

(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
Fills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, customers’
orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indi­
cating items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing orders, requisi­
tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform
other related duties.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING C L E R K — Continued

For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:
Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk
TRUCKDRIVER

Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of estab­
lishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and customers* houses or places of business. May also load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers
are excluded.

PA CKER, SHIPPING

Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or more of
the following: Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify
content; selection of appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; applying labels or
entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make wooden
boxes or crates are excluded.
SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLER K

Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­
sible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Shipping
work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices, routes,
available means of transportation and rates; and preparing records of the
goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping
charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or assist in
preparing the merchandise for shipment. Receiving work involves: Veri­
fying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipments against
bills of lading, invoices, or other records; checking for shortages and
rejecting damaged goods; routing merchandise or materials to proper de­
partments; maintaining necessary records and files.




For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size
and type of equipment, as follows: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the basis of trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver (combination of sizes listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under 1% tons)

Truckdriver, medium (ll to and including 4 tons)
/
%
Truckdriver, hea r (over 4 tons, trailer type)
iy
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)
TRUCKER, POWER

Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of
truck, as follows:
Trucker, power ( o k i t
frlf)
Trucker, power (other than f r l i t
okjf)
WATCHMAN

Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.
☆ U S GOVERNMENT P I T N O F C :1 6 0— 5 1 2
.
R N I G F I E 90
490

O ccu p ation al Wage Surveys
Occupational wage surveys are being conducted in 60 major labor markets during late 1959 and early I960. These bulletins, when available,
may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing O ffice, Washington 25, D .C ., or from any of the BLS regional
sales offices shown below.
A summary bulletin containing data for all labor markets, combined with additional analysis, will be issued early in 1961.
Bulletins for the areas listed below are now available.




Cleveland, Ohio, September 1959 — BLS Bull. 1265-1, price 20 cents
Seattle, Wash., August 1959 — BLS Bull. 1265-2, price 25 cents
Dallas, T ex., October 1959 — BLS Bull. 1265-3, price 20 cents





Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102