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Occupational Wage Survey

BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS
S EP TEM B ER 1956

Bulletin N o. 1202-4

UNITED STATES D EPARTM EN T OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary



BUREA U

O F LA B O R STA TISTIC S

Ew an Clague, Commissioner




Occupational Wage Survey
B O S TO N , M A S S A C H U S E TTS




SEPTEMBER 1956

Bulletin No. 1202-4
UNITED STATES DEPA RTM EN T OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner
January 1957

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. - Price 25 cents




Preface

Contents
Page

The Community Wage Survey Program
Wage trends for selected occupational groups ----------------------------The Bureau of Labor Statistics regularly conducts
areawide wage surveys in a number of important industrial
centers. The studies, made from late fall to early spring,
relate to occupational earnings and related supplementary
benefits.
A preliminary report is available on completion
of the study in each area, usually in the month following the
payroll period studied. This bulletin provides additional data
not included in the earlier report. A consolidated analytical
bulletin summarizing the results of all of the year's surveys
is issued after completion of the final area bulletin for the
current round of surveys.




3

Tables:
1.
2.

Establishments and workers within scope of su rv e y --------Indexes of standard weekly salaries and straighttime hourly earnings for selected occupational
groups, and percent of increase for selected p e r io d s ----

A:

Occupational earnings * A - l : Office occupations -----------------------------------------A-2: Professional and technical occupations — ---A - 3: Maintenance and powerplant occupations ---------------A-4: Custodial and material-movement occupations —-----

B:

2
3
5
8

9
10

Establishment practices and supplementary wage
provisions * B - l: Shift differential provisions ----------------------------------B-2: Minimum entrance rates for women office
workers --------------------------------------------------------------B-3: Scheduled weekly hours ------------------------------------- -—

13
14

B-5:
B -6:

15
16

Paid vacations------------------------------------------------------Health, insurance, and pension p la n s --- — — ----------

Appendix: Job descriptions ------ — ----------------------------------------------

* NOTE: Similar tabulations for most of these items are availa­
ble in the Boston area reports for March 1951, April 1952, March
1953, March 1954, and April 1955. The 1954 report also provides
tabulations of wage structure characteristics, labor-management
agreements, and overtime pay provisions. The 1955 report also
included data on frequency of wage payments, and pay provisions
for holidays failing on nonworkdays. A directory indicating date
of study and the price of the reports, as well as reports for other
major areas, is available upon request.
Current reports on occupational earnings and supplementary
wage practices in the Boston area are also available for machin­
ery industries (January 1956), women's and m isses' dresses
(August 1955), power laundries and dry cleaners (June 1955),
office building services (May 1955), contract cleaning service
(May 1955), and hotels (July 1955). Union scales, indicative of
prevailing pay levels, are available for the following trades or
industries: Building construction, printing, local-transit oper­
ating employees, and motortruck drivers.

12

17




Occupational W age Survey - Boston, Mass.*
Introduction
to the work schedules (rounded to the nearest half hour) fo r which
straight-tim e salaries are paid; average weekly earnings for these
occupations have been rounded to the nearest half dollar.

The Boston area is one of several important industrial centers
in which the Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics has
conducted surveys of occupational earnings and related wage benefits
on an areawide basis.
In each area, data are obtained by personal
visits of Bureau field agents to representative establishments within
six broad industry divisions: Manufacturing; transportation (excluding
railroads), communication, and other public utilities; wholesale trade;
retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. M ajor
industry groups excluded from these studies, besides railroads, are
government operations and the construction and extractive industries.
Establishments having few er than a prescribed number of workers are
omitted also because they furnish insufficient employment in the occu­
pations studied to warrant inclusion. 1 W herever possible, separate
tabulations are provided for each of the broad industry divisions.

Occupational employment estimates represent the total in a ll
establishments within the scope of the study and not the number actu­
a lly surveyed.
Because of differences in occupational structure among
establishments, the estimates of occupational employment obtained
from the sample of establishments studied serve only to indicate the
relative importance of the jobs studied.
These differences in occu­
pational structure do not m a terially affect the accuracy of the earnings
data.
Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Information is presented also (in the B -series tables) on se ­
lected establishment practices and supplementary benefits as they
relate to office and plant w orkers.
The term "o ffice w o r k e r s ," as
used in this bulletin, includes a ll office clerica l employees and ex ­
cludes adm inistrative, executive, professional, and technical personnel.
"Plant w ork ers" include working forem en and a ll nonsupervisory w ork­
ers (including leadmen and trainees) engaged in nonoffice functions.
Adm inistrative, executive, professional, and technical em ployees, and
force-account construction employees who are utilized as a separate
work fo rce are excluded.
Cafeteria workers and routemen are ex ­
cluded in manufacturing industries, but are included as plant workers
in nonmanufacturing industries.

These surveys are conducted on a sample basis because of the
unnecessary cost involved in surveying all establishments. To obtain
appropriate accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of large
than of sm all establishments is studied. In combining the data, how­
ever, a ll establishments are given their appropriate weight. Estimates
based on the establishments studied are presented, therefore, as r e ­
lating to all establishments in the industry grouping and area, except
for those below the minimum size studied.
Occupations and Earnings
The occupations selected for study are common to a variety
of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries. Occupational cla s­
sification is based on a uniform set of job descriptions designed to
take account of interestablishment variation in duties within the same
job (see appendix for listing of these descriptions). Earnings data are
presented (in the A -s e rie s tables) for the following types of occupa­
tions: (a) Office clerica l; (b) professional and technical; (c) mainte­
nance and powerplant; and (d) custodial and m aterial movement.

Shift differential data (table B - l) are lim ited to manufacturing
industries.
This information is presented both in terms of (a) estab­
lishment policy, 2 presented in terms of total plant w orker em ploy­
ment, and (b) effective practice, presented on the basis of workers
actually employed on the specified shift at the time of the survey.
In establishments having varied differentials, the amount applying to
a m ajority was used or, if no amount applied to a m ajority, the cla s­
sification "oth er" was used.

Occupational employment and earnings data are shown for
full-tim e w orkers, i. e. , those hired to work a regular weekly sched­
ule in the given occupational classification.
Earnings data exclude
premium pay for overtim e and for work on weekends, holidays, and
late shifts.
Nonproduction bonuses are excluded also, bpt cost-ofliving bonuses and incentive earnings are included.
Where weekly
hours are reported, as for office clerica l occupations, reference is

Minimum entrance rates (table B-2) relate only to the estab­
lishments visited.
They are presented on an establishment, rather
than on an employment basis.
Scheduled hours; paid holidays; paid
vacations; and health, insurance, and pension plans are treated statis­
tica lly on the basis that these are applicable to a ll plant or office

* This report was prepared in the Bureau's regional office in
Boston, Mass. , by Leo Epstein, under the direction of Paul V. Mulkern,
Regional Wage and Industrial Relations Analyst.
1 See table 1 fo r m inim um -size establishment covered.




2
An establishment was considered as having a policy if it met
either of the following conditions: ( l ) Operated late shifts at the time
of the survey, or (2) had form al provisions covering late shifts.
( 1)

2
workers if a majority of such workers are eligible or may eventually
qualify for the practices listed. 3 Because of rounding, sums of indi­
vidual items in these tabulations do not necessarily equal totals.
The summary of vacation plans is limited to formal arrange­
ments, excluding informal plans whereby time off with pay is granted
at the discretion of the employer.
Separate estimates are provided
according to employer practice in computing vacation payments, such
as time payments, percent of annual earnings, or fiat-sum amounts.
However, in the tabulations of vacation allowances, payments not on
a time basis were converted; for example, a payment of 2 percent of
annual earnings was considered as the equivalent of 1 week’s pay.
Data are presented for all health, insurance, and pension
plans for which at least a part of the cost is borne by the employer,
excepting only legal requirements such as workmen’s compensation and
social security. Such plans include those underwritten by a commer­
cial insurance company and those provided through a union fund or paid
directly by the employer out of current operating funds or from a fund
set aside for this purpose. Death benefits are included as a form of
life insurance.
Sickness and accident insurance is limited to that type of in­
surance under which predetermined cash payments are made directly
to the insured on a weekly or monthly basis during illness or accident
disability.
Information is presented for ail such plans to which the
employer contributes. However, in New York and New Jersey, which

have enacted temporary disability insurance laws which require em­
ployer contributions, 4 plans are included only if the employer (1) con­
tributes more than is legally required, or (2) provides the employee
with benefits which exceed the requirements of the law.
Tabulations
of paid sick-leave plans are limited to formal plans8 which provide
full pay or a proportion of the worker’s pay during absence from work
because of illness.
Separate tabulations are provided according to
(1) plans which provide full pay and no waiting period, and (2) plans
providing either partial pay or a waiting period.
In addition to the
presentation of the proportions of workers who are provided sickness
and accident insurance or paid sick leave, an unduplicated total is
shown of workers who receive either or both types of benefits.
Catastrophe insurance, sometimes referred to as extended
medical insurance, includes those plans which are designed to protect
employees in case of sickness and injury involving expenses beyond
the normal coverage of hospitalization, medical, and surgical plans.
Medical insurance refers to plans providing for complete or partial
payment of doctors’ fees. Such plans may be underwritten by commer­
cial insurance companies or nonprofit organizations or they may be
self-insured. Tabulations of retirement pension plans are limited to
those plans that provide monthly payments for the remainder of the
worker’s life.

4
The temporary disability laws in California and Rhode Island
do not require employer contributions.
5 An establishment was considered as having a formal plan if
3
Scheduled weekly hours for office workers (first section of established at least the minimum number of days of sick leave that
it
table B-3) are presented in terms of the proportion of women office
could be expected by each employee. Such a plan need not be written,
workers employed in offices with the indicated weekly hours for women
but informal sick leave allowances, determined on an individual basis
workers.
were excluded.

Table 1: Establishment* and workers within scope of survey and number studied in Boston, M a s s ., 1 by majpr industry division, September 1956
Minimum
employment
in establish-

Industry division

_ _ _
_ _ .

Manufacturing ____ __

____

___

______

2 49

411.400

8 7 .800

250.200

215.180

459
777

84
165

212,300
199,100

27,700
60,100

151,300
9 8,900

103,640
111,540

51
212
133
178
203

21
41
34
34
35

32,600
25,300
6 5 ,500
4 5 ,700
30,000

6 ,600
7,9 0 0
7,8 0 0
32,200
5,6 0 0

2 0,200
9 ,300
51,800
2,3 0 0
15,300

26 ,9 50
7,7 1 0
39,820
26,700
10,360

101

_
—- - - - - -- - - - - -----------

“

Transportation (excluding railroads), communication,
and other public utilities4 _ _
_
_ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
_ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
__ _
Retail trade _ _ _—
_ _ _
_ __ _
_ __ _
_
Finance, insurance, and real e s t a t e _

_
_

.
_
_

.
.
.
_ _ _
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ .... _
«... _ _ _ _ _ _
_
__ _ _ _

Studied

Studied

______________

_______ _____ _ _
_
__ ___...____

Within scope of study

1.236

V 8wATI 4 ■ a i|
M IU
a n
II1a ff ivops
I

of study
A ll divisions

Workers in establishments

Number of establishments
Within
scope of
study1

101
_

51
_ 101 _
_
51
51

_

_

_

_

_

Total1

Office

Plant

Total*

1 The Boston Metropolitan A rea (Suffolk County, 14 communities in Essex County, 28 in Middlesex County, 17 in Norfolk County, and 2 in Plymouth County). The "workers within scope of study" estimates
shown in this table provide a reasonably accurate description of the else and composition of the labor force included in this survey. The estimates are not intended, however, to serve as a basis of comparison with
other area employment indexes to measure employment trends or levels since (1) planning of wage surveys requires the use of establishment data compiled considerably in advance of the pay period studied, and
(2) small establishments are excluded from the scope of the survey.
1 Includes all establishments with total employment at or above the minimum-sise limitation. All outlets (within the area) of companies In such industries as a trade, finance, auto repair service, and motionpicture theaters are considered as 1 establishment.
1 Includes executive, technical, professional, and other workers excluded from the separate office and plant categories.
4 Also excludes taxicabs, and services incidental to water transportation. Boston*s transit system is municipally operated and, therefore, excluded by definition from the scope of the studies.
1 Hotels) personal services) business services) automobile repair shops) radio broadcasting and television) motion pictures) nonprofit membership organisations) and engineering and architectural services,




3

Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups

The table below presents indexes of salaries of office c lerica l
workers and industrial nurses, and of average earnings of selected
plant worker groups.
F o r office clerica l workers and industrial nurses, the indexes
relate to average weekly salaries fo r normal hours of wotfk, that is,
the standard work schedule fo r which straight-tim e salaries are paid.
F o r plant worker groups, they measure changes in straight-tim e hourly
earnings, excluding premium pay fo r overtim e and for work on week­
ends, holidays, and late shifts.
The indexes are based on data for
selected key occupations and include most of the num erically important
jobs within each group. The office c le rica l data are based on women in
the following 18 jobs: B ille r s , machine (billing machine); bookkeepingmachine operators, class A and B; Comptometer operators; c le r k s , file ,
class A and B; clerk s, order; clerks, payroll; key-punch operators;
office g irls; secreta ries; stenographers, general; switchboard opera­
tors; switchboard operator-reception ists; tabulating-machine operators;
transcribing-machine operators, general; and typists, class A and B.
The industrial nurse data are based on women industrial nurses. Men
in the following 10 skilled maintenance jobs and 3 unskilled jobs were
included in the plant worker data: Skilled— carpenters; electricians;
machinists; mechanics; mechanics, automotive; m illw rights; painters;
pipefitters; sheet-m etal workers.; and tool and die makers; unskilled—
janitors, p orters, and cleaners; laborers, m aterial handling; and
watchmen.
Average weekly salaries or average hourly earnings were
computed for each of the selected occupations. The average salaries
or hourly earnings were then multiplied by the average of March 1953
and March 1954 employment in the job. These weighted earn­
Table 2:

ings fo r individual occupations were then totaled to obtain an aggre­
gate for each occupational group. Fin ally, the ratio of these group
aggregates for a given year to the aggregate fo r the base period (survey
month, winter 1952-53) was computed and the result multiplied by the
base year index (100) to get the index for the given year.
The indexes measure, principally, the effects of ( l ) general
salary and wage changes; (2) m erit or other increases in pay received
by individual workers while in the same job; and (3) changes in the
labor fo rce such as labor turnover, fo rce expansions, force reduc­
tions, and changes in the proportion of workers employed by estab­
lishments with different pay lev e ls .
Changes in the labor force can
cause increases or decreases in the occupational averages without
actual wage changes. F o r example, a force expansion might increase
the proportion of lower paid workers in a specific occupation and r e ­
sult in a drop in the average, whereas a reduction in the proportion
of lower paid workers would have the opposite effect. The movement
of a high-paying establishment out of an area could cause the average
earnings to drop, even though no change in rates occurred in other
area establishments.
The use of constant employment weights elim inates the effects
of changes in the proportion of workers represented in each job in­
cluded in the data. Nor are the indexes influenced by changes in
standard work schedules or in premium pay fo r overtim e, since they
are based on pay for straight-tim e hours.
Indexes for the period 1953 to 1956 fo r workers in 15 other
major labor markets appeared in BLS Bull. 1188, Wages and Related
Benefits, 17 Labor Markets, 1955-56.

Indexes of standard weekly sa l a r ie s and straight-time hourly earnings for selected occupational groups in Boston, M a s s . ,
September 1956 and A p r i l 1955, and percent of in cr eas e for selected periods
Indexes
(M a rc h 1953= 100)

Industry and occupational group

September
1956

April
1955

Perc ent in cr ea se s f r o m —
A p r i l 1^55
to
September 1956

M ar ch 1954
to
A p r i l 1955

M ar ch 1953
to
M ar ch 1954

A p r i l 1952
to
M a r c h 1953

A p r i l 195fc
to
September 1956

A l l industries:
Office cle ric al ( w o m e n ) __ ___________ . . . . --------------Industrial n ur se s (women) ---------------------------------Skilled maintenance (men) ________—-------------------Unskilled plant (men) _____________________________

117.0
117.7
116.4
114.4

108.3
108. 1
107.2
107.6

8.0
9.0
8.5
6.3

2.9
1.5
1.9
2.4

5.2
6.5
5.3
5. 1

4.3
4.2
4.9
4.2

22.1
22.7
22.1
19.1

Manufacturing:
Office cle ric a l (women) ______________ —------- —-----Industrial nu rses (women) _________________ ______
Skilled maintenance (men) ---------------------------------Unskilled plant (men) ------------------------------------------

114.6
117.6
117.1
114.2

106.8
108.0
107,6
108.8

7.3
8.9
8.9
5.0

2.3
.7
1.9
3. 1

4.4
7.2
5.6
5.5

5.5
4.2
4.7
3.5

20.9
22.5
22.5
18.2







A : Occupational Earnings

5

Ta b le A-1: O ffic e O ccupations
( A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e w e e k ly h o u r s an d e a r n in g s fo r s e le c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on a n a r e a b a s i s
in B o s t o n , M a s s . , b y in d u s t ry d iv is io n , S e p t e m b e r 1956)
A vebage
Sex,

o c c u p a t io n ,

Number
of
workers

a n d in d u s t r y d iv is io n

Weekly
hours 1
(Standard)

N U M B E R OF WORKERS R E C EIV IN G STR AIG HT-TIM E W E E K LY E A R NIN G S OF—

$
Weekly
30. 00
earnings 1
and
(Standard) u n d e r
35 . 00

$
35. 00

$
4 0 . 00

$
4 5 .0 0

$
5 0 . 00

$
5 5 .0 0

$
6 0 . 00

$
6 5 . 00

$
7 0 . 00

$
7 5 . 00

$
8 0 . 00

$
8 5 . 00

$
9 0 . 00

4 0 . 00

4 5 . 00

5 0 . 00

5 5 . 00

6 0 . 00

6 5 . 00

7 0 .0 0

7 5 . 00

8 0 . 00

8 5 . 00

9 0 . 00

9 5 . 00

$
1 0 0 .0 0

$
1 0 5 .0 0

$
1 1 0 .0 0

1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0

1 1 0 .0 0

1 1 5 .0 0

$
9 5 .0 0

S
1 1 5 .0 0
and
over

M en
C l e r k s , a c c o u n t i n g , c l a s s A _____________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _____________________________________________________

427
124

N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________________________________
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s * ______________________________________________
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e _______________________________________________
F i n a n c e * * ______________________________________________________

303
40
101
86

C l e r k s , a c c o u n t i n g , c l a s s B _____________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _____________________________________________________

33 2

N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________________________________
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e _______________________________________________
F i n a n c e * * ________________________________________________________
C l e r k s , o r d e r __________________________________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ______________________________________________________

82
250
141
54

38. 5
38. 5
3 8 .5
38. 5
3 9 .5
3 7 .5
39. 0
3 7 .5
39. 5
40. 5
3 8 .0

$
8 0 . 00
8 3 . 50
7 8 .5 0
8 9 .0 0
8 3 .5 0
6 8 .5 0
5 9 .5 0
58. 0b
6 0 . 50
6 6 .5 0
5 0 .0 0

514

3 9 .5

N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________________________________
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e _______________________________________________

66
448
430

38. 5
3 9 .5
3 9 .5

C l e r k s , p a y r o l l ________________________________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _____________________________________________________

91
$1

38. 5
38. 5

7 8 .0 0
7 9 .5 0

O f f i c e b o y s ______________________________________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _____________________________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________________________________
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s * _____________________________________________
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e _______________________________________________
F i n a n c e * * ______ ______________________________________________
_______________ _
S e r v i c e s ____________________________________

792

38. 0

553
51
116
221
136

4 4 .5 0
4 5 . 00
4 4 . 50
4 3 . 00
4 8 . 50
4 4 . 00
4 3 .0 0

T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s
________________________________
M a n u fa c tu rin g
_
_ _
____
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________________________________
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e _______________________________________________
F i n a n c e * * ______________________________________________________

456
213
243
65
97

3 7 .5
38. 5
39. 0
39. 0
3 7 .5
3 9 .5
38. 5
39. 0
38. 0
3 9 .0
37. 0

7 6 .0 0

~TE\ 5(5"
7 6 .0 0
7 6 .0 0

6 8 .5 0
6 7 .5 0
6 9 . 00
7 5 . 50
6 8 . 00

-

-

-

11
-

2
2
-

16
-

10

2

11

60

33

19
41
-

7
26
14

27

6

45
7
38
20
13

-

.

-

-

22
7
15
-

-

-

8

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

2
13
10

-

-

1

-

-

-

3
1

-

2
-

23

495
141
354
40
61
147
98

2
-

10
13
6

41
lb
31

16
-

11
-

-

-

-

37
6
31
-

2
4
13

67
—

rr~

50

15
8

8
28
11

57

64

27

3
54
40

31
33
27

5
22
20

-

76
17

46

1

T7T ------- 3 7 “

11
--------- g -

16
21
----------8 ~ ----------3“
8
18
-

10
-

4
4

10
4
6

-

-

-

3
-

1
-

1
1

3
3

1
1

-

-

-

3
1

7

9

1

-

1

-

4
-

2
-

1

2
2

9
2
7
7

2
1

1
-

4
4

1
1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

26

13
4

2
-

10
10

9
8
-

9
4
5
3

94

77

77

2
46
45

59
59

12
82
78

6
71
67

2
75
71

49
6
43
43

2
24
24

21
7
14
14

6
1

21
13

2
1

1
-

11
6

7
6

11
4

19
17

2
1

14
3
11
-

13

17

~ r~

9
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

n
-

9
-

4
3
2

5
1
2

ii
-

9
-

-

-

-

-

-

29

64
20
44
1
7
23
4

-

-

-

*

-

“

52
26
26
-

37
13
24
14
4

93
55
38
4
25

42
16
26
4
10

85
47
38
7
21

36
18

48
26

6
4

5
-

18
10
5

22
5
2

35
5
30
14
15

2
2

5
3

-

-

-

15
10
5
5

18
18
18

20
20
20

5
5
5

14

14
14

-

-

11
5
6

-

1
13

9
“ ff
1

"

~

_

"

■

59

50

26

24

-

-

19
7
4
3

-

-

-

46
8
18

------I i
10
10

2
2

-

55
15
8
7

-

-

-

-

83

9
6

14

3
-

3

9
9
-

-

-

21
9
r r ~ -------- 8
1
5
1
5

2
2
-

-

1
1

155
54
101
10
19
41

15

1

1

-

_
-

1
-

3
-

1
-

3
-

10
3
7
-

-

-

1

5

9

11
-

80
2?
53
36

10 6
41
65
30

48

-

50
51
38
------- 1 7 “ --------- 5 ~ ------44
34
26
2
12
6
12
9
14
15
-

5
8
-

—

-

9
9

-

-

6
6
6

'

4
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

'

-

-

2
-

1
1
-

-

-

-

-

1

2
2

1

-

W om en
B i l l e r s , m a c h i n e ( b i l l i n g m a c h i n e ) _____ ______________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ___________________________________ ,_________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________________________________
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e _______________________________________________

357
132
225
16 0

38. 5
' 3 8". 5
38. 5
39. 0

5 6 .0 0
5 5 .0 0
5 7 .0 0
6 0 . 00

B i l l e r 8,

__________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _____________________________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _____________________________________________
R e t a i l t r a d e ____________________________________________
_____

434
57
377
274

38. 5
3 8 .5
38. 5
38. 5

4 8 .5 0
6 2 .0 0
4 6 .5 0
4 4 .0 0

B o o k k e e p i n g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s A _________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g __________________________________________________ _

330

38. 5

6 1 .0 0
6 6 . 00

m a c h in e (b o o k k e e p i n g m a c h i n e )

N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________________________________
W h o le s a le t r a d e
______________________________________________
F i n a n c e * * ________________________________________________________
B o o k k e e p i n g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s B _________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _____________________________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _____________ ________________________________
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e _______________________________________________
R e t a i l t r a d e _____________________________________________________
F in a n c e * *

______________________________________________________

S e e fo otnote at end o f t a b le ,
* T r a n s p o r t a t i o n (e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) ,
* * F i n a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta te .




102
228
51
144
1, 5 0 8

39.
38.
40.
37.

0
0
0
0

1 ,0 7 0

3 8 .0
3 9 .0
38. 0

252
204
578

39. 0
3 8 .5
37. 0

5 8 .5 0
6 3 .5 0
5 7 .0 0
5 2 .5 0
5 6 .0 0
5 0 . 00
5 6 . 50
4 9 .5 0
4 7 .5 0

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

11
1

77
77
77

97
97
84

_

_

-

-

-

-

3
3
-

-

-

-

2
-

38
-

2
-

38
-

2

8

c o m m u n ic a t io n , an d o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s ,

30

74
—
r ~
73
41

—

72
To
42

—

39

115
27
88
54

23
1
22
18

7
-

46
1

7
7

45
4
36

113
15
98
17
73

380
4l

324

200
------- 5“ “
194
14
50

339
28
51

234

120

248

125

~W ~'
69

33

—

n~

277
105
172
71

176
124
52

49
47

10

33

6l
22
21
-

2
1

5

-

-

-

-

3
3
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

"

-

-

-

-

■

■
“

■

-

-

-

-

-

■

-

■

'

-

-

-

-

■

-

-

-

“

“
“

"

“
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

'

“

-

■

■
-

1
1
1
-

-

■
■

'

-

_

_

■

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

*
-

■
■

■
■
■

-

8

O c c u p a tio n a l W a g e S u r v e y , B o s t o n , M a s s . , S e p t e m b e r 1956
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a tis tic s

6
Ta b le A -l: O ffic e O ccupations - Continued
( A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e w e e k ly h o u r s an d e a r n in g s f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s i s
in B o s t o n , M a s s . , b y in d u s t ry d iv is io n , S e p t e m b e r 1956)
A verage
Sex,

o c c u p a t io n ,

Number
of
workers

a n d in d u s t ry d iv is io n

Weekly
hours 1
(Standard)

Weekly
earnings1
(Standard)

N U M B E R OF W ORKERS R E C EIV IN G STR AIG HT-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R NIN G S OF—
$
3 0 . 00
and
under
3 5 . 00

$
3 5 . 00

$
4 0 . 00

4 0 . 00

4 5 . 00

$
4 5 . 00

$
5 0 . 00

5 0 . 00

5 5 . 00

$

$

$

5 5 . 00

6 0 . 00

$
6 5 . 00

$
7 0 . 00

$
7 5 . 00

6 0 . 00

6 5 . 00

7 0 . 00

7 5 . 00

8 0 . 00

117
38

153
73
80
7
13
3

74
28
46
2
24
-

35
22

8 0 . 00

$
8 5 . 00

8 5 . 00

9 0 . 00

$
9 5 . 00

$
1 0 0 .0 0

$
1 0 5 .0 0

$
1 1 0 .0 0

$
1 1 5 .0 0
and

9 5 . 00 1 0 0 . 0 0

1 0 5 .0 0

1 1 0 .0 0

1 1 5 .0 0

over

$
9 0 .0 0

W o m e n - C o n t in u e d
....... _
^
C le r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c la s s A
M a n u fa c tu rin g
______ _
____
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
_
____
P u b lic u t ilit ie s *
_____________________________________________
W h o le s a le t r a d e
_ _

.
_

___
______

W h o l e s a l e t r a d e _______________________________________________
R e t a il tr a d e
_ _
F in a n c e * *
_
_
_
_ _
S e r v i c e s __________________________________________________________
C le r k s , file , c la s s A
M a n u fa c tu rin g
_____
_
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
______
____
_______
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e ________________________ ______________________
F i n a n c e * * _______________________________________________________

C le r k s , file , c la s s B _ _ _ _
M a n u fa c tu rin g
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s * ______________________________________________
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e _______________________________________________
R e t a il tr a d e
_
_ _ _
F in a n c e **
.... _
. _
S e r v i c e s _ _______________
_____________________________________

3 9 .0
37. 5

32
101
187

39. 0
38. 0
37. 5

416
94

37. 5
36. 5

2 ,4 2 1
437
1 ,9 8 4

R e t a i l t r a d e ____________________________________________________
F i n a n c e * * _______________________________________________________
S e r v ic e s
_
...............................
C le r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c la s s B
M a n u fa c tu rin g
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
_ ..
.
P u b lic u t ilit ie s *

38, 0

1, 2 6 8
438
830

38. 5
38. 5
38. 5

245
251
400
916

39. 5
38. 5
38. 5

172

3 8 .5
37. 5
38. 5

392
127
265

" " if: 5
38. 0

59
161

39. 5
37. 5

38. 0

$
6 5 .5 0
6 8 . 00
6 4 .0 0
6 9 .5 0
7 1 .5 0
6 0 .0 0
6 3 .5 0
6 6 .5 0
5 2 . 50
5 7 . 00
5 1 . 50
5 9 .5 0
5 6 . 00
4 7 .0 0
5 0 .0 0
5 4 .5 0
5 7 .5 0
5 8 . 00
5 7 .0 0
6 6 .5 0
5 3 .5 0

1, 7 9 2
65
190
158
1, 2 5 7
122

39. 5
39. 0
3 8 .5
37. 5
40. 0

4 4 .5 0
4& . 50
4 4 .0 0
4 5 . 00
4 8 .0 0
4 2 . 00
4 3 . 50
4 5 .0 0

604
326
278
156
106

39. 0
38. 5
3 9 .0
3 9 .5
3 8 .5

5 5 . 00
5 5 . 00
5 5 .0 0
6 1 . 00
4 6 . 00

C l e r k s , p a y r o l l _________________________________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ______________________________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________________________________
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s * ______________________________________________
W h o le s a le t r a d e
R e t a il tr a d e
_
__ _
F i n a n c e * * _______________________________________________________
S e rv ic e s
_____

1, 0 7 5
626
447

39. 0
3 ^ .5
3 8 .5
38. 0

5 9 .0 0
5 9 .0 0
5 9 .0 0
6 1 .5 0
6 7 .5 0
5 4 .0 0
5 8 .0 0
5 9 .5 0

C o m p t o m e t e r o p e r a t o r s ___________________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ______________________________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _____________________________________________ _
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e _______________________________________________

1„262
297

C l e r k s , o r d e r __________________________________________________________
M a n u fa c tu rin g
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e _______________________________________________
R e t a il tr a d e

R e t a il tr a d e
F in a n c e * *

____________________________________________________

__________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

S e e fo o tn o te at end o f t a b le .
* T r a n s p o r t a t i o n (e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) ,
* * F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , an d r e a l e s ta te .




2, 112
320

89
56
142
51
109

965
252
52 7
122

39. 0
38. 0

3 9 .0
38. 5
3 7 .5
38. 5
38. 5
38. 5
38. 0
3 9 .0
3 8 .0
37. 5

_
-

4
-

19
-

4
-

19
-

4
-

12
1
6

22
16

472
25
447
30
20
164

560
64
496
23
48
98

225
8

269
58

-

-

_

17
-

-

17
-

-

-

_

17
-

-

1
-

-

1
-

22
1
21
-

-

■

20

10
-

16 0
-

10
-

160
-

10
-

59
91

-

-

_
-

15
1
14
-

10

-

14

_

13

-

12
1
1
-

-

-

5 4 .0 0
5 8 .5 0
5 2 .5 0
5 9 .0 0

10
-

32
-

10
-

32
-

5 0 .5 0

10

28
4

4 9 . 50

c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s ,

53
13
40
-

172
51

274
85

72
-

2
-

—

95
23

2
23
47

121
4
15
33
66
3

189
3
18
42
115
11

53
n ~
42
35

499
134

36 1
—

19
61
37
194
54
114
-------30
84
12
64

er~

296
31

365

22
64
170
9

—

97
57“
40
19
13

234
— 40~
194
54
60
14

278
f o r
17 0
11
17
53
82
7
144
58
86
38
24
1
4

52
14

19

41
13
28
-

15
2
13
7

17

3

79
4
4
17
40
14
99
------- 34
65
50
9
1
2
3
10
------- T “
5
1

-

-

12

3

4
-

1
-

4
-

1
-

3
-

-

1
-

-

■

■

"

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

“

-

-

-

-

5
5
5

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

6
1
5
-

1

_

_

-

-

-

1
_

-

“

-

-

-

51
26
25
6
10

27
20
7
-

14
3
11
7

21
2

29
6
6

y 93
10
13
23

24
7
16

182
118
64
25
4
18
4
13

2
2
5

1
3
3

225

31 7

259

15
3

252
60

203
87

159
19

81
17

12
12
-

8
8

104
46

48
20
28
14
10
4

31

39
186
27

160
85
75
21
46
6

-

-

5
1
4
-

5
5
-

8

-

-

1
1

12

-

-

-

19
10

-

-

131
70
61

sen

-

2
2

268
175

65

-

6
5

9
7

220
125
95
25
7
23
17
23

39

_

-

_

100
47
53

-

_

-

46
-----23
-

134
3
131
4
81
26

_

-

124
2
52
52

8

-

_

1
1
-

2
-

83
47
36
20
13

6

1
-

-

9

8

-

_
-

6
-

147
90
57
38
16

8

5
-

_
-

1

79
3?
42
18
18

4

7
6
1
-

20
--------- 4
16

84
38
46
1
45

ZT~

*

6
1
5
-

6

19
1

1

2
2
-

11
4
7
5

216
62
154
7
74
7
57

2
2
1
1

35
33
2
2

8

524
87
437
15
30
23
31 2
57

32
26
6
-

3
1
2
-

3
4
-

7
6
1
1
-

1 0 88
119
973
38
61
44
776
54

61
18
43
4
8
11

16
11
5
1
3
1
-

29
------- T F ~
13
-

7
4
3
-

2
2
2
17
2
15
15

5
5
5

12
6
6

-

2
1
-

2
-

-

-

4

-

15
7

14
7
7
7
-

-

2
2

-

1
-

-

-

1
-

-

-

.

_

_

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

"

-

1
1
-

2
2
2
-

1
-

-

-

5
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
-

7
Ta b le A -l: O ffic e O ccupations - C ontinued
( A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e w e e k ly h o u r s an d e a r n in g s f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d on a n a r e a b a s i s
in B o s t o n , M a s s . , b y in d u s t r y d iv is io n , S e p t e m b e r 1956)
A vbbaob
Sex,

o c c u p a t io n ,

Number
of
workers

a n d in d u s t r y d iv is io n

Weekly.
hours
(Standard)

N U M B E R OF W ORKERS R E C EIV IN G STR AIG HT-TIM E W E E K L Y E A R NIN G S OF—

$
Weekly ,
3 0 .0 0
earnings1
and
(Standard) u n d e r
3 5 . 0Q

$
3 5 .0 0

$
4 0 .0 0

$
4 5 . 00

$
5 0 . 00

$
5 5 .0 0

$
6 0 .0 0

$
6 5 . 00

$
7 0 .0 0

$
7 5 . 00

$
8 0 .0 0

$
8 5 . 00

4 0 .0 0

4 5 .0 0

5 0 . 00

5 5 .0 0

6 0 . 00

6 5 . 00

7 0 . 00

7 5 . 00

8 0 . 00

8 5 . 00

9 0 . 00

$
9 0 .0 0

$
$
9 5 . 0 0 1 0 0 .0 0

9 5 . 00 1 0 0 . 0 0

1 0 5 .0 0

$
1 0 5 .0 0

$
1 1 0 .0 0

1 1 0 .0 0

1 1 5 .0 0

$
1 1 5 .0 0
and

W o m e n - C o n t in u e d
D u p lic a tin g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s (m im e o g r a p h
o r d itt o ) _
__

12 3

M a n u f a c t u r i n g _____________________________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
________________________ ___________________
K e y - p u n c h o p e r a t o r s ________________________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ______________________________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________________________________
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s * __ „
_____________________ _____________

-----54

______

N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
______
F i n a n c e * * _______________

____

_

____________________________________
____________________ ______________

367
221

S e c r e t a r i e s _____ __ _____________________________
M a n u fa c tu rin g
_
_____
____
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g

5(1756

-

1
-

4 8 .5 0

-

1

5 4 .5 0
5 6 . 00

_

12
-

3 9 .5
39. 0
3 8 .5

5 9 .0 0
6 0 .5 0
5 0 .0 0

-

3 7 .5

5 1 .0 0

-

38. 0
3 9 .0 '
3 7 .5
37. 0

4 5 .0 0
5 1 .0 0
4 3 .5 0
4 4 .5 0

_

6 7 .5 0
6 0 .5 0
6 6 .0 0
8 1 .0 0
7 0 .0 0
6 5 . 00
6 6 .0 0
6 0 .0 0

39. 0
3 8 .0

ipjT '

466
--------

$
4 9 .5 0

39. 0

89
11 5
10 8
386

______________________

3 9 .0
3 9 .0 "

3 8 .5

1, 187
i5 7 “
728

____________________ _____
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e ________________
R e t a i l t r a d e _______________ ________________________________
F in a n c e * *
________
__ __ ____________________________
O f f i c e g i r l s _____ ____
M a n u fa c tu rin g
_

'

5 3 .5 0

-

12
1
11
35
35

-

-

5 8 .5 0

_

1

39. 0
3 7 .5
3 8 .5
3 8 .5
37. 5
36. 5
3 8 .0

6 1 .0 0
5 7 .0 0
6 0 .0 0
6 2 . 00
5 2 .5 0
5 5 . 50
5 2 .0 0

_
-

-

38.
38.
38.
38.
38.

6 2 . 00
6 3 .0 0
6 1 .5 0
5 6 . 00
6 4 . 50

N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________________________________
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s * ______________________________________________
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e ___________________________________________
R e t a il tr a d e
________________________________
___________
F in a n c e * *
_ _

_
_

S e r v i c e s __________________________________________________________

355
164

S t e n o g r a p h e r s , t e c h n i c a l __________________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _____________________________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________________________________

191
71
113

F i n a n c e * * ______________________________________________________
S e r v i c e s ______________________________________________ __________
S w i t c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s _____________________________________________ _
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _____________________________________________________

783

—

n r?

0
0
5
5
0

38. 5
5 4 . 50
“ 1 9 7 0 - “62750“

-

_

1
1
-

_

12
129
3
126
17
27
17
51
14

_

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-

-

-

-

-

40

.

21
72
45

6
32
28

212
—

rr~

195
2
8

1
13
5

-

20

77

S w i t c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r - r e c e p t i o n i s t s __________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _____________________________________________________

836
365
471

38. 5
3 9 .0

5 5 . 50
5 7 . 00

10
-

16
-

57

169
86

5 4 . 50
5 9 .5 0
4 9 . 00
5 3 . 00

10
-

81

38. 0
3 9 .0
3 7 .5
37. 0

10
-

16
-

114

3 6 .5

5 2 . 00

“

c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .

16

21
36
10
13

13

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

8
6

2
-

4
-

_

-

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_

2
-

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37
j s i
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.

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-

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-

-

-

-

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-

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-

-

-

-

-

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657

820
257
583

498
215
283
8
46
46

762
363

367
m
196
26
31

37 9
163
216
48

172
73

379
42
52
57

12 0
46
74
15
30

65
32
33
13
3
3

20
5
15
2

10
2
8
4

8
-

99
84

182
46

61
6
55
27
15
1
7
5

12
-

2
-

-

—

195
462
9
121

21
79
55
243
18 5

103
46
57
24
32

15 0
22
12 8
1
37

122
29
93
10
14
15
48
6

111
46
,71
22
15
16
11

61
26
35
6
5
14
5
5

116

57
27
30

10

2

2
-

42
18
24
20
4

19
61

-

-

15
2
13
13

2
25
56
53

16
-

-

2
-

96
48
212
37

136
-

-

-

90
66
168
80

96
-

-

9
-

40
38
176
68

36
-

-

1

218
407
14

2
-

-

-

-

625

-

-

9
-

2
-

-

57 5
155
440
36

437

143
--------- ------

2
-

1

90
347
25

59
126

-

5 9 . 00
5 1 .5 0
5 3 . 50
4 5 . 50

1
-

49
143
140

96
-

39. 0
38. 5
37. 5
3 9 .5

537
— T5 2 “
385
4
51

r r
3

25
183
122

-

5 2 . 50
6 4 . 00




12
1
1

36
-

3 8 .5
40. 0

S e e fo o tn o te at end o f t a b le .
* T r a n s p o r t a t io n (e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) ,
* * F i n a n c e , in s u r a n c e , an d r e a l e s ta te .

19
8
46

-

629
52
77
123
195
182

R e t a il tr a d e
__________________________________________________
F i n a n c e * * __________________________________ - __________________
S e r v i c e s __________________________________________________________

21
10
58

2
-

N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________________________________
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s * ______________________________________________
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e _______________________________________________
R e t a i l t r a d e ____________________________________________________
F i n a n c e * * ______ ________________________________________ ___
S e r v i c e s __________________________________________________________

N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _________________________________________________
_____________________________________________
W h o le s a le t r a d e

45
76

—

-

10
1

1?
40
34
5
-

132

261
-------S i 227
136

6
8

38. 0

1 ,1 6 5 "'
1 ,9 8 6
187
493
19 8
865
243

29
3

93

6
61

1
-

3 ,0 9 0

S t e n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l ____________________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ______________ _____________________________________

81
8

16
28

26
-

292
1 ,2 0 2
782

18

109
7

8
13
37

20

-

52

13
-

26
_

P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s * ______________________________________________
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e ______________________________________________

47

305
13 5
17 0

1
-

R e t a il tra d e
F in a n c e * *
S e r v ic e s
_ _

185
104

244
54
190

1
-

38. 0
38. 5
3 7 .5
3 8 .5
3 9 .0
3 7 .5
3 7 .5
3 6 .5

221
112

9

97
17
80

-

3, 018
236
506

5
4
l

12
15

12

4 , 715
1 ,6 9 7

27

29
20

16
22

-

___________________
_

__________________________________________________
_ _ _ _ _ _
_
_
_ _
.

38

499
169
330
26
81
26
167
30

—

79
i 7“
36
7
27

7

67
15

218
68

250
... r? 2 ....

52
13
17

150
40
27

108
44

82
34
10

2

42

12

37

9
10
36

537
425
112

16

21
3
53
9
71
35
36
6

12
7
5
-

11

6
7

13 8
------- 32“ —
106
26
47
_
28
5

29

19
4

7

19
89
31

5
46
-------2 4 “
22
12
2
4
4

67 ----------8
4 ---30
----------5“
27“
24
44
47
4
13

2
25
2

30
-

36
-

1
-

7

23
1

2
2
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5
--------- 4 “
1
1
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5
2
3
1
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12
2
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1
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8
-

1

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5
1
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-

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-

-

1
-

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-

-

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27

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18
15

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1
1

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y-

7
4
4
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2
2
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1
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17
7
10
10
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13

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1

-

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10

13

9
-

12
-

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1

1
1
-

-

-

-

-

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j~

13
---------

1
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26
7
118
17

99
17
31
10
33
8

1

-

8
T a b le A -l : O ffic e O c c u p a tio n s - C o n tin u e d
( A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e w e e k ly h o u r s an d e a r n in g s f o r s e le c te d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on a n a r e a b a s i s
in B o s t o n , M a s s . , by in d u s t ry d iv is io n , S e p t e m b e r 1956)
N U M B E R OF WORKERS R E CE IVIN G STRA IGH T-TIM E W E E K L Y EAR N IN G S OF—

A tbbaob

Sex,

o c c u p a t io n ,

Number
of
workers

a n d in d u s t ry d iv is io n

$
Weekly . 3 0 . 00
earnings 1 a n d
(Standard) u n d e r
3 5 . 00

Weekly,
hours1
(Standard)

W o m e n - C o n t in u e d
337
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _____________________________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
_____________________________________________
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s * ___________ ________________________________
F i n a n c e * * _______________________________________________________
T r a n s c r i b i n g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s , g e n e r a l ----------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g _________________________________________ __________

947
35 5

N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g

__________________________________________

-

W h o l e s a l e t r a d e _______________________________________________
F in a n c e * *
-----------------------------------------------------------------------T y p is ts , c la s s A
_____________________________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g __________________________________________________ N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------ ------------------------------------------------W h o l e s a l e t r a d e ___________________________________________
F i n a n c e * * ______ _______________________________ __________
S e r v i c e s _____ __ ______________________________________________
T y p i s t s , c l a s s B _____ ___________ ________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _____________________________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
--------------------------------------------------------P u b lic u t ilit ie s *
- ----------------------------------- -------------W h o l e s a l e t r a d e _______________________________________________
R e t a il t r a d e
__________________________________________________
F i n a n c e * * ______ ______________________________________________
S e r v i c e s __________________________________________________________

$
6 1 .0 0
6 6 . 50

3 8 .0
3 9 . 0 ...
3 7 .5
3 8 .0
37. 0

72
265
37
187

$
5 0 . 00

$
5 5 . 00

$
6 0 . 00

$
6 5 . 00

$
7 0 . 00

$
7 5 . 00

4 0 . 00

4 5 . 00

5 0 . 00

5 5 . 00

6 0 . 00

6 5 . 00

7 0 . 00

7 5 . 00

8 0 . 00

35
--------- 5“

22
187
25
162
26
70

34 2
144
198
15
153

49
19
30
1
25

-

-

*

-

234
94
140
3
130

306
80
226
8
177
37

20
13
7

9
-

-

9
8

-

'

-

-

T~

-

-

29
4

39
--------36

-

38. 5
■3 9 : O '"
38. 0
38. 5
38. 0
3 8 .5

5 5 .5 0
5 5 .5 0
5 5 .5 0
6 6 . 00
5 3 .0 0
5 8 .0 0

-

-

4

3 ,9 1 6

38. 0
39. 0
3 7 .5
3 8 .5

4 8 .5 0

_

5 1 .0 0
4 7 .5 0
4 8 .0 0
5 1 .0 0
4 8 .0 0
4 7 .0 0
4 5 .5 0

-

68
14
54
-

1 1 35
"

39. 0
3 8 .5
3 7 .0
38. 0

8 0 . 00

$
8 5 . 00

$
9 0 . 00

$
9 5 .0 0

$
1 0 0 .0 0

$
1 0 5 .0 0

8 5 . 00

9 0 .0 0

9 5 . 00

1 0 0 . 00

1 0 5 .0 0

1 1 0 .0 0

9

$
1 1 0 .0 0

1 1 5 .0 0

6

10 63

76
37
54

29
8

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959

17

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m ~

1351 .

52 9
263

21
86
56
768
132

42
6
36
6
23

158

a

106
37
37
143
34

7

4

1

1 1 5 .0 0

1

2

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-

-

2
52

2
20

1
6
3

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~

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-

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-

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49
42
7
77
33
44

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2
2
1
1

5
2
3
3

2
2
2

4

1

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-

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-

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4

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1

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“ .
"

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51
2

20
6
14

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1
2

3

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3

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-

-

-

7
3
3

2

2
2

~
■

"
“
-

'
■
■

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55
39
16
3

5

49
37

9
4

79
17
22
4
23
13

90
262
16
60
30
136
20

9
8
23

49
10
26
3

203
124

43
352

over

2

15
27

21
20

109
6
56

738
245
493
17
142
49
235
50

42

131
78
53
10

2
56
4
38

92
35
57

96
48
48
22
23

58

34
3
31
2
24

28

-

1, 01 9
34 7
672
60
446
140

2 ,9 3 8
147
358
213
1 ,7 2 7
493

9

and

20

5 8 .0 0
5 1 .5 0

319

$
4 5 . 00

-

5 4 .5 0
5 7 .0 0
5 3 .0 0

38. 5
37. 5

59 2
118

$
4 0 . 00

-

5 9 .5 0
5 5 .5 0
6 0 . 00

3 8 .5
3 9 :5 "
38. 0

$
3 5 . 00

12

5

1
7
4

1
1

_

-

2
1

-

-

-

-

_
■

<-

_

■

-

_
-

~

"

-

-

-

-

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-

-

-

-

-

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10
1
-

-

-

11
11

3

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-

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'
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■
■
■

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-

"
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■
-

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■

■
"
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-

"
-

1 S t a n d a rd h o u r s r e f le c t the w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p lo y e e s r e c e iv e t h e ir r e g u l a r s t r a ig h t -t im e s a l a r i e s an d the e a r n in g s c o r r e s p o n d to th e s e w e e k ly h o u r s .
* T r a n s p o r t a t i o n (e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a t io n , a n d o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .
* * F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , an d r e a l e s t a t e .

T a b le A -2 : Professional a nd Technical O ccu pa tions
( A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e w e e k ly h o u r s an d e a r n in g s f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on a n a r e a b a s i s
in B o s t o n , M a s s . , b y in d u s t ry d iv is io n , S e p t e m b e r 1956)

Number
of

S e x , o c c u p a tio n , an d in d u s t ry d iv is io n

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—
-----------$
!$
s
$
$
$
S
S
S
$
$
s
$
$
Is
s
$
s
$
Weekly
Weekly 45. 00 5 0 .0 0 55. 00 60. 00 65. 00 7 0 .0 0 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00| 130.00 135.00 140.00
hours 1 earnings 1 and
(Standard) (Standard) u n d e r
"
i
50. 00 55. 00 6 0 .0 0 65. 00 7 0 .0 0 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00l 135.00 140.00 145.00
i

M en
D r a ft s m e n , l e a d e r _________________________
M a n u f a c t u r in g
___
D r a ft s m e n , s e n i o r
M a n u f a c t u r in g
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
S e r v ic e s _ „ _____________________

_

D r a ft s m e n , j u n i o r
_____________________ _
M a n u f a c t u r in g ___________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
P u b li c u t ilit ie s *
S e r v ic e s
T ra cers

_______________________________________

1

1

364
105

4 0 .0
40. 0

$
1 3 2 .5 0
1 3 4 .5 0

L ijg . .
T72S9
1, 054
975

4 0 .0
40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

885
564
321
44
260

4 0 .0
40 . 6
4 0 .0
40. 0
40. 0

l
-

-

-

-

-

1

" -

-

-

-

9

-

4
2

3
3

9

35
2

-

-

-

-

1 0 0 .5 0
9 7 .0 0
1 0 4 .5 0
1 0 4 .5 0

-

-

10
6

-

-

3
2
1
-

44
41
3
2

77
70
7
7

116
74
42
42

162
9l
71
64

199
135
64
60

448
374
74
54

138
71
67
67

269
95
174
169

199
52
147
120

184
44
140
139

75. 00
3.
78. 50
6&. 50
80.

-

49
4b
9

59
47 h
12
g

94
69
25

108
72
36

156
108
48

148
57
91

127
91
36

23

5
3
2

22

7

5
3
2

-

4

25

32

87
58
29
13
16

32

7

11

24

11

2

56

-

13

-

-

6 47
6 20

_

"

■

1 0
6
0
0

117

4 0 .0

56. 50

281
l9 b
85

3 9 .0
3 9 .5
38. 5

73. 00
73. 50
72. 00

4
2

4

12
1

30

8
8
-

16

1

! an a
150.00 o v e r
1
|
;

4
4

-

2
1

s
Is
145.00 Il5 0 .00

16
!
!
!
i
1

I

37

45
9

73
17

41
2

24
-

106
98
8
6

19
18
1
-

40
38
2
1

!
—

|

5!

HI

268
43

13
115
36
79
78

166
38
128
125

46
4
42
40

1

1

-

-

-

-

_

.

_

22

1

7f
1

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

22

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

- I
--------r~r
j

- !
_

1

- !

2
_
2
-

-

W om en
N u r s e s , in d u s t r i a l ( r e g i s t e r e d ) ________
M a n u f a c t u r in g _ _________ _____ ____
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
_____ _____ ____

27

39
23

16

72
58
14

6
6
57
9

25

16
9

10
8
2

13
7

6

3

1
2

1

-

1 S t a n d a rd h o u r s r e f le c t th e w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p lo y e e s r e c e iv e t h e ir r e g u l a r s t r a ig h t -t im e s a l a r i e s an d the e a r n in g s c o r r e s p o n d to th e s e w e e k ly h o u r s .
2 W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d a s fo l lo w s : 31 at $ 150 to $ 155; 10 a t $ 155 to $ 160; 17 a t $ 160 to $ 165; 10 at $ 165 and o v e r .
* T r a n s p o r t a t i o n (e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a t io n , an d o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .




O c c u p a t io n a l W a g e S u r v e y , B o s t o n , M a s s . , S e p t e m b e r 1956
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B u r e a u of L a b o r S t a t is t ic s

9
Ta ble A -3 :

M aintenance and Pow erplant O ccupations

( A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r m e n in s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n s s tu d ie d on a n a r e a b a s is in B o s t o n , M a s s . ,
b y in d u s t r y d iv is io n , S e p t e m b e r 1956)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
* 1 .1 0

1 .2 0

1 .3 0

1 .4 0

_

_

.

•
.

•
.

Carpenters, maintenance------- — -— — ------ Manufacturing — -----------------— -Nonmanufa ctur i n g -------------------------------- — Retail trade — ------------------------- — — —

597
...
70T T
19 7
135

2 .2 2
2 :1 7

Electricians, maintenance---- — ---------------------

934
768

Nonmanufacturing------- — --------------------------

166

2 .3 2
2 . 36
2 .1 5

374
247
127

2 .2 6
2 . 36
2 .0 7

Engineers, stationary--------- -------------- -— -— —
Manufa ctur i n g ----- ----------------------------- —
----Nonmanufacturing---- ---- —----------- -------------Firemen, stationary b o i le r --------------- —---------Manufacturing---------------------------------— ~ —-Nonmanufacturing — -— — -------------------- ----Services — -------------------H e l p e r s , t r a d e s , m a in te n a n c e
M a n u fa c t u r in g — — ------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ------- ---—
P u b li c u t ilit ie s * ------------W h o le s a le t r a d e -------------R e t a il t r a d e --------------------M a c h i n e -t o o l o p e r a t o r s , t o o lr o o m — — —
M a n u f a c t u r i n g --------- ---------------- ------------ -----M a c h i n is t s , m a i n t e n a n c e --------------------— - —
M a n u f a c t u r i n g --------------—
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g -------------------------------------P u b li c u t ilit ie s * ----------------------------------M e c h a n ic s , a u to m o tiv e (m a in te n a n c e ) - —
M a n u fa c t u r in g ------ ------------ — ----- —
—
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g -------------------- ----- ----------P u b li c u t ilit ie s * ----------------------- ----- -----W h o le s a le t r a d e ---------------------------- ------R e t a il t r a d e ------------------------------------ — —
M e c h a n ic s , m a in te n a n c e
M a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----W h o le s a le t r a d e —
R e t a il t r a d e -----------

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P a in t e r s , m a in te n a n c e
M a n u f a c t u r i n g --------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g —
P u b li c u t ilit ie s *
R e t a il t r a d e ------S e r v i c e s --------- -—

440

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280

T o o l and d ie m a k e r s ----- ------------ -------M a n u f a c t u r i n g --------------------------------

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11
11

O i l e r s ----------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ---------

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S h e e t -m e t a l w o r k e r s , m a in te n a n c e
M a n u f a c t u r i n g --------------------------------

2

15
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------ 57 T

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8
8

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44
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10
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M i l l w r i g h t s ------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ---------

■

E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e an d f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , an d la te s h ift s .
In c lu d e s 5 w o r k e r s a t $ 0 .9 0 to $ 1 .
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
T r a n s p o r t a t io n (e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a t io n , an d o th e r p u b lic u t il it ie s .




-

2 .3 0

6
•
6
-

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-

2 .3 1
2 .5 0

-

1
a
*

1 .3 0

.

-

P i p e f it t e r s , m a i n t e n a n c e ----------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g --------------------------------

$ .2 0

o
o

s
1 .2 0

Avenge
hourly
* 1 .0 0
earning* 1 a n d

o
o

Number
of
worker*

1 .1 0

O c c u p a tio n an d in d u s t ry d iv is io n

— nr

*

O c c u p a tio n a l W a g e S u r v e y , B o s t o n , M a s s . , S e p t e m b e r 1956
B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a tis tic s

'

10
Ta b le A -4 :

Custodial and M aterial M ovem ent O ccupations

( A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n s s tu d ie d on a n a r e a b a s i s in B o s t o n , M a s s . ,
b y in d u s t r y d iv is i o n , S e p t e m b e r 1956)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
O c c u p a tio n 1 a n d in d u s t r y d iv is io n

Average

Number
of
workers

E le v a t o r o p e r a t o r s , p a s s e n g e r (m e n ) —
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ---------------------------------F i n a n c e * * ------------------------------------------S e r v i c e s ------ ----------------—--------------------

3 68
T? 5|
209
72

G u a r d s --------- -----------—
M a n u f a c t u r i n g -----N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
F in a n c e * * -------

$
1 .16
1.14
1.26
.94

54 9
5 33

E le v a t o r o p e r a t o r s , p a s s e n g e r (w o m e n )
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ---------------------------------P u b li c u t ilit ie s * -------------------------------R e t a il t r a d e ---------------------------------------F i n a n c e * * ------------------------------------ ------

hourly
earnings2

914
544
370
263

J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , and c l e a n e r s (m e n )
M a n u f a c t u r i n g --------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g -------------------------------P u b li c u t ilit ie s * ----------------------------W h o le s a l e t r a d e -----------------------------R e t a i l t r a d e ------------------------------------F i n a n c e * * ---------------------------------------S e r v i c e s -------------- — -----------------— ~
J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , an d c l e a n e r s (w o m e n )
M a n u f a c t u r in g — — ----------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------- ----- — — —
R e t a il t r a d e -----------------------------------------S e r v i c e s ---------------- ----- —— ----------- -------

3 09
1 64

2 ,058
410
121
645
571
311
1,666
Z47
1,419
131
1,024
67

.

30

1.10

$
1.20

$
1. 30

$
1.40

$
1 .5 0

$
1.60

$
1. 70

$
1.80

$
1.90

$
2 . 00

$
2.10

$
2.20

$
2 . 30

$
2.40

$
2 . 50

$
2 .60

$ . 70
2

$
2 . 80

.9 0

1. 00

1. 10

1.20

1. 30

1.40

1.50

1.60

1. 70

1. 80

1.90

2.00

2 . 10

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2.30

2.40

2 . 50

2.60

2 . 70

2.80

2 .90

20
20
16

38
38

.

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20
20

1 26
126

-

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35
13
22
22

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9
10
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31
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305
90
215
6
4
1 05
20
80

595
1 18
477
29
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19 0
234
10

446
215
231
32
36
30
12 6
7

184
12
172
42
88
17

1 98
32
166
20
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96
891
4
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21
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206
11 7

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73

83

1.54
1 .3 1

38

73

83

1. 59
1 .47
1.24
1.33
1 .0 1
1.22
1.34
1.20
1.03
1.24
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1 .6 1
1 .59
1.65
1.93
1 .64
1. 53
1.31

O r d e r f i l l e r s -----------—
M a n u f a c t u r i n g -------N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g W h o le s a l e t r a d e
R e t a il t r a d e ------

2, 524
97 8
1,616
1,086
5 30

1 .67
1. 76
1.63
1.62
1.65

P a c k e r s , s h ip p in g (m e n ) —M a n u f a c t u r i n g --------------—
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------W h o le s a l e t r a d e --------R e t a il t r a d e ----------------

1, 781
1,086
695
460

1.59
1.59
1.59
1.74

209

1 .27

P a c k e r s , s h ip p in g (w o m e n )
M a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------R e t a il t r a d e ----------------

3 40
1 96
144
114

1 .3 1
1 .38
1 .2 1
1.24

R e c e iv i n g c l e r k s —---------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------W h o le s a l e t r a d e --------;
R e t a il t r a d e ---------------S e r v i c e s -----------------------

834
432
402
165
171

1.69
1.79
1.59
1. 71
1. 53
1.36

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330
66
264

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35
86

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233

159

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45
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23 8
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101
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433

472
385
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65
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114

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75
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3

6
6

15
15

1 78
1 78

3

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

_
_
.
_
_
-

-

-

-

-

3 39
120

-

3

_
-

.
-

-

58

71

46

21

45

63
8

11
10
9

4

7

_

23
23
18

41

14
7

14

9

*

~

5

-

4

-

_

4

■

-

5

-

5
5

-

"

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

5
5

6
1
5
5
_

.
.
_

"

"

-

-

-

-

-

_

.
_
-

_
-

-

-

_
.

_
.

_
_
_

"

*

■

-

37
11
26
26

44

4

-

_
-

-

64
38
17

72

-

-

5
-

-

64

4

-

-

-

128

26

-

-

-

2 21
1 87
34
30
4

93
56
37
17

2

-

511
213
298
274
24

62
11 3
41

-

-

265
96

175

38
31
7

-

-

134
35

_
-

189
48
1
12
35

-

13
13

3
3
-

19
-

48
48

237

13
"

-

-

7

53
15
15

-

-

-

9

59
16

68

-

-

8 13
405
408
16 5
1 69
74

-

-

621
354
267
5
112
141

49
1 26
12

-

O c c u p a tio n a l W a g e S u r v e y ,
c o m m u n ic a t io n , an d o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s ,

_

_

28

2
85
28

1.59

"

8

75

.
-

-

34
28

40
30
16
4
8

-

1.72
1. 78
1.63

9
8

117
117

-

-

41
40
40

94
94

45

55
65

10
18

220
z n r
211

116

-

-

97
1.18

5,8 0 3




1.00

$

1.42

♦

3,2 9 9
2, 504
541
963
935
65

S e e fo o tn o te s a t end o f t a b le .
* T r a n s p o r t a t i o n (e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) ,
* * F in a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e .

30
30

$

0.90

-

L a b o r e r s , m a t e r i a l h a n d lin g
M a n u f a c t u r i n g -------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------P u b li c u t ilit ie s * —-------W h o le s a l e t r a d e ----------R e t a i l t r a d e ------------------S e r v i c e s ------------ -------- —

59

$
0. 80

$

0 .70
and
under
.8 0

1.06
1.05
1. 31

30

3, 88 9
1 7 83 1

$

15
15

_

-

B o s t o n , M a s s . , S e p t e m b e r 1956
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a tis tic s

11
Ta ble A -4 :

Custodial and M aterial M ovem ent O ccupations - Continued

(A verage hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an are a b asis in Boston, M a s s . ,
by industry division, Septem ber 1956)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
O ccupation1 and industry division

Shipping clerks ------------------------------- ---------------------M anufacturing --------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing — —-------------------------------------W holesale trade -----------------------------------------R etail trade -------------------------------------------------

Number
of
w
orkers

781
311
470
300
131

$
Average $
hourly
0. 70 0. 80
earnings2 and
under
. 80
,9P
$
_
1. 81
1.91
1. 74
•
1.82
1.61
-

$
0.90

$
1.00

$
1. 10

$
1.20

$
1.30

$
1.40

$
1. 50

$
1.60

$
1. 70

$
1. 80

$
1.90

$
2. 00

$
2. 10

$
2.20

$
2. 30

$
2.40

$
2.50

$
2. 60

$
2. 70

$
2. 80

1.00

i.io

1.20

1.30

1.40

1.50

1. 60

1. 70

1.80

1.90

2.40

2. 50

2.60

.

2. 00

2. 10

2.20

2. 30

7
6
1
_
1

66
12
54
14
34

66
66
10
46

26
6
20
18
2

47
19
28
20
7

187
52
135
111
5

134
76
58
55
-

49
37
12
4
8

79
" . 30
49
38
11

27
23
4
2
2

19
16
3
3
-

2.90

9
3
6
6
-

28
13
15
15

_
*
-

1
1
_
_
-

12
12
12
-

4
4
4
-

-

-

519
347
347
_
-

-

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1
-

-

-

32
12
20
10
10

18
18
6
11

27
27
22
5

66
29
37
19
17

158
27
131
130

95
31
64
10
53

88
66
22
10
5

33
8
25
10
11

18
4
14
14

5
5
5

2
2
2
-

4
4
4
-

18
18
10
6

2
2
_
2

72
16
56
20
12
24

122
24
98
26
12
60

53
6
47
14
6
27

94
66
28
8
1
18

240
55
185
1
54
127
-

359
88
271
4
107
150
9

329
4l
288
2
83
198
3

265
213
52
18
3
30
-

305
?5

-

10
10
.
10
-

230
13
153
61
3

841
165
676
596
21
59

144
30
114
9
20
85
-

6
5
1
1
-

4
3
1
1
.
-

.
.
_
-

10
10
_
-

8
8
_
6

2
2
_
2

57
13
44
20
24

50
24
26
16
-

44
3
41
14
27

54
3l
23
4
18

52
10
42
24
-

51
41
10
_
9

7
2
5
_
3

50
45
5

20
20
20
-

_
.
-

-

63
60
3
3
-

.
•
.
_

-

10
.
10

72
72
10
2

40
35
5
4
1

132
19
113
1

193
31
162
2
79
80

7
1
6
_
_
6

.
-

*

67
' 64"
3
3
-

- .
-

111

205
46
159
4
75
80

109
90
19
14

10

15
3
12
_
_
12

9
3
6
*

-

.
.
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

26
26
-

-

30
3
27
-

86
58
28
1

116
17
99
88

411
33
378
368
-

86
17

-

3
3
-

215
215
215

-

-

-

-

-

-

30
30
.
30

103
1
102
32

99
5
94
.
4

20
2o
-

102
.. IT "
83
33

225
225
184
1

2
2
-

28
28
-

26
26
-

90
84
6

12
12
-

48
44
4

3

-

*

*

-

141
98
43
30
10

-

71
71

_

-

5
5
~

_

_
-

-

_

-

-

-

18

3

6
6

Shipping and receiving c l e r k s --------—------------------M a n u fa c tu rin g --------------------------------------------------N on m an u factu rin g -------------------------------------------W holesale trade -----------------------------------------Retail trade --------------------------------------------------

563
177
386
109
261

1.79
1. 79
1. 79
1.83
1. 77

T ru ck d rivers 3 ------------------------------------------------------M a n u fa c tu rin g --------------------------------------------------N o n m an u factu rin g-------------------------------------------Pu blic utilities * -----------------------------------------W holesale t r a d e -----------------------------------------R etail t r a d e -------------------------------------------------Services --------------------------- ----------------------------

3, 383

1.98
2. 01
1.97
2. 09
2. 11
1. 83
1.40

-

2, 424
643
858
761
152

T ru c k d riv e rs, light (under lVztons) ------------M a n u fa c tu rin g ---------------------------------------------N on m an u factu rin g --------------------------------------W holesale trade ------------------------------------Services --------------------------------------------------

509
262
247
106
92

1. 73
1.92
1. 53
1. 64
1.44

_

T ru c k d riv e rs, medium (lVg to and
including 4 t o n s ) -------------------------------------------M a n u fa c tu rin g ---------------------------------------------N on m an u factu rin g --------------------------------------Pu blic utilities*--------------------------------------W holesale trade ------------------------------------R etail trade --------------------------------------------

1,094
414
680
78
220
320

1.86
2. 00
1. 77
2.02
1. 86
1.72

•
*
-

T ru c k d riv e rs, heavy (over 4 tons,
tra ile r type) --------------------------------------------------M a n u fa c tu rin g ---------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing --------------------------------------Pu blic utilities * ------------------------------------W holesale trade -------------------------------------

973
157
816
368
304

2. 17
2. 00
2.20
2. 10
2. 37

-

_
_
-

-

-

-

T ru ck d riv ers, heavy (over 4 tons, other
than tra ile r type) ------------------------------------------M anufacturing ---------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing --------------------------------------Public utilities * -----------------------------------W holesale trade -------------------------------------

686
62
624
193
171

2.02
2. 06
2. 01
2. 11
2. 11

T ru ck ers, power (f o r k l i f t ) ------------- r*------------------Manufacturing --------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing -------------------------------------------W holesale trade -----------------------------------------R etail t r a d e -------------------------------------------------

734
539
19 5
62
89

1.87
1.83
1.99
1.93
2. 03

•
-

-

-

_
-

T ru ck ers, power (other than f o r k l i f t ) ---------------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------------------

234
ZT4

1. 89
T759—

-

-

-

-

-

-

W a tc h m e n --------------------------------------------------------------M an u fa c tu rin g -------------------------------------------------N on m an u factu rin g-------------------------------------------Public utilities * -----------------------------------------W holesale trade -----------------------------------------Retail trade ------------------------------------------------Finance * * ------ ----------------- -------- —------------—
Services ------------------------------------------------------

1,051
62 7
424
26
64
131
137
66

1.42
1.49
1.32
1. 74
1.44
1.25
1. 34
1. 16

-

.

27

-

-

-

_
_

_
-

27
_
1
26

87
30
57
9
37
1
10

81
42
39
20
11
8

175
69
106
10
27
69

■

_

-

153
94
59
32
19
8

6

-

_

-

-

----- TW- ------T ~
llZ

112
60
7
12
21
20

1
1

Data lim ited to men w o rk e rs, except where otherwise indicated.
Excludes prem ium pay fo r overtim e, and fo r w ork on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Includes a ll d riv e rs re g a rd le ss of size and type of truck operated.
Transportation (excluding ra ilro a d s ), communication, and other public utilities.
F inance, insurance, and r e a l estate.




2. 80

15
3
12
_
12

.
-

-

1
2
3
*
**

2. 70

14
14 '
_
-

7
7
4
3

73
67
6
3
3
"

-

108
67
41
14
4
6
16
1

13
13 ..
53
52
1
1

-

3

6
3
3
_
3

35
30 '
5
5
-

68
167
23 " 99
45
68
44
13
32
15
9

-

69
-

~ 17I

-

121
Iff?
16
12
-

-

“
-

103
103

24
24

22
22

15
15

30
30

-

-

-

-

-

-

67
56
11
11
-

34
3l
3
1
2
-

4
4
-

7
3
4
4
-

10
10
10
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

'

"

'

-

136
100
44 “ 72'
28
92
14
76
-

31
12
19
9
22
22
-

2
2
-

-

-

71
6
-

6
6




B: Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
T a b le

B -l: Shift D iffe re n tia l P ro v is io n s 1
P e r c e n t o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g p la n t w o r k e r s —

S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l

(a )
In e s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v in g
fo r m a l p ro v is io n s fo r —

S e c o n d s h if t
w o rk

T h ird o r o th er
s h if t w o r k

(b )
A c t u a lly w o r k in g on—

S e c o n d s h if t

T h ird o r o th e r
s h if t

T o t a l __________________________________________________________* ______________

8 0 .4

66. 8

1 1 .4

2. 4

W it h s h if t p a y d i f f e r e n t i a l ___________________________________ _______

80. 4

66. 8

11. 4

2. 4

3 9 .9

29. 1

5. 4

1. 3

2 .4
8. 6
4. 4
3. 0
3. i
1. 5
11. 3
1. 8
2. 1
1. 7

1. 0
.9
1. 2
4. 9
3. 1
2. 5
8. 9
1. 8
2. 1
2. 8

37. 5

36. 0

U n ifo r m c e n ts (p e r h o u r)

_________________________________ _______

2V4, 3V4,

o r 4 c e n t s ___________________________ ____ ____________
5 c e n t s --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7 c e n t s ___________________ _____________________________________ _
V c e n t s __________________________________________ __________ __
8 c e n t s --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------9 or
V c e n ts __________________________ __________________________
10 c e n t s ____________________________________________________________
12, 1 22 , o r 13 Vs c e n t __________________ _____________ ______
/3
15 c e n t s _______________ _________________
___________________ __
O v e r 15 c e n t s _______________________________ _____________ _____

72

92

3

U n ifo r m p e rc e n ta g e

_______________________________ _______ _________

5 p e r c e n t ____________ _________________ _____
_________ _______
7 p e r c e n t ________________ __________ __________ ________ ________
V p e r c e n t ___________ _________ _______ _
10 p e r c e n t _ ________ ___________________ _____ ________ ______
12
p e r c e n t _____________________________________________ ______ _
15 p e r c e n t ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

72
7
2

F u l l d a y 's p a y f o r r e d u c e d h o u r s _____________ ___________ _____

4.
2.
29.
1.

5
3
4
4

2. 9

-

3. 1
.9
22. 5
9. 6
1. 7

.
1.
.
.
.
.
1.
1.
.
.

3
1
4
3
3
1
3
1
4
2

5. 8
.
.
4.
.

6
2
5
5

_
. 2
. 1
. 2
t
.
.
.
.

4
1
1
3

1. 1
-

t
t
. 7
. 4

. 2

-

N o s h if t p a y d i f f e r e n t i a l __________________________________ ___________ _

1
S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l d a t a a r e p r e s e n t e d in t e r m s o f ( a ) e s t a b li s h m e n t p o l i c y , a n d (b ) w o r k e r s a c t u a l l y e m p lo y e d on
s h if t s a t th e tim e o f th e s u r v e y .
A n e s t a b l i s h m e n t w a s c o n s i d e r e d a s h a v i n g a p o l i c y i f it m e t e i t h e r o f th e f o l l o w i n g c o n d it io n s :
( l ) O p e r a t e d l a t e s h if t s a t the t i m e o f th e s u r v e y , o r (2 ) h a d f o r m a l p r o v i s i o n s c o v e r i n g la t e s h if t s ,
t L e s s th a n 0 . 0 5 p e r c e n t .
O c c u p a t io n a l W a g e S u r v e y ,

B o s t o n , M a s s . , S e p t e m b e r 1956
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a tis tic s

la te

13

Table B-2*.

Minimum Entrance Rates for W om e n Office W o rk e rs 1
_

N u m b e r o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w it h s p e c i f i e d m in i m u m h i r i n g r a t e in —

N u m b e r o f e s t a b li s h m e n t s w it h s p e c i f i e d m i n im u m h i r i n g r a t e in -

M a n u fa c tu rin g
M in im u m
ra te
(w e e k ly s a l a r y )

A ll
in d u s t r ie s

249

M a n u fa c tu rin g

A ll
in d u s t r ie s

B a s e d o n s t a n d a r d w e e k l y h o u r s 2 o f -----

A ll
s c h e d u le s

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s s t u d i e d -------- -----------------------

N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g

84

3 7 l/2

XXX

40

XX X

A ll
s c h e d u le s

165

36V4

XX X

371
/*

XX X

B a s e d on s t a n d a r d w e e k ly h o u r s 2 o f—

$ 3 0 . 00
$ 3 2 . 50
$ 3 5 . 00
$ 3 7 . 50
$ 4 0 .0 0
$ 4 2 . 50
$ 4 5 .0 0
$ 4 7 . 50
$ 50. 00
$ 52. 50
$ 55. 00
$ 5 7 . 50
$ 6 0 .0 0
$ 6 2 . 50

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$ 3 2 . 50 -------------------$ 35. 00 --------------------

$ 3 7 . 50
$ 4 0 .0 0
$ 4 2 .5 0
$ 4 5 . 00
$ 4 7 . 50
$ 50. 00
$ 52. 50
$ 55. 00
$ 57. 50
$ 6 0 . 00
$ 6 2 . 50
$ 6 5 . 00

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

129

45

9

26

1
2
2
10
56
21
16

_

.

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

--------------------

5

--------------------

6
3
4

2

2

_

17

4

8
8

2

10
3
4

-

1

-

-

3
1
3
1

---------------------------------------

2

1
3
1
3
1

-

-

-

--------------------

1

1

E s t a b lis h m e n t s h a v in g no
s p e c i f i e d m in im u m ---------------------------------

59

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s w h i c h d id n o t e m p lo y
w o r k e r s in th is c a t e g o r y ----------------------

60

D ata not a v a ila b le

---------------------------------------

--------------------------------------

1

84
1
2
2

XX X

249

3 7 l/z

40

84

XX X

XXX

22

32

_

10

_

-

-

-

-

-

1

2

-

16

4
3

1
1
1

2
2

4
1

-

2

-

-

2
2

1
1

8

165

36V*

XXX

3 7 l/z

40

XX X

XXX

10

22

34

1

1

-

-

-

-

1
1
19
1
4

For Other Inexperienced Clerical Workers *

13
3

8
39
13

A ll
s c h e d u le s

A ll
s c h e d u le s

40

For Inexperienced Typists

E s t a b lis h m e n t s h a v in g a
s p e c i f i e d m i n im u m ----------------------------------- —

N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g

1
3

2

5

142

50

11

28

92

3
3
3
13
71
12
16
4
4

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

3
3
3
10
48

3
23
7
7

2
2

3

-

5

13
3
3
1

1
1
1

2

2

4

12
3
3
1

5

-

9

1
1
1

-

2

-

-

2
2
2

4
1

4
1

-

-

-

-

1

2

1

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

2
8
2

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

1

1

-

1

“

-

-

25

XXX

XXX

34

XXX

XXX

XXX

71

27

XXX

XXX

44

XXX

XXX

XXX

14

XXX

XXX

46

XXX

XXX

XXX

35

7

XXX

XXX

28

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

1

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

-

-

4
1

-

3
1
-

'
'
1
2
3

L o w e s t s a l a r y r a t e f o r m a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d f o r h i r i n g i n e x p e r i e n c e d w o r k e r s f o r t y p in g o r o t h e r c l e r i c a l j o b s .
H o u r s r e f l e c t th e w o r k w e e k f o r w h i c h e m p lo y e e s r e c e i v e t h e i r r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r i e s .
D a t a a r e p r e s e n t e d f o r a l l w o r k w e e k s .c o m b in e d , a n d f o r the m o s t c o m m o n w o r k w e e k s r e p o r t e d .
R a t e s a p p l i c a b l e to m e s s e n g e r s , o f f i c e g i r l s , o r s i m i l a r s u b c l e r i c a l j o b s a r e n o t c o n s i d e r e d .




O c c u p a t io n a l W a g e S u r v e y ,

B o s t o n , M a s s . , S e p t e m b e r 1956
U . S. D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s

14

Table B-3:

Scheduled W e e k ly Hours

P E R C E N T OF O FFIC E W O RKERS ’e m
W e e k ly h o u rs

A ll w o r k e r s
Under

_

35 h o u r s

_____

O ver

36%

37%

h o u rs

36%
....

and un der

O ver

37%

38%

h o u rs

O ver

38%

h ours

_

________

48

Wholesale
trade

100

100

100

100

_

_

t

8

37%

h ours

_____________________

38%

______________

h o u r s ____________________

________________________________________________

___

t

26
6
9

11
-

3

25
-

t

-

7
-

6

18

6

61

t

-

-

16

_

9
-

_

5

8
6

13

t

4
-

15

50
-

29
-

-

-

-

-

■

■

•

■

-

5
_

3
-

7

-

_

-

3
15

t

100

7
-

4

-

_

-

30

-

-

100

-

7

-

_

t
-

18

10

_

-

-

-

-

100

_

Services

-

32

15
-

100

t

Retail trade

t

37
-

8

Wholesale
trade

t

-

t

100

Public
utilities *

t

-

t
17

Manufacturing

t
T
-

t

_

100

_

-

-

__________________________

100

3
-

t
t

_______________

AU
2
industries

9
-

62

h ours

_

Services

t
7

t

____________________________

F in a n c e **

100

35

____ ______________________ ______________________________

P E R C E N T OF P L A N T W O R K E R S E M P L O Y E D IN —

100

_____________

_________

—

-

_

__________________________________________________________

a n d u n d e r 40 h o u r s

in

Retail trade

t
9

O v e r 4 4 a n d u n d e r 4 8 h o u r s ____________________________
4 8 h o u r s ___ ___ _______________________________________________ ___
O ver

Public
utilities *

___

___________________________________
and under

Manufacturing

a n d u n d e r ___________________
.
. ......
.... _

O v e r 40 a n d u n d e r 4 4 h o u r s

44

__

____________________________________________________

O v e r 35 a n d u n d e r
36% h o u rs
. _ ...

40 h o u r s

All
industries

_______________________________________________

35 h o u r s

plo yed

t

-

-

-

t
-

t

-

t

t

-

-

-

3

-

49

75

85

98

75

43

61

6

19
-

t

5

-

-

t
t

-

-

-

3

“

■

■

t

t
t
t
t

-

t

4
4
7

"

t

3

20
8

6

3

■

-

1 D ata re la te to w om en w o r k e r s only.
2 In clu d es data fo r r e a l estate in addition to those in d u stry d iv isio n s shown s e p a ra te ly ,
t L e s s than 2. 5 p e rc e n t.
* T ra n s p o rta tio n (ex c lu d in g r a ilr o a d s ), com m u n ication , and other public u tilitie s.
* * F i n a n c e , in s u ra n c e , and r e a l estate.

Table B-4:

Paid Holidays1

PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—
Item

A l l w o rk e rs _________________________________________
W o r k e r s in esta b lish m e n ts p ro v id in g paid
h olidays ____
L e s s than 6 h olid ays _____
6 h olidays _____________________________________ _
6 holidays plus 1, 2, 3, o r 5 h alf days
7 h olidays ____ __
___
7 h olid ays plus 2 h a lf days
7 h olidays plus l r 3, o r 4 h a lf days
8 h olidays __
8 h olid ays plus 2 or 4 h a lf days
9 h olidays _______________________________________
9 h olidays plus 1 o r 2 h a lf days _____________
10 holidays _______________________________________
10 holidays plus 1 h a lf day __________________
11 holidays
11 holidays plus 1 h a lf day ___________________
11 holidays plus 2 h a lf days
12 holidays and o v e r __________________________
W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts p ro v id in g no
paid h olidays ______________________________________
1
2
t
*
**

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

100

100

100

100
-

100
-

100
-

97
t

t
t
4
13

t
-

t
-

t

t

t

-

6

t

-

All
industries

Manufacturing

100

100

99
t
t
t
t
9

t
t
t

t

4

9

3

t

t

18
6
51

27
5
27

t

t

T
t
t
t

Public ^
utilities *

-

-

t

3
48
-

-

t
t

PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—
Services

All 2
industries

Manufacturing

100

100

100

100

100
3
7
86
4

100
-

95
5
8
3
18
9

99
4
9
4
26
5
17

Finance * *

11
53
29

3
40
49

20

-

-

-

-

-

4

-

-

t

-

-

-

-

■

~

3

23

t

t
t
t
t

t
t
t
17
8
44
-

12
11

“

t
11

t

t

7

10

t

t

17
5
8

14

Public
utilities*

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

Services

100

100

100

100

100
3
5
7

100
7
4

91
9
4
t
t
32
_
5
-

64
12
27
_

-

-

8

4
8

t

t
42

5

6
48
21

5

5

t
t
t

t

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

t

-

t

5

t

"

t

-

31

-

E stim a te s re la te to h o lid ay s p ro v id e d an n u ally.
O ccu pation al W a g e S u rv e y , B o sto n , M a s s . , S e p te m b e r 1956
In cludes data fo r r e a l estate in addition to those in d u stry d iv isio n s shown se p a ra te ly .
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
L e s s than 2. 5 p e rc e n t.
B u r e a u of L a b o r S ta tistic s
T ra n s p o rta tio n (e x c lu d in g r a ilr o a d s ), com m u n ication , and other public u tilitie s.
F in a n c e , in su ra n c e , and r e a l estate.




t

9
_
_
4
4
3

30
-

-

-

-

9

36

15

Table B-5:

Paid Vacations

P E R C E N T OF O FF ICE W O R K ER S E M P L O Y E D I N —

P E R C E N T OF P L A N T W O R K E R S E M P L O Y E D I N —

V a catio n p o lic y
All
industries

Manufacturing

100

100

100

100

100

100

99

98

100

t

t

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

99

100

100

100

100

100

100

90

100

9

84
14

t

A ll w o rk ers

Public
utilities*

t

Fin ance**

Services

All
industries1

Manufacturing

Public
utilities *

100

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

Services

100

100

100

100

100

97

100

100

84
12

-

3

M ETH O D OF P A Y M E N T
W o r k e r s in esta b lish m e n ts p ro v id in g
paid v acation s ---------------------------------------------L e n g t h -o f-t im e paym ent ------------------------P e rc e n ta g e paym ent -------------------------------O ther ----------------------------------------------------------W o r k e r s in esta b lish m e n ts p ro v id in g no
paid v acation s ----------------------------------------------

-

-

-

-

-

t

-

A M O U N T O F V A C A T IO N P A Y
A N D S E R V IC E P E R I O D *
1 w e e k o r m o re
6 m onths ----1 y e a r ----------

100
85
100

100
77
100

100
89
100

100
76
100

100
74
100

100
95
100

100
81
100

99
38

100
11
97
99
99
100
100

100
53
96
99
99
99
100

98
7
97
98
98
98
98

100

5 y e a rs -------------------------------------------------------------10 y e a rs -------------------------------------------------------------

99
26
96
99
99
99
99

82
100
100
100
100

100
45
100
100
100
100
100

100
13
85
96
97
100
100

98
4
40
51
65
98
98

19
26
48
98
98

89
92
93
100
100

w eek s or m o re
1 y e a r -----------2 y e a r s --------3 y e a rs --------5 y e a rs --------10 y e a r s -------15 y e a r s -------20 y e a rs -------25 y e a rs --------

91
5
6
7
26
42
85
88
91

85

98

80

96

100

72

100

-

47
66
92
95
96

9
12
12
43
60
87
93
100

74
10
10
25
44
64
74
74
74

77

-

t
t
t
13
26
74
76
77

t
t
t
5
14
69
71
72

56

47

9

16

7

_

_

_

_

_

35
35
38
56

-

5
9
9
9
9

t
t
7
7

2 w eek s or m o re --------------------------------------------------6 m onths -----------------------------------------------------------1 y e a r ----------------------------------------------------------------2 *y e a rs ---------------------------------------------------------------

3

4 w eeks o r m o re --------------------------------------------------1, 2, and 3 y e a r s -------------------------------------------5 y e a rs -------------------------------------------------------------1 5 y e a r s ------------------------------------------------------------20 y e a r s -----------------------------------------------------------

29
t
t
4
4
10
29

t
t
t
9
17
82
84
85

t
3
25
98
98
98

t
t
t
t
31
73
73
80

8

30

17

_

_

-

_

_

t
t
t
8

_

t
30

t
t
t
t
t
17

.

-

-

14
47

99

9
16

100
23
100

100
80
100

100
55
100

100
68
100

97
8
97

98

100
47

92
7
68
82
87
92
92

99

97

79
98
98
99
99

16
54
60
97
97

96

26

5
5
23
100
100
100

80
7
7
7
7
25
75
75
80

25

16

*t

-

-

-

-

-

t
t
t
7

-

25

7
7
7
7
7
16

See footnotes at end of ta b le .
O ccupation al W a g e S u rv e y , B oston , M a s s . , S ep tem b er 1956
* T ra n sp o rta tio n (ex clu d in g r a ilr o a d s ), com m un ication , and other p u b lic u tilitie s .
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
* * F in a n c e , in su ra n c e , and r e a l estate.
B u re a u of L a b o r Statistics




NOTE:

In the tabulations of vacatio n a llo w a n c e s by y e a rs of s e r v ic e , paym ents other than "le n g th of tim e, "
such as p e rc e n ta g e of annual e a rn in g s o r fla t -s u m p ay m en ts, w e r e con verted to an equ ivalen t tim e
b a s is ; fo r e x a m p le , a paym ent of 2 p e rc e n t of annual earn in g s w a s c o n sid e re d as 1 w e e k 's pay.

-

-

t

-

-

-

-

-

43
63
90
94
96

7
15
26
26
26

43

_

-

-

-

-

30
30
36
43

-

16

Table B-5:

Paid Vacations - Continued

P E R C E N T OF O FF ICE W O R K ER S E M P L O Y E D IN —

V a catio n p o lic y

P E R C E N T OF P L A N T W O R K E R S E M P L O Y E D I N —

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

Finance

96
99
98

96
98
98

82
99
99

91
85
85

90
83

96
75

98
68

. 53

48

56

XXX

XXX

XX X

82
69

88
79

95
77

85
63

55
36

90
82

XXX

XX X

XX X

XXX

4 35

60

56

XX X

XX X

XX X

XX X

XXX

XXX

81
77
62

81
83
77

98
97
68

72
72
63

57
57
4 56

87
76
53

65
65
65

65
65
59

66
67
62

100
100
75

68
68
64

60
58
53

5 70
5 70
5 70

All
industries

Manufacturing

Public
utilities

2 w eek s ------------------------------------2 w eek s -------------------------------------2 w e e k s -------------------------------------

91
92
91

95
96
96

A ft e r 5 y e a r s :
2 w e e k s -------------------------------------A ft e r 10 y e a rs :: 2 w eek s -------------------------------------3 w eek s --------------------------------------

70
56

A ft e r 15 y e a r s : 3 w e e k s ___ *______________________
A ft e r 20 y e a rs :: 3 w eek s -------------------------------------A ft e r 25 y e a r s :: 3 w e e k s -------------------->----------------

♦

**

Services

Ail
industries1

Manufacturing

Public
utilities *

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

89
92
88

61
74
80

79
97
97

Services

P R E D O M IN A N T P R A C T IC E S A F T E R
S E L E C T E D Y E A R S O F S E R V IC E
A ft e r 1 y e a r :
A ft e r 2 y e a r s :
A ft e r 3 y e a r s :

74
85
72

3 57
49
63

3 76
3 46
47

3 81
54
60

1 Includes data fo r r e a l estate in addition to those in d u stry d iv isio n s show n s e p a r a t e ly .
2 P e r io d s of s e r v ic e w e r e a r b i t r a r i l y chosen and do not n e c e s s a r ily r e fle c t the in d ivid u al p ro v is io n s fo r p r o g r e s s io n s . F o r e x a m p le , the changes in p ro p o rtio n s ind icated at 10 y e a r s ' s e r v ic e
include changes in p ro v isio n s, o c c u r r in g betw een 5 and 10 y e a r s . E s tim a te s a r e cu m u lativ e. T h us, the p ro p o rtio n r e c e iv in g 3 w e e k s ' p ay o r m o re a fte r 5 y e a rs in clu d es those w ho r e c e iv e 3 w e e k s '
o r m o re p ay a fte r fe w e r y e a r s o f s e r v ic e .
3 1 w eek .
* 4 w eeks.
The p ro v is io n s of 2, 3, and 4 w eek s a fte r 10 y e a r s ' s e r v ic e a p p lie d to a lm o st eq u al n u m b ers of offic e w o r k e r s .
5 2 w e e k s.
t L e s s than 2. 5 p e rc e n t.
* T ra n s p o rta tio n (e x c lu d in g r a i lr o a d s ), com m un ication , and other p u b lic u tilitie s .
* * F in a n c e , in s u ra n c e , and r e a l estate.

Table B-6:

Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans

P E R C E N T OF O FF IC E W O R K E R S E M P L O Y E D I N -

T yp e of plan

A l l w o r k e r s _________________

_____

All
industries

_______________

W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts p ro v id in g :
L ife in su ra n c e ____________________ __ _______
A c c id e n ta l death and d is m e m b e rm e n t
i n s u r a n c e __ ____________________ __ _____
S ick n ess and acciden t in su ra n c e
o r sick le a v e o r both 2 ______________________
Sick n ess and acciden t i n s u r a n c e ________
S ick le a v e (fu ll pay and no
w aitin g p e r i o d ) ___ _____ _______________
Sick le a v e (p a r t ia l pay o r
w aitin g p e rio d ) ______________________________
H o sp ita liz a tio n i n s u r a n c e ___ _________________
S u r g ic a l in su ra n c e
M e d ic a l in su ra n c e _ __________________________
C a tastro p h e i n s u r a n c e _______ _________ ___
R e tire m e n t p e n s io n ______________________________
N o h ealth , in s u ra n c e , o r pen sio n p l a n ______

Manufacturing

100

100

Public
utilities

100

*

P E R C E N T OF P L A N T W O R K E R S E M P L O Y E D I N —

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

Finance

100

100

100

*♦

Services

100

All
industries 1

100

Manufacturing

Public
utilities

100

100

♦

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

Services

100

100

100

82

89

88

98

82

86

96

60

84

82

96

84

88

46

59

36

40

44

45

13

52

56

34

36

48

68

74
44

90
69

98
26

63
40

83
65

55
24

75
24

91
77

93
89

100
30

67
44

89
73

84
69

60

73

88

55

33

53

45

13

5

31

40

23

12

4
78
76
39
16
78

t

t

44
44
7

90
90
46
33
89

10
46
40
36

54

-

t

-

t

14
74
76
38
5
57
5

4
80
51
28
_
8

t

5
85
82
40
3
58
4

52
45
45
14
4
87

t

10
74
70
33
3
56
3

11
55
52
23

94

23
53
50
23
3
52

-

83
80
43
7
76

3
84
81
38
15
62

-

t

t

t

56
"

-

1 In cludes data fo r r e a l estate in addition to those in d u stry d iv isio n s shown s e p a r a t e ly .
2 U n d u p licated total o f w o r k e r s re c e iv in g sic k le a v e o r sic k n e ss and acciden t in su ra n c e shown s e p a ra te ly b e lo w .
Sick le a v e p la n s a r e lim ite d to those w hich
the m in im u m n u m b er of d a y s ' pay that can be expected by each e m p lo y e e . In fo rm a l s ic k le a v e a llo w a n c e s d e te rm in e d on an in d ivid u al b a s is a re ex clu d ed .
t L e s s than 2 .5 p ercen t.
* T ra n s p o rta tio n (e x c lu d in g r a i lr o a d s ), com m u n ication , and other public u tilitie s .
♦ ♦ F in a n c e , in s u ra n c e , and r e a l e state.




t

d e fin itely e s ta b lis h at le a s t

O c c u p atio n al W a g e S u rv e y , B o sto n , M a s s . , S e p te m b e r 1956
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B u r e a u of L a b o r S tatistic s

17

Appendix: Job Description*

The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’s wage surveys is to
assist its field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under
a variety of payroll titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment
and from area to area.
This is essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage
rate8 representing comparable job content. Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and
interarea comparability of occupational content, the Bureau *s job descriptions may differ signifi­
cantly from those in use in individual establishments or those prepared for other purposes. In
applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’s field representatives are instructed to exclude work­
ing supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped workers, part-time,
temporary, and probationary workers.

Office
BILLER , MACHINE
Prepares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records
as to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work in­
cidental to billing operations.
For wage study purposes, billers,
machine, are classified by type of machine, as follows:
Biller, machine (billing machine) - Uses a special billing
machine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, etc. , which
are combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and
invoices from customers1 purchase orders, internally prepared
orders, shipping memoranda, etc.
Usually involves application
of predetermined discounts and shipping charges and entry of
necessary extensions, which may or may not be computed on the
billing machine, and totals which are automatically accumulated
by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of
carbon copies of the bill being prepared and is often done on a
fanfold machine.
Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine) - Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisner, Remington Rand, etc. , which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers1
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation.
Generally
involves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers1 ledger
record.
The machine automatically accumulates figures on a
number of vertical columns and computes and usually prints auto­
matically the debit or credit balances. Does not. involve a knowl­
edge of bookkeeping. Works from uniform and standard types of
sales and credit slips.
BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or with­
out a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.




BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR - Continued
Class A - Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used.
Deter­
mines proper records and distribution of debit and credit items
to be used in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated
reports, balance sheets, and other records by hand.
Class B - Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections
of a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping.
Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers1accounts (not including a simple type of billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation of trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.
CLERK, ACCOUNTING
Class A - Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a com­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase of an establish­
ment^ business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or ac­
counts payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with
proper accounting distribution; requires judgment and experience
in making proper assignations and allocations.
May assist in
preparing, adjusting, and closing journal entries; may direct class
B accounting clerks.
Class B - Under supervision, performs one or more routine
accounting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers,
accounts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers.
This job does not require a knowledge of
accounting and bookkeeping principles but is found in offices in
which the more routine accounting work is subdivided on a func­
tional basis among several workers.

18
CLERK, FILE
Class A - Responsible for maintaining an established filing
systelru Classifies and indexes correspondence or other material;
may also file this material. May keep records of various types
in conjunction with files or supervise others in filing and locating
material in the files.
May perform incidental clerical duties.
Class B - Perform s routine filing, usually of material that
has already been classified, or locates or assists in locating ma­
terial in the files. May perform incidental clerical duties.
CLERK, ORDER
Receives customers1 orders for material or merchandise by
mail, phone, or personally.
Duties involve any combination of the
following: Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet
listing tne items to make up the order; checking prices and quantities
of items on order sheet; distributing order sheets to respective de­
partments to be filled.
May check with credit department to deter­
mine credit rating of customer, acknowledge receipt of orders from
customers, follow up orders to see that they have been filled, keep
file of orders received, and check shipping invoices with original
orders.
CLERK, P AY R O LL

K EY-PU NC H OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards
by punching a series of holes in the cards in a specified sequence,
using an alphabetical or a numerical key-punch machine, following
written information on records.
May duplicate cards by using the
duplicating device attached to machine.
Keeps files of punch cards.
May verify own work or work of others.
OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Perform s various routine duties such as running errands,
operating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening
and distributing mail, and other minor clerical work.
SECRETARY
Perform s secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an
administrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint­
ments for superior; receiving people coming into office; answering
and making phone calls; handling personal and important or confi­
dential mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative;
taking dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in
shorthand or'by stenotype or similar machine, and transcribing dicta­
tion or the recorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine.
May prepare special reports or memoranda for information of superior.
STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL

Computes wages of company employees and enters the neces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers'
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker's name, working
days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and dis­
tributing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.

P rim ary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by stenotype or similar machine, involving a
normal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a type­
writer. May also type from written copy. May also set up and keep
files in order, keep simple records, etc.
Does not include transcribing -machine work (see transcribing-machine operator).

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR

STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL

Prim ary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathe­
matical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of
statistical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of
a Comptometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to
performance of other duties.

Prim ary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by stenotype or similar machine, involving a
varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or
reports on scientific research and to transcribe this dictation on a
typewriter. May also type from written copy. May also set up and
keep files in order, keep simple records, etc.
Does not include
transcribing-machine work.

DUPLICATING-M ACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory respon­
sibilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten
matter, using a mimeograph or ditto machine. Makes necessary ad­
justment such as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed.
Is not required to prepare stencil or ditto master. May keep file of
used stencils or ditto masters.
May sort, collate, and staple com­
pleted material.




Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office
calls.
May record toll call* and take messages.
May give infor­
mation to persons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders.
For workers who also act as receptionists see switchboard operatorreceptionist.

19
SWITCHBOARD OPERA TOR - RECEPTIONIST

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL - Continued

In addition to performing duties of operator, on a tingle posi­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also
type or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties.
This typing or clerical work may take the major part of this worker’ s
time while at switchboard.

included. A worker who takes dictation in shorthand or by stenotype
or similar machine is classified as a stenographer, general.

TABULA TING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Operates machine that automatically analyzes and translates
information punched in groups of tabulating cards and prints trans­
lated data on forms or accounting records; sets or adjusts machine;
does simple wiring of plugboards according to established practice
or diagrams; places cards to be tabulated in feed magazine and starts
machine. May file cards after they are tabulated. May, in addition,
operate auxiliary machines.

TYPIST
Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to
make out bills after *calculations have been made by another person.
May do clerical work involving little special training, such as keep­
ing simple records, filing records and reports or sorting and dis­
tributing incoming mail.
*

Class A - Perform s one or more of the following: Typing
material in final form from""very' rough and involved draft; copy­
ing from plain or corrected copy in which there is a frequent
and varied use of technical and unusual words or from foreignlanguage copy; combining material from several sources, or
planning layout of complicated statistical tables to maintain uni­
formity and balance in spacing; typing tables from rough draft in
final form.
May type routine form letters, varying details to
suit circumstances.

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR. GENERAL
Prim ary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal
routine vocabulary from transcribing machine records.
May also
type from written copy and do simple clerical work. Workers tran­
scribing dictation involving a varied technical or specialized vocabu­
lary such as legal briefs or reports on scientific research are not

Professional

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
poses. Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May pre­
pare drawings from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties
under direction of a draftsman.
DRAFTSMAN. LEADER
Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in
preparation,of working plans and detail drawings from rough or pre­
liminary sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing
purposes. Duties involve a combination of the followingi Interpreting
blueprints, sketches, and written or verbal orders; determining work
procedures; assigning duties to subordinates and inspecting their work;
performing more difficult problems. May assist subordinates during




Class B - Perform s one or more of the following: Typing
from relatively clear or typed drafts; routine typing of forms,
insurance policies, e tc.; setting up simple standard tabulations, or
copying more complex tables already set up and spaced properly.

and

Technical

DRAFTSMAN, LEADER • Continued
emergencies or as a regular assignment, or perform related duties
of a supervisory or administrative nature.
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes,
rough or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manu­
facturing purposes.
Duties involve a combination of the following;
Preparing working plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-sections, etc.,
to scale by use of drafting instruments; making engineering computa­
tions such as those involved in strength of materials, beams and
trusses; verifying completed work, checking dimensions, materials
to be used, and quantities; writing specifications; making adjustments
or changes in drawings or specifications. May ink in lines and letters
on pencil drawings, prepare detail units of complete drawings, or
trace drawings.
Work is frequently in a specialized field such as
architectural, electrical, mechanical, or structural drafting.

20

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED) - Continued

A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on
the premises of a factory or other establishment.
Duties involve a
combination of the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured;
attending to subsequent dressing of employees* injuries; keeping records
of patients treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or
other purposes^ conducting physical examinations and health evaluations
of applicants and employees; and planning and carrying out programs
involving health education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant

environment, or other activities affecting the health, welfare,
safety of all personnel.

Ma i n t e nanc e

carpenter

, m a in t e n a n c e

Perform s the carpentry duties necessary to construct and
maintain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins,
cribs,- counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings,
and tfim made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most of
the following: Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, draw­
ings, models, or verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter*s
handtools, portable power tools, and standard measuring instruments;
making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work;
selecting materials necessary for the work. In general, the work of
the maintenance carpenter requires rounded training and experience
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent train­
ing and experience.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE
Perform s a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating,
distribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment.
Work involves most of the following: Installing or repairing any of
a variety of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers,
switchboards, controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units,
conduit systems, or other transmission equipment; working from blue­
prints, drawings, layout, or other specifications; locating and diag­
nosing trouble in the electrical system or equipment; working standard
computations relating to load requirements of wiring or electrical
equipment; using a variety of electrician* s handtools and measuring
and testing instruments. In general, the work of the maintenance
electrician requires rounded training and experience usually ac­
quired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.




and

TRACER
Copies
tracing cloth or
Uses T-square,
simple drawings

nd

plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing
paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil.
compass, and other drafting tools. May prepare
and do simple lettering.

Powerplant

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air compressors, generators, mo­
tors, turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers
and boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a
record of operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consump­
tion. May also supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers
in establishments employing more than one engineer are excluded.
FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER
Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam.
Feeds fuels to fire by hand
or operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water
and safety valves.
May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom equipment.
HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE
Assists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance
trades, by performing specific or general duties of lesser skill, such
as keeping a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning work­
ing area, machine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding ma­
terials or tools; performing other unskilled tasks as directed by jour­
neyman. The kind of work the helper is permitted to perform varies
from trade to trade: In some trades the helper is confined to sup­
plying, lifting, and holding materials and tools and cleaning working
areas; and in others he is permitted to perform specialized machine
operations, or parts of a trade that are also performed by workers
on a full-time basis.

21

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE

Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine
lathes, or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools,
gauges, jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most of the following:
Planning and performing difficult machining operations; processing
items requiring complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy;
using a variety of precision measuring instruments; selecting feeds,
speeds, tooling and operation sequence; making necessary adjust­
ments during operation to achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions.
May be required to recognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools,
and to select proper coolants and cutting and lubricating oils.
For
cross-industry wage study purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom,
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establish­
ment.
Work involves most of the following: Examining machines
and mechanical equipment to diagnose source of trouble*; dismantling
or partly dismantling machines and per forming repairs that mainly
involve the use of handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing
broken or defective parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the
production of a replacement part by a3 machine shop or sending of
the machine to a machine shop for m ajor repairs; preparing written
specifications for major repairs or for the production of parts ordered
from machine shop; reassembling machines; and making all necessary
adjustments for operation.
In general, the work of a maintenance
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
Excluded from this classification are workers whOSe primary duties
involve setting up or adjusting machines.

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
MILLWRIGHT
Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs
of metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment.
Work involves most of the following: Interpreting written instruc­
tions and specifications; planning and laying out of work; using a va­
riety of machinist's handtools and precision measuring instruments;
setting up and operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal
parts to close tolerances; making standard shop computations relat­
ing to dimensions of work, tooling, feeds and speeds of machining;
knowledge of the working properties of the common metals; selecting
standard materials, parts, and equipment required for his work; fitting
and assembling parts into mechanical equipment. In general, the
machinist's work normally requires a rounded training in machineshop practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant lay­
out are required. Work involves most of the following? Planning and
laying out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications;
using a variety of handtoolB and rigging; making standard shop com­
putations relating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of
gravity; alining and balancing of equipment;'Selecting standard fools,
equipment, and parts to be used; installing and maintaining in good
order power transmission equipment such' as drives and speed re ­
ducers. In general, the m illwright's work normally requires a rounded
training and experience in the trade acquired through a formal appren­
ticeship or equivalent training and experience.
OILER

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (M AINTENANCE)
Repairs automobiles, ouses, motortrucks, and tractors of
an establishment.
Work involves most of the following: Examining
automotive equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling
equipment and performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches, gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in dis­
assembling or fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts from
stock; grinding and adjusting valves; reassembling and installing the
various assemblies in the vehicle and making necessary adjustments;
alining wheels, adjusting brake* and lights, or tightening body bolts.
In general, the work of the automotive mechanic requires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprentice­
ship or equivalent training and experience.




Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing
surfaces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.
PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an
establishment.
Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface
peculiarities and types of paint required for different applications;
preparing surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing
putty or filler in nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray
gun or brush. May mix colors, oils, white lead, and other paint
ingredients to Obtain proper color or consistency. In general, the
work of the maintenance painter Requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience.

22

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE

SH EET-M E TAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE - Continued

Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe
and pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most of the fol­
lowing; Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe
from drawings or other written specifications; cutting various sizes
of pipe to correct lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene
torch or pipe-cutting machine; threading pipe with stocks and dies;
bending pipe by hand-driven or power-driven machines; assembling
pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard
shop computations relating to pressures, flow, and size of pipe r e ­
quired; making standard tests to determine whether finished pipes meet
specifications.
In general, the work of the maintenance pipefitter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. Workers
primarily engaged in installing and repairing building sanitation or
neating systems are excluded.

and laying out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blue­
prints, models, or other specifications; setting up and operating all
available types of sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of
handtools in cutting, bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assem ­
bling; installing sheet-metal articles as required.
In general, the
work of the maintenance sheet-metal worker requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

PLUM BER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber*s snake.
In general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprentice­
ship or equivalent training and experience.
SH EET-M E TAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing)
of an establishment. Work involves most of the following: Planning

Custodial

and

(Diemaker; jig maker; toolmaker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work.
Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying out of work
from models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifi­
cations; using a variety of tool and die m akers handtools and precision
measuring instruments; understanding of the working properties of
common metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools
and related equipment; making necessary shop computations relating
to dimensions of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools
and dies to achieve required qualities; working to close tolerances;
fitting and assembling of parts to prescribed tolerances and allow­
ances; selecting appropriate materials, tools, and processes.
In
general, the tool and die maker*s work requires a rounded training
in machine-shop and toolroom practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

Mate r i a l

ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER
Transports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel Or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such
as those of starters and janitors are excluded.
GUARD
Perform s routine police duties, either at fixed post or on
tour, maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Inchides gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity o?
employees and other persons entering^




TOOL AND DIE MAKER

Movem ent

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working
areas and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house,
or commercial or other establishment. Duties involve a combination
of the following: Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors;
removing chips, trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture,
or fixtures; polishing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies
and minor maintenance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and
restrooms. Workers who specialize in window washing are excluded.

23

LABORER, M A T E R IA L HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker;
stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A w orker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant,
store, or other establishment whose duties involve one or m ore of
the follow ing: Loading and unloading various m aterials and merchan­
dise on or from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices;
unpacking, shelving, or placing m aterials or merchandise in proper
storage location; transporting m aterials or merchandise by hand truck,
car, or wheelbarrow. Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are
excluded.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK - Continued
other records; checking for shortages and rejecting damaged goods;
routing merchandise or m aterials to proper departments; maintaining
necessary records and files.
F or wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:
Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk
TRUCKDRIVER

ORDER F IL L E R
(O rder picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from
stored merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips,
custom ers1 orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling
orders and indicating items filled or omitted, keep records of out­
going orders, requisition additional stock, or report short supplies
to supervisor, and perform other related duties.

D rives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport
m aterials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of
establishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, w a re­
houses, wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail estab­
lishments and custom ers1 houses or places of business. May also
load or unload truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical
repairs, and keep truck in good working order. D river-salesm en and
over-th e-road drivers are excluded.
For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size
and type of equipment, as follows: (T ra c to r-tra ile r should be rated
on the basis of tra iler capacity. )

PAC K ER, SHIPPING
P repares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations perform ed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires
the placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or
more of the follow ing: Knowledge of various items of stock in order
to v e r ify content; selection of appropriate type and size of container;
inserting enclosures in container; using excelsior or other m aterial to
prevent breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; applying
labels or entering identifying data on container.
Packers who also
make wooden boxes or crates are excluded.
SHIPPING AND RECEIVING C LE RK
P repares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is r e ­
sponsible for incoming shipment of merchandise or other m aterials.
Shipping work in volves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, p rac­
tices, routes, available means of transportation and rates; and p re ­
paring records of the goods shipped, making up bills of lading, post­
ing weight and shipping charges, and keeping a file of shipping records.
May direct or assist in preparing the merchandise for shipment.
Receiving work in volves: Verifying or directing others in verifyin g
the correctness of shipments against bills of lading, invoices, or




Truckdriver
Tyuckdriver,
Tru ckdriver,
Tru ckdriver,
Truckdriver,

(combination of sizes listed separately)
light (under 1V2 tons)
medium (IV 2 to and including 4 tons)
heavy (over 4 tons, tra ile r type;
heavy (over 4 tons, other than tra ile r type)

TRUCKER, POWER
Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-pow ered
truck or tractor to transport goods and m aterials of all kinds about
a warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
For wage study purposes, w orkers are classified by type of
truck, as follows:
Trucker, power (fork lift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)
W ATCHMAN
Makes rounds of prem ises periodically in protecting property
against fir e , theft, and illegal entry.
☆ TJ.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1957 0 - 415427




Bulletins in This Series
O ccu p a tio na l wage surveys are being conducted in 17 major labor markets during late 1956 and early 1957. A bulle tin for the
following area is now a v a ila b le and may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, Government P rin ting O ffi c e , Washington 25, D. C .,
or from any of the regional s a l e s o f f i c e s lis te d below. As additional b u lle tin s become a v a ila b le , they will be lis te d in su b seq u e n t i s s u e s .




L abor Market

Survey Period

S e a t t l e , Wash.

August 1956

B L S B u lle tin
Number

P r ic e

1202-1

25 c e n ts

Regional Sales Offices

U. S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
18 Oliver Street
Boston 10, Mass.

U. S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor S tatistics
50 Seventh Street, N. E .
Atlanta 23, Ga.

U. S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
105 West Adams Street
Chicago 3, 111.

IJ. S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor S tatistics
341 Ninth Avenue
New York, N. Y.

U. S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
630 Sansome Street
San Fran cisco 11, Calif.


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102