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Occupational Wage Survey

BALTIM
ORE, MARYLAND
AU G U ST 19S7

B u lle tin N o . 1 2 2 4 -3

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner




Occupational Wage Survey
B A L T IM O R E , M A R Y L A N D




AUGUST 1957

B u lle tin N o . 1 2 2 4 -3
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STAHSTICS
Ewan C la g o e , Commissioner

January 1958

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U S. Government P
rinting Office, Washington 25, D.C. - P 25 cen
rice
ts




Contents

Preface

Page
The Community Wage Survey Program
The Bureau of Labor Statistics regularly conducts
areawide wage surveys in a number of important industrial
centers.
The studies, made from late fall to early spring,
relate to occupational earnings and related supplementary
benefits.
A prelim inary report is available on completion
of the study in each area, usually in the month following the
payroll period studied. This bulletin provides additional data
not included in the earlier report.
A consolidated analytical
bulletin summarizing the results of all of the year*s surveys
is issued after completion of the final area bulletin for the
current round of surveys.




Introduction ______________________________________________________________
Wage trends for selected occupational groups ___________________ —

1
4

Tables:
1.
2.

Establishments and workers within scope of s u r v e y ________
Indexes of standard weekly salaries and straight-tim e
hourly earnings for selected occupational groups,
and percent of increase for selected periods _____________

A:

Occupational earnings * A - 1: Office occupations _______________________________________
A -2 : Professional and technical occupations _______________
A - 3: Maintenance and power plant occupations ______________
A -4 : Custodial and m aterial-m ovem ent occupations _______

B:

Establishment practices and supplementary wage
provisions.* B - l : Shift differential provisions _____________________________
B -2 : Minimum entrance rates for women office w o r k e r s __
B -3 : Scheduled weekly h o u r s ______________
B -4 ; Overtime pay p r a c t ic e s ___________
B -5 : Wage structure characteristics and labormanagement agreem ents _______________________________
B -6 : Paid holidays _____________________________________________
B -7 : Paid vacations ____________________________________________
B -8 : Health, insurance, and pension plans _________________

Appendix:

Job descriptions ____________________________________________

*NOTE: Similar tabulations for m ost of these items are availa­
ble in the Baltim ore area reports for June 1951, October 1952,
and A pril 1955. P rior to the present report, no data had been
presented on wage structure ch aracteristics, labor-managem ent
agreem ents, or overtime pay provisions. The 1955 report also
included data on frequency of wage payments, and pay provisions
for holidays falling on nonworkdays not included in other reports.
A directory indicating date of study and the price of the reports,
as well as reports for other major a reas, is available upon
request.
Current reports on occupational earnings and supplementary
wage practices in the Baltim ore area are also available for
wom en's and m isses* coats and suits (February 1957); and a
machinery industries report w ill be available in early 1958.
Union scales, indicative of prevailing pay lev els, are availa­
ble for the following trades or industries: Building construction,
printing, local-tran sit operating em ployees, and motortruck
drivers and helpers.

2

4
5
8
9
10

13
14
15
16
17
18
20
22
23




Occupational Wage Survey - Baltimore, Md.*
Introduction

The Baltimore area is one of several important industrial
centers in which the Department of L a b o r s Bureau of Labor Statistics
has conducted surveys of occupational earnings and related wage bene­
fits bn an areawide b a sis. In each area, data are obtained by Bureau
field agents from representative establishments within six broad in­
dustry divisions: Manufacturing; transportation (excluding railroads),
communication, andother public u tilities; wholesale trade; retail trade;
finance, insurance, and real estate;
and serv ic es. Major industry
groups excluded from these studies, besides railroads, are govern­
ment operations and the construction and extractive industries. E s ­
tablishments having fewer than a prescribed number of workers are
omitted also because they furnish insufficient employment in the occu­
pations studied to warrant in clu sion .1 Wherever possible, separate
tabulations are provided for each of the broad industry divisions.

to the work schedules (rounded to the nearest half hour) for which
straight-tim e salaries are paid; average weekly earnings for these
occupations have been rounded to the nearest half dollar.

These surveys are conducted on a sample basis because of the
unnecessary cost involved in surveying all establishments. To obtain
appropriate accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of large
than of sm all establishments is studied.
In combining the data, how­
ever, all establishments are given their appropriate weight. Estim ates
based on the establishments studied are presented, therefore, as re ­
lating to all establishments in the industry grouping and area, ex­
cept for those below the minimum size studied.

Information is presented also (in the B -s e r ie s tables) on s e ­
lected establishment practices and supplementary benefits as they r e ­
late to office and plant w orkers.
The term “office w orkers, " as
used in this bulletin, includes all office clerical employees and ex­
cludes administrative, executive, professional, and technical personnel.
"Plant w orkers" include working foremen and all nonsupervisory work­
ers (including leadmen and trainees) engaged in nonoffice functions.
Adm inistrative, executive, professional, and technical em ployees, and
force-account construction employees who are utilized as a separate
work force are excluded.
Cafeteria workers and routemen are ex­
cluded in manufacturing industries, but are included as plant workers
in nonmanufacturing industries.

Occupations and Earnings
The occupations selected for study are common to a variety
of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries. Occupational c la s­
sification is based on a uniform set of job descriptions designed to
take account of interestablishment variation in duties within the same
job (see appendix for listing of these descriptions). Earnings data are
presented (in the A -s e r ie s tables) for the following types of occupa­
tions: (a) Office clerical; (b) professional and technical; (c) mainte­
nance and power plant; and (d) custodial and material movement.
Occupational employment and earnings data are shown for
fu ll-tim e workers, i. e. , those hired to work a regular weekly sched­
ule in the given occupational classification.
Earnings data exclude
premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and
late shifts.
Nonproduction bonuses are excluded also, but c o st-o fliving bonuses and incentive earnings are included.
Where weekly
hours are reported, as for office clerical occupations, reference is

* This report was prepared in the Bureau's regional office in
New York, N. Y . , by Elliott A . Browar, under the direction of Paul E .
Warwick, Regional Wage and Industrial Relations Analyst.
1 See table on page 2 for m inim um -size establishment covered.




Occupational employment estimates represent the total in all
establishments within the scope of the study and not the number actu­
ally surveyed. Because of differences in occupational structure among
establishm ents, the estimates of occupational employment obtained
from the sample of establishments studied serve only to indicate the
relative importance of the jobs studied. These differences in occu­
pational structure do not m aterially affect the accuracy of the earn­
ings data.
Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions

Shift differential data (table B - l ) are limited to manufacturing
industries. This information is presented both in terms of (a) estab­
lishment policy, 2 presented in terms of total plant worker em ploy­
ment, and (b) effective practice, presented on the basis of workers
actually employed on the specified shift at the time of the survey.
In establishments having varied differentials, the amount applying to
a majority was used o r, if no amount applied to a m ajority, the c la s­
sification "o th e r" was used.
In establishments in which some lateshift hours are paid at normal rates, a differential was recorded only
if it applied to a majority of the shift hours.
Minimum entrance rates (table B -2) relate only to the estab­
lishments visited.
They are presented on an establishment, rather
than on an employment b a sis. Overtime pay practices; paid holidays;
paid vacations; and health, insurance, and pension plans are treated
statistically on the basis that these are applicable to all plant or office
2
An establishment was considered as having a policy if it met
either of the following conditions: (l) Operated late shifts at the time
of the survey, or (2) had form al provisions covering late shifts.

2

workers if a m ajority of such workers are eligible or may eventually
qualify for the practices listed.
Scheduled hours, wage structure
ch a racteristics, and labor-m anagem ent agreements are treated sta­
tistically on the basis that these are applicable to all plant or office
workers if a majority are co v e re d .3 Because of rounding, sums of
individual items in these tabulations do not necessarily equal totals.
The first part of the paid holidays table presents the num­
ber of whole and half holidays actually provided.
The second part
combines whole and half holidays to show total holiday tim e.
The
third section presents a list of the paid holidays and the proportions
of workers to whom they are granted annually.
The summary of vacation plans is limited to form al arrange­
m ents, excluding informal plans whereby time off with pay is granted
at the discretion of the em ployer.
Separate estim ates are provided
according to employer practice in computing vacation payments, such
as time payments, percent of annual earnings, or fla t-su m amounts.
However, in the tabulations of vacation allowances, payments not on
a time basis were converted; for exam ple, a payment of 2 percent of
annual earnings was considered as the equivalent of 1 week1 s pay.
Data are presented for all health, insurance, and pension
plans for which at least a part of the cost is borne by the em ployer,
excepting only legal requirements such as workmen1s compensation
and social security. Such plans include those underwritten by a com­
m ercial insurance company and those provided through a union fund or

paid directly by the employer out of current operating funds .or from
a fund set aside for this purpose. Death benefits are included as a
form of life insurance.
Sickness and accident insurance is lim ited to that type of in­
surance under which predetermined cash payments are made directly
to the insured on a weekly or monthly basis during illness or accident
disability.
Information is presented for all such plans to which the
employer contributes.
However, in New York and New Jersey, which
have enacted temporary disability insurance laws which require em ­
ployer contributions,4 plans are included only if the employer (l) con­
tributes more than is legally required, or (2) provides the employee
with benefits which exceed the requirements of the law. Tabulations
of paid sick-leave plans are limited to form al plans 5 which provide
full pay or a proportion of the w orker's pay during absence from work
because of illn e ss.
Separate tabulations are provided according to
(l) plans which provide full pay and no waiting period, and (2) plans
providing either partial pay or a waiting period.
In addition to the
presentation of the proportions of workers who are provided sickness
and accident insurance or paid sick leave, an unduplicated total is
shown of workers who receive either or both types of benefits.

4
The temporary disability laws in California and Rhode Island
do not require employer contributions.
An establishment was considered as having a form al plan if
3
Scheduled weekly hours for office workers (first section of established at least the minimum number of days of sick leave that
it
table B -3) were presented in earlier years in term s of the propor­
could be expected by each em ployee. Such a plan need not be written,
tion of women office workers employed in offices with the indicated
but informal sick leave allowances, determined on an individual b a sis,
weekly hours for women w orkers.
were excluded.
Establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied in Baltimore, Md. ,

Table

Industry division

All divisions___ _____

_______ ______

________________ _ ___
_

Manufacturing____
_
_ __ --------------------- ------------------------ ------____________________ ___
Nonmanufacturing __ ____ ___ ____
Transportation (excluding railroads), communication and
other public utilities 4 . __ _
_
_________________________ —
Wholesale trade _____ ____ ________________________________ _
Retail trade____ ___ ____ ____ ________________________ _____
Finance, insurance, and real estate ___________________________
Services6 _________________ _________________ ____ __________

Minimum
employment
in establish­
ments in scope
of study

by major industry division, August 1957
Workers in establishments

Number of establishments

Within scope of study

Within
scope of
study 2

.

628

180

101
-

264
364

66
114

101
51
101
51
51

25
95
79
85
80

13
29
26
27
19

Studied

Studied
Total 3

Office

Plant

Total 3

277,800

43,300

186,400

189,200

178, 100
99,700

19, 300
24,000

130,900
55,500

125, 100
64,100

22,900
10,600
37, 100
17,600
11,500

4, 600
2, 200
4, 900
11,000
(7)

13,200
4,900
28, 600
5
800
(7)

20,000
4, 600
24, 700
10,400
4, 400

1 The Baltimore Metropolitan Area (Baltimore City, Baltimore and Anne Arundel Counties). The "workers within scope of study" estimates shown in this table provide a reasonably accurate description of
the size and composition of the labor force included in the survey. The estimates are not intended, however, to serve as a basis of comparison with other area employment indexes to measure employment trends
or levels, since (l) planning of wage surveys requires the use of establishment data compiled considerably in advance of the pay period studied, and (2) small establishments are excluded from the scope of
the s Y ^ i u d e s all establishments with total employment at or above the minimum-size limitation. All outlets (within the area)
motion-picture theaters are considered as 1 establishment.
3 Includes executive, technical, professional, and other workers excluded from the separate office and plant categories.
4 Also excludes taxicabs, and services incidental to water transportation.




of companies in such industries as trade, finance, auto repair service, and

3
Catastrophe insurance, som etim es referred to as extended
medical insurance, includes those plans which are designed to protect
employees in case of sickness and injury involving expenses beyond
the normal coverage of hospitalization, m edical, and surgical plans.
Medical insurance refers to plans providing for complete or partial
payment of doctors1 fe e s. Such plans may be underwritten by com m er­
cial insurance companies or nonprofit organizations or they may be
self-in su red.
Tabulations of retirement pension plans are lim ited to
those plans that provide monthly payments for the remainder of the
w orker1s life.
With reference to wage structure characteristics, proportions
of time and incentive workers directly reflect employment under each




pay system . However, because of technical considerations, all tim e­
rated workers (plant or office) in an establishment were’ classified to
the predominant type of rate structure applying to these w orkers.
Incentive-worker employment was classified according to the pre­
dominant type of incentive plan in each establishment.
Graduated provisions for premium overtime pay were c la s s i­
fied to the first effective premium rate.
For exam ple, a plan calling
for time and one-half after 8 and double time after 10 hours a day
was tabulated as time and one-half after 8 hours. Sim ilarly, a plan
calling for no pay or pay at regular rate after
hours (regular
weekly schedule) and time and one-half after 40 was considered as
time and one-half after 40 hours.

Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups
occupations were then totaled to obtain an aggregate for each occupa­
tional group. Finally, the ratio of these group aggregates for a given
year to the aggregate for the base period (survey month, winter 1952-53)
was computed and the result multiplied by the base year index (100) to
get the index for the given year.

The table below presents indexes of salaries of office clerical
workers and industrial n urses, and of average earnings of selected
plant worker groups.
For office clerical workers and industrial nurses, the indexes
relate to average weekly salaries for normal hours of work, that is ,
the standard work schedule for which straight-tim e salaries are paid.
For plant worker groups, they m easure changes in straight-tim e hourly
earnings, excluding premium pay for overtime and for work on week­
ends, holidays, and late shifts.
The indexes are based on data for
selected key occupations and include most of the num erically im ­
portant jobs within each group.
The office clerical data are based
on women in the following 18 jobs: B ille r s , machine (billing m a ­
chine); bookkeeping-machine operators, class A and B; Comptometer
operators; clerk s, file , class A and B; clerk s, order; clerk s, pay^
roll; key-punch operators; office g irls; secreta ries; stenographers,
general; switchboard operators; switchboard operator-receptionists;
tabulating-machine operators; transcribing-m achine operators, gen­
eral; and typists, class A and B. The industrial nurse data are based
on women industrial nurses. Men in the following 10 skilled m ainte­
nance jobs and 3 unskilled jobs were included in the plant worker
data: Skilled-—carpenters; electricians; m achinists; m echanics; m e ­
chanics, automotive; m illwrights; painters; pipefitters; sheet-m etal
workers; and tool and die m akers; unskilled— jan itors, p o rte rs, and
cleaners; lab orers, m aterial handling; and watchmen.

The indexes m easu re, principally, the effects of (l) general
salary and wage changes; (2) m erit or other increases in pay received
by individual workers while in the same job; and (3) changes in the
labor force such as labor turnover, force expansions, force reduc­
tions, and changes in the proportion of workers employed by estab­
lishments with different pay lev els.
Changes in the labor force can
cause increases or decreases in the occupational averages without
actual wage changes. For exam ple, a force expansion might increase
the proportion of lower paid workers in a specific occupation and r e ­
sult in a drop in the average, whereas a reduction in the proportion
of lower paid workers would have the opposite effect. The movement
of a high-paying establishment out of an area could cause the average
earnings to drop, even though no change in rates occurred in other
area establishm ents.
The use of constant employment weights eliminates the effects
of changes in the proportion of workers represented in each job in­
cluded in the data.
Nor are the indexes influenced by changes in
standard work schedules or in premium pay for overtim e, since they
are based on pay for straight-tim e hours.

Average weekly salaries or average hourly earnings were
computed for each of the selected occupations. The average salaries
or hourly earnings were then multiplied by the average of 1953 and
1954 employment in the job.
These weighted earnings fo r individual




Indexes for the period 1953 to 1957 for workers in 14 m ajor
labor m arkets appeared in BLS Bull. 1202, Wages and Related Benefits,
17 Labor M arkets, 1 9 5 6 -5 7 .

Table 2. Indexes of standard w eekly sa la ries and stra igh t-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupational groups
in B a ltim ore, Md. , August 1957 and A p ril 1955, and percent of in crease for selected periods
Indexes
(October 1952=100)
Industry and occupational group

August
1957

A p ril
1955

Percent in creases from —
A p ril 1955 October 1952
to
to
August 1957 A p ril 1955

June 1951
to
O ctober 1952

A ll in dustries:
O ffice c le ric a l (women) _________ ____________
Industrial nurses (women) __ __________ _____
Skilled maintenance ( m e n ) ------------ ----------------Unskilled plant (men) -----------------------------------------

1 2 9 .7
132. 8
134. 5
140. 0

112.
117.
115.
115.

9
2
7
2

14.
13.
16.
21.

9
3
3
6

12.
17.
15.
15.

9
2
7
2

9. 1
7. 6
7. 7
6 .5

Manufacturing:
O ffice c le ric a l (women) ________________________
Industrial nurses (w o m e n )-------------------------------Skilled maintenance ( m e n ) -------------------------------Unskilled plant (men) -----------------------------------------

132.
133.
136.
140.

114. 2
116. 9
1 1 6 .7
117. 1

15.
14.
16.
20.

7
5
8
3

14. 2
1 6 .9
16. 7
17. 1

8. 5
8. 3
6. 9
6. 9

1
8
3
9

5

A : O c c u p a i i o n a l E a r n in g s

Table A-l: Office Occupations
(Average-straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis in Baltimore, Md., by industry division, August 1957)

Sex, occupation, and industry division

N me
u br
o
f
wr e s
okr

A sb o i
t az
N M E O W R E S R C IV G STR IG T-T E W E LY E R IN S O —
U B R F O K R E E IN
A H IM E K
AN G F
$
$
W ly
eek
W ly Under 40. 00 Is. 00 10.00 15.00 10.00 15 .00 70. 00 75.00 So. 00 §5. 00 So. 00 ?5. 00 5 00.00 105.00 n o .00 115.00
eek
h us
or
e r in s
an g
and
(S n rd (S n a )1 $
ta fo )1 ta d rd
40. 00 under
45.00 50. 00. 55.00 60.00 65.00 70.00 75. 00 80.00 as. no 90. 00 95. 00 loo.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 170.00

$
120.00
and
over

Men

167
79

39.0
40.0
38.0
36.5

93.50
96.00
89.50
81.50

-

-

-

3
3
-

9
7
2
2

17
4
13
6

28
5
23
18

65
48
17
12

12
21
7

65
38
27
17

37
21
16
8

38
28
10
9

23
21
2
-

11
6
5
-

20

8
12
-

37
37
.
-

43
27
16
-

Clerks, accounting, class B ---------------------------------------Manufacturing -------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing --------------------------------------------------Wholesale trade -------------------------------------------------

174
106
68
56

40. 0
40. 0
39.5
40.0

83.00
78.00
90.50
97.00

_
-

7
7
“

4
4
-

9
8
1
-

12
6
6
5

14
7
7
3

25
21
4
3

9
8
1
“

15
10
5
5

14
14
-

14
9
5
5

3
1
2
2

16
10
6
6

18
4
14
14

6
1
5
5

5
5
5

3
3
3

Clerks, order----------------------------------- -------------------------Nonmanufacturing --------------------------------------------------Wholesale trade--------------------------------------------------

130
109
69

41.0
40.0
40.0

83.00
81.00
84.00

_
-

_
-

5
5
-

11
11
-

22
22
20

6
6
4

1
-

10
10
6

14
14
11

13
6
5

12
3
1

11
7
7

6
6

3

4
4
-

3
3
3

3
3
-

9
9
9

Clerks, payroll___ __________________________________
Manufacturing --------------------------------------------------------

180
168

40.0
40.0

100.00
100.50

.
-

_
-

.
-

2
2

2
1

2
2

4
4

16
16

4
4

33
28

16
12

7
7

21
21

5
3

10
10

31
31

27
27

Office boys -----------------------------------------------------------------Manufacturing --------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing -------------------------------------------------Finance t t -----------------------------------------------------------

278
148
130
60

39.0
39.5
38. 5
37.0

48.00
49.00
46.50
46.50

15
15
15

109
79
30
15

86

26

60
14

25
18
7
4

20
9
11
8

5
1
4
4

3
3
-

8
5
3
"

_
-

7
7
.
-

_
-

_
-

.
-

_
-

_
.
-

.
-

.
-

.
-

Tabulating-machine operators--------------------------- --------—
Manufacturing --------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing--------------------------------------------------Financetf -----------------------------------------------------------

242
101
141
66

39.0
39.5
38. 5
38.5

80.00
87.50
74. 50
65.50

_
i-

.
“

1
.1
1

4
4
4

11
11
11

21
3
18
10

33
11
22
22

31
7
24
12

20
11
9
2

42
12
30
2

31
29
2
-

8
3
5
2

15
5
10
■

6
2
4
"

5
5
■

2
1
1
~

9
9
-

3
3
-

Billers, machine (billing machine)-----------------------------Manufacturing --------------------------------------------------------

126
82

39.5
39.0

58.00
58. 50

_
-

22
13

29
15

25
22

13
9

9
“

26
21

.

1
1

!
1

.
-

.
“

.
-

Billers, machine (bookkeeping machine) --------------------Nonmanufacturing --------------------------------------------------Retail trade --------------------------------------------------------

107
72
58

39.5
39.5
40.0

54. 50
49. 50
48.50

16
16
16

25
25
19

20
16
12

9
5
3

18
5
5

10
3
3

3
2
“

6
-

_
-

_
-

.
-

„
-

Bookkeeping-machine operators, class A ------------------Manufacturing --------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ---------------------------------------------------

124
72
52

39.5
39.5
39.0

65.50
66.00
62.50

_
_
-

_
-

3
-

12
1
11

25
19
6

18
8
10

21
14

26
16
10

7
7
"

4
4

1
1

7
7

-

_
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
“

_
_
-

Bookkeeping-machine operators, class B ------------------Manufacturing -------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing --------------------------------------------------Retail trade ------------------------------------------------------Finance t t -----------------------------------------------------------

639
112
527
97
332

39.0
39.5
39.0
40.0
39.0

51.50
62.00
49.50
49.50
48. 50

15
15

100
100
6
89

226

62
22
40
6
18

27
16
11

46
32
14

23

3
3

3
3

3
3

223
42
148

129
23
106
21
54

7
3

7
7

-

.
-

_
“

Clerks, accounting, class A ---------------------------------------Manufacturing -------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing--------------------------------------------------Retail trade -------------------------------------------------------Financett-----------------------------------------------------------

449
133
316
108

38. 5
38. 5
38.5
40. 0
37. 5

70. 50
76.00
68. 00
61.00
67.00

1
1
1

28
28
28

21
21
21

34
11
23
9

81
28
53
6
36

52
9
43
16
12

.
_

1
1
-

Clerks, accounting, class A ---------------------------------------Manufacturing--------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing--------------------------------------------------Finance t t --------------------------------------------------- ------

429
W l~

-

33

Women

See footnote at end of table,
t t Finance, insurance, and real estate.
4 5 18 73 0 - 5 8 - 2




77

7

8
_

_

3

3

7

7

7

16
1
5

-

45
14
31

93
17
76
8
6

3

6

-

39
22
17
7
6

_

-

-

“

2
2
-

_
“

26
13
13
4
4

4
2
2
1

18
14
4
4

6
2
4
.

_

_

-

-

.

-

Occupational Wage Survey, Baltimore, Md. , August 1957
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

6

Table A-l: Office Occupations - Continued
(A verage stra igh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings

for selected occupations studied on an area b asis in B altim ore, M d. , by industry d ivision, August 1957)

Average

5 5 .0 0

6 0 .0 0

6 5 .0 0

7 0 .0 0

So.

7 5 .0 0

8 0 .0 0

8 5 .0 0

00

0
0

50. 00

7 5 .0 0

Si**

I s . 00

00

0
0
0

fo .

0
0

1 5 .0 0

o
o
o

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS O
F—

W
eekly
W
eekly Under t o . 0 0
and
hours , earnin i
gs
(Standard)' (Standard) $
40 . 00 under
4 5 .0 0

0

N ber
um
of
w
orkers

§
in

Sex, occupation, and industry division

$
$
$
$
$
$95 .00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00

and
9 0 . 00

9 5 .0 0

14

1
----- !-----

100.00 105. 00 1 1 0.00 115.00 17.0.00

Women - Continued

C le r k s, accounting, cla ss B
Manufacturing ------------------Nonmanufacturing -----------W h olesale trade --------Retail trade -----------------F in a n c e 'll----------------------

1 ,0 9 3
Z41
852
53
209
264

3 8 .5
39. 5
38. 0
3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 8 .0

$
58. 00
67. 00
5 5 .5 0
63. 00
5 3 .0 0
50. 00

C le r k s, file , class A ----------Manufacturing ------------------N on m an ufactu ring-----------F in a n c e f f ----------------------

201
108
93
63

3 9 .0
39. 5
38. 0
37. 5

57.
57.
58.
54.

50
5o
00
50

C le r k s, file , c la ss B -----------------------------------------------------------Manufacturing -------------------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------------------------------------W holesale trade ---------------------------------------------------------Retail trade ------------------------------------------------------------------

795

38. 5
39. 0
3 8 .0
3 9 .5
4 0 .0
37. 5
38. 5

T 7J T ~

675
87
75
390

C le r k s, order ------------------------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------------------------------------Retail trade ------------------------------------------------------------------

389
255
154

C le r k s, payroll --------------------------------------------------------------------Manufacturing -----------------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------------------------------------Public utilities f ------------------------------------------------------------

559

Finance t

t ----------------------------------------------------------

C om ptom eter operators -------------------------------------------------------M an u factu rin g--------------------------------------------------------- ---------W holesale trade ------------------------------------------- --------------Retail trade -----------------------------------------------------------------D uplicating-m achine operators
(m im eograph or ditto) ------------------------------------------------------Manufacturing -------------------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing -----------------------------------------------------------Key-punch operators Manufacturing ---------Nonmanufacturing Public u tilities t •
W holesale trade •

298
261
46
108
63
497
172
325
72
151

4
4
3

101
3
98
_
27
70

128
9
119
5
39
69

185
25
160
11
36
60

237
19
218
13
91
32

207
39
168
6
8
12

86
47
39
9
7
4

82
5l
31
1
1
7

24
17
7
_
_
7

17
15
2
2
.

.

19
19
_
-

60
24
36
28

30
H
19
16

15
5
10
5

22
13
9
6

8
Z
6
-

5
3
2

-

26
18
8
8

46 . 00
50. 50
4 5 .0 0
53. 00
4 1 .0 0
4 3 . 00

70
70
11
59

313
33
280
25
53
195

216
27
189
12
10
99

122
25
97
19
36

39

9
7
2
1
1
-

22
1
21
21
_

3
3
3
_

1
1
_
_
_

-

-

53. 50

17
17
17

68

66

74

66

13
b
3

19
16

74
34
40
20
13

65
4b
19
3
4
11

38. 5

52. 60

40 . 0

4 7 . 50

3 9 .0
39. 5
38. 5
3 8 .0
3 9 .5
37. 0

6 6 .0 0
67. 50
64. 00
70. 00
60. 00
64. 00

_
-

38. 0

63. 50

39.0

67. 50

37. 5
3 9 .5
38. 0

6 1 .5 0
68. 00
60. 00

_
.

-

13
6
_
1

49

53

29

5o

37

53

26

10

46
25
3

16
2
14
6
2

43
24
19
2
9
5

40
16
24
1
17
4

93
22
71
12
36
15

100
77
23
8
3
3

18
1
17
_
5

47
r
46
6
28

73

78

28

18

45
13
32

60
21
19

83
28
55
18

52
"

21

31
1
18

4
4
4
_

_
_
_

-

-

-

-

-

8

6
5
1
-

1
1
_

_
_

~

1
1
-

_

_

.

_

_
_
_

.
_
_
_

.
_
_
.

_
_
_
_

-

-

-

-

-

11

3
-

_
-

9

4

49
......21
25
16

_
>
.

1
1

-

1
38 1
16
22
7
11
4

"

29
24
5
1
4

32
, 239
8
1

6

11
l
10
4
2
1

28
21
7
6
1

35
21
14
6
8

12

_

13
13
10
3

_

_

_
-

-

3
3

-

-

-

-

_
.
_

_
_

_
-

_
_

-

-

-

_

_

_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_

_
_

_
_

_

_

_

_
_

-

-

-

-

_
_

_
_

-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

8
"B
.
-

3
1
2
_
_

4
4
-

'

_

_
-

.
-

2
2
-

.
_
_
_

1
1
_
.

-

-

-

-

-

9
9
6
3

_
-

_

_

_

_

_

_
-

_

.
.
>

-

-

_

9

_

r
1
1
_

_
.

1
.
1
1

_
_
_
_

_

-

1
-

2

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

-

-

39. 0
40 0
3 8 .5

56. 50
65. 50
47 . 00

2
2

17
17

10
1
9

9
1
8

9

8

2

7

30
30

6
6

-

-

7

1

-

“

-

"

756

38. 5

10

110
8
10
37

118
11
107
28
_
38

139
38
101
26
3
48

140
33
107
24

25
14
11
_
11

16
14
2
_
2

51

79
48
31
1
16
14

60

39.5

40
g

116

22?

-

“

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

57
53
18

15
7
1

1
1

-

3
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

91
47
44

F in a n ce ff -----------

529
93
54
232

38. 0
3 9 .0
4 0 .0
37. 5

58. 50
66. 50
55. 00
5 7 .0 0
67. 00
53. 50

Office girls ------------------Nonmanufacturing —
F i n a n c e f t ------------

128
110
62

39. 0
3 9 .0
39. 0

4 6 .0 0
45 . O
P
43 . 00

10

32

_
10

_
30

1
1

51

_

See footnote at end of table.
f
Transportation (excluding r a ilr o a d s), com m unication, and other public u tilities
I f Finance, insurance, and real estate.




26

_
_
.

14 '

_

47
43

6

4

44
16
6
6
4
-

3
3

_
_
-

8
8
-

2

_

-

-

2
2

.
_
-

_
-

_
-

_

.

-

-

_
-

-

_

_

-

_
_

7

Table A-l: Office Occupations - Continued
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis in Baltimore, Md., by industry division, August 1957)
A bxaq
t
b
Sex, occupation, and industry division

N ber
um
of
wrkw

N M E O W R E S R C IV G STR IG T-T E W E LY E R IN S O —
U B R F O K R E E IN
A H IM E K
AN G F
10.00

§5.00

10.00

I s . 00 $0.00

$5.00

10.00

15.00 $0.00

55.00

60.00

65.00

70.00

75.00

80.00

85.00

90.00

$
$
$
*95.00 100.00 105.00 110 .00 115.00 120.00
and
95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 over

9
9
6
3

58
16
42
8
8
26

119
26
93
20
9
52

237
22
215
51
26
87

243
67
176
12
24
83

331
115
216
24
44
104

226
rz rr
106
66

184
85
99
26
2
41

147
90
57
7
1
12

118
100
18
3
5

77
"53
24
8
2
12

77
56
21
1
.
7

37
31 ”
4
4
-

6
6
-

11
2
9
4
.
1

11
7
4
2
1

W
eekly
W
eekly Under 10.00 Js.OO
boon , earning!
and
(Standard)1 (Standard)1 8
40.00 under
45.00 50.00

Women - Continued
Secretaries----------------------------------Manufacturing------------------------Nonmanufacturing--------------------Wholesale tra d e -----------------Retail trade ------------------------Finance f f — .......—
-------------

1,891
79T"
1,093
170
134
500

38.5
39.5
38.0
39.5
40.0
37.5

$
76.00
82.00
71.50
72.50
66.50
70.00

•
-

.
•
.

Stenographers, general ---------------Manufacturing —- — — ........... Nonmanufacturing — - ........... ■
■
Wholesale tra d e -----------------Retail trade - ---- -— ...... .......
Financeff — — — —
— — ----- — -----

1,867
89TT~
969
55
69
709

38.5
39.5
38.0
39.5
39.0
37.5

64. 00
72.0d
57. 00
76.00
60.00
54.00

7
7
.
7

108
1
107
•
107

150
19
131
10
121

244
38
206
3
11
152

260
62
198
20
161

320
176
144
9
12
94

180
107
73
2
2
54

160
122
38
13
5
5

158
125
33
12
1
1

145
132
13
2
3
7

55
49
6
2
4
-

67
62
5
4
1
-

10
2
8
8
-

2
2
-

1
1
-

_
_
-

.
•
-

•
-

Switchboard operators-----------------Manufacturing------------------------Nonmanufacturing -------------------Public utilities f -------------------Retail trade ■
« ........... ....
Financeff-----------------------------

420
ll8
302
45
102
76

39.5
40.0
39.5
39.5
40.0
37.5

57.00
68. 50
52.50
62.50
49.50
53.00

21
21
*
7

41
•
41
13
1

80
1
79
5
39
26

65
17
48
4
14
22

75
21
54
7
23
15

29
12
17
3
3
7

41
11
30
22
3
5

13
12
1
-

28
23
5
4

18
16
2

3
1
2

1
1
-

3
3
-

-

2
2

-

.
-

-

Switchboard operator-receptionists
Manufacturing------------------------Nonmanufacturing-------------------Wholesale tra d e -------------------

328
“ "1
143
54

39.0
3 9 .5 "
38.5
39.5

57. 50
58. 00
57.00
57. 50

„
-

4
4
-

62
38
24
10

84
57
27
9

49
23
26
17

69
31
38
9

30
15
15
5

10
3
7
3

6
5
1
-

2

11
11
-

_

-

_
-

_
-

_

1
1

1
1
-

-

-

-

38.0
65.00
” 37. 5 " 62. 00
56; 00
36.5

2
2
2

7
7
6

6
6
4

18
17
9

19
19

42
42
16

17
16
9

7
2

15
11

22
ll

3
•

-

4
2

-

.
-

-

-

-

11

60.00
64.50
57. 50
54.00

.
-

12
•
12
12

31
10
21
21

46
13
33
26

45
12
33
27

39
13
26
15

14
14
6

2
2
-

6
2
4
4

10
6
4

9
7
2

7
7
-

-

1
1

2
2

-

-

-

39.5
64.00
' 39.5 ’ 66. 00
38.5
58.00
39.0
56.00
37.0
54.00

•
-

17
3
14
5

62
17
45
12
18

78
27
51
14
25

188
133
55
16
23

160
118
42
11
19

151
136
15
3

105
95
10
1

61
59
2
-

14
10
4
1

15
i5
-

22
12
-

10
10

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

301
10"
291
.
.
32
256

428
59
369
.4
23
37
303

228
- ' 50 "
178
15
30
31
96

179
TO
O
79
16
16
21

98
63"
35

53
41
12
3
9
-

47

21
18
3

7
7
-

15
14”
1

2
2
-

-

-

3

-

-

.
-

-

-

-

3

3
-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Tabulating-machine operators
Nonmannfach irin g -----------Financeff---------------------

162
135
57

Transcribing-machine operators, general
Mannfactur'
Nonmanufai
Financeff

224

Typists, class A ------Manufacturing —
—

885
635
250
55
93

Public utilities f
F inanceff------Typists, felass B — —
Manufacturing — Noamsunfachiring •
Public utilities f
Wholesale trade
Retail trade —
Pinnace f t ---------

154
111

1,394
986
43
39
154
898

38.5
39 0
38.5
38.0

39.0
39.5
38.5
39.0
40.0
39.5
38.8

51.50
61.00
47.50
55.00
54.00
50.00
46.00

15
15
.
7
8

”

25

5

8
22

"

3
9

* Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours,
t Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
f f Finance, insurance, and real estate.




-

.

8

Table A-2: Professional and Technical Occupations
(A verage straight-tim e weekly hoars and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area b asis
in B a ltim o re, M d. , by industry division, August 1957)
A vera g e

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

Weekly,
hours 1
(Standard)

N U M B E R OP W O R K E R S R E C E IV I N G S T R A IG H T -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S O F -

•S
$
s
S
$
$
S
$
$
S
$
$
1
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
5
Weekly
6 0 . 0 0 6 5 . 0 0 7 0 . 00 7 5 . 00 8 0 . 00 8 5 . 0 0 9 0 . 00J 9 5 . 0 0 1 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 5 . 0 0 1 1 0 . 0 0 1 1 5 . 0 0 1 2 0 . 0 0 1 2 5 . 0 0 1 3 0 . 0 0 1 3 5 . 0 0 1 4 0 . 0 0 1 4 5 . 0 0 1 5 0 . 0 0 1 5 5 . 0 0 1 6 0 . 0 0
earnings1 Under
(Standard) $
„ n^ pr
and
6 0 . 00 6 5 . 00 7 0 . 0 0 7 5 . 0 0 8 0 . 00 8 5 . 00 9 0 . 0 0 9 5 . 00 1 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 5 . 0 0 1 1 0 . 0 0 1 1 5 . 0 0 1 2 0 . 0 0 1 2 5 . 0 0 1 3 0 . 0 0 1 3 5 . 0 0 1 4 0 . 0 0 1 4 5 . 0 0 1 5 0 . 0 0 1 5 5 . 0 0 1 6 0 . 0 0 over

D raftsm en , le a d e r _____
M an ufactu ring_______

167
116

40. 0
Ifo T o

$
135.00
135.50

D raftsm en , senior ____
M an u factu rin g_______
Nonm anufacturing__

7 67
202

39.5
40. 0
3 9.5

107.00
108.50
102.50

D raftsm en , ju n io r _____
M an u factu rin g_______
Nonmanufacturing __

437
238
199

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

74. 50
78. 50
6 9 . 00

T r a c e r s __________________
Manufacturing ______

55
55

40. 0
40. 0

6 9. 00
6 9. 00

166
136

39. 5
40. 0

8 5 . 00
8 7 . 00

N u r se s, industrial (registere d ) .
M an u factu rin g_________________

"

•

-

"

-

■

-

2
2

8
8

25
25

-

-

_

_

-

-

1
1

-

11
3
8

21
15
6

22
13
9

27
11
16

121
92
29

56
45
11

1 20
85
35

84
79
5

77
40
37

44
23
21

28
9
19

*

•

83
25
58

60
30
30

75
40
35

69
46
23

49
24
25

28
28

8
6
2

6
6

3
3

6
6

-

13
6
7

9
9

16
16

5
5

11
11

5
5

9
9

l
l

7
1

8
3

17
13

26
24

13
8

29
26

34
30

17
16

4
4

3
3

6
6

J
i

8
8

33
2

20
15

9
4

11
6

24
24

17
17

47
28
19

51
51

13
13

14
14

9
6

1
1

_

_

-

-

-

48
45
3

-

-

3

-

-

-

3

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5

5
5

7
7

Standard hours reflect the workweek for which em ployees receive their regular stra igh t-tim e salarie s and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
W ork ers w ere distributed as follow s: 1 at $ 5 0 .0 0 to $ 5 5 . 00; 8 at $ 5 5 .0 0 to $ 6 0 .0 0




Occupational Wage Survey, B altim ore, M d. , August 1957
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

9

Table A-3: Maintenance and Pawerplant Occupations
(Average hourly earnings tor men in selected occupations studied on an area basis
in Baltimore, Md. , by industry division, August 1957)
N M E O W R E S R C IV G STR IG T-T E H U L E R IN S O —
U B R F O K R E E IN
A H IM O R Y A N G F
Occupation and industry division

N me
u br
at
wr e s
okr

Ae g i $
v ra e
h u ly 1 .0 0
or
e r in s and
an g
under
1. 10

$
1. 10

$
1. 20

$
1. 30

9

9

1. 40

1.20

1. 30

1 .4 0

1. 50

$
1. 70

$
1. 80

*
1 .9 0

9

2 .0 0

$
2. 10

f
2. 20

t
2. 30

9

1. 50

$
1. 60

2. 40

$
2. 50

1. 60

1. 70

1. 80

1. 90

2. 00

2 .1 0

2. 20

2. 30

2 .4 0

2. 50

2. 60

C arp e n ters, maintenance ------------------------------------M an ufactu ring__________________________________
N onm anufacturing______________________________

422
341
81

$
2. 34
2. 40
2. 08

E le ctricia n s, maintenance
____________ _______
M an ufactu ring_________________________________ N onm anufacturing______________________________

724
654
70

2. 51
2. 54
2. 21

E ngin eers, stationary ____________________________
M an ufacturing__________________________________
N on m anufacturing______________________________

484
553
131

2. 29
2. 39
2. 01

-

-

-

-

F ire m en , stationary b oiler ______________________
Manufacturing _________ _____________________
N on m anufacturing_______ _____________________

391
337
54

2. 06
2. 08
1. 92

34
34

_
-

H elp e rs, tra d e s, m aintenance___________________
Manufacturing _ ________________________________
N onm anufacturing______________________________
Public utilities f ____________________________

1 ,0 7 4
178
111

1.
1.
1.
1.

96
99
79
91

46
46
-

11
6
5

26
21
5
-

M achin e-tool op era to rs, t o o lr o o m ______________
M an ufactu ring________ __ ________ __________

282
282

2. 50
2. 50

_

_

_

-

-

M ach in ists, maintenance _________________________
M an ufactu ring__________________________________

1 ,3 0 9
1 ,2 7 5

2. 70
2.7 1

_

-

M ech anics, automotive (maintenance) _________
M an ufactu ring__________________________________
N on m an ufactu ring______________________________
Public utilities f __ ___ ________
__
Retail t r a d e _____________________ ____ ______

706

2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

24
27
23
28
03

.
_

M echanics, maintenance _________________________
M an ufactu ring__________________________________
N onm an ufactu ring______________________________

1 ,4 5 7
“ 1, 312
145

2. 53
2. 55
2. 35

-

-

-

-

Millwrights ________________ __________ ____________ _
Manufacturing ___________________________ _____

181
181

2. 50
2. 50

_

_

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

O i l e r s __ ___________________________________________
M an ufactu ring____ __ __ __ ____ _________

597
5S 8 ~

2. 07
2. 07

31
-

_
-

62
62

14
14

-

10
10

265
86

2. 17
2. 35
1. 78

3
3

2
2

12
12

2
2

7
7

6
4
2

P ip efitters, maintenance _________________________
Manufacturing __ _
_

484
431

2. 58
2. 59

_

.

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

S heet-m etal w ork ers, maintenance _____________
M an ufactu ring__________________________________

117

2. 56

_

_

.

_

_

_

_

n n r~

2. 57

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Tool and die m akers
___
M an ufacturing__________________________________

255
245

2. 79

_

_

_

-

_

_

_

P ain ters, maintenance _
_ _ _ _ _
M an ufactu ring__________________________________
Nonmanufacturing

1
2
3
4
t

sw ~

TZF~

540
369
122

—

i v r

2. 60

S
2. 70

t
2. 80

$
T . 90

t
3. 00

$
3. 10

2. 70

2. 80

2 .9 0

3 .0 0

3. 10

3. 20

1
1

2
2

2
2

12
12

22
18
4

11
1
10

46
42
4

22
18
4

53
33
20

16
12
4

33
29
4

17
8
9

39
39
-

53
53

_
-

_
-

_
-

9
— 5
4

4
2
2

6
3
3

28
24
4

35
24
11

42
26
16

81
”73—
8

30
2?
3'

59
56
3

141
141

-

_
-

10
10

13
13

-

2
2
-

19
14
5

22
11
11

20
4

23
5
18

52
52
“

21
14
7

48
8
40

53
50
3

26
18
8

_
■

3
2
1

_
-

32
32
“

124
122
2

3
3

7
1
6

16
5
11

41
27
14

18
9
9

2
2

10
10

"

28

-

58
46
12
1

36
20
16
10

142
1??
15
10

58
43
15
3

38
33
5
3

116
69
47
38

118
73
45
44

121‘
114
7
2

126
126
-

71
71
-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

20
20

10
10

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

_

-

-

-

-

11
11

52
39

65
64

14
l4

120
ii9

_
-

-

_
_

_
_

_
-

-

24
21
3
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

48
48
48

-

9
4
5
2
"

60
14
46
5
34

183
24
159
146
11

32
23
9
2

184
17
167
137
22

95
16
79
79
-

.
-

.
-

_
-

.
-

-

9
4
5

32
30
2

20
12
8

43
43
-

53
48
5

124
99
25

112
93
19

94
75
19

*1

-

2
2

_

-

_

-

_

_

-

28
28

1

-

5
5

1

12
12

4
4

9
63
63

2
2

48
45

39
36

29
29

14
12

72
72

80
80

85
85

118
lid"

12
12

17
4
13

12
6
6

11
10
1

50
39
11

19
16

4

3

1
1

-

-

-

2
-

24
24

50
46

32
25

6

2

2
1
-

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

-

28

-

-

_

-

...2. 80~

Excludes prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts
A ll w orkers were at $ 3 . 20 and under $ 3 .4 0 .
A ll w orkers were at le ss than $ 1 .
Includes 1 worker at le ss than $ 1 .
Transportation (excluding railroad s), com m unication, and other public u tilities.




S

10
— g—

16

-

_

_

_

-

_

-

_

_

----£— ----- T ~
_

_

27
27

10
9
5 ------ 7“
5
2

-

62
48
14

91
89
2

30
30
-

68
38
------ 6 F — 38“
-

13
10
3

89
87
2

37
35
2

11
6
5

8
8
-

7
7
-

*10
n r
-

37
37

24
24

■

■

36
32
4

34
34
“

_
■

■

“

_
■

101
101
-

7
7
-

10
10
-

!
1
-

_
-

_
-

_

-

203

29
29

6
6

5
5

1
1

_

_
-

6
6

192
"T 59

123
107

234
734

125

102
102

15
15

254
254

47
38
9
_
5

8
7
1
-

11
1
10
"

4
4
-

-

1
1
-

-

■

■

■

249
' 240

113
92
21

177
149
28

197
197
-

89
89
-

54
54

38
38
-

50
50

13
l3

2
2

3
3

-

_

-

-

13
13

10
10

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

"

-

18
18
-

48
"... 48

9

4
1

_
-

14
14

-

7
1
6

5

--

40
36

22
20

46

117
91

33

38

33

38

18
18

17

IT .
—

47
47

16
10

15
15“

28
28

16
16

3
3

8

4

10

42

51

87
87

J -

U K

2

/

,

/

|

38

~ i ---- -----8

-

"

9

”39—

4T '

-

_
-

-

-

29

33
33

11
11

1

_

1

-

12
12

36
36

29

5
------ 5-

Occupational Wage Survey, Baltimore, Md. , August 1957
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

10

Table A-4: Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(Average hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on art area basis
in Baltimore, Md. , by industry division, August 1957)

N ber
um
of
w
orkers

Occupation 1 and industry division

Elevator operators, passenger (m e n )_______
Nonmanufacturing_________________________

60
56

Elevator operators, passenger (w om en )_____
Nonmanufacturing _
___

218
ZTF"
90
94

$
$
Avenge *
$
$
$
hourly 2 Under 0. 70 0. 80 0.90
1. 00 1.
and
under
I 70
. 80 - .9 0 .. ■1* Q0- 1,-10 1.
$
.
1.00
3
29
1
9
.96
3
29
9
1
.95
.95
. 88
.98

16
16

1, 124
716
408
38

1.93
2. 08
1. 67
1. 61

Janitors, porters, and cleaners (m e n )_______
3, 162
Manufacturing _ _ _
__ __ _ _
"1 ,7 8 4
Nonmanufacturing _ __ _ .
1,378
161
Public utilities t
_____ —
__ Wholesale trade
64
Retail trade ---524
266
Finance t t _
_ _______
_ _
Janitors, porters, and cleaners (w om en)_____
Manufacturing _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
_ __
_
Nonmanufacturing __ _____
_
____
Retail tra d e ____________________________
Finance t t - ____ — ______

Finance f t - — — —

_ __ _
_

_____

G u ard s_ ___ ___________ ____ ____________ _
_
_
Manufacturing _ ___ __ ____
Nonmanufacturing_________________________
Public utilities f
_____
- ___

Laborers, material handling
Manufacturing _ _ _ _ _ __ . . .
Nonmanufacturing
__ _
__ __
Wholesale t r a d e _______ ________________
Retail trade _

836
250 '
586
148
355
5,623
4,187
1,436
249
804

30
30
30

L8

-

-

1. 45
1.73
1. 09
1. 45
1. 35
1.05
1.09

66
66
_
.
4
-

1. 05
1.31 '
.94
. 87
.92
1.79
1. 83
1.66
1.69
1. 54

18

10

$

N M E O W R E S R C IV G STR IG T-T E H U L E R IN S O —
U B R F O K R E E IN
A H IM O R Y A N G F
$
$
t
$
$
1. 20 1. 30 1. 40 1. 50 V 60 1. 70 *1. 80 *1.90 2. 00 2. 10
1.40

1.50

4
4

2
2
11
11

1
1
-

20

1. 30

3
1

1.60

1. 70
6
6
5
8

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

9

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5
5
"

9
9
-

12
1
11
2

22
12
10
1

13
11
2
-

32
17
15
10

276
17
259
18

19
1 18
1
1

40
28
12
6

156
"79
77
-

157
157
_
-

137
137
_
-

138
138
-

43
43
-

58
58
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

5
5
5
-

146
146
121

147
147
_
130
10

573
70
503
2
23
78
160

244
101
143
4
3
84
46

203
97
106
36
_
41
21

171 170
106.. llO
60
65
12
34
7
12
24
4
13
12

121
48
76
57
2
6
3

197
196
1
_
1

187
152
35
6
11
18
-

122
103
19
9
5
5

411
409
2
1
_
1
-

308
305
3
_
3
-

24
24
_
_
_
_
-

66
66
_
_
_
-

1
1
1
_
-

_
_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
_
-

_
.
_
_
_
-

22
22
11
-

175
175
27
140

57
57
47
7

77
77
46
28

255
98
157
7
138

74
51
23
3
18

36
22
14
7
5

63
9
54

10
5
5

-

16
14
2

5
5
-

10
10
-

15
15
-

19
19
-

2
2
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

14

5

-

-

"

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4
4
4

4
4
4

4
4

4
4
-•
4

72
16
56
16
40

288
222
66
30
31

182
56
126
31
95

319
261
58
5
53

503
364
139
_
139

687
545
142
15
127

330

404 276
EJ
342 "T T
62 116
20
26
41
71

695
260
435
75
4

3
r
_
.
-

51
------ T~
49
27
21

60
11
49
13
36

120
— W~
31
13
17

41
41
_
_
-

_

-

4

100
-

98

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

97
-----3
94
80
14

__
Packers, shipping (men) _.
_
Manufacturing
_ ___ _ _
_
_
Nonmanufacturing __
__ . . .
__
Retail t r a d e ____________________________

407
261
140
98

1. 68
1. 79
1. 46
1. 28

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
_
-

47
20
27
27

40
24
16
16

35
23
12
11

46
32
14
14

22
22
17

3
3
3

6
5
1

Packers, shipping (w om en)_______ _____
Manufacturing
. .
_ _
Nonmanufacturing ._ _ __

728
631
97

1. 16
1.15"
1.34

_
-

.
-

_
-

1
-

1

104
88
16

37
26
11

29
11
18

_
-

-

246
217
29

-

-

279
275
4

5

i_

304
135
169
118

1. 84
2. 08
1. 65
1. 56

_
-

_
"

24

_

2

2

9

13

-

-

-

-

24
24

2

-

2
2

11
5
6
5

1.93
2.'04”
1. 82
1.79

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

See footnotes at end of table.
f Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities,
f t Finance, insurance, and real estate.




-

2. 50 *2. 60 2. 70
-and
2. 60 2. 70 over

7
7

-

-

126
83

2. 50

-

_
-

2. 20

-

18

2
2

-

250

2. 40

2. 10

9
9

-

—nr

2.30

2.00

11
11
6
5

-

Shipping clerks
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing
Retail trade

$
2. 40

40
40
15
25

1. 62
1. 52
1. 64
1. 56
1. 74

Retail trade

2. 30

76
76
21
55

973
T fr 829
442
379

Receiving clerks
—Manufacturing _ __ _ ___
Nonmanufacturing ___

1.90

1
-

Order f i l l e r s __
_ _ _ _ _ _
__
Manufacturing __ _______
__
_ _ _
_
Nonmanufacturing_________________________
Wholesale trade _
_ _
_ _
Retail trade
__
_ _ _ _ '_
_ __

_

1. 80

2. 20

66
53
---- F T -----7
34
59
18
39
15
16

9

---3

6

6

34
-

34
10
23

—

209
---- 1
208
202
6

99
99
22
77

89
-------r
88
10
78

36
_
36

39
TT~
8
8

34
23
11
“

30
30
-

28
2
26
2

_
-

8
-

6
6
-

_
-

8

-

8
8
-

38
15
23
6

41
2b
15
10

14
2
12
7

35
— rr
21
13

17
14
3
3

5
39
10
29
26

15
"T ? '
1
1

19

33

22
-~n—

31

ii

30
12

-

13
13

5
5

3

18

-

-

-

3
3

18
13

~“TZ

7
2

_

5

-

-

-

-

17
6
11
8

9
4

36

42
r~
41
5
36

5
15
4
11
3

526 288
'459 T F T *
67
26
3
2
64
24

12

21
20

8

1

-

-

705 186
67
703" ' 181" — 47~
2
20
5
5
20
1
1
_
9 ----- 5 r
------ 5*
4
_
.
_
4
9
------ 9"
_
_
-

_

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

19
19

_

-

5
------ 3-

1

17
17

1

-

59
59
_
-

37
30
7
4

34
30
4

3
3
3

5
5
_
-

2
2
1

_
_
_
_
-

_
-

-

-35
35““ —

-

1
1

-

2
2

-

-

3
2
1
1

1
1

3
3
-

3
----- j —
_
-

1
1
«
*
"

.
-

Occupational Wage Survey, Baltimore, M d., August 1957
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

11

Table A-4: Custodial and Material Movement Occupations - Continued
(A verage hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
in B altim ore, Md. , by industry division, August 1957)
NUMBER OF WORKER!9 RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
Occupation 1 and industry division

Shipping and receiving clerk s ___________________
Manufacturing . __ ________ ____
__________ "
Nonmanufacturing _
_
--------- ------ __ _

N ber
um
or
w
orkers

Avenge
hourly

265
170
95

$
1. 89
1. 85
1 .9 7

Tru ck d rivers3_______________________________________
M anufacturing___________________________________
N onm anufacturing______________________________
Public utilities t „ _____ ______ _ _____
W holesale trade __ _____________ _ _____
Retail t r a d e __________________________________

2, 836
843
1 ,9 9 3
889
596
461

T ru ck d rivers, light (under l 1 t o n s ) _____ _
/*
M an u factu rin g_______________________________

231
170

1 .9 7
2. 24

T ru ck d rivers, m edium (lVz to and
including 4 tons)
__
__
M an ufactu ring_______________________________
N onm anufacturing__________________________
W holesale trade
R etail trade _____ _____________________

1 ,1 3 7
269
868
275
63

2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
1.

03
09
01
06
03
93

$
Under 0. 70
$
0. 70
. 80

$
0. 80
.9 0

$
. 90
1. 00
0

$
1. 00
1. 10

$
1 .9 0
2. 00

S
2. 00
2. 10

$
2. 10
2. 20

■

155
58
97
75
8
10

118
'9 6
22
3
12
2

154
67
87
7
35
44

337
14
323
36
8
279

369
38
331
121
190
19

639
32
607
582
25
-

124
52
72
65
6
1

386
297
89
21
68

.
“

18
17

.

7
■

11
■

3
■

15

24
1

u

.

l

11

■

4
4

■

9
8

7
7

5
4

1. 94
1. 94
1 .9 4
1. 86
1 .6 6

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

39
l5
24
23
1

37
37
19
4

27
17
10
6
1

20
11
9
1

141
53
88
3
10

37
16
21
12
1

90
2b
70
30
37

9
1
8
8
-

151
3
148
143

-

19
5
14
6
8

2.
2.
2.
2.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4
------ 3
1

-

-

-

5
5
5

25

-

-

56
55“
-

“

18
18
18

~ v r ~

410
228

-

61
------ T T
32
32

69
69
-

T ru ck d rivers, heavy (over 4 tons, other
than tra iler typ e) - __ ___________ __ ___
M anufacturing_______________________________

531
161

2. 01
2. 15

30

T ru ck ers, power (forklift)
Manufacturing _________________________ _______
N onm anufacturing______________________________
Public utilities | ____________________________

1,4 1 1
1, 309
102
40

T ru ck ers, power (other than forklift) __________
M anufacturing_______________ _________________

458
457

2. 24
2. 24

Watchmen „ _____ ________________________________
M an ufactu ring______ _________________________
Nonm anufacturing_________________________ __
Public utilities f ____________________________
Retail t r a d e __________________________________________
Finance " f t __________ _______________________________

620
56?
253
43
81
60

1.
1.
1.
1.

1
2
3
t
ft

2.
2.
2.
2.

12
13
00
14

34
44
19
58
. 11
1. 04

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

■

-

-

-

-

.

_

.

.

_

-

-

-

-

10
10
-

■

-

■

■

8
----- 8
■

■

■

■

■

10
1(5

53
56
17

106

71
58
13

.
“
7

1

18

-

-

-

18

7

1

-

-

7

1

-

-

11
1

10
7

-

106
1
40
18

E xcludes prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on weekends, holidays, and late sh ifts.
Data lim ited to men w ork ers except where otherw ise indicated.
Includes all d riv ers regard le ss of size and type of truck operated.
Transportation (excluding railroad s), communication, and other public u tilities,
Finance, insurance, and real estate.




2

.

6
2

-

-

~

446
7
439
25
-

$
2. 60
2. 70

$
2. 70
and
over

1
-

-

-

-

-

161
124
37
_
37
-

10
4
6
6
-

122
122
122
“

_
■

10
10

103
103

4
4

"

"

106
-

10
10
-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

*

56
170
n r — 51“
46
89
6
21

22
1
21
21

6
6
6

117
117
117

-

_

5
5
-

—

$
2. 50
2. 60

106

.

~

1

65
40"
25
6

-

4

11

15

-

-

-

-

“

■

9
------- 5“
4

20
11
9
1

■

-

5
------5“
•

38
28
10
6
1

_

23
0?
31
36

51
45
6

61
1
60
34
12

13
55
10 — T
3
48

"

T 5T ~

$
2. 40
2. 50

102
16
86
80
6

11
11
-

1

-

_

609

1
2. 30
2. 40

22
5
17
6
11

-

■

T ru ck d rivers, heavy (over 4 tons,
tra iler type)
_
_ _
M an ufactu ring_______________________________
Nonmanufacturing _________________________
W holesale trade ___________ ___________

$
2. 20
2. 30

'

7
7
7

■

$
1 .8 0
1 .9 0

19
14
5

-

■

$
1. 70
1. 80

13
8
5

■

■

$
1 .6 0
1 .7 0

40
34
6

-

_

1. 50
1. 60

34
25
9

■

-

%

2
1
1

-

_

$
1 .4 0
1. 50

1
1

-

-

$
1. 30
1. 40

20
15
5

-

_

$
1. 20
1. 30

1
1

-

-

$
1. 10
1. 20

-

"

“

24
24

22
19

278
2

16
1

17
17

27
2

94
94

18
2

-

5
-

-

1
1
_

-

41
39
2

165
165
-

45
45
-

265
229
36
35

364
359
5
5

157
157
-

21
21
-

.
-

-

32
19
13
■

98
98
-

-

50
18
32
~

53
53
-

~

101
88
13
"

■

“

"

"

"

_

■

10
10

44
43

18
18

13
13

6
6

30
30

21
21

60
60

32
32

52
52

129
129

27
27

6
6

26
2?

45
~T7—
28
13

20
2b

11
11
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

56
"47

9
4

5

.

82
“ 75—
6
-

4

4
-

9

7
1
6
6
-

1

7

24
19
5

1
-

6

-

13
15
— — 8 ~

~ n

1

1

-

-

-

.




13
B:

Establishment

Practices

and

Supplementary

Wage

P r o v i s i on s

Table B-1: Shift Differential Provisions 1
P ercen t of manufacturing plant w ork ers—
(a)
In establishm ents having
form al provision s fo r ----

Shift differential

Second shift
w ork

Third or other
shift work

(b)

Actually working on—

Second shift

Third or other
shift

Total _________________________________________________________

8 9 .4

84.7

18.8

8 .6

With shift pay differential __________________________________

8 8 .0

83. 1

18.4

8 .5

4 7.8

45.7

10.7

6.2

Uniform cents (per hour)

_

_

3
4
5
6
8
9

cents ________________________________________________
cents
___
__ ______
cents
_ _ _
cents
cents
cents __________________________ ______________________
9V2 cents
__
10 cents
12 cents
_
_
I 2V2 cents
132 cents
A
16 cents and over _ _ _ _ _

U niform percentage

...... . ... _ ...

2 V2 percent ___________________________________________
5 percent ______________________________________________
7 percent
7 V2 percent ___________________________________________
10 percent _____________________________________________
15 percent
_ _ ___
8 h o u rs ’ pay for 7 V h ou rs’ w ork
?.
Other form al paid differential
No shift pay d iffe r e n t ia l_____________________________________

1 Shift
at the tim e
(1) Operated
* L ess

.4
3.2
4 .0
31.8
1.6
-

1.7
4 .0
_
_

_
_

2 .5
1.7
.7
31.6
1.0
2 .9
.9
2 .4

1. 1
-

2. 1

2 8 .4

25. 6

2 .4
2 .9
7.8
1.5
13.8
-

_

.1
.7
.6
8 .3
.4
_

.1
.6
_
_

.1
5.0

_
-

.4
.4
*
4 .6
_

.2
.1
.1
_

.4
2.1

16.2
1.6

.6
.2
1.7
.3
2 .2
-

1.6
*

1.2
10.6

1.2
10.6

.3
2 .3

.1
.1

1.4

1.6

.4

.1

_

7.8
-

_

.5
-

differential data are presented in term s of (a) establishm ent p olicy, and (b) w orkers actually em ployed on late shifts
o f the survey. An establishm ent was con sidered as having a p olicy if it met either of the follow ing conditions:
late shifts at the tim e o f the survey, or (2) had form a l provision s covering late shifts.
than 0 .0 5 percent.
O ccupational Wage Survey, B a ltim ore, Md. , August 1957
U.S. DEPARTM ENT OF LABOR
Bureau o f Labor Statistics

451873

O - 58 - 3




14
Table B-2:

Minimum Entrance Rates for Women Office Workers1

Number of establishments with specified minimum hiring rate in—
Manufacturing
Minimum rate
(weekly salary)

Based on standard weekly hours 2 of—

All
industries

All
schedules

Establishments studied___________

___________

180

Number of establishments with specified minimum hiring rate in—

Nonmanufacturing

40

66

XXX

All
schedules

114

Manufacturing
All
industries

All
schedules

40

XXX

180

Establishments having a specified minimum__

89

36

30

53

32

102

Under $35.00 _______________________________
$35.00 and under $37.50
_
_
$37.50 and under $40.00
$40.00 and under $42.50 __________________
$42.50 and under $45.00
$45.00 and under $47.50
$47.50 and under $50.00
$50.00 and under $52.50
$52.50 and under $55.00 __________________

_
2

.

_

-

-

.
2

4
2
9
1
3
5

-

-

4
2
6

15
9
14
4
2
3
2

_
1
12
3
7
2
2
2
2

2
5
2
31
14
16
8
3
6
3

$ 5 5 . 0 0 and under $ 5 7 . 5 0

$57.50
$60.00
$62.50
$65.00
$67.50

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
over

.... .

$60.00
$62.50
$65.00
$67.50

.

19
11
23
5
5
8
2
1
4
5
3
1

_

2
4

66

34
.

40

XXX

114

XXX

4

_

_

3
_

_

2
5
2

3

3

_
_

_

-

-

-

XXX

12

XXX

33

XXX

XXX

1

XXX

-

_

1

1

-

1
-

_

5
5
2

-

-

2
5
2
-

XXX

24

12
20

7

76

23

XXX

53

XXX

53

XXX

1

XXX

2
2
2
18
2
4
4
1
1
2

5
5
3
1

_

XXX

41

2
5
2
26
7
11
6
1
2

5
7
5
2
2
4

1
3
5
2
1

7

68

_
_

1
3
5
2
1

14

c l e r ic a l w o r k e r s3

27
_

-

Establishments which did nof
employ workers in this category

1

1

All
schedules

_

-

Establishments having no
specified minimum

Data not available

40

FOR OTHER INEXPE:r i e n c e d

FOR INEXPERIENCED TYPISTS

-

Nonmanufacturing

Based on standard weekly hours 2 of-

_

XXX

'

1 Lowest salary rate formally established for hiring inexperienced workers for typing or other clerical jobs.
2 Hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries. Data are presented for all workweeks combined, and for the most common workweek reported.
3 Rates applicable to messengers, office girls, or similar subclerical jobs are not considered.




Occupational Wage Survey, Baltimore, Md. , August 1957
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

15

Table B-3: Scheduled Weekly Hours

A ll w o rk ers _________________________________________

Under 30 hours ____________________________________
30 hours _____________________________________________
333 hours _ _______________________________________
/4
35 hours
__ ________________________________ _____
36 hours _____________________________________________
3 6 V4 hours __________________________________________
3 62 hours __________________________________________
/3
3 7 V3 hours __________________________________________
3 7 V2 hours __________________________________________
38 hours _____________________________________________
3 8 V2 hours __________________________________________
38 3/4 hours __________________________________________
39 hours _____________________________________________
3 9 V2 hours
________________________________________
40 hours ________________________ ____________________
4 1 V2 hours __________________________________________
42 hours
___________________________________________
4 2 V2 hours ________ ________________________________
44 hours _____________________________________________
45 hours _____________________________________________
48 hours _____________________________________________
O ve r 48 hours ______________________________________

All
2
industries

M
anufacturing

Public .
utilities J

W
holesale
trade

Retail trade

Finance ‘f "f"

100

100

100

100

100

100

2
8
1
1
1
10
1
4
1
**
70
**
**
1

**
3
**
5
1
4
85
**
**
1

1
3
32
2
62
-

3
6
8
83
-

4
**
2
3
92
-

-

-

-

-

27
4
4
4
16
5
40
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

’ E stim a te s fo r o ffic e w o r k e r s a r e not co m p a ra b le w ith e a r lie r stu d ie s. See Introd uction, p. 1.
2 Includes data fo r s e r v ic e s in addition to those in du stry d ivision s shown se p a r a te ly .
3 Includes data fo r r e a l e sta te and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in du stry d iv isio n s shown se p a r a te ly .
♦ ♦ L e s s than 0. 5 p e rc e n t.
t T r a n sp o rta tio n (exclud ing r a ilr o a d s ), com m u n ication , and other public u tilitie s,
f t F in an ce, in su r a n c e , and r e a l e sta te .




PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—

PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS^EMPLOYED IN—

1
W e ek ly hours

Services

AU ,
industries'9

100

**
**
1

1

2

**
1

1

82
1
2
2
5
2

M
anufacturing

Public ,
utilities |

W
holesale
trade

Retail trade

100

100

100

100

1
1
2
1
88
2
4

98
-

5
-

5
4
-

79

Servioee

-

57
7

-

-

-

2

4
12
-

11
-

9
7

O ccup ational W age S u rv e y , B a lt im o r e , M d . , A u gu st 1957
U. S. D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B ureau of L a b o r S ta tistic s

16

Table B-4: Overtime Pay Practices
P E R C E N T O F O F F IC E W O R K E R S ! E M P L O Y E D IN —

O v e r tim e p o lic y

A ll w o rk ers

..

.

A ll
,
industries 1

.........

M anufacturing

P u b lic ,
u tilitie s!

P E R C E N T O F P L A N T W O R K E R S E M P L O Y E D IN —

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

100

100

100

100

100

Financed1
"

Services

A ll
2
industries

Manufacturing

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

100

100

100

Public
u tilitie s!

100

100

100

48

69

63

43

38

9

84

95

99

57

45

69
**

43
5
39

38

9
3
6

95
3
91
1
-

99

54

45

_

3

99

42

-

48
6
3

5

1

43

55

D A IL Y O V E R T IM E

W o r k e r s in esta b lish m en ts providing
p r e m iu m p a y 3
T im e and o n e -h a lf _____________________________
E ffe c tiv e after le s s than 8 hours _______
E ffec tiv e after 8 hours
E ffec tiv e a fter m o r e than 8 hours ______
Other 4
. . . . . . .
W o r k e r s in esta b lish m en ts p rovidin g no
p rem iu m pay or having no p o lic y

W EEKLY

48
2
46

69

63
6
57

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

84
2
81
1
**

52

31

37

57

62

91

16

-

38

_

_

_

-

O V E R T IM E

W o r k e r s in esta b lish m en ts p roviding
p r em iu m p a y 3
T im e and o n e -h a lf _____________________________
E ffe c tiv e after le s s than 40 hours ______
E ffe c tiv e after 40 hours
E ffe c tiv e a fter m o r e than 40 hours
Other 4
.
_
W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts providin g no
p r e m iu m pay or having no p o lic y
__

96

98

99

99

91

96

95

99

100

99

88

96

98

99

99

86

95

99

100

96

6
94

4
95

_

_

100

91

_

_

5

-

-

3

88
3
73
12
-

1

1

12

5

3

5

-

90

95

95

86

96
13
83

-

-

-

-

-

_

1

-

-

-

5

-

3
89
3
**

4

2

1

9

4

5

Includes data fo r s e r v ic e s in addition to those indu stry d iv isio n s shown se p a r a te ly .
2 Includes data for r e a l esta te and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in d u stry d iv isio n s shown se p a r a te ly .
3 G raduated p r o v isio n s are c la s s if ie d to the f ir s t effe c tiv e p re m iu m r a te . F o r e x a m p le , a plan c a llin g for tim e and on e-h alf a fte r 8 and double tim e a fte r 10 hours a day would be c o n sid e r e d
as tim e and o n e -h a lf a fte r 8 h o u rs.
S im ila r ly , a plan ca llin g for no pay or pay at reg u la r rate after 3 > l lU and tim e and o n e -h a lf a fte r 40 hours w ould be c o n sid e r e d as tim e and o n e -h a lf after
40 h o u rs.
4 Includes p r o v isio n s for double tim e , etc.
* * L e s s than 0. 5 p e r c e n t.
f T r a n sp o rta tio n (exclud ing r a ilr o a d s ), com m u n ication , and other public u tilitie s ,
f t F in a n c e , in su r a n ce , and r e a l e sta te .




O ccup ational W age S u rv e y , B a lt im o r e , M d. , A u gu st 1957
U. S. D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B u reau of L a b o r S ta tistic s

IT

Table B-5: Wage Structure Characteristics and Labor Management Agreements
P E R C E N T O F O F F IC E W O R K E R S E M P L O Y E D IN —

Item

A ll
industries 1

M anufacturing

Public
utilities f

69
3
66
31

81
6
76
19

91
1
91
9

Wholesale
trade

R etail trade

P E R C E N T O F P L A N T W O R K E R S E M P L O Y E D IN —
Finance

Services

AU
2
industries

Manufacturing

Public
utilities J

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

W A G E S T R U C T U R E FO R
T IM E -R A T E D W O R K E R S 3

F o r m a l rate stru ctu re ______________________________
Single rate
Range of r a te s ___________________________________
Individual r a te s ______________________________________

62
5
57
38

37
2
35
63

56

82
43
40
18

93
53
40
7

76
24
6
16
2

-

56
44

70
30
7
22
**

6 5 -6 9

8 0 -8 4

61
29
32
39

41
13
28
59

-

95
5
4
_
1

91
9
1
_
8

6 0 -6 4

4 5 -4 9

3 0 -3 4

_

M ETHOD OF W AGE P A YM E N T
FO R P L A N T W O R K E R S

T im e w o r k e r s _
Incentive w o r k e r s ___________________________________
P ie c e w o r k _ _
_ _ _
_____
Bonus w ork
C o m m is s io n
_
________

DATA I OT COLLE
>

C TE D

100
_
_

L A BOR - M A N A G E M E N T
AGREEM ENTS 4

W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts with
a g r e e m e n ts cov erin g a m a jo r ity
o f such w o r k e r s

1 0 -1 4

1 5 -1 9

3 0 -3 4

0 -4

1 5 -1 9

0 -4

1
Includes data for s e r v ic e s in addition to th ose indu stry d ivision s shown se p a r a te ly .
2
Includes data fo r r e a l esta te and s e r v ic e s in addition to th ose indu stry d iv isio n s shown se p a r a te ly .
3
E s tim a te s for o ffice w o r k e r s a r e b a se d on total office e m p lo y e e s , w h ere as e s tim a te s for plant w o r k e r s a re based on t im e -r a te d e m p lo y e e s on ly.
4
E stim a te s r e la te to a ll w o r k e r s (office or plant) em p loyed in an e sta b lish m e n t having a con tract in e ffe c t cov erin g a m a jo r ity o f the w o rk e rs in their re sp e c tiv e c a te g o r y . The e s tim a te s so o b ­
tained a re not n e c e s s a r ily r e p r e se n ta tiv e of the extent to w hich a ll w o r k e r s in the a r e a m a y be c o v e re d by p r o v isio n s o f la b o r-m a n a g em en t a g r e e m e n ts due to the ex c lu sio n of sm a lle r siz e e sta b lish m e n ts.
* * L e s s than 0 . 5 p e rc e n t.
■
f
T r an sp o rtatio n (exclud ing frailroads), com m u n ication , and other public u tilitie s ,
f t F in an ce, in su r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta te .




O ccup ational W age S u rvey, B a ltim o r e , M d. , A u gu st 1957
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B ureau of La b or S ta tistic s

18

Table B-6: Paid Holidays1
PERCENT OP OFFICE WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—
Item

A ll w o rk e rs

All
industries *

-------------------------------------------------------------

W o r k e r s in esta b lish m en ts providing
paid holidays --------------------------------------------------------W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts providing
no paid holidays ---------------------------------------------------

M
anufacturing

Public
utilities t

W
holesale
trade

Retail trade

PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—
Finance f t

Services

All •
industries9

M
anufacturing

Public
utilitiesy

W
holesale
trade

Retail trade

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

99

99

100

100

100

100

97

99

99

95

90

**

♦♦

-

-

3

**

1

5

10

**

**
1
11

.

.

.

_

1
**
14

**

3
14

**
2
60

2

2
4
**

**
-

25

1
2
21

"

14
19

7
2
57

2
1
1
**
37

2
2
.
71

**
3
2
6

11
6
26

2
2
.
27

2

1
2
**
51

1
2
63

1
1
27

4
3
.
31

1
_
.
23

1
**
11

2
10

32

5
10

2
“

10

2
7

2
6

34

2
14

-

2
14
14
**
**
**

**
1
“

56

5
-

**
3
1
-

-

-

-

32
50
1
2
1

-

**

5
20
-

1
-

35
-

8
-

**
-

**
1
1
15
32
43
45
83
85
99
99
99
99
99
99

1
1
11
13
86
88
99
99
99
99
99
99

**
**
**
56
90
93
99
99
100
100
100
100
100
100

20
25
35
40
72
83
97
97
100
100
100
100

6
6
8
35
39
99
99
100
100
100
100

1
3
4
54
86
96
96
98
98
100
100
100
100
100
100

1
4
11
13
65
66
91
91
95
96
97
97

1
1
8
10
75
76
97
97
99
99
99
99

35
70
70
99
99
99
99
99
99
99
99

8
22
25
59
63
81
81
95
95
95
95

**
**
**
23
24
81
81
81
81
87
90

99
53
99
99
99

99
24
99
99
99

100
94
100
100
100

100
38
97
100
100

100
29
98
100
100

100
98
100
100
100

96
23
92
95
95

99
17
98
99
99

99
97
99
99
99

95
21
93
83
95

Services

87
23
81
83
83

“

N UM BER OF DAYS
L e s s than 5 holidays --------------------------------------------5 holidays ----------------------------------------------------------------5 holidays plus 1 or 3 h a lf days ------------------------6 h o lid a y s ------------------------------------------------ -----------------6 h olidays p lu s:
1 h a lf d a y ...........................................................................
2 h a lf days ---------------------------------------------------------3 h a lf days ---------------------------------------------------------4 h alf days ---------------------------------------------------------7 holidays ----------------------------------------------------------------7 holidays p lu s :
1 h a lf d a y ------------------------------------------------------------4 h a lf days --------------- -----------------------------------------8 holidays ----------------------------------------------------------------8 holidays p lu s:
2 h alf days ---------------------------------------------------------9 holidays ----------------------------------------------------------------10 holidays ---------------------------------------------------------------11 h o l i d a y s -------------*-------------------------------------------------12 holidays ----------------------------------------- ----------------------13 h olidays --------------------------------------------------------------T O T A L H O L ID A Y T IM E

-

-

-

"

4

13 days ---------------------------------------------------------------------12 or m o r e days -----------------------------------------------------11 or m o r e days -----------------------------------------------------10 or m o r e days -----------------------------------------------------9 or m o r e days ------------------------------------------------------8 o r m o r e days ------------------------------------------------------7*/a or m o r e days --------------------------------------------------7 or m o r e d a y s --------------------------------------------------------61 or m o r e days ---------------------------------------------------/*
6 or m o r e days ------------------------------------------------------5 Va or m o r e d a y s ---------------------------------------------------5 o r m o r e d a y s --------------------------------------------------------4 o r m o r e d a y s --------------------------------------------------------2 or m o r e d a y s --------------------------------------------------------1 or m o r e d a y s --------------------------------------------------------H O L ID A Y S 5
New Y e a r*s D ay -----------------------------------------------------W a sh in g to n ^ B ir t h d a y -----------------------------------------D ecoration Day ------------------------------------------------------July 4th -------------------------------------------------------------------- Labor Day

See footnotes at end of tab le.
■ T r an sp o rtatio n (excluding r a ilr o a d s ), com m u n ication , and other pu blic u tilitie s
f
f t F in a n c e , in su r a n c e , and r e a l e sta te .




O ccupational W age S u rvey, B a ltim o r e , M d . , A u gust 1957
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B ureau of La b or S tatistic s

19
Table B-6: Paid Holidays1 - Continued
P E R C E N T O P O F F IC E W O R K E R S E M P L O Y E D IN —

Item

A ll
industries

a

Manufacturing

Pu blic .
utilities T

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

P E R C E N T O F P L A N T W O R K E R S E M P L O Y E D IN —

Finance t f

Services

j

A
H

,

industries 3

M anufacturing

4
95
97
30

99
99
39

Public
utilities t

Wholesale
trade

34
99
99
35
35

8
95
95

R etail trade

Services

H O L ID A Y S 5 - C ontinued

V e te r a n s' D a y ------------------------------------------------Thanksgiving -------------------------------------------------C h r istm a s ------------------------------------------------------Good F r id a y ---------------------------------------------------L in c o ln 's B irth day -----------------------------------------D e fe n d e r s' Day ----------------------------------------------C olu m bus D a y ------------------------------------------------Day a fte r Th ank sgiving ---------------------------------E a ste r M onday — --------------------------------------------------H alf day Good F r id a y --------------------- ---------------------H alf day C h r istm a s E ve ----------------------------------------

25
99
99
46
3
7

3
99
99
29

32

24

.

70

100
100

100
100

100
100

100
100

1

**

56

55
-

-

-

56

-

-

96
9
3
44
-

12

**

13
3

29
6
3

5
5

5

**
-

20

4

-

5

17

12

2

4

8

-

**

3

**

2

**
-

1

10

14

4

5

1

1

5

7

22

-

-

-

-

6

1
1

3

7

83
90
-

2
**

1 E stim a te s r e la te to h olid ays pro vid ed annually.
* Includes data fo r s e r v ic e s in addition to those in d u stry d ivision s shown s e p a r a te ly .
3 Includes data fo r r e a l e sta te and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in d u stry d ivision s shown s e p a r a te ly .
. . .
,
a
4 A ll com b in ations of fu ll and h a lf days that add to the sa m e am ount a r e com b in ed ; fo r exa m p le the p ro p ortion of w o rk e rs r e c e iv in g a total of 7 days inclu d es those with 7 fu ll days and
no h alf d a y s, 6 fu ll days and 2 h a lf d a y s, 5 fu ll days and 4 h a lf d a y s, and so on. P r o p o rtio n s w ere then acc u m u lated .
5 O nly the h olid ays or h a lf-d a y h olidays provid ed to at le a s t 3 p e rcen t of the o ffic e or plant w o rk e rs in the a r e a a r e shown in this tabu lation .
A few other holidays or h a lf-h o lid a y s w ere
p ro vid ed .
* * L e s s than 0 . 5 p e r c e n t.
■ T r a n sp o rta tio n (excluding r a ilr o a d s ), com m u n ication , and other public u tilitie s ,
f
f t F in a n ce, in su r a n c e , and r e a l e sta te .




20

Table B-7: Paid vacations
P E R C E N T O P O F F IC E W O R K E R S E M P L O Y E D IN —

P E R C E N T O F P L A N T W O R K E R S E M P L O Y E D IN —

V a cation p o lic y
A ll
j
industries

A ll w ork e rs

_

_

______

Manufacturing

Pu blic .
utilities f

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

Finance f t

Services

A ll
2
industries

M anufacturing

Pu blic .
utilities]

Wholesale
trade

R etail trade

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

99
99
**
-

100

100
100

99
99
-

100
100

100
100

88
9
3

99
99
-

100

100
100

-

99
90
7
2

100

-

**

-

-

**

-

-

1

-

1

-

-

8
38
13
3
1

6
33
1
1

_
95
**
-

23
9
-

8
43
41
8

-

-

-

13
13
1
**
**

11

1

4
21
15
6
-

_
19
13
67
**

_
16
24
59
-

_
8
92
-

_
15
85
-

_
78
9
13
-

_
5
4
92
-

1

1

-

-

"

6
26
66
-

4
96
-

12
88
-

8
2
90
-

-

-

**
99
-

8
92
-

6
**
94
-

“

_

~

M ETHOD O F P A Y M E N T
W o r k e r s in esta b lish m e n ts p roviding
paid vacation s ____________________________________
L e n g t h -o f-tim e paym ent _____________________
P e rcen ta g e p a y m e n t ___________________________
O ther
___________________________________________
W o r k e r s in esta b lish m e n ts providing no
paid vacation s ____________________________________

99
**
-

-

81
19
_

_
_

A M O U N T O F V A C A T IO N P A Y
A fte r 6 m onths o f se r v ic e
Under 1 w e e k ________________ _____ _____________
1 w e e k ________________________________________________
O ver 1 and under 2 w eek s _______________________
2 w eek s
_ _
_
O v e r 2 and under 3 w eek s

_

1

8
1
1

71
1
-

11
7
**

28
13
_
.

-

-

-

_

_
27
_
70

_

_

62
_

84

38
_

6
_

-

-

60
_
40
-

43
3
54
_

-

-

38
15
48
_

14
7
80
_

A fte r 1 yea r of se r v ic e
Under 1 w eek _______________________________________
1 w e e k _________________________ ____________________
O ver 1 and under 2 w eek s _______________________
2 w eeks
O ver 2 and under 3 w eeks _______________________
3 w eeks
A fte r 2 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w e e k ________________________________________________
O ver 1 and under 2 w eeks
2 w eeks ______________________________________________
O ver 2 and under 3 w eek s
3 w eeks

**
75
11
2

79
12
6
3

1

1

**

58
21
16
3

13
_
85

-

52
15
28
2

-

1

1

**

_
-

46
24
26
3

97

-

38
18
39
2

■

1

1

**

10

1

10

5
12
82
**
1

1

_
100

1

A fte r 3 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w eek
O ver 1 and under 2 w eeks _______________________
2 w eeks
O ver 2 and under 3 w eek s _______________________
3 w eeks ______________________________________________

3
12
82
**
3

4
26

67
3

See footnotes at end o f tab le.
f
T r an sp o rtatio n (excluding r a ilr o a d s ), c om m u n ication , and other public utilitii
f t F in an ce, in su r a n c e , and r e a l e sta te .




NOTE:

100

1

1

-

O ccupational W age S u rv e y , B a ltim o re, M d. , A u gu st 1957
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B u reau of Labor S ta tistic s

In the tabulations of vacation allow an ce s by y e a r s of s e r v ic e , paym ents other than " le n g t h -o f -t i m e ,"
such as p ercen tag e of annual earn ings or f la t -s u m p a ym en ts, w ere con verted to an equivalent tim e
b a s is ; for e x a m p le , a paym ent of 2 p e rcen t of annual earn in gs w as c o n sid e r e d as 1 w e e k 's pay.

21

Table B-7; Paid Vacations - Continued
PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS1EMPLOYED IN—

PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—

V acation p o lic y
A
U
industries 1

M
anufacturing

Public
utilities t

W
holesale
trade

Retail trade

All
industries

M
anufacturing

_
94
4
2

5
1
87
4
2

1
92
6
2

98
1
**

_

96
1
2

Financet f

Services

Public
utilities t

W
holesale
trade

Retail trade

25
_
75
-

9
7
80
5

25
36
15
24

9
30
_
61

25
16
59
_

9
24
67
-

-

-

25
16

9
18

A M O U N T OF V A C A T IO N P A Y - Continued

A fte r 5 y e a rs of s e r v ic e
1 w e e k ________________________________________________
O ve r 1 and under 2 w eeks _______________________
2 w eeks _ ___________________________________________
O ver 2 and under 3 w eeks
_________ ____________
3 w eeks ________ ___________________________________

_

1
94
1
4

**
96
4

_
99
**

6
94
-

1
98
1

1
73
3
23

**
74
6
20

_
98
2

6
40
54

1
46
53

85
15

5
69
8
17

1
79
10
9

1
18
**
81
**

**

_

11
88
-

5
95
-

1
21
79
-

_
30
70
-

5
15
4
74
**

1
15
6
79
_

-

-

6
30
61
4

-

-

-

-

1
16
**

**
10

_
5

6
30

1
19

_
26

-

-

-

-

79

87

-

-

95
-

4

4

-

28
36

79
1

72
3

5
13
4
74
**
2

1
13
6
78
2

1
12
**

**
10
75
15

_

6
30
27
37

1
19
38
42

_
13
54
33

5
13
4
64
**
12

1
13
6
71
9

1
47
1
50

A fte r 10 y e a rs of s e r v ic e
1 w eek
_ __ _ ___________________________________
2 w eeks ____ _______________________________________
O ver 2 and under 3 w eeks ________ _____________
3 w eeks ______________________________________ _____

_

A fte r 15 y e a rs of s e r v ic e
1 w e e k ____________________________________________
2 w eeks ______________________________________________
O ver 2 and under 3 w eeks _______________________
3 w eeks ______________________________________________
O ve r 3 and under 4 w eeks ________________________
4 w eeks ______________________________________________

_
1
98
1
-

A fte r 20 y e a rs of s e r v ic e
1 w eek
2 w eeks _________________________________________ __
O ve r 2 and under 3 w eeks _______________________
3 w eeks ______________________________________________
O v e r 3 and under 4 w eeks _______________________
4 w eeks _______________________________ _____________

-

_
1
-

-

-

98
1
-

45
13

68
5

_

25
16
33
12
13

9
18
60
13

A fte r 25 y e a rs of s e r v ic e
1 w eek _______________________________________________
2 w eeks ____________ ________________________________
O ver 2 and under 3 w eeks _______________________
3 w eeks ______________________________________________
O ver 3 and under 4 w ee k s _______________________
4 w eeks ______________________________________________

59
27

5
39
56

1 Includ es data fo r s e r v ic e s in addition to those indu stry d iv isio n s shown se p a r a te ly .
2 Includ es data fo r r e a l esta te and s e r v ic e s in addition to those indu stry d iv isio n s shown se p a r a te ly .
* * L e s s than 0 . 5 p e rc e n t.
t T r a n sp o rta tio n (exclud ing r a ilr o a d s ), com m u n ication , and other public u tilitie s,
f t F in an ce, in su r a n c e , and r e a l e sta te .




22

Table B-8: Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
P E R C E N T O F O F F IC E W O R K E R S E M P L O Y E D IN —

Type of plan

A ll w ork e rs --------------------------------------------------------------

W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m en ts p roviding:
L ife in su ran ce --------------------------------------------------A c cid e n ta l death and d ism e m b e r m e n t
in su r an ce ---------------------------------------------------------S ick n ess and acc id en t in su r an ce or
sic k leave or both 3 --------------------------------------S ick n ess and acc id en t i n s u r a n c e -----------Sick leave (full pay and no
w aiting p e rio d ) -----------------------------------------Sick leave (p artial pay or w aiting
p e rio d ) --------------------------------------------------------H osp ita liz a tio n in su ran ce ------------------------------S u rgical in su ran ce -------------------------------------------M e d ic a l in su ran ce -------------------------------------------C atastrop h e in su ran ce ------------------------------------R e tire m e n t p e n s i o n -----------------------------------------No h ealth , in su r a n c e , or p ension p l a n ------

P E R C E N T O F P L A N T W O R K E R S E M P L O Y E D IN —

A ll
,
industries

M anufacturing

Public
utilities f

Wholesale
trade

R etail trade

Finance

100

100

100

100

100

91

96

100

85

37

57

3

93
37

° 7
58

54

51

24
68
67
29
16
87

30
83
85
32
9
91

*

A ll
2
industries

Manufacturing

Pu blic
utilities

Wholesale
trade

R etail trade

100

100

100

100

100

100

86

88

89

94

100

68

76

47

44

15

40

45

15

34

35

100
5

87
28

100
55

80
7

89
71

93
83

85
15

58
34

91
52

44

60

14

75

7

1

35

20

18

36
66
66
33
41
79

66
62
32
26
92
**

20
75
75
17
4
80
5

19
86
86
16
3
86
3

35
30
30
15
99

9
75
66
22
**
44
18

28
54
54
28
9
70
2

Services

Services

1

56
9
9
3
93

11
86
84
37
3
79
**

1 Includes data fo r s e r v ic e s in addition to those in d u stry d ivision s shown s e p a r a te ly .
a Includes data fo r r e a l esta te and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in d u stry d iv isio n s shown s e p a r a te ly .
3
Unduplicated total of w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s ic k leave or sic k n e ss and acc id en t in su r an ce shown s e p a r a te ly b elo w . S ic k -le a v e plans a r e lim ite d to those w hich d e fin itely e sta b lish at le a s t the m in i­
m um nu m ber o f d a y s ' pay that can be exp ected by each e m p lo y e e . In fo rm a l s ic k -le a v e a llow an ce s d e te rm in ed on an individual b a s is a r e exclu d ed .
* * L e s s than 0 . 5 p e r c e n t.
t
T r an sp o rtatio n (excluding r a ilr o a d s ), c om m u n ication , and other pu blic u t ilit ie s .
O ccup ational W age S u rvey, B a ltim o r e , M d . , A u gu st 1957
f t F in a n c e , in su r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta te .
U . S. D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B ureau of L a b or S ta tistic s




23

Appendix: Job Descriptions
The p rim a ry pu rp ose o f preparing job d escrip tion s fo r the B ureau1s wage su rveys is to
a s s is t its fie ld staff in cla ssify in g into appropriate occu p a tion s w o rk e rs who are em ployed under
a v a rie ty o f p a y ro ll title s and d ifferen t w ork arrangem ents fr o m establishm ent to establishm ent
and fr o m a rea to a r e a .
This is essen tia l in ord e r to p e rm it the grouping o f occu pation al wage
ra tes rep resen tin g com p a ra b le jo b content.
B ecause o f this em phasis on inter establishm ent and
in tera rea com p a ra b ility o f occu p ation al content, the B u rea u 's jo b d e scrip tion s m ay d iffer sig n ifi­
cantly fr o m those in use in individual establish m en ts or th ose p rep a red fo r other p u rp oses.
In
applying these jo b d e scrip tio n s, the B u rea u 's fie ld rep re se n ta tiv e s a re in stru cted to exclude w ork ­
ing s u p e r v is o r s , a p p ren tices, le a r n e r s , beg in n ers, tra in e e s, handicapped w o rk e rs, p a rt-tim e ,
te m p o ra ry , and p robationary w o r k e r s .

Office
B IL L E R , MACHINE
P re p a r e s statem ents, b ills , and in v o ice s on a m achine other
than an ord in a ry o r e le ctro m a tic ty p e w rite r. May a lso keep r e c o r d s
as to b illin gs o r shipping ch a rg es o r p e r fo r m other c le r ic a l w ork in ­
cidental to billing o p e ra tio n s.
F o r wage study p u rp o se s, b ille r s ,
m ach in e, are c la s s ifie d by type o f m achine, as follow s:.
B ille r , m achine (billing m achine) - U ses a sp e cia l billing
machine (M oon Hopkins, E lliott F is h e r, B urrou gh s, e t c . , which
are com bination typing and adding m ach in es) to p rep a re b ills and
in v oices fr o m c u s to m e r s ' purchase o r d e r s , in tern ally p rep a red
o r d e r s , shipping m em oranda, e tc .
Usually in volves application
o f p red eterm in ed discounts and shipping ch a rges and entry o f
n e ce s s a r y ex ten sion s, which m ay or m ay not be com puted on the
billing m ach in e, and totals which are autom atically accum ulated
by m ach in e.
The op eration usually in volves a la rg e num ber o f
carbon co p ie s o f the b ill being p rep a red and is often done on a
fanfold m a ch in e.
B ille r , m achine (bookkeeping m achine) - U ses a bookkeeping
m achine (Sundstrand, E lliott F is h e r, R em ington Rand, e t c . , which
may o r m ay not have typew riter keyboard) to p rep a re c u s to m e r s '
b ills as part o f the accounts r e ce iv a b le op era tion .
G enerally
in volves the sim ultaneous en try o f fig u res on c u s to m e r s 1 led g er
record .
The m achine autom atically accum ulates fig u res on a
number o f v e r tic a l colum ns and com putes and usually prints auto­
m atically the debit o r cre d it b a la n ces. D oes not involve a knowl­
edge o f bookkeeping. W orks fro m u niform and standard types o f
s a le 8 and cre d it slip s .
BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR
O perates a bookkeeping m achine (Rem ington Rand, E lliott
F ish e r, Sundstrand, B urroughs, National Cash R e g iste r, with o r with­
out a typew riter keyboard) to keep a r e c o r d o f bu sin ess tra n sa ction s.




BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR - Continued
C la ss A - Keeps a set o f r e c o r d s requ iring a knowledge o f
and e x p e rie n ce in b a sic bookkeeping p rin cip les and fa m ilia rity with
the stru ctu re o f the p articu lar accounting system u sed.
D eter­
m ines p rop er r e c o r d s and distribution o f debit and cre d it item s
to be used in each phase o f the w ork .
May p rep are con solidated
r e p o r ts , balance sheets, and other r e c o r d s by hand.
C la ss B - Keeps a r e c o r d o f one o r m ore phases o r sections
o f a set o f r e c o r d s usually requ iring little knowledge o f b a sic book ­
k eepin g. P hases or section s include accounts payable, p ayroll,
c u s to m e r s ' accounts (not including a sim ple type o f billing d e scrib e d
under b ille r , m achine), c o s t distribu tion , expense distribution, in­
v en tory co n tro l, e tc.
May ch eck o r a ssist in preparation of trial
b a la n ces and prepare con trol sheets fo r the accounting departm ent.
CLERK, ACCOUNTING
C la ss A - Under gen eral d irection o f a bookkeeper or accou n t­
ant, has resp on sib ility fo r keeping one or m ore sections o f a c o m ­
plete set o f books or re c o r d s relating to one phase o f an esta b lish ­
m en t's b u sin ess tra n sa ction s. W ork involves posting and balancing
su b sid iary led g er or le d g e rs such as accounts receiva b le or a c ­
counts payable; exam ining and coding in v oices or vou ch ers with
p rop er accounting distribution; req u ires judgment and exp erien ce
in making p rop er assignations and a lloca tion s.
May a ssist in
p rep a rin g , adjusting, and closin g journal en tries; m ay d ire ct cla ss
B accounting c le r k s .
C la ss B - Under su p ervision , p e rfo rm s one or m ore routine
accounting operations such as posting sim ple journal vou ch ers,
a ccou nts payable v ou ch ers, entering vou ch ers in voucher re g is te rs ;
re co n cilin g bank accou nts; posting subsidiary led gers con trolled
by g en era l le d g e r s .
This job does not requ ire a knowledge of
accounting and bookkeeping p rin cip les but is found in o ffic e s in
which the m o re routine accounting w ork is subdivided on a fu n c­
tional b a sis among severa l w o rk e rs.

24
CLERK, FILE
Class A - Responsible for maintaining an established filing
system! Classifies and indexes correspondence or other material;
may also file this material. May keep records of various types
in conjunction with files or supervise others in filing and locating
material in the files. May perform incidental clerical duties.
Class B - Performs routine filing, usually of material that
has already been classified, or locates or assists in locating ma­
terial in the files. May perform incidental clerical duties.
CLERK, ORDER
Receives customers1 orders for material or merchandise by
mail, phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination of the
following: Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet
listing tne items to make up the order; checking prices and quantities
of items on order sheet; distributing order sheets to respective de­
partments to be filled. May check with credit department to deter­
mine credit rating of customer, acknowledge receipt of orders from
customer8, follow up orders to see that they have been filled, keep
file of orders received, and check shipping invoices with original
orders.
CLERK, PAYROLL

KEY-PUNCH OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards
by punching a series of holes in the cards in a specified sequence,
using an alphabetical or a numerical key-punch machine, following
written information on records. May duplicate cards by using the
duplicating device attached to machine. Keeps files of punch cards.
May verify own work or work of others.
OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands,
operating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening
and distributing mail, and other minor clerical work.
SECRETARY
Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an
administrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint­
ments for superior; receiving people coming into office; answering
and making phone calls; handling personal and important or confi­
dential mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative;
taking dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in
shorthand or by stenotype or similar machine, and transcribing dicta­
tion or the recorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine.
May prepare special reports or memoranda for information of superior.
STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL

Computes wages of company employees and enters the neces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers'
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker's name, working
days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and dis­
tributing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.

Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by stenotype or similar machine, involving a
normal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a type­
writer. May also type from written copy. May also set up and keep
files in order, keep simple records, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine work (see transcribing-machine operator)•

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR

STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL

Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathe­
matical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of
statistical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of
a Comptometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to
performance of other duties.

Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by stenotype or similar machine, involving a
varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or
reports on scientific research and to transcribe this dictation on a
typewriter. May also type from written copy. May also set up and
keep files in order, keep simple records, etc.
Does not include
transcribing-machine work.

DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
Under general supervision and with no supervisory respon­
sibilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten
matter, using a mimeograph or ditto machine. Makes necessary ad­
justment such as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed.
Is not required to prepare stencil or ditto master. May keep file of
used stencils or ditto masters. May sort, collate, and staple com­
pleted material.




SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office
calls. May record toll calls and take messages. May give infor­
mation to persons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders.
For workers who also act as receptionists see switchboard operator receptionist.

25
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL - Continued

In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single posi­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also
type or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties.
This typing or clerical work may take the major part of this worker’s
time while at switchboard.

included. A worker who takes dictation in shorthand or by stenotype
or similar machine is classified as a stenographer, general.

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Operates machine that automatically analyzes and translates
information punched in groups of tabulating cards and prints trans­
lated data on forms or accounting records; sets or adjusts machine;
does simple wiring of plugboards according to established practice
or diagrams; places cards to be tabulated in feed magazine and starts
machine. May file cards after they are tabulated. May, in addition,
operate auxiliary machines.

TYPIST
Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to
make out bills after calculations have been made by another person.
May do clerical work involving little special training, such as keep­
ing simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting and dis­
tributing incoming mail.
Class A - Performs one or more of the following: Typing
material in final form from very rough and involved draft; copy­
ing from plain or corrected copy in which there is a frequent
and varied use of technical and unusual words or from foreignlanguage copy; combining material from several sources, or
planning layout of complicated statistical tables to maintain uni­
formity and balance in spacing; typing tables from rough draft in
final form. May type routine form letters, varying details to
suit circumstances.

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal
routine vocabulary from transcribing machine records. May also
type from written copy and do simple clerical work. Workers tran­
scribing dictation involving a varied technical or specialized vocabu­
lary such as legal briefs or reports on scientific research are not

Professional

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
poses. Uses various types of drafting tools .as required. May pre­
pare drawings from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties
under direction of a draftsman.
DRAFTSMAN, LEADER
Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in
preparation of working plans and detail drawings from rough or pre­
liminary sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing
purposes. Duties involve a combination of the following: Interpreting
blueprints, sketches, and written or verbal orders; determining work
procedures; assigning duties to subordinates and inspecting their work;
performing more difficult problems. May assist subordinates during




Class B - Performs one or more of the following: Typing
from relatively clear or typed drafts; routine typing of forms,
insurance policies, etc.; setting up simple standard tabulations, or
copying more complex tables already set up and spaced properly.

and

T e c hni c a l

DRAFTSMAN, LEADER - Continued
emergencies or as a regular assignment, or perform related duties
of a supervisory or administrative nature.
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes,
rough or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manu­
facturing purposes. Duties involve a combination of the following:
Preparing working plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-sections, etc. ,
to scale by use of drafting instruments; making engineering computa­
tions such as those involved in strength of materials, beams and
trusses; verifying completed work, checking dimensions, materials
to be used, and quantities; writing specifications; making adjustments
or changes in drawings or specifications. May ink in lines and letters
on pencil drawings, prepare detail units of complete drawings, or
trace drawings. Work is frequently in a specialized field such as
architectural, electrical, mechanical, or structural drafting.

26

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED) - Continued

A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on
the premises of a factory or other establishment* Duties involve a
combination of the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured;
attending to subsequent dressing of employees* injuries; keeping records
of patients treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or
other purposes; conducting physical examinations and health evaluations
of applicants and employees; and planning and carrying out programs
involving health education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant

environment, or other activities affecting the health, welfare, and
safety of all personnel.

Mai nte nanc e

TRACER
Copies
tracing cloth or
Uses T-square,
simple drawings

plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing
paper over drawing, and tracing with pen or pencil.
compass, and other drafting tools. May prepare
and do simple lettering.

n d Po we r plant

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

ENGINEER, STATIONARY

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and
maintain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins,
cribs, counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings,
and trim made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most of
the following: Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, draw­
ings, models, or verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter*s
handtools, portable power tools, and standard measuring instruments;
making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work;
selecting materials necessary for the work. In general, the work of
the maintenance carpenter requires rounded training and experience
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent train­
ing and experience.

Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air compressors, generators, mo­
tors, turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers
and boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a
record of operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consump­
tion. May also supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers
in establishments employing more than one engineer are excluded.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE
Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating,
distribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment.
Work involves most of the following; Installing or repairing any of
a variety of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers,
switchboards, controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units,
conduit systems, or other transmission equipment; working from blue­
prints, drawings, layout, or other specifications; locating and diag­
nosing trouble in the electrical system or equipment; working standard
computations relating to load requirements of wiring or electrical
equipment; using a variety of electrician*s handtools and measuring
and testing instruments. In general, the work of the maintenance
electrician requires rounded training and experience usually ac­
quired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.




FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER
Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand
or operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water
and safety valves. May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom equipment.
HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE
Assists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance
trades, by performing specific or general duties of lesser skill, such
as keeping a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning work­
ing area, machine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding ma­
terials or tools; performing other unskilled tasks as directed by jour­
neyman. The kind of work the helper is permitted to perform varies
from trade to trade: In some trades the helper is confined to sup­
plying, lifting, and holding materials and tools, and cleaning working
areas; and in others he is permitted to perform specialized machine
operations, or parts of a trade that are also performed by workers
on a full-time basis.

27
MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE

Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine
lathes, or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools,
gauges, jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most of the following:
Planning and performing difficult machining operations; processing
items requiring complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy;
using a variety of precision measuring instruments; selecting feeds,
speeds, tooling and operation sequence; making necessary adjust­
ments during operation to achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions.
May be required to recognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools,
and to select proper coolants and cutting and lubricating oils. For
cross-industry wage study purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom,
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establish­
ment. Work involves most of the following; Examining machines
and mechanical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling
or partly dismantling machines and performing repairs that mainly
involve the use of handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing
broken or defective parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the
production of a replacement part by a machine shop or sending of
the machine to a machine shop for major repairs; preparing written
specifications for major repairs or for the production of parts ordered
from machine shop; reassembling machines; and making all necessary
adjustments for operation. In general, the work of a maintenance*
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
Excluded from this classification are workers whose primary duties
involve setting up or adjusting machines.

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs
of metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment.
Work involves most of the following: Interpreting written instruc­
tions and specifications; planning ana laying out of work; using a va­
riety of machinist's handtools and precision measuring instruments;
setting up and operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal
parts to close tolerances; making standard shop computations relat­
ing to dimensions of work, tooling, feeds and speeds of machining;
knowledge of the working properties of the common metals; selecting
standard materials, parts, and equipment required for his work; fitting
and assembling parts into mechanical equipment. In general, the
machinist's work normally requires a rounded training in machineshop practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

MILLWRIGHT
Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant lay­
out are required. Work involves most of the following: Planning and
laying out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications;
using a variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop com­
putations relating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of
gravity; alining and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools,
equipment, and parts to be used; installing and maintaining in good
order power transmission equipment such as drives and speed re­
ducers. In general, the millwright's work normally requires a rounded
training and experience in the trade acquired through a formal appren­
ticeship or equivalent training and experience.
OILER

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of
an establishment. Work involves most of the following: Examining
automotive equipment to diagnose source of trouble; aisassembling
equipment and performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches, gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in dis­
assembling or fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts from
stock; grinding and adjusting valves; reassembling and installing the
various assemblies in the vehicle and making necessary adjustments;
alining wheels, adjusting brakes and lights, or tightening body bolts.
In general, the work of the automotive mechanic requires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprentice­
ship or equivalent training and experience.




Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing
surfaces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.
PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an
establishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface
peculiarities and types of paint required for different applications;
preparing surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing
putty or filler in nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray
gun or brush. May mix colors, oils, white lead, and other paint
ingredients to obtain proper color or consistency. In general, the
work of the maintenance painter requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience.

28

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE - Continued

Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe
and pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most of the fol­
lowing: Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe
from drawings or other written 'specifications; cutting various sizes
of pipe to correct lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene
torch or pipe-cutting machine; threading pipe with stocks and dies;
bending pipe by hand-driven or power-driven machines; assembling
pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard
shop computations relating to pressures, flow, and size of pipe re­
quired; making standard tests to determine whether finished pipes meet
specifications. In general, the work of the maintenance pipefitter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. Workers
rimarily engaged in installing and repairing building sanitation or
eating systems are excluded.

and laying out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blue­
prints, models, or other specifications; setting up and operating all
available types of sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of
handtools in cutting, bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assem­
bling; installing sheet-metal articles as required. In general, the
work of the maintenance sheet-metal worker requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber's snake.
In general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprentice­
ship or equivalent training and experience.
SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing)
of an establishment. Work involves most of the following: Planning

Cus t o di a l

(Diemaker; jig maker; toolmaker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work.
Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying out of work
from models, blueprints, drawings, o* other oral and written specifi­
cations; using a variety of tool and die maker's handtools and precision
measuring instruments; understanding of the working properties of
common metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools
and related equipment; making necessary shop computations relating
to dimensions of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools
and dies to achieve required qualities; working to close tolerances;
fitting and assembling of parts to prescribed tolerances and allow­
ances; selecting appropriate materials, tools, and processes.
In
general, the tool and die maker's work requires a rounded training
in machine-shop and toolroom practice usually acquired throjugh a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

and M a t e r i a l

ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER
Transports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such
as those of starters and janitors are excluded.
GUARD
Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on
tour, maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. In­
cludes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity of
employees and other persons entering.




TOOL AND DIE MAKER

Movement

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working
areas and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house,
or commercial or other establishment. Duties involve a combination
of the following: Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors;
removing chips, trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture,
or fixtures; polishing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies
and minor maintenance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and
restrooms. Workers who specialize in window washing are excluded.

29

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker;
stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant,
store, or other establishment whose duties involve one or more of
the following: Loading and unloading various materials and merchan­
dise on or from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices;
unpacking, shelving, or placing materials or merchandise in proper
storage location; transporting materials or merchandise by hand truck,
car, or wheelbarrow. Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are
excluded.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK - Continued
other records; checking for shortages and rejecting damaged goods;
routing merchandise or materials to proper departments; maintaining
necessary records and files.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:
Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk
TRUCKDRIVER

ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
Fills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from
stored merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips,
customers1 orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling
orders and indicating items filled or omitted, keep records of out­
going orders, requisition additional stock, or report short supplies
to supervisor, and perform other related duties.
PACKER, SHIPPING
Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires
the placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or
more of the following: Knowledge of various items of stock in order
to verify content; selection of appropriate type and size of container;
inserting enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to
prevent breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; applying
labels or entering identifying data on container. Packers who also
make wooden boxes or crates are excluded.
SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is re­
sponsible for incoming shipment of merchandise or other materials.
Shipping work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, prac­
tices, routes, available means of transportation and rates; and pre­
paring records of the goods shipped, making up bills of lading, post­
ing weight and shipping charges, and keeping a file of shipping records.
May direct or assist in preparing the merchandise for shipment.
Receiving work involves: Verifying or directing others in verifying
the correctness of shipments against bills of lading, invoices, or




Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport
materials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of
establishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, ware­
houses, wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail estab­
lishments and customers1 houses or places of business. May also
load or unload truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical
repairs, and keep truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and
over-the-road drivers are excluded.
For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size
and type of equipment, as follows: (Tractor-trailer should be rated
on the basis of trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver (combination of sizes listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under 1 V2 tons)
Truckdriver, medium (IV2 to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)
TRUCKER, POWER
Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about
a warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of
truck, as follows:
Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)
WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.
U. S. GOVER N M ENT P R IN T IN G O F F IC E : 19 5 8 0 — 4 5 1 8 7 3










Occupational Wage Surveys

O ccupational wage surveys are bein g conducted in 17 major labor markets during late 1957 and early 1958. B u lletin s, when a v a ila b le , may be
purchased rrom the Superintendent o f D ocum ents, Government Printing O ffic e , Washington 2 5 , D . C ., or from any o f the regional sa le s o ffic e s show n.
A bulletin for the area listed b elow is now a v a ila b le .




S eattle, Wash., August 1957 — BLS B ull. 1224-1, P rice 20 cents





Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102