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Occupational Wage Survey

Bulletin No. 1202-7

UN ITED STA TES DEPA RTM EN T OF LA BO R
James P. Mitchell, Secretary




BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner




Occupational Wage Survey
PHILADELPHIA, P EN N SYLVA N IA




NOVEMBER 1956

Bulletin No. 1202-7
U N ITED STA TES D EPA RTM EN T OF LA BO R
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
B U R E A U O F LA B O R S TA TIS TIC S
Ew a n C lagua, Com am sioiwr
February 1957

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C.

Price 25 cents




Preface

Contents
Page

The Commumity Wage Survey Program
The Bureau of Labor Statistics regu larly conducts
area wide wage surveys in a number of important industrial
centers. The studies, made from late fa ll to ea rly spring,
relate to occupational earnings and related supplementary
benefits.
A prelim in ary report is available on completion
of the study in each area, usually in the month following the
payroll period studied. This bulletin provides additional data
not included in the ea rlie r report. A consolidated analytical
bulletin summarizing the results of a ll of the y e a rfs surveys
is issued after completion of the final area bulletin fo r the
current round of surveys.




Introduction ------------------------------------------------------------------------Wage trends for selected occupational groups --------------------------

1
3

Tables:
1.
2.

A:

B:

Establishments and workers within scope of s u r v e y -------Indexes of standard weekly salaries and straight-tim e
hourly earnings for selected occupational groups, and
percents of increase for selected p e r io d s -------------------Occupational earnings * A - l : Office occupations--------------------------------------------A-2: Professional and technical occu pation s---------------A - 3: Maintenance and powerplant occupations -------------A -4: Custodial and m aterial movement occu pations-----Establishment practices and supplementary wage
provisions * B - l: Shift differen tial provisions ------------------------------B-2:
Minimum entrance rates fo r women office
B-3:
B-4:
B-5:
B-6:

Appendix:

2
3
5
9
9
11

14

Scheduled weekly hours -----------------------------------Paid holidays --------------------------------------------------Paid vacations -------------------------------------------------Health, insurance, and pension plans ------—
---------

16
16
17
19

Job descriptions ---------------------------------------------------

21

* NOTE: Sim ilar tabulations for most of these items are
available in the Philadelphia area reports for May 1950,
October 1951, October 1952, October 1953, Novem ber 1954,
and Novem ber 1955. The 1953 report also provides tabula­
tions of wage structure ch aracteristics, labor-management
agreem ents, and overtim e pay provision s. The 1954 report
also includes data on frequency of wage payments, and pay
provisions for holidays falling on nonworkdays. A directory
indicating date of study and the price of the reports, as
w ell as reports fo r other m ajor areas, is available upon
request.
A report on occupational earnings and supplementary
wage practices in the Philadelphia area is also available
fo r textile dyeing and finishing (A p ril 1956). Union scales,
indicative of prevailing pay levels, are available fo r the
following trades or industries: Building construction, print­
ing, local-transit operating em ployees, and motortruck
d r iv e r s .




Occupational Wage Survey - Philadelphia, Pa.*
Introduction

to the w ork schedules (rounded to the nearest half hour) fo r which
straight-tim e salaries are paid; average weekly earnings fo r these
occupations have been rounded to the nearest half dollar.

The Philadelphia area is one of severa l important industrial
centers in which the Department of L a b o rs Bureau of Labor Statistics
has conducted surveys of occupational earnings and related wage bene­
fits on an areawide basis. In each area, data are obtained by personal
visits of Bureau field agents to representative establishments within
six broad industry divisions: Manufacturing; transportation (excluding
railroads), communication, and other public utilities; wholesale trade;
retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. M ajor
industry groups excluded from these studies, besides railroads, are
government operations and the construction and extractive industries.
Establishments having few er than a prescribed number of workers are
omitted also because they furnish insufficient employment in the occu­
pations studied to warrant inclusion. 1 W herever possible, separate
tabulations are provided fo r each of the broad industry divisions.

Occupational employment estimates represent the total in all
establishments within the scope of the study and not the number actu­
a lly surveyed.
Because of differences in occupational structure among
establishments, the estimates of occupational employment obtained from
the sample of establishments studied serve only to indicate the relative
importance of the jobs studied.
These differences in occupational
structure do not m a terially affect the accuracy of the earnings data.
Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provision s
Information is presented also (in the B -s eries tables) on s e ­
lected establishment practices and supplementary benefits as they
relate to office and plant w orkers.
The term "o ffice w o r k e r s ," as
used in this bulletin, includes a ll office c lerica l employees and ex ­
cludes adm inistrative, executive, professional, and technical personnel.
"Plant w ork ers" include working forem en and ail nonsupervisory w ork­
ers (including leadmen and trainees) engaged in nonoffice functions.
A dm inistrative, executive, professional, and technical em ployees, and
force-account construction employees who are utilized as a separate
work fo rce are excluded.
Cafeteria w orkers and routemen are ex ­
cluded in manufacturing industries, but are included as plant w orkers
in nonmanufacturing industries.

These surveys are conducted on a sample basis because of the
unnecessary cost involved in surveying a ll establishments. To obtain
appropriate accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of large
than of sm all establishments is studied. In combining the data, how­
ever, a ll establishments are given their appropriate weight. Estimates
based on the establishments studied are presented, therefore, as r e ­
lating to a ll establishments in the industry grouping and area, except
fo r those below the minimum size studied.
Occupations and Earnings
The occupations selected fo r study are common to a va riety
of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries. Occupational cla s­
sification is based on a uniform set of job descriptions designed to
take account of inter establishment variation in duties within the same
job (see appendix for listing of these descriptions). Earnings data are
presented (in the A -s e rie s tables) for the following types of occupa­
tions: (a) Office clerica l; (b) professional and technical; (c) m ainte­
nance and powerplant; and (d) custodial and m aterial movement.

Shift differential data (table B - l) are lim ited to manufacturing
industries.
This information is presented both in term s of (a) estab­
lishment policy, 2 presented in terms of total plant w orker em ploy­
ment, and (b) effective practice, presented on the basis of workers
actually employed on the specified shift at the time of the survey.
In establishments having varied differen tials, the amount applying to
a m ajority was used or, if no amount applied to a m ajority, the cla s­
sification "oth er" was used.

Occupational employment and earnings data are shown for
fu ll-tim e w orkers, i . e . , those hired to work a regular weekly sched­
ule in the given occupational classification.
Earnings data exclude
premium pay for overtim e and for work on weekends, holidays, and
late shifts.
Nonproduction bonuses are excluded also, but cost-ofliving bonuses and incentive earnings are included.
Where weekly
hours are reported, as fo r office clerica l occupations, reference is

Minimum entrance rates (table B-2) relate only to the estab­
lishments visited.
They are presented on an establishment, rather
than on an employment basis.
Scheduled hours; paid holidays; paid
vacations; and health, insurance, and pension plans are treated statis­
tica lly on the basis that these are applicable to all plant or office

* This report was prepared in the Bureau's regional office in
New York, N. Y. , by F red erick W. M u eller, under the direction of
Paul E. Warwick, Regional Wage and Industrial Relations Analyst.
1 See table 1 fo r m inim um -size establishment covered.




2
An establishment was considered as having a policy if it met
either of the following conditions: ( l ) Operated late shifts at the time
of the survey, or (2) had form al provisions covering late shifts.

( 1)

2
w orkers if a m ajority of such w orkers are eligible or may eventually
qualify fo r the practices listed. 3 Because of rounding, sums of indi­
vidual items in these tabulations do not n ecessarily equal totals.
The summary of vacation plans is lim ited to form al arran ge­
ments, excluding inform al plans whereby time off with pay is granted
at the discretion of the em ployer.
Separate estimates are provided
according to em ployer practice in computing vacation payments, such
as time payments, percent of annual earnings, or fiat-sum amounts.
H owever, in the tabulations of vacation allowances, payments not on
a time basis w ere converted; for example, a payment of 2 percent of
annual earnings was considered as the equivalent of 1 week's pay.
Data a re presented for a ll health, insurance, and pension
plans fo r which at least a part of the cost is borne by the em ployer,
excepting only legal requirements such as workmen's compensation and
social security. Such plans include those underwritten by a com m er­
cial insurance company and those provided through a union fund or paid
d irectly by the em ployer out of current operating funds or from a fund
set aside fo r this purpose. Death benefits are included as a form of
life insurance.
Sickness and accident insurance is lim ited to that type of in­
surance under which predeterm ined cash payments are made directly
to the insured on a weekly or monthly basis during illness or accident
disability.
Information is presented fo r a ll such plans to which the
em ployer contributes. However, in New York and New Jersey, which

have enacted tem porary disability insurance laws which require em ­
ployer contributions, 4 plans are included only if the em ployer ( l ) con­
tributes m ore than is leg a lly required, or (2) provides the employee
with benefits which exceed the requirements of the law.
Tabulations
of paid sick -leave plans are lim ited to form al plans 5 which provide
full pay or a proportion of the w orker's pay during absence from work
because of illn ess.
Separate tabulations are provided according to
( l ) plans which provide full pay and no waiting period, and (2) plans
providing either partial pay or a waiting period.
In addition to the
presentation of the proportions of workers who are provided sickness
and accident insurance or paid sick leave, an unduplicated total is
shown of workers who receive either or both types of benefits.
Catastrophe insurance, sometim es referred to as extended
m edical insurance, includes those plans which a re designed to protect
employees in case of sickness and injury involving expenses beyond
the normal coverage of hospitalization, m edical, and surgical plans.
M edical insurance re fers to plans providing fo r complete or partial
payment of doctors' fees. Such plans may be underwritten by com m er­
cial insurance companies or nonprofit organizations or they may be
self-insured. Tabulations of retirem ent pension plans are lim ited to
those plans that provide monthly payments fo r the remainder of the
w orker's life .

4 The tem porary disability laws in California and Rhode Island
do not require em ployer contributions.
5 An establishment was considered as having a form al plan if
3
Scheduled weekly hours for office w orkers (firs t section it established at least the minimum number of days of sick leave that
of
could be expected by each em ployee. Such a plan need not be written,
table B-3) are presented in term s of the proportion of women office
but inform al sick leave allowances, determined on an individual basis,
workers employed in offices with the indicated weekly hours for women
w ere excluded.
w o rk ers.

TABLE 1: Establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied in Philadelphia, Pa. , 1 by major industry division, November 1956
Minimum
employment
in establish­
ments in scope
of study

Industry division

A ll divisions .

Number of establishments
Within
scope of
study 2

Workers in establishments
Within scope of study
Total 3

Total 3

1,447

101
51
101

51
51

357,300

329,630

678
769

Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing
Transportation (excluding railroads), communication,
and other public utilities4 ____________________________
Wholesale trade _________________________________________
Retail trade 5
Finance, insurance, and real estate .
Services 7 _____________________________

143
179

322,400
225,500

36,100
55,200

233,100
124,200

185, 480
144,150

64

25
34
34
46
40

52,900
28, 500
74, 400
42,600
27, 100

9, 000
7, 900
9, 600
24, 800
3, 900

33, 500
12,400
57, 000
6 3, 000
18, 300

45, 010
7, 230
56, 590

221

108
174
202

26 , 010

9, 310

.
,\ .The Philadelphia Area (Philadelphia and Delaware Counties, P a ., and Camden County, N. J. ).
The "workers within scope of study" estimates shown in this table provide a reasonably accurate
measure TmnlovmeniZt ^
co“ poB*tlon. of the labor force included in the survey.
The estimates are not intended, however, to serve as a basis of comparison with other area employment indexes to
™^ e
x
c
l u
d
e
d
{ ) plannUlg ° f WagC 8UrveyS re<*UlreS the use ° f establishment data compiled considerably in advance of the pay period studied and (2) s L J l establishments
and

i T

S

l *

1 i b ° Ve ‘ h*

“ sta tio n .

All outlets (within the area) of companies in such industries as trade, finance, auto repair service,

3 Includes executive, technical, professional, and other workers excluded from the separate office and plant categories.
Also excludes taxicabs, and services incidental to water transportation.
Excludes limited-price variety stores.
* Estimate relates to real estate establishments only.
Hotels, personal services, business services; automobile repair shops; radio broadcasting and television; motion pictures; nonprofit membership organizations; and engineering and architectural services.




3

Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups

The table below presents indexes of salaries of office clerica l
w orkers *md industrial nurses, and of average earnings of selected
plant w orker groups.
F o r office c le rica l w orkers and industrial nurses, the indexes
relate to average weekly salaries fo r normal hours of work, that is,
the standard work schedule for which straight-tim e salaries are paid.
F o r plant w orker groups, they measure changes in straight-tim e hourly
earnings, excluding premium pay for overtim e and for work on week­
ends, holidays, and late shifts.
The indexes are based on data for
selected key occupations and include most of the num erically important
jobs within each group. The office c lerica l data are based on women in
the following 18 jobs: B ille rs , machine (billing machine); bookkeepingmachine operators, class A and B; Comptometer operators; clerks, file,
class A and B; clerks, order; clerks, payroll; key-punch operators;
office g irls; secretaries; stenographers, general; switchboard opera­
tors; switchboard operator-receptionists; tabulating-machine operators;
transcribing-m achine operators, general; and typists, class A and B.
The industrial nurse data are based on women industrial nurses. Men
in the following 10 skilled maintenance jobs and 3 unskilled jobs w ere
included in the plant w orker data: Skilled— carpenters; electricians;
machinists; mechanics; mechanics, automotive; m illw rights; painters;
pipefitters; sheet-m etal workers; and tool and die makers; unskilled—
janitors, porters, and cleaners; laborers, m aterial handling; and
watchmen.
A verage weekly salaries or average hourly earnings were
computed fo r each of the selected occupations. The average salaries
or hourly earnings w ere then multiplied by the average of October
1952 and October 1953 employment in the job. These weighted earn­

T A B L E 2:

ings for individual occupations w ere then totaled to obtain an a g g re­
gate fo r each occupational group.
Finally, the ratio of these group
aggregates for a given year to the aggregate fo r the base period (survey
month, winter 1952-53) was computed and the result multiplied by the
base year index (100) to get the index fo r the given year.
The indexes measure, principally, the effects of ( l ) general
salary and wage changes; (2) m erit or other increases in pay received
by individual w orkers while in the same job; and (3) changes in the
labor force such as labor turnover, force expansions, fo rce reduc­
tions, and changes in the proportion of w orkers employed by estab­
lishments with different pay leve ls.
Changes in the labor force can
cause increases or decreases in the occupational averages without
actual wage changes. F o r example, a force expansion might increase
the proportion of low er paid w orkers in a specific occupation and r e ­
sult in a drop in the average, whereas a reduction in the proportion
of low er paid w orkers would have the opposite effect. The movement
of a high-paying establishment out of an area could cause the average
earnings to drop, even though no change in rates occurred in other
area establishments.
The use of constant employment weights elim inates the effects
of changes in the proportion of w orkers represented in each job in­
cluded in the data.
Nor are the indexes influenced by changes in
standard work schedules or in premium pay for overtim e, since they
are based on pay for straight-tim e hours.
Indexes for the period 1953 to 1956 for workers in 15 other
major labor markets appeared in BLS Bull. 1188, Wages and Related
Benefits, 17 Labor Markets, 1955-56.

In d e x e s of sta n d a rd w e e k ly s a l a r i e s and s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u rly e a rn in g s f o r se le c t e d o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p s in P h ila d e lp h ia , P a . ,
N o v e m b e r 1956 an d N o v e m b e r 1955 and p e r c e n t s o f i n c r e a s e f o r s e le c t e d p e r io d s
In d e x e s
(O c t o b e r 1952 = 100)

P e rc e n t in c r e a s e s fro m —

In d u stry an d o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p
N o v e m b e r 1956

N o v e m b e r 1955

N o v e m b e r 1955
to
N o v e m b e r 1956

N o v e m b e r 1954
to
N o v e m b e r 1955

O c to b e r 1953
to
N o v e m b e r 1954

O c to b e r 1952
to
O c t o b e r 1953

O c to b e r 1951
to
O c to b e r 1952

O c to b e r 1951
to
N o v e m b e r 1956

A l l in d u s tr ie s :
O ffic e c l e r i c a l ( w o m e n ) _________________
In d u s t ria l n u r s e s (w o m e n )
S k ille d m ain te n a n c e (m e n ) _____________
U n s k ille d plan t (m e n )

122.
122.
122.
120.

0
2
5
9

114.
115.
116.
115.

6
1
4
5

6. 5
6 .2
5. 2
4. 7

3 .4
4. 3
4. 0
6. 0

3 .4
3. 0
4 .4
4. 3

7. 1
7. 1
7 .2
4. 5

4 .6
5. 0
5. 0
7. 3

27. 5
28. 3
2 8.6
29. 7

M a n u fa c t u r in g :
O ffic e c le r i c a l (w o m e n )
In d u s t ria l n u r s e s (w o m e n ) _____________
S k ille d m a in ten an ce (m e n )
U n s k ille d plant ( m e n ) _________ _____ _

120.4
123. 6
122. 0
119. 0

114.
116.
115.
113.

6
5
7
9

5. 1
6. 1
5 .4
4. 5

2 .8
5 .0
3. 8
5. 5

4 .6
2 .9
3 .9
4. 5

6 .6
7 .9
7 .2
3. 3

5 .2
5 .0
5. 1
9 .4

2 6 .7
2 9 .8
28. 2
30. 3







A: Occupational Earnings

5

T a b l e A - l : O ffice O c c u p a t io n s
( A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a r n in g s f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on a n a r e a b a s i s
in P h ila d e lp h ia , P a . , by in d u s t r y d iv is io n , N o v e m b e r 1956)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

A verage

Sex, occupation, and ind ustry d ivision

Number
of
w
orkers

$
W
eekly.
Weekly . 30. 00
hours
earnings
and
(Standard) (Standard) tinder
35. 00

$
$
$
$
$
S
35. 00 40. 00 45. 00 50. 00 55. 00 60.
40. 00

45. 00

50. 00

55. 00

60

.

00

00

$
$
$
$
65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80.

65. 00

70. 00

75. 00

27
15

29

49
23

12

_
5
4

18
9
5

26

59
31
28

6

9

8

39

80.

00

$
$
85. 00 9 0 .

85. 00

90. 00

110

10

61
38
23
7
_
14

38

10

00

$
$
$
$
$
95. 00 1 0 0 . 0 0 105.00 1 1 0 . 0 0 115.00
and
95. 00 1 0 0 . 0 0 105.00 1 1 0 . 0 0 115.00
00

M en
C le rk s , accounting, class A _
Manufacturing
Nonm anufacturing
..
___
P ub lic u tilitie s*
Wholesale t r a d e ____________________________________
Finance**
. _ _
_
......

584
348
236
33
77
74

38. 5
38. 5
38. 0
38.5
38. 5
37. 0

87.00
. 00
8 6 . 00
93. 50
92. 50
84. 00

_
-

C le rk s , accounting, class B
M anufacturing ________________________________________
Nonm anufacturing
Wholesale t r a d e ______________
___ _____________
Finance ** _________________________________________

310
103
207
51

37. 5
38.5
37. 5
39. 0
36. 0

68

. 50
76. 50
64. 50
73. 50
55. 50

-

C le rk s , ord e r ____________________________________________
Manufacturing _____ ____ __________________________
Nonm anufacturing
___________________________________
Wholesale t r a d e ____________________________________
R etail t ra d e 2
___
_
_
_

429
93
336
269

76.
72.
77.
76.
80.

-

-

-

-

61

39. 0
39.0
39. 0
39. 0
40. 5

00

-

-

-

-

“

-

C le rk s , p ayro ll _______ _________________ __ __ _______
M anufacturing ________________________________________

176
132

38. 5
38. 5

79.
80.

00

_

_

_

4

_

00

-

-

-

1

-

15
14

8

Office boys
724
M anufacturing ____________ __________________________ ~ m ....
Nonm anufacturing __ ____ ____ ___ ___ ________
345
P ub lic u tilitie s*
28
_____________ __ __ _
Wholesale trade _ ________
73
R etail t ra d e 2
...
54
Finance ** ____ _ __ __________________________
115
Services _____________ _____________________
75

38. 5
39. 0
37. 5
37. 5
38. 5
38. 5
35. 5
39. 5

46.
47.
46.
45.
50.
46.
45.
43.

50
00
00
50
50
50
00
50

_
-

56
30
26

282
159
123
18

Tab ulating-m achine o p e ra to rs ____
_______________
M anufacturing __________________________________
Nonm anufacturing
_
Wholesale t r a d e ___ __ ____ _
_
_________
R etail tra d e 2 ___ ___
____ ____ _ _____ _ _
Finance **
________ __ _ __
___________

549
237
312
75
46
170

38. 5
39. 0
38. 0
39. 0
38. 5
37.5

70. 00
71.50
69. 0 0
80. 0 0
73. 50
63. 50

381
115

37. 0
38. 0
36. 5

57. 50
59. 50
56. 50
56.
64.
52.
52.

101

88

00
00
00
50

-

-

_
-

1

1

1

-

9
14
3

_
-

11

_
21

-

-

11

21

11

19
.
-

-

5
1

4
-

15
--------5“
9
_
_
2

41
41
_
34

14
4

36
11

10

10

25

29

11

12

6

18

25
14

1

40
26
14

6

7

8

7

37

69
3

6

20

7
------75 ~
n

6

18
13
-

4
_
-

66

— 34
32

17
38
50

47
16

11

34
---- j —

2

29
5
24

5

1
1
1

1

_
3
4
-

_

5

"

1

_
-

_
-

-

*

-

-

-

-

2

24

3
24

18

64
27
37
3
4
29

_

-

-

-

14

52

49
14
35

117
46
71

67
23
44

60

-

“

24

21

26

4

10

10

15

13
7

14

11

11

6

12

11

10

6

51
T9
32

2
22

-

-

-

27

2

74
— rr~
37
10

3
3

7

38
40
-----j— --------g—

_
-

68

100

49.... — 39
51
29
7
17

8

-

43
41
------14“ — F5
27
27
8

12

1

11

10

12

2

24

21

10

2

13

_

11

-

11

_
-

59
23
36
22

1

-

21

4

-

-

_
-

1

-

57
25
32
3

2

12

2

-

16

_
-

_

10

12

-

20

21

6

-

to

-

22

_

6

18
13
5

19
7

_
-

20

8

11

.
-

12

9

6

8

37
37

3
9
14

3

_

3
3

50

66

2

_

33

62

56
4

42
24

6

16

66

62

11

28

29
26

45
4
18
7

39
28

11

31
13
18

11
11

107

99

37
33
4

12
12

66

12

_

1

114
5
34

180

11

t

23

42
25
17
_
14

37

3

29
15
14
_

6

12

-

-

7

_
_
_

_
_
_

11
12

1

1

11
-------- 5 -

1

22

15
_
8

6

_

-

-

-

-

12

1

16

7

6

1

—

r~

-

-

21

2

11

21

-

11

-

2

-

5
4

5
4

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

1

-

“
16

7
9
6

3

-

16

6

16

4

-

2

6

_

2

5

-

2

_

_

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

9
3

8

2

6

2

6

2

5

2

-

_
-

2

-

"

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

2
2

Women
B ille r s , machine (b illin g m a c h in e )______________________
Manufacturing _______________ _ ----- -------------Nonmanufacturing
______________________ __________

266

B ille r s , machine (bookkeeping m achine)
Manufacturing
_ ........
Nonm anufacturing ...........
_ .
.
R etail trade 2 ______________________________________

165
50
115
111

39. 0
39.5
39. 0
39. 0

Bookkeeping-machine operators, class A
M anufacturing ____________________________ __________
Nonm anufacturing
_
_
.
Finance ** ________________________________ _______

361
231
130
58

37.5
■3570“
37. 0
36. 0

S e e fo o tn o te s at end o f t a b le .
* T r a n s p o r t a t i o n (e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) ,
* * F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , an d r e a l e s t a t e .
418715 0

-5 7 -2




00
00
50
00

64.00
64. 00
63. 50
6 2 . 00

-

10

14

-

42

23

20

_
-

-

-

3
3

23
23

20

31
4
27

20

26

-

_
-

-

3

2

-

23
13

3
3

2

10

2

7

c o m m u n ic a t io n , an d o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s ,

3

-

-

77
' 63
14
4

124
88

36
13

66
6

26

24

-

-

5
5
-

-

"

-

-

“

.
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

30

15
13

_

_

_

-

— n

-

8

2

-

-

-

-

-

22
1

2

—

12

i

-

-

-

O c c u p a tio n a l W a g e S u r v e y , P h il a d e lp h ia , P a . , N o v e m b e r 1956
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s

6
Ta b le A - l : O ffice O c c u p a t io n s - C on tin u e d
(Average stra ig h t-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
in Philadelphia, P a ., by industry d ivision, Novem ber 1956)
Average
Sex, occupation, and industry d ivision

Number
of
w
orkers

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
30. 00 35. 00 40. 00 45. 00 50. 00 55. 00 60. 0 0 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 8 0 . 0 0 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 1 0 0 . 0 0 105.00 1 1 0 . 0 0 115.00
W
eekly
W
eekly
hours 1 earnings 1 and
(Standard) (Standard) under
and
35. 00 40. 00 .45,00. - i £ L 0JL 55, QQ 6.0. QQ _65J_Q . 70. 00 75.00 80. 0 0 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 1 0 0 . 0 0 105.00 1 1 0 . 0 0 1 15.00
.Q

Women - Continued
Bookkeeping-machine operators, class B
... .
Manufacturing _______________________________________
Nonmanufacturing
_________________________________
Wholesale trade __________________________________
R etail trade 2 ____________________________________
Finance ** __ ____________________________________

1,495
240
1, 255
109
894

38.
38.
37.
39.
38.
37.

C le rk s , accounting, class A
_________________________
Manufacturing _______________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ___________________________________
Wholesale trade __________________________________
Retail trade 2 __________________________________ _
Finance ** ________________________________________

952
351
601
69
153
324

37.
38.
37.
39.
38.
35.

C le rk s , accounting, class B ___________________________
Manufacturing
..
......
Nonm anufacturing
_________________________________
P ublic utilities *
Wholesale trade _______________________ •
__________
R etail trade 2 _____________________________________
Finance ** ________________________________________
Services
__ ____________________________________

1, 947
500
1,447
79
lbO
645
437
106

38.
38.
37.
38.
38.
38.
36.
38.

C le rk s , file , class A ___________________________________
Manufacturing
_
. . . . . . .
Nonm anufacturing
___________ ____________________
Public utilities * _________________________________
Finance** ________________________________________

479
231
248
29
140

38.
39.
37.
36.
36.

C le rk s , file, class B
. . .
Manufacturing
.
..
......... ..
.... .... .
Nonmanufacturing
__ _____________________________
Public u tilitie s*
Wholesale t r a d e __________________________________
R etail trade 2 __ _________________________________
Finance ** ________________________________________
Services

1, 844
39 0
1,454

212

$
53.
58.
52.
63.
55.
50.

50
50
50
00
00
00

-

4
4
4

5
5

. 50
73. 00
6 6 . 00
71.00
6 6 . 50
64. 50

_
-

_
-

0
5
5
5
5
0
0
5

55. 00
57. 50
54. 50
70. 00
62. 50
52. 50
50. 00
59.00

2

-

42
42
-

2

-

0

59.00
62. 0 0
56. 00
53. 00
53. 00

0
5
5
0

0
5
5
0
0
0

0

0
5
0

6 8

2

70
33
37
3

30
30
30
-

307
3
304
-

252
92

105
63
42

12

40
90
361
96

385
90
295
19
38
40
154
44

7

25

220

98
70
28

38.
38.
37.
38.
35.

6 1 .0 0

_

2

Com ptom eter operators _______________________________
M anufacturing _______________________________________
Nonm anufacturing
_________________________________
Public u tilitie s* _________________________________
Wholesale t r a d e ____________________________ ____
R etail trade 2 ___________ _______________________

1, 041
364
677

0

0

192

710
113
597
10

46
174
50

20

61.50
59. 50
57. 00
56. 50

-

2

49
25
24

2

6

170
91
79
23

-

-

18

2

58. 50
61.50
57. 50
64. 00
64. 00
55. 00

5

10

-

-

74
7
67
-

5
-

5

See footnotes at end df table.
* Tran sp ortation (excluding ra ilro a d s ), com m unication, and other public u tilities.
** Finance, insurance, and real estate.




100

2

33

-

10

10

66

124
11

113
10

96

160

9
74

11

10

6

139
61
7b
7
38
30

135
23

103
56
47
-

Ill
80
31
-

188
67

90
22

73
47

121

68

26

_
-

-

156
57
99
16
11

71

54
13
31

112
2

41
63

12
6

10

20

22

8

6

1

2

2

8

6

7

6

6

12

12

4
-

-

3

1

55
39

37

28

22

21

16

15

3
5

4

35
18
17
7

13
9
4
4

4
4
3

16

8

1

1

-

133
69
64
46

89
19
70
4

19
15
4
4

167
95
72

181
125
56

20

22

8

20

208
148
60
9
25

1

-

1

1

-

2

6

14
64

40
52

20

19

11

-

4
7
_

8

-

8
11
2

21

5
16
12

4
-

7
3
4
4
_
-

.
_
_
-

-

3
3

2

6

-

-

2

6

2

2

6

-

-

_
-

-

_
-

_
-

_

_

_
_
_

-

7
7
7
-

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

.

_
-

3
3
1
2

12

12

12

1

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

6

-

_

_
_
-

1

-

-

6

-

_
_

_
-

1

1

6

-

2

2

-

16

7
5

2

---------r ~ 1
i
i

25
9

2

7
-

6

-

1

-

-

-

-

9
9
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5
-------- 3

30
30

4

_

5

13

_

6

_

_

-

-

-

-

4

-

2

-

6

-

-

-

101

-

4

72
35
37
4
27

156
55

27
27
_

14
25
14
3

26
--------- 5“

6
6

-

51
26
25
19

15

62

2

18

6

40
29

204
117
87

20

12

2

8

146
49"
97
3
23

27

6

17
35

2

80
52
28
3
24-

40
9
31
18

12

66

21

72
17
55
13
32

6

58
17
41
23

15
9
-

2

47

6

196
78
118

18
152
73
59

41

1, 163
767
396

26

16

_
-

C le rk s , p a yro ll _________________________ ______________
M anufacturing _______________________________________
Nonm anufacturing
_________________________________
R etail trade 2 ____________________________________
Finance ** _________________ ____________________

136
475

11

399
95
304

_
"

-

5

1

405
76
329
7
43
170
103

3

25
25

0
5

204

389
137
252

10

14
9
72

112

-

0

214

26
100

-

7
7

38.
39.
38.
37.
39.
38.

1

1

40
9
19

86

51.50
53. 00
50. 50
46. 50

84

1

-

39. 0
38. 5
39. 5
39. 5

101

-

26

669
257
412
160

0
5
5
5
0

126

110

C le rk s , ord e r ________________________________ ________
M anufacturing _________________________ ____________
Nonm anufacturing
R etail t ra d e 2 ________ ________ _________________

00

65
5
60
14
14
31

16

178
270
763
181

00
50
00

41

12'

24

46
166
31
18
95

19
98

45.
49.
43.
53.
49.
40.
42.
44.

62

1

2

-

38. 0
3575
37. 5
36. 5
39. 5
39.5
36. 5
39. 5

00
50
50
00

366
50
316
29
15
264

212

112

408
24
384
15
366

152
150

15
3

2

12

112
22
1
1

179
56
123
13
15
84

-

2

-

93
s in
33
7
9

66

39
33

16
12

59
37

50
23
27

2

134
—

50
16

13
-

“

-

-

7
5

9
4
5
4
-

9
3

5
4

_
-

6

4

2

2

1

2

2

-

1

-

*

4

4
4
-

26
8

1

3
3

1

1

18
-

5
14

14

10

12

22

3
-

8

-

2
2

6

1

-

-

-

8

8

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

7

T a b le A - l : O ffice O c c u p a t io n s - C on tin u e d
( A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a r n in g s f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d on a n a r e a b a s i s
in P h ila d e lp h ia , P a . , b y in d u s t r y d iv is io n , N o v e m b e r 1956)

Average
Number
of

Sex, occupation, and industry d ivision

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

$
$
$
Weekly,
W
eekly j 30. 00 35. 00 40. 00
hours
earnings
and
(Standard) (Standard)
40. 00 45. 00

$

45. 00

$
50. 00

50. 00 55. 00

$
$
55. 00 60. 00
60. 00

65.00

$
65. 00

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 100.00 105.00 n o . oo 115. 00
and
70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 100.00 1 0 5 .0Q 110.00 n 5. oo

Women - Continued
D uplicating-m achine operators (m im eograph
or d it t o )__ __________________ ________ _ ___________
M a n ufa cturin g -------------------------------------------------------------------------

111
39. 0
--------- w -----4 0 "

$
52. 50
547W

-

2
“
4
4
4

Key-punch operators ____________________________________
M a n ufa cturin g ________________________________________
N o nm an ufa ctu rin g____________________________________
Public utilities * _
Wholesale trade _____________________ ___________
R etail trade 2
_
Finance ** _____________________ __________________

1,295
585
710
100
152
71
383

38.
39.
38.
38.
39.
39.
37.

5
0
0
5
0
0
0

58. 50
61.00
56. 00
57. 50
62. 00
57. 50
53. 50

_
_
-

Office g irls
M a n ufa cturin g ________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing
Public utilities * __________________________________
Finance** ______________ _________________ _____

350
154
196
34
72

38.
39.
38.
37.
36.

5
0
0
5
5

44.
46.
43.
44.
42.

50
00
50
50
00

8
8
-

.
-

25
21
4
1
3
127
127
31
21
8
59
8

47
18
29
1
2
25

61
”

^ 9

22
20

Secretaries
_
M a n u fa ctu rin g ________________________________________
Nonm an ufa ctu rin g_____________________________ ____
Public utilities * __________________________________
Wholesale trade _______________________________
R etail trade 2 _____________________________________
Finance * * _______________________ _____ ________
Services ------------------------------------------------------------------------------

5, 007
2, 491
2, 516
174
512
263
1,244
323

38.
38.
37.
38.
38.
39.
36.
37.

0
5
5
5
5
0
5
5

74.
77.
70.
99.
72.
72.
67.
65.

00
00
50
00
00
00
00
00

.
_
-

Stenographers, general ________________________________
Manufacturing ______________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ___________ __________ ________
Public utilities * ______________ ________ _______
Wholesale trade _____________ __________________
R etail tra d e 2 _____________________ __________ __
Finance * * _____________________________ ___________
Services -----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4, 292
2, 153
2, 139
317
489
229
921
183

38.
$9.
37.
38.
38.
38.
36.
38.

0
6
0
0
0
0
0
0

60.
62.
58.
61.
64.
58.
54.
58.

50
50
00
50
00
00
00
00

_
-

.
-

J8

69
69
6
63

146
44
102
16
35

-

Stenographers, technical ____ ______________________ ___ .
Manufacturing
_
_ _
_ _ "

70. 00
39. 0
199
152" ' ""39. 5 ~ T3. 50"

Switchboard o p e ra to rs ____ _______ __ ______________
M a n ufa cturin g _______________________ ______________
N o nm anufacturing____________________________________
Public utilities * _________________ ______________
Wholesale trade
R etail trade 2 _____________________________________
Finance** _____________________________________ __

904
233
671
102
72
133
202
162

S e e fo o tn o tes at en d o f t a b le .
* T r a n s p o r t a t i o n (e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) ,
* * F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta te .




38.
39.
38.
39.
39.
39.
36.
38.

5
0
0
0
5
0
5
0

57.
66.
54.
66.
63.
49.
55.
44.

00
00
00
50
50
00
00
50

3

-

8
8

c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .

22
19

10
------- 9

6
------- 3

4
3

■

"

-

"

■

■

-

-

-

246
117
129
2
31
18
77

221
114
107
9
46
7
44

161
85
76
13
28
13
22

90
65
25
3
17
4
-

47
33
14
1
6
7

21
9
12
11
1
-

2
1
1
1
-

.
-

_
-

_
-

_
“

_
-

_
"

7
5
2
-

2
2
-

1
1
"

.
'

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
"

_
-

_
-

_
~

_
■

502
142
360
3
51
24
220
62

663
291
372
3
49
30
232
58

843
350
493
8
118
50
215
102

617
303
314
14
84
31
151
34

677
36l
316
9
80
32
158
37

783
862
"T T 6 ----- “ 446
467
416
54
45
37
75
38
62
280
224
20
48

654
310
344
32
115
32
103
62

566
334
232
34
103
38
42
15

447
3'0'i
146
19
69
19
33
6

217
143
74
15
41
6
12

9
------ 9—

19
— rs—

15
30
22
-------7— — rs— — r r ~

73
73
38
7

28

191
45
146
33
8
6
99

265
98
167
27
14
21
105

37
76
12
-----30----- " ..25•“ ------- §—
4
46
12
17
1
17
■
49
10
39
2
2
34
1
451
—
270
46
12
26
168
’8

~rm

8
83
5
78
2
23
31
22

138
29
109
10
10
81
8

14
------ g-----

157
21
136
13
12
43
61
7

25
T5—
132
32
100

27
28
'"'19'..... — 23—
127
59
68
34
15

55
36
19

~

3

139
46
93
10
30

12
59
15

7

4

-

35
17
18
15
2
-

28
18

14

1

1

11

1

11
7

208
9
83
45
64
7

311
234
77
19
9
11
33
5

200
136
64
11
5
12
34
2

130
"H R
26
8
2
13
2
1

106
71
35
10
10
12
3

96
70
26
23
1
1
1
■

40
21
19
12
6
1
■

102
48
54
45
2
7
"

100
78
22
17
5
"

33
27
6
6
"

30
15
15
3
6
6

7
2
5
2
3
_

15
15
13
2
_

_
-

_
'

_
-

17
14

46
— 45“

3
■

_

.

"

508

13
6
6
-

9
9
-

-

-

1

-

_

_

■

_
~

.
-

_

_

_

-

1
1
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3
-

3

-

3

8
Ta b le A-1: O ffic e O ccupations - Continued
(Average stra ig h t-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
in Philadelphia, Pa. , by industry division, Novem ber 1956)
Average
Sex, occupation, and ind ustry division

Number
of

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
W
eekly
W
eekly 30. 00 35. 00 40. 00 45. 00 50. 00 55. 00 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00
hours 1 earnings 1 and
(Standard) (Standard)
and
3 3 ^ 5 40. 00 45. 00 50. 00 55. 00 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115 00

Women - Continued
Switchboard o p era tor-re ce ption ists _ _______________
M anufacturing ____________________ _________________
Nonm anufacturing ______ ___________________________
P ub lic utilities *
_
. .....
Wholesale trade
_________ ____
R etail trade 2
___ _
.............
Finance ** ________________________________________
Services __________________________________________

839
418
421
35
186
63
75
62

38. 0
38.0
37. 5
38. 5
38. 0
37. 5
34. 5
39. 0

$
55. 50
57.00
54. 00
61.00
54. 50
55. 50
51.00
51.50

Tab ulating-m achine operators
....
.
_
.
M anufacturing
...
......................
Nonm anufacturing
. .. ...
.....
P ublic utilities * _
. . .
Finance ** ________________________________________

379
133
246
56
134

38.
38.
37.
37.
37.

0
5
5
5
5

64. 00
71.00
60. 00
64. 00
59.50

T ra n s c rib in g -m a c h in e operators, general
M anufacturing ............
Nonm anufacturing
Finance **
........................

770
290
480
234

38.
38.
38.
36.

0
5
0
5

55. 00
56.50
54. 00
50. 50

T y p is ts , class A
M anufacturing
. _
___
Nonm anufacturing ...
_ .
Finance **
_
___
... - _
Services __________________________________________

1, 271
566
705
512
62

38.
39.
37.
36.
38.

0
5
0
5
0

58. 00
62.50
54. 50
53. 50
58. 50

T y p is ts , class B ______________________________________
Manufacturing _______________________________________
Nonm anufacturing
_________________________________
P ublic utilities *
._ _
_
... _
.
Wholesale trade __________________________________
R etail trade 2 _____________________________________
Finance ** ________________________________________
S ervices __________________________________________

3, 968
1,412
2, 556
127
421
338
1,469
201

38.
39.
37.
37.
39.
39.
36.
39.

0
0
5
0
5
0
0
0

49.
51.
48.
53.
52.
50.
46.
50.

50
50
50
50
00
00
50
00

_
-

_

-

51
12
39
19
20
"

127
45
82
1
38
5
17
21

182
90
92
3
23
34
10
22

194
100
94
11
54
3
15
11

138
79
59
13
28
12
4
2

101
62
39
18
7
8
6

32
22
10
7
2
1
-

14
8
6
6
-

.

_

.

_
-

_
-

_
-

.
_
_
-

_
-

3
3
-

1
1
-

5
3
2
"

_

■

_

_

-

-

3
3
3

27
27
10
14

43
6
37
4
22

63
13
50
7
28

86
27
59
2
37

63
28
35
7
22

41
15
26
21
4

19
12
7
3
4

18
16
2
2
-

_

17
17
12

50
4
46
23

126
12
114
67

211
114
97
70

144
73
71
43

98
42
56
14

67
22
45
5

38
17
21
"

11
3
8

3
3
"

3
3
2
"

54
54
36
-

177
18
159
116
10

277
94
183
162
6

259
108
151
123
21

189

200
162
38
12
6

63
47
16
7
-

15
12
3

25
11
14

3
2
1

-

-

-

6

63
11
52

986
214
772
8
59
80
605
20

1168
425
743
51
86
63
499
44

903
345
558
28
166
33
220
111

420
220
200
13
45
31
88
23

101
64
37
12
10

36
22
14
6
8

6
-------- 6

-

-

-

-

34
18

106

83
54
13
276
102
174
9
41
93
28
3

4

11

-

-

_

-

-

-

_
_

_
-

_
_
_
-

-

"

.

.

-

-

2
2
-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

_

_
_
.
-

6

.

.

.

.

.

r~

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

—

6

_

-

3
-------- r _

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive th eir reg u la r stra ig h t-tim e salaries aLnd the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
2 Excludes lim ite d -p ric e va rie ty stores.
3 A ll w o rke rs w ere at $25 to $30.
* Tran sp ortation (excluding ra ilro a d s ), com m unication, and other public u tilitie s.
** Finance, insurance, and real estate.




10
10
- ■

.
-

-

6
-

6
-

-

.

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

.

-

.

9
Table A -2: Professional and Technical Occupations
(Average stra ig h t-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
in Philadelphia, Pa. , by industry d ivision , Novem ber 1956)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS O FWeekly Weekly
hours1 earning^
(Standard) (Standard)

Sex, occupation, and industry division

!

T

l o . 00 ^ 5 .0 0 $ . 00 15.00 ^ 0 .0 0 75.00 80. 00 85. OOi 90. 00 95. 0 100. 00(105. ooiio. c
60
0
and !
under
-5 .^ .M ^ Q 65.00 m ,Q Q 75,00 80. 00 85. 00 90. OOl 95. 00 100 .0 0 105. 00110. 00115. C
5 -Q Q -Q

1 5. OOjlZO.

|
$

|
»

.25. 00130. 00135.00 140.00

20. Oo!l25. 0oil30. Qoll35. PO^MO. 00 145. 00

150. 00155.00
and
0155.00! over

$

D raftsm en, leader
Manufacturing —
D raftsm en, senior ■
Manufacturing Nonm anufacturing ■
D raftsm en, ju n io r ■
Manufacturing •
Nonm anufacturing •

N u rse s, ind us tria l (re giste red ) M a n u fa c tu rin g ----------------------------Nonm anufacturing ---------------------

3

178

39. 5

T5T 40. 0
T3T
156

40.0
38.5
39.5

137. 50
138.00

~ ZW

“TT8

TT

17527575
102.50

"'78.(575'

39.0

~
rTT

68.00

20

219
67

'39. 5

~78.“5o
73. 50

38.0

T!

12

127

■ w ~w r
r

~T
T

161

"2T
1

I T

Standard hours reflect tne workweek for which employees receive their reg ular stra ig h t-tim e salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
W orkers were distributed as follows: 2 at $ 1.55 to $ 1.60; 12 at $ 1.60 to $ 1. 70; 8 at $ 1. 70 to $ 1. 80.
Includes 2 w orkers at $40 to $45; 4 w orkers at $45 to $50.

Table A-3:

Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations

(Average hourly earnings for men in selected occupations studied on an area basis
in Philadelphia, Pa. , by industry d ivision , Novem ber 1956)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
Occupation and industry division

Number
of
workers

$
Average $
1.10
hourly . 1.00
earnings1 and
under
1. 10 1.20

Carpe nte rs, m a in te n a n c e ---------------------------------------M a n u fa c tu rin g -------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------------------------P ublic utilities * ---------------------------------------------R etail trade 3 ----------------------------------------------------

833
5757
226
34
109

$
2 .48
2 .44
2. 60
2.29
3. 06

E le c tric ia n s , maintenance -------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu rin g -------------------------------------------------------N o nm an ufa ctu rin g ------------------------------------------------Public utilities * ---------------------------------------------R etail trade 3 ----------------------------------------------------

1, 585
1, 318
267
74
105

2.47
2.48
2.43
2.47
2.81

$
1.20

$
1.30

$
1.40

$
1. 50

$
1.60

$
1. 70

! . 80

$
1.90

1 . 00

1.30

1.40

1.50

1.60

1.70

1.80

1.90

2. 00

2. 10

-

-

-

-

3
3

1
1
-

33
18"
15

16
13”
3

21
17
4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_
-

_
-

_
_

9
9
_

4
1
3
.

11
11
_

11
8
3
_

4
2
2
-

77
53
24
_

-

_

_
_

See footnotes at end of table.
* Tran sp ortation (excluding ra ilro a d s ), com m unication, and other public u tilitie s.




14
1
13

$
$
2. 10 2.20

$
2. 30

$
2.40

50

$2. 60

$
$
$
2. 70 2. 80 2.90

2.30

2. 40

2. 50

2. 60

2. 70

2. 80

109
83
26
14
11

76
68
8

48
48
-

-

-

8

-

164
144
20
12
5

244
239
5
5

274
231
43
41

2. 20

79
48
31
4
8

62
40
22
12
3

77
76
1

48

132
92
40
31
1

177
175
2
2

26

22
1
1

-

-

2.90

13
9
4
_
-

13
165
IT T82
1
3
1
3
"

65
62
3

39
39
-

-

185
157
28
28

3.00

-

$3. 00 $3. 10
and
3. 10 over

-

-

89
68
21
_
21

12
1
11
11

2 103
11
92
79
40
TO
20
20

Occupational Wage Survey, Philadelphia, P a. , Novem ber 1956
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
Bureau of La bo r Statistics

10
Table A -3 :

Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations - Continued

(Average h ou rly earnings for men in selected occupations studied on an area basis
in Philadelphia, P a. , by ind ustry division, Novem ber 1956)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
$
1.20

V 30

$
1.40

$
1. 50

$
1.60

1.30

1.40

1.50

1.60

1.70
50
33
17

En gin ee rs, s ta tio n a ry -----------------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu rin g ---------------------------------------------------------N o nm an ufa ctu rin g -------------------------------------------------R etail trade 3 -----------------------------------------------------Finance * * -----------------------------------------------------------Services ---------------------------------------------------------------

1,065
734
331
67
134
93

$
2. 16
2.25
1.97
2.26
1.95
1.75

-

-

-

F ire m e n , stationary b o i l e r -------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu rin g ---------------------------------------------------------N o nm an ufa ctu rin g ---------------------------------------------------

710
6l 1
99

1.99
2. 03
1.78

_
-

-

1
-

-

-

1

----------------------H e lpe rs, trades, m a in te n a n c e ------- *
M a n u fa ctu rin g ---------------------------------------------------------N o nm an ufa ctu rin g -------------------------------------------------Public utilities * -----------------------------------------------

2,018
1, $38
480
385

2. 05
2. lb
1.89
1.94

_

1

-

-

M a chine-to ol operators, toolroom ----------------------M a n u fa ctu rin g ----------------------------- — -------------------------

549
549

2. 37
2. 3?

-

-

M achinists, m a in ten an ce -----------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu rin g ----------------------------------------------------------

1,088
962

2. 55
2. 54

Mechanics, automotive (m a in te n a n c e )----------------M a n u fa ctu rin g ---------------------------------------------------------N o nm an ufa ctu rin g --------------------------------------------------Public utilities * -----------------------------------------------Wholesale trade -----------------------------------------------R etail trade3---------------------------------------------------------

1,036
741
419
136
141

2. 32
2.39
2.29
2 .27
2.43
2.24

M echanics, m a in te n a n c e ------------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu rin g ---------------------------------------------------------N o nm an ufa ctu rin g --------------------------------------------------R etail trade 3 ------------------------------------------------------

1,679
1,519
160
95

2. 38
2775
2. 38
2.25

M i l lw r ig h t s --------------------------------------------------------------------Manufacturing ----------------------------------------------------------

534
531

2. 36
2. 36

O ile rs -------------------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu rin g ----------------------------------------------------------

509
502

1.84
1.84

P ain te rs, m a in te n a n c e ----------------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu rin g ---------------------------------------------------------N o nm an ufa ctu rin g --------------------------------------------------P ublic utilities * -----------------------------------------------Finance * * -----------------------------------------------------------

653
354
299
94
99

2.23
2. 35
2. 09
2. 34
1.84

P ip efitte rs, maintenance -----------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu rin g ----------------------------------------------------------

931
§75

P lu m b e rs, maintenance --------------------------------------------N o nm an ufa ctu rin g ---------------------------------------------------

92
65

2. 31
2. 23

.

-

-

-

S h e e t-m e ta lw o rk e rs , m a in te n a n c e ----------------------

224
199

2.43

_

_

2.43

-

1, 749
1, 747

2. 58
2. 58

_

To o l and die makers --------------------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu rin g ----------------------------------------------------------

*
_

1
1

1
1

2
2

3
3

12
1
11

_

_
_

_

-

_
_

_

1

15
-

15
_

-

-

-

*5.90

$ 00
2.

$
2. 10

1 .2 0

$ 30
2.

$
2.40

$
2. 50

$
2. 60

$
2. 70

$
2. 80

$
2.90

$
3. 00

1.90

2.00

2. 10

2.20

2.30

2.40

2. 50

2 .60

2. 70

2. 80

2.90

3.00

3. 10

$
3. 10
and
over

155
63
92

46
18
28

35
26
9

91
77
15

159
12"9
30
21
9
-

157
151
6

11
7
4
1
2
-

29
29
_

30
10
.

15
15 '
.

17
n>
2

38
------ T T

4
4

_
_

_
_

_

.

2
-

36
13
23
15
2
-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

33
33
-

27
27

36
36
-

5
5
-

-

_
-

_
_

_
_

-

.
_

_

-

-

46
44

-

12

159
158
1

100
77
23

71
71
-

13
12
1

24
21
3

_

_
_

-

3

10

41
34
7

11
2
9

39
27
12

85
”73
12

11
7
4
3

22
8
14
8

70
45
25
6

74
6l
13
4

147
126
21
15

171
141
30
29

469
250
219
196

220
123
97
86

161
"1 51
10
7

15
8
7
7

382
358 '
24
24

260
260

7
7

14
14

45
45

1

24
24

50
50

119
119

143
143

1
1

56
56

32

57
57

89
64

64
55

6
6

24
4
20

314
60
2 54
180
11
60

145
64
81
40

-

66
15
51
40
4
7

192
41
151
76
39
30

264
228
36
33

159
i'37"
22
16

_

_

-

-

1
1

-

-

_

60
33 ~
27

1

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

6
6

.
-

_
_
-

-

-

_
-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

6
-

-

.

_

-

.

.

-

-

_

-

-

-

3
3

15
15

46
46

104
104

109
109

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

154
IIE
38
36

_

_

_

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4
4

9
9

35
” 35

80
79

99
99

30
3o

4
4

11
11

16
14

74
74

10
10

22
2l

47
47

75
71

88
88

21
21

112
'm

3
3

14
14

9
9

_

_

18

-

-

20

18

_

-

33
2
31

33
7
26

54
41
13
*

59
22
37
29
8

101
5l
50
43

12
12

-

60
4l
19
19

1

2. 53

.

2. 52

-

31
31

57
57

18
16

3
------ 3“

-

-

-

-

38

88
75"
13
*

48
112
20 'h 24
28
88
20
25
2
50
6
"
331
319
12
6

_

_

.

.
-

62

127
106
109 ~ T 0 4 ~
"

-

-

153
142
11
4

110
131
110 " 131 '

83
83"

_

_

_
_

_

_
_

.
_

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

194
129

_

52
52

3
-

15
14

_

_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_

-

124
162
T Z 4 ' 159
41
11
30
6
24
-

66
34
32
32

22
22

85
5l
34
-

9
7
2

34
34

-

.

-

_

-

_
-

-

-

-

216
211
5
-

3
3

-

-

-

16

12

16

ii

-

.

_

-

-

-

-

1
-

1
-

-

_

-

_

.

-

-

-

78
78

21

_

_

-

21

-

_

-

-

_
-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

39
18
21
21
-

17
7
10

-

2
2
1
“

88
67

169

79

35

_

2o

32

302
276

_

7
9

20

169

-

-

9
9

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

20
-

-

18
-

-

-

1

18
15

.

.

_

_

.

.

.

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5
5

8
8

_

-

8
8

.

*

-

1
-

1
-

17
15

4

7
6

9
6

5
“

5
-

6
-

-

4
4

1
1

8
8

_

-

_

_

.

2

-

-

2

-

28
15

24
23

25
23

69
68

16
16

23
23

14
8

2
2

-

-

9
9

10

-

1
1

-

-

1
-

_

-

_

-

_

-

-

55
55

79
79

20
20

52
52

65

147
147

35

-

_

-

-

29

26

1
1 Excludes p re m ium pay for overtim e and for w ork on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
2 W orkers were distributed as follows: 10 at $3.2 0 to $ 3 .3 0 ; 93 at $3.3 0 to $ 3 .4 0 .
3 Excludes lim ite d -p ric e v a rie ty stores.
* Tran sp ortation (excluding ra ilro a d s ), com m unication, and other public utilitie s.
** Finance, insurance, and real estate.




7
2

5
2
3

-

20
3

173
86
87
30
42
6

4
13

-

-

*5.80

o
o
o
—1

Average $
hourly . 1.00 $1. 10
earnings
and
under
1. 10 1.20

o
r-

Occupation and ind ustry division

Number
o
f
workers

122
r r r

7

63

-

9

185
208
185 1775

587
311
587 ’ 371

'

36

4
4

-

-

11
Table A-4:

Custodial and M aterial Movement Occupations

(Average h ourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
in Philadelphia, P a ., by ind ustry d ivision , Novem ber 1956)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
Number
o
f
w
orkers

818
121
697
122
437

Average $
$
hourly 2 0.50
0.60
earnings
under
.60
.70
$
1.48
_
_
1.64
_
.
1.45
_
_
1. 35
_
_
1.52

391
351
107
74
140

1.21
1.18
1.22
1.41
.97

_
_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_
_

14
14
_
_
14

114

1,853
1,087
766
410

1.68
1.92
1.33
1.44

_
_

_

_

_
_
_

_
_
_

Jan ito rs, p o rte rs, and cleaners (m en)
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing _________________________
Public utilities *
Wholesale trade
Retail trade 3
..... ................... ......
.... _
Finance * *
Services .. . .

6,262
3 ~2 6 3
2,999
506
139
873
788
693

1.49
1.61
1.37
1.72
1.45
1.31
1.41
1. 13

6
_
6
_
_
6

19
_
19
_
_
14

265
_
265
_
_
107

_

5

158

Jan ito rs, p o rte rs, and cleaners (women)
Manufacturing
............
_ _
Nonmanufacturing
Public u tilit ie s 3
!'
Wholesale trade
Retail trade 3
....
.
.....................
Finance **
________
__ _____
__
Services ______________________________ —

3,670
750
2,920
163
72
230
1,650
805

1.17
1.40
1.12
1.41
1.11
1.06
1. 14
1.04

1
_
1

1

10,143
6,440
3,703
632
1,205
1,826

1.72
1.73
1.71
1.97
1.70
1.63

Occupation 1 and industry division

Elevator operators, passenger (m en) _________
Nonm anufacturing ________________________

Elevator operators, passenger (w o m e n )___

Guards _________

___________________________

Finance **

L a b o re rs , m a te rial handling _______________
___
__
Manufacturing
Nonm anufacturing
. .
Public utilitie s*
.......
.
Wholesale trade
Retail trade 3
O rd e r fille rs
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing ..
Wholesale trade ______________________ ___
Retail trade 3

1,515
1,247
268
148

_
_

_

_ _
_

_
......... .

1.66
1.70
1.45
1 1.42
1

2
_
2
_
_
_
_
2

$
0.80

$
0.90

$
1.00

“
.80

.90

"
1.00

1. 10

15
_
15
_
_

21
_
21
_
_

12
_
12
_
_
130
130
16

_

13
_
13

_

_

30
41
_ 1
41
30

$
1.20
1.30

$
1. 30

$
1.40

"
1.40

21
6
15
3
5

13
3
10
8
2

125
15
no
101
9

15
15
6
2

33
21
18
3
_

18
17
9
8

39
3
36
7

309
8
301
38

111
17
94
94

_

_
_

548
364
108 “246
118
440
_
2
16
25
38
139
14
60
48
216

1. 50

$
1.50
“
1.60

$
1.60
_
1.70

149
5
144
1
83

296
3
293
_
293

73
28
45
_
45

67
53
14
7
_

7
5
2
_
_

15
3
12
_
_

2
_
2
_
_

2
_
2
2
_

-

-

-

-

-

.
_

_
_

_
_

_
_

_
_

83
81
55
28

36
35
_
3
12

43
30
_
30

11
_
_
_
_

5
3
3
_
_

_
_
_
_

3
3
_
.
_

_
_
.

_
_
.

_
_
_
_

-

-

_
_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_

_
.
_

68
8
60
59

97
16
81
62

106
52
54
54

96
49
47
34

62
22
40
31

378
335
23
23

243
22o
23
1

130
123
7
7

16
_
_

28
23
_
_

170
170
_
_

_
_
_

_
_

_
_
_

444
133“
311
18
7
168
95
23

572
87
485
32
11
93
186
163

705
212
493
27
13
57
322
74

843
707
136
30
14
66
22
4

905
” 624“
281
106
7
116
52
_

686
460
226
125
26
40
35
_

275
203"
67
46
14
5
2
_

419
291
128
120
2
6
_
_

157
149
8
_
4
4
_
_

44
32
12
_
_
12
_
_

8
6
2
_
_
2
_
_

_
_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_
_

-

_
_
_
_
_
_

258
171
87
74

18
18
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_
_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_

_

4
4
_
_
_
_

_
_
_

2
7
_

13
12
1
1
_

1
12

33
31
2
2
_
_
_

_
_

-

-

-

-

-

167
12 7
40
10
15
2
13

172
110
62
53
2
7

208
51
155
2
4
11
138

-

-

-

-

-

-

241
119
122

424
326
104

604
388
216

520
325
195

859
448
411

929
715
214

155
61

129
66

230
167
63
5
18
40

252
159

28
186

1326
1194
132
6
14
112

896
755
141
1
92
48

80
27
53
32
21

59
3
56
55
1

54
Zo
34
28
6

121
45
76
76

217
205
12
12

72
54
18
15
3

435
434
1
1

163
161
2
2

-

.

_

15

31

166

_

_
_

15

31

166
_
142

122

23
65

_
_

79
73
6
6

102
24
78
71
7

47
32
15
13
2

4
_
4
4

35
12
23
16

66
47
19
12

55
25
30
10

_

15

31

_

_
_

_
-

-

_

1.80

837
54
783
6
6
2
759
10

12

_

$
1.80
“
1.90

$
1.70

1787
91
1696
15
45
159
719
758

13

18

88
79
9

158
84
112
119
105. ------¥3 " 5 3 -----" T O 7'”
53
41
12
49
26
10
12
49

$
1.90
“
2.00

$
$
2.00 2.10
“
2. 10 2.20

1695 1342
512 “ 789
553
1183
326
291
167
277
615
60

16

$
2.20
“
2.30
_

$
2.30
■
2.40
_

_

$
2 .40

$
2 .50

2 . 50

2 .60

_

_

_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_

-

-

8
3
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_

94

131
109
22
1
15
6

202
40
162
52
40

225
7
218
103
115

94
50
44
30
14

5
1
4
4

52

8
8

23
175
165 ----- 2T
2
10
2

39
29
10
4

24
18

7
7

3
3

9
3
6
_

481
185
296
151
145

6

8

_

_
_
_
_
_
_

97
74
23
_
19
4

612
517
95
1

$
2.60
and
n v^r

17
17
1
16

52
52
_

_

_

129
19
110
4 108
2
4
4
_

_

1

See footnotes at end of table.
* Transportation (excluding ra ilro a d s), com m unication, and other public utilitie s.
** Finance, insurance, and real estate.




$
1. 10
"
1.20

28
2
11

_

1.87
2,027
785 ' T 7 1 -----1,242
1.96
710
1.99
1.90
462

Packers, shipping (m en)
_
_
Manufacturing
... _ ..
Nonmanufacturing .......................
Retail trade 3

_

-

$
0.70

Occupational Wage S urvey, Philadelphia, P a ., Novem ber 1956
‘
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
Bureau of La bo r Statistics

12
Ta ble A - 4 :

Custodial and Material M ovem ent Occupatio ns - Continued

(A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s fo r s e le c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d on a n a r e a b a s i s in
in P h il a d e lp h ia , P a . , b y in d u s t r y d iv is io n , N o v e m b e r 1956)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
O c c u p a t io n 1 an d in d u s t r y d iv is i o n

Number
of
w
orkers

Average
$ .5 0 $ .60
hourly
earnings 2 and
vinder
.60
.70

P a c k e r s , s h ip p in g (w o m e n )
M a n u fa c t u r in g _______________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g __________
R e t a il t r a d e 3 ____________

615
205“
409
334

$
1.33
1.52
1.23
1.24

R e c e iv in g c l e r k s _________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________
W h o le s a l e t r a d e __________
R e t a il t r a d e 3 _____________

921
501
420
131
229

1.80
1.94
1.63
1.91
1.50

.
_
_
"

_
_
-

S h ip p in g c l e r k s _____________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ___________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ______
W h o le s a l e t r a d e _____

527
457
90
64

2.03
2 .6 l
2.11
2.33

.
-

* -

S h ip p in g a n d r e c e iv i n g c l e r k s ___________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g ______________________________
W h o le s a l e t r a d e ______________________________
R e t a il t r a d e 3 _________________________________

388
282
64
174

2.02
1.87
2.07
2.11
2.11

_
_
_
_

_
_
_

-

8, 143
2,169
5,974
3,162
1,876
874
62

2.21
1 .19
2.22
2. 17
2.32
2. 18
1.70

_
-

.
-

T r u c k d r i v e r s , lig h t (u n d e r 1 V 2 t o n s ) ______
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g __________________________
S e r v i c e s ____________________________________

527
348
179
54

1.96
2. 10
1.69
1.73

T r u c k d r i v e r s , m e d iu m ( l V z to a n d
in c lu d in g 4 t o n s ) ______________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ___________________________
P u b li c u t ilit ie s * _________________________
W h o le s a l e t r a d e _________________________
R e t a il t r a d e 3 ______________________________

2.808
980
1,828
1,132
515
173

2.19
2.23
2.17
2.18
2.20
2.10

T r u c k d r i v e r s , h e a v y ( o v e r 4 to n s ,
t r a i l e r t y p e ) __________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ______________________
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g ________________
P u b li c u t ilit ie s * ______________
W h o le s a l e t r a d e ________________
R e t a il t r a d e 3 ___________________

1,967
195
1,772
810
795
167

2.31
2. i?
2 .33
2.24
2.42
2.27

T r u c k d r i v e r s 5 ___________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g __________
P u b li c u t ilit ie s * _________
W h o le s a l e t r a d e __________
R e t a il t r a d e 3 _____________
S e r v i c e s ____________________

_

-

_




$ .0 0

$ 10
2.

$
2.20

$
2.30

$
2.40

$2.50

1.70

1.80

1.90

2.00

2.10

2.20

2.30

2.40

2.50

2.60

$ 10
1.

$
1.20

$1 . 30

.80

.90

1.00

1.10

1.20

1.30

1.40

_

54
54
54

40
40
40

76
32
44
32

53
4
49
37

107
14
93
42

33
17
16
16

19
4
15
15

69
35
34
34

61
2b
41
41

4
4
_

.

4
4
_
4

24
1
23
_
13

43
43
_
40

24
3
21
_
18

80
26
54
14
20

54
5
49
27
22

140
50
90
7
80

80
68
12
_
12

11
7
4
"

16
11
5
-

7

34
3l
3

_
_

_
-

.
_

_

$
1.40 $ .5 0
1.50

1.60

_
-

_

1
1
-

1
1
-

7
6
1

3
3
-

2
2

_
_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_

_
_
_

6
6

_
_

_
_
_
_

-

*

-

"

_
_
-

_
_
-

_
_

_
_

21

23
11
12
6

77
24
53
4

-

"

-

-

"

45
12
33
16
7
9
1

1

6

24
25

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
_

■

28
12
16
-

21

~

24
11
13
-

6
1

23
11
12
6

-

_

_

_
-

_
_
_

17

_

“

■

"

■

7
9

_
_
"

■

-

-

_

_

-

_

_

“

”

”

"

_

-

"

■

-

-

-

'

'

c o m m u n ic a t io n , a n d o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .

24
11
13
6
7

_

17

-

-

15
6
5

_
_

_
_

_

7

_

_

_

81
72
9
3
6

21
ib

3
3
_

_
_

_
_

_
_

_
_

-

-

-

-

-

70
53
17
15
2

81
55
26
26
-

116
84
32
28
"

19
14
5
4
1

4
4

4
2
2
2

17

77
58
19
6
“

102
98
4
"

41
37
4
"

42
34
8
8

43
41
2
2

99
83
16
16

86
78
8
8

26

2
1
1

4

52
24
28
26

64
10
54
8
18

36
2b"
16
14
2

119
5
114
30
84

46
lb
36
12
24

12

4

50
50

no

4312
689
3623
2417
764
442

326

_

2
2

94
75
19
2

_

56
' 56

_
_
_
_

4
4
_

-

.
-

123
69
54
28
6
7
13

175
124
51
8

41
21
20
16

31
10
21
13

3
1
2
-

87

23
7

_
_

50
33
5o ""33

_
_
_

_
_

.
_
_

■

_
_

2
2
_

$2.60
and
over

-

5t

21
21

16

_

53
19
7 ~ "l2
46
7
18
“

22
15
7

73

-

-

_
_
_
_

'
S e e fo o tn o te s a t en d o f t a b le .
* T r a n s p o r t a t i o n (e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) ,

$ .9 0

$
1.00

-

_
-

$
1.80

$
0.90

_

$
1.70

$
0 .80

-

166

_

$
1.60

$ .70

"

_

43
-

_

_

_

_
_

54
45
9

“

-

“

“

“

9

160
74
62
24
-

52
16
36
-

40
67
1563
— 33“ ~ I s "
7
1374
19
_
_
932
_
_
328
7
114
19

_
_

166

22

4
4

_

_
_

“

184
9r ~
92
50
18
24

708

34

593
372
193
28

26

"115” — s—
_

26
"

3
8

_

_
-

30
18
12
12
8

_

15
1
14
14

_
_
_

12

_
_
_

12

-

8

1612
215
1397
588
484
325
-

334
3o3
31

783
298
485

47
23
24

31

485

24

-

-

-

_
_

_
_

_

_

_

190
190

42

-

_
_

_
_

_

_

_

_

_

-

_

312

_

312
150
162

42

8

_

222
— m r

_
_
_

-

735
5
730
438
162
130

25
— r r

242
T42~

_
_

-

411

_

3

411

3

411
“

_

~

_
_
_
_

_

_
_
_
_
“

13
T a b le A - 4 :

C u s to d ia l a n d M a te r ia l M o v e m e n t O c c u p a tio n s - C o n tin u e d

(Average h ourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
in Philadelphia, Pa. , by industry d ivision , Novem ber 1956)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
Occupation 1 and industry division

Number
of
workers

$
Average- $
hourly * 0.50 0.60
earnings
and
under
.70
.60

$

0.70

$

0 .8 0

-

-

-

_

1.83

"

1.640

1.52

966

1 .6 l

-

-

-

654
153
207
176
54

1.37
1.56
1.42
1.39
1.04

R e t a il t r a d e 3
F in a n c e * *
S e r v ic e s

_

_

1.84

Watchman
_ ____ _____
Manufacturing
__ __ __
Nonm anufacturing ......... .
Public utilities * ________________________ _

1.40

-

362
34 6

T ru c k e rs , power (other than fo rk lift)
Manufacturing .
--------

.
-

1.30

-

1.94
1.92
2.03
2 .04
2.05

_

1.20

-

1,913
1,539
374
88
207

.

1.10

-

-

-

$
1.30

-

T ru c k e rs , power (fo rk lift)
Manufacturing ________________________________
N o nm an ufa ctu rin g ____________________________
Public utilities *
.
R etail trade 3

_

$
1.20

.9Q..

$
2.20
2.17
2.21
2. 15
2.31

-

$
1.10

1.00

1,540
261
1,277
501
343

-

$
1.00

.80

T r u c k d r iv e r s 5 - Continued
T r u c k d r iv e r s , heavy (o ve r 4 tons, other
than tra ile r type) ___________________________
Manufacturing
_
_ _
Nonm anufacturing .
......
P ublic utilities * _______________________
Wholesale trade __ ____ . . „ „ __ _

-

$
0.90

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

■

"

-

l8

-

-

-

-

-

8
8

_

_
_
-

_
_

_
_
_
_

-

_

.

.

.

■

■

“

32

_

164
37
127
41
22
4
7

-

32

-

_
'

_
_
_

_
_

“
'

32

'

1 Data lim ite d to men w orke rs except where otherwise indicated.
2 Excludes p re m iu m pay for overtim e and for w ork on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
3 Excludes lim ite d -p ric e va rie ty stores.
4 W orke rs w ere distributed as follows: 78 at $2.60 to $ 2 .7 0 ; 8 at $2.70 to $3; 22 at $3 and ove r.
5 Includes a ll d riv e rs regardless of size and type of truck operated.
* Tran sp ortation (excluding ra ilro a d s ), com m unication, and other public u tilities.
** Finance, insurance, and real estate.




_

4
-

1.40

1.50

$
1.50

$
1.60

$
1.70

$
1.80

$
1.90

$
2.00

$

1.60

1.70

1.80

1.90

2.00

2.10

2.20

2.30

2.40

2.50

54
—

r r

37
12
17
8

176
71
105
74
30
1

35
2i
13
56
-

107
50
17
20
4

2.20

$

2.30

$

2.40

$

2.50
2.60

$

2.60
and
over

"

36
33
3
3
"

18
10
8
2
6

31
11
17
2
~

1146

46
4
42
24
18

122

975
468
207

122
_
4

14
4
10
_
10

74
_
74

47
23
24
_
24

87
1

179
171
8

197
181
16

155
119
36

453
437
16

178
122
56

423
221
202

138
114
24

25
23
2

2
2
_

23
23
_

_
_

1

2

16

36

12

120

18

2

-

-

-

125

63
55

2
2

2

8
8

_

_
_

_
_
_
_
_

_
_

_

_

_
_

_
_

_
_
_
_
_

“

-

”

86

T71

-

74
-

28

_

84

2

19

84

”

W ~ "1 2 5

197
167
30
2
26

148
107
41
29
12

_

_

6

_
_

_
_

2

“

”

“

-

162

282

~SE

TTT

76
12
2
62

70
24
7
37

"

$

6
4
2
2
-

"

-----57“

2. 10

-

-

18
_

$

'

117
“ 66 '

51
10
35

35

14

'3 5 '"

4

81
74
43 ....79
31
2
31
2

_

"

46
— 41“

2
2
_
‘

_
_

_




B: Establishme nt Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
T a b le

B - l:

S h ift

D if fe r e n tia l

P r o v is io n s 1

P e r c e n t o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g p la n t w o r k e r s —

S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l

(a )
In e s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v i n g
fo r m a l p ro v is io n s fo r —

S e c o n d s h if t
w o rk

T h ird o r o th e r
s h if t w o r k

(b )
A c t u a l l y w o r k i n g o n—

S e c o n d s h if t

T h ird o r o th e r
s h if t

T o t a l ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

8 3 .4

76. 1

15. 7

5 .4

W it h s h if t p a y d i f f e r e n t i a l ----------------------------------------------------------------

79. 3

74. 7

1 4 .8

5 .4

38 . 0

32. 3

6 .5

2 .9

U n ifo r m

c e n ts ( p e r h o u r ) -----------------------------------------------------------

4 c e n t s ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5 c e n t s ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5 Y 3 c e n t s -------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------6 c e n t s ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7 o r 71
/* c e n t s --------------------------------------------------------------------------8 c e n t s ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------9 c e n t s ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10 c e n t s --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------12 c e n t s --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------13 o r 1 3 V3 c e n t s ---------------------------------------------------------------------15 c e n t s --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------16 c e n t s --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 16 c e n t s ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

.3
12. 8
.6
2. 7
3 .2
5 .6
1 .5
7 .2
_
4 .0
-

-

_
2 .0
.6
. 3
1 .0
-

3. 7
1 3 .9
2. 5
.9
2. 5
4 .0
.9

. 1
2. 5
. 1
. 5
.6
1 .0
. 1
.9
-

. 7
-

.
. 1
-

. 1
. 1
-

.4
1 .3
. 3
. 1
. 5

-

t

p e r c e n t a g e ----------------------------------------------------------------------

3 8 .2

36 . 1

7 .2

1 .7

5 p e r c e n t ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7, 7 V4 , o r 7l/a p e r c e n t ---------------------------------------------------------8 p e r c e n t ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10 p e r c e n t ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------12 p e r c e n t ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 5 p e r c e n t ---------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------

2 .9
5 .2

.2
1 .1
5 .8
-

t

30. 1
-

1 .5
6 .0
1 .3
2 5 .0
. 5

-

1 .9

-

-

1 .1

2 .2

.6

. 1

1 .9

4. 1

.5

4. 1

1 .4

1 .0

U n ifo r m

F u l l d a y ’s p a y f o r r e d u c e d h o u r s ------------------------------------------F u l l d a y ’ s p a y f o r r e d u c e d h o u r s , p lu s c e n ts
o r p e r c e n t a g e d i f f e r e n t i a l -----------------------------------------------------N o s h i f t p a y d i f f e r e n t i a l -------------------------------------------------------------------

-

-

.2
. 1
1 .4
t

.6
t

1
S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l d a t a a r e p r e s e n t e d in t e r m s o f ( a ) e s t a b l i s h m e n t p o l i c y , a n d ( b ) w o r k e r s a c t u a l l y e m p lo y e d o n l a t e s h if t s
a t th e t i m e o f th e s u r v e y .
A n e s t a b l i s h m e n t w a s c o n s i d e r e d a s h a v i n g a p o l i c y i f it m e t e i t h e r o f th e f o l l o w i n g c o n d it io n s : ( l ) O p ­
e r a t e d la t e s h if t s a t th e t i m e o f th e s u r v e y , o r (2 ) h a d f o r m a l p r o v i s i o n s c o v e r i n g l a t e s h i f t s ,
f

L ess

th a n 0 . 0 5 p e r c e n t .
O c c u p a t io n a l W a g e S u r v e y ,

P h i l a d e l p h i a , P a . , N o v e m b e r 1956
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B u r e a u o f L b a o r S t a tis tic s

15

Ta b le B-2*.

M inim um Entrance Rates fo r W o m e n O ffic e W o r k e r s 1

Num ber of establishments with specified m inim um h irin g rate in—
M in im um rate
(weekly sa la ry)

A ll
schedules

Establishm ents s tu d ie d ---------------------------------------------------------------------

322

Manufacturing

Based on standard weekly hours 2 of—

A ll
industries

143

Num ber of establishments w ith specified m inim um h irin g rate in—

Nonm anufacturing

Manufacturing

37Va

40

A ll
schedules

3 71
/*

XXX

XXX

179

XXX

A ll
industries
A ll
s chedules

40

XXX

322

143

151

17

28

161

_
5
8
29
15
15
3
2
4
1
_
-

.
1
1
7
2
3
1
1
1

.
2
2
9
6
5
1
1
2

2
6
14
62
19
23
7
7
9
7
2
2
1

_
1
24
10
13
4
6
6
6
2
2
1

1
9
2
-

XXX

40

XXX

XXX

89

XXX

XXX

55

XXX

XXX

70

XXX

2

XXX

XXX

2

13

46

_

.
_
19
10
9
5
9
4
7
3
3
-

_
_
_
6
2
1
3
1
_
-

_
_
9
6
7
4
6
3
6
2
3
-

73

33

XXX

Establishm ents which did not em ploy w orkers
in this category ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

96

41

Data not a v a ila b le --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$32. 50
$35. 00
$37. 50
$40. 00
$42. 50
$45.00
$47. 50
$50.00
$52. 50
$55.00
$ 57. 50
$60.00
$62. 50
$65. 00

_

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ : ---------------------------------------------------

.
5
8
48
25
24
8
11
8
8
3
3
-

Establishm ents having no specified m in im u m --------------------------

XXX

XXX

69

_

$30.00
$32. 50
$35.00
$37. 50
$40. 00
$42. 50
$45. 00
$47. 50
$50. 00
$52. 50
$ 55. 00
$ 57. 50
$60.00
$62.50

3 7‘/a

_

_

40

A ll
schedules

3 7Vz

XXX

179

XXX

XXX

17

30

40

For Other Inexperienced Clerical W
orkers 8

For Inexperienced Typists

Establishm ents having a specified m in im u m -------------------------—

Nonmanufa ctur ing

Based on standard weekly hours 2 of—

82

_

_

_

_

.
-

_

-

75

17

_

47

_

86

4
1
_
-

11
6
10
4
2
4
5
2
2
1

2
6
13
3E
9
10
3
1
3
1
-

43

XXX

XXX

25

XXX
XXX

-

_
1
3
8
1
2
2
-

2
2
15
3
4
1
1
2
-

-

-

46

XXX

XXX

XXX

45

XXX

XXX

XXX

2

XXX

XXX

'

1 Lowest sa la ry rate fo rm a lly established for h iring inexperienced w orke rs for typing or other c le ric a l jobs.
2 Hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular stra ig h t-tim e sa laries.
Data are presented for a ll workweeks combined, and for the most common workweek reported.
3 Rates applicable to m essengers, office g irls , or s im ila r subcle rical jobs are not considered.




Occupational Wage Survey, Philadelphia, Pa. , N o vem ber 1956
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B ureau of La bo r Statistics

16
Ta b le B-3:

Scheduled W e e k ly H o u rs

PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS1EMPLOYED I N W e e k ly h o u r s

100

A ll w o rk ers

Manufacturing

100

1
2
3
4
f
*
**

Retail trade 2

100

100

.

3
12
8
25
14
39

U n d e r 35 h o u r s
35 h o u r s
_____
___________________________ _________
O v e r 35 a n d u n d e r 37 V 2 h o u r s ______ __ ________
37 V 2 h o u r s _________________________
_________
_____ _
O v e r 37 V 2 a n d u n d e r 40 h o u r s _
40 h o u r s
_ _
__
______
O v e r 4 0 an d u n d e r 4 4 h o u r s
4 4 h o u r s ____________________________________’______________
O v er 4 4 hours
_
_
_

Public
utilities*

Wholesale
trade

100

All
industries

8

t

t

59
26
-

19
19
52
-

7
4
11
12
66
-

*

*

t

t

t
t

.

14

5
3
22
21
49

.

“

t

PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—
Finance**

100

Services

100

9
24
4 24
25
8
10
-

Manufacturing

Public
utilities*

Wholesale
trade

100

100

100

100

_

_

t

15

t
t

10
-

t

t

t

t
t

"

3

86

99
-

3

t
4

t

Services

100

-

_

t

-

85

100

7

t

85

Retail trade2

t

7
4
74
6
5
3

t
t

87
4
6

D a t a r e la t e to w o m e n w o r k e r s o n ly .
E x c lu d e s l i m it e d -p r ic e v a r ie t y s t o r e s .
In c lu d e s d a ta fo r r e a l e s t a t e in a d d itio n to th o s e in d u s t r y d iv is io n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
I n c lu d e s 13 p e r c e n t a t 36l/ h o u r s ,
4
L e s s th an 2 . 5 p e r c e n t .
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n (e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a t io n , an d o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .
F in a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e .

Ta b le B 4 :

Paid H o lid a y s1

PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS! EMPLOYED IN—
Ite m

All
industries

A ll w o rk e rs

T

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g
p a i d h o l i d a y s ____ __ __________ ______________________
L e s s th a n
6 h o lid a y s
6 h o lid a y s
6 h o lid a y s
7 h o lid a y s
7 h o lid a y s

Manufacturing

Public .
utilities *

Wholesale
trade

PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—
Finance**

2,

5,

1 or

o r 7 h a lf d a y s
______
___
3 h a lf d a y s

10 h o l i d a y s p l u s
11 h o l i d a y s

1 h a lf d a y
_ ....

11 h o l i d a y s p l u s
12 h o l i d a y s _

_______________________
........ _

2 h a lf d a ys

12 h o l i d a y s p l u s 1 h a l f d a y ____________________
1 h o l i d a y s __
____ _ _
13 h o l i d a y s p l u s 1 o r 2 h a l f d a y s

3

W o r k e r s in e s t a b li s h m e n t s
n o p a id h o lid a y s

Services

All
,
industries

Manufacturing

Public
utilities *

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

Services

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

99

100

100

95

100

88

_

3
32

9
22
_
.

9
57
_
_

42
_
_

20

33
_
_

22

23
3

t

t

15
_

14

t

_
_
_

t

_

20
p lu s 1 h a l f d a y
p lu s 2. 3. o r 7 h a l f d a y s
________________________________________________
p l u s 1 h a l f d a y _________________________

9 h o l i d a y s ___
_______
9 h o l i d a y s p l u s 1 h a l f d a y _________________________
10 h o l i d a y s _____________ ______ ______________________

22

t

19
5

3
15
4

6
23

t
t
-

67

t

t

4

23

3
17

5

9

9

3

t

t

t

_

t
t
t
t

-

48
16

t
22
5

t
3
32

-

-

t

-

t
t

21

29

47

35

4

4

8

19

t

t

-

-

5

8

6

-

t

4

t

t
t

t

-

t
-

-

-

26

t

-

-

4
-

t
t
t
t

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

"

■

_

"

t

4
t
t
t
t
t
18

6

t
-

t

t

3

p r o v id in g

"

E s t im a t e s r e la t e to h o lid a y s p r o v id e d a n n u a lly .
I n c lu d e s d a ta fo r r e a l e s ta te in a d d itio n to th o se in d u s t r y d iv is io n s sh o w n s e p a r a t e l y ,
L e s s th an 2. 5 p e r c e n t .
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n (e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a t io n , an d o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .
F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , an d r e a l e s t a t e .




Retail trade

t

6 h o lid a y s

7 h o lid a y s p lu s
8 h o lid a y s
8 h o lid a y s p lu s

1
2
t
*
**

-

t

8

t

18
9
55
-

“

■

Ail
industries3

t
t
4
5

t
4
t
67

-

3

28
3
4
31

t
3
24

t
t
t

t

T

_

.
5

t

4

t

3

66
_

t
15
_
3
_

_
.
_

_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_

_
.
.
_
_
_

-

T

-

_

t

-

-

-

-

5

-

12

t
_

8
_
_

3
_
t

_
_

_

O c c u p a tio n a l W a g e S u r v e y , P h ila d e lp h ia , P a . , N o v e m b e r 19^6
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s

17

Ta b le B-5:

Paid Vacations

PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS EMPLOYED I N -

Vacation policy

Retail trade1

100

100

100

100

100

100

99

100
-

95
5
-

-

t

Manufacturing

Public
utilities

__

100

100

W orkers in establishments providing
paid vacations _____________________ _________

99
99

A ll w o r k e r s _____

____________ ___________

PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—

Wholesale
trade

All
industries

*

.Services

All
industries

Manufacturing

Public .
utilities *

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

Services

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

99

100

99

100

100

84

100

100

100
-

99
-

97

65
32

t
t

t
t

80
4
-

70
6

3

100
-

100

-

75
21

-

t

-

-

16

Finance**

M E TH O D O F P A Y M E N T

Le n g th -o f-tim e payment
_ _
Percentage payment _ _ __________________
F la t -s u m payment _________________________
Other
_____________________________________
W orkers in establishments providing
no paid v a c a tio n s __ _________ _____________

t

t

t

-

t

-

-

-

-

24

-

-

A M O U N T O F V A C A TIO N P A Y
A N D S E R V IC E P E R IO D 3
1 week or m ore _______________________________
6 months
1 year ______________________ ______________

99
68
99

100
71
100

100
60
100

100
54
100

100
25
100

99
90
99

100
53
100

99
99

2
4

100
28
100

100
33
100

84
16
84

100
7
100

100
9
100

2 weeks o r m ore ____________________________________
1 year _____________________________ _______
2 years _____________________________________
3 years _____ ______________________________
5 years ____________ ________ _____________
10 years ___________________________________
15 years ____________________________ _____

99
77
94
95
99
99
99

99
86
91
92
99
99
99

100
47
99
99
100
100
100

95
81
89
92
95
95
95

100
25
87
98
100
100
100

99
95
99
99
99
99
99

98
79
90
90
98
98
98

97
24
38
58
95
96
97

98
28
29
50
96
98
98

100
23
64
70
100
100
100

80
28
37
62
80
80
80

98
13
56
90
98
98
98

84
9
40
48
82
82
84

3 weeks or m ore _______________________ ____
2 years _____________________________________
3 years _____________________________________
5 years ______________ ___________ ________
10 years
15 years ____________________________________
20 years
_
____ ___________________________
25 years

87

88

97

72

91

91

64

72

72

81

48

88

16

t
t

-

-

t
t

-

-

-

-

-

t

12
96
96
97

7
37
72
72
72

5
48
89
89
91

t

17
75
84
91

5
36
62
63
64

5
34
71
71
72

7
29
72
72
72

t

-

-

14
43
87
88
88

t

-

7
33
83
85
87

t

33
81
81
81

26
48
48
48

4
64
82
82
88

32

26

49

11
_

36
_

_
_

-

-

-

_
11

4
36

_

4 weeks or m ore
10 years ___________________________________
15 years _ _____________________________ __
20 years ___________________________________
25 years
__________________________________

t
t

4
32

5

29

54

t

18

16

9

-

-

-

-

-

t
t
t

-

t
t

-

-

-

-

-

-

5

29

7
54

7
49

t

3
18

3
16

_
9

26

-

t
t
t

9
11
16

-

1 Excludes lim ite d -p ric e va rie ty stores.
2 Includes data for real estate in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
.
.
3 Periods of service w ere a rb it r a r ily chosen and do not necessarily reflect the individual provisions for pro gressio ns. F o r example, the changes in proportions indicated at 10 years se rvice in ­
clude changes in provisions oc cu rrin g between 5 and 10 ye a rs . Estim ates are cum ulative. Th u s, the proportion receiving 3 weeks1 pay or m ore after 5 years includes those who receive 3 weeks o r m ore
pay after fewer years of se rvice.
t Less than 2. 5 percent.
* Tran sp ortation (excluding ra ilro a d s ), com m unication, and other public utilities.
** Finance, insurance, and rea l estate.
Occupational Wage S urvey, Philadelphia, Pa. , Novem ber 1956
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B ureau of La b o r Statistics




N O TE:

In the tabulations of vacation allowances by years of se rvic e , payments other than "length of tim e ,"
such as percentage of annual earnings or fla t-s u m payments, were converted to an equivalent time
basis; for exam ple, a payment of 2 percent of annual earnings was considered as 1 week's pay.

18
Ta b le

b-5:

Paid Vacations - Continued

PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS EMPLOYED I N -

Vacation policy

All
industries

Manufacturing

Public
utilities *

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade 1

PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—
Finance**

Services

All
2
industries

Manufacturing

Public
utilities *

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade1

Services

P R E D O M IN A N T P R A C T IC E S A F T E R
S E L E C T E D Y E A R S O F S E R V IC E 4
1 year o r less:
2 years or less:

1 w e e k _____________________
2 weeks ___________________
1 w e e k ____ ____ ________
2 weeks _ _____ ______ __

XXX

51

XXX

75

XXX

XXX

73

71

73

56

87

68

77

86

79

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

43

45

XXX
XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX
XXX

95

XXX

XXX
XXX

81

XXX

XXX
XXX

XXX
XXX

XXX

42

92

91

99

87

87

97

76

XXX

XXX

64

XXX

56

40

3 years o r less:
5 years or less:

2 weeks ________________ __
2 weeks ___________________

94
87

92
80

99
99

90

97
91

76
76

58
86

50
85

70
99

62

88

98
95

80

90
94

46
58

10 years or less:
15 years or less:

2 weeks ___________________
3 weeks

62

52

86

54

96

72
75

52

86

52
89

59

82

58
70

62

66

66

63
81

54
48

564
42

58
6 53

20 years or less:
25 years or less:

3 weeks
3 weeks ___________________
4 weeks ___________________

77
52

6 49
6 44

82
54

86
62

96
92

70
43

82

77

XXX

XXX

63
63

64
52

63
52

81
72

48
37

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

54

49

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

1 Excludes lim ite d -p ric e v a rie ty stores.
2 Includes data for re a l estate in addition to those ind ustry divisions shown separately.
4 The pay pro visio n applicable to m ore w orke rs than any other single p ro vis io n , for service up to and including the indicated num ber of ye a rs .
for the indicated service period.
5 3 weeks.
6 2 weeks.
* Tran sp ortation (excluding ra ilro a d s ), com m unication, and other public utilities.
** Finance, insurance, and rea l estate.




XXX

XXX

Excludes w orke rs who receive more or less pay

19

Ta b le B-6:

Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans

PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS EMPLOYED I N -

Type of plan

A ll w orkers ___________________________________

All
industries

100

Manufacturing

Public
utilities *

100

100

94

95

99

30

42

87
37

91
65

69

Wholesale

PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—

Retail trade 1

Finance**

Services

100

100

100

100

All
2
industries

100

Manufacturing

Public
utilities *

100

100

Wholesale
trade

100

Retail trade1

Services

100

100

94

W orkers in establishments providing:
L ife insurance __________________ _________
Accidental death and dism em berm ent
insurance __________________________________
Sickness and accident insurance
or sick leave or both 3 ____________________
Sickness and accident insurance ________
Sick leave (full pay and no
waiting period) _________________________
Sick leave (p artial pay or
waiting period) _________________________
Hospitalization insurance __________________
Surgical insurance __________________________
Medical insurance __________________________
Catastrophe insurance ______________________
R etirem ent p e n sio n _______________ ________
No health, insurance, or pension
plan ___ ____ ____________________________

6
66
57
35
15
81
t

84

95

96

72

93

92

100

85

94

36

18

25

19

43

48

10

35

36

71

98
30

85
34

88
37

79
3

68
20

88
76

90
84

100
65

82
58

82
60

64
55

68

87

75

29

78

62

13

7

29

23

21

21

t

9
14
9
7

36
77
76
26
31
70

62
38
24
22
87

69
56
51
32

9
80
75
46
5
59

6
87
84
52
6
64

25
55
33
18
4
80

7
76
68
36
3
44

14
71
70
31
6
58

7

4

5

82

77
76
49
12
82

95

3
74
61
44
15
76

3

t

6

t

-

7

t

t

75
53
66
4
t

1 Excludes lim ite d -p ric e va rie ty stores.
2 Includes data for real estate in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
3 Unduplicated total of w orkers receiving sick leave or sickness and accident insurance shown separately below.
Sick-leave plans are lim ited to those which definitely establish at least the
m inim u m num ber of days' pay that can be expected by each employee. In form a l sick leave allowances determ ined on an individual basis are excluded.
t Le ss than 2. 5 percent.
* Tran sp ortation (excluding ra ilro a d s ), com m unication, and other public utilities.
**Fina n ce , insurance, and real estate.




Occupational Wage Survey, Philadelphia, Pa. , Novem ber 1956
U . S. D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
Bureau of La bo r Statistics




21

Appendix: Job Descriptions
The prim ary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau*s wage surveys is to
assist its field staff in classifyin g into appropriate occupations w orkers who are em ployed under
a va rie ty of payroll titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment
and from area to area.
This is essential in order to perm it the grouping of occupational wage
rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on inter establishment and
in terarea com parability of occupational content, the Bureau*s job descriptions may differ sig n ifi­
cantly from those in use in individual establishments or those prepared for other purposes.
In
applying these job descriptions, the Bureau*s field represen tatives are instructed to exclude w ork­
ing su pervisors, apprentices, lea rn ers, beginners, train ees, handicapped w orkers, part-tim e,
tem porary, and probationary w orkers.

Office

B IL L E R , M ACHINE
P rep a res statements, b ills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electrom atic typew riter. May also keep records
as to billings or shipping charges or perform other c le ric a l w ork in­
cidental to billing operations.
F or wage study purposes, b ille rs ,
machine, are cla ssified by type o f machine, as follow s:
B ille r , machine (billin g machine) - Uses a special billing
machine (Moon Hopkins, E lliott Fish er, Burroughs, etc. , which
are combination typing and adding machines) to prepare b ills and
invoices from customers* purchase o rd ers, internally prepared
o rd ers, shipping memoranda, etc.
Usually involves application
o f predeterm ined discounts and shipping charges and entry of
necessary extensions, which may or may not be computed on the
billing machine, and totals which are autom atically accumulated
by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of
carbon copies o f the b ill being prepared and is often done on a
fanfold machine.
B ille r , machine (bookkeeping machine) - Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, E lliott F ish er, Remington Rand, etc. , which
may or may not have typew riter keyboard) to prepare customers*
bills as part of the accounts receiva b le operation.
G enerally
involves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers* ledger
record .
The machine autom atically accumulates figures on a
number of ve rtic a l columns and computes and usually prints auto­
m atically the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowl­
edge o f bookkeeping. Works from uniform and standard types of
sales and credit slips.
B O O KKEEPING -M AC H INE O PE R ATO R
Operates a bookkeeping machine (Rem ington Rand, E lliott
F ish er, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash R egister, with or with­
out a typew riter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.




BO O KKEEPING -M AC H INE O PER ATO R - Continued
C lass A - Keeps a set o f records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and fa m ilia rity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used.
D eter­
mines proper records and distribution of debit and credit items
to be used in each phase of the w ork.
May prepare consolidated
rep orts, balance sheets, and other records by hand.
C lass B - Keeps a record of one or m ore phases or sections
of a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping.
Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
custom ers* accounts (not including a simple type o f billing described
under b ille r, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ven tory control, etc.
May check or assist in preparation of tria l
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.
CLE R K , ACCO UNTING
Class A - Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or m ore sections of a com ­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase of an establish­
m e n ts business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or a c ­
counts payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with
proper accounting distribution; requ ires judgment and experience
in making proper assignations and allocations.
May assist in
preparing, adjusting, and closing journal entries; may direct class
B accounting clerks.
Class B - Under supervision, perform s one or m ore routine
accounting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers,
accounts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
recon cilin g bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by gen eral led gers.
This job does not require a knowledge of
accounting and bookkeeping principles but is found in offices in
which the m ore routine accounting w ork is subdivided on a func­
tional basis among severa l w orkers.

22

C LE R K ,

F IL E

Class A - Responsible fo r maintaining an established filin g
system . C lassifies and indexes correspondence or other m aterial;
may also file this m aterial. May keep records of various types
in conjunction with files or supervise others in filin g and locating
m aterial in the file s .
May perform incidental c le ric a l duties.
Class B - P erfo rm s routine filin g, usually of m a terial that
has already been classified, or locates or assists in locating m a ­
te ria l in the file s .
May p erform incidental c le ric a l duties.
C LE RK,

ORDER

Receives custom ers' orders fo r m a terial or m erchandise by
m ail, phone, or personally.
Duties involve any combination of the
follow in g: Quoting prices to custom ers; making out an order sheet
listing the items to make up the order; checking prices and quantities
of items on order sheet; distributing order sheets to respective de­
partments to be filled .
May check with credit department to d e te r­
mine credit rating of custom er, acknowledge receipt of o rders from
custom ers, follow up orders to see that they have been filled , keep
file of orders re ceived , and check shipping invoices with origin al
o rd e r s .
C LE RK,

K E Y -PU N C H O PE R ATO R
Under general supervision and with no su pervisory respon si­
b ilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards
by punching a series of holes in the cards in a specified sequence,
using an alphabetical or a num erical key-punch machine, follow ing
w ritten inform ation on records.
May duplicate cards by using the
duplicating device attached to machine.
Keeps files of punch cards.
May v e r ify own work or work of others.
O FFICE BOY OR G IR L
P erfo rm s various routine duties such as running errands,
operating m inor office machines such as sealers or m a ilers, opening
and distributing m ail, and other m inor c le r ic a l work.
S E C R E TA R Y
P erfo rm s sec re ta ria l and c le ric a l duties fo r a superior in an
adm inistrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint­
ments fo r superior; receivin g people coming into office; answering
and making phone calls; handling personal and important or con fi­
dential m ail, and w ritin g routine correspondence on own initiative;
taking dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in
shorthand or by stenotype or sim ila r machine, and transcribing dicta­
tion or the recorded inform ation reproduced on a transcribing machine.
May prepare special reports or memoranda fo r information of superior.

PAYRO LL
STENO G RAPH ER, G E N E R A L

Computes wages of company em ployees and enters the n eces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating w o rk ers'
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as w ork er's name, working
days, tim e, rate, deductions fo r insurance, and total wages due. May
make out paychecks and assist paym aster in making up and d is ­
tributing pay envelopes.
May use a calculating machine.

P rim a ry duty is to take dictation from one or m ore persons,
either in shorthand or by stenotype or sim ila r machine, involving a
normal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a type­
w rite r. M ay also type from w ritten copy. May also set up and keep
files in ord er, keep sim ple record s, etc.
Does not include transcribing-m achine work (see transcribing-m achine o p era to r).

C O M PTO M E TE R O PE R ATO R

STENO G RAPH ER,

P rim a ry duty is to operate a Com ptom eter to p erform m athe­
m atical computations.
This job is not to be confused with that of
statistical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of
a Comptometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to
perform ance of other duties.

P rim a ry duty is to take dictation from one or m ore persons,
either in shorthand or by stenotype or sim ila r machine, involving a
varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or
reports on scientific research and to tran scribe this dictation on a
typew riter. May also type from w ritten copy. May also set up and
keep files in order, keep sim ple record s, etc.
Does not include
transcribing-m achine work.

TE C H N IC A L

D U PLIC A TIN G -M AC H IN E O PE R ATO R (M IM EOGRAPH OR D IT TO )
SWITCHBOARD O PE R ATO R
Under general supervision and with no su pervisory respon­
sib ilities, reproduces m ultiple copies of typewritten or handwritten
m atter, using a m im eograph or ditto machine. Makes necessary ad­
justment such as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed.
Is not required to prepare stencil or ditto m aster. May keep file of
used stencils or ditto m asters.
May sort, collate, and staple com ­
pleted m aterial.




Operates a sin gle- or m u ltiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office
calls.
M ay record toll calls and take m essages.
May give in fo r­
mation to persons who call in, or occasionally take telephone ord ers.
F o r w orkers who also act as receptionists see switchboard o peratorreceptionist.

23

TRANSCRIBING -M ACH INE O PE R ATO R , G EN ERAL - Continued

SWITCHBOARD O PE R A T O R -R E C E PTIO N IS T
tion
type
This
time

In addition to perform ing duties of operator, on a single p o si­
or m onitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also
or perform routine cle ric a l work as part of regular duties.
typing or c le ric a l work may take the m ajor part of this w o rk e r’s
while at switchboard.

T A B U LA TIN G -M A C H IN E OPERATO R
Operates machine that autom atically analyzes and translates
inform ation punched in groups of tabulating cards and prints tran s­
lated data on form s or accounting records; sets or adjusts machine;
does sim ple w irin g of plugboards according to established practice
or diagram s; places cards to be tabulated in feed magazine and starts
machine. May file cards after they are tabulated. M ay, in addition,
operate au xiliary machines.

included. A w orker who takes dictation in shorthand or by stenotype
or sim ilar machine is cla ssified as a stenographer, general.
T Y P IS T
Uses a typew riter to make copies of various m aterial or to
make out b ills after calculations have been made by another person.
May do c le ric a l work involving little special training, such as keep­
ing simple record s, filing records and reports, or sorting and d is ­
tributing incoming m ail.
Class A - P erfo rm s one or m ore of the follow in g: Typing
m aterial in final form from very rough and involved draft; copy­
ing from plain or co rrected copy in which there is a frequent
and va ried use of technical and unusual words or from foreignlanguage copy; combining m aterial from several sources, or
planning layout of complicated statistical tables to maintain uni­
form ity and balance in spacing; typing tables from rough draft in
final form .
May type routine form letters, varying details to
suit circum stances.

TRAN SC RIB ING -M AC H INE O PE R A TO R , G EN ERAL
P rim a ry duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal
routine vocabulary from transcribing machine record s.
May also
type from w ritten copy and do simple c le ric a l work. W orkers tran­
scribing dictation involving a va ried technical or specialized vocabu­
la ry such as legal b riefs or reports on scientific research are not

Professional

D R A FTSM A N , JUNIOR
(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
poses.
Uses various types of drafting tools ,as required. May p r e ­
pare drawings from simple plans or sketches, or p erfo rm other duties
under direction of a draftsman.
D RAFTSM AN , LEAD ER
Plans and directs activities of one or m ore draftsmen in
preparation of working plans and detail drawings from rough or p r e ­
lim in ary sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing
purposes. Duties involve a combination of the follow in g: Interpreting
blueprints, sketches, and w ritten or verbal orders; determining work
procedures; assigning duties to subordinates and inspecting their work;
perform ing m ore difficult problem s. May assist subordinates during




Class B - P erfo rm s one or m ore of the follow in g: Typing
from re la tive ly clear or typed drafts; routine typing of form s,
insurance p o licies, etc. ; setting up simple standard tabulations, or
copying m ore complex tables already set up and spaced properly.

and

Technical

D RAFTSM AN , LEADER - Continued
em ergencies or as a regular assignment, or p erform related duties
of a su pervisory or adm inistrative nature.
D RAFTSM AN , SENIOR
Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes,
rough or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manu­
facturing purposes.
Duties involve a combination of the follow in g:
Preparin g working plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-sectio n s, etc. ,
to scale by use of drafting instruments; making engineering computa­
tions such as those involved in strength of m a terials, beams and
trusses; verifyin g completed w ork, checking dimensions, m aterials
to be used, and quantities; writing specifications; making adjustments
or changes in drawings or specifications. May ink in lines and letters
on pencil drawings, prepare detail units of complete drawings, or
trace drawings.
Work is frequently in a specialized field such as
architectu ral, e le c tric a l, mechanical, or structural drafting.

24
NURSE, IN D U STR IA L (REG ISTERED )

NURSE, IN D U STR IAL (REGISTERED) - Continued

A re gistered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
em ployees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on
the prem ises o f a factory or other establishment.
Duties involve a
combination of the follow in g: Giving firs t aid to the ill or injured;
attending to subsequent dressing of em ployees1 injuries; keeping records
of patients treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or
other purposes; conducting physical examinations and health evaluations
of applicants and em ployees; and planning and carrying out program s
involving health education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant

environment, or other a ctivities
safety of all personnel.

Maintenance

affecting the health, -welfare, and

TRAC ER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing
tracing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil.
Uses T -squ are, compass, and other drafting tools.
May prepare
simple drawings and do simple letterin g.

and

Powerplant

C A R P E N TE R , M A IN TE N AN C E

ENGINEER, S TA TIO N A R Y

P e rfo rm s the carpentry duties n ecessary to construct and
maintain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins,
cribs, counters, benches, partitions, doors, flo ors, stairs, casings,
and trim made o f wood in an establishment. W ork involves most of
the follow in g: Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, draw ­
ings, m odels, or verbal instructions; using a va riety of carpenter*s
handtools, portable power tools, and standard measuring instruments;
making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work;
selecting m aterials n ecessary for the work. In general, the work of
the maintenance carpenter requ ires rounded training and experience
usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent tra in ­
ing and experience.

Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or e le c tric a l) to sup­
ply the establishment in which em ployed with power, heat, r e fr ig e r a ­
tion, or air conditioning.
W ork involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, m o­
tors, turbines, ventilating and re frig era tin g equipment, steam boilers
and b o ile r-fe d water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a
record of operation of m achinery, tem perature, and fuel consump­
tion. May also supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers
in establishments employing m ore than one engineer are excluded.

E LE C T R IC IA N , M A IN TE N AN C E
P e rfo rm s a va rie ty of elec trica l trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair o f equipment for the generating,
distribution, or utilization o f e le c tric energy in an establishment.
W ork involves most of the follow in g: Installing or repairing any of
a va riety of elec trica l equipment such as generators, tran sform ers,
switchboards, co n trollers, circu it breakers, m otors, heating units,
conduit system s, or other transm ission equipment; working from blue­
prints, drawings, layout, or other specifications; locating and diag­
nosing trouble in the ele c tric a l system or equipment; working standard
computations relating to load requirem ents o f w iring or elec trica l
equipment; using a va rie ty of e le c tric ia n l s handtools and measuring
and testing instruments.
In general, the work o f the maintenance
electrician requ ires rounded training and experience usually a c­
quired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.




FIR E M A N , S TA TIO N A R Y BOILER
F ire s stationary b o ilers to furnish the establishment in which
em ployed with heat, power, or steam.
Feeds fuels to fir e by hand
or operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water
and safety va lves.
May clean, o il, or assist in repairin g b o ilerroom equipment.
H E L PE R , TRADES, M A IN TE N AN C E
A ssists one or m ore w orkers in the skilled maintenance
trades, by perform ing specific or general duties o f less er skill, such
as keeping a w orker supplied with m aterials and tools; cleaning w ork­
ing area, machine, and equipment; assisting w orker by holding m a­
teria ls or tools; perform ing other unskilled tasks as directed by jo u r­
neyman. The kind of work the helper is perm itted to p erfo rm va ries
from trade to trade: In some trades the helper is confined to sup­
plying, liftin g, and holding m aterials and tools, and cleaning working
areas; and in others he is perm itted to p erfo rm specialized machine
operations, or parts of a trade that are also p erform ed by w orkers
on a fu ll-tim e basis.

25
M A C H IN E -TO O L O PE R ATO R , TOOLROOM

M ECH ANIC, M AIN TE N AN C E

S pecializes in the operation of one or m ore types of machine
tools, such as jig b o rers, cylindrical or surface grind ers, engine
lathes, or m illin g machines in the construction of machine-shop tools,
gauges, jigs , fixtures, or dies. Work involves most of the following:
Planning and perform ing difficult machining operations; processing
items requiring com plicated setups or a high degree of accuracy;
using a va riety of precision measuring instruments; selecting feeds,
speeds, tooling and operation sequence; making n ecessary adjust­
ments during operation to achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions.
May be requ ired to recognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools,
and to select proper coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils.
For
cross - industry wage study purpose s , m achine-tool operators, toolroom ,
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification .

Repairs m achinery or mechanical equipment of an establish­
ment.
W ork involves most of the following: Examining machines
and mechanical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling
or partly dismantling machines and perform ing repairs that mainly
involve the use of handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing
broken or defective parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the
production of a replacement part by a machine shop or sending of
the machine to a machine shop for m ajor repairs; preparing written
specifications for m ajor repairs or for the production of parts ordered
from machine shop; reassem bling machines; and making ail necessary
adjustments for operation.
In general, the work of a maintenance
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
Excluded from this classification are w orkers whose prim ary duties
involve setting up or adjusting machines.

M ACHINIST, M AIN TE N AN C E
M IL L W R IG H T
Produces replacem ent parts and new parts in making repairs
of metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment.
W ork involves most of the following: Interpreting w ritten instruc­
tions and specifications; planning and laying out of work; using a v a ­
rie ty of m a ch in ists handtools and precision measuring instruments;
setting up and operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal
parts to close tolerances; making standard shop computations re la t­
ing to dimensions of work, tooling, feeds and speeds of machining;
knowledge o f the working properties of the common metals; selecting
standard m a terials, parts, and equipment required for his work; fitting
and assem bling parts into mechanical equipment.
In general, the
m ach in ists w ork norm ally requires a rounded training in machineshop practice usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant la y ­
out are requ ired. Work involves most of the follow in g: Planning and
laying out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications;
using a v a rie ty of handtools and rigging; making standard shop com ­
putations relating to stresses, strength of m aterials, and centers of
gravity; alining and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools,
equipment, and parts to be used; installing and maintaining in good
order power transm ission equipment such as drives and speed r e ­
ducers. In general, the m illw rig h tT work norm ally requ ires a rounded
s
training and experience in the trade acquired through a form al appren­
ticeship o r equivalent training and experience.
O ILER

MECHANIC, AU TO M O TIV E (M A IN TE N A N C E )
Repairs automobiles, buses, m otortrucks, and tractors of
an establishment.
Work involves most of the follow in g: Examining
automotive equipment to diagnose source o f trouble; disassembling
equipment and perform ing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches, gauges, d rills, or specialized equipment in d is­
assembling or fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts from
stock; grinding and adjusting valves; reassem bling and installing the
various assem blies in the vehicle and making n ecessary adjustments;
alining wheels, adjusting brakes and lights, or tightening body bolts.
In general, the w ork of the automotive mechanic requ ires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprentice­
ship or equivalent training and experience.




Lu bricates, with o il or grease, the moving parts or wearing
surfaces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.
P A IN T E R , M AIN TEN AN C E
Paints and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an
establishment.
Work involves the following; Knowledge of surface
pecu liarities and types o f paint required For different applications;
preparing surface for painting by rem oving old finish or by placing
putty or fille r in nail holes and in terstices; applying paint with spray
gun or brush.
May m ix colors, o ils, white lead, and other paint
ingredients to obtain proper color or consistency.
In general, the
work of the maintenance painter requ ires rounded training and ex ­
perience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience.

26
P IP E F IT T E R , M A IN TE N AN C E

S H E E T -M E T A L W ORKER, M A IN TE N A N C E - Continued

Installs or repairs w ater, steam, gas, or other types of pipe
and pipefittings in an establishment. W ork involves m ost of the f o l­
lowing: Laying out of w ork and m easuring to locate position of pipe
from drawings or other w ritten specifications; cutting various sizes
of pipe to co rrect lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene
torch or pipe-cutting machine; threading pipe with stocks and dies;
bending pipe by hand-driven or pow er-driven machines; assem bling
pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard
shop computations relating to p ressu res, flow , and size of pipe r e ­
quired; making standard tests to determ ine whether finished pipes m eet
specifications.
In general, the w ork of the maintenance pipefitter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a
form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. W orkers
rim a rily engaged in installing and repairin g building sanitation "or
eating systems a re excluded.

and laying out a ll types of sheet-m etal maintenance w ork from blue­
prints, m odels, or other specifications; setting up and operating a il
available types of sheet-m etal-w orking machines; using a va rie ty of
handtools in cutting, bending, form ing, shaping, fitting, and assem ­
bling; installing sheet-m etal a rticles as required.
In general, the
w ork of the maintenance sheet-m etal w orker requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a fo rm al apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

PLU M B E R , M A IN TE N AN C E
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
W ork involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairin g pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plum ber's snake.
In general, the work of the maintenance plumber requ ires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a fo rm al apprentice­
ship or equivalent training and experience.
S H E E T -M E T A L W ORKER, M A IN TE N AN C E
F abricates, installs, and maintains in good rep a ir the sheetm etal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, m etal roofing)
of an establishment. Work involves most of the follow in g: Planning

Custodial

E LE V A T O R O PER ATO R,

and

(Diem aker; jig m aker; toolm aker;

PASSENGER

GUARD
P erfo rm s routine police duties, either at fixed post or on
tour, maintaining order, using arm s or fo rce where n ecessary. In­
cludes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity of
em ployees and other persons entering.

fixture m aker; gauge m aker)

Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jig s , fix ­
tures or dies fo r forgings, punching and other m etal-form in g work.
W ork involves m ost of the follow in g: Planning and laying out of w ork
from m odels, blueprints, draw ings, or other oral and w ritten s p e c ifi­
cations; using a v a rie ty of tool and die m aker's handtools and precision
m easuring instruments; understanding of the working properties of
common metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools
and related equipment; making n ecessary shop computations relating
to dimensions of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of m etal parts during fabrication as w ell as of finished tools
and dies to achieve required qualities; working to close tolerances;
fitting and assem bling of parts to prescribed tolerances and a llo w ­
ances; selecting appropriate m a terials, tools, and processes.
In
general, the tool and die m aker's w ork requires a rounded training
in machine-shop and toolroom practice usually acquired through a
form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
F o r cross-indu stry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification .

Material

Transports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel or sim ila r establishment.
W orkers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such
as those of starters and janitors are excluded.




TO O L AND DIE M A K E R

Movement

JANITO R,

PO R T E R ,

OR C LE A N E R

(Sweeper; charwoman; ja n itress)
Cleans and keeps in an o rd erly condition fa cto ry working
areas and washrooms, or prem ises of an office, apartment house,
or com m ercial or other establishment. Duties involve a combination
of the follow in g: Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing flo o rs;
rem oving chips, trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture,
or fixtures; polishing metal fixtures or trim m ings; providing supplies
and m inor maintenance services ; cleaning la va tories, showers, and
restroom s. W orkers who specialize in window washing a re excluded.

27

LAB O RE R, M A T E R IA L HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker;
stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse h elper)
A w orker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant,
store, or other establishment whose duties involve one or m ore of
the follow in g: Loading and unloading various m aterials and m erchan­
dise on or from freigh t cars, trucks, or other transporting devices;
unpacking, shelving, or placing m aterials or merchandise in proper
storage location; transporting m aterials or merchandise by hand truck,
car, or w heelbarrow . Longshorem en, who load and unload ships are
excluded.

SH IPPING AND RECEIVING C LE R K - Continued
other records; checking for shortages and rejecting damaged goods;
routing merchandise or m aterials to proper departments; maintaining
n ecessary records and file s .
F o r wage study purposes, w orkers are cla ssified as follow s:
R eceivin g clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receivin g clerk
TRU CKD RIVER

ORDER F IL L E R
(O rder picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
F ills shipping or tran sfer orders for finished goods from
stored merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips,
cu stom ers1 o rd ers, or other instructions. M ay, in addition to fillin g
orders and indicating items fille d or omitted, keep records of out­
going o rd ers, requisition additional stock, or report short supplies
to su pervisor, and perform other related duties.

D rives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport
m a terials, m erchandise, equipment, or men between various types of
establishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freigh t depots, w a re ­
houses, wholesale and reta il establishm ents, or between reta il estab­
lishments and cu stom ers1 houses or places of business.
May also
load or unload truck with or without h elpers, make m inor mechanical
rep a irs, and keep truck in good working order. D river-sa lesm en and
o ver-th e-ro a d d rivers are excluded.
F o r wage study purposes, tru ckd rivers are cla ssified by size
and type of equipment, as follow s: (T r a c to r -tr a ile r should be rated
on the basis of tra ile r capacity. )

P A C K E R , SHIPPING
P rep a res finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations perform ed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container em ployed, and method of shipment. W ork requires
the placing of item s in shipping containers and may involve one or
m ore of the follow in g: Knowledge of various item s of stock in order
to v e r ify content; selection of appropriate type and size of container;
inserting enclosures in container; using ex celsio r or other m aterial to
prevent breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; applying
labels or entering identifying data on container.
Packers who also
make wooden boxes or crates are excluded.
SHIPPING AND RECEIVING C L E R K
P rep a res merchandise fo r shipment, or re ceives and is r e ­
sponsible for incoming shipment of merchandise or other m a terials.
Shipping work in volves: A knowledge of shipping procedu res, p ra c­
tices, routes, available means of transportation and rates; and p r e ­
paring records of the goods shipped, making up b ills of lading, post­
ing weight and shipping charges, and keeping a file o f shipping records.
May direct or assist in preparing the merchandise fo r shipment.
Receiving work in volves: V erifyin g or directing others in verifyin g
the correctness of shipments against b ills of lading, in voices, or




T ru ck d river
T ru ck d river,
T ru ck d river,
T ru ck d river,
T ru ck d river,

(combination of sizes listed separately)
light (under \\/z tons)
medium (l*/a to and including 4 tons)
heavy (o ver 4 tons, tr a ile r type)
heavy (o ver 4 tons, other than tr a ile r type)

TRU C KER, POWER
Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or elec tric-p o w ered
truck or tra cto r to transport goods and m aterials of a ll kinds about
a warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
F o r wage study purposes, w orkers are cla ssified by type of
truck, as follow s:
T ru ck er, power (fo rk lift)
T ru ck er, power (other than fo rk lift)
W ATCH M AN
Makes rounds of prem ises p eriod ica lly in protecting property
against fir e , theft, and ille g a l entry.
U . S. G O V E R N M E N T

P R IN T IN G

O F F I C E : 1957 0 - 4 1 8 7 1 5




Bulletins in This Series
Occupational wage surveys are being conducted in 17 major labor markets during late 1956 and early 1957. Bulletins for the fol­
lowing areas are now available and may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C.,
or from any of the regional sales offices listed below. As additional bulletins become available, they will be listed in subsequent issues.




Labor Market
Seattle, Wash.
Buffalo, N. Y.
Cleveland, Ohio
Boston, Mass.

BLS Bulletin
Number

Survey Period
August 1956
September 1956
October 1956
September 1956

1202-1

1202-2

1202-3
1202-4

Price
25
25
25
25

cents
cents
cents
cents

Regional Sales Offices

U. S. Department of Labor
Bureau of L abo r Statistics
18 O liver Street
Boston 10, M ass.

U . S. Department of Labor
Bureau of L abo r Statistics
50 Seventh Street, N . E .
Atlanta 23, Ga.

U . S. Department of L abo r
Bureau of L ab o r Statistics
341 Ninth Avenue
N ew York 1, N . Y .

U . S. Department of L ab o r
Bureau of L abor Statistics
105 West Adams Street
Chicago 3, 111.

U . S. Department of Labor
Bureau of L abor Statistics
630 Sansome Street
San F ran cisco 11, C a lif.


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102