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Occupational Wage Survey

Bulletin No. 1202-10

UNITED STA TES D EPA RTM EN T OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary




B U R E A U O F LA B O R STA TISTIC S
Ew an Clagua, Commissioner




Occupational Wage Survey
BIRMINGHAM, A LA B A M A




JANUARY 1957

B u lle tin

N o . 1 2 0 2 -1 0

UN ITED STA TES DEPARTM ENT OF LABO R
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREA U

O F LA B O R S TA TIS TIC S

Ew an Clague, Commissioner

March 1957

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. - Price 20 cents




Preface

Contents
Page

The Com m unit y W age Su rvey P r o g r a m
The B u r e a u of L a b o r Statistics r e g u l a r l y conducts
a r e a w id e w age su r v ey s in a nu m b er of important industri al
centers.
The studies , made fr o m late fa ll to e a r ly sprin g,
re la te to occupational earnin gs and rela ted s upplem en ta ry
benefit s.
A p r e l i m i n a r y r e p o rt is a v a ila b le on completion
of the study in each a r e a , us u ally in the month fo llo w in g the
p a y r o ll p erio d studied. This bulletin p ro v id es additional data
not included in the e a r l i e r re po rt. A consolidated analytical
bulletin s u m m a r iz in g the re su lt s of a ll of the y e a r ’s surv ey s
is is sue d after completion of the final a r e a bulletin fo r the
cu rrent round of s u r v e y s .




Introduction -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------E stablis hm en ts and w o r k e r s within scope of s u r v e y ------------------

1
2

T a b le s :
A:

B:

Occupational earnin gs * A - 1: Office occupations ---------------------------------------------------------A - 2 : P r o f e s s i o n a l and technical occupations ---------------------A - 3: Maintenance and p ow erp la nt occupations ------------------A - 4 : Custo dia l and m a t e r i a l movem ent occupations ---------

E s tab lis h m en t p r a c t ic e s and sup plem en tary w age
p ro v is io n s * B -l:
Shift diffe rentia l p ro v is io n s ---------------------------------------B - 2 : M in im um entrance rates fo r w om en office
w o r k e r s -----------------------------------------------------------------------B - 3: Scheduled w eek ly hours -----------------------------------------------B -4 :
P a id holidays ----------------------------------------------------------------B -5 :
P a id vacations --------------------------------------------------------------B -6 :
Health, in su ran ce, and pension plans --------------------------

Appendix:

Job descri ptio ns -----------------------------------------------------------------

* NOTE:
A s i m i la r tabulation fo r m o s t of these items is
a v a ila b le in the B ir m in g h a m a r e a re p o rt fo r A p r i l 1952.
The 1952 r e p o rt a l s o p ro v id es tabulations of C h r i s t m a s ,
y e a r - e n d , p r o f i t - s h a r i n g , and other types of nonproduction
b o nuses. A d ire c to ry indicating date of study and the p r ic e
of the re po rt, as w e ll as re po rts fo r other m a j o r a r e a s ,
is a v a ila b le upon re ques t.

Union s c a l e s , indicative of p re v a i li n g pay l e v e l s , a r e
a v a i la b le fo r the fo llo w in g trad es or in dustri es: Building
construction, printing, l o c a l- t r a n s i t operating em p lo y ees ,
and m o to rt ru c k d r i v e r s .

3
5
6
7

9
10
11
11
12
13

14




Occupational Wage Survey - Birm ingham , A la .*
Introduction

to the w o r k schedules (rounded to the n e a re s t half h o ur) f o r which
s tr a ig h t -t im e s a l a r i e s a r e paid; a v e r a g e w eek ly earnin gs fo r these
occupations have been rounded to the n e a r e s t half d o lla r.

The B ir m in g h a m a r e a is one of s e v e r a l important industri al
centers in which the Departm ent of L a b o r ‘s B u r e a u of L a b o r Statistics
has conducted survey s of occupational earnin gs and rela ted w age b e n e ­
fits on an a r e a w id e b a s i s . In each a r e a , data a r e obtained b y p e r s o n a l
visits of B u r e a u field agents to re p r es en ta tiv e esta blish m en ts within
six b r o a d indu stry divisions: M anufacturing; transportation (excluding
r a i l r o a d s ) , communication, and other public utilities; w h o le s a le trade;
re tail trade; finance, in su ran ce, and r e a l estate; and s e r v i c e s . M a j o r
indu stry groups excluded fr o m these studies, b es id es r a i l r o a d s , a r e
go vernm ent operations and the construction and ext ract ive industri es.
E s tab lis h m en ts having f e w e r than a p r e s c r i b e d num ber of w o r k e r s a r e
omitted a ls o b e c a u s e they furn ish insufficient employment in the o c c u ­
pations studied to w a r r a n t in c l u s i o n . 1 W h e r e v e r p o s s ib l e , sep arate
tabulations a r e pro v id ed fo r each of the b r o a d in dustry div isions.

Occupational em ployment es tim ates re p r e s e n t the total in a ll
esta bli sh m ents within the scope of the study and not the nu m b er ac t u ­
a l ly surv ey ed.
B ec a u s e of d ifferences in occupational s tructure am ong
establi sh m ents, the estimates of occupational employment obtained fr o m
the sam p le of esta blishments studied s e r v e only to indicate the re la tiv e
im port ance of the jobs studied.
Thes e diffe renc es in occupational
str ucture do not m a t e r i a l l y affect the a c c u r a c y of the earnin gs data.

E sta b lis h m e n t P r a c t i c e s and Su pplem entary W age P r o v i s i o n s
Inform ation is p resented a l s o (in the B - s e r i e s ta b le s ) on s e ­
lected es ta bli sh m ent p ra c t ic e s and sup plem en tary benefits as they
re la te to office and plant w o r k e r s .
The te rm " o ffic e w o r k e r s , " as
used in this bulletin, includes a l l office c l e r i c a l em plo yees and e x ­
cludes ad m in is tra tiv e , executive, p r o fe s s io n a l , and technical p ers onnel.
" P l a n t w o r k e r s " include w o rk in g fo r e m e n and ail n o n s u p e r v is o ry w o r k ­
e r s (including leadm en and tr a in e e s ) engaged in nonoffice functions.
A d m i n is t ra t iv e , executive, p r o fe s s io n a l , and technical e m p lo y ees , and
fo r c e -a c c o u n t construction em plo yees who a r e utilized as a sep arate
w o r k fo r c e a r e excluded.
C a fe t e ri a w o r k e r s and routemen a r e e x ­
cluded in m an ufact ur ing in du stries, but a r e included as plant w o r k e r s
in no nmanufacturing in du stries.

These s u rv ey s a r e conducted on a sam p le b a s is b e c a u s e of the
u n n e c e s s a r y cost involved in surv ey in g all esta bli sh m ents . To obtain
ap p r o p r iat e a c c u r a c y at m inimum cost, a g r e a t e r pro po rtio n of l a rg e
than of s m a l l es ta bli sh m en ts is studied. In combining the data, h o w ­
e v e r , a ll esta bli sh m ents a r e given their a p pro priate weight. E stim a tes
b a s e d on the es ta blish m en ts studied a r e pre sented, th e re fo r e , as r e ­
lating to a l l esta blishments in the indu stry grouping and a r e a , except
fo r those b e l o w the m in im um siz e studied.
Occupations and E arn in gs
The occupations selected fo r study a r e common to a v ar ie t y
of man ufact urin g and nonmanufacturing in dustri es . Occupational c l a s ­
sification is b a s e d on a uniform set of job descriptions designe d to
take account of in terestablis hm en t varia tio n in duties within the sam e
job (see appendix fo r listing of these d es crip t io n s ). E a rn in g s data a r e
presented (in the A - s e r i e s ta b le s ) fo r the follo w in g types of o ccu p a­
tions:
(a) Office c l e ri c a l; (b) p r o fe s s io n a l and technical; (c) m a i n te ­
nance and powerplant; and (d) custodial and m a t e r i a l movement.

Shift d ifferentia l data (table B - l ) a r e lim ited to m an ufact ur ing
in du stries .
This in form at ion is presented both in te rm s of (a) e s t a b ­
lishm ent polic y, 2 pre sented in t e rm s of total plant w o r k e r em p lo y ­
ment, and (b) effective p r a c t ic e , p resented on the b a s is of w o r k e r s
actually em ployed on the specified shift at the time of the survey.
In es ta bli shm ents having v a r ie d diffe ren tials , the amount applying to
a m a j o r it y was used or, if no amount ap plied to a m ajo rity , the c l a s ­
sificat ion " o t h e r " w as used .

Occupational em ployment and earnings data a r e shown fo r
f u ll -t im e w o r k e r s , i. e. , those h ired to w o r k a r e g u l a r w eek ly sched ­
ule in the given occupational classification.
E arn in gs data exclude
p re m iu m pay fo r o vertim e and fo r w o r k on w eeken ds, ho lid ay s, and
late shifts.
Nonproduction bonuses a r e excluded a ls o , but c o s t - o f living bonuses and incentive earnings a r e included.
W h e re weekly
ho urs a r e re ported , as fo r office c l e r i c a l occupations, re fe r e n c e is

M in im um entrance rates (table B - 2 ) re la te only to the e s t a b ­
lishments visited.
They a r e p resented on an esta blishment, ra th er
than on an employment b a s i s .
Scheduled ho urs; paid holid ay s; paid
vacations; and health, in su ran ce, and pension plans a r e treated s t a t is ­
tically on the b a s i s that these a r e ap plic ab le to a ll plant or office

* This r e p o rt was p r e p a r e d in the B u r e a u ls re gio n al office in
Atlanta, Ga. , by B e r n a r d J. F a h r e s , under the dire ction of Louis B.
Woytych, Reg io nal W a g e and Industr ial Relations A nalyst.
1 See table on page 2 fo r m i n i m u m - s i z e es ta blish m en t co ver ed .




2
A n es ta bli sh m ent w as co nsid ered as having a p olic y if it met
either of the follo w in g conditions: (1) Operated late shifts at the time
of the s u r v e y , or (2) had f o r m a l p ro v is io ns co v erin g late shifts.

( 1)

2

w o r k e r s if a m a j o r it y of such w o r k e r s a r e elig ib le or m a y eventually
qualify f o r the p ra c t ic e s l i s t e d . 3 B e c a u s e of rounding, sum s of in di­
vidual items in these tabulations do not n e c e s s a r i l y equal totals.
The s u m m a r y of vacation plans is limited to f o r m a l a r r a n g e ­
ments, excluding in fo rm a l plans w h e r e b y time off with pay is granted
at the dis cre tio n of the em p lo y er .
Separate estimates a r e p rovid ed
ac c o r d in g to em p lo y e r p ract ice in computing vacation pay ments, such
as time pay ments, p erce nt of annual earnin gs, or f l a t - s u m amounts.
H o w e v e r , in the tabulations of vacation a l lo w a n c e s , payments not on
a time b a s is w e r e converted; fo r ex am p le, a payment of 2 p erc ent of
annual earnin gs w as co nsid ered as the equivalent of 1 w e e k 's pay.
Data a r e p resented fo r a ll health, in su ran ce, and pension
plans f o r which at least a p art of the cost is b o rn e b y the e m p lo y e r ,
excepting only l e g a l re qu irem en ts such as w o r k m e n 's co mpensation and
so c ia l security. Such plans include those un derw ri tten b y a c o m m e r ­
cial in sura n ce company and those pro v id ed through a union fund or paid
d ire c tly b y the em p lo y er out of cu rrent ope rating funds or fr o m a fund
set as id e fo r this p u rp o s e. Death bene fits a r e included as a fo rm of
life insura nce.
Sickness and accident in su ran ce is limited to that type of in ­
surance under which p re d e te rm in e d cash payments a r e made d ire c tly
to the in su red on a w eek ly or monthly b a s i s during illness or accident
disa bil it y.
In formation is presented fo r a l l such plans to which the
em p lo y e r contributes. H o w e v e r , in N e w Y o r k and N ew J e r s e y , which

have enacted te m p o r a r y d is ab il it y in sura n ce laws which re q u ir e e m ­
p lo y e r co n t rib u tion s,4 plans a r e included only if the e m p lo y er ( l ) c o n ­
tributes m o r e than is le g a l ly r e q u ir e d , o r (2) p ro vid es the em ployee
with bene fits which exceed the re q u ir em en t s of the law.
Tabulations
of paid s ic k - l e a v e plans a r e lim ited to f o r m a l p la n s 5 which p ro vid e
full pay or a p ro po rtio n of the w o r k e r ' s pay during absence fr o m w o r k
b e c a u s e of il l n e s s .
Se parate tabulations a r e pro vid ed a cc o r d in g to
( l ) plans which p ro v id e full pay and no waitin g p eriod , and (2) plans
p rovid in g either p a r t ia l pay or a w aiting p eriod .
In addition to the
pre sentati on of the proportio n of w o r k e r s who a r e p ro vid ed sic kness
and accident insura nce or paid sick leave, an unduplicated total is
shown of w o r k e r s who re c e iv e either or both types of bene fit s.
C ata stro phe in su ran ce, s o m etim es r e f e r r e d to as extended
m e d ic a l in su ran ce, includes those plans which a r e designe d to protect
em p lo y ees in ca se of sic kness and in ju ry involving expenses beyond
the n o r m a l c o v er age of ho spitaliz ation, m e d ic a l, and s u r g ic a l plan s.
M e d i c a l insu rance r e f e r s to plans p rovid in g fo r complete or p a r t ia l
payment of doctors* fe e s . Such plans m a y be un derw ri tten b y c o m m e r ­
cial in su ran ce companies or nonprofit orga nizations or they m a y be
self-insured.
Tabulations of re tir e m e n t pension plans a r e lim ited to
those plans that p ro v id e monthly payments fo r the r e m a in d e r of the
w o r k e r ' s life.

4 The te m p o ra ry d is abil it y la w s in C a li fo r n i a and Rhode Island
do not r e q u ir e erripibyer contributions.
5 A n esta bli shm ent w as co nsid ered as having a f o r m a l plan if
3
Scheduled w e e k ly hours fo r office w o r k e r s ( fir s t section it establi sh ed at le ast the m in im um n u m b er of days of sick leave that
of
table B - 3 ) a r e p res en ted in te rm s of the pro po rtio n of w o m en office
could be expected b y each em plo yee. Such a plan need not be written,
w o r k e r s em plo yed in offices with the indicated w eek ly hour s fo r wom en
but in fo rm a l sick leave a llo w a n c e s , d eterm in ed on an individual b a s i s ,
w orkers.
w e r e excluded.

Establishm ents and w o rk ers within scope of survey and num ber studied in B irm ingham , A la . , 1 by m ajor industry division, January 1957
M in im u m
e m p lo y m e n t
in e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n t s in s c o p e
o f s tu d y

In d u s try d iv is io n

A ll d iv is io n s

N u m b e r o f e s t a b lis h m e n t s
W ith in
scope of
stu d y 2

W o rk ers

in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s

W ith in s c o p e o f stu d y

S t u d ie d

S t u d ie d
T o t a l3

O f f ic e

P la n t

T o ta l 3

51

366

110

1 0 1 , 50 0

1 4 ,5 0 0

7 1 ,7 0 0

5 6 ,6 5 0

____________________________________
_

51
51

145
221

49
61

6 8 , 100
3 3 ,4 0 0

6 , 700
7 , 800

5 3 ,1 0 0
18, 600

3 8, 360
1 8 ,2 9 0

T r a n s p o r t a t i o n (e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a t io n ,
a n d o t h e r p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 4 _________________
_________________________________
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e ____________ ____________________ ____________ _______________
_
R e ta il tra d e
_
• _
F in a n c e , in s u ra n c e , a n d r e a l e s ta te
S e r v ic e s 6
_ ___________________________________________________
____________________

51
51
51
51
51

26
48
81

14

8, 0 0 0
4 , 800

1 ,6 0 0

4 , 200

6 , 980
1 ,9 0 0

M a n u f a c t u r i n g ________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g .

_____

_____
..

_____________

39
27

12
16
10
9

12, 000
5, 000
3, 60 0

( 5)
( 5)
( 5)
( 5)

( 5)
(5)
( 5)
( 5)

5, 34 0
2, 4 7 0
1 ,6 0 0

The B irm ingham M etropolitan A r e a (J efferso n County). The "w o rk e rs within scope of study" estim ates shown in this table provide a reason ably accurate description of the size and com position of the labor
force included in the survey. The estim ates a re not intended, however, to serve as a b a sis of com parison with other a re a employment indexes to m easure employment trends or levels since ( l ) planning of wage
surveys req u ires the use of establishm ent data com piled co n siderably in advance of the pay p eriod studied, and (2) sm a ll establishm ents are excluded fro m the scope of the survey.
Includes a ll establishm ents with total employment at o r above the m in im u m -size lim itation. A ll outlets (within the area) of com panies in such industries as trade, finance, auto re p a ir se rv ic e , and motionpicture theaters are considered as 1 establishm ent.
3 Includes executive, technical, pro fessio n al, and other w o rk e rs excluded fro m the separate office and plant categories.
4 A lso excludes taxicabs and s e rv ic e s incidental to w ater transportation.
3 This industry division is represen ted in estim ates fo r " a l l in dustries" and "nonm anufacturing" in the S eries A and B tables, although coverage was insufficient to justify separate presentation of data.
Hotels; personal se rv ic e s; business s e rv ic e s; automobile re p a ir shops; radio broadcasting and television; motion pictures; nonprofit m em bership organizations; and engineering and arch itectu ral serv ic e s.




A: Occupational Earnings
3
T a b l e A-1: O f f i c e O c c u p a t i o n s
(A v e ra g e straight-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an a re a basis
in B irm ingham , A la . , by industry division, January 1957)
N U M B E R OF WORKERS R E C E IVIN G S TRA IGH T-TIM E W E E K L Y E AR N IN G S OF—

A verage

Sex,

o c c u p a t io n ,

Number
of
workers

a ft d i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n

Weekly,
hours
(Standard)

Weekly j
earnings
(Standard)

$
1 0 5 .0 0

$
1 1 0 .0 0

n o . oo

over

$
3 0 . 00

$
3 5 . 00

$
4 0 . 00

$
4 5 . 00

$
5 0 . 00

$
5 5 . 00

$
6 0 . 00

$
6 5 . 00

$
7 0 . 00

$
7 5 . 00

$
8 0 . 00

$
8 5 . 00

$
9 0 . 00

3 5 . 00

4 0 . 00

4 5 . 00

5 0 .0 0

5 5 .0 0

6 0 . 00

6 5 . 00

7 0 . 00

7 5 . 00

8 0 . 00

8 5 . 00

9 0 . 00

9 5 . 00

1 0 0 .0 0

-

.

_

-

-

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5
3
2

-

-

3
8

-

-

1
2

14
14

9
5
4

16
6
10

24
23
1

21
16
5

12
6
6

10

1
1

47
27
20

-

5

-

-

7
7

19
19

4
4

8
8

9
9

$
2 5 . 00
and
under
3 0 . 00

$
$
9 5 . 00 1 0 0 . 0 0

and
1 0 5 .0 0

M en

39. 0

>
P
9 3 . 50
9 8 . 00
84. 00

29

40. 0
40. 0
40. 5

6 8 . 00

-

250
98

41. 5
40. 0

-

152

42. 0

7 6 . 50
8 4 . 00
7 1 . 50

"

"

89
87

40. 0
40. 0

9 2 . 00
9 2 . 50

_

_

-

-

-

-

O f f i c e b o y s _________________________________________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g __________________________________________________
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s * ________________________________________________

90
47

39. 5
40. 0

4 6 . 50

1
-

_

44
22

43
26

39. 5
39. 0

4 9 . 50
4 3 . 00
4 2 . 00

6
6
6

1
1

T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s
M a n u fa c t u rin g

92
57

39. 5
""4 0 . 0
38. 0

7 8 . 50
8 0 . 50

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

C l e r k s , a c c o u n t i n g , c l a s s A _______________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ____ ___________________________________________

137

C l e r k s , a c c o u n t i n g , c l a s s B _______________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
________________________________ _____________

79
50

C le r k s , o rd e r
_
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c t u rin g
_______________ ______________________________
C le r k s ,

p a y r o ll

M a n u fa c t u rin g _

_ _
___________

N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g

____________________________

________

___________________________________

____________________________________

________

95
42

35

39. 5
40. 0

7 0 . 50
7 2 . 00

-

-

-

12
12
-

13

2 17

11
2

15
2

.

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

“

-

-

-

-

4
4

11
6

8
8

-

2
2

.

_

.

_

-

-

-

-

6
5

3
2

-

-

1

8
4
4

7
2
5

8
5
3

14
6
8

10
10

1

-

-

-

-

23
2
21

12
5
7

23
5
18

16
1
15

25
2
23

37

-

1
1

9
28

41
26
15

.

_

_

_

2
2

1
1

8
7

2
2

7
6

9
9

4

_

7
6

_

-

_

_

_

.

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

l

-

-

-

3
3
-

_

1
3
3

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

-

-

-

-

-

11
10

10

4
4

9
7

11
&

18
8

12
10

2

-

-

-

-

3

10

2

8
4
4

t

2

'

"

9
1

3 13
13

-

22
12

7 5 . 50
'

"

13
-

8

3

1

2
-

2
2

3

27
3
24

16
5
11
1

39
19
20
20

4
4
-

6
6
-

2
2
-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

9

33
3
30
17

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

1

3

1

4
6

'

8
-

10
7
3

2

-

15
8
7

W om en
B i l l e r s , m a c h in e (b il lin g m a c h in e )
_
.
_
M a n u fa c t u rin g
------------------------ ---------------------------- ----------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g __________________________________________________
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s * ________________________________________________
B i l l e r s , m a c h in e (b o o k k e e p in g m a c h in e )
N o n m a n u fa c t u rin g
B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,

c la s s

148
42
106
51
60
54

A

39. 5
40. 0
39. 5
39. 0
4 1 .0
4 1 .0

M a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _____________________________________________
__

63
36
27

B o o k k e e p i n g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s B ___________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g __________________________________________________

338
58
280

40. 0

C l e r k s , a c c o u n t i n g , c l a s s A _______________________________________
M a n u fa c t u rin g
_
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g __________________________________________________

200
42
15 8
60

40. 5

624

39. 0
40. 0

P u b lic

C le r k s ,

u t i l i t i e s * ________________________________________________

a c c o u n tin g ,

c la s s

B

M a n u f a c t u r i n g _________ _______
____________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c t u rin g
___________________
________________________

177
447

40. 0
39. 5
40. 5

39. 5
40. 0

54.
62.
50.
54.

00
50
50
50

5 3 . 00
5 0 . 50
6 7 . 00
7 5 . 00
5 7 . 00

5 1 . 00
6 0 . 50
4 9 . 00

39. 5
40. 5

7 3 . 00
8 3 . 50
7 0 . 00

39. 5

85. 00

38. 5

.

_

-

-

-

-

-

13
4

-

9
9

4
4

1
1

16
16

21
21

3
3

2

-

1
-

5
-

10
5

1
1

1

"

■

2
-

8
6

4
4

_
-

-

2

2

-

-

-

22

9

4

18
3

7

18
16

15
4

2
2'

55
22
33

7

3
2

.

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

8
-

"

-

8

1

5

5

13
7
6

92
1

90

48
6
42

53
11
42

29
13
16

11
8
3

11
4

11
-

9

7

29
6
23

_
-

-

1
-

-

-

1

91

_

_

_

-

-

-

8
-

-

26
-

-

-

-

8

7

26

1

9
81

7

-

-

-

1
-

3

-

-

18

95
4

1

3

72

91

5 7 . 00
6 2 . 50
5 4 . 50

_

90

-

-

133

55

40
93

11
44

-

11

9

2

-

3

59
31
28

83

33

16
67

21
12

11
10

2

.

.

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3
3

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

“

"

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

9

2

2

_

7

7

2

2

-

30

2
2

-

-

-

”

“

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

11
11

5
2

37

30

7

7

_

1

See footnotes at end of table.
Occupational W age Survey, B irm ingham , A la . , January 1957
* Transportation (excluding r a ilr o a d s ), communication, and other public utilities.
U. S. D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R




Bureau of L a b o r Statistics

4
T a b le A - l: O ffic e O c c u p a tio n s - C o n tin u e d
(A v e ra g e straigh t-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an a re a basis
in Birm ingham , A la . , by industry division, January 1957)
N U M B E R OF WORKERS RE C E IV IN G STRA IGH T-TIM E W E E K L Y EAR N IN G S OF—

A vebagb
Sex,

o c c u p a t io n ,

an d in d u s try

Number
of
workers

d iv is io n

Weekly j
(Standard)

Weekly j
earnings
(Standard)

$
3 0 . 00

$
3 5 . 00

$
4 0 . 00

$
4 5 . 00

$
5 0 . 00

$
5 5 . 00

$
6 0 . 00

$
6 5 . 00

$
7 0 . 00

$
7 5 . 00

$
8 0 . 00

$
8 5 . 00

$
9 0 . 00

$
9 5 . 00

$
$
$
1 0 0 . 00 1 0 5 . 0 0 1 1 0 . 00

3 5 .0 0

4 0 . 00

4 5 .0 0

5 0 .0 0

5 5 .0 0

6 0 .0 0

6 5 . 00

7 0 . 00

7 5 . 00

8 0 . 00

8 5 . 00

9 0 . 00

9 5 . 00

1 0 0 .0 0

1 0 5 . 00 n o . o o

-

-

-

2
2

_

-

25
23
2

13

-

-

2
2

-

1
-

-

1

'

-

-

6

_

_

_

_

_

-

$
2 5 . 00
and
under
3 0 .0 0

and
over

W o m e n - C o n tin u e d
C le r k s ,

file ,

c la s s A

________________________________________________

88

M a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ____
_____ _____ __ ____________________

59
29

C le r k s , file , c la s s B
_ ________________________ ______
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g

331
134
197

C le r k s , o rd e r
M a n u fa c t u rin g
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0
39. 5
40. 0
39. 5

70

40. 0

35
35

39. 5
40. 0

_ _ ...

206
115

N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _________________________________________________

91

C le r k s , p a y r o ll
M a n u fa c tu rin g

_

......
. . . . . . . . .

_
_

_

......

....

.

_

_
.

.
_

... _

_

_

_

D u p lic a t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s (m im e o g r a p h
o r d i t t o ) _______ __________ __ _______
_ __
_______________
___ _
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ____ ______

__

K e y -p u n c h o p e r a t o r s
M a n u fa c t u rin g
_ _______
N o n m a n u fa c t u rin g
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s * _______________________________________________
O ffic e

g ir ls

............. .

N o n m a n u fa c t u rin g
S e c re ta rie s

.

__

_ .

_______________

..

______

_ _

_______________

. . . . . . .

...

______ ________ _
_ _
__ ______
M a n u fa c tu rin g
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _________________________________________________
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s * __ ______ __ __________
_ _____
S te n o g ra p h e rs, g e n e ra l
M a n u fa c tu rin g

______
_

______

______

______
____ _

______

11
5
6

12
12

123

38
11
27

36
24

28
23

35
34

12

25
21
4

5

1

22

2
2

-

-

-

.
-

4
-

30
-

-

4

30

_

_

-

-

1
-

6
4

3
-

15
4

14
1

-

1

2

3

11

13

_

15
4

20
10

51
20

9
114

_______

_

______

T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g

___

_

__

_____

.

.
___________

___

See footnotes at end of table.
* Transportation (excluding r a ilro a d s ),

_

.

-

.

-

"

-

-

“

-

"

-

-

22
14
8

20
17
3

17
8

13
12
1

16
14
2

11
10

2
2

17
14
3

25
17

9
8
1

16
15

2
2

_
_

-

"

-

11

5 4 . 00
6 4 . 50

_

_

_

_

4
-

4 9 . 00

-

-

4

29
2
27

78
12
66

37
3
34

4

45
33

40. 0
40. 0

5 0 . 50
4 7 . 50

_

-

_

-

-

-

13
12

13
12

7
6

1

164
85

39. 0
39. 5
37. 5

_

_

-

-

2
2

4
1
3

-

-

‘

-

30
10
20
2

21
7
14
11

12
10
2
1

49
18
31

39. 5

59.
63.
55.
60.

40. 0
40. 0

5 0 . 50
4 4 . 00

_
-

1
1

2
2

29

12
12

1
1

39.
39.
39.
39.

7 2 . 50
7 7 . 50

45
3

___

__________

4
-

1

6
1

8

9

1

1

3

_

_

_

2
1

_

_

_

-

-

-

.

_

_

.

_

-

_

-

-

-

-

4

l

_

_

_

_

-

1

-

-

-

-

_

.

-

-

1
-

-

1
1

-

-

-

7
-------5—
1
1

_

_
-

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

11

15
11
4
2

23
22
1
1

3
2

14

4

4

_

_

.

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

61

99
31
68
4

42
17

57
24

61

18

9

~ 3 l ------

11

4

25
16

10
8
6

11
7

33
16

60
22
38
36

20

25
5

36
21
15
11

94
54
40
24

116
80
36
13

108

96
77

38
38
-

12

13

4

12
-

13
-

4

4
4
-

1
1
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

8

5
-

8
-

16
15

_

1
1

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

5
-

35
3

5

32

-

-

-

-

-

59
8
51
3

_

_

35

10 4

183

93

-

-

10
-

1
34
5

12
92
13

27
156

33
60
22

32
3

19
6
13

8
8

4
4

5

8

3

1

-

-

10

13

22

16

5

1

_

_

1

4

13

-

-

1

9

3
2

1

9

12
4

-

3

2
2
-

.

7

3
3
-

2
2

22

21
14
7

-

-

-

-

4
4

8
8

3

9

4

10
8

2

1

1
1

.

3

4
4

_

2

3
3

911
435
476
106

40. 0
40. 0
4 0 .0
39. 5

6 2 . 50
7 0 . 50
5 5 .0 0
61.00

4 1 .0

5 3 .0 0

39. 0
42. 0

6 8 . 00
4 7 . 00

21

8

7

13
3
10

4 0 .0

55. 00

.

_

9

26

39. 5
40. 0

6 1 . 50

-

-

-

4 8 . 50

-

-

9

49
35

39. 0
39. 5

6 3 . 50
6 1 . 50

.

_

.

66

31

-

131

... _
.

.

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

6 9 . 00
8 5 . 50

_
-

-

15
2
13

389
128

_
-

.

1

5
5
5
5

_
-

2
2

1
-

659
270

-

-

-

33

_
-

-

_

-

74
47

_

_

-

_

-

79
30

2
2

_

-

6 3 . 00
6 7 . 50
5 6 . 50

00
00
00
00

_

-

-

-------

4
4

6
--------6

2

39. 5
39. 5
39. 0

10

_

5
3

_

9
4

-

19
3

5 4 . 50

65

.

S w itc h b o a rd o p e r a t o r -r e c e p t io n is t s




6
6

44
117

u t i l i t i e s * _________________

S w itc h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s
M a n u fa c t u rin g
...
N o n m a n u fa c t u rin g

M a n u fa c t u rin g _ _
N o n m a n u fa c t u rin g

5 8 . 00
6 1 . 50

6
6

161

N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
P u b lic

5 0 . 00
6 0 . 00
4 3 . 00

4
4

221
73
148

_

C o m p tom eter o p erato rs
M a n u fa c tu rin g
N o n m a n u fa c t u rin g

$
6 6 . 00
7 1 .0 0
5 6. 00

10

-

-

-

21
-

8
-

7
-

communication, and other public utilities.

4

29

9

—

2

86
55-----26
11

79
29
5

19
15
15
12

-

9
8

-

-

5
5

4
4
_
-

-

_

.

5
T a b le A - l : O ffice O c c u p a t io n s - C o n tin u e d
(A verage stra igh t-tim e w eekly hoars and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
in B irm in gham , A la . , by industry division, January 1957)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

A verage

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of

Weekly, Weekly j
hours
earnings
(Standard) (Standard)

$
25. 00
and
under
30. 00

$
30. 00

$
35. 00

$
40. 00

$
45. 00

$
50. 00

$
55. 00

$
60. 00

$
65. 00

$
70. 00

$
75. 00

35. 00

40. 00

45. 00

50. 00

55. 00

60. 00

65. 00

70. 00

75. 00

80. 00

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 100.00 105. 00 110.00
and
85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 100. 00 105. 00 110. 00 over

Women - Continued
T ran scribin g-m ach in e o p e ra to rs , general _____________
M an u factu rin g____________________________________________

57
38

40. 0
40. 6

$
56. 00
59. 50

_

_

-

-

Typists, c la ss A ____________________________________________
Manufacturing ________________________________ _____ __
Nonm anufacturing
__ __________________________________

121
64
57

40. 5
40\ 0
41.0

63. 00
69. 60
56. 50

_
"

Typists, c la ss B ____________________________________________
M anufacturing ____________________________________________
Nonm anufacturing_____________________________ _________

496
207
289

39. 5
4075“
39. 5

51.00
57. 50
46. 50

_
-

3
3

27
26

9
4

3
2

-

19
1
18

6
3
3

6
6

20
9
11

38
22
16

78
20
58

103
31
72

42
33
9

59
50
9

26
23
3

1
-

9
-

2

-

.
-

3
3

1
1

18
18

148
29
119

3
3

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

-

"

20
20
-

7
7
-

2
2
“

_
-

.
-

“

_
-

_
-

_
-

17
17

1
1

-

_
-

.
-

3
3

_
-

_
-

.
-

Standard hours refle ct the workweeks for which em ployees receive their regular stra igh t-tim e salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
W ork ers were distributed as follow s: 9 at $1 10 to $ 1 2 0 ; 5 at $120 to $ 1 3 0 ; 2 at $130 and over,
W ork ers were distributed as follow s: 8 at $1 10 to $ 1 2 0 ; 5 at $ 1 20 to $ 1 3 0 .

T a b le A - 2 : Professional a nd Technical Occupatio ns
(A verage stra igh t-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
in B irm ingham , A la. , by industry division, January 1957)

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which em ployee j receive their regular stra igh t-tim e salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours

422303 0 - 5 7 - 2




Occupational Wage Survey, Birm ingham , A la . , January 1957
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T OF LA B OR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

6
T a b le

A -3:

M a in te n a n c e a n d

P o w e r p la n t O c c u p a tio n s

(A v erage hourly earnings for men in selected occupations studied on an a re a basis
in B irm ingham , A l a . , by industry division, January 1957)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
Occupation and industry division

C arp en ters, maintenance -------------------------------Manufacturing -----------------------------------------------

Number
of
workers

244
2T4

$
$
Average
hourly . Under 1.20
1. 30
earnings1
and
$
under
1.20
1.40
,-L J l
Q

$
2. 50
2. 52

E le c tric ia n s, maintenance ------------------------------M anufacturing ----------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing -----------------------------------------

52 7
27
50
28

F irem en , stationary b o ile r -----------------------------M anufacturing -----------------------------------------------

105
------- T T ~

1.93
2702

H elp ers, trades, maintenance ------------------------M anufacturing -----------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing -----------------------------------------Public utilities * ---------------------------------------

895
825
70
31

2. 04
2. 11
1. 17
1.40

M achine-tool operators, toolroom ------------------Manufacturing ------------------------------------------------

226
226

2.28
2.28

M achinists, maintenance ----------------------------------976
M anufacturing ------------------------------------------------ ----- 9T5

2. 89
2. 89

M echanics, automotive (m aintenance) ------------279
Manufacturing ------------------------------------------------ ------- 93
Nonmanufacturing -----------------------------------------186
153
Public utilities * ---------------------------------------

2. 04
2 .'19
1. 96
1. 99

M echanics, maintenance -----------------------------------Manufacturing ------------------------------------------------

397
TUB

_
-

_
-

-

—

"

-

2. 47
2. 73

~

_
-

2. 66
2. 68
2.29

E n gin eers, stationary --------------------------------------M anufacturing -----------------------------------------------

“

-

-

9
r i —

*50
8
42
9
.

$
1. 60

$ .70
1

$
1.80

$
1.90

1. 00

1. 50

1. 60

1. 70

1.80

1.90

2. 00

2. 10

2. 20

11
9

16
14

33
21

1
1

11
4
7

18
16
2

.
-

33
32
1

4
_

1
“

-

-

7

3

“

“

'

"

3
3
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

5
4
1

138
138
-

28
21
7

-

2

10
10

7
4

4
4

_

18
18
■

22
22
-

'

-

-

-

-

7
6

1

-

-

-

-

“

8
8

■

8
8

_

16
16

_

_

_

_

"

"

■

“

_
-

_
■

_
■

_
-

_
-

_
-

~

32
32
"

32
32
~

84
84
“

146
146
"

_
"

_

_

_

13
13

6
6

_
~

61
61

37
37

21
21

13
13

11
11

13
13

21
21

3
3

_

6
6

23
22

7
7

8
8

1
1

185
185

23
23

94
94

44
11
33
31

59
4
55
51

25
6
19
10

12
3
9
7

12
12
12

33
8
25
24

9
9

35
30
5
5

14
5
9
9

1
1
1

3
3
1

-

-

"

2. 31
2. 32

.

_

_

■

~

1
1

_
"

2
2

_

_

1
1

27
l3
14
2

4
3

44
42

3

11
9

35
34

37
37

32
29

-

■
37
19

“

_
“
108
ro s~

*
160
~T5T5

-

_

_

.

.

-

"

■

*

■

10
10

60
60

30
3o
_

_
-

2
2

.
-

_
-

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

•

■

"

6 3
442
6 r 442

“

_
-

1
1

-

_

_

-

66
66

54
53

36
36

4
4

20
20

12
l2

.

_

.

_

_

_

_

"

“

■

“

~

7
4

.

2

.

_

.

1
1

_

_

_

_

20
20

21
21

16
16

20
20

~

2
2

4
4

84
84

4
4

_

■

1
1

_

_

_

_

1

~

”

8
8

2
“

7
7

4
4

4
2

20
14

9
7

16
14

_

*
_

_

_

_

_

_

.

1
1

12
12

1
1

43
43

50
50

.

3. 30

-

73
73
-

_
-

3.20

29
27
2

112
104
8
7

_

3. 10

_
-

1
1
1

*

3. 00

10
10

16
1
15
13

_

2. 90

_
-

8
8
"

-

S . 20

2. 80

_
-

5
1
4
1
.

$
3. 10

44
40
4

-

296
296 J
-

$ . 00
3

2
2

4
4

“

$
2. 90

■

_

4
4

$ 80
2.

4
2

_

Excludes prem ium pay fo r overtim e and for w ork on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
W o rk e rs distributed as follow s: 1 at $0. 70 to $0. 80; 24 at $0. 80 to $0.90; 4 at $ 1 to $1.10; 21 at $1.10 to $1.20.
Includes 52 w o rk ers at $3.30 to $3.40.
Transportation (excluding ra ilro a d s ), communication, and other public utilities.




47
45
2

$
2. 70

116
114

3

12
12

_
-

_

"

"

_
-

2.46
2.46

4
4

_

_

108
TT
TH

28
28

23
2$

"

Tool and die m akers ------------------------------------------M anufacturing ------------------------------------------------

15
15

2
2

_

“

2. 70

18
18

■

_

2. 60

_

_

2. 25
2.25

2. 50

“

_

80

2.40

$ 50 $ 60
2.
2.

■

'

P a in ters, maintenance --------------------------------------M anufacturing ------------------------------------------------

2
1

$
$
2. 30 2.40

_

_

2. 09
” 2709—

2. 30

1
1

2

.

174
174

$2. 10 $2. 20

5
5

2
2

~

"

O ilers ------------------------------------------------------------------M anufacturing ------------------------------------------------

1
*
3
*

$
1. 50

5
r~

“

_

FT~

$
1.40

.

.

“

“
_

L

-

Occupational W age Survey, B irm ingham , A la . , January 1957
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T OF L A B O R
Bureau of L a b o r Statistics

7
T a b le A - 4 :

C u s to d ia l a n d M a te r ia l M o v e m e n t O c c u p a tio n s

(A verage hourly earnings fo r selected occupations studied on an a re a b a sis
in B irm ingham , A la. , by industry division, January 1957)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
Occupation1 and industry division

Number
of
w
orkers

$
Average
$
$
hourly 2 Under 0. 60 0. 70 0. 80
earnings
and
$
under
0. 60
. 80
.90
. 70

E levator op erato rs, p a ssen ger (w o m e n )-------Nonmanufacturing -----------------------------------------

159
159

$
0. 63
. 63

Guards ----------------------------------------------------------------M a n u fa c tu rin g -----------------------------------------------

287
253

Janitors, p o rte rs, and clean ers ( m e n ) ---------M a n u fa c tu rin g ----------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ----------------------------------------Public utilities * --------------------------------------

$
0.

$
$
1.00 9 01. 10

1. 00

$
1.20

$
1. 30

$
1.40

$
1. 50

$
1.60

$
1. 70

$
1.80

$
1.90

1.20

1.30

1.40

1. 50

1.60

1. 70

1. 80

1.90

2.00

1. 10

3 50
5o

75
75

8
8

9
9

4
4

12
12

~

-

“

1. 82
1.87

-

-

-

-

-

4

2

12

3

-

-

-

"

1, 161
614
547
107

1.30
1. 53
1.04
1. 30

17
17

27
27

80
80

15
15

-

14
14
-

-

-

-

285
63
222
20

113
40
73
15

172
139
33
17

45
2
43
34

Janitors, p o rte rs, and cleaners (w o m e n )-----M a n u fa c tu rin g ----------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing -----------------------------------------

477
41
436

. 85
1. 17
. 82

38
38

197
197

5
5

15
15

3
3

97
29
68

107
1
106

_
-

4
4
-

L a b o re rs , m a te ria l handling -------------------------M a n u fa c tu rin g ----------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ----------------------------------------P ublic utilities * --------------------------------------

2, 373
1, 557
816
280

1. 51
1.61
1. 32
1.66

-

-

-

2
2

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

386
145
241
2

265
85
180
1

140
74
66
25

O rder f i l l e r s -----------------------------------------------------M a n u fa c tu rin g ----------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing -----------------------------------------

413
172
241

1. 52
T789
1.25

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

1
1

5
5

46
46

42
42

P a c k e rs, shipping --------------------------------------------M a n u fa c tu rin g ----------------------------------------------Nonm anufacturing -----------------------------------------

148
88
60

1. 38
1.50
1.22

-

.
-

.
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

14
10
4

Receiving c l e r k s -----------------------------------------------M a n u fa c tu rin g ----------------------------------------------Nonm anufacturing ----------------------------------------

130
59

1. 70
Z7TT3
1.42

*

-

-

-

-

-

10
10

Shipping clerks -------------------------------------------------M a n u fa c tu rin g ----------------------------------------------N o n m an u factu rin g-----------------------------------------

206
TT
TZ
104

1. 64
1.93
1. 35

-

-

-

6
-

-

-

-

-

6

-

Shipping and receiving c l e r k s -------------------------M a n u fa c tu rin g ----------------------------------------------N o n m an u factu rin g-----------------------------------------

127
98
29

1. 77

.
-

-

.
-

_
-

-

-

-

T ru ck d riv ers 5 --------------------------------------------------M a n u fa c tu rin g ----------------------------------------------N o n m an u factu rin g----------------------------------------Public utilities * --------------------------------------

1,376
5U!
773
264

1. 55
1.69
1.44
1. 93

-

-

21

-

-

T ru c k d riv e rs, light (under lVa t o n s ) -------M a n u fa c tu rin g -----------------------------------------N o n m an u fa ctu rin g -----------------------------------

258

92
166

1.48
1. 70
1.35

.
-

_
-

21
-

-

-

21

-

16

714
247
467

1.45
1. 71
1.32

-

-

-

>

-

T ru ck d riv ers, medium ( 1 V2 to and
including 4 tons) ----------------------------------------M a n u fa c tu rin g -----------------------------------------N on m an u factu rin g -----------------------------------

7
1

1.88

2. 10

2.20

2. 30

$
$
2. 30 2. 40
2.40

$
$
2. 50 2. 60
and
2. 50 2. 60 over

1
1

"

-

~

-

-

14
14

6
2

18
14

64
59

88
88

4
4

17
17

25
23
2
1

123
105
18
18

62
62
-

150
150
_

9
9
-

_
_

“

-

-

-

-

-

4
4

1
1
-

_
-

3
3
-

3
3
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

.
-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

52
17
35
4

49
12
37
11

453
353
100
86

504
497
7
7

134
128
6
4

235
104
131
131

32
32
-

14
i4
_

30
30
-

1
1
1

50
50
_

-

7
7
7

_
_

-

17
16
1
1

73
73

102
74
28

16
16

26
26

38
37
1

-

_
-

2

-

“

-

-

4
4
-

4
4
-

_
-

-

8
5
3

-

4
4
-

42
-----

40
ll
29

34
2o
14

11
4
7

6
6

_
-

30
30

.
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

8
"8

_
-

2
2

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

3
3
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

7
7

12
12

14
1
13

3
3

8
2
6

23
5
18

12

16
16
-

7
7
-

-

1
1
-

10
10"
-

-

5
5

-

18
4
14

12
-

15
4

8

11
5

4
4
-

25
19

16
16
-

4
4
-

_
-

1

6
b
-

1

11

24
22

11

10

31
3
28

2

12

12
2

-

-

7
7

1

1

3
3

18

4

10

30

1

6

16

3

8
8

30

-

-

.
-

1

6
-

_
-

16

8
8
-

_

-

-

-

170
71
99
-

44

21

-

-

1.37

$
$
$
2. 00 2. 10 2.20

-

-

16
16

-

10
------ T ~
3
2

1

-

-

6

_
-

26

2
8

8
6
2

14

25

13

-

-

1

1

240
8
232
-

165

28
6
22

17
2
15

22

12
10

34
16
18

210

90
48
42

107
18
89

5

5

5

18

-

5

5

l2

4
206

112

53
"

2

21

23
-

5

1
8
8
2
2

-

2

-

8

12

1

19
6

-

-

_

.

14

-

10

-

-

4

6

-

-

4
4

6
6

_
-

-

2
n r ------2
-

.
_

_
_

_
_

12
—

------- T~

6

■ 10
■

-

-

_

-

-

.

_

_
_

-

-

.
-

.
-

-

-

-

1

3
38
20
18
4

2

45
----- *5“

12
10
2

-

4
4
-

133
IOO
33
33

280
44
236
223

96
78
18
-

88
86

26

21

4

2
2

-

5
-

-

2

-

-

50
17
33

34
9
25

_

-

10
10

2
2

-

-

8
8

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

60
60

96
2
94

85

19
18
1

2
2

-

-

-

-

23

6
8
17

-

2

.

-

-

-

_
-

See footnotes at end of table.
Occupational W age Survey, B irm ingham , A la . , January 195 7
* Transportation (excluding ra ilro a d s ), communication, and other public utilities.
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R




B ureau of L a b o r Statistics

8
T a b le A - 4 :

C u s to d ia l a n d M a te r ia l M o v e m e n t O c c u p a tio n s - C o n tin u e d

(A verage hourly earnings fo r selected occupations studied on an a re a b asis
in B irm ingham , A la . , by industry division, January 1957)
N U M B E R OF WORKERS RE C E IV IN G STRA IGH T-TIM E H OURLY E A R N IN G S OF—

O ccupation1 and industry division

T ru ck d riv ers 5 - Continued
T ru c k d riv e rs , heavy (over 4 tons,
tra ile r type) ------------------------------------------------M anufacturing ------------------------------------------Nonm anufacturing ------------------------------------T ru c k d riv e rs, heavy (over 4 tons,
other than tra ile r type) -----------------------------M a n u fa c tu rin g -------------------------------------------

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
earnings

$
178
1.63
— r c i r ~ “T75Z—
48
1.93

65
------- 65—

-

$

$
0. 60
and
under
. 70

-

■

$

0. 70

0. 80

. 80

. 90

-

-

$
$
1.00
0. 90
1.00

-

-

-

-

*

"

"

1. 10

1.20

2
2

56
56

_

_

_

-

ZTF7

Watchmen ------------------------------------------------------------M anufacturing -----------------------------------------------Nonm anufacturing -----------------------------------------Public utilities * ___________________________

275
136
139
25

1. 31
1.37
1.25
1. 41

“

-

24
6 24

_
-

2
2
2

-




$
1. 50

1.40

1.50

1. 60

$

$

-

$

$

$

1. 70

1.80

1.90

2. 00

2. 10

1. 70

1.80

1.90

2. 00

2. 10

2.20

2. 30

12
12

16

37
12
25

7

25

6
1

TA

2
2

-

1

5
5

-

*

“

■

-

6
6

21
21

4
4

21
21

10
10

2
2

-

-

51

14

14

-

14

■

"14

_
-

_
-

4
4
“

1
1

1
1

-

~

-

-

1

-

-

-

"

i

"

-

20
13

9
9

9
8

■

42
42

4
4

81
45
36
2

18
6
12

16
7
9
5

35
32
3
2

2
2
2

-

$

1. 60,

10
10

1 Data lim ited to men w o rk e rs except w here otherwise indicated.
Excludes prem ium pay for overtim e and for w ork on w eekends, holidays, and late shifts.
W o rk ers w ere distributed as follow s: 18 at $0.20 to $0.30; 14 at $0.30 to $0.40; 18 at $0.50 to $0.60.
W o rk e rs w ere distributed as follow s: 12 at $2. 60 to $2. 70; 30 at $2.90 to $3.
Includes all d riv e rs re g a rd le s s of size and type of truck operated.
A ll w o rk ers w ere at $0.50 to $0.60.
Transportation (excluding r a ilr o a d s ), communication, and other public utilities.

3
4
5
6
*

$
1.40

-

"

_
-

1. 30

1. 30

$

'

-

■

1. 74
1.75

$
$
1.20
1. 10

■

2. 06
2.06

T ru c k e rs, pow er (f o r k l i f t ) -------------------------------M anufacturing ------------------------------------------------

229

a Under
$
0. 60

*

7
7

29
29

6
6
3

23
14
9
9

17
lS

2

16

5l

6
6
-

■

14

8
8

11
11
-

30
30

-

$

2.20

$

$

2. 50

2. 50

2.40

$

2. 40

2. 30

2. 60

$

2. 60
and
over

-

-

"

"

-

3
3

9

.
-

_
-

_
-

'

9




9

B: Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions

T a b le

B -l :

Shift D if f e r e n t ia l P ro v is io n s 1
P e r c e n t o f m a n u fa c tu rin g plant w o r k e r s —
(a )
In e s t a b lis h m e n t s h avin g
f o r m a l p r o v is io n s f o r ----

Shift d iffe r e n t ia l

(b ;
A c t u a lly w o rk in g on----

S econ d shift
w o rk

T o ta l

_________________________________________________________________

W ith sh ift pay d iffe r e n t ia l

.. _

......

U n ifo r m cents (p e r h o u r ) ____________________________________
3 cen ts _______________________________________________________
4 cen ts _______________________________________________________
5 cen ts _
_
_
6 cen ts
_
__
.
.
__
7 cen ts _______________________________________________________
7 V2 cen ts _____________________________________________________
8 cen ts _______________________________________________________
9 cen ts _______________________________________________________
10 cents _______________________________________________________
12 cents
O v e r 12 cen ts _______________________________________________
F u ll d a y 's p ay fo r r e d u c e d h o u rs
F u ll d a y 's p ay fo r r e d u c e d h o u rs
p lu s cents d iffe r e n t ia l
....... _
N o sh ift pay d iffe r e n t ia l

_________________________

T h ir d o r o th er
shift w o r k

S econ d shift

T h ir d o r other
shift

9 3 .0

8 9 .4

2 2 .2

11.4

8 9 .6

8 8 .0

2 1 .2

11.1

8 8 .7

7 6 .3

21 .1

10.6

_

_

.4
1 .5
4 .4
6 3.9
3. 1
1.5
.4
1.2
1.3
11.0
.9
3 .4

-

. 1
1.0
14.6
.6
.4
. 1
. 1
.4
3 .8

1.2

-

.2

.1

t

-

2 .8
2 .8
-

63 .8
5 .7

.7
11.0
1 .4

-

.3
t
-

9 .8
.3
-

-

.5

1.0

.3

1
Shift d iffe r e n t ia l data a r e p r e s e n t e d in t e r m s o f (a j e s ta b lis h m e n t p o lic y , and (b ) w o r k e r s a c tu a lly e m p lo y e d on late
sh ifts at the tim e o f the s u rv e y . A n e s ta b lis h m e n t w a s c o n s id e r e d a s havin g a p o lic y if it m et e ith e r o f the fo llo w in g co n ­
d itio n s: (1 ) O p e ra te d late sh ifts at the tim e o f the s u r v e y , o r (2 ) had f o r m a l p r o v is io n s c o v e rin g late sh ifts ,
t L e s s than 0 .0 5 p e rc e n t.
O c c u p a tio n a l W a g e S u rv e y ,

B ir m in g h a m , A l a . , J a n u a ry 1957
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B u r e a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s

10

Table B-2:

Minimum Entrance Rates for W om e n Office W o rk e rs 1

N u m b e r o f e s t a b lis h m e n t s

w it h

s p e c ifie d m in im u m

M in im u m
(w e e k ly

ra te

A ll

s a la ry )

11 0

____________________________________________________

A ll

40

s c h e d u le s

XXX

49

N um ber

o f e s t a b li s h m e n t s w it h

61

s p e c ifie d m in im u m

M a n u f a c t u r in g

B a s e d o n s t a n d a r d w e e k ly h o u r s 2 o f—

A ll

s tu d ie d

r a t e in —

in d u s t r ie s

s c h e d u le s

E s t a b lis h m e n t s

h ir in g

N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g

M a n u fa c tu rin g

B a s e d on

A ll
in d u s t rie s
A ll

40

s c h e d u le s

XXX

110

49

h ir in g

r a t e in —

N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g

s t a n d a r d w e e k ly h o u r s 2 o f—

A ll

40

s c h e d u le s

XXX

61

40

XX X

For Other Inexperienced C lerical Workers 3

For Inexperienced Typists

E s t a b lis h m e n t s h a v in g a
s p e c ifie d m in im u m

46

26

17

_

_

$ 3 7 .5 0

3

_

_

$ 4 0 .0 0

2

_

_

under
under
under
under

$ 4 2 .5 0
$ 4 5 .0 0
$ 4 7 .5 0
$ 5 0 .0 0

14

4

4
-

and un der

$ 5 2 .5 0

and under

$ 3 5 .0 0

$ 3 5 .0 0

and under

$ 3 7 .5 0

and un der

$ 4 0 .0 0
$ 4 2 .5 0
$ 4 5 .0 0
$ 4 7 .5 0

and
and
and
and

$ 5 0 .0 0
$ 5 2 .5 0

20
1

$ 3 2 .5 0

and un der

$ 5 5 .0 0

$ 5 5 .0 0

and un der

$ 5 7 .5 0

$ 5 7 .5 0

and un der
and un der

$ 6 2 .5 0

...

...

4

.. . . .

.

9
3

$ 6 2 .5 0

and un der

____________________________________________

and un der
and u n d er

$ 6 7 .5 0
$ 7 0 .0 0

$ 7 0 .0 0

and under

2

............ . ..
.......

... .
.

1

2
2
_

2

1
-

$ 7 2 .5 0

1

3
2
_
_

......

____________________________________________

................

5
2
_

1

...............................

$ 6 5 .0 0

$ 6 5 .0 0
$ 6 7 .5 0

2
5
2
_

1

$ 6 0 .0 0

$ 6 0 .0 0

.....
....

22

50

30

24

1

1

_

_

l

l

3

1
1

3

-

_

3

2

1

3

_

_

3

1

10
2
4

10
1
4

17
8
5

4
3
4

4
2

12
4

1
5
1

1

4
1

13
5
1
_

2

2

3
_

3
_

1

1

1
1

1
1

1
_

1
-

1
-

-

-

2
_

1
-

1
-

-

2

-

1

1

12

X XX

-

2

20

18

1

1

1
2
_

1
1
_
_

1

1
_

1
_

1
_

_
_

_
_

2
-

_

-

2
-

_

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

XXX

27

13

X XX

14

X XX

18

XXX

32

16

XXX

16

XXX

1

XXX

1

XXX

1

X XX

E s t a b lis h m e n t s h a v in g no
s p e c ifie d m in im u m

.

E s t a b lis h m e n t s w h ic h d id n o t e m p lo y w o r k e r s
in t h is c a t e g o r y
D a ta not a v a ila b le

___

_

....

28

35
1

17

XXX
XXX

16

1 L o w e s t s a la r y ra te fo r m a lly e s ta b lis h e d fo r h irin g in e x p e rie n c e d w o r k e r s fo r typing o r other c le r ic a l jo b s .
2 Standard h o u rs r e fle c t the w o rk w e e k fo r w hich e m p lo y ees r e c e iv e th e ir r e g u la r stra ig h t-tim e s a la r ie s .
D ata a r e p re se n te d fo r a ll w o rk w e e k s com bin ed,
re p o rte d .
3 R ates a p p lic a b le to m e s s e n g e r s , o ffic e g i r l s , o r s im ila r s u b c le r ic a l jo b s a r e not c o n sid e re d .




and fo r the m ost com m on w o rk w e e k

O ccu p ation al W a g e S u rv e y , B irm in g h a m , A la . , Jan u ary
1957
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B u re a u o f L a b o r Statistics

11

Table B-3:

Scheduled W e e k ly Hours

P E R C E N T OF OFFICE W O R K E R S 1E M P L O Y E D I N —

P E R C E N T OF P L A N T W O R K ER S E M P L O Y E D IN —

W e e k ly h ou rs
All industries 2

_________________________________________

100

U n der 37 l/z h ou rs __________________________________
37V . h o u rs
?
____
_____________________
O v e r 37V2 h o u rs and under 40 h o u rs ___________
40 h o u rs ______________________________________________
42 h o u rs ______________________________________________
O v e r 42 h o u rs and under 45 h ou rs ______________
45 h o u rs ______________________________________________
O v e r 45 h ou rs and under 50 h o u rs ______________
50 h ou rs and o v e r __________________________________

3
9
5
79

A ll w o r k e r s

t

All industries

Public utilities*

Manufacturing

100

100

I
j
1

100

t

9
3
88
-

42

t
85

54
-

+

-

t

~

~

1

!

i

3

3

!
;

6

t
t

3

D ata r e la te to w om en w o r k e r s only.
In cludes data fo r w h o le sa le tra d e ; re t a il tra d e ; fin an ce, in su ra n c e , and r e a l estate; and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in du stry d iv isio n s
Includes data fo r w h o le s a le tra d e , re ta il tra d e , r e a l estate, and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in dustry d iv isio n s shown s e p a ra te ly ,
L e s s than 2 .5 p e rc e n t.
T ra n sp o rta tio n (exclu din g r a ilr o a d s ), com m unication, and other public u tilitie s .

Table B~4:

.
80
12
4
3
-

94
-

'
1
2
3
t
*

100

t

t
t

t

shown s e p a ra te ly .

Paid Holidays1
l
|
i

P E R C E N T OF O FF ICE W O R K ER S E M P L O Y E D I N —

P E R C E N T OF P L A N T W O R K ER S E M P L O Y E D IN —

Item

j
1

!
All industries 2

Public utilities *

.

t
-

1
1
!

Manufacturing

100

t

t

t
t

!
i

3

All industries

Public utilities*

Manufacturing

3

Manufacturing

Public utilities A

______|
i_

A ll w o r k e r s _________________________________________

100

100

100

100

:

100

100

f................................................
W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts provid in g
paid h o lid ay s _____________________________________
L e s s than 5 h olid ays __________________________
5 h o lid ay s _______________________________________
5 h o lid ay s plus 1 h a lf day ____________________
6 h o lid ay s _______________________________________
6 h o lid ay s plus 1 h a lf d a y ____________________
6 h olid ays plus 2 h a lf days __________________
7 h olid ays _______________________________________
8 h o lid ay s _______________________________________
O v e r 8 h olid ays ________________________________
W o r k e r s in e stab lish m en ts provid in g
no paid holidays _________________________________

100

94

96

100

99

99

+
25

t
6

|
i

+

20

1

t

15

i
i

-

t

j

"
62

|
!
,

t

t

-

56

67

56

16
t
t

t

t

70
t

8

-

t

t

46

4

t

,
i

18

20

-

-

I

12

j
I

1
1
1
;

5

t

j

t
20
23
-

t

-

i

-

I
i

6

|

1 E stim a te s re la te to fu ll-d a y holid ays p ro v id ed an n ually.
2 Includes data fo r w h o le s a le tra d e ; r e ta il tra d e ; finance, in su ra n c e , and r e a l estate; and s e r v ic e s in addition to those indu stry d iv isio n s
3 Includes data fo r w h o le s a le tra d e , re t a il tra d e , r e a l estate, and s e r v ic e s in addition to those industry d iv isio n s shown s e p a ra te ly ,
t L e s s than 2 .5 percen t.
* T ra n sp o rta tio n (exclu din g r a ilr o a d s ), com m unication, and other public u tilitie s.




-

4

“

shown se p a ra te ly .

O ccupation al W a g e S u rv e y ,

B irm in g h a m , A la . , January 1957
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B u re a u o f L a b o r Statistics

12

Table B-5:

Paid Vacations

P E R C E N T OF O FF ICE W O R K ER S E M P L O Y E D I N -

P E R C E N T OF P L A N T W O R K ER S E M P L O Y E D IN —

V acatio n p olicy
All industries 1

Public utilities *

Manufacturing

100

1

100

All industries 2

Manufacturing

__

100

W o r k e r s in establish m en ts p ro v id in g
paid vacations _____________________________________

100

100

100

j

98

99

100

L e n g t h -o f-t im e paym ent ___________ _________
P e rc e n ta g e p a y m e n t ____________________________
F la t -s u m paym ent ______________________________

100
-

100
-

100
■

!
!

95
3

96
3

!

t

-

100
-

-

-

-

t

t

-

99
3

100
49
100

A l l w o r k e r s __________________

________________

100

100

Public utilities*

100

M ETHOD O F P A Y M E N T

W o r k e r s in establish m en ts p ro v id in g no
paid vacation s _____________________________________
A M O U N T O F V A C A T IO N P A Y
A N D S E R V IC E P E R IO D 5
1 w eek or m o re _____________________________________
6 months
1 y e a r ----------------------------------------------------------------

100
61
100

2 w eek s o r m o re _ _____________________ .
_____ ___
6 months
________________________________________
1 y ear_
_ _____________ _________________________
2 y e a r s __ ________________________________________
3 y e a r s _________________________________ _________
5 y e a r s ________________
____ __________________

94
6
62
84
91
94

3 w eeks or m o re ___________________________________
1 y e a r _________________________________ __________
5 y e a r s __ ________________ _____________________
10 y e a rs
15 y e a r s _____ ________________________ __________ _
20 y e a r s ___ ____________________________________
25 y e a r s ------------------------------------------------------------

59
t
t
8
55
58
59

80
t
13
79
79
80

4 w eek s o r m o re
20 y e a r s
___________________________________ __
25 y e a rs __________________________________________

7

11
11

;
!
!
;
i
I

t

7

100
70
100
99
t
76
93
95
99

i
;

100
64
100

98
8
98

!

100

i

19
51
88
ioo
100

91
6
24
37
91

3
18
28
97

34
79
99
100

68
8
68
68
68

76
t
4
73
76
76

90
t
4
90
90
90

92
12
92
92
92

t
t
t

t

12
12
12

;

!
1
I

5
5
5

i

99
97
-

t

100
-

1 In cludes data fo r w h o le sa le tra d e ; re t a il tra d e ; finance, in su ra n c e , and r e a l estate; and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in d u stry d iv isio n s shown s e p a ra te ly .
2 In cludes data fo r w h o le s a le tra d e , r e ta il tra d e , r e a l estate, and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in d u stry d iv isio n s shown se p a ra te ly .
3 P e r io d s of s e r v ic e w e re a r b i t r a r i ly chosen and do not n e c e s s a r ily re fle c t the ind ivid u al p ro v isio n s fo r p r o g r e s s io n . F o r e x a m p le , the changes in p ro p o rtio n s in dicated at 10 y e a r s ' s e r v ic e
include ch an ges in p ro v isio n s o c c u rrin g betw een 5 and 10 y e a r s . E stim a te s a re cu m u lative. T hus, the p ro p o rtio n re c e iv in g 3 w e e k s ' pay o r m o re a fte r 5 y e a r s in cludes those who r e c e iv e 3 w e e k s '
or m o re pay aftejr fe w e r y e a rs of s e r v ic e .
■ L e s s tfikn 2. 5 percen t.
f
*

T ra n s p o rta tio n




(e x c lu d in g

r a ilr o a d s ),

c o m m u n ic a t io n ,

a n d o t h e r p u b lic

u t ilit ie s .

O ccu pation al W a g e S u rv ey , B irm in g h a m , A la . , Jan u ary 1957
U. S. D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B u re a u of L a b o r Statistics

NOTE:

In the tabulations of vacation a llo w a n c e s by y e a r s of s e r v ic e , paym ents other than "le n g th of tim e"
such as p e rc e n ta g e of annual ea rn in g s or fla t -s u m p aym en ts, w e re co n verted to an equ ivalen t tim e
b a s is ; fo r e x a m p le , a paym ent of 2 p ercen t o f annual earn in g s w as c o n s id e re d as 1 w e e k 's pay.

13

Table B-5:

Paid Vacations - Continued

P E R C E N T OF O FF ICE W O R K ER S E M P L O Y E D I N —

P E R C E N T OF P L A N T W O R K ER S E M P L O Y E D IN —

V acation p o lic y
All industries

1

Public utilities *

Manufacturing

1

All industries 2

Manufacturing

Public utilities

71
xxx

95
x xx
79
x xx

*

56
xxx
xxx
79

P R E D O M IN A N T P A Y P R A C T IC E S F O R
S E L E C T E D Y E A R S O F S E R V IC E 4
1 y e a r o r le s s :

1
2
1
2

w e e k __ __ ____________ _
w eek s ________________________
w e e k __________________________
w eek s ________________________

XXX

1
2
5 y e a r s o r le s s :
2
10 y e a r s or le s s : 2

w e e k __ ____________
__ __
__ _________________
w eek s
w eeks
___________ _________
w eek s ________________________

XXX

15 y e a r s o r le s s : 3 w eek s ___________________ _
_
--------- _
20 y e a rs o r le s s : 3 w e e k s
__ —
25 y e a rs o r le s s : 3 w eek s ________________________

55
58
52

2 y e a r s o r le s s :

3

y e a rs o r le s s :

XXX

62

XXX

I
|

90

79

1

XXX

51
xxx
88

xxx
80
82
71

xxx
99
100
92

58
xxx
90
84

68
xxx
96
90

xxx
99
100
88

79
79

68
64
64

73
75
73

90
90
88

92
80
80

76
XXX

77
!

84
85
79

1

1

XXX

________________ ” ______________ ,

1 Includes data fo r w h o le sa le tra d e ; r e ta il trad e; fin an ce, in su ra n c e , and r e a l estate; and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in d u stry d iv isio n s shown s e p a ra te ly .
2 Includes data fo r w h o le sa le tra d e , re t a il tra d e , r e a l estate, and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in d u stry d iv isio n s shown se p a ra te ly .
4
The pay p ro v is io n a p p lic a b le to m o re w o r k e r s than any other sin gle p ro v is io n , fo r s e r v ic e up to and in cludin g the in dicated n u m ber of y e a r s . E x c lu d e s w o r k e r s who r e c e iv e m o re o r
fo r the indicated s e r v ic e p e rio d .
* T ra n sp o rta tio n (ex clu d in g r a ilr o a d s ), com m unication, and other public u tilities.

le s s

Table B-6: Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
P E R C E N T OF O FF ICE W O R K ER S E M P L O Y E D I N -

P E R C E N T OF P L A N T W O R K ER S E M P L O Y E D I N —

Type of plan
All industries

A l l w o rk e rs

_________________ _____

_

-------

W o r k e r s in establish m en ts p rovidin g:
L ife in su ran ce
__ _____ ____ _______________
A c c id e n ta l death and d is m e m ­
berm en t in su ran ce ___________________________
Sickness and accident in su ran ce
o r sic k le a v e or b o th 3 _ _____________________
Sickness and acciden t in su ran ce _________
Sick le a v e (fu ll pay and no
w aiting p e rio d ) __ _____ __ ______________
Sick le a v e (p a r t ia l pay or
w aiting p e rio d ) ________________ ______ __
H o sp italizatio n in su ran ce _____________________
S u rg ic a l in su ran ce ______________________________
M ed ic a l in su ran ce ______________________________
C atastrop h e in s u r a n c e __________ ____________
R etirem en t pension __ _ _____ ______ ______
N o health, in su ra n c e , o r pension p l a n _____

100

1

Manufacturing

100

Public utilities *

:

100
|
---------------------------------------------[1

All industries 2

--- -

100
--------------

Manufacturing

Public utilities

100
■■

*

100

100

-=

93

96

100

89

94

29

26

12

23

21

28

68
40

80
49

86
10

80
69

84
82

92
31

40

49

45

10

t

43

37
62
62
38
15
90

6
76
72
22

5
90
88
26
71

37
51
51
33
10
96

4

"

5
6l
61
32
6
63
4

t

87
87
50
75
t

1
1______________________________________
_

t

61
7

1 Includes data fo r w h o le sa le tra d e ; re t a il trad e; fin an ce, in su ra n c e , and r e a l estate; and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in d u stry d ivisio n s shown s e p a ra te ly .
2 Includes data fo r w h o le sa le tra d e , re t a il tra d e , r e a l estate, and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in d u stry d iv isio n s shown se p a ra te ly .
3 U nduplicated total o f w o r k e r s re c e iv in g sic k le a v e o r sic k n e ss and accident in su ran ce shown se p a ra te ly b e lo w . S ic k -le a v e plans a re lim ite d to those w hich defin itely e s ta b lis h at le a stth e
m in im um n u m b er of d a y s 1 pay that can be expected by each em p loyee. In fo rm a l s ic k -le a v e allo w a n c e s d eterm in ed on an in dividu al b a sis a r e excluded.
t L e s s than 2. 5 percen t.
* T ran sp o rta tio n (exclu d in g r a ilr o a d s ), com m unication, and other public u t ilit ie s .
O ccu pation al W a g e S u rv e y , B irm in g h a m , A l a . , January 1957
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B u re a u of L a b o r Statistics




pay

14

Appendix: Job Descriptions

The prim ary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau*s wage surveys is to
assist its field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations w orkers who are employed under
a va riety of payroll titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment
and from area to area.
This is essential in order to perm it the grouping of occupational wage
rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on inter establishment and
interarea com parability of occupational content, the Bureau1s job descriptions may differ sign ifi­
cantly from those in use in individual establishments or those prepared for other purposes.
In
applying these job descriptions, the Bureau's field representatives are instructed to exclude w ork­
ing su pervisors, apprentices, learn ers, beginners, trainees, handicapped w orkers, part-tim e,
tem porary, and probationary w orkers.

Office

B IL L E R , MACHINE
BOOKKEEPING-M ACHINE OPERATOR - Continued
P rep a res statements, b ills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electrom atic typew riter. May also keep records
as to billings or shipping charges or perform other cleric a l work in­
cidental to billing operations.
For wage study purposes, b ille rs ,
machine, are cla ssified by type of machine, as follow s:
B ille r, machine (billing machine) - Uses a special billing
machine (Moon Hopkins, E lliott Fisher, Burroughs, e tc ., which
are combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and
invoices from cu stom ers1 purchase orders, internally prepared
orders, shipping memoranda, etc.
Usually involves application
of predeterm ined discounts and shipping charges and entry of
necessary extensions, which may or may not be computed on the
billing machine, and totals which are automatically accumulated
by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of
carbon copies of the bill being prepared and is often done on a
fanfold machine.
B ille r, machine (bookkeeping machine) - Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, E lliott Fisher, Remington Rand, etc. , which
may or may not have typew riter keyboard) to prepare custom ers1
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation.
Generally
involves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers* ledger
record.
The machine automatically accumulates figures on a
number of ve rtic a l columns and computes and usually prints auto­
m atically the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowl­
edge of bookkeeping. Works from uniform and standard types of
sales and credit slips.
BOOKKEEPING -M ACHINE O PERATO R
Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash R egister, with or with­
out a typew riter keyboard) to keep a record o f business transactions.




Class A - Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and fa m ilia rity with
the structure o f the particular accounting system used.
D eter­
mines proper records and distribution of debit and credit items
to be used in each phase of the work.
May prepare consolidated
reports, balance sheets, and other records by hand.
Class B - Keeps a record of one or m ore phases or sections
of a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers* accounts (not including a simple type o f billing described
under b iller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc.
May check or assist in preparation of trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.
CLERK, ACCOUNTING
Class A - Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or m ore sections of a com ­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase of an establish­
m en ts business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or a c ­
counts payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with
proper accounting distribution; requires judgment and experience
in making proper assignations and allocations.
May assist in
preparing, adjusting, and closing journal entries; may direct class
B accounting clerks.
Class B - Under supervision, perform s one or m ore routine
accounting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers,
accounts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers.
This job does not require a knowledge of
accounting and bookkeeping principles but is found in offices in
which the m ore routine accounting work is subdivided on a func­
tional basis among several w orkers.

15
CLERK,

F IL E

Class A - Responsible for maintaining an established filin g
system. C lassifies and indexes correspondence or other m aterial;
may also file this m aterial. May keep records of various types
in conjunction with files or supervise others in filin g and locating
m aterial in the files .
May perform incidental clerica l duties.
Class B - P erfo rm s routine filing, usually of m aterial that
has already been classified, or locates or assists in locating m a­
teria l in the file s .
May perform incidental clerica l duties.
CLERK,

ORDER

Receives custom ers' orders for m aterial or merchandise by
m ail, phone, or personally.
Duties involve any combination of the
f ollow ing: Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet
listing the items to make up the order; checking prices and quantities
of items on order sheet; distributing order sheets to respective de­
partments to be filled .
May check with credit department to d eter­
mine credit rating of customer, acknowledge receipt of orders from
customers, follow up orders to see that they have been filled , keep
file of orders received, and check shipping invoices with original
o rd ers.
CLERK,

K E Y-PU N C H O PERATO R
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards
by punching a series of holes in the cards in a specified sequence,
using an alphabetical or a numerical key-punch machine, following
written information on records.
May duplicate cards by using the
duplicating device attached to machine.
Keeps files of punch cards.
May v e rify own work or work of others.
OFF IC E BOY OR GIRL
P erfo rm s various routine duties such as running errands,
operating minor office machines such as sealers or m a ilers, opening
and distributing m ail, and other minor cle ric a l work.
SECRE TARY
P erfo rm s secreta ria l and cle ric a l duties fo r a superior in an
adm inistrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint­
ments for superior; receivin g people coming into office; answering
and making phone calls; handling personal and important or confi­
dential m ail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative;
taking dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in
shorthand or by stenotype or sim ilar machine, and transcribing dicta­
tion or the recorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine.
May prepare special reports or m e m o r a n d a fo r information of superior.

PAYRO LL

STENOGRAPHER, G EN ERAL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the n eces­
P rim a ry duty is to take dictation from one or m ore persons,
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating w o rk e rs 1
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
either in shorthand or by stenotype or sim ilar machine, involving a
on payroll sheet, showing information such as w orker's name, working normal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a type­
days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May w riter. May also type from written copy. May also set up and keep
Does not include tranmake out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and d is ­ files in order, keep simple records, etc.
scribing-machine work (see transcribing-m achine operator).
~~
tributing pay envelopes.
May use a calculating machine.
CO M PTO M ETER O PERATO R

STENOGRAPHER,

P rim a ry duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathe­
m atical computations.
This job is not to be confused with that of
statistical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of
a Comptometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to
perform ance of other duties.

P rim a ry duty is to take dictation from one or m ore persons,
either in shorthand or by stenotype or sim ilar machine, involving a
varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or
reports on scientific research and to transcribe this dictation on a
typew riter. May also type from written copy. May also set up and
keep files in order, keep simple records, etc.
Does not include
transcribing-machine work.

TEC H N IC AL

D U PLIC ATING -M AC H IN E O PERATO R (MIMEOGRAPH OR D ITTO )
SWITCHBOARD O PER ATO R
Under general supervision and with no supervisory respon­
sibilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten
matter, using a mimeograph or ditto machine. Makes necessary ad­
justment such as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed.
Is not required to prepare stencil or ditto m aster. May keep file of
used stencils or ditto m asters.
May sort, collate, and staple com ­
pleted m aterial.




Operates a single- or m ultiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office
calls.
May record toll calls and take m essages.
May give in fo r­
mation to persons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders.
F or w orkers who also act as receptionists see switchboard operatorreceptionist.

16

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATO R, GENERAL - Continued

SWITCHBOARD O PE R ATO R -R E C E PTIO N IS T
tion
type
This
time

In addition to perform ing duties of operator, on a single p o si­
or m onitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also
or perform routine clerica l work as part of regular duties.
typing or c lerica l work may take the m ajor part of this w orker's
while at switchboard.

TA B U LA TIN G -M A C H IN E OPERATOR
Operates machine that automatically analyzes and translates
information punched in groups of tabulating cards and prints trans­
lated data on form s or accounting records; sets or adjusts machine;
does simple wiring of plugboards according to established practice
or diagrams; places cards to be tabulated in feed magazine and starts
machine. May file cards after they are tabulated. May, in addition,
operate auxiliary machines.

included. A w orker who takes dictation in shorthand or by stenotype
or sim ilar machine is classified as a stenographer, general.
TY PIS T
Uses a typew riter to make copies of various m aterial or to
make out bills after calculations have been made by another person.
May do clerica l work involving little special training, such as keep­
ing simple records, filing records and reports^ or sorting and d is­
tributing incoming m ail.
Class A - Perform s one or more of the follow ing: Typing
m aterial in final form from very rough and involved draft; copy­
ing from plain or corrected copy in which there is a frequent
and varied use of technical and unusual words or from foreignlanguage copy; combining m aterial from several sources, or
planning layout of complicated statistical tables to maintain uni­
form ity and balance in spacing; typing tables from rough draft in
final form .
May type routine form letters, varying details to
suit circumstances.

TRANSCRIBING-M ACHINE O PER ATO R, G ENERAL
P rim a ry duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal
routine vocabulary from transcribing machine records.
May also
type from written copy and do simple c lerica l work. W orkers tran­
scribing dictation involving a varied technical or specialized vocabu­
lary such as legal briefs or reports on scientific research are not

Professional

D RAFTSM AN , JUNIOR
(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
poses.
Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May p re ­
pare drawings from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties
under direction of a draftsman.
D RAFTSM AN, LEADER
Plans and directs activities of one or m ore draftsmen in
preparation of working plans and detail drawings from rough or p r e ­
lim inary sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing
purposes. Duties involve a combination of the follow ing: Interpreting
blueprints, sketches, and written or verbal orders; determining work
procedures; assigning duties to subordinates and inspecting their work;
perform ing m ore difficult problem s. May assist subordinates during




Class B - P erform s one or more of the follow ing: Typing
from relatively clear or typed drafts; routine typing of form s,
insurance p olicies, e tc.; setting up simple standard tabulations, or
copying more complex tables already set up and spaced properly.

a nd

Technical

D RAFTSM AN, LEADER - Continued
em ergencies or as a regular assignment, or perform related duties
of a supervisory or administrative nature.
D RAFTSM AN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes,
rough or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manu­
facturing purposes.
Duties involve a combination of the follow ing:
Preparing working plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-sections, etc. ,
to scale by use of drafting instruments; making engineering computa­
tions such as those involved in strength of m aterials, beams and
trusses; verifying completed work, checking dimensions, m aterials
to be used, and quantities; writing specifications; making adjustments
or changes in drawings or specifications. May ink in lines and letters
on pencil drawings, prepare detail units of complete drawings, or
trace drawings.
Work is frequently in a specialized field such as
architectural, elec trica l, mechanical, or structural drafting.

1
7
NURSE, IN D U STR IAL (REGISTERED)

NURSE, IN D USTRIAL (REGISTERED) - Continued

A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
em ployees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on
the prem ises of a factory or other establishment.
Duties involve a
combination of the follow ing: Giving first aid to the ill or injured;
attending to subsequent dressing of em ployees1 injuries; keeping records
of patients treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or
other purposes; conducting physical examinations and health evaluations
of applicants and em ployees; and planning and carrying out programs
involving health education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant

environment, or other activities
safety of all personnel.

Maintenance

affecting the health, w elfa re, and

TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing
tracing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil.
Uses T-square, compass, and other drafting tools.
May prepare
simple drawings and do simple letterin g.

and

Powerplant

C A R PE N TE R , M AINTENANCE

ENGINEER, STA TIO N AR Y

P erfo rm s the carpentry duties necessary to construct and
maintain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins,
cribs, counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings,
and trim made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most of
the follow ing: Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, draw­
ings, models, or verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter*s
handtools, portable power tools, and standard measuring instruments;
making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work;
selecting m aterials necessary for the work. In general, the work of
the maintenance carpenter requires rounded training and experience
usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent train ­
ing and experience.

Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or e le c tric a l) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, r e fr ig e r a ­
tion, or air conditioning.
Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, m o­
tors, turbines, ventilating and re frigera tin g equipment, steam boilers
and b o iler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a
record of operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consump­
tion. May also supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers
in establishments employing m ore than one engineer are excluded.

E LE C TR IC IA N , M AINTENANCE
P erfo rm s a variety of electrica l trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating,
distribution, or utilization of elec tric energy in an establishment.
Work involves most of the follow ing: Installing or repairing any of
a variety of electrica l equipment such as generators, tran sform ers,
switchboards, controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units,
conduit systems, or other transmission equipment; working from blue­
prints, drawings, layout, or other specifications; locating and diag­
nosing trouble in the electrica l system or equipment; working standard
computations relating to load requirem ents o f wiring or electrica l
equipment; using a variety of electrician*s handtools and measuring
and testing instruments.
In general, the work of the maintenance
electrician requires rounded training and experience usually a c­
quired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.




FIREM AN , STATIO N AR Y BOILER
F ires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam.
Feeds fuels to fir e by hand
or operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water
and safety valves.
May clean, oil, or assist in repairing b o ilerroom equipment.
H E LPE R , TRADES, M AIN TEN AN CE
A ssists one or m ore w orkers in the skilled maintenance
trades, by perform ing specific or general duties o f lesser skill, such
as keeping a worker supplied with m aterials and tools; cleaning w ork­
ing area, machine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding m a­
teria ls or tools; perform ing other unskilled tasks as directed by jo u r­
neyman. The kind of work the helper is perm itted to perform va ries
from trade to trade: In some trades the helper is confined to sup­
plying, lifting, and holding m aterials and tools, and cleaning working
areas; and in others he is perm itted to perform specialized machine
operations, or parts of a trade that are also perform ed by w orkers
on a fu ll-tim e basis.

18

M A C H IN E -TO O L O PER ATO R, TOOLROOM

MECHANIC, M AINTENANCE

Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine
lathes, or m illing machines in the construction of machine-shop tools,
gauges, jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most of the following:
Planning and perform ing difficult machining operations; processing
items requiring complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy;
using a variety of precision measuring instruments; selecting feeds,
speeds, tooling and operation sequence; making necessary adjust­
ments during operation to achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions.
May be required to recognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools,
and to select proper coolants and cutting and lubricating oils.
For
cross-industry wage study purpose s , machine-tool operators, toolroom,
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establish­
ment.
W ork involves most of the following: Examining machines
and mechanical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling
or partly dismantling machines and perform ing repairs that mainly
involve the use of handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing
broken or defective parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the
production of a replacement part by a machine shop or sending of
the machine to a machine shop for m ajor repairs; preparing written
specifications for m ajor repairs or for the production of parts ordered
from machine shop; reassem bling machines; and making all necessary
adjustments for operation.
In general, the work of a maintenance’
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
Excluded from this classification are w orkers whose prim ary duties
involve setting up or adjusting machines.

MACHINIST, M AIN TEN AN CE
M ILLW R IG H T
Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs
of metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment.
Work involves most of the following: Interpreting written instruc­
tions and specifications; planning and laying out of work; using a v a ­
rie ty of m ach in ists handtools and precision measuring instruments;
setting up and operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal
parts to close tolerances; making standard shop computations re la t­
ing to dimensions of work, tooling, feeds and speeds of machining;
knowledge of the working properties of the common metals; selecting
standard m aterials, parts, and equipment required for his work; fitting
and assembling parts into mechanical equipment. In general, the
m ach in ists work norm ally requires a rounded training in machineshop practice usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant la y ­
out are required. Work involves most of the follow ing: Planning and
laying out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications;
using a va riety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop com ­
putations relating to stresses, strength of m aterials, and centers of
gravity; alining and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools,
equipment, and parts to be used; installing and maintaining in good
order power transm ission equipment such as drives and speed r e ­
ducers. In general, the m illw righ tfs work norm ally requires a rounded
training and experience in the trade acquired through a form al appren­
ticeship or equivalent training and experience.
OILER

MECHANIC, AU TO M O TIV E (M A IN TE N A N C E )
Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of
an establishment.
Work involves most of the follow in g: Examining
automotive equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling
equipment and perform ing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches, gauges, d rills , or specialized equipment in d is­
assembling or fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts from
stock; grinding and adjusting valves; reassem bling and installing the
various assem blies in the vehicle and making necessary adjustments;
alining wheels, adjusting brakes and lights, or tightening body bolts.
In general, the work of the automotive mechanic requires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprentice­
ship or equivalent training and experience.




Lubricates, with o il or grease, the moving parts or wearing
surfaces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.
P A IN T E R , M AINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an
establishment.
Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface
peculiarities and types o f paint required Tor different applications;
preparing surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing
putty or fille r in nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray
gun or brush.
May m ix colors, oils, white lead, and other paint
ingredients to obtain proper color or consistency. In general, the
work of the maintenance painter requires rounded training and ex ­
perience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience.

19
P IP E F IT T E R , M AIN TEN AN CE

S H E E T -M E T A L WORKER, M AIN TEN AN CE - Continued

Installs or repairs w ater, steam, gas, or other types of pipe
and pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most of the fo l­
lowing: Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe
from drawings or other written specifications; cutting various sizes
of pipe to co rrect lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene
torch or pipe-cutting machine; threading pipe with stocks and dies;
bending pipe by hand-driven or pow er-driven machines; assembling
pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard
shop computations relating to pressures, flow, and size of pipe r e ­
quired; making standard tests to determine whether finished pipes meet
specifications.
In general, the work of the maintenance pipefitter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a
form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. W orkers
rim a rily engaged in installing and repairing building sanitation or
eating systems are excluded.

and laying out a ll types of sheet-m etal maintenance work from blue­
prints, m odels, or other specifications; setting up and operating a ll
available types of sheet-m etal-w orking machines; using a va riety of
handtools in cutting, bending, form ing, shaping, fitting, and assem ­
bling; installing sheet-m etal a rticles as required.
In general, the
work of the maintenance sheet-m etal w orker requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

PLU M B ER, M AIN TEN AN CE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plum ber’s snake.
In general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprentice­
ship or equivalent training and experience.
S H E E T -M E T A L WORKER, M AIN TEN AN CE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetm etal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, m etal roofing)
of an establishment. Work involves most of the follow in g: Planning

Custodial

E LE V A TO R O PERATO R,

and

(Diemaker; jig maker; toolmaker;

PASSENGER

GUARD
P erfo rm s routine police duties, either at fixed post or on
tour, maintaining order, using arms or fo rce where necessary. In­
cludes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity of
employees and other persons entering.

fixture

maker; gauge m aker)

Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs , fix ­
tures or dies fo r forgings, punching and other m etal-form in g work.
Work involves most of the follow in g: Planning and laying out of work
from m odels, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and w ritten sp e cifi­
cations; using a va riety of tool and die m a k er’ s handtools and precision
measuring instruments; understanding of the working properties of
common metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools
and related equipment; making necessary shop computations relating
to dimensions of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of m etal parts during fabrication as w ell as of finished tools
and dies to achieve required qualities; working to close tolerances;
fitting and assembling of parts to prescribed tolerances and a llow ­
ances; selecting appropriate m aterials, tools, and p rocesses.
In
general, the tool and die m aker's work requires a rounded training
in machine-shop and toolroom practice usually acquired through a
form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
F o r cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification .

Material

Transports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel or sim ilar establishment.
W orkers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such
as those of starters and janitors are excluded.




TO O L AND DIE M AKER

Movement

JANITOR,

PO RTER,

OR C LE AN E R

(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an ord erly condition factory working
areas and washrooms, or prem ises of an o ffice, apartment house,
or com m ercial or other establishment. Duties involve a combination
of the follow in g: Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors;
rem oving chips, trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture,
or fixtures; polishing metal fixtures or trim m ings; providing supplies
and m inor maintenance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and
restroom s. W orkers who specialize in window washing are excluded.

20

LABO RE R, M A T E R IA L HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker;
stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A w orker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant,
store, or other establishment whose duties involve one or m ore of
the follow ing: Loading and unloading various m aterials and merchan­
dise on or from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices;
unpacking, shelving, or placing m aterials or merchandise in proper
storage location; transporting m aterials or merchandise by hand truck,
car, or wheelbarrow. Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are
excluded.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLE RK - Continued
other records; checking for shortages and rejecting damaged goods;
routing merchandise or m aterials to proper departments; maintaining
necessary records and files .
F or wage study purposes, w orkers are cla ssified as follows;
Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk
TRUCKDRIVER

ORDER F IL L E R
(O rder picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from
stored merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips,
cu stom ers1 orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to fillin g
orders and indicating items filled or omitted, keep records of out­
going orders, requisition additional stock, or report short supplies
to supervisor, and perform other related duties.

D rives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport
m aterials, m erchandise, equipment, or men between various types of
establishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, w a re­
houses, wholesale and reta il establishments, or between reta il estab­
lishments and cu stom ers1 houses or places of business.
May also
load or unload truck with or without h elpers, make m inor mechanical
rep a irs, and keep truck in good working order. D river-sa lesm en and
over-th e-roa d d rivers are excluded.
F or wage study purposes, truckdrivers are cla ssified by size
and type of equipment, as follow s: (T r a c to r-tr a ile r should be rated
on the basis of tra ile r capacity. )

PAC K ER, SHIPPING
Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations perform ed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires
the placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or
m ore of the follow ing: Knowledge of various items of stock in order
to v e r ify content; selection of appropriate type and size of container;
inserting enclosures in container; using ex celsio r or other m aterial to
prevent breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; applying
labels or entering identifying data on container.
Packers who also
make wooden boxes or crates are excluded.
SHIPPING AND RECEIVING C LE R K
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is r e ­
sponsible for incoming shipment of merchandise or other m aterials.
Shipping work in volves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, p ra c­
tices, routes, available means of transportation and rates; and p r e ­
paring records of the goods shipped, making up bills of lading, post­
ing weight and shipping charges, and keeping a file of shipping records.
May direct or assist in preparing the merchandise fo r shipment.
Receiving work in volves: V erifyin g or directing others in verifyin g
the correctness of shipments against bills of lading, in voices, or




T ru ckdriver
Tru ck d river,
Tru ck d river,
Tru ckdriver,
T ru ck d river,

(combination of sizes listed separately)
light (under \\/z tons)
medium ( l l to and~~including 4 tons)
/z
heavy (over 4 tons, tra ile r type)
heavy (over 4 tons, other than tra ile r type)

TRUCKER, POWER
Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-p o w ered
truck or tractor to transport goods and m aterials of a ll kinds about
a warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
F or wage study purposes, w orkers are cla ssified by type of
truck, as follows:
Trucker, power (fo rk lift)
Trucker, power (other than fo rk lift)
W ATCHM AN
Makes rounds of prem ises p eriod ica lly in protecting property
against fir e , theft, and illeg a l entry.
U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1957 O -422303

Bulletins in This Series
Occupational wage surveys are being conducted in 17 major labor markets during late 1956 and early 1957. Bulletins for the fo l­
lowing areas are now available and may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C.,
or from any of the regional sales offices listed below. As additional bulletins become available, they w ill be listed in subsequent issues.




Labor Market
Seattle, Wash.
Buffalo, N. Y.
Cleveland, Ohio
Boston, Mass.
Dallas, Tex.
Kansas City, Mo.
Philadelphia, Pa.

BLS Bulletin
Number

Survey Period
August 1956
September 1956
October 1956
September 1956
October 1956
December 1956
November 1956

1202-1
1202-2
1202-3
1202-4
1202-5
1202-6
1202-7

Price
25
25
25
25
25
25
25

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

Regional Sales Offices

U . S. Department of Labor
Bureau of L ab o r Statistics
18 O liver Street
Boston 10, M ass.

U. S. Department of L abo r
Bureau of L abo r Statistics
50 Seventh Street, N . E.
Atlanta 23, Ga.

U. S. Department of L ab o r
Bureau of L ab o r Statistics
105 West Adam s Street
C hicago 3, 111.

U. S. Department of L abo r
Bureau of L ab o r Statistics
341 Ninth Avenue
N e w York 1, N . Y.

U . S, Department of L abor
Bureau of L abo r Statistics
630 Sansome Street
San F ran cisco 11, C alif.


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102