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Occupational Wage Survey

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clagua, Commisaonar




O c c u p a tio n a l W a ge S u r v e y
M I N N E A P O L I S - S T . P A U L , M IN N E S O T A




DECEMBER 1955

Bulletin No.

1 8 8-8
H

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

M a r c h 1956
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. - Price 25 cents




Contents
Page
______________________________
Introduction ____________________________________________________________ .
W a g e trends for selected occupational g r o u p s ________________________________________________________

1
3

Tables:
1.
2.

A:

B:

Establishments and w o r k e r s within scope of s u r v e y ---------------------------------------Indexes of standard weekly salaries for office clerical an d average straight-time
hourly earnings for selected plant occupational groups, and percent of increase
for selected p e r i o d s --------- ---------------------------------------------------------------

2

3

Occupational earnings * A - 1: Office occupations ____________________________________________________________________
A-2:
Professional and technical occupations ______________________________________________
A-3:
Mai n t e n a n c e and powerplant occupations _____
A-4:
Custodial and m a t e rial-movement occupations ______________________________________

5
8
9
10

E s t ablishment practices, and s u p p l e mentary w a g e provisions * B-l:
Shift differential provisions___________________________________________________________
B-2:
M i n i m u m entrance rates for w o m e n office w o r k e r s _________________________________
B-3:
Scheduled w eekly hours ______________________________________________________________
B-4:
P a i d holidays _______
B -5: P a i d vacations ______
B-6:
Health, insurance, and pension plans ___________

12
13
14
14
15
17

Appendix:

Job descriptions___________________________________________________________________________

19

* NOTE:
Similar tabulations for m o s t of these items are available in the Minneapolis-St. Paul
are a reports for N o v e m b e r in 1951, 1952, 1953, and 1954.
T h e 1953 report also provides tabu­
lations of w a g e structure characteristics, l a b o r - m a n a g e m e n t a greement s , and over t i m e p a y p r o ­
visions.
T h e 1954 report also included data on frequency of w a g e pa y m e n t s , and p a y provisions
for holidays falling on nonworkdays.
A directory indicating date of study and the price of the
reports, as well as reports for other m a j o r areas, is available u p o n request.
C u r r e n t reports on occupational earnings and suppl e m e n t a r y w a g e practices in the M i n neapolisSt. Paul area are also available for m a c h i n e r y industries ( D e c e m b e r 1955), hotels (July 1955),
p o w e r laundries and dry cleaners (June 1955), and office building service (June 1955).
Union
scales, indicative of prevailing p a y levels, are available for the following trades or industries:
Building construction, printing, local transit operating e m ployees, and mo t o r t r u c k drivers.







O c c u p a t io n a l

W

a g e

S u rv ey

-

M in n e a p o lis -S t.

P a u l,

M in n .

*

I n tr o d u c tio n
T he

M in n e a p o lis -S t.

in d u s t r ia l c e n t e r s

in w h ic h

S ta tis tic s

con d u cted

b e n e fits .

In

fie ld

a g en ts

each
to

d iv is io n s :
fin a n c e ,

oth er

e x c lu d e d

a ls o

and

h a v in g

to

o b ta in e d

u t ilit ie s ;
esta te;

e a r n in g s

1
*

b e s id e s
and

th e

of

r e la te d

w age

broad

r e ta il

of w ork ers

p o s s ib le ,
in d u s tr y

B eca u se

th e

e s t a b lis h m e n t s

s a m p le

of

im p o r ta n c e

c o m ­

stru ctu re

tra d e;

of

do

u n n e ce ssa ry

su rv ey s

c o s t in v o lv e d

p r o m p t p u b lic a t io n
m um
is

co s t,

a

s tu d ie d
th e

In

th e ir
a re

con d u cted

in

T o

p r o p o r t io n

c o m b in in g

E s t a b lis h m e n t

g o v e rn ­

g r o u p in g

th e

a re

sep a ra te

th a n

le c te d
to

ta b u la ­

a re a ,

2

as

a ll

based

r e la tin g

excep t

fo r

to

of

th e

and

to a ll
th o se

w o rk e rs ”

in s u r e

c lu d in g

p la n t

fo rc e

e s t a b lis h m e n t s
th e

and

T he
c a t io n

is

a ccou n t
(s e e

and

b a sed
of

tio n s :
n a n ce

on
fo r

(in

s e le c te d

fo r

a

u n ifo r m

set

lis tin g

of

com m on

d e s c r ip tio n s
in

ta b le s )

c le r ic a l;

(b )

fo r

d u tie s

th e

to a

v a r ie ty

and

of

d e s ig n e d

w it h in

th e

ty p es

to

a re

of

a

r e g u la r

E a r n in g s

c lu d e d .

but

W h ere

r e fe r e n c e
fo r

e a r n in g s

h a lf

and

is

w h ic h

fo r

in

p r e m iu m
la te

w e e k ly h o u r s

c u p a tio n s ,
ly

fu ll-t im e

to

th e

h a v in g

a re

o v e r t im e

o c c u p a tio n s

and

as

s a la r ie s

fo r

been

o r,

w as

to

in d ic a te
o f

th e

in

th e

e s ­

fro m

r e la tiv e

o c c u p a tio n a l

e a r n in g s

d a ta .

W age

P r o v is io n s

term

p r o fe s s io n a l,
fo re m e n

t r a in e e s )

p r o fe s s io n a l,

and

e m p lo y e e s

B -s e r ie s

ta b le s )

’’o ffic e

and

and

in n o n o f f ic e
a re

u sed

e m p lo y e e s ,

and

in c lu d e d

as

a

rou tem en

as

in
a d ­

’ ’P l a n t

w ork ers

fu n c tio n s .

u t iliz e d

w ork ers

a s

s e ­

r e la te

e x c lu d e s

te c h n ic a l p e r s o n n e l.

te c h n ic a l

w ho

but a re

w o r k e r s ,”

e m p lo y e e s

on

a s th ey

an d a ll n o n s u p e r v is o r y

en gaged

G a fe te r ia

th e

and

fo r c e -

sep a ra te
a re

(in ­

A d m in is ­
w ork

e x c lu d e d

p la n t w o r k e r s

in

in n o n m a n ­

(ta b le
is

in

B -l)

term s

s h ift

if

n o

at

on

th e

d iffe r e n t ia ls ,

am ount

lim it e d

b oth

in

to m a n u fa c t u r in g

term s

of

o f to ta l p la n t w o r k e r

p resen ted

s p e c ifie d
v a r ie d

a re

p resen ted

th e

b a s is

tim e

of

(a )

of w ork ers

th e

e sta b ­

e m p lo y m e n t,

su rvey.

a c t u a lly
In

esta b ­

th e a m o u n t a p p ly in g
to

a p p lie d

to a m a jo r ity
c la s s ific a tio n

a

m a jo r ity ,

th e

u sed .

M in im u m
lis h m e n ts

h ir e d

fo r

w ork

on

an

v a c a tio n s ;

to

t ic a lly

on

h e a lth ,

th e

if

T h ey

e m p lo y m e n t
and

on

w ork ers

en tra n ce

v is it e d .

a

b a s is

a re

e x ­

q u a lify

fo r

a re

in ­

v id u a l

ite m s

c le r ic a l

ra tes

a re

(ta b le

b a s is .

th a t

su ch

r e la te
an

h ou rs;

a n d p e n s io n
a re

to

p a id ;

th e

rou n d ed

to

T he

n ea rest

a v era g e
th e

m en ts,

w eek ­
n ea rest

at

th e

in

th ese

su m m a ry

e x c lu d in g
d is c r e tio n

lis t e d . 4

p la n s

a p p lic a b le

w ork ers

a re

o n ly

to

p a id

ta b u la tio n s

of

th e

p la n s

do

not

p la n s

o f v a c a tio n

in fo r m a l

of

th e

a ll

esta b ­
ra th er

h o lid a y s ;

a re

e lig ib le

B eca u se

to

e s ta b lis h m e n t,
trea ted
p la n t

or

or

m ay

is

w h ereb y

e m p lo y e r .

r o u n d in g ,

p a id

s ta tis ­
o ffic e

e v e n tu a lly

o c ­

o ffic e

th e p r a c t ic e s

on

S c h e d u le d

th ese

of

B -2 )

p resen ted

in s u r a n c e ,

m a jo r ity

b on u ses

(ro u n d e d
a re

(in

c le r ic a l

p r a c tic e ,

th e

e a r n in g s

in c e n tiv e

s c h e d u le s
have

th o se

and

N o n p r o d u c tio n

rep orted ,

th e w o r k

i. e. ,

u sed

m a in te ­

o c c u p a tio n a l c la s s ific a t io n .

fo r

bon u ses

s t r a ig h t-t im e

th ese

w ork e rs,

g iv e n

pay

s h ifts .

c o s t-o f-liv in g

h a lf

h ou r)

fo r

s c h e d u le

e x c lu d e

h o lid a y s ,

a ls o ,

The

in fo r m a tio n

e ffe c tiv e

’ ’o t h e r ”

(d ) c u s t o d ia l a n d m a t e r ia l m o v e m e n t .

sh ow n

w e e k ly

d a ta

w eek en d s,
c lu d e d

a re

am on g

o ccu p a ­

(c)

te c h n ic a l;

o n ly

s u p p le m e n ta r y b e n e fits

o ffic e

3 p resen ted

on

w as

jo b

d a ta

(b )

th a n
D a ta

T h is

lis h m e n t s

ta k e

sam e

E a r n in g s

fo llo w in g

p r o fe s s io n a l and

a ll

in d u s tr ie s .

e m p lo y e d

O c c u p a tio n a l c l a s s i f i ­

d e s c r ip tio n s ).

A -s e r ie s
and

jo b

v a r ia t io n
th e se

th e

a n d p o w e r p la n t ;

stu d y a r e
in d u s t r ie s .

of

O ffic e

(a )

a ll

in d u s tr ie s ,

lis h m e n t p o lic y ,

in t e r e s t a b lis h m e n t

a p p e n d ix

p resen ted

and

e x c lu d e d .

in d u s tr ie s .

n o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

in

m in im u m

E a r n in g s

o c c u p a tio n s

stru ctu re

d iffe r e n c e s

a ccu ra cy

a ls o

and

S h ift d iff e r e n t i a l d a ta

m a n u fa c tu r in g

w o rk

a re

u fa c tu r in g

in

p resen ted

w o r k in g

e x e c u tiv e ,

s tu d ie d .

O c c u p a t io n s

th e

tota l

e m p lo y m e n t o b ta in e d

S u p p le m e n ta r y

w o rk e rs.

c o n s tr u c tio n

m a n u fa c tu r in g

e s ta b lis h m e n ts

b e lo w

a ffe c t

and

e x e c u tiv e ,

in c lu d e

tr a tiv e ,
a ccou n t

a re

is

in c lu d e s

le a d m e n

a t m in i­

e s t a b lis h m e n t s
th e

m a te r ia lly

se rv e
T h ese

th e

n o t th e n u m b e r a c t u a lly

o c c u p a tio n a l

s tu d ie d

s tu d ie d .

P r a c tic e s

b u lle tin ,

e s ta b lis h m e n ts

a ccu ra cy

on

in

o f o c c u p a tio n a l

e s t a b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s

o ffic e

th is

b eca u se

of s m a ll

h ow ever,

E s tim a te s

th e r e fo r e ,

and

b a s is

jo b s

I n fo r m a tio n

o m it ­

d iv is io n s .

a p p ro p r ia te

la r g e

d a ta ,

s a m p le

th e

re p re se n t

stu d y an d

E sta b ­

o c c u p a tio n s

a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s , a n d

o b ta in
of

w e ig h t.

p re se n ted ,

on a

s u r v e y in g

r e s u lts .

a p p r o p r ia te

in d u s tr y

s iz e

o f

g re a te r

s tu d ie d .

g iv e n

a re

e s t im a t e s

n ot

e s t im a t e s

o f th e

o f d iffe r e n c e s

th e

m in is tr a tiv e ,
T h ese

sco p e

in d u s try

a re

th e

w it h in th e

t a b lis h m e n ts ,

in d u s tr y

in d u s tr ie s .

e m p lo y m e n t in

su rv ey ed .

B u rea u

M a jo r

r a ilr o a d s ,

n um ber

o f

b roa d

tra d e;

e x t r a c t iv e

e s t a b lis h m e n t s

L a bor

r a ilr o a d s ),

s e r v ic e s .

W h erever

of

s ix

O c c u p a t io n a l e m p lo y m e n t

im p o rta n t

B u rea u
and

w it h in

w h o le s a le

in s u ffic ie n t

ea ch

se v e ra l

(e x c lu d in g

th a n a p r e s c r ib e d

fo r

of

L a b o r ’s

b y p e r s o n a l v is its

and

s tu d ie s ,

c o n s tr u c tio n

in c lu s io n .

p r o v id e d

one

e s t a b lis h m e n t s

th ese

th e y fu r n is h

w a rra n t

a re

is

tr a n s p o r t a t io n

rea l

th e

fe w e r

b eca u se

s tu d ie d
tio n s

a re

p u b lic

and

fro m

o p e r a tio n s

lis h m e n t s
ted

and

a rea

D ep a rtm en t o f

o f o c c u p a tio n a l

d a ta

r e p r e s e n ta tiv e

in s u r a n c e ,

grou p s
m en t

su rv ey s

a re a ,

M a n u fa c t u r in g ;

m u n ic a t io n ,

P aul

th e

n e c e s s a r ily
lim it e d

t im e

o ff

S e p a ra te

to

sum s

o f in d i­

equal

to t a ls .

fo rm a l a r r a n g e ­

w ith

pay

e s t im a t e s

is

a re

gra n ted
p r o v id e d

d o lla r .
3
*

C h ic a g o ,
V ota v a ,

T h is

re p o rt

III. ,

b y

w as

W ood row

R e g io n a l W a g e

1

S ee

ta b le

2

T he

ta b u la tio n

w o rk e rs

r e la te s

p rep a red

1

o n ly




fo r

and

C .

in

L in n ,

th e
under

th e

In d u s tr ia l R e la tio n s

m in im u m -s iz e
of

B u rea u ’s

m in im u m

to p r o v is io n s

d ir e c tio n

of

o ffic e

in

e ith e r

G eorg e

E .

o f th e

A n a ly s t .

e s ta b lis h m e n t

en tra n ce
in

r e g io n a l

ra tes

e s t a b lis h m e n t s

fo r

w om en

ta b le
o ffic e

e s t a b lis h m e n t

th e

fo llo w in g

su rv ey ,
4

co v e re d .

A n
of

or

S c h e d u le d

B -3 )

a re

1

(2 ) h a d

in

c o n s id e r e d
(l)

as

h ou rs
in

o ffic e s

fo r

term s
w it h

th e

th e

la te

c o v e r in g

o ffic e

o f

h a v in g a

O p era ted

fo r m a l p r o v is io n s

w e e k ly

p resen ted

w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d
w o rk e rs .

s tu d ie d .

w as

c o n d it io n s :

la te

w o rk e rs

p r o p o r tio n

in d ic a te d

p o lic y

s h ifts

it

th e

m et
t im e

s h ifts .

(fir s t
of

if

at

s e c t io n

w om en

w e e k ly h o u r s

fo r

of

o ffic e
w om en

2

a c c o r d in g
as

tim e

to

e m p lo y e r

p a y m en ts,

H ow ever,

in

p a y m en ts

not

of

2

th e

1 w e e k 's

of

t im e

c o m p u tin g

annual

o f v a c a tio n

b a s is

annual

in

of

ta b u la tio n s

on a

p ercen t

p r a c tic e

p e rcen t

w ere

e a r n in g s

v a c a tio n

e a r n in g s ,

a llo w a n c e s

con v erted ;

w as

or
by

fo r

p a y m en ts,

fla t -s u m

as

th e

w it h

b e n e fits

s ic k -le a v e
a

s e r v ic e ,

pay

a

paym en t

b eca u se

e q u iv a le n t

of

or

(l)

of

p la n s

D a ta
fo r

e x c e p tin g
s o c ia l

o n ly

d ir e ctly
life

le g a l

fo r

a

and

e m p lo y e r
th is

fo r

p art

a ll
su ch

in c lu d e

th ose

h e a lth ,

o f th e

r e q u ir e m e n ts

S u ch p la n s

com p an y

b y th e

a s id e

p resen ted

a t le a s t

s e c u r ity .

in s u r a n c e
set

a re

w h ic h

as

th o se

p r o v id e d

out of cu rre n t

p u rp o se.

co st

D ea th

in s u r a n c e ,

is

b orn e

w o r k m e n 's

o p e r a tin g

b e n e fits

a re

a

th e

p e n s io n

e m p lo y e r ,

c o m p e n s a tio n

u n d e r w r itte n
th rou g h

and

by

by a

u n io n

fu n d s

o r

o r

a

p a id

a

fro m
as

fu n d

fo rm

of

su ran ce
th e

under

in s u r e d

d is a b ilit y .
e m p lo y e r
have

w h ic h
on

m o re

is

T able 1:

is

or

ca sh

m o n th ly

p resen ted

H ow ever,

te m p o ra ry
th a n

in s u r a n c e

p r e d e t e r m in e d

I n fo r m a tio n

c o n t r ib u tio n s , 5

tr ib u te s

a c c id e n t

a w e e k ly

c o n t r ib u te s .

en a cted

p lo y e r

and

in

d is a b ility

p la n s
le g a lly

a re

is

lim ite d

p a y m en ts

b a s is
fo r

N ew

a ll

and

r e q u ir e d ,

la w s

o n ly
or

p la n s
N ew

(2 )

or

to

d ir e c tly
a c c id e n t

w ho

o r

or

and
a

la w .

d u r in g
a re

T a b u la tio n s

w h ic h

p r o v id e

a b sen ce

p r o v id e d

w a itin g

p e r io d ,

fro m
(2 )

w a itin g

p e r io d .

In

w h o

p r o v id e d

s ic k

e ith e r

a re

fu ll

w ork

a c c o r d in g
and

w o rk e rs

of

p a id

r e c e iv e

n o

th e

p la n s

a d d itio n

to

p la n s
to

th e

s ic k n e s s

le a v e ,

an

u n d u p lic a te d

b oth

ty p es

o f b e n e fit.

or

tota l

is

th e

in s u r a n c e ,

e m p lo y e e s
n orm a l

in

ca se

cov era g e

in s u r a n c e

d o c to r s '

su ra n ce

s o m e t im e s

th o se

o f s ic k n e s s

p la n s

and

r e fe r s to p la n s

fe e s .

S u ch

T a b u la t io n s

th a t p r o v id e

or

p la n s

n o n p r o fit

be

a re

in v o lv in g

m e d ic a l,

p r o v id in g
m ay

r e fe r r e d

w h ic h

in ju r y

o f h o s p it a liz a t io n ,

c o m p a n ie s

in s u r e d .
p la n s

in s u r a n c e ,
in c lu d e s

fo r

and

exp en ses

c o m p le te

o f r e t ir e m e n t p e n s io n

m o n th ly p a y m e n ts

fo r

th e

or
by

or

p la n s

as

ex ten d ed
to p r o t e c t

beyon d

s u r g ic a l p la n s .

u n d e r w r it t e n

o r g a n iz a t io n s

to

d e s ig n e d

p a r tia l p a y m e n t
c o m m e r c ia l

th ey

a re

m a y

lim it e d

r e m a in d e r

th e

M ed ­

of

th e

in ­

be

s e lf-

to

th o se

w o r k e r 's

life .

w h ic h

r e q u ir e
th e

in ­

w h ic h

e m p lo y e r

p r o v id e s

of

J e rse y ,

w h ic h

if th e

ty p e

m ade

illn e s s

su ch

Y ork

th a t

a re

d u r in g

in s u r a n c e

in c lu d e d

to

pay

in s u r a n c e

C a ta stro p h e
m e d ic a l

ica l

in s u r a n c e .
S ic k n e s s

p a y

th e p r o p o r t io n s

of w ork ers

pay

ta b u la tio n s

fu ll

of

fo rm a l

w o r k e r 's

S e p a ra te

p a r tia l

to

and

of

to

a c c id e n t

sh ow n

c o m m e r c ia l
fu n d

in c lu d e d

and

o f

r e q u ir e m e n ts

lim it e d

th e

p r o v id e

e ith e r

th e

a re

of

illn e s s .

w h ic h

p r e s e n ta tio n
p la n s

ex ceed

p la n s

p r o p o r t io n

p r o v id in g

pay.

w h ic h

o f p a id

6f

y ea rs

e x a m p le ,

c o n s id e r e d

su ch

a m ou n ts.

(l)

e m ­
5

co n ­

e m p lo y e e

do

not

T h e

tem p ora ry

r e q u ir e

d is a b ilit y

e m p lo y e r

la w s

in

C a lifo r n ia

and

R h ode

I s la n d

c o n tr ib u tio n s .

E sta b lish m e n ts and w o r k e r s w ithin s c o p e o f s u r v e y and n u m b er stu d ied in M in n e a p o lis-S t. P a u l, M inn. , 1 by m a jo r in d u s tr y d iv is io n , D e c e m b e r 1955

Industry d iv is io n

A ll d i v i s i o n s --------------------------------------------------------------------M anu facturing — -------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa ctu r in g -----------------------------------------------------------T ra n sp o rta tio n (e x clu d in g r a ilr o a d s ),
com m u n ica tio n , and o th e r p u b lic u tilitie s 4— -----W h olesa le t r a d e --------------------------------------------------------R e ta il t r a d e ----------------------------------------------------------------F in a n ce, in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e ---------------------S e r v ic e s 6 ---------------------------------------------------------------------

M inim um
s iz e
e s t a b lis h ­
m en t
in s c o p e o f
study 2
51

N um ber
W ithin
scop e of
study
950

51
51

395
555

51
51
51
51
51

65
127
197
86

80

of

W o rk e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts

e sta b lish m en ts

W ithin s c o p e o f study

Studied

Studied
O ffic e

P lan t

2 2 7 ,3 0 0

4 6 ,6 0 0

1 4 0 ,9 0 0

1 3 8 ,9 5 0

148

11 3 ,2 0 0
11 4,10 0

1 6 ,2 0 0
3 0 ,4 0 0

7 7 ,2 0 0
6 3 ,7 0 0

6 9 ,4 8 0
6 9 ,4 7 0

23
37
40
29
19

2 5 ,8 0 0
17, 100
4 2 ,1 0 0
1 8 ,4 0 0
1 0 ,7 0 0

1 6 ,4 0 0
6 ,8 0 0
3 2 ,0 0 0
5
1 ,2 0 0

2 0 ,3 1 0

T o t a l3
234
86

4 ,5 0 0
5 ,9 0 0
5 ,5 0 0
1 3 ,3 0 0
(7 )

T o ta l3

n

8 ,2 0 0

2 5 ,8 9 0
1 1 ,9 7 0
3 ,1 0 0

1

The M in n e a p o lis -S t. P a u l M e tr o p o lita n A r e a (A noka, D akota, H ennepin, and R a m se y C ou n tie s). The "w o r k e r s w ithin s c o p e o f stu d y " e s tim a te s show n in this table
p ro v id e a r e a s o n a b ly a c c u r a t e d e s c r ip tio n o f the s iz e and c o m p o s it io n o f the la b o r f o r c e in clu d ed in the su rv e y .
The estim a te s a r e not in ten d ed , h o w e v e r , to s e r v e as a
b a sis o f c o m p a r is o n w ith o th e r a r e a e m p lo y m e n t in d e x e s to m e a s u r e e m p loy m en t tren d s o r le v e ls s in c e ( l) planning o f w age s u rv e y s r e q u ir e s the u se o f e s ta b lis h m e n t data
c o m p ile d c o n s id e r a b ly in a d v an ce o f the p ay p e r io d stu d ied and (2) s m a ll esta b lish m e n ts a r e ex clu d ed fr o m the sc o p e o f the su rv e y .
Includes a ll e sta b lish m e n ts w ith tota l e m p lo y m e n t at o r a b o v e the m in im u m s iz e lim ita tio n . A ll outlets (within the a r e a ) o f c o m p a n ie s in s u ch in d u s tr ie s as tr a d e ,
fin a n c e , auto r e p a ir s e r v i c e , and m o tio n -p ic t u r e th e a te rs a r e c o n s id e r e d as 1 esta b lish m e n t.
3 Includes e x e c u tiv e , te c h n ic a l, p r o f e s s io n a l, and o th e r w o r k e r s ex clu d ed fr o m the s e p a ra te o ff ic e and plant c a t e g o r ie s .
4 A ls o e x clu d e s ta x ic a b s , and s e r v ic e s in cid e n ta l to w a te r tra n sp o r ta tio n .
5 E stim a te r e la t e s to r e a l esta te e sta b lish m e n ts on ly .
6 H otels; p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s ; b u sin e ss s e r v i c e s ; a u to m o b ile r e p a ir sh op s; r a d io b r o a d c a s tin g and te le v is io n ; m otion p ic t u r e s ; n o n p r o fit m e m b e r s h ip o r g a n iz a tio n s ; and
en g in eerin g and a r c h it e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s .
7
This in d u stry d iv is io n is r e p r e s e n te d in e s tim a te s fo r " a ll in d u s tr ie s " and "n on m a n u fa ctu rin g " in the S e r ie s A and B t a b le s , alth ou gh c o v e r a g e w as in s u ffic ie n t
ju s tify sep a ra te p re s e n ta tio n o f data.

2




to

3

W age
T a b u la te d b e lo w

a re

in d e x e s

o f

s a la r ie s

T ren d s

o f w om en

fo r

o ffic e

S e le c te d

O c c u p a t io n a l G r o u p s
T he

c le r i­

w o rk e rs ,

and

F o r
w e e k ly

s c h e d u le

fo r
th e

e x c lu d in g
d a y s,
k ey

w h ic h

o c c u p a tio n s

w it h in

each

in d e x ;

10

in

p la n t

th e

and

o r h o u r ly
and

e a r n in g s

N ov em b er

g iv e n

y e a r

to

1 9 5 2 -5 3 )

w as

(1 0 0 )

get

to

th e
th e

T a b le 2:

and
fo r

and

fo r

w ork

n u m e r ic a lly

jo b s

in c lu d e d

and

See

3

u n s k ille d

fo o tn o te s

to

m u ltip lie d
th en
th e

b y th e

th e jo b .
to

o b ta in

r a tio

of

th ese

th e b a s e

r e s u lt m u ltip lie d b y

th e

g iv e n

p e r io d

and

p r o p o r tio n
in d e x e s
p lo y e d
th e

e x p a n s io n

r e s u lt

in

lo w e r
a ls o

a

jo b s

w ere

in c lu d e d

oth er

a rea

a
to

th e

sa m e

in

th e

fo rc e

th e

no

ch an ge

r e ­
la b o r

m ig h t
o c c u ­

s p e c ific

a

in

(3 )

e x p a n s io n
r e d u c t io n

o p p o s ite

out

gen eral
pay

and

of

in

th e

e ffe c t.

The

w ork ers

o f

le v e ls .

e s ta b lis h m e n t

th ou g h

(l)
in

a

in

p r o p o r t io n
pay

o f

jo b ;

w h erea s

have

d iffe r e n t

h ig h -p a y in g

A

w o rk e rs

in d e x ,

w o u ld

s h ifts

even

in

p a id

th e

e ffe c ts

in c re a s e s

e m ­

F o r
an

ra tes

e x a m p le ,

area

c o u ld

o ccu rre d

in

e s ta b lis h m e n t s .

2.
e a r n in g s

a vera ge

w ere

s a la r ie s

o f N o v e m b e r 1952
e a r n in g s

a g g reg a te

fo r

a g g reg a tes

(s u r v e y

m on th ,

th e b a s e

fo r

each
fo r

T he
o f

ch an ges

c lu d e d

in

sta n d a rd
a re

u se

in

b a sed

th e
on

o f c o n s t a n t e m p lo y m e n t w e ig h t s

th e

p r o p o r tio n

in d e x .

w ork

N or

s c h e d u le s
pay

fo r

o f

a re

o r

in

w ork ers
th e

in d e x e s

p r e m iu m

s tr a ig h t-tim e

e lim in a te s

rep resen ted

in

in flu e n c e d

pay

th e

each

by

e ffe c ts
jo b

in ­

ch an ges

fo r

o v e r t im e ,

fo r

w ork ers

s in c e

in

th ey

h ou rs.

a

w in te r

y ea r

in d e x

y ea r.

In d ex es
la b o r

m a rk ets,

B e n e fits ,

17

fo r

th e

p e r io d

a p p eared

L a b or

in

M a rk ets,

1952
B L S

to

1955

B u ll.

1172,

W ages

in
and

17 m a jo r
R e la te d

1 9 5 4 -5 5 -

In d exes o f standard w eek ly s a la r ie s f o r o f f ic e c l e r i c a l 1 and a v e ra g e s t r a ig h t -tim e h o u r ly ea rn in g s fo r s e le c t e d plant o c cu p a tio n a l g rou p s*
in M in n e a p o lis-S t. P a u l, M in n ., N o v e m b e r 1954 and D e c e m b e r 1955 and p e r c e n t o f in c r e a s e f o r s e le c t e d p e r io d s
Ind exes
(N o v e m b e r 1952 = 100)

In d u stry and o c cu p a tio n a l g rou p

N o v e m b e r 1953
to
N o v e m b e r 1954

N o v e m b e r 1952
to
N o v e m b e r 1953

1 1 0 .2
1 1 1 .6

3 .8
4 .9
4 .9

3 .3
3 .3
4 .9

6 .6

6 .7
7 .9

6 .4

8 .1

2 1 .7
2 4 .6
2 6 .6

109. 6
10 8.1
1 1 0 .9

3 .4
5 .4
4 .2

3 .6
1 .4
4 .8

5 .8
6 .7
5 .8

9 .1
9 .4
7 .2

2 3 .6
2 4 .6
2 3 .8

N ovem ber
1954

All in d u s tr ie s :
O ffic e c l e r i c a l (w om en )
S k ille d m a in te n a n ce (m en)
U n s k ille d p lan t ( m e n ) _________________________________

114. 1
115. 5
117. 1

Manuf a c tur in g :
O ffic e c l e r i c a l (w om en ) ______________________________
S k ille d m a in te n a n ce (m en)
U n s k ille d p lant (m en )

1 1 3 .3
113. 9
115. 5

B a s e d on data f o r the fo llo w in g jo b s :
O ffic e c l e r i c a l (w o m e n ):
B i l l e r s , m a ch in e (b illin g m ach in e)
B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c la s s A and B
C o m p to m e te r o p e r a to r s
C l e r k s , f i l e , c l a s s A and B
C le r k s , o r d e r
C le r k s , p a y r o ll
K e y -p u n ch o p e r a to r s
O ffic e g ir ls
S e c r e t a r ie s
S te n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l
S w itch b o a r d o p e r a to r s
S w itch b o a r d o p e r a t o r -r e c e p t io n is t s
T a b u la tin g -m a c h in e o p e r a to r s
T r a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , g en era l
T y p is t s , c l a s s A and B

P e r c e n t in c r e a s e s fr o m —
N ov em b er 1954
to
D e c e m b e r 1955

D ecem b er
1955




in

w it h

d rop ,

th e
oth er

r e d u c t io n .

w o rk e rs
by

o r

w h ile

lo w e r

d rop

p a id

a ffe c te d

of

in d e x

m e r it

o r

o f

e s t a b lis h m e n t s

m ovem en t

p r in c ip a lly

(2 )

w ork ers

p r o p o r tio n

of

a re
by

th e

grou p

fo r

p a tio n

m ea su re

ch a n ges;

fo r c e

th e

ca u se

w e ig h te d

th e

jo b s

o r

in c re a s e

c le r ic a l

T he

an

h o li­

s e le cte d

tu rn o v e r

w age

in d iv id u a l

o ffic e

a vera ge

added

fo r

im p o rta n t

h o u r ly

T h ese

e a r n in g s ,

by

in d e x e s

and

th e

ta b le

average

w ork

p la n t w o r k e r

d a ta

in

a vera ge

w eek en d s,

th e

of
w ere

to

h o u r ly

on

on

g rou p s.

sta n d a rd

F o r

m ost
jo b s

or

a g g reg a te
in d e x

p a id .

o c c u p a tio n s .

w ere

th e

s t r a ig h t-t im e

s e le c te d

F in a lly ,

com p u ted

are

r e la te

is ,

b a sed

1 9 5 3 e m p l o y m e n t in

g rou p .

th a t

s a la r ie s

th e

w e re th en

in d iv id u a l o c c u p a t io n s
o c c u p a tio n a l

in d e x e s

are

in d e x e s .

o f

in

p la n t w o r k e r

in d e x e s

in c lu d e

w e e k ly

ea ch

th e

s a la r ie s

o v e r tim e

T h e

E ig h te e n

w o rk er

fo r

fo r

s e le c te d

o f w ork ,

ch an ges

m a in te n a n c e

A v e ra g e
com p u ted

m ea su re
pay

grou p .

s k ille d

h ou rs

s t r a ig h t-t im e

s h ifts .

of

w o rk e rs,

n orm a l

in d e x e s
la te

e a r n in g s

c le r ic a l

fo r

p r e m iu m

and

a v era g e

o ffic e

s a la r ie s

g ro u p s,

o f

s a la r y
c e iv e d

ca l

1 0 9 .9

6 .3

2 B a se d on data f o r the fo llo w in g jo b s :
S k ille d m ain ten a n ce (m e n ):
C a r p e n te rs
E le c t r ic ia n s
M a ch in is ts
M e ch a n ic s
M e c h a n ic s , au tom otiv e
M illw rig h ts
P a in te r s
P ip e fitt e r s
S h e e t-m e ta l w o r k e r s
T o o l and d ie m a k e rs
U n s k illed p lant (m e n ):
J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s
L a b o r e r s , m a te r ia l handling
W atch m en

N o v e m b e r 1951
to
N o v e m b e r 1952

N ov em b er 1951
to
D e c e m b e r 1955




A : Occupational Earnings

5

Table A-l: Office Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e w e e k ly h o u r s a n d e a r n in g s 1 f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d o n an a r e a b a s is
i n M i n n e a p o l i s - S t . P a u l , M in n . , b y i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , D e c e m b e r 1 9 5 5 )

Avxbaqb

NU M BER OF W ORKERS RECEIVIN G S TRAIG H T-TIM E W E E K L Y EARNINGS OF—

Number

of

S ex, o ccu p a tion , and in d u stry d iv ision

workers

Weekly
hours
(Standard)

Weekly
earnings
(Standard)

Under
$
35.0 0

$
$
3 5 .0 0 4 0.0 0
and
under
40. 00 4 5 .0 0

$
4 5.0 0

$
50.00

$
55.0 0

$
6 0.0 0

$
65.00

$
70.00

$
75.00

$
8 0.0 0

$
8 5.0 0

$
90.00

$

$
9S00 100.00

$
105.00

$
110.00

$
115.00
and

50.0 0

55.0 0

60.0 0

65.0 0

70.00

7 5.0 0

8 0.0 0

8 5.0 0

9 0.0 0

95.0 0

100.00 105.00

110.00

115.00

over

M en
C le r k s , a ccou n tin g, c la s s A ___ __ __ __ _____ __ __ _
M a n u factu rin g----------------------------------------- _ -------- __ _
N onm anufacturing ------- __ ------- __ ________ ____ _
W h olesa le trade ----- ----------------------- ---------------------

621
253
368
131

4 0 .0
3 9 .5
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

79.50
78. 50
80.00
73. 50

_
-

_
-

_

_
-

-

3
3
-

24
10
14
6

64
23
41
27

71
24
47
17

76
37
39
22

87
50
37
11

103
42
61
36

59
29
30
10

50
12
38
1

C le r k s , a ccou n tin g, c la s s B
__ __ __ ____ __ ____ _
M anufacturing _ __ __
_ ____ ____
____ __ _
N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g _______ ___________ ___ ___ ___ __ _

332
108
224

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9.5

63.00
63.00
63.00

_
_
-

_
_
-

5
_
5

8
1
7

38
17
21

59
13
46

89
31
58

66
28
38

46
13
33

19
5
14

2
2

_
>
-

-

C le r k s , o r d e r ___ _______________ __ _____ __ _____ __ _
M a n u factu rin g__________________________ __________
N onm anufacturing _____________________ __ __ __ __ _
W holesa le trade __
__
_
_ _

485
145
340
262

4 0.0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

76.00
76.50
75.50
75.00

_
_
-

_
_
_
-

_
_
_
-

2
2
-

5
2
3
-

38
5
33
28

41
18
23
22

58
30
28
24

55
10
45
31

71
4
67
48

130
31
99
85

47
22
25
10

O ffice b o y s ___ __
_ _
.
.
.
__
M a n u factu rin g___ ___________ _____________________ _
N onm anufacturing _____________________________________

220
67
153

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .5

46.00
45.50
4 6.00

30
7
23

75
28
47

75
19
56

19
4
15

13
8
5

2
1
1

2
_
2

_

_
"

.
_
-

4

-

T abu latin g-m ach in e o p e ra to rs _________________________ _
M a n u fa ctu rin g_____________ ______________________________
N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g ___________ ________________________
F in a n ce «* -----------------------------------------------------------------

337
112
225
166

3 9 .5
40. 0
3 9.0
3 8 .5

69.50
74.50
67.00
64.00

_

>
"

2
_
2
2

31
1
30
27

20
_
20
18

24
5
19
15

43
12
31
28

38
16
22
15

46
20
26
24

_
_
_
_

186
173
43
60

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
4 0 .0
4 0.0

52.00
51.50
60.50
49.00

_

-

3
3
_
3

27
27
2
13

49
49
3
11

47
47
15
22

32
24
4
11

12
7
3
-

2
2
2
-

B i l l e r s , m achine (bookkeeping m ach in e) ___ ____ __ _
N onm anufacturing _____________________ ___________ _

96
96

3 9 .5
3 9 .5

56.00
56.00

_

_

-

-

7
7

36
36

15
15

17
17

2
2

_

143

3 9.5

62.00

_

_

1

33

29

B ook k e e p in g-m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c la s s B ___
..
. _____
....
......
Manuf ac tur i n g ______ ____________________________________
N onm anufacturing _______________________________ ____
W holes ale trade _________________________________ _
R e ta il trade _________________________________________
F in a n ce * *
_
...
_
... _

864
236
628
137
141
317

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .5
4 0 .0
4 0 .0
3 9.0

52.00
58.00
50.00
54.00
53.00
46.50

31
31
_
1
30

149
6
143
13
17
109

164
16
148
18
27
101

227
70
157
46
40
47

C le r k s , accounting, c la s s A _________ _________________
M a n u fa ctu rin g___ _____________________________________
N onm anufacturing _____________________________________
F in a n c e * *
___
.
___ _

595
118
477
91

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .5
38. 5

66.50
63.50 “
67.00
66.00

-

-

7
_
7
-

13
5
8
1

C le r k s , a cco u n tin g , c la s s B ----------------------------------------- _ 2 ,1 7 4
M a n u factu rin g_____________________________________ __ _
374
N onm anufacturing ---------------------------- -----------------1,800
P u b lic u tilities * ________
391
W h olesa le trade _________________ ________ __ __ _
212
R e ta il trade _________________________________________
485

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
39. 5
3 9.0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

52.00
54.50
51.50
57.00
53.00
50.50

4
_
4
_
_
3

137
_
137
_
8
25

369
48
321
33
28
122

409
60
349
63
41
113

-

47
22
25
-

21
3
18
1

9
1
8
-

.

_
_

-

30
21
9
9

4

_
_
-

66
20
46
25

38
25
13
8

15
10
5
4

10
10
10
-

3
3
3
-

1
1
1
-

_

4
4

1
1

14
14

26

40

7

4

161
55
106
35
47
24

81
59
22
16
1
4

30
18
12
9
1

4
3
1
_
1

12
4
8
_
8
-

48
15
33
1

110
26
84
24

124
28
96
23

58
12
46
9

113
17
96
15

566
130
436
106
40
94

287
51
236
42
52
58

186
41
145
53
26
27

123
28
95
36
11
35

54
12
42
31
6
-

6
_
6
-

1
_
1
-

_
„

_

_

-

-

-

*

_
_
-

2
_
2
2

3
.
3
-

.
_

3

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

7
_
7
-

6
2
4
-

1
1
-

_
-

“

-

_

.

_

-

_

_
_
-

_
_

_

-

3
3

-

-

_
-

_
-

_
_

W om en
B i l l e r s , m achine (b illin g m achine) __ _______________
N onm anufacturing __________________ _______________
P u b lic u tilities * --------------------------------------------------R eta il trade __________________ _______________ __

B ook k e e p in g-m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c la s s A ________________________________________________

_
_

_
_
_
_
_
_
_

.

_
_

S e e fo o tn o te at en d o f ta b le .
*
T r a n s p o r t a t io n ( e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a t io n , an d o t h e r p u b lic u t i li t ie s .
* * F in a n ce , in s u r a n c e , and re a l e s ta te .




-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

3

_

_

-

_

5
5
_
-

_
-

_
_
-

_
-

_
*
_
_
-

_
_

_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_

-

-

-

69
8
61
14

23
2
21
-

13
4
9
4

16
16
-

_

-

_
-

1
1

.
_
-

_
-

38
3
35
27
8

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

1
1

-

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

_

-

-

_
_

~

■

-

“

_
~

-

_

-

-

-

_
-

-

.

-

_
_
■

Occupational Wage Survey, Minneapolis-St. Paul, M inn., December 1955
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

6

Table A-1i_Office Occupations - Continued
(Average straight-tim e weekly hours and earnings1 for selected occupations studied on an area basis
in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minn. , by industry division, December 1955)
A verage

Sex, occu p a tion , and industry d ivision

Number
of
workers

Weekly
hours
(Standard)

Weekly
earnings
(Standard)

NUM BER OF WORKERS RECEIVING S T R A IG H T -T IM E W E E K L Y EAR N IN G S OF—
Under
$
3 5 .0 0

$
3 5 .0 0
and
under
4 Q, 0 0

$
5 0 .0 0

$
5 5 .0 0

$
6 0 .0 0

S
6 5 .0 0

$

4 0 .0 0

$
4 5 .0 0

$
7 5.0 0

$
8 0 .0 0

$

7 0 .0 0

8 5 .0 0

9 0 .0 0

4 5 .0 0

5 0 .0 0

5 5.0 0

6 0 .0 0

6 5 .0 0

7 0 .0 0

7 5 .0 0

8 0 .0 0

8 5 .0 0

9 0 .0 0

95. 00

67
53
14

54
23

514

306

79
435
24
46
58
241

103

111
21

$

$

100.00

$
105.00

$

9 5.00

110.00

$
1 1 5 . 0C

100.00

105.00

110.00

115.00

over

$

and

W o m e n - C o n tin u e d
C l e r k s , f i l e , c l a s s A _________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ---------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g ____________________

246
133

C l e r k s , f i l e , c l a s s B _________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g __________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________________
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s * __________________
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e __________________
R e t a i l t r a d e _________________________
F i n a n c e * * ----------------------------------------

1 ,2 2 7
246

C l e r k s , o r d e r ______________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g __________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g _____________________
R e t a i l t r a d e --------------------------------------

261
80
181

C l e r k s , p a y r o l l _____________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ___________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g _____________________
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s * ___________________
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e ___________________
R e t a i l t r a d e _________________________

576
2 90
286
57
67

C om ptom eter op e ra to rs
M anu factu ring_______
N onm anufacturing ___
W holesale trade _
R etail trade _____

780

D uplicating-m achine o p era tors
(m im eograph o r ditto) ______
N onm anufacturing __________
K e y -p u n c h o p e r a t o r s ______________________________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g ___________________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ______________________________________
P u b lic u t ilit ie s * ____________________________________
F i n a n c e * * ____________________________________________
O ff ic e g ir ls _________________________________________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g ___________ ________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ______________________________________
P u b lic u t ilit ie s * ____________________________________
R e t a il tr a d e __________________________________________
F i n a n c e * * ____________________________________________
S e c r e t a r ie s _________________________________________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g ____________________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ______________________________________
P u b lic u t ilit ie s * ____________________________________
W h o le s a le t r a d e ____________________________________
R e t a il tr a d e __________________________________________
F in a n ce * * ____________________________________________

113

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .5

$
5 5 .0 0
5 4 .0 0
5 6.0 0

-

_

-

-

6

31
3
28

205
36

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0
3 9 .0

4 4 .0 0
4 7 . 50
4 9 .0 0
4 4 .0 0
4 2 .5 0

3 9 .5
3 9 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

5 4 .0 0
5 9 .0 0
5 2 .0 0
4 6 .0 0

4 0 .0
40.(3
3 9 .5
4 0 .0
4 0 .0
3 9 .5

5 9 .0 0
5 8 .0 0
6 0 .0 0
6 0 . 50
6 5 . 50
5 8.0 0

_

206

3 9 .5
4 0 .0

5 7.0 0
5 8 .0 0

574
254
206

39-0
3 9 .5
3 9 .0

5 6 .5 0
5 6 .0 0
5 8 .0 0

84

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

5 0 .5 0

981
53
158
170
502

101

92

54

657
187
470
67

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .5
4 0 .0

269

3 9 .0

426
61

3 9.0

365
31
47
235
1 ,9 4 0
STZ~
1 ,1 2 8
149
265

222
317

4 4 .0 0
4 5 .0 0

6
-

4 1 .5 0
4 3 .0 0

8
19

111

_

22

90

12
37

8

-

-

-

103
70

65
38
27

48

20

9

10

2

9
9

17

3

9

2

-

144

52

39
105
54

21

5

12

1

1

52

114

5

154
43

129
79
38

111

25

19
95
40
34

18 1
52

4

29

15

6

9

3

21

9

4

2

54
30

3
7

-

-

-

5

_

_

2

_

_

3

_

-

-

-

-

1

_

_

_
_

12

4

-

-

_

_

_

16

9

3

1

_

_

1
8

_

_

1
1

_

_

_

1

_

-

11

-

3

-

-

-

27
16

54

_

_

_

.

22

15
3

11
2
6

53
4
47

10
10

8
2

3
3

-

2

_

31

1

1

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

.
_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

.

_
_

-

_

_

-

1

_

-

_

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

2
1

-

-

-

_

-

_

_

-

1
1

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

-

_

_

_

-

_

-

_
_

-

-

_

21

11

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

21

_
_
_

_

-

_
_

_

2

163

6

_

-

-

4

175

12

_
_

1

2

16
78

_
_

-

16

19
67

_
_

-

56

_

28

94

_

3

14

-

-

1 51
57

_

-

56

172
38
134

6

_

_

36

33

_

-

10
1

20
10
10
8
1

134

_

.

_

_

-

_

56
33
23

128

_
_

_

91
43
48
4
25

29

8

-

133
73
60

7

_
_

_

99
50

11

_
-

_

_

10

9

-

_

_

24
4

1

_
_

_
_

13
4

-

_

_

12

6

_

-

_

19
47
25

49

_

_

_

_

20

_

_

_

_

_

-

29

_

_

_

_

10

4
15
34

_

_

-

2

-

_

_

.
_

_

_

14
4

16

29

-

4
-

_

1

_

61
37

_

1

_

_

25

_

_

.

«

66

_

-

.
_
_

29

11
12

1

-

2

_

-

_

-

4

2

6

_

-

12

1

47

_

-

29

-

1

_

-

4

98

67
31
36

-

_

-

48
34

23

_

_

-

3

2

1

1
1

-

3

_

-

2
2

1
8
2

22
22

-

_

4

9

-

1

_

48

_

-

2
2

41
l6
25

29
3
26
26

_

_

154
_

142

45

_

10

12

3

2
2

2
2
2

14
130

25
77

4

-

22

1
1

-

4 0 .0 0

3
5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

68.

_

_

_

7

3

3

_

66

17
_

74
14
18
5

108
13
47
15
31

92

33
35

41
26
15

27

154

135
84

68

_
_
_
_

428
176
252

158

_
_
_
_

86
12

398
153
245
14

2 62

_
_
_

17
_

307
94
213
38
32

1
6

10

11

3
3

1
2
2

_

_
_

4 1 .5 0
4 9 .5 0
4 1 .5 0

38. 5

50
7 0 . 50
66. 50
6 9 - 50
68. 50
6 5.0 0

_

8

_

68.00

See footnotes at end o f table.
* T ra n sp ortation (exclu din g r a ilr o a d s ), com m u n ica tion , and other public u tilitie s.
** F in a n ce, in su ra n ce, and re a l esta te.




203
7
24
54

8
3
5

61
35
26

6
10

3 9 .5
3 9 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

39. 5
40. 0
3 9 .5
4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0
3 9 .0

_

13
34

5 1 .5 0

5 0 .5 0
5 4 . 50
4 9 .0 0
5 2 .0 0
4 8 .0 0

169

_

31

_

-

_
"

3
5
4

43

49
71

61

76

”

23
64
43
76

22

51
7
14
14

35

16

9
17

_

>
_

3

_
-

11

-

9
18
5
7

_

_

_

3
11

1
3

-

_

_

_

_

4

~

“

~

7

Table A-l: Office Occupations - Continued
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings1 for selected occupations studied on an area basis
in Minneapolis-St. Paul, M inn., by industry division, December 1955)
A verage

S e x, o ccu p ation , and in d u stry d iv ision

Number
of
workers

NU M BER OF W ORKERS RECEIVIN G STRAIG H T -T IM E W E E K LY EARNINGS OF—

$
Weekly
hours
(Standard)

Weekly
earnings
(Standard)

Under

$
3 5 .0 0

$

$

3 5 .0 0
and
under
4 0 .0 0

4 0 .0 0

$

$
6 5 .0 0

$
7 0 .0 0

7 5 .0 0

$
8 0 .0 0

$
8 5 .0 0

$
9 0 .0 0

$

5 5 .0 0

$
6 0 .0 0

$

4 5 .0 0

$
5 0 .0 0

9 5.00

$
100.00

$
105.00

$
110.00

$
115.00

4 5 .0 0

5 0 .0 0

5 5 .0 0

6 0 .0 0

6 5 .0 0

7 0 .0 0

7 5 .0 0

8 0 .0 0

8 5 .0 0

9 0 .0 0

9 5 .0 0

1 0 0 .0 0

105.00

110.00

1 1 5.00

over

127

377

687

469

325

205

107

71

15

8

3

32

111

212

233

131

88

42

33

4

4

1

1

_

_

and

W om en - Continued
$

S ten o g ra p h e rs, gen era l
M a n u factu rin g-----------_
N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g _
P u b lic u tilities *
W holesa le trade _
R e ta il trade --------F in a n ce ** ------------

2 ,4 0 8

3 9 .5

5 6 .5 0

892

40. 0

57. 50

-

S w itchboard o p e ra to rs _
M a n u fa ctu rin g-----------N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g _
_
P u b lic u tilities * _
R e ta il trade ______
F in a n ce ** _______

360

S w itchboard o p e r a t o r -r e c e p t io n is t s
M a n u fa ctu rin g_____________________
N onm anufacturing ________________
W h olesa le trade ______________
T a b u latin g -m a ch in e o p e ra to rs .
N onm anufacturing __________
F in a n ce ** _______________
T r a n s crib in g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s ,
g e n e r a l _______________________ ,___
M anufacturing N onm anufacturing --------W holesa le trade ------F in a n ce ** ___________
T y p is t s , c la s s A _______
M anufacturing N onm anufacturing
F in a n ce * * ____
T y p is ts , c la s s B _______
M a n u fa ctu rin g_______
N onm anufacturing __
P u b lic u tilities * .
W holesa le trade .
R eta il trade _____
F in a n ce ** _______

13
-

»

_

_

_

_

_

_

_
_

_
_
_
_

-

-

_

_

1 ,5 1 6

3 9 .5

5 5 .5 0

266

475

236

194

117

65

38

11

4

2

4 0 .0

6 2 .0 0

_

13
_

95

297

10

48

40

34

47

46

38

17

3 9 .5

5 8 .5 0

-

3

14

26

67

62

78

26

8

264

4 0 .0

5 3 .5 0

_

-

15

45

100

72

19

13

-

19
_

4
_

2

303

11
_
-

-

455

3 9 .0

5 3 .0 0

-

9

51

128

115

56

47

28

19

2

-

-

-

-

-

4 0 .5

5 5 .0 0

_

46

51

91

58

56

23

12

13

1

_

1

_

_

83

4 0 .0

6 0 .5 0

- ■

8
_

_

7

18

16

17

15

5

3

_

5 3 .5 0

-

8

46

44

73

42

39

8

7

10

_

1
_

_

4 1 .0

1
_

_

277

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_
_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

_

_

_

>

40

4 0 .0

6 5 .0 0

_

62

4 0 .0

5 0 .0 0

_

38. 5

5 5 .0 0

-

568

3 9 .5

5 2 .0 0

_

193

3 9 .5

5 4 .0 0

54

1
2

18

3

11

15

8

8

1

10
_

2

11

15

11

12

1

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

76

124

169

65

90

12

6

4

1

_

_

_

_

1

_

_

19

32

29

45

3

3

1

_

_

_

57

92

36

45

3

3

7

50

22

12

5

9
8

1
_

_

20

59
110

3

-

-

-

-

-

7

15

13

37

28

10

12

_

_

5

5

2
_

_

18

19
14

_

_

_

_

13

4

2

2

-

-

-

-

-

3 9 .0

5 0 .5 0

-

3 9 .5

5 2 .5 0

-

152

3 9 .5

5 8 .5 0

_

9

114

39. 5

5 6 .0 0

_

9

7

15

12

66

3 9 .0

5 4 .0 0

-

9

3

12

7

29
14

5 3 .0 0

_
_
-

-

.
_

_

_

1
_

_

-

-

-

-

_

_

.

_

_

-

-

-

_

8
_

46

193

220

106

88

7

14

74

61

25

22

4

15
_

13
_

_

_

_

_

_

_

32

159

81

66

3

15

13

_

_

_

_

_

_

_
_

_
_

-

8
-

_

66

45

44

38

3

5

5

-

_

_

_

-

_

_

_

-

8

30

42

29

31

19

-

6

8

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5 4 .0 0

_

1

33

140

148

108

76

31

1

3

_

_

_

_

_

1
-

2

52

89

57

46

15

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

31

88

59

51

30

16

1

3

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

12

53

14

18

2

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

59
51

7
-

2
-

_

_

.

200

3 9 .5

5 1 .5 0

_

496

3 9 .0

5 3 .5 0

_

206

3 9 .0

5 5 .0 0

173

3 8 .5

5 2 .5 0

541

4 0 .0

262

4 0 .0

5 4 .5 0

_

279

3 9 .5

5 3 .0 0

-

101

3 9 .0

5 0 .0 0

-

2 ,4 3 6

3 9 .5

4 7 .5 0

39T5

50.00

5
-

748

4

-

_

_

_
_

-

107

3 9 .0

2

_

20
-

375

696

9
10

119

114

976

639

421

117

96

2

159

269

175

57

35

1 ,6 8 8

3 9 .5

4 6 .5 0

5

112

817

370

111

4 0 .0

5 7 .0 0

_

_

5

15

331

4 0 .0

5 0 .0 0

_

7

86

59

143

4 0 .0

4 3 .5 0

1

19

73

38

759

3 8 .5

4 4 .5 0

3

86

377

200

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

_

_

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

246

60

61

8

7

2

-

_

29
126

23

27

3

_

_

_

3
-

_

-

_

_

_

12

32
_

2
_

_

18
_

7
_
_

_

_

_

_

_

_

76

13.

2

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

H ours r e fle c t the w orkw eek fo r which em p loy ees r e c e iv e their regu la r stra ig h t-tim e s a la rie s and the earnings co r re s p o n d to these w eekly h o u rs.
* T ra n sp ortation (exclu d in g r a ilr o a d s ), com m u n ica tion , and other public u tilitie s.
* * F in a n ce , in s u ra n c e , and rea l esta te.




1

_

_

_

"

-

*

_

8

Table A-2: Professional and Technical Occupations
( A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t i m e w e e k ly h o u r s a n d e a r n in g s 1 f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d o n an a r e a b a s i s
in M i n n e a p o l i s - S t . P a u l , M in n . , b y i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , D e c e m b e r 1 9 5 5 )

Average
S e x , o c c u p a t i o n , an d in d u s t r y d iv is io n

Number

of

workers

Weekly
houn
(Standard)

Weekly
earnings
(Standard)

NUM BER OF WORKERS RECEIVIN G S TRA IG H T-TIM E W E E K L Y E ARN IN G S OF—

U nder
5 0 .0 0

$

5 0 .0 0
and
under
5 5 .0 0

$

5 5 .0 0

1 0 .0 0

§
6 5 .0 0

6 0 .0 0

6 5 .0 0

7 0 .0 0

$

$

$

$

$

$

7 5 .0 0

8 0 .0 0

8 5 .0 0

9 0 .0 0

9 5 .0 0

100.00

77
66

84
74

11

10

64
58
6

7 0 .0 0

7 5 .0 0

8 0 .0 0

8 5 .0 0

90.00

95.00

$
$
$
$
$
110.00 115.00 f 20.00 125.00 130.00
100.00 105.00 $
$nd

lo a o o

110.00

naoo

120.00

125.00

130.00

over

5
5

3
3

M en
D r a ft s m e n , s e n i o r ------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u fa c t u r in g ---------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g -------- — ------------------------------ ------------

580
490
90

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

$
9 3 .5 0
9 3 .5 0
9 5 .0 0

D r a ft s m e n , j u n i o r -------- ---------- ----- ------------------------------ _
M a n u fa c t u r in g ---------- ------------------------------- ------------ ------------

391
351

4 0 .0
3 9 .5

T r a c e r s __ __ __ ----------------------------------------- ----------------------M a n u fa c tu r in g __ __ -------- -------- ------------------------ — _

112
81

108
86

_

_

.

-

-

-

_
-

“

“

■

75. 50
74. 50

3
3

20

-

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

6 2 .5 0
5 7 .0 0

223
23

15
15

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

7 5 .0 0
7 5 .0 0

2

13

10

51
48

"

2
-

101

3

3

67
65

73
63

59
57

43
41

22

20

20

20

U

57
49

16
11

18
18

10
10

5

16

5

2

-

2

8
1

10
10

-

-

11
8

16
12

30
27

22
15

20

6
6

78
23

101
96

5

—

10
r ~

36
23
13

13
4

18
15

9

-

3

8
4

“

“

-

-

-

-

-

“

1
“

1

-

12

1

-

-

W om en

N u r s e s , in d u s t r ia l ( r e g is t e r e d ) ____________________________
M a n u fa c tu r in g
---------------------------------------------------- __ _

1
2

17

3
1

m

H o u r s r e f l e c t th e w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e t h e i r r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r i e s a n d th e e a r n i n g s c o r r e s p o n d to t h e s e w e e k l y h o u r s .
W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d a s f o l l o w s : 9 a t $ 3 5 to $ 4 0 ; 10 a t $ 4 0 t o $ 4 5 ; 4 a t $ 4 5 t o $ 5 0 .
O c c u p a t io n a l W a g e S u r v e y , M in n e a p o l is - S t . P a u l, M in n . , D e c e m b e r 1 95 5
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B u re a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s




9

Table A-3: Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(Average hourly earnings 1 for men in selected occupations studied on an area basis
in Minneapolis-St. Paul, M inn., by industry division, December 1955)
N U M B E R OF W ORKERS RECEIVIN G S TRAIG H T-TIM E H OURLY EARNINGS OF—

O ccupation and in d u stry d iv isio n

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
earnings

C a r p e n te rs, m aintenance
M a n u fa c tu rin g ------------N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g ------

215
116
99

$
2 .4 8
2 .3 8
2.61

E le c tr ic ia n s , m aintenance
M a n u fa c tu rin g --------------N on m a n u fa ctu rin g --------

379
293
86

Under
$
1. 50

2. 52
2 .4 8
2 .6 5

$

1 .5 0
and
under
1 .6 0

1.60
“
1. 70

$

1. 70
-

$

1.80
-

$

1 .9 0
-

$
2 .0 0
2. 10

$

2 .1 0
-

$

2 .2 0
2 .3 0

l.flO

1 .90

2 .0 0

-

4
2
2

4
2
2

23
11
12

53
43
10

5
1
4

2
2

25
21
4

28

-

50
43
7

2 .2 0

$

2 .3 0
2 .4 0

$
2 .5 0
-

$ ,
2 .6 0
-

2 .5 0

2 .6 0

2 .7 0

$
2. 70
2 .8 0

$

2 .8 0
2 .9 0

$

$
2 .90

3.0 0

3 .0 0
3 .1 0

4
2
2

6
4
2

1
1

5
5
-

1
1

31

64
63
1

42

11
11

7

49
13
36

12
2
10

4
57
------- 1— ------ 46
11
2

40
13
27

18
12
6

9
4
5

_
-

26
26
-

-

_
-

_
-

5
5
-

31
31

-

*

“

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

27
12
15

42
10
32

45
43
2

83
52
31

126
2'4
102

no
64
46

2

2 .4 0
-

25
20
5

-

26

$

28

3

81
24
57

3
2
1

$

3. 10
and
over

_
4
3
1

E n g in e ers, sta tion a ry -----—
M a n u fa c tu rin g ---------------N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g ---------

544
2 65
279

2 .2 8
2 .3 0
2 .2 6

-

_
-

F ir e m e n , sta tion a ry b o ile r
M a n u fa c tu rin g ---------------N onm anufacturing --------

429
223
2G6

2 .0 4
“ 2 .0 9
1.98

13
13

6
4
2

25
11
8

47
27
20

59
32
27

32
19
13

96
26
70

33
2l
12

28
20
8

54
21
33

_
-

H e lp e rs, tra d e s, m a in t e n a n c e ---------M a n u fa c tu rin g ----------------------------------

422
5TT5—

1 .9 6
1.93

5
5

15
15

15
14

37
31

56
55

110
45

94
65

72

16
i

2
-

_

_

_

_

_

_

Tl

~

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

M a ch in e -to o l o p e r a t o r s , t o o lr o o m —
M a n u f a c t u r in g ---------------------------------

199
199

2 .2 0
2 .2 0

-

“

-

-

-

4
4 '

35
35

23
23

15
15

-

-

-

-

_

82

40
40

.

“

-

-

-

-

M a ch in ists, m ain ten an ce -------------------M a n u f a c t u r in g ---------------------------------

456
140

2 .4 6
2 .4 5

-

-

-

-

-

3
3

17
17

14
13

61
61

30
29

165
165

86
85

27
2l

40
40

3
3

7
-

1
1

2
2

M e c h a n ics, a u tom otive (m aintenance)
M a n u fa c tu rin g ---------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g -------------------------P u b lic u tilities * ------------------------

815
70
745
620

2. 19
2. 26
2 .1 9
2 .1 5

,
-

-

_
-

_
-

2
2
1

27
4
23
13

105
3
102
96

423
22
401
395

137
17
120
95

26
9
17
16

65
13
52
“

24
24
“

528
T 63
163

2 .2 2
"2721
2 .2 3

2
2

5

7

-

-

5

7

13
3
10

34
30
4

27
24
3

88
65
23

55
' 46
9

71
42
29

134
~ T 28
6

35
12
23

43
1
42

1
1
-

13
13
-

-

-

-

-

230
227

2. 37
2. 37

-

-

-

-

85
85

6
4

21
2l

1
1

-

*

-

21
2l

_

-

77
77

-

-

8
8

-

“

11
10

*

-

3
3

2
2

_

*

8
8

_

6
6

-

-

-

-

-■

3
1

9
4
5

39
25
16

3
2
1

3
3
-

1

>

_

1

_

-

-

-

1

101
30
71

-

1

-

29
29

26
26

7

23

_

_

_

39

-

2

14

-

-

-

36

-

8
8

_

1
1

2
2

_

_

-

"

-

20
20

_

“

59
59

131
131

150
150

75
75

60
60

_

_

M e c h a n ics, m aintenance
M a n u f a c t u r in g -----N onm anufacturing ——
M i l l w r i g h t s -------------------M a n u fa c tu rin g ----------O i l e r s -----------------M anufacturing

136
136

1 .9 6
1 .9 6

P a in te rs , m aintenance
M a n u fa c tu rin g -------N onm anufacturing —

184
109

2 .5 3
2. 46
2 .5 7

P ip e fit t e r s , m a i n t e n a n c e --------------Manufa c tu r in g ------------------------------

171
154

2 .5 2
TTTO

S h ee t-m e ta l w o r k e r s , m ain ten an ce
M a n u fa c tu rin g ------------------------------

65
6'4

T o o l and die m a k ers —--------------------M anufacturing ----------------------------

674
674

1

1b

2 .4 5
"2745------

-

-

*

_

2
2

3
3

74
74

31
31

_

-

1

_

1

22

12
10

.

.

-

-

.

-

-

-

-

1

-

1

-

-

_

_

_

2

-

6
6
4
4

1
•

29
29""

11
11

4
4

65
65

_

-

2. 55
2 .5 5

7
7

“

-

-

_

E xclu d es p rem iu m pay fo r o v e r tim e and fo r w ork on w eekends, holid ays, and late sh ifts.

* Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.




82

_

4

J

4

37

'

37

_

-

_

18
-------5----13
_
-

-

2
2

4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4
4

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

.

-

-

-

-

_

-

_

-

119
19

-

_

1

O ccupation al W age S urvey, M in n eap olis-S t. Paul, Minn. , D ecem b er 1955

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

10

Table A-4:

Custodial and Material Movement Occupations,

(Average hourly earnings1 for selected occupations2 studied on an area basis
in Minneapolis-St. Paul, M inn., by industry division, December 1955)
N U M B ER OP W ORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGH T-TIM E H O U R LY E A R NING S OF—

Number
of
workers

O ccupation and industry d ivision

E lev a tor o p e r a t o r s , p a ss en g er ( m e n ) __________
N onm anufacturing __ ________________
— __

71
68

Average
hourly
earnings

Under
$
1 .0 0

$
1 .2 8
1 .2 7

-

$

$

$
1.00
and
under
1. 10

$

$

1.60

$

1.30

1.20

1.30

1 .40

1.50

1. 60

1.70

1.80

7
7

22
22

-

8
8

3
-

-

2
2

1 .70

$

1
1

8
8

1 .50

$

1.20

21
21

1.40

$

1. 10

1.80

$

1. 90

$

2 .0 0
2. 10

$

2. 10
2 .2 0

$

2 .2 0

$

2 .3 0

1.90

2 .0 0

2
2

-

-

-

-

7
7

_

_

_

2 .4 0

$
2 . 50

$
2. 60
and

2 .5 0

2. 60

over

-

_

$

„

2 .3 0

2 .4 0

-

-

_

_

_
-

E lev a tor o p e r a to r s , p a ssen g er ( w o m e n ) _______
N onm anufacturing ______________ __ __ __ __

298
2 90

1.32
1.32

37
37

11
11

13
13

19
19

12
12

189
188

7
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Guards ____________________________________________
Manufacturing — __ ____ __ _ _____ __ _
N onm anufacturing ____
___ ________ __ _

565
452
103

1.83
1 .8 8
1.61

_

_

17

10

_

2

78
70
8

52
24
28

143
110
33

96
96
-

127
127
-

_

11
11
-

_

_

_

J a n ito rs, p o r te r s , and clea n ers (m e n )__________
M anu factu ring___________
______________ _
Nonm anufacturing ____ __ __ __ ____ „ __
P u b lic u tilities *
------------ __ __ __ __ __
W holesale trade _________ ___________
R etail trade __ _ __
__ ______ ___ __
Finance ** ----------------------------------------------------

2 ,5 2 6
1 ,0 4 9
1 ,4 7 7
174
84
595
349

1 .4 6
1.62
1 .3 5
1.63
1 .4 9
1.31
1.40

142
103
39
30
7

57
24
33
9
1
23
-

40
40

J a n ito rs, p o r t e r s , and cle a n e rs (w o m e n )___ _
M a n u factu rin g__________________________________
Nonm anufacturing ________ ___________________

808
231
577

1 .2 8
1 .4 5
1.21

L a b o r e r s , m a teria l h a n d lin g ____________________
M anu factu ring___
__
__ __ __ __ __ __
Nonm anufacturing ------------ ------------ __ __ __
P ublic utilities * __ __ __ __ __ ____
W holesale trade
__ ___
____
____

5, 145
2 ,0 3 3
3, 112
1,092
1,0 8 9

1.82
1 .7 8
1 .8 5
1 ,9 8
1 .8 6

-

-

-

73

33

40

_

_

_

-

14

-

O rd er fille r s
____ ___
____ _____
M anu factu ring---- __ ------- __ — ____ ____
Nonm anufacturing _____________________________
W holesale trade
— ______________ __ __
R etail trade __ „ ________ _______________

2 ,3 9 7
467
1,930
1 ,2 1 6
626

1 .7 7
1. 78
1 .7 7
1 .8 9
1.51

91

_

_

40

91

46
3
43

107

_

_

40

91

43

107

P a c k e r s , shipping (m en) — __ ______________
M anu factu ring----- __ „ __ __ _______________
N onm anufacturing __________________ ____
W holesale trade
------- — ________ __ __

900
365
535
437

1.81
1 .7 6
1 .8 4
1 .8 7

5
5

P a c k e r s , shipping (w o m e n )____
M anufacturing
Nonm anufacturing

__ ____

__ __

435
248
187

1.32
1 .3 9
1 .2 4

R e ce ivin g c l e r k s ____
M anufacturing __
Nonm anufacturing ___________________ ________
W holesale trade
R etail trade __ ______________ ____________

407
231
176
87
78

1.93
1 .9 9
1 .8 6
1 .9 8
1. 76

Shipping cle rk s __
M anu factu ring__ __
Nonm anufacturing __
W holesale trade ____

363
199
164
113

1 .9 8
1 .9 7
1. 99
1 .9 9

-

-

-

-

-

-

17

10

"

2

29
24
5

333
9
324
2
7
181
56

185
27
158

205
74
131

7
38
15

153
24
129
19
7
40
26

449
117
332
35
7
124
164

508
384
124
54
23
42
5

171
144
27
19
7

62
47

212
97
115
6
18
45
33

113
26
87

48
17
31

368
2
366

44
26
18

21
17
4

92
87
5

56
56
-

33

40

61
15
46

105
67
38
10
7

94
58
36
5
7

125
78
47

490
379
111

1,173
355
818

_

-

-

770
609
161
48
83

81

46
46
7
39

63
46
17
8
7

45
31
14
3
7

98
48
50
28
12

37
26
11
-

25
19
6
-

5

100
92
8
6

-

65
-

65
_

40
59
_

59
73

40

-

.

.

10

-

-

-

-

-

-

10
-

20
_

-

-

_

_

_

-

5
-

_

_

1

2

4

3

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

6
6

_

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

_

-

_

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

_

-

_

_

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

.

.

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

_

_

4

3

“

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

924
96
828
781
39

31
15
16
16
-

44
-

-

133
133

_

_

44

_

_

_

_

379

1 ,0 4 9
228
821
232
479

.

-

307
152
155
126
27

469
84
385
349
35

848
30
818
533
216

174
10
164
162
2

20
20

37
33
4
4

505
91
414
351

166
91
75
74

5

_

_

_
_

_

_

-

-

-

-

43
43

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

6
4
2
2

1
1

3
3

_
-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

32
21
11

115
76
39

93
89
4

41
6
35

27
27
-

5
5
"

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

.

75
23
52

1

1

9

11

15
7
8

54
15
39
8
26

79
75
4
3
1

67
17
50
39
10

96
45
51
35
16

44
44
-

18
16
2
2
-

8
8
-

_
-

4
4

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

28
9
19
8

87
76
11
11

65
38
27
23

110
33
77
65

9
3
6
6

31
19
12

8
8

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

8
4
4

22
1
21

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

1

_

_

_

1
_
1

9
_
9

_

11

-

-

.

.

.

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

6

8

_

1

-

See footnotes at end o f table.
* T ra n sp ortation (excluding r a ilr o a d s ), com m u n ica tion , and other public u tilitie s.
** F in a n ce, in su ra n ce, and rea l esta te.




_
_

-

20

107

-

-

-

7

_

_

_

7

10
9
1

-

-

_

Occupational Wage Survey, M inneapolis-St. Paul, Minn. , Decem ber 1955
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

11

Table A-4: Custodial and Material Movement Occupations - Continued
(A verage h ou rly e a rn in g s1 fo r s e le c te d o ccu p a tio n s 2 studied on an a re a b a sis
in M in n eap olis-S t. P a u l, M in n ., by industry d iv isio n , D e ce m b e r 1955)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
Number
of
workers

O c c u p a tio n a n d in d u s tr y d iv is io n

Average
hourly
earnings

231
137
94
62

$
1 .9 2
1 .9 3
1 .9 2
1 .9 9

------------ — --------- ---------r r u c k d r iv e r s 3
__
M a n u fa c t u r in g
__ __ ------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g --------------------- __
P u b lic u t ilit ie s *
____ _ _ _ _ _
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e ________________________________
R e t a i l t r a d e __
_____
__

3, 523
519
3 ,0 0 4
1,893
592
515

2 .0 2
2 .0 7
2 .0 1
2 .01
2 .0 2
2 .01

T r u c k d r i v e r s , l i g h t ( u n d e r 1V 2 t o n s ) -----------M a n u fa c t u r in g
__
__ _____ __ __

1,001
141

2 .0 2
2. 15

T r u c k d r i v e r s , m e d iu m ( l V a to a n d
i n c l u d i n g 4 t o n s ) __ __ __ __ __
M a n u fa c t u r in g
__
__
__ --------- —
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g __
__________ __ __
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s * ____________________________
W h o le s a le tr a d e
______ __
__ — __

1,4 9 9
287
1,212
711
356

T r u c k d r iv e r s , h e a v y (o v e r 4 to n s ,
t r a ile r ty p e )
--------- __ __ --------- __
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g __ __ __ ------------------W h o l e s a l e t r a d e -----------------------------------------R e t a i l t r a d e — --------- _ —
__ __ __

T r u c k d r iv e r s , h ea v y (o v e r 4 to n s, o th e r
t h a n t r a i l e r t y p e ) _____ __ __________ — __
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g __ _____ __ __ _____

S h ip p in g a n d r e c e i v i n g c l e r k s --------------------------------M a n u fa c t u r in g
__
_ __ __ __
_
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ---------------------------------------------------W h o l e s a l e t r a d e ------------------------------------------------ .

r r u c k e r s . p o w e r (fo r k lift)
M a n n fa r t u r in g
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g

U nder
$
1 .00

1.00
and
under
1 . 10

$

$
1.10

1 .20

1 .20

1 .3 0

1 .3 0

$

1 .4 0

$1 .5 0

1 .5 0

1 .6 0

______
______
__ __

$ 1 . 70

1 . 70

1 .8 0

$

1 .8 0

1 .9 0

$
2.00

2 .0 0

2 . 10

$

1 . 90

12
12

28

30

22

56

28
-

8
22

18
4

“

-

-

14

1

50
6
4

4

6
-

6
5

8
2
6
5

50

-

4
4
_

-

-

20
15
5
1
4

-

-

1

30

-

113
76
37
2
24
11

5

4

6

6

24

-

-

-

-

-

6
5

_
_

-

-

2
2

26
-

-

26
20

12
10
2

-

-

-

“

-

-

-

_

-

_
_

-

5
5
_

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

2 .0 1
2 .0 4
2 .01
2 .01
2 .0 2

_
_
_

-

-

-

-

637
604
131
152

2 .0 3
2 .0 3
2 .0 5
2 .0 5

_
_

_
-

-

"

“

-

178
132

2 .0 4
2 .0 2

_

-

_

_

-

"

-

-

1.93
1 .8 6
1 .9 9

_

_

_

4
4

21
21

-

-

-

-

-

1 .8 9
1 .8 8

-

-

-

-

-

305
129
176
43

1 .5 6
1 .67
1 .4 8
1.67

27

26

19
3
16

5

1
1

1 .6 0

-

■
-

-

$

1

6
-

-

-

6

$

2 . 10

$

2 .2 0

$

2 . 30

$

2 .4 0

$

2 . 50

$

2 . 60
and

1 .4 0

197
177

r r u c k e r s . p o w e r ( o t h e r th a n f o r k l i f t )
M a n u fa c t u r in g
_
_
_

-

-

50
20
-

-

-

4
-

19

21

-

3

-

-

-

230
71
159
5
47
105

2 ,8 2 0
180
2 ,6 4 0
1,800
517
323

96
35
61
41

I ll

39
39

17
17

3
3

-

-

_
_

_
_

_
_

_
_
_

20

25

-

-

-

-

19
9

36
10

786
46

12
“

69
44

27
27

-

-

“

80
53
27

148
48
100
1
26

1,1 1 6
97
1 ,0 1 9
652
304

72
35
37
37

17
16
1
1

12
12

14
14

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

8
8

1

-

24

-

_

_

_
-

_
-

_
-

2
2
2

9

_

_
-

14

-

-

-

-

“

“

~

-

597
594
129
144

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

37
33

6
6

16
16

-

-

-

85
71
14

63
62
1

2
2

6
6

17
17

66
64
40
19
21
18

18
2

25
9

over

9
6
3

-

22

2 . 60

6

-

------

2 .5 0

6
-

-

71

2 .4 0

25

-

13
56
----- 4----- -------8—
48
9
9

2 .3 0

4
21

-

-------- 5----- -------g------

2 .2 0

39
13
26

2

1 E xclu d es p rem iu m pay fo r ov e rtim e and fo r w ork on w eekends, holid a ys, and late sh ifts.
Data lim ited to m en w ork ers excep t w h ere oth erw ise indicated.
3 Includes all d riv e r s r e g a r d le s s o f s iz e and type o f truck op era ted .
* T ra n sp ortation (exclu d in g r a ilr o a d s ), com m u n ica tion , and other public u tilitie s.




$

550
282
268

...

W a tch m en
__ __ __ __ __________ __ _____
M a n u fa c t u r in g
__ _________ ___
__ __
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _____ _____ __ __ __
P u b lic u t ilit ie s *

$

81
30
5

4

3

-

_
-

3

-

-

-

_
-

8

“

~

~

“

“

115
91

4

22
4

-

-

-

-

4

-

-

-

-

56
18
38

251
36
215

24
24

22
22

-

1
1

1
1

-

“

‘

*

-

-

24
24

26
8

5
5

51
51

_

_

~

■

16
12
4
4

13
6
7
1

14
14

4
4

-

-

-

-

.
"

*

~

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-




B: Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Table B-1: Shift Differential Provisions 1
P e rc e n t of m anufacturing plant w orkers(b)

(a )

In establishm ents having
fo rm a l p ro v is io n s fo r—

Shift d iffere n tia l

S econd shift
w ork

T otal

8 6.9

Third o r other
shift w ork

A ctu a lly w ork in g on—

Second shift

T hird o r other
shift

78.6

1 3.4

2 .3

With shift pay d ifferen tia l -------------------------------------------------------

8 6.2

78.6

13.2

2 .3

U niform cen ts (per h o u r ) ---------------------------------------------------

6 6 .6

59.0

9 .8

1 .9

5 c e n t s ------------- ■
-------------------------------------------------------------6 cents ----------------------------------------------------------------------------7 cents ----------------------------------------------------------------------------8, 87a c e n t s ------------------------------------------------—----------------9 c e n t s -------------------------------------------- ------------------ -----------10 c e n t s --------------------------------------------------------------------------11 c e n t s ------------ -------------------------------------------------------------12, 127z cen ts —
------------------------------------------------------------1372 . 133 c e n t s ------------------------------------------------------------/*
14, 1472 cen ts ---------------------------------------------------------------15 cen ts -------------------------------------------------------------------------O ver 15 cents -----------------------------------------------------------------

13.5
.4
2 .4
3. 5
7. 7
2 8 .5

2 .5

t

1.3
3 .2
2. 1
3 .3
.5

1.3
1.1
7. 7
16.8
1.2
4 .5
.8
2. 8
10. 5
9 .8

2 .0
.4
.7
.1
4 .0
_
.1
.8
.4
1.0
.2

U niform p ercen ta g e ------------------------------------------------------------

18. 6

18. 6

3 .2

.3

----------------------------5 p e rce n t ------------------------------------------- •
ll
!z p e rce n t ----------------------------------------------------------------10 p e r c e n t ----------------------------------------------------------------------\2l
lz p e r c e n t ------------------------------------------------------------------13 p e r c e n t ----------------------------------- ------------------------------------

2 .3
10.4
5 .9
-

_

_

2. 3
2.2
10.4
3. 7

.1
1.9
1.2

O th e r--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

.9
. 7

No shift d ifferen tia l -----------------------------------------------------------------

-

_

-

.1
1. 1
t
t
t

. 1
.2
.3

t
t

-

.2
-

.9

.3

.2

-

.3

-

-

1
Shift d ifferen tia l data a re p resen ted in term s of (a) establishm ent p o lic y , and (b) w ork ers actu a lly e m p loy ed on late
shifts at the tim e o f the su rv ey . An establishm ent was co n sid e re d as having a p o lic y if it m et either of the follo w in g c o n d i­
tion s: ( l ) Operated late shifts at the tim e o f the su rv e y, o r (2) had fo rm a l p ro v is io n s cov e rin g late shifts,
f L ess than 0 .0 5 p e rce n t.

O ccupational W age S urvey, M inn eapolis-S t. Paul, M in n ., D e c e m b e r 1955
U. S. DE PA RTM EN T OF LABO R
Bureau o f L a b o r S ta tistics

15

Table B-2: Minimum Enhance Rates for Women Office Workers1
Number o f establishm ents with s p e c ifie d m inim um hirin g rate in—
M anufacturing
M inim um rate
(w eekly sa la ry )

A ll
schedules

E sta blish m en ts studied

234

N onm anufacturing

M anufacturing

B ased on standard w eekly hours 2 of—

All
industries

A ll
schedules

86

N um ber o f establishm ents with s p e c ifie d m inimum hiring rate in—

A ll
ind u stries

A ll
sched ules

3 7Va

148

234

$ 3 0 . 00
$ 3 2 .5 0
$ 3 5 .0 0
$ 3 7 .5 0
$ 4 0 .0 0
$ 4 2 .5 0
$ 4 5 .0 0
$ 4 7 . 50
$ 5 0 .0 0
$ 5 2 . 50
$ 5 5 .0 0

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under $ 3 2 .5 0 under $ 3 5 .0 0 ~
under $ 3 7 .5 0 under $ 4 0 .0 0 —
under $ 4 2 .5 0 —
under $ 4 5 .0 0 ~
un der $ 4 7 .5 0 —
under $ 5 0 . 00 —
under $ 52. 50 —
under $ 5 5 .0 0 —
o v e r ------- ------------

A ll
sched ules

86

37Va

40

148

F O R OTH ER IN EXPERIENCED C L E R IC A L WORKERS

F O R INEXPERIENCED TYPISTS

E sta blish m en ts having a s p e c ifie d m inim um

Nonmanufacturing

B ased on standard w eekly hours 2 of—

63

128
6
6
12
11
43
23
9
7
7
3
1

1
2
4
2
13
10
6
3
2

1
1
3
2
11
10
5
2
2

1

132

41

36

91

5
3
5
6
21
10
2
3
5
3

7
6
12
18
46
17
10
4
7
4
1

1
1
2
3
16
9
6

1
1
1
3
13
8
6

2

2

6
5
10
15
30
8
4
4
5
4

1

1

58

22

36

23

20

XXX

1

XXX

1

5
4
8
9
30
13
3
4
5
3

1
1
7
1
1

E sta blish m en ts having no s p e c ifie d m inim um

63

28

XXX

35

XXX

E sta blish m en ts w h ich did not em p loy w ork ers
in this c a t e g o r y ------------------------------------------------

42

14

XXX

28

XXX

XXX

43

Data not a v a i l a b l e -------------------- -------------------------

1

XXX

1

XXX

XXX

1

11

1
3
7

6
3
9
22
7
4
3
5
4

1 L ow est s a la r y ra te fo r m a lly esta b lish ed fo r h iring in experien ced w o rk e rs fo r typing o r other c l e r ic a l jo b s .
2 H ours r e fle c t the w ork w eek fo r which em p loyees r e c e iv e their reg u la r str a ig h t-tim e s a la r ie s . Data a re p resen ted f o r a ll w orkw eeks co m b in e d , and f o r the m o st com m on w orkw eeks re p o rte d .




O ccupational W age S urvey, M in n ea p olis-S t. P aul, M in n ., D ecem b er 1955
U .S . DEPARTM EN T OF LABOR
Bureau of L abor S tatistics

Table B-3: Scheduled W eekly Hours
PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—
W eekly hours

All 2
industries

M
anufacturing

Public
utilities*

----

100

100

100

Under 37Va hours
_ _
----37Va hours _ __
_
O ver 37Va and under 40 hours
40 hours
_ __ _ _
__ __ _
__ _
O ver 40 and under 44 hours
_ _
_
44 hours
____ __ _
__ _ _
__
45 hours
_ ____ __ ____ __ __ __ _ __
46 hours
_ __ „ „
_ _ _ __
48 hours ___________________________________ __ __
O ver 48 hours _ _ __
-------------

t

13
69
t
t
t

t
6
14
77
t

A ll

w o rk e rs

1
2
3
t
*
**

15

100
3
7
91
-

t
99
■

t

t

W
holesale
trade

t

Retail trade

PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—
Finance**

100

100

7

All 3
industries

Services

36
26
38
_
_
_
_

5
86
t
t
_
-

M
anufacturing

100

100

3
t
t
77
t
t
6
t

5
t
t
73
_
9
_

4

W
holesale
trade

Retail trade

100

100

_
_
98
t

_
_
97

_
_
85

_
_
_

3
_
_

6
_
t
t

-

Services

100

-

5
5

3

-

Public
utilities *

5

Data rela te to w om en w ork ers only.
Includes data fo r s e r v ic e s in addition to those industry d ivision s shown sep a ra tely.
Includes data fo r re a l estate and s e r v ic e s in addition to those industry d ivision s shown s e p a ra te ly,
L ess than 2. 5 p ercen t.
T ransp ortation (exclu din g ra ilro a d s ), com m u n ica tion , and other public u tilities.
F inance, in su ra n ce, and rea l esta te.

Table B-4? Paid Holidays1
2
PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—

PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS EMPLOYED IN Item
All
2
industries
A ll w o rk e rs

_
_

______
_

„

______

__

__ ___

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g
p a id h o lid a y s
__ __ __ —
------— __ —
L e s s th a n 6 h o l i d a y s ----- --------------- ------6 h o l i d a y s _____ _____ ___ „ ____ ___________ ______ ___
_
F u ll d a y s o n ly _ _ _
_ __________________ ___
P l u s 1 h a l f d a y ________________________________
P l u s 2 h a l f d a y s ______________________________
P l u s 3 h a l f d a y s ---------------------------------------------P lu s 5 h a lf d a y s „
____ _
_ __ __ __
7 h o l i d a y s __ __ _________________
_____ __ _
_
F u ll d a y s o n ly
_ _____ _____ _____ _
P l u s 1 h a l f d a y ------------------------------------------------P l u s 2 h a l f d a y s __ __ __ _______
P l u s 3 h a l f d a y s ___________ _ __
_ ______
8 h o lid a y s
_
__ _ _
_
_
_ _
F u ll d a y s o n ly _ _
__ _____________ _
_
P l u s 1 h a l f d a y . _ _ _____ ______ __ _
P l u s 2 h a l f d a y s _______________________________
9 h o l i d a y s __ _________ __ ________ _______ __
F u ll d a y s o n ly _
. _ _
P l u s 1 h a l f d a y ________________________________
W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g n o
p a i d h o l i d a y s -------------------------------------------------------------

Manufacturing

Public .
utilities *

Wholesale
trade

100

100

100

100

100

100
66
51
6
6

100
78
54
15
9
t
17
8

10 0
36
35
-

1 00
45
42
-

t
64
38
26
-

3
-

1 00
93
93
7
6

All
3
industries 3

100

100
60
38
4
9
5
3
15
15
12

t
t
24
17
t
5

t
6
3
t
3
4
-

4
~

t
8
5

4
t
-

49
44
5
-

Retail trade

-

t
-

■

-

6
6

Finance**

Services

1 00

Manufacturing

Public
utilities*

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

10 0

100

100

100

98

98

t
73
61
9
3
18
16

t
75
54
17
4
11
11
-

98
44
44
-

100
53
50
4
47
47
-

Services

100
3
82
82
15
12
t

-

T

11
9
t

10

-

-

t
54
42
12
-

t

t

t

t
13
13

t

t

t

I

-

6
5

t
-

1 E stim ates rela te to fu ll-d a y holidays p rov id ed annually, as in e a r lie r stu dies. T hese a re furth er d ivided betw een w ork ers who re c e iv e m e r e ly the in d ica ted nu m ber o f fu ll-d a y h olid a y s, and
those who re c e iv e 1 or m o re half holidays in addition.
2 Includes data fo r s e r v ic e s in addition to those industry d ivision s shown s e p a ra te ly.
O ccupational Wage S u rvey, M in n eap olis-S t. P a u l, Minn. , D e c e m b e r 1955
3 Includes data fo r rea l estate and s e r v ic e s in addition to those industry d ivision s shown se p a ra te ly .
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
f L e s s than 2. 5 p ercen t.
B u rea u o f L a b o r S ta tistics
* T ra n sp ortation (exclu din g r a ilr o a d s ), ^ m m u n ic a tio n , and other public u tilitie s.
** F inance, in su ra n ce, and re a l esta te.




15

Table B-5: Paid Vacations
PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—

PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—
V a ca tio n p o lic y

All j
industries

Manufacturing

Public
utilities *

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

Finance**

Services

All
2
industries

Manufacturing

Public
utilities*

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

99
99
t
-

99
97
3
-

100
100

100
100

100
100

100
100

100

100
100

100
100

100
100

-

-

-

-

99
94
5

t

t

-

“

“

30
t
69
t

21
t
77
-

70
t
29
-

37
63
_

77
23
-

-

-

-

-

18
_

20
-

-

8

80
_

98

M ETHOD OF PAYM EN T
W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g p a id
v a c a tio n s
-------------------------------------------------------------------L e n g t h - o f - t i m e p a y m e n t -----------------------------------P e r c e n t a g e p a y m e n t --------------------------------------------O t h e r ---------------------------------------------------------------------------W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g n o p a id
v a c a t i o n s ----------------------------------------------------------------------

90

8

t

t

-

_

_

t

-

-

-

-

A M O U N T O F V A C A T IO N P A Y

A fte r 1 y e a r o f s e r v ic e

1 w e e k ------------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s --------------------------------------4 w e e k s a n d o v e r ---------------------------------------------------------

2 w eeks

3
94

77
4
18
_

85

8
8

77
t

69
_

62
_

22

38
„

_

_

31
-

t

-

-

-

-

46

60
15
25
-

26
t
72
_

29
t
70
-

21

45
_
t

-

-

-

-

_

11

-

9
78

18
15
63

t
t
96

5
95

t
t

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

t

A fte r 2 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e

1 w e e k ------------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s --------------------------------------2 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s --------------------------------------4 w e e k s a n d o v e r -----------------------------------------------------------

8

11

t
90
-

_

86
3

82
-

-

9
t
89
t

-

-

-

_

5
95

_
t

_
79
_

A fte r 3 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e

1 w eek
O

2
O
3
4

----------------------------------------------------------------------------v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s — ----------------------------------w e e k s ---------------------------------------------------------------------------v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ----------------------------------------w e e k s ---------------------------------------------------------------------------w e e k s a n d o v e r --------------------------------------------------------

t
t
96

t
t
95

t
t

t

-

4
-

94
3
-

-

100
-

-

-

98

-

-

-

t
~

t
t
t

_

t
98

A fte r 5 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
t
t
89
7
5

O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ---------------------------------------3 w eeks
-------------------------------------------------------------------------4 w e e k s a n d o v e r ---------------------------------------------------------

2 w eeks

r
t

86
t

11

~

97
3
-

:

100
-

-

-

5

:

t

*

■

100

100

93

82
18

t
90
3

86
5

-

-

-

-

6

8

-

-

7

t

See footn otes at end o f ta b le.
* T ra n s p orta tion (exclu d in g r a ilr o a d s ), com m unication, and oth er public u tilitie s .
** F in a n ce , in s u ra n c e , and re a l estate.




95

NOTE:

O ccupation al Wage S urvey, M in n e a p o lis-S t. Paxil, M in n ., D ecem b er 1955
U .S . DEPARTM ENT OF LABOR
Bureau o f L abor S tatistics

In the tabulations o f va ca tion a llow an ces by y e a rs o f s e r v ic e , paym ents other than "length o f t im e ,"
such as percen tage o f annual earnings o r fla t-s u m p aym ents, w ere co n v e rte d to an equivalent tim e
b a s is; fo r e x a m p le , a paym ent o f 2 p e rce n t o f annual earnings was co n sid e re d as 1 w e e k 's p a y.

Table B-5; Paid Vacations - Continued
PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—
V acation p o lic y

A ll w ork ers

All
industries 1

M
anufacturing

Public .
utilities *

W
holesale
trade

Retail trade

PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—
Finance **

Services

All 2
industries

M
anufacturing

Public _
utilities *

W
holesale
trade

Retail trade

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

t
63
5
32
-

t
51
3
45
-

47
3
50
-

69
31
-

90
10
-

69
12
20
-

67
6
27
t

_
54
11
35
*

62
t
37

71
29

92
8
“

t
15
t
83
_
t

t
18
81
_
t

6
3
92
_
-

15
85
“

29
71
_
“

7
t
91
-

_
27
t
70
t
t

_
17
t
79
t
t

_
3
97
"

12
88
-

51
49
-

t
14
t
79
6

t
17
82
t

.
4
3
93
-

15
78
6

28
71
t

4
t
76
18

26
t
70
3

16
t
78
5

3
97
-

12
88
-

_
48
50
t

t
14
t
54
31

t
17
_
56
27

4
3
67
26

15
58
26

27
27
46

4
t
58
36

_
24
t
53
23

14
t
60
25

_
3
85
12

12
73
16

AMOUNT OF VACATION P A Y - Continued
A fter 10 y e a rs o f s e r v ic e
1 week __ __ __
__ __ __ __
2 weeks _
__ _
__ __
O ver 2 and under 3 w eeks
3 weeks
__ _ _ __ __
4 weeks and o v e r
_
___
A fter 15 y e a rs o f s e r v ic e
1 week
__
__ __
2 weeks
_ _
O ver 2 and under 3 w eeks
_ __
3 w e e k s ______ ________ ________________________
O ver 3 and under 4 weeks
___ ___ ____
_____________
_____
4 weeks and o v e r
A fter 20 y e a rs o f s e r v ic e
1 w e e k __ ____ ___ ___ __________ ________ __ __
2 w e e k s ______ ________ ____ __ _______________
O ver 2 and under 3 w e e k s . __ —
„ __ ---3 weeks ____ ____________________________ ___
4 weeks and o v e r ______ _
„ „ __
------A fter 25 y e a rs o f s e r v ic e
1 week __ ----- ------ ------- „ __ __ __
2 weeks __ __ __ __ ________________________ __
O ver 2 and under 3 w e e k s _______________________
3 w eeks
______ __ _______________ ___________________
4 weeks and o v e r ________ __ __ ______ ____

*

Includes data fo r s e r v ic e s in addition to those industry d ivision s shown s e p a ra te ly .
Includes data fo r rea l estate and s e r v ic e s in addition to those industry d iv isio n s shown se p a ra te ly ,
f
L e ss than 2. 5 p e rce n t.
* T ra n sp ortation (exclu din g r a ilr o a d s ), com m u n ica tion , and oth er public u tilitie s.
** F in a n ce, in su ra n ce, and re a l esta te.




_
46
24
29

17

Table B-6: Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—
T ype o f plan

A ll w o rk ers __

__ __

__ __ __ __ __

All
1
industries

M
anufacturing

Public
utilities *

W
holesale
trade

Retail trade

PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—
Finance **

Services

All 2
industries

M
anufacturing

Public
utilities *

W
holesale
trade

Retail trade

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

91

95

96

89

64

97

88

89

97

97

Services

77

W o rk e rs in esta b lish m en ts p rov id in g :
L ife in su ra n ce __
__ __
A ccid e n ta l death and d ism em b erm en t
in su ra n ce __
__ __ __ __ __
__ _
S ick n ess and a ccid en t in su ra n ce o r
s ic k lea ve o r b o t h 2 __ __ __
3
__ __ _ _
S ick n ess and a ccid en t in su ra n ce
__ .
S ick lea ve (full pay and no
w aiting p eriod )
- ___ ___ __ _
S ick lea ve (p a rtia l pay o r
waiting p e rio d )
__ __
__ __ ------H osp ita liza tion in su ra n ce
__ __ __ _
S u rg ica l in su ra n ce
__ __ __
__ __ «.
M e d ica l in su ra n ce __ __ __
_ __ __ __ _
C atastroph e in su ra n ce
__ __ __
__ _
R e tirem en t p e n s i o n __________________________
No health, in s u ra n ce , o r p en sion
plan ________ ___ ___ ___
__ ________ _____

45

54

19

52

30

45

48

48

29

69

48

70
42

82
71

95
24

64
49

74
30

50
15

88
70

90
85

97
28

87
77

80
50

42

36

84

28

35

47

16

8

39

23

24

4
76
75
60
10
74

t
85
82
58
10
70

6
32
32
26
t
77

5
89
89
70
14
71

14
48
48
30
15
42

-

87
85
82
12
96

13
78
76
53
4
58

14
89
86
62
5
64

34
44
44
22
t
85

4
99
99
70
5
63

6
60
60
40
4
41

6

t

t

7

20

3

4

3

2 Includes data fo r s e r v ic e s in addition to those industry division s shown s e p a ra te ly .
3 Includes data fo r re a l estate and s e r v ic e s in addition to those industry d ivision s shown se p a ra te ly .
U nduplicated total o f w o r k e rs r e c e iv in g s ick leave o r sick n ess and a ccid en t insu ra n ce shown sep a ra tely b e lo w .
f L e s s than 2 .5 p e r c e n t.
* T ra n sp orta tion (exclu d in g r a ilr o a d s ), com m u n ica tion , and other public u tilitie s .
* * F in a n ce , in s u ra n c e , and re a l esta te.




11

O ccupation al W age S u rv ey, M in n ea p olis-S t. P a u l, M in n ., D ecem b er 1955
U .S . DEPARTM EN T OF LABOR
B ureau of L a b or S tatistics




19
A p p e n d ix :

Job

D e s c r ip t io n s

T h e p r im a r y p u r p o s e o f p r e p a r in g jo b d e s c r i p t i o n s f o r th e B u re a u * s w a g e s u r v e y s is to
a s s i s t it s fie ld s t a ff in c l a s s if y in g in to a p p r o p r ia t e o c c u p a t io n s w o r k e r s w h o a r e e m p lo y e d u n d er
a v a r ie t y o f p a y r o ll t it le s an d d iffe r e n t w o r k a r r a n g e m e n t s f r o m e s t a b lis h m e n t to e s t a b lis h m e n t
a n d f r o m a r e a to a r e a .
T h is is e s s e n t ia l in o r d e r to p e r m it the g r o u p in g o f o c c u p a t io n a l w a g e
r a t e s r e p r e s e n t in g c o m p a r a b le jo b c o n t e n t .
B e c a u s e o f th is e m p h a s is o n in te r e s t a b lis h m e n t an d
in t e r a r e a c o m p a r a b ilit y o f o c c u p a t io n a l c o n te n t, the B u r e a u l s jo b d e s c r ip t i o n s m a y d if f e r s i g n i f i ­
c a n tly f r o m th o s e in u se in in d iv id u a l e s t a b lis h m e n t s o r th o s e p r e p a r e d f o r o th e r p u r p o s e s .
In
a p p ly in g th e s e jo b d e s c r ip t i o n s , th e B u r e a u s f i e l d r e p r e s e n t a t iv e s a r e in s t r u c t e d to e x c lu d e w o r k ­
in g s u p e r v i s o r s , a p p r e n t ic e s , l e a r n e r s , b e g in n e r s , t r a i n e e s ,
h a n d ic a p p e d w o r k e r s , p a r t - t i m e ,
t e m p o r a r y , and p r o b a t io n a r y w o r k e r s .

O f f i c e

B I L L E R , M A C H IN E
P r e p a r e s s t a t e m e n t s , b i l l s , and in v o i c e s o n a m a c h in e o th e r
th an an o r d in a r y o r e l e c t r o m a t i c t y p e w r it e r . M a y a l s o k e e p r e c o r d s
a s to b i llin g s o r s h ip p in g c h a r g e s o r p e r f o r m o t h e r c l e r i c a l w o r k in ­
c id e n t a l to b i llin g o p e r a t i o n s .
F o r w a g e study p u r p o s e s , b i l l e r s ,
m a c h in e , a r e c l a s s i f i e d b y ty p e o f m a c h in e , a s f o llo w s :
B i l l e r , m a c h in e (b illin g m a c h in e ) - U s e s a s p e c ia l b illin g
m a c h in e (M o o n H o p k in s , E llio t t F is h e r , B u r r o u g h s , e t c . , w h ic h
a r e c o m b in a t io n ty p in g an d a d din g m a c h in e s ) to p r e p a r e b i l l s an d
in v o i c e s f r o m c u s t o m e r s 1 p u r c h a s e o r d e r s , in t e r n a lly p r e p a r e d
o r d e r s , s h ip p in g m e m o r a n d a , e t c .
U s u a lly in v o l v e s a p p lic a t io n
o f p r e d e t e r m in e d d is c o u n t s and sh ipp in g c h a r g e s an d e n tr y o f
n e c e s s a r y e x t e n s io n s , w h ich m a y o r m a y n ot b e c o m p u te d o n the
b i llin g m a c h in e , a n d t o t a ls w h ich a r e a u t o m a t ic a lly a c c u m u la t e d
b y m a c h in e .
T h e o p e r a t io n u s u a lly in v o lv e s a la r g e n u m b e r o f
c a r b o n c o p i e s o f th e b i ll b e in g p r e p a r e d an d is o fte n don e on a
fa n fo ld m a c h in e .
B i l l e r , m a c h in e (b o o k k e e p in g m a c h in e ) - U s e s a b o o k k e e p in g
m a c h in e (S u n d s tra n d , E llio t t F is h e r , R e m in g to n R a n d , e t c . ,• w h ic h
m a y o r m a y n o t h a v e t y p e w r it e r k e y b o a r d ) to p r e p a r e c u s t o m e r s *
b i l l s a s p a r t o f ' the a c c o u n ts r e c e iv a b le o p e r a t io n .
G e n e r a lly
in v o l v e s th e s im u lta n e o u s e n tr y o f fig u r e s on c u s t o m e r s * le d g e r
record .
T h e m a c h in e a u t o m a t ic a lly a c c u m u la t e s fig u r e s on a
n u m b e r o f v e r t i c a l c o lu m n s and c o m p u te s and u s u a lly p r in ts a u t o ­
m a t ic a l ly th e d e b it o r c r e d i t b a la n c e s . D o e s n ot in v o lv e a k n o w l­
e d g e o f b o o k k e e p in g . W o r k s f r o m u n ifo r m an d s ta n d a r d ty p e s o f
s a le s an d c r e d i t s l i p s .
B O O K K E E P IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R
O p e r a t e s a b o o k k e e p in g m a ch in e (R e m in g to n R a n d , E llio t t
F i s h e r , S u n d s tra n d , B u r r o u g h s , N a tio n a l C a sh R e g i s t e r , w ith o r w ith ­
ou t a t y p e w r i t e r k e y b o a r d ) to k e e p a r e c o r d o f b u s in e s s t r a n s a c t io n s .




B O O K K E E P IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R - C o n tin u e d
C la s s A - K e e p s a s e t o f r e c o r d s r e q u ir in g a k n o w le d g e o f
an d e x p e r i e n c e in b a s i c b o o k k e e p in g p r in c ip le s and f a m ilia r i t y w ith
th e s t r u c t u r e o f th e p a r t ic u la r a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m u s e d .
D eter­
m in e s p r o p e r r e c o r d s an d d is t r ib u t io n o f d e b it and c r e d i t it e m s
to b e u s e d in e a c h p h a s e o f th e w o r k .
M a y p r e p a r e c o n s o lid a t e d
r e p o r t s , b a la n c e s h e e t s , an d o th e r r e c o r d s b y h an d.
C l a s s B - K e e p s a r e c o r d o f on e o r m o r e p h a s e s o r s e c t io n s
o f a s e t o f r e c o r d s u s u a lly r e q u ir in g lit t le k n o w le d g e o f b a s i c b o o k ­
k e e p in g .
P h a s e s o r s e c t io n s in c lu d e a c c o u n t s p a y a b le , p a y r o ll,
c u s t o m e r s * a c c o u n t s (n ot in c lu d in g a s im p le ty p e o f b illin g d e s c r i b e d
u n d e r b i l l e r , m a c h in e ), c o s t d is t r ib u t io n , e x p e n s e d is tr ib u tio n , in ­
v e n to ry c o n t r o l, e tc .
M a y c h e c k o r a s s i s t in p r e p a r a t io n o f t r ia l
b a la n c e s an d p r e p a r e c o n t r o l s h e e ts f o r th e a c c o u n tin g d e p a r t m e n t.
C L E R K , A C C O U N T IN G
C l a s s A - U n der g e n e r a l .d ir e c t io n o f a b o o k k e e p e r o r a c c o u n t ­
an t, h a s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r k e e p in g on e o r m o r e s e c t io n s o f a c o m ­
p le t e s e t o f b o o k s o r r e c o r d s r e la t in g to o n e p h a se o f an e s t a b lis h ­
m e n t ^ b u s in e s s t r a n s a c t io n s . W o r k in v o lv e s p o s tin g and b a la n c in g
s u b s id i a r y le d g e r o r le d g e r s s u c h a s a c c o u n t s r e c e iv a b le o r a c ­
c o u n ts p a y a b le ; e x a m in in g an d c o d in g in v o i c e s o r v o u c h e r s w ith
p r o p e r a c c o u n tin g d is t r ib u t io n ; r e q u i r e s ju d g m e n t an d e x p e r ie n c e
in m a k in g p r o p e r a s s ig n a t io n s an d a l l o c a t i o n s .
M a y a s s i s t in
p r e p a r in g , a d ju s tin g , and c lo s in g jo u r n a l e n t r ie s ; m a y d i r e c t c l a s s
B a c c o u n tin g c l e r k s .
C l a s s B - U n der s u p e r v i s io n , p e r f o r m s on e o r m o r e r o u tin e
a c c o u n tin g o p e r a t io n s s u c h a s p o s tin g s im p le jo u r n a l v o u c h e r s ,
a c c o u n t s p a y a b le v o u c h e r s , e n te r in g v o u c h e r s in v o u c h e r r e g i s t e r s ;
r e c o n c i l i n g b a n k a c c o u n t s ; p o s tin g s u b s id ia r y le d g e r s c o n t r o ll e d
by g en era l le d g e r s .
T h is jo b d o e s n ot r e q u ir e a k n o w le d g e o f
a c c o u n tin g an d b o o k k e e p in g p r in c ip le s bu t is fou n d in o f f i c e s in
w h ic h the m o r e r o u tin e a c c o u n tin g w o r k is s u b d iv id e d on a fu n c ­
t io n a l b a s i s a m o n g s e v e r a l w o r k e r s .

20

C L E R K , F IL E
C la s s A - R e s p o n s ib le f o r m a in ta in in g an e s t a b lis h e d filin g
system ^
C l a s s i f i e s and in d e x e s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e o r o th e r m a t e r ia l ;
m a y a ls o file th is m a t e r ia l . M a y k e e p r e c o r d s o f v a r io u s ty p e s
in c o n ju n c t io n w ith f i l e s o r s u p e r v is e o t h e r s in filin g an d lo c a t in g
m a t e r ia l in th e f i l e s .
M a y p e r f o r m in c id e n t a l c l e r i c a l d u t ie s .
C la s s B - P e r f o r m s r o u tin e f ili n g , u s u a lly o f m a t e r ia l th at
h a s a lr e a d y b e e n c l a s s i f i e d , o r l o c a t e s o r a s s i s t s in lo c a t in g m a ­
t e r ia l in the f i l e s . M a y p e r f o r m in c id e n t a l c l e r i c a l d u t ie s .
C LE R K , ORDER
R e c e i v e s c u s t o m e r s * o r d e r s f o r m a t e r ia l o r m e r c h a n d is e b y
m a il, p h o n e , o r p e r s o n a ll y .
D u tie s in v o lv e an y c o m b in a t io n o f the
fo llo w in g : Q u otin g p r i c e s to c u s t o m e r s ; m a k in g ou t an o r d e r sh e e t
lis t in g the it e m s to m a k e up th e o r d e r ; c h e c k in g p r i c e s an d q u a n titie s
o f it e m s on o r d e r s h e e t; d is tr ib u tin g o r d e r s h e e ts to r e s p e c t i v e d e ­
p a r tm e n ts to be f i l l e d .
M a y c h e c k w ith c r e d i t d e p a r t m e n t to d e t e r ­
m in e c r e d i t r a tin g o f c u s t o m e r , a c k n o w le d g e r e c e i p t o f o r d e r s f r o m
c u s t o m e r s , fo llo w up o r d e r s to s e e that th e y h a v e b e e n f ill e d , k e e p
file o f o r d e r s r e c e i v e d , an d c h e c k s h ip p in g in v o i c e s w ith o r ig i n a l
ord ers.

CLERK, PAY RO LL

K E Y -P U N C H O P E R A T O R
U n d e r g e n e r a l s u p e r v is io n a n d w ith n o s u p e r v i s o r y r e s p o n s i ­
b i l i t i e s , r e c o r d s a c c o u n tin g and s t a t is t ic a l d a ta o n ta b u la tin g c a r d s
b y p u n ch in g a s e r i e s o f h o le s in th e c a r d s in a s p e c i f i e d s e q u e n c e ,
u sin g an a lp h a b e t ic a l o r a n u m e r ic a l k e y -p u n c h m a c h in e , fo llo w in g
w r it te n in fo r m a t io n on r e c o r d s .
M a y d u p lic a t e c a r d s b y u s in g the
d u p lic a tin g d e v ic e a tta ch e d to m a c h in e .
K e e p s f i l e s o f p u n ch c a r d s .
M ay v e r ify ow n w ork o r w ork o f o th e r s .
O F F IC E B O Y O R G IR L
P e r f o r m s v a r io u s r o u tin e d u tie s s u c h a s ru n n in g e r r a n d s ,
o p e r a t in g m i n o r o f f i c e m a c h in e s s u c h a s s e a l e r s o r m a i l e r s , o p e n in g
an d d is t r ib u t in g m a il, and o th e r m in o r c l e r i c a l w o r k .
SECRETARY
P e r f o r m s s e c r e t a r i a l and c l e r i c a l d u t ie s f o r a s u p e r io r in an
a d m in is t r a t iv e o r e x e c u t iv e p o s it io n . D u tie s in c lu d e m a k in g a p p o in t­
m e n ts f o r s u p e r io r ; r e c e iv in g p e o p le c o m in g in to o f f i c e ; a n s w e r in g
an d m a k in g ph one c a l l s ; h an d lin g p e r s o n a l an d im p o r t a n t o r c o n f i ­
d e n tia l m a i l , an d w r it in g r o u tin e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e on o w n in it ia t iv e ;
ta k in g d ic t a t io n (w h e r e t r a n s c r ib in g m a c h in e is n o t u s e d ) e it h e r in
s h o r th a n d o r b y ste n o ty p e o r s i m il a r m a c h in e , an d t r a n s c r i b i n g d i c t a ­
tio n o r the r e c o r d e d in fo r m a t io n r e p r o d u c e d o n a t r a n s c r i b i n g m a c h in e .
M a y p r e p a r e s p e c ia l r e p o r t s o r m e m o r a n d a f o r in fo r m a t io n o f s u p e r i o r .
STEN O GRAPH ER, GEN ERAL

C o m p u te s w a g e s o f c o m p a n y e m p lo y e e s an d e n t e r s the n e c e s ­
s a r y data on th e p a y r o ll s h e e t s . D u tie s in v o lv e : C a lc u la tin g w o r k e r s *
e a r n in g s b a s e d on t im e o r p r o d u c t io n r e c o r d s ; p o s tin g c a lc u la t e d data
on p a y r o ll s h e e t, sh ow in g in fo r m a t io n s u c h a s w o r k e r * s n a m e , w o r k in g
d a y s , t im e , r a t e , d e d u c t io n s f o r in s u r a n c e , an d to t a l w a g e s d u e . M a y
m a k e out p a y c h e c k s
and a s s i s t p a y m a s t e r in m a k in g up and d i s ­
tr ib u tin g pay e n v e lo p e s . M a y u se a c a lc u la t in g m a c h in e .

P r i m a r y duty is to ta k e d ic ta tio n f r o m on e o r m o r e p e r s o n s ,
e it h e r in sh o r th a n d o r b y s te n o ty p e o r s i m i l a r m a c h in e , in v o lv in g a
n o r m a l r o u t in e v o c a b u la r y , and to t r a n s c r i b e th is d ic t a t io n o n a t y p e ­
w r i t e r . M a y a l s o ty p e f r o m w r it te n c o p y . M a y a l s o s e t up a n d k e e p
f i l e s in o r d e r , k eep s im p le r e c o r d s , e t c .
D o e s n ot in c lu d e t r a n s c r i b i n g - m a c h i n e w o r k (s e e t r a n s c r ib in g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r ) .

COM PTOM ETER OPERATOR

S T E N O G R A P H E R , T E C H N IC A L

P r i m a r y du ty is to o p e r a t e a C o m p t o m e t e r to p e r f o r m m a t h e ­
m a t ic a l c o m p u t a t io n s . T h is jo b is n ot to b e c o n fu s e d w ith that o f
s t a t is t ic a l o r o th e r ty p e o f c l e r k , w h ich m a y in v o lv e fr e q u e n t u se o f
a C o m p to m e te r b u t, in w h ic h , u s e o f th is m a c h in e is in c id e n t a l to
p e r fo r m a n c e o f o th e r d u t ie s .

P r i m a r y duty is to ta k e d ic t a t io n f r o m on e o r m o r e p e r s o n s ,
e it h e r in sh o r th a n d o r b y ste n o ty p e o r s i m i l a r m a c h in e , in v o lv in g a
v a r ie d t e c h n ic a l o r s p e c ia liz e d v o c a b u la r y s u c h a s in le g a l b r i e f s o r
r e p o r t s on s c ie n t if i c r e s e a r c h and to t r a n s c r i b e th is d ic t a t io n on a
ty p e w rite r .
M a y a ls o ty p e f r o m w r it te n c o p y .
M a y a l s o s e t up an d
k e e p f i l e s in o r d e r , k e e p s im p le r e c o r d s , e t c .
D o e s n o t in c lu d e
t r a n s c r ib in g - m a c h in e w o r k .

D U P L IC A T IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R (M IM E O G R A P H O R D IT T O )
S W IT C H B O A R D O P E R A T O R
U n der g e n e r a l s u p e r v is io n an d w ith n o s u p e r v i s o r y r e s p o n ­
s i b i l i t i e s , r e p r o d u c e s m u lt ip le c o p ie s o f t y p e w r itte n o r h a n d w r itte n
m a t t e r , u sin g a m im e o g r a p h o r d itto m a c h in e . M a k e s n e c e s s a r y a d ­
ju s tm e n t su ch a s f o r in k an d p a p e r fe e d c o u n te r an d c y li n d e r s p e e d .
Is n ot r e q u ir e d to p r e p a r e s t e n c il o r d itto m a s t e r . M a y k e e p f ile o f
u s e d s t e n c ils o r d itto m a s t e r s .
M a y s o r t , c o l l a t e , an d s ta p le c o m ­
p le t e d m a t e r ia l .




O p e r a t e s a s i n g le - o r m u lt ip le - p o s it i o n t e le p h o n e s w it c h b o a r d .
D u tie s in v o lv e h an dlin g in c o m in g , o u tg o in g , a n d in tr a p la n t o r o f f i c e
c a lls .
M a y r e c o r d t o ll c a lls and ta k e m e s s a g e s .
M a y g iv e i n f o r ­
m a tio n to p e r s o n s w ho c a l l in , o r o c c a s i o n a l l y ta k e te le p h o n e o r d e r s .
F o r w o r k e r s w h o a ls o a c t a s r e c e p t io n is t s s e e s w it c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r r e c e p t io n is t .

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T R A N S C R IB IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R , G E N E R A L - C on tin u ed

S W IT C H B O A R D O P E R A T O R - R E C E P T IO N IS T

tio n
ty p e
T h is
t im e

In a d d itio n to p e r f o r m in g d u tie s o f o p e r a t o r , on a s in g le p o s i ­
o r m o n i t o r - t y p e s w it c h b o a r d , a c t s a s r e c e p t io n is t an d m a y a ls o
o r p e r f o r m r o u t in e c l e r i c a l w o r k a s p a r t o f r e g u la r d u t ie s .
ty p in g o r c l e r i c a l w o r k m a y ta k e the m a jo r p a r t o f th is w o r k e r * s
w h ile at s w itc h b o a r d ,,

T A B U L A T IN G -M A C H I N E O P E R A T O R
O p e r a t e s m a c h in e that a u to m a t ic a lly a n a ly z e s an d t r a n s la t e s
in fo r m a t io n p u n c h e d in g r o u p s o f ta b u la tin g c a r d s an d p r in t s t r a n s ­
la t e d d a ta on f o r m s o r a c c o u n tin g r e c o r d s ; s e t s o r a d ju s ts m a c h in e ;
d o e s s i m p le w ir in g o f p lu g b o a r d s a c c o r d in g t o e s t a b lis h e d p r a c t i c e
o r d ia g r a m s ; p l a c e s c a r d s to b e ta b u la te d in fe e d m a g a z in e and s t a r ts
m a c h in e o M a y f i l e c a r d s a ft e r th ey a r e ta b u la te d . M a y , in a d d itio n ,
o p e r a t e a u x ilia r y m a c h in e s .

in c lu d e d . A w o r k e r w h o ta k e s d ic ta tio n in sh o rth a n d o r b y ste n o ty p e
o r s i m il a r m a c h in e is c l a s s i f i e d a s a s t e n o g r a p h e r , g e n e r a l.
T Y P IS T
U s e s a t y p e w r it e r to m a k e c o p i e s o f v a r io u s m a t e r ia l o r to
m a k e ou t b i l l s a ft e r c a lc u l a t i o n s h a v e b e e n m a d e b y a n oth er p e r s o n .
M a y do c l e r i c a l w o r k in v o lv in g lit t le s p e c ia l t r a in in g , su ch a s k e e p ­
in g s im p le r e c o r d s , filin g r e c o r d s an d r e p o r t s o r s o r tin g and d i s ­
tr ib u t in g in c o m in g m a il.
C l a s s A - P e r f o r m s on e o r m o r e o f th e fo llo w in g :
T y p in g
m a t e r ia l in fin a l f o r m f r o m v e r y r o u g h an d in v o lv e d d r a ft; c o p y ­
ing f r o m p la in o r c o r r e c t e d c o p y in w h ic h th e r e is a fr e q u e n t
an d v a r i e d u s e o f t e c h n ic a l an d u n u su a l w o r d s o r f r o m f o r e i g n la n g u a g e c o p y ; c o m b in in g m a t e r ia l f r o m s e v e r a l
so u rce s, or
pla n n in g la y o u t o f c o m p li c a t e d s t a t is t ic a l t a b le s to m a in ta in u n i­
f o r m it y a n d b a la n c e in s p a c in g ; ty p in g t a b le s f r o m ro u g h d r a ft in
fin a l f o r m .
M a y ty p e r o u tin e f o r m l e t t e r s , v a r y in g d e t a ils to
su it c i r c u m s t a n c e s .

T R A N S C R IB IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R , G E N E R A L
P r i m a r y du ty is to t r a n s c r ib e d ic ta tio n in v o lv in g a n o r m a l
r o u t in e v o c a b u la r y f r o m t r a n s c r ib in g m a ch in e r e c o r d s .
M a y a ls o
ty p e f r o m w r it t e n c o p y a n d d o s im p le c l e r i c a l w o r k . W o r k e r s t r a n ­
s c r ib in g d ic t a t io n in v o lv in g a v a r ie d t e c h n ic a l o r s p e c i a l i z e d v o c a b u ­
l a r y s u c h a s le g a l b r i e f s o r r e p o r t s on s c ie n t if i c r e s e a r c h a r e n ot

P rofessional

D R A F T S M A N , JU N IO R
(A s s is t a n t d r a ft s m a n )
D r a w s t o s c a l e u n its o r p a r t s o f d r a w in g s p r e p a r e d b y d r a f t s ­
m a n o r o t h e r s f o r e n g in e e r in g , c o n s t r u c t io n , o r m a n u fa c tu r in g p u r ­
poses.
U s e s v a r io u s t y p e s o f d r a ftin g t o o ls a s r e q u ir e d .
M ay p r e ­
p a r e d r a w in g s f r o m s im p le p la n s o r s k e t c h e s , o r p e r f o r m o th e r d u tie s
u n d e r d i r e c t i o n o f a d r a ft s m a n .
DRAFTSM AN, LEADER
P la n s an d d i r e c t s a c t i v it ie s o f on e o r m o r e d r a ft s m e n in
p r e p a r a t io n o f w o r k in g p la n s and d e ta il d r a w in g s f r o m r o u g h o r p r e ­
l im in a r y s k e t c h e s f o r e n g in e e r in g , c o n s t r u c t io n , o r m a n u fa c tu r in g
p u r p o s e s . D u tie s in v o lv e a c o m b in a tio n o f the f o llo w in g ; I n te r p r e t in g
b l u e p r in t s , s k e t c h e s , a n d w r it te n o r v e r b a l o r d e r s ; d e t e r m in in g w o r k
p r o c e d u r e s ; a s s ig n in g d u tie s to s u b o r d in a te s and in s p e c t in g t h e ir w o r k ;
p e r f o r m in g m o r e d if f i c u lt p r o b l e m s . M a y a s s i s t s u b o r d in a t e s d u rin g




C l a s s B - P e r f o r m s on e o r m o r e o f th e fo llo w in g :
T y p in g
f r o m r e l a t i v e l y c l e a r o r ty p e d d r a ft s ; r o u tin e typin g o f f o r m s ,
in s u r a n c e p o l i c i e s , e t c . ; s e ttin g up s im p le s ta n d a r d ta b u la tio n s , o r
c o p y in g m o r e c o m p le x t a b le s a lr e a d y se t up an d s p a c e d p r o p e r l y .

and

Technical

DRAFTSM AN, LEADER

- C o n tin u e d

e m e r g e n c i e s o r a s a r e g u la r a s s ig n m e n t , o r p e r f o r m
o f a s u p e r v i s o r y o r a d m in is t r a t iv e n a tu r e .

r e la t e d d u tie s

D R A F T S M A N , SE N IO R
P r e p a r e s w o r k in g p la n s an d d e ta il d r a w in g s f r o m n o te s ,
r o u g h o r d e t a ile d s k e t c h e s f o r e n g in e e r in g , c o n s t r u c t io n , o r m a n u ­
fa c tu r in g p u r p o s e s .
D u tie s in v o lv e a c o m b in a t io n o f the fo llo w in g :
P r e p a r in g w o r k in g p la n s , d e t a il d r a w in g s , m a p s , c r o s s - s e c t i o n s , e t c .,
t o s c a le b y u s e o f d r a ftin g in s t r u m e n t s ; m a k in g e n g in e e r in g c o m p u ta ­
t io n s s u c h a s th o s e in v o lv e d in s t r e n g th o f m a t e r ia l s , b e a m s and
t r u s s e s ; v e r ify in g c o m p le t e d w o r k , c h e c k in g d im e n s io n s , m a t e r ia ls
to b e u s e d , and q u a n titie s ; w r it in g s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ; m a k in g a d ju s tm e n ts
o r c h a n g e s in d r a w in g s o r s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . M a y in k in lin e s an d l e t t e r s
o n p e n c il d r a w in g s , p r e p a r e d e t a il u n its o f c o m p le t e d r a w in g s , o r
t r a c e d r a w in g s .
W o r k is fr e q u e n t ly in a s p e c ia liz e d f i e l d su ch a s
a r c h it e c t u r a l , e l e c t r i c a l , m e c h a n ic a l, o r s t r u c t u r a l d r a ftin g .

22
N U R SE , IN D U S T R IA L (R E G IS T E R E D )

N U R S E , IN D U S T R IA L (R E G IS T E R E D ) - C o n tin u e d

A r e g i s t e r e d n u r s e w h o g iv e s n u r s in g s e r v i c e to i l l o r in ju r e d
e m p lo y e e s o r o th e r p e r s o n s w ho b e c o m e i l l o r s u ffe r an a c c id e n t on
the p r e m is e s o f a f a c t o r y o r o th e r e s t a b lis h m e n t .
D u tie s in v o lv e a
c o m b in a tio n o f the fo llo w in g : G iv in g f i r s t a id to the i l l o r in ju r e d ;
atten din g to su b s e q u e n t d r e s s in g o f e m p l o y e e s 1 i n ju r i e s ; k e e p in g r e c o r d s
o f p a tien ts t r e a t e d ; p r e p a r in g a c c id e n t r e p o r t s f o r c o m p e n s a t io n o r
o th e r p u r p o s e s ; c o n d u c tin g p h y s ic a l e x a m in a tio n s an d h e a lth e v a lu a t io n s
o f a p p lic a n ts and e m p lo y e e s ; and p la n n in g an d c a r r y in g ou t p r o g r a m s
in v o lv in g h e a lth e d u c a tio n , a c c id e n t p r e v e n t io n , e v a lu a tio n o f p la n t

e n v ir o n m e n t , o r o th e r a c t i v it ie s
s a fe t y o f a ll p e r s o n n e l,

Maintenance

a ffe c t in g

th e

h e a lt h ,

w e lfa r e ,

an d

TRACER
C o p ie s p la n s an d d r a w in g s p r e p a r e d b y o t h e r s , b y p la c in g
t r a c in g c lo t h o r p a p e r o v e r d ra w in g a n d t r a c in g w ith p en o r p e n c i l .
U s e s T - s q u a r e , c o m p a s s , an d o th e r d r a ftin g t o o l s .
M ay p re p a re
s im p le d r a w in g s and do s im p le l e t t e r in g .

nd

Powerplant

C A R P E N T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E

E N G IN E E R , S T A T IO N A R Y

P e r f o r m s the c a r p e n t r y d u tie s n e c e s s a r y to c o n s t r u c t and
m a in ta in in g o o d r e p a ir b u ild in g w o o d w o r k an d e q u ip m e n t s u c h a s b in s ,
c r i b s , c o u n t e r s , b e n c h e s , p a r t it io n s , d o o r s , f l o o r s , s t a ir s , c a s i n g s ,
and t r im m a d e o f w o o d in an e s t a b lis h m e n t .
W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t o f
the fo llo w in g : P la n n in g an d la y in g ou t o f w o r k f r o m b lu e p r in t s , d r a w ­
in g s , m o d e ls , o r v e r b a l in s t r u c t io n s ; u sin g a v a r ie t y o f c a r p e n t e r * s
h a n d to o ls , p o r t a b le p o w e r t o o l s , an d s ta n d a r d m e a s u r in g in s t r u m e n ts ;
m a k in g sta n d a r d sh op c o m p u ta tio n s r e la t in g to d im e n s io n s o f w o r k ;
s e le c t in g m a t e r ia l s n e c e s s a r y fo r th e w o r k . In g e n e r a l, the w o r k o f
the m a in te n a n ce c a r p e n t e r r e q u ir e s r o u n d e d tr a in in g and e x p e r i e n c e
u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th r o u g h a fo r m a t a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t t r a i n ­
ing and e x p e r i e n c e .

O p e r a te s and m a in ta in s an d m a y a l s o s u p e r v i s e th e o p e r a t io n
o f s t a t io n a r y e n g in e s and e q u ip m e n t ( m e c h a n ic a l o r e l e c t r i c a l ) to s u p ­
p ly the e s t a b lis h m e n t in w h ich e m p lo y e d w ith p o w e r , h e a t, r e f r i g e r a ­
t io n , o r a i r c o n d itio n in g .
W o r k in v o l v e s ; O p e r a tin g a n d m a in ta in in g
e q u ip m e n t s u c h a s s te a m e n g in e s , a ir c o m p r e s s o r s , g e n e r a t o r s , m o ­
t o r s , t u r b in e s , v e n tila tin g and r e f r i g e r a t i n g e q u ip m e n t , s t e a m b o i l e r s
and b o i l e r - f e d w a te r p u m p s ; m a k in g e q u ip m e n t r e p a i r s ; k e e p in g a
r e c o r d o f o p e r a t io n o f m a c h in e r y , t e m p e r a t u r e , a n d fu e l c o n s u m p ­
t io n , M ay a l s o s u p e r v is e th e s e o p e r a t i o n s . H ea d o r c h i e f e n g in e e r s
in e s t a b lis h m e n t s e m p lo y in g m o r e th an o n e e n g in e e r a r e e x c lu d e d ,

E L E C T R IC IA N , M A IN T E N A N C E
P e r f o r m s a v a r ie t y o f e l e c t r i c a l tr a d e fu n c tio n s su c h a s the
in s t a lla tio n , m a in te n a n c e , o r r e p a ir o f e q u ip m e n t f o r th e g e n e r a t in g ,
d is t r ib u t io n , o r u t iliz a t io n o f e l e c t r i c e n e r g y in an e s t a b lis h m e n t .
W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g :
In s t a llin g o r r e p a ir in g an y o f
a v a r ie t y o f e l e c t r i c a l e q u ip m e n t s u c h a s g e n e r a t o r s , t r a n s f o r m e r s ,
s w it c h b o a r d s , c o n t r o l l e r s , c i r c u i t b r e a k e r s , m o t o r s , h ea tin g u n its ,
c o n d u it s y s t e m s , o r o th e r t r a n s m is s io n e q u ip m e n t; w o r k in g f r o m b l u e ­
p r in ts , d r a w in g s , la y o u t, o r o th e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ; lo c a t in g an d d ia g ­
n o s in g t r o u b le in th e e l e c t r i c a l s y s t e m o r e q u ip m e n t; w o r k in g s ta n d a r d
c o m p u ta tio n s r e la t in g to lo a d r e q u ir e m e n t s o f w ir in g o r e l e c t r i c a l
eq u ip m e n t; u sin g a v a r ie t y o f e le c t r ic ia n * s h a n d to o ls and m e a s u r in g
and te s tin g in s t r u m e n t s .
In g e n e r a l, th e w o r k o f the m a in te n a n c e
e l e c t r i c i a n r e q u i r e s r o u n d e d tr a in in g an d e x p e r i e n c e u s u a lly a c ­
q u ir e d th r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t tr a in in g an d
e x p e rie n c e .




F IR E M A N , S T A T IO N A R Y B O IL E R
F i r e s s ta tio n a ry b o i l e r s to fu r n is h th e
e m p lo y e d w ith h ea t, p o w e r , o r s t e a m .
F eeds
o r o p e r a t e s a m e c h a n ic a l s t o k e r , g a s , o r o il
a n d s a fe ty v a lv e s .
M ay c le a n , o i l , o r a s s i s t
r o o m e q u ip m e n t,

e s t a b lis h m e n t in w h ic h
fu e ls to f i r e b y h an d
b u r n e r ; c h e c k s w a te r
in r e p a ir in g b o i l e r -

H E L P E R , T R A D E S , M A IN T E N A N C E
A s s i s t s on e o r m o r e w o r k e r s in the s k i lle d m a in te n a n c e
t r a d e s , b y p e r fo r m in g s p e c i f i c o r g e n e r a l d u tie s o f l e s s e r s k i ll, s u c h
a s k e e p in g a w o r k e r s u p p lie d w ith m a t e r i a l s an d t o o l s ; c le a n in g w o r k ­
in g a r e a , m a c h in e , and e q u ip m e n t; a s s i s t i n g w o r k e r b y h o ld in g m a ­
t e r i a l s o r t o o l s ; p e r fo r m in g o th e r u n s k ille d t a s k s a s d i r e c t e d b y j o u r ­
n e y m a n . T h e kind o f w o r k th e h e lp e r is p e r m it t e d t o p e r f o r m v a r i e s
f r o m tr a d e to tr a d e ;
In s o m e t r a d e s th e h e lp e r is c o n fin e d to s u p ­
p ly in g , lift in g , and h old in g m a t e r ia l s a n d t o o l s a n d c le a n in g w o r k in g
a r e a s ; an d in o th e r s he is p e r m it t e d to p e r f o r m s p e c i a l i z e d m a c h in e
o p e r a t io n s , o r p a r t s o f a tr a d e th at a r e a l s o p e r f o r m e d b y w o r k e r s
on a f u l l - t i m e b a s i s .

23

M A C H I N E -T O O L O P E R A T O R , T O O L R O O M

M E C H A N IC , M A IN T E N A N C E

S p e c i a l i z e s in th e o p e r a t io n o f on e o r m o r e ty p e s o f m a c h in e
t o o l s , s u c h a s ji g b o r e r s , c y li n d r ic a l o r s u r fa c e g r i n d e r s , en g in e
la t h e s , o r m i llin g m a c h in e s in the c o n s t r u c t io n o f m a c h in e -s h o p t o o l s ,
g a u g e s , j i g s , f i x t u r e s , o r d i e s . W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g :
P la n n in g an d p e r f o r m i n g d iffic u lt m a ch in in g o p e r a t io n s ; p r o c e s s i n g
it e m s r e q u ir i n g c o m p l i c a t e d setu p s o r a h igh d e g r e e o f a c c u r a c y ;
u s in g a v a r i e t y o f p r e c i s i o n m e a s u r in g in s t r u m e n ts ; s e le c t in g fe e d s ,
s p e e d s , t o o lin g a n d o p e r a t io n s e q u e n c e ; m a k in g n e c e s s a r y a d ju s t ­
m e n ts d u r in g o p e r a t io n to a c h ie v e r e q u is it e t o l e r a n c e s o r d im e n s io n s .
M a y b e r e q u i r e d to r e c o g n i z e w hen t o o l s n e e d d r e s s in g , to d r e s s t o o l s ,
a n d to s e l e c t p r o p e r c o o la n t s an d cu ttin g and lu b r ic a t in g o i l s .
F or
c r o s s - i n d u s t r y w a g e stu d y p u r p o s e s , m a c h in e -t o o l o p e r a t o r s , t o o l r o o m ,
in t o o l a n d d ie jo b b in g s h o p s a r e e x c lu d e d f r o m th is c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .

R e p a ir s m a c h in e r y o r m e c h a n ic a l e q u ip m e n t o f an e s t a b lis h ­
m e n t.
W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t o f the f o llo w in g : E x a m in in g m a c h in e s
an d m e c h a n ic a l e q u ip m e n t to d ia g n o s e s o u r c e o f t r o u b le ; d is m a n tlin g
o r p a r t ly d is m a n tlin g m a c h in e s an d p e r fo r m in g r e p a i r s that m a in ly
in v o lv e the u se o f h a n d to o ls in s c r a p in g an d fittin g p a r t s ; r e p la c in g
b r o k e n o r d e fe c t iv e p a r t s w ith it e m s o b t a in e d f r o m s t o c k ; o r d e r in g the
p r o d u c t io n o f a r e p la c e m e n t p a r t b y a m a c h in e sh op o r sen d in g o f
the m a c h in e to a m a c h in e sh o p f o r m a jo r r e p a i r s ; p r e p a r in g w ritte n
s p e c if i c a t io n s f o r m a jo r r e p a i r s o r f o r th e p r o d u c t io n o f p a r ts o r d e r e d
f r o m m a c h in e s h o p ; r e a s s e m b lin g m a c h in e s ; and m a k in g a ll n e c e s s a r y
a d ju s tm e n t s f o r o p e r a t io n .
In g e n e r a l, th e w o r k o f a m a in te n a n ce
m e c h a n ic r e q u ir e s r o u n d e d tr a in in g an d e x p e r i e n c e u su a lly a c q u ir e d
th r o u g h a fo r m a l a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t tr a in in g and e x p e r i e n c e .
E x c lu d e d f r o m th is c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a r e w o r k e r s w h o s e p r im a r y d u ties
in v o lv e se ttin g up o r a d ju s tin g m a c h in e s .

M A C H IN IS T , M A IN T E N A N C E
M IL L W R IG H T
P r o d u c e s r e p la c e m e n t p a r t s an d n ew p a r t s in m a k in g r e p a i r s
o f m e t a l p a r t s o f m e c h a n ic a l eq u ip m e n t o p e r a t e d in an e s t a b lis h m e n t .
W o r k in v o l v e s m o s t o f th e fo llo w in g :
In te r p r e t in g w r it te n i n s t r u c ­
t io n s an d s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ; p la n n in g an d la y in g out o f w o r k ; u sin g a v a ­
r i e t y o f m a c h i n i s t s h a n d to o ls an d p r e c i s i o n m e a s u r in g in s t r u m e n ts ;
s e ttin g up a n d o p e r a t in g s ta n d a r d m a c h in e t o o l s ; sh a p in g o f m e t a l
p a r t s to c l o s e t o l e r a n c e s ; m a k in g s ta n d a r d sh op c o m p u ta tio n s r e l a t ­
in g to d im e n s io n s o f w o r k , t o o lin g , fe e d s and s p e e d s o f m a ch in in g ;
k n o w le d g e o f th e w o r k in g p r o p e r t ie s o f the c o m m o n m e t a ls ; s e le c t in g
s ta n d a r d m a t e r i a l s , p a r t s , an d eq u ip m e n t r e q u ir e d f o r h is w o r k ; fittin g
a n d a s s e m b li n g p a r t s in to m e c h a n ic a l e q u ip m e n t.
In g e n e r a l, the
m a c h i n i s t s w o r k n o r m a lly r e q u ir e s a ro u n d e d tr a in in g in m a c h in e sh o p p r a c t i c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th ro u g h a fo r m a l a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r
e q u iv a le n t tr a in in g an d e x p e r i e n c e .

I n s t a lls n ew m a c h in e s o r h e a v y e q u ip m e n t and d is m a n t le s and
in s t a lls m a c h in e s o r h e a v y e q u ip m e n t w h en c h a n g e s in the plant la y ­
ou t a r e r e q u ir e d . W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t o f th e fo llo w in g : P la n n in g and
la y in g ou t o f th e w o r k ; in t e r p r e t in g b lu e p r in t s o r o th e r s p e c ific a t io n s ;
u sin g a v a r ie t y o f h a n d to o ls an d r ig g in g ; m a k in g sta n d a r d sh op c o m ­
p u ta tio n s r e la t in g to s t r e s s e s , s tr e n g th o f m a t e r ia l s , and c e n t e r s o f
g r a v it y ; a lin in g an d b a la n c in g o f e q u ip m e n t; s e le c t in g sta n d a rd t o o l s ,
e q u ip m e n t, and p a r t s to b e u s e d ; in s t a llin g and m a in ta in in g in g o o d
o r d e r p o w e r t r a n s m is s io n e q u ip m e n t s u c h a s d r iv e s and s p e e d r e ­
d u c e r s . In g e n e r a l, the m i l l w r i g h t ^ w o r k n o r m a lly r e q u ir e s a ro u n d e d
tr a in in g an d e x p e r i e n c e in the tr a d e a c q u ir e d th r o u g h a fo r m a l a p p r e n ­
t i c e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t tr a in in g an d e x p e r i e n c e .

O IL E R

M E C H A N IC , A U T O M O T IV E (M A IN T E N A N C E )

R e p a i r s a u t o m o b il e s , b u s e s , m o t o r t r u c k s , an d t r a c t o r s o f
a n e s t a b lis h m e n t .
W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g :
E x a m in in g
a u t o m o t iv e e q u ip m e n t to d ia g n o s e s o u r c e o f t r o u b le ; d is a s s e m b lin g
e q u ip m e n t a n d p e r f o r m in g r e p a ir s that in v o lv e the u se o f s u c h h a n d t o o l s a s w r e n c h e s , g a u g e s , d r i l l s , o r s p e c ia liz e d e q u ip m e n t in d i s ­
a s s e m b li n g o r fittin g p a r t s ; r e p la c in g b r o k e n o r d e fe c t iv e p a r t s f r o m
s t o c k ; g r in d in g a n d a d ju s tin g v a lv e s ; r e a s s e m b lin g an d in s t a llin g the
v a r io u s a s s e m b l i e s in th e v e h ic le and m a k in g n e c e s s a r y a d ju s tm e n t s ;
a lin in g w h e e l s , a d ju s tin g b r a k e s and lig h t s , o r tig h te n in g b o d y b o l t s .
In g e n e r a l, the w o r k o f th e a u to m o tiv e m e c h a n ic r e q u ir e s r o u n d e d
tr a in in g a n d e x p e r i e n c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th rou g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t i c e ­
sh ip o r e q u iv a le n t tr a in in g an d e x p e r i e n c e .




L u b r ic a t e s , w ith o i l o r g r e a s e , the m o v in g p a r ts o r w e a r in g
s u r f a c e s o f m e c h a n ic a l e q u ip m e n t o f an e s t a b lis h m e n t .

P A I N T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E
P a in t s an d r e d e c o r a t e s w a ll s , w o o d w o r k , and fix t u r e s o f an
e s t a b lis h m e n t .
W o r k in v o lv e s the fo llo w in g :
K n o w le d g e o f s u r fa c e
p e c u l ia r it i e s and ty p e s o f p a in t r e q u ir e d f o r d iffe r e n t a p p lic a t io n s ;
p r e p a r in g s u r fa c e fo r p a in tin g b y r e m o v in g o ld fin is h o r by p la cin g
pu tty o r f i l l e r in n a il h o le s an d in t e r s t i c e s ; a p p ly in g paint w ith s p ra y
gun o r b r u s h .
M a y m ix c o l o r s , o i l s , w h ite le a d , and o th e r paint
in g r e d ie n t s to o b ta in p r o p e r c o l o r o r c o n s i s t e n c y .
In g e n e r a l, the
w o r k o f the m a in te n a n c e p a in te r r e q u i r e s r o u n d e d tr a in in g and e x ­
p e r ie n c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r e q u iv a ­
le n t tr a in in g a n d e x p e r i e n c e .

24
P I P E F I T T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E

S H E E T -M E T A L W O R K E R , M A IN T E N A N C E - C o n tin u e d

I n s t a lls o r r e p a i r s w a t e r , s t e a m , g a s , o r o th e r ty p e s o f p ip e
and p ip e fittin g s in an e s t a b lis h m e n t o W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t o f the f o l ­
lo w in g : L a y in g ou t o f w o r k an d m e a s u r in g to lo c a t e p o s it io n o f p ip e
f r o m d r a w in g s o r o th e r w r it te n s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ; cu ttin g v a r io u s s i z e s
o f p ip e to c o r r e c t le n g th s w ith c h is e l an d h a m m e r o r o x y a c e t y le n e
t o r c h o r p ip e -c u t t in g m a c h in e ; th r e a d in g p ip e w ith s t o c k s an d d ie s ;
ben d in g p ip e b y h a n d -d r iv e n o r p o w e r - d r i v e n m a c h in e s ; a s s e m b lin g
p ip e w ith c o u p lin g s an d fa s te n in g p ip e to h a n g e r s ; m a k in g s ta n d a r d
sh op c o m p u ta tio n s r e la t in g to p r e s s u r e s , flo w , and s iz e o f p ip e r e ­
q u ir e d ; m a k in g s ta n d a r d t e s t s to d e t e r m in e w h e th e r fin is h e d p ip e s m e e t
s p e c if i c a t io n s .
In g e n e r a l, th e w o r k o f the m a in te n a n c e p ip e fit t e r
r e q u ir e s r o u n d e d tr a in in g and e x p e r i e n c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th r o u g h a
fo r m a l a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t tr a in in g and e x p e r i e n c e . W o r k e r s
p r im a r i ly e n g a g e d in in s t a llin g an d r e p a ir in g b u ild in g sa n ita tio n o r
h eatin g s y s t e m s a r e e x c lu d e d .

and la y in g ou t a ll ty p e s o f s h e e t - m e t a l m a in te n a n c e w o r k f r o m b l u e ­
p r in t s , m o d e ls , o r o th e r s p e c if i c a t io n s ; s e ttin g up and o p e r a t in g a ll
a v a ila b le ty p e s o f s h e e t - m e t a l- w o r k in g m a c h in e s ; u sin g a v a r ie t y o f
h a n d to o ls in cu ttin g , b e n d in g , f o r m in g , sh a p in g , fit tin g , a n d a s s e m ­
b lin g ; in s t a llin g s h e e t -m e t a l a r t i c l e s a s r e q u i r e d .
In g e n e r a l, th e
w o r k o f the m a in te n a n ce s h e e t -m e t a l w o r k e r r e q u i r e s r o u n d e d tr a in in g
and e x p e r i e n c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r
e q u iv a le n t tr a in in g and e x p e r i e n c e .

P L U M B E R , M A IN T E N A N C E
K e e p s the p lu m b in g s y s t e m o f an e s t a b lis h m e n t in g o o d o r d e r .
W o r k in v o lv e s ; K n o w le d g e o f s a n ita r y c o d e s r e g a r d in g in s t a lla tio n o f
v e n ts and tr a p s in p lu m b in g s y s t e m ; in s t a llin g o r r e p a ir in g p ip e s an d
fix t u r e s ; o p e n in g c lo g g e d d r a in s w ith a p lu n g e r o r p lu m b e r rs sn a k e .
In g e n e r a l, the w o r k o f the m a in te n a n c e p lu m b e r r e q u i r e s r o u n d e d
tr a in in g an d e x p e r i e n c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t i c e ­
sh ip o r e q u iv a le n t tr a in in g an d e x p e r i e n c e .
S H E E T -M E T A L W O R K E R , M A IN T E N A N C E
F a b r i c a t e s , in s t a ll s , and m a in ta in s in g o o d r e p a ir the s h e e t m e ta l e q u ip m e n t an d fix t u r e s (s u c h a s m a c h in e g u a r d s , g r e a s e p a n s ,
s h e lv e s , l o c k e r s , ta n k s , v e n t ila t o r s , c h u t e s , d u c t s , m e t a l r o o fin g )
o f an e s t a b lis h m e n t . W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : P la n n in g

Custodial

and

(D ie m a k e r ;

T r a n s p o r t s p a s s e n g e r s b e t w e e n f l o o r s o f an o f f i c e b u ild in g ,
a p a r tm e n t h o u s e , d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e , h o te l o r s im ila r e s t a b lis h m e n t .
W o r k e r s w h o o p e r a t e e l e v a t o r s in c o n ju n c t io n w ith o th e r d u tie s su ch
a s th o s e o f s t a r t e r s an d ja n i t o r s a r e e x c lu d e d .
GUARD
P e r f o r m s r o u tin e p o l i c e d u tie s , e it h e r at fix e d p o s t o r on
to u r , m a in ta in in g o r d e r , u sin g a r m s o r f o r c e w h e r e n e c e s s a r y . In ­
clu d e s g a te m e n w h o a r e s t a t io n e d at g a te an d c h e c k o n id e n tity o f
e m p lo y e e s an d o th e r p e r s o n s e n t e r in g .

jig m a k e r ;

to o lm a k e r ;

fix t u r e m a k e r ;

gauge m a k e r)

C o n s t r u c ts and r e p a ir s m a c h in e - s h o p t o o l s , g a u g e s , j i g s , f i x ­
t u r e s o r d ie s fo r f o r g in g s , p u n ch in g an d o t h e r m e t a l - f o r m i n g w o r k .
W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : P la n n in g a n d la y in g ou t o f w o r k
f r o m m o d e ls , b lu e p r in ts , d r a w in g s , o r o th e r o r a l a n d w r it t e n s p e c i f i ­
c a t io n s ; u sin g a v a r ie t y o f t o o l and d ie m a k e r 1s h a n d to o ls a n d p r e c i s i o n
m e a s u r in g in s tr u m e n ts ; u n d e r sta n d in g o f th e w o r k in g p r o p e r t i e s o f
c o m m o n m e t a ls and a l lo y s ; se ttin g up an d o p e r a t in g o f m a c h in e t o o l s
an d r e la t e d e q u ip m e n t; m a k in g n e c e s s a r y s h o p c o m p u ta tio n s r e la t in g
to d im e n s io n s o f w o r k , s p e e d s , f e e d s , an d t o o lin g o f m a c h in e s ; h e a t t r e a t in g o f m e ta l p a r t s d u rin g f a b r i c a t io n a s w e ll a s o f fin is h e d t o o l s
and d ie s to a c h ie v e r e q u ir e d q u a l it i e s ; w o r k in g to c l o s e t o l e r a n c e s ;
fittin g an d a s s e m b lin g o f p a r t s to p r e s c r i b e d t o l e r a n c e s an d a l l o w ­
a n c e s ; s e le c t in g a p p r o p r ia te m a t e r i a l s ,
t o o ls , and p r o c e s s e s .
In
g e n e r a l, th e t o o l and d ie m a k e r * s w o r k r e q u i r e s a r o u n d e d tr a in in g
in m a c h in e -s h o p and t o o l r o o m p r a c t i c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th r o u g h a
f o r m a l a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t tr a in in g an d e x p e r i e n c e .
F o r c r o s s - i n d u s t r y w a g e stu d y p u r p o s e s , t o o l an d d ie m a k e r s
in t o o l and d ie jo b b in g sh o p s a r e e x c lu d e d f r o m t h is c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .

Material

E L E V A T O R O P E R A T O R , PASSEN G ER




T O O L A N D D IE M A K E R

Movement

J A N IT O R , P O R T E R , O R C L E A N E R
(S w e e p e r ; c h a rw o m a n ; j a n i t r e s s )
C le a n s an d k e e p s in an o r d e r l y c o n d it io n f a c t o r y w o r k in g
a r e a s an d w a s h r o o m s , o r p r e m i s e s o f an o f f i c e , a p a r tm e n t h o u s e ,
o r c o m m e r c i a l o r o th e r e s t a b lis h m e n t . D u tie s in v o lv e a c o m b in a t io n
o f the fo llo w in g : S w e e p in g , m o p p in g or^ s c r u b b in g , an d p o lis h in g f l o o r s ;
r e m o v in g c h ip s , t r a s h , and o th e r r e f u s e ; d u stin g e q u ip m e n t , fu r n it u r e ,
o r f ix t u r e s ; p o lis h in g m e t a l fix t u r e s o r t r i m m i n g s ; p r o v id in g s u p p lie s
an d m in o r m a in te n a n ce s e r v i c e s ; c le a n in g l a v a t o r i e s , s h o w e r s , an d
restroom s.
W o r k e r s w h o s p e c i a l i z e in w in d o w w a s h in g a r e e x c lu d e d .

25
LABORER,

S H IP P IN G A N D R E C E IV IN G C L E R K -

M A T E R I A L H A N D L IN G

(L o a d e r an d u n lo a d e r ; h a n d le r and s t a c k e r ; s h e lv e r ; t r u c k e r ;
s t o c k m a n o r s t o c k h e lp e r ; w a r e h o u s e m a n o r w a r e h o u s e h e lp e r )

C o n tin u e d

o th e r r e c o r d s ; c h e c k in g f o r s h o r t a g e s and r e je c t in g d a m a g e d g o o d s ;
r o u tin g m e r c h a n d i s e o r m a t e r ia l s to p r o p e r d e p a r t m e n ts ; m a in ta in in g
n e c e s s a r y r e c o r d s an d f i l e s .

A w o r k e r e m p lo y e d in a w a r e h o u s e , m a n u fa c tu r in g p la n t,
s t o r e , o r o th e r e s t a b lis h m e n t w h o s e d u ties in v o lv e on e o r m o r e o f
th e f o l l o w i n g : L o a d in g a n d u n loa d in g v a r io u s m a t e r ia l s an d m e r c h a n ­
d is e on o r f r o m fr e ig h t c a r s , t r u c k s , o r o th e r t r a n s p o r t in g d e v i c e s ;
u n p a c k in g , s h e lv in g , o r p la c in g m a t e r ia ls o r m e r c h a n d is e in p r o p e r
s t o r a g e lo c a t io n ; t r a n s p o r t in g m a t e r ia ls o r m e r c h a n d is e b y h an d t r u c k ,
c a r , o r w h e e l b a r r o w . L o n g s h o r e m e n , w h o lo a d an d u n lo a d s h ip s a r e
e x c lu d e d .

F o r w a g e stu d y p u r p o s e s , w o r k e r s a r e

c l a s s i f i e d a s fo llo w s :

R e c e iv in g c l e r k
S h ip p in g c l e r k
S h ip p in g an d r e c e iv in g c l e r k

T R U C K D R IV E R
ORDER

F IL L E R

(O rd e r p ic k e r ;

sto ck s e le c t o r ; w areh ou se

stock m a n )

F i l l s s h ip p in g o r t r a n s fe r o r d e r s f o r fin is h e d g o o d s f r o m
s t o r e d m e r c h a n d i s e in a c c o r d a n c e w ith s p e c ifi c a t io n s on s a le s s l i p s ,
c u s t o m e r s 1 o r d e r s , o r o th e r in s t r u c t io n s . M a y , in a d d itio n to fillin g
o r d e r s a n d in d ic a t in g it e m s f il l e d o r o m itte d , k e e p r e c o r d s o f o u t­
g o in g o r d e r s , r e q u is i t io n a d d itio n a l s t o c k , o r r e p o r t s h o r t s u p p lie s
to s u p e r v i s o r , an d p e r f o r m o th e r r e la t e d d u tie s .

PACKER,

D r iv e s a t r u c k w ith in a c it y o r in d u s t r ia l a r e a to t r a n s p o r t
m a t e r i a l s , m e r c h a n d i s e , e q u ip m e n t, o r m e n b e t w e e n v a r io u s ty p e s o f
e s t a b lis h m e n t s s u c h a s : M a n u fa c tu r in g p la n t s , fr e ig h t d e p o t s , w a r e ­
h o u s e s , w h o le s a le an d r e t a i l e s t a b lis h m e n t s , o r b e tw e e n r e t a il e s t a b ­
lis h m e n t s an d c u s t o m e r s 1 h o u s e s o r p la c e s o f b u s i n e s s .
M a y a ls o
lo a d o r u n lo a d t r u c k w ith o r w ith o u t h e l p e r s , m a k e m in o r m e c h a n ic a l
r e p a i r s , an d k e e p t r u c k in g o o d w o r k in g o r d e r . D r i v e r - s a l e s m e n and
o v e r - t h e - r o a d d r i v e r s a r e e x c lu d e d .
F o r w a g e stu d y p u r p o s e s , t r u c k d r i v e r s a r e c l a s s i f i e d b y s iz e
an d ty p e o f e q u ip m e n t , a s f o llo w s :
( T r a c t o r - t r a i l e r sh o u ld b e r a te d
on the b a s i s o f t r a i l e r c a p a c it y . )

S H IP P IN G

P r e p a r e s fin is h e d p r o d u c t s f o r sh ip m en t o r s t o r a g e b y p la c in g
th e m in sh ip p in g c o n t a i n e r s , the s p e c i f i c o p e r a t io n s p e r f o r m e d b e in g
d e p e n d e n t u p on th e t y p e , s i z e , and n u m b e r o f u n its to b e p a c k e d , the
ty p e o f c o n t a in e r e m p lo y e d , an d m e t h o d o f s h ip m e n t. W o r k r e q u ir e s
th e p la c in g o f it e m s in sh ip p in g c o n t a in e r s and m a y in v o lv e on e o r
m o r e o f th e f o l l o w i n g : K n o w le d g e o f v a r io u s it e m s o f s t o c k in o r d e r
to v e r i f y c o n t e n t ; s e l e c t i o n o f a p p r o p r ia t e type and s i z e o f c o n t a in e r ;
in s e r t in g e n c l o s u r e s in c o n t a in e r ; u sin g e x c e l s i o r o r o th e r m a t e r ia l to
p r e v e n t b r e a k a g e o r d a m a g e ; c lo s in g and s e a lin g c o n t a in e r ; a p p ly in g
la b e ls o r e n te r in g id e n tify in g data on c o n t a in e r .
P a c k e r s w ho a ls o
m a k e w o o d e n b o x e s o r c r a t e s a r e e x c lu d e d .

T r u c k d r i v e r (c o m b in a t io n o f s i z e s l is t e d s e p a r a t e ly )
T r u c k d r i v e r , lig h t, (u n d e r IV 2 t o n s ]
T r u c k d r i v e r , m e d iu m (1 V2 to and in c lu d in g 4 to n s )
T r u c k d r i v e r , h e a v y (o v e r 4 t o n s , t r a i l e r ty p e )
T r u c k d r i v e r , h e a v y ( o v e r 4 t o n s , o th e r than t r a i l e r ty p e )

TRUCKER,

O p e r a t e s a m a n u a lly c o n t r o ll e d g a s o l i n e - o r e l e c t r i c - p o w e r e d
t r u c k o r t r a c t o r to t r a n s p o r t g o o d s an d m a t e r ia l s o f a ll k in d s abou t
a w a r e h o u s e , m a n u fa c tu r in g p la n t , o r o th e r e s t a b lis h m e n t .

S H IP P IN G A N D R E C E IV IN G C L E R K
tru ck ,
P r e p a r e s m e r c h a n d i s e f o r s h ip m e n t, o r r e c e i v e s an d is r e ­
s p o n s ib le f o r in c o m in g sh ip m e n t o f m e r c h a n d is e o r o th e r m a t e r i a l s .
S h ip p in g w o r k i n v o l v e s : A k n o w le d g e o f sh ip p in g p r o c e d u r e s , p r a c ­
t i c e s , r o u t e s , a v a ila b le m e a n s o f tr a n s p o r t a tio n an d r a t e s ; an d p r e ­
p a r in g r e c o r d s o f the g o o d s s h ip p e d , m a k in g up b i l l s o f la d in g , p o s t ­
in g w e ig h t a n d s h ip p in g c h a r g e s , and k e e p in g a f ile o f s h ip p in g r e c o r d s .
M a y d i r e c t o r a s s i s t in p r e p a r in g the m e r c h a n d is e f o r s h ip m e n t.
R e c e iv in g w o r k i n v o l v e s : V e r ify in g o r d ir e c t in g o t h e r s in v e r ify in g
th e c o r r e c t n e s s o f s h ip m e n ts a g a in s t b i l l s o f la d in g , i n v o i c e s , o r




POW ER

F o r w a g e stu d y p u r p o s e s , w o r k e r s a r e c l a s s i f i e d b y type o f
a s f o llo w s :
T ru ck er,
T ru ck er,

p o w e r ( fo r k l ift )
p o w e r (o th e r th an fo r k l if t )

W ATCHM AN
M a k e s r o u n d s o f p r e m i s e s p e r i o d i c a l l y in p r o t e c t in g p r o p e r t y
a g a in s t f i r e , t h e ft, a n d i ll e g a l e n t r y .
☆

U. S . GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1956 O —

380485


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102