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Occupational W
age Survey

P H IL A D E L P H IA ,

P E N N S Y L V A N IA

O C T O B E R

Bulletin

No .

1224-6

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary



1 9 5 7

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clagut, Commissionar




Occupational Wage Survey
PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA




OCTOBER 1957

Bulletin No. 1224-6
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Claguo, Commissioner
February 1958

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C.

Price 25 cents




Contents

Preface

Page
The Community Wage Survey Program
The Bureau of Labor Statistics regularly conducts
area wide wage surveys in a number of important industrial
centers.
The studies, made from late fall to early spring,
relate to occupational earnings and related supplementary
benefits.
A preliminary report is available on completion
of the study in each area, usually in the month following the
payroll period studied. This bulletin provides additional data
not included in the earlier report. A consolidated analytical
bulletin summarizing the results of all of the year*s surveys
is issued after completion of the final area bulletin for the
current round of surveys.




Introduction__________________________________________________________
Wage trends for selected occupational groups _____________________

1
4

Tables:
1.
2.

Establishments and workers within scope of su r v e y ________
Indexes of standard weekly salaries and straight-time
hourly earnings for selected occupational groups,
and percent of increase for selected periods ____________

A:

Occupational earnings * A - 1: Office occupations _____________________________________
A -2 : Professional and technical occupations ______________
A - 3; Maintenance and power plant occupations _____________
A -4 ; Custodial and material movement occupations _____

2
4
5
9
9
11

B: Establishment practices and supplementary wage
provisions * B - 1: Shift differ ential s ______________________________________ 14
B -2 : Minimum entrance rates for women office w o rk ers_15
B -3 : Scheduled weekly h o u rs________________________________ 16
B -4 ; Overtime pay p ra ctices________________________________ 16
B -5 : Wage structure characteristics and labormanagement agreem ents_____________________________
17
B -6 : Paid holidays ___________________________________________ 18
B -7 : Paid vacations __________________________________________ 20
B -8 : Health, insurance, and pension plans ________________ 22
Appendix:

Job descriptions _________________________________________

23

* NOTE: Similar tabulations for most of these items are availa­
ble in the Philadelphia area reports for May 1950, October 1951,
October 1952, October 1953, November 1954, November 1955, and
November 19560 The 1953 report also provides tabulations of wage
structure characteristics, labor-management agreements, and
overtime pay provisions.
The 1954 report also includes data on
frequency of wage payments, and pay provisions for holidays falling
on nonworkdays. A directory indicating date of study and the price
of the reports, as well as reports f o r other major areas, is
available upon request.
A report . on occupational earnings and supplementary wage
practices in the Philadelphia area is also available for women's
and m isse s' coats and suits (February 1957), and woolen and wor­
sted textiles (September 1957).
Union scales, indicative of pre­
vailing pay levels, are available for the following trades or in­
dustries: Building construction, printing, local-transit operating
employees, and motortruck drivers and helpers.

iii




Occupational Wage Survey - Philadelphia, Pa.*
Introduction

The Philadelphia area is one of several important industrial
centers in which the Department of Laborfs Bureau of Labor Statistics
has conducted surveys of occupational earnings and related wage bene­
fits on an areawide basis. In each area, data are obtained by Bureau
field agents from representative establishments within six broad in­
dustry divisions: Manufacturing; transportation (excluding railroads),
communication, and other public utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade;
finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. Major industry
groups excluded from these studies, besides railroads, are govern­
ment operations and the construction and extractive industries. E s ­
tablishments having fewer than a prescribed number of workers are
omitted also because they furnish insufficient employment in the occu­
pations studied to warrant inclusion.1 Wherever possible, separate
tabulations are provided for each of the broad industry divisions.
These surveys are conducted on a sample basis because of the
unnecessary cost involved in surveying all establishments. To obtain
appropriate accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of large
than of small establishments is studied. In combining the data, how­
ever, all establishments are given their appropriate weight. Estimates
based on the establishments studied are presented, therefore, as re­
lating to all establishments in the industry grouping and area, ex­
cept for those below the minimum size studied.
Occupations and Earnings
The occupations selected for study are common to a variety
of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries. Occupational clas­
sification is based on a uniform set of job descriptions designed to
take account of interestablishment variation in duties within the same
job (see appendix for listing of these descriptions). Earnings data are
presented (in the A -series tables) for the following types of occupa­
tions: (a) Office clerical; (b) professional and technical; (c) mainte­
nance and powerplant; and (d) custodial and material movement.
Occupational employment and earnings data are shown for
full-time workers, i. e. , those hired to work a regular weekly sched­
ule in the given occupational classification.
Earnings data exclude
premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and
late shifts.
Nonproduction bonuses are excluded also, but cost-ofliving bonuses and incentive earnings are included.
Where weekly
hours are reported, as for office clerical occupations, reference is
* This report was prepared in the Bureau^ regional office in
New York, N. Y. , by Elliott A . Browar, under the direction of Paul E.
Warwick, Regional Wage and Industrial Relations Analyst.
1 See table on page 2 for minimum-size establishment covered.




to the work schedules (rounded to the nearest half hour) for which
straight-time salaries are paid; average weekly earnings for these
occupations have been rounded to the nearest half dollar.
Occupational employment estimates represent the total in all
establishments within the scope of the study and not the number actu­
ally surveyed. Because of differences in occupational structure among
establishments, the estimates of occupational employment obtained
from the sample of establishments studied serve only to indicate the
relative importance of the jobs studied. These differences in occu­
pational structure do not materially affect the accuracy of the earn­
ings data.
Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Information is presented also (in the B -series tables) on se­
lected establishment practices and supplementary benefits as they re­
late to office and plant workers.
The term “office w o rk e rs," as
used in this bulletin, includes all office clerical employees and ex­
cludes administrative, executive, professional, and technical personnel.
“Plant workers"include working foremen and all nonsupervisory work­
ers (including leadmen and trainees) engaged in nonoffice functions.
Administrative, executive, professional, and technical employees, and
force-account construction employees who are utilized as a separate
work force are excluded.
Cafeteria workers and routemen are ex­
cluded in manufacturing industries, but are included as plant workers
in nonmanufacturing industries.
Shift differential data (table B -l) are limited to manufacturing
industries. This information is presented both in terms of (a) estab­
lishment p olicy ,2 presented in terms of total plant worker employ­
ment, and (b) effective practice, presented on the basis of workers
actually employed on the specified shift at the time of the survey.
In establishments having varied differentials, the amount applying to
a majority was used or, if no amount applied to a majority, the clas­
sification “other" was used.
In establishments in which some lateshift hours are paid at normal rates, a differential was recorded only
if it applied to a majority of the shift hours.
Minimum entrance rates (table B-2) relate only to the estab­
lishments visited.
They are presented on an establishment, rather
than on an employment basis. Overtime pay practices; paid holidays;
paid vacations; and health, insurance, and pension plans are treated
statistically on the basis that these are applicable to all plant or office
2
An establishment was considered as having a policy if it met
either of the following conditions: (l) Operated late shifts at the time
of the survey, or (2) had formal provisions covering late shifts.

2
workers if a majority of such workers are eligible or may eventually
qualify for the practices listed.
Scheduled hours, wage structure
characteristics, and labor-management agreements are treated sta­
tistically on the basis that these are applicable to all plant or office
workers if a majority are covered.3 Because of rounding, sums of
individual items in these tabulations do not necessarily equal totals.
The first part of the paid holidays table presents the num­
ber of whole and half holidays actually provided.
The second part
combines whole and half holidays to show total holiday time. The
third section presents a list of the paid holidays and the proportions
of workers to whom they are granted annually.
The summary of vacation plans is limited to formal arrange­
ments, excluding informal plans whereby time off with pay is granted
at the discretion of the employer.
Separate estimates are provided
according to employer practice in computing vacation payments, such
as time payments, percent of annual earnings, or flat-sum amounts.
However, in the tabulations of vacation allowances, payments not on
a time basis were converted; for example, a payment of 2 percent of
annual earnings was considered as the equivalent of 1 week* s pay.
Data are presented for all health, insurance, and pension
plans for which at least a part of the cost is borne by the employer,
excepting only legal requirements such as workmen* s compensation
and social security. Such plans include those underwritten by a com­
mercial insurance company and those provided through a union fund or

paid directly by the employer out of current operating funds k
or from
a fund set aside for this purpose. Death benefits are included as a
form of life insurance.
Sickness and accident insurance is limited to that type of in­
surance under which predetermined cash payments are made directly
to the insured on a weekly or monthly basis during illness or accident
disability.
Information is presented for all such plans to which the
employer contributes.
However, in New York and New Jersey, which
have enacted temporary disability insurance laws which require em­
ployer contributions,4 plans are included only if the employer (l) con­
tributes more than is legally required, or (2) provides the employee
with benefits which exceed the requirements of the law. Tabulations
of paid sick-leave plans are limited to formal plans 5 which provide
full pay or a proportion of the worker *s pay during absence from work
because of illness.
Separate tabulations are provided according to
(l) plans which provide full pay and no waiting period, and (2) plans
providing either partial pay or a waiting period. In addition to the
presentation of the proportions of workers who are provided sickness
and accident insurance or paid sick leave, an unduplicated total is
shown of workers who receive either or both types of benefits.

4 The temporary disability laws in California and Rhode Island
do not require employer contributions.
5 An establishment was considered as having a formal plan if
3
Scheduled weekly hours for office workers (first section of established at least the minimum number of days of sick leave that
it
could be expected by each employee. Such a plan need not be written,
table B -3) were presented in earlier years in terms of the propor­
but informal sick leave allowances, determined on an individual basis,
tion of women office workers employed in offices with the indicated
were excluded.
weekly hours for women workers.
Table 1: Establishm ents and w ork ers within scope of survey and num ber studied in Philadelphia, P a . , 1 by m a jor industry d ivision , O ctober 1957

Industry division

Minimum
em ployment
in estab lish ­
ments in
scope of
study

Number of establishm ents
Within
scope of
stu d y1

W ork ers in establishm ents
Within scope of study

Studied

Studied
Total 3

Office

Plant

Total 3

A ll divisions ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

_

1 ,4 3 9

323

537, 700

9 3 ,2 0 0

34 4, 100

3 2 6 ,4 5 0

Manufacturing --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Transportation (excluding r a ilro a d s), com m unication, and
other public utilities 4 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------W holesale t r a d e -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Retail trade 5 — -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Finance, insurance, and real e s t a t e -----------------------------------------------------S ervices 7 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------

101
-

671
768

144
179

3 1 4 ,2 0 0
2 2 3 ,5 0 0

37, 100
56, 100

2 2 3 ,4 0 0
120, 700

1 8 2 ,5 3 0
1 4 3 ,9 2 0

101
51
101
51
51

66
224
107
172
199

25
36
34
45
39

51, 700
3 0 ,9 0 0
71, 700
4 2 ,5 0 0
26 , 700

9 ,0 0 0
8 ,6 0 0
9 ,2 0 0
25 , 500
3, 800

3 1 ,4 0 0
1 3 ,1 0 0
5 5 ,3 0 0
2 ,9 0 0
18, 000

4 3 ,8 0 0
9 ,0 4 0
55, 330
26 , 380
9 ,3 7 0

6

1 The Philadelphia A rea (Philadelphia and Delaw are Counties, P a. , and Camden County, N. J. ).
The "w ork ers within scope of stud y" estim ates shown in this table provide a reasonably accurate
description of the siz e and com position of the labor force included in the su rvey.
The estim ates are not intended, how ever, to serve as a b asis of com parison with other area em ployment indexes to
m easure em ploym ent trends or le vels since ( l) planning of wage surveys requires the use of establishm ent data com piled considerably in advance of the pay period studied and (2) sm a ll establishm ents
are excluded from the scope of the su rvey.
a Includes all establishm ents with total em ploym ent at or above the m in im u m -siz e lim itation.
A ll outlets (within the area) of companies in such industries as trade, finance, auto repair se r v ic e ,
and m otion -p icture theaters are considered as 1 establish m en t.
3 Includes executive, technical, p r o fe ssio n a l, and other w orkers excluded from the separate office and plant cate gories.
4 A lso excludes taxicabs, and se r v ic e s incidental to water transportation.
5 Excludes lim ite d -p r ic e variety sto r e s .
6 Estim ate relates to real estate establishm ents only.
7 H otels; p ersonal se r v ic e s ; business s e r v ic e s ; autom obile repair shops; radio broadcasting and television; m otion p ictures; nonprofit m em bership organizations; and engineering and architectural s e r v ic e s .




3
Catastrophe insurance, sometimes referred to as extended
medical insurance, includes those plans which are designed to protect
employees in case of sickness and injury involving expenses beyond
the normal coverage of hospitalization, medical, and surgical plans.
Medical insurance refers to plans providing for complete or partial
payment of doctors1 fees. Such plans may be underwritten by commer­
cial insurance companies or nonprofit organizations or they may be
self-insured.
Tabulations of retirement pension plans are limited to
those plans that provide monthly payments for the remainder of the
worker* s life.
With reference to wage structure characteristics, proportions
of time and incentive workers directly reflect employment-under each




pay system. However, because of technical considerations, all time­
rated workers (plant or office) in an establishment were classified to
the predominant type of rate structure applying to these workers.
Incentive-worker employment was- classified according to the pre­
dominant type of incentive plan in each establishment.
Graduated provisions for premium overtime pay were classi­
fied to the first effective premium rate.
For example, a pian calling
for time and one-half after 8 and double time after 10 hours a day
was tabulated as time and one-half after 8 hours. Similarly, a plan
calling for no pay or pay at regular rate after 37 l/ z hours (regular
weekly schedule) and time and one-half after 40 was considered as
time and one-half after 40 hours.

4

Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups
The table below presents indexes of salaries of office clerical
workers and industrial nurses, and of average earnings of selected
plant worker groups.
For office clerical workers and industrial nurses, the indexes
relate to average weekly salaries for normal hours of work, that is,
the standard work schedule for which straight-time salaries are paid.
For plant worker groups, they measure changes in straight-time hourly
earnings, excluding premium pay for overtime and for work on week­
ends, holidays, and late shifts.
The indexes are based on data for
selected key occupations and include most of the numerically im ­
portant jobs within each group.
The office clerical data are based
on women in the following 18 jobs: B illers, machine (billing m a­
chine); bookkeeping-machine operators, class A and B; Comptometer
operators; clerks, file, class A and B; clerks, order; clerks, pay-*
roll; key-punch operators; office girls; secretaries; stenographers,
general; switchboard operators; switchboard operator-receptionists;
tabulating-machine operators; transcribing-machine operators, gen­
eral; and typists, class A and B. The industrial nurse data are based
on women industrial nurses. Men in the following 10 skilled mainte­
nance jobs and 3 unskilled jobs were included in the plant worker
data: Skilled— carpenters; electricians; machinists; mechanics; m e­
chanics, automotive; millwrights; painters; pipefitters; sheet-metal
workers; and tool and die makers; unskilled— janitors, porters, and
cleaners; laborers, material handling; and watchmen.
Average weekly salaries or average hourly earnings were
computed for each of the selected occupations. The average salaries
or hourly earnings were then multiplied by the average of 1953 and
1954 employment in the job.
These weighted earnings for individual

occupations were then totaled to obtain an aggregate for each occupa­
tional group. Finally, the ratio of these group aggregates for a given
year to the aggregate for the base period (survey month, winter 1952-53)
was computed and the result multiplied by the base year index (100) to
get the index for the given year.
The indexes m easure, principally, the effects of (l) general
salary and wage changes; (2) merit or other increases in pay received
by individual workers while in the same job; and (3) changes in the
labor force such as labor turnover, force expansions, force reduc­
tions, and changes in the proportion of workers employed by estab­
lishments with different pay levels.
Changes in the labor force can
cause increases or decreases in the occupational averages without
actual wage changes. For example, a force expansion might increase
the proportion of lower paid workers in a specific occupation and re­
sult in a drop in the average, whereas a reduction in the proportion
of lower paid workers would have the opposite effect. The movement
of a high-paying establishment out of an area could cause the average
earnings to drop, even though no change in rates occurred in other
area establishments.
The use of constant employment weights eliminates the effects
of changes in the proportion of workers represented in each job in­
cluded in the data.
Nor are the indexes influenced by changes in
standard work schedules or in premium pay for overtime, since they
are based on pay for straight-time hours.
Indexes for the period 1953 to 1957 for workers in 14 major
labor markets appeared in BLS Bull. 1202, Wages and Related Benefits,
17 Labor Markets, 1956-57.

T a b le 2! In dexes of stan dard w e e k ly s a l a r ie s and s tr a ig h t-tim e h o u r ly e a rn in g s fo r s e l e c t e d o c cu p a tio n a l g r o u p s
i n P h i l a d e l p h i a , P a . , O c t o b e r 1 95 7 a n d N o v e m b e r 1 9 5 6 a n d p e r c e n t o f c h a n g e f o r s e l e c t e d p e r i o d s
Indexes
(O c to b e r 1952=100)
In du stry and o c c u p a t io n a l g r o u p
O ctober

195 7

N o v e m b e r 1956

P e rce n t change fr o m —
N o v e m b e r 19 5 6
to
O c t o b e r 19 5 7

N o v e m b e r 1955
to
N o v e m b e r 1 95 6

N o v e m b e r 19 5 4
to
N o v e m b e r 1955

O c t o b e r 19 5 3
to
N o v e m b e r 1954

O c t o b e r 1952
to
O c t o b e r 1953

O c t o b e r 1951
to
O c t o b e r 1952

A ll in du stries:
O f f i c e c l e r i c a l ( w o m e n ) _________________
I n d u s t r i a l n u r s e s ( w o m e n ) ______________
S k i l l e d m a i n t e n a n c e ( m e n ) ____________ _
U n sk ille d plant (m en )

12 9 .0
13 0 .2
12 8 .8
128. 1

1 2 2 .0
1 2 2 .2
1 22 .5
12 0 .9

5.7
6 .5
5 .2
6.0

6.5
6.2
5.2
4 .7

3.4
4 .3
4.0
6.0

3.4
3.0
4 .4
4 .3

7. 1
7.1
7.2
4.5

4. 6
5.0
5.0
7 .3

M a n u fa ctu rin g:
O ffice c le r i c a l (w om en) _
I n d u s t r i a l n u r s e s ( w o m e n ) ______________
S k i l l e d m a i n t e n a n c e ( m e n ) ______________
U n s k i l l e d p l a n t ( m e n ) _____________________

1 27 .9
1 3 0 .7
1 2 8 .2
1 2 5 .9

12 0 .4
1 2 3 .6
1 2 2 .0
11 9 .0

6.2
5.7
5.1
5 .8

5. 1
6 .1
5.4
4.5

2. 8
5.0
3 .8
5.5

4.6
2.9
3.9
4.5

6 .6
7.9
7.2
3. 3

5 .2
5.0
5.1
9 .4




5

A : O c c u p a t i o n a l E a r n in g s

T a b le A -1 :

O ffic e O c c u p a tio n s

(Average straigh t-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
in Philadelphia, P a ., by industry division, October 1957)
A vera g e

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

N U M B E R O F W O R K E R S R E C E IV I N G S T R A IG H T -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S O F—

5 0 .0 0

$
5 5 .0 0

$
6 0 .0 0

$
6 5 .0 0

$
7 0 .0 0

$
7 5 .0 0

$
8 0 .0 0

5 0 .0 0

5 5 .0 0

6 0 .0 0

6 5 .0 0

7 0 .0 0

7 5 .0 0

8 0 .0 0

8 5 .0 0

9 0 .0 0

_
_
_

_
_
_

13
7
.
1

43
28
15
10
4

45
21
24
1
9
11

46
29
17
4
6

71
38
33
16
14

99
70
29
7
8
11

$
Weeklyj
(Standard)

Weekly
earnings1
(Standard)

$

3 5 .0 0
and
under
4 0 .0 0

4 0 .0 0

$
4 5 .0 0

4 5 .0 0

$

$

8 5 .0 0

$

9 0 .0 0

$

$

$

$

$

$

9 5 .0 0 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 .0 0 12 0 .0 0
and
9 5 .0 0 i o n . n o 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 over

Men
_
_
_

_
_
-

63
56“
7
3
3

70
40
30
20
8

52
31
21
12
1
8

47

17
1
16
14
_

4
3
1
_
1

2
2
_
_

-

6
2
4
_
2
-

-

-

59
4
55
51

46
$
37
29

5
2
3
3

21
7
14
14

-

15
13
2

25
4
21

31
25
6

3
3
-

3
2
1

1
_
1

_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
.
_
_

_
_
_
_
_

-

'

-

-

-

123
8o
43
17
14

62
38
24
6
2

30
24
6
1
5

17
14
3
3
-

9

-

3
2
1
1
-

2
2

3
3

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

_
_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

.

_

.

_

C ler k s, accounting, class A
_____
Manufacturing _____________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing
_ ....
... _ _
_
. ...
Public utilities | ______________________________________
W holesale trade
_ _
F inance|| _____________________________________________

656
401
255
34
108
81

3 8 .5
3 8 .5
3 8 .0
3 8 .5
3 8 .5
3 7 .0

9 1 .5 0
9 1 .5 0
9 2 .0 0
1 0 1 .0 0
9 6 .0 0
8 8 .5 0

-

-

-

-

4
_
4
.
1

C le r k s, accounting, c la ss B _______________________________
Manufacturing
...
..... ............. . _
Nonmanufacturing
_. „
. .... . .
Public utilities |
__
____
_.
W holesale trade
.
_
___
Finance f| ______________________________________________

310
89
221
29
61
108

3 8 .0
3 8 .5
3 7 .5
3 8 .5
3 9 .5
3 6 .0

6 6 .5 0
7 3 .6 0
6 4 .0 0
8 0 .5 0
6 7 .0 0
5 6 .0 0

1
1
_
_
1

10
10
_
9

10
10
9

35
2
33
3
_
28

51
6
45
3
9
31

50
7
43
3
22
14

20
9
11
8
2

54
26
28
5
13
8

41
27
14
_
6
6

1
1
_
_

7
4
3
1
.

C le r k s, order ________________________________________________
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing _
W holesale trade ______________________________________

449
95
354
310

3 8 .5
3 8 .5
3 8 .5
3 9 .0

8 1 .0 0
7 9 .0 0
8 2 .0 0
8 1 .5 0

_
-

_
-

_
-

3
1
2

-

-

-

-

6
6
4

29
11
18
18

45
3
42
42

36
13
23
19

90
30
60
54

87
12
75
61

196
3 8 .5
8 0 .5 0
“ TTI------ “ 3 8 . 0 "| 8 0 .5 0
3 9 .5
65
8 1 .5 0

.
-

_
_

.
-

.
-

-

"

-

-

3
3

23
20
3

27
24
3

14
1
13

34
27
7

226
21
1 ' 1 14
1 12
20
_
12
_
4
34
9
46
3

192
19
113
19
37
29
19

112
45
67
2
13
39
4

79
37
42
2
24
10
6

8
4
4
_
_
4
-

8
6
2
1
1
_

2
2
_
_
_
_

-

-

2
2
_
2

12
_
12
_
12

27
1
26
_
24

47
12
35
_
35

67
~T5—
52
20
29

61
43
9
20

90
40
50
12
31

114
57
57
16
32

14
11
3
1

7
1
6
2

77
17
60
9

76
33
43
11

42
7
35
26

50
19
31
8

77
19
58
14

15
15

C le r k s, pavroll _
Manufacturing __ _
Nonmanufacturing

___

Office boys ____________________________________________________
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing
_
......
Public utilities |
_ . _
_ ... ...
W holesale trade
_
. . . .
Finance ||
....
.. .
_ ...
S ervices _______________________________________________

679
315
364
37
79
126
79

3 8 .0
3 9 .0
3 7 .5
3 7 .5
3 8 .0
3 6 .5
3 9 .0

4 8 .0 0
4 9 .5 0
4 7 .5 0
4 6 .5 0
5 1 .0 0
4 7 .5 0
4 5 .0 0

Tabulating-m achine operators
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing
W holesale trade
Finance ||
.. .
_

679
357
88
206

3 8 .5
3 9 .5
3 8 .0
3 8 .5
3 7 .5

7 5 .0 0
8 0 .5 0
7 0 .0 0
7 6 .0 0
6 5 .5 0

363
127
236
71

3 7 .5
3 8 .0
3 7 .0
3 5 .0

6 1 .0 0
6 1 .5 0
6 0 .5 0
6 0 .5 0

... .
_

____
_

_
_
_
-

—

r ~

31 /
27
4
1
.
1
1

lE

—

_
_

54
27
27
_
227

-

14
5
9
_
7

1
1
_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_

-

-

-

-

4
1
3
3

1
1

_
-

17
1
16
12

10
9
1

1
1
-

6
2
4

_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
.
_

1$

18
7
3
7

35
21
14
7
7

-

13
----- H
5—
3
3
-

-

-

-

_
_
_
_

2
2 -----_
_

-

—

-

W om en
B ille r s , machine (billing m achine)
...........
Manufacturing _
Nonmanufacturing ________________________________________
Finance | | _____ __
___
B ille rs, machine (bookkeeping m a c h in e )__________________
Manufacturing _____________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing
.
.. .
____
. ..
Retail t r a d e 3

Bookkeeping-m achine op erators, c la ss A _______________
M an u factu rin g__________________________
Nonmanufacturing
Finance || _
.
.......
.
_

194
69
125
115

346
“ 723
123
54

3 8 .5
3 8 .6
3 9 .0
3 9 .0

3 7 .5
3 7 .5
3 7 .0
3 6 .5

5 8 .0 0
6 4 .5 0
5 4 .5 0
5 3 .5 0

6 7 .0 0
6 9 .5 0
6 3 .0 0
6 2 .5 0

_
-

3

23

_

_

_

3
3

19
19

23
23

33
5
28
28

8

19

.
-

_

32
15
17
15

21
17
4
3

34
16
18
12

65
41
24
15

115
8l
34
16

11

_

6

38
16

8
6

5
3

22

4

_

-

-

-

-

_

18
6
12
11

7
6
1
1

4
4

45

21
14
7

22

23
10

_
_

_

_
_

_
_

_

_
_

_
_

_
_

-

-

-

-

-

*

-

-

-

24
24

15
15

_
_

_
_

_

'

■

_

_

3

1

3
_

1
_

'

See footnotes at end of table.
t Transportation (excluding ra ilro a d s), com m unication,
I t Finance, insurance, and real estate.




and other public u tilities.

_

_

-

'

'

6
T a b le A - l :

O f fi c e O c c u p a t i o n s - C o n tin u e d

(A verage straigh t-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
in Philadelphia, P a ., by industry division, O ctober 1957)
A v e RAGE

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

N U M B E R O F W O R K E R S R E C E IV I N G S T R A IG H T -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S O F—
$

Weekly,
hours1
(Standard)

Weekly
earnings1
(Standard)

$

3 5 .0 0
under
4 0 .0 0

4 0 .0 0

$
4 5 .0 0

$
5 0 .0 0

$
5 5 .0 0

$
6 0 .0 0

$
6 5 .0 0

$
7 0 .0 0

"

“

“

4 5 .0 0

$
7 5 .0 0

$
8 0 .0 0

$
8 5 .0 0

$
9 0 .0 0

~

■

“

8 0 .0 0

8 5 .0 0

9 0 .0 0

9 5 .0 0

$
$
$
$
$
$
9 5 .0 0 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 .0 0 12 0 .0 0
and
~
-

5 0 .0 0

5 5 .0 0

6 0 .0 0

6 5 .0 0

302

359
45
316
2
16
297

372
36
336
53
18
257

225
59
166
44
24
82

112
50
62
28
12
19

74
l2
62
32
12
12

49
l5
34
25
3
6

19
6
13
7
6

2

_

_

_

6
6

6
6

6
6

_

_

_

6
6

-

-

-

-

-

82
17
65

119
19
100
1

117
9
15
23
68

55
58
17
4

64
36
28
6

34
25
9
3

43
31
12

_

136
58
78
4
8
37
23

179

13

64
1
63

_
_

4

12
4
8
5
3

_

6

8

7
3
4

14

on

70

7 5 .0 0

n o 1 0 5 .0 0

10 0

1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0

W om en - Continued
$

Bookkeeping-m achine o p erators, c la s s B ________
Manufacturing _________________________________ ____
Nonmanufacturing _________________________________
W h olesale t r a d e ________________________________
Retail trade 3 ___________________________________
Finance f t _______________________________________

3 8 .0

5 6 .5 0

3

3375“

6 1.0 0

-

3 8 .0
3 9 .0
3 8 .0
3 8 .0

5 6 .0 0
6 7 .5 0
5 8 .0 0
5 3 .0 0

3

962
359
603
33
88
135
311

3 7 .5
3 8 .0
3 7 .5
3 7 .0
3 9 .0
3 9 .0
3 6 .0

7 2 .5 0
" 77.' 50"'
6 9 .5 0
8 3 .0 0
7 9 .5 0
6 9 .5 0
6 6. 50

C le r k s, accounting, cla ss B ________________________
Manufacturing _______________ _______________________
Nonmanufacturing ______________________ ___________
Public utilities t _____________ ^___ ___ __________
W holesale trade _______________________ ___ _____
R etail trade 3 ___________________________________
Finance t t _______________________________________
S e rvices __________ ______________________________

1 ,9 5 0
476
1 ,4 7 2
76
178
632
465
121

3 8 .0
3 8 .5
3 7 .5
3 8 .5
3 9 .0
3 8 .0
3 6 .5
3 8 .5

5 7 .5 0
oO.OO
5 7 .0 0
7 4 .0 0
6 5 .5 0
5 5 .5 0
5 2 .5 0
6 0 .0 0

C le r k s, file , c la ss A ______________________ __________
Manufacturing ______________________________________
Nonmanufacturing _________________________ ________
Public utilities f __________________^___ _________
W holesale trade ________________________________
Finance t t

417
132
265
28
57
157

3 8 .0
3 9 .0
3 7 .5
3 6 .0
3 9 .0
3 7 .0

6 1 .5 0
6 4 .0 0
6 0 .5 0
5 6 .0 0
7 3 .0 0
5 6 .5 0

C le r k s, file , c la ss B _________________________________
Manufacturing ______________________________________
Nonmanufacturing __________________________________
Public utilities t ________________________________
W holesale trade ________________________________
Retail trade 3 ____________________________________
Finance t t ______________________________________ _
S e rvices _____________________________ ^__________

1 ,8 2 6
404
1 ,4 2 2
59
191
252
831
89

3 8 .0
3 9 .0
3 7 .5
3 6 .5
3 9 .0
3 9 .5
3 6 .5
3 9 .0

4 7 . 50
53". 50
4 6 .0 0
5 7 .0 0
5 1 .0 0
4 2 .0 0
4 5 .5 0
4 6 .0 0

C le r k s, order __________________________________________
Manufacturing ______________________________________
Nonmanufacturing __________________________________
Retail trade 3 ____________________________________

669
239
430
152

3 9 .0
5 8 .0
3 9 .5
3 9 .5

5 3 .5 0
5 8 .5 0
5 1 .0 0
4 9 .0 0

C le r k s, p a y r o ll________________________________________
M an u factu rin g______________________________________
Nonmanufacturing __________________________________
W h olesale trade ________________________________
Retail trade 3 ____________________________________
Finance t t ________________________________________

1, 160
7W ~
370
53
96
79

3 8 .0
3 8 .5
3 7 .5
3 9 .0
3 8 .5
3 5 .5

6 5 .0 0
6 6 .5 0
6 2 .0 0
8 2 .5 0
5 9 .0 0
5 9 .0 0

C le r k s, accounting, c la ss A ________________•
_______ •
.
Manufacturing _____________________________________
Nonmanufac t ur ing ______________________________ Public utilities t ___________________________ ;___
W holesale trade ________________________________
Retail trade 3 ______________________________ _____
Finance t t _______________________________________

1 ,6 1 3
242
1, 371
221
122
993

72
1
71

18

3

13
58

284
6
18
259

_

_

13

-

_

_

_
_

7
6

9
39

7
13
45

17
4
74

137
62
75
1
16
22
28

345
97
248
3
9
96
125
15

349
65
284
10
34
146
88
6

420
93'
327
10
30
164
117
6

348
87
261
3
33
101
51
73

114
36
78
4
17
33
10
14

57
31
26
5
3
2
11
5

_

65
9
56
4

58
17
41
13

74
38
36
3

6
2

_

_

49

26

27

66
31
35
2
1
27

46
12
34
5
13
14

323
96
233
22
77
17
105
12

145
84
61
13
19
1
28

30
25
5
1
3
1

_

-

_
_
_

_
_
_

-

-

10

123

.

_

10

123

_

_

10
-

-

13
50
60
8

_

-

8

_
_

-

-

62




6

6

_

6

-

-

-

-

2

8

12

_

_

45
19
26
5
15
6

37
ll
26
17
1
8

4

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

41
14
27
1
15
6

18
9
9

30
i9
11

2
1
1

2

1

6

.

_

-

-

6
3

10
1

_
_
.
_

14
11
3
3

8
2
6
5
1

5
4
1

■_

_

_

_

14
12

2

8

12

_

_

_

_
.

8

12

2

2

.

_

.

i

_

_
_
_

1

6

.
_

_
_

_

1

-

1

1
1

.

.
_
_
_
_
_

6

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

106
26
80
34

112
83
29
16

115
45
70
47

56
7
49
2

8
6
2
2

10
9
1
1

42
58
4
1

11
11

3

2
2

3

10

6
1
5

103
38
65

170
76
100

144
“ loo
44
10
8
14

196
“ 155
41

159
131
28
4
3
3

134
112
22
12
2
6

79
66
13
8
4

62
37
25
8
2
9

_
_
_
_

_

5

_

18
12

_

28
23

_

17
12

_
_

-

and other public u tilities,

-

_

-

_

_

_
_
_
_
_
.

3
-

-

60
52
8

13
11
2

_

_

1

2

_
_
.
_
_
_

_

_
_

_
_
_
_
_
_

_

_

3
-

10
-

13
9
4
2
2

9
5
4

_

4

_

_

_
_
_
_

_
_

_
_

_
_
.
_
_
_

_
_
_

.

-

_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
.

_
_
_

_
_

-

_

6
2
2

_
_
_

_
.
-

.
_
_
.
_

-

_

6

9

_

-

.
_

9

_
_

_
_
_

-

156
12
144
20

_

_
_

_
1
_

_

_

59
36
23
7
3
8
3
2

_
_

_

-

_

13
108
399
41

_

9

15
6

15
87
28

-

-

1
1

_

_

29
29

-

_
_
_

_

-

6

_
6
_

130

29

8
5
3

6

83
43
40
7
23
1
9
-

_

_
_
_

_
3
_

472
96
382
8
39
37
262
36

_

_
_
_
_

_

615
54
561

130

_
_
_
_

5
8

.

See footnotes at end of table.
t Transportation (excluding ra ilr o a d s), com m unication,
f t Finance, insurance, and re a l e state.

8

_
_
_
_
.

.

_
_
1
------- 1

_
_
_

.
_
_
9

_

9
49

_

7
T a b le A - l :

O f f i c e O c c u p a t i o n s - C o n tin u e d

(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
in Philadelphia, Pa., by industry division, October 1957)
A vbkagb
Sex,

o c c u p a tio n ,

Number
of
workers

an d in d u stry d iv is io n

Weekly;
hours
(Standard)

Weekly .
earnings
(Standard)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—
3 5 .0 0
and
under
4 0 . QQ

W om en C o m p to m eter o p e ra to rs

.

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g
_
W h o le s a le tr a d e
R e ta il tr a d e 3

_

_

1 ,5 8 4
U o 904
145
251
73
431

P u b lic u tilitie s t - - _ _
W h o le s a le tr a d e
_
_
_
R e t a i l t r a d e 3 ______________________________________________________
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

_

_

_

_

_

—
..... ..... ......

__________________________________________________________

S e c r e t a r i e s __________________________________________________________ ____
M a n u fa c tu r in g
...
__ .
.._ .. .
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ___________________________________________________
P u b lic u tilitie s t
.............
.... ...... W h o l e s a l e t r a d e _________________________________________________
R e t a i l t r a d e 3 _______________________________ ____________________
F in a n c e t t —
S e r v ic e s _
_
._
S te n o g ra p h e rs, g e n e ra l
M a n u fa c tu r in g
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g _

...........

362
m r
240
66

5 , 165
2 ,6 0 9
208
447
255
1, 356
343

>
P
6 2 .0 0
6 4 .0 6

$
6 5 .0 0

$
7 0 .0 0

$
7 5 .0 0

$
8 0 .0 0

$
8 5 .0 0

$
9 0 .0 0

4 5 .0 0

5 0 .0 0

5 5 .0 0

6 0 .0 0

6 5 .0 0

7 3 .0 0

7 5 .0 0

8 0 .0 0

8 5 .0 0

9 0 .0 0

9 5 .0 0

115

163

143

208

~ n —
104
-

47

21
_

116
36

5l
92

75
133

3

18

100

75

29
49

57
67

23
37

79

1

9
4

18

19
16

20

-

22
5

37

3 9 .5

5 5 .0 0
5 9 .6 6

14
13

3 8 .0

6 0 .0 0

_

26

165

336

303

O
3 7 .5
3 8 .0
3 9 .0
3 8 .5
3 6 .5

T 3 . oo
5 8 .0 0
5 8 .5 0
6 0 .0 0
6 0 .0 0
5 6 .0 0

_
.

22
_

92
244

T I T
190

22

77
25
16
125

14
48

-

47—
118
13
45
6
54

19
107

3 8 .5
"3 9 .6
3 8 .0
3 6 .5

4 6 . 50
5 0 .0 0
4 5 .0 0
4 5 .0 0

11
-

165
4l
124
31

102
“ 25—
74
23

41

3 8 .0
3 8 .5
3 7 .5
3 8 .0

7 8 .0 0
8 1 .5 6
7 4 .5 0
9 9 .5 0
7 8 .5 0
7 4 .0 0
7 0 .5 0
6 9 .0 0

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
-

-

9

1
_

34
-

297

1
_
_

34
_
_

1
_

29

3 9 .0
3 8 .0
3 9 .0

T

38
38
37
37

.5
.5
.0
.5

3 7 .5
3 7 .5

525
216
962
114

3 8 .0
3 8 .0
3 6 .5
3 7 .5

S te n o g r a p h e r s , te c h n ic a l
_
__ .
M a n u fa c tu r in g _ _
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ___________________________________________________

189
l 80
59

3 8 .5
3 9 .5
3 7 .0

7 2 .5 0
7 4 . 50
6 7 . 50

S w itc h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s
_
M a n u fa c tu r in g
_
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g __
_ ___
P u b lic u t ilit ie s t
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e ______ ______
R e ta il t r a d e 3
_

928

3 8 .5

111

3 9 .0

701

3 8 .0
3 9 .0
3 9 .5
3 9 .0
3 7 .0
3 8 .5

6 0 .5 0
6 8 .5 6
5 7 .5 0
7 0 .5 0
6 8 .0 0
5 1 .5 0
5 8 .0 0
4 8 .0 0

_ _ .

___

_
_

_
....................... .

.

. . . . .

F in a n c e t t _
.
S e r v i c e s ____________________________________________________________

.

.
_
--

_
....................................
_

_

99
85
134

...........
... ...

229
154

3 8 .0

39.6

5 11
4

4

22
19
4

$
%
1 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 5 .0 0

$
1 1 0 .0 0

$
1 1 5 .0 0

10 0 .0 0

1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 . 0 0

1 1 5 .0 0

1 2 0 .0 0

t
1 2 0 .0 0

over

21
— n —
8
4

143

38

“ 46
97

10
28

7

56
” T

—

11
------ 3 —

16
-------- T ~

_

_

_

-

_

_

2

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

_

_
_
_
_

12
15

8
_

13

5
3

8

-

5
4

2

1

_

_

-

-

223
131

135
"86

57

20

2

153

92

10
70

9
33

49
5

9
64

9
40

19
282
T T 3—

13
n —
2

4
------- * ~ ~
-

2

1
34
T S —
6

13

5
-

29
23
6

1
---------j—

_
_

-

-

-

_

_

_

_
_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_
-

5
2
3
7

1
5
_

11
1
_

_

_
_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1
-

2
------- 2

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

'

40
17

21
11
12

--------8—
12

1
1
1
_

_

'

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

516

668

108
81
27
22

56
36
20

112
57

304
17

199
137
62
12

46

379
5

509
332
177
36

157

275
393
5

649
845

182
3

685
808
382
22

283

140
376
-

764
385

20
13
127
19

33
26
272
45

47
35
240
66

37
54
196
87

105
23
152
80

115
24
137
11

47
36
54
4

6
7
45

2
_
3

7
1
_

15
4
1
_

604
254
350
40
58
44
184
24

692
'3 2 6
366
33

791
T T !—
420
44
109
34
215
18

29
89
20

501
"2 8 3
218
37
86
16
72
7

395

39
47
215
32

655
T 3 3 —
301
35
128

1 M
107
18
34
23
26
6

185
151
34
8
24
_

87
67
20
12
8
_

39
24
15
6
3
_
_

-

-

6

5
2
3

24
13
11

40
28

24
7
17

18
12
6

14
18
1

18

36

17
1

3l

6
5
1

108

163

38
2 0 ------- “
18
10
7
_

34
13—

10

32

1
1
_

3
6

11
73
13

20
97
_
_

266
84

-

-

59
2 38
67
23
17
130
1

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

35
-

72
-

68
-

35
_
_
_
_

72
-

68
-

30
_

26
24

43

145
25
120
13
5
25
64

7 35

42

15

9

13

3

5 5 ""
66

-

117

5

12 1

-

29
11
18
_

1
-

See footnotes at end of table.
t Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities,
tt Finance, insurance, and real estate.




9 5 .0 0

$

and

21
-

6 4 .5 0
T T W
6 1 .5 0
6 6 .0 0
6 6 .5 0
5 9 .5 0
5 8 .0 0
6 2 .0 0

_

*
6 0 .0 0

3
_

4 , 359
£ .2 0 6
2 , 153
336

F in a n c e t t S e r v i c e s ______

$
5 5 .0 0

3
-

130
82

M a n u f a c t u r i n g _________________________________________________________

P u b lic u tilitie s t W h o le s a le tr a d e
R e ta il tr a d e 3
_

S
5 0 .0 0

6 1 .0 0
6 6 .5 0
5 8 .5 0

3 9 .0
3 8 .0

459

K e y - p u n c h o p e r a t o r s ___________________________________________________
M a n u fa c tu r in g
_
_
_
_
_
_
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ___________________________________________________

F in a n c e t t

3 8 .5

715
203

D u p l i c a t i n g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s ( m i m e o g r a p h o r d i t t o ) ____

O f f i c e g i r l s _____
_ _
M a n u fa c tu r in g _ _
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g

%
4 5 .0 0

C o n tin u e d

1 ,0 4 3
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________________________________________ — 3 z a r

F in a n ce t t

$
4 0 .0 0

11
97

3
9

33

12

44
119

3
12
5
67

130
47
83
27
22
9
22

3

107
5 4 ------ “
53
21
18
6
8

1

2

21
16

4
_
_
1

5

4
6
6
_
_
_

74
16

17
10
18
5

"T o 9
48
8
_
10
26
4

32
14
6

6

55
41
7
_
7

-

-

-

-

37

10

31

_

_

_

19
18

9
1
_
1
_
_

1
30
27
3
_
_

_
_
_
_

_
.
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_

-

-

-

-

-

-

4

_

_

_

_

_

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

7
------- ? ------

6
1

1
-------- j------

_

_

_

_

_
_
_
_

5
_

_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_

-

9
9
_
_

5
_
_

_
_
_
_
_

_
_

8
T a b le A - l :
(A v e ra g e

O f fi c e O c c u p a t io n s - C o n tin u e d

s t r a i g h t - t i m e w e e k ly h o u r s a n d e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d o n a n a r e a
in P h i l a d e l p h i a , P a . , b y i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , O c t o b e r 1 9 5 7 )

A vebaqe
Number
of
workers

o c c u p a tio n ,

an d in d u s tr y d iv is io n

W om en -

Weekly
hours 1
(Standard)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

Weekly
earnings 1
(Standard)

$
3 5 .0 0
and
under

$
4 0 .0 0

$
4 5 .0 0

$
5 0 .0 0

-

-

-

-

-

■

4 0 .0 0

Sex,

4 5 . QQ

5 0 .0 0

5 5 .0 0

6 0 .0 0

6 5 . 00

7 0 .0 0

26

49
25
24
1

_

816

-

T r a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e
M a n u fa c tu r in g

....

. _

W h o le s a le tr a d e
F in a n c e ! !
_
T y p is ts , c la s s A
M a n u fa c tu r in g
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g
W h o le s a le tr a d e
F in a n c e ! !
_ _
S e r v ic e s

. .

.

_______ ____
_
............. ..
_
......

_
....

T y p ists, c la s s B
M a n u fa c tu r in g

_

_ .

.

_

.

...

r e fle c t

1

S ta n d a rd
A ll

E x c lu d e s lim it e d -p r ic e v a r ie ty s t o r e s .
A l l w o r k e r s w e r e a t $ 1 2 5 to $ 1 3 5 .
In c lu d e s 2 w o r k e r s at $ 3 0 an d u n d er $ 3 5 .
W o r k e r s w e r e d is tr ib u te d a s fo llo w s : 9 at

at

th e

.

2

w ere

3 8 .0
3 9 .0
3 8 .0
3 7 .0
3 7 .5

6 5 .5 0
7 4 . 50
6 1 .0 0
6 3 .5 0

$120

w orkw eek
to

fo r

202

$
7 0 .0 0

$
8 0 .0 0
-

7 5 .0 0

8 0 .0 0

8 5 .0 0

49
26
23

23

7

2

7
16
7

7
_
_

2
_

7
1

_
_

-

46

23

15
31

7
16

9
14

11 2

115

75
4

69
43

54

39

87
10
43

17
11

20
_

178
103

91

26

11
3

62

168
77

6

_

_
_
_

18
1

45
-

17
3
13

45
12

10
52
8

6 1 .0 0

_
_

19

40

5 8 .5 0

5

20

10 2

156

_

_

2

165
81

5 8 .5 0
6 5 .5 0
5 4 .0 0

5
-

20
-

100
12

84
26

-

10

59

50

78
18
46

3 8 .5
3 9 .5
3 7 .5
3 9 .0
3 7 .5
3 7 .5

129
588
332
1, 386
130

w h ic h

_

26

3 8 .5
3 8 .0
3 9 .0
36. 5

6 2 .5 0
6 7 .0 0
5 8 .0 0
6 8 .5 0
5 7 .0 0
5 9 .0 0

_
_

2
2
-

93
4
89
-

215
55
160
_

2
_

61
_

113
16

3 8 .0
3 9 .0
3 7 .5
3 7 .0
3 9 .5
3 9 .0
3 6 .0
3 8 .0
53

5 2 .5 0
5 4 . 50
5 1 .0 0
5 6 .5 0
5 4 . 50
5 2 .5 0
4 9 .0 0
.5 0

443

1110
3 l5
792
27
93
68
581
23

1197

e m p lo y e e s

5 9 .0 0

r e c e iv e

_

19
19
-

_
19

_

th e ir

99
344
36
58
245
5

r e g u la r

2
3
4
6

1

72
15

50
23

57
4
27

27
3

157
65

76
28

75
16

92
36

48
28

59
54

47

7

333
T o £
227
20
174
27

223
130
93
_

153
96
57
13

65
22

39
1

641
276
365
21
140

395
178
217
7
64
83
48
15

106
62
44
15
14
14
1
_

78

452
745
47
223
53
357
65

s tr a ig h t-tim e

7
33
_

34
151
19

s a la r ie s

and

th e

22

$
8 5 . 00

$
9 0 .0 0

$
9 5 .0 0

9 0 .0 0

-

9 5 .0 0

1 0 0 .0 0

$
10 0 .0 0
1 0 5 .0 0

$
$
1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 . 0 0
-

-

$
$
1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 . 0 0
-

1 1 0 . 0 0 1 1 5 .0 0

1 2 0 .0 0

and
over

$120

to

$125;
and

6

at

o th e r

$125

to

p u b lic

$130;

15

u tilitie s ,

at

$130

to

$135;

11

at

$135

and

_
_
_

_
_
_

_

_

_

_
_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_
_

_
_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

17
16

8
6

9
7

1
_

2
2

13
13
-

_

_

7
7
_

32

11

12
20

1
1

11

-

_

_

9

-

-

3
3

1

-

-

-

173
138
35
13
17

46
41
5
4
-

80
75
5
3
-

23

_

_

_

94
76
18
6
3
3
3
3

31
25
6
6

16
7

over.

_
_
_

_

_

11
4

e a r n in g s

_
_

_
_

6
3

$130.

7 In c lu d e s 4 w o r k e r s at $ 3 0 a n d u n d e r $ 3 5 .
$ T r a n s p o r t a t io n (e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a t io n ,
f t F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta te .




$
7 5 .0 0
-

_

_

_

3 8 .0

659
692
60
471
72

.

............... _ ........................._

. ____

h ou rs

-

4 ,0 6 1
"1 ,4 9 6 “
2 ,5 6 5

3
4
5
6

w orkers

5 5 .5 0

1 ,3 5 1

........

_____

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g
P u b lic u tilitie s !
W h o le s a le tr a d e
R e ta il tra d e 3
F in a n c e ! !
_
S e r v ic e s

3 8 .5

520
197
224

_

_ ..... __

....

_

806

gen eral

5 3 .5 0

286

o p e ra to rs,

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

$
6 5 .0 0

20

_

3 4 .5

50
142

-

5 9 .5 0
5 7 .5 0
6 5 .0 0
5 7 .0 0

361
113
248

-

3 8 .0
3 7 .5
3 7 .5
3 7 .5

53

T a b u la tin g -m a c h in e o p e r a to r s
M a n u fa c tu r in g
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

5 8 .5 0

199
53
S e r v ic e s

3 7 .5

431
385
31

F in a n c e $ f

$
6 0 .0 0

$
5 5 .0 0

C o n tin u e d

S w itc h b o a r d o p e r a t o r -r e c e p t io n i s t s

P u b lic u t i l i t i e s !

b a sis

_

9
-

_
_

9

_
_

correspon d

_

to

th ese

5
18
6
-

" -

4
^

6

1
1
_

2
2
_
_

7
1
6
6
_

_

_

w e e k ly

h o u rs.

_
_
_
_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

'

-

6
6
-

_

_

_

.

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

_

9
T a b le A - 2 :
(A v e r a g e

P r o fe s s io n a l aind T e c h n ic a l O c c u p a t i o n s

s t r a i g h t - t i m e w e e k ly h o u r s an d e a r n i n g s f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on a n a r e a b a s i s
in P h i la d e lp h i a , P a . , b y in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , O c t o b e r 1 9 5 7 )

N U M B E R O F W O R K E R S R E C E IV IN G S T R A IG H T -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S O F

A vera g e
and in d u s tr y d iv is io n

Weekly ^
(Standard)

Weekly

$

$

5 0 . 00

5 5 . 00

6 0 . 00

6 5 . 00

7 0 . 00

.

-

_

6 5 .0 0

7 0 . 00

7 5 . 00

8 0 .0 0

o
o
o

sO

5 5 . 85

$

'$
is
s
Is
$
1
Is
Is
Is
1
»
t6
1 0 5 . oq 1 1 0 . 0 0 1 1 5 . 0 0 ! 1 2 0 . 0 0 : 1 2 5 . 0 0 ;1 3 0 . 0 0 1 1 3 5 . 0 0 1 4 0 . 0 0 1 4 5 . 0 0 1 5 0 . 0 0 1 5 5 . 0 0
_
t
1
1
and
1
8 5 . 0 0 |9 0 . 0 0 1 9 5 . O O llO O . 0 0 1 0 5 . 0 0 110.00 1 1 5 . 0 0 1 2 0 . 0 0 1 1 2 5 . 0 0 1 i 3 0 . o q ll 3 5 . 0 0 1 1 4 0 . 0 0 1 1 4 5 . 0 0 1 5 0 . 0 0 1 5 5 . 0 0 o v e r
'

7 5 . 00

-

(Standard)

$

$

s

S
1

$

*

o
o
o

o c c u p a tio n ,

$

00

Sex,

Number
of

S

$

9 0 . 0 0 ! 9 5 . 00 1 0 0 .0 0

8 5 .0 0

-

;

;

-

-

i

M en

$
D r a f t s m e n , l e a d e r ______________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________

155

3 9.5

1 4 8 . 50

127

39. 5

1 4 9 .5 0

“
-

D r a ftsm e n ,
s e n i o r ______________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g __________________

1 ,25 2
1, 1 1 8
134

39. 5
40. 0

1 0 5 .0 0
1 0 4 .0 0

38. 0

1 10 . 50

D r a f t s m e n , j u n i o r _______________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g __________________

770
552
118

39. 5
40. 0
38. 5

8 2 . 00
8 2 . 50
7 7 . 50

11
5
6

56
53

40. 0
40. 0

5 9.5 0

20

5 9 . 50

20

-

-

-

1

-

_____________________________________

M a n u fa c tu r in g

________________________

14

15

25

14

15

25

-

-

-

-

22
2

71
60
11

61
47
14

92
83
9

35

7
5

10
10

19
18

_

_

“

“

-

-

~

24

1

50

88

83

154

50

83

63

134

142
137

-

-

5

20

20

70

68
6o
8

25

17

60
10

109
96
13

19
6

17

_

_

_

.

.

16
15
1

~

5

139
104

-

'

T racers

38
38

39
39

4
4

- i

96
87

133

!

121

|

,
:

4
4

9

l

81

76

29
25
4

66
15

70

3

?4
61
33

9

12

!

5

-

6

22
20

5 I

15

3

-

2

!
1

1

"

-

_

_

-

-

-

4

2

4

2

“

2

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

.

.

.

-

-

-

"
t

280
214
66

39. 0
3 9 .5
38. 5

8 2 .0 0
8 3 . 00
7 8 . 50

-

“

29
20

2

2
8

31

34

75

36

24

14

22

27

9

29
5

60

9

10

2
-

21
3

12
2

9
15

i-------------1
2

15
13

"

4

;

1
1

24 7
36

3
3

j______ I _ j_____ 6
6
i
-

W om en
N u r s e s , in d u s tr ia l ( r e g is t e r e d ) _
_
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g __________________

!

1 |

i

-

'

44
42

28
27 |

2 1

6
1

27
27

14
14

12 1 ___ 16
_
15
i
11
j_____ 3 0 _ 1 " 2 1
'
2g !
21

S ta n d a r d h o u r s r e f l e c t th e w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p l o y e e s
W o r k e r s w e r e d is tr ib u te d a s f o llo w s :
33 a t $ 155 to $ 1 6 0 ;

*

i

“ '
i
i

!

i________ 1

i_________1 ________
_

_

_____ i _ i

I

"

r e c e iv e t h e ir r e g u la r s t r a i g h t -t im e s a l a r i e s an d th e e a r n in g s c o r r e s p o n d to t h e s e w e e k ly h o u r s .
11 a t $ 1 6 0 t o $ 1 7 0 ; 3 a t $ 17 0 t o $ 1 8 0 .

T a b le
(A v e r a g e

1

A -3 :

M a in te n a n c e

and

P o w e r p la n t O c c u p a t i o n s

s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r ly e a r n i n g s fo r m e n in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s s tu d ie d o n a n a r e a b a s i s
in P h i l a d e l p h i a , P a . , b y i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , O c t o b e r 1 9 5 7 )
N UM BER OF WORKEBS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

O c c u p a tio n an d in d u s tr y d iv is io n

C a r p e n t e r s , m a i n t e n a n c e ____ _______________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________ ____________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _____________________________________
P u b lic u tilit ie s f
__________________________________
R e t a i l t r a d e 3 ____ ________________________________
E le c t r ic ia n s , m a in te n a n c e
_______________ __ _____
M a n u fa c tu r in g
_________________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _____________________________________
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s f __________________________________
R e t a i l t r a d e 3 _________________________________ _____
F i n a n c e f l ________
_____________ __
__________
E n g in e e r s ,

s t a t i o n a r y ____
M a n u f a c t u r i n g __________________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g __ _____________ ___________________
R e t a i l t r a d e 3 ___________ _____________ ______ _
F i n a n c e -}-)’ ___________________________________________
S e r v i c e s _______________________________________________

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly , U n d e r
earnings 1
$
1 .5 0

under
1. 6 0

$

,
1 .6 0
-

$

$
1. 7 0

1 .7 0

1. 8 0

209
30
77

2 .6 9
2 .4 5
3 . 32

-

1 ,6 6 4
1 ,4 0 1
263
61
97
54

2 .6 1
T . 62

3
-

6
-

1
-

12
-

2 .5 2
2 .6 6
2 .9 5
2 . 05

3
-

1
-

“

-

"

4
-

15
-

13
-

4
-

15
-

13
-

114
34
80
-

1 .9 0

12
_

-

6
-

1, 0 1 4
654
360
64
140
105

2 .2 4
2 .3 2
2 . 08
2 .4 2
2 . 02
1. 86

_

-

8
8
-

3
3
-

6
5
-

-

12

a n d o th e r p u b lic u t i l i t i e s ,

$
2 .2 0

41
40
1
-

2 . 10
33
20
13
-

-

2 . 30

2 .2 0
41

"

2 .4 0

87
64
23
13

25
16
-

$
2 .4 0

$
2. 30

'

112
95
17
12

2. 60
91
77
14
-

$
2 . 60

$
2 .7 0

"

"

2 . 50

31
18
13
1

$
2. 50

"

2 .7 0

7
5
2
-

-

-

1

3

-

10

"

68
50
18

117

10
-

270
262
8
-

122
77
45

1
_

157
136
21
11
_

202
185
17

-

14
-

47
41
6
_

12

12

3

45
33

—

49
?0“

31

9
8

1
1

107
10

17

21
4

7
3

39
31

2

—
72
1

10
-

3

“

■
m

-

274

131

129

29
-

39
29
10
-

*

46
33
13

—

~

-

«5
33
14

9

“

12
-

11
2
“

2 . 80

53

-

17
------------r _

$
2 . 80

8

2
41

"

2

1

-

$
3 . 10
and
over

3 . 10

14
11
3
-

7
7
-

162
158
4
4

14
11
3
-

74
73
1

3

-

-

"

11
11
-

5
2
3
-

9
9
-

-

-

-

"

~

"

18
5
13
11

36
32
4
-

27
27
-

2

2

-

-

"

-

63
------ ? 5 -----18
8

$
3. 00

3. 00

2 .9 0

17 1
170
1
-

$
2. 90
-

"

52
1
-

30
6
24
-

-

13

$
2 . 10

$
2 . 00
-

2 .0 0

11

11
1
10
-

1 .9 0
"

'

797
588

-

$
1. 8 0

"

$
2 .6 0
2 .5 7

S ee fo o tn o te s at en d o f ta b le .
"f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ( e x c l u d i n g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n i c a t i o n ,
f t F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , an d r e a l e s ta te .




$1 . 5 0

1
-

85
9
2 76
-

-

63

251
2M
45
26

102
74
4 28
-

19

28

"

10

T a b le

A -3 :

M a in te n a n c e

and

P o w e r p la n t O c c u p a t i o n s - C o n t in u e d

(Average straigh t-tim e hourly earnings for m en in selected occupations studied on an area b asis
in Philadelphia, P a ., by industry division, October 1957)
NUMBER OP WORKEB8 RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

N ber
um
of
w
orkers

Occupation and industry division

Average
hourly
Under
earnings 1
$
1. 50

$
1 .5 0
and
under
1 .6 0

$
1 .6 0

$
1 .7 0

$
1. 80

$
1 .9 0

$
2 . 00

2 . 10

2 .2 0

2. 30

$
2 .4 0

$
2 .5 0

$
2 .6 0

$
2 .7 0

$
2. 80

$
2 .9 0

$
3. 00

$
3. 10

1 .7 0

1 t.BQ

1 .9 0

2 .0 0

2 . 10

2 .2 0

2 . 30

2 .4 0

2 .5 0

2 .6 0

2 .7 0

2 . 80

2 .9 0

3. 00

3. 10

and
ove r

71
61
10
2

111
65
46
46

48
48
-

74
51
23
-

67
65
4
-

42
42
-

99
84
15
13

105
89
16
12

389
256
133
120

135
94
41
25

81
76
5
5

_

3
3

39
39

9
9

$

F irem en , stationary b oiler _
_ _
Manufacturing ___________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ______________________________
F inancef-j- ____________________________________

553
4?2
‘ 111
51

2 . 09
2 . 13
1 .9 2
1 .9 0

34
30
4
-

11
11
-

-

19
10
9
3

H e lp e r s, trad e s, maintenance ___________________
Manufacturing
_
. ....
Nonmanufacturing
Public u tilities-)- _
__ _ _

1, 557
1 ,2 5 2
305
205

2 . 18
2 . 24
1 .9 6
2 . 03

26
9
17
6

61
44
17
-

24
2
22
6

43
32
11
1

M ach in e-to ol op erators, toolroom ______________
Manufacturing ___________________________________

549
5W

2 .4 9
2 .4 $

-

-

-

-

M ach in ists, maintenance __________________________
Manufacturing

1, 173
1, 062

2 .6 4
2 . 62

936
253
683
356
173
109

2 .4 5
2 . 50
2 .4 3
2 .4 1
2 . 53
2 .4 2

-

1 ,9 4 9
1, 808
141
80

2 . 50
2 .5 0
2 .4 8
2 .4 0

-

446
“ “ 4 *3

2 .5 1
2 .5 1

_

4 80
477

P a in ters, m ain te n a n c e ____ _
Manufacturing ___________________________________
Nonmanufacturing _ _
Public utilities f ____________________________
F in a n c e ft _____________________________________

12
8
4
“

11
11
-

26
14
12
1

342
326
16
16

-

-

32
32

65
65

110
110

102
102

93
93

21
21

34
34

196
177

124
117

72
69

111
100

55
5
50
48
2
-

164
35
129
125
4
-

189
49
140
25
63
49

102
69
33
18
7
5

147
8
139
69
8
47

140
129
11
11

269
228
41
22

447
421
26
23

323
299
24
16

104
103

35
35

40
40

77
77

4
4

8
8

9
9

5
5

-

-

-

-

-

-

.

_

_

' -

-

6
6

_

-

2
2

-

65
65

-

-

-

-

-

28
4
24
-

-

-

-

6
6
6
-

-

-

-

-

3
3'
-

31
31
_

27
27
-

73
73
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

91
89
2
2

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

4
— 5------

1
1

16
16

1 .9 5
1 .9 5

*102
100

_
-

5
4

30
30

592
334
258
84
85

2 . 36
2 .4 8
2 . 20
2 .4 8
1 .8 8

16
16

7
7

23
23

10

-

-

-

-

-

1

21

P ip efitters, maintenance ____
Manufacturing ___________________________________

945
890

2 .6 6

.

_

~27ZZ

-

P lu m b ers, maintenance ___________________________
Nonmanufacturing _______

91
65

2 .4 2
2 . 32

5
5

Sh eet-m e ta l w ork e rs, maintenance _____________
Manufacturing ___________________________________

209
182

2 . 55
2 .5 6

_

-

_

-

-

-

_

.

_

_

.

-

-

-

M ech an ics, automotive (maintenance)
Manufacturing _
.
Nonmanufacturing _
Public utilities f _
W holesale trade _
R etail trade 3
_ _

___
_ ...
...
_ _

M ech an ics, maintenance __________________________
Manufacturing ___________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ______________________________
R etail trade 3 ________________________________
M illw r ig h t s ____________________
M a n u fa c tu r in g ___
___
O ile r s ______
_
Manufacturing _

_

___________________

. . . . . .
....

.
_ _

~

Tool and die m akers _______________________________
2 .7 2
1, 539
Manufacturing ___________________________________ . T73T?— TTT72—

“




-

-

-

-

-

-

-

226
226
-

-

.
-

_
-

-

_
-

-

-

-

“

-

90
90

5
5

1
1

_

_

107
107

127
125

120
119

168
103

20
IV

61
25
36
18
10
8

121
36
91
18
73
-

39
4
35
35
-

2
2
-

22
22
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

121
113
8
6

117
8$
29
-

49
49
-

74
74
-

167
167
-

17
17
-

-

-

-

-

44

79
79

33
33

_
-

2
-

-

_

—

1

4

41
1
40
40

10
9
1
1

41
32
9
8

47
44
3
1

65
32
33
25
1

77
55
22
7

82
46
36
35
1

18
10
8
3
-

-

_

_

_

1

72
72

-

-

-

40
39-----

50
50

31
26

60
60

125
105

165
165

44
44

5
5

10
10

1

.
-

2
1

5
4

15
13

1

1

-

4
2

6
5

10
4

_

_

-

-

1
1

3
3

9
9

37
23

7
— 5-------

42
39

37
36

10
9

_

44

61

— 44—

59
59

_

-

69
69

10
-

—

u

1 E xcludes prem ium pay for overtim e and for work or. weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
W orkers w ere distributed as follow s: 17 at $ 3 .2 0 to $ 3 . 5 0 ; 59 at $ 3. 50 to $ 3. 60.
3 E xcludes lim ite d -p r ic e variety sto r e s.
4
W orkers w ere distributed as follow s; 10 at $ 3 . 10 to $ 3 . 2 0 ; 3 at $ 3 . 5 0 to $ 3 . 6 0 ; 15 at $ 3 . 6 0 and over.
5 W orkers w ere distributed as follow s; 10 at under $ 1 . 3 0 ; 20 at $ 1 . 3 0 to $ 1 . 4 0 ; 72 at $ 1 . 4 0 to $ 1 . 5 0 .
• Transportation (excluding r a ilro a d s), com m unication, and other public u tilities.
f
Finance, insurance, and real estate.
2

88
“ 58-------

31
31
_

36
36

46
—

86
“ 35-------

-

-

22
22
-

17

“ 17------ S I -----

.

_

_

-

24
15
9
-

34
34

_
_

-

-

29
8
21
21
-

_

_

_
-

-

63
43
20
-

_
-

21
21

57
57

273
244

9
9

5
"

3
-

5
1

4
4

9
9

13
13

19
19

14
14

16

1

io

-

277

423

4 ii'

394
3^4

111
111

52

Z11

32
32

5
5
-

70
“TO -------

-

si

-

11
T a b le

A -4 :

C u s t o d ia l a n d

M a te ria l M o v e m e n t O c c u p a tio n s

(Average straigh t-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
in Philadelphia, P a ., by industry division, O ctober 1957)
N U M B E R O F W O R K E R S R E C E IV IN G S T R A IG H T -T IM E H O U R L Y E A R N IN G S O F—

Occupation1 and industry division

Elevator operators, passenger
(men) ______________ _____ __________
Nonmanufacturing _____ _________

Number
of
workers

841
135
706

111

_____________________

442

Elevator operators, passenger
(women) ___________________________
Nonmanufacturing ________________

366
331

Financet t

100

Finance t t ____________________
Services _______________________

72
127

Nonmanufact.ur jrjg ___ , _
Finance t t —
................................. -

2,208
1,113
1 095
’ 293

Janitors, porters, and
cleaners (men) ____________________
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing ________________
Public utilities t ________ ______
Wholesale trade
Retail trade 3 _____________ ___
Finance t t ____________________
Services _ __ _ _
Janitors, porters, and
cleaners (women) __________________
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing ________________
Public utilities t ____________ Wholesale trade ______________
R e t a il tra d e 3

Finance t t _______________ _____ S e r v ic e s

Laborers, material handling
Manufacturing
............ .
Nonmanufacturing ________________
Public utilities t
Wholesale trade
Retail trade 3 __________________
Order fillers
_
Manufacturing ....... ..................... ......
Nonmanufacturing .................. ...........
Wholesale trade _______________
Retail trade 3 _____________ ___

6, 533
3,478
3l 055
523
129

845
885
673
3,267
711
2, 556
153

66

253
1,528
556
1 0 ,0 0 1

6,376
3, 625
628
1,197
1,764
2, 148

874
1,274
668

529

Average
hourly
earnings2

$
1. 53
1 . 68
1. 50
1 .42
1. 57

1.25
1.23
1 .28
1.48
.98

s
$
*
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
i . 70 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.30 1. *0 1.50 1 . 60 *1.70 *1. 80 *1.90 2. 00 *2. 10 2.20 *2. 30 *2.40 *2. 50 *2. 60 2.70 $ .80 2.90 *3.00 3. 10 3.2o
2
and
under
. 80 .90 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.30 1.40 1. 50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2.00 2.10 2.20 2.30 2.40 2. 50 2. b 2.70 2 . 80 2. 90 3.00 3. 10 3.
O
over

-

30

23

-

-

30

23

-

-

-

-

-

-

16

108
108

14
14

99

-

16

_

_

-

16

9

7

11
6
5

3
2

20
20
18
2

15

11
4

13
13

7

24
14

93
91

10
2
8

68

1

56
56

b

.
_

31
-

3

12

30
-

52
44

-A

130

21

31
31

441
171
270
-

205
130
75
5

529
99
430
19

765
67
698
40

154
18
228

118
512

227
195
32
13

108
49
59
52
_

1. 58
1.71
1.43
1.79
1. 58
1.37
1.44
1. 16

1 .2 1

-

14

138

42 5

.
-

14
-

138
-

40 3
_
13
65
58
267

_
_

12
-

2

79
.
59

22

12

146
69
43

7

135

24

7
.
_

135
_
_

6

18

24
_
_
16

1 .0 2

1

117

8

1.83
1.83
1.84
2. 13
1.81
1.76

8

12

8

12

91
_
91

206
43
163

308
230
78

_
91

_
139

_
_

17
13
4
.
4

13

1.42
1. 16
1.51
1. 18
1.08
1.19

1.97
1.81
2.07
2 . 10
2.01

-

_
8

_
.
_

-

_
12

_
_
-

535 1543
71 101
464 1442
_
5
33
10
162
30
79 1157
190
240

3

31

12
185
41

144
6

_

4

11

12

_

_

_

_

_

_

1

2
2

-

_

_

_

_

_

3
3

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

_

-

.

_

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

*

-

245
244

222

259

80
80

25
25

-

46
30

604
:

_
-

-

23
17

1.25
1.51

’

_
-

3
3
3

51
51

87
23
64
58

10

_
-

46

141

11

2

1

103

606

2

-

_

357

278

1.63

2.00

1

11
2

64
18
46

-

54

2

8

20

362

61
56
5

129
26
103

-

5

6

61
27
34
33

130
51
79
43

113
71
42
33

164
143

685
427
258

896
821
75
40

773
4t2
301
92
19
108
82

737
534
203
147
28
28

37
35

*8
8
61
99
42

7
12
16

160

85
75
73
_

41
32
9
_
7

10

3

230
67
163

2

21
21

9

7

1
1

13

2
11

202
202

37

8

2 99

352

366
255

171
163

24
18

10

2

53
25

111

6

10

2

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

107

8

16
12

4

4

6

10

2

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

12
12

22
22

1
1

236

_
_

_
_

_
_

_
_

.
_

_

_

_

_

_

_

2

2

134

4

7

342
263
79

465
225
240

281
197
84

539
472
67

834
378
456

_

13
66

188
52

50
34

14
53

334

66

82
57
25
14

92
48
44
28

11

16

2

2

147

12
1
1

’

See footnotes at end of table.

t Transportation (excluding ra ilro a d s), com m unication, and other public u tilities,
t t F in ance, insurance, and real estate.




2

95

93
20

73
49
24

122

24
3 “TT
8
99
_
87

102

12

8

923 1193 1058
723
769 1 0 9 8
154
95 335
4
27
8
8
118
146
83 190

1700
751
949
219
132
114 283
26 534

523
162
361
246
13

263

232
115
117
54
63

201

62
9
53

196
157
39

147
136
11

10

_

29

11

968

609
359

102

295
74

275

221

274

79
142

116

1

81

22

260
254

34

22

6

32
_
32

_
34

16
6

6

32

109
3
106
56
50

72
_
72
54
18

202

_

12

72

13

10

12
8

62
60

1
12
12

4

2

.

10

------6"
4
4

4
_
4
4

3

2

20

1
2
2

2
2

20
20

_

-

12
T a b le

A -4 :

(A v e r a g e

C u s to d ia l

and

M a t e r i a l M o v e m e n t O c c u p a t i o n s - C o n tin u e d

s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d o n an a r e a b a s i s
in P h i la d e l p h i a , P a . , b y i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , O c t o b e r 1 9 5 7 )
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

Number
of
workers

O c c u p a t io n 1 an d in d u s tr y d iv is io n

Average
hourly
earningB2

0 . 70 0 .8 0
and
under

$
0 . 90

$ .0 0
1

$
1 .1 0

1 .2 0

1 .3 0

1 .4 0

$ . 50
1

$
1 . 60

* 1 .7 0

$1 . 8 0

$1 . 9 0

*2 . 0 0

*2 . 1 0

*2 . 2 0

*2. 30

* 2 .4 0

* 2 .5 0

*2 . 6 0

$
2 . 70

$
2 .8 0

* 2 .9 0

* 3 .0 0

3 . 10

1 .0 0

1 . 10

1 .2 0

1 .3 0

1 .4 0

1 . 50

1 .6 0

1 .7 0

1 .8 0

1 . 90

2 .0 0

2 . 10

2 .2 0

2 .3 0

2 .4 0

2 .5 0

2 . 60

2 .7 0

2 .8 0

2 . 90

3 .0 0

3 . 10

3 .2 0

over

s h i p p i n g ( m e n ) ____________________

M a n u f a c t u r i n g ______________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________
W h o le s a le tr a d e
_____________________
R e t a i l t r a d e 3 ____________________________

P a ck ers,

28
8
20

44
22
22

43
11
32

150
106
44

113
55
58

152

291
10

176
161

-

14
18

21
23

37
21

6
11

17
17
-

12
4

7
15

78
42
36
-

301

135
17

1 .5 6

_

52 6

______________________________

154
3 72
320

1 .4 0
1 .7 0
1 .2 7
1 .3 0

43
15
28
15

38
3
35
22

53
4

18
10
8

• ?o

-

-

3
-

-

-

3
-

-

3

7
13

51
-

38
-

60
-

1 .4 6

____________

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g
________________________
R e t a i l t r a d e 3 ______ *____________________

R e c e iv in g c le r k s

$
1 . 73
1 .7 7
1 .5 2

159

s h ip p in g (w o m e n )

M a n u fa c tu r in g

1 ,5 6 8
1 ,2 70
298
124

_______________________________

946
485
461

1 .9 8
1 . 75

W h o l e s a l e t r a d e _______________________
R e t a i l t r a d e 3 ____________________________

136
2 60

2 .0 3
1 . 66

51

-

51

1 .8 7

M a n u fa c tu r in g
________
___________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _____________________ _

.
-

S h ip p in g c l e r k s

_________________________________

M a n u f a c t u r i n g ______________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e _______________________

S h ip p in g a n d r e c e iv in g
c l e r k s _________________________________________
M A n n fa r tn r in o

_

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

________________________
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e _______________________
R ptp i 1 tTJiHp ^

471
3 62
109
77

338
102
236
56
143

_

-

38
38
.

4
_

_

60
34

2
-

18
-

4
_

-

2
_

18
_

-

-

2

10

2 . 13

.

_

.

2 . 13
2 . 14

-

-

-

2 .3 1

-

-

2 . 12
1 .8 9
2 .2 2
2 . 12
2 .3 3

2
2
2
2
2

.3 6
.3 3
.3 7
.3 2
.4 6

T r u c k d r i v e r s 4 __________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ______________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s "f ______
__________ _
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e _______________________

7 ,2 5 0
2 ,0 5 2

R e t a i l t r a d e 3 ____________________________
S e r v i c e s __________________________________

670
90

2 . 35
1 .6 7

..

544

2 . 10

_________________________

348
196
81

2 .2 9
1 . 77
1 . 68

2 ,3 2 0
905

2 . 34
2 .3 4

1 ,4 1 5
80 6
42 7

.

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g
____________________
S e r v i c e s ----------------------------------------------

T r u c k d r iv e r s , m e d iu m
a n d i n r In H in g 4 t o n s )

( \ l/z to

_________________________
M a n u fa c tu rin g
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________________
P u b lic u t i l i t i e s !
W h o le s a le tr a d e

----------------------------___________________

S e e fo o tn o te s at en d o f ta b le .
t
T r a n s p o r ta tio n (e x c lu d in g r a i lr o a d s ),




8

25

87

34
_

1
24
_

25
62

31

17

-

21

10
2

5

9

2

1

2

13
8
6
2

18
16
2
2

3
3
-

.
-

-

17
r

61
21

45
T

11

40

39

75
65
10

11

40

39

10

11
1
10
_
10

60

163

11 1

75

18
42
14
25

78
85

92
19
_

54
21
2

19

19

59
57
2

50
45
5

7
2

23
61

35

22

1

2
2

5

27
8

-

-

13

-

-

'

21
15
6

15
15

24
24

6 r
16

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

7
6

_

_

_

.

_

_

3

1

-

_
_

_
_
_

_
_

_
_
_
_

-

-

12

59
6

36

-

_
_
_
_

65

131
3
-

2

1
-

2

14
27

134

203
8
-

-

-

-

20
-

13
13
12
_
_

18
1
17
10
_
_
7

-

-

_
_
_

20
6
14
_

1

2 .3 8

M a n u fa c tu r in g

34
-

49
49

—

211

15
-

9
1

_

2 .3 3
2 .3 3

T r u c k d r i v e r s , lig h t
(n n r fp r 1 ^/p t o n s )

5, 198
2 , 3 74
2 , 0 64

81
6
75
5
_

55
44
11
5
_

17
53

3
3

12
12

5
5
'

64
47
17
4
-

_

5
13

c o m m u n ic a tio n ,

_

I

-

:

-

-

and

o th e r

p u b lic

u tilitie s .

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

.

_

_

1

.

_

_

.

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

"

_

_

3

_

.

-

3
-

-

-

.

35

27
19
8
8

96
4
2

50

34

67
5

24

6

6

6

-

-

-

-

-

19
31
17
14

34
16
18

62

24

6

6

6

-

-

-

-

-

62

24

6

6

4205
872
3333
1757
1276
300

988
18
970
510
146
314

476
442
34

216
165
51

52 7
52 7

-

2
2

21
21
-

8
6
2

2
2
-

34

51

52 7

-

2

-

2

-

251
211

-

2

36

-

-

-

-

-

-

~tZ

-

-

-

-

-

-

36
6

:

:

:

:

:

:

63
6

127

92

244

99
28
28
-

49
<±3
8
6
29

209
35
27
6
2

29
20

2
-

9
8

2

38
-

1

1
1

38
15
23
23

2

91
46
45

1

1
1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

17

27

16

32

1

_

_

_

_

15
2

26
1

2
14
14

19
13
13

1
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

’

1
-

13

28
28
_
_
_

-

71

22

3

27

16

52

3

2

52

65
45

8
3

13
14
13

18
7

4

14

17
7

14
13

11

2

7

1

1
1

2

24
21

15
12
3
3

43
43

57
28

8
8

29

9

5

1
6

7

-

32
3
2

17

3

-

-

-

100

12

2
2

-

-

-

12

1

-

6

6

60

13

7

-

6
-

47
13
13

57
23
7

63
43
20
2
_

2
2
-

8
6
2

70

13

-

-

’

-

3 .2 0

53
17
16
1

99
46
53
6
36

6

-

-

$

an d

. 80

P a ck ers,

$

25
25

36
30
6
1

2

—

36

40

97

1270
203
1067
644
276

263
1
262
150
112

437
417

2
0

20

13
T a b le

A -4 :

(A v e r a g e

C u s to d ia l a n d

M a t e r ia l M o v e m e n t O c c u p a t i o n s - C o n tin u e d

s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s fo r s e le c t e d
in P h i l a d e l p h i a ,

o c c u p a tio n s

P a . , by in d u s tr y d iv is io n ,

s tu d ie d on an a r e a b a s i s

O c to b e r

1957)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

N ber
um
O c c u p a t io n 1 and in d u s tr y

A
verage

0. 70 S. 80

earnin
gs

d iv is io n

and
undei

. 80

T r u c k d r iv e r s 4 T r u c k d r iv e r s ,
t r a ile r typ e )

8. 90

$

$
1.00 1. 10 1.20

$
1 .3 0

$
1 .4 0

1 .5 0

$
1 .6 0

1. 70

$
1 .8 0

$
1 .9 0

1 .4 0

1. 50

1 .6 0

1. 70

1 .8 0

1 .9 0

2. 00 2. 10 2.20

4
4

$
2 .3 0

2 .4 0

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
S
2. 50
. 60 2. 70
. 80 2 .9 0 3. 00 3 .1 0 3 .2 0

2 .3 0

2. 40

2. 50

2. 60

9
9

790
108
682

514
4
510
360
28

1
0
1
0

12
2

14
14

$
2. 00 2. 10 2. 20

2

2

and

.9 0

1.00 1.10 1.20

1. 30

2. 70

2. 80

2 .9 0

3. 00

3. 10

3 .2 0

43

over

C o n tin u e d
h e a v y (o v e r 4 to n s ,
-----------------------------------------------

1 ,8 3 9
ra r
1, 659
580
928

$
2 .4 7
2 .8 6
2 .4 9
2 .4 1
2. 54

R e t a i l t r a d e 3 ---------------------------------------

1, 129
245
884
366
277
241

2. 37
2 .3 4
2. 38
2. 30
2 .4 8
2. 38

T r u c k e r s , p o w e r ( f o r k l i f t ) -----------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g --------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------------R e t a i l t r a d e s ----------------------------------------------

2, 053
1 ,6 5 5
398
195

2 .0 3
2 .0 0
2 .1 6

M a n u fa c tu r in g

----------------------------------------

N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s -!-------------------------------W h o l e s a l e t r a d e -----------------------------

T r u c k d r iv e r s , h e a v y (o v e r 4 to n s ,
o t h e r t h a n t r a i l e r t y p e ) ---------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g -------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s f --------------------------------W h o l e s a l e t r a d e --------------------------------

2.21

17
-----j-y-

220
433

23
23

19
19

1
2
1

7
7
_

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

“

-

“

~

“

■

123
23

93
24
69
35

-

_
-

“

“

44
18

26

6
6
1

87
318
86 ' 318
1
"
-

176
1 63
13
13

116
11
0
15
“

461
417
44
44

90
90

52
50

80
80

22

180
161
19

63
16
47
31

103
6F~
35
32
3

_

5
_
-

1
1
6

-

341
244
97
13

234
220
14
14

55
— 5T“

810
1 64
646
366
156
124

48
40

190
30
160

8
8

4
118

6
6

_

2
2
2
1

446
446

_

_

_

_

_

“

2
1

446

“

"

“

■

“

14
4

81
81

2
_

2
1
2i

_

_

2
2
2

2
2

81

2
2

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

■

~

■

-

.

_

.

.

6
12
1

14

1
0
1
0

52
24
28
22

28
28

_
-

_
-

“

■

-

-

_

_

'
T r u c k e r s , p o w e r (o th e r
t h a n f o r k l i f t ) -------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g -------------

507
487

1 .91
1 .8 9

W a t c h m e n ----------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g —
P u b lic u tilitie s f R e t a i l t r a d e 3 -------F i n a n c e ■ f 'f ---------------S e r v i c e s --------------------

1, 531
902
629
152
194
173
51

1 .5 7

1
3
4
■f

ft

1.68

1 .4 3
1. 65
1 .4 6
1 .4 3
1 .0 5

8
"
_
-

_
-

18
18
18

10
0
6
17
3

2
1

2
2
1
2

8

98
39
59
17
32

1
0

115
50
65
50
15

E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m pay f o r o v e r t im e an d f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , an d la te
D a t a l i m i t e d to m e n w o r k e r s , e x c e p t w h e r e o t h e r w i s e i n d i c a t e d .
E x c lu d e s lim it e d -p r ic e v a r ie ty s t o r e s .
I n c lu d e s a ll d r i v e r s r e g a r d l e s s o f s i z e an d ty p e o f t r u c k o p e r a t e d .
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ( e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , an d o t h e r p u b lic u t i l i t i e s ,
F in a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , an d r e a l e s t a t e .




98
61
37

6
1
6

15

s h ifts .

126
126

237
~rrr
40
25
7
15
93

237

~ T W ~

12
0

1
1
6
2

1
2
-

22
58

20
38
38

76
~ T T

.
-

8
4

32
~ T

T

6
2
.

1
2
12
_

.

_




B:

E s ta b lis h m e n t

P r a c tic e s

and

S u p p le m e n ta r y

W age

P r o v is io n s

Table B-l: Shift D iffe re n tia ls1
Percent of manufacturing plant workers—

Shift differential

(a)
In establishment having
formal provisions for—
Second shift
work

Total ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------With shift pay differential -------------------------------------------------------

83.0

Third or other
shift work

(b)
Actually working on—

Second shift

77. 4

15.2

Third or other
shift

5 .4

79.0

74. 7

14. 3

5 .4

--------------------------------------------------

36.8

31.6

6.3

2 .8

5 cents --------------------------------------------------------------------------5*/3 cents------------ —
------------------- — ---- ----------- --- -----6 cents----------------------------------------------------------------------------7 or 71 cents ---------------------------------------------------------------/*
8 cents ---------------------------------------------------------------------------9 cents --------------------------------------------------- —
------- --------- --10 cents -------------— — ----- ----------------------------— --------------12 cents -------------------------------------------------------------------------13 or 13 V cents ------------------------------------------------------------3
15 cents -------------------------------------------------------------------------16 cents -------------------------------------------------------------------------Over 16 cents -----------------------------------------------------------------

11.0
.7
3. 3
4 .2
6. 3
.1
7.4
.7
2 .4
.
.7

1.3
.7
2 .0
.9
2. 6
14.2
2. 7
.7
1 .8
4. 1
.7

2.2
*
.6
.7
1.0
*
.8
.1
.7
.1

.1
_
_
.1
.1
.4
1.1
.4
♦
.5
•1

Uniform percentage ------------------------------------------------------------

39.4

35.4

7.2

1 .7

5 percent — — — —— —— — _________________ -_______
7 percent -----------------------------------------------------------------------7lAi, 7*/a or 8 percent ---------------------------------------------------10 percent ----------------------------------------------------------------------12 percent ----------------------------------------------------------------------15 percent -----------------------------------------------------------------------

1.8
4. 1
3.9
29. 6

.5
3. 5
3 .9
25. 1
.5
1.8

.1
.9
.7
5. 5

*
.1
.1
1.5
♦

Uniform cents (per hour)

-

Full dayls pay for reduced hours --------------------------------------Other formal paid differential ------------------------------------------No shift pay differential -----------------------------------------------------------

-

-

1.0

.2

2. 8

6. 7

.8

.7

4 .0

2. 7

.9

-

1
Shift differential data are presented in terms of (a) establishment policy, and (b) workers actually employed on late
shifts at the time of the survey.
An establishment was considered as having a policy if it met either of the following condi­
tions: (l) Operated late shifts at the time of the survey, or (2) had formal provisions covering late shifts.
* Less than 0.05 percent.
Occupational Wage Survey, Philadelphia, Pa. , October 1957
U .S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

15

Table B-2*. Minimum Entrance Rates for Women Offfce Workers1
Number of establishments with specified minimum hiring rates in—
Manufacturing
Minimum rate
(weekly salary)

All
schedules

323

144

37 V*

XXX

Number of establishments with specified minimum hiring rates in—

40

All
schedules

XXX

179

37V*

XXX

$35. 00
$3 7. 50
$40. 00
$42. 50
$45.00
$47. 50
$50.00
$52.50
$55.00
$57.50
$60.00
$62.50
$65. 00

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$37.50
$40. 00
$42.50
$45. 00
$47. 50
$50.00
$52.50
$55.00
$57. 50
$60.00
$62.50
$65.00
$67. 50

162

76

18

_

_

48

_

11
8
13
6
17
3
5
4
3
2
4

7
1
2
2
5
1
_

-

73

86

Based on standard weekly hours

All
industries

XXX

323

40

All
schedules

3 7V*

40

144

XXX

XXX

179

XXX

XXX

FOR OTHER INEXPERIENCED CLERICAL WORKERS 3

20

29

169

_

1
18
7
14
8
11
3
5
5
2
2
3

1
10

_
.
-

1
6
10
3
10
2
5
4
1
2
4

2
9
46
15
33
17
19
7
7
5
4
2
3

_

2
3
6
1
4
1
2
_
_
.
-

1
1
9
3
6
2
3
2
1
_
1
_
-

_
_
-

4
7
9
4
5
3
5
4
1
2
3

34

XXX

XXX

39

XXX

XXX

92

42

XXX

86

34

XXX

XXX

52

XXX

XXX

60

23

2

-

XXX

XXX

2

XXX

XXX

2

-

Establishments having no
specified minimum--------------------------Establishments which did not employ workers in this category---------Data not available -------------------------------

79

47

19

2
5
31
17
35
14
27
7
9
4
5
2
4

of—

37Va

2
5
20
9
22
8
10
4
4
.
2
-

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1

All
schedules

40

FOR INEXPERIENCED TYPISTS
Establishments having a
specified minimum----------------------------

Nonma nufa c turin g

Manufacturing

Based on standard weekly hours * of—

All
industries

Establishments studied -----------------------

I

Nonmanufacturing

_

90

19

30

2
8
28
8
19
9
8
4
2

.

1
1
14
2
4
1
3
3
-

2
-

1
4
3
4
4
2
1
-

XXX

50

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

37

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

2

XXX

XXX

2
3
4
_
-

-

-

-

1
-

1 Lowest salary rate formally established for hiring inexperienced workers for typing or other clerical jobs.
* Hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries.
Data are presented for all workweeks combined, and for the most common workweeks reported.
3 Rates applicable to messengers, office girls, or similar subclerical jobs are not considered.




Occupational Wage Survey, Philadelphia, Pa. , October 1957
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

16

Table B-3: Scheduled W eekly Hours
P E R C E N T O F O F F IC E W O R K E R S 1 E M P L O Y E D IN —

W eekly h ours

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade1

100

100

All
industries

M anufacturing

________________

100

100

U nder 35 h o u r s ____________________________________
35 h o u r s ____________________________________________
O ver 35 and under 3 7 x h ou rs
/2
37 V p. hou rs
O ver 37 V2 and under 383 h ou rs ________________
/4
38 3/4 h ours
O ver 3 8% and under 40 h o u rs
_ _
40 h ou rs ____________________________________________
O ver 40 and under 44 h o u rs _____________________
44 h ours
O ver 44 h ou rs

2
10

**

5

13

4

7

2

2

26
1
11

23

49

1

_
1

1
21
_

A ll w o r k e r s _________________

1
2
**
■
f
ft

2
41

Public
utilities'!100

18

23

8
3
15

M anufacturing

Pu blic
utilities "j-

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade 1

Services

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

8
19

1
11

2
_

_

1

_
_

30

21

8

10
_
_
_

_
**
_
_
_

_

4

2
**

7

20

_

■H
_
_

87
2
3

1

1

-

_

7

3
6
14

9

-

-

-

-

36

52

ol

-

_

-

-

-

A11
,
industries a

4

52
-

Services

Finance |"f

8

“

**
**

P E R C E N T O F P L A N T W O R K E R S E M P L O Y E D IN —

-

48
_

**

.
_

~

-

-

1

1
**
_

85
2
2
2

86
1

1
_
_
.

8

1

4

_

2

74

b
_

_

8
5

1

10
11

E x c lu d es lim it e d -p r ic e v a r ie ty s t o r e s .
Includes data fo r r e a l esta te in addition to those in d u stry d iv isio n s shown s e p a r a te ly .
L e s s than 0. 5 p e r c e n t.
T r a n sp o r ta tio n (exclu din g r a ilr o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and other public u tilit ie s ,
F in a n c e , in su r a n c e , and r e a l e sta te .

Table B-4*. Overtime Pay Practices

P E R C E N T O F O F F I C E W O R K E R S 1E M P L O Y E D I N —
O v e r t im e p o lic y

A ll w o rk e rs ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

A ll
industries

Manufacturing

100

100

77
77

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade*

100

100

100

93
93
47
46

43
43

Public
utilities'!'

P E R C E N T O F P L A N T W O R K E R S E M P L O Y E D IN —
Services

A ll
3
industries

Manufacturing

Pu blic
u tilitie sj

Wholesale

R etail trade

Services

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

22
22
10
12

46
46

86
86
8

95
95

62

56

63
63

1

10

45
41
3

38
_
_
_

77
**
**

55
_

**

85
_
_
_

_

53
_
_
_

33

_
_
_

98
98
_
98
_
_
_

Finance •!"!■

D A IL Y O V E R T IM E
W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts p rovid in g
p re m iu m p a y 4 -----------------------------------------------------------------------T im e and o n e -h a lf ---------------------------------------------------------E ffe c tiv e a fte r le s s than 8 hours ------------------E ffe c tiv e a fte r 8 h o u r s -----------------------------------------E ffe c tiv e a fte r m o r e than 8 h o u rs --------------Double tim e -------------------------------------------------------------------------O t h e r --------------------------------------------------------------- --------W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts p ro vid in g no
p re m iu m pay or having no p o lic y -----------------------

56
56
19
37
.
_
_

20

57
_
_
_

_
_

27
_
_
_

43
43
18
25
_
_
_

16

8

10

6

5
_
4

44

23

7

57

57

78

54

14

5

2

38

37

55

96
95
23
73

98
98
47
52

98
98
15
83

97
97
23
74

92
92
16
77

79
79
9
71

94
94

95
95

93
87
1

82
82

10

85

86

-

-

-

-

-

78
5

70

-

**

-

-

-

-

-

-

6

**

-

84
1
**

94
94
94

94
94

8

-

98
98
25
72
-

-

-

4

2

2

2

3

8

21

6

5

6

7

6

18

W E E K L Y O V E R T IM E
W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts p roviding
p r e m iu m p a y 4 -------------------------------------------------------T im e and o n e -h a lf ----------------------------------------------E ffe c tiv e a fte r le s s than 40 hours -----------E ffe c tiv e a fte r 40 hours ------------------------------E ffe c tiv e a fte r m o r e than 40 hou rs --------D ouble tim e -----------------------------------------------------------W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts p ro vid in g no
p re m iu m pay o r having no p o lic y ----------------------

1
2
3
4
tim e and
**
t
tt

-

11

1
11

E s tim a te s fo r o ffic e w o r k e r s a r e not c o m p a r a b le with e a r lie r stu d ie s.
See In trod u ction , p. ?.
E xclu d es lim it e d -p r ic e v a r ie ty s to r e s and a few other la r g e r e ta il e sta b lish m e n ts
Includes data fo r r e a l esta te in addition to th ose in d u stry d iv isio n s shown s e p a r a te ly .
G raduated p r o v isio n s a re c la s s if ie d to the f ir s t e ffe c tiv e p r e m iu m r a te .
F o r e x a m p le , a plan c a llin g fo r tim e and o n e -h a lf a fte r 8 and double tim e a fte r 10 hours a day w ould be c o n sid e r e d
o n e -h a lf a fte r 8 h o u r s.
S im ila r ly , a plan c a llin g fo r no pay or pay at r eg u la r rate a fter 3 7 l/2 and tim e and o n e -h a lf a fte r 40 hours w ould be c o n sid e r e d as tim e and o n e -h a lf a fte r 40 h ou rs.
L e s s than 0. 5 p e r c e n t.
T r a n sp ortation (exclu d in g r a ilr o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and other public u tilit ie s .
O ccu p ation al W age S u rv e y , P h ilad e lp h ia, P a. , O c to b e r 1957
F in an c e, in su r a n ce , and r e a l e s ta te .
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B ureau of L a b o r S ta tistic s




17

Table B-5: W age Structure Characteristics and Labor-Management Agreements
P E R C E N T O F O F F IC E W O R K E R S ! E M P L O Y E D IN —

Item

All
industries

M anufacturing

Public
utilities!

Wholesale
trade

R etail trade*

64
2
62
36

72
3
69
28

94
5
89
6

46
**
45
54

76
1
75
24

P E R C E N T O F P L A N T W O R K E R S E M P L O Y E D IN —
Services

A ll
2
industries

M anufacturing

54
1
53
46

90
52
38
10

91
53
38
9

73
27
15
8
5

Finance^ t

66
34
22
11
1

8 0 -8 4

8 5 -8 9

l

Wholesale
trade

R etail trade

100
49
51
-

80
60
20
20

87
39
48
13

81
64
16
19

99
1
**
**

94
6
2
3
1

74
26
**

86
14
7

1
25

6 5 -6 9

5 0 -5 4

Pu blic .
utilities |

Services

W AG E ST R U C TU R E FO R
T I M E -R A T E D W O R K E R S 3

F o r m a l rate str u c tu r e ------------------------------------------Single rate -------------------------------------------------------------Range of ra te s ----------------------------------------------------Individual r a te s ---------------------------------------------------------

47
-

47
53

M E T H O D OF W AG E P A Y M E N T
------- F O R ’ p l a n t w o r k e r s —

T im e w o r k e r s -----------------------------------------------------------Incentive w o r k e r s ----------------------------------------------------P ie c e w o r k -----------------------------------------------------------Bonus w ork ----------------------------------------------------------C o m m is s io n ---------------------------------------------------------

D ATA NOT C O L LE CT ED

-

-

7

L A B O R -M A N A G E M E N T
--------A G R E E M E N T S *------

W o r k e r s in esta b lish m e n ts with a g r e e ­
m e n ts co v e rin g a m a jo r it y of such
w o r k e r s ----------------------------------------------------------------------

1 5 -1 9

2 5 -2 9

6 5 -6 9

5 -9

1 5 -1 9

0 -4

1 0 -1 4

8 0 -8 4

8 0 -8 4

1 E x clu d es lim it e d -p r ic e v a r ie ty s t o r e s . E s tim a te s of the w age stru c tu re of t im e -r a te d plant w o r k e r s a ls o exclu de a few other la r g e r e ta il e s ta b lis h m e n ts .
2 Includes data fo r r e a l estate in addition to those in d u stry d iv isio n s shown se p a r a te ly .
3 E s tim a te s fo r plant w o r k e r s a r e b a se d on t im e -r a te d e m p lo y e e s o n ly, w h ere as e s tim a te s fo r o ffice w o r k e r s a r e b a se d on total o ffic e e m p lo y e e s .
4 E s tim a te s re la te to a ll w o r k e r s (o ffic e or plant) em p loy ed in an e sta b lish m e n t having a con tract in e ffe c t c o v e rin g a m a jo r it y of the w o r k e r s in th eir r e sp e c tiv e c a te g o r y .
The e s tim a te s
so obtained a r e not n e c e s s a r ily r e p r e se n ta tiv e of the exten t to w hich a ll w o r k e r s in the a r e a m a y be c o v e re d by the p r o v isio n s of la b o r -m a n a g e m e n t a g r e e m e n ts due to the e x c lu sio n of s m a lle r
s iz e e s ta b lis h m e n ts .
* * L e s s than 0 . 5 p e rc e n t.
■ T r a n sp o rta tio n (excluding r a ilr o a d s ), co m m u n ica tio n , and other pu blic u t ilit ie s ,
f
t t F in a n c e , in su r a n c e , and r e a l e sta te .




O ccup ational W age S u rv e y , P h ila d elp h ia , P a . , O ctob er 1957
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B ureau of La b or S ta tistic s

18

Table B-6* Raid Holidays1
PERCENT OF OFFICE W
ORKERS EMPLOYED IN—
Item

A
U
industries

M
anufacturing

Public x
utilities!

W
holesale
trade

Retail trade*

PERCENT O PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—
F
Finance

Services

A ,
U
industries3

M
anufacturing

Public .
utU
itiesy

W
holesale
trade

Retail trade*

Services

AU w orkers ___________________________________

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

W orkers in establishm ents providing
paid holidays -------------------------------------------------W orkers in establishments providing
no paid h o lid a y s ----------------------------------------------

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

99

100

100

95

100

88

"

-

-

-

“

-

5

-

12

**
15

**
19

_
1

.

_

21

41

.
**

44

2
23

1
17

_
3

6
21

7
48

3
65

2
3
17

2
5
22

**
2

5
4
21

.
1
44

1
**
1

15
1
25

1
3
32

2
4
39

.
.
29

.
.
15

_
3
13

_
_
12

4
3
**
22

1
7
33

5
.
_
47

7
_
30

10
_
_
4

3
.
**
3

8
.
**
7

1
2
1
26

2
4
_
25

2
.
_
36

1
_
_
31

.
_
_
29

.
_
4
3

1
4

**
6

**
8

5
1

1
.

.
3

.
_

1
3

1
3

.
4

_
16

.
_

_
_

**
4

**
3

2
26

.
4

_
>

_
**

_

**
2

**
_

**
15

.
5

.
.

.
.

1

100

NUMBER OF DAYS
Less than 6 h o lid a y s ----------------------------------------6 h olid a y s---------------------------------------------------------6 holidays plus:
1 half day -----------------------------------------------------2, 3 or 7 half days --------------------------------------7 holidays --------------------------------------------------------7 holidays plus:
1 half day ----------------------------------------------------2 half days --------------------------------------------------4, 5 or 7 half days --------------------------------------8 holidays --------------------------------------------------------8 holidays plus:
1 or 3 half days -------------------------------------------9 h o lid a y s ---------------------------------------------------------9 holidays plus:
1 half day -----------------------------------------------------10 holidays -------------------------------------------------------10 holidays plus:
1 half d a y ...............................................................
11 holidays -------------------------------------------------------11 holidays plus:
1, 2, or 4 half days -------------------------------------12 holidays --------------- -------------- —
—-------------------12 holidays plus:
1 half day ---------------------------------------------------13 holidays --------------------------------------------------------

2
1

-

5

-

-

1
1

2

-

-

.
.

-

-

4
2

7

-

-

-

-

.
-

1
2

1

.
3

-

.
.

5
6

-

.
**

.
_

4

_
.

_
.

.
„

1
18

-

-

-

.
-

4
67

-

**

-

2

-

-

.
-

18
19
22
23
24
25
30
30
34
35
57
63
80
85

1
1
1
1
4
4
11
11
44
51
73
81

4
4
6
11
41
48
69
79
100
100
100

_
.
1
5
15
59
59
100
100
100

67
71
77
82
85
89
89
89
92
92
95
98

2
2
5
5
5
13
27
27
31
31
67
69
97
97
100
100
100

5
5
21
21
51
52
67
67
88
88
95

_
.
29
29
42
45
93
93
93

TOTAL HOLIDAY TIME 4
13 days -------------------------------------------------------------12Va or m ore days ------------------------------------------12 or m ore days ------------------------------------------ —
11 Va or m ore days -------------------------------------------11 or m ore days ----------------------------------------------10*/a ° r m ore days -------------------------------------------10 or m ore days ----------------------------------------------9Va or m ore days --------------------------------------------9 or m ore days -----------------------------------------------8Va or m ore days --------------------------------------------8 or m ore d a y s -------------------------------------------------7*/a or m ore days --------------------------------------------7 or m ore d a y s -------------------------------------------------6*/a or m ore days --------------------------------------------6 or m ore d a y s -------------------------------------------------5Va or m ore d a y s ---------------------------------------------5 or m ore days -------------------------------------------------

99
99

100

_

99
99

100

-

3
3
3
8
34
36
44
44
92
96

99
99

100
100
100

See footnotes at end of table.
t Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities,
f t Finance, insurance, and real estate.




99

100
100
100
100

.
.
7
16
40
56
100
100
100

**
**
**
**
2
2
4
4
7
8
34
38
70
74
97
97
98

2
2
2
2
5
6
32
37
76
82

99
99

100

_
.
.
.
-

.
.
3
7
20
20
85
85
85

Occupational Wage Survey, Philadelphia, P a ., October 1957
U .S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

19
Table &6: Paid Holidays1 - Continued
PERCENT OP OFFICE WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—

Item

All
industriea

Manufacturing

Public f
utilities)

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade*

PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—

Financef’f

Services

A
il

industries 3

Manufacturing

Public +
utilities)

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade*

Services

H O L ID A Y S 5

New Y e a r 's D a y --------------------------------------------------------W a sh in g to n 's B irth d ay ------------------------------------------D ecoration D a y --------------------------------------------------------July 4th ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------La b or D a y -------------- --------------- - - - — ------- --------------- ——- —
V e te ran s* D ay --------------------------------------------------------------------Th ank sgiving D ay -----------------------------------------------------------C h r is tm a s D ay ------------------------------------------------------------------Good F r id a y -----------------------------------------------------------------------L in c o ln 's B irth day ----------------------------------------------------------E a s te r M ond ay ------------------------------------------------------------------C olu m bu s D ay ------------------------------------------------------------------E le c tio n D ay -----------------------------------------------------------------------D ay a fte r T h ank sgiving ------------------------------------------------C h r is tm a s E ve ------------------------------------------------------------------F la g D a y _________ - ______________________ — - — _______ _
_
E m p lo y e e s ' B irth day ----------------------------------------------------Optional D ay -----------------------------------------------------------------------H alf day Good F r id a y -------------------------------------------------H alf day C h r is t m a s E v e ---------------------------------------------

100
54
100
99
99
37
100
100
50
24
10
29
26
3

7

19

**

4
8
8

100
25
100
99
97
3
100
100
46
1
22
1
8
8
11

100
94
100
100
100
89
100
100
36

100
54
100
100
100
20
100
100
18

3

**

-

43

3

3

9

-

-

-

_

4

-

5

6
6

1

13

5
5

100
24
100
100
100
7
100
100
1
-

100
97
100
100
100
90
100
100
96
85

6

-

-

87
78

100

33
100
100
100
6
100
100
7
-

1

69

-

-

-

-

7

-

2
4
8

23
1

21

26

11

-

-

97
27
98
97
96
9
98
99
26
1
20
4
6
6

99
21
99
98
97
6
100
99
34

7

9

**

4
6
3
8

-

100
73
100
100
100
54
100
100
27
5

28

-

-

41
5

7
9
-

1
1

2
11

95
41
88
95
95
12
95
95
20
-

6
17
13

93
27
93
93
93
-

93
100
1
2
11
-

2

-

23

10

-

5
2
7

3

28

-

1

4
-

3’

85
12
88
88
85
3
85
88
3
-

5
-

6

1 Estimates relate to holidays provided annually.
* Excludes limited-price variety stores.
3 Includes data for real estate in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
4 All combinations of full and half days that add to the same amount are combined; for example, the proportion of workers receiving a total of 7 days includes those with 7 full days and
no half days, 6 full days and 2 half days, 5 full days and 4 half days, and so on. Proportions were then cumulated.
5 A number of holidays are omitted because of their lack of significance for all industries combined or for any major industry group.
** Less than 0. 5 percent.
f Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
f t Finance, insurance, and real estate.




20

Table B-7: Paid Vacations
P E R C E N T O F O F F IC E W O R K E R S E M P L O Y E D IN —

V a cation pay
A ll
industries

A ll w o r k e r s ________________________________________________

M anufacturing

Pu blic .
utilities'^

Wholesale
trade

R etail trade1

P E R C E N T OF P L A N T W O R K E R S E M P L O Y E D IN —
Finance "f ■}■

Services

A ll
2
industries

M anufacturing

Pu blic
utilities y

Wholesale
trade

R etail trade 1

Services

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

99
99
1
**

100
99
1
-

100
100
-

100
100
-

100
100
-

99
99
-

100
95
5

99
76
21
3

100
65
33
2

100
100
-

86
83
3

100
100

100
77

_
_

23

M E T H O D OF P A Y M E N T
W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts p ro vid in g
paid vacation s
L e n g t h -o f -tim e paym ent ______________________
P e r c e n ta g e p a y m e n t ____________________________
O ther
W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts p roviding
no paid vacation s ________________ ____________________
AM OUNT

O F V A C A T IO N

**

**

_

1

_

14

PAY3

A fte r 6 m onths of s e r v ic e
L e s s than 1 w eek _______________________ __________
.
1 w eek
....................
O ver 1 and under 2 w eek s
______________________
2 w eek s
... _ . _

14
44
13
12

9
54
13
5

31
55
5

20
1
79
-

5

39
46
3

-

10
38
19
33

76
24
“

2
2
96
-

14
1
85
-

_
98
2
-

19
21
1

-

9
30
19
5

14
86

49
2
50

16
1
83

-

-

-

6
2
92
-

1
99
-

-

-

5

1
-

31
19
4
1

7
29
5

9
14
1

33
8
_

29
4
_

-

28
17
3
1

-

-

-

-

16
4
79
-

72
3
24
**

70
1
29
-

73
5
20
2

60
_
26

86
_
14

70
27
4

-

-

-

5
5

44
18

46
24

80
10

38

30

**
**

48
7
31
-

43
2
56
-

-

37
_
61
2

-

-

32
26
41
1
-

7
93
-

A f t e r 1 y e a r of s e r v ic e
1 w eek
_ _
O v e r 1 and under 2 w eek s
2 w eek s _______________________________________________
3 w eek s
_ _ .. .
.
_ _ _
A fte r 2 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w eek
O v e r 1 and under 2 w eek s ________________________
2 w eek s _______________________________________________
O v er 2 and under 3 w e e k s _________________________
3 w eeks

1
93
1
**

10
-

88
2

-

-

-

A fte r 3 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w e e k _________________________________________________
O v er 1 and under 2 w eek s ________________________
2 w eek s
___
_
_
______
O ver 2 and under 3 w eek s ________________________
3 w eek s
_
_

3
1
95
1
**

1
94
-

99
-

8
90
-

2

1

_

-

-

99

98

-

2

5
5
81
10

22
17
61

24
24

32

53

67

22
7
57

-

-

-

-

**

-

-

28
23
48
-

2
*

See footnotes at end of table.
■ Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
f
t t Finance, insurance, and real estate.




NOTE:

Occupational Wage Survey, Philadelphia, Pa. , October 1957
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

In the tabulations of vacation allowances by years of service, payments other than "length of tim e,"
such as percentage of annual earnings or flat-sum payments, were converted to an equivalent time
basis; for example, a payment of 2 percent of annual earnings was considered as 1 week's pay.

21

Table B-7:

Paid Vacations - Continued

P E R C E N T O F O F F IC E W O R K E R S E M P L O Y E D IN —

V a ca tio n pay

A M O U N T O F V A C A T IO N

All
industries

M
anufacturing

Public ,
utilities T

W
holesale
trade

Retail trade1

_

P E R C E N T O F P L A N T W O R K E R S E M P L O Y E D IN —

Finance"ft

All 2
industries

M
anufacturing

2
**
78
14
6

3
1
87
3
6

3
1
86
3
8

2
**
61
4
32
**

3
**
48
11
38

Services

Public
utilities y

W
holesale
trade

Retail trade1

Services

16
2
60
21
1

P A Y 3 - Continued

A ft e r 5 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w e e k _________________________________________________
O ver 1 and under 2 w eek s ________________________
2 w eek s _______________________________________________
O ver 2 and under 3 w eek s
3 w eek s
.
_

_

_

-

-

97

90

_

**
**
87
5
8

**

**
**
57
5
37
**

**
50
6
44

83
2
14

-

-

**

**
10

2

25

14

-

-

-

-

89
**
**

98

74

86

-

-

_

-

-

2

-

-

-

80
6
14

-

-

3

10

95
_
5

92
7
2

.

_

_

_

2
_

98
_

86
_

94
_

2

-

4

A ft e r 10 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w e e k _________________________________________________
O ver 1 and under 2 w eek s ________________________
2 w eek s _______________________________________________
O v e r 2 and under 3 w eek s ____ . .
_
3 w eek s _______________________________________________
4 w eek s _______________________________________________

_

_
61
-

38
2

_

_

_

_

18
82

72
10
18

-

-

-

3

.

.

2

-

-

29
-

71

16
2
55
21
6

-

-

_

_

_

_

46
4
50

57

28

-

51
14
32
-

2
22
3
72
1
**

3
17
3
73
4

3
16
3
72
6

.

-

-

2
21
3
72
1
**

3
17
3
66
5
7

3
16
3
63
7
9

2
19
3
73
1
2

3
15
3
53

3
16
3
53
4
21

-

A f t e r 15 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w e e k _________________________________________________
2 w eek s _______________________________________________
O v e r 2 and under 3 w eek s ________________________
3 w eek s _______________________________________________
O v er 3 and under 4 w eek s
4 w eek s _______________________________________________

14
1
84
**
**

_

_

_

_

21
3
76

_

_
-

29

2
17

-

-

100

57

81

-

_

-

16
48
16
15
5

-

-

-

-

2
17

A f t e r 20 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w e e k _________________________________________________
2 w eek s _______________________________________________
O ver 2 and under 3 w eek s ________________________
3 w eek s _______________________________________________
O v er 3 and under 4 w eek s
4 w eeks _______________________________________________

_

_

_

_

**
12
1
76
1
10

**
10

2

25

14

-

-

-

_

77
2
11

98

54

79

13
2
76

-

-

-

-

-

22

7

9

**
10
1
49

**
10

_

_

-

29

-

-

-

100

47

77

-

-

-

16
44
18
16
5

-

10

4

-

2
10

A fte r 25 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w e e k _________________________________________________
2 w eek s
............. _
O v e r 2 and under 3 w eek s ________________________
3 w eek s _______________________________________________
O v e r 3 and under 4 w eek s ________________________
4 w eek s 4 _____________________________________________

**

40

-

58
1
30

_

_

_

_

25

11

-

-

-

65

45

36

6
2
33

-

-

-

-

33

30

53

59

2
.

3
22

_

_

-

29

-

-

-

72

46

53

16
39
18
22

-

-

-

5

28

11

34

1 E x c lu d es uata fo r lim it e d -p r ic e v a r ie ty s t o r e s .
2 Includes data fo r r e a l esta te in addition to those in d u stry d iv isio n s shown s e p a r a te ly .
3 P e r io d s of s e r v ic e w ere a r b itr a r ily c h ose n and do not n e c e s s a r ily r e fle c t the individual p r o v isio n s fo r p r o g r e s s io n s .
F o r e x a m p le , the chan ges in p rop ortion s in dicated at 10 y e a r 's s e r v ic e
include chan ges in p r o v isio n s o c c u r r in g betw een 5 and 10 y e a r s .
4 In ad dition , about 2 p ercen t of offic e w o r k e r s and 1 p erc en t of plant w o r k e r s w ere in fir m s that p rovid e 4 w e e k s' pay after 30 or m o r e y e a r s ' s e r v ic e .
* * L e s s than 0. 5 p erc en t.
t T r a n sp o r ta tio n (exclu din g r a ilr o a d s ), c o m m u n ic a tio n , and other public u tilitie s,
f t F in a n c e , in su r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta te .




22

Table B-8: Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
PERCENT OP OFFICE WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—

Type of plan

All workers

________________________________

Workers establishments providing:
Life insurance _
Accidental death and dismemberment
insurance _______________________________
Sickness and accident insurance
or sick leave or both3 __________________
Sickness and accident insurance _
Sick leave (full pay and no
waiting period)
Sick leave (partial pay or
waiting period) _______________________
Hospitalization insurance
Surgical insurance_______________________
Medical insurance ________________________
Catastrophe insurance ___________________
Retirement pension
__ _
No health, insurance, or pension plan ___

All
industries

Manufacturing

Public
utilities'!'

Wholesale
trade

100

100

100

95

95

100

86

36

42

58

37

85
36

91
59

98
32

86
33

68

71

86

5
67
60
36
18
82
2

2
78
77
49
14
84
4

9
16
11
9
1
95

100

Retail trade 1

100

PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—
Financet f

Services

100

100

99

98

71

21

28

18

91
41

72
3

63
34

72

29

71

2
69
55
40
23
72
3

37
76
72
24
31
72

64
50
27
26
87

All
2
industries

100

Manufacturing

Public L
utilities f

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade 1

Services

100

100

100

100

100

93

92

100

83

98

97

45

47

29

34

39

67

89
77

91
86

100
65

87
67

86
65

64
50

55

12

6

30

22

21

19

72
61
46
10
41
5

9
81
75
42
7
64
3

7
89
85
46
8
67
4

26
54
33
18
3
95

3
76
69
43
5
55
7

16
70
69
30
6
53
2

2
74
51
63
10
**

1 Excludes limited-price variety stores.
2 Includes data for real estate in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
3 Unduplicated total of workers receiving sick leave or sickness and accident insurance shown separately below.
Sick leave plans are limited to those which definitely establish at least
the minimum number of days pay that can be expected by each employee. Informal sick leave allowances determined on an individual basis are excluded.
f Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities,
f t Finance, insurance, and real estate.
** Less than 0. 5 percent.




Occupational Wage Survey, Philadelphia, Pa. , October 1957
U .S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

23

Appendix: Job Descriptions
The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau1s wage surveys is to
assist its field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under
a variety of payroll titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment
and from area to area. This is essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage
rates representing comparable job content. Because of this emphasis on inter establishment and
interarea comparability of occupational content, the Bureaurs job descriptions may differ signifi­
cantly from those in use in individual establishments or those prepared for other purposes. In
applying these job descriptions, the Bureaufs field representatives are instructed to exclude work­
ing supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped workers, part-time,
temporary, and probationary workers.

O f f i c e

BILLER, MACHINE
Prepares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records
as to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work in­
cidental to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers,
machine, are classified by type of machine, as follows:
Biller, machine (billing machine) - Uses a special billing
machine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, etc. , which
are combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and
invoices from customers* purchase orders, internally prepared
orders, shipping memoranda, etc. Usually involves application
of predetermined discounts and shipping charges and entry of
necessary extensions, which may or may not be computed on the
billing machine, and totals which are automatically accumulated
by machine. The operation usually involves a large number of
carbon copies of the bill being prepared and is often done on a
fanfold machine.
Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine) - Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, etc. , which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers*
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally
involves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers* ledger
record.
The machine automatically accumulates figures on a
number of vertical columns and computes and usually prints auto­
matically the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowl­
edge of bookkeeping. Works from uniform and standard types of
sales and credit slips.
BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or with­
out a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.




BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR - Continued
Class A - Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Deter­
mines proper records and distribution of debit and credit items
to be used in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated
reports, balance sheets, and other records by hand.
Class B - Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections
of a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping. - Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers* accounts (not including a simple type of billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation of trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.
CLERK, ACCOUNTING
Class A - Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a com­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase of an establish­
ments business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or ac­
counts payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with
proper accounting distribution; requires judgment and experience
in making proper assignations and allocations.
May assist in
preparing, adjusting, and closing journal entries; may direct class
B accounting clerks.
Class B - Under supervision, performs one or more routine
accounting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers,
accounts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers. This job does not require a knowledge of
accounting and bookkeeping principles but is found in offices in
which the more routine accounting work is subdivided on a func­
tional basis among several workers.

24

CLERK, FILE
Class A - Responsible for maintaining an established filing
system. Classifies and indexes correspondence or other material;
may also file this material. May keep records of various types
in conjunction with files or supervise others in filing and locating
material in the files. May perform incidental clerical duties.
Class B - Performs routine filing, usually of material that
has already been classified, or locates or assists in locating ma­
terial in the files. May perform incidental clerical duties.
CLERK, ORDER
Receives customers' orders for material or merchandise by
mail, phone, or, personally. Duties involve any combination of the
following: Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet
listing tne items to make up the order; checking prices and quantities
of items on order sheet; distributing order sheets to respective de­
partments to be filled. May check with credit department to deter­
mine credit rating of customer, acknowledge receipt of orders from
customers, follow up orders to see that they have been filled, keep
file of orders received, and check shipping invoices with original
orders.

KEY-PUNCH OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards
by punching a series of holes in the cards in a specified sequence,
using an alphabetical or a numerical key-punch machine, following
written information on records. May duplicate cards by using the
duplicating device attached to machine. Keeps files of punch cards.
May verify own work or work of others.
OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands,
operating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening
and distributing mail, and other minor clerical work.
SECRETARY
Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an
administrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint­
ments for superior; receiving people coming into office; answering
and making phone calls; handling personal and important or confi­
dential mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative;
taking dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in
shorthand or by stenotype or similar machine, and transcribing dicta­
tion or the recorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine.
May prepare special reports or memoranda for information of superior.

CLERK, PAYROLL
STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the neces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers'
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker's name, working
days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and dis­
tributing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.

Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by stenotype or similar machine, involving a
normal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a type­
writer. May also type from written copy. May also set up and keep
files in order, keep simple records, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine work (see transcribing-machine operator).

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR

STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL

Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathe­
matical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of
statistical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of
a Comptometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to
performance of other duties.

Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by stenotype or similar machine, involving a
varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or
reports on scientific research and to transcribe this dictation on a
typewriter. May also type from written copy. May also set up and
keep files in order, keep simple records, etc.
Does not include
transcribing-machine work.

DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
Under general supervision and with no supervisory respon­
sibilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten
matter, using a mimeograph or ditto machine. Makes necessary ad­
justment such as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed.
Is not required to prepare stencil or ditto master. May keep file of
used stencils or ditto masters. May sort, collate, and staple com­
pleted material.




SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office
calls. May record toll calls and take messages. May give infor­
mation to persons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders.
For workers who also act as receptionists see switchboard operatorreceptionist.

25
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL - Continued

In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single posi­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also
type or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties.
This typing or clerical work may take the major part of this worker’s
time while at switchboard.

included. A worker who takes dictation in shorthand or by stenotype
or similar machine is classified as a stenographer, general.

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Operates machine that automatically analyzes and translates
information punched in groups of tabulating cards and prints trans­
lated data on forms or accounting records; sets or adjusts machine;
does simple wiring of plugboards according to established practice
or diagrams; places cards to be tabulated in feed magazine and starts
machine. May file cards after they are tabulated. May, in addition,
operate auxiliary machines.

TYPIST
Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to
make out bills after calculations have been made by another person.
May do clerical work involving little special training, such as keep­
ing simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting and dis­
tributing incoming mail.
Class A - Performs one or more of the following: Typing
material in final form from very rough and involved draft; copy­
ing from plain or corrected copy in which there is a frequent
and varied use of technical and unusual words or from foreignlanguage copy; combining material from several sources, or
planning layout of complicated statistical tables to maintain uni­
formity and balance in spacing; typing tables from rough draft in
final form. . May type routine form letters, varying details to
suit circumstances.

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal
routine vocabulary from transcribing machine records. May also
type from written copy and do simple clerical work. Workers tran­
scribing dictation involving a varied technical or specialized vocabu­
lary such as legal briefs or reports on scientific research are not

P r of essional

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
poses. Uses various types of drafting tools .as required. May pre­
pare drawings from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties
under direction of a draftsman.
DRAFTSMAN, LEADER
Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in
preparation of working plans and detail drawings from rough or pre­
liminary sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing
purposes. Duties involve a combination of the following: Interpreting
blueprints, sketches, and written or verbal orders; determining work
procedures; assigning duties to subordinates and inspecting their work;
performing more difficult problems. May assist subordinates during




Class B - Performs one or more of the following: Typing
from relatively clear or typed drafts; routine typing of forms,
insurance policies, etc.; setting up simple standard tabulations, or
copying more complex tables already set up and spaced properly.

and

Technical

DRAFTSMAN, LEADER - Continued
emergencies or as a regular assignment, or perform related duties
of a supervisory or administrative nature.
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes,
rough or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manu­
facturing purposes. Duties involve a combination of the following:
Preparing working plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-sections, etc. ,
to scale by use of drafting instruments; making engineering computa­
tions such as those involved in strength of materials, beams and
trusses; verifying completed work, checking dimensions, materials
to be used, and quantities; writing specifications; making adjustments
or changes in drawings or specifications. May ink in lines and letters
on pencil drawings, prepare detail units of complete drawings, or
trace drawings. Work is frequently in a specialized field such as
architectural, electrical, mechanical, or structural drafting.

26

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED) - Continued

A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on
the premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a
combination of the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured;
attending to subsequent dressing of employees1 injuries; keeping records
of patients treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or
other purposes; conducting physical examinations and health evaluations
of applicants and employees; and planning and carrying out programs
involving health education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant

environment, or other activities affecting the health, welfare, and
safety of all personnel.

Mai nt enanc e

TRACER
Copies
tracing cloth or
Uses T-square,
simple drawings

plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing
paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil.
compass, and other drafting tools. May prepare
and do simple lettering.

and Powe r p l a nt

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

ENGINEER, STATIONARY

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and
maintain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins,
cribs, counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings,
and trim made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most of
the following: Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, draw­
ings, models, or verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter*s
handtools, portable power tools, and standard measuring instruments;
making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work;
selecting materials necessary for the work. In general, the work of
the maintenance carpenter requires rounded training and experience
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent train­
ing and experience.

Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air compressors, generators, mo­
tors, turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers
and boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a
record of operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consump­
tion. May also supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers
in establishments employing more than one engineer are excluded.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE
Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating,
distribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment.
Work involves most of the following; Installing or repairing any of
a variety of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers,
switchboards, controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units,
conduit systems, or other transmission equipment; working from blue­
prints, drawings, layout, or other specifications; locating and diag­
nosing trouble in the electrical system or equipment; working standard
computations relating to load requirements of wiring or electrical
equipment; using a variety of electrician*s handtools and measuring
and testing instruments. In general, the work of the maintenance
electrician requires rounded training and experience usually ac­
quired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.




FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER
Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand
or operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water
and safety valves. May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom equipment.
HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE
Assists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance
trades, by performing specific or general duties of lesser skill, such
as keeping a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning work­
ing area, machine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding ma­
terials or tools; performing other unskilled tasks as directed by jour­
neyman. The kind of work the helper is permitted to perform varies
from trade to trade: In some trades the helper is confined to sup­
plying, lifting, and holding materials and tools, and cleaning working
areas; and in others he is permitted to perform specialized machine
operations, or parts of a trade that are also performed by workers
on a full-time basis.

27
MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR. TOOLROOM

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE

Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine
lathes, or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools,
gauges, jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most of the following:
Planning and performing difficult machining operations; processing
items requiring complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy;
using a variety of precision measuring instruments; selecting feeds,
speeds, tooling and operation sequence; making necessary adjust­
ments during operation to achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions.
May be required to recognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools,
and to select proper coolants and cutting and lubricating oils. For
cross-industry wage study purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom,
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establish­
ment. Work involves most of the following: Examining machines
and mechanical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling
or partly dismantling machines and performing repairs that mainly
involve the use of handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing
broken or defective parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the
production of a replacement part by a machine shop or sending of
the machine to a machine shop for major repairs; preparing written
specifications for major repairs or for the production of parts ordered
from machine shop; reassembling machines; and making all necessary
adjustments for operation. In general, the work of a maintenance’
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
Excluded from this classification are workers whose primary duties
involve setting up or adjusting machines.

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
MILLWRIGHT
Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs
of metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment.
Work involves most of the following; Interpreting written instruc­
tions and specifications; planning ana laying out of work; using a va­
riety of machinist's handtools and precision measuring instruments;
setting up and operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal
parts to close tolerances; making standard shop computations relat­
ing to dimensions of work, tooling, feeds and speeds of machining;
knowledge of the working properties of the common metals; selecting
standard materials, parts, and equipment required for his work; fitting
and assembling parts into mechanical equipment. In general, the
machinist's work normally requires a rounded training in machineshop practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant lay­
out are required. Work involves most of the following: Planning and
laying out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications;
using a variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop com­
putations relating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of
gravity; alining and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools,
equipment, and parts to be used; installing and maintaining in good
order power transmission equipment such as drives and speed re­
ducers. In general, the millwright's work normally requires a rounded
training and experience in the trade acquired through a formal appren­
ticeship or equivalent training and experience.
OILER

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of
an establishment. Work involves most of the following; Examining
automotive equipment to diagnose source of trouble; aisassembling
equipment and performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches, gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in dis­
assembling or fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts from
stock; grinding and adjusting valves; reassembling and installing the
various assemblies in the vehicle and making necessary adjustments;
alining wheels, adjusting brakes and lights, or tightening body bolts.
In general, the work of the automotive mechanic requires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprentice­
ship or equivalent training and experience.




Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing
surfaces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.
PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an
establishment. Work involves the following; Knowledge of surface
peculiarities and types of paint required Tor different applications;
preparing surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing
putty or filler in nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray
gun or brush. May mix colors, oils, white lead, and other paint
ingredients to obtain proper color or consistency. In general, the
work of the maintenance painter requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience.

28

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE - Continued

Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe
and pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most of the fol­
lowing: Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe
from drawings or other written specifications; cutting various sizes
of pipe to correct lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene
torch or pipe-cutting machine; threading pipe with stocks and dies;
bending pipe by hand-driven or power-driven machines; assembling
pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard
shop computations relating to pressures, flow, and size of pipe re­
quired; making standard tests to determine whether finished pipes meet
specifications. In general, the work of the maintenance pipefitter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. Workers
primarily engaged in installing and repairing building sanitation or
neating systems are excluded.

and laying out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blue­
prints, models, or other specifications; setting up and operating ail
available types of sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of
handtools in cutting, bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assem­
bling; installing sheet-metal articles as required. In general, the
work of the maintenance sheet-metal worker requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber's snake.
In general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprentice­
ship or equivalent training and experience.
SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing)
of an establishment. Work involves most of the following: Planning

Cu s t o d i a l

and

TOOL AND DIE MAKER
(Diemaker; jig maker; toolmaker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work.
Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying out of work
from models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifi­
cations; using a variety of tool and die maker's handtools and precision
measuring instruments; understanding of the working properties of
common metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools
and related equipment; making necessary shop computations relating
to dimensions of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools
and dies to achieve required qualities; working to close tolerances;
fitting and assembling of parts to prescribed tolerances and allow­
ances; selecting appropriate materials, tools, and processes.
In
general, the tool and die maker's work requires a rounded training
in machine-shop and toolroom practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

Material

ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER
Transports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such
as those of starters and janitors are excluded.

Mov e me nt

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)

Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working
areas and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house,
or commercial or other establishment. Duties involve a combination
GUARD
of the following: Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors;
Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on removing chips, trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture,
tour, maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. In­ or fixtures; polishing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies
cludes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity~~oT and minor maintenance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and
restrooms. Workers who specialize in window washing are excluded.
employees and other persons entering.




29

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker;
stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant,
store, or other establishment whose duties involve one or more of
the following: Loading and unloading various materials and merchan­
dise on or from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices;
unpacking, shelving, or placing materials or merchandise in proper
storage location; transporting materials or merchandise by hand truck,
car, or wheelbarrow. Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are
excluded.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK - Continued
other records; checking for shortages and rejecting damaged goods;
routing merchandise or materials to proper departments; maintaining
necessary records and files.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:
Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk
TRUCKDRIVER

ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
Fills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from
stored merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips,
customers1 orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling
orders and indicating items filled or omitted, keep records of out­
going orders, requisition additional stock, or report short supplies
to supervisor, and perform other related duties.
PACKER, SHIPPING
Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires
the placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or
more of the following: Knowledge of various items of stock in order
to verify content; selection of appropriate type and size of container;
inserting enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to
prevent breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; applying
labels or entering identifying data on container. Packers who also
make wooden boxes or crates are excluded.
SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is re­
sponsible for incoming shipment of merchandise or other materials.
Shipping work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, prac­
tices, routes, available means of transportation and rates; and pre­
paring records of the goods shipped, making up bills of lading, post­
ing weight and shipping charges, and keeping a file of shipping records.
May direct or assist in preparing the merchandise for shipment.
Receiving work involves: Verifying or directing others in verifying
the correctness of shipments against bills of lading, invoices, or




Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport
materials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of
establishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, ware­
houses, wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail estab­
lishments and customers1 houses or places of business. May also
load or unload truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical
repairs, and keep truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and
over-the-road drivers are excluded.
For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size
and type of equipment, as follows: (Tractor-trailer should be rated
on the basis of trailer capacity. )
Truckdriver (combination of sizes listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under IV2 t o n s )
Truckdriver, medium (lf/2 to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than "trailer type)
TRUCKER, POWER
Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about
a warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of
truck, as follows:
Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)
WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.
☆

U. S. GOVERNM
ENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1958

0 — 457243




Occupational Wage Surveys

O ccu pational wage surveys are bein g conducted in 17 major labor markets during late 1957 and early 1958. B ulletin s, when available, may be
purchased from the Superintendent o f D ocum ents, Government Printing O ffic e , Washington 25, D. C ., or from any o f the regional sa le s o ffic e s shown.
B ulletins for the areas liste d below are now a v a ila b le.




Seattle, Wash., August 1957 — BLS B ull. 1224-1, price 20 cen ts
B oston , M ass., September 1957 — BLS B ull. 1224-2, price 25 cents
B altim ore, Md., August 1957 — BLS B ull. 1224-3, price 25 cents
D a lla s, T e x ., O ctober 1957 — BLS B ull. 1224-4, price 20 cents





Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102