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Occupational Wage Survey

SAN FRANCISCO-OAKLAND, CALIFORNIA
JAN UARY 1957

Bulletin N o. 1202-8

UNITED STATES D EPA RTM EN T OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary




BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clagua, Commissionar




House Document No. 63

85th Congress, 1st Session

Occupational Wage Survey
SAN FRANCISCO-OAKLAND, CALIFORNIA




JANUARY 1957

B u lle tin N o . 1 2 0 2 -8
UN ITED STA TES DEPARTM ENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner
March 1957

For sale b y the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing O ffic e , Washington 25, D. C. - Price 25 cents




Preface

Contents
Page




1
3

Tables:
1.
2.

A:

B:

Establishments and w orkers within scope of s u r v e y --------Indexes of standard weekly salaries and straighttime hourly earnings fo r selected occupational
groups, and percents of increase for selected periods --Occupational earnings * A - 1: Office occupations ----------------------------------------------A -2: P rofession a l and technical occupations -----------------A - 3: Maintenance and powerplant occupations ---------------A -4: Custodial and m aterial movement occupations -------Establishment practices and supplementary wage
provisions * B - l: Shift differen tial provisions --------------------------------B-2: Minimum entrance rates fo r women office
B-3:
B-4:
B-5:
B-6:

Appendix:

2
3
oo in

The Bureau of Labor Statistics regu larly conducts
areawide wage surveys in a number of important industrial
centers. The studies, made from late fa ll to ea rly spring,
relate to occupational earnings and related supplementary
benefits.
A p relim in a ry report is available on completion
of the study in each area, usually in the month follow ing the
payroll period studied. This bulletin provides additional data
not included in the e a rlie r report. A consolidated analytical
bulletin sum m arizing the results of a ll of the y e a r ls surveys
is issued a fter completion of the final area bulletin fo r the
current round of surveys.

Introduction --------------------------------------------------------------------------Wage trends fo r selected occupational groups ----------------------------

o o

The Community Wage Survey P rogram

1

12

Scheduled w eekly hours --------------------------------------Paid holidays ----------------------------------------------------Paid vacations --------------------------------------------------Health, insurance, and pension plans --------------------

14
14
15
16

Job descriptions -----------------------------------------------------

17

* NOTE: Sim ilar tabulations fo r most of these items are
available in the San Francisco-Oakland area reports fo r
January of each year since 1950.
The 1954 report also
provides tabulations of wage structure ch aracteristics,
labor-managem ent agreem ents, and overtim e pay p r o v i­
sions.
The 1955 report also included data on frequency
of wage payments, and pay provisions fo r holidays fallin g
on nonworkdays. A d irectory indicating date of study and
the p rice of the reports, as w ell as reports fo r other
m ajor areas, is available upon request.
Union scales, indicative of prevailing pay levels in
the San Francisco-Oakland area are available fo r the fo l­
lowing trades or industries: Building construction, p rin t­
ing, lo ca l-tra n sit operating em ployees, and m otortruck
d r iv e r s .




Occupational Wage Survey - San Francisco-Oakland, Calif.
Introduction

The San Francisco-O akland area is one of severa l important
industrial centers in which the Department of Labor*s Bureau of Labor
Statistics has conducted surveys of occupational earnings and related
wage benefits on an areawide basis. In each area, data are obtained by
personal visits of Bureau field agents to representative establishments
within six broad industry divisions: Manufacturing; transportation (ex ­
cluding railroa d s), communication, and other public u tilities; wholesale
trade; reta il trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services .
M ajor industry groups excluded from these studies, besides railroads,
are government operations and the construction and extractive indus­
tries . Establishments having few er than a prescribed number of w ork­
ers are omitted also because they furnish insufficient employment in the
occupations studied to warrant in clu sion .1 W herever possible, separate
tabulations are provided fo r each of the broad industry divisions.

to the w ork schedules (rounded to the nearest half hour) fo r which
straight-tim e salaries are paid; average w eekly earnings fo r these
occupations have been rounded to the nearest half dollar.
Occupational employment estimates represent the total in a il
establishments within the scope of the study and not the number actu­
a lly surveyed.
Because of differen ces in occupational structure among
establishments, the estimates of occupational employment obtained from
the sample of establishments studied serve only to indicate the relative
importance of the jobs studied.
These differences in occupational
structure do not m a teria lly affect the accuracy of the earnings data.
Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provision s

These surveys a re conducted on a sample basis because of the
unnecessary cost involved in surveying a ll establishments. To obtain
appropriate accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of large
than of sm all establishments is studied. In combining the data, how­
eve r, a ll establishments are given their appropriate weight. Estim ates
based on the establishments studied are presented, therefore, as r e ­
lating to a ll establishments in the industry grouping and area, except
fo r those below the minimum size studied.

Inform ation is presented also (in the B -s eries tables) on s e ­
lected establishment practices and supplementary benefits as they
relate to office and plant w orkers.
The term "o ffic e w o r k e r s ," as
used in this bulletin, includes a ll office c le ric a l em ployees and ex ­
cludes adm inistrative, executive, professional, and technical personnel.
"Plant w o rk ers" include working forem en and a ll nonsupervisory w ork ­
ers (including leadmen and trainees) engaged in nonoffice functions.
Adm in istrative, executive, professional, and technical em ployees, and
force-account construction em ployees who are utilized as a separate
work fo rce are excluded.
C afeteria w orkers and routemen a re ex ­
cluded in manufacturing industries, but are included as plant w orkers
in nonmanufacturing industries.

Occupations and Earnings
The occupations selected fo r study are common to a va riety
of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries. Occupational c la s­
sification is based on a uniform set of job descriptions designed to
take account of interestablishm ent variation in duties within the same
job (see appendix fo r listing of these descriptions). Earnings data are
presented (in the A -s e r ie s tables) for the follow ing types of occupa­
tions: (a) Office clerica l; (b) professional and technical; (c) m ainte­
nance and powerplant; and (d) custodial and m a terial movement.

Shift differen tial data (table B - l) are lim ited to manufacturing
industries.
This inform ation is presented both in term s of (a) estab­
lishment policy, 2 presented in term s of total plant w orker em ploy­
ment, and (b) effective practice, presented on the basis of w orkers
actually employed on the specified shift at the time of the survey.
In establishments having varied differen tials, the amount applying to
a m a jority was used or, if no amount applied to a m ajority, the cla s ­
sification "o th er" was used.

Occupational employment and earnings data a re shown fo r
fu ll-tim e w orkers, i. e. , those hired to w ork a regular w eekly sched­
ule in the given occupational classification .
Earnings data exclude
premium pay fo r overtim e and fo r w ork on weekends, holidays, and
late shifts.
Nonproduction bonuses are excluded also, but co st-ofliving bonuses and incentive earnings are included.
Where w eekly
hours are reported, as for o ffice c le ric a l occupations, referen ce is

Minimum entrance rates (table B -2) relate only to the estab­
lishments visited .
They are presented on an establishment, rather
than on an employment basis.
Scheduled hours; paid holidays; paid
vacations; and health, insurance, and pension plans are treated sta tis­
tica lly on the basis that these are applicable to a ll plant or office

* This report was prepared in the Bureau*s regional office in San
Francisco, C a lif., by W illiam P . OfConnor, under the direction of
John L. Dana, Regional Wage and Industrial Relations Analyst.
1 See table 1 fo r m inim um -size establishment covered.




2
An establishment was considered as having a policy if it met
either of the follow ing conditions: ( l ) Operated late shifts at the time
of the survey, or (2) had form al provisions covering late shifts.

(i)

2
workers if a majority of such workers are eligible or may eventually
qualify for the practices listed. 3 Because of rounding, sums of indi­
vidual items in these tabulations do not necessarily equal totals.
The summary of vacation plans is limited to formal arrange­
ments, excluding informal plans whereby time off with pay is granted
at the discretion of the employer.
Separate estimates are provided
according to employer practice in computing vacation payments, such
as time payments, percent of annual earnings, or flat-sum amounts.
However, in the tabulations of vacation allowances, payments not on
a time basis were converted; for example, a payment of 2 percent of
annual earnings was considered as the equivalent of 1 week*s pay.
Data are presented for all health, insurance, and pension
plans for which at least a part of the cost is borne by the employer,
excepting only legal requirements such as workmen's compensation and
social security. Such plans include those underwritten by a commer­
cial insurance company and those provided through a union fund or paid
directly by the employer out of current operating funds or from a fund
set aside for this purpose. Death benefits are included as a form of
life insurance.
Sickness and accident insurance is limited to that type of in­
surance under which predetermined cash payments are made directly
to the insured on a weekly or monthly basis during illness or accident
disability.
Information is presented for all such plans to which the
employer contributes. However, in New York and New Jersey, which

have enacted temporary disability insurance laws which require em­
ployer contributions, 4 plans are included only if the employer (l) con­
tributes more than is legally required, or (2) provides the employee
with benefits which exceed the requirements of the law.
Tabulations
of paid sick-leave plans are limited to formal plans 5 which provide
full pay or a proportion of the worker *s pay during absence from work
because of illness.
Separate tabulations are provided according to
( l ) plans which provide full pay and no waiting period, and (2) plans
providing either partial pay or a waiting period.
In addition to the
presentation of the proportions of workers who are provided sickness
and accident insurance or paid sick leave, an unduplicated total is
shown of workers who receive either or both types of benefits.
Catastrophe insurance, sometimes referred to as extended
medical insurance, includes those plans which are designed to protect
employees in case of sickness and injury involving expenses beyond
the normal coverage of hospitalization, medical, and surgical plans.
Medical insurance refers to plans providing for complete or partial
payment of doctors* fees. Such plans may be underwritten by commer­
cial insurance companies or nonprofit organizations or they may be
self-insured. Tabulations of retirement pension plans are limited to
those plans that provide monthly payments for the remainder of the
w orker's life.

4 The temporary disability laws in California and Rhode Island
do not require employer contributions.
5 An establishment was considered as having a formal plan if
3
Scheduled weekly hours for office workers (first section it established at least the minimum number of days of sick leave that
of
could be expected by each employee. Such a plan need not be written,
table B-3) are presented in terms of the proportion of women office
but informal sick leave allowances, determined on an individual basis,
workers employed in offices with the indicated weekly hours for women
were excluded.
w orkers.
Table 1: Establishm ents and w orkers w ithin scope of su rve y and num ber studied in San F ra n c is co -O a k la n d , C a lif. ,

In d ustry division

A l l d iv is io n s ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu rin g ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------N o nm an ufa ctu rin g --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Tran sp ortation (excluding ra ilro a d s ), com m unication,
and other public u tilitie s 4 ------------------------------------------------------------------------Wholesale t r a d e ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------R etail t r a d e --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Finance, insurance, and rea l e s ta te -------------------------------------------------------Services 6 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

M in im um
em ploym ent
in establish­
ments in scope
of study
101

1 01

51
1 01

51
51

1

Num ber of establishments
W ithin
scope of
study *

250

345
751
58
239
109
180
165

W orkers in establishments

Studied

1 ,0 9 6

by m a jo r ind ustry d ivision, Jan ua ry 1957

W ithin scope of study
To ta l

Studied

Office

Plant

To ta l

326,300

82,100

183,600

176,690

83
167

132,800
193,500

22,400
59,700

91,300
,300

6 2 ,360
114 330

27
34
47
35
24

57,400
31,700
43,500
39 , 1 0 0
21,800

9, 0 0 0
9, 700

32,200
13, 500
32,600

50,470
7, 740
28,490
20,750
6 , 880

3

9 2

6 ,0 0 0

30,800
(7)

5

1 ,1 0 0

(7)

3

1
San Fra n c is co -O a k la n d M etropolitan A re a (Alam eda, Contra Costa, M a rin , San F ra n c is c o , San Mateo, and Solano Counties).
The "w ork ers w ithin scope of study" estimates shown in this table
provide a reasonably accurate description of the size and com position of the labor force included in the su rve y.
The estimates are not intended, how ever, to serve as a basis of com parison w ith other
area employment indexes to m easure em ploym ent trends or levels since ( l ) planning of wage surveys requires the use of establishment data compiled considerably in advance of the pay period studied and
( 2 ) sm a ll establishments are excluded from the scope of the su rve y.
’
2
Includes a ll establishments with total em ploym ent at or above the m in im u m -s iz e lim itation . A ll outlets (within the a rea) of companies in such industries as trade, finance, auto rep air se rvice and
m o tio n -p icture theaters are considered as 1 establishm ent.
’
^ Includes executive, technical, professional, and other w orke rs excluded from the separate office and plant categories.
Also excludes taxicabs, and services incidental to w ater transportation. San F ra n c is c o ls transit system is m u nicip ally operated, and is therefore excluded, by definition, from the scope of the studies.
^ Estim ate relates to rea l estate establishments only.
7
Hotels; personal se rvices; business se rvices; automobile re p a ir shops; radio broadcasting and television; motion p ictures; nonprofit m em bership organizations; and engineering and a rch itectu ral se rvic e s.
Th is industry d ivision is represented in estimates for "a ll ind ustrie s" and "nonm anufacturing" in the Series A and B tables, although coverage was insufficient to justify separate presentation of data.




3

Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups
The table below presents indexes of salaries of office clerical
workers and industrial nurses, and of average earnings of selected
plant worker groups.
For office clerical workers and industrial nurses, the indexes
relate to average weekly salaries for normal hours of work, that is,
the standard work schedule for which straight-time salaries are paid.
For plant worker groups, they measure changes in straight-time hourly
earnings, excluding premium pay for overtime and for work on week­
ends, holidays, and late shifts.
The indexes are based on data for
selected key occupations and include most of the numerically im­
portant jobs within each group.
The office clerical data are based
on women in the following 18 jobs: Billers, machine (billing ma­
chine); bookkeeping-machine operators, class A and B; Comptometer
operators; clerks, file, class A and B; clerks, order; clerks, pay­
roll; key-punch operators; office girls; secretaries; stenographers,
general; switchboard operators; switchboard operator-receptionists;
tabulating-machine operators; transcribing-machine operators, gen­
eral; and typists, class A and B. The industrial nurse data are based
on women industrial nurses. Men in the following 10 skilled mainte­
nance jobs and 3 unskilled jobs were included in the plant worker
data: Skilled— carpenters; electricians; machinists; mechanics; me­
chanics, automotive; millwrights; painters; pipefitters; sheet-metal
workers; and tool and die makers; unskilled— janitors, porters, and
cleaners; laborers, material handling; and watchmen.
Average weekly salaries or average hourly earnings were
computed for each of the selected occupations. The average salaries
or hourly earnings were then multiplied by the average of January
1953 and January 1954 employment in the job.
These weighted earn­

T a b le 2:

ings for individual occupations were then totaled to obtain an aggre­
gate for each occupational group.
Finally, the ratio of these group
aggre ga-tes for a given year to the aggregate for the base period (survey
month, winter 1952-53) was computed and the result multiplied by the
base year index (100) to get the index for the given year.
The indexes measure, principally, the effects of (l) general
salary and wage changes; (2) merit or other increases in pay received
by individual workers while in the same job; and (3) changes in the
labor force such as labor turnover, force expansions, force reduc­
tions, and changes in the proportion of workers employed by estab­
lishments with different pay levels.
Changes in the labor force can
cause increases or decreases in the occupational averages without
actual wage changes. For example, a force expansion might increase
the proportion of lower paid workers in a specific occupation and r e ­
sult in a drop in the average, whereas a reduction in the proportion
of lower paid workers would have the opposite effect. The movement
of a high-paying establishment out of an area could cause the average
earnings to drop, even though no change in rates occurred in other
area establishments.
The use of constant employment weights eliminates the effects
of changes in the proportion of workers represented in each job in­
cluded in the data.
Nor are the indexes influenced by changes in
standard work schedules or in premium pay for overtime, since they
are based on pay for straight-time hours.
Indexes for the period 1953 to 1956 for workers in 15 major
labor markets appeared in BLS Bull. 1188, Wages and Related Benefits,
17 Labor Markets, 1955-56.

In d e x e s o f s t a n d a rd w e e k ly s a l a r i e s an d s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u r ly e a rn in g s fo r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p s in San F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d , C a l if . ,
J a n u a ry 1957 and J a n u a ry 1956, and p e rc e n ts o f i n c r e a s e fo r s e le c t e d p e r io d s
In d e x e s
(J a n u a ry 1953 = 100)

In d u stry an d o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p

A i l in d u s t r ie s :
O ffic e c l e r i c a l (w o m e n )
__ __ __ _ _ _
In d u s t ria l n u r s e s (w o m e n )
__
_
S k ille d m a in te n a n c e (m e n ) _ __ __ __ __
U n s k ille d p la n t (m e n ) ______ _________ __

J a n u a ry
1957

J a n u a ry
1956

P erc e n t in c re a s e s fro m —
J a n u a ry 1956
to
J a n u a ry 1957

J a n u a ry 1955
to
J a n u a ry 1956

J a n u a ry 1954
to
J a n u a ry 1955

J a n u a ry 1953
to
J a n u a ry 1954

J a n u a ry 1952
to
J a n u a ry 1953

J a n u a ry 1952
to
J a n u a ry 1957

___
_____
_____ _ _ __
__ _ _________
_____________ __

118.3
1 2 1 .0
118.6
1 19 .4

112.7
113.8
110.4
*11 3.2

5 .0
6 .4
7 .5
5. 5

4 .8
2 .6
3 .7
4 .4

3 .0
6 .3
2 .4
3 .0

4. 4
4. 3
4 .0
6. 1

5 .2
7 .0
5 .8
6 .8

2 4 .4
2 9 .5
2 5 .5
27. 5

M a n u fa c tu rin g :
O ffic e c le r i c a l (w o m e n ) _______________________________________
In d u s t ria l n u r s e s (w o m e n ) ____________________________________
S k ille d m a in te n a n c e (m e n ) ____________________________________
U n s k ille d pla n t (m e n ) __________________________________________

118.1
122.5
120. 1
1 18.4

1 1 2 .8
114. 5
110.7
H 1 1.6

4. 7
7 .0
8 .5
6 .0

5 .4
2 .6
4. 1
4 .3

2 .4
6 .2
2 .2
4 .2

4. 5
5. 1
4 .0
4 .2

7 .0
7 .8
5 .8
6 .9

2 6 .3
3 2 .0
27. 1

1 R e v is e d e s t im a t e .




2 6 .6




A: Occupational Earnings

5

T a b le A -1 : O f fic e O c c u p a tio n s
(Average stra ig h t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
in San F ra n c is co -O a k la n d , C a lif. , by ind ustry d ivision , January 1957)
Atekaqi
Sex, occupation, and ind ustry division

Number
of
workers

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

$
$
$
$
$
W
eekly
40. 00 45. 00 50. 00 55. 00 6 0 . 0 0
W
eekly
hours 1 earnings1
and
(Standard) (Standard) under
45.00 50. 00 55. 00 60.00 65. 00

$
65. 00

$
%
$
70. 00 75. 00 80.

70. 00

75.00

10

37

-

1

36
14

80.

00

$85. 00 * 0 . 0 0
9

00

85.0 0

90.00

95. 00

$
*
95. 00 1 0 0 .
1 0 0 .0 0

0 0

*
1*05.00 1 1 0 . 0 0 1*15. 00 ?2
*

105. 00 n o .

00

115.00

120

.

125.00
and
125. 00 over

00

0 . 00

Men
$
C le rk s , accounting, class A ---------------------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu rin g --------------------------------------------------------------------------N o nm an ufa ctu rin g ------------------------------------------------------------------Public utilities * ---------------------------------------------------------------Wholesale t r a d e -----------------------------------------------------------------

685
w r~

286
91
112

C le rk s , accounting, class B ---------------------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu rin g --------------------------------------------------------------------------N o nm an ufa ctu rin g ------------------------------------------------------------------Public utilities * ---------------------------------------------------------------Finance * * ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

286
134
152
39

C le rk s , ord er --------------------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu rin g --------------------------------------------------------------------------N o nm an ufa ctu rin g ------------------------------------------------------------------Wholesale t r a d e -----------------------------------------------------------------

806

62

266
540
490

C le rk s , p a y r o ll-----------------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu rin g --------------------------------------------------------------------------N o nm an ufa ctu rin g ------------------------------------------------------------------P ublic utilities * ----------------------------------------------------------------

135

Office b o y s --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u fa c tu rin g --------------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g ------------------------------------------------------------------P ublic utilities * ---------------------------------------------------------------Finance * * ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

565

Tab ulating-m achine o p e r a t o r s -----------------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu rin g --------------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g -------- ------------------------------------------------------—
P ub lic utilities * ---------------------------------------------------------------Wholesale t r a d e ---------------------------------------------------------------Finance * * ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

66

69
38

39.5
3$. 5
39.5
39.0
40.0

-

8 9 .0 0

92. 0 0
84. 50
92. 50
81.50

-

-

-

10

-

_

_

10

12

25

-

-

-

-

2

10

12

23

39.5
8 6 . 50
T 9 . 5 " 91.00
40.0
84. 50
40.0
84.00

.
-

87. 50
39.5
■ 3975 ... 92. 50
39.5
82. 50
40.0
8 6 . 00

39.0
40. 0
38. 5
40.0
38.0

74.50
~79'. 00“
71.00
81.50

6

6

-

-

99
2 ?
72
72

78

87

72
67

127
38
89
84

14

14

6

10

1

14

-

_
-

7
7
-

23

61

_

1

-

-

366
50
158

54. 50
53.50
55.00
58.00
54. 50

47
— F7
30
4

481
147
334
48
89
151

39. 0
38. 5
39.0
39.5
39.5
38. 5

82. 0 0
87.00
79.50
85. 50
87. 50
73. 00

_
_
_

B ille r s , machine (b illin g m a c h in e )--------------------------------------M a n u fa c tu rin g -------------------------------------------------------------------------N o nm an ufa ctu rin g ------------------------------------------------------------------P ub lic utilities * ----------------------------------------------------------------

449
104
345
239

39.5
" 3 9 .5
39.5
40.0

B ille r s , machine (bookkeeping m a c h in e )---------------------------N o nm an ufa ctu rin g ------------------------------------------------------------------R etail t r a d e -------------------------------------------------------------------------

174
1 52
124

Bookkeeping-machine operators, class A -------------------------M a n u fa c tu rin g --------------------------------------------------------------------------N o nm an ufa ctu rin g ------------------------------------------------------------------Wholesale t r a d e ---------------------------------------------------------------Bookkeeping-machine operators, class B — -------------------M a n u fa ctu rin g --------------------------------------------------------------------------N o nm an ufa ctu rin g ------------------------------------------------------------------Wholesale t r a d e ----------------------------------------------------------------R etail t r a d e ------------------------------------------------------------------------Finance * * ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

16
45
40
11

-

4
4
-

-

4

153
62
91

153
30
123

16

17

2

6

2

1

11

1

1

20

14

63

51

26

2

-

-

3
3

57

_
-

_

_

-

_

-

-

-

3

17
17
_
_
15

70.00
“ 73759”
69. 50
71.50

_
-

.
"

40.0
40. 0
40.0

63.50
“ 63.50
65.00

_
-

_
-

1

-

171
58
113
79

39.0
39.0
38. 5
39.0

76.00
“ 73'. 59...
76. 00
76.00

.

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

1,718
2 l2
1,506
281

39.5
38. 5
40.0
40.0
39.5
40.0

199
199

321

99
— 5T44

2

6

_
-

78
16
62
24

TW ~

11

8

9

1

14

6
6

11

5
-

6

51
_
46

11
-------- 5 —
6

8

3

-

-

46
4
42
4

63
5

11

75
12

4
4

20

3
5

21
66
66

83
4l
42

S'4
32
13
15

96
56
40
33

10

6

-

"

-

Ill
53
58
58

73
44
29
29

75
15
60
40

16

5

1
1

-

2

6

2

2

3
-

-

-

5
5
'

-

-

-

-

-

2

*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

16

18

30

12

11

36

13
3

28
18

10

10

-

10

15
15
15
.

20

18
3

19
7
5
2

16

2

10

-

6

2

6

10
8

-

6

2

2

4
~

-

-

2

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

12

-

-

6

-

82
32
50

-

-

2

81

-

7
5
2

2

1

12

-

*

4
4
-

6

11

-

—

-

24
20

9

H)

-

8
8

3
3
-

7
3
4
4

21

6

16

15
rr~
4

17
?
-

1

16

29

12

116

4
4
4

27
— n r17

49
7
23

1

57
29
28
14

11

47
2 o
27

4

39.0
39.5
38. 5
39.5
38. 5

6

58
29
29
4
19

2

12

51
45

8

49
23
26

-

1

17
9

ll

22

2

22

108
55
53
9
27

30
25

_

6 9 .0 0

97

77
32
45
9
18

19
15
4
4

Women

62

1,097

3
3

60.00

“ 73799”
58.00
64.00
6 8 . 50
55. 50

_

_

3

199

10

10

64
3

101

— n

61

86

3

44

62

7

36
30

1

31
31
7

26

_

2

21

1

-

6

2

15
15

410
- ?

320
25

403
43

291

344

_

396
41
355
88

14
232

126
44
82
42
81
8l
81
23
16
7
3
179
35
144
85
35
19

10

26
18
11

9
9
21

8

-

18
130
56
74
38

1

_

”

1

2

-

-

-

3

8

1

8

-

2

12

1

-

-

6

1

1

-

-

49

16
15 '

41
41

5
3
3

-

43
39

2

8

-

-

43

36
“ 29"
7

1

6

-

22

21

.
-

47

8

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

.
-

.

-

-

-

-

2

"

-

28
28

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

"

■

"

■

~

1

-

-

1

See footnote at end of table.
* Tra n sp ortation (excluding ra ilro a d s ), com m unication, and other public utilitie s.
** Finance, insurance, and re a l estate.
4 20554 0




-

57-2

Occupational Wage S urvey, San F ra n c is co -O a k la n d , C a lif. , Jan ua ry 1957
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
Bureau of La bo r Statistics

6
T a b le A - l: O f f ic e O c c u p a tio n s - C o n tin u e d
(Average stra ig h t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
in San Fra n c is co -O a k la n d , C a lif ., by ind ustry d ivision , January 1957)
Average
Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

W
eeklyj
Weeklyj
hours
earnings
(Standard) (Standard)

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
55. 00 60. 00 65.00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 $85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 foo .’oo ? 0 5 .00 f 10.00 f 15.00 120.00 ?25.00
40.00 45. 00 $
50. 00 $
and
and
under
45. 00 50. 00 55.00 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 9 0 . 00 9 5 .0 0 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 over

Women - Continued
C le rk s , accounting, class A ------------------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu rin g -----------------------------------------------------------------------N o nm an ufa ctu rin g ---------------------------------------------------------------P ublic utilities * ------------------------------------------------------------Wholesale t r a d e ------------------------------------------------------------R etail trade ---------------------------------------------------------------------Finance * * -------------------------------------------------------------------------

1,214
185
1,029
406
170
76
127

39. 5
39.0
39.5
40.0
39.5
39.5
38. 5

77.00
83.50
76.00
76.50
77. 50
76. 50
68. 50

_
_
“

C le rk s , accounting, class B ------------------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu rin g -----------------------------------------------------------------------N o nm an ufa ctu rin g ---------------------------------------------------------------Public utilities * ------------------------------------------------------------Wholesale t r a d e -------------------------------------------------------------R etail t r a d e ---------------------------------------------------------------------Finance * * -------------------------------------------------------------------------

1,687
5 9 T
1,288
154
208
256
574

39.0
39. b
39.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
38.5

65.00
73. 60
62. 50
69.50
67. 50
64.00
57. 50

_
_
_

C le rk s , file , class A --------------------------------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu rin g -----------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g ---------------------------------------------------------------Public utilities * ------------------------------------------------------------Wholesale t r a d e ------------------------------------------------------------Finance * * -------------------------------------------------------------------------

429
71
358
95
53
169

39.0
58. 5
39.0
40.0
39. 5
38. 5

68. 50
73. 50
67. 50
73.00
70. 50
65. 50

_

C le rk s , file , class B --------------------------------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu rin g -----------------------------------------------------------------------N o nm an ufa ctu rin g ---------------------------------------------------------------Public utilities * ------------------------------------------------------------Wholesale t r a d e -------------------------------------------------------------R etail t r a d e ---------------------------------------------------------------------Finance * * --------------------------------------------------------------------------

1,929
R l~ ~
1, 785
233
219
101
1,129

39.0
39. 0
38. 5
40. 0
39. 5
39.5
38.0

52. 50
59.30
52. 00
62. 50
55. 00
54.00
48. 50

*279

C le rk s , ord e r -----------------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u fa c tu rin g -----------------------------------------------------------------------N o nm an ufa ctu rin g ---------------- — ------------------------------------------Wholesale t r a d e -------------------------------------------------------------R etail t r a d e ----------------------------------------------------------------------

205
?1
134
63
71

40. 0
40. 0
40.0
40. 0
40. 0

72. 50
74.00
71.50
84.00
60. 50

-

C le rk s , p a y r o l l --------------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u fa c tu rin g -----------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g ---------------------------------------------------------------P ublic utilities * ------------------------------------------------------------Wholesale trade ------------------------------------------------------------R etail t r a d e ---------------------------------------------------------------------Finance * * -------------------------------------------------------------------------

793
376
417
57
118
113
100

39.0
39. o
39. 0
39.0
39.5
39.5
38.5

76. 50
77. 00
75. 50
82.00
82. 50
69. 50
71.00

1
1
-

Com ptom eter o p e r a t o r s ---------------------------------------------------------M a n u fa c tu rin g -----------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g ---------------------------------------------------------------Public utilities * ------------------------------------------------------------Wholesale trade ------------------------------------------------------------R etail t r a d e ----------------------------------------------------------------------

1,414
456
958
71
398
409

39.5
39.0
39.5
39.5
39.5
40.0

69.00
71.00
67. 50
77. 50
67. 50
67. 50

Duplicating-m achine operators (m im eograph
or d it t o )--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu rin g -----------------------------------------------------------------------N o nm an ufa ctu rin g ----------------------------------------------------------------

186
9§
91

39.5
46. 0
39.5

62. 50
62. $0
63.00

.
_
_

-

-

-

-

-

1
1
_
_

.
_
-

_
-

_
_
-

.
_
_
_
-

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

.
_
-

_
-

_
-

_
.
-

_
_
-

8
8
8
-

11
5
6
6
-

-

-

-

10
10
10
-

2
2
2
-

54
" 16
38
12
18
4
2

14
8
6
6
_
-

5
2
3
3
_
-

4
2
2
2
_

_

-

-

2
2
_
'

-

30
14
16
16
_

.
_

-

_
-

-

-

_

_

_

_

.
_
_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

'

-

-

-

172
29
143
51
45
10
15

131
20
111
39
26
11
13

417
38
379
98
29
35
30

161
17
144
95
13
14
12

79
lb
63
8
45
2
5

30
18"
12
5
2
3
2

83
3
80
_
_
80

199
2
197
8
12
23
154

275
12
263
34
19
30
154

332
88
244
33
35
60
102

339
59
280
19
46
126
62

164
45
119
19
70
10
18

129
73
56
10
18
6
4

49
30
19
3
6
1
-

76
72
4
2
2
-

1
1
.
_

-

39
13
26
26
_
-

-

4
4
_
4

51
51
32

35
35
18
5
6

92
20
72
21
12
33

88
------I T 73
7
3
54

65
4
61
23
26
12

23
4
19
5
13

17
8
9
3
2
4

34
20
14
5
9

2
2
2

1
1
1
_
-

17
17
17
-

-

581
6
575
4
56
10
483

372
41
330
6
41
62
184

333
32
301
103
52
20
126

150
32
118
52
16
5
45

59
32
12
4
11

60
7
53
8
1

28
1
27
27
-

.
_
-

-

_
-

.
-

-

25
7
18
18
-

-

13
13
13

5
5
5

78
10
68
26
42

28
17
11
_
11

19
T9
_
-

23
12
11
11
-

7
7
_
-

1
1
-

_
-

5
3
2

13
2
11
11

18
1
17
2
_
8
7

45
'2 2
23
1
_
13
4

153
64
89
5
6
55
14

139
79
60
2
15
16
23

127
76
51
13
20
7
11

114
39
75
10
31
10
16

99
59
40
9
20
_
10

54
54
22
4

62
7
55
2
18
15

306
89
217
6
167
31

459
l4f>
314
13
66
228

297
101
196
12
67
116

90
38
52
10
24
9

66
45
21
3
16
-

49
1?
32
9
18
5

23

31
3
28

53
29
24

38
18
20

18
12
6

10
4
6

4
3
1

-

-

_
_
-

_
2

_

1
1
_

-

1

-

9
8
1

-

-

See footnotes at end of table.
* Tran sp ortation (excluding ra ilro a d s ), com m unication, and other public u tilitie s.
** Finance, insurance, and rea l estate.




.
.
_
_

67
1
66
39
6
_
15

-

-

_
_
.
_

48
48
27
_
_
21

-

2305
1
2304
1
24

_
_
_

_
_
_

14
14
_
14

18

5

75
16

-

30
17
13
9
4
_
-

65
29
36
35
_
1
-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

*

-

_

.
-

-

.
_
_

-

_
-

_
-

_
_
-

7
T a b le A - l : O ffice O c c u p a t io n s > C ontin u e d
(Average s tra ig h t-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
in San F ra n c is co -O a k la n d , C a lif. , by industry d ivision, Jan ua ry 1957)
A verage

Women - Continued
K e y-punch operators — — --------- — ------M a n u fa ctu rin g ----- — ------------------------N o nm an ufa ctu rin g ---------------------------P ublic utilities * ------------------------Wholesale trade ----------------— —
R etail t r a d e ------------------------------—
Finance * * ---------------------------------- —

1 ,5 6 6
431
1 ,1 3 5
129
194
66
655

3 9 .0
39. 0
38. 5
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 8 .5

$
65. 50
68. 00
64. 50
7 3 .0 0
69. 50
6 6 .5 0
60. 50

384
I W
194
114

3 9 .0
J9: o
3 9 .5
3 9 .5

5 6 .0 0
27
5 8 .5 0 ’ —
r~
5 3 .5 0
26
5 1 .0 0
26

Office g i r l s -------------------M a n u fa ctu rin g --------Nonmanufacturing Finance * * ----------

—

S e c r e ta r ie s -------------------M a n u fa ctu rin g --------Nonmanufacturing P ublic utilities *
Wholesale trade
R etail t r a d e ------Finance * * ----------

3, 359
T ," 1 7 4
2 ,1 8 5
245
42 7
224
964

Stenographers, general ---------------------M a n u fa ctu rin g ----------------------------------N o nm an ufa ctu rin g --------------------------P ublic utilities * -----------------------Wholesale t r a d e ------------------------R etail t r a d e --------------------------------Finance * * ------------------------------------

3 ,8 7 6
1, 392
2 ,4 8 4
512
344
126
1,1 0 0

Stenographers, te c h n ic a l-------------------

181

Switchboard o p e r a t o r s ------------------------

'

'

3 9 .0
3 9 .0
38. 5
3 9 .0
39. 0
4 0 .0
3 8 .5

82. 50
~ W T W
7 9 .0 0
8 3 .0 0
8 3 .0 0
7 7 .0 0
77. 50

5 5 .0 0

60. 00

6 5 .0 0

70. 00

49
2
47
3
2
42

191
34
157
4
6
2
145

310
87
223
18
48
8
149

366
TTJF“
258
25
39
27
117

54
— IT "
37
27

_
_
_
-

.
-

25

.

16

_
.
.
-

387
25
170
110

3 9 .0
3 9 .0
3 8 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .0
3 8 .0

66.
68.
64.
77.
63.
62.

00
b()
50
50
50
50

Tabulating-m achine o p e r a t o r s --------M a n u fa ctu rin g -------------— ------------------N o nm an ufa ctu rin g --------------------------P ublic u t ilit ie s * -----------------------Finance * * ------------------ — ------ -------

413
132
281
73
143

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .0

76.
76.
76.
85.
70.

50
00
50
00
50

Tra n sc rib in g -m a ch in e operators, general
M a n u fa ctu rin g -----------------------------------------------N onm an ufa ctu rin g ----------------------------------------Wholesale trade -------------------------------------Finance * * --------------------------------------------------

668
152
516
159
333

3 8 .5
3 9 .5
38. 5
3 9 .0
3 8 .0

6 6 .0 0
? 1 . 50
64. 50
64. 50
6 4 .0 0

_
-

40
40
2
-

104
55
49
14

216

44
172
6
17
3
122
127
------73“ —
54
41

.
-

39
4
6
-

-

29

39
-

71
304
--------7“ ------53“
64
251
3
54
2
16
2
6
57
105
8

32

-

892
334
558
112
76
24
229
35

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

an d

9 5 .0 0 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 1 2 5 .0 0

11
TO1
1
-

.
-

-

-

-

over

-

-

-

2

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

‘

7

-

-

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-------- j -

-

-

-

-

“

-

-

-

-

598
157.."
411
56
79
47
190

481
174
307
34
58
54
133

359
118
241
40
53
7
110

295
171
124
12
49
11
32

219
93
126
11
38
11
52

126
83
43
13
14
1
13

118
57
61
22
11
1
18

67
56
11
10
1

25
13
12
3
1
2

475
I7 F " '
297
66
60
10
144

316
2(J3“
113
17
29
9
48

241
174
67
19
25
3
9

87
32
55
34
8
2
7

44
28
16
7
4
1
-

50
7
43
41
1
-

4
1
3
1
-

-

-

-

22

3

7

-

-

-

-

-

26
ll
15
4
2
7

27
27
27
-

_

_

_

_

_

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

657
“ Z81
376
64
63
25
182

20

41
ll
30
1
28
-

2
2
-

346
93
253
14
63
27
101

695
94
601
92
61
43
294

87
42
45
35
8
-

16

-

437
64
373
25
28
57
162

9 0 .0 0

15

12
rz “
-

193
15
178
11
18
7
119

-

8 5 .0 0

85
18
67
27

210
75
135
12
29
24
62

-

80. 00

75. 00

28
23
n r ~ ------ 17“ —
18
10
4
2

*8 5 .0 0 * 9 0 .0 0 * 9 5 .0 0 f t o . o o 1*05.00 1*10.00 1*15.00 1*20.00 1*25.00

-

14

19

5

-

*

-

29

27
24
3
2

26

3
-

. -

28
28
4
5
1
18

268
7
261
4
5
8
19

220
5
215
12
50
71
70

130
15
115
17
23
20
55

109
57
52
8
3
16
17

38
16
22
2
10
2
8

56
7B"
28
20
4
4

-

11
11
3
8

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

.
-

14
14
-

77
45
32
.
20
9

56
8
48
11
18
2

59
38
21
6
1
14

1
1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

.
-

-

-

-

69
35

84
44
40
2
6
10

12
T
3
3

-

90
26
64
_
43
8

213
82
131
-

.

40
7
33
2
13
18

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

3

49
20
29
13
5

28
3
25
8
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

72
9
63
11
32

-

-

73
6
67
6
44

1
1

3

66
56
30
1
29

_

-

58
29
29
1
28

51

95
2
93
38
55

178
24
154
45
103

175
46
129
56
67

96
33
63
14
37

33
24
9
2
7

14
13
1

14
.
_

-

.

2

_

2

-

2

See footnote at end of table.
* Tran sp ortation (excluding ra ilro a d s ), com m unication, and other public utilities
* * Finance, insurance, and rea l estate.




-

-

646
z w ~

-

6 9 .0 0
6 6 .0 0
74. 50
6 4 .0 0
7 7 .0 0
6 6 .0 0
64. 50
6 4 .0 0

Switchboard operator - receptionists
M a n u fa ctu rin g ----------------------------------N o nm an ufa ctu rin g --------------------------Public utilities * -----------------------Wholesale trade -----------------------Finance * * ------------------------------------

-

50. 00

.
-

-

4 0 .0
3 9 .0
40. 0
3 9 .0
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .0

N o nm an ufa ctu rin g --------------------------P ublic utilities * -----------------------Wholesale t r a d e ------------------------Retail t r a d e --------------------------------Finance * * ------------------------------------

*5 0 .0 0 *55. 00 *6 0 .0 0 *6 5 .0 0 * 7 0 .0 0 *7 5 .0 0

-

3 9 .0
7 1 .0 0
T O - "T 5 7 W
3 9 .0
6 9 .0 0
7 3 .0 0
3 9 .5
3 9 .0
7 2 .0 0
6 9 .0 0
3 9 .5
6 7 .0 0
3 9 .0

913
139
774
98
102
125
202

M a n u f a c t u r i n g -------------------------------------

*4 5 .0 0

o
o

hours 1
(Standard)

N U M B E R OP WORKERS RE C E IV IN G STRA IGH T-TIM E W E E K L Y E AR NING S OF—

*4 0 .0 0
and
eftrninss1
(Standard)
under
4 5 .0 0

o

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

-

-

51
-

51

-

'

-

-

55
21
34
33

8
--------7“
1
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

*

“

-

‘

6
4"
2

_
-

2

2

1

-

3

-

-

-

2

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

-

10
6
4
4

1

-

2

-

2

2

-

1

-

3

-

1

-

8
T a b le A - l: O f f ic e O c c u p a tio n s - C o n tin u e d
(Average stra ig h t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
in San Fra n c is co-O akland, C a lif. , by ind ustry d ivision , Jan ua ry 1957)
A verage

S e x , o c c u p a tio n , and in d u s t ry d iv is i o n

Number
of
workers

N U M B E R OF WORKERS R E CE IVIN G STRA IGH T-TIM E W E E K L Y E AR NING S OF—
$

Weekly.
hours
(Standard)

Weekly ,
earnings
(Standard)

$

4 0 .0 0
and
under
45, 00.,

$

$

$

$
75. 00 $80. 00

*85. 00

*9 0 .0 0

4 5 .0 0

5 0 .0 0

55. 00

60. 00

$
65. 00

70. 00

5 0 . 00

5 5 .0 0

6 0 .0 0

6 5 .0 0

70. 00

75. 00

80. 00

8 5 .0 0

9 0 .0 0

294

438
45
393
52
30
12
273

359
177
182
19
12
14
119

172
85
87
7
18
12
37

145

112
50
62

22

-

4
1
1
1

14
14

27

15

-

662
217
445
32
118
26
246

253
132
121
14
47
20
34

49
26
23
3
16

77
27
50
6

26
23
3

.
_
■

3

_
_

*9 5 .0 0 1*00.00 1*05. 00 1*10.00 1*15.00 ? 2 0 .0 0 ?25. 00
an d

95. 00 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 11 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 125. 00

over

W o m e n - C on tin u ed
$

T y p i s t s , c l a s s A ----------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g -------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------------------------------------P u b li c u t ilit ie s * ---------------------------------------------------------W h o le s a l e t r a d e -----------------------------------------------------------R e t a il t r a d e --------------------------------------------------------------------F in a n c e * * ------------------------------------------------------------------------

1 ,2 3 3
198
98
812

3 9 .0
4 0 .0
3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .0

T y p i s t s , c l a s s B ------------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u fa c t u r i n g ---------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g -------------------------------------------------------------P u b li c u t ilit ie s * -----------------------------------------------------------W h o le s a l e t r a d e -----------------------------------------------------------R e t a il t r a d e -------------------------------------------------------------------F in a n c e * * ------------------------------------------------------------------------

3 ,1 0 9
643
2 ,4 6 6
108
398
131
1 ,6 0 8

3 9 .0
39. 5
3 9 .0
3 9 .0
4 0 .0
3 9 .5
3 8 .5

1 ,7 1 6

w r~

64

6 6 .0 0
7 2 .0 0
6 3 .5 0
70. 50
65. 50
6 3 .0 0
6 1 .0 0

3 9 .0

39. 5

5 7 .0 0
62. 50
5 6 .0 0
6 1 .0 0

57. 50
5 9 .0 0
5 4 .0 0

-

22

-

-

-

22

373

373
1
6

_
3 66

134
-

134
6

16

22

2
126

278
37
25
23
193

420

703

846

58

l6o

645
3
58
31
493

686
46
75
45
443

_
-

420
3
75
5
326

-

4

“

88

57
18
10

-

44

2

-

-

26

-

-

“

■

14

.
‘

_
_
-

.
_
-

.
_
_
-

.
-

.
_
_
.

_
_
.
'

_
_
_

_
_
_
.

■

-

"

_
-

_
_
_
_
-

.
_
.
_
_

_
_

_
_

.
_
_

.
_
_
.
_
.
.
_
_

_
_

-

1 Standard hours reflect the w orkweek for which employees receive their reg ular stra ig h t-tim e salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
2 Includes 48 w orkers at $35 and under $40.
3 Includes 4 w orke rs at $35 and under $40.
* Transportation (excluding ra ilro a d s ), com m unication, and other public u tilities.
** Finance, insurance, and re a l estate.

Ta b le A - 2 : Professional a nd Technical O ccupatio ns
(Average stra ig h t-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
in San F ra n c is co -O a k la n d , C a lif. , by ind ustry d ivision, Jan ua ry 1957)
Average
Number

of

Weekly
(Standard)

Sex, occupation, and ind ustry division

workers

Weekly
earnings 1
(Standard)

N U M B E R OF WORKERS RE C E IV IN G STRA IGH T-TIM E W E E K L Y E AR N IN G S OF—

Under
$
60. 00

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
60. 00 65.00 70. 00 75.00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130. 00 135.00 140. 00
and
and
under
65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115. 00 120.00 125. 00 130.00 135. 00 140. 00 over

Men
D raftsm en, le a d e r --------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu rin g ------------------------------------------------------------------------

101
86

39.5
39.5

$
122.00
121.00

_

_

_

_

_

_

.

_

-

-

-

-

"

-

‘

"

14
14

.
~

7
7

2
2

8
8

23
15

28
25

10
10

4
1

5
4

D raftsm en, s e n i o r --------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u fa c tu rin g -----------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g ----------------------------------------------------------------

411
275
136

40.0
39. 5
40.0

104.50
107. 50
98. 50

-

-

4
4

10
10

20
l2
8

9
1
8

2
2

22
18
4

51
25
26

70
52
18

83
48
35

63
49
14

42
41
1

25
2l
4

4
3
1

-

1
1
-

5
4
l

D raftsm en, jun io r --------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu rin g -----------------------------------------------------------------------N o nm an ufa ctu rin g ----------------------------------------------------------------

181
109
72

40.0
~4070~
40.0

26
8
18

1
1

22
4
18

25
23
2

15
l5
'

31
24
7

33
20
13

18
6
12

4
4
“

"

-

-

■

-

.
-

“

-

150
119

40. 0
40. 0

6
3"

30
28

30
21

24
20

11
4

22
2Q

11
11

10
9

1
1

2
2

1

-

-

-

-

.

80. 50
6
82. 00 -------- 5
1
78. 00

Women
Nu rse s, ind ustria l (r e g is t e r e d )------------------------------------------Manufacturing

83. 50
84. 50

2

_

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their reg ular stra ig h t-tim e salaries and the earnings correspond to these w eekly hours.
Occupational Wage S urvey, San F ra n c is co -O a k la n d , C a lif ., January 1957
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
Bureau of La bo r Statistics




9
T a b le

A -3:

M a in te n a n c e a n d

P o w e r p la n t O c c u p a tio n s

(Average h ou rly earnings for men in selected occupations studied on an area basis
in San F ra n c is co -O a k la n d , C a lif. , by industry d ivision, Jan ua ry 1957)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
Number
of
workers

Occupation and ind ustry division

Average1 $
hourly
1. 80
earnings
and
under
1.90

C a rpe nte rs, m a in ten an ce ---------------------------------------Manufacturing _ _ _ __ ________ _
____
N o nm anufacturing___ __ _______ _
Public utilities * _________________________

334
229
105
31

$
2.
2.
2.
2.

E le c tric ia n s , maintenance
„ __ ______ _ _
M a n ufa cturin g _______________________________

667
516
525

70
66
80
53

1.90

2. 00

$
2. 10

$
2. 20

$
2. 30

2.00

2. 10

2. 20

2. 30

2. 40

$

$

2. 70

2. 80

2. 90

3. 00

3. 10

3. 20

3. 30

3. 40

3. 50

64
26
38
6
-

27
6
21
5
-

-

8
6

64
63

11
4
_

12
12
-

28
1
27
15

-

18
4

2. 38
2. 43

1
-

__
___

1,095
835

2. 20
2. 2$

3
3

124
16

199
89

76
57

628
625

29
---

M achine-tool operators, to o lro o m ____ _ ___
M a n ufa cturin g _______________________________

155
155

2. 64
2. 64

_

.

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

12
12

M achinists, maintenance _
___ __ ___ ___
M a n ufa cturin g _______ _____________________
No nm an ufa ctu rin g______ __________________

1,517
1,425
92

2. 70
2. 71
2. 58

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

Mechanics, automotive (maintenance)
M a n ufa cturin g _______________________________
__ ________ __ _ __
Nonm anufacturing
Public utilities *

889
111
778
705

2. 65
2. 68
2.65
2. 65

.
-

_
-

2
2
-

Mechanics, m aintenance______________________
M a n u fa ctu rin g ______________________________
N o nm an ufa ctu rin g----- -------------------- _ __

723
646
77

2. 63
2. 65
2. 50

_
-

1
1
-

M illw rig h ts
__
Manufacturing

152
2. 66
152 ----- F 7 S V ~

_

184

2. 17

2. 60

102
64
38
37
-

_
-

129
103

O ile rs
_ _
__ _ ________ ______ ____
M a n ufa cturin g ______________________________

2. 50

6
6
-

_
-

F ire m e n , stationary b o ile r __ ___
_
____
Manufacturing
- „ _____
__ ________ _

_____________________ _ ___
__ ________ __ ____ ___

3. 40

143
4
139
22
36

54
77
37
48
25

298
81
52

H e lpe rs, trades, maintenance ___________
Manufacturing __ ____ __ __________

3. 30

136
136

-

2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

_

3. 20

300
183

-

.

24
25

17
-------- T V 55
-------- w ~

78
31
47
-

-

2
1

16
16

30
29

-

48
46

2
2

2
2

68
58
10
5
*

2
2
2
-

2
2
2
-

2
2
2
-

11
10
1
1

48
48
-

10
10
-

_
-

.
-

_

_

1
1

_

_

-

.

-

1
1

-

_

_

_

.

_

-

-

8
8

_

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

■

64
64

42
42

16
16

_

.

_

_

-

1
1

*

-

-

-

.
-

2
1
1

9
3
6

61
61
-

102
36
66

798
78l
17

308
306
2

19
19
-

86
86
-

49
49
-

10
10
-

72
72
-

1
1
-

-

_
-

10
10
-

4
2
2
2

6
6
6

14
7
7
7

58
4
54
54

682
55
627
575

93
29
64
59

10
7
3
-

4
2
2
2

6
5
1
-

-

_
-

_
-

-

_
-

_
-

1
1
-

12
12

36

178
155
23

74
49
25

118
105
13

233
227
6

_

2
2
-

66
66
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

2
2
-

-

-

_

.

.

_

3
3

_

_

_

-

-

6
6

_

-

10
10

_

-

113
113

_

-

17
n —

_

17
-------T7

78
78

45
10

16
16

.
-

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

12
12

-

-

-

63
1
62
-

11
7
4
4

38
23
15
15

60
28
32
7

85

8
8

_
-

_
-

-

-

38
21
17
-

2
2
-

1
1

15
14

77
------71------

_

.

-

2 24
24

22

30

-

_

1

4

_

_

-------- T W ~ — 2 7 T T

26

10

-

3
3

_
-

—

8
8
-------- g----- ----------r l

308
170
138
27

2.
2.
2.
2.

57
64
49
43

_
-

.
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1
1

P ip efitte rs, maintenance ____
__ _ __ _
M a n ufa cturin g ______ ____ ______ ___

371
345

2/69
2. 69

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

1
1

S heet-m etal w o rk e rs, m ain ten an ce ___________

53

2. 60

.

.

-

-

-

1

-

T o o l and die makers __________________________
M a n u fa ctu rin g ______________________________

891

2.97
2. 97

_

_

_

_

_

2

_

1 Excludes pre m ium pay for overtim e and fo r w ork on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
2 A ll w orkers were at $3. 50 to $ 3 .6 0 .
* Tran sp ortation (excluding ra ilro a d s ), com m unication, and other public utilities.
** Finance, insurance, and real estate.




-

2
2

-

-

.

3
3

3. 50
and
over

20
20

P ain te rs, maintenance ________________________
________
Manufacturing „ _______ _______
No nm an ufa ctu rin g__________________________
Public utilities * __ ___ ___
____
_

W T~

$

3. 10

45
24

2
-

$

3. 00

73
73

_

$

$

2. 90

7
4

_

$

2. 80

4
4
"

2. 71
2. 74

$

2. 70

7
4
3
3

-

Engineers, s t a t io n a r y _________________________
M a n ufa cturin g _______________________________
N o nm an ufa ctu rin g__________________________
R etail trade _ __ ________ __
___ „
____ ___
____ __
Finance ** __ __

TFT

$

$

$
2. 60

115
107
8
1

-

4
-

$
2. 50

80
56
24
22

-

5
1
4
4

$
2. 40

1
1

-

17
3
14
-

$

3

-

_

.

_

-

-

-

_
-

-

-

_
-

_

_

-

_

-

-

21
21

-

-

-

_

_

-

_

-

-

20
41

_

_

232
213

2
2
-

-

3
-

41

664
~F54

77
77

54
54

_

28

-

-

-

-

_

82

20

-

-

_

-

28

Occupational Wage S urvey, San Fra n c is co -O a k la n d , C a li f ., Jan ua ry 1957
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B ure au of La b o r Statistics

10
T a b le A - 4 :

C u s to d ia l a n d M a te r ia l M o v e m e n t O c c u p a tio n s

( A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s fo r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n s s tu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
in S a n F r a n c i s c o - O a k l a n d , C a l i f . , b y in d u s t ry d iv is io n , J a n u a ry 1957)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
Number
of
workers

O c c u p a tio n 1 and in d u s t r y d iv is i o n

Average
hourly 2 $ 1. 10
earnings
and
under
1.2 0

$

$
1. 20

*1 . 30

1 .4 0

$ 1. 50

1. 30

1 .4 0

1.5 0

1. 60

$

,
1. 60

$1. 70

1. 70

1. 80

$

1.80
1.90

$

1.9 0
2. 00

$

2. 00

$ 2. 10

2. 10

2. 20

$

$
2. 20

2. 30

2. 30

2 .4 0

$

2 .4 0

$ 2. 50

2. 50

2 .6 0

$

$

$

2. 60

2 .7 0

2. 80

2 .7 0

2. 80

and
over

E le v a t o r o p e r a t o r s , p a s s e n g e r (m e n ) ____________
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g _____ ___________________________
F in a n c e * *
_

369
351
128

$
1.62
1.61
1. 75

-

-

6
6
6

2
2
1

35
27
10

150
147
110

22
19
-

-

-

-

-

-

143
143
1

11
7

-

-

-

-

-

-

E l e v a t o r o p e r a t o r s , p a s s e n g e r ( w o m e n ) _________
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g
_
.... _
R e t a il t r a d e

298
260
134

1 .7 5
1.72
1. 74

2
2
2

3
3
3

15
15
15

24
24
1

7
7

5
5

91
91

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2
2

31
-

-

118
111
111

-

-

G u a r d s _ _________ __ __________________________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g ________________________________________
________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
P u b li c u t ilit ie s *
__
F i n a n c e * * ___ ___________________________________

536
295
241
34
127

1. 85
2. 03
1.63
1.69
1.6 8

_
-

2
2
-

107
107
6
23

30
3
27
6
21

39
2
37
17
20

66
57
9
1
8

128
103
25
25

41
38
3
2
1

51
51
-

9
9
-

2

28
28
2
26

24
22
2
-

-

1
1
1

-

-

-

J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , and c l e a n e r s ( m e n ) ___________
M a n u fa c t u r in g
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
__
_
P u b li c u t i l i t i e s *
W h o le s a l e tr a d e
R e t a il t r a d e _______________________________________
F i n a n c e * * _________________________________________

4, 315
1,4 1 5
2 ,9 0 0
457
122
424
595

1. 81
1.96
1. 74
1. 74
1.85
1.7 2
1 .7 6

_
-

3
3
2
1

254
8
246
3
2
36

125
125
55
33
13

197
13
184
65
17
6

293
58
235
48
6
52
32

1017
61
956
23
29
16
531

1186
323
863
164
46
234
8

727
531
196
96
39
5
2

151
90
61
3
15
2

342
311
31
14

20
20
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

*

-

J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , an d c l e a n e r s (w o m e n ) .
M a n u fa c t u r in g
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g
_
_
....... .
P u b li c u t i l i t i e s *
R e t a i l t r a d e _____ _______________________________
F i n a n c e * * ___ ___________________________________

618
81
537
44
70
246

1.72
1.8 2
1.71
1.5 8
1.75
1 .7 5

3 2
2
-

5

54
10
44
33
1

13
6
7
3
4

323
4
319
3

116
25
91
1
54

27
27

7
7

-

-

6
6

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

245

“

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

“

~

"

18

50
_

_

_

_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_

L a b o r e r s , m a t e r i a l h a n d lin g
M a n u f a c t u r in g
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g
_ _
____
P u b li c u t i l i t i e s * . . . . .
W h o le s a l e t r a d e
R e t a il t r a d e
_ ... .

5,335
2, 551
2, 784
958
1, 356
467

O r d e r fi lle r s
M a n u f a c t u r in g _
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g
...........
W h o le s a l e t r a d e __________________________________
R e t a il t r a d e _______________________________________

1, 532
410
1, 122
945
177

2. 10
2. 18
2 .0 7
2. 06
2. 12

P a c k e r s , s h ip p in g (m e n )
M a n u f a c t u r in g _ _ _ _ _
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g
W h o le s a l e t r a d e _________________________________
R e t a il t r a d e
___ .

664
356
308
203
103

1.99
2 .0 2
1.96
1.99
1. 89

P a c k e r s , sh ip p in g (w o m e n )
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g

354
64

1 .6 4
l.* 4

465
201
264
152
99

2. 17
2. 18
2. 16
2. 13
2 .2 1

R e c e iv i n g c l e r k s _ _
M a n u fa c t u r in g
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g _
W h o le s a le t r a d e _ _
R e t a il t r a d e
_ _

_ ...
_

_

. .

. .

.....

S e e fo o tn o te s at end o f t a b le .
* T r a n s p o r t a t i o n (e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) ,
* * F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e .




42 . 07
2 . 01
2. 12
2. 25
2. 00
2. 20

*

-

5

3
3

-

-

-

-

5

3

62
62
4
1

-

-

~

-

-

-

-

_

4

-

-

-

-

-

-

4
4

4

-

-

-

-

4

18
6
6
6

48
29
19
9
6
4

40

-

2

8
7
1

_

15
-

15

-

-

19
11
8

-

-

1

-

15

8

12
12

14

32

-

-

-

14

32

4
1
3

-

-

-

2

-

2

4

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

*

_

-

17
3

50
6

14

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

c o m m u n ic a t io n , an d o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .

-

40
2
31
7

1619
924
695
64
620
11

228
115
113
3
73
36

640
85
555
310
11
232

537
76
461
416
45

426
178
248
226
22

196
196
179
17

143
10
133
98
35

42
11
31
26
5

142
130
12

9
6
3

19
--------14
5

14

32

3

367
140
227
197
30

-

212
2

38
32

3
3

20
16

_

1

5
2
3

15
4
11

-

-

2

9

_

-

-

1

-

-

1

_

_

12

2

65
53
12
6
6

_

_

_

-

180
92
88
75
10

121
--------3 i
87
52
35

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

315
-----309
280
8
21

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

“

10
10
-

_

_

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

202
8
194
180
_

50
_
_

_
_
_
_
_

14

50

-

-

-

8
8

93
72
21

_
_

45
45

_

_

8

-

_
-

21

_
_

_
_
_

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_
_
_

4

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

.

.

-

58
25
33
21
5

-

-

2165
1384
781
100
601
80

-

-

38
16
22
-

22

“

16
4
12
2
10

29
24
5

-

-

-

_

2

_

-

-

2
2

-

5

-

-

-

-

O c c u p a tio n a l W a g e S u r v e y , San F r a n c i s c o - O a k l a n d , C a l i f . , J a n u a ry 1957
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s

11
T a b le A - 4 :

C u s to d ia l a n d M a te r ia l M o v e m e n t O c c u p a tio n s - C o n tin u e d

(A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d on an a r e a b a s i s
in Sa n F r a n c i s c o - O a k l a n d , C a l i f . , b y in d u s t ry d iv is io n , J a n u a ry 1957)
NUMBER OF WORKEBS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
O c c u p a tio n 1 an d in d u s t r y d iv is i o n

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly *
earnings

$
1. 10
under
1 .2 0

S h ip p in g c l e r k s
__ _____________ _ ___
_____
M a n u fa c t u r in g
_
. .
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
______________________________
W h o le s a l e t r a d e ________________________________

255
110
145
105

$
2. 19
2. 17
2 .2 1
2. 19

S h ip pin g and r e c e iv i n g c l e r k s ______________________
M a n u f a c t u r in g ______________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
W h o le s a le t r a d e ______________________________
R e t a il t r a d e _____________________________________

559
205
354
231
106

2. 30
2 .2 7
2 .3 2
2 .4 0
2. 14

T r u c k d r i v e r s 5 _________________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r in g
____________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
_______________________________
P u b li c u t ilit ie s * _______________________________
W h o le s a le t r a d e ______________________
_______
__________________________________ _
R e t a il t r a d e

4, 160
785
3, 380
1, 976
897
425

2 .4 2
2 .5 0
2 .4 0
2. 37
2. 39
2. 53

T r u c k d r i v e r s , lig h t (u n d e r lY?, t o n s ) _
M a n u f a c t u r in g __________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ____________________________
P u b li c u t ilit ie s * _________________________
W h o le s a le t r a d e ____________________________

457
165
292
60
129

2. 37
2 .4 8
2 .3 0
2 .2 3
2 .2 9

T r u c k d r i v e r s , m e d iu m (1 Yz to and
in c lu d in g 4 t o n s ) ___________ __________________
M a n u f a c t u r in g __________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
_________________ ______
P u b li c u t ilit ie s * ___________________________
W h o le s a le t r a d e ____________________________
R e t a il tr a d e ___________ __________________

1, 728
370
1, 358
730
322
297

T r u c k d r i v e r s , h e a v y ( o v e r 4 to n s ,
t r a i l e r t y p e ) ______________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r in g _________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ____________________________
P u b li c u t ilit ie s * __________________________

911
133
778
544

$
1 .4 0

$
1. 20

1 .3 0

'
1 .3 0

$
1 .5 0

$
1. 60

~

$

"

~
1. 70

1 .5 0

1 .4 0

1 .6 0

2. 00

2. 10

1 .9 0

"
2 .0 0

■
2. 10

"
2 .2 0

194
27
167
167
"

25
23
2
2

-

"

-

87
5
82
29
43
10

525
71
454
363
90
-

902
180
722
370
269
3

1532
204
1328
812
395
121

732
61
671
344
88
239

152
145
7
7

89
79
10
10

58
3i
25
25

81
2
79
26
43

55
34
21
21

178
36
142
29
39

2
2
-

30
1
29
26

88
88
-

1
1
-

6
6
-

447
28
419
349
69

261
90
171
36
15
120

206
20
186
32
154

35
28
7
7

77
77
-

34
2b
14
14

-

530
Ti
457
315

332
21
311
229

29
29

11
1
10

639
600
361
238

84
19
65
35
30

"
“
“

25
2
23
20

4
1
3
3

-

_
-

-

-

10
10
10
-

23
1
22
9
12

_

-

-

-

2

-

_
-

_
-

13
13
13
-

6
6
6
-

8
8
8
-

-

-

-

-

-

23
1
22
12
10

_

_

-

-

_
-

4
4
4

12
1
11
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4
4
4
-

13
13
12

3
3
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

648
104
544
341
194
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

-

~

-

-

-

-

-

■

9
9
~

“

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

■
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

"

'
~
~

76
40
36
36

32
32
-

367
“ T it
149
50
88

313
305
8
6

33
9
24

"

268
238
30
15

67
67

19
lb

84
84

7
7

53
48
5

59
47
12

-

2
2

-

-

-

_

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

39
51
36
30
33
53

-

-

-

-

-

2 .4 9
2. 50
2 .4 8
2 .4 8

-

-

817
111
706
396
304

2 .4 5
2 .4 9
2 .4 4
2 .4 3
2 .4 5

T r u c k e r s , p o w e r (f o r k li f t )
______________________
M a n u f a c t u r in g _____________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
-------- ------------------------- —
P u b li c u t ilit ie s * ____________________________ _
W h o le s a le t r a d e ________________________________

1, 069
8 l9
250
79
134

2. 16
2. 15
2 .2 0
2. 19
2. 19

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

-

-

"

-

-

-

T r u c k e r s , p o w e r (o th e r th an f o r k l i f t ) __________
M a n u fa c t u r in g ____ ______________________________

269

2 .2 5
2 .2 6

_

_

.

_

_

.

.

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

_ __________________________________________
W a tc h m e n _
M a n u fa c t u r in g ________ _____________ ________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
___________ ________________

408
251
157

1. 86
1.91
1 .7 8

9

18
7
11

13
7
6

4
2
2

9

1

11
------42----n
------ 5-----25
5

1 D a t a l im it e d to m e n w o r k e r s , e x c e p t w h e r e o t h e r w is e in d ic a te d .
2 E x c lu d e s p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t im e an d f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and la te s h ifts .
3 A l l w o r k e r s w e r e a t $1 to $ 1 . 10
4 C e r t a i n m a n u fa c t u r in g w o r k e r s in c lu d e d in e a r l i e r r e p o r t s w e r e r e c l a s s i f i e d an d e x c lu d e d .
5 In c lu d e s a l l d r i v e r s r e g a r d l e s s o f s iz e a n d type o f tr u c k o p e ra t e d .
* T r a n s p o r t a t i o n (e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .

"
39
4
35

—

64
¥3—
19

14
14
-

25
20
94
~ Z 8 -----26

and
over

107
39
68
31
24

_
-

-

2. 70

43
39
4
4

-

-

2. 80

■
2 .8 0

84
32
52
50

2
2
-

_
-

2 .7 0

74
45
29
20
9

-

-

2. 50

$

2. 60

6
6

_
-

2 .4 0

~
2. 60

26
20
6
2

-

17
17
15

2. 30

$

$
2. 50

■

49
16
33
25

-

-

$
2 .4 0

16
3
13
6

-

-

$
2 .3 0

48
10
38
29

-

-

2 .2 0

74
39
35
35

"

-

-

$

$

1 .9 0

T r u c k d r i v e r s , h e a v y ( o v e r 4 to n s , o th e r
th an t r a i l e r t y p e ) _________________ _________ _
M a n u f a c t u r in g _________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ____________________________
P u b li c u t ilit ie s * __________________________
W h o le s a l e t r a d e ____________________________




$

$

$
1 .8 0

"
1. 80

_
-

-

_

2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

$
1. 70

32
22
10
6

-

2
2

$

-

H a d th ey b e e n in c lu d e d the e a r n in g s w o u ld h av e b e e n :

-

_
18

A l l in d u s t r i e s ,

-

-

2
2
2

-

-

13
13
13

-

-

-

'

_

'
"
-

18
13
5

"

'

13

-

13

■
“

“

“
"

-

/

13

7
?

60
60

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

$2 . 13; m a n u fa c t u r in g ,

-

$ 2 . 13.




B: Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions

T a b le

B-1 :

S h ift

D iffe r e n tia l

P r o v is io n s '

P e r c e n t o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g p la n t w o r k e r s —
(a )
In e s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v i n g
fo r m a l p ro v is io n s fo r —

S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l

S e c o n d s h if t
w o rk

T h ird o r oth e r
s h if t w o r k

(b )
A c t u a lly w o r k in g on—

S e c o n d s h if t

T h ird o r oth e r
s h if t

9 2 .9
W i t h s h if t p a y d i f f e r e n t i a l
U n ifo r m
4
5
6
7
8

c e n ts (p e r h o u r )

c en ts
c en ts
c en ts
c en ts
c en ts

9 2 .0

1 6 .3

4 .8

________________________________

9 2 .9

9 2 .0

1 6 .3

4 .8

___________________________________________

4 8 .5

3 5 .8

9 .7

3 .9

____________

________ __ __ __
____ _______________ ___________ __
_
_________ ______ ____
________________ __ _
________ ____________________________ __ __ ________
______________________________________________ ________ ________ __
9 .3

9 c e n t s ______________________________ ________________________________
___
_ _____
__
___
___________
10 c e n t s
13 c e n t s
13 73 c e n t s __________________________ __ . . _______________ __ __
14 c e n t s
15 c e n t s
_
___
16 c e n t s
_ ______ ______ ________
20 c e n t s
23 c e n t s _________________________ ______ __________
_____________
30 c e n t s

2 .4
1 .8
5 .0
3. 1
1 1 .9
-

_
.9
2 .4
1 .0
5 .0
4. 1

.6
.3
1 .2
.4
1 .6
-

_
. 1
.6
.2
.8

2 .2
-

t
. 3

1 .7
.8
-

. 1
.2
1 .0

-

1 .9
.8
4 .6
7 .3
3 .7
2 .5
1 .5

_____________________________________ ______________

8 .9

7 .9

1 .2

5 p e r c e n t ___________________________________________________ ________
10 p e r c e n t ____ ____ _________________________ _______________________
15 p e r c e n t ________ _ ____________ ______
_______________ __

1 .7

_

t

_

7. 1

1 .7
6 .2

1 .2
-

t
t

_

U n ifo r m p e rc e n ta g e

____

-

.8
_

-

"

-

_
__________

_____

_______

1 .5

_

3 5 .5

F u l l d a y 's p a y f o r r e d u c e d h o u r s
O th e r2
N o s h if t p a y d i f f e r e n t i a l __________

7 .3
2 .5
5 .3
_

4 6 .9

5 .3

"

”

"

.6

. 1

.8
"

1 S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l d a t a a r e p r e s e n t e d in t e r m s o f ( a ) e s t a b l i s h m e n t p o l i c y , a n d ( b ) w o r k e r s a c t u a l l y e m p l o y e d o n l a t e
a t th e t i m e o f t h e s u r v e y .
A n e s t a b l i s h m e n t w a s c o n s i d e r e d a s h a v i n g a p o l i c y i f i t m e t e i t h e r o f th e f o l l o w i n g c o n d i ­
( l ) O p e r a t e d l a t e s h i f t s a t th e t i m e o f t h e s u r v e y , o r ( 2 ) h a d f o r m a l p r o v i s i o n s c o v e r i n g l a t e s h i f t s .
2 P r im a r ily
c o m b i n a t i o n p l a n s p r o v i d i n g f u l l d a y 's p a y f o r r e d u c e d h o u r s p l u s a p e r c e n t a g e d i f f e r e n t i a l .
M o s t o th e r
p l a n s p r o v i d e f u l l d a y 's p a y f o r r e d u c e d h o u r s p l u s e i t h e r a f l a t s u m p e r s h if t o r p e r w e e k , o r a p a i d l u n c h p e r i o d .
f
L e s s th a n 0 . 0 5 p e r c e n t .

s h ift s
tio n s :

O c c u p a t io n a l W a g e S u r v e y ,

S a n F r a n c i s c o - O a k l a n d , C a l i f . , J a n u a r y 1957
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a tis tic s

13

Table B-2:
N um ber

Minimum Entrance Rates for W o m e n Office W o rk e rs 1

o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w it h s p e c i f i e d
M a n u fa c tu rin g

M in im u m r a t e
(w e e k ly s a l a r y )

A ll
s c h e d u le s

250

N u m b e r o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w it h s p e c i f i e d m i n i m u m h i r i n g r a t e in —

N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g

M a n u fa c tu rin g

B a s e d on s t a n d a r d w e e k ly h o u r s 2 o f—

A ll
in d u s t rie s

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s s t u d i e d _____________________ ___________

m in im u m h i r i n g r a t e in —

83

40

XXX

A ll
s c h e d u le s

167

37 Va

383
/4

XXX

XXX

A ll
s c h e d u le s

40

250

XXX

83

$ 3 5 .0 0
$ 3 7 .5 0
$ 4 0 .0 0
$ 4 2 .5 0
$ 4 5 .0 0
$ 4 7 .5 0
$ 5 0 .0 0
$ 5 2 .5 0
$ 5 5 .0 0
$ 5 7 .5 0
$ 6 0 .0 0
$ 6 2 .5 0
$ 6 5 .0 0
$ 6 7 .5 0
$ 7 0 .0 0
$ 7 2 .5 0
$ 7 5 .0 0

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

......... .

u n d e r $ 3 7 . 5 0 _________________________
u n d e r $ 4 0 .0 0
u n d e r $ 4 2 . 5 0 _________________________
u n d e r $ 4 5 . 0 0 _________________________
u n d e r $ 4 7 .5 0
u n d e r $ 5 0 .0 0
u n d e r $ 5 2 .5 0
u n d e r $ 5 5 .0 0
u n d e r $ 5 7 .5 0
u n d e r $ 6 0 . 0 0 _________________________
u n d e r $ 6 2 . 5 0 _________________________
u n d e r $ 6 5 .0 0
u n d e r $ 6 7 .5 0
_
_ _
u n d e r $ 7 0 .0 0
u n d e r $ 7 2 . 5 0 _________________________
u n d e r $ 7 5 .0 0
o v e r ______________ ___________________

A ll
s c h e d u le s

38 3
/4

40

XXX

167

XXX

37 Vz

XXX

XXX

6

53

_
_

_
_

1
1
_

117

43

33

74

14

7

46

132

50

39

82

16

_

_

_

_

_

>
_
_
_

1
_

_
_

.
_
_

_

_
_

_
_

!

1

1
5
4
1
1

-

9
5
5
3
3
_

2
7
3
6
4
5
2
2
_

7
2

2
1

2
_

5
1

1
_
_
_
_

2
3
9
2
6
8
3
3
2
_
_
_

1
1
3
8
15
6
14
3
7
7
5
4
4
2
2
_

1
_

5
14
7
15
5
6
7
4
4
_
_

_
_
_
_

-

-

-

-

-

1
-

1

XXX

48

XXX

XXX

XXX

44

XXX

XXX

1

XXX

-

5
15
10
23
8
15
12
9
7
3

1
3
8
3

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v i n g no
s p e c i f i e d m i n im u m

71

23

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s w h i c h d id n o t e m p lo y
w o r k e r s in t h is c a t e g o r y
______

61

17

D a t a n o t a v a i l a b l e ________________________________________

40

For Other Inexperienced Clerical Workers 3

For Inexperienced Typists

E s t a b lis h m e n t s h a v in g a
s p e c ifie d m in im u m

N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g

B a s e d on s t a n d a r d w e e k ly h o u r s 2 o f—

A ll
in d u s t r ie s

1

1
_

1
1
1
_
2
1
_
1
_
_
_
_

1
3

3
6
2
11
4
3

5
3
3

1
6
9
8
7

1

2
2
1

1
5

1
2
4
12
3
6
9
4
4
3
_
_

9
17
10
26
6
13

1

_
_
_

2
2
5
1
3
_
1
1
_
_
_
_
_
_

1
_
_
_
_

4
7
4
9
3
5
5
5
3
4
2
2
_

-

-

-

-

XXX

1
_
1
1

1

1
1

XXX

71

21

XXX

50

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

46

12

XXX

34

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

1

XXX

1

XXX

XXX

XXX

'

1 L o w e s t s a l a r y r a t e f o r m a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d f o r h i r i n g i n e x p e r i e n c e d w o r k e r s f o r t y p in g o r o t h e r c l e r i c a l j o b s .
2 H o u r s r e f l e c t th e w o r k w e e k f o r w h i c h e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e t h e i r r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t i m e
s a la r ie s .
D ata a r e p re se n te d
re p o rted .
3 R a t e s a p p l i c a b l e to m e s s e n g e r s , o f f i c e g i r l s , o r s i m i l a r s u b c l e r i c a l j o b s a r e n o t c o n s i d e r e d .




fo r

a ll

w o rk w e e k s

c o m b in e d ,

O c c u p a t io n a l W a g e S u r v e y ,

and

fo r

th e

m ost

com m on w o rk w eek

S a n F r a n c i s c o - O a k l a n d , C a l i f . , J a n u a r y 1957
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s

14

Table B-3:

Scheduled W e e k ly Hours

P E R C E N T OF O FF ICE W O R K ER !# E M P L O Y E D I N —

W e e k ly h o u rs
All
industries

Manufacturing

Public
utilities3
,
6

Wholesale
trade

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

100

100

100

100

U n d e r 37 % v ' u r s -----------------------------------------------------------------3 7 1 h o u r s --------------------------------------------------------------------------------/*
O v e r 3 7 l/a a n d u n d e r 3 8 ^ * h o u r s -------------------------------3 8 3 h o u r s --------------------------------------------------------------------------------/4
40 h o u r s -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 40 h o u r s -------------------------------------------------------------------------

5
19
4

8
14

t

5
8

-

t

Retail trade

A ll w o rk e rs

1
2
3
t
*
**

100

P E R C E N T OF P L A N T W O R K E R S E M P L O Y E D I N —

Fin ance**

Services

All
,
industries

100

100

3

7
83

12

66

97

t

11
-

30

10
-

6
80

t

11

t

88

48

86

9
87

t

10

100

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

100

100

t

t

-

t

9
64

7

Public
utilities *

100

t

_

_

t

6

-

-

12
-

t

94

Services

84

t
-

t

D a t a r e l a t e to w o m e n w o r k e r s o n ly .
I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r s e r v i c e s in a d d i t i o n to t h o s e i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r r e a l e s t a t e a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d i t i o n to t h o s e i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y ,
L e s s th an 2 . 5 p e r c e n t .
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ( e x c l u d i n g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a t io n , a n d o t h e r p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s .
F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , an d r e a l e s t a t e .

Table B~4:

Paid Holidays1

P E R C E N T OF O FF ICE W O R K E R S E M P L O Y E D I N —

It e m

A l l w o r k e r s ________________________________________________
W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g
p a id h o l i d a y s -----------------------------------------------------------------------2 h o l i d a y s ---------------------------------------------------------------------------3 h o l i d a y s --------------------------------------------------------------------------5 h o l i d a y s ---------------------------------------------------------------------------6 h o l i d a y s --------------------------------------------------------------------------6 h o l i d a y s p lu s 2 h a l f d a y s ------------------------------------7 h o l i d a y s --------------------------------------------------------------------------7 h o l i d a y s p lu s 1 h a l f d a y ---------------------------------7 h o l i d a y s p lu s 2 , 3, o r 4 h a l f d a y s --------------8 h o l i d a y s ----------------------------------------------------------------8 h o l i d a y s p lu s 1 h a l f d a y ----------------------------------8 h o l i d a y s p lu s 2 h a l f d a y s -------------------------------9 h o l i d a y s ----------------------------------- -----------------------------9 h o l i d a y s p lu s l h a l f d a y -----------------------------------1 0 h o l i d a y s a n d o v e r --------------------------------------------W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g n o
p a i d h o l i d a y s ------------------------------------------------------------ —

1
2
3
■f
*
**

Manufacturing

All
2
industries

Manufacturing

Public ^
utilities *

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

Finance * *

All
3
industries

Manufacturing

Public
utilities*

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

95

100

t

-

-

-

t

Services

100

99
16
.
_

91

100

-

3

-

-

-

-

-

t

t

-

.

4

-

-

-

t

t
t

t
t

t

6
-

3

-

-

-

47

68

23

78

21

t
t

t
t

-

82
7

31

23

36
5

t

-

-

13
-

5
-

3
-

t
-

21
5

-

-

10

t
t

t

9

t

t

t

3

4

-

t
69
-

t

-

E s t i m a t e s r e l a t e to h o l i d a y s p r o v i d e d a n n u a l ly .
I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r s e r v i c e s in a d d i t i o n to t h o s e i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r r e a l e s t a t e a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d i t i o n to t h o s e i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y ,
L e s s th a n 2 . 5 p e r c e n t .
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n (e x c l u d i n g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a t io n , a n d o t h e r p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s .
F in a n c e , in s u ra n c e , an d r e a l e sta te .




P E R C E N T OF P L A N T W O R K E R S E M P L O Y E D I N —

Services

-

-

4

7

4

t

t

-

-

-

51

61

24

55

60

6

-

-

-

41
-

t
t

t
t

28

19

t

t

t

-

70
-

-

-

-

5

9

t
-

O c c u p a t io n a l W a g e S u r v e y ,

-

4

t
17
_
_
-

t

S a n F r a n c i s c o - O a k l a n d , C a l i f . , J a n u a r y 19 57
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a tis tic s

15

Table B-5r

Paid Vacations

PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS EMPLOYED IN —

PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN —

V a c a t io n p o lic y
All
industries

Wholesale
trade

100

A ll w o rk e rs

Manufacturing

Public
utilities *

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100
99

100
100
-

100
100

100
100

100
100

100

99

Retail trade

Finance * *

Services

All
2
industries

Public *
utilities9

Wholesale
trade

100

100

100

100

100
100

100
100

Manufacturing

Retail trade

M ETHOD OF PAYM ENT
W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g
p a id v a c a t io n s
L e n g t h - o f - t i m e p a y m e n t _________________________
P e rc e n ta g e paym ent
O t h e r _____________________________________________________

-

-

89
11

100
77
22

100
100

-

-

-

-

*

-

-

t

t

-

-

-

t
-

t
-

100
66
100

100
65
100

100
60
100

100
28
100

100
17
100

100

100

100

91
100

29
100

29
100

100
74
100

100
10
100

100
6
100

2 w e e k s o r m o r e _________________________________________
6 m o n th s
_ . _ _
1 y e a r ___________________________________________________
_______________________________________________
2 years
3 y e a r s _________________________________________________
5 years

100
9
82
99
100
100

100

100

100

100

100

99

100

100

100

99
100
100

100
24
100
100
100
100

26
82
92
100

24
69
85
99

36
96
100
100

21
100
100
100

19
95
96
100

3 w eek s o r m o re
1 y e a r ________ _________________________________________
2 y e a r s _________________________________________________
3 y ears
5 y e a r s _________________________________________________
10 y e a r s
15 y e a r s
20 y e a r s ________________________________________________

88

82

94

88

89
-

-

3
17
23
93
93

-

11
78
78

11
33
90
90

19
75
94

t
4
6
11
31
87
88

100
-

-

27
81
88

t
t
8
8
32
81
82

88
4
7
8
11
29
86
88

93

t
t

9
11
15
93
93

5
5
27
100
100

18
42
89
89

24

22

29

26

19

28

17

19

18

15

18

t
t

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

t

-

-

--

-

-

r

t
t

t
t

-

-

-

t

26

3
17

4

29

8
28

A M O U N T O F V A C A T IO N P A Y
A N D S E R V IC E P E R IO D 3
1 w eek o r m o re
6 m o n th s
1 year

4 w eeks
5 y ears
10 y e a r s
15 y e a r s
20 y e a r s
25 y e a r s

.

......

__ __ ______________
______________________
_________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________

4
8

t
5
24

-

94

-

5
22

-

-

-

38
93
100
100

69
100
100
100

35
100
100
100

93
-

78

90
-

-

-

-

19

-

t
t

-

-

-

19

-

-

t
t
18

-

-

-

-

-

6
15

4

18

1 I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r s e r v i c e s in a d d i t i o n to t h o s e i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
2 I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r r e a l e s t a t e a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d i t i o n to t h o s e i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
3 P e r i o d s o f s e r v i c e w e r e a r b i t r a r i l y c h o s e n a n d d o n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t th e in d i v i d u a l p r o v i s i o n s f o r p r o g r e s s i o n .
F o r e x a m p l e , th e c h a n g e s in p r o p o r t i o n s in d i c a t e d a t 10 y e a r s ' s e r v i c e
in c lu d e c h a n g e s in p r o v i s i o n s o c c u r r i n g b e t w e e n 5 a n d 10 y e a r s .
E s t im a t e s a r e c u m u la tiv e .
T h u s , th e p r o p o r t i o n r e c e i v i n g 3 w e e k s ' p a y o r m o r e a f t e r 5 y e a r s i n c lu d e s t h o s e w h o r e c e i v e 3 w e e k s ! o r
m o re p ay a ft e r fe w e r y e a r s o f s e rv ic e .
t L e s s t h a n 2. 5 p e r c e n t .
* T r a n s p o r t a t i o n (e x c l u d i n g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a t io n , a n d o t h e r p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s .
* * F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , an d r e a l e s ta te .




O c c u p a t io n a l W a g e S u r v e y ,

San F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d ,
U .S .

NOTE:

In th e t a b u l a t i o n s o f v a c a t io n a l l o w a n c e s b y y e a r s o f s e r v i c e , p a y m e n t s o t h e r th a n " l e n g t h o f t i m e , "
s u c h a s p e r c e n t a g e o f a n n u a l e a r n i n g s o r f l a t - s u m p a y m e n t s , w e r e c o n v e r t e d to a n e q u i v a l e n t t i m e
b a s is :
F o r e x a m p l e , a p a y m e n t o f 2 p e r c e n t o f a n n u a l e a r n i n g s w a s c o n s i d e r e d a s 1 w e e k 's p a y .

C a lif. , J a n u a ry

1957

D EPARTM ENT OF LABOR
B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a tis tic s

16
Table B-5:

Paid Vacations - Continued

P E R C E N T OF O FFIC E W ORKERS EM PLO Y ED IN —
V a c a t io n p o lic y

All .
industries 1

M anufacturing

Public ^
u tilities*

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

P E R C E N T OF PLA N T W O RKERS EM PLO Y ED IN —
F inance* *

All ,
industries

Services

M anufacturing

Public ,
utilities *

Wholesale
trade

R etail trade

Services

P R E D O M IN A N T P R A C T IC E S A F T E R
“ S E L E C T E D Y E A R S O F S E R V IC E 4
1 w e e k ___________________________
2 w e e k s __________________________

XXX

XXX

61

XXX

65

XXX

63

54

61

79

81

81

93

XXX

69

XXX

98

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

2 y e a r s o r le s s:
3 y e a r s o r le s s :

2 w e e k s __________________________
2 w e e k s __________________________

98
96

98
92

92
96

100
100

99
100

98
98

75
84

62
76

81
85

94
94

95
96

5 y e a r s o r le s s:
10 y e a r s o r l e s s :

2 w e e k s __________________________
2 w eeks

86
68

92
68

82
76

96
85

89
67

86
67

88
66

89
69

84
80

92
71

82
58

15 y e a r s o r l e s s :
20 y e a r s o r l e s s :
25 y e a r s o r l e s s :

3 w e e k s __________________________
3 w eeks
3 w e e k s __________________________

81
83
64

81
77
60

92
92
64

78
78
53

90
88
72

75
85
66

87
85

86
84

91
91
75

100
94
85

89
85
70

1 y e a r o r le s s:

69

7
1
1 I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r s e r v i c e s in a d d i t i o n t o t h o s e i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s shov/n s e p a r a t e l y .
2 I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r r e a l e s t a t e a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d i t i o n to t h o s e i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
4
T h e p a y p r o v i s i o n a p p l i c a b l e to m o r e w o r k e r s th a n a n y o t h e r s i n g le p r o v i s i o n , f o r s e r v i c e u p to a n d in c lu d i n g th e in d i c a t e d n u m b e r o f y e a r s .
f o r th e in d i c a t e d s e r v i c e p e r i o d .
* T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ( e x c l u d i n g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a t io n , a n d o t h e r p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s .
* * F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , an d r e a l e s ta te .

Table B-6:

A l l w o r k e r s ______________________________________________

AU
industries

M anufacturing

10
0

le s s

Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans

PE R C E N T OF O FFIC E W ORKERS EM PLO Y ED IN —
T y p e o f p la n

E x c lu d e s w o r k e r s w ho re c e iv e m o r e o r

P E R C E N T OF PLA N T W O RK ERS EM PLO Y ED IN —

Public .
utilities *

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

94

90

95

97

79

10
0

40

57

13

46

39

37

72
31

64

92
39

73
19

48
28

80
41

55

53

53

56

55

19

7
80
80

t

8
8
8
8

1
1

1
6

81
32
72

82
81
73
18
48

82
87
84

27
72

32
42
42
42
15
82

t

t

“

t

AU ,
industries

M anufacturing

Public
utUities *

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

94

95

95

10
0

49

67

1
6

2
6

42
28

30

59

16

1
1

3

8
8

23
84
84
80
19
63

“

t

F inano e* *

Services

Services

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g :
L i f e i n s u r a n c e ______________________________________
A c c id e n ta l d eath and d is m e m b e r m e n t
i n s u r a n c e ___________________________________________
S ic k n e s s an d a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e
o r s i c k l e a v e o r b o th 3 _________________________
S i c k n e s s a n d a c c i d e n t i n s u r a n c e _________
S i c k l e a v e ( f u l l p a y a n d no
w a i t i n g p e r i o d ) _______________________________
S ic k le a v e (p a r t ia l p ay o r
w a i t in g p e r i o d ) ___________ __________________
H o s p i t a l i z a t i o n i n s u r a n c e _______________________
S u r g i c a l i n s u r a n c e ___ __ ___________________ __
M e d ic a l in s u r a n c e
C a t a s t r o p h e i n s u r a n c e ___________________________
R e t i r e m e n t p e n s i o n _______________________________
N o h e a lt h , i n s u r a n c e , o r p e n s io n p l a n _____

6
8

2
6

1
2

30
7

8
6
8
6
63
34

29

77
3

50
31

34

18

17

2
6

57
83
81
78

15
94
94

2
2

50
37
37
37

60

96

72

“

“

“

8
95
95
89

8
6

1 I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r s e r v i c e s in a d d i t i o n to t h o s e i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
2 I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r r e a l e s t a t e a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d i t i o n to t h o s e i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
3 U n d u p l ic a t e d t o t a l o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g s i c k l e a v e o r s i c k n e s s a n d a c c i d e n t i n s u r a n c e s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y b e l o w .
S i c k - l e a v e p la n s a r e l i m i t e d to t h o s e
m in im u m n u m b e r o f d a y s * p a y th a t c a n b e e x p e c t e d b y e a c h e m p l o y e e .
I n f o r m a l s i c k l e a v e a l l o w a n c e s d e t e r m i n e d o n a n in d i v i d u a l b a s i s a r e e x c l u d e d .
t L e s s th a n 2. 5 p e r c e n t .
* T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ( e x c l u d i n g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s .
* * F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , an d r e a l e s ta te .




8
6

64

O c c u p a tio n a l W a g e S u r v e y ,

93
13
40

1
6

w h ic h

t

d e fin it e ly

e s t a b li s h

a t l e a s t the

S a n F r a n c i s c o - O a k l a n d , C a l i f . , J a n u a r y 1957
U .S .

DEPARTM ENT OF LABOR
B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s

pay

17

Appendix: Job Descriptions
The prim ary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau*s wage surveys is to
assist its field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations w orkers who are employed under
a va riety of payroll titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment
and from area to area.
This is essential in order to perm it the grouping of occupational wage
rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on inter establishment and
interarea com parability of occupational content, the Bureau*s job descriptions may differ sign ifi­
cantly from those in use in individual establishments or those prepared for other purposes.
In
applying these job descriptions, the Bureau*s field representatives are instructed to exclude w ork­
ing supervisors, apprentices, learn ers, beginners, trainees, handicapped workers, part-tim e,
tem porary, and probationary w orkers.

Office

B IL L E R , MACHINE
P rep a res statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electrom atic typew riter. May also keep records
as to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerica l work in­
cidental to billing operations.
For wage study purposes, b illers,
machine, are classified by type of machine, as follows:
B ille r, machine (billing machine) - Uses a special billing
machine (Moon Hopkins, E lliott Fisher, Burroughs, etc. , which
are combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and
invoices from customers* purchase orders, internally prepared
orders, shipping memoranda, etc.
Usually involves application
of predeterm ined discounts and shipping charges and entry of
necessary extensions, which may or may not be computed on the
billing machine, and totals which are automatically accumulated
by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of
carbon copies of the bill being prepared and is often done on a
fanfold machine.
B ille r, machine (bookkeeping machine) - Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, E lliott Fisher, Remington Rand, etc. , which
may or may not have typew riter keyboard) to prepare customers*
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation.
Generally
involves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers* ledger
record.
The machine automatically accumulates figures on a
number of vertica l columns and computes and usually prints auto­
m atically the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowl­
edge of bookkeeping. Works from uniform and standard types of
sales and credit slips.
BOOKKEEPING-M ACHINE O PERATO R
Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash R egister, with or with­
out a typew riter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.




BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR - Continued
Class A - Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and fa m ilia rity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used.
D eter­
mines proper records and distribution of debit and credit items
to be used in each phase of the work.
May prepare consolidated
reports, balance sheets, and other records by hand.
Class B - Keeps a record of one or m ore phases or sections
of a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers* accounts (not including a simple type of billing de scribed
under b iller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc.
May check or assist in preparation of trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.
CLERK, ACCOUNTING
Class A - Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a com ­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase of an establish­
ment's business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or a c ­
counts payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with
proper accounting distribution; requires judgment and experience
in making proper assignations and allocations.
May assist in
preparing, adjusting, and closing journal entries; may direct class
B accounting clerks.
Class B - Under supervision, perform s one or m ore routine
accounting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers,
accounts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers.
This job does not require a knowledge of
accounting and bookkeeping principles but is found in offices in
which the more routine accounting work is subdivided on a func­
tional basis among several w orkers.

18

CLERK,

F ILE

Class A - Responsible for maintaining an established filin g
system. Classifies and indexes correspondence or other m aterial;
may also file this m aterial. May keep records of various types
in conjunction with files or supervise others in filin g and locating
m aterial in the files .
May perform incidental clerica l duties.
Class B - Perform s routine filing, usually of m aterial that
has already been classified, or locates or assists in locating m a­
teria l in the files.
May perform incidental clerica l duties.
CLERK,

ORDER

Receives custom ers’ orders for m aterial or merchandise by
m ail, phone, or personally.
Duties involve any combination of the
f ollowing: Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet
listing the items to make up the order; checking prices and quantities
of items on order sheet; distributing order sheets to respective de­
partments to be filled .
May check with credit department to d eter­
mine credit rating of customer, acknowledge receipt of orders from
customers, follow up orders to see that they have been filled , keep
file of orders received, and check shipping invoices with original
o rd e rs .
CLERK,

KEY-PU NC H O PERATO R
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards
by punching a series of holes in the cards in a specified sequence,
using an alphabetical or a numerical key-punch machine, following
written information on records.
May duplicate cards by using the
duplicating device attached to machine.
Keeps files of punch cards.
May v e rify own work or work of others.
OFFICE BOY OR G IRL
P erform s various routine duties such as running errands,
operating minor office machines such as sealers or m ailers, opening
and distributing m ail, and other minor cleric a l work.
SECRETARY
P erform s secreta ria l and c lerica l duties fo r a superior in an
administrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint­
ments for superior; receivin g people coming into office; answering
and making phone calls; handling personal and important or confi­
dential m ail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative;
taking dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in
shorthand or by stenotype or sim ilar machine, and transcribing dicta­
tion or the recorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine.
May prepare special reports or memoranda for information of superior.

PAYRO LL
STENOGRAPHER, G EN ERAL

Computes wages of company employees and enters the n eces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating w o rk ers’
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as w orker's name, working
days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and d is ­
tributing pay envelopes.
May use a calculating machine.

P rim a ry duty is to take dictation from one or m ore persons,
either in shorthand or by stenotype or sim ilar machine, involving a
normal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a type­
w riter. May also type from written copy. May also set up and keep
files in order, keep simple records, etc.
Does not include transcribing-machine work (see transcribing-machine operator).

C O M PTO M ETER O PERATO R

STENOGRAPHER,

P rim a ry duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathe­
m atical computations.
This job is not to be confused with that of
statistical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of
a Comptometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to
perform ance of other duties.

P rim a ry duty is to take dictation from one or m ore persons,
either in shorthand or by stenotype or sim ilar machine, involving a
varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or
reports on scientific research and to transcribe this dictation on a
typew riter. May also type from written copy. May also set up and
keep files in order, keep simple records, etc.
Does not include
transcribing-machine work.

TEC H NICAL

D U PLIC ATING -M AC H IN E O PERATO R (MIMEOGRAPH OR D ITTO )
SWITCHBOARD O PERATO R
Under general supervision and with no supervisory respon­
sibilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten
m atter, using a mimeograph or ditto machine. Makes necessary ad­
justment such as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed.
Is not required to prepare stencil or ditto m aster. May keep file of
used stencils or ditto m asters.
May sort, collate, and staple com ­
pleted m aterial.




Operates a single- or m ultiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office
calls.
May record toll calls and take m essages.
May give in fo r­
mation to persons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders.
For w orkers who also act as receptionists see switchboard operatorreceptionist.

19

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL - Continued

SWITCHBOARD O PER ATO R-REC EPTIO N IST
tion
type
This
time

In addition to perform ing duties of operator, on a single posi­
or m onitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also
or perform routine clerica l work as part of regular duties.
typing or clerica l work may take the m ajor part of this w ork er’s
while at switchboard.

TAB U LA TIN G -M A C H IN E OPERATOR
Operates machine that automatically analyzes and translates
information punched in groups of tabulating cards and prints trans­
lated data on form s or accounting records; sets or adjusts machine;
does simple w iring of plugboards according to established practice
or diagrams; places cards to be tabulated in feed magazine and starts
machine. May file cards after they are tabulated. May, in addition,
operate auxiliary machines.

included. A worker who takes dictation in shorthand or by stenotype
or sim ilar machine is classified as a stenographer, general.
TY PIS T
Uses a typewriter to make copies of various m aterial or to
make out bills after calculations have been made by another person.
May do clerica l work involving little special training, such as keep­
ing simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting and d is­
tributing incoming mail.
Class A - Perform s one or more of the follow ing: Typing
m aterial in final form from very rough and involved draft; copy­
ing from plain or corrected copy in which there is a frequent
and varied use of technical and unusual words or from foreignlanguage copy; combining m aterial from several sources, or
planning layout of complicated statistical tables to maintain uni­
form ity and balance in spacing; typing tables from rough draft in
final form .
May type routine form letters, varying details to
suit circumstances.

TRANSCRIBING-M ACHINE O PERATO R, G ENERAL
P rim a ry duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal
routine vocabulary from transcribing machine records.
May also
type from written copy and do simple clerica l work. W orkers tran­
scribing dictation involving a varied technical or specialized vocabu­
lary such as legal briefs or reports on scientific research are not

Professional

DRAFTSM AN, JUNIOR
(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
poses.
Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May p re ­
pare drawings from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties
under direction of a draftsman.
DRAFTSMAN, LEADER
Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in
preparation of working plans and detail drawings from rough or p re ­
lim inary sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing
purposes. Duties involve a combination of the follow ing: Interpreting
blueprints, sketches, and written or verbal orders; determining work
procedures; assigning duties to subordinates and inspecting their work;
perform ing more difficult problems. May assist subordinates during




Class B - P erform s one or more of the follow ing: Typing
from relatively clear or typed drafts; routine typing of form s,
insurance policies, etc.; setting up simple standard tabulations, or
copying m ore complex tables already set up and spaced properly.

a nd

Technical

DRAFTSM AN, LEADER - Continued
em ergencies or as a regular assignment, or perform related duties
of a supervisory or administrative nature.
DRAFTSM AN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes,
rough or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manu­
facturing purposes.
Duties involve a combination of the follow ing:
Preparing working plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-sections, etc. ,
to scale by use of drafting instruments; making engineering computa­
tions such as those involved in strength of m aterials, beams and
trusses; verifying completed work, checking dimensions, m aterials
to be used, and quantities; writing specifications; making adjustments
or changes in drawings or specifications. May ink in lines and letters
on pencil drawings, prepare detail units of complete drawings, or
trace drawings.
Work is frequently in a specialized field such as
architectural, elec trica l, mechanical, or structural drafting.

20

NURSE, IND USTRIAL (REGISTERED)

NURSE, IND USTRIAL (REGISTERED) - Continued

A re gistered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
em ployees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on
the prem ises of a factory or other establishment.
Duties involve a
combination of the follow ing: Giving firs t aid to the ill or injured;
attending to subsequent dressing of em ployees1 injuries; keeping records
of patients treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or
other purposes; conducting physical examinations and health evaluations
of applicants and em ployees; and planning and carrying out programs
involving health education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant

environment, or other activities
safety of all personnel.

Maintenance

affecting the health, w elfare, and

TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing
tracing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil.
Uses T-square, compass, and other drafting tools.
May prepare
simple drawings and do simple letterin g.

nd

Powerplant

C A R PE N TE R , M AINTENANCE

ENGINEER, STA TIO N AR Y

P erfo rm s the carpentry duties necessary to construct and
maintain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins,
cribs, counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings,
and trim made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most of
the follow ing: Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, draw­
ings, models, or verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter*s
handtools, portable power tools, and standard measuring instruments;
making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work;
selecting m aterials necessary for the work. In general, the work of
the maintenance carpenter requires rounded training and experience
usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent train­
ing and experience.

Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or e lec trica l) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, r e fr ig e r a ­
tion, or air conditioning.
Work involves; Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, m o­
tors, turbines, ventilating and refrigera tin g equipment, steam boilers
and b o iler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a
record of operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consump­
tion. May also supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers
in establishments employing m ore than one engineer are excluded.

E LE C TR IC IA N , M AIN TEN AN CE
P erfo rm s a va riety of electrica l trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating,
distribution, or utilization of e le c tr ic energy in an establishment.
Work involves most o f the follow ing: Installing or repairing any of
a va riety of electrica l equipment such as generators, transform ers,
switchboards, controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units,
conduit systems, or other transm ission equipment; working from blue­
prints, drawings, layout, or other specifications; locating and diag­
nosing trouble in the electrica l system or equipment; working standard
computations relating to load requirements o f wiring or electrica l
equipment; using a va riety of electrician*s handtools and measuring
and testing instruments.
In general, the work of the maintenance
electrician requires rounded training and experience usually a c­
quired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.




FIREM AN, STATIO N AR Y BOILER
F ires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam.
Feeds fuels to fir e by hand
or operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water
and safety valves.
May clean, oil, or assist in repairing b o ilerroom equipment.
H ELPE R, TRADES, M AIN TEN AN CE
A ssists one or m ore w orkers in the skilled maintenance
trades, by perform ing specific or general duties o f less er skill, such
as keeping a worker supplied with m aterials and tools; cleaning w ork­
ing area, machine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding ma­
teria ls or tools; perform ing other unskilled tasks as directed by jo u r­
neyman. The kind of work the helper is perm itted to p erform va ries
from trade to trade: In some trades the helper is confined to sup­
plying, lifting, and holding m aterials and tools) and cleaning working
areas; and in others he is perm itted to perform specialized machine
operations, or parts of a trade that are also perform ed by w orkers
on a fu ll-tim e basis.

21
M ACH INE-TO O L O PER ATO R, TOOLROOM

MECHANIC, M AINTENANCE

Specializes in the operation of one or m ore types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine
lathes, or m illing machines in the construction of machine-shop tools,
gauges, jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most of the following:
Planning and perform ing difficult machining operations; processing
items requiring complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy;
using a va riety of precision measuring instruments; selecting feeds,
speeds, tooling and operation sequence; making necessary adjust­
ments during operation to achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions.
May be required to recognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools,
and to select proper coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils.
For
cross-industry wage study purpose s , machine-tool operators, toolroom ,
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establish­
ment.
W ork involves most of the following: Examining machines
and mechanical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling
or partly dismantling machines and perform ing repairs that mainly
involve the use of handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing
broken or defective parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the
production of a replacement part by a machine shop or sending of
the machine to a machine shop for major repairs; preparing written
specifications for major repairs or for the production of parts ordered
from machine shop; reassembling machines; and making all necessary
adjustments for operation.
In general, the work of a maintenance
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
Excluded from this classification are workers whose prim ary duties
involve setting up or adjusting machines.

MACHINIST, M AIN TEN AN CE
M ILLW RIG H T
Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs
of metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment.
Work involves most of the following: Interpreting written instruc­
tions and specifications; planning and laying out of work; using a v a ­
riety of m ach in ists handtools and precision measuring instruments;
setting up and operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal
parts to close tolerances; making standard shop computations re la t­
ing to dimensions of work, tooling, feeds and speeds of machining;
knowledge of the working properties of the common metals; selecting
standard m aterials, parts, and equipment required for his work; fitting
and assembling parts into mechanical equipment. In general, the
m ach in ists work norm ally requires a rounded training in machineshop practice usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

Installs new machines or heavy e q u i p m e n t a n d dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment w h e n c h a n g e s i n t h e p l a n t la y ­
out are required. Work involves most of t h e f o l l o w i n g : P l a n n i n g and
laying out of the work; interpreting b l u e p r i n t s o r o t h e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ;
using a va riety of handtools and rigging; m a k i n g s t a n d a r d shop com ­
putations relating to stresses, strength of m a t e r i a l s , a n d centers of
gravity; alining and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools,
equipment, and parts to be used; installing and maintaining in good
order power transmission equipment such as drives and speed r e ­
ducers. In general, the m illw righ t’ s work norm ally requires a rounded
training and experience in the trade acquired through a form al appren­
ticeship or equivalent training and experience.
OILER

MECHANIC, AU TO M O TIVE (M A IN TEN AN C E)
Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of
an establishment.
Work involves most of the follow ing: Examining
automotive equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling
equipment and perform ing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches, gauges, d rills, or specialized equipment in d is­
assembling or fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts from
stock; grinding and adjusting valves; reassem bling and installing the
various assem blies in the vehicle and making necessary adjustments;
alining wheels, adjusting brakes and lights, or tightening body bolts.
In general, the work o f the automotive mechanic requires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprentice­
ship or equivalent training and experience.




Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing
surfaces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.
P A IN T E R , M AINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an
establishment.
Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface
peculiarities and types of paint required for different applications;
preparing surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing
putty or fille r in nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray
gun or brush.
May m ix colors, oils, white lead, and other paint
ingredients to obtain proper color or consistency.
In general, the
work of the maintenance painter requires rounded training and ex ­
perience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience.

22

P IP E F IT T E R , M AINTENANCE

S H E E T-M E TA L WORKER, M AIN TEN AN CE - Continued

Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe
and pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most of the fo l­
lowing: Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe
from drawings or other written specifications; cutting various sizes
of pipe to correct lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene
torch or pipe-cutting machine; threading pipe with stocks and dies;
bending pipe by hand-driven or pow er-driven machines; assembling
pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard
shop computations relating to pressures, flow, and size of pipe r e ­
quired; making standard tests to determine whether finished pipes meet
specifications.
In general, the work of the maintenance pipefitter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a
form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. W orkers
p rim a rily engaged in installing and repairing building sanitation or
heating systems are excluded.

and laying out a ll types of sheet-m etal maintenance work from blue­
prints, models, or other specifications; setting up and operating a ll
available types of sheet-m etal-working machines; using a va riety of
handtools in cutting, bending, form ing, shaping, fitting, and assem ­
bling; installing sheet-m etal articles as required.
In general, the
work of the maintenance sheet-m etal w orker requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

PLU M B ER, M AINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber's snake.
In general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprentice­
ship or equivalent training and experience.
S H E E T-M E TA L WORKER, M AIN TEN AN CE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing)
of an establishment. Work involves most of the follow ing: Planning

Custodial

E LE V ATO R OPERATOR,

and

(Diemaker; jig maker; toolmaker; fixture maker; gauge m aker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix ­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other m etal-form ing work.
Work involves most of the follow ing: Planning and laying out of work
from models, blueprints, drawings, o f other oral and written sp e cifi­
cations; using a variety of tool and die m aker's handtools and precision
measuring instruments; understanding of the working properties of
common metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools
and related equipment; making necessary shop computations relating
to dimensions of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of m etal parts during fabrication as w ell as of finished tools
and dies to achieve required qualities; working to close tolerances;
fitting and assembling of parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ­
ances; selecting appropriate m aterials, tools, and processes.
In
general, the tool and die m aker's work requires a rounded training
in machine-shop and toolroom practice usually acquired through a
form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
F o r cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

Material

PASSENGER

Transports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel or sim ilar establishment.
W orkers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such
as those of starters and janitors are excluded.
GUARD
P erform s routine police duties, either at fixed post or on
tour, maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. In­
cludes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity of
employees and other persons entering.




TOOL AND DIE MAKER

Movement

JANITOR,

PO RTER,

OR CLE AN E R

(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working
areas and washrooms, or prem ises of an office, apartment house,
or com m ercial or other establishment. Duties involve a combination
of the follow ing: Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors;
removing chips, trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture,
or fixtures; polishing metal fixtures or trim m ings; providing supplies
and minor maintenance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and
restroom s. W orkers who specialize in window washing are excluded.

23

LABORER, M A T E R IA L HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker;
stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant,
store, or other establishment whose duties involve one or m ore of
the follow ing: Loading and unloading various m aterials and merchan­
dise on or from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices;
unpacking, shelving, or placing m aterials or merchandise in proper
storage location; transporting m aterials or merchandise by hand truck,
car, or wheelbarrow. Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are
excluded.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK - Continued
other records; checking for shortages and rejecting damaged goods;
routing merchandise or m aterials to proper departments; maintaining
necessary records and files.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:
Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk
TRUCKDRIVER

ORDER F IL L E R
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from
stored merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips,
custom ers1 orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling
orders and indicating items filled or omitted, keep records of out­
going orders, requisition additional stock, or report short supplies
to supervisor, and perform other related duties.

D rives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport
m aterials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of
establishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, w a re­
houses, wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail estab­
lishments and custom ers1 houses or places of business.
May also
load or unload truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical
repairs, and keep truck in good working order. D river-salesm en and
over-th e-road d rivers are excluded.
F or wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size
and type of equipment, as follows: (T ra c to r-tra ile r should be rated
on the basis of tra iler capacity. )

PAC K ER, SHIPPING
Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations perform ed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires
the placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or
m ore of the follow ing: Knowledge of various items of stock in order
to v e rify content; selection of appropriate type and size of container;
inserting enclosures in container; using excelsior or other m aterial to
prevent breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; applying
labels or entering identifying data on container.
Packers who also
make wooden boxes or crates are excluded.
SHIPPING AND RECEIVING C LE RK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is r e ­
sponsible for incoming shipment of merchandise or other m aterials.
Shipping work in volves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, p rac­
tices, routes, available means of transportation and rates; and p re ­
paring records of the goods shipped, making up bills of lading, post­
ing weight and shipping charges, and keeping a file of shipping records.
May direct or assist in preparing the merchandise for shipment.
Receiving work in volves: V erifying or directing others in verifyin g
the correctness of shipments against bills of lading, invoices, or




Truckdriver
Tru ckdriver,
Tru ckdriver,
Tru ckdriver,
T ru ckdriver,

(combination of sizes listed separately)
light (under ]}/z tons)
medium ( 1V2 to and~including 4 tons)
heavy (over 4 tons, tra ile r type")
heavy (over 4 tons, other than tra ile r type)

TRUCKER, POWER
Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-pow ered
truck or tractor to transport goods and m aterials of all kinds about
a warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
For wage study purposes, w orkers are classified by type of
truck, as follows:
Trucker, power (fork lift)
Trucker, power (other than fo rk lift)
W ATCHMAN
Makes rounds of prem ises periodically in protecting property
against fir e , theft, and illeg a l entry.
U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1957 O - 420554




Bulletins in This Series
Occupational wage surveys are being conducted in 17 major labor markets during late 1956 and early 1957. Bulletins for the following areas are now available and may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C.,
or from any of the regional sales offices listed below. As additional bulletins become available, they w ill be listed in subsequent issues.




Labor Market
Seattle, Wash.
Buffalo, N. Y.
Cleveland, Ohio
Boston, Mass.
Dallas, Tex.

Survey Period

BLS Bulletin
Number

August 1956
September 1956
October 1956
September 1956
October 1956

1202-1
1202-2
1202-3
1202-4
1202-5

Price
25
25
25
25
25

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

Regional Sales Offices

U. S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
18 O liver Street
Boston 10, M ass.

U. S. Department of Labor
Bureau of L abo r Statistics
50 Seventh Street, N. E.
Atlanta 23, Ga.

U. S. Department of L abor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
341 Ninth Avenue
N ew York 1, N . Y.

U. S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
105 West Adams Street
C hicago 3, 111.

U . S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
630 Sansome Street
San F ran cisco 11, C a lif.


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102