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Occupational Wage Survey

LAW RENCE, M A SSA C H U SE T T S
M AY

B u lle tin N o .

1 9 5 9

1 2 4 0 -2 1

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

J a m e s P. M itch e ll, S e cre ta ry

Ewan Clague, Commissioner







Occupational Wage Survey
LAW R EN CE, M A S S A C H U S ETTS




M A Y 1959

Bulletin No. 1240-21
September 1959

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BU
REAU OF LABOR ST T T S
A IS IC
Ewan Claguo, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. - Price 25 cents

The Library of Congress has cataloged the series
in which this publication appears as follows:

U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Occupational wage survey. 1949Washington, U. S. Govt. Print. Off.

U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Bulletin, no. 1Nov. 1895Washington.




no. in
v. illus. 16-28 cm
.
Bimonthly, N o t . 1895-May 1912; irregular, July 1912No. 1-111 issued by the Bureau of Labor.

Library of Congress

331.06173
(r58t2j

v. 23-26 cm
.
Nov. 1949-

issued as its Bulletin (HD8051.A62)

1. Wages—U. S. 2. Non-wage payments—U. S. f2. Employee bene­
fit*)
i. Title.
(Series: U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Bul­
letin)

1. Labor and laboring classes—U. S.—Period.

HD8051.A62

The Library of Congress has cataloged this
publication as follows:

15-23307 rev*t

HD4973.A462

331.2973

U. S. Dept, of Labor.
for Library of Congress

Library
[57r52nljf

L 49—125*

Preface

Contents

The Community Wage Survey Program

Page
Introduction ________________________________________________________

The Bureau of Labor Statistics regularly conducts
areawide wage surveys in a number of important industrial
centers. Although Lawrence, Mass. , has not been included
in the regular program of annual surveys, the area was also
surveyed in February 1956. The studies, made from late fall
to early spring, relate to occupational earnings and related
supplementary benefits. A preliminary report is available on
completion of the study in each area, usually in the month
following the payroll period studied.
This bulletin provides
additional data not included in the earlier report. A con­
solidated analytical bulletin summarizing the results of all
of the year*s regular surveys is issued after completion of
the final area bulletin for the current round of surveys.

Tables: *
Establishments and workers within scope of su rvey__________

2

A: Cross industry occupations:
A - 1. Office occupations__________________________________
A - 2. Professional and technical occupations ___________
A - 3. Maintenance and powerplant occupations__________
A - 4. Custodial and material movement occupations____

4
5
6
7

B: Characteristic industry occupations:
B - l . Women's cement process shoes—
conventional la s t e d ________________________ _______
B - 2. Metalworking industries____________________________
B - 3. Motor vehicle dealers _______________________
B -4 . Banking______________________________________________
B - 5. Power laundries and dry cleaners _______________

This report was prepared in the Bureau* s regional
office in Boston, M ass., by Paul V. Mulkern, Regional Wage
and Industrial Relations Analyst.




1

8
9
10
10
11

C:

Union
C - 1.
C -2 .
C -3 .
C -4 .

wage scales
Building construction_______________________________
Printing tra d e s______________________________________
Local-transit operating em ployees_______________
Motortruck drivers and h e lp e r s _______

D: Entrance rates:
D - l . Minimum entrance salaries for women office
workers __________________
E: Supplementary wage practices:
E - 1. Shift differentials______________________
E - 2. Scheduled weekly h ou rs____________________________
E -3 . Wage structure characteristics and labormanagement agreem ents_______________________
E - 4. Paid holidays ____________________'___________________
E -5 , Paid vacations-------------------------------------------E -6 . Health, insurance, and pension plans______________
Appendix:

Occupational descriptions______________________________

* NOTE: Similar tabulations for most of these items are available in the Lawrence area report for February 1956.
The 1956 report (BLS Bull. 1188-11) presents, in addition, data on overtime pay provisions, frequency of wage
payment, and provisions for holidays falling on nonworkdays. A directory indicating date of study and the price of
the report, as well as reports for other major areas, is available upon request.

111

12
12
12
12

13
14
15
15
16
17
19
20




Occupational Wage Survey— Lawrence, Mass.
Introduction
In February 1956, the Bureau of Labor Statistics conducted
its first Community Wage Survey of the Lawrence Metropolitan Area.
This area includes the city of Lawrence and the neighboring towns of
Andover, North Andover, and Methuen, Mass.
At that time, the
Lawrence area was experiencing severe economic difficulties due to the
closing of textile mills and the resulting contraction of employment.
Shortly before World War II, almost 31,000 workers had been em­
ployed in the area’s textile plants, primarily devoted to the manufac­
ture of woolen and worsted products. By February 1956, employment
was down to 6,000 and by May 1959, at the time of the resurvey, was
further reduced to 3, 800 persons . 1
However, within the past 3 years, important changes have taken
place.
Nonagricultural employment has increased from 40,000 to
47,400, and considerable diversification has accompanied this ex­
pansion. Unemployment is down from about 12 percent of the labor
force at the time of the 1956 survey to about 6 . 5 percent in May 1959.

finance, insurance, and real estate; and services.
Major industry!
groups excluded from these studies, besides railroads, are govern­
ment operations and the construction and extractive industries. Estab­
lishments having fewer than a prescribed number of workers are
omitted also because they furnish insufficient employment in the occu­
pations studied to warrant inclusion. 3 Wherever possible, separate
tabulations are provided for each of the broad industry divisions.
These surveys are conducted on a sample basis because of
the unnecessary cost involved in surveying all establishments. To ob­
tain appropriate accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of
large than of small establishments is studied. In combining the data,
however, all establishments are given their appropriate weight. Esti­
mates based on the establishments studied are presented, therefore,
as relating to all establishments in the industry grouping and area,
except for those below the minimum size studied.
Occupations and Earnings

Manufacturing employment in May 1959 amounted to 2 8,900.
Of this figure^ metalworking establishments accounted for 13,400 work­
ers, over 3 times the number employed in 1956.
Other important
manufacturing industries included leather and leather products, 3,200;
apparel and rubber products, each with 2 , 000 ; and paper and related
products with 1,800 employees. In the nonmanufacturing group, whole­
sale and retail trade accounted for 7,000 employees; services, 4,100;
government, 3,400; transportation, communication, and public utilities,
1,400; construction, 1,300; and finance, insurance, and real estate,
1,300 employees.
Scope and Method of Survey
This area is one of several important industrial centers in
which the U .S. Department of Labor’ s Bureau of Labor Statistics has
conducted surveys of occupational earnings and related wage bene­
fits on an areawide basis. Data were obtained by personal visits of
Bureau field agents * to representative establishments within six broad
industry divisions: Manufacturing; transportation (excluding railroads),
communication, and other public utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade;

1 All estimates based on unpublished Labor Market Reports
prepared by the Massachusetts Division of Employment Security.
a With the exception of union rate scales (C -series tables),
which were collected only in Lawrence.




The occupations selected for study are common to a variety
of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries. Occupational clas­
sification is based on a uniform set of job descriptions designed to
take account of interestal?lishment variation in duties within the same
job. (See appendix for listing of these descriptions.) Earnings data
are presented (in the A -series tables) for the following types of oc­
cupations: (a) Office clerical; (b) professional and technical; (c) main­
tenance and powerplant; and (d) custodial and material movement..
Occupational employment and earnings data are shown for
full-time workers, i. e. , those hired to work a regular weekly sched­
ule in the given occupational classification.
Earnings data exclude
premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and
late shifts.
Nonproduction bonuses are excluded also, but cost-ofliving bonuses and incentive earnings are included.
Where weekly
hours are reported, as for office clerical occupations, r^ierence is
to the work schedules (rounded to the nearest half hour) for which
straight-time salaries are paid; average weekly earnings for these
occupations have been rounded to the nearest half dollar.
3 See table, p. 2.
For the industries in which characteristic
jobs were studied on an industry basis only (tables B - l to B -5 ), mini­
mum size of establishment and extent of area covered were the same
as for the six broad industry divisions.
* The tabulation of minimum entrance rates for women relates
only to provisions in establishments studied.

2
Occupational employment estimates represent the total in all
establishments within the scope of the study and not the number actu­
ally surveyed. Because of differences in occupational structure among
establishments, the estimates of occupational employipent obtained
from the sample of establishments studied serve only to indicate the
relative importance of the jobs studied. These differences in occu­
pational structure do not materially affect the accuracy of the earn­
ings data.
Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Information is presented also (in the D - and E -series tables)
on selected establishment practices and supplementary benefits as they
relate to office and plant workers.
The term “ office workers, '* as
used in this bulletin, includes working supervisors and nonsupervisory
workers performing clerical or related functions, and excludes ad­
ministrative, executive, and professional personnel. “Plant workers”
include working foremen and all nonsupervisory workers (including
leadmen and trainees) engaged in nonoffice functions.
Administrative,
executive, and professional employees, and force-account construction

employees who are utilized as a separate work force are excluded.
Cafeteria workers and routemen are excluded in manufacturing indus­
tries, but are included as plant workers in nonmanufacturing industries.
Minimum entrance rates (table D -l) relate only to the estab­
lishments visited.
They are presented on an establishment, rather
than on an employment basis.
Paid holidays; paid vacations; and
health, insurance, and pension plans are treated statistically on the
basis that these are applicable to all plant or office workers if a
majority of such workers are eligible or may eventually qualify for
the practices listed.
Scheduled hours are treated statistically on
the basis that these are applicable to all plant or office workers if
a majority are covered . 5 Because of rounding, sums of individual
items in these tabulations do not necessarily equal totals.
5 Scheduled weekly hours for office workers (first section of
table E -3 ) in surveys made prior to late 1957 and early 1958 were
presented in terms of the proportion of women office workers em­
ployed in offices with the indicated weekly hours for women workers.

Establishments and w orkers within scope of survey and number studied in Lawrence. M a ss., 1 by major industry division, a and in selected industries, May 1959
Minimum
employment
in establish­
ments in scope
of study

Item

Within
scope of
study 3

Number of establishments

W orkers in establishments
Within scope of study

Studied

Studied
T o ta l4

Office

Plant

T o ta l4

Industry divisions in which
occupations were surveyed
on an area basis
A ll divisions

.

....

..... .

----

Manufacturing
...
_
.
....................... .
Nonmanufacturing
_
.... .
. . . . .... ... ._
Transportation (excluding railroad s), communica­
tion, and other public utilities 5
,.. .......
Wholesale trade
Retail trade
.
S e r v ic e s7

.........

.

..

21

232

90

33 ,200

3,9 0 0

2 5 ,0 0 0

2 4 .9 3 0

21
21

123
109

50
40

2 7 ,9 0 0
5, 300

2 ,8 0 0
1,100

2 1 ,7 0 0
3,3 00

2 2 ,3 8 0
2 ,5 5 0

21
21
21
21
21

8
20
63
11
7

3
5
19
7
6

600
800
2 ,8 0 0
700
400

21
21
21
21
21

7
22
8
6
7

7
12
6
5
6

1,570
12,960
280
380
350

(4)
(‘
6
(‘ )
M

(6)
(* )
‘
H

440
220
1,0 20
550
320

Industries in which
occupations were surveyed
on an industry b a s is 8
W om en's cement process shoes—
conventional lasted _
.........
. . . . . . .
Metalworking industries
Motor vehicle dealers (new and used cars)9 _
Banking
. _
. .
Power laundries and dry cleaners . . .
----

40
2 ,0 0 0
30
290
20

1,460
8 ,9 2 0
180
(1 0 )
310

1,570
12,720
210
350
320

1 The Lawrence Metropolitan A rea (Lawrence City; Andover, Methuen, and North Andover towns in E ssex County, M a s s .) .
The "w orkers within scope of study" estimates shown in this
table provide a reasonably accurate description of the size and composition of the labor force included in the survey.
The estimates are not intended, however, to serve as a basis of com ­
parison with other area employment indexes to m easure employment trends or le v els since ( l ) planning of wage surveys requires the use of establishment data compiled considerably in advance
of the pay period studied, and (2) sm all establishments are excluded from the scope of the survey.
a The 1957 revised edition of the Standard Industrial Classification Manual was used in classifying establishments by industry division.
Major changes from the earlier edition used in
previous surveys are the transfer of milk pasteurization plants and ready mixed concrete establishments from trade (wholesale or retail) to manufacturing, and the transfer of radio and television
broadcasting from services to the transportation, communication, and other public utilities division.
3 Includes all establishments with total employment at or above the m in im u m -size limitation.
A ll outlets (within the area) of companies in such industries as trade, finance, auto repair
service, and m otion-picture theaters are considered as 1 establishment.
4 Includes executive, professional, and other workers excluded from the separate office and plant categories.
5 A lso excludes taxicabs, and services incidental to water transportation.
6 This industry division is represented in estim ates for "a ll industries" .and "nonmanufacturing" in the Series A , D, and E tables, although coverage was insufficient to justify separate
presentation of data.
7 Hotels; personal services; business services; automobile repair shops; motion pictures; nonprofit membership organizations; and engineering and architectural services.
8 Industries are defined in footnotes to wage tables.
9 Limited to establishments having repair shops.
1 Data not collected.
0




3
Shift differential data (table E - l ) are limited to manufacturing
industries. This information is presented both in terms of (a) estab­
lishment policy,* presented in terms of total plant worker employ­
ment, and (b) effective practice, presented on the basis of workers
actually employed on the specified shift at the time of the survey.
In establishments having varied differentials, the amount applying to
a majority was used or, if no amount applied to a majority, the clas­
sification "other” was used.
In establishments in which some lateshift hours are paid at normal rates, a differential was recorded only
if it applied to a majority of the shift hours.
With reference to wage structure characteristics (table E -3 ),
all time-rated workers (plant or office) in an establishment are clas­
sified according to the predominant plan applying to these workers.
Whereas the proportions of time and incentive workers directly reflect
employment under each pay system, technical considerations required
that thebreakdown of incentive-worker employment according to type of
incentive plan be based on the predominant plan in each establishment.
The first part of the paid holidays table presents the number
of whole and half holidays actually provided. The second part com­
bines whole and half holidays to show total holiday time.
The summary of vacation plans is limited to formal arrange­
ments, excluding informal plans whereby time off with pay is granted
at the discretion of the employer.
Separate estimates are provided
according to employer practice in computing vacation payments, such
as time payments, percent of annual earnings, or flat-sum amounts.
However, in the tabulations of vacation allowances, payments not on
a time basis were converted; for example, a payment of 2 percent of
annual earnings was considered as the equivalent of 1 week’ s pay.
Data are presented for all health, insurance, and pension
plans for which at least a part of the cost is borne by the employer,
excepting only legal requirements such as workmen’ s compensation
and social security. Such plans include those underwritten by a com­
mercial insurance company and those provided through a union fund

or paid directly by the employer out of current operating funds or from
a fund set aside for this purpose.
Death benefits are included as a
form of life insurance.
Sickness and accident insurance is limited to that type of in­
surance under which predetermined cash payments are made directly
to the insured on a weekly or monthly basis during illness or accident
disability.
Information is presented for ail such plans to which the
employer contributes. However, in New York and New Jersey, which
have enacted temporary disability insurance laws, which require em­
ployer contributions, 7 plans are included only if the employer (l) con­
tributes more than is legally required, or (2 ) provides the employee
with benefits which exceeded the requirements of the law. Tabulations
of paid sick-leave plans are limited to formal plans 8 which provide
full pay or a proportion of the worker’ s pay during absence from work
because of illness.
Separate tabulations are provided according to
(l) plans which provide full pay and no waiting period, and (2 ) plans
providing either partial pay or a waiting period.
In addition to the
presentation of the proportions of workers who are provided sickness
and accident insurance or paid sick leave, an unduplicated total is
shown of workers who receive either or both types of benefits.
Catastrophe insurance, sometimes referred to as extended
medical insurance, includes those plans which are designed to protect
employees in case of sickness and injury involving expenses beyond
the normal coverage of hospitalization, medical, and surgical plans.
Medical insurance refers to plans providing for complete or partial
payment of doctors* fees. Such plans may be underwritten by com­
mercial insurance companies or nonprofit organizations or they may be
self-insured. Tabulations of retirement pension plans* are limited to
those plans that provide monthly payments for the remainder of the
worker’s life.

7 The temporary disability laws in California and Rhode Island
do not require employer contributions.
8 An establishment was considered as having a formal plan if
it established at least the minimum number of days of sick leave that
could be expected by each employee. Such a plan need not be written,
6
An establishment was considered as having a policy if it met
either of the following conditions; (l) Operated late shifts at the time
but informal sick-leave allowances, determined on an individual basis,
were excluded.
of the survey, or (2 ) had formal provisions covering late shifts.




4

A : Cross Industry Occupations
Table A -l. O ffic e O ccupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a r n in g s fo r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ied on an a r e a b a s i s ,
by in d u s tr y d i v i s i o n , L a w r e n c e , M a s s . , M ay 1 9 5 9 )
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING SI^RAIGRT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

A ve r a g e

Number
of
workers

S e x , o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s tr y d iv is io n

$

$

Weekly
Weekly 3 5 .0 0
hours 1 earnings1 and
(Standard) (Standard) under
4 0 .0 0

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

4 0 .0 0

4 5 .0 0

5 0 .0 0

5 5 .0 0

6 5 .0 0

7 0 .0 0

7 5 .0 0

$
8 0 .0 0

$

6 0 .0 0

8 5 .0 0

$
9 0 .0 0

4 5 . 00

5 0 .0 0

5 5 .0 0

6 0 .0 0

6 5 .0 0

7 0 .0 0

7 5 .0 0

8 0 .0 0

8 5 .0 0

9 0 .0 0

1
1

2
1
1

2

_
-

-

$

$

$

9 5 .0 0

1 0 0 .00

1 0 5 .0 0

9 5 .0 0 1 0 0 . 0 0

1 0 5 .0 0

and
over

M en
<
fc

C l e r k s , a c c o u n t in g , c la s s A __________________ ___________
______________ ________________ ____
M a n u fa ctu rin g
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g __________ _________________ _ _ __

20
8
12

4 0 .0

8 0 .5 0

-

_

-

1

1

3

_

W j t ~

8 8 .0 0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

~

1

1

3

-

-

-

“

-

1
1

4 1 .0

7 6 .0 0

11
C l e r k s , a c c o u n t in g , c la s s B ------------- __ ____________ __
M a n u fa ctu rin g
_ ___________________ _____________ — — ---------- 7 -

4 0 .0
3 9 .$

6 4 .0 0
7 3 .5 0

-

3
-

O ff ic e b o y s

"

__________________________________________________

9

4 0 .0

4 7 .5 0

-

6

-

1

1

1

T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ____________________________
M a n u fa ctu rin g ------------------------------------------------------------------

10

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

7 2 .0 0
7 2 .0 0

_

_

_

_

2

~

”

1
1

5 9 .0 0
57. $0

-

1
1

-

-

ro

"

2

-

3
2

-

2
-------- T ~

1

6

_

1

-

-

3
3

_
-

-

-

6

-

-

“

_

1
1

1
1

_

_

_

-

-

“

-

_

_

2

-

_

-

_

_

3
3

2
2

1
1

_

'

_

_

_

_

.

-

1
1

“

“

"

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

_

W om en
B i l l e r s , m a c h in e (b illin g m a c h in e )
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g
_ _ __

______________________
__ _____

19
14

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

_

11
11

4
-

2
2

1

_

-

-

1

-

7
7

-

7
7

-

-

-

_
-

-

8

-

1
1

2
2

-

3
3

1
1

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

1
1

4
3

3
3
-

1
1

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

6
6

1
1

6
2

2
2

_

_

-

-

-

"

4

-

-

-

_

_
"

_
-

_
_

-

B i l l e r s , m a c h in e (b o o k k e e p in g m a c h in e ) ________ __ _
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g __________ ____________________________

3 8 .5
29
2 V "" 3 8 : 5 “

5 2 .0 0
5 1 .5 6

2
2

11
11

-

B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c la s s A ______________
M a n u fa ctu rin g
__ _ ____ ______________ _________ _

15
7

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

6 5 .5 0
7 7 .0 0

-

-

-

-

-

-

B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c la s s B _______________
M a n u fa ctu rin g __________ _________________________________
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g _______________________________________

66
11

5 1 .5 0
6 4 .5 0
4 9 .0 0

_
-

14
14

22

-

1

2

55

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

22

13

5

-

1

C l e r k s , a c c o u n t in g , c la s s A ______________________________
M a n u fa ctu rin g ___________________________________________
N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g __________ __ _
__ _____________

78
44
34

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .0

7 0 .5 0
7 1 .0 0
7 0 .5 0

_
-

-

_
-

_
-

4
4
-

20
12
8

21

6

12

9

5

12

1

3
9

4 0 .0
5 8 .5 0
~ 3975 " 6 2 .5 0
5 6 .0 0
4 0 .0

4
4

6

19

24

26

5

6

2
22

9
17

23
13

1
1

_
-

_
-

-

6

9
5
4
17
5

23

7
3

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

36
7
29

9
3

11
11

10
8
2

2

1

1

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

"
_

C l e r k s , a c c o u n t in g , c la s s B
_______
M a n u fa ctu rin g
___ ________________
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g
________________ _

_

____ _
____
___
_____ ___

C l e r k s , f i l e , c la s s B
__
_ ________ _
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g _______ ___________
C le r k s , g en era l
M a n u fa ctu rin g __ ______ _____ _______
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g ____ _ _ _______________

__ ____
__ _ —

__
_

_
a_ _

______
_

_

C le r k s , o rd e r _
...
_ ..
M a n u f a c t u r in g ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- —

117
4l
76

v r

3 9 .5
3 9 .5

4 7 .0 0
4 4 .0 0

2
2

30
30

91
37
54

3 8 .5
4 0 .0
3 7 .0

5 8 .5 0
6 1 .0 0
5 7 .0 0

_

2

19
n r

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

7 2 .5 0
7 1 .5 0

80

-

-

-

2

_

_

_

“

-

9
4
5

6
6

145
127
18

4 0 .0
3 9 .5
4 0 .0

6 3 .0 0
6 2 .5 6
6 7 .5 0

_

D u p lic a t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s
(M im e o g r a p h o r D i t t o ) __________________________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r in g ____________________________________________

16
11

4 0 .0
4 0 .6

5 8 .0 0
6 1 .0 0

-

K e y -p u n c h o p e r a t o r s
M a n u fa ctu rin g

53
44

S ee fo o tn o te at




___________ __

end o f table,

_

_ __ ___

3 9 .5
6 2 .0 0
' "40Y0 ” 5 T .0 0 ”

-

"

_

3
-

~
14

13

6

5
14
------- g— J
------- 5 ~
2
9

-

C l e r k s , p a y r o ll ______________________________________________________________
M a n u fa ctu rin g _ _ _ _ _ _
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g

____

-

1

2
2

7 '

_

-

10

6
2

------- T ~

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

1

1

-

2

4
4

1

_

-

1
1

_

~

-

-

-

1
1

_

_

-

1
1

-

-

~

"

-

-

-

-

2
2

5
------- 5

17
i7

30
29

17
5

-

1

12

4
4
-

—

r~

20
20

-

17
17
-

-

23
23
-

-

2

1
1

5
5

4

2

. 1

-

-

“

-

-

-

"

-

-

'1

-

-

12
6

33

3
3

------- 1
j—

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
3
1

IT

------- 1

5
T able A -l. O ffic e O ccupations-C ontinued
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a r n in g s fo r s e le c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is ,
by in d u s tr y d iv is io n , L a w r e n c e , M a s s . , M ay 1959)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

Average
Number
of
workers

S e x , o c c u p a t io n , an d in d u s tr y d iv is io n

Weekly
Weekly § 5 .0 0
hours 1 earning?
and
(Standard) (Standard) under
4 0 .0 0

$
4 0 .0 0

$
4 5 .0 0

to . 00

5 5 .0 0

$
6 0 .0 0

$
6 5 .0 0

$
7 0 .0 0

$
7 5 .0 0

$
8 0 .0 0

$
8 5 .0 0

$
9 0 .0 0

$
$
$
9 5 .0 0 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0

4 5 . 00

5 0 .0 0

5 5 .0 0

6 0 .0 0

6 5 .0 0

7 0 .0 0

7 5 .0 0

8 0 .0 0

8 5 .0 0

9 0 .0 0

9 5 .0 0

100.00 1 0 5 .0 0

17
nr~
2

18
16
2

23
23
-

29
24
5

10
10
-

7
6
1

22
9
13

1
1
"

and
over

W o m e n — C ontinue d
S e c r e t a r ie s
_ _ __ ____ _________ _______________
M a n u fa ctu rin g ____ _______________________ —
-----N on m a n u fa ctu rin g ______________________________________

—

142
3 9 .5
n r~ “ I T
3 9 .0
29

$
7 6 .5 0
' 78.'50
6 9 .5 0

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

~

17
9
-------- F~ -------T “ —
7
9

S t e n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l ______________________ _______
M a n u fa ctu rin g ____ ________ ___________________________
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g __________________________ _______ -

91
65
28

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .5

6 2 .0 0
6 2 .0 0
6 2 .0 0

_

-

2
2

"

11
6
5

19
12
7

S w itc h b o a rd o p e r a t o r s
______________________ _______ —
M a n u fa ctu rin g _ __ ____________________________________
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g
________________________________

37
T r­
io

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .5

5 8 .0 0
5 9 .5 0
54. 50

2
2

6
6
-

3
1
2

4
4
~

5
3
2

6
3
1 --------- 5“
2
1

2
1
1

S w itc h b o a rd o p e r a t o r - r e c e p t i o n i s t s ______________ __ _
M a n u fa ctu rin g
__ __ ___________________________
N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g ----------------------------------------------------------

40
18
22

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
4 0 .0

5 2 .5 0
5 7 .0 0
4 9 .0 0

_

"

3
3

15
7
8

9
2
7

5
1
4

2
2
"

3
3
-

2
2

T r a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , g e n e r a l ___________ _
M a n u fa ctu rin g ___________ ___________________________ _

21
1$

3 9 .5
4 0 .0

6 0 .5 0
6 3 .5 0

"

1
-

1
-

5
4

5
3

2
1

2
2

3
3

121
67
54

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .0

5 1 .0 0
5 2 .0 0
5 0 .0 0

18
1
17

27
19
8

45
31
14

24
13
11

6
2
4

-

1
1
■

T y p is t s , c l a s s B _______________ ___________________________
M a n u fa ctu rin g __ __ __ _________________ ___________
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g ______ ________________________ ___

—

_

_

“

29
29
-

■

'

12
4
lb ---------T ~
2
2

_

-

3
3
-

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

5
5
“

1

-

_

_

_

_

i

-

-

-

-

_

1
1
-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

“

2
2

_

.

_

_

_

_

-

'

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

_

_

“

“

“

”

-

“

-

"

-

"

1 S tand ard h o u r s r e f l e c t the w o r k w e e k fo r w h ic h e m p lo y e e s r e c e iv e th e ir r e g u la r s t r a ig h t - t im e s a la r ie s and the e a r n in g s c o r r e s p o n d to th e s e w e e k ly h o u r s .

T able A-2. Professional an d Technical Occupations
( A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a r n in g s fo r s e le c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s i s ,
by in d u s tr y d iv is io n , L a w r e n c e , M a s s . , M a y 1959)
Average
Number
of
workers

S e x , o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s tr y d iv is io n

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

$
Weekly
5 5 .0 0
Weekly
hours 1 earnings 1 and
(Standard) (Standard) under
6 0 .0 0

$
6 0 .0 0

$
6 5 .0 0

$
7 0 .0 0

$

7 5 .0 0

$
8 0 .0 0

$
8 5 .0 0

$
9 0 .0 0

$
9 5 .0 0

$
$
$
$
$
$
1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 1 2 5 .0 0

6 5 .0 0

7 0 .0 0

7 5 ,0 0

8 0 .0 0

8 5 .0 0

9 0 .0 0

9 5 .0 0 1 0 0 .0 0

1 0 5 .0 0 n o . oo 1 1 5 .0 0 120. 00 125. 00 130. 00

M en
D ra ft s m e n , s e n io r
M a n u fa ctu rin g

_

_ __

D r a ft s m e n , ju n io r
M a n u fa ctu rin g

__
__ _________
__ _____ _ _ _ _ _

__
_ __

__

4 0 .0
4 b .o

$
9 1 .5 0
9 1 .5 0

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

88
88

4 0 .0
4 6 .0

6 8 .0 0
6 8 .0 0

4
4

23
23

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

7 8 .0 0
7 8 .0 0

_

174
-------T 7 T

__
__

_ _

—

15
rri

44
44

17
—

r r

9
9
5
-------- 5“

47
47

41
41

1
1

1
1

_

_

_

-

-

-

4
4

2
2

4
4

_

15
16
22
n r - ------- TT~ ------ T T

*

18
l8
1
1

1
1

1
3
1 ---------3“

1
1

_

_

_

_

*

-

-

-

_

_

-

—

_

_

_

“

“

-

“

W om en
N u r s e s , in d u s tr ia l ( r e g is t e r e d )
M a n u fa ctu rin g ___________

____

_ _

■

_

6
6

4
4

3
3

“

1 S tand ard h o u r s r e f l e c t the w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p lo y e e s r e c e i v e th e ir r e g u la r s t r a ig h t - t im e s a la r ie s and the e a r n in g s c o r r e s p o n d to th e s e w e e k ly h o u r s .




6

Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(Average straight-time hourly earnings for men in selected occupations studied on an area basis,
by industry division, Lawrence, M ass. , May 1959)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
Num
ber
of
w
orkers

Occupation and industry division

46
Carpenters, maintenance _____________________
Manufacturing _____________________ ________ ------ 45—

Average $
hourly . 1.20
earnings
and
under
1. 30
$
2.08
2.08

1.99
1.97

Helpers, trades, maintenance ________________
Manufacturing _______________________ _____

132
— nn—

_

_

-

-

1.73
1.72

6
6

4
4

18
18

_

_

-

1.80
1.87

Mechanics, maintenance
Manufacturing ______________________________
Millwrights
Manufacturing

_ .. _ _
_

_ _

Painters, maintenance
Manufacturing
___

_

2.70

2.80

$
2.90

2.40

■ 2.50

2.60

2.TQ.. . 2.BQ

2.90

over

2
2

5
5

4
4

2.20

2.30

4
4

5
5

$

$

29
29

1
1

8
8

3
3

_

7

_

3
3

4
“

4
4

1
1

1
-

•

•

4
4

17
17

12
9

1
-

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

_

_

_

_
■

_

_

_

7
7

_

_

_

-

-

-

16
16

9
9

_

_
-

1
1

1
1

_

_

.

_

-

“
_
-

_

_

_

7

3
3

5
4

_
~

■

■

_

_

_

-

-

*

2
2

5
5

_

-

7
7

3
3

7
7

3
3

7
7

_

1
1

18
18

1
1

3
3

12
12

16
16

18
15

1
"1

_

_

_
-

3
3

_
■

_

3
1^

_
■

_

_
-

8
8

11
11

_

_

*

-

6
--------5

1
1

1
-

_
-

1
1

6
5

3
3

5

-

6
6

1
1

6
5

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

*

-

-

_

_

_

3
3

_

-

-

-

-

_

4
4

_

.

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

8
-------5—

3
3

1
1

2
2

3
------- T

3
3

4
4

_

_

-

-

_

_

.

_

_

-

-

_

_

_

!

-

-

-

1

_

_

_

.

-

-

“

7

_

7
7

58
58

_

-

_

8
8

16
16

-

-

9
9

9
9

_

-

3
3

3
--------3“

_

“

3
3

1

-

~

5
-------- —

•

"

-

-

_

_

"

-

_

-

10
4

14
7

5
5

4
4

_

6
6

5
5

_

_

_

18
18

3
3

•

2
2

10
10

15
------ F5

_

_

_

_

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

“

-

2
2

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_
"

5
7
------- 1 ----- -------- $ —

~

"

l
l

2
2

3
3

l
l

3
3

11
ll

4
4

13
13

_
■

■

'

l
l

-

2
2

2
2

4
4

_
-

.
-

-

_

-

"

4
4

11
11

14
14

6
6

28
28

13
13

7
7

25
25

-

_

_

_

_

_

.

_

-

-

-

-

2
2

_

'

-

-

-

-

2.55
‘ "2 .5 5 - '

_

_

_

_

_

.

.

-

-

Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.




2.60

$

$

$

6
6

-

108
nj5

2.50

2.30

-

1.82
1.79

2.28
' “2.28

2.40

$
2.20

9
9

-

2.33
2.53

$

~

_

51
2.29
------51----- ■” 2729"“

2. 10

12
12

-

_

Tool and die makers
______________ __ __ __
Manufacturing ______________________________

1
■

-

2.29
2.29

11
— n—

4
4

_

60
60

Sheet-metalworkers, maintenance ___________
Manufacturing _______ ____ ________ _____

4
4

-

_

38
----- 55-----

_

6
6

l

_

2.31
2.36

16
15

_

6
5

_

36
—

$

_

20
1.98
----- 2o— “ 1. 98

Oilers _
Manufacturing

Pipefitters, maintenance
Manufacturing _

_

2. 10

3
3

-

n

2.00

_

-

2.26
2.26

—

-

_

22
15

15
15

-

2. 19
2. 19

$

1.90

2.00

1.90

_

_

Maintenance men, general utility _____________
Manufacturing
___ _

1.80

_

61
------ 57—

$

1.80

1.70

_

_

96
----- 95-----

1.60

_

Firemen, stationary boiler _________ ________
Manufacturing ______________________________

$

and
1.50

1.40

_

_

Machinists, maintenance ______________ _____
Manufacturing _________________ __ __ _____

1.70

2
2

2.28
2725

41
41

1.60

-

28
------ 7 2 —

Machine-tool operators, toolroom
Manufacturing
.. ...... _ .....

1.50

$

-

_____

Mechanics, automotive (maintenance) ________
Manufacturing ______________________________

1.40

$

-

2.37
2.37

Engineers, stationary___________________
Manufacturing

1.30

$

-

76
------ 75—

_ __ _

$

_

Electricians, maintenance
Manufacturing

$

7
Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(Average straight-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area b asis,
by industry division, L aw rence, M ass. , May 1959)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
Number
of
workers

O ccu p a tio n 1 and in d u stry d iv isio n

$

1.00

$
1 .1 0

$
1 .2 0

$
1 .3 0

$
1 .4 0

$
1 .50

S ,
1 .6 0

$
1 .7 0

$
1.8 0

$
1 .90

$
2 .0 0

$
2 . 10

$
2 .2 0

$
2 .3 0

*
2 .4 0

$
2 .5 0

$ .6 0
2

$
2 .7 0

$
2 .8 0

1. 10

1 .2 0

1 .3 0

1 .4 0

1 .5 0

1 .6 0

1 .70

1 .8 0

1 .9 0

2 .0 0

2 . 10

2 .2 0

2 .3 0

2 .4 0

2 .5 0

2 .6 0

2 .7 0

2 .8 0

2 .9 0

■

Average $
hourly a 0.9Q
earnings
and
under
1 .0 0

■

G uards
_ __ ______ ____________________
M anufacturin g
_ __ __ __ ------ ----- - __

83
83

$
1 .9 3
1 .9 3

J a n ito r s , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s ( m e n ) -------------M anufacturin g ____ _____ ______ _ __ ______
N onm anufacturing
___ _____
__ _

231
lW
42

1 .4 7
l . 6o
1 .3 3

_
“

17
6
11

17
9
8

25
26
5

9
8

J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s (w om en ) ______
M a n u f a c t u r in g --------------------------------------------------

25
zr

1 .40
1 .4 6

2
“

2
1

2
2

1
~

L a b o r e r s , m a te r ia l handling __________________
M anufacturin g
____________ ____ _ __ ____

596
459

1 .7 4
1 .6 3

_

17
8

17
14

_ —
_ _

64
64

1 .7 3
1 .73

_

_

_

"

-

92
92

1 .2 4
1 .2 4

_

_ __

"

R e c e iv in g c le r k s
__________ __ __ __
M a n u fa c t u r in g ---------------------------------------------------

46
36

1 .77
1.82

P a c k e r s , shipping (m en )
M anufacturin g
__

___

P a c k e r s , shipping (w om en )
M an u factu rin g
____

Shipping c le r k s
M anufacturin g

_ •
_____ __
________ _
r
_

^
_______

____________ __ _____ __
44
________________________________ -------- 35“ "

Shipping and r e c e iv in g c le r k s __ _ __ _ ______
M anufacturin g
_ _ _____
_ ___
T r u c k d r iv e r s 3
_ __ ____
__ ___
M anufacturin g _____________________ ___________
N onm anufacturing ______________________ _______
T r u c k d r iv e r s , ligh t (under 1 Va t o n s ) ______
T r u c k d r i v e r s , m e d iu m (lVa to and
in clu d in g 4 to n s )
_
__
__ __

1 .96
2 .6 3

"

_
"

4
4

~

1
1

40
40

9
9

10
10

16
16

3
3

22
2o
2

46
41
5

79
74
5

11
ll
“

_
“

5
5

_
“

_
■

_
"

3
3

4
4

3
3

8
8

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

"

“

-

-

-

-

-

39
36

15
15

35
35

27
z7

91
91

161
161

50

_

15

116

_

_

_

_

_

50

“

15"

13
7

~

“

■

"

"

"

7
7

5
5

4
4

12
12

3
3

3
3

10
lo

_

3
T

_

"

~

1
2
1 ------ T ~

-

-

1
I

45
45

21
21

13
l3

1

11
11

_

_

-

4
1

_

_

1
1

_
“

3
"

7
6

3
“

3
3

6
1

9
9

“

1

_

_

_

_

_

"

■

"

"

_

1

— 11 H

-

■

-

-

-

_

.
-

.
-

.
'

_

_

_

-

-

_
-

-

~

~

-

2
------- 2“

1
1

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

.

.

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

-

6
6

4
4

9
9
9 ------ * T

3
~

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

“

-

-

-

-

-

3
•

4
4

10
10

6
6 —

2
r~

2

2
r~

_

£ —

7
------- T

2
------ 2

-

-

_

12
12

8
8

5
5

3
■

j
--------r

_

.

.

“

-

-

.
_
-

1 .7 6
1.81

_

_

_

"

■

"

2
“

*

319
127
192

1.9 6
1.9 6
1 .9 6

_
-

8
8

3
3

8
3
5

9

10
8
2

26
2
24

35
5
30

2
I
1

7
7
“

1
1
“

66
66
-

42
5o
12

38

1 .5 4

-

2

-

3

1

5

_

25

1

-

_

_

_

-

_

-

-

51
4r

9

■

3
r"

~

-

_

_

"

_

__

_

-

-

-

-

102
4
98

-

-

-

_
-

_

1

_

_

_

_

_

-

_

_

_

2
2
_
-

_ __

144

1.7 9

-

6

3

3

6

3

26

10

1

5

1

66

12

-

2

-

T r u c k e r s , pow er (fo r k lift )
_____
_ __ _
M anufacturin g
__ ____ __ _ __________ _

70

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

“

“

1
1

-

3
3

44
-

.

-

15
15

.

-

7
' 7

.

Zb

2 . 14
T788

-

-

-

-

-

W atchm en
____
M anufacturin g

60
49

1 .5 7
1 .6 4

_

8

_

_

4
4

3
3

8
8

10
10

16
16

3

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

___

__

_______

_ _ __

1 Data lim ited to m en w orkers except where otherw ise indicated.
a Excludes prem ium pay for overtim e and for w ork on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
3 Includes all d rivers regard less of size and type of truck operated.




8
------ g ~

B: Characteristic Indusiry O ccu p a fion s

Table B-l. Women’s Cement Process Shoes-Conventional Lasted1
(A verage straigh t-tim e hourly earnings fo r selected occupations studied on an industry b a s is ,
Law rence, M a s s ., May 1959)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
Average
hourly earnings

O ccupation and sex

\.oo

L90 $
.
2.0

1.60

and
under

2. 60 2. 70

3. 50
and

1. 10

A s s e m b le r s fo r p u llo v e r, m a c h i n e ------B ed -m ach in e o p e r a t o r s -------------------------C u tters, lining, m achine,
cloth l i n i n g -------- — ---- ------------------------C u tters, vam p and w hole shoe,
m a c h i n e -----------------------------------------------Jan itors, p o r te r s , and c le a n e r s -------- —
H e e l-s e a t l a s t e r s -----------------------------------P u llov er-m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s -----------------Side la s te rs , m a c h i n e ---------------------------Sole attach ers, cem ent p r o c e s s ------------

2.90

2. 70 Z. i

3.5 0

over

$

13
35

2. 53
2. 71

51
7

2. 53
1 .1 7

18

2. 67
2. 51
2 .3 0

49

1. 57
1 .3 4
1.23
1.25

2.4 2

10
1
1
1
1

1.86

W om en
F ancy s t it c h e r s ---------------------F lo o r g i r l s ----------------------------Inspectors (crow n e rs) --------P a ck e rs , s h ip p in g ----------------P a ste r s , b a c k e r s , o r fitte r s ,
upper, hand -------------------------R ep a irers ------------------------------Top s t it c h e r s -------------------------V a m p e r s ---------------------------------

12

28
27
58
50
56

16

1 .27
1.27
1. 77
1.79

5

2
1
12
2

7
3
7

2

6

1
1

4

1
-

6

1

6

-

5

-

3

4

1

5

3

4

1

-

2

2

3

2

-

1

10

2

-

3

1

2

-

1

1

2

1 The study co v e re d establishm ents with 21 o r m o re w ork ers engaged in the m anufacture of w om en 's cem ent p r o c e s s shoes— conventional lasted, part of group 3141 as defined in the Standard In­
dustrial C la ssifica tio n Manual (1957 edition) prepared by the Bureau of the Budget.
2 Excludes prem iu m pay fo r overtim e and fo r w ork on w eekends, holidays, and late shifts.
A ll or a m ajo rity of the w ork ers in each occupation studied w ere paid on an incentive b a s is , with the
exception of m en ja n itors and w om en in s p e cto rs , p a ck e rs , rep airers,an d flo o r g ir ls .




9
Table B-2. Metalworking Industries 1
(Average straight-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an industry basis,
Lawrence, M a s s ., May 1959)

Occupation 2

A erage $
v
h u l , 1.30
ory
erig
anns
and
under
1.40

$
.1.40

$
1.50

$ ,
1.60

$
1.70

$
1 80
.

$
1.90

$
2.00

$
2. 10

1 50
.

1 60
.

1 70
.

1.80

1.90

2. 00

2. 10

2.20

2. 30

2.40

2. 50

$

2.20

$

2.30

$

2. 40

$

2.50
2.60

t)
s
1
J
O
'
O
O

NUMBER OF WORKEKS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

Number
o
f
wres
okr

$
2. 70

$
2. 80

2. 80

2.90

Men
Assemblers, class A -------- — — --------- —
Assemblers, class B ---- ----- ------------Carpenters, maintenance----- ------ — — ----Guards--------------------------------- — •
Helpers, trades, maintenance— ----- — — ----Inspectors, class A -----------------------Inspectors, class B -----------------------Janitors, porters, and cleaners------------Laborers, material handling---------------Machine-tool operators, production,
class A 4 --------------------------------Engine-lathe operators, class A ---------Turret-lathe operators, hand (including
hand screw machine), class A ----------Machine-tool operators, production,
class B 4 ------------------ — ------------Drill-press operators, single- or
multiple-spindle, class B --------------Turret-lathe operators, hand (including
hand screw machine), class B ----------Machine-tool operators, production, class C -Machine-tool operators, toolroom — -— -----Machinists, maintenance------------------Machinists, production--------------------Millwrights------------ ------------------Packers, shipping--------------------- --Painters, maintenance--------------------Sheet-metal workers, production----- -----Testers, class B --------------------------Tool and die m a k e r s ----------------------Truckdrivers 5 ----- ----------------------Medium (lVa to and including 4 tons)------W a t c h m e n ----------------------- ----- ---Welders, hand, class A --------- -----------

60
191
21
82
72
67
71
114
94

$
2.09
1.90
2.20
1.93
1.82
2.27
2.03
1.59
1 70
.

2
2
1

1
10
4

4
1
30
1

1
21
4
2
65
26

4
12
1
12
9
7
57

17
3
40
41
12
3
5

11
101
3
9
4
2
9
-

12
39
2
10
3
7
-

20
1
1
16
4
2
40
-

2
3
11
1
-

6
2
11
-

4
5
29
-

4
-

-

-

_
_
_
-

254
69

2.20
2.28

-

-

-

-

4
-

10
-

16
-

42
6

30
-

48
19

91
43

1
1

12
-

-

-

-

31

2.24

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

4

2

6

17

-

-

-

-

-

98

1.94

-

-

-

3

13

33

16

15

9

3

6

-

-

-

-

-

8

1.91

-

-

-

-

-

5

2

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

23
121
41
36
90
31
34
15
18
134
101
20
11
9

1.98
1.87
2. 19
2. 49
2.20
2.44
2. 02
2.08
2. 14
2.04
2. 56
2.00
1.90
1.44
2.30

-

10
1

6
-

-

2

7

4

7

-

34

10

11

2

7

5

8
10
10
20
1
1
-

13
-

15
5
1

-

2

1

3
2

2
2

1
14

-

-

32

9
13
-

-

1
1
-

1
11
42
1
1
-

2
3
5

3
7

-

11
20
6
-

-

1
5

2
5
7
5

-

5

1
24

-

25
-

"

-

-

-

-

-

33

4
-

-

2
-

4
2
-

3
4

7

2
2

3

3

22

3

6
19
4

7

6
8

4

4
2

7

1
11
10
2

4
3
3

3

7

16
1
15
1
28
8

7

3

1 The study covered selected metalworking establishments (industry Groups 19, 34, 35 and 36) as defined in the 1957 revised edition of the Standard Industrial C lassification Manual
prepared by the Bureau of the Budget.
2 Data could not be shown for a ssem b lers, class C; inspectors, class C; and testers, class C.
3 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
A ll or a m ajority of workers in each occupation studied were paid on a time basis except
a ssem b lers, class B; punch-press operators, class B; and m achine-tool operators, production, class C.
4 Includes data for m achine-tool operators in addition to those shown separately.
5 Includes all drivers regardless of size and type of truck operated.




Table B-3. Motor Vehicle Dealers1
(A verage straigh t-tim e hourly earnings fo r selected occupations studied on an industry basis,
L a w rence, M ass. , May 1959)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
Average S
hourly . 1.10
earnings
and

$
1.20

S
1.30

t

1.40

$
1.50

$
1.60

$
1.70

$
1. 80

$
1.90

t
2 .0 0

$
2. 10

S
2 .2 0

*

2. 30

$
2 .4 0

$
2. 50

$
2. 60

$
2. 70

$
2 .8 0

$
2 .9 0

$
3.00

$
3. 10

r i v

Number
of
workers

Occupation

1.30

1.40

1.50

1.60

1.70

1.80

1.90

2 .0 0

2. 10

2 .2 0

2 .3 0

2. 40

2. 50

2. 60

2. 70

2. 80

2 .9 0

3.00

3. 10

3 .20

-

2

$
3.20
and
over

Men

M ech an ics, autom otive, cla ss A ---------------------P a rts m e n --------------------------------------------------------...
.....-..... ......
S ervice salesm en ------ -----W a s h e r s --------------------------------------------------------------

10
8
43
16
9
10
13

$
2. 52
1.4 7
2 .4 6
1 .7 4
2.41
2 .4 0
1.23

i

1

-

_

_
1
2
-

2
8

2

_
2

-

_
2
_
-

-

1
1
2
1

_

2

_

_

3
2
2
-

5

2

2

5

2

1

_
-

_
-

2
2

1
_

_
2

_
2

'

'

'

-

1

1

3

6
2

'

1
_
7

1

_

_

_

_

_

_

1

5

5

_

_

2

_
2
~

_
_

_
_

_
_

"

“

"

_

2
3
2
"

1 The study included retail m o to r ve h icle dealer establishm ents p r im a rily engaged in sellin g new o r new and used autom obiles (Group 5511) as defined in the 1957 revised edition of the Standard
Industrial C la ssifica tio n Manual p repared by the Bureau of the Budget.
The establishm ents studied w ere selected fro m those em ploying 21 o r m ore w ork ers (including sales and o ffic e , as w ell as shop
e m p loyees).
* Excludes prem iu m pay fo r overtim e and fo r w ork on w eekends, h olid ays, and late shifts.
A ll or a m ajo rity of the w ork ers in each occupation studied w ere paid on a tim e b a s is , except m ech an ics,
autom otive, cla ss B.




Table B-4. Banking 1
(A verage straigh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings fo r s elected occupations studied on an industry basis,
L aw rence, M a ss., M ay 1959)
Avkbaoe
O ccupation

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

Number
*
of
eekly* 40. 00 4 5 .0 0
W
eeklv W
hours* earnings and
(Standard)
under
45. 00 50.00

$
*
$
*
50. 00 55.00 60. 00 65.00

70. 00 75.00

55.00 60.00 65.00

75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00

70.00

*
80.00

85.00

Women
Bookkeeping-m ach ine o p era tors,
cla ss B ---- ------------------------------------------------

40

4 0 .0

$
49. 00

10

17

7

5

T e lle rs , all around:
Under 5 years of se rv ice — ----------------

15

4 0 .0

56. 00

-

2

2

8

T e lle rs , note:
5 or m o re years of s e r v i c e ----------------

9

4 0 .0

72. 00

~

T e lle r s , paying o r paying and
re ce iv in g , c o m m e rcia l:
5 or m o re years of s e r v ic e ----------------

11

4 0 .0

64.50

"

"

T e lle r s , saving:
Under 5 years of s e r v i c e -------------------5 or m o re years of s e r v i c e ----------------

6
15

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

52.00
62. 50

-

3
1

1

-

-

-

-

2

1

-

“

-

"

2

1

1

2

1

1

3

3

3

"

■

"

1
4

2
3

2

2

1

-

-

2

3

1 The study included co m m e rcia l and stock and mutual savings banks (Groups 602 and 603) as defined in the 1957 r e v ised
edition of the Standard Industrial C la ssifica tio n Manual, prepared b y the Bureau of the Budget.
1 Standard hours r e fle c t the w orkw eek fo r w hich em ployees r e c e iv e their regular straigh t-tim e sala ries and the earnings
co rresp on d to these w eekly h ou rs. A vera ge w eekly hours are rounded to the n ea rest half hour and average w eekly earnings to
the n earest half dolla r.

11

Table B-5. Power Laundries and Dry Cleaners 1
(A verage straigh t-tim e hourly earnings fo r selected occupations studied on an industry b a s is ,
L aw rence, M a s s ., May 1959)
NUMBER OF WORKEBS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
O ccupation and sex

Num
ber
of
w
orkers

Average $
hourly a 0 .9 0
earnings
and
under
1.00

$

1.00
1. 10

$

1. 10
1.20

$

$

1.20
1.30

1.30
1.40

$

1.40

$
1.50

*1.60

1.50

1.60

1. 70

$

1.70

$

1.80

1.80

1.90

2
8
2

-

$

1.90

$

$

2 .0 0

2 .0 0

2. 10

-

-

$

2. 10
2 .2 0

$

2 .2 0
2. 30

2 .3 0

$
2 .4 0

$
2 .5 0

2 .4 0

2. 50

2. 60

$
2. 60
and
over

Men
D ry c l e a n e r s -------------------------------------------------------P r e s s e r s , m achine, dry c le a n in g ---------------------W ashers, m a c h in e -----------------------------------------------

7
9
7

$
2.01
1.89
1.70

-

-

-

'

■

7
6

2
3
8
1

-

-

-

2
1

-

-

2

1

'

'

-

”

-

'

1

-

1
-

-

-

-

-

-

"

"

1
1
“

_
_
-

_
_
_
_

_
_
_
-

'

'

-

-

-

_
-

_
_
1
-

_
_
-

1

Women
A s s e m b l e r s --------------------------------------------------------C lerk s, retail r e c e i v i n g ------------------------------------F in ish ers, flatw ork, m a c h in e ---------------------------I d e n t ifie r s ------------------------------------------------------------P r e s s e r s , m achine, dry c le a n in g --------------------P r e s s e r s , m achine, s h i r t s -------------------------------W rappers, b u n d le ------------------------------------------------

9
24
31
11
8
24
13

1.22
1. 13
1.41
1.40
1.7 6
1.51
1. 15

4
2
-

4
3
5
1

3
7
5
1
9
3

-

-

2
1
4
1

1
4
1
2

5
3

-

-

-

7
1
5
6

1
-

_
-

1 The study co v e re d establishm ents in the pow er laundries industry (7211) and the dry cleaning industry (7221) as defined in the 1957 revised edition of the Standard Industrial C la ssifica tion Manual,
prepared by the Bureau of the Budget.
8 Excludes prem ium pay fo r overtim e and fo r w ork on w eekends, holidays, and late shifts.
A ll o r a m ajority of the w ork ers in each occupation studied w ere paid on a tim e b a s is , except w om en
fin ish ers, id en tifiers, and p r e s s e r s .




C: U nion W a g e S c a le s

12

(Minimum wage rates and maximum straight-tim e hours per week agreed upon through collective bargaining
between em ployers and trade unions, L aw rence, M ass. Rates and hours are those in effect on July 1, 1959)

Table C-l. Building Construction
Rate
per
hour 1

Trade or occupation

Journeymen
A sbestos w orkers _____
B oilerm akers
........
B ricklayers
.............
Carpenters
Cement finishers
_
_
_
___
E lectrician s __ ____
Painters
_
_ ___
_ _
S p r a y ___
_____
___ ____
Structural steel _
_
Pipefitters _ _ _ ___ ____ _
P la s te r e r s

............... .

P lu m b e r s ________
Rodmen

__

_

_______

_

__
__

_

__

_
__

__

__

__

_

_ _ _ _ _

____
_

....................
_

_

_ _ _ _ _
-

____

_

S tr u c t u r a l-ir o n w o r k e r s

$
3.820
3.750
3.900
3.200
3.900
3.300
2.800
3.650
3.500
3.650
3.900
3.650
4.020
4.020

Table C-2. Printing Trades

Em ployer contribution to
insurance and pension funds a
Insurance 3

Book and job
10*

14*
10*

-

13 Va *
10 *

-

-

-

-

2.650
2.625
2.800

1%

-

10*

12 Va*
-

-

10*
10*
10*

12 Va*
10*
10*

-

4?*
a7 *
47 *

-

1 37Va hours is the maximum number per week which can be worked at straighttim e rates.
a Shown in term s of cen ts-p er-h ou r or as percent of rate; in actual p ra ctice , how ever,
some em ployer payments are calculated on the basis of total hours or gro ss payroll.
These
variations in method of computation are not indicated in the above tabulation.
3 Includes life insurance, hospitalization, and other types of health and w elfare benefits;
excludes payments into holiday, vacation, and unemployment funds when such program s have
been negotiated.
4 E m ployer contribution increased to 10 cents, effective July 13, 1959.

Table C-3. Local-Transit Operating Employees
Trade or occupation

Buses:

Rate
per
hour 1
$
1.860
1.960
2.060

1 40 hours is the maximum number per week which can be worked at straight-tim e rates.




2 .667
2.667
2.667

-

-

$

C om p ositors, hand
Machine operators
P ressm en , cylinder

-

-

Helpers and la b orers
B rick la yers' ten d ers __________________________________
Building l a b o r e r s ............
P la sterers ' tenders
_____ _ -

Rate
per
hour 1

Trade or occupation

P ension

Newspaper
C om p ositors, hand— d a y w o r k ________
C om p ositors, hand— n ig h tw o rk _______
Machine operator s— d a y w o r k _________
Machine operators— nightwork ______
P ressm en , w eb— d a y w o rk ____________
P ressm en , w eb— nightwork __________
P re s sm e n -in -ch a rg e , web— daywork
—
P re s sm e n -in -ch a rg e , web— nightwork
Stereotypers— d a y w o r k _______________
Stereotypers— n ig h t w o r k _____________

2.827
2.987
2.827
2.987
2.840
3.000
3. 107
3.267
2.827
2.987

1 37Va hours is the maximum number per week which can be worked at straighttime rates.

Table C-4. Motortruck Drivers and Helpers
T r a d e o r occ u p a tio n

B a k e ry :
H auling and t r a n s p o r t:
1 - 3 tons
.... .......
... ....
3 - 5 ton s
. ..
_
.
5 tons and o v e r
H e lp e r s
B is c u it:
D r iv e r s _
......
_
_
B e e r and liq u o r :
A g re e m e n t A
......... _
..
H e lp e r s
_ _
A g re e m e n t B
_ . ------H e lp e r s
.... _
........ _
C o a l ________________
_
___________
_ _________
C o n s tr u c tio n :
S p e c ia liz e d e arth m o v in g equipm ent ..............
2 - a x le equ ipm en t _
.. . ................... .
3-a x le equ ipm en t
-----F o o d s e r v ic e — w h o le s a le :
A g re e m e n t A
..... ...........
....................... _
H e lp e r s
_ ................. .
... „ _
A g re e m e n t B
H e lp e r s
......... _ . . _
G en eral tr a n s p o r ta tio n
H e lp e r s
. _
M is c e lla n e o u s m an u factu rin g
. __
___
____
R a ilw a y e x p r e s s

R ate
per
hour

H ou rs
per
w eek 1

$
2 .0 5 0
2 . 100
2 .2 0 0
2 .0 0 0

48
48
48
48

2 . 130

45

2 .0 0 0
1 .9 0 0
2 . 150
2 . 100
1.9 8 0

40
40
40
40
40

2 .9 0 0
2 .6 4 5
2 .7 0 0

40
40
40

2 .3 4 0
2 .2 4 0
2 .2 7 0
2 . 120
2 .3 4 0
2 .2 4 0
2 . 120
2 .3 0 8

50
50
50
50
40

Maximum number o f hours which can be worked at straight-tim e ra tes.

40
46

40

13

D: Entrance Rates
Table D-l. Minimum Entrance Salaries for Women Office Workers
(D is trib u tio n o f e s ta b lis h m e n ts studied in a ll in d u s tr ie s and in in d u stry d iv is io n s by m in im u m e n tra n ce s a la r y fo r s e le c t e d c a t e g o r ie s
pf in e x p e r ie n c e d w o m e n o f fic e w o r k e r s , L a w r e n c e , M a s s ., M ay 1959)
In e x p e r ie n c e d ty p is ts

M in im u m w e e k ly s a la r y

M an u factu rin g

1

A ll
in d u s tr ie s

______________________________

E s ta b lis h m e n ts having a s p e c ifie d m in im u m

$ 3 5 .0 0
$ 3 7 .5 0
$ 4 0 .0 0
$ 4 2 .5 0
$ 4 5 .0 0
$ 4 7 .5 0
$ 5 0 .0 0
$ 5 2 . 50

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
over

$ 3 7 .5 0
$ 4 0 .0 0
$ 4 2 .5 0
$ 4 5 .0 0
$ 4 7 .5 0
$ 5 0 .0 0
$ 5 2 .5 0

_

_______

______

___

__
__
_

_____

__

_

_____

_
_
___
__

___

A ll
s ch e d u le s

40

90

50

XXX

40

23

13

12

10

-

8

1

-

A ll
in d u s tr ie s

A ll
s ch ed u les

40

Nonm &nufactur ing

B a s e d on standard w e e k ly h o u r s 3 ofA ll
s ch e d u le s

40

-

2

2

-

-

90

50

XXX

7

50

30

28

20

1

_

2

-

-

40

40

-

_

_

1
_

M anufacturin g

B a s e d on stan dard w e e k ly h o u rs 3 o f—
A ll
s ch e d u le s

E s ta b lis h m e n ts stu died

O ther in e x p e r ie n c e d c le r i c a l w o r k e r s 2
N onm anufa c tur ing

XXX

6

6
-

.

XXX

14

2

-

-

25
2
11
1
9
-

14

14

-

-

-

-

8
1
7

6

1

-

7

2

1

-

-

-

"

11
2
3

11
-

3

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

6
1

6

1

1
-

1

__

7
1

___
___

8

5

XXX

3

XXX

19

8

XXX

11

XXX

E s ta b lis h m e n ts w h ich did not e m p lo y w o r k e r s
in this c a t e g o r y _
___
__
__
__
_ _ _ _ _ _ _________
_____

59

32

XXX

27

XXX

21

12

XXX

9

XXX

_ _ _ _ _ _

__

_
_

_
_

_

_____

5

___ __ _____
_____
______ _______ _

__

_

____ ____

E s ta b lis h m e n ts having no s p e c ifie d m in im u m

4

-

"

~

2
-

1 L o w e s t s a la r y ra te fo r m a lly e s ta b lis h e d fo r h irin g in e x p e r ie n c e d w o r k e r s fo r typing o r other c le r i c a l j o b s .
a R a tes a p p lic a b le to m e s s e n g e r s , o f fic e g i r l s , o r s im ila r s u b c le r ic a l jo b s a r e not c o n s id e r e d .
3 H ou rs r e fl e c t the w o rk w e e k fo r w h ich e m p lo y e e s r e c e iv e th e ir r e g u la r s t r a ig h t-t im e s a la r ie s . Data a r e p r e s e n te d fo r a ll w o rk w e e k s c o m b in e d , and fo r the m o s t co m m o n w o rk w e e k r e p o r t e d .







E: Supplementary Wage Practices

14

Table E-l. Shift Differentials
(P e r c e n t o f m an u factu rin g plant w o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts hhving fo r m a l p r o v is io n s fo r shift w o rk , and in e s ta b lis h m e n ts
a c tu a lly o p e ra tin g late sh ifts by type and am ount o f d iffe r e n t ia l, L a w r e n c e , M a s s . , M ay 1959)
In e s ta b lis h m e n ts having fo r m a l
p r o v is io n s 1 f o r —

In esta b lis h m e n ts a c tu a lly
o p era tin g —

Shift d iffe r e n tia l
S e c o n d shift
w o rk

T o ta l

W ith shift pay d iffe r e n tia l

_

_

_

U n ifo rm ce n ts (p e r h o u r) _

T h ir d o r oth er
shift

__ __

__
_

__ _
_

_

_____
_

_

3 .8

6 0 .9

1 1 .5

3 .3

2 3 .9

6 .7

3 .1

1 3 .3

_ _ ___
_
_
__
_ _ _ _ _ _____ _ _ _ _ _
.................
, ........,
......
....
__
_ _
_
_
__
__ __
__ _
_ _ _ _ _ _
_
_____
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
__ _
_ _
_
_ _ _ _ _ _
__
_
_ __
_ _
__

1 2 .4

2 9 .4

__

6 4 .7

6 5 .4

_
_

U n ifo rm p e rce n ta g e _ _ _ _ _

10 p e r c e n t
15 p e r c e n t

S econ d shift

7 0 .6

_

4 ce n ts
5 ce n ts __
6 ce n ts
6Va re n ts
7 c e n t s __
8 ce n ts _
9 ce n ts __
1 ce n ts _
0
12 ce n ts _
16 ce n ts _

T h ir d o r oth er
shift w o r k

.

8.6
1 .5
2 .9
.9

.8

-

.6

.9
_

_ _
_

No shift pay d iffe r e n tia l

1 In clu d es e s ta b lis h m e n ts c u r r e n t ly o p e r a tin g late s h ifts ,
even though they w e r e not c u r r e n tly o p e ra tin g late s h ifts .
2 L e s s than 0 .0 5 p e r c e n t.

-

9 .6
3 .7
2. 9

6.1
1. 7
-

3 .1

2.0
-

.8
.4

.2
-

( a)

.2

.
_

-

1.8
.1
.5
.7
-

3 5 .9

3 6 .9

4 .8

.2

3 5 .9

~

2 2 .9
1 4 .0

4 .8
"

-

5 .2

3 .9

.9

.2
.5

and e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith fo r m a l p r o v is io n s c o v e r in g late sh ifts

15
Table E-2. Scheduled Weekly Hours
(P e r c e n t d is trib u tio n o f o f fic e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u s tr ie s and in in d u stry d iv is io n s by s ch ed u led w e e k ly h ou rs
o f fir s t -s h if t w o r k e r s , L a w r e n c e , M a s s ., M ay 1959)
PERCENT OP OPFICE WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—

PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—

W eekly, h o u rs
All industries

10
0

A ll w o r k e r s
U nder 37 Va h o u rs
.......
3 7 Va h o u r s _
O v er 37Va and under 383 h o u r s ___
/4
h ou rs
O v er 383 and under 40 h o u rs _____ —
/4
40 h ou r s
O ver 40 and under 44 h o u r s
44 h o u rs
...............
O ver 44 and under 45 h o u rs
45 h ou rs ............. .
46 hour s _
.. . _ .
48 h o u r s
_ _

1

Manufacturing

10
0
1

3
3

1

4
_
_

88
(M

N anufacturing
onm

3

1
95

10
0
11
4
2
1
0
69

1
3

1

All industries

Manufacturing

10
0

10
0

1

1

)

f I1
V

~

Nonm
anufacturing

10
0
15
"
3

2

(* )
88
"
“
7

g
(* )
c

D

29
9

"
4

l1
1
\)

3
9

16
5

1
0

L e s s than 0 .5 p e r c e n t.

Table E-3. Wage Structure Characteristics and Labor-Management Agreements
(P e r c e n t d is trib u tio n o f o f fic e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u s tr ie s and in in d u stry d iv is io n s b y type o f w age s tr u c tu re ,
m e th o d o f w age paym en t, and la b o r -m a n a g e m e n t a g r e e m e n t s , L a w r e n c e , M a s s . , M ay 1959)
PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—

PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—
Item

N anufacturing
onm

Nonm
anufacturing

All industries

Manufacturing

10
0
6
8

10
0

10
0

33

18
67

31
37
32

77
32
44
23

28
25
3
72

10
0

10
0

10
0

6
1

58
42
27
15

81
19
3
3
13

All industries

Manufacturing

10
0

10
0

10
0

65
4
60
35

78
78

W a g * structure for timerated workers 1
A ll w o r k e r s

_ _ _ _ _ _

_ _ _

F o r m a l ra te s tr u c tu re
_ _
Single ra te
__
. . .
R ange o f r a t e s
__ __ _____
______ __
Individual r a te s
_________________ _
_ _ _ _ _

2
2

16

M ethod o f w a g e payment
for plant workers
A ll w o r k e r s

__

__ __

T im e w o r k e r s
_ _
In cen tiv e w o r k e r s __ ___ _______ __ _______ _______
P ie c e w o r k
_ _
B onus w o r k
___
C o m m is s io n .
_ _ _ _ _

D A T A N OT C O L L E C T E D

39
24
14

2

~

Labor-m an agem en t agreements 2
W o r k e r s in esta b lis h m e n ts w ith a g r e e m e n ts
c o v e r in g a m a jo r it y o f such w o r k e r s __________

0 -4

“

10-1 4

6 0 -6 4

6 5 -6 9

2 0 -2 4

1 E s tim a te s fo r o f fi c e w o r k e r s a r e b a s e d on to ta l o f fi c e e m p lo y m e n t, w h e r e a s e s t im a t e s fo r plant w o r k e r s a r e b a s e d on t im e - r a t e d e m p lo y e e s on ly .
a E s tim a te s r e la te to a ll w o r k e r s ( o ff i c e o r plant) e m p lo y e d in an e s ta b lis h m e n t having a c o n tr a c t in e ffe c t c o v e r in g a m a jo r it y o f the w o r k e r s in th eir r e s p e c t iv e ca teg ory . The e s t i ­
m a te s s o obtain ed a r e not n e c e s s a r il y r e p r e s e n ta tiv e o f the extent to w h ich a ll w o r k e r s in the a r e a m a y be c o v e r e d by p r o v is io n s o f la b o r -m a n a g e m e n t a g r e e m e n ts due to the e x c lu s io n o f
s m a lle r s iz e e s ta b lis h m e n ts .




16
Table E-4. Paid Holidays
(P e r c e n t d is trib u tio n o f o f fic e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u s tr ie s and in in d u stry d iv is io n s by num ber o f paid h o lid a y s
p r o v id e d ann ually, L a w r e n c e , M a s s . , M a y , 1959)
PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—
Item

A ll w o r k e r s

All industries

________________________________________

W o r k e r s in e s ta b lish m e n ts p roviding
paid h olid ays ______ _______________________________
W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts p roviding
no paid h olid ays ___________________________ ____

PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—
N anufacturing
onm

M
anufacturing

.

All industries

Nonm
anufacturing

M
anufacturing

100

100

100

100

100

100

99

99

99

94

96

83

1

1

1

6

4

17

.

_

1
1
2
1
4
23
1
34
4
4

1
1
5
24
1
38
4

N um ber of d a y s

6 h a lf h olid ays
_____________________________________
1 h olid ay ____ „____ _ _______________________________
_
3 h o lid a y s ___________________________________________
4 h o lid a y s ___________________________________________
5 h o lid a y s ___________________________________________
6 h o lid a y s
6 h o lid a y s plus 2 h a lf days
7 h olid ays ___________________________________________
7 h olid ays plus 1 h a lf day ________________________
8 h olid ays ___________________________________________
8 h o lid a y s plus 1 h a lf day _ ___________ __ __
9 h o lid a y s ___ ___________________ _________________
9 h olid ays olus 1 h a lf day ____________________ _
10 h olid ays __________ _____ __________ _
_
_
_
10 h olid ays plus 1 h a lf day
11 h olid ays plus 1 h a lf day ______________________

l 1)
1
( 1)
2
11
(M
35
2
2
24
2
1
15

I 1)
3
9
(M
45
2
2
33
(M
2

(l)
3

1

n

1
5
14
10
6
53
10

14
2
3
1

!

4

1
I
!
1

i 1)
i l)
1

”

■

"

1
1
1

"

T o ta l h o l i d a y

10
8
12
18
8
10
_
17

17
17
28
28
28
28
35
54
54
54
76
83

tim e 2

I I V 2 days ____ __________________ „ _ ______ __
10 Va or m o r e days ________________________________
10 or m o r e days _______
_ „
____ _____ _
_
9 V2 or m o r e days
__ ____________
9 or m o r e d ays _____
__ __ _ _____
8 V2 or m o r e days __________________________ _
8 or m o r e days ___
____________
7 V2 or m o r e days ______________ __________ _ _
_ _
7 or m o r e days _________________________ _____ ___
6 or m o r e days
5 or m o r e days
4 or m o r e days ______ _
___ _
____
_ __
3 or m o r e days
_
___
1 or m o r e d ays
_____ _
_

3
3
19
20
46
47
49
84
95
97
97
99

3
36
38
40
86
96
99
99
99

10
10
63
63
70
70
70
70
79
94
94
94
98

99

99

99

1
1

2

22

i
1
3
3
5
19
23
26
62
85
89
90
93
94

2
18

22
26
66
89
94
95
96
96

i
1 L e s s than 0 .5 p e r c e n t.
2 A ll co m b in a tio n s o f fu ll and h a lf days that add to the sam e am ount a r e c o m b in e d ; fo r e x a m p le , the p r o p o r tio n o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g
and no h a lf d a y s , 6 full days and 2 h a lf d a y s , 5 fu ll days and 4 h a lf d a y s , and s o on .
P r o p o r t io n s w e r e then cu m u lated .




a total o f 7 days

in c lu d e s th ose

w ith 7 fu ll days

17
Table E-5. Paid Vacations
(P e r c e n t d is trib u tio n o f o f fic e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u s tr ie s and in in d u stry d iv is io n s
by v a c a tio n pay provisions'^ L a w r e n c e , M a s s . , M ay 1959)
PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—
V a ca tio n p o lic y

A ll w o r k e r s

_

__

____

A industries
U

__ _

—

—

PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—
Nonm
anufacturing

Manufacturing

All industries

N m
on anufacturing

Manufacturing

100

100

100

100

100

100

99
99
(M
-

99
99
-

100
99
(M
-

98
79
16
1
2

97
76
18
1
2

100
98
2
-

(l)

(M

“

2

3

"

2
41
8

52
13
-

59
13

4

5
84
2
3

1

7
14
1

1
14
83
2

1
9
90
"

_
28
65
6

3
84
10

3
86
8
-

_
72
23
4

11
82
6

2
42
19
34

2
41
22
33

_
48
47

(M

-

4

M ethod o f payment
W o r k e r s in esta b lis h m e n ts p ro v id in g
paid v a c a tio n s
.
_______
L e n g th -o f-tim e paym ent
P e r c e n t a g e paym ent
_
_
_ _
F la t -s u m paym ent
__ __ _ __ _ — —
_ __ ____ ____
O ther
__ __
W o r k e r s in esta b lis h m e n ts p ro v id in g
n o paid v a c a tio n s
__ __
__________ __ —

Amount off vacation p a y 2
A fte r 6 m onths o f s e r v ic e
L e s s than 1 w e e k ______ _ ______ ______ _
1 w eek
_
_ _ _ _ _ _ _
__ _
O v er 1 and under 2 w e e k s
_ _ _
___ _
_______ _ ________
2 w eek s
_
__ __

4
71
2

1

1

A fte r 1 y eay o f s e r v ic e
L e s s than 1 w e e k
1 w eek
__ _
2 w eeks _
_
3 w eek s
_

_ __
____

_ _ _ _ _
_ _ _ _ _
__
__ _ __ __ __
_
_____
_ __
_
____ ___ ___

1
!
|
;

A fte r 2 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
L e s s than 1 w eek
_ ___
_ ___
—
1 w eek
_ _______
_ _ _ __ _ — __ -_
O ver 1 and under 2 w e e k s _____
_ _
w eeks
_ _ _
_ _ _ _ _
_____
3 w eek s
__ ____ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

2

_
7

_
6

2

3

89

91

2

"

A fte r 3 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
L e s s than 1 w e e k
___
1 w eek
_ _
__ _
_
____ _ _ _ _ _ _
O ver 1 and under 2 w e e k s -------------- --- ---------------2 w eek s
_ __ _ ____ __ __
__ ____
3 w eek s
_ ____ __ _
__ __ _ __

_
6

_

2

4
3

90

93

2

_
10
83
6

1
22

17
57
(M

See fo o tn o te s at end o f ta b le .




N O T E:

In the tabu lation s o f v a c a tio n a llo w a n c e s by y e a r s o f s e r v ic e , paym ents oth er than ’’len gth o f t i m e , "
such a s p e rce n ta g e o f annual e a r n in g s o r fla t -s u m p aym en ts, w e r e c o n v e r te d to an equ ivalen t tim e
b a s is ; fo r e x a m p le , a paym ent o f 2 p e r c e n t o f annual e a rn in g s w as c o n s id e r e d a s 1 w e e k 's pay.

i

18
20
58

;

49

47
4

18
Table E-5* Paid Vacations-Continued
(P ercent distribution of office and plant w orkers in all industries and in industry divisions
by vacation pay prov ision s, L aw rence, M ass. , May 1959)
PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—

Vacation policy

All industries

PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—
Nonm
anufacturing

Manufacturing

All industries

Manufacturing

Nonm
anufacturing

Amount of vacation pay4-Continued
After 5 years of service
Less than 1 week
____
_ __
1 week
_ ___ _ __
—
_
Over 1 and under 2 weeks
_ __ _
2 weeks
3 weeks

_

.
_____

(M

_
3
78
19

1
9
2
83
3

1
6
2
86
2

_
31
64
5

_
2
97
1

_
3
53
44

1
8
2
77
1
9

1
5
2
81
1
8

_
31
50

_
3

1
8
2
37
1
49

1
5
2
36
1
52

_
31
45
25

1
8
2
37
1
46
2

1
5
2
36
1
50
3

31

l

1
5
2
35
1
48
6

3
97

3
91
6

After 10 years of service
Less than 1 week
_ _ _
_ _ _
__ ___
_____ _
1 week
Over 1 and under 2 weeks
__ _ _
2 weeks
_ _ _ _____
_
__ _
Over 2 and under 3 weeks
_ _ _
3 weeks
______ _
__ __ _ _

2
84
14

-

19

After 15 years of service
Less than 1 week _
_
_
1 week
_
__ _
Over 1 and under 2 weeks
2 weeks _____________ ___ _________— --Over 2 and under 3 weeks _
_
3 w e e k s ______________ __ _________ _____

_
2

2
_
28
70

-

-

19
79

51
46

_
2

2

After 20 years of service
Less than 1 week _ _ _
1 week __________ — __________ ___— _—
Over 1 and under 2 weeks
_ _
___
2 weeks ________________ __________ ___ _
__
Over 2 and under 3 weeks
_
_ _
3 weeks
_ _ ___
4 weeks
_ _
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ --

_

-

-

28

_
3
-

19

51

-

-

-

68
2

78
1

42
4

~

45
25

After 25 years of service
Less than 1 week
_ _ _
_
1 w e e k ____________________________ __ —
Over 1 and under 2 weeks
_ __ _
—
2 weeks
_ _ ___ _ ___ __
Over 2 and under 3 weeks
3 weeks
_ _ ___
_
_ _ _
4 weeks
_
_ _ _ _

_

_

2

2

-

3

-

-

73
6

63
7

51

-

-

-

19

-

28

39
7

8
2
36
1
44
5

-

31
“

45
“

20
4

i

1 L ess than 0 .5 percent.
2 P eriod s of serv ice w ere a rb itra rily chosen and do not n e ce ssa rily re fle ct the individual provisions for p rogressions
service include changes in provisions occurring between 5 and 10 yea rs.




For exam ple, the changes in proportions indicated at 10 y e a r s '

19
Table E-6. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
(Percent of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions employed in establishments providing
health, insurance, or pension benefits, Lawrence, Mass. , M a y 1959)
PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—

PERCENT OP OFFICE WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—

Type of benefit

All workers

N anufacturing
onm

Manufacturing

All industries

100

All industries

Nonm
anufacturing

Manufacturing

100

100

100

100

91

96

77

85

90

52

67

80

35

59

63

37

79
47

90
53

52
34

81
63

86
67

46
35

38

40

33

3

1

25
71
70
61
10
71
2

34
64
63
56
4
78
1

4
89
87
73
24
54
4

18
71
69
48
1
46
9

100

Workers in establishments providing:
Life insurance________________________
Accidental death and dismemberment
insurance
...
. . .
__
Sickness and accident insurance or
sick leave or both 1
_
Sickness and accident in s u ra n ce
Sick leave (full pay and no
waiting period) . . . . . .
Sick leave (partial pay or
waiting period)
‘___ __ _ _
Hospitalization insurance . _
. . .
Surgical insurance _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _
_ _
_
Medical insurance ____________________
Catastrophe insurance
Retirement pension _ . ---__ ----No health, insurance, or pension plan3

18
1

1

1
1
j
|

20
72
70
48
(2)
50
6

4
63
62
45
5
15
31

1 Unduplicated total of workers receiving sick leave or sickness and accident insurance shown separately below. Sick-leave plans are limited to those which definitely establish at least
the min i m u m number of days' pay that can be expected by each employee. Informal sick-leave allowances determined on an individual basis are excluded.
a Less than 0. 5 percent.
3 Corresponding estimates for the February 1956 survey are amended as follows: Office, 8,6, 10; plant, 22, 22, and 25.




20
A p p e n d ix .:

O ccupational Descriptions

The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to,
assist its field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under
a variety of payroll titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment
and from area to area. This is essential in order to permit, the grouping of occupational wage
rates representing comparable job content. Because of this emphasis on inter establishment and
interarea comparability of occupational content, the Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ signifi­
cantly from those in use in individual establishments or those prepared for other purposes. In
applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’s field representatives are instructed to exclude work­
ing supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped workers, part-time,
temporary, and probationary workers.

ASSEMBLER (METALWORKING)
(Bench assembler; floor assembler; jig assembler; line assembler;
subassembler)
Assembles and/or fits together parts to form complete units
or subassemblies at a bench, conveyor line, or on the floor, depend­
ing upon the size of the units and the organization of the production
process. Work may include processing operations requiring the use
of handtools in scraping, chipping, and filing of parts to obtain a de­
sired fit as well as power tools and special equipment when punching,
riveting, soldering, or welding of parts is necessary. Workers who
perform any of these processing operations exclusively as part "oT
specialized assembling operations are excluded.
Class A-—Assembles parts into complete units or subassemblies that require fitting of parts and decisions regarding proper
performance of any component part or the assembled unit. Work
involves any combination of the following: Assembling from draw­
ings, blueprints, or other written specifications; assembling units
composed of a variety of parts and/or subassemblies; assembling
large units requiring careful fitting and adjusting of parts to obtain
specified clearences; using a variety of hand and powered tools and
precision measuring instruments.
Class B— Assembles parts into units or subassemblies in accordance with standard and prescribed procedures. Work involves
any combination of the following: Assembling a limited range of
standard and familiar products composed of a number of small or medium-size parts requiring some fitting or adjusting; assem­
bling large units that require little or no fitting of component parts;
working under conditions where accurate performance and com­
pletion of work within set time limits are essential for subse­
quent assembling operations; using a limited variety of hand or
powered tools.




ASSEMBLER (METALWORKING)— Continued
Class G-—Performs short-cycle, repetitive assembling oper­
ations^ Work does not involve any fitting or making decisions re­
garding proper performance of the component parts or assembling
procedures.
ASSEMBLER (POWER LAUNDRIES AND DRY CLEANERS)
(Matcher; sorter; assorter; distributor)
Sorts or assembles the various dry-cleaned or laundered
garments and other items of each customer’s order; matching the
articles according to description and identifying number as shown by
plant records (see inspector).
ASSEMBLER FOR PULLOVER, MACHINE
Prepares the upper for lasting by assembling the counter and
upper and operating a machine to tack the upper to the wooden last.
Work involves: Placing counters on rack of pan containing cement,
lowering rack into pan to apply cement to counters; inserting cemented
counter between lining and upper at the heel; setting a piece of wax
dr tissue paper next to lining to facilitate removal of last after com­
pletion of operations; placing upper on last making certain that heel
seam is in center of rear of last; setting last on a jack and pushing
jack into machine which automatically drives tacks through the upper
into the heel seat and heel seam.
BED-MACHINE OPERATOR
(Bed las ter; bed-la sting-machine operator; heel and forepart laster)
Completes the operations of drawing the toe, or toe and heel,
of the upper of a shoe tightly over the last. Work involves: Setting
shoe on machine with sole up, and manipulating hand levers controlling

21
BED-MACHINE OPERATOR— Continued
a series of wipers (friction pullers) which draw the upper over edge
of insole at toe or toe and heel; holding upper in place with the wipers;
securing upper at the toe in one of the following ways;
McKay system— Tacking upper, using automatically-fed handtaeking device, the tacks remaining in the finished shoe.
Welt system-—Passing a wire from an anchor tack, which is
driven on one side of the shoe, around the drawn-in upper at the
toe, to the opposite side where it is winded around another anchor
tack, to hold upper in place until it is stitched to insole by a later
operation; or may staple upper instead of using above methods.

BODY REPAIRMAN
(Automobile-collision serviceman;
body man)

fender and body repairman;

Repairs damaged automobile fenders and bodies to restore
their original shape and smoothness of surface by hammering out and
filling dents, and by welding breaks in the metal. May remove bolts
and nuts, take off old fenders, and install new fenders. May perform
such related tasks as replacing broken glass and repairing damaged
radiators and woodwork. May paint repaired surfaces.
BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Cement system-—Wiping toe in place and holding it with wiper;
trimming off surplus toe box, -lining and upper, by hand, close to
insole; applying cement to insole between lining and upper at toe
and folding over lasting allowance of upper and sticking it in in­
sole. If the heel also is lasted in the process, an automaticallyfed hand-tacking device is used to drive tacks through the upper
at the heel.
BILLER, MACHINE
Prepares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records
as to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work in­
cidental to billing operations.
For wage study purposes, billers,
machine, are classified by type of machine, as follows:
Biller, machine (billing machine)-—Uses a special billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott FIsEer, Burroughs, etc., which
are combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and
invoices from customers1 purchase orders, internally prepared
orders, shipping memoranda, etc. Usually involves application
of predetermined discounts and shipping charges and entry of
necessary extensions, which may or may not be computed on the
billing machine, and totals which are automatically accumulated
by machine. The operation usually involves a large number of
carbon copies of the bill being prepared and is often done on a
fanfold machine.
Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine)-—
Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sund strand, Elliott Eisner, kerning ton Rand, etc. , which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers*
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally
involves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers* ledger
record.
The machine automatically accumulates figures on a
number of vertical columns and computes and usually prints auto­
matically the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowl­
edge of bookkeeping. Works from uniform and standard types of
sales and credit slips.




Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or with­
out a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.
Class A-—Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Deter­
mines proper records and distribution of debit and credit items
to be used in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated
reports, balance sheets, and other records by hand.
Class B— Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections
of a set oF"records usually requiring little knowledge of basic
bookkeeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable, pay­
roll, customers* accounts (not including a simple type of billing
described under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense dis­
tribution, inventory control, etc. May check or assist in prepara­
tion of trial balances and prepare control sheets for the account­
ing department.
CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE
Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and
maintain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins,
cribs, counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings,
and trim made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most of
the following: Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, draw­
ings, models, or verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter*s
handtools, portable power tools, and standard measuring instruments;
making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work;
selecting materials necessary for the work. In general, the work of
the maintenance carpenter requires rounded training and experience
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent train­
ing and experience.

22

CLERK, ACCOUNTING

CLERK, ORDER—Continued

Class A —Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a com­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase of an establish­
m ents business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or ac­
counts payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with
proper accounting distribution; requires judgment and experience
in making proper assignations and allocations. May assist in
preparing, adjusting, and closing journal entries; may direct class
B accounting clerks.

following: Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet
listing the items to make up the order; checking prices and quantities
of items on order sheet; distributing order sheets to respective de­
partments to be filled. May check with credit department to deter­
mine credit rating of customer, acknowledge receipt of orders from
customers, follow up orders to see that they have been filled, keep
file of orders received, and check shipping invoices with original
orders.

Class B— Under supervision, performs one or more routine
accounting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers,
accounts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers. This job does not require a knowledge of
accounting and bookkeeping- principles but is found in offices in
which the more routine accounting work is subdivided on a func­
tional basis among several workers.

Computes wages of company employees and enters the neces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers1
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker*s name, working
days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and dis­
tributing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.

CLERK, FILE
Class A— Responsible for maintaining an established filing
system. Classifies and indexes correspondence or other material;
may also file this material. May keep records of various types
in conjunction with files or supervise others in filing and locating
material in the files. May perform incidental clerical duties.
Class B— Performs routine filing, usually of material that
has already been classified, or locates or assists in locating ma­
terial in the files. May perform incidental clerical duties.
CLERK, GENERAL
Typically is required to perform a variety of office opera­
tions. This requirement may arise as a result of impracticability
of specialization in a small office. The work generally involves the
use of independent judgment in tending to a pattern of office work
from day to day, as well as knowledge relating to phases of office
work that occur only occasionally. For example, the range of opera­
tions performed may entail all or some combination of the following;
Answering correspondence, preparing bills and invoices, posting Fo
various records, preparing payrolls, filing, etc. May also operate
various office machines and type as the work requires.
CLERK, ORDER
Receives customers1 orders for material or merchandise by
mail, phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination of the




CLERK, PAYROLL

CLERK, RETAIL RECEIVING
Receives work from routemen or from customers over the
counter in the receiving office or store of a dry-cleaning or laundry
establishment. /JYork involves most of the following: Maintaining a
record of articles or bundles received; returning completed work to
customers who call for it; collecting payment and maintaining simple
records of money received; and in establishments where dry cleaning
is done, fastening an identifying marker to each article, examining
an article for defects such as holes, stains, or tears, and making a
record of the identification symbol assigned to each article with a
brief description of the article and of any defects noted. Store man­
agers are excluded.
CROWNER (INSPECTOR)
(Examiner),
Examines shoe parts, partly finished shoes in various stages
of manufacture, or finished shoes before packing. Work involves in­
specting for the following imperfections: Irregularity of leather sur­
faces; misplaced or incompletely driven tacks; unevenness and incor­
rect amount of stitching; inside misalignment; improper proportion of
toe tip. May correct minor defects or imperfections and reject major
defects for reprocessing in proper department.
CUTTER, LINING, MACHINE
Cuts parts of shoe lining from leather or fabricated ma­
terials, by means of a clicking machine. Work involves: Setting
lining material, usually in multiple plies, on cutting table of machine;
selecting proper die and setting it in place on material; depressing
lever to cause upper arm to drop automatically on the die with suf­
ficient force to cut material to the shape and size of die.

23
CUTTER, LINING, MACHINE— Continued

DRY CLEANER

For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of
lining, as follows:

Operates a dry-cleaning machine to clean garments, drapes,
and other articles and whose work involves most of the following:
Knowledge of cleaning processes, fabrics, and colors; placing sorted
articles in drum of cleaning machines; operating valves to admit
cleaning fluids into drum of machine; starting drum rotating, allow­
ing it to rotate until articles are cleaned and removing articles from
machine; and draining and filtering cleaning fluid. May, in addition,
operate an extractor, tumbling machine, or place articles in a cabi­
net dryer.

Cloth lining
Leather lining
CUTTER, VAMP AND WHOLE SHOE, MACHINE
Cuts parts of shoe uppers from hides, skins, or fabricated
materials, by means of a clicking machine. Work involves: Setting
leather or* other shoe material on cutting table of machine; selecting
proper die and setting it in place on material; depressing lever to
cause upper arm to drop automatically on the die with sufficient force
to cut material to the shape and size of the die.
DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
poses. Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May pre­
pare drawings from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties
under direction of a draftsman.
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes,
rough or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manu­
facturing purposes. Duties involve a combination of the following:
Preparing working plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-sections, etc. ,
to scale by use of drafting instruments; making engineering computa­
tions such as those involved in strength of materials, beams and
trusses; verifying completed work, checking dimensions, materials
to be used, and quantities; writing specifications; making adjustments
or changes in drawings or specifications. May ink in lines and letters
on pencil drawings, prepare detail units of complete drawings, or
trace drawings. Work is frequently in a specialized field such as
architectural, electrical, mechanical, or structural drafting.
DRILL-PRESS OPERATOR, SINGLE- OR MULTIPLE-SPINDLE
Operates one or more types of single- or multiple-spindle
drill-presses, to perform such operations as drilling, reaming,
counter-sinking, counterboring, spot-facing, and tapping. Drill-press
operators, radial, and operators of portable drilling equipment are
excluded (For description of class of work see machine-tool operator, pr oduction.)




DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
Under general supervision and with no supervisory respon­
sibilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten
matter, using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary ad­
justment such as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed.
Is not required to prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file of
used stencils or Ditto masters. May sort, collate, and staple com­
pleted material.
ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE
Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the .
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating,
distribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment.
Work involves most of the following: Installing or repairing any of
a variety of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers,
switchboards, controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units,
conduit systems, or other transmission equipment; working from blue­
prints, drawings, layout, or other specifications; locating and diag­
nosing trouble in the electrical system or equipment; working standard
computations relating to load requirements of wiring or electrical
equipment; using a variety of electrician's handtools and measuring
and testing instruments. In general, the work of the maintenance
electrician requires rounded training and experience usually ac­
quired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.
ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, mo­
tors, turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers
and boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a
record of operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consump­
tion. May also supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers
in establishments employing more than one""engineer are excluded.

24
ENGINE-LATHE OPERATOR
Operates an engine lathe for shaping external and internal
cylindrical surfaces of metal objects. The engine lathe, basically
characterized by a headstock, tailstock, and power-fed tool carriage,
is a general-purpose machine tool used primarily for turning. It is
also commonly used in performing such operations as facing, boring,
drilling, and threading, and, equipped with appropriate attachments,
may be used for a very wide variety of special machining operations.
The stock may be held in position by the lathe "center s** or by various
types of chucks and fixtures. Bench-lathe operators, automatic-lathe
operators, screw-machine operators, automatic, and turret-lathe
operators, hand (including hand screw machine) are excludecT (£\>r
description of class of work see machine-tool operator, production. )
FANCY STITCHER
(Applique stitcher; blind-row stitcher; etching stitcher; eyeletrow stitcher; stripper, stitching; trimming stitcher)
Operates a power-driven sewing machine to stitch decorative
designs on shoe uppers, such as outlining eyelet row, stitching imita­
tion foxings or fancy panel designs, running extra rows of stitching,
and stitching piping and ornamental leather strips (applique). Work
involves: Inserting material under the presser foot and needle of ma­
chine; depressing lever to start machine; guiding material by hand
(usually along previously marked lines on material) as stitching is
performed.
FINISHER, FLATWORK, MACHINE
Performs flatwork-finishing operations by machine. Work
involves one or more of the following: Shaking out the creases in
semidry washing to prepare it for the fiatwork-ironing machine; feed­
ing clean, damp fl.atwork pieces into the fiatwork-ironing machine by
placing the articles on the feeder rollers; catching or receiving articles
as they emerge from the machine and partially folding them.
FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER
Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuel to fire by hand
or operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water
and safety valves. May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom equipment.
FLOOR BOY OR GIRL
(Assembly boy; floorman; router)
Keeps stock and distributes partially finished materials used
in the manufacture of footwear to various departments to keep workers
supplied with material, using truck or carrying material. May per­
form simple machine operations under direction of foreman, such as
tempering soles and molding edges of soles.




GREASER
(Lubricating man)
Lubricates', by means of hand-operated or compressed-air
operated grease guns and oil sprays, all parts of automobiles or trucks
where lubrication is required, using proper type lubricant on the
various points on chassis or motors; drains old lubricant from lubri­
cant reservoirs and refills with new. May perform other related
duties, such as checking radiator water level, checking and adding
distilled water to battery, repairing tires, etc. May also perform
duties of washer.
GUARD
Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on
tour, maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. In­
cludes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity~f
employees and other persons entering.
HEEL-SEAT LASTER
Operates a heel-seat-lasting machine which draws the heel
section of shoe upper tightly over the last and automatically tacks
the edges to the heel seat of the insole. Work involves: Setting shoe
on machine and manipulating controls which cause the wiper plates to
draw the upper and lining evenly over the heel seat. Machine auto­
matically drives tacks through upper and insole.
HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE
Assists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance
trades, by performing specific or general duties of lesser skill, such
as keeping a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning work­
ing area, machine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding ma­
terials or tools; performing other unskilled tasks as directed by jour­
neyman. The kind of work the helper .is permitted to perform varies
from trade to trade: In some trades the helper is confined to sup­
plying, lifting, and holding materials and tools and cleaning working
areas; and in others he is permitted to perform specialized machine
operations, or parts of a trade that are also performed by workers
on a full-time basis.
IDENTIFIER (OTHER THAN MARKER)
(Classifier)
Sorts bundles of soiled laundry, placing the articles into vari­
ous net bags and attaching customer identification tags or tickets onto
the bags. May weigh, list, or count some or all articles contained
in each bundle. Does not include workers who mark or otherwise
identify each piece in a bundle, and assemblers who do not handle
soiled clothing preparatory to washing (see marker).

35
INSPECTOR
Inspects parts, products, and/or processes. Performs such
operations as examining parts or products for flaws and defects,
checking their dimensions and appearance to determine whether they
meet the required standards and specifications.
Class A— Responsible for decisions regarding the quality of the
product and/or operations. Work involves any combination of the
following: Thorough knowledge of the processing operations in
tiie branch of work to which assigned, including the use of a
variety of precision measuring instruments; interpreting drawings
and specifications in inspection work on units composed of a large
number of component parts; examining a variety of products or
processing operations; determining causes of flaws in products
and/or processes and suggesting necessary changes to correct
work methods; devising inspection procedures for new products.
Class B— Work involves any combination of the following:
Knowledge of processing operations in the branch of work to
which assigned, limited to familiar products and processes or
where performance is dependent on past experience; performing
inspection operations on products and/or processes having rigid
specifications, but where the inspection procedures involve a se­
quence of inspection operations, including decisions regarding
proper fit or performance of some parts; using precision measur­
ing instruments.
Class C— Work involves any combination of the following:
Short-cycle, repetitive inspection operations; using a standardized,
special-purpose measuring instrument repetitively; visual examina­
tion of parts or products, rejecting units having obvious deformi­
ties or flaws.
JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working
areas and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house,
or commercial or other establishment. Duties involve a combination
of the following: Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors;
removing chips, trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture,
or fixtures; polishing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies
and minor maintenance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and
restrooms. Workers who specialize in window washing are excluded.
KEY-PUNCH OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards
by punching a series of holes in the cards in a specified sequence,
using an alphabetical or a numerical key-punch machine, following
written information on records. May duplicate cards by using the
duplicating device attached to machine. Keeps files of punch cards.
May verify own work or work of others.




LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker;
stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant,
store, or other establishment whose duties involve one or more of
the following: Loading and unloading various materials and merchan­
dise on or from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices;
unpacking, shelving, or placing materials or merchandise in proper
storage location; transporting materials or merchandise by hand truck,
car, or wheelbarrow. Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are
excluded.
MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, PRODUCTION
Operates one or more nonportable, power-driven machine
tools in order to shape metal by progressively removing portions of
the stock in the form of chips or shavings, or by abrasion. For
wage study purposes, this classification is limited to operators of the
following types of machine tools:
Automatic lathes
Boring machines
Drill presses, radial
Drill presses, single- or
multiple - s pindle
Engine lathes
Gear-cutting machines
Gear-finishing machines
Grinding machines

♦Machine tools,
miscellaneous
Milling machines
Planers
Screw machines, automatic
Screw machines, hand
Shapers
Turret lathes, automatic
Turret lathes, hand

Class A—Sets up machines, by determining proper feeds,
speeds, tooling and operation sequence or by selecting those pre­
scribed in drawings, blueprints or layouts; makes necessary ad­
justments during-operation where changes in work and setup are
relatively frequent and where care is essential to achieve requisite
dimensions of very close tolerances.
Class B— Sets up machines on standard or roughing opera­
tions where feeds, speeds, tooling and operation sequence are
prescribed or maintains operation setup made*by others; makes
all necessary adjustments during operation where care is es­
sential to achieve very close tolerances or where changes in
product are relatively frequent.
Class C— Operates machines on routine and repetitive opera­
tions! makes only minor adjustments during operations; when
trouble occurs stops machine and calls foreman, leadman, or
setup man to correct the operation.
♦ Operators required alternately to operate more than one type
of machine tool as listed above are classified as machine-tool opera­
tor, miscellaneous.

26

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM

MAINTENANCE MAN, GENERAL UTILITY— Continued

Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine
lathes, or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools,
gauges, jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most of the following:
Planning and performing difficult machining operations; processing
items requiring complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy;
using a variety of precision measuring instruments; selecting feeds,
speeds, tooling and operation sequence; making necessary adjust­
ments during operation to achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions.
May be required to recognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools,
and to select proper coolants and cutting and lubricating oils. For
cross-industry wage study purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom,
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

maintenance work is impractical) in repair; whose duties involve the
performance of operations and the use of tools and equipment of several
trades, rather than specialization in one trade or one type of mainte­
nance work only, and whose work involves a combination of the fol­
lowing: Planning and laying out of work relating to repair of buildings,
machines, mechanical, and/or electrical equipment; repairing elec­
trical and/or mechanical equipment; installing, aligning and balancing
new equipment; and repairing buildings, floors, stairs, as well as
making and repairing bins, cribs, and partitions.

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs
of metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment.
Work involves most of the following: Interpreting written instruc­
tions and specifications; planning and laying out of work; using a va­
riety of machinist's handtools and precision measuring instruments;
setting up and operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal
parts to close, tolerances; making standard shop computations relat­
ing to dimensions of work, tooling, feeds and speeds of machining;
knowledge of the working properties of the common metals; selecting
standard materials, parts, and equipment required for his work; fitting
and assembling parts into mechanical equipment. In general, the
machinist's work normally requires a rounded training in machineshop practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.
MACHINIST, PRODUCTION
Fabricates metal parts involving a series of progressive oper­
ations. Work involves most of the following: Interpreting written
instructions and specifications; planning and laying out work; using a
variety of machinist's handtools and precision measuring instruments;
setting up and operating standard machine tools; shaping metal parts
to close tolerances; making standard shop computations relating to
dimensions of work, tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge
of the working properties of the common metals; selecting standard
materials, parts, and equipment needed for the work; fitting and as­
sembling parts. In general, the machinist's work normally requires
a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
MAINTENANCE MAN, GENERAL UTILITY
Keeps the machines, mechanical equipment, and/or structure
of an establishment (usually a small plant where specialization in




MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE
Repairs automobiles and trucks, performing such duties as
disassembling and overhauling engines, transmissions, clutches, rear
ends, and other assemblies on automobiles, replacing worn or broken
parts, grinding valves, adjusting brakes, tightening body bolts, aligning
wheels, etc. In addition to general automotive mechanics, this clas­
sification also includes workers whose duties are limited to repairing
and overhauling the motor.
Class A— Repairs, rebuilds, or overhauls engines, transmis­
sions^ clutches, rear ends, or other assemblies, replaces worn
or broken parts, grinds valves, bores cylinders, fits rings. In
addition may adjust brakes or lights, tighten body bolts, align
wheels, etc. May remove or replace motors, transmissions, or
other assemblies. May do machining of parts.
Class B— Adjusts brakes or lights, tightens body bolts, aligns
wheels, or makes other adjustments or repairs of a minor nature;
or removes and replaces motors, transmissions, clutches, rear
ends, etc., but does no repairing, rebuilding, or overhauling of
these assemblies. Workers who are employed as helpers to m e­
chanics are excluded from this classification.
MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of
an establishment. Work involves most of the following: Examining
automotive equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling
equipment and performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches, gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in dis­
assembling or fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts from
stock; grinding and adjusting valves; reassembling and installing the
various assemblies in the vehicle and making necessary adjustments;
alining wheels, adjusting brakes and lights, or tightening body bolts.
In general, the work of the automotive mechanic requires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprentice­
ship or equivalent training and experience.

27
MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE

OILER

Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establish­
ment.
Work involves most of the following: Examining machines
and mechanical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling
or partly dismantling machines and performing repairs that mainly
involve the use of handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing
broken or defective parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the
production of a replacement part by a machine shop or sending of
the machine to a machine shop for major repairs; preparing written
specifications for major repairs or for the production of parts ordered
from machine shop; reassembling machines; and making all necessary
adjustments for operation.
In general, the work of a maintenance
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a'formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
Excluded from this classification are workers whose primary duties
involve setting up or adjusting machines.

Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing
surfaces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.

MILLWRIGHT
Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant lay­
out are required. Work involves most of the following: Planning and
laying out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications;
using a variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop com­
putations relating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of
gravity; alining and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools,
equipment, and parts to be used; installing and maintaining in good
order power transmission equipment such as drives and speed re­
ducers. In general, the millwright's work normally requires a rounded
training and experience in the trade acquired through a formal appren­
ticeship or equivalent training and experience.
NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on
the premises of a factory or other establishment.
Duties involve a
combination of the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; at”
tending to subsequent dressing of employees1 injuries; keeping records
of patients treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or
other purposes; conducting physical examinations and health evaluations
of applicants and employees; and planning and carrying out programs
involving health education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant
environment, or other activities affecting the health* welfare, and
safety of all personnel.
OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands,
operating minor office machines such as sealers or m ailers, opening
and distributing mail, and other minor clerical work,




PACKER, SHIPPING
Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires
the placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or
more of the following: Knowledge of various items of stock in order
to verify content; selection of appropriate type and size of container;
inserting enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to
prevent breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; applying
labels or entering identifying data on container.
Packers who also
make wooden boxes or crates are excluded.
PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates wails, woodwork, and fixtures of an
establishment.
Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface
peculiarities and types of paint required Tor different applications;
preparing surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing
putty or filler in nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray
gun or brush.
May mix colors, oils, while lead, and other paint
ingredients to obtain proper color or consistency.
In general, the
work of the maintenance painter requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience.
PARTS MAN
(Counterman; parts clerk, automobile)
Sells automobile parts to customers and fills requisitions of
service department for parts. Gives information concerning specific
parts to customer, using catalogs as source of information. Marks
and stores parts in stockroom according to prearranged plan.
PASTER, BACKER, OR FITTER, UPPER, HAND
(Backer; backing paster; backing cementer; canvas backer, upper;
cementer, upper to lining; fitter, upper to lining; paster, line and
brush, hand; paster; plain paster; reinforcer paster; quarter and
lining fitter; upper doubler)
Reinforces vamps, tops, straps, and other parts of shoes, by
pasting to each a piece of cut-to-size canvas, thin leather, or other
lining material (doubler). Work involves one or more of the following:
Pressing doubler against cement-covered roll and sticking doubler to
leather parts, using backing tape which is so prepared that it sticks
when pressed on other material with a hot iron. May paste reinforcing
over only a portion of upper that is exposed to extra wear or strain.

28
PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE

PUNCH-PRESS OPERATOR— Continued

Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe
and pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most of the fol­
lowing: Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe
from drawings or other written specifications; cutting various sizes
of pipe to correct lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene
torch or pipe-cutting machine; threading pipe with stocks and dies;
bending pipe by hand-driven or power-driven machines; assembling
pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard
shop computations relating to pressures, flow, and size of pipe re­
quired; making standard tests to determine whether finished pipes meet
specifications.
In general, the work of the maintenance pipefitter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. Workers
primarily engaged in installing and repairing building sanitation or
heating systems are excluded.

Punch presses are commonly designated by functional names
derived from the operation they perform, such as blanking press or
forming press; by names descriptive of the frame, such as arch press;
or by names that indicate how the power is transmitted, such as crank
press or toggle press.

PRESSER, MACHINE, DRY CLEANING
Smooths the surfaces of garments, slip covers, drapes, and
other shaped-fabric articles with a pressing machine to shape the
articles, remove wrinkles, and to flatten seams.
May operate two
presses, loading one while the other is closed.
PRESSER, MACHINE, SHIRTS
Operates or tends the operation of one or more of the several
type machines that press shirts. Performs such shirt pressing opera­
tions as body pressing, bosom pressing, collar and cuff pressing,
and/or sleeve pressing.
PULLOVER-MACHINE OPERATOR
(P ullers-over, machine)
Operates a machine in which the upper at the toe and along
the sides of the front of the shoe is pulled over and tacked tempo­
rarily to the last to give preliminary shaping to the front part of the
upper and to attach it to the insole and the last.
Work involves;
Setting shoe in holding jig of machine; depressing lever to rotate
mechanism that closes top and side jaws on edge of upper; positioning
upper on last by manipulating tip levers to align center of upper oon
center of last; depressing lever to rotate mechanism through second
half of travel, and to drive tacks at toe and along the side of the shoe,
which hold upper in position until stapled or tacked along entire edge.
PUNCH-PRESS OPERATOR
Feeds and operates a power press equipped with special pro­
duction dies that perform one or a combination of cutting and shaping
operations on the stock. Individual pieces of stock or partly fabricated
units may be positioned in the machine by the operator, or the machine
may be equipped with a feeding device that automatically positions
single pieces of stock or repetitively positions strip or sheet stock
for successive operations.




Class A— Work involves any combination of the following: Dif­
ficult positioning of work units because of size or shape, or type
of operation to be performed; processing unusually large work that
is positioned in the press with the aid of other workers; processing
work units that must be steadied while operations are being per­
formed; deep drawing or forming operations requiring careful
positioning of work and prompt recognition of faulty operation;
short-run work requiring ability to perform a variety of punchpress operations or to operate several types of presses; examining
output and making adjustments as necessary to maintain production
within standards; setting, aligning, and adjusting dies and fixtures
in the press.
Class B—Required mainly to feed, control, and examine opera­
tion "oFTKe~press, and when trouble occurs to call on foreman,
leadman, or die maker to correct the situation.
Work involves
one or more of the following: Performing single operations, such
as punching, blanking, or piercing on small or medium size stock
easily positioned by hand; feeding-small units into the press from
a feed race or chute; loading and tending a press equipped with a
feeding device for handling a strip or sheet stock, or a dial drum,
magazine, or hopper feed for handling individual stock blanks.
REPAIRER
(Blemish remover)
Corrects imperfections in the finish of the completed shoe.
Work involves most of the following: Removing stains, scratches,
blemishes, and loose threads; blending various shades of fluid, wax
filler, or crayon to affected part of shoe.
May use hand spray gun
with colored dope to cover blemished area.
SECRETARY
Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an
administrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint­
ments for superior; receiving people coming into office; answering
and making phone calls; handling personal and important or confi­
dential mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative;
taking dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in
shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, and transcribing dicta­
tion or the recorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine.
May prepare special reports or memoranda for information of superior.

29

SERVICE SALESMAN
(Automobile inspector; garage-dervice floorman; automobile-repair
serviceman; write-up man)
Examines automobiles driven into garage by customers and
determines need and cost of repairs.
Ascertains nature of needed
repairs by testing, by questioning customer concerning performance
of automobile, or by visual inspection.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK— Continued
other records; checking for shortages and rejecting damaged goods;
routing merchandise or materials to proper departments; maintaining
necessary records and files.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows;
Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
SIDE LAS TER, MACHINE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing)
of an establishment. Work involves most of the following: Planning
and laying out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blue­
prints, models, or other specifications; setting up and operating all
available types of sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of
handtools in cutting, bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assem ­
bling; installing sheet-metal articles as required.
In general, the
work of the maintenance sheet-metal worker requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.
SHEET-METAL WORKER, PRODUCTION
Fabricates, assembles, alters, repairs, and installs sheetmetal products. Work involves most of the following: Planning and
laying out of work from drawings, blueprints, models, or other written
or oral instructions; using a variety of sheet-metal-working handtools
in bending, forming, shaping, fitting up, and fastening of all types of
sheet-metal work; making necessary shop computations and using
sheet-metal measuring instruments; setting up and operating a variety
of types and sizes of sheet-metal-working machines; working to precise
specifications; devising methods, procedures, and operation sequences
on work performed by other workers on a specialized basis. In gen­
eral, the work of the sheet-metal worker requires a rounded training
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is re­
sponsible for incoming shipment of merchandise or other materials.
Shipping work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, prac­
tices, routes, available means of transportation and rates; and pre­
paring records of the goods shipped, making up bills of lading, post­
ing weight and shipping charges, and keeping a file of shipping records.
May direct or A ssist in preparing the merchandise for shipment.
Receiving work involves; Verifying or directing others in verifying
the correctness of shipments against bills of lading, invoices, or




Operates a machine to last the sides and shanks of the upper.
Work involves; Drawing out lining and upper with hand pincers, holding
shoe so that pincers of machine grasp edges of upper and draw them
evenly and closely about the last, and manipulating lever of machine to
operate device which drives staples or tacks through the upper at the
sides and shanks.
SOLE ATTACHER, CEMENT PROCESS
(Compo-conveyor operator; sole layer, machine; sole-laying ma­
chine operator; soler)
Operates a sole-laying machine to cement outsoles permanently to the uppers of shoes.
Work involves; Setting toe part of
shoe on which outsole has been positioned and heel part of last directly
below corresponding jacks (lugs) of machine; pressing air pedal (which
opens valve on pipe leading to air compressor storage tank) to fill the
air cushion and force the shoe against the jacks which hold the out­
sole firmly in place while the cement dries.
May also, prior to
permanent attachment of outsole, brush a coat of solvent over the
inner surface of the outsole from the heel seat to the toe and press
outer sole oh shpe, being certain that edges of sole project evenly
over the edges of shoe.
STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a
normal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a type­
writer. May also type from written copy. May also set up and keep
files in order, keep simple records, etc.
Does not include tran­
scribing-machine work (see transcribing-machine operator).
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Operates a single- or multiple-positiontelephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office
calls.
May record toll calls and take m essages.
May give infor­
mation to persons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders.
For workers who also act as receptionists see switchboard operatorreceptionist.

30
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST

TELLER, PAYING OR PAYING AND RECEIVING, COMMERCIAL

In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single posi­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also
type or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties.
This typing or clerical work may take the major part of this worker's
time while at switchboard.

Cashes customers' personal or other checks. May also re­
ceive deposits on checking accounts and make entries in customers'
account books. Writes up or signs deposit slips to be used later in
balancing books. May record the daily transactions and balance ac­
counts.
May supervise one or more clerks who record details of
transactions, such as names, dates, serial numbers, and amounts in­
volved so that pertinent data may be distributed among the several
departments for recording, filing, and clearing.
May also handle
withdrawals and deposits on savings accounts.

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Operates machine that automatically analyzes and translates
information punched in groups of tabulating cards and prints trans­
lated data on forms or accounting records; sets or adjusts machine;
does simple wiring of plugboards according to established practice
or diagrams; places cards to be tabulated in feed magazine and starts
machine^ May file cards after they are tabulated. May, in addition,
operate auxiliary machines.

For wage study purposes, workers are classified by years of
service, as follows:
Under 5 years of service
5 or more years of service
TELLER, SAVINGS

TELLER, ALL AROUND
Receives deposits and pays out withdrawals on savings ac­
counts; receives deposits and cashes checks for checking accounts; re­
ceives payments on notes, etc.
May record daily transactions and
balance accounts.
May supervise one or more clerks who record
details of transactions, such as names, dates, serial numbers, and
amounts involved so that pertinent data may be distributed among the
several departments for recording, filing, and clearing.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified by years of
service, as follows:
Under 5 years of service
5 or more years of service
TELLER, NOTE
Collects exchange charges and payments on notes, drafts,
rents, and contracts for deeds.
May accept and give receipts for
collateral on maturity notes. Is in charge of sending out notices of
maturity. Receives renewal notes. Protests items when it is neces­
sary.
Causes notes to be presented at other places, when place of
payment is other than the bank. Follows up on the value of collateral.
In the case of real estate notes, sees that mortgages are properly
recorded and checks certificates of title. Checks fire insurance cov­
erage. Must be familiar with Negotiable Instruments Act and standard
terms of extention agreements.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified by years of
service, as follows:
Under 5 years of service
5 or more years of service




Receives deposits and pays out withdrawals on savings ac­
counts.
Makes entries in customers' account books.
Writes up or
signs deposit slips to be used later in balancing books. May record
daily transactions and balance accounts. May supervise one or more
clerks who record details of transactions.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified by years of
service, as follows:
Under 5 years of service
5 or more years of service
TESTER
(Air tester; electric-motor tester; hardness inspector; hydraulic
tester; internal-combustion-engine tester, water tester)
Performs tests on parts or products to determine whether the
operation and/or characteristics of various parts or products meet
required standards and specifications.
Class A— Responsibility for decisions regarding the quality
and/or operating performance of the unit.
Work involves any
combination of the following: Using a wide variety of precision
measuring instruments and testing equipment; interpreting draw­
ings and specifications as to operating requirements; testing a
wide variety of products or parts; devising test equipment setups
in conducting experimental, development, or commercial tests.
Class B-—Some responsibility for decisions regarding the
quality and/or operating performance of the product or device.
Work involves any combination of the following: Testing products
or parts having rigid specifications, but where testing procedures
and allowable variations are prescribed; performing repetitive
tests which involve a sequence of testing operation?; using pre­
cision testing equipment.

31
TESTER— Continued
Class C — Work involves any combination of the following:
Short-cycle repetitive testing operations; using a standard or
special-purpose testing instrument or test set repetitively; ac­
cepting or rejecting units on the basis of prescribed standards.
TOOL AND DIE MAKER

TRUCKDRIVER
Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport
materials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of
establishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, ware­
houses, wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail estab­
lishments and customers' houses or places of business.
May also
load or unload truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical
repairs, and keep truck in good working order. Driver-salesm en and
over-the-road drivers are excluded.

(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix­
tures or .dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work.
Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying out of work
from models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifi­
cations; using a variety of tool and die maker's handtools and precision
measuring instruments; understanding of the working properties of
common metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools
and related equipment; making necessary shop computations relating
to dimensions of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools
and dies to achieve required qualities; working to close tolerances;
fitting and assembling of parts to prescribed tolerances and allow­
ances; selecting appropriate materials, tools, and processes.
In
general, the tool and die maker's work requires a rounded training
in machine-shop and toolroom practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size
and type of equipment, as follows: (Tractor-trailer should be rated
on the basis of trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver (combination of sizes listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under IV2 tons)
Truckdriver, medium ( 1 V to and including 4 tons)
2
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)
TRUCKER, POWER
Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about
a warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.

For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of
truck, as follows:
TOP STITCHER
Operates a sewing machine to stitch the lining to the upper
part of a shoe and to trim off excess edges of lining.
Work involves:
Fitting lining to upper to obtain proper allowance for insertion of
counter or receiving upper and lining already fitted or cemented to­
gether; setting parts into machine at heel seam, lowering guide down
to the edge of top of upper, and guiding parts through machine by hand
to complete stitching and trimming operation.

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal
routine vocabulary from transcribing machine records.
May also
type from written copy and do simple clerical work. Workers tran­
scribing dictation involving a varied technical or specialized vocabu­
lary such as legal briefs or reports on scientific research are not
included. A worker who takes dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype
or similar machine is classified as a stenographer, general.




Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)
TURRET-LATHE OPERATOR, HAND (INCLUDING HAND
SCREW MACHINE)

Operates a lathe equipped with a turret used to present a
number of cutting tools, required for a cycle of machining operations,
to the work in sequence. Operations commonly performed on a turret
lathe include turning, facing, boring, drilling, and threading.
The
operator rotates or indexes the turret to bring the tools toward the
work for each operation.
Individual workpieces, such as forgings
and castings, are held in a chuck or the lathe may be equipped with
a bar stock feeding device to present the correct length of stock
to the tools at the beginning of each cycle of operations.
(For decription of class of work see machine-tool operator, production.)

32
TYPIST

WASHER, MACHINE

Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to
made out bills after calculations have been made by another person.
May do clerical work involving little special training, such as keep­
ing simple records, filing records and reports or sorting and dis­
tribution incoming mail.

Operates one or more washing machines to wash household
linens, garments, curtains, drapes, and other articles. Work involves
the following: Manipulating valves, switches, and levers to start and
stop the machine and to control the amount and temperature of water
for the sudsing and rinsing of each batch; mixing and adding soap,
bluing, and bleaching solutions; loading and unloading the washing ma­
chine, if not done by loaders or unloaders (pullers). May make minor
repairs to washing machine.

Class A— Performs one or more of the following:
Typing
material in final form from very rough and involved draft; copy­
ing from plain or corrected copy in which there is a frequent
and varied use of technical and unusual words or from foreignlanguage copy; combining material from several sources, or
planning layout of complicated statistical tables to maintain uni­
formity and balance in spacing; typing tables from rough draft in
final form.
May type routine form letters, varying details to
suit circumstances.
Class B— Performs one or more of the following:
Typing
from relatively clear or typed drafts; routine typing of forms,
insurance policies, etc. ; setting up simple standard tabulations, or
copying more complex tables already set up and spaced properly.
VAMPER

WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.
WRAPPER, BUNDLE
Wraps packages or finished products, or packs articles, goods,
or materials and secures the package or box with twine, ribbon,
gummed tape, or paste. May segregate articles according to size or
type, or according to customer’ s order and inspect articles for defects
before wrapping.
WELDER, HAND

(Vamp closer; vamp stitcher; zigzag seamer)
By use of a power-driven sewing machine, sews together the
forepart of the upper (tip and vamp) and the two quarters of a shoe.
Work involves: Setting overlapped edges together under presser foot
and needle of machine; depressing lever to start machine and guiding
material through stitching process; sewing top to entire lower part of
upper when shoe has a cut separate from quarters, or has a whole
vamp. Parts are sometimes first pasted together by another worker
to insure more accurate stitching.
WASHER
(Car washer; wash boy)
Washes automobiles and trucks; sweeps and cleans interior of
automobile; may polish auto vehicle bodies, using polishing compound
and a cloth. Various parts of this job may be performed by individual
workers in automobile laundry production lines.




Fuses (welds) metal objects together by means of an oxyacetylene torch or arc welding apparatus in the fabrication of metal shapes
and in repairing broken or cracked metal objects. In addition to per­
forming hand welding or brazing operation, the welder may also lay
out guide lines or marks on metal parts and may cut metal with a
cutting torch.
Class A— Performs welding operations requiring most of the
following: Planning and laying out of work from drawings, blue­
prints, or other written specifications; knowledge of welding prop­
erties of a variety of metals and alloys; setting up work and de­
termining operation sequence; welding high pressure vessels or
other objects involving critical safety and load requirements;
working from a variety of positions.
Class B— Performs welding operations on repetitive work,
where no critical safety and load requirements are involved; where
the work calls mainly for one-position welding; and where the lay­
out and planning of the work are performed by others.

☆ U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1959 O - 523872

Occupational Wage Surveys
Occupational wage surveys were conducted in 21 major labor markets during late 1958 and early 1959. These bulletins, numbered
1240-1 through 1240-21, may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C., or from
any of the BLS regional sales offices shown below.
A summary bulletin (1240-22) containing data for all labor markets, except Lawrence, Mass., combined with additional analysis will be
issued early in I960.
Bulletins for the areas listed below are now available.
Seattle, Wash., August 1958 — BLS Bull. 1240-1, price 25 cents
Baltimore, Md., August 1958 — BLS Bull. 1240-2, price 25 cents
Buffalo £Erie and Niagara Counties), N.Y., Septen&er 1958 — BLS Bull. 1240-3,
price 25 cents
St. Louis, Mo., October 1958 — BLS Bull. 1240-4, price 15 cents
Dallas, Tex., October 1958 — BLS Bull. 1240-5, price 25 cents
Boston, Mass., October 1958 — BLS Bull. 1240-6, price 25 cents
Denver, Colo., December 1958 — BLS Bull. 1240-7, price 20 cents
Philadelphia, Pa., November 1958 — BLS Bull. 1240-8, price 30 cents
Newark-Jersey City, N.J., December 1958 — BLS Bull. 1240-9, price 20 cents
Memphis, Tenn., January 1959 — BLS Bull. 1240-10, price 20 cents
Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minn., January 1959 — BLS Bull. 1240-11, price 20 cents




Detroit, Mich., January 1959 — BLS Bull. 1240-12, price 25 cents
San Franc is co-Oakland, Calif., January 1959 — BLS Bull. 1240-13,
price 25 cents
New Orleans, La., February 1959 — BLS Bull. 1240-14, price 20 cents
Los Angeles-Long Beach, Calif., March 1959— BLS Bull. 1240-15,
price 25 cents
Milwaukee, Wis., April 1959 — BLS Bull. 1240-16, price 20 cents
New York, N.Y., April 1959 - BLS Bull. 1240-17, price 25 cents
Chicago, 111., April 1959 — BLS Bull. 1240-18, price 25 cents
Atlanta, Ga., May 1959 — BLS Bull. 1240-19, price 20 cents
Portland, Oreg., April 1959 — BLS Bull. 1240-20, price 20 cents





Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102