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Occupational Wage Survey

PITTSBURGH, PENNSYLVANIA
DECEMBER 1956

Bulletin No. 1202-9

UNITED STATES DEPA RTM EN T OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary




BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Cl ague, Commissioner




Occupational Wage Survey
PITTSBURGH, PENNSYLVANIA




DECEMBER 1956

Bulletin N o . 1 2 0 2 -9
UN ITED STA TES DEPARTM ENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clagua, Commissionar
March 1957

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C.

Price 25 cents




Contents

Preface

Page
The Community Wage Survey Program
The Bureau of Labor Statistics regu larly conducts
areawide wage surveys in a number of important industrial
centers. The studies, made from late fa ll to ea rly spring,
relate to occupational earnings and related supplementary
benefits.
A prelim in ary report is available on completion
of the study in each area, usually in the month follow ing the
payroll period studied. This bulletin provides additional data
not included in the e a rlie r report. A consolidated analytical
bulletin summarizing the results of a ll of the year's surveys
is issued after completion of the final area bulletin for the
current round of surveys.




Introduction___________________________________________________________
Establishments and w orkers within scope of s u r v e y ____________

1

2

Tables:
A:

B:

Occupational earnings * A - l : Office occupations -----------------------------------------------A -2: Profession al and technical occupations -------------------A - 3: Maintenance and power plant occupations -----------------A -4: Custodial and m aterial movement occupations --------Establishment practices and supplementary wage
provisions * B - l: Shift differen tial provisions -----------------------------------B-2: Minimum entrance rates for women office
w orkers ------------------------------------------------------------B-3: Scheduled weekly hours ---------------------------------------B -4: Paid holidays -----------------------------------------------------B -5: Paid vacations ----------------------------------------------------B-6: Health, insurance, and pension plans ----------------------

Appendix:

Job descriptions ------------------------------------------------------

* NOTE: Sim ilar tabulations for most of these items are
available in the Pittsburgh area report for Novem ber 1951.
The 1951 report also provides tabulations of Christm as,
year end, profit-sh arin g, and other types of nonproduction
bonuses. A d irectory indicating date of study and the price
of the report, as w ell as reports fo r other m ajor areas, is
available upon request.
Union scales, indicative of prevailing pay levels, are
available for the follow ing trades or industries: Building
construction, printing, local-tran sit operating em ployees,
and motortruck d rivers .

3
6
7
8

10
11
12
12
13
14
15




Occupational Wage Survey - Pittsburgh, Pa .*

Introduction
The Pittsburgh area is one of severa l important industrial cen­
ters in which the Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics has
conducted surveys of occupational earnings and related wage benefits
on an areawide basis.
In each area, data are obtained by personal
visits of Bureau field agents to representative establishments within
six broad industry divisions: Manufacturing; transportation (excluding
railroads), communication, and other public utilities; wholesale trade;
retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. M ajor
industry groups excluded from these studies, besides railroads, are
government operations and the construction and extractive industries.
Establishments having few er than a prescribed number of w orkers are
omitted also because they furnish insufficient employment in the occu­
pations studied to warrant in clu sion .1 W herever possible, separate
tabulations are provided for each of the broad industry divisions.
These surveys a re conducted on a sample basis because of the
unnecessary cost involved in surveying a ll establishments. To obtain
appropriate accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of large
than of sm all establishments is studied. In combining the data, how­
ever, a ll establishments are given their appropriate weight. Estimates
based on the establishments studied are presented, therefore, as r e ­
lating to a il establishments in the industry grouping and area, except
for those below the minimum size studied.

Occupational employment estimates represent the total in all
establishments within the scope of the study and not the number actu­
a lly surveyed.
Because of differences in occupational structure among
establishments, the estimates of occupational employment obtained from
the sample of establishments studied serve only to indicate the relative
importance of the jobs studied.
These differences in occupational
structure do not m a terially affect the accuracy of the earnings data.
Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provision s
Information is presented also (in the B -series tables) on s e ­
lected establishment practices and supplementary benefits as they
relate to office and plant w orkers.
The term "o ffic e w orkers, " as
used in this bulletin, includes a ll office c le ric a l em ployees and ex ­
cludes adm inistrative, executive, professional, and technical personnel.
"Plant w o rk ers" include working forem en and a ll nonsupervisory w ork­
ers (including leadmen and trainees) engaged in nonoffice functions.
Adm inistrative, executive, professional, and technical em ployees, and
force-account construction em ployees who are utilized as a separate
work fo rce are excluded.
C afeteria w orkers and routemen are ex­
cluded in manufacturing industries, but are included as plant w orkers
in nonmanufacturing industries.

Occupations and Earnings
The occupations selected for study are common to a variety
of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries. Occupational cla s­
sification is based on a uniform set of job descriptions designed to
take account of interestablishment variation in duties within the same
job (see appendix for listing of these descriptions). Earnings data are
presented (in the A -s e rie s tables) for the following types of occupa­
tions: (a) Office clerica l; (b) professional and technical; (c) m ainte­
nance and powerplant; and (d) custodial and m aterial movement.

Shift differen tial data (table B - l) are lim ited to manufacturing
industries.
This information is presented both in term s of (a) estab­
lishment policy, 2 presented in terms of total plant w orker em ploy­
ment, and (b) effective practice, presented on the basis of workers
actually employed on the specified shift at the time of the survey.
In establishments having varied differen tials, the amount applying to
a m ajority was used or, if no amount applied to a m ajority, the cla s­
sification "oth er" was used.

Occupational employment and earnings data are shown for
fu ll-tim e w orkers, i. e. , those hired to w ork a regular weekly sched­
ule in the given occupational classification.
Earnings data exclude
premium pay fo r overtim e and for w ork on weekends, holidays, and
late shifts.
Nonproduction bonuses are excluded also, but co st-ofliving bonuses and incentive earnings are included.
Where weekly
hours are reported, as for office c le rica l occupations, reference is

Minimum entrance rates (table B-2) relate only to the estab­
lishments visited.
They are presented on an establishment, rather
than on an employment basis.
Scheduled hours; paid holidays; paid
vacations; and health, insurance, and pension plans a re treated statis­
tica lly on the basis that these are applicable to a ll plant or office.

* This report was prepared in the Bureau's regional office in
New York, N. Y. , by F red erick W. M u eller, under the direction of
Paul E. Warwick, Regional Wage and Industrial Relations Analyst.
1 See table on page 2 for m inim um -size establishment covered.




to the w ork schedules (rounded to the nearest half hour) for which
straight-tim e salaries are paid; average w eekly earnings for these
occupations have been rounded to the nearest half dollar.

2
An establishment was considered as having a policy if it met
either of the following conditions: ( l ) Operated late shifts at the time
of the survey, or (2) had form al provisions covering late shifts.

(i)

2

w orkers if a m ajority of such w orkers are eligib le or may eventually
qualify fo r the practices lis te d .3 Because of rounding, sums of indi­
vidual items in these tabulations do not n ecessarily equal totals.
The summary of vacation plans is lim ited to form al a rran ge­
ments, excluding inform al plans whereby time off with pay is granted
at the discretion of the em ployer.
Separate estim ates are provided
according to em ployer practice in computing vacation payments, such
as time payments, percent of annual earnings, or flat-sum amounts.
However, in the tabulations of vacation allowances, payments not on
a time basis w ere converted; for example, a payment of 2 percent of
annual earnings was considered as the equivalent of 1 week's pay.
Data are presented fo r a ll health, insurance, and pension
plans fo r which at least a part of the cost is borne by the em ployer,
excepting only legal requirements such as workmen's compensation and
social security. Such plans include those underwritten by a com m er­
cial insurance company and those provided through a union fund or paid
d irectly by the em ployer out of current operating funds or from a fund
set aside for this purpose. Death benefits are included as a form of
life insurance.
Sickness and accident insurance is lim ited to that type of in ­
surance under which predeterm ined cash payments a re made d irectly
to the insured on a w eekly or monthly basis during illness or accident
disability.
Information is presented for a ll such plans to which the
em ployer contributes. However, in New York and New Jersey, which

have enacted tem porary disability insurance laws which require em ­
ployer contributions,4 plans are included only if the em ployer ( l ) con­
tributes m ore than is leg a lly required, or (2) provides the employee
with benefits which exceed the requirements of the law.
Tabulations
of paid sick -lea ve plans are lim ited to form al plans 5 which provide
full pay or a proportion of the w orker's pay during absence from w ork
because of illn ess.
Separate tabulations are provided according to
( l ) plans which provide fu ll pay and no waiting period, and (2) plans
providing either partial pay or a waiting period.
In addition to the
presentation of the proportions of w orkers who are provided sickness
and accident insurance or paid sick leave, an unduplicated total is
shown of w orkers who receive either or both types of benefits.
Catastrophe insurance, sometim es re fe rre d to as extended
m edical insurance, includes those plans which a re designed to protect
employees in case of sickness and injury involving expenses beyond
the normal coverage of hospitalization, m edical, and surgical plans.
M edical insurance re fers to plans providing fo r complete or partial
payment of doctors' fees. Such plans may be underwritten by com m er­
cial insurance companies or nonprofit organizations or they may be
self-insured. Tabulations of retirem ent pension plans are lim ited to
those plans that provide monthly payments fo r the remainder of the
w orker's life.

4 The tem porary disability laws in C alifornia and Rhode Island
do not require em ployer contributions.
5 An establishment was considered as having a form al plan if
3
Scheduled w eekly hours for office w orkers (firs t section it established at least the minimum number of days of sick leave that
of
table B -3) are presented in term s of the proportion of women office
could be expected by each em ployee. Such a plan need not be written,
w orkers employed in offices with the indicated w eekly hours for women
but inform al sick leave allowances, determined on an individual basis,
w o rk ers.
w ere excluded.
Establishm ents and w orkers w ithin scope of su rve y and number studied in P ittsburgh, Pa. , 1 by m a jo r industry d ivision, D ecem ber 1956

Industry division

A ll divisions _______________________________________________________
M a n u fa ctu rin g _______ __ ___________ _______________ _____________
Nonm anufacturing ____ ___________________________________________
Tran sp ortation (excluding ra ilro a d s ), com m unication,
and other public utilities 4 ____________________________________
Wholesale trade ____ __ ________________________________________
R etail trade ________ ____ __________ ___________ ____ ____
Finance, insurance, and real estate ________ _________________
S e rv ic e s 6 __ _____________________________________________________

M in im um
employment
in establish­
ments in scope
of study

N um ber of establishments

W orkers in establishments

W ithin
scope of
s tudy 2

Studied

_

80 2

222

419,300

60,400

301,600

233, 350

101
-

349
453

83
139

301,100
118, 200

32, 300
28, 100

234,600
67,000

158, 370
74,980

101
51
101
51
51

51
137
67
89
109

22
38
30
25
24

30,900
16,600
38, 100
16,800
15, 800

5, 800
5, 100
3, 300
10,100
(7)

18, 900
6, 500
31,300
5 1,500
(7)

22, 360
6, 340
30,160
10,040
6, 080

W ithin scope of study
T o t a l3

Office

Studied
Plant

To ta l 3

1 The P ittsburgh M etropolitan A re a (Allegheny, B ea ve r, Washington, and W estm oreland Counties). The "w o rk ers w ithin scope of study" estimates shown in this table provide a reasonably accurate de­
scription of the size and com position of the labor force included in the su rve y. The estimates are not intended, however, to serve as a basis of com parison w ith other area employment indexes to measure e m ­
ployment trends o r levels since ( l ) planning of wage surveys requires the use of establishm ent data com piled considerably in advance of the pay period studied, and (2) sm all establishments are excluded from the
scope of the survey.
2 Includes a ll establishments w ith total em ploym ent at or above the m in im u m -s iz e lim itation . A l l outlets (w ithin the area) of companies in such industries as trade, finance, auto rep air se rvice, and m otionpicture theaters are considered as 1 establishm ent.
3 Includes executive, technical, professional, and other w orke rs excluded fro m the separate office and plant categories.
4 A lso excludes taxicabs and services incidental to water transportation.
5 Estim ate relates to rea l estate establishments only.
6 Hotels; personal se rvices; business se rvices; automobile re p a ir shops; radio broadcasting and television; motion pictures; nonprofit m em bership organizations; and engineering and a rchitectu ral se rvices.
7 Th is industry division is represented in estimates for " a ll industries" and "nonm anufacturing" in the Series A and B tables, although coverage was insufficient to justify separate presentation of data.




A : Occupational Earnings

3

T a b le A -1 : O f f ic e O c c u p a tio n s
( A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a r n in g s fo r s e le c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ied on an a r e a b a s i s
in P i t t s b u r g h , P a . , by in d u s t ry d iv is io n , D e c e m b e r 1956)
Average
Sex,

Number
of
workers

o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s t ry d iv is io n

Weeklyj
(Standard)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

$
Weekly , 30. 00
earnings 1
(Standard) u an d r
nde
35. 00

$
35. 00

$
40. 00

$
45. 00

$
50. 00

$
55. 00

$
60. 00

$
65. 00

$
70. 00

$
75. 00

$
80. 00

$
65. 00

$
90. 00

$
$
$
$
$
95. 00 100.00 1 0 5.00 n o . oo 115.00

40. 00

45. 00

50. 00

55. 00

60. 00

65. 00

70. 00

75. 00

80. 00

85. 00

90. 00

95. 00

100. 00

105.00 110 00 115 00

and
over

M en
C l e r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c l a s s A
_______________ _ _______
__________________________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g __________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ___________________________________________
P u b li c u t i l i t i e s *
W h o le s a le t r a d e ____ __________________________________
F i n a n c e * * --------------------------------------------------------------------

808
539
269
82
67
80

3 9 .5
40 . 0
39. 0
39. 0
3 9 .0
3b. 5

9 8 .0 0
1 0 1.50
9 1 .0 0
1 0 4.50
96. 50
76. 50

_
-

-

_
-

C l e r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c l a s s B ________________________________
M a n u fa c tu rin g _
_ _________________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ___________________________________________
P u b l i c u t ilit ie s *
_______________________________________
W h o le s a le t r a d e __________________________________________

503
269
234
110
101

3 9 .5
40. 0
39. 5
39. 0
40. 0

8 4 .0 0
8 7 .0 0
8 1 .0 0
97. 50
6 9 .0 0

-

6
6
-

-

C l e r k s , o r d e r _____________________________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r in g
_ _
.. . . . ___
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
W h o le s a le t r a d e
..... _ .... . ..
......

300
224
76
71

38. 5
3 8 .5
3 9 .0
3 9 .0

86. 50
8 7 .5 0
83. 00
83. 00

-

-

-

-

-

-

C l e r k s , p a y r o ll _ __ ______________________________________ _
_
M a n u f a c t u r in g _____________________
______________
____

228
207

40 . 0
40 . 0

9 1 .0 0
9 1 .5 0

_

_

_

-

-

-

O ffic e b o y s ________________________________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r in g ___________ ____________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g ___________________________________________
P u b li c u t i l i t i e s *
W h o le s a le t r a d e

258
111
147
32
52

3 9 .0
39. 5
36. 5
3 9 .0
3 9 .5

53. 00
5 6 .0 0
50. 50
4 8 . 50
48 . 50

_
-

3
3
-

56
17
39
-

"

-

19

T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ___ ________________________
M a n u f a c t u r in g ________________________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g __________________________________________
F in a n c e * * ________________________________________________

289
185
104
52

39. 0
40 . 0
3 7 .0
36. 0

82. 50
86. 50
7 6 .0 0
69. 00

_
-

_
-

_
-

B i l l e r s , m a c h in e ( b il li n g m a c h i n e ) ________________________
M a n u f a c t u r in g ______________________________________________ _
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g „ _____________ ______________________
W h o le s a l e t r a d e
_
.
_ ___

308
176
132
50

38. 0
3 7 .5
38. 5
39. 5

57. 00
5 7 .5 0
56. 50
54. 50

_

B i l l e r s , m a c h in e (b o o k k e e p in g m a c h in e ) _ _____________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g __________________________________________
R e t a il t r a d e _____________ _________________________ _
_

170
158
99

40. 0
40 . 0
4 0 .0

55. 50
54. 50
53. 50

_
-

B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s A _______________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g __________________________________________
F in a n c e * * ________________________________________________

193
145
94

3 7 .5
37. 5
36. 5

68. 50
65. 50
55. 50

.

B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s B _______________
M a n u fa c t u r in g
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _______________________________ ________
W h o le s a le t r a d e _____________________________ _______ _
F in a n c e * *
__ _______________________________
________

844
207
637
105
432

3 9 .0
3 9 .0
38. 5
39. 5
38. 5

53. 00
60. 00
5 1 .0 0
56. 50
4 9 .0 0

.
-

5
1
4
-

8
1
7
1
_

20
5
15
-

15
7
8
1
_

4

6

15

7

1
1
-

12
3
9
-

16
4
12
12

38
17
21
1
18

72
38
34
-

6

17
4
13
10

-

4
3
1
1

4
4
4

21
18
3
2

8
1
7
7

2
2

6
2

3
3

10
9

73
14
59
24
14

32
11
21
8
3

51
37
14
-

19
10
9
-

8

8

-

"

1
1
1

18
18
16

12
2
10
9

20
15
5
2

21
16
5

*

1
1
1

5
5
4

21
21
14

34
20
14
4

95
83
12
-

48
29
19
3

21
2
19
11

2
2
2

26

19
19
9

21
21
17

54
52
39

34
30
12

_
-

_

29
29
28

24
17
17

23
21
20

160

138
28
110
32
64

119
41
78
7
36

3
3
-

16
------- 5
10
-

42
24
18
1
2
5

54
23
31
3
_

99
79
20
2
8
9

90
59
31
30
_

12

76
23
53
3
35
12

32

49
23
26
2
21

41
38
3
2

25
17
8
8
"

48
43
5
3
2

-

24
18
6
6

43
27
16
13

52
44
8
8

'

-

-

26
18
8
8

10
6
4
4

58
54
4
4

10
4
6
6

6
1
5
4

9
7

1
1

12
12

34
31

30
28

20
18

28
28

18
18

13
13
-

7
7
-

1
1
-

1
1
-

2
2
-

_
-

_
-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

30
18
12
5

63
46
17
5

28
20
8
1

25
22
3

5
3
2

11
9
2

i
i
-

7
7
-

"

46
26
20
12

‘

‘

“

■

_

75
33
42
14

2
2
-

_
-

2
2
-

3
3
-

2
2
-

-

_
-

.
-

-

-

"

-

-

-

-

-

5
4
4

1
-

2
2

6
2

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

_
-

.
-

-

-

-

-

"

"

"

-

-

27
20
19

20
16
6

16
14
3

1
-

7
-

24
6

6
6

1
1

-

-

-

-

6
6

"

-

9
9
1

-

-

"

'

■

-

134
89
45

45
6
39
16
18

18
8
10

16
11

3
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

5
3

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
5

117
2 83
3 34
24
9

-

99
90
9
2
4
2

36
32
4
4

4
4
_
-

5
3
2
2

65
48
17
9
6

1

102
90
12
6
2
2

88
18
70
70

42
24
18
18

35
— 3T~
_
-

_

-

-

—

-

22
20
2
2

12
10
2
2

6
r~

14
9
.
-

W om en

S e e fo o tn o tes at end o f t a b le .
* T r a n s p o r t a t i o n (e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) ,
* * F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , an d r e a l e s ta te .




-

_
-

c o m m u n ic a t io n , an d o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .

26
16

-

6
6
4

205
16
189

2
179

------5—
154
20
107

15
27

-

6
1

-

_
-

O c c u p a tio n a l W a g e S u r v e y , P i t t s b u r g h , P a . , D e c e m b e r 1956
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a tis tic s

4
T a b le A -1: O f fic e O c c u p a tio n s - C o n tin u e d
( A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e w e e k ly h o u r s an d e a r n in g s f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ied on an a r e a b a s i s
in P i t t s b u r g h , P a . , by in d u s t ry d iv is io n , D e c e m b e r 1956)
Average
Number
of
workers

S e x , o c c u p a tio n , and in d u s t r y d iv is io n

Weekly
(Standard)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

$
Weekly
30. 00
earnings 1 and
(Standard) u n d e r
35. 00

$
35. 00
“
40 . 00

$
4 0 . 00

$
45 . 00

$
50. 00

$
55. 00

45. 00

“
. on

"
55. 00

■
60. 00

50

$
60. 00

$
70. 00

$
75. 00

_

65. 00

$
65. 00

“
75. 00

"
8 0 .0 0

70. 00

$
80. 00
8 5 .0 0

$
85. 00

$
90. 00

90. 00

■
“
■
95. 00 10 0 .0 0 10 5 .0 0

$
$
$
$
$
95. 00 1 0 0.00 105 . 00 1 1 0 .0 0 115.00
■

n o . 00

11 5 .0 0

and
over

W o m e n - C o n tin u e d
480
221
259
63
92

39. 0
3 9 .5
39. 0
3 9 .0
37. 5

74. 50
8 0 .5 0
69. 50
6 9 .0 0
65. 00

C l e r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c l a s s B ____________________________________
I, 353
W s
M a n u f a c t u r in g ______________________________________________________
855
85
125
W h o le s a l e t r a d e __________________________________________
204
378

39. 0
3 9 .5
39. 0
40 . 0
3 9 .0
39. 5
38. 0

59. 50
6 9 .0 0
54. 00
68. 50
6 1 .5 0
56. 00
4 9 . 00

C le r k s ,

293
114
179

3 9 .5
40. 0
39. 0

55. 50
65. 50
49 . 00

1, 124
345
779
93
145
356

39. 0
40 . 0
3 8 .5
39. 5
40 . 0
37. 5

4 9 . 50
56. 00
46. 50
50. 50
49. 50
4 4 .5 0

C le r k s , o r d e r
........
. ..
.....
M a n u f a c t u r in g ________________________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g ___________________________________________
R e t a il t r a d e _______________________________________________

349
84
265
173

3 9 .5
39. 0
39. 5
39. 5

59. 00
70. 50
55. 50
5 3 .5 0

C l e r k s , p a y r o ll __________________________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r in g
.....
.................. .
.
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g
. ...
R e t a il t r a d e

752
550
202
79

39. 5
39. 5
3 9 .5
39. 5

72.
73.
70.
65.

C o m p to m e te r o p e ra t o r s
M a n u f a c t u r in g ________________________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g ___________________________________________
P u b lic, u t i l i t i e s *
W h o le s a le t r a d e
R e t a il t r a d e _______________________________________________

701
284
417
64
96
227

39.
40 .
39.
39.
40.
39.

5
0
5
O
'
0
0

6 2 .0 0
6 6 .5 0
59. 00
63. 00
60. 00
56. 00

D u p lic a t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s (m im e o g r a p h
o r d itt o ) __________________________________________________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g
. ... ..
. ....
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g ___________________________________________

162
108
54

3 9 .5
40. 0
38. 5

5 2 .5 0
54. 50
48 . 00

K e y -p u n c h o p e r a t o r s ___________________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r in g ________________________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g ___________________________________________
P u b li c u t ilit ie s * _________________________________________
W h o le s a le tr a d e
R e t a il t r a d e _______________________________ ___ ________
F in a n c e **
__ ___________________________________________

860
455
405
103
72
51
170

39. 0
40. 0
38. 5
38. 5
39. 0
3 9 .5
3 7 .5

6 1 .0 0
67. 00
55. 00
56. 00
63. 00
54. 50
4 9 .0 0

C l e r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c l a s s A ___________________ ___________
M a n u f a c t u r in g ________________________________________________

f i le ,

c la s s A

_

_____ ..
.

N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ______________________________________________
C l e r k s , f i le , c l a s s B
_
M a n u f a c t u r in g _____________________ ______________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
W h o le s a l e t r a d e .
... .
R e t a il t r a d e
F1 nance * *
i

S e e fo o tn o te at end o f t a b le .
* T r a n s p o r t a t i o n (e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) ,
* * F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , an d r e a l e s ta te .




00
00
00
50

-

3
3

2
2

_
_
_

n
11
4
6

22
9
13
3
10

29
7
22
5
13

76
22
54
17
5

74
12
62
19
28

39
23
16
1
7

51
33
18
1
1

45
24
21
1
17

54
44
10
1

38
25
13
9

17
9
8

199
35
164
12
24
12
99

209
50
159
10
21
44
82

194
79
115

106
50
56
10
19
22

112
85
27
13
10
4

56
18
38
22
14
2

85
66
19
4
10
5

68
64
4

13
4
9
2
4
3

5
3
2

6
46
62

90
40
50
2
4
13
23

77

2

3
163

6

36
36

-

-

_

12
12

163
4
13
34
100

-

-

73
21
52

77

39
16
23

10
4
6

17
------- 8
9

26
21
5

8
7
1

28
25
3

3
2
1

7
6
1

8

72

325
------ 5
317
31
40
134

283
84
199
19
8
116

196
105
91
16
53
21

83
31
52
10
31
11

71
54
17
13

23
21
2
2

49
42
7

13

1

-

-

-

4

_

9

25
5
20
8

180
16
164
138

28
3
25
7

29
17
12
5

12
1
11

79
45
34
12

6
-

-

-

8

72

8

4
68

-

2
-

-

_

-

2
2
_

-

9
9
22
19
3

37
30
7
4

53
36
17
9

81
57
24
21

15

42

105
52
53
6
15
30

147
— n
134
11
24
99

_

_

_
_

_

_
18

101
— 47—
54
2
23
25

1

_
_

5
4
l

-

-

-

-

-

.
-

-

-

-

_
_
_

_

-

18
14
4
1

3
3

-

.
_
_

_

-

-

-

-

_
_

_

_

_
_

-

_
_

_
_

_
_

_
_

-

1
_

-

_
_

_

_
_
_
_

_

_
_

9
8
1

-

-

1
1

87
64
23
7

46
29
17
6

95
59
36
11

94
82
12
5

52
40
12

28
25
3
1

50
46
4
3

14
12
2

6
4
2

_
_

122
70
52
20
13
11

76
54
22
10
8
4

43
31
12
2
2
1

15
12
3
3
_

6
4
2

2
1
1

1

1

3

_

-

-

-

1

1

3

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

2

1

1

1

3

-

-

6

2
1
1

"

-

-

■

-

-

-

“

112

11
9
2
2

7
7
-

_

-

15

9

42
6
11
25

-

3
3

19
6
13

36
11
25

47
41
6

32
27
5

15
14
1

2
2
-

-

-

6
6
-

_

_

49
49
2
1
46

120
9
111
27
9
9
66

112
50
62
25
3
23
11

132
61
71
13
16
10
32

97
53
44
22
10
4
8

144
105
39
12
18
4

62
51
11
4
6

c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .

4
4
4

11
11

15
4

6

7
4
3
2

20
4
16
1

18
_
_

-

_

1

-

-

-

6
_

6
2

2

-

6
6

-

1

-

_

-

1

-

“

-

13
2

-

4

_

_

7
7

—

-

"

no

2
2

1

“

-

1

-

4
4
4
-

_

-

-

-

-

-

_

.

-

.

-

-

-

-

8
2
6
_

4
-

“

-

2
2

-

1

4

4
4
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5
T a b le A -1 : O f f ic e O c c u p a tio n s - C o n tin u e d
( A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a r n in g s f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n s s tu d ie d on an a r e a b a s i s
in P i t t s b u r g h , P a . , b y in d u s t ry d iv is i o n , D e c e m b e r 1956)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

Avbbagk
Number
of
workers

S e x , o c c u p a tio n , and in d u s t ry d iv is i o n

W om en

O ffic e g i r l s __ — _
M a n u fa c tu rin g _
_
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
P u b li c u t ilit ie s
F in a n c e * *
„

Weekly,
hours 1
(Standard)

$
Weekly , 30. 00
earnings *
and
(Standard) u n d e r
35. 00

39. 0
39. 5
3 9 .0
38. 0
38. 0

$
4 8 .0 0
50. 00
45. 50
45. 50
46. 00

2 ,6 0 0
1,4 7 9
1, 121
158
292
114
352

39.
39.
38.
39.
39.
40.
37.

0
5
5
0
0
5
5

79. 00
8 3 .0 0
73. 50
85. 00
74. 50
67. 50
67. 00

3, 018
1,741
1 ,2 7 7
304
382
127
371

39.
39.
38.
38.
39.
40.
36.

0
5
5
5
5
0
5

39. 5
4 0 .0

71. 00
70. 00

402
229
173
31
61

S e c re ta rie s
_____________ „ __________________ —
M a n u fa c t u r in g
_ __ __ _____________________ _____ ___
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _________ _____ _____ _ _
_ _ ____
P u b li c u t ilit ie s *
_________ __ __________ ___________
W h o le s a l e t r a d e
__ _________ ____________ ____
R e t a il t r a d e -------- _ __________________ _______________
F in a n c e * *
_________________ _____ _ ________________

S t e n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l _______________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________ ____________ _____________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g __________________________________________
P u b li c u t ilit ie s * ________________________________________
W h o le s a l e t r a d e _______________ ______________ ______
R e t a il t r a d e „ __ _
______________ _________ „ ___
F in a n c e * * ________________________________________________
S t e n o g r a p h e r s , t e c h n ic a l __________________
_
_
______
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ___________________________________ _________

<
4 5 .0 0

$
50. 00

$
55. 00

$
60. 00

$
65. 00

$
70. 00

$
75. 00

40. 00

45. 00

50. 00

5 5 .0 0

6 0 .0 0

65. 00

70. 00

75. 00

80. 00

131
56
75
19
34

59
46
13
1
2

51
51
-

1

16
16
-

1
-

-

-

-

-

-

*

-

-

-

-

-

174
48
126

304
92
212
12
60
28
79

252
155
97
17
33
19
18

282
155
127
35
18
7
39

321
197
124
10
43
5
19

409
326
83
23
27
4
22

228
175
53
15
20
3
13

87
65
22
7
10
4

126
92
34
17
12
1
2

25
21
4
4

17
10
7
6

11
14
79

232
97
135
7
31
25
42

57
31
26
4
2
-

163
155
8

62
54
8
2

7
7
-

-

-

2

161
125

“

“

'

8
8

1

_

_

_

_

_

-

“

-

-

~

16
9
7

_

_

_

_

_
-

$
t
80. 00 85. 00
85. 00

90. 00

$
9 0 .0 0

$
$
S
<
$
95. 00 100. 00 105. 00 110. 00 115.00
and

9 5 .0 0 1 0 0.00 105. 00 n o . oo 115. 00

over

10
10

14
3
11

-

-

4

2
8

2
9

56
12
44
1
19
5
16

110
20
90
19
7
11
52

276
88
188
40
48
13
80

311
136
175
25
37
15
86

458
264
194
41
46
36
57

465
233
232
49
99
21
55

294
149
145
55
42
25
14

269
181
88
32
34

268
190
78
20
51

-

-

2

4

299
246
53
21
14
1
10

-

3
2

34
34

43
37

33
27

30
12

9
5

21
8
13
3
1
5

27
16
11
1

54
51
3

42
33
9
6
3

24
12
12
8
4

-

_
-

-

1
-

8
-

1

3

-

5

443
239
204
28
91

39.
39.
39.
40.
39.

0
0
5
0
5

61.
63.
59.
61.
61.

00
00
00
00
00

T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ____________ _______________
M a n u fa c t u r in g _
_
_
_
.......
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ___________________________________________
P u b li c u t ilit ie s *
.
. . .

185
114
71
25

39.
40.
38.
39.

5
0
5
5

76.
77.
73.
73.

00
50
50
50

T r a n s c r i b in g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s , g e n e r a l _____________
M a n u fa c tu rin g
_
_ _
_____
_
.....
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _________ _______________________________
W h o le s a l e tr a d e
_
___
_ _
_
_

387
100
287
93

39.
40.
39.
39.

5
0
5
5

54.
61.
52.
56.

50
50
00
00

c o m m u n ic a t io n ,

6
6

-

S w it c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r - r e c e p t i o n i s t s

S e e fo o tn o te at end o f t a b le .
* T r a n s p o r t a t i o n (e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) ,
* * F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , an d r e a l e s ta te .

1

_

63. 00
56. 50
54. 00

62.00

an d o th e r p u b lic

j

-

8
-

6 1 .0 0
71. 00
56. 50
63. 50
54. 50
55. 50

N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ____ _______________ ___________________
_________ ___________________________
P u b li c u t i l i t i e s *
W h o le s a l e tr a d e
______________________________________

-

1
-

5
5
0
5
5
5

__

-

j

135
59
76
11
24

65. 50
69. 50
60. 00

39.
39.
39.
39.
40.
36.

_
_

8
8

2

571
168
403
62
79
76

___________

-

'

S w it c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s
______________
__________ __ _
_
M a n u fa c tu rin g
_____ ________ _________________ _______
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------------------------------------------------P u b li c u t ilit ie s * --------------------------------------------------------R e t a il t r a d e _____________________________________ _
_ __
F in a n c e * *
_____ _________ __ -------- ------- -----------




$
40. 00

- C o n tin u e d

__ _____ _____________ __ „
_____ __ _____ ______________ ______
__ „ _________ _____ ______ _______
* _______ ______ ______________________
________ _____
_ __ ___________ ___
_

421304 0 - 5 7 - 2

$
35. 00

-

-

45

-

4

-

45

8
7

80
1
79
3
14
27

73
6
67
5
11
2

93
17
76
12
34
17

75
36
39
4
11
6

87
24
63
34

18

64
19
45
6
13

77
50
27

98
50
48

65
33
32

-

33
26
7
4

18
4

4

"

•

_
-

4

4

4

-

-

.
_
-

_
-

u t ilit ie s .

_

-

_

-

51
11
40
9

-

-

-

4

4

_
-

-

-

-

-

9

-

-

-

15

32

20

-

-

-

-

-

1

*

■

26
18
8

1
1

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

■

-

-

-

-

-

6
6

9
9

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

'

'

1

2

5
2
3

15
8
7
6

16
1
15
1

30
22
8
2

18
11
7
5

19
16
3
1

21
16
5
4

49
7
42
9

107
33
74
37

29
4
25
5

41
20
21
19

19
18
1

8
5
3
2

2
_

-

81
2
79
10

-

2
2

2
2

■

29
25
4
4

14
8
6
1

7
4
3
1

_
-

_
_

_

_

_
_

_

_
~

_

_

*

~

_
-

-

6

_
6

-

1
1

.
-

.

_

_

_

-

6
T a b le A - l: O f fic e O c c u p a tio n s - C o n tin u e d
( A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e w e e k ly h o u r s a n d e a r n in g s f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d on an a r e a b a s i s
in P i t t s b u r g h , P a . , b y in d u s t ry d iv is io n , D e c e m b e r 1956)
Average
Number
of
workers

S e x , o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s t r y d iv is io n

Weekly
hours
(Standard)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

$
Weekly . 30. 00
earnings 1 an d
(Standard) u n d e r
35. 00

$
35. 00

$
40 . 00

$
45. 00

$
50. 00

$
55. 00

$
60. 00

$
65. 00

$
70. 00

$
75. 00

$
80. 00

40. 00

45. 00

50. 00

55. 00

60. 00

65. 00

70. 00

75. 00

80. 00

85. 00

134
54
80
10
59

97
51
46
5
32

104
67
37
3
27

114
85
29
6
20

133
105
28
6
5

70
55
15
6
4

78
75
3
1

21
19
2
-

530
115
415
41
83
41
207

304
90
214
21
70
50
62

227
125
102
7
36
32
21

186
147
39
8
10
7

134
116
18
1
17
-

37
17
20
2
6
-

89
65
24
2
2
2

1
1
1

1
1
-

"

~

”

~

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 10 0.00 1 0 5 .0 0 11 0 .0 0 115.00
and
90. 00

95. 00 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5.00 n o . oo 11 5 .0 0

over

W o m e n - C o n tin u e d
T y p i s t s , c l a s s A _________________________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r in g ________________________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
_________________________________________
P u b li c u t ilit ie s * _______ __ ___________________________
F in a n c e * * ____________ ___________________________________

781
519
262
43
155

T y p i s t s , c l a s s B _______________________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r in g ____ _________________ ___________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ________________________________________
P u b li c u t ilit ie s * ______ _________________________________
W h o le s a l e t r a d e _______________ _________________________
R e t a il t r a d e _______________________________________________
F in a n c e * *
........
__

2, 041
844
1, 197
86
292
174
461

1
2
3
♦
**

0
0
5
5
5

$
-P
6 1 .0 0
6 4 .0 0
54. 50
5 5 .5 0
53. 00

39. 0
3 9 .5
38. 5
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
40 . 0
37. 0

5 2 .0 0
5 6 .0 0
49. 50
5 2 .0 0
5 1 .0 0
4 9 .5 0
47. 00

39.
40 .
37.
38.
36.

_
-

8
8
-

-

-

14
14
7
7

_
-

25
25
8
11

506
169
337
4
68
38
153

"

3
3
-

_

-

_

-

5
5
-

-

_

_

-

_
-

-

_
-

-

-

-

.
-

-

_
-

-

■

1

-

1
1
1

~

H o u r s r e f le c t the w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p lo y e e s r e c e i v e t h e ir r e g u l a r s t r a ig h t -t im e s a l a r i e s and the e a r n in g s c o r r e s p o n d to th e s e w e e k ly h o u r s .
W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d a s f o l lo w s : '2 7 a t $ 11 5 to $ 1 2 0 ; 4 2 a t $ 12 0 to $ 1 2 5 ; 12 at $ 125 to $ 1 3 0 ; 2 at $ 13 0 a n d o v e r .
W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d a s fo l lo w s : 10 a t $ 11 5 to $ 1 2 0 ; 15 a t $ 12 0 to $ 1 2 5 ; 7 at $ 12 5 to $ 1 3 0 ; 2 at $ 130 an d o v e r .
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n (e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a t io n , an d o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .
F i n a n c e , in s u r a n c e , an d r e a l e s t a t e .

T a b le A - 2 * P ro fe s s io n a l a n d T e c h n ic a l O c c u p a tio n s
•
( A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e w e e k ly h o a r s a n d e a r n in g s fo r s e le c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d on an a r e a b a s i s
in P i t t s b u r g h , P a . , b y in d u s t r y d iv is i o n , D e c e m b e r 1956)
A verage

S e x , o c c u p a t io n , a n d in d u s t r y d iv is i o n

Number
of

Weekly
hours1
(Standard)

N U M B E R OF WORKERS RECEIVIN G STRAIGH T-TIM E W E EKLY E AR NING S OF

$

Weekly . U n d e r 5 5 .0 0
earnings1
and
(Standard)

5 5 .0 0

$
|
s
$
$
!
is
1
$
S
$
$
$
*
!$
95. 00 'lOO.OO 105.00 110.00 11 5.0 0 jl2 0 .0 0 125.00 130.00J135.00 140.00 150.00 160.00 170.00
and
9 0 . 0 0 |9 5 .0 0 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 12 0.O oll25.00 130.00 135.00l 140.00 150.00 160.00 170.00 o v e r
1
1
! -----------

S
$
|
$
$
$
$
$
6 0 .0 0 6 5 .0 0 7 0 .0 0 7 5 .0 0 8 0 .0 0 8 5 .0 0 , 9 0 .0 0

un der
6Q.QQ 65 .0 0

7 0 .0 0 7 5 .0 0

8 0 .0 0

8 5 .0 0

M en
D r a ft s m e n , l e a d e r
M a n u fa c t u r in g _

—

.

------

350
343

.

D ra fts m e n
s e n io r ____________________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g _ __________________________
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g ,
P u b li c u t ilit ie s * _______________________

1 ,2 2 9
1,1 2 9
100
31

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0
"40.'6
3 9 .5
3 9 .0

D r a ft s m e n , j u n i o r ---- ---------------------- 556
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ---- ------- ------- --------------- ------ 505“
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g
51

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
3 9 .0

T ra c e rs
M a n u f a c t u r in g

97
93

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

316
Z W

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

...

.

....

$
1 4 9.00
1 5 0.00
1 1 3.00
ll4 .o 6
9 9 .0 0
10 4.50

_

_
-

-

_
-

_

_

_

*

“

-

1
|

-

1

-

31
30
1

7 9 .5 0
2
“ S 0 7 5 T ----- 1

6
5

4
3

12
11

i

1
!

'

-

_

5

8 2 .5 0
4
------ —
B4-; oo7 1 .5 0
1

_

~

_
-

~
-

-

93
78
15

"

-

26
11
15

78

4
4
3

6
2
16
2

76
70
" "75 " ' — 55“
1
4

3

~

i

87
74
13
3

14
h l3
71
h 64
7
2

17
----11

81
72
9
1

72
65
7
3

200
H '9 5
5
3

83
83
-

61
6l

29
29

21
21

12
12

2
2

6

-

-

51
50
1

10
10

4
4

22
22

41
41

\

_

_

1

-

-

1
1

18
IT "

10
6

40
39

42

46

68
65

51
50

9
9

3
3

1

1
1

101
77
24
5

-

7
------5 ~

40
“ 38
2

1

!

1

-

7
7
-

-

_

;

19

43
'H e

60
' “60 ”

131
rn i
'

31
27
2

24 1
24
_

!

;

-

-

_
1
----- -----

_
_

i
_ j
_ 1
-

-

_

_

_

_

-

~

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

■

■

9
4
4
4

102
99'
3

44
35
6
5

8

10

_

6

!
:

10

2

-

_

_

-

_

-

1

“

131
T31'

_

30
' 35

i 2 34

■ 34

!

ll
ll
_

11

-

n

_
!
-

1
8 5 .5 0
8 6 .0 0

7
6

—

—

l

! L

i 45
i
------------

1 S t a n d a rd h o u r s r e f l e c t the w o r k w e e k fo r w h ic h e m p lo y e e s r e c e i v e t h e ir r e g u l a r s t r a ig h t -t im e s a l a r i e s
W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d a s f o l lo w s : 10 at $170 to $1 90; 12 a t $190 to $ 2 1 0 ; 12 at $210 an d o v e r .
* T r a n s p o r t a t i o n (e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a t io n , an d o th e r p u b lic u t il it ie s .




T3—

98

W om en
N u r s e s , in d u s t r i a l ( r e g i s t e r e d )
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________________

1
i 14

— 17“

i _______
_

an d the e a r n in g s

-

“

~
________ !

________ i

!
1

c o r r e s p o n d to th e s e w e e k ly h o u r s .
O c c u p a tio n a l W a g e S u r v e y , P i t t s b u r g h ,

P a . , D e c e m b e r 1956
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s

7
T a b le

A -3:

M a in te n a n c e a n d

P o w e r p la n t O c c u p a tio n s

( A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s fo r m e n in s e le c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
in P i t t s b u r g h , P a . , by in d u s t ry d iv is i o n , D e c e m b e r 1956)
N U M B E R OF WORKERS R E C E IVIN G STRA IGH T-TIM E H OURLY E AR N IN G S OF—

O c c u p a tio n an d in d u s t r y d iv is i o n

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly , U n d e r
earnings
f . 60

$
$
1. 60
1 .7 0
and
u n d er
l a 7 0 - 1. 80

$
1. 80

$
1 .9 0

1 ,9 0 . 2. 00

$
2. 00

$
2. 20

$
2. 30

$
2. 40

$
2. 50

$
2. 60

$
2 .7 0

$
2. 80

$
2 .9 0

$
3. 00

$
3. 10

$
3. 20

$
3. 30

$
3. 40

$
3. 50

$
3. 60

-2 , 2Q

iJ O

$
2. 10

. 2.-3D.
.

2. 40

2. 50

2. 60

2. 70

2. 80

2. 90

3. 00

3. 10

3. 20

3. 30

3. 40

3. 50

3. 60

and
over

33
21
6
6

9
7
2

52
49"
3

35
18
17

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

C a r p e n t e r s , m a i n t e n a n c e __________________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g _____________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________________
P u b li c u t ilit ie s * _________________________ _
_

1, 018
w r~
111
32

$
2.
2.
2.
2.

50
48
61
25

1
1
1

3
2
1
1

10
10
2

13
7
6
2

5
4
1
1

18
9
9
2

25
17
8
5

125
117
8
2

132
124
8
8

90
89
1
-

412
409
3
1

E le c t r i c i a n s , m a in te n a n c e ________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _____________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g --------------------------------------------

2. 324
2, 214
110

2. 66
2. 66
2. 68

_

17
9
8

22
17
5

9
8
1

18
14
4

22
21
1

77
60
17

58
58

284
284
"

524
520
4

210
204
6

591
588
3

126
92
34

150
141
9

74
73
1

27
27
-

35
32
3

44
38
6

_

-

1
1
-

-

24
23
1

11
4
7

E n g i n e e r s , s t a t i o n a r y ______________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _____________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
_______________________________
P u b li c u t ilit ie s *
_
_ ....
R e t a il tr a d e ____________________________________
F in a n c e * * _______________________________________

1, 193
838
355
164
72
73

2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

43
47
31
15
74
36

4
4
4
-

.
-

-

33
28
5
3
-

23
4
19
3
_

52
7
45
27
_

167
158
9
-

38
31
7
-

22
20
2
-

46
22
24
-

16
12
4
_

6
5
1
_

2
-

24
-

3
-

_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_

18

5
2

.
_
_
_

-

9
-

_
_
_
_

2

25
1

5
4
1
_
_

-

201
196
5
1
1
2

169
143
26
_

-

136
51
85
78
1
-

157
101
56
6
_

-

118
56
62
42
1
-

727
649
78

2. 16
2. 19
1. 97

6
6

20
20

8
6
2

91
73
18

18
15
3

119
117
2

138
136
2

72
66
6

217
208
9

27
20
7

_
-

_
-

11
8
3

.
-

_
-

_
-

-

H e l p e r s , t r a d e s , m a in te n a n c e ___________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ______________________________________

3, 694
3, 623

2. 09
2. 09

-

5
5

442
440

349
3 34

1872
1858

287
254

317
310

66
66

73
73

254
254

2
2

.

_

_

-

27
27

-

-

-

M a c h i n e -t o o l o p e r a t o r s . t o o lr o o m
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _____________________________________

1, 034
1, 031

2. 58
2. 58

_

.

-

_

36
36

8?
82

80
77

86
86

98
98

112
112

88
88

256
256

69
69

M a c h in is t s , m a in te n a n c e ___________________________
M a n u fa c tu rin g
__

2, 884
2, 856

2. 71
2. 71

18
15

47
36

35
35

310
310

371
371

334
333

1095
1093

16
12
4
3
1

62
7
55
36
4

97
71
26
10

261
127
134
49
55

73
59
14
12

-

200
21
179
148
22

91
90
1

280
27b
4
4

438
437
1
1

793
7S3
10

F i r e m e n , s t a t io n a r y b o i l e r _______________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g _
____
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________________

M e c h a n ic s , a u to m o tiv e (m a in te n a n c e )
M a n u fa c tu rin g
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________________
P u b li c u t ilit ie s * ______________________________
R e t a il tr a d e

-

-

_

_

.

_

-

-

26
26

_
-

1
1
-

20
20
20

-

-

-

_
_

_
_

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

.

_

_

_

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

25
25

84
84

6
6

_

_

_

_

4

-

-

-

-

4

122
111

14
14

336
336

2.6
26

20
20

130
130

_

.

.

9
9
_

_

1
1
_

32
32
-

_

-

18
5
13
8
5
238
2W
2
1

381
379
2
2

57
'“ S T ""
26
26
269
269

5
5

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

.
-

_
-

_
-

57
57
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

199
I W
1
1

-

371
354
17
9

_
-

4
4

1
1

3
3

2
2

i
i

7
7

15
15

63
63

372
372

558
558

117
115

55
55

168
168

2. 13
2. 14

4
2

5
5

12
12

56
56

106
106

415
377

10
10

79
79

142
142

39
39

42
42

28
28

_

_

_

-

-

-

2.
2.
2.
2.

.
-

1
1
-

13
13

24
24

6
4
2

3
3
-

-

-

-

-

201
195
6
6

56
54
2
1

22
13
9
8

23
5
18
7

12
11
1
1

20
18
2

-

136
118
18
4

2
2

-

82
78
4
1

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

3
3

1
1

2
2

50
22

86
20

85
84

182
154

116
115

594
593

53
49

92
92

46
40

2
2

52
52

18
18

-

2. 30

1

_

1

5

7

3

1

9

7

8

3

_

3

_

_

_

2

_

177
159

2. 52
2. 51

-

-

"

4
4

2
2

2
2

6
5

20
17

8
8

26
26

33
29

46
37

26
25

2
2

"

-

-

2
2

-

775
764

2. 78
2. 78

_

_

_

_

_

_

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

18
17

34
30

10
10

157
157

34
32

94
94

141
141

55
54
82
90

M il lw r ig h t s ____________________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _____________________________________

1 ,6 4 0
1 ,6 3 8

2. 63
2. 63

O ile r s
.... ... .
___
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _____________________________________

938
898

P a i n t e r s , m a in te n a n c e _____________________________
M a n u fa c tu rin g _____________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________________
P u b li c u t ilit ie s * ______________________________

606
500
106
28

P i p e f i t t e r s , m a in te n a n c e __________________________
M a n u fa c tu rin g _____________________________________

1, 385
1, 247

2. 50
2. 53

50

S h e e t - m e t a l w o r k e r s , m a in te n a n c e
M a n u fa c tu rin g _____________________________________
T o o l an d d ie m a k e r s ________________________________
M a n u fa c tu rin g _ ___________________________________

33
35
25
48

E x c lu d e s p r e m i u m p a y fo r o v e r t im e an d f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , an d la te
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n (e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a t io n , an d o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .




-

-

2.
2.
2.
2.

s h ifts

180
r s r
.

_

-

_
-

_
-

2
1
1
-

3, 202
3, 125
77
57

4
-

_
-

-

M e c h a n ic s , m a in te n a n c e ___________________________
M a n u fa c tu rin g _
_ _
_ .
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g
R e t a il t r a d e _______ ___________________________

4
-

18

1
-

_

49
55
44
42
53

___________________________

-

.

18
-

-

-

2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

m a in te n a n c e

-

8
8

48

5
1

_

_

792
335
457
286
97

P lu m b e rs ,

-

33

2
8

9

188
86
185 ----- §6“

_
-

1

-

_
• _

-

_

_

-

-

_

_

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

54
46
8
8

40
40
-

5
5
5

_
-

.
-

_
-

_

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4
4

1
1

-

_
-

-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

3

_

_

-

_

-

-

_

_

-

-

18
18
-

1
1

-

_

2
2

_
-

3
3

6
6

O c c u p a tio n a l W a g e S u r v e y , P i t t s b u r g h , P a . , D e c e m b e r 1956
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a tis tic s

8
T a b le A - 4 :

C u s to d ia l a n d M a te r ia l M o v e m e n t O c c u p a tio n s

(A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n s s tu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
in P i t t s b u r g h , P a . , b y in d u s t r y d iv is io n , D e c e m b e r 1956)
NU M B E R OF W ORKERS R E C E IVIN G S TRA IGH T-TIM E H O URLY EAR N IN G S OF—

O c c u p a t io n 1 and in d u s t r y d iv is io n

E le v a t o r o p e r a t o r s , p a s s e n g e r ( m e n ) --------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------------------

Number
of
workers

264
— 2T3—

$
Avenge
hourly 2 U n d e r 0. 90
earnings
and
$
under
0 .9 0
1 - oo
$
1 .7 2
I.b 9

-

1 .0 0

1 .1 0

1 .2 0

1 .3 0

$
1 .4 0

$
1 .5 0

$
1 .6 0

$
1 .7 0

$
1 .8 0

$
1 .9 0

$
2. 00

$
2. 10

$
2 .2 0

$
2 .3 0

$
2 .4 0

$
2. 50

$
2 . 60

$
2. 70

$
2. 80

$
2 .9 0
and

1. 10

1 .2 0

1 .3 0

1 .4 0

1 .5 0

1 .6 0

1 .7 0

1. 80

1 .9 0

2 .0 0

-2 .1 0 ,

2 .2 0

2*_3Q_ 2 .4 0

2 .5 0

2 .6 0

2. 70

2. 80

2 .9 0

over

$

$

$

$

-

“

17
17

4
4

‘

2
1

105
106

86
86

40
36
9
9

26
26

7
7

188
188

5
1

9
-

-

-

-

"

12
9
3

40
38
2

15
7
8

150
T50

135
116
19

122
113
9

627
593'
34

28
27
1

232
Z3Z

-

-

-

182
170
12
10
1

40
29
11
1
-

34
28
6
6
-

3
3
2
1

-

297
T52

1 .3 4
1.31

4
4

"

2
z

G u a r d s ------------------------------------------------------------ <
----------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------------------

1 ,4 9 7
1 ,4 0 5
92

2 .1 5
2 .1 6
1 .9 6

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3
3

J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , an d c l e a n e r s ( m e n ) ----------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ---------------------------------------------P u b li c u t ilit ie s * ------------------------------------------W h o le s a le t r a d e -------------------------------------------R e t a il t r a d e ---------------------------------------------------F in a n c e * * ------------------------------------------------------

4 ,0 3 0
Z,' 530—
1,5 0 0
208
136
388
403

1 .6 8
. 8o
1 .4 8
1 .6 0
1 .6 3
1 .3 4
1 .6 4

86
86
_

146
23
123
17
10
56
17

199
39
160
15
3
5
26

213
213
42
13
135
3

187
6b
119
12
23
35
45

451
l9 l
260
48
17
16
172

424
228
196
18
26
1
98

1871
F744
127
49
19
22
21

J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , an d c l e a n e r s ( w o m e n ) -------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ---------------------------------------------P u b li c u t ilit ie s * ------------------------------------------R e t a il tr a d e —______— ______________— _______
F i n a n e e * * ------------------------------------------------------

1,3 9 2
— sirs—
884
111
172
423

56
41
15
-

48
. 41
7
6
-

283
TS1
-

L a b o r e r s , m a t e r i a l h a n d l i n g ------------------------------M a n u fa c t u r in g ----------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----- ---------------------------------------W h o le s a le t r a d e -------------------------------------------R e t a il t r a d e ----------------------------------------------------

*

65
-

-

25
4

69
8
61
4
9
4
7

1.41
1 .6 7
1 .2 6
1 .3 7
1. 16
1 .3 6

53
53
38

10
10
1
6

136
5
131
2
3

22
22
6
5
3

140
140
22
107
9

575
128
447
58
16
373

36
3
33
3
28

32
b
26
19
1

-

-

-

4, 834
3, 721
1 ,1 1 3
592
404

1 .9 6
1 .9 7
1 .9 2
1 .8 6
1 .9 7

11
11
11

9
9
9

7
7
7

4
4
4

12
Z
10
10

36
18
18
15

65
65
65

153
9
144
124
20

59
47
12
12

535
435
100
80
18

O r d e r f i l l e r s ------------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ---------------------------------------------W h o le s a le t r a d e ------------------------------------------R e t a il t r a d e ----------------------------------------------------

1 ,9 0 6
791
1 ,1 1 5
594
521

2 .0 6
2 . 00
2 .1 0
1 .9 4
2 .2 8

-

-

-

-

2
2
2

60
60
-

-

15
15
4
11

-

7
7
6
1

101
5
96
72
24

P a c k e r s , s h ip p in g ( m e n ) --------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ---------------------------------------------W h o le s a l e t r a d e -------------------------------------------R e t a il t r a d e ----------------------------------------------------

1 ,0 2 2
7b7
255
183
72

2 .0 0
2. 04
1 .8 7
1 .8 6
1.91

_
-

-

-

-

-

18
18
-

12
12
-

15
9
6
6

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

P a c k e r s , s h ip p in g ( w o m e n ) ---------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------------------------------------------

361
— 3TI—

1 .6 6
1 .6 5

-

-

.

-

4

-

168

-

“

-

“

-

1

R e c e iv i n g c l e r k s -----------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------ —— — ----------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ---------------------------------------------W h o le s a l e t r a d e ------------------------------------------R e t a il t r a d e ----------------------------------------------------

624
437
187
76
88

2 .0 5
2. 06
2 .0 4
2 .0 3
2 .1 8

S h ip p in g c l e r k s --------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ---------------------------------------------W h o le s a l e t r a d e --------------------------------------------

428
315
113
71

2. 16
2. 17
2. 14
2 .0 0

S e e fo o tn o te s a t end o f t a b le .
* T r a n s p o r t a t i o n (e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) ,
* * F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e .




-

-

-

-

-

*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1613
rrr?
139
125
13

887
638
249
170
73

244
T0S
39
24
11

411
296
115
15

179
179
-

138
83
55
54

-

-

78
40
38
38

94
68
26
26

43
17
26
26

43
43
43

52
5Z
-

-

161
158
3
3

195
6
189
117
72

171
52
119
96
23

348
290
58
39
19

474
266
208
143
65

67
2o
47
5
42

39
39
39

87
60
27
27

20
20
20

149
149
-

-

-

149

84
Z
82
82

56
Z8
28
28

-

-

31
2
29
26
3

73
46
27
24
3

201
56
145
93
52

87
n
14
13
1

281
271
10
10

-

4
4
-

1
1
-

-

-

-

-

22
19
3
3

3
3
3

1
1
1

57
57
-

-

80
56
24
18
6

55
55
-

-

112
90
22
19
3

168

11
7

38
38

2

76
76

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

‘

"

24
24

-

"

38
18

"

-

-

-

11
1
10
1

7
1
6
-

4
4
3

35
32
3
2
1

39
15
24
24

44
ZZ
22
12
10

103
9Z
11
2
5

106
61
45
33
12

118
108
1C
8
1

40
29
11
9
2

72
67
5
3
2

7
7
-

5
1
4
4

-

-

1
1
1

4
4
4

20
20
20

3
3
3

3
2
1
1

21
12
9
8

15
11
4

22
8
14
6

27
18
9
8

71
52
19
17

131
122
9
7

39
29
10
8

25
l8
7
7

25
Z1
4
4

9
6
3

6
5
1

4
Z
2

18
3
15

-

-

'

-

-

4
4

-

-

2
I
1
1

-

3
3
3

-

-

5
5
5

-

4

-

1
1
1

-

4
1
3
2

-

-

-

10
" lO '

-

1
1
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

114
110” '
4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

9

-

-

-

1
1
-

-

-

*

18

14
14
14

102
2
100
-

-

58

E le v a t o r o p e r a t o r s , p a s s e n g e r ( w o m e n ) ---------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------------------

-

8

-

O c c u p a tio n a l W a g e S u r v e y , P i t t s b u r g h , P a . ,
c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o th e r p u b lic u t il it ie s .
B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a tis tic s

D e c e m b e r 1956
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R

*

-

'

6
5
1

9
T a b le A - 4 :

C u s to d ia l a n d M a te r ia l M o v e m e n t O c c u p a tio n s - C o n tin u e d

( A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n s s tu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
in P i t t s b u r g h , P a . , b y in d u s t r y d iv is i o n , D e c e m b e r 1956)
N U M B E R OF WORKERS R E CE IVIN G STRA IGH T-TIM E H O UR LY E AR N IN G S OF—

O c c u p a t io n 1 and in d u s t r y d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

$
Average
hourly 2 U n d e r 0 .9 0
earnings
and
$
under
0 .9 0
1 .0 0

S h ip p in g an d r e c e iv i n g c l e r k s ------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------------------R e t a il t r a d e -----------------------------------------------------

337
238
99
58

$
2. 02
1 .9 6
2. 17
2. 10

T r u c k d r i v e r s 3 ----------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------------------P u b li c u t ilit ie s * --------------------------------------------W h o le s a l e t r a d e --------------------------------------------R e t a il t r a d e -----------------------------------------------------

4, 662
2, 367
2 ,2 9 5
737
720
756
587

T ru c k d riv e rs ,

lig h t (u n d e r lV z t o n s ) ------------

9
1 .0 0

$
1 .1 0

$
1 .2 0

9
1 .3 0

$ .4 0
1

$ . 50
1

$ .6 0
1

$ . 70
1

$
1 .8 0

$ .9 0
1

1 .0 0

$
2. 10

1 .2 0

1 . 30

9
2 .4 0

*2 .5 0

* 2 .6 0

*2. 70

$
2. 80

1 .1 0

1 .2 0

1 .3 0

1 .4 0

1 .5 0

1 .6 0

1 .7 0

1 .8 0

1 .9 0

2 .0 0

2. 10

2 .2 0

2 .3 0

2 .4 0

2 .5 0

2 .6 0

2. 70

2. 80

2 .9 0

6
6
3

80
76
4
4

5
5
1

115
112
3
3

15
2
13
7

4
r

40
22
18

151
61
90
19
31
28

237
157
79
26
33
20

1
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
-

-

*

-

“

-

-

-

‘

2. 37
2741
2 . 33
2 .2 0
2 . 36
2 .5 0

-

-

3
3
-

2
2
2
-

35
35
2
-

13
13
2
-

15
15
3
12

33
30
3
1
_

-

-

-

33
3
30
1
7

12
9
3
-

-

7
7
4
3

-

-

-

2

-

-

-

7

1

.

-

-

-

-

1
1

-

-

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

7
4
3

48
33
15
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

12
9
3
_

-

65
20
45
28

-

-

31
29
2
.
2

3

N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------------------------------P u b li c u t ilit ie s * --------------------------------------R e t a il t r a d e -----------------------------------------------

299
28
249

2 .2 6
2 .2 9
2 .2 3
1 .9 2
2 .2 8

T r u c k d r i v e r s , m e d iu m ( lV z to an d
in c lu d in g 4 t o n s ) ----------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------------------------------W h o le s a l e t r a d e ---------------------------------------R e t a il t r a d e ------------------------------------------------

1,94 1
1, 149
792
252
146

2 .4 0
2. 56
2 .1 7
2 .2 0
2. 37

-

-

-

-

-

33
33
_

11
11
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

T r u c k d r i v e r s , h e a v y ( o v e r 4 to n s ,
t r a i l e r ty p e ) ------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------------------------------P u b li c u t ilit ie s * --------------------------------------R e t a il t r a d e -----------------------------------------------

725
163
562
221
308

2. 51
2. 31
2 . 57
2 .2 6
2 .8 0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

T r u c k d r i v e r s , h e a v y (o v e r 4 to n s , o th e r
than t r a i l e r t y p e ) ---------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------------------------------P u b li c u t ilit ie s * ---------------------------------------

910
6l 7
293
74

2 .2 6
7722
2. 35
2. 12

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2
2

2
2
2

1
1
1

-

-

1
1
1

15
15
3

1
1
1

4
2
2
2

T r u c k e r s , p o w e r ( f o r k l i f t ) ------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------ ----- -----------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------------------------------------

1 ,4 7 4
l , 394'
80

2. 03
2. Oo
2. 52

.
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

22
z2

9
9
-

222
222

"

1
1

T r u c k e r s , p o w e r (o th e r than f o r k l i f t ) ---------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------------------------------

1, 644
1,6 3 2

-

80
80

-

9
9

W a t c h m e n -------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------------------------------

1 ,0 3 3
5TT5
225
43
65
57

43
1T~
22
1
5
8

64
22
42
-

22
4
18
-

9
33

11
1

52
23
29
6
3
3

N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------------------P u b li c u t ilit ie s * --------------------------------------------W h o le s a le t r a d e --------------------------------------------R e t a il t r a d e -----------------------------------------------------

1
2
3
4
5
*

288

-

-

.
-

-

-

-

-

-

2 .4 0
2.'39

-

-

-

-

.

-

-

-

-

1. 79
1 .8 3
1 .6 2
1 .8 0
1. 75

-

-

10

-

-

-

109
105
4
2

-

-

37
8
29
3
4
1

1.61

-

10
4
-

D ata lim it e d to m e n w o r k e r s , e x c e p t w h e r e o t h e r w is e in d ic a te d .
E x c lu d e s p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t im e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o l id a y s , and la te s h if t s .
In c lu d e s a l l d r i v e r s r e g a r d l e s s o f s iz e an d type o f t r u c k o p e r a t e d .
W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d a s f o l lo w s : 90 a t $ 2 .9 0 to $3 ; 9 a t $3 and o v e r .
A l l w o r k e r s w e r e a t $ 2 .9 0 to $ 3 .
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n (e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a t io n , an d o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .




-

-

25
3
22
_

-

186
T B '3 ..
1

-

-

53
20
33
29

7
4
3
-

11
11
11

3

-

598 1158
458
460
140
698
47
606
92
82
10
1

501
498
51 ' 4 2 7 '
447
76
20
4
68
59
367
4

36
5
31
22
9

126
123
3
1
1

236

107
77
30
23
3

174
74
100
91

368
4T
325
31

-

-

14
6
8
8

26
24
2
2

80
10
10

174
n r

-

6

-

_

*

-

-

-

-

287
287
_

100
100
-

286
1

54
46

94
34
60
_
-

783
675
108
_

102
3
99
_
_

60

108

4 99

-

_

-

_

.

-

-

18
18
-

-

-

-

-

-

202
187
15
15

32
32
31

.

16
16
_

665
665
-

9
.

-

1

-

-

-

9

20
14
6
-

21
21
-

-

-

40
40
40

52
52
52

118
lb
108
108

70
52
18

126
126

6
6

8
8

-

191
26
165
33
131

325
90
235
219
10

16
16
-

23
9
14

-

.
-

over

.

108
" 108
236
236
-

6
-

-

*2 .9 0
and

9
-

*9 3
'"3"
90
90

*

1

397
311
86
61

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

143
T¥0"
3

353
352
1

385
383'
2

63
5l
12

8
6
2

22
1
21

3
3

15
15

15
15

2
2

-

25
3
22

63
63

23
22

155
155

392
392

88
" 78

23
23

89
89

65
65

456
“ ■?55

12
7

88
87'

217
205
12
6
6

82
53
29
7
21
1

298
"2 7 7
20

91
89
2
2

4

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

16
4

1

-

-

-

-

-

4
4

2
2

-

-

101
'l G T '
2
2
2

-

-




10

B: Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Table B-l: Shift Differential Provisions 1
P e r c e n t o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g p la n t w o r k e r s —

S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l

(a )
In e s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v i n g
fo r m a l p r o v is io n s f o r —

S e c o n d s h if t
w o rk

T h ir d o r o th e r
s h if t w o r k

9 9 .6

W i t h s h if t p a y d i f f e r e n t i a l
U n ifo r m

cen ts (p e r h o u r )

2 c e n t s _________________________________________________________________
4 c e n t s _________________________________________________________________
5 c e n t s _________________________________________________________________
6 c en ts
7 V2 c e n t s ___________________________________________________________
8 c en ts
9 c en ts
. _
9 V2 c e n t s _____________________________________________________________
10 c e n t s
o r 11 c e n t s __________________________________________________
12 c e n t s ________________ _______________ ___________________________
12 V2 c e n t s _________________________________________________________
O v e r 1 2 V2 c e n t s _____ ____________________________________________

9 7 .4

98. 0
8 8 .2
1 .0
4 .8
2 .8
6 4 .6
2 .7
1. 1
2 .0
3. 0
2 .4

(b )
A c t u a lly w o r k in g on—

S e c o n d s h if t

1

T h ir d o r o th e r
s h if t

2 3 .6

1 4 .4

9 7 .4

23. 2

1 4 .4

8 8 .2

20. 6

13. 8

1. 0

. 1
1. 1
.7

-

. 3
-

-

. 5
5. 5
1. 7
. 5
62. 5
3. 0
5. 3
2. 0
1 .2
4. 0
1. 1

U n i f o r m p e r c e n t a g e __________________________________________________

9. 5

8 .9

2 .6

.6

5 p e r c e n t _____________________________________________________________
7 o r 7 V2 p e r c e n t __________________________________________________
10 p e r c e n t ______________________________________
__________________

1 .2
.4
8. 0

-

-

. 8
8. 1

. 5
. 1
2. 0

. 3

. 3

10^3

O t h e r ____________________________________________________________________
N o s h ift p a y d i f f e r e n t i a l

s h ift s
tio n s :

______________________________________________

.2
1 .0
2 .8

1 .6

1 5 .9
. 5
. 1
.6
. 3
.4
. 1
. 3
.4
-

. 1

. 1
1. 1
. 1
-

10. 7
.2
.6
.2
.2
. 1
.2

t
.6
. 1

.4

1
S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l d a t a a r e p r e s e n t e d in t e r m s o f ( a ) e s t a b l i s h m e n t p o l i c y , a n d ( b ) w o r k e r s a c t u a l l y e m p l o y e d o n l a t e
a t th e t i m e o f th e s u r v e y .
A n e s t a b l i s h m e n t w a s c o n s i d e r e d a s h a v i n g a p o l i c y i f it m e t e i t h e r o f th e f o l l o w i n g c o n d i ­
( l ) O p e r a t e d l a t e s h i f t s a t th e t i m e o f th e s u r v e y , o r ( 2 ) h a d f o r m a l p r o v i s i o n s c o v e r i n g l a t e s h i f t s .
■ L e s s t h a n 0. 05 p e r c e n t .
f
O c c u p a t io n a l W a g e S u r v e y ,

P i t t s b u r g h , P a . , D e c e m b e r 1956
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B u r e a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s

11
Table B-2:

Minimum Entrance Rates for W om en Office W o rk e rs 1

N u m b e r o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w it h s p e c i f i e d m in im u m h i r i n g r a t e in —
M a n u fa c tu rin g
M in im u m r a t e
(w e e k ly s a l a r y )

A ll
s c h e d u le s

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s s t u d i e d --------------------------------------------------------------------

222

M a n u fa c tu rin g

B a s e d on s t a n d a r d w e e k l y h o u r s 2 o f—

A ll
in d u s t r ie s

83

N u m b e r o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w it h s p e c i f i e d m i n im u m h i r i n g r a t e in —

N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
A ll
in d u s t r ie s

40

A ll
s c h e d u le s

37Vz

40

XXX

139

XXX

XXX

A ll
s c h e d u le s

222

$ 3 0 .0 0
$ 3 2 .5 0
$ 35. 00
$ 3 7 .5 0
$ 4 0 . 00
$ 4 2 . 50
$ 4 5 . 00
$ 4 7 . 50
$ 5 0 . 00
$ 5 2 . 50
$ 5 5 . 00

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

40

A ll
s c h e d u le s

37V»

40

XXX

83

F o r In exp erien ced T y p is ts

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v i n g a s p e c i f i e d m in i m u m

N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g

B a s e d o n s t a n d a r d w e e k l y h o u r s 2 o f—

139

XX X

XXX

22

47

F o r O th er In exp erien ced C le ric a l Workers 3

--------------------------

135

146

66

$ 3 2 . 5 0 ---------------------------------------------------------$ 3 5 . 0 0 ---------------------------------------------------------$ 3 7 . 5 0 ---------------------------------------------------------$ 4 0 . 0 0 ---------------------------------------------------------$ 4 2 . 5 0 ----------------------------------------------------------

_

_

_

_

_

_

1

_

_

1

2

_

_

2

2

_

_

2

_

2

-

.
-

2

4

4

_

3

5

-

4

_

_

6

3

2

_
_

_

6

5
5

_

5

2

2

40

13

3

21

41

12

5

21

12

4

8

3

4

16

7

9
6

29

------------------------------------------------------------------

9
3

27

$ 4 5 . 00

9

5

3

8

5

1
_

21

10

8

11

6

5

1

6
.

2

7

9
2

2
-

64

56

71

20

42

80

58

$ 4 7 . 50

------------------------------------------------------------------

16

8

7

$ 5 0 . 00

------------------------------------------------------------------

7

6

5

1

1

$ 5 2 . 50

------------------------------------------------------------------

12

3

3

6

11

2

2

-----------------------------------------------------------

7

4

4

9
3

2

$ 5 5 . 00

1

2

6

4

4

$ 5 7 . 5 0 ------------------------------------------------------------------

11

1

1
5
2

4

1

2
_

1
_

1
-

14

1

9
1

8

-----------------------------------------------------------

1

1

1

5
_

1
_

$ 6 2 . 5 0 -----------------------------------------------------------

2

2

2

_

_

_

2

2

2

_

_

_

$ 6 5 .0 0
$ 6 7 . 50

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3
5
_

3
5
_

_

$ 7 0 . 00

3
5
-

_
_

_

3
10
_

3
10
_

3
10
_

_

_
_

_
_

$ 7 2 .5 0

-----------------------------------------------------------

7

6

6

1

1

-

1

-

-

1

1

-

------------------------

35

8

XXX

27

XXX

XXX

34

8

XXX

26

XXX

XXX

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s w h i c h d id n o t e m p lo y w o r k e r s
in th is c a t e g o r y --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

50

10

XXX

40

XXX

XXX

40

8

XXX

32

XXX

XXX

2

1

XXX

1

XXX

XXX

2

1

XXX

1

XXX

XXX

$ 5 7 . 50
$ 6 0 .0 0
$ 6 2 .5 0
$ 6 5 . 00

$ 6 7 . 50
$ 7 0 .0 0

$ 6 0 . 00

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v i n g no s p e c i f i e d m i n im u m

D a ta not a v a i la b le

_

1 L o w e s t s a l a r y r a t e f o r m a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d f o r h i r i n g i n e x p e r i e n c e d w o r k e r s f o r t y p in g o r o t h e r c l e r i c a l j o b s .
2 S t a n d a r d h o u r s r e f l e c t th e w o r k w e e k f o r w h i c h e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e t h e i r r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r i e s .
re p o rte d .
3 R a t e s a p p l i c a b l e to m e s s e n g e r s , o f f i c e g i r l s , o r s i m i l a r s u b c l e r i c a l j o b s a r e n o t c o n s i d e r e d .




9

D ata a r e p re s e n te d fo r a ll w o rk w e e k s

8

c o m b in e d ,

.

a n d f o r the m o s t c o m m o n w o r k w e e k s

O c c u p a t io n a l W a g e S u r v e y ,

P i t t s b u r g h , P a . , D e c e m b e r 1956
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t i s t ic s

12

Table B-3:

Scheduled W e e k ly Hours

PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS‘ EMPLOYED IN—
W e e k ly h o u rs

A ll w o rk e rs

_

__

______

________

U n d e r 35 h o u r s _______________________________________ __
35 h o u r s
_
_ ^
_
__
________
O v e r 35 a n d u n d e r 3 7 V 2 h o u r s _______________
3 7 V 2 h o u r s __________________________ ___________________
O v e r 3 7 V 2 a n d u n d e r 40 h o u r s ____________________
40 h o u r s
O v e r 40 a n d u n d e r 48 h o u r s
____
48 h o u r s
O v e r 48 h o u r s _____________________________________________

PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—

Manufacturing

Public
utilities ♦

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

100

100

100

100

100

100

.

.

.

.

.

_

5

t
t

23
4
64

6
7
84

68
3

3
8

-

3
3
15
7
73
-

21

t

■

“

All
2
industries

t

29
-

t

t

"

t
10
-

Manufacturing

Public
utilities *

Wholesale
trade

100

100

100

100

t
t
t
t

54
22
-

All
,
industries

100

3

78

.

_

-

89
4
6

"

1 D a t a r e l a t e to w o m e n w o r k e r s o n ly .
2 I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r s e r v i c e s in a d d i t i o n to t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
3 I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r r e a l e s t a t e a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d i t i o n to t h o s e i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n
f
L e s s th a n 2. 5 p e r c e n t .
*
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ( e x c l u d i n g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a t io n , a n d o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s .
♦ ♦ F i n a n c e , in s u r a n c e , an d r e a l e s ta te .

Table M :

Finance**

Services

t

All
2
industries

in e s t a b li s h m e n t s

p a id h o lid a y s
Less

_______________________________

________________

_________________________________

p lu s

1 h a lf d a y

p lu s

2 o r

3 h a lf d a y s

p lu s

1 h a l f d a y ____________________________

7 h o lid a y s

p lu s

2 or

3 h a lf d a y s

__________________

88
_

t

6
■

4
7

81
14
5
-

Paid Holidays1

Retail trade

P E R C E N T OF P L A N T W O R K E R S E M P L O Y E D I N —

Finance * *

Services

All
industries

Manufacturing

Public
utilities *

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

99

99

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

97

97

10
0

97

97

t

t
14

t

t

t

t

_

3

24

1
0
t
t

_

5

6
8
-

3

t

t
3
39
-

8

9

-

3

-

t
t
t
t
T
t
t

-

t

t

31

8
6

23

-

52

-

t

t

t
t

t
t

-

63

78

-

-

4
-

-

t
t

t
t

t

7
-

48

1
0
-

1
0

t

1 h a lf d a y

___________________________________________________
p lu s

1 h a lf d a y

p lu s

2 h a lf d a y s

_________________________

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g
n o p a id h o l id a y s

-

8

-

-

6

-

-

7

-

1
6

-

-

5
-

3
-

-

-

-

15
-

-

-

-

19
-

19

8

6

15
-

29
-

1
0

45

t

6

7

-

~

_

1
0
79
-

t

8

_

t

36
-

1
0

-

-

-

t

-

-

-

-

-

14
-

-

8

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

t

-

-

5

-

-

-

-

-

E s t i m a t e s r e l a t e to h o l id a y s p r o v i d e d a n n u a l ly .
I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r s e r v i c e s in a d d i t i o n to t h o s e i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r r e a l e s t a t e a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d i t i o n to t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n
L e s s th a n 2. 5 p e r c e n t .
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n (e x c l u d i n g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s .
F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s ta te .




_

t

t

3

t

1 h a l f d a y ____________________________

____________________________________________________

Services

10
0

____________________________________________________

_________________ _____ ____ ___________
_____________________________________________
O v e r 1 2 h o l i d a y s _____________________________________

1
2
3
f
♦
**

75
18
7

92

10
0

p lu s

9 h o lid a y s p lu s

1 h o lid a y s
0
1 h o lid a y s
0
1 h o lid a y s
0
1 h o lid a y s
1
1 h o l id a y s
2

_
_

_

10
0

42

7 h o lid a y s

8h o l i d a y s
8h o l i d a y s

-

t

10
0

3

7 h o lid a y s

9 h o lid a y s

-

-

10
0

p r o v id in g

_________________________________________________

th an 6 h o lid a y s

6h o l i d a y s
6h o l i d a y s
6h o l i d a y s

Wholesale
trade

-

-

t

10
0

A ll w o rk e rs
W o rk ers

Manufacturing

Public
utilities *

-

Servioee

s e p a ra t e ly ,

P E R C E N T OF O FFIC E W OR K E R Si E M P L O Y E D I N —
Ite m

Retail trade

-

-

-

-

-

"

“

3

3

"

3

-

O c c u p a t io n a l
s e p a ra t e ly .

3

W a g e S u r v e y , P i t t s b u r g h , P a . , D e c e m b e r 1956
U . S. D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s

13

Ta b le B-5:

Pa id V a c a tio n s

PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—
V a c a t io n p o lic y

AU
x
industries

Manufacturing

Public
utilities *

Wholesale
trade

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

99

99

100

t

Retail trade

PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—

Finance**

Services

industries2

Manufacturing

Public
utilities*

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

-

-

90
10

100

t

92
8

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

*

-

-

1 w eek o r m o re
6 m o n th s _______________________________________________
1 y e a r __________________________________________________

99
60

99
60
99

100
56
100

100
37
100

100
4
100

100
96
100

100
5
100

100
t
100

100
42
100

100
12
100

100

2 w e e k s o r m o r e ________________________________________
6 m o n th s
______ _____________________________________
1 y e a r __________________________________________________
2 y e a r s _________________________________________________
3 y e a r s ___________________________________________ ____
5 y e a r s _________________________________________________

99
3
78
95
97

99

100

100

98

99

100

87

94

-

-

-

-

99

78
94
98
100

t
6
18
28
98

-

49
98
98
100

t
18
91
96
98

100
12
98
100
100
100

98

t
86
94
97
99

3
6
12
99

13
86
91
100

36
55
68
87

12
60
90
94

3 w e e k s o r m o r e ________________________________________
2 y e a r s _________________________________________________
3 y e a r s _________________________________________________
5 y e a r s _________________________________________________
10 y e a r s
__________________
________________________
15 y e a r s
_____________________________________________
20 y e a r s _______________________________________________
25 y e a r s _______________________________________________

92
-

96
-

97
-

94
-

89
-

82
-

94
-

97
-

99

93
-

76

I
t
13
88
92
92

-

-

-

t
8
91
95
96

-

3
11
85
89
89

-

3
96
97
97

t
t
21
94
94
94

-

20
76
82
82

t
t
8
92
94
94

15

11

36

14

36

10

t
3
15

t
t

-

-

-

-

-

4

11

36

14

20
36

A ll w o rk e rs

_______________________________________________

M ETHOD OF PA Y M E N T
W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g
p a id v a c a t io n s

.....

L e n g t h - o f - t i m e p a y m e n t _________________________
P e r c e n t a g e o f p a y m e n t ___________________________
W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g
n o p a id v a c a t io n s
. _ _

-

-

A M O U N T O F V A C A T IO N P A Y
A N D S E R V IC E P E R IO D 3

4 w e e k s ____________________________________________________
1 5 y e a r s _______________________________________________
20 y e a r s _______________________________________________
25 y e a r s _____________________________________
_______

1
2
3
s e rv ic e
re c e iv e
t
*
**

99

3
10

I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r s e r v i c e s in a d d i t i o n to t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r r e a l e s t a t e a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d i t i o n to t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
P e r i o d s o f s e r v i c e w e r e a r b i t r a r i l y c h o s e n a n d d o n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t th e in d i v i d u a l p r o v i s i o n s f o r p r o g r e s s i o n .
in c lu d e c h a n g e s in p r o v i s i o n s o c c u r r i n g b e t w e e n 5 a n d 10 y e a r s .
E s t im a t e s a r e c u m u la tiv e .
T h u s , th e p r o p o r t i o n
3 w e e k s ' o r m o re p ay fo r fe w e r y e a r s o f s e r v ic e .
L e s s th a n 2. 5 p e r c e n t .
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n (e x c l u d i n g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a t io n , a n d o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s .
F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , an d r e a l e s ta te .




-

-

-

t
t
5
96
97
97

14
99
99
99

22
93
93
93

26
74
76
76

11

7

20

12

t
5

t
t
7

-

38
6
35
38

11

F o r e x a m p l e , th e
re c e iv in g 3 w e e k s '

-

t
20

-

-

3
12

-

c h a n g e s in p r o p o r t i o n s in d i c a t e d a t 10 y e a r s ’
o r m o r e p a y f o r 5 y e a r s in c lu d e s t h o s e w h o

O c c u p a t io n a l W a g e S u r v e y ,

NOTE:

-

100
-

In th e t a b u l a t i o n s o f v a c a t i o n a l l o w a n c e s b y y e a r s o f s e r v i c e , p a y m e n t s o t h e r th a n " l e n g t h o f t i m e , "
s u c h a s p e r c e n t a g e o f a n n u a l e a r n i n g s o r f l a t - s u m p a y m e n t s , w e r e c o n v e r t e d to a n e q u i v a l e n t t i m e
b a s is ; fo r e x a m p le ,
a p a y m e n t o f 2 p e r c e n t o f a n n u a l e a r n i n g s w a s c o n s i d e r e d a s 1 w e e k 's p a y .

P i t t s b u r g h , P a . , D e c e m b e r 1956
DEPARTM ENT OF LABOR
B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a tis tic s

14

Ta b le B-5:

Pa id V a c a tio n s - C o n tin u e d

PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS EMPLOYED I N All .
industries

V a c a t io n p o lic y

Manufacturing

Public .
utilities *

Wholesale
trade

PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—

Retail trade

Finance**

82

Services

AH ,
industries

Manufacturing

Public ^
utilities *

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

Services

P R E D O M IN A N T P A Y P R A C T IC E S F O R
S E L E C T E D Y E A R S O F S E R V IC E 4
XXX

51

XXX

93

95

64

88

78

86

XX X

78

XXX

94

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

XX X

XXX

XX X

74

86

XX X

XX X

XXX

91

96

XX X

XXX

86

55

54

XXX

XXX

63

76

XXX

XX X

XX X

96
95
87

96
93
77

XXX

XXX

95
84

96
86

91
100
86

6>
fc
87
67

85
89
63

85
69
. 52

76
79
72

90
89
79

94
95
84

99
98
80

93

68
42
39

1
2
1
2

w e e k ____________________________
w e e k s ___________________________
w e e k ____________________________
w e e k s ___________________________

XXX

94

94

98

94

w e e k __________________________
w e e k s ___________________________
w e e k s ___________________________
w e e k s ___________________________

XXX

XX X

XXX

XX X

97
97
85

97
98
90

98
100
97

97

5 y e a r s or le s s:
10 y e a r s o r l e s s :

1
2
2
2

99
79

15 y e a r s o r l e s s :
20 y e a r s o r l e s s :
25 y e a r s o r l e s s :

3 w e e k s ___________________________
3 w e e k s _________________________
3 w e e k s ___________________________

88
89
78

90
94
84

96
97
61

94
90
80

1 y e a r o r le s s :
2 y e a r s o r le s s;

3 y e a r s o r le s s:

le s s

XXX

1 I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r s e r v i c e s in a d d i t i o n a l to t h o s e i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
2 I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r r e a l e s t a t e a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d i t i o n to tl\ o se i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
4
T h e p a y p r o v i s i o n a p p l i c a b l e to m o r e w o r k e r s th a n a n y o t h e r s i n g le p r o v i s i o n , f o r s e r v i c e u p to a n d
p a y f o r th e in d i c a t e d s e r v i c e p e r i o d .
* T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ( e x c l u d i n g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a t io n , a n d o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s .
* * F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , an d r e a l e s ta te .

Ta b le B -6 :

in c lu d i n g

th e

in d i c a t e d

All j
industries

A ll w o rk e rs

_____________________

Manufacturing

Public
utilities*

E x c lu d e s

w o rk ers

who

re c e iv e

m o re

PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

Finance**
100

100

_______________________

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g :
L i f e i n s u r a n c e _______________________________________
A c c id e n ta l d eath and d is m e m b e r m e n t
i n s u r a n c e _____________________________________________
S i c k n e s s a n d a c c id e n t i n s u r a n c e
o r s i c k l e a v e o r b o th 3 ____________________________
S i c k n e s s a n d a c c i d e n t i n s u r a n c e ___________
S ic k l e a v e ( f u l l p a y a n d n o
w a i t i n g p e r i o d ) _________________________________
S ic k le a v e (p a r t i a l p a y o r
w a i t i n g p e r i o d ) _________________________________
H o s p i t a l i z a t i o n i n s u r a n c e _________________________
S u r g i c a l i n s u r a n c e ___________________________________
M e d i c a l i n s u r a n c e ____________________________________
C a t a s t r o p h e i n s u r a n c e ___________________________
R e t i r e m e n t p e n s io n __________________________________
N o h e a lt h , i n s u r a n c e , o r p e n s io n p la n
______

of y e a rs.

91
82

H e a lth , In su ra n c e , a nd P e n sio n P la n s

PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—
T y p e o f p la n

num ber

87

100

100

100

100

Services

All 2
industries

Manufacturing

Public
utilities*

100

100

100

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

100

100

93

95

98

99

89

98

92

99

99

100

86

42

35

64

52

72

41

43

35

64

46

71

94
38

97
46

100
26

93
61

99
69

91
6

95
89

96
94

100
44

82
64

93
77

83

87

99

79

33

91

7

t

59

25

26

t
79
78
45
16
83

98
98
65
19
90

45
40
17
16
94

14
82
80
15
12
37

3
98
98
32
9
92

11
57
54
8
8
90

f

“

49
46
12
8
90
3

4
93
93
32
8
82

t

70
68
34
23
64
3

t

t

6
72
69
37
19
63
13

Services

4
82
81
28
3
31
7

~

1 I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r s e r v i c e s in a d d i t i o n to t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
2 I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r r e a l e s t a t e a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d i t i o n tc t h o s e i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h e w n s e p a r a t e l y .
3 U n d u p lic a te d to t a l o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv i n g s ic k le a v e o r s ic k n e s s an d a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e s h o w n s e p a r a t e ly b e lo w .
S i c k - l e a v e p la n s a r e l i m i t e d to t h o s e w h i c h d e f i n i t e ly e s t a b l i s h a t l e a s t th e m i n ­
im u m n u m b e r o f d a y s ’ p a y th a t c a n b e e x p e c t e d b y e a c h e m p lo y e e .
I n f o r m a l s i c k l e a v e a l l o w a n c e s d e t e r m i n e d o n a n in d i v i d u a l b a s i s a r e e x c l u d e d .
t
L e s s th a n 2 . 5 p e r c e n t .
* T r a n s p o r t a t io n (e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) ,
* * F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , an d r e a l e s ta te .




c o m m u n ic a t io n ,

a n d o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s .

O c c u p a tio n a l W a g e S u r v e y ,

P i t t s b u r g h , P a . , D e c e m b e r 1956
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s

or

15

Appendix: Job Descriptions
The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau1 wage surveys is to
s
assist its field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under
a variety of payroll titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment
and from area to area.
This is essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage
rates representing comparable job content. Because of this emphasis on inter establishment and
interarea comparability of occupational content, the Bureaurs job descriptions may differ signifi­
cantly from those in use in individual establishments or those prepared for other purposes. In
applying these job descriptions, the Bureau^ field representatives are instructed to exclude work­
ing supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped workers, part-time,
temporary, and probationary workers.

Office

BILLER,BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR - Continued
MACHINE
Prepares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records
as to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work in­
cidental to billing operations.
For wage study purposes, billers,
machine, are classified by type of machine, as follows:

Class A - Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Deter­
mines proper records and distribution of debit and credit items
to be used in each phase of the work.
May prepare consolidated
reports, balance sheets, and other records by hand.

Biller, machine (billing machine) - Uses a special billing
machine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, etc. , which
are combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and
invoices from customers1 purchase orders, internally prepared
orders, shipping memoranda, etc.
Usually involves application
of predetermined discounts and shipping charges and entry of
necessary extensions, which may or may not be computed on the
billing machine, and totals which are automatically accumulated
by machine. The operation usually involves a large number of
carbon copies of the bill being prepared and is often done on a
fanfold machine.

Class B - Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections
of a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers* accounts (not including a simple type of billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation of trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.

Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine) - Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, etc. , which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers*
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation.
Generally
involves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers* ledger
record.
The machine automatically accumulates figures on a
number of vertical columns and computes and usually prints auto­
matically the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowl­
edge of bookkeeping. Works from uniform and standard types of
sales and credit slips.
BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or with­
out a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.




CLERK, ACCOUNTING
Class A - Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a com­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase of an establish­
m ents business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or ac­
counts payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with
proper accounting distribution; requires judgment and experience
in making proper assignations and allocations.
May assist in
preparing, adjusting, and closing journal entries; may direct class
B accounting clerks.
Class B - Under supervision, performs one or more routine
accounting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers,
accounts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers.
This job does not require a knowledge of
accounting and bookkeeping principles but is found in offices in
which the more routine accounting work is subdivided on a func­
tional basis among several workers.

16
CLERK, FILE
Class A - Responsible for maintaining an established filing
system. Classifies and indexes correspondence or other material;
may also file this material. May keep records of various types
in conjunction with files or supervise others in filing and locating
material in the files.
May perform incidental clerical duties.
Class B - Performs routine filing, usually of material that
has already been classified, or locates or assists in locating m a­
terial in the files.
May perform incidental clerical duties.
CLERK,

ORDER

Receives customers’ orders for material or merchandise by
mail, phone, or personally.
Duties involve any combination of the
following: Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet
listing the items to make up the order; checking prices and quantities
of items on order sheet; distributing order sheets to respective de­
partments to be filled.
May check with credit department to deter­
mine credit rating of customer, acknowledge receipt of orders from
customers, follow up orders to see that they have been filled, keep
file of orders received, and check shipping invoices with original
orders.

KEY-PUNCH OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards
by punching a series of holes in the cards in a specified sequence,
using an alphabetical or a numerical key-punch machine, following
written information on records.
May duplicate cards by using the
duplicating device attached to machine. Keeps files of punch cards.
May verify own work or work of others.
OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands,
operating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening
and distributing mail, and other minor clerical work.
SECRETARY
Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an
administrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint­
ments for superior; receiving people coming into office; answering
and making phone calls; handling personal and important or confi­
dential mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative;
taking dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in
shorthand or by stenotype or similar machine, and transcribing dicta­
tion or the recorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine.
May prepare special reports or memoranda for information of superior.

CLERK, PAYR O LL
STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the neces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers'
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker's name, working
days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and dis­
tributing pay envelopes.
May use a calculating machine.

Prim ary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by stenotype or similar machine, involving a
normal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a type­
writer. May also type from written copy. May also set up and keep
files in order, keep simple records, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine work (see transcribing-machine operator).

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR

STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL

Prim ary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathe­
matical computations.
This job is not to be confused with that of
statistical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of
a Comptometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to
performance of other duties.

Prim ary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by stenotype or similar machine, involving a
varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or
reports on scientific research and to transcribe this dictation on a
typewriter. May also type from written copy. May also set up and
keep files in order, keep simple records, etc.
Does not include
transcribing-machine work.

DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory respon­
sibilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten
matter, using a mimeograph or ditto machine. Makes necessary ad­
justment such as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed.
Is not required to prepare stencil or ditto master. May keep file of
used stencils or ditto masters.
May sort, collate, and staple com­
pleted material.




Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office
calls.
May record toll calls and take messages.
May give infor­
mation to persons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders.
For workers who also act as receptionists see switchboard operatorreceptionist.

17

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
tion
type
This
time

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL - Continued

In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single posi­
or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties.
typing or clerical work may take the major part of this worker’s
while at switchboard.

TABULATING-M ACHINE OPERATOR
Operates machine that automatically analyzes and translates
information punched in groups of tabulating cards and prints trans­
lated data on forms or accounting records; sets or adjusts machine;
does simple wiring of plugboards according to established practice
or diagrams; places cards to be tabulated in feed magazine and starts
machine. May file cards after they are tabulated. May, in addition,
operate auxiliary machines.

included. A worker who takes dictation in shorthand or by stenotype
or similar machine is classified as a stenographer, general.
TYPIST
Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to
make out bills after calculations have been made by another person.
May do clerical work involving little special training, such as keep­
ing simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting and dis­
tributing incoming mail.
Class A - Performs one or more of the following: Typing
material in final form from very rough and involved draft; copy­
ing from plain or corrected copy in which there is a frequent
and varied use of technical and unusual words or from foreignlanguage copy; combining material from several sources, or
planning layout of complicated statistical tables to maintain uni­
formity and balance in spacing; typing tables from rough draft in
final form.
May type routine form letters, varying details to
suit circumstances.

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Prim ary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal
routine vocabulary from transcribing machine records.
May also
type from written copy and do simple clerical work. Workers tran­
scribing dictation involving a varied technical or specialized vocabu­
lary such as legal briefs or reports on scientific research are not

Professional

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
poses.
Uses various types of drafting tools .as required. May pre­
pare, drawings from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties
under direction of a draftsman.
DRAFTSMAN, LEADER
Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in
preparation of working plans and detail drawings from rough or pre­
liminary sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing
purposes. Duties involve a combination of the following: Interpreting
blueprints, sketches, and written or verbal orders; determining work
procedures; assigning duties to subordinates and inspecting their work;
performing more difficult problems. May assist subordinates during




Class B - Performs one or more of the following: Typing
from relatively clear or typed drafts; routine typing of forms,
insurance policies, etc. ; setting up simple standard tabulations, or
copying more complex tables already set up and spaced properly.

a nd

Technical

DRAFTSMAN, LEADER - Continued
emergencies or as a regular assignment, or perform related duties
of a supervisory or administrative nature.
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes,
rough or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manu­
facturing purposes.
Duties involve a combination of the following:
Preparing working plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-sections, etc. ,
to scale by use of drafting instruments; making engineering computa­
tions such as those involved in strength of materials, beams and
trusses; verifying completed work, checking dimensions, materials
to be used, and quantities; writing specifications; making adjustments
or changes in drawings or specifications. May ink in lines and letters
on pencil drawings, prepare detail units of complete drawings, or
trace drawings.
Work is frequently in a specialized field such as
architectural, electrical, mechanical, or structural drafting.

18
NURSE. INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED) - Continued

A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on
the premises of a factory or other establishment.
Duties involve a
combination of the following; Giving first aid to the ill or injured;
attending to subsequent dressing of employees* injuries; keeping records
of patients treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or
other purposes; conducting physical examinations and health evaluations
of applicants and employees; and planning and carrying out programs
involving health education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant

environment, or other activities affecting the health, welfare, and
safety of all personnel.

Mai ntenance

TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing
tracing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil.
Uses T-square, compass, and other drafting tools. May prepare
simple drawings and do simple lettering.

a

d P o w e r pl ant

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

ENGINEER, STATIONARY

Perform s the carpentry duties necessary to construct and
maintain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins,
cribs, counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings,
and trim made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most of
the following; Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, draw­
ings, models, or verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter*s
handtools, portable power tools, and standard measuring instruments;
making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work;
selecting materials necessary for the work. In general, the work of
the maintenance carpenter requires rounded training and experience
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent train­
ing and experience.

Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air compressors, generators, mo­
tors, turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers
and boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a
record of operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consump­
tion. May also supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers
in establishments employing more than one engineer are excluded.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE
Perform s a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating,
distribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment.
Work involves most of the following: . Installing or repairing any of
a variety of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers,
switchboards, controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units,
conduit systems, or other transmission equipment; working from blue­
prints, drawings, layout, or other specifications; locating and diag­
nosing trouble in the electrical system or equipment; working standard
computations relating to load requirements of wiring or electrical
equipment; using a variety of electrician*s handtools and measuring
and testing instruments. In general, the work of the maintenance
electrician requires rounded training and experience usually ac­
quired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.




FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER
Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam.
Feeds fuels to fire by hand
or operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water
and safety valves.
May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom equipment.
HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE
Assists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance
trades, by performing specific or general duties of lesser skill, such
as keeping a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning work­
ing area, machine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding ma­
terials or tools; performing other unskilled tasks as directed by jour­
neyman. The kind of work the helper is permitted to perform varies
from trade to trade: In some trades the helper is confined to sup­
plying, lifting, and holding materials and tools, and cleaning working
areas; and in others he is permitted to perform specialized machine
operations, or parts of a trade that are also performed by workers
on a full-time basis.

19

MACHINE-TOOL, OPERATOR, TOOLROOM

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE

Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine
lathes, or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools,
gauges, jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most of the following:
Planning and performing difficult machining operations; processing
items requiring complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy;
using a variety of precision measuring instruments; selecting feeds,
speeds, tooling and operation sequence; making necessary adjust­
ments during operation to achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions.
May be required to recognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools,
and to select proper coolants and cutting and lubricating oils.
For
cross-industry wage study purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom,
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establish­
ment. Work involves most of the following: Examining machines
and mechanical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling
or partly dismantling machines and performing repairs that mainly
involve the use of handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing
broken or defective parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the
production of a replacement part by a machine shop or sending of
the machine to a machine shop for major repairs; preparing written
specifications for major repairs or for the production of parts ordered
from machine shop; reassembling machines; and making all necessary
adjustments for operation.
In general, the work of a maintenance’
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
Excluded from this classification are workers whose primary duties
involve setting up or adjusting machines.

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
MILLWRIGHT
Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs
of metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment.
Work involves most of the following: Interpreting written instruc­
tions and specifications; planning and laying out of work; using a va­
riety of machinist's handtools and precision measuring instruments;
setting up and operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal
parts to close tolerances; making standard shop computations relat­
ing to dimensions of work, tooling, feeds and speeds of machining;
knowledge of the working properties of the common metals; selecting
standard materials, parts, and equipment required for his work; fitting
and assembling parts into mechanical equipment. In general, the
machinist's work normally requires a rounded training in machineshop practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant lay­
out are required. Work involves most of the following: Planning and
laying out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications;
using a variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop com­
putations relating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of
gravity; alining and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools,
equipment, and parts to be used; installing and maintaining in good
order power transmission equipment such as drives and speed re ­
ducers. In general, the millwright's work normally requires a rounded
training and experience in the trade acquired through a formal appren­
ticeship or equivalent training and experience.
OILER

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (M AINTENANCE)
Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of
an establishment.
Work involves most of the following; Examining
automotive equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling
equipment and performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches, gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in dis­
assembling or fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts from
stock; grinding and adjusting valves; reassembling and installing the
various assemblies in the vehicle and making necessary adjustments;
alining wheels, adjusting brakes and lights, or tightening body bolts.
In general, the work of the automotive mechanic requires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprentice­
ship or equivalent training and experience.




Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing
surfaces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.
PAINTER , MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an
establishment.
Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface
peculiarities and types of paint required for different applications;
preparing surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing
putty or filler in nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray
gun or brush. May mix colors, oils, white lead, and other paint
ingredients to obtain proper color or consistency. In general, the
work of the maintenance painter requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience.

20
PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE

SH EET-M ETAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE - Continued

Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe
and pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most of the following: Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe
from drawings or other written specifications; cutting various sizes
of pipe to correct lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene
torch or pipe-cutting machine; threading pipe with stockis and dies;
bending pipe by hand-driven or power-driven machines; assembling
pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard
shop computations relating to pressures, flow, and size of pipe re ­
quired; making standard tests to determine whether finished pipes meet
specifications.
In general, the work of the maintenance pipefitter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. Workers
rimarily engaged in installing and repairing building sanitation or
eating systems are excluded.

and laying out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blue­
prints, models, or other specifications; setting up and operating all
available types of sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of
handtools in cutting, bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assem ­
bling; installing sheet-metal articles as required.
In general, the
work of the maintenance sheet-metal worker requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

PLUM BER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber's snake.
In general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprentice­
ship or equivalent training and experience.
SH EET-M ETAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing)
of an establishment. Work involves most of the following: Planning

Custodial

a nd

(Diemaker; jig maker; toolmaker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work.
Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying out of work
from models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifi­
cations; using a variety of tool and die maker's handtools and precision
measuring instruments; understanding of the working properties of
common metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools
and related equipment; making necessary shop computations relating
to dimensions of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools
and dies to achieve required qualities; working to close tolerances;
fitting and assembling of parts to prescribed tolerances and allow­
ances; selecting appropriate materials, tools, and processes.
In
general, the tool and die maker's work requires a rounded training
in machine-shop and toolroom practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

Material

ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER
Transports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such
as those of starters and janitors are excluded.
GUARD
Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on
tour, maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. In­
cludes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity of
employees and other persons entering.




TOOL AND DIE MAKER

Movement

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working
areas and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house,
or commercial or other establishment. Duties involve a combination
of the following: Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors;
removing chips, trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture,
or fixtures; polishing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies
and minor maintenance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and
restrooms. Workers who specialize in window washing are excluded.

21
LABORER, M ATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker;
stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant,
store, or other establishment whose duties involve one or more of
the following: Loading and unloading various materials and merchan­
dise on or from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices;
unpacking, shelving, or placing materials or merchandise in proper
storage location; transporting materials or merchandise by hand truck,
car, or wheelbarrow. Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are
excluded.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK - Continued
other records; checking for shortages and rejecting damaged goods;
routing merchandise or materials to proper departments; maintaining
necessary records and files.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:
Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk
TRUCKDRIVER

ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
Fills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from
stored merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips,
customers1 orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling
orders and indicating items filled or omitted, keep records of out­
going orders, requisition additional stock, or report short supplies
to supervisor, and perform other related duties.
PACKER, SHIPPING
Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires
the placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or
more of the following: Knowledge of various items of stock in order
to verify content; selection of appropriate type and size of container;
inserting enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to
prevent breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; applying
labels or entering identifying data on container.
Packers who also
make wooden boxes or crates are excluded.
SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is re ­
sponsible for incoming shipment of merchandise or other materials.
Shipping work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, prac­
tices, routes, available means of transportation and rates; and pre­
paring records of the goods shipped, making uphills of lading, post­
ing weight and shipping charges, and keeping a file of shipping records.
May direct or assist in preparing the merchandise for shipment.
Receiving work involves: Verifying or directing others in verifying
the correctness of shipments against bills of lading, invoices, or




Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport
materials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of
establishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, w are­
houses, wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail estab­
lishments and customers1 houses or places of business. May also
load or unload truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical
repairs, and keep truck in good working order. Driver-salesm en and
over-the-road drivers are excluded.
For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size
and type of equipment, as follows: (Tractor-trailer should be rated
on the basis of trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver
Truckdriver,
Truckdriver,
Truckdriver,
Truckdriver,

(combination of sizes listed separately)
light (under IV2 tons)
medium (iVz to and~including 4 tons)
heavy iover 4 tons, trailer type)
heavy iover 4 tons, other than trailer type)

TRUCKER, POWER
Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about
a warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of
truck, as follows:
Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)
WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.

n . S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING O F F IC E : 1957 O - 421304




Bulletins in This Series
Occupational wage surveys are being conducted in 17 major labor markets during late 1956 and early 1957. Bulletins for the fol­
lowing areas are now available and may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C.,
or from any of the regional sales offices listed below. As additional bulletins become available, they w ill be listed in subsequent issues.




Labor Market
Seattle, Wash.
Buffalo, N. Y.
Cleveland, Ohio
Boston, Mass.
D allas, Tex.
Kansas City, Mo.

BLS Bulletin
Number

Survey Period
August 1956
September 1956
October 1956
September 1956
October 1956
December 1956

1202-1
1202-2
1202-3
1202-4
1202-5
1202-6

Price
25
25
25
25
25
25

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

Regional Sales Offices

U.S. Department of L ab o r
Bureau of L ab o r Statistics
18 O liver Street
Boston 10, Mass.

U .S . Department of L abor
Bureau of L ab o r Statistics
50 Seventh Street, N . £ .
Atlanta 23, Ga.

U .S. Department of L ab o r
Bureau of L ab o r Statistics
341 Ninth Avenue
N e w York 1, N . Y .

U .S. Department of L ab o r
Bureau of L abo r Statistics
105 West Adams Street
C hicago 3, 111.

U .S . Department of L abo r
Bureau of Labor Statistics
630 Sansome Street
San F ran cisco 11, C a lif.


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102