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BUFFALO, NEW YORK
January 1 9 5 0

Bulletin No. 99I

UNITED




MAURICE

STATES

DEPARTMENT

J. T O B I N ,

SECRETARY

OF L A B O R




Bur eau of L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s
Ewan C la gu e, Co m mi s si on ei




C ontents
Pag©
Number
INTRODUCTION..................
Buffalo labor and Industry ,...... ,.....,....... ............ .........•.......••••
Sampling and characteristics of the data ,,..... ................ «*•••*«••••••••*••

1
1

OCCUPATIONiCL RATE STRUCTURE ,.........................................*.... .........
Office clerical occupations
...............................
Maintenance occupations ....................
Custodial, varehousing and trucking occupations
.... .
Characteristic Industry occupations
Union vage scales ............................. ............................ .
Minimum entrance rates ............................................................

2
3
3
3
3
^

1

*
*
■

SUPPIEMENTARY WAGE PRACTICES ..........................................................
TABLES:
1. Establishments and workers and number studied
2. Average earnings for selected office occupations
3* Average earnings for selected maintenance, custodial, varehousing and
trucking occupations
......... .......................... «...
Average earnings for selected occupations In flour and other grain mills
5. Average earnings for selected occupations in paper and paperboard mills .......
6. Average earnings for selected occupations in Industrial chemical Industries •..
7* Averageearnings for selected occupations In metalworking Industries ••••••••••
8. Average earnings for selected occupations in ferrous foundries .............
9. Average earnings far selected occupations in nonferrous foundries *••••••••••••
10*
Average earningsfor selected occupations in fabricated structural metal
products industries
11, Average earnings for selected occupations in department and clothing stares *. •
12. Average earnings for selected occupations in office building service •••••«••••
13* Average earnings for selected occupations in hotels ...........................
It,
Average hourly earnings for selected occupations in power laundries •••,••••••*
15* Average
hourly earnings for selected occupations in automobile repair shops ...
16. Union vage scales for selected trades In bakeries, building construction,
printing, and for local transit operating employees, and motor-truck
drivers and helpers ..........................................
17. Shift differential provisions in manufacturing industries •••••.....
18. Minimum entrance rates far plant workers ••••••.....
19* Scheduled weekly hours ••*••••••••••«••••«••••....
20, Paid vacations ..............
21, Paid sick leave .................
22, Paid holidays .................................................................
23, Nonproduction bonuses
25
2 t , Insurance and pension plans ,««••••«•....

5

2

6
11
1^
1^

Ik
15
17
17

17
18
19
20
20
20

21
22
22
22
23
2t
25
25

APPENDIX:
Descriptions of occupations surveyed .,,,,.........................
I N D E X ..........................................................................

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office
Washington 25, D. C. - Price 35 cents

27
U

Intro d u ctio n

Occupational wag© rate information on a community basis serves a variety of Impor­
tant uses. For example, employers frequently find it necessary to compare wage and salary
scales in their own establishments with the general local levels of pay. Both unions and em­
ployers us© community wage information in collective bargaining. Various branches of the
Federal Government set wage scales for their day-rate personnel on the basis of community-wide
surveys. Firms seeking locations for new plants, distribution outlets, or new offices usually
give consideration to such information. In the administration of placement in connection with
unemployment condensation, area wage statistics are needed in the evaluation of the suitability
of job offers. In many types of general economic analysis, information on wages by community
and type of work is of crucial Importance.
For these reasons, the U. S. Department of labor through the Bureau of Labor Statistics
has given increasing emphasis to area wage studies, generally with respect to specific indus­
tries, However, a cross-industry approach has been used in recent years in the field of officeclerical occupations, and In 1 * - the application of this approach to the collection of wage
949
data for industrial as well as office-clerical occupations was tested in six medium-sized
cities. 2/
The present survey of wages in Buffalo, N.Y. Is among the first in which the Bureau
has utilized cross-industry methods of sampling to study office and plant occupations in a
major Industrial center. 3/ Earnings data have been compiled on a cross-industry basis for
the following types of occupations? (a) office-clerical; (b) maintenance; and (c) jobs, gen­
erally unskilled, related to the performance of custodial, warehousing, and trucking functions.
Other occupations that are characteristic of particular,, important, local industries have been
studied as heretofore on an industry basis, within the framework of the community survey. Even
for those occupational categories that lend themselves to study on a cross-industry basis,
separate data have been provided wherever possible for individual broad industry divisions.
In addition to information on wage rates, data on supplementary benefits, such as vacation
allowances, paid holidays, and insurance and pension plans have also been collected and tabu­
lated.

1/ Prepared in the Bureau's Division of Wage Statistics By Paul I. Warwick, Begional Wage
Analyst, Region U , Hew York, N. Y. The planning and central direction of the program was the
responsibility of Toivo P. Kannlnen and Louis E, Badehhoop under the general supervision of
Harry Ober^ Chief of the Branch of Industry Wage Studies,
2/ Grand Baplds, Mich,; Portland, Ms,; Rockford, 111.; Shreveport, La,; Spokane, Wash.;
and Trenton, N. J
3/ Similar surveys were conducted in Denver, Colo, in November 19*4-9) San Francisco Oakland, Calif., January 1950; and Philadelphia, Pa., May 1950.




Buffalo labor and industry
Buffalo, the second largest city in New York State, has a population in excess of
600,000. Considered as a metropolitan area consisting of Erl© and Niagara Counties, the
population is over a million. It Is most likely, however, that this great inland port and
center of railway transport exerts an influence on the national economy in greater proportion
than its size alone indicates. Buffalo’s strategic location has brought to it a great variety
of industry, particularly heavy Industry. The metalworking industries, employing over 50,000
people, produce a great variety of goods: motor vehicles and equipment, steam turbines, diesel
engines, motors, boilers, presses, food processing machinery, aircraft, and radios, to name
but a few. large iron and steel mills provide employment to over 20,000 workers. The chem­
ical industries, employing about 16,000 people, turn out such varied products as coal tars,
phenols and resins, rayon yarn, explosives, and sodium compounds. Pulp and paper production
is important in the area and it provides jobs for about 7,000 workers. The products of
Buffalo’s grain mills are well known. Other manufacturing products of significance include
apparel, optical instruments, and rubber products. Nonaanufacturing activities employed
about 90,000 people in Buffalo, the two largest groups being 30,000 in transportation, com­
munication, and other public utilities and 28,000 In retail trade.
In January 1950, over k out of 5 Buffalo Industrial workers were employed in estab­
lishments that reported written agreements with labor unions. Unionization was most preva­
lent in manufacturing, and transportation, communication, and other public utility industries.
Over 90 percent of the nonoffice workers in these two groups were employed 2n union establish­
ments. In distinct contrast was retail trade in which establishments employing less than a
fifth of the workers in the Industry were covered by union agreements. About a fourth of
Buffalo’s office workers were in establishments with union contracts covering these workers.
They were found almost exclusively in manufacturing and the public utility industries.
Sampling and characteristics of the data
The study covered 6 broad industry divisions and, except for tool and die shops,
office buildings, and auto repair shops, only establishments with mare than 20 workers were
studied. Shops manufacturing machine-tool accessories and office buildings employing 8 or
more workers, and repair departments of retail automobile dealer establishments and general
automobile repair garages employing 5 or mare workers were included in the survey. Smaller
establishments were omitted because they furnished Insufficient employment in the occupations
studied to warrant their inclusion. A greater proportion of large than of small establish**
ments were studied in order to maximize the proportion of workers surveyed with available re­
sources. Each group of establishments of a certain size, however, was given its proper weight
in the computation of the data. Information was collected by visit of field representatives
of the Bureau to representative establishments. In classifying workers by occupation, uniform
job descriptions were used; they are presented in the appendix to this bulletin.
Almost a fourth of the 169,000 workers, employed in January 1950 in the industry
divisions and size groups studied are accounted for in the 106 men’s jobs and 50 women’s jobs
for which earnings data are presented in the accompanying tables (2 through 15). The largest
job categories, among those studied cm a cross-industry basis were; stock handlers and hand
truckers (2,780 men); janitors, porters, and cleaners (1,721 men and 8^8 women); truck drivers
(1,638 mem); general stenographers (1,363 women); and accounting clerks (325 men and 898 women).




2.
The earnings information in the report excludes premium pay for overtime and night
work. Nonproduction bonuses are also excluded, but incentive earnings, including commissions
for salespersons, have been included for those workers employed under some form of incentive
wage system. Weekly hours, reported for office and department and clothing store occupations,
refer to the work schedules for which the salaries are paid, rounded to the nearest half hour;
average weekly earnings for these occupations have been rounded to the nearest 50 cents. The
number of workers presented refers to the estimated total employment in all establishments
within the scope of the study and not to the number actually surveyed. Data are shewn only
for full-time workers; that is, those who are hired to work an establishments full-time sched­
ule for a given occupational classification.
Information on wage practices refers to all office workers and to all plant workers
as specified in the individual tables. It is presented in terms of the proportion of all
workers employed in offices (or plant departments) that observe the practice in question, ex­
cept in the first section of table 19, where scheduled weekly hours of women office workers
alone are presented. Eligibility requirements may make the proportion actually receiving the
specific benefits smaller than the total enployed. The summary of vacation and sick leave
plans is limited to formal arrangements. It excludes informal plans whereby time off with pay
is granted at the discretion of the employer or other supervisor. Sick leave plans are
further limited to those providing full pay for at least some amount of time off without any
provision for a waiting period preceding the payment of benefits, and exclude health insurance
even though it is paid for by employers. Health insurance is included, however, under tabu­
lations for insurance and pension plans.

O c c u p a tio n a l R ate S tru c tu re

In the discussion of wages by occupation,
lowing four main groupings:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

it is convenient to distinguish the fol­

Office clerical occupations
Maintenance occupations
Custodial, warehousing, and trucking occupations
Characteristic industry occupations

The first three groups have been studied on a cross-industry basis in Erie County only. These
occupations are typically found in all or a number of industries. In the main, the character­
istic industry occupations are peculiar to a specific industry. In those Instances where
establishments in Erie and Niagara Counties form a homogeneous industrial group with a rela­
tively homogeneous wage structure, data far characteristic industry occupations were collected
from plants located in both Erie and Niagara County. This procedure was followed in the fol­
lowing industries: papermaking, industrial chemicals, ferrous and nonferrous foundries, fab­
ricated structural metal products, metalworking, and power laundries. Information was limited
to Erie County for the other industries in which characteristic occupations were studied:
flour mills, department and clothing stores, office buildings, hotels, and automobile repair
shops.



Table 1.--ESTABI2SHMENXB AND WORKERS IN MAJOR INDUSTRY DIVISIONS IN BUFFALO, H W YORK AND NUMBER STUDIED
BY THE BtREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS, JANUARY 1950

Employment l/

Number of establishments 1/

Item

Estimated Estimated
Estimated Estimated
total
total
total
total
in all
within scope Studied
within scope
in all
industries of study
industries of study
£/
2/
2/
£/

In establishments
studied

Total

Office

Industry Division

67

1,038

294

215,300

169,100

99,3^0

iV,V90

Manufacturing ........... .......

1 ,03V

485

130

125,500

119,600

73,090

8,060

Nonmanufacturing...............
Wholesale trade ••••••••••••••
Retail trade ............ .
Finance, insurance, and real
estate •••••••••••••*•••••••
Transportation, eoamamlcatlon,
and other public utilities
Services:
Industries covered 2/ .....
Industries not covered «***

3,333
587
1,58V

553
111
178

164
24
44

89,800
10,700
27,700

49,500
5,800

6,Vio
1,2V0

16,100

26,030
2,100
8,570

265

68

33

6,600

4,900

2,600

1,870

71

20

30,300

4/ 15,400

8,300

1,670

125

43

10,600

7,300

4,460

5V0

All divisions.... •••••••••••••••••

M

232

y

V86
179

1,090

3,900
■

Size of Establishment

All size g r o u p s .... *.......... .

1,001 and o v e r .... *.... .......
501 - 1,000 ......................... . . . .
251 - 500 ...................................
101 - 250.......... ...............
51 - 100 .......................
2 1-50 ......................................
4 - 20 ........................... ...........

V,3«7

3
V
28
83
180
257
V53
3,332

y

1,038

294

215,300

169,100

99,320

1V,V90

32
20
81
176
2V9
V17

27
15
35
51
69
88

71,900
13,200
26,400
27,500
17,000
22,300

62,050
10,150
11,060
8,270
4,870
2,600

7,580
2,370
1,V70
1,650
1,000
V70

(2/)

(2/)

78,600
19,500
27,000
28,400
17,500
13,400
30,900

<!/)

(2/)

(2/)

l/ Data limited to Erie County in all industries except the following which were surveyed in both Erie and
Niagara Counties: paper and paperboard, Industrial chemicals, ferrous and nonferrous foundries, fabricated struc­
tural metal products, metalworking Industries, and power laundries (these industries are defined in footnotes to
tables 4 through 15 ).
2/ Includes establishments with more than 3 workers*
3/ Office, maintenance, warehousing, trucking, and custodial Jobs reported In tables 2 and 3 were surveyed in
Erie County only in establishments with more than 20 workers; exceptions made in size limits established far in­
dustries in which characteristic Jobs were surveyed are noted in footnotes to tables 4 through 15 *
4/ Excludes railroads*
2/ Coverage in the services division was limited to hotels; personal services; business services; automobile
repair services; such professional services as engineering, architectural, accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping
firms; motion pictures; and nonprofit membership organizations *




Office clerical occupations
In January 1950, women general stenographers, the largest group of office clerical
Yorkers studied, earned an average of $1+1.50 a week. Jobs accounting for half of all women
office workers in the occupations studied had earnings within a $2 range of the general ste­
nographer, average (table 2). These Jobs generally entailed the use of acquired skills, sane
diversification of duties, and some degree of responsibility. Typical occupations in this
category were order clerks at $ 39.50> general clerks at $1 0,00 accounting clerks at $ 10.50
+
,
+
,
calculating-machine operators at $ 1 1 .00 key-punch operators at $12.50, and pay roll clerks
+
,
+
at $1+3*50. Another large group of women employees, clerk-typists, received $35.50; earnings
lower than this level were reported for those jobs in which the less experienced workers are
usually found: $ 32.00 for typists performing simple copy work, $ 31*50 for routine file clerks,
and $ 30.00 for office girls.
In five occupations women averaged $1+7 or more per week. Secretaries, the largest
group among these occupations, Were paid an average of $51.50* The highest average pay for
women office eaployees was $ 52*50 for hand bookkeepers.
Among men office workers, too, hand bookkeepers received the highest average salary,
$60.50. At this same level were pay-roll clerks. Accounting clerks earned slightly less,
$60.00 a week. All clerical Jobs for which men’s earnings could be presented shewed weekly
averages of $ 57.00 or more, except office boys at $ 30.50.
Salaries in offices of manufacturing establishments were generally somewhat higher
than those in nanmanufacturing industries. This difference, however, amounted to $5 or less
for 22 of the 30 occupational groups for which comparison was possible. However, the average
workweek schedule was generally slightly longer in manufacturing than in nonmanufacturing in­
dustries.
In two major industry divisions— manufacturing and transportation, commmication,
and other public utilities— office workers in establishments employing over 50 workers re­
0
ceived generally higher salaries than in smaller establishments. The reverse was true in
wholesale trade, where average earnings were higher in firms with 100 eaployees or less. The
influence of such factors as industry classification and unionization that could not be iso­
lated are reflected in these coaparisons.
Maintenance occupations
Skilled electricians, machinists, millwrights, and pipe fitters engaged in mainte­
nance work averaged at least $1.70 an hour in January 195°> with rates of $1.76, $1.7^> $1*72,
and $1.70, respectively (table 3). Bates for other skilled maintenance occupations were $1.67
for mechanics, $1.62 for carpenters, and $1.50 for painters. General utility maintenance men,
employed primarily in the smaller establishments where specialization in maintenance work is
impractical, were paid $ 1 .38.
Stationary engineers, responsible for the operation of equipment to supply power,
heat, refrigeration, or air conditioning, earned $ 1.60 an hour while stationary boiler fire­
men earned $1.28. In two less skilled maintenance jobs studied, trades helpers and oilers,
hourly earnings averaged $ 1 .39.
The majority of maintenance workers included in the survey were found in manufactur­
ing where average hourly rates were typically somewhat higher than in nonmanufacturing. Fur­
ther, those working in the larger manufacturing plants (500 or more workers) generally re­
ceived higher wages than similar workers in smaller factories.




3*
Custodial, warehousing, and tracking occupations
Men Janitors, porters, and cleaners, as a group, averaged $1*03 an hour whereas
varan in this Joh classification averaged 8 cents (table 3). When this comparison is H a lted
^
to noxmttzmfacturing, however, in which almost half of the ran and more than nine-tenths of the
varan were employed, the earnings differential is narrowed to 2 cents: men received 85 cents
and women 83 cents* Stock handlers and hand truckers, engaged primarily in loading and unload­
ing work and in handling raw and finished stocky had an hourly average of $ 1 *27, order fillers,
whose function it is to fill customers* orders from stored stock, earned $1*17. Truck drivers
averaged $1.33* Guards received $1*38 and watchmen, whose duties are similar hut generally
require somewhat less responsibility, were paid an average wage of $ 1.05 an hour* As with the
maintenance occupations, the various types of laborers were better paid in larger than in
smaller manufacturing plants*
Characteristic industry occupations
Flour and other grain-mill products - The highest average hourly rate reported in
the entire community survey was $2.12 for millers in flour mills (table k ).
Occupational
rates in this strongly unionised industry were relatively high, with sweepers earning $ 1.35
an hour* Kates for other typical Jobs studied were $1*52 for grain elevator operators, $1* 53
for sack packers> and $ 1.65 for bolters*
Paper and paperboard mills - Beater men and broke men, engaged in the preparation of
pulp or waste paper for processing in paper and paperboard mills, earned $ 1.27 and $ 1 .23,
respectively. Tenders on small-size, slew-speed paper machines received $1.51* back tenders
on these machines received $1.30* Paper testers earned $1.31 an hour*
The highest paid
workers studied in this industry were maintenance mechanics, at $ 1.56 (table 5).
Industrial chemicals - Kates for chemical operators in the industrial chemical in­
dustry were"$1*73 for class A workers and $1.70 for class B workers. Because of the large
supply of electric power available from Niagara Falls, electrochemical processes became im­
portant in the development of the industry in this area; consequently, important occupational
classifications included electric-cell men at $ 1.68 and electric-cell repairmen and cleaners
at $1.79* Pipe fitters in the industry also averaged $1.79# while instrument repairmen
earned $ 1 *87. Women employed as laboratory assistants received $1.17 an hour (table 6).

Metalworking industries - The highest average rate reported in the metalworking in­
dustries was $1.77 for tool and die makers employed in Jobbing shops (table 7)* Other rela­
tively high rates were $ 1.62 for hand welders performing work of a difficult nature and $ 1.59
for class A inspectors. Grinding-machine operators required to set up as well as operate
their machines on complicated and varied work (class A operators) also earned $1.59; other
machine operators on this skill level had approximately the same earnings: class A engine
lathe operators, $1.60; class A milling-machine operators, $1.57• Punch-press operators on
routine work received $1.35 an hour. The largest occupational category studied was assemblers;
rates within the group were $ 1.^8 for men performing work of a complex and varied nature
(class A), $1.37 for those working on standard assemblies (class B), arid $1.33 for man enployed on routine, repetitive assembly operations (class C). Women class C assemblers earned
$1*16. Average earnings for almost all Jobs studied in the machinery industry were similar
to those for metalworking as a whole.




Ferrous foundries - Machine molders In ferrous foundries averaged $1*93 in January
(table 8). Earnings "far floor xaolders and bench hand solders were considerably loser;
$1.65 and $1*64, respectively* Among the jobs studied, the lcsest rates reported vere $1.46
for chlppers and grinders and $1.44 for shake-out sen* Many employees in this industry vere
paid on an incentive basis, vhereby an individual*s output determines his earnings* The ef­
fect of this practice was to produce vide ranges of rates within occupations as, exemplified
by hand coremakers, fbr whom separate data were available covering time and incentive workers.
The range for time workers was 30 cents but for Incentive workers it vas $1*10 an hour* The
average wage for the entire group was $ 1*70 an hour, but vas $1.4l for time workers and $2*06
for incentive workers*

1950

Honferrous foundries - Earnings in nonferroue foundries were consistently lover than
those for similar Jobs in ferrous foundries* Machine molders and floor molders earned $1*63,
and bench hand molders earned $1.49. Hand coremakers received $1*56; ohippers and grinders,
$ 1 *36; shake-out men, $ 1*23 (table 9).
Fabricated structural metal products - The highest rates in the fabricated struc­
tural metal products industry were $1*77 for class A lay-out men and $1*76 far class A hand
welders (table 10)* Electric-bridge crane operators, a numerically important group, earned
$1.4l. First class structural fitters averaged $ 1 .67, while fitters employed on the less
canplicated work received $1.42.
Department and clothing stores - Sales clerks* average weekly earnings, including
coBBftissione, varied widely by type of merchandise sold, ranging from $30 for women selling
notions and trimaings to $84 for men selling men,s clothing (table ll). Men selling furniture
earned $83 and those selling women* s Bhoes earned $ 56. Among the women sales clerks, earnings
were $43*50 in women,s shoe departments, $ 35*50 in dress departments, and $31 in women*s ac­
cessories departments* Men alteration tailors working on men's garments averaged $55.00 a
week, and women employed in this occupation averaged $37.00. The lowest paid group was women
elevator operators, whose weekly average was $27.
Office building service - The highest paid workers studied in office buildings were
stationary engineers at $1.4-3 (table 12)* Stationary boiler firemen earned $1.03 and watch­
men earned $1.02. Women cleaners, the largest occupational group found In office buildings,
averaged 87 cents. Women operating passenger elevators received 84 cents; men in the same
occupation earned 75 cents. It should be pointed out that this difference generally result#
from varying wage scales among office buildings rather than from difference in pay of men and
woman in the same establishment*
Hotels - In hotels, as in office buildings, it was found that women operating ele­
vators, who averaged 66 cents, earned more than the men operators who received 6l cents an
hour (table 13). Here, too, the rate differential reflects varying wage scales among hotels
rather than within individual hotels. Chambermaids, a large employee group, earned 63 cents
an hour, and housemen earned 69 cents. The highest average hourly rates reported were 8
3
cents for men employed as desk clerks and 99 cents for room clerks.
Power laundries - Average rates reported for five of the six occupations studied in
which women were employed in power laundries fell in a narrow range from 73 cents for retail
receiving clerks, bundle wrappers, and flatwork finishers to 79 cents for markers (table 14).
The highest rate shown for women was 85 cents for machine shirt pressers • Men working as ex­
tractor operators received 95 cents, and machine washers received $ 1 *08.




Automobile repair shops - Automotive mechanics (class A) employed in general auto
repair shops and in repair departments of dealer establishments averaged $1.50 an hour. Aver­
age hourly earnings in numerically less important Jobs vere $1.63 for body repairmen, $1.25
far greasers, and $ 1.12 for washers (table 15).
Union wage scales
Union wage scales, collected in the study, provide a measure of wage levels for se­
lected trades in bakeries, building construction, and the printing Industries, and for local
transit operating employees, and motortruck drivers and helpers. These scales represent the
minimum wage rates agreed upon through collective bargaining between employers and tradeunions. The basic wage scales summarized briefly in this section and presented In greater
detail in table 16 vere those In effect January 3, 1950.
The basic union rates in semi-machine bakeries vere $ 1 . i far oven hands and mixers,
*5
$1,395 for bench hands, and $1.14 for helpers and pan greasers. A typical union agreement
covering workers in bread and cake machine-shops provided minimum rates of $1.49 for mixers,
$1,465 for ovenmen, $1.42 for bench hands, and $ 1.25 for helpers.
In seven major construction trades, rates varied from $1.65 for building laboreisto
$2.58 far electricians. Minimum rates for the other five trades verex $2.50 for bricklayers,
$ 2.25 for carpenters, $2,125 for painters, and $2.40 for plasterers and plumbers.
Bus operators employed in local transit service received a starting rate of $ 1 .36;
after 3 months they rose to $1.39 and after a year to $1.41. Basic union scales for motor­
truck drivers varied according to the material transported and the type of truck driven.
Bates ranged from $ 1,225 for drivers of linen supply trucks to $ 1.65 for construction drivers
operating carry-all, winch, or concrete-mixer trucks.
In the printing trades, hand compositors in book and Job shops had a minimum rale of
$2,306; those in newspaper plants earned $2.46 for day work and $2.57 for night work. The
union rate for pressmen operating job cylinder presses was $2 ,227; their assistants earned
$ 1 .87. The highest rate in book and job shops vas $2,467 for photoengravers. This trade was
also the highest paid in newspaper plants with a day rate of $2,784 and a night rate cf $2,917*
Minimum entrance rates
Minimum entrance rates for plant workers vere reported by 229 of the 239 establish­
ments studied in Erie County. These varied widely, ranging from less than 50 cents an hour
to $1.45. Approximately half the plant workers vere employed In establishments with minimum
rates above $1 (table 18). Establishments that had a 75-cent minimum accounted for 7 percent
of the workers, and 20 percent were in establishments that had rates below this figure. The
lowest rates vere found in the fields of retail trades and services, whereas high entrance
rates were most frequently encountered in manufacturing, particularly In the larger plants.
In manufacturing plants employing more than 250 workers, entrance rates above $1 were report­
ed by establishments accounting for 77 percent of the workers, compared to 36 percent in the
smaller plants.




S u p p lem en tary W a g e Practices

Shift differentials
Among the manufacturing industries & r which characteristic occupations were studied,
substantial variations were found in the proportion of the work force employed on extra shift
operations in January 1950 (table IT). In ferrous foundries and metalworking industries, ap­
proximately 10 percent of the workers were on late shifts. At the other extreme, almost 40
percent of the workers in grain mills and paper and paperboard mills were employed on extra
shifts, as were 35 percent in industrial chemical plants.
Virtually all workers on extra shifts received premium pay for shift work. Ninetyfive percent or more were paid differentials in all industries studied except paper and paperboard in which the proportion dropped to four-fifths. This general uniformity did not extend
to the amount or form of the differential. All grain mULs studied paid 5 cents an hour addi­
tional to late shift workers. In metalworking plants, however, over 50 percent of the secondshift workers and almost 90 percent of the third-shift workers received a 10 percent premium.
Second-shift workers in paper and paperboard mills typically received differentials cf 5 cents
an hour or less; 11 percent, however, received full pay for reduced hours. In ferrous found­
ries, the typical differential was 5 cents for second-shift workers and 10 cents fer the third
shift.
Scheduled hours
The 40-hour week was most typical far both plant and office workers in Buff ado.
Over half the women office workers, and almost four-fifths cf the plant workers., were employed,
by firms having this standard schedule (table 19) • For an additional 37 percent, the regular
workweek wan less than ho hours— 37J hours being most common. The relatively few women office
employees working more than *- hours a week were most heavily concentrated in the retail trade
40
and service industries. Among plant workers, less than 6 percent were found in shops with a
regular workweek under ^0 hours, whereas a sixth were employed by firms observing work sched­
ules exceeding 1*0 hours. Over a third of the plant employment in the public utilities and
service industries was found in firms with workweeks of k-8 hours or more. Workweeks In ex­
cess of kk hours were reported for establishments employing approximately a fifth of the plant
workers in wholesale and retail trade.
Paid vacations
Virtually all Buffalo employers offered office and plant workers vacations with pay
(table 20). Employers typically provided office workers a 2-week vacation after a year of
service, except in retail trade where the vacation was generally less than 2 weeks after 1
year of service but was increased to 2 weeks or more after 2 years of service. Plant workers
with a yearfs service generally qualified for at least one week. The proportion receiving
more than a week was considerably greater in wholesale trade and in transportation, communi­
cation, and other public utilities than in other industry groups. With few exceptions, both
plant and office workers were provided vacation leave of 2 weeks or mors after 5 years of
service.




P a i d sick leave

Between a quarter and a third of the office workers were employed "by firms with
formal provisions for paid sick leave (table 21). In most cases workers became eligible for
sick leave after 6 months of service for periods ranging from 5 to 12 days. Formal sick leave
provisions were most prevalent in wholesale trade and transportation, communication, and other
public utilities— over half the workers in these industries were in organizations with such
provisions. In other industrial groups at least two-thirds of the workers were found in of­
fices offering no paid sick leave. Sick leave provisions did not generally apply to plant
workers. The only significant exceptions were retail trade and transportation, communication,
and other public utilities, with approximately a third of the workers in establishments that
had formal provisions for paid sick leave after a yearfs service.
Paid holidays
Paid holidays, generally 6 in number, were provided almost universally to Buffalo
office workers and to 85 percent of the city*s plant workers. The most liberal provisions
were found in finance, insurance, and real estate where almost three-fourths of the office
workers received either 11 or 12 paid holidays (table 22).
Nonproduotion bonuses
Buffalo firms employing about a third of the office workers and a quarter of the
plant workers granted nonproduction bonuses, usually for Christmas or the year-end (table 23) •
This practice was most frequently reported far office workers in finance, insurance, and real
estate establishments. Among non-office workers, such bonuses were most coanaon in retail and
wholesale trade.
Insurance and pension plans
Insurance and pension plans paid for by employers, wholly or in part, were provided
by firms employing almost 90 percent of the office workers and almost 8 percent of the plant
0
workers (table 2k) . Life insurance plans were most prevalent. Over half of the office workers
and about a fourth of the plant workers were in organizations with a retirement pension system.
Firms employing over half the plant workers and a slightly smaller percentage of office workers
reported health Insurance plans.




6
.

Table 2.— OFFICE OCCUPATIONS

(Average earnings 1/ and weekly scheduled hours
for selected occupations by industry division)

Sex, occupation, and industry division

zj

Average
$
$
4
Weekly
Number
Weekly Under 25.OO 27.50 30.00
sched­ Hourly
of
and
$
workers uled earnings earnings 25.00 under
hours

$

32.50 35.00

dumber of workers receiving strainski-hime weekly earnings 0 r r
$
4
4
4
4
$
$
4
4
4
4
$
37.50 40.00 42.50 45.00 47.50 50.00 52.50 55.00 57.50 60.00 62.50 65.00

$
4
4
4
*
67.50 70.00 72.50 75.00 80.00 85.00

27.30 30.00 32.50 35.00 37.50 40.00 42.50 45.00 47.30 50.00 52.50 55*00 57.50 60.00 62.50 65*00 67.50 70.00 72.50 75.00 80.00 85*00

and
over

Ken
Bookkeepers, h a n d ................. ...... .
Manufacturing .•••••...... ................
Nonmanufacturing
••...... .............
Wholesale trade •••••••••••••••••a*.***..
Transportation, communication, and other
public utilities ••..••••••...........

146
56
90
36

Clerks, accounting ••••••••.... .......... .
Manufacturing............................
Nonmanufacturing
........ .............
Wholesale trade ........................
Finance, insurance, and real estate

325

Clerks, general ••............ .............
Manufacturing ...............
Nonmanufacturing j/ ••....... ............
Wholesale t r a d e ....... ................
Clerks, o r d e r ........... ........... ......
Manufacturing .•••••••••.......... •..... .
Nonmanufacturing t ............... .
J
Wholesale trade ............ ........ .

Clerks, pay roll ........... ............. .
Manufacturing ...................... .
Nonmanufacturing ......... ...............

23
210
115
4l
12
156

39
57
28

123
47
82
71
164

m

20

uo .5
lu .0
>
10.0

$1.49

$60.90

1.51

62.00

1.49

59*50

39.5

1.66

65.50

>10.0

1.46

58.50

39.5
10.0
+
39.0
39.0
37.5

1.52

60.00

1.64
1.28

65.50
50.00
51.00

39.5
40.0

39.0
39*5
4o.o
4i.o

40.0
4o.o
40.0
40.0

1.31
1.31
1.44
1-39
1.55
1.47
1.49

1.50
1.48
1.49

40.5

1.51
1.55
1.25

49.00
57.00
55.50
60.50
58.00

.
.
-

_
.
-

-

-

2

10

-

-

-

~
-

-

•
»
-

3

•
»
-

-

’-

bo.50

«
•
-

-

Office hove ...................a.*...........
MsumfAcfcnvluv
.........I
Nonmanufacturing jj/
Finance, Insurance, and real estate •••••
Transportation, communication, and other
vmhlic ntilltifiB

148
66
82
18

*7.0

-7Q
• Ij
.86

yp.OQ

39.0
38.5

.76
.77

29.50
29.50

18

71I.K

•82

71 cn

Tabal&ting-m&chine operators ••..••••••.... .

36

38.0

1.55

59.00

-

175

1.00
1.04

105

39.5
kO.R
39.0

125

39.O

3

3
3
l

3
3
3

-

2

-

10

8
8
-

4
2
2
2

4
4
2

-

3

_

18
4
14
7
2

18
7
11
.
.
2

7
7
-

-

10

-

15

6

2

2

13

4
4
-

7

14
ll

39
39

3
3

-

3
3

6
6
6

10
10
-

12
5
7
7

-

2
2
-

2
2

9
5
4

-

9
9
-

R1
j**
K
J

14
Q

7
(
1

£

7
1

•
J7
7
J

46

5

6
4

12
10

k

p
C

2

3

3

2
1

3

-

-

-

31
4
27
8
4

8
8
-

22

~
-

1
1
-

-

6
l
-

27
15
12
10
-

14
14
-

14
7
7
7

16

21
10
11

25

13

.
.

7

11

3

2

5

13

22
18
4
4
9
9

6
2

16
-

6
2

4
-

9

4
4

-

7

6

7

6
1

5

l

1

7
4

-

-

. -

3

35
34
1

19
17
2

1

15
15

30
28
2

19
19

17
15
2

8
4
4

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

10

4
4
-

3
3

3
l

-

4
4
-

-

6
6
-

14
2
12
6

-

6
6
6

6
6
6

2

-

19

9

2
-

10
10

6
3
3

-

1
1
-

-

-

-

-

-

1

4

-

6
6

_

6
6
-

16

10

-

-

16
16

10
4

-

7
7
-

14
14
-

4
4
-

12
7
5

6
6
-

52
52

-

1

2

2

3

2
2

2

-

4
4

1

g

10
p
c
8
-

11
10
1

5

-

1
A

3
3
3

-

_
-

-

*2
jcP‘
7
9
7

■
*
J

17
*«
10
7

3

-

10

4

-

5

59.50
61.50
59.00
59.50
62.00
50.50

4
_
4
4

-

4

4

4
•
-

10
10

8
3
5

7
7
7
7
7
-

13
13

-

12
3
9

8

1

4
k

m
m

-

4

4

3

_

7
1
7
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

4

2

3

-

2

1

1

4

28

22
p

26

13

11
£

4

5

4

7
p
C
5

14
10
4

6
£
V

12

31
lU
17

16

15

2

23

5

1

Women
Billers, machine (billing machine) ••••••••••
l o r fnf f ny\ wg
lni
e
Nonmanufacturing •••••••••••••••••••••»••••
Billers, machine (bookkeeping machine).... *

See footnotes &t end of table.




70

39.50

•97

42.00
38.OO

-

•95

37.00

-

7
1

1

4

21

2
0

18
8

1

10

21

14

17

.

-

M
B

4
-

-

4

-

-

-

-

-

-

Occupational Tags Survey, Buffalo, Bnr Itek, January 1950
U. S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics

7
<
Table 2.— OFFICE OCCUPATIONS - Continued

(Average earnings l/ and weekly scheduled hours
for selected occupations hy industry division)

Sex, occupation, and industry division 2]

of
workers

%
$
Weekly
sched- Hourly
Weekly Under 2 5 .0 0 2 7 .5 0
£
and
uled earnings earnings
25.00 under

27.50 30.00

Women

32 .5 0

35.00 37.50 4o.oo

4 2 .5 0

45.00 47.5° 50.00

$

5 2 .5 0 5 5 .0 0

5 2 .5 0 5 5 .0 0

P
T
$
$
57.50 60.00 62.50 65.00 1 7.50 70.00
6

57.5° 60.00 62.50 65.00 67.50 70.00 7 2 .5 0

Bookkeeping-machine operators, class A .............. . .
Manufacturing...........................................................................
Nonmanufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bookkeeping-machine operators, class B "
................. ..
Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................ ..
Nonmanufacturing 3 / ................. ..........................................
Wholesale trade . ............. ..................................................
Retail trade ..................................... ......................... . . . f
Calculating-machine operators
(Comptometer type) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................ ..
Manufacturing .............................
Nonmanufacturing j / ........... .. ............
Wholesale t r a d e .... .................. .
He tail trade ...................................... ..
Calculating-machine operators (other than
Conptometer type) ......................................................................
Mflnufn.cturlng
Nonmanufacturing .......................................................... ..
Clerks, accounting ................... ....... .
Manufacturing ...............................
Nonmanufacturing 3 / ..........................
Wholesale trade . . . . . . ............. .........................
Retail trade . . . . . . ............... ........................ ..
Finance, insurance, and real estate . . . .............
Services .*............... ................................... ..
Clerks, file, class A . . . . . ............... ................................
Manufacturing .................................................................... ..
Nonmanufacturing jj/ .....................................

_ ___ _______

Finance, insurance, and real estate ........

4 o.o
3 9 .5

$1.31

4 0 .0

25T
9°
167
63

X.63

Ho.o
4 l.O

12

26

1 .2 8
1 .3 5
X 3
.3

1(0.0
39.0

1 .4 0

51
j*

39.0

1.21

liS.O

1 .3 5
1 .0 4

42

4 0 .0

36

J

387
X4
X
273
71

39.5

4 0 .5

39.5
3 9 .5
4 0 .0

lit

U6
2
198
222

4 o.o
4 0 .0

39.5
39.5

129
79
95

iio

4 0 .0
.

32.0

55

3 7 .5

298

3 9 .5
4 0 .5
3 9 .0
3 9 .0
4 1 .0
78 . 0
4 0 .0

227

6ll

146
1X
3
X
96
72
96
25
71

13

3 9 .5
4 1 .0
3 9 .0
4 l #0
3g. 5

1.21

.9 1

$52.50
5 0 .5 0

54.00
54.50
65.00
56.00
47.00
47.00
54.00
39.50
36.00

1.01
.86
I.03
.88

4 1 .0 0
3 4 .0 0
4 0 .5 0

1.03

4 i.oo
4 2 .0 0
4 o.oo

1 .0 5

1.01
1 .0 8

.86

35,00

42.50

—
-

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

—

1

5

-

2
2

-

2

l.li?
1.00

4 l ;0 0
4 5 .0 0
3 7 .5 0

2
2

1 .0 3

40.50
43.00

15

3 9 .5 0

15

1.06
1.01
1 .0 4
.« 9

1.03
.90
•9H
1.09
.88

7
. *J
1Q

1 .0 5

40.50
36.50
39.00
36.00
37 . 0 °
4 4 .5 0
3**50
72 ,.50

40.50

36

j

24
l

36

23

-

-

-

11
11

3 $

12
3

61
6

4

10

3

9

H

10

3

9

*3
24
59
18
5

108
17
91

12
-

24
5

3

3

3

3

-

-

5

3

-

*3
15

38
J

16

-

mm

22
7H
1

R

J

4
7

1?
4
10

5

96

~

28
10
18'

12
3
b

12

2

R
J

mm

-

-

1

mm

3 * .5 0

1 .0 8

-

2

—
-

l

2
6

—

6

mm

—

16
20
21
-

21
£
1

55
39

21

25
5

20

10
10
-

8

2

5

6

1

'mm

15
l*s

6
Q

J j

_

m.

x

60
20

j

iiO

7

2

•Z
J

35

18

■r
*

T!

9

24
7
5

26
12
2
92
5i
4i
l4

27

26
1

18
8

12

9

5

22

-

3

17

10

114
25
89
3

17

3
98

121

H
i

50
71

27
14

31
67
3

20

11
36

14
5
9

1

5
\

V

j

6

11
6

H4

12

5

H
1
—

—

-

8

10
4
6

9

2

mm

31
3*
5

2

9

9

2

mm

48
30

20
11

5

9

26

23

10
13

12
19

10
9
x
8

2
2
12
12
15

7

1

12
12

2
2

17

8

5
4

x

17
9

8
3

1
x

6

-

9H
35
59
15

10
4

1

—
,

14

17

6
11
2
2

9

-

1

13
5
4

18
4

4

M
M

l*

20
11

j

r

g

5

7

2
2-

7

14

7 5 .0 0

80.00 85.00

S U
fR
op.U
and
over

36

26
18
8

9

11
11

4
4

4
4

6
H
8
23

—

-

mm

mm

mm

-

-

l4
l4

2
2

2

-

2

2

25

4

23

H
7

17

9

6

3*
30

2
-

4

8

«•
‘-

—

-

15

1

mm

4

mm-

1

2

5

3

-

2

-

2

-

-

2

2
6
-

2

• '

-

See footnotes at end of table,

7

20
10
10
5

7
7

_

mm

2

-

-

11
11

-

«.

5
-

4
4

4
-

-

X
x

H
2
2
mm
mm

-

36
36

mm

’—

_

_

mm

_

mm

mm

mm

mm

—

_

_

mm

«

«
■

M
-

10
2
8

12

2
•
»

-

-

mm

mm

mm

-

-

mm

-

-

-

-

-

mm

mm

-

mm

-

mm

-

6

3*
10
28

-

-

2

6
8

4
3

5
12

mm

l

3
3

2

14

6
6

-

3

21

17

6

3

-

8
4
4

x

-

6

1

21

2
2

*

1
1

9

-

5

-

1
1

10

2

H

8
-

R

J

5

5U
23
31
10
2

-

-

-

-

-

4

2
2

...

•

-

mm

e
?

-

4

4

-

-

2
-

2
2
-

-

-

-

mm

4

-

mm

-

-

-

-

mm
mm

mm
mm

-

mm
mm

-

mm

mm

-

mm

mm

mm

'm m

-

mm

„

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

-

2
-

mm

mm

mm

mm

-

*

»

-

-

-

mm

-

mm

mm

-

mm

"




$

7 2 .5 0 7 5 .0 0 8 0 .0 0

— Continued

Bookkeepers, h a n d ................... *....... .
Manufacturing..... .........................
Nonmanufacturing
..................... . . . .
Retail t r a d e ............................................ ........ ..
Finance, insurance, and real es t a t e .................
Transportation, communication, and other
public utilities.... .............................
Services . . ................................

Pafol1

famber o f workers receiv: n g straight-time weekly earnings of

1
$
$
$
$
$
1
j
30.00 32.50 35.00 37.50 4 0 .0 0 42.50 4 5 .0 0 *7 .5 0 50.00

2

8
Table 2.— OFFICE OCCUPATIONS - Continued

(Average earnings 1/ and weekly scheduled hours
for selected occupations by industry division)

Sex, occupation, and industry division 2j

Average
$
$
$
1
Weekly
Number
25-00 27.50 30.00 32.50
sched­ Hourly
Weekly Under
of
and
$
workers uled earnings earnings 25.00 under
hours

27-50 30.00 32.50

number of workers receiving straigki-time weekly earnings of -

1
*
$
*
1
1—
3
$
1—
*
1 ---$
1—
1
1
42.50 45.00 47.50 50.00 52.50 55.00 57.50 60.00 62.50 65.00 67.50 70.00 72.50 75.00 80.00 $
► 0 37.50 40.00 }
0
85.0C
and

.50

40.00

42.50 45.00 47.50 50.00 52.50 55*00 57-50 60.00 62.50 65.00 67.50 70.00 72.50 75*00 80.00 85*00 over

Women - Continued
Clerks, file, class B ............. •••••.••••
Manufacturing........ ....................
Nonmanufacturing
•«••#••••••»••••••••••.
Wholesale trade ...»......... ........
Be tail trade •.•••••..••••••........... •
Finance, insurance, and real estate •••«•
Clerks, general •••••.......................
Manufacturing .• •• •.................. •••••
Nonmanufacturing j J
............. ..
Wholesale trade ••••••........ .
Retail trade .*...... ...................
Transportation, communication, and other
public utilities .•••••••••••...... .

Clerks, order ............... ............ .
Manufacturing....... ............
Nonmanufacturing
• •..... ...............
Wholesale t r a d e .......... ............. .

353
150
203
^3
57
84

67 k
114
560

39-5
40.0
39 .0
39.0

40.5
38.0
39*0
4o.o

Finance, insurance, and real estate .....

Manufacturing ........................ •••••
Nonmanufacturing 3/ ................ .
Wholesale trade ............. .
Retail trade ........... ..........

See footnotes at end of table




11

34.50
29.50
29.50
27.00
29.00

11
1
10
-

I.O3
1.11
I.O3

40.00
44.50

1.06

41.50
32.50

1
1
1

15
15
l

44.50
34.00

-

2

5

4

40.00
41.50
3O.5O

1
1
1

4
4
4

9
9
4
5

42
22
20
8
12

43.50
43.OO
44.50
50.00
39.OO

-

12
12

-

18
10
8
4

—

_

.76
.76
.67
•76

13^
119
119
35

39.5
39.5

1.13

2U 9

39*0
39*5

1.01

39.50

.97
1.03
1.05

38.5O

117
132
66

39.0

39.5

40.5

M 3
271

39*5
39*0
40.0
39*5

142
35
*3
^7
14

875
................. ......
Nonmanufacturing
Wholesale trade ............... ••••••••••

$31.50

.86

38.5
39.0
40.5

31
Clerks, pay r o l l ..... ......................
Manufacturing ................. ...........
Nonmanufacturing
.................. .
Wholesale trade .........................
Retail trade ••..••••••.......... •••••••
Transportation, communication, and other
public utilities .............. ........
Services ................................

$0.80

429
446
80
98

152
52
55
21
3^
ll
12

40.5

.SO

.86

•75
1.10
1.10
1.11

1.27
•96

39*0

1.26

42.5

.85

40.0
40.5

.89

39*0

39.0
41.5
38.0
40.0
39*5
4o.o
39*5

38.5
41.0

.89
•88
•97
*76
.82
•76
•94
•99
•91
•90
•71

39.50

49.OO
36.OO

71
7
64
15
28
21

2

45
5
13

27

*7
39
48
9
5
28

3^
1

47

7S
3
75
27

33
28

12

36

_

.
-

-

4

35.50
36.OO
34.50
38.OO
31.50
31.00
30.50

32
32
2
-

62
1

66
33
33
7

i53
42
ill
10

26

11

30
-

28
5

15
-

29
27

37-00
39.50
36.OO

•

5
•
*
5
5

3
3
3

34.50
29.OO

60

m
m

23

35
7
2
5
4

*6
55
1

2
1
1

7
6
l

4
4

62

7S

2

23

*3
6
37
4
-

14
14
l

31

26
5

2
2

13
l
7

1

72
22

>6
3
>3
L7

50
20

1

5

-

2

55

32

l
53

42

11
3
5

19
9

10

8

60

MB
M
-

bm
m

-

-

-

•
*
•
—

-

-

B
M

-

B
B
-

17

2

6

9

7

-

2

-

-

-

-

L3
2
Ll
3
3

20
13
7
4
1

11
5
6
3

25
4
21
19

21
15
6
4

18
18
14

18
10
8
4

12

M
l
-

-

M
B
-

2
2

M*
B
-

m
m

m
m

-

-

-

-

*3
52
Ll
8

47
36
ll
~

2
10

-

—

38

35
15
7
2

21
17
4
1

16

3

42
25
17
4
5

50

42
20
7
8

5
l

2
2

7
1

5
1

12

4

119

44
21
23
1
1
20

60
6
54
3
7
6

4
2
2
-

5
2
3
-

3
3
-

7
3
4

7
2
5

m
m

*
•

*
■

62

2
1
1
1

4
4
*
•

7
2
5
4
*
•

2

-

3
2

5

6

6
6
6
—

13
-

3^
24
8
2

4

3
1
2
*
*

25
2

66
57
9
4
-

4

3
-

4
6
6
—

15
-

>6
15
51
L5
7
2
4

10

10

L5
L9

123

8

25
8
17
4
-

10
10

14
5

14
8
6
—

15
6

3

16

13
29

>
0

2

7
9

42

55
3
9

-

«3
40

61
20
41
14
—

8 5

29
13
6
3

8
8
-

6
5
l
l

18
6
12
-

8
7
1
1
-

•
»
-

m
m

8
8
-

12

B.
B

-

1
1
-

6
6
6

-

M
.
"
-

5
5
-

6
6
6
-

2
2
-

-

M.
B
-

-

_
-

m
m

_
-

•
»
-

-

B
M

_

-

-

-

m
m
m

•

B*
B
-

-

1

m
m

—

m
m
"

9

Table 2.— OFFICE OCCUPATIONS - Continued

(Average earnings l/ and weekly scheduled hours
for selected occupations by industry division)

1

0

27.50 30.00

' workers receiving strai t-time weekly earnings of $
$
$
1
$
$
*
$
?
T
T
32.50 35.00 37.50 40.00 42.50 h 5.00 47.50 50.00 52.50 55.00 57.5O 60.00 62.50 65.OO

U

Sex, occupation, and industry division 2/

$

©

Average

1
Weekly
Number
Under 25.00
sched- Hourly
Weekly £
of
and
uled earnings earnings $
workers
25.00 under
hours

$
1
67.50 70.00

I--72.50

75.00 80.00 $

27.50 30.00 32.50 35.OO 37.50 40.00 42.50 45.00 47.5° 50.00 52.50 55.00 157.50 60.00 62.50 65*00 67.50 70.00 72.50 75.00 g o .00 85.00

Women - Continued
Key-punch operators • •......................
Manufacturing • ............................
Nonmanufacturing
..................... •

151

Office girls ......... ......................
Manufacturing •• •• •.......... .............
Nonmanufacturing 3/ •.....................
Wholesale t r a d e ...... ....... ..........
Finance, insurance, and read e s t a t e ....
Secretaries..... ......... ..................
Manufacturing.... ....................... .
Nonmanufacturing ~ j j ......................
Wholesale t r a d e .........................
Eetail trade ............................
Finance, insurance, and real estate ..•••
Services .................. ..............

56

39.0
ho.o

95

38.5

162
68

39*0
39.0
39*0
37-5

9^

26

kk

610

328
282
57
31
63

Ik

Stenographers, g e n e r a l ............. .
Manufacturing......... ...................
Nonmanufacturing ..••••..••...............
Wholesale t r a d e .........................
Eetail trade ............... ..........
Finance, insurance, and real e s t a t e ....
Transportation, communication, and other
public utilities •••••••••...... .
Services ......... ...................... .

1.363
761
602
162
57

Stenographers, technical......... .
Manufacturing ............................
Nonmanufacturing
.......................

67
39
28

See footnotes at end of table.
887157 0




-

50 - 2

221
126
36

38.5

$1.09

1.05
1.12
•77
•86
•72
•77
•66

41.5

1.30
1.27
1.36
i.2h
1.10
1.32
1.12

39-5
39.5
39.0
39.0
S0.0
*
37.5

1

10

$42.50
42.00

-

43.00

1

10

30.00
33.50

Ik

33

28.00

29.00
25.50

ih

48.50
44.00

49.50
46.50

21

-

-

••
•
-

1.05
1.08
I.O3

39.5
»0.0
*

1.06
.90

42.00

36.00

-

38.0

•97

37.00

6

-

47.00
36.50

_

l.2h

39*0
MO.O

1.22
1.20

37.5

1.25

•88

47.50
48.00
47.00

ih
5
9

16
6
10

16
8
8

3
5

2

27

2
2

2

20

-

-

2
1

2

13
7
5
1
1

1
-

2
-

136

15

loh
2h
80
28
18
29

_

-

k

-

2

k

_
—

•
*
•

• •
•

-

6

5
5
1

k

20
20
3

12

8

12

8

59

2h

5

10

2

8

17
9

17
7

39.5

38.0
hi. 5

7
3

10

28
5

'b

10

21

10.0
*
39.O

41.50
43.00
40.00

3*

8
-

10

2
12

51.50

50.00
53.OO

11
3
8

1

51
*5
10

10
56
5

95
51

kk

6
6
20

16
13
3

2
2

k
k

33
19
ih

2
7
3
2

213
132
81
17

11
ho
37
13
h
7

1

195
118
77
3*

35

11
20

6
6

9
18

9
3

2
1
1

1

1

l

-

l

1

1

3

2
1

—

2

13

10

11
8

5
h

3

1

3
7

-

2
2

-

10

96
59
37

-

8

1

7
15
3

27
17

5
167
I2h

39
lh
25
6

27

8

19

5
3

2
5
5

50
36
ih
h
-

71
50
21

30

21

23
7

18

2

22

1

-

-

13

12

3

2

19

5

9

17

hh

5
5
—

3
3

12
10
2

ih

h

5

6

1

37
hh
*
*3

1

10

k

6

15
8

8

7

6

kl

1

k2

~

h

69
23
h6
-

7

Ik

12
10
2

1

1

105
26

131

66
2k

*3
25
18
2
10

2
12

h

2

3
2

k

3
18

5

16

31

9
7

3
28

85.00
and
over

10
Table 2.— OFFICE OCCUPATIONS - Continued

(Average earnings 1J and weekly scheduled hours
for selected occupations "by industry division)

Sex, occupation, and industry division 2/

Number
of
workers

tfumVer of workers receiving etrad^i'Wtlme weekly earnings of
Average
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$ - $
Weekly
$
+
Weekly Under 25.00 27.50 30.00 32.50 35.00 37.50 1 0.00 1+2.50 1+5.00 *17.50 50.00 52.50 55.00:57.50 60.00 62.50 65.00 67.50 70.00 72.50 75.00 so. 00 S5.0C
sched­ Hourly
and
earnings earnings $
uled
and
25.00 under
hours
over
+
0
.
27.50 30.00 32^50 *55.00 37t5° 1 0.00 1+2.50' 1+5.00 *17,50 5°t 00 52.50 55.00 57,50 60.00 62.50 65.00 67.50 70.00 72,50 75.00 so. 0 S5.00

Women - Continued
Switchboard operators ..........................
Manufacturing................... .............
Nonmanufacturing J / ..........................
Wholesale trade ............................
Retail trade ...............................
Finance, insurance, and real estate ........

262
87

175
15
52
IS
ck

Switchboard operator-receptionists ..............
Manufacturing...... ..........................
Nonmanufacturing .............................
Wholesale trade ............................
7 ^ ^^
^
y
f
c

U
29
171

Finance, insurance, and real estate ........
Transportation, communication, and other
public utilities ..........................
Services ................................ .

33

258
SO

67

U0.5
1+1.0
i+o.o
3 8 .5
4 0 .0
3 7 .5
5- .0
3
5 0 .0
5 0 .0
5 0 .0
5 0 .5

kn

0

$0.93

.96

.91
.9 5

.79
1.16
.7^

.93
.98
.9 0
.98
.7 5

$ 37.50

39.50
36.50
36.50
31.50
U3.50
32.00
3 7 .0 0
3 9 .0 0

36.00

3 9 .5 0

30.00
38.50

-

7
-

21
-

7

21

-

IS

2

jc

2

3 8 .5
5o.o
3 7 .5
3 7 .0

1.22

U7.00
52.00
1* .5 0
3

*
•

—

—

Transcribing-machine operators, general .............

ISO

—
-

class A .....................*..........................

100

3 9 .0

Typists, class B ...............................
Manufacturing............. .............. .
Nonmanufacturing
..........................
Wholesale trade ............................
Finance, insurance, and real estate ....... .

1/
2/

U
21
ki

380
97

225

38 .5
5 1 .0

38.5
38.5
38.5

Excludes pay for overtime.
The scope of the study is indicated in footnotes to table 1
Includes data for industry divisions not shown separately.




1.00
1.03

39-22

1.00

.9 7

3 7 .5 0
3 8 .5 0

—

1.00

3 9 .0 0

-

.83
.88
.82
.81
.81

32.00
36.00

13

3 1 .5 0

13

31.00
31.00

5

12
11

85
33
52
37

Typists,

6

h

Tabdlating-machlne operators ...............
Manufacturing........ .......................
Nonmanufacturing j / ......................................
Finance, insurance, and real e s t a t e ........... .

85
61

9
13

h

-

..........................

9

3

1

.’ ............ ...............

—

-

8

—

Nonmanufacturing
Wholesale trade

j

on
Cv

32.00

40.50

11

g

3 9 .5 0

3 9 .0
3 9 .5
38 .5
3 8 .5

3

-

I
6

ih

22
22
8
12

6
6
2

8

12

5
36

1.00
.so

95

h

38

63
3b
27
10

hi

-

39.5
i+o.o

k o .o o

1

hs

10

75
15

12

—

38

1.16
1.0s

7
9

1

"

1.01

1 .3 0

16

28

3s. 0

ho

67

22
55
1
16

h

3

—

60
11

op
CC
..

h

-

h
h

6
6

21

17

15

l

2

3

6
—

16
12

7

5

100
6
9*
f
29
56

117

2

115

21
92

16

11
1

5

7
7

11

2

l

—

16
9
7
7

50
37
13
10

12

—

22

ih

6
U

33

I :
f
I
f
-

2

2

- •
:

-

~ ■

-

- -

. -

.
.

-

2

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

-

2
2

6

-

2
2

6
6

2
2

-

—

-

—

-

•

-

—

6

1
1
-

1
1
—

—
-

2
2
-

-

••
-

—
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

10
23

3

—

3

—

2

ih

19

17'

5
5

5
2
3
3

8

1

19
81
31
50

q
8

k

—

21
9

8

U

-

£

u

U

3

-

-

7

7
—
I
6

16

l

7
5

U
9
2?
24
19

11
10
1
*
*

9

12

15

20

28

28

8

5
15

24

3
5

2

5
23
13

9

81

68

-

-

'

9

3

_

2

35

3

6

11

2
2

11

8

11
—

h
h

12

6

8

h
h

2
2

Vf

-

7
3

2l
lb

19

h
h

-

h

3
13
9

ih

10
—

-

2
l
1

5

1
1

7
7

U

3

6

-

6

1
1

1
1

-

h

—

-

8

9
9

••

—

*
■

mm

*
*

6

6

3

9

-

•
-

-•
—

*
-

—
—

—
—
-

14

17

—

mm

If
3

1
-

—
—

—
—

—
—

“*

“

“*

—

11

Table 3.— -MAINTENANCE, CUSTODIAL, WAREHOUSING, AND TRUCKING OCCUPATIONS

(Average hourly earnings 1/ for selected
occupations 2/ by industry division)

------------ !

Occupation and industry division 3 /

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
earnings

¥'
0.60
Under
$0.60 under
.65

o
Number < f workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings of -

•
f
t
$
$
i
f
I
f
4
Q
$
$
£
9
$
1
§
■
t
? 1
1
5
i
$
0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1.30 1.35 1.40 1.45 1.50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2.00 2,10 2.20

&

and

.70

,75

.80

.85

.90

over
•95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1.30 1-35 1.40 L.45 I .50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2.00 2.10 2.20

Maintenance
Carpenters, maintenance ................ ..
Manufacturing •........... ........... . ,
.
Nonmanufacturing y .....................
Retail trade ................... .
Electricians, maintenance ............ ..... .
Manufacturing ...... .
Nonmanufacturing i j .... ............. ...«
Engineers, stationary........
.
,
Manufacturing...... ....................
Nonmanufacturing
..... ................
Retail trade ........ ........ ...»....
Finance, insurance, and real estate ......
Services ..... ......... .............

333

280

$ 1.62

1.64

53
28

1.52
1.54

571
518
53

1.76

-

-

_

_

514

382
132
15
46

62

Firemen, stationary boiler........... .
Manufacturing •••......... ..............
Nonmanufacturing
......... ......... .
Retail trade... .................... .
Finance, insurance, and real estate •••••.
Services ............................

574
448

Helpers, trades, maintenance... •••••••......
Manufacturing ..........................
Nonmanufacturing
...... ..............
Wholesale trade ...........
........
Retail trade...... .............. .

1,103
945
15*
4S

126
12
32
53

-

7

-

-

1

1

-

7

-

-

8

2
1

8
8

6
6

6
2

2
2

-

-

-

_
-

-

-

_
-

_
-

4

-

_
-

2

-

-

1.50

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

8

-

-

2

2
2

1.60
1.65
1.46
1.32
1.44
1.47

13

-

-

-

-

-

-

4
-

7

—
-

5
-

11

-

M
-

8

«-

_
-

4
-

11

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

6

-

-

-

1 .2S
1.34
1.05
1.02
1.02

—
-

447

1.74

Maintenance men, general utility..... .
Manufacturing...... •••••...............
Nonmanufacturing 4 / ....... .
Retail trade ........................
Services .................••••••••••••••

313
201
112

—
-

43

1 .3a
1.43
1.29
1.17
1.16

-

Mechanics, maintenance ......................
Manufacturing ....... .......................
Nonmanufacturing •••••...................

444
419
25

1.67
1 .6 8
1 .4 a

-

-

**

6
-

6
-

6

.99

Machinists, maintenance

-

_
-

1

6

-

-

1

6

-

-

6

13
5

14

5

2

2

8
2

-

3
-

5

21

12

15

-

12
2

11
10
1

8
-

-

2

6
2

-

4
-

8

64
42

10
6

34

22

4

25
9

16
1
1
11

12
10

9
9
-

14

6
8
3
5

2

7

11

2
2

5
5

11
11

79
51

135

130

155
154

99
92

-

28

5

1

7

135

45
42
3

124
104

37
14
23
4

26
4
-

18
14
4
3

7

1

4
18

48
44
4
4

47
47
—

80
80
-

31
31
—

2

-

-

-

-

-

530
530
—

33
33

103

22

7

7

-

2

3
_

5

3

12

4
-

8
26

57
52
5

70
67
3

29
29
-

28

1
2

-

1 ,
4

-

41
40

3
-

-

1

6
1

56

164
87
77
—
-

24
24
—

30
2

-

_

6

-

-

1

5

2

8

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

2

-

-

2

“

6

23

—
-

7
—

5.
-

-

-

42
9
33
13
17

48
42
6
1
1

23
23
-

-

28
18
10
—
6

7
-

—

2
2
2

22
18
4
1

-

__
-

14

-

_
-

11

—
-

-

-

—
-

_
-

2

7

2

1
—
1

12
10
2

4
"

. —
- -

2
1

7

5

-

5

7

-

11
5
2

—

_

M

2

2

7

8
6
2

111

20

5
-

-

5
5

2
2

3
3
—

51
51
—

-

13
13
-.

4
4

_
-

6

2

2
-

2

1

3

«.
-

3
-

15
15
~

5
-

—

4

4
4
-

83
83

2

-

6

-

2

6

-

50
44
6
-

70
70
“

56
50
6
6

6
1

-

-

15

20 10

5
3

12
10
2

-

16
11

-

-

.

34
-

-

8

1
-

2
2

2
'




18

12

-

26

Se e footnotes at end of table*

8
-

_

1.39
1.42
1.27
1.41
•93

26

1

-

-

_
_

1.79

-

6
4

1
-

47
9

7
1
6

4

—

24

2

91

12
12

-

-

2
1

12

8
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

46
28
18
18

6
6

8
8

26
26

-

-

-

-

—
-

-

38

-

-

mm

—
-

8

36 129

64 136

9

2
2
-

37
34
3

28
28
-

16
16
-

19
1
18

2
2
-

-

21
21

119
119

78
78

87
87

70
63

39
35
4

"

"

2

"

7

-

-

—
-

-

Occupational Wage Survey, Buffalo, New York, January 1950
U. S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics

12

Table 3 ♦— MAINTENANCE, CUSTODIAL, WAREHOUSING, A N D TRUCKING OCCUPATIONS - Continued

(Average hourly earnings ij for selected
occupations 2 by industry division)
/

Number
of
workers

Occupation and industry division 2/

Average
hourly
earnings

lourlsr eani W s of Nuiaber of wo]rkers recejLvin^ stra.ight-itime l
8
1
i
#
¥
r
1
1
¥
I
$
$
$
r
$
$
$
$
$
1
i
?
$
»
0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1.30 1.35 1.40 1.45 1.50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2.00 2.10 2.20
Under «id
and
$0.60 under
over
1.60 1.70 lf80 1.90 2.00 2t10 2,20
J .90 t?5 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 lt20 1.25 1.30 1 .?? 1,40 1.45 it?o
f65
*7° t75 .80 •8

Maintenance - Continued
I H11-r- rrM-a .
w
uwt

...

..... .

6

u>a
Hoy

Oilers
.... ••••.••••••••....... ..............
Manufacturing ................... •••••»••••••••••

357
333
24

1.39
1*39
10 *
-- 37
»

Painters, maintenance .*•••.............. ••»•».»••••
____________________ _____________
Nonmanufacturing 4 / ....
.
RA f ^1 +t* Ho ______ _ . ._____________________
'm
.2
Services ...................... ...... .

158

1.50

70
17
36

1*37
1-69
1.09

PI no W

. maln^AnjmnA____________ __________ __

8
8

-

-

-

-

-

3
_

-

2

5
-

6
-

K

5

1

-

2

-

2U.

—
-

1.38

-

-

1.03

21

1.18
•85
.98
.79
.94

—

55
«
•
55
45

-

—
-

-

-

1.70
A. jw

495

3

54

79

24

35
29

-

51
43

-

2
2

3
3

5
5

3
3

5
5

11 2 8
4
4
11 2 8

13

2

3

6
1

15

13

2

3

5

7
6
1
1

13

2

3

2

-

13

1

-

-

37

16
1

-

2

3

10
10

2

5

m
.
-

1

12
12
9

4

23

9

16

m
m

1

7

8

6
214 6

29

2

-

-

-

-

11
11

2
1
1

2
2

-

m
m

-

a
v
-

8

m
e

8
8

-

.
.

-

-

M

-

-

-

-

2

10

51

42

8
8

27

10

2
0

162 102

-

63

18

3

-

-

-

2
2

1
1

1
1

2

m
m
. -

m
m

Custodial. Warehousing, and Trucking
Guards .......
Janitors, porters and cleaners (men) ...............
Manufacturing
.... .. ...
Nonmanufacturing......
Wholesale trade
Retail trade ......... .....
Finance, insurance, and real estate
Transportation, communication, and other
public utilities •*•••••••••.......... •••.••
Services ••...... ......... .......... ...... .

1,721
966

Janitors, porters and cleaners (women) ♦•••♦•••♦♦♦••••
Manufacturing .............................. .
Nonmanuf&cturing y .............. .
Wholesale trade
Retail trade .............................
Finance, insurance, and real estate
Services ............................... .

848

See footnotes at end of table*




755
51
358

111

61
174
80

768
22
115
485

101

21
-

12
2

-

-

-

-

«

3

-

1

10

10

5

8

47

71
—
71
—
46

129
5
124
14
71
27

153
31

128
52
76
4
40

1X4
29
85

16

40

6
8
21

76
70

209

147

6

24
.
.

12

45
o
7

18

47
4
5
7
f

56
27
29
3
13
Q
7

5
15

21

4

5

15

4

2
2

4

6

8

4

15
14

12
35
-

12

1.05
.79

7

10

23

•84
.97
•S3
.73
.72
.87
.72

25
_
25

1

44
2
0
44
1

42
—
42

7

33

17

17

-

10

L

21

122
6
59

10

—
25

8

47

19

103
10

77

201 2 2
0

93

77

201

3
199

28
46
3

9
59
9

2

2

171
28

193
--j
*7

1

19
7

12

4

16

1

U

1

16
53
7

2 0 121
0
6
26
9
«
.
8
«
,
2

13

46

2

3
5

3

10
5

2

c
J

1

18

92

184 105
177
97
8
7
7

-

-

5
4

4
4

4

.
.

18
-

90

8
6

24
18

6
6

«
»

«
.
_

10
10

1

8

«
,

«
»

-

-

m
m
„
„

_

«■

—

e
»

A

«
»

m
m
-

-

-

-

-

/ m
-

mm
-

•

-

•

m
m
_
•

«
>

«
•

m
m

«»
■
x
-.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

ew

«»
•

-

-

-




13

Table

3

MAIN THU ANCE, CUSTODIAL, WAREHOUSING, AND TRUCKING OCCUPATIONS - Continued

(Average hourly.
earnings 1/ for selected
occupations ZJ by industry divisionj

14,

CHARACTERISTIC INDUSTRY OCCUPATIONS
(Average earnings in selected occupations in manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries)
Table U.— FLOUR AND OTHER GRAIN-MILL PRODUCTS 1/

Number
of
workers

Occupation 2/
Bolters....................... ......... ......
Orala-elevator operators..... ..... .
Millers, flour ............ ..................... •••••••••
Packers, sacks .............. ....................
Smutters ..... •••••••••••••••........ .......... .
Sweepers .... ....... ........... ....... ..............

k2
12 6
13
255

average
hourly
$1.3°
and under
earnings
1 .3 5
____ 2L____
$1 . 6 5
1.52
2.12
1.53
1.55
2
1.35

$i.W

*1 . 3 5
i.i*o

51.1*5
1 .5 0

115
.*
32

-

-

IKimber of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings o£ $l.bO : $1.65
$1.90 • $2 .0 6
51.70 : $1.80
$1.50
5 1 .5 5
1.55

6
•
52

50

-

15

15 6

-

2

6

1

28

-

37
197
199
i f The study covered establishments in Erie County en^loying more than 20 workers primarily engaged in milling flour or meal from grain. Of the estimated 7 establishments and 2,680 workers in this industry, 5 establishments with 2,276 workers were actually studied.

1.65
—
11
-

1 .6 0

6

-

-

-

1.70
1

30
-

-

2] Data limited to men workers,
j/ Excludes premium pay for overtime and night work,

1.80
«
.
•
-

2.00

1.90

$'i'
5.0

2.10

2.20

$2.20 : 52.30
210
.*

2.30
..

2
-

-

-

-

1
2
-

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

6
-

-

Table 5.— PAPER AND PAPERBOARD MILLS 1J
Number of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings of Number
51 .U0
$1.20
$1.10
$i.5o
$1.30
$1750
*1.15
51.25
51.35
Occi^>ation 2/
of
and under
workers
1.1*5
1.20
1.30
1.1*0
1.60
1.50
1.70
1.25
1.35
1.15
3]
_
•
Back tenders k j ............... .............. .................
10
7
$1.30
3
Beater men ......... ................................. .
60
6
22
12
1.27
7
13
Broke men .............. .......................................
2k
1..23
5
7
9
3
Mechanics, maintenance.... ................... .................
kk
1
1.56
9
31
3
•
Paper-machine tenders k j ............. ..................... .
10
U
6
1.51
1
Paper testers.... .............................................
19.
5
1.31
13
Excludes premium pay for overtime and night work.
1/ The study covered mills in Erie and Niagara Counties with more than 20 workers primarily engaged in manu­
5/ Workers employed on paper machines 100 Inches or less in width, operating at average speed of 300 feet or
facturing paper and pgperboard. All 7 establishments, employing 3»*&3 workers, estimated to be in these indus­
less per minute. Data for workers employed on machines of greater width or speed were insufficient to warrant
tries were studied.
presentation.
2/ Data limited to men workers.
Average
hourly
earnings

workers

2
/

$0.80

$0.85

Wso

.90

.95

0

JujDDGF
N
nP
OX

Table 6.— INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS l/
Number of workers receiving straight-time hourlyr earnings of $1.10 51.15 $1.20 $1.25 51.30 51.35 $1.40 $1 .1*5 $1.50 $1.55
*0.95 $1.00
ETEjr $1.70 h

**
M
c
r

Occupation and sex

Average
hourly
earnings

and undar
- - - .85
.

1.00

1.05

1.10

1.15

1.20

1.25

1 .1*0 1.1*5 1.50

1.30

1.55

1.60 1.65

1.70

1.75
72
72
lH
28
-

51.90 $2.00 $2.10

.75 $1.80'

1.80

1.85

1.90

2.00

2.10

2,20

77

6
6U

116
18
-

52
10
32

k2

k8

—

l6
—

-

-

Hen
Chemical operators, class A .........
Chemical operators, class B .........
Chemical operators* helpers ........
Drum fillers ...... .................
Electric-cell men .................
Electric-cell repairmen and cleaners
Instrument repairmen .............
Laboratoiy assistants
Pipe fitters, maintenance ........
Women

921

16

$ 1.73

350
61
130
206

1.70
1.69
1.60
1.68
1.79

17

1.87

162

1.52

172

1.79

789

-

-

M
.

«
•

-

-

-

~

-

k

12
-

29
21
3
36

•

12

378

136

31
28

135

kk

33

U

9
12

16
26

kg

-

12

k

3

5

-

15

'
6
2
10
k
i
*
68
2
Laboratory assistants
1.17
iy The study covered esta'tdis'bnents In Erle and Niagara bounties with more than ^O workers i n the incLustrfei
inorganic and organic chemicals industries other than synthetic rubber, synthetic fibers, and esplosives. Of
the estimated 17 establishments and 10,270 workers in these industries, 9 establishments with 5,86l workers were
actually studied.

-

lk

1

-

•

-

1

~

27

16

5

3

H8
2

-

-

-

-

2/

18 •
2
5
Excludes premium pay for overtime and night work

126

U
2^
20
20

3

-




k
-

39
6
3

ko
166

li*
8
21
2
U6

ilk

13
2
20

12
22
12
38

b6

3
3
—

-

-

-

-

-

-

10

Occupational Vfege Survey,
Buffalo, New York, January 1950
U. S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics

Table 7.--METALW0BKING INDUSTRIES 1/

Occupation and sex

of
workers

Average
hourly
earnings
2/

Number of workers receiving straindit-time hourly earnings of $
% $
$
$
$
$
1
i
$
*
*
$ „ $
$
*, $
T ~
O. 6 5 0 . 7 0 0 . 7 5 0.80 0 .8 5 0 .9 0 0.95 1 . 0 0 1 . 0 5 1 . 1 0 1 . 1 5 1 . 2 0 1 . 2 5 1 . 3 0 1-35 1 .1*0 1.1*5 1 . 5 0 1 . 6 0 1 . 7 0 1.80
and
under
-70 . 7 5 ,80 .85 .90 ,95 1,00 J t * 1,10 1 . 1 9 1,20 It 25 1 . 3 0 1.39 1,1*0 1,1*5
rO?
1 . 6 0 1 , 7 0 1.80 1.90

1 .9 0

2 .0 0

*
V
2.00 2.10
and
over
2.10

All Metalworking 1/
Men
AssemblersT class A ............... ...........
Assemblers, class B ..........................
Assemblers, class C .......... ................
Drill-press operators, single* and multiple-spindle, class B ....
Drill-press operators, single-and multiple-spindle, class C .»..
Engine-lathe operators, class A ................
Engine—1a'the onerators. class B ................
Engine**! pthe operators, c ass C #,T.T.,T. Tt»*« • > • ••■••••
l
•
ftrlruHncwnarViinfl rmemtcrs class k
f r ni1n * * nchine rvneratcrs class B
l1 r / - n
Grinding-machine operators, class C .............t......... t
Inspectors, class A .....................................
Xispectors, class C tT1
r
1
Tt1 T,fl,, .,t» • • •
1
•
,,,
M1111npwmachine onerators class A
Will 1x*
n>—(machine cnerators class B
1 1 1 1nawdmach1ne rmenatons class f
11
!
Power-shear operators, class A ................. .
Power-shear operators, class B, total .......... .
Time ................................... .
Incentive .......... ............. ....... .
Punch-press operators, class A, total ........... .
Time
... T.... T .T , , ,
Incentive................................
Punch—Dress ODerators. class
total..........
Time ..............................................
Incentive ...............................
Tool and die makers (jobbing shops) ..............
Tool and die makers (other than jobbing shops) ....,
Welders, hand, class A .... ... ...... ......... .
Welders, hand, class B, total ..................... .
Time ..... ................... .....................
Incentive ................................

3^2
758
557
128

$1.1*8
1-37
1.77
1.41

10 6

1 .1 7
1 .6 0

197
271
16
*
Rq
96
go
76
no
so
170
29
77
6i
37
2U
16 5

*0
12 2
1*63
255

208
121 *
309
207

-

-

16

_
m

10

-

-

10
-

3

-

6S
g
3

9
21

m
m

1.
1*1

1.59
1.1*0
1.25
1.59
1.32
1.57
1.7S
!.3f
I.3 6
1.23
1.22
1.21+
1.1*0
1.1*9
I.3 6
1.35
1.32
1.40
1.77
1.76

939
359
58 O
37

l.l6
1.01
1.25
1.15

16
7

5U

QQ
jj

23

22

10

m
m

7Q
qk

k

23

11 *

2

2
2

71
(
267

cl
1
+
76

lU
R
J

-

—
-

-

-

-

R
J

_
-

m
m
5
5

-

5
12
12

21

-

-

_
-

-

-

_

-

—

-

-

-

—
2
2

21

q
j
?

6
2
U

m
m

.
.

-

m
m
1
*
U
22
10
12

21

27

k
p
C
j1
3

P7
^J

5

1 .6 2

285
100

9
39

_
_

1 .1 7

1.1*3
l.l*l
1.1*8

385

m
m

10

2S

7
J

7
1

33

2

10
5
10
5

lO

3
2

2

1
9

2
2

9
51*

2

52
2

5

k
T
33
7

16
16

-

-

-

-

-

-

10
10

10
10

51
21
30

32
32

10
10

10

5

-

5

-

13

13

28
15

11 7
6l
52

pi
r
P*
J
70
(V
10
1U
17

52
0

i*
i
p
T9
a
19
13

-

152

U2

51*

5b
1

Q
J
oft
2o

2

0

lo

a
;
5

.1

2

-

11

6

1

i
*

2

31

3

2

-

c
0
X

7
(
p
c.

p
c
p
c

X

7
3
1

-

-

-

-

5

O

p
d

3

1O
XJ
V
7

i*
i
X

22

30

17
1^
iO

10
lU
t
f
0

11

11
5
2
3
36
i#
10
20
U2
R
J
37
U
30
SO

u
_
IS
10
XU
s
11

2
2

•
—
1

m
m
m
m
m
m

_

2
2

1
R

„

_

11

2
29
51

5
19

«
10
5
1

9

0

10
p
c
Q
V
p
c.
1
3
3
lU

10
r6

lU
RR

8

Uo
7
7
26

g

<
r

17

XX
h
*
t

U2
q
j

—
10

£

113
0

US
19

85
59

m
m
m
m
33
15
18
11
*
7?
9

1*5

7
30

15

2

l

26
16
10

6U
OO
CC
19 S
1

—
-

11

m
m
R
J

5
✓

16

13
^3
30

0
c
.

I7)
i*
.
s
6

72
S
16

7

70
f
u
IS
lu
2
6
23
Ui

d

p
d
1
_

m
m
m
m
m
m

-

U6
S5
R7
J^

45
j

12 3
7

j

32
23
u

32

5

-

-

-

-

26

lU

2

26

lU

2
-

-

-

-

77
75
2

7

Ui
71
J1
--

l

10

33
29

60

U2

36

60

U2
U

36

62

23
50

^

R

Women
A s se mh l p tb . c l a s s

C. total ......................... ...
Time ...... ................. ....... ............. .
I n c e n t i v e .......... ....... .................. .......... .......... .

Drill-press operators, single-and multiple-spindle, class c ....
See footnotes at end of table



16

65

16 3

9

li 5
*
10

16

18

32

9

56
IS

gg
6U

U2
6

US ill*
3p
Bb
US

Occupational Wage Survey, Buffalo, New York, January 1950
U. S. Department of Labor
Bireau of Labor Statistics

Table 7.— METALWORKING INDUSTRIES l/ - Continued

Occupation and sex

Machinery

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
earnings
2/

%

$

$

0 .6 5

0 .7 0

0 .7 5

and
under
.70

.7 5

.SO

$
$
o.go 0.B5
.8 5

.9 0

dumber o workers receiving straig£it-t]me hourly earnings of j
8
$
$
$
$
$
$
1
1$
$
$
1
0 .9 0 0 .9 5 1 . 0 0 1 . 0 5 1 . 1 0 1 . 1 5 1 . 2 0 1 . 2 5 1 . 3 0 1 . 3 5 i.>to 1 .U5 1 . 5 0 1 . 6 0 1 . 7 0 1.80 1.90 2 .0 0
.9 5 1 .0 0

I.0 5

1 .1 0

1 .1 5

1 .2 0 1 .2 5

1

.U0

1

.U5 1.50

1 .3 0

1 .5 5

16

70
205
-

6g
2

39
61
12

*3

H
i

52

9

g

3

1 .6 0

1 .7 0

l.go 1.90 2.00 2.10

$
2.10
and
over

3/

Men
Assemblers, class A ......................................
Assemblers, class B .......................... .............
Drill-press operators, single- and multiple-spindle, class B ....
Drill-press operators, single- and multiple-spindle, class C . . . .
Engine-lathe operators, class A ............................
Engine-lathe operators, class B ............. .......... .....
Grinding-machine operators, class A .................... ....
Grinding^-machine operators, class B ................... .....
Inspectors, class A ........... .........................
Inspectors, class B ........................... ..... .
Milling-machine operators, class A .......... ...............
Milling-machine operators, class B ...........................
Tool and die makers (jobbing shops) ... .....................
Tool and die makers (other than jobbing shOps) ...............
Welders, hand, class A ............... .................. .
......
Welders, hand, class B ....................... .

290

16

$1.^7

*S
t6
98
59
151

1 .3 8
1 .2 9

H 5
i.6u

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

-

3

21

3

23

%

2^

IS
65

58
12U
72
157
19 2

-

10

31

w
12

2

236

??

7

1 .7 1
1 .3 2
i.6 3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

*
*

lH

-

-

3
6

1.38
1.6l
l.Vl
1.77
1.7^

3

7

H

2
9

—
—

2
19
13
6

16

16

^9

21

12

7
30
3

1 .6 3

l.Ho

Ho

2

—
H
2
—
7

.* 3
97
17

75
59
2

bS

6

3

-

-

-

H
-

-

—
-

g
2
-

2
-

31
9
10

29
6

3
7

2
2

-*
—

u
-

-

10

—
11
—

10

2
—

—

-

—

—

—
7
H 20
H —

13
lg

g

H 23
— 7 19
5
H 6g H

11

39

-

lH
H
o

—

—

—
6

-

—

2

—

-

—
19
lg
—

32
g
-

—

—

3s

jJ The study covered establishments in Erie and Niagara Counties with more than 20 workers in the metal furniture industry (Industry Groups 25 lH and 2522 ); fabricated metal products, except selected fabricated
structural metal products (Group 3 except industries jHHl, 3H 2, and 3H 3); machinery, except electrical (Group 35) (machine-tool accessory establishments with more than 7 workers were included in this group); and
H
H
H
electrical machinery, equipment and supplies (Group 36) as defined in the Standard Industrial Classification Manual (I9H5 edition) prepared by the Bureau of the Budget. Of the estimated 1^7 establishments and
26,100 workers in these industries, Hi establishments with 15*7^2 workers were actually studied.
2/ Excludes premium pay for overtime and night work.
Except electrical machinery.




17

Table g.— FERROUS FOUNDRIES l/

Occupation

Number of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings of Average
Number
li.io $ 1.15 $1.20 $1.25 $1.30 $1.35 11755" $5755 11750 11755" $1*70 $1.80 $1.90 $2.00 $2.10 $2.20 w r p $2.40 12750" $ 2.60 $2.70 $2.80
hourly
of
and
earnings
workers
under
hi
1.15 1.20 1.25 1 .J0 i-35 1.50 1.55 1.50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2.00 2.10 2.20 2.30 2.50 2.50 2.60 2.70 2.80 2.90

Zj

3g
1+

Chippers and grinders, t o t a l .... ...................................
Time ....................... ......... ...... ...................
Incentive •••••••••••••••*.•............ .......................
Co remakers, hand, total • • • » » • ......................... ........ ....
Time ................. ................... ......................................

132
133

-

Eg

11

-

6

Ml
-

-

-

M.

-

-

2

4

5

23

*7
24

6

32
30

2

6

4
4

-

-

5

8
10

2

11

44
24
28
4

14
4
14

18
5
13
18

5

41

12
6
-

24

5

6

—

-

—

12

8

—

10
11

16

2
2

19

4
7

10

»

10
2

5

2

15

M.

10

—

12

16

—

6

12

23

4

2
6
2

-

4

—

11

_

M
*
t*.

-

11

13

18
18

Mi

2.02
1.65
1.64
1»93
1.7?
1.44

21
8

134
128

-

1.41

S3
I57
70
184
42
94

2
2
-

I.70

70

Molders, floor ......................................................... ... .................................................................................................................
Molders, hand, bench ........................... .......................................
Molders, machine *................. ....................................
Patternmakers, w o o d ....... .........................................
Shake-out men .................. ................................. ........

6
6

$1.46
I .33
1.69

216

16
2

4

12

4
9

12
6

4

m»

m.

«.

-

••

4

_

k
—

-

_

4

8

6

—

2

10
8
2

7

14

2

2
26
2

4

4

**

*•

2
8

Mi

2

2
_

6

9

—

M

»<

12

2
2
6

«.

M

-

-

-

-

—

—

—

-

*
•

-

-

4

2
6

M.

M.

6

m.

2

9

7

—

-

l/ The study covered iron and steel foundries in Erie and Niagara Counties with more than 20 workers.
2j
Data limited to men workers.
Of the estimated 27 establishments and 3,600 workers in this industry, 9 establishments with 1,582 workers
Excludes premium pay for overtime and night woik.
were actually studied*
Table 9.— NONFERROUS FOUNDRIES 1/

hi

$1.36
1 .5b

3?

36
Molders, floor ................. .........................
Molders, hand, bench .......................................
Molders, machine ............ ...............................

l/

M
.
—
-

1.63
1.59
1.63
1.23

14

20
19

12
All

$1.10
and
under
1.15

2

$1.15

1.20

Number of woi:kers receiving straight-time hourly earnings of $1.50
$1.50
$1.60
$1.35
$1725
$1.55

$ 1.20

1-25

1

1-3°

15

—
5

$ 1.70

$1.80

^1795

1.70

1.80

1.90

2.00

19
9
4
—

—
3

—
-

1 •
0

Occupation 2/

Average
hourly
earnings

1

—
—
-

—
—
-

1

1

.
Ol

Number
of
workers

1.50

2

P

—
—
—
5
—

6
4
3

1.55

1
2

1.50
4
l

3

«
_

11

7

2

—

—

1

l.bO

6

1

3
I
—

11

1

—

—

$2.16

$2.20

1
—

2/ Data limited to men workers*

The study covered nonferrous foundries in Erie and Niagara Counties with more than 20 workers.

6 establishments, employing 557 workers, estimated to be in this industry were studied.

Excludes premium pay for overtime and night work.

Table 10.— FABRICATED STRUCTURAL METAL PRODUCTS l/

48

20

ft

19
17

59

hi

$1.25
and
under

$1.30

^30

1»35

-

50 - 3




11755“

Number of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings of $1.1+5
$ 1.50
$1755
$ 1.70
$1785
$1.90
$2.00

•
*

$1.41
1.67
1.42
1.77

1.50

I .50

9

1 .6 0

1.70

*5

1.55

22

11
2
2
2

1

1.56
1.35
1.76

l/ The study covered establishments in Erie and Niagara Counties with more than 20 workers in the
fabricated structured metal products industries, other than sheet-metal work. Of the estimated 15
establishments and 1,380 workers in these industries, 9 establishments with 1,074 workers were actually
studied.
887157 0

ii-35

5
12
2/

2/

1.80

1.90

2.00

2.10

2.20

2
14

1
27

Data limited to men workers.
Excludes premium pay for overtime and night work.

•2.3O

$2.30
and
over

1 1 I II

Crane operators, electric-bridge
Fitters, structural, class A •••
Fitters, structural, class B «••<
Lay-out men, class A .......... .
Power-shear operators, class A
Power-shear operators, class B .
.
Welders, hand, class A *.•••.*.•<

Average
hourly
earnings

-

V1 1
J

Occupation 2/

Number
of
workers

2

Occupational Wage Survey,
Buffalo, New York, January 1950
U. S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics

Table 11.— DEPARTMENT AND CXJDTHING STORES 1/

AA T
v rfiC A

Occupation and sex 2/

1---Number Weekly
Weekly Under 25.00
sched- Hourly
of
and
workers uled earnings earnings *
25.00 under
2/
2/
hours

Numb►er of workers receiving strain'ht-time weeld j eamings of *
»
r
$
*
1
1
*
1
$
$
$
1---- T ---- 1
27.50 30.00 32.50 3 5 .0 0 37.50 40.00 42.50 45.00 47.50 50.00 52.50 55.00 57.50 60.00 62.50 65.00 6 7 .5 0 70.00

1—

1—

2 7 .5 0 3 0 .0 0 3 2 .0 0

35.00

3 7 .5 0

A .0 0 42.50 45,00 47.50
.0

JO.OO

52.50 55.00 57.50 60.00

9

7 2 .5 0

\ ' *
?5.00 8 0 .0 0 *
85.00

62 .5 0 65.00 67.. 5Q 7 0 .0 0 7 2 .5 0 7 5 .0 0 50.00
.

85.00

and
over

Department and Clothing Stores l/
Hen
Sales clerks:

.».***,.+**»»**-******

101
75
30
57

0000c

46

Men's
Men's furnishing3
Women'a shoes

$ .0 8
2
2.10
1 .4 3
1 .4 0

*83.00

1

8 4 .0 0
5 7 .0 0

56.00

■*•07

4

3

m
1
2

2
3

«
.

1
5

3

55 .5 0

2

1

a
.

2
2

2
3
4

1
5
4

2

_

4

1

1

M

3

4

6

2
2

3
3

5
4

2
1
2
2

6
5

7

3

3

1

a
t

8
1
33

1
2
3

1
2

2
5
3
7

«
.

—

1
2
2

5
3
3

1
2
2
1

5

6

3

4
«

m
m

—

—

<
9

1

«
*

1

2

3

6
10

5

1

—

5

2

1
16
•2
2

20
40
5

1

—

Women
Cashier-wrappers.... ........... ••••••»..»»
Elevator operators, passenger •».... .••••••.
Sales clerks:
Men's furnishings

Women1s shoes ••••*»•••*••*»•••••«•»«»••
Women's suits
coats • • « • * • » • « * * • • • • •
Tailors, alteration, men's garments « • • • • • • » .
Tailors, alteration, women's garments .......

92

40.0
40.0

•71

28.50
27.00

108
63
136
114
42
89
30

40*0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0

.9 1
.7 5
.7 8
.3 9
1 .0 9

.9 3
.7 9

36.50
30.00
31.00
35.50
43.50
40.50
37.00
31.50

83.00
56.00

69

4 0 .5

.68

1.00

40*0
40.0

46
30

Department Stores

142

40*0
40.0

2 .0 8
1 .4 0

j.n a
40.0

• f?

1
2
*
*

24
43

11

24

44
13

1

2

10
0
0

25

23

43
15

31

00
*7

17

23
4
13
4
15

10
Ja
on
XU

L

2
-

—

1
33

2

2
‘21

id
xo

4

15
9
43

c

3

10
c
3
a
0

19
4

6
1

4

2

0

0

2

12
2
11

X

14
X

18
-

13

4
5

1
c
?

3
5
m
m

1

m
m

■>

2

«•

—
a,'
m
m

8

4

1
1
2

rm
n
a.

a.

4

«.

1

2
1

3
5

1
1

•

«

a
.

2

4

3

1

—

m
m

2

•a

_

2

3

1
1

a

2

a.

1

1

-

•

•

■»

m
m

-

m
m

-

-

m
m

—

«•

m
m

1

20
1

'

U

Men
Sales clerks:
Furniture
Women's shoes

a.

2

a.

1
2

2
3

a.

4

1
1

m
m
m
m

«
»

6
2

•
..

•a

5

2

W aw
< a
Sale* olerkst
Women's accessories
Women's shoes
Women's suits and coats

* « • • • • • • • • • • • ...

03
124
98
42
69

1no

-LUo

See

footnotes at end of *“ble,




4 0 .0

40.0
4 0 .5
inn

n r

.7 8
.9 0
1 .0 9
.9 6
.7 4

nn
31.00
36.00

«an
2v*w

4 3 .5 0
3 9 .0 0

0 cn
0

Z 7 .™

10
Jx
u
2
01
3i

0
0
A
X
43
15

2

Ol

Jt
J$
27
13
4

9

oc

35

c
?
27
O
l
4

13
i
13

c
?
8

17
4
6
7
f

1
X
2
T
O
X
X
2
16

2

T
O
XX

2
11

1

0
3
3
3

6
3

X

O
2

2
1

5

e
m

2
2

1

1

e»

«a

aa

2

a.

3

m
m

a.

m
m

1

..

..

1

m
m

m
m

a.

•a

•
••

•

i
X

Occupational Wage Survey, Buffalo, New York, January 1950
U. S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics

19

Table 11. — DEPARTMENT AND CLOTHING- STORES 1/ - Continued

number of workers receiving sirai git-time weekly earnings of

Average

Occupation and sex 2/

Weekly
Number
Weekly
Hourly
sched­
of
earnings earnings
uled
workers
hours

2I

2/

10.72
•80
1.14
•93

»---Under

25.00

$

*

and
under

25.00

$29.00

1—
*
1— 1 — 1—
*
$
*
1— 1
f — f—
1—
$
1 — 1— $
3O.OO 32.50 35.00 37.50 4 0 .00 42.50 4 5 .0 0 47.50 50.00 52.50 55.00 57.50 60.00 62.50 65.00 67.50 70.00 72.50 75.00 80.00 85.00

27.50

1—

1

i

21*50 30.00 32.5° 35.OO 37-5° 40.00 42.50 45.00 47.50 50.00 5 2.50 55-00 57.50 60.00 62.50 65.00 67.50 70.00 72.50 75.00 80.00 85.00

and
over

Clothing Stores 4/
Women
Sales clerks*
Women's accessories ...................
Women's dresses ........................
Tailors, alteration, women's garments ......

l/

12
16
20

uo .5
41.0

34

41.0

40.0

6

33.00
45.50
38.00

k
k
-

2
2

2

6
8

4

-

-

2

6

2
2

-

—

k

2
2

-

-

2

8

-

—

2

k

2

k

-

The study covered department stores,men's and boys' clothing stores, women's ready-to-wear stores, and family clothing stores in Erie County, employing more than 20 workers.

-

—

Of the estimated

-

-

••

-

26 establishments and

8,3lo workers in these industries, l6 establishments with 6,779 workers were actually studied.
Excludes sales clerks in basement departments which duplicate at lower price lines the merchandise carried in upstairs departments.
Excludes pay for Overtime.
Selected occupations.

Table 12.— OFFICE BUILDING SERVICE 1/

Occupation and sex

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
earnings
2/

$

0.55
and
under
•60

i

0.60 0.65

*
O .70

0.75

$
0.80

.7°

•75

.80

.85

* .

.65

*

iHUmber of workers receiviiig straight-iime hourly earninSB Of •
*
1
1
£
$
1
11
$
$
j
0.85 O .90 0.95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1.30 1.35
.90

•95

1.00

1.05

1.10

1.15

6
-

2

4

7
-

2

1.20

1.25

1.30

1.35

$
1.40

1.45

1.50

$

*
1.60

*

1.70

$
1.80

1.50

1.60

1.70

1.80

1.90

-

-

-

-

2
-

—

—

—

—

*

1.40 i 1.45

$

Men
.vfttor nnsi*&.tnTs
.............. ..... ___________ __
Engineers, stationary ................................ .
Firemen, stationary boiler ................................. ..
Janitors «.......... ................... ........ .
Watch m e n.................. ...i............................ .

O’f
kk
27
50
29

#>•75
1-43

1.03
-95
1-02

h
m
s
2
1

K
D

13

h
*
T

3

1
l

4
7
4

1
-

8
3

3
5
-

12
-

1
5
1

-

•
»
-

~

42

5

3

22

55
17

171
17

157
2

3
2

12

5

1
-

5
4

2

7

3
l
12

-

1
4
-

-

•
*
—

_

_

-

—

—

2

4

2

12
•
*

Women
Cleaners .................. .................................... .
Elevator operators, passenger •.................... .

439
80

•87
.84

•
»
—

*
•

l / The study covered office buildings in Erie County employing more than 20 workers. Of the estimated 24 establishments
and 85O workers in this industry, 15 establishments with 574 workers were actually studied. Although these data are based
upon a June 1949 survey, a follow-up check was made and average earnings were adjusted to January 195®
the basis of general wage changes.
2/ Excludes premium pay for overtime and nig^t work.




3

2
—

5
—

1

-

-

—

U. S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics

20

Table I 3* — HOTELS
*

Average
Number
hourly
of
workers earnings

Occupation and sex

$
0.60

.70

2

$
6*55

*0 .6 5

.65

#>•50

$ . 1+5
0

2
-

2
1

2
2

3

12

l
-

2
—

2
•
*

—
*
*

and under

2/

*50

.55

32

$0.83

13

•
»
-

3

•99

lj
Number of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings of $0^0 $0.85
$1*66 $1.05 $1.10
$
3.75
$0.9?

$0.70

*85

.90

.95

1.00

6

.80

.75.

—
—

4
—

2
—

a
*

,—

2
—

—

*1.15

$1.20

$1.25
1.30

1.10

1*15

1.20

1.25

8

-

3

—

-

-

-

*
•
-

•
•

*
•

-

-

1.05

h"'*r ! T o 5

1.35

1.U0

-

-

Men
Clerks, d e s k ................. ..............
Clerks, r o o m ..... ....................*.......
Elevator operators, passenger ....................
Housemen ..........................................

.61

&

.69

13
32
25I

.74
.66

3

6

9
l

—

7

16

12

5

30

-

2
1
33

27

2

*

2
2
—

1

—

Women
Clerks, d e s k ...... .........................
Elevator operators, passenger •••..... .
Maids, chamber ••••••........ *....................

"u
Zj

3

.63

-

A

68

The study covered yeax*-round, ho t e l s I n Erie C o m i t y w i t h m o r e t h a n 20 workers*
Excludes p r e m i u m p a y f o r overtime a n d night work*

5

97

m

*
•

—

—
*
•

O f the e s t i m a t e d 17 e s tablishments a n d 1,910 w o r k e r s i n this industry, 9 establishments w i t h 1,592* w o r k e r s w e r e a c t u a l l y studied.
Table 14.— P O W E R LAUN D R I E S l/

Occupation and sex

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
earnings

47

$
0*95
1.05

$ .6 0
0

.60

.65

.70

—
—

—

36

-

-

68

•73
•73
.72
•75
*78
•79
•72
.84
.87
•73

12
12

-75

Number of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings of-

$0.75

$6.95

$1.00

$1.05

$1.10

$1.15

$1.20

$1.25

.90

.55

1.00

1.05

1.10

1.15

1.20

1.25

1-30

-

10
—

—

4

8
2

3

3

5

8
8
12

-

-

-

$0.85

•80

.85

4

7

-

-

—

21
6
0
—
6
0
2
12
12
—
16
26

25
83
54
29

lb

8
6
2
4
l

23
13

—

5
m

26

21
2

and under

.2/

$0.90

$0.86

—

1.08

$0.70

$ .b5
0

$0.55

_

1.35

Men
Extractor operators •*.••«•.......... ...............
Firemen, stationary boiler ............................
Washers, machine ......................................
Women
Clerks, retail receiving ........................ ..
Finishers, flatwork, machine, total ...................
Time .................................. *................
Incentive ..................................... .
Identifiers ...................................................................
Markers, total ••••••..... *...........................
Time ........ ....................................
Pressers, machine, shirts •«••••••••••••.•••••••••*•••.
Wrappers, bundle .................... ............. .
1j
Zj

lb

169
7b
93
42
70
3°
40
188

66

-

4

-

7

«
*

8
8
2
9
1
8
2
10

—

—
•
*
•
*
—
«
*

—

6

4
4

•
»

12

*
•

—

3

23

The study covered p o w e r laundries in Erie and N i a g a r a Counties w i t h m o r e tha n 20 workers* O f the e s t i m a t e d
Excludes pre m i u m p a y for overtime a n d night work*

2
-

-

3

—
10

5

10

5
••

28
19

—
—
—
1
—
1
3?

—
—

—

4
4

3
18

2

-

—

—

—

•*

establis h m e n t s a n d 1,920 wor k e r s in this industry, 12 establishments w i t h

1,269

—
—
—
—

—

—
—
—

—
—
-

—

a
.

-

—
—
-

—
—

—

4

-

—

2
2

2
2
10
—

—

3

-

—
—
-

2

—

4
3

—

—
—

—

—

-

-

—

—
—
—

M
l

4
25

4

—
—

3

*
*

2

3

—
—
1

1
1

—

—

—

-

wor k e r s w e r e a c t u a l l y studied*

T a b l e 1 5 ---A U T O M O B I L E R E P A I R SHOPS 1/

Occupation

Zj

Number
of
wor k e r s

Average
hourly
earnings

3/
Greasers .......... ............ ............ ••••• ..........
Mechanics, automotive, class A, total ..........
T i m e .............. ................ ........... ..............................
Incentive ........... ........................... ..................... .
Mechanics, automotive, class B
Washers, automobile, total
T i m e ............. ........................................ .

248
79
355

.85

$ 1.63
I .25

223
I 32
151
51

37
14

industries, 14 establishments w i t h 385 w o r kers were a c t u a l l y studied*
Zj D a t a limited to m e n workers*
3/ Excludes p r e m i u m p a y for overtime and night work.




$0.80
and under

-

1.18

Mi

1.12

8
6
2

1.09

.90

$ 0.90
-

•95

1.00
_

-

-

M.

-

$1705
-

1.05
17
27

«•

m
m

7

$ 1.00
-

$0.95
-

—

1.50
I .38
1.^0

1.20

$0785
-

6

1
1

-

1

15

27
22

m
m

H.

9
Ml
—

8

9

1

1

1

8

-

1.10

Num1
ber of w o r k e r s receiv:Lng straight-time h o u r l y earuings o f $1.40
$ 1.10 $ 1 7 1 5
$ 1.20
$1.45 $ 1750- $1.60
* 1.25 $ 1730- W 3 5
i 1.15
1.60
1.20
i.jo
1.1(0
1.50
1.70
1.25
1.45
1-35

-

9

m
m

8

19

7

m
m

9
18
19
18

1
23

mm
mm

-

6
16

9

8

1
22

l6
lb

m
m
44
44

13

15

9

39
38

45

^1
7

51
5

$ 1 7 7 0 - $1.80
I .90
1.80

35

53

57

24

24

39

9

16

22
2

15

9

16

Q

30

14

7

«,

7

-

9m

-

$ 2.00
-

2.00

2.10

7

6
25

m
m

6

6
6

$2710
and
ove r
14
•
»
14

m
m

25

14

m
m
m
m

m
m

m
m
-

7

30

$ 1.90
-

»

.

m
m

_

-

-

-

-

-

Occupational Wage Survey, Buffalo, New York, January 1950
U. S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics

21

Table l6.— OTION VAGE SCALES
(Minimum wage rates agreed upon through collective
bargaining between employers and trade unions)

Classification

Bate per
hour

± 1
Bakeries
Semi-machine shops:
Fo'remen ...»............. ....... ........
Oven hands and mixers ......... .........
Bench hands .............................
Helpers and pan greasers .......... .
Hand w r a ppers .......... ................
Machine shops 2/:
Bread department:
Working foremen ••••••••••••.... .
Mixers .......................... .....
Overmen ...............................
Assemblymen ............... ...........
Dividermen; bench hands
Machine and moldermen.... .
Mixers1 helpers •••••.*.... .
Assembly helpers, oven feeders and
d u m p e r s ........ .
Bench helpers, wrapping-machine
operators.... ......................
Packers, wrapping- and slicing-machine
helpers, coolezmen, flour handlers ...
Pan greasers, machine hand helpers .....
Cake department:
j 0remen
■
•
Mixers ............................ .
Ingredient scalers •••••••»•.... .......
Poreladies........ .................. .
Machine helpers .................... .. .
Pan greasers ...........................
General helpers
.
Icing-machine operators (women) ........
leers, packers, wrappers (women) •••••».
Crackers and cookies 2jx
Mixing department:
Head mixers .................... .
•
Flour dumpers, mixers1 h e l pers .... ..
Baking department:
Machine captains ••••••••..•».... ....
Oven firemen, bakers (traveling and
reel oven) •••••••••.............. .
Cuttermen ...........••»»•.•••...... .
Floonnen (class A), sponge rollermen, mixers' helpers
Hollermen ...........................
Floormen (class B), pan feeders and
greasers, inspectors • •••........ • •
Forming-machine operators......... ..

$1.50
1 . 1*5
1*395
l.l*+

•95

Hours
per
week

1*
0
1*
0
10
*
1*
0
10
*

1.3I*

10
*
10
*
1*
0
1*
0
10
*
1*
0
10
*

1.315

1*
0

1.30

1*
0

1.275

1.25

1*
0
10
*

1*6025
1.1+
9
1.1*65
1.1*0

1*
0
10
*
1*
0
10
*

1.295
1.28
1.27

10
*

1.6025

1 . 1*9

1.1*65
1.1*1*
1.1*2
1-39

1.25
1.115
1.08

10
*
1*
0
10
*
10
*
10
*

1-33

10
*
1*
0
1*
0

1.1*3

1*
0

1.36
1.31+

10
*
10
*

1*33

10
*
1*
0

1.515

1.1*3

1.27
1.21

1.09

1*
0
10
+

1/ Bates in effect January 3 , 1950.
2/ Lata are presented for a selected union agreement covering a
substantial portion of unionised workers in this segment of the industry*




Classification

Bate per
hour

1 / ...
Bakeries • Continued
•
Machine shops - Continued
Crackers and cookies - Continued
Icing department:
Head mixers ................ .
Machine captains »••»...••..... .
Machine set-up men, machinemen •••••
Machine operators (women) •••»•....
leers (women), helpers (women) •••..
Building construction
Bricklayers .......................... .
Carpenters ............................ .
Electricians •••».•••....... ........ .
Painters ••••••».................... .
Plasterers, plumbers •....................
Building laborers.... ........... .......
Local transit operating employees
Busses:
First 3 months «••»•........... ••••••
1 - 12 months .................. •••••
*
After 1 year ................. ......
Motortruck drivers and helpers
Beer:
Keg:
Drivers, brewery .....................
Helpers, brewery .....................
Drivers, distributor........... .
Bottle:
Drivers, h e l p e r s ....... .............
Building:
Construction:
Drivers, carry-all trucks, winch
trucks, concrete-mixer trucks ......
Drivers, dump trucks ................ .
Drivers, general contractor..... •••••
Material:
Drivers •••••••...................... .
Helpers .....................
Lumber:
Drivers ............................ .
Coal:
Drivers ...........••••........... .....
Frei^it:
Drivers, local delivery........ ........
Drivers, peddle run •••••••.............
Ice:
Drivers, helpers •••••..................

♦ 1.515
1.U3
1-33

1.09
1.07

2.50
2.29
2.58
2.125

2.U0
1 . 55.

Hours
per
week

1*
0
1*
0
1*
0
1*
0
1*
0
1*
0
1*
0
10
*
1*
0
10
*
10
*

I.36
1*39

«
*

l.Ul

1.575
1-^75

10
*
1*
0
10
+

1 . 1*75

10
*

1.65
1 . 1*5

10
*

1.60

1+
9

1-55

10
*

1.1*25

1*0

1.275

1*
0

1.50

1*
0

1.25

1*0

1.38
I.U15

15
+
1+
5

I.30

1*
0

Classification

Motortruck drivers and helpers - Continued
Linen supply:
Dri v e r s.... ................. ..........
Liquor:
Drivers ...... ....................... .
newspapers:
Drivers ................... .
Bailway express:
Drivers .................................
Printing
Book and job shops:
Bindery women
Bookbinders .............................
Compositors, hand .............. ........
Electrotypers .••••••••••.... ..........
Machine operators ........ ..............
Machine tenders (machinists) .......... .
Photoengravers ......................
Press assistants and feeders:
Job cylinder press assistants .........
2-color press assistants ............. .
Pressmen, cylinder:
Job cylinder presses ........... .
2-color p r e s s e s .......... ......... .
newspapers:
Compositors, hand:
Day work ..............................
night work ......................... .
Machine operators:
Day w o r k ....... •••••.................
• Bight work »••••........... ............
Machine tenders (machinists):
Day work ............ .................
H:\git w o r k ............................
Mailers:
Day work ................ .............
Night work ......... ...... ...........
Pho toengravers:
Day work ••••••......... ...............
Night w o r k ...... .....................
Pressmen, web presses:
Day work
Agreement A .........................
Agreement B .........................
Night work
Agreement A .........................
Agreement B .................... .
Stereotypers:
Day work ..............................
Nigit work ......................

laie per
hour
1/

Hours
per
week

*1*225

1*0

1.1*5
1-35

15
+
15
+

1-595

1*0

1.5375

11
**

1.075
1.995

2.359
2.402
2.1*67

37*
37*
37*
37*
37*
37*
37*

1.87
1.96

37*
37*

2.306
2.20

2.227

2.1*1
2.1*6
2.57

37*
37*

37*
37*

2.66

2.55

37*
37*

2.55
2.66

37*
37*

1.90

10
*
37*

2.133

2.781*
2.917
2.372

37*
37*

2.223

#

2.1*78
2.1*78

37i
37i

2.372
2.1*79

37*
37f

Occupational Wage Survey, Buffalo, Hew York, January 1950
TJ. S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics

22

Table 17.— SHIFT DIFFERENTIAL PROVISIONS IN SELECTED MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES

Percent of plant workers employed on each shift*
Ferrous
Paper and
Industrial
Grain-mill
Metalworking
Machinery
foundries
paperboard
chemicals
products
hi
hi
mills 2/
1/
_______3/______
______ 2Z_____
3rd or
3rd or
3rd or
3rd or
3rd or
3rd or
2nd
2nd
2nd
2nd
2nd
2nd
other
other
other
other
other
other
shift
shift
shift
shift
shift
shift
shift
shift
shift
shift
shift
shift

Shift differential

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

LOO.O

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0
100.0

100.0
100.0
_
100.0
—
—
-

81.3
69.9
56.4
13.5

79.6
69.6

99.0
65.6

95.6
33.6

100.0
7.7
—

100.0
100.0
15.7

100.0
100.0

1577
17.7
.4
57.6
.3
6.3
51.0
4.2
4.4

2.9
4.8
87.5
—
87.5
4.8
-

97.0
79.2
—
15.3
62.5
1.4
17.8
1.0
—
16.8
3.0

100.0
39.1

18.3
1.0

100.0
81.1
—
•
59.7
3.2
18.2
6.2
—
6.2
12.7
-

14.5

21.0

9.7

1.7

8.5

.7

Establishments operating extra shifts
Establishments paying shift
differentials.... .......... «••••
Uniform cents (per hour) •••••••••
Under 5 c e n t s ..... .
5 cents •••••••••..... .
Over 5 and under 10 cents •••••
10 cents ................... .
Over 10 cents ••••••..........
Uniform percentage •••••••••.... .
Under 5 percent ..............
5 percent ................ ..
10 percent •••••••••••....... .
Full dayfs pay for reduced hours .
Other •••••••••••••••••••........
Establishments with no differential •

100.0
—

—
—
-

Percent of workers on extra shifts^
all establishments ......... .

1/ Definition of industry appears
2j Definition of industry appears
3/ Definition of industry appears
4/ Definition of industry appears
2/ Definition of industry appears

20.3

in
in
in
in
in

_
10.5
59.1

•
•
-

_
—
11.4
18.7

—
10.0
20.4

17.7

22.0

17.2

-

footnote
footnote
footnote
footnote
footnote

to
to
to
to
to

table
table
table
table
table

42.7
4.6
18.3
15.1
—
15.1
-

-

-

39.1
60.9
-

m
m

6O .9
-

64.6

4.0
15.7
—
• 7.6

—

21.4
25.0
53.6
—
■
—
-

1.7

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Table 19.— SCHEDULED WEEKLY HOURS 1/

Weekly hours

All establishments...... .
Under 35 hours... .......
35 hours ••••... •....... .
Over 35 and under 37i hours .
37j hours......••....•• •
•
Over 37g and under 40 hours .
40 hours
Over 40 and under 44 hours •
•
44 hours
Over 44 and under 48 hours ••
48 hours..... ..........
Over 48 hours ...••••......
l/
2/
2/

Percent of women office workers employed in Percent of plant 2/ workers employed in Transporta­
Transporta­
Finance, tion commu­
All Manu­ Whole­
All
Manu­ Whole­
tion, commu­
Retail insurance, nication, and Serv­ indus­ fac­ sale Retail nication, and Serv­
indus­ fac­ sale
tries turing trade trade ether public ices
tries turing trade trade and real other public ices
estate
utilities
utilities
100.0
0.6
2.7
5.2
18.4
9.9
55.5
5.1
1.8
.7
.1

100.0 LOO.O 100.0
1.0
—
1.5
2.7 2.3
44.2
1.5
10.4 7.5
74.9 44.2
4.0 1.8
4.0
-

0.9
78
_
12.5
63.5
20.3
.3
1.4
.3

100.0
10.2
20.6
1 3 .2

13.4
42.3
—
.3
—

Data limited to Erie County.
Other than office workers.
Includes data for industries other than those shown separately<




100.0
1.9
7676
2.8
16.2
2.2
_
.3

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
_
2.0
2.7
1.9
_
.3
.3
.3
.7
.5
_
1.8
1.3
10.1
1.3
56.7 77.8 8 6 .9 7 0 .2
1.7
14.7
.3 1.1
.8
3.6
.4 8.0
12.7
5.5
4.7 11.1
M
1.8 5.2
4.3
.6 4.4
4.3

100.0

100.0

_
—

11.3
53.7
11.3
2.1
9.7
8.4
3.5

1.2
59.2
—

2.9
6.5
30.2

100.0
1.6
—
5.6

l7o
43.7
3.7
1.2
9.2
24.0
9.8

Occupational Wage Survey, Buffalo, N ew York, January 1950
U. S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics

Table IB .— MINIMUM ENTRANCE RaTES FOR PLANT WORKERS

\J

Percent of plant 2/ -workers in establishments with

Minimum rate
(in cents)

All establishments

rransporManufacturing
tation,
All
communi­
Establish­ Establish­ Whole­
Serv­
ietail
indus­
cation,
ments with ments with sale
ices
trade
tries
m d other
2 1 - 2 5 0 251 or mere trade
2/
pubnc
workers
workers
itinties
100.0

50 or under •••••.... .
Over 50 and under 55 •••
55 ....................
Over 55 and under 60 ...
60 ....................
Over 60 and under 65 ...
6 5 ........ ...........
Over 65 and under 70 ...
7 0 ....................
Over 70 and under 75 ...
75 ....................
Over 75 and under 80 ...
8 0 ....................
Over 80 and under 85 ...
85 ....................
Over 85 and under 90 ...
9 0 .... ...............
Over 90 and under 95 •••
9 5 ............ .......
Over 95 and under 100 ..
100 ...................
Over 100 and under 105 •
105 ...................
Over 105 and under 110 .
110 ...................
Over n o and under n 5 •
115 ...................
Over 115 and under 120 .
120 ...................
Over 120 and under 125 •
125 ...................
Over 125 and under 130 .
1 3 0 ...................
Over 130 and under 135 •
135 and over ••••*••.•••

1.3
2.8
.2
2.3
2.6
3.5
1.6
.2
1.6
3.7
7.2
.5
1.3
1.0
2.5
2.5
1.4
4.71.7
1.7
2.9
5.6
.9
4.2
.6
7.0
(V)
6.9
.1
12.8
.1
2.7
2.3
6.3
1.6

Estabnshments with no
estabnshed minimum ••
Information not available

.5
1.2

100.0

100.0

9.6

3.7
1.6
.9
1.9
.6
6.9
.7
3.2
1.7

5.4
9.1
17.1
.7
1.5
2.8
3.7
1.4
6.7
.1
5.2
1.2
1.1
6.0
3.0
n .3
.2
5.2
.7
3.4
.2
.5
-

10.3

3.5

.8
4.0
8.2
11.1
20.6
4.1
4.3
11.8
1.6

.4
—

2.0

-

-

100.0

- '
0.9
2.7
34.1
5.3
4.3
6.9
5.S
12.4
2.6
6.1
-

100.0
1.9
19.0
1.4
17.6
2.1
30.9
1.6
7.5
3.9
5.4
.3
.5
1.4
2.1
-

1.0
.5
.5
-

100.0

1.6
A
3.7
-

10.9
17.1
24.2
1.3
5.9
8.0
-

1.6
7.9
1.2
12.9
3.7

100.0
23.4
14.9
6.1
10.7
2.6
8.6
6.8
15.0
3.0
1.9
1.8
1.0
.7
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3.5
6.4

-

3.5

2.4
“

-

“

-

3.5

1 Lowest rates formally established for hiring either men or women plant wetter^
/
other than watchmen* Data limited to Erie County*
2/ Other than office workers*
3 a Excludes data for finance, insurance, and real estate.
2/ Less than 0.05 of 1 percent.




Table 20.— PAID VACATIONS (FORMAL PROVISIONS) l/

Vacation policy

All establishments ......................... ..........................

Percent of office workers employed
Finance,
Manu­
All
Wholesale
insurance,
Retail
industries facturing
trade
trade
and real
estate
100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

51.9
6.3

29. 8
2.9

33-9
7.8
3-9

22.6
3.5

71.0
6.7
^ 9.7
1 1 .U

35.8
lU.6
19-*+
1.8
6U.2

in Transportation,
communication,
and other pub­
lic utilities

Percent of plant £/ workers employed in Services

All
Manu­
Wholesale
industries facturing
trade
3/

Retail
trade

Transportation,
communi cat ion,' Services
and other pub­
lic utilities

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

23.2

18.3

31.9
U.8
27.1
68.1

35.U
13.2

52.2

11.u

U.O

8.5
-

25.0
23.2

7.5
-

U 7 .8

1.0

88.2
-

100.0
2.6

k9.9
U.g
33.5
11.8

56.0
2U .1
15 .1

88.2
-

100.0
-

l'9.9

22.3

100.0

100.0

100.0

82.6

S6.0

5.U

U 6.9
-

61.2

15.7
32.6

-

37.7

6 months of service
Establishments with paid v a c a t i o n s .................................
Under 1 week ................ ................... .................
1 week ............................................................
Over 1 and under 2 weeks ................. .......................
2 w e e k s .......................................................... .
Over 2 w e e k s .................................. ...................
Establishments with no paid v a c a t i o n s .................... ........ .

.8
-

3.2

Ug.l

70.2

29.0

99.6
-

99.U
-

100.0

23.3
5-3
70.5
.5
.U

31.3
.2
67.9
.6

17.7

99.7
15 .U
l.Jt
79-^
3-5
•3

99.7
-

100.0

99.7
3-3
.2

99.7
2.0
.2
97.0
.3
•3

16.0
17.^

lU.O

38.5

7.7

s.u
-

U.o
.1
-

53.1

76.8

13-3
2.U
2.6
81.7

96.2

96.2

.7
79.3

.3

22.2
6b. 6

91.5

1 year of service
Establishments with paid vacations ............. ................. .
Under 1 week ......................................................
1 week ............................................................
Over 1 and under 2 w e e k s ..... ............. .....................
2 weeks .......................................................... .
Over 2 weeks ......................................................
Establishments with no paid vacations ...............................

-

6.7
75.6
-

100.0
Ug.U

29.0
16.7
5.9
-

100.0
.2
99.8
-

99. U
10.1

98.2
-

15.7
73.6

-

62.0

.6

1.8

100.0

99.8
-

98.2
2 8.8
69.H
1.8

98.2
.2
66.U

98.2
9.U
88.8
1.8

99-1
6.2
1.7
85.5
5.7

36.2

11.7
.2
3-8

88.9
1.7
5.3
-

3.8

2.2
-

96.9
1.3
U 5.0
U.O
U6.6
3.1

89.3
78.6
10.7
10.7

2 years of service
Establishments with paid v a c a t i o n s ................................ .
Under 1 w e e k ............. ........................................
1 w e e k ............................................................
Over 1 and under 2 weeks .........................................
2 weeks ...........................................................
Over 2 weeks ......................................................
Establishments with no paid vacations ................ ..............

23.2
l.l
75-U
.3

11.u
6.7
Si. 9
—

100.0
12.0
t .3
^5.2
U2.5
—

-

100.0
-

9.8
.3
89.7
.2

3-^
2U .6
3-6
1,8

98.9
.3
77.0
U.U
17.2
l.l

U.8
33.5
n.g

-

UU .7

33.0
—

97.8
^.3
1-3

52.2
2.2

89.3
70.9
18.U
-

10.7

5 years of service
Establishments with paid vacations .................................
1 week ............................................................
Over 1 and under 2 w e e k s ................... .....................
2 weeks ...........................................................
Over 2 weeks ......................................................
Establishments with no paid v a c a t i o n s ............................. .
1/
2/

t
J

D a t a limited to Brie County.
Other than office workers.
Includes dat a for Industries other than those shown separately,




85-3

10.9
•3

100.0

9.8
-

90.2
-

100.0
9.2
1.1
U0.3
U 9.U

100.0

99.8

-

1.3
-

60.7

98.5
.2

39.3

.9

100.0
3.7

2.1

92.3
1.9

92.7
16.6
-

76.1
-

100.0
11.2
1.9
U 7.2
39.7

7.3
Occupational Wage Survey,

97.8
9-7
88.1
2.2

89.7
17.3
-

72.0
-

10.7

Buffalo, H e w York, January 1950
U. S. Department of Labor
B u r e a u of Labor Statistics

Table 21*— P AID SICK LEAVE (FORMAL PROVISIOHS) 1/

Provisions for paid sick leave

All establishments ..... ............. •••......... .................. *...........

percent of office workers amployed in Finance, Transportati on,
All
Manu­
Wholesale Retail insurance, communication,
Services
industrade
and real
and other pub­
facturing
trade
tries
estate
lic utilities

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

22 .5
1 .7

12.0
2.0
1.8
•7
5.0
.5
.5

5^.0

1 6 .9

8 .9

100.0

Percent of plant 2/ workers employed in All
transportation,
indus­
Manu­
Wholesale Retail communi cat i on,
Services
and other pub­
tries facturing
trade
trade
lic utilities
3/

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

6.6

0.1+
.1+

1 2 .7

20.5

36.2

I 3.U
-

-

1*5
1 .5

6 months of service
Establishments with formal provisions for paid sick leave .................. *•••
Under 5 days ............... *..................*..... ........... *........ .
5 days ............................... *............................. *........
6 d a y s ...... *................ .......... ...... ............... .............
7 days .............. *.................... ..................................
10 days .......................... .............. ..............................
12 days .... ......... .
Establishments with no formal provisions for paid sick leave • ••........ .

8.1

5*6

2.U
1 .7

2.3
.7
77.5

1 .5

-

8.5
23-7

12.2
9.6

8.9
-

5 .2
•9
•3

58.1

1.^

-

-

^•3

I+2.3
15.8

1*3

-

-

1.6

1+
.6

-

-

m

88.0

1+ .O
6

83.1

91.1

Hi. 9

56A

33*7

8.9

8.7

18.3
.1
3.6

.1

-

63.9
1+1.2
15.8

-

1.8
3-3
•9

-.1
.it
.1
-

98.7

93A

*•3

8.3

-

1+
.8
•9

-

-

1+.3
•7

32.2
1+
.0

m
m
-

5 .9

-

87*3

79*5

63.8

9 8 .5

16.0
1+
.8

99*6

1.1+

l.l
-

-

~
-

33-5

38.1
25.0

3-3
3-3

♦7

-

1 year of service
Establishments with formal provisions for paid sick leave
Under 5 days ................ ...........................................
5 days ........... *•*•*•••• ...... *..... *....................................
6 days ................ ................. ......................... *••••••••••
7 days .......... ............................. ...................... .........................................
7i day ............................................... ..................................................................
10 days .•••••»•••»•••.................................................. .................
12 days .............. ........ *................................... •..........
15 days ............................... ......................... ........ •••*••
20 days ................ ............... .......................... ........... .
Over 20 days ............................. .................... .
Establishments with no formal provisions for paid sick l e a v e ...........*.*•••••

27.9
.2

5 .8

.8
1.8
5 -1
3 .0
•7
1 .7
7 2 .1

2.6

1 .7
1 .9
•5

6.1+
-

-

8 .5

6.1

30.9

-

*•3

33-2

1.6

1+
.6

-

-

-

6.2

-9

-

•3

1.1
-

I+
.3
-

1-3

2.6
3.0
.1
1.0
.1
-

.1
.1

1 .5
8 1 .7

2.1+
1 3 .6
+

66.3

91.1

36.I

95-7

91.7

20.2
.1
1.8
2.6

56 . 1
+

33-7

8 .9

9O.3

*•3

9.0

*•3

1*3

5 .8

.1+
.1+
-

2.1+
2.0

-

-

3-5
3*3

11
*
-

23.0
•7
1.1+
•7
-

5 .9

-

7 .2
-

M
-

8 4 .0

66*5

6 1 .9

9 6 .7

1.1+

16.0
-

33-5
7 .7

38.I

.1
+
—
-

3*3
3 -3

-

23-3
5-9

9 9 .6

,

2 years of service
Establishments with formal provisions for paid sick leave
Under 5 days .............. ...........................................•••••••
5 d a y s ...... ........... *....................... ........... ....... ........ *
6 d a y s ............ . ..........................................................
7 days ........ .................. ....................... ................. .
10 days ...................*........... ...... ................ .
12 days .................................................................. .
13 days ........ ......................... .....................................
15 days ........... .......... ..... ............. ........ ...... .......... .
20 d a y s .................... ......... .............. ....................... .
Over 20 days *............... ............ ................... .
Establishments with no formal provisions for paid sick leave .......
1/ B a t a limited to Brie county*
2/ Other than office workers*
2/ Includes data for industries other than those shown separately.




32.2

.2
7 .**

5*8

.1
3.8

m
m

-

-

6.1

•5
-

•7
2*3
7 .<
+

1.5

67*8

8.5

50

3 -7

.8

-

1 .9

6.5

79*8

-

30.9
•9
•3

27.8

1.6

-

-

11.6

2.1+
.1+3.6

66.3

-

*•3
-

1+.6
-

m
m
-

9 1.1

-

3 7 .7
1 5 .7

m
m

1+.6
-

3 2 .3
9 .7

-

95.7

2.5
3.0
.1
1.1
.1

1+
.8
-

23.O
•7

1.1+

8.9

•7

-

-

M

1.0

3 -5

m
m

.1

-

3-3

*
*

98.6

-

2.1+
2.0

•8

91.0

-

8I+
.0

66.5

61.9

m
m
-

m
m
m
m
-

96.7

Occupational Wa۩ Surrey, Buffalo, Hew York. January 1950
U. S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics

25

Table 22.— PAID HOLIDAYS 1/

Number of paid holidays

All establishments ............... ...............
Establishments providing paid holidays ......... .
I to 5 days ••••.••••••*•••......... .........
6 days ......... ................. ........... .
days ................. ...•*............. .
7 d a y s .......................................
7j days ••••••••••••............... ••••••••••«
8 days ................................... •••••
Sg days ................. ................
9 days .........
II days •••.•••••............. ...............
12 davs .................
Establishments providing no paid holidays ••••••••
1/

2J
3/
2/

Percent of office workers employed in
Finance, Tran sportation,
insurance, communication,
Wholesale
Manu­
Retail
and other pub­
trade
and real
facturing
trade
estate
lic utilities

All
industries

Services

All
industries

2/

Percent of plant 2/ workers employed in Transportation,
Wholesale
Retail
communication,
Manu­
trade
and other pub­
facturing
trade
lic utilities

Services

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

99.5
.4
58.3

99.9
.5
72.5
.8
20.1
2.6
3.4

100.0
.2
85.4

96.9
.5
82.3

100.0

99.2

97.5

85.2
.9

83.4

55.8

6874

86.0
1.6
72.1

12.1

74.2
7.1
63.1

2.k

llTl
1.1
.8

4.6

89.9
.5
79.1
1.4
7.3

573

1 0 .1

7~3

ill

11.0
64.8
10.0

12^
2.1
6.5
.2
2.4
14.9
1.7
.5

1.6

ti
7l

976

2 .0
6 3 .8

28.1
1.1
5.8
37.7

7 0 .6

1.0
7.2
.1

31^7

3:i

2675
•8

37l

l76

&

275

375
2.7
3.5

.4

io7i

1676

i
79
147o

23.3

72
i7o
2 .8

137l
, 4472

257s

Data limited to Erie County.
Other than office workers.
Includes data for industries other than those shown separately.
Less than 0.05 of 1 percent.
Table 23 .— NONPRODUCTION BONUSES 1/

All
industries

Type of bonus

All establishments ..«•....

Percent of office workers employed in
Finance, Transporta ti on,
insurance, communication,
Wholesale
Retail
Manu­
trade
and real
trade
facturing
and other pub­
lic utilities
estate

..................

100.0

100.0

Establishments with nonproduction bonuses ij .....
Christmas or year-end ....... ............ ..
Profit-sharing ...............
Other .............................. .
Establishments with no nonproduction bonuses •••••
Information not available •»•••••••••••••••••••.••

32.9
30.4
7.0
1.7
65.5
1.6

17.4
14.9
2.3
.2
79.1
3.5

1/
2/
37
5/

Services

:
All
! industries
!

2/

Percent of plant 2/ workers employed in Transportation,
communication,
Wholesale
Retail
Manu­
and other pub­
trade
trade
facturing
lic utilities

Services

1 0 0 .0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

34.8

55.5
55.2
.3
6.9
'44.5

80.6
76.3
31.4
4,3
19.4
—

4.5
4.5

55.5
55.5

2 4 .8

5 0 .8
4 1 .1

6 .3

62.0
60.6
1.4
6.7
38.0
—

18.6
10.5
—
8.1
81.4
—

3 7 .0
3 1 .8

1.8
44.5

18.1
10.5
2.2
5.8
80.1
1.8

3 0 .2

5.3
2.4
65.2
—

—

—
95.5

17.9
1.9
73.9
1.3

6.4
3.3
49.2
—

—
1 1 .5
6 3 .0

Data limited to Erie County.
Other than office workers.
Includes data for industries other than those shown separately.
Unduplicated total.
Table 24.— INSURANCE AND PENSION PLANS l/

Type of plan

All establishments .••*•••*.«•«
Establishments with insurance or pension plans kj
Life insurance
Health insurance ••••••.•••••••••••••••••••••••
Retirement pens ion ............................
Other •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••»•••••••••••
Establishments with no insurance or pension plans

All
industries

887157 0

-

50 - 4

Services

All
industries

2/

Percent < plant 2/ workers employed in Df
Transportati on,
Wholesale
comraunicat ion,
Manu­
Retail
and other pub­
trade
trade
facturing
lic utilities

Services

100.0

100.0

1 0 0 .0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

8 8 .5
7 6 .7
4 7 .0
5 4 .1
4 1 .8

88.7
76.3
65.2
42.4
53.1
11.-3

9 1 .6

57.9

99.5

95.7
68.5
40.8
87.4
28.6
4.3

6?.l

79.1
67.2
53.9
24.4
40.1
20.9

85.1
73.6
62.5
18.6
47.9
14.9

81.4
78.1
52.6
55.0
46.4
18.6

54.0
35.4
2 4 .2

81.0
67.2
39.1

30.8
10.9
46.0

26.2
19.0

48.5
44.2
33.7
5.2
21.8
51.5

n.5

Data limited to Erie County.
Other than office workers.
Includes.data for industries other than those shown separately.
Unduplicated total.




anployed in _
Percent of office workers <
Finance, Transportation,
Wholesale
Retail
Manu­
insurance, conmunication,
trade
trade
and real
facturing
and other pub­
estate
lic utilities

89.3
38.6
72.9
6 3 .8

8.4

3 2 .0

99.5

;

21.1
27.7
9.8
42.1

24.3
72.0
26.5
.5

i

6 6 .3

26.7
1.8
12.9
30.9

6 2 .5

Occupational Wage Surrey, Buffalo, New York, January 1350
U. S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistic*




A p p e n d ix - JbeA&ufMoHl
Office

B I U 3SR, MACHUfB
A worker who prepares statements, bills and inrolces on a Machine other than an
ordinary typewriter. May aleo keep records as to hillings or shipping charges or perform
other clerical work incidental to hilling operations. Should he designated as working on
hilling machine or bookkeeping machine as described below.
Billing Machine - A worker who uses a special billing machine (Moon Hopkins, Slliott
Ush er, Burroughs, etc., which are combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills
and inrolces from customers1 purchase orders, internally prepared orders, shipping memoranda,
etc* Usually involves application of predetermined discounts and shipping charges and entry
of necessary extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing machine, and totals
whleh are automatically accumulated by machine. The operation usually inrolres a large num­
ber of carbon copies of the hill being prepared and is often done on a fan-fold machine.
Bookkeeping Machine - A worker who uses a bookkeeping machine (Sundstrand, Xlllott
Fisher, Bonington Band, etc., which may or may not hare typewriter keyboard) to prepare cus­
tomers1 bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally involves the dlmultaneous entry of figures on a customer's ledger record. The machine automatically accumulates
figures on a number of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically the deb­
it or credit balances. Does not Involve a knowledge of bookkeeping. Works from uniform and
standard types of sales and credit slips.
BOOTOggEgR, HA1
CD
A worker who keeps a set of books for recording business transactions and whose
work Involves most of the following? posting and balancing subsidiary ledgers, cash books or
Journals, Journalising transactions where Judgment is Involved as to accounts affected; post­
ing general ledger; and taking trial balances. May also prepare accounting statements and
bills; may direot work of assistants or accounting clerks.
BOQKKEgPIHG-MACHIHE OPERATOR
A worker who operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Band, Xlllott Fisher, Sunds­
trand, Burroughs, national Cash Register) to keep a record of business transactions.
Class A - A worker who uses a bookkeeping machine with or without a typewriter key­
board to keep a set of records of business transactions usually requiring a knowledge of and
experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with the structure of the particu­
lar accounting system used. Determines proper records and distribution of debit and credit
items to be used in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance sheets,
and other records by hand.
Class B - A worker who uses a bookkeeping machine with or without a typewriter keyhoard to keep a record of one or more phases or sections of a set of records pertaining to
business transactions usually requiring some knowledge of basic bookkeeping. Phases or sec­
tions include accounts payable, pay rolls, customers' accounts (not including simple type of
billing described under Biller, Machine), cost distributions, expense distributions, inventory
controls, etc. In addition nay oiieck o r assist in preparation of trial balances and prepare
control sheets for the accounting department.




aff Occufj&tio*M> StuAi&t

27

Office - Continued

CAICDLATHfO-MACHIlCE OPERATOR

A worker whose primary function consists of operating a calculating Machine to per­
form mathematical ccsqmtationfl other than addition exclusively.
Comptometer type
Other than Comptometer type
c u b e

, accouhtiho

A war leer who performs one or more accounting operations such as preparing simple
journal vouchers; accounts payable vouchers; coding invoices or vouchers with proper account­
ing distributions; entering vouchers in voucher registers; reconciling bank accounts; post­
ing and balancing subsidiary ledgers controlled by general ledger, e.g., accounts receivable,
accounts payable, stock records, voucher journals. May assist in preparing journal entries.
For workers whose duties Include handling the general ledger or a set of books see BookkMper, land.
CLERK, FILE
Class A - A worker who is responsible for maintaining an established filing system
and classifies and indexes correspondence or other material; may also file this material. May
keep records of various types in conjunction with files or supervise others in filing and lo­
cating material in the files. May perform incidental clerical duties.
Class B - A worker who performs routine filing, usually of material that has already
been classified, or locates or assists in locating material in files. May perform incidental
clerical duties.
CLERK, SBKERAL

A worker who is typically required to perform a variety of office operations. This
requirement may arise as a result of impracticability of specialization in a small office ®r
because versatility is essential in meeting peak requirements in larger offices. The work
generally involves the use of independent judgment in tending to a pattern of office work
from day to day, as well as knowledge relating to phases of office work that occur only oc­
casionally. For example, the range of operations performed may entail all or seme combination
of the following: answering correspondence, preparing bills and invoices, posting to various
records, preparing pay rolls, filing, etc. May also operate various office machines and type
as the work requires. (See Clerk-Typist).
C g R K , QREKR

A worker who receives customers1 orders for material or merchandise by mall, phone,
or personally and whose duties involve any combination of the following; quoting prices to
customers, making out an order sheet listing the items to make up the order, cheeking prices
and quantities of items on order sheet, distributing order sheets to respective departments to
be filled. May also cheek with credit department to determine credit rating of eustomer, ac­
knowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow-up orders to see that they have been filled,
keep file of orders received, and check shipping invoices with original orders.




28

Office

- Continued

CUSRKt PAT BOLL
A worker who computes wages of oompany employees and enters the necessary data on
the pay-roll sheets and whose duties involve: calculating worker's earnings based on tine or
production records j posting calculated data an pay-roll sheet, shewing Information such as
worker's name, working days, time, rate, deductions for Insurance and total wages due.
In
addition, nay sake cut pay checks and assist the paymaster In waking up and distributing the
pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.
CIZRK-TYPIST
A worker who does clerical work requiring little special training but the performance
of which requires the use of a typewriter for a major portion of the time and whose work in­
volves typing letters, reports, and other matter from rough draft or corrected copy and one or
more of the following: keeping simple records; filing records and reports; making out bills;
sorting and distributing incoming mall.
DUPUCATIWG-MACHIKE OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsibilities, reproduces
multiple copies of typewritten or handwriting matter, using a mimeograph or ditto machine.
Makes necessary adjustment such as for Ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not
required to prepare stencil or ditto master. May keep file of used stencils or ditto masters.
May sort, collate, and staple completed material.
KEY-HMCH OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsibilities, records account­
ing and statistical data on tabulating cards by punching a series of holes in the cards in a
specified sequence, using a numerical key-punch machine, following written information o n
records. May be required to duplicate cards by using the duplicating device attached to ma­
chine. Keeps files of punch cards. May verify own work or work of others.
OFFICE BOX O GIRL
SR
A worker who performs a variety of routine duties such as running errands; operating
minor office machines; such as sealers or mailers; opening and distributing mail; and other
minor clerical work. (Bonded messengers are excluded from this classification.)
SECRETARY
A worker who performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an adminis­
trative or executive position and whose duties involve the following: making appointments for
superior; receiving people coming into office; answering and making phone calls; handling
personal and important or confidential mail, and writing routine correspondence on cwn initia­
tive; taking dictation, either in shorthand or by stenotype or similar machine (except where
transcribing machine is used), and transcribing dictation o r the recorded information repro­
duced on a transcribing machine. In addition, may prepare special reports or memoranda for
information of superior.




Office - Continued

STOTOCBRAPHER, GKKERAL
A worker whose primary function is to take dictation from one or more persons, either
in shorthand or hy stenotype or similar machine, involving a normal routine vocabulary, mad to
transcribe this dictation on a typewriter. May also type from written copy. May also set up
and keep files In order, keep simple records, etc.
Does not include transcribing-machine
work. (See Transorlblng-Maohlne Operator.)
STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL
A worker whose primary function Is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either In shorthand or by stenotype or similar machine, Involving a varied technical or spe­
cialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on scientific . research and to tran­
scribe this dictation on a typewriter. May also type from written copy. May also set up and
keep files In order, keep simple records, etc. Does not Include transcribing-machine work.
(See Transcrlblng-Machlne Operator.)
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
A worker who operates a single or multiple position telephone switchboard, and whose
duties Involve: handling incoming, outgoing and intrap Iant or office calls. In addition, may
record toll calls and take messages. As a minor part of duties, may give information to per­
sons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders. For workers who also do typing or
other stenographic work or act as receptionists, see Switchboard Operator-Receptionist.
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR -RECEPTIONIST
A worker who in addition to performing duties of operator, on a single position or
monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and/or performs typing or other routine cleri­
cal work as part of regular duties. This typing or clerical work may take the major part of
this worker's time while at switchboard.
TABUIATING-MACHIHE OPERATOR
A worker who operates machine that automatically analyzes and translates information
punched in groups of tabulating cards, and prints translated data on forms or accounting re­
cords; sets or adjusts machine to add, subtract, multiply, and make other calculations; places
cards to be tabulated In feed magazine and starts machine. May file cards after they are
tabulated. May sort and verify punched cards.
TRA3
ffSCRIBIIfG-MAC5IllE[OPERATOR, CflCTERAL
A worker whose primary function is to transcribe dictation involving a normal rou­
tine vocabulary from transcrib ing-machine records. May also type from written copy and do
simple clerical work. A worker who takes dictation in shorthand or by stenotype or similar
machine is classified as a Stenographer, General.
TYPIST
A worker who uses a typewriter to make copies of
bills after calculations have been made by another person.




various material or to make out
May operate a teletype machine.

Office - Continued

TYPIST - Continued
Claes A - A worker who performs one or more of the following:
typing material in
final fora from very rough and involved draft; copying from plain or corrected copy in which
there is a frequent and varied use of technical and unusual words or from foreign language
copy; combining material from several sources; or planning layout of complicated statistical
tables to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing, typing tables from rough draft in final
form* May also type routine form letters, varying details to suit circumstances*
Class B - A worker who performs one or more of the following:
typing from rela­
tively clear or typed drafts; routine typing of farms, insurance policies, etc*; setting up
simple standard tabulations,or copying more complex tables already set up and spaced properly*

Maintenance

OARFEHTlfr, MATWrEKANCE
A worker who performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and maintain in
good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs, counters, benches, partitions,
dooa?s, floors, stairs, casings, trim made of wood in an establishment, and whose work involves
most of the following: planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenters* hand tools, portable power tools, and
standard measuring Instruments; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of
work; and selecting materials necessary for the work*

giacraiciAir, mahwctance
A worker who performs a variety of electrical trade functions in the installation,
maintenance or repair of equipment for the generating, distribution, and/or utilization of
electric energy in an establishment, and whose work involves most of the following: instal­
ling or repairing any of a variety of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers,
switchboards, controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems or other
transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, layout or other specifications; lo­
cating and diagnosing trouble in the electrical system or equipment; working standard computa­
tions relating to load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; and using a variety of
electricians' hand tools and measuring and testing instruments*

xmimm,

stationary

A worker who operates and maintains and/or supervises the operation of stationary
engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to supply power, heat, refrigeration or airconditioning and whose work involves: operating and maintaining and/or supervising the opera­
tion of such equipment as steam engines, air compressors, generators, motors, turbines, ven­
tilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and boiler-fed water pumps; making or
supervising equipment repairs; and keeping a record of operation of machinery, temperature,
and fuel consumption* This classification does not include head or chief engineers in estab­
lishments employing more than one engineer*




29

Maintenance - Continued

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER
A worker who fires stationary hollers used In a factory, power plant, or other es­
tablishment to f a m i s h heat, to generate power, or to supply steam for Industrial processes,
and whose work involves feeding fuel to fire by hand or operating a mechanical stoker, gas,
or oil burner; and checking water and safety waives. In addition, may clean, oil, or assist
In repairing holler room equipment,
HELPER, ‘
TRADES, MAINTENANCE
A worker who assists another worker In one of the skilled maintenance trades, hy per­
forming specific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping aworker supplied with ma­
terials and tools; cleaning working area, machine and equipment; assisting worker hy holding
materials or tools; and performing other unskilled tasks as directed hy journeyman. In seme
trades the term helper Is synonymous with apprentice, since the helper is expected to learn
the trade of the worker he assists. The kind of work the helper Is permitted to perform also
varies from trade to trade: in seme trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting and
holding materials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is permitted to per­
form specialised machine operations, cr parts of a trade that are also performed hy workers on
a full-time basis,
MACHINIST, MAmTEHAHCE
A worker who produces replacement parts and new parts for mechanical equipment oper­
ated in an establishment, and whose work involves most of the following: interpreting written
instructions and specifications; planning and layout of work; using a variety of machinists
hand tools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and operating standard machine tools;
shaping of metal parts to close tolerances; making standard shop computations relating to di­
mensions of work, tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working properties
of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts and equipment required for his work;
and fitting and assembling parts. In general, the machinists work normally requires a round­
ed training In machine-shop practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and experience,
MAINTENANCE MAN, GENERAL OTILITY
A worker who keeps the machines, mechanical equipment and/or structure of an estab­
lishment (usually a small plant where specialization In maintenance work is Impractical) in
repair; whose duties Involve the performance of operations and the use of tools and equipment
of several trades, rather than specialization in one trade o r one type of maintenance
work
only, and whose work involves a combination of the following: planning and layout of work re­
lating to repair of buildings, machines^ mechanical and/or electrical equipment; repairing
electrical and/or mechanical equipment; installing, aligning and balancing new equipment; and
repairing building, floors, stairs as well as making and repairing bins, cribs, and partitions,
MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
A worker who repairs machinery and mechanical equipment of an establishment and whose
work involves most of the following: examining machines and mechanical equipment to diagnose
source of trouble; dismantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
hand tools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts with' Items ob­




30.

Maintenance - Continued

MECHANIC, MAIWTONANCE - Continued
tained from stock; ordering the production of a defective part by a machine shop or sending of
the machine to a machine shop for major repairs; preparing written specifications for major
repairs o r for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; and re-assembling of machines*
and making all necessary adjustments for operation.
MILDTRIGHT
A worker who installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and installs
machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout are required, and whose work
involves most of the following? planning and laying out of the work; interpreting blueprints
or other specifications; using a variety of hand toolB, and rigging; making standard shop
computations relating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; aligning
and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment and parts to be used; and
installing and maintaining in good order power transmission equipment such as drives, and
speed reducers. In general, the millwrights work normally requires a rounded training and
experience in the trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.
OILER
(Greaser; lubricator)
A worker who lubricates, with oil or grease,
of mechanical equipment found in an establishment.

the moving parts or wearing surfaces

PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
(Painter, repair)
A worker who paints and redecorates walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an establish­
ment and whose work involves the following: knowledge of surface peculiarities 'and types of
paint required for different applications; mixing colors, oils, white lead, and other paint
ingredients to obtain proper color o r consistency; preparing surface for painting by removing
old finish or by placing putty or filler in nail holes and interstices; applying paint with
spray gun or brush.
PIPE TITTER, MAINTENANCE
A worker who Installs and/or repairs pipe and pipe fittings in an establishment,
and whose work involves most of the following: laying out of work and/or measuring to locate
position of pipe from drawings or other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe
to correct lengths with chisel and hammer o r oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting machine;
threading pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by hand-driven or power-driven machines;
assembling-pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard shop computa­
tions relating to pressures, flow, and size of pipe required; and making standard tests to
determine whether finished pipes M e t
specifications. This classification does not include
workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building sanitation or heating systems.




Custodial, Warehousing and Trucking

GUARD
A worker who has routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour, maintain­
ing order, using arms or force where necessary. This classification includes gatemen who are
stationed at gate and check on identity of employees and other persons entering.
JANITOR, PORTER OR CLEANER
This classification includes workers whose duties correspond to those of one or more
of the jobs described below.
Janitor (Manufacturing; Utilities) (Sweeper; cleaner) - A worker who sweeps and
cleans shop areas, washrooms, and offices, and removes chips and refuse. May wash floors and
windows.
Porter (Wholesale Trade; Retail Trade) (
Bay porter, cleaner) - A worker who keeps
the premises of an establishment in a clean, orderly condition. Typical of the duties the
worker performs are: sweeping and mopping floors; removing trash; dusting furniture or fix­
tures; polishing metal fixtures or trimmings; and washing windows and display cases.
Janitor (Office Buildings) (Janitor-maintenance man) - A building service worker, em­
ployed in an office building, who performs a variety of duties involved in cleaning the premis­
es, disposing of waste and litter, and providing supplies and minor maintenance services. Mhy,
occasionally, operate a passenger elevator.
This classification does not Include workers whose duties are limited to cleaning the
premises (see Cleaner - Office Buildings).
Cleaner (Office Buildings) - A worker who keeps halls, offices, and/or rooms of pub­
lic buildings, offices, commercial establishments, or apartment houses In a clean, orderly con­
dition and whose work involves: sweeping, mopping and/or scrubbing floors; disposing of waste
or litter; and/or dusting furniture and equipment. May also be required to polish metal fix­
tures and fittings. This classification does not include window washers nor workers whose du­
ties include cleaning rest rooms.
Cleaner (Hotels) - A person who performs heavy cleaning operations in hotel lobbies,
halls, public baths, showers, and lavatories. May also wash windows.
ORDER FILLER
This classification includes workers whose duties correspond to those of one or more
of the jobs described below.
Order Filler (Manufacturing; Warehousing and Storage) - A worker who fills shipping
orders from stored merchandise in accordance with either written specifications or verbal in­
structions . May assemble, pack and carry or transport materials to shipping room or delivery
platform.
Order Filler (Wholesale Groceries and Grocery Chain-Store Warehouses)-A worker who
fills orders from stock merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slip or custom­
ers* orders and whose work involves a combination of the following: picking full ease or shelf
merchandise, Indicating items filled or emitted on sales slips or customers’ orders, packing




Custodial, Warehousing and Trucking - Continued

ORDER FILLER - Continued
orders, transporting Merchandise on a hand truck to shipping room or delivery platform, and
reporting shortages of merchandise to head stock man or other supervisors* A worker vho hand­
les incoming goods - opening cases, shelving, etc* - should he classified as Stockman*
Order Picker (Wholesale Drugs, Drug Propietorles and Toiletries, and Druggists -Sun­
dries) (Order Filler) - A worker vho picks or fills merchandise on customer orders and whose
work involves a combination of the following? picking full case or shelf merchandise; Indica­
ting items filled or omitted on orders; storing Incoming cases in correct location; and requi­
sitioning case stock to replenish shelf stock and assisting In shelving stock*
Stockman, Warehouse (Department 8tores, Dry-Goods Storey General-Merchandise Stores,
Clothing Stores and Furniture Stores) - A person working In the warehouse vho fills customer's
orders for merchandise from salescheck specifications* Places merchandise on flats, skids, or
rollers, and moves to packing department* Also fills transfer orders going to the store for
display on the selling floor. Receives Incoming merchandise from receiving or marking depart­
ments and places It In storage* Handles returned goods either hy returning It to storage or
sending It to shipping department for delivery to supplier*
STOCK HARDIER A S P TRUCKER, HARD
This classification Includes workers whose duties correspond to those of one or more
of the jobs described below*
Loader and Uhloader (Shipping and Receiving) (Manufacturing) - A worker whose prin­
cipal duty Is to load or unload raw materials, supplies, partially processed or finished prod­
ucts to or from freight cars, trucks (motor, Industrial, hand) or other transporting device*
Jn addition to loading or unloading duties, may also carry, wheel, or hand truck materials to
or from storage space*
Stock Man (Manufacturing) (Stock Helper) - A worker who, under general supervision
of a head stock man, places incoming goods in proper place in stock room or warehouse, and
whose work involves any combination of the following; knowledge of proper location of goods
in storage area; checking incoming goods against invoices; loading or unloading goods from
trucks or railroad cars or unpacking goods* This classification does not Include workers who
merely move goods from place to place under immediate supervision.
Trucker, Hand (Manufacturing; Wholesale Trade) - A worker who pushes or pulls hand
trucks, cars or wheelbarrows used for transporting goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment, and usually loads or unloads hand
trucks or wheelbarrows. May stack materials in storage bins, etc., and may keep records of
materials moved.
Shelver (Wholesale Trade) (Order Picker Helper) - A worker
chandise and places stock on shelves*

who opens eases of mer­

Stock Man or Stock Helper (Wholesale Trade) - A worker who, under general supervi-.
sion of a head stock man, receives and places Incoming goods in proper places in stoek room
or warehouse and whose work involves a combination of the following? unloading goods from
trucks or railroad cars, checking Incoming goods against Invoices or requisitions, transporting
goods from unloading platform to stock room, unpacking goods and placing on shelves or other
proper places* He may also perform duties of Order Filler,, usually in smaller establishments*



31
Custodial, Warehousing and Trucking - Continued

STOCK HANDIER AMD TRUCKER, HAND - Continued
Stock Man or Stock Helper (Detail Trade) - A worker who, under general supervision
of a head stock ran, receires and places incasing goods in proper place in stock root or ware­
house and issues stools materials, or equipment by filling orders requisitioning such materials«
The work of the stock nan involves most of the following: checking inconlng goods against In­
voices or requisitions; unpacking goods; loading or unloading goods frae trucks or railroad
cars; tallying the number of oases or other units loaded or unloaded, and placing stock in pro­
per storage place.
Handler and Stacker*(Warehousing) - A worker engaged in the placenent and transfer
of household furniture and goods or miscellaneous goods and commodities he tween the loading
platform and storage rooms within the warehouse. The work of the handler and stacker imeftes
most of the following: loading, unloading, stacking and carrying incoming and/or outgoing ship­
ments; checking goods against invoices to verify type, condition and quantity of shipments;
and locating and assembling requisitioned goods.
TRUCK DRIVER
Truck Driver (Manufacturing) - A worker who drives a truck to transport material#,
merchandise, equipment, or men. Nay load or unload truck, frequently assisted by Truck-Driver
Helper. May make minor mechanical repairs and keep truck in good working order. This classi­
fication does not include Driver-Salesman.
Truck Driver, Local Delivery (Wholesale Trade; Retail Trade) - A worker who drives
a truck within a city or industrial area and whose work may Involve loading and unloading the
truck with or without helpers and delivering between any of the following types of establish­
ments: freight depots, warehouses, wholesale establishments and retail establishments and/or
between retail establishments and customers’ houses or places of business. This classification
does not include drivers who sell or solicit business.
WATCHMAN
A worker who guards premises of plant property, warehouses, office buildings, or
banks. Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property against fire, theft, and
illegal entry.

Flour and other Grain-mill Products

BOLTER
(Sifter operator)
Sifts ground grain in the sifting machines to remove the broken kernels and lumps
to be returned to grinding mills for further processing; adjusts feed slides so machine can
take in only as much grain as it will sift.




32

Floor and other Grain-Bill Products - Continued

GRAIN-EIEVATOR OPERATOR
Has charge of grain unloading fro* trucks or railroad oars. Tends derating Machin­
ery, and say do Minor repair and maintenance vork on elevating Machinery* Sees that various
grades of grain go to separate tins* Determines where grain Is to he stored and is responsible
for sending desired grain to Mill* May actually do unloading, and nay also run grain through
original screening or cleaning process which removes large pieces of foreign Matter*
MILLER* FLOOR
Is responsible for quality of product. Oversees all workers engaged In cleaning,
grinding, and bolting (sifting) to Insure Milling of grain according to formula; plans schedule
according to amount of grain to be ground during a period specified by management (or Head
Miller); inspects grain at various stages of manufacture to determine If fineness Is accord­
ing to specifications; may adjust or Instruct and/or assist various Machine operators in ad­
justing Machinery. Especially in small mills, may also perform all operations of cleaning,
grinding, sifting and packing*
PACKER, SACK
Tends a machine that sacks and weighs finished products or materials; places empty
sack or bag over discharge nozzle or spout of packing machine; starts flew of product or ma­
terial into sack; shuts off or stops flew of product or material when specified weight or
amount has entered the sack (machine may do this automatically)* May seal or close sacks by
hand or machine* May make adjustments and minor repairs*
SMOTTER
Washes and scours grain which is Infested with smut, by operating a washing machine
and a scouring machine* May also weigh, temper, and condition grain for grinding* May clean,
adjust, and assist in repairing machinery.
SWEEPER
A worker who sweeps floors, walls, overhead runways, and machines in flour and other
grain mills. May also assist in the cleaning required after choke-ups or spills.

Paper and Paperboard Mills

BACK TENDER
A worker who is stationed at the dry end of a paper machine and whose duties involve
most of the following: leading paper to and over driers; regulating heat of driers; adjusting
calenders to obtain proper finish and caliper; putting paper on the reel; performing or direc­
ting the rewinding or cutting operation; weighing and calipering paper sheets and reporting
results to machine tender; observing paper for any imperfections; and assisting machine tender
at wet-end of machine as directed*




Paper and Paperboard Mills - Continued

BACK TENDER - Continued
Workers in this occupation are classified and reported by group In accordance with
the following table* The width of the wires in the machine and the average speed of the ma­
chine In feet per minute will determine the proper group for the workers on each paper machine*

Group

Width of vires
(in inches)

Y
2
3

100 or less
100 or less
100 or less

or leas
to 700
701 or more

k
5
6

101 to 120
101 to 120
101 to 120

30
0
301

or less
to 700
701 or more

7
8
9

121 to 150
121 to 150
121 to 150

30 or less
0
301 to 700
701 or more

10
11
12

151 to 180
151 to 180
151 to 180

300 or less
301 to 700
701 or more

13
14
15

181 and over
181 and over
l8r and over

300
301

Average speed
(feet per minute)

30
0
301

or less
to 700
701 or more

BEATER MAH
A worker who prepares pulp for processing into paper by means of a beater which hy­
drates pulp and mixes chemicals or other Ingredients with the pulp, and whose work Involves
most of the following: filling beater with pulp and other ingredients such as starch, alum
and color; opening steam valves to heat contents when necessary; running beater for prescribed
period of time; and dropping contents of beater into stock chest*
BROKE MAN
(Broke-beater man)
A worker who operates a beater to repulp broke (waste paper) and whose duties in­
volve: filling beater with broke, water, and other ingredients; starting beater, opening
steam valves to heat contents, and running beater for prescribed length of time; and dropping
contents of beater into stock chest*
MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
(See Maintenance, page




29 for

description*)

Paper and Paperboard Mills - Continued

PAPER-MACHIKE TENDER

A worker who is in charge of the operation of a paper-making machine and whose du­
ties involve most of the following: regulating and controlling flew of stock onto Fourdrinier
wire or cylinder mold; setting and adjusting presses; regulating speed of various sections
of machine; guiding wires and felts; interpreting tests as to quality of product and making
necessary adjustments to meet specifications; and replacing wires and felts* Machine tender
is usually stationed at wet-end of machine and directs the hack tender and other members of
paper-machine crew*
Workers in this occupation are classified
with the table indicated for Back Tender*

and reported

hy

group

in

accordance

PAPER TESTER
A worker who uses special testing equipment to conduct physical tests such as weight,
strength, moisture, tear, tensile, fold and absorption, to determine if paper meets specifi­
cations*

Industrial Chemicals

CHEMICAL OPERATOR
A worker who produces final or intermediate
specifications prepared by a professional chemist*

chemical products in

accordance with

Class A - A worker who operates one type of equipment or directs a chemical process
comprising several types of chemical equipment where the reaction involves physical and/or
chemical changes within highly critical, pressure, vacuum and/or temperature limits and whose
w^k'involves ' o s F o f the following; determining proper proportions of materials according
m
to formulae or specifications; making necessary standard calculations; setting and regulating
controls for temperature, pressure or flow of materials; observing controls and making neces­
sary adjustments; using measuring and testing instruments to check quality of operation;
keeping operational records and making out reports on operations; and responsibility for the
quality ^
quantity of the product and the equipment*
May also coordinate the various
functions of other operators and helpers to achieve a required flow of work*
Class B - A worker who works at assigned equipment or position of a chemical reac­
tion process where the operations involve physical and/or chemical changes under highly^,gj*tioal pressure, vacuum or temperature limits* The worker may perform any of the specific duthe,
a flp^yetor but requires guidance in the
interpretation of tests and obser­
vations in setting and regulating controls and in making out reports on operations or
A worker who operates primarily one type of
pressure control within relatively broad limits*
A worker may direct one or several helpers*




equipment under

atmospheric or tow

33.
Industrial Chemicals - Continued

CHEMICAL OPERATOR HELPER
A worker who performs a variety of simple and standard tasks assigned to him by a
chemical operator. The work of the helper involves most of the following: assisting in the
moving, handling, dumping and weighing of materials; loading equipment; taking simple record­
ings of temperature and pressure under the direction of chemical operators; cleaning working
area; removing finished products from equipment; and cleaning or washing equipment.
This classification includes all helpers to chemical equipment operators, regardless
of whether the operator is assigned to a specific type of apparatus or is engaged in control­
ling the operation of a series of equipment.
m m

FILLER

A worker who fills steel drums to a predetermined level o r weight with chemical
products, screws hung in place or seals cover on drum, and stencils identifying data on drum
prior to shipment.
ELECTRIC-CELL MAH
(Electrolysis operator; unit tender)
A worker who operates an electric cell used in dissociating
breaking doim liquids
into their component parts by electricity.
The work of the operator Involves most of the
following; maintaining flew of materials to and from cells, by manipulation of valves; cheeking ammeter, voltmeter, recording thermometer and pressure gages during run; checking samples
with control laboratory for degree of dissociation of liquid in cell as a
of determining
when! run is complete; examining poles and sides of cel-J for corrosion, reporting oarroded
condition to repairman; and adjusting and making minor repairs to equipment.
ELECTRIC-CELL REPAIRMAN AND CLEANER
A worker who repairs, cleans and washes electrle cell units used in breaking dewn
liquids Into their component parts. The work of the repairman and cleaner involves removing
corroded plates from the cell, washing and repairing plates and tank, and rebuilding cells.
INSTRUMENT REPAIRMAN
A worker who maintains, adjusts, and repairs manual, pneumatic, electric and/or
electronic instruments, such as potentiometers, temperature indicators, recorders, pressure
and flew meters and gages, for measuring, recording, and regulating movement of gases and
liquids, and whose work involves most of the following; inspecting, testing and adjusting
Instruments periodically; determining cause of trouble in instruments not functioning properly
and making necessary repairs or adjustments; disconnecting Inaccurate or damaged instruments
and replacing them with spare Instruments; examining mechanism and cleaning parts; replacing
worn or broken parts; assembling instrument and installing it on testing apparatus; and cali­
brating instrument to established standard.
IABCBATCRI ASSISTANT
A worker who performs standard and routine laboratory tests to determine properties
of materials and submits results of the tests to ehemists or to operators in the various proc­
essing departments. Among the types of tests that may be carried on by the laboratory assist­
ant at o viscosity tests or specific gravity tests.



3^
Industrial Chemicals - Continued

FIFE FITTER, MAINTENANCE
(See Maintenance, page 30 for description*)

Metalworking

ASSEMBLER
(Bench assembler; floor assembler; jig assembler; line assembler; sub-assembler)
A worker who assembles and/or fits together parts to form complete units or subas­
semblies at a bench, conveyor line, or on the floor, depending upon the size of the units and
the organization of the production process* The work of the assembler may include processing
operations requiring the use of hand tools in scraping, chipping and filing of parts to obtain
a desired fit as well as pcwer tools and special equipment when punching, riveting, soldering
or welding of parts is necessary* Workers who perform any of these processing operations ex­
clusively as part of specialized assembling operations aie not included in this classification.
Class A - A worker who assembles parts Into complete units or subassemblies that re­
quire fitting of parts and decisions regarding proper performance of any component part or the
assembled unit, and whose work involves any combination of the followingi assembling from
drawings, blueprints or other written specifications; assembling units composed of a variety
of parts and/or subassemblies; assembling large units requiring careful fitting and adjusting
of parts to obtain specified clearances; and using a variety of hand and powered tools and
precision measuring instruments*
Class B - A worker who assembles parts into units, or subassesblies in accordance
with standard and prescribed procedures, and whose work involves any combination of the fol­
lowing: assembling a limited range of standard and familiar products composed of a number of
small or medium-sized parts requiring some fitting or adjusting; assembling large units that
require little or no fitting of component parts; working under conditions where accurate per­
formance and completion of work within set time limits are essential for subsequent assem­
bling operations; and using a limited variety of hand or powered tools*
Class C - A worker who performs short-cycle, repetitive assembling operations, and
whose work does not involve any fitting or making decisions regarding proper performance of
the component parts or assembling procedures*
DRILL-PRESS OPERATOR, SINGLE- OR MULTIPLE-SPINDLE
Performs such operations as drilling, reaming, countersinking, counterboring, spotfacing and tapping on one or more types of single-spindle or multiple-spindle drill presses*
This classification includes operators of all types of
radial-drill presses and portable drilling equipment*




drill presses

other

than

Metalworking - Continued

DRILL-PRESS OPERATOR, SINGLE- OR MULTIPIE-SPINDLE - Continued
Class A - Operator who is required to set up machine for operations requiring care­
ful positioning, blocking and aligning of units; to determine speeds, feeds, tooling and oper­
ation sequence; and to make all necessary adjustments during operation to achieve requisite
dimensions or
Operator who is required to set up machine where speeds, feeds, tooling and operation
sequence are prescribed but whose work involves very difficult operations such as deep drill­
ing, or boring to exacting specifications.
Class B - Operator who is required to set up machine on standard operations where
feeds, speeds, tooling and operation sequence are prescribed; and to make all necessary adjust­
ments during operation or
Operator who is required to maintain set-up mad© by others, including making all ne­
cessary adjustments during operation on work requiring considerable care on the part of the
operator to maintain specified tolerances.
Class C - Operator who is required only to operate machine, on routine and repetitive
operations; to make only minor adjustments during operation; and when trouble occurs to stop
the machine and call on foreman, leadman, or set-up man to correct the operation.
ENGINE-LATHE OPERATOR
Operates an engine lathe for shaping external and internal cylindrical surfaces of
metal objects. The engine lathe, basically characterized by a headstock, tailstock, and powerfed tool carriage, is a general-purpose machine tool used primarily for turning. It is also
commonly used in performing such operations as facing, boring, drilling, and threading; and,
©quipped with appropriate attachments, it may be usedlbr a very wide variety of special machin­
ing operations. The stock may be held in position by the lathe "centers” or by various types
of chucks and fixtures.
This classification excludes operators of bench lathes, automatic lathes, automaticscrew machines, and hand-turret lathes and hand-screw machines.
Class A - Operator who is required to set up machine; to select feeds, speeds, tool­
ing and operation sequence; and to make necessary adjustments during operation to achieve
requisite dimensions or
Operator who is required to set up machine from drawings, blueprints or layout, in
accordance with prescribed feeds, speeds, tooling and operation sequence and to make necessary
adjustments during operation where changes in work and set-up are frequent and where care is
essential to achieve very close tolerances.
Operator may be required to recognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and
to select proper coolants and cutting and lubricating oils.
Class B - Operator who is required to maintain operation set up by others,by making
all necessary adjustments, where care Is essential to achieve very close tolerances or




Metalworking - Continued

ENGINE-LATHE OPERATOR - Continued
Operator who la required to set up machine on standard or roughing operations where
feeds, speeds, tooling and operation sequence are prescribed; and to make adjustments during
operation.
Operator may he required to recognize when tools need dressing,
to select proper coolants and cutting oils.

to dress tools and

Class C - Operator who Is required only to operate machine on routine and repetitive
operations; to make only minor adjustments during operation; and when trouble occurs to stop
the machine and call on foreman, leadman, or set-up man to correct the operation.
(BINDING-MACHINE OPERATOR
(Centerless-grinder operator; cylindrical-grinder operator; external-grinder opera­
tor; Internal-grinder operator, surface-grinder operator; Universal-grinder operator)
A worker who operates one of several types of precision grinding machines to grind
internal and external surfaces of metal parts to a smooth and even finish and to required
dimensions. Precision grinding Is used primarily as a finishing operation on previously ma­
chined parts, and consists of applying abrasive wheels rotating at high speed to the surfaces
to be ground.
In addition to the types of grinding machines Indicated above, this classification
Includes operators of other production grinding machines such as: single-purpose grinders,
(drill grinders, broach grinders, saw grinders, gear cutter grinders, thread grinders, etc.),
and automatic and semi-automatic general purpose grinding machines.
Class A - An operator who is required to set up machine; to select feeds, speeds,
tooling and operation sequence; and to make necessary adjustments during operation to achieve
requisite dimensions or
An operator who is required to set up machine from drawings or blueprints or lay-out
in accordance with prescribed feeds, speeds, tooling and operation sequence and to make nec­
essary adjustments during operation where changes in work and set-up are frequent and where
care is essential to achieve very close tolerances.
Operator may be required to recognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and
to select proper coolants and cutting and lubricating oils.
Class B - An operator who is required to set up machine on standard operations where
feeds, speeds, tooling and operation sequence are either prescribed or are known from past
experience; to make adjustments during operation; and to maintain prescribed tolerances or
An operator who is required to maintain operation set up by others, by making all
necessary adjustments, where considerable care is essential to achieve very close tolerances.
Operator may be required to recognize when tools need dressings, to dress tools and
to select coolants and cutting oils.
Class C - An operator who is required only to operate machine on routine and repet­
itive operations; to make only minor adjustments during operation; and when trouble occurs to
stop the machine and call on foreman, leadman, or set-up man to correct the operation.



35

Metalworking - Continued

INSPECTOR
A worker who performs such operations as examining parts or products for flaws and
defects, and checking their dimensions and appearance to determine whether they meet the re­
quired standards and specifications*
Class A - A worker who Inspects parts, products, and/or processes with responsi­
bility for decisions regarding the quality of the product and/or operations, and whose work
Involves any combination of the following: thorough knowledge of the processing operations
In the branch of work to which he Is assigned, Including the use of a variety of precision
measuring Instruments; interpreting drawings and specifications In Inspection work on units
composed of a large number of component parts; examining a variety of products or processing
operations; determining causes of flaws In products and/or processes and suggesting necessary
changes to correct work methods; and devising Inspection procedures for new products*
Class B - A worker who inspects parts, products, and/or processes and whose work
involves any combination of the following: knowledge of processing operations in the branch
of work to which he is assigned, limited to familiar products and processes or where perform­
ance is dependent on past experience; performing Inspection operations on products and/or
processes having rigid specifications, but where the inspection procedures Involving a se­
quence of Inspection operations, including decisions regarding proper fit or performance of
some parts; and using precision measuring Instruments*
Class C - A worker who inspects parts, products and/or processes and whose work In­
volves any combination of the following: short-cycle, repetitive inspection operations; using
a standardized, special-purposes measuring instrument repetitively; and visual examination of
parts or products, rejecting units having obvious deformities or flaws.
M H U H a - M A C H I K E OPERATOR
(Milling-machine operator, automatic; milling-machine operator, hand)
Performs a variety of work such as grooving, planing, and shaping metal objects on
a milling machine, which removes material from metal surfaces by the cutting action of multitoothed rotating cutters of various sizes and shapes*
Milling-machine types vary from the manually controlled machines employed
production to fully automatic (conveyor-fed) machines found in plants engaged in mass
tion. This classification includes operators of all types of milling machines except
purpose millers such as thread millers, duplicators, die sinkers, pantograph millers
graving millers.

in unit
produc­
single­
and en­

Class A - Operator who is required to set up machine; to select feeds, speeds, tool­
ing and operation sequence; and to make necessary adjustments during operation to achieve req­
uisite dimensions or
Operator who is required to set up machine from drawings, blueprints, or lay-out in
accordance with prescribed feeds, speeds, tooling and operation sequence, and to make neces­
sary adjustments during operation where changes in work and set up are frequent and where con­
siderable care is essential to achieve very close tolerances.




36.
Metalworking - Continued

MILLING-MACHINE OPERATOR - Continued
Operator may be required to recognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and
to select proper coolants and cutting and lubricating oils.
Class B - Operator who is required to set up machines on standard operations where
feeds, speeds, tooling and operation sequence are prescribed) to make adjustments during oper­
ation; and to maintain prescribed tolerances or
Operator who is required to maintain operation set up by others, by making all neces­
sary adjustments, where considerable care is essential to achieve very close tolerances.
Operator may be required to recognize when tools need dressing,
to select proper coolants and cutting oils.

to dress tools and

Class C - Operator who is required to operate only, on routine and repetitive oper­
ations; to make only minor adjustments during operation; and when trouble occurs to stop ma­
chine and call on foreman, leadman or set-up man to correct the operation.
POWER-SHEAR OPERATOR
A worker who operates one or more types of power shears to out metal sheets, plates,
bars, rods and other metal shapes to size or length.
Class A - A worker who is required to set up and operate power-shear equipment,
under general supervision only, and whose work involves most of the following: working from
blueprints or drawings or to material requisition lists; planning and lay-out of work; selec­
ting and utilizing material to avoid excessive scrap; setting stop gauges, aligning material
and performing shearing operation on machine; shearing large or heavy material to lay-out or
specified dimensions; and performing shearing operations involving angular o r circular cuts.
Class B - A worker who is required to operate power-shears on straight shearing
operations performed on a repetitive basis where accuracy is not an important consideration
and where setting up is limited to setting stop gauges for size of stock desired or is done
by others.
PUNCH-PRESS OPERATOR
A worker who feeds and operates a power press equipped with special production dies
that perform one or a combination of cutting and shaping operations on the stock. Individual
pieces of stock or partly fabricated units may be positioned in the machine by the operator,
or the machine may be equipped with a feeding device that automatically positions single
pieces of stock or repetitively positions strip or sheet stock for successive operations.
Punch presses are ccmnonly designated bjr functional names derived from the operation
they perform, such as blanking press or forming press; by names descriptive of the frame,
such as arch press; or by names that indicate how the power is transmitted, such as crank
press or toggle press.
Class A - An operator whose work involves any combination of the following: diffi­
cult positioning of work units because of size or shape, or type of operation to be performed;
processing unusually large work that is positioned in the press with the aid of other workers?
processing work units that must be steadied while operations are being performed: deep draw­




Metalworking - Continued

PUNCH-PRESS OPERATOR - Continued
ing or forming operations requiring careful positioning of work and prompt recognition of
faulty operation; short-run work requiring ability to perform a variety of punch press opera­
tions or to operate several types of presses; examining output and making adjustments as nec­
essary to maintain production within standards; and setting, a 1ignlng and adjusting dies and
.
fixtures in the press.
Class B - An operator who is required mainly to feed, control and examine operation
of the press, and when trouble occurs to call on foreman, leadman or die maker to correct the
situation, and whose work involves one or more of the following: performing single operation,
such as punching, blanking, or piercing on small or medium size stock easily positioned by
hand; feeding small units into the press from a feed race or chute; loading and tending a
press equipped with a feeding device for handling a strip or sheet stock, or a dial drum,
magazine or hopper feed for handling individual stock blanks.
TOOL AHD DIB MAKER
(Die maker; Jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
A worker who constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, Jigs, fixtures or
dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work, and whose work involves most of the
followingt planning and laying out of work from models, blueprints, drawings or other oral
and written spec if loat ions; using a variety of tool-and-dle maker’s hand tools and precision
measuring instruments; understanding of the working properties of common metals and alloys;
setting up and operating of machine tools and related equipment; making necessary shop compu­
tations relating to dimensions of work, speed, feeds, and tooling of machines; heat-treating
of metal parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve required
qualities; working to close tolerances; fitting and assembling of parts to prescribed toler­
ances and allowances; and selecting appropriate materials, tools and processes. In general,
the tool-and-die maker’s work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and
toolroom
practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and Experience.
For wage study purposes, tool and die makers are classified ass
Tool and die makers, Jobbing shops
Tool and die makers, other than Jobbing shops
WELDER, HATO
A worker who fuses (welds) metal objects together by means of an oxyacetylene torch
welding apparatus in the fabrication of metal shapes and in repairing broken or cracked
metal objects. In addition to performing hand welding or brazing operation, he may also lay
out guide lines or marks on meted parts and may cut metal with a cutting torch.

orarc

Class A - Worker who performs welding operations requiring most of the following:
planning and laying out of work from drawings, blueprints or other written specifications;
kncwledge of welding properties of a variety of metals and alloys; setting up of work and de­
termining operation sequence; welding of high pressure vessels or other objects involving cri­
tical safety and load requirements; working from a variety of positions; and ability to wold
with gas or arc apparatus.




Metalworking - Continued

WELDER, HAHD - Continued
Class B - Worker vho is required to perform either arc o r gas welding operations on
repetitive work, where no critical safety and load requirements are involved; where the work
calls mainly for one position welding; and where the layout and planning of the work are per­
formed hy others.

Foundries (Ferrous and Wonferrous)

CHIPPER AMD GRINDER
(Air hammerman; bench grinder; chipper; disc grinder; face grinder; portable-grinder
operator; power-chisel operator; shaft grinder; snagger; stand grinder; swing-frame
grinder)
Operates one or more types of chipping or grinding equipment in removing undesirable
projections or surplus metal (fins, burrs, gates, risers, weld seams) from sand- or die-castings, forgings, or welded units. The more common types of equipment employed for such oper­
ations include pneumatic chisels, portable grinding tools, stand grinders, and swing-frame
grinders. A variety of hand tools including hammers, cold chisels, hand files and saws may
also be utilised by the operator in his work. This classification includes workers who spe­
cialize on either chipping or grinding work, as well as those who perform both types of oper­
ations.
CQREMAKSR, HARD
A worker who shapes by
(on bench or floor) varying cores used in molds to form
hollows and holes in metal castings, and whose work requires most of the following: selecting
appropriate core boxes and work sequence; cleaning core boxes with compressed air or hand
bellows and dusting parting sand over inside of core box to facilitate removal of finished
care; packing and ramming core sand solidly into box, using shovels, hands, and tamping tools;
selecting and setting vent wires and reinforcing wires into cores; determining appropriate
sand blends and moisture content of sand required for a particular core; removing core box
from core and repairing damage to Impressions; baking cores to harden them; and assembling
cores of more than one section.
MOLDER, FLOOR
A worker who shapes large molds or mold sections by hand on the foundry floor or in
a pit, by ramming or packing sand around a pattern placed in a flask, and whose work involves
most of the following: selecting and assembling appropriate flasks and patterns and position­
ing patterns in flasks for a variety of molds; determination of appropriate sand blends and
moisture content of sand required for different molds; packing and ramming sand around pattern;
drawing pattern and smoothing mold; selecting and setting in position appropriate cores; deter­
mination of appropriate gating, venting reinforcing and facing required for particular mold;
assembling mold sections into complete mold; using such molderfe hand tools as riddles, rammers,
trowels, slicks, lifters, bellows and mallets in contacting and smoothing of mold; directing
the pouring of the molten metal into mold, and operation of crane in lifting and moving of
mold or mold sections.




37
Foundries (Ferrous and Nonferrous) - Continued

HOLDER, HAHD, BENCH
A worker who shapes small and medium-sized molds (or component sections of a mold
that are assembled into complete units) by hand on a bench, by ramming and packing sand around
patterns placed in flasks, and whose work involves most of the following: selecting and as­
sembling appropriate flasks and patterns for varying molds; determination of appropriate sand
blends and moisture content of sand required far different types of molds; packing and ramming
green sand, dry sand or loam around patterns; drawing patterns and smoothing molds; selecting
and setting cores in position; determination of the types of gating necessary for the molds;
finishing molds by performing such operations as facing, venting, and reinforcing; assembling
mold sections to form complete molds; selecting and using such molderfs hand tools as riddles,
trowels, slicks, lifters, bellows and mallets in packing and smoothing of molds or mold sec­
tions; and directing the pouring of the molten metals,
MOIDER, MACHINE
A worker who shapes molds or mold sections on any of several types of molding ma­
chines, such as roll-over, jarring, and squeeze machines, and whose work involves most of the
following? selecting and assembling appropriate flasks and patterns and positioning patterns
in flasks; filling flasks with sand and ramming of sand around pattern with ramming tool or
by mechanical means; determination of appropriate sand blends and moisture content of sand
required for particular molds; preparing molds for drawing of patterns, and repairing damage
to mold impressions in sand; selecting and setting in position appropriate cores; determina­
tion of appropriate venting, gating, reinforcing and facing required; assembling upper and
lower sections of molds, and guiding or assisting in the pouring of the molten metal into the
mold,
PATTERNMAKER, WOOD
A worker who builds wooden patterns, core boxes or match plates, and whose work in­
volves most of the following? planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, or
models; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work; using a variety of
patternmaker's hand tools such as saws, planes, chisels, gauges, and mallets; operating vari­
ous woodworking machines such as band saws, circular saws, borers, routers, lathe planers,
drill presses, Sanders, and shapers; checking work with calipers, rules, protractors, squares,
straight-edges, and other measuring instruments; assembling patterns and sections of patterns
by gluing, nailing, screwing, and doweling; working to required tolerances and allowances;
and selecting the materials for the construction of a particular pattern. May also make
sweeps (templates) for making molds by the sweep-molding method. In general the work of the
patternmaker requires a rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal
apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience,
SHAKE-OUT MAN
A worker who removes castings from the molds in which they were cast, and whose work
involves one or more of the following? releasing clamps holding sections of flask together,
separating the sections and breaking the sand mold from the castings, using a steel bar or
sledge hammer, or removing castings from the sand with the aid of metal hooks; operating a
vibrating shake-out screen in removing sand and castings from flasks; using a pneumatic shaker
which, when attached to the flask, jars or jolts it until the mold has crumbled; using a
vibratory air-hammer to remove ihe sand and castings; shaking loosely adhering sand from cast­
ings; and shoveling sand shaken from molds into a pile.




38
Fabricated Structural Metal Products

CRAKE OPERATOR, ELECTRIC -BRIDGE
(Overhead-crane operator; traveling-crane operator)
A worker who lifts and moves heavy objects with an electrically powered hoist which
is mounted on a metal bridge, and runs along overhead rails. The work of the operator in­
volves} closing switch to turn on electricity; moving electrical controller levers and brake
pedal to run the crane bridge along overhead rails, to run the hoisting trolley back and forth
across the bridge, and to raise and lover the load line and anything attached to it. (Motions
of crane are usually carried out in response to signals from other workers, on the ground.)
FITTER, STRUCTURAL
A worker who, working in an establishment, assembles and/or fits up structural steel
shapes used in the fabrication of buildings, towers, bridges and other structures. The work in­
cludes assembling of processed structural steel members In preparation for riveting or welding
operations, and Joining parts together to see that they are properly processed for assembly
by other workers at the construction site.
Class A - A worker who is required to assemble and fit up a variety of types of
structural work; to work from blueprints, drawings or other written specifications; to plan
assembly procedure; and to use hand tools and measuring devices in the performance of his work.
Class B - A worker who is required to assemble structural units requiring little or
no fitting; to* do repetitive types of assembling operations according to procedures establish­
ed by others; and to use hand tools and measuring devices in the performance of his work.
LAY-OUT MAN
A worker who outlines guide marks on structural steel, plate, castings, sheet-metal
or other metal shapes for subsequent processing and fabrication, by indicating guide lines,
centers, reference points, dimensions and processing instructions on the surface of metal
part.
Class A - A lay-out man whose work involves most of the following* laying out from
blueprints or drawings; making shop computations to locate guide lines, reference points,
centers of punch marks; preparing the surface of metal objects for lay-out; working on a
variety of products of various sizes and shapes; indicating detailed instructions to pro­
cessing workers; and using hand tools and measuring instruments.
Class B - A lay-out man whose work Involves any combination of the following; using
templates in indicating reference points or guide lines; working from drawings on repetitive
lay-outs; providing simple Instructions to processing workers; and using hand tools and meas­
uring instruments.
POWER-SHEAR OPERATOR
(See Metalworking, page 36 for description.)
v m im , hard

(See Metalworking, page 36 for description.)




Department and Clothing Stores

CASHIER-WRAPPER
A worker who wraps and receives payment for merchandise. The duties of this worker
involve most of the following: receiving payment, merchandise, and salescheck from sales­
person or customer; reviewing salescheck for correct computations; making change; checking
salescheck against merchandise for price, quality, size, color, imperfections; wrapping mer­
chandise; attaching address label if merchandise is to be sent.
ELEVATOR OPERATOR. PASSENGER
A worker who transports passengers between floors of an office building,
house, department store, hotel or similar establishment.

apartment

SALES CHIRK
A worker who sells merchandise in an assigned department of a store or in a store
specializing in one or a few items. Determines merchandise desired by customer, assists in
selection, explains and demonstrates various qualities of the merchandise, receives payment,
and makes out salescheck. May also do own cashiering and wrapping and assist in stocking and
displaying merchandise.
Bales Clerks are classified by department, as follows:
Men’s clothing
Men’8 furnishings
Notions, trimmings
Women’s accessories (hosiery, gloves, handbags, eto.)
Women’s dresses
Women’s shoes
Women’s suits and coats
TAILOR, ALTERATION (MEN’S GARMENTS)
A worker who makes alterations on men’s coats, suits, trousers and vests. Typical
alterations include such items as remodeling shoulders and necklines, re-setting sleeves and
collars, taking-in side seams, and felling in accordance with markings on garment or instruc­
tions received from Fitter. The work of the alteration tailor involves most of the following:
ripping seams and linings, re-cutting fabric, basting in position for sewing, re-sewing by
hand or machine. May also press new seams, and press or iron garment with hand iron or press­
ing machine when alterations are completed.
TAILOR, ALTERATION (WOMEN’S GARMENTS)
A worker who makes alterations on women’s suits, coats, or dresses. Typical alter­
ations Include such items as remodeling shoulders and necklines, re-setting sleeves and collars,
taking-in side seams, and felling in accordance with markings o n garment or Instructions re­
ceived from Fitter. The work of the alteration tailor involves most of the following: rip­
ping seams and linings, re-cutting fabric, basting in position for sewing, re-sewing by hand
or machine. May also press new seams, and press or iron garment with hand iron or pressing
machine when alterations are completed.




Office Buildings Service
CLEANER
A worker vho keeps halls, offices, and/or rooms of public buildings, offices, oca*
■srcial •sta'blishasnts, or a partwnt hous«B in a olsan, ardorly condition and vhoae vcrk in▼olvest weeping, mopping and/or scrubbing floors; disposing of vast* or litter; and/or dust­
ing furniture and equipment. Msy also be required to polish metal fixtures and fittings.
This classification does not include window washers*
ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER
(See Department and Clothing Stores, page 38 for description*)
ENGINEER, STATIONARY
(See Maintenance, page 29 for description.)
FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER
(See Maintenance, page 29 for description*)
janitor

(Janitor-maintenance man)
A building service worker, employed in an office building,
of duties involved in cleaning the premises, disposing of waste and
supplies and minor maintenance services* May, occasionally, operate
This classification does not include workers whose duties are limited to
(See Cleaner*)

who performs
litter, and
a passenger
cleaning the

a variety
providing
elevator*
premises*

WATCHMAN
(See Custodial, Warehousing and Trucking, page 31 for description.)

Hotels

CLERK, DESK
(Room clerk, smaller hotels)
Registers and assigns rooms to incoming guests and checks out departing guests*
Maintains records of reservations and rooms occupied* Furnishes information, receives and
distributes mail and telegrams, and Issues and accepts room keys* May supervise bellhops,
elevator operators or FBX operators* In the very small hotels nmy handle accounts and receive
payment for rooms.
CLERK, ROOM
Rents and assigns rooms to persons applying at desk, over the telephone, or in
writing. Arranges transfer of registered guests to other rooms* Checks out guests arid refers
them to Cashier for payment of bill.



39

Hotels - Continued

EUYATC8R OPERATOR, PASSENGER
(See Department and Clothing Stores, page 38 for description*)
HOUSEMAN
Moves and arranges furniture; prepares rooms for renovations; sets up sample rooms,
meeting rooms and "banquet rooms; obtains additional furniture and furnishings from storage
in response to requests of guests made through Housekeeper or other supervisor. In smaller
hotels may perform heavier cleaning operations In lobby and halls and nay wash windows.
MAID, CHAMBER
(Boom maid)
Performs routine duties, cleaning and servicing of guest’s rooms under close super­
vision of Housekeeper. May also clean baths.

Power Laundries

CLERK, RETAIL RECEIVING
A person who receives work from routemen or from customers over the counter in the
receiving office or store of a dry-cleaning or laundry establishment and whose work involves
most of the following: maintaining a record of articles or bundles received; returning com­
pleted work to customers who call for it; collecting payment and maintaining, simple records
of money received; and in establishments where dry cleaning is done, fastening an identifying
marker to each article, examining an article for defects such as holes, stains or tears, and
making a record of-the identification symbol assigned to each article with a brief description
of the article and of any defects noted. This classification does not include store managers.
EXTRACTOR OPERATOR
(Whizzer operator)
A worker who removes surplus moisture from materials (such as wet cloth, clothing,
knit goods, and y a m ) by operating an extractor and whose work involves most of the following:
loading material Into perforated drum of machine by hand or hoist; closing lid and starting
machine, allowing it to run a predetermined time or until fluid stops flowing from drain; re­
moving partly dried materials; and hand trucking materials within the department. In addition,
the worker may assist the Washer in loading, operating, or unloading the washing machine.
FINISHER, FLATWQRK, MACHINE
A worker who performs flatwork finishing operations by machine and whose work in­
volves one or more of the following: shaking out the creases in semi-dry washing to prepare
it for the flatwork ironing machine; feeding clean, damp flatwork pieces into the flatwork
ironing machine by placing the articles on the feeder rollers; and catching or receiving arti­
cles as they emerge from the machine and partially folding them.




ko
Power Laundries - Continued

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER
(See Maintenance, page 29 for description.)
IDENTIFIER
A worker who sorts soiled bundles, places the contents into various hags and by
means of flags, pins or other devices identifies the net with a customer tag or ticket. In
addition may weigh, list or count some or all articles contained in each bundle. This classi­
fication does not include workers who mark or otherwise identify each individual piece con­
tained in a bundle.
MARKER
A worker who marks or affixes by hand or mechanical means, customer identifying
symbols on soiled garments, linens, or other articles. In addition may weigh, list, or count
articles contained in each bundle, sort contents of each bundle into groups according to treat­
ment to be received, or note and record any damaged or stained condition of articles. This
classification does not include workers who do sorting, examining, or listing without marking
the various articles.
PRESSER, MACHINE, SHIRTS
A worker who operates or tends the operation of one or more ©f the several type
machines that press shirts, and who perform such shirt pressing operations as body pressing,
bosom pressing, collar and cuff pressing, and/or sleeve pressing.
WASHER, MACHINE
A worker who operates one or more washing machines to wash household linens, gar­
ments, curtains, drapes and other articles and whose work involves the following: manipula­
ting valves, switches, and levers to start and stop the machine and to control the amount and
temperature of water for the sudsing and rinsing of each batch; mixing and adding soap, bluing
and bleaching solutions; and loading and unloading the washing machine. In addition may make
minor repairs to washing machine.
WRAPPER, BUNDLE
A worker who wraps packages or finished products, or packs articles, goods, or ma­
terials in cardboard boxes and secures the package or box with twine, ribbon, gummed tape, or
paste. The worker may segregate articles according to size or type,or according to customer's
order and inspect articles for defects before wrapping.

Automobile Repair Shops

BODY REPAIRMAN, METAL
(Automobile-collision serviceman; fender and body repairman; body man)
Repairs damaged automobile fenders and bodies to restore their original shape and
smoothness of surface by hammering out and filling dents, and by welding breaks in the metal.




Automobile Repair Shops - Continued

BOOT REPAIRMAN, METAL - Continued
May remove bolts and nuts, take off old fenders, and install new fenders. May perform such
related tasks as replacing broken glass and repairing damaged radiators and woodwork. May
paint repaired surfaces.

GREASER
(Lubricating man)
Lubricates, by means of hand-operated or compressed-air operated grease guns and
oil sprays, all parts of automobile or truck where lubrication is required, using proper type
lubricant on the various points on chassis or motors; drains old lubricant from lubricant reser­
voirs and refills with new. May perform other related duties, such as checking radiator water
level, checking and adding distilled water to battery, repairing tires, etc. May also perform
duties of washer.
MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE
Repairs automobiles and trucks, performing such duties as disassembling and overhaul­
ing engines, transmissions, clutches, rear ends, and other assemblies on automobiles, replac­
ing worn or broken parts, grinding valves, adjusting brakes, tightening body bolts, aligning
wheels, etc. In addition to general automotive mechanics, this classification also includes
workers whose duties are limited to repairing and overhauling the motor.
Class A - Repairs, rebuilds, or overhauls engines, transmissions, clutches, rear
ends, or other assemblies, replaces worn or broken parts, grinds valves, bores cylinders, fits
rings. In addition may adjust brakes or lights, tighten body bolts, align wheels, etc. May
remove or replace motors, transmissions or other assemblies. May do machining of parts*
Class B - Adjusts brakes or lights, tightens body bolts, aligns wheels, or makes
other adjustments or repairs of a minor nature; or removes and replaces motors, transmissions,
clutches, rear ends, etc., but does no repairing, rebuilding, or overhauling of these assem­
blies. Workers who are employed as helpers to Mechanics are excluded from this classification.
WASHER, AUTOMOBILE
(Car washer; wash boy)
Washes automobiles and trucks; sweeps and cleans Interior of automobile; may polish
auto vehicle bodies, using polishing compound and a cloth. Various parts of this job may be
performed by individual workers in automobile laundries production lines.







k2.

Page Number
Description
Earnings or rate

Inspector (bakeries) ........................... .
Inspector (metalworking) •«.•••••••......... .
Instrument repairman (industrial chemicals).......
Janitor .................... ........
Janitor (office buildings)
Key-punch operator .............. ............ ......
Laboratory assistant (industrial chemicals) .... .
Lay-out man (fabricated structural metal products)
Machine and molderman (bakeries) .................
Machine captain (bakeries)
Machine helper (bakeries) ....................... .
Machine man (bakeries) ..... •••••••••••........
Machine operator (bakeries) ........
Machine operator (printing) ......................
Machine set-up man (bakeries) •••••••••••••......
Machine tender (machinist) (printing) •••••••.••••
Machinist, maintenance .............. ••••••••••.••
Maid, chamber (hotels) ........ ................ .
Mailer (printing) ............ ....................
Maintenance man, general u t i l i t y ........... .
Marker (laundries) ...............................
Mechanic, automotive (auto repair shops) .........
Mechanic, maintenance ..................
Mechanic, maintenance (paper and paperboard mills)
Miller, flour (grain mills) ................ ......
Milling-machine operator (metalworking) ..........
Millwright .................................... .
Mixer (bakeries) .......................... .......
Mixer, head (bakeries) ........••••••«••••••......
Mixer, sponge (bakeries) •••••••••••••••••••••••••
Molder, floor (ferrous foundries) ................
Molder, floor (nonferrous foundries) •••••••••••••
Molder, hand, bench (ferrous foundries) .... .....
Molder, hand, bench (nonferrous foundries)
Molder, machine (ferrous foundries) ••••••••••••..
Molder, machine (nonferrous foundries) ............
Motortruck driver ......................... .
Office boy
Office g i r l ...... ............................... ,
Oiler ............... ••.••••••••••••......
Operator, bus (local transit)
Order filler ................... .
Oven feeder and dumper (bakeries).... .
Oven hand and mixer (bakeries) •••••••••••••••••••,
Ovenmam (bakeries) .......................... .
Packer (bakeries)
Packer, sack (grain mills)
Painter (building construction)
Painter, maintenance
Pan feeder and greaser (bakeries) •••.••••••••*•••<
Pan greaser (bakeries) ...................... .




-

35
33
30
39
28
33
38
-

29
39
.

29
70
IfO
29
32
32
35
30
_
-

37
37
37
37
37
37
•

28
28
30
-

30
.
_
_

32
-

30
•

21
15, 16
1^
12
19
9

Ik
17
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
11
20
21
11
20
20
11

Ik
Ik
15, 16
12
21
21
21
17
17
17
'17
17
17
21
6
9
12
21
13
21
21
21
21

Ik
21
12
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21

Page Number

Description
Paper-machine tender (paper and paperboard mills) ...
Paper tester (paper and paperboard mills) .*....... .
Patternmaker, wood (ferrous foundries) ........ .
Photoengraver (printing) ........................... «
Pipe fitter, maintenance ••.••••••••••...... .
Pipe fitter, maintenance (industrial chemicals) ....
Plasterer (building construction) ..........
Plumber (building construction) ....
P o r t e r ....... .............. ..... ..... ............
Power-shear operator (fabricated structural metal
products)
Power-shear operator (metalworking)
.... ..
Press assistant (printing) ........... •.••••••••••••.
Press feeder (printing) .....
.••••
Presser, machine, shirts (laundries) ............... •
Pressman (printing) ..................... •........
Punch-press operator (metalworking) .................
Eollerman (bakeries) ..... ..........................
Sales clerk (department and clothing stores) ••••..••
Se cr e t a r y ........ ....................•.....•.......
Shake-out man (ferrous foundries)
Shale©-out man (nonferrous foundries) ................
Smutter (grain mills) ....... ................ ......
Sponge rollerman (bakeries) ................. ••••••••
Stenographer, general ........................... ••••
Stenographer, technical ................. ...........
Stereotyper (printing) ........... ..................
Stock h a n d l e r ......... ............... ..
Sweeper (grain mills) ...............................
Switchboard operator
......
Switchboard operator-receptionist..... .
Tabulating-machine operator ........... ............
Tailor, alteration (men1s garments) (department and
clothing stores).......................... .
Tailor, alteration (women*s garments) (department and
clothing stores)...... ........ •••••..........
Tool-and-die maker (metalworking) ............. .....
Transcribing-machine operator, g e n e r a l .... .........
Truck d r i v e r .... .................................
Trucker, hand ..........
Typist .............. .................. .
Washer, automobile (auto repair shops)
Washer, machine (laundries) .... .
Watchman
Watchman (office buildings) .................. .
Welder, hand (fabricated structural metal products ) ,
«•
Welder, hand (metalworking) .*.*.... ........
Wrapper (bakeries)
Wrapper, bundle (laundries) ....... . ••.......«••••••
Wrapper, hand (bakeries) .......... .................
Wrapping-machine operator (bakeries) ••••........ .




Earnings or rat©

33
33
37

Ik
Ik

-

30
3t

30
38
36
•

ko
•

36
-

38
28
37
37
32

_
28
28
31
32
28
28
28

17
21
12

Ik
21
21
12
17
15
21
21
20
21
15
21
18, 19
9
17
17
l*
l
21
9
9
21
13

Ik
10
10
6, io

38

18

38
36
28
31
31
28
to
to
31
39
38
36

18, 19
15, 16
10
13
13
10
20
20
13
19
17
15, 16
21
20
21
21

-

☆ U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 0 —

1950


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102