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O ccupational Wage Survey

SAN FRANCISCO-OAKLAND, CALIFORNIA
JANUARY

1956

B L S B u lle t in N o . 1 1 8 8 - 7

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary



BUREAU OF LABOR S A I T C
TTSIS
Ewan Clagua, Co m f i n r
misoa




84th Congress, 2d Session

H ouse D ocum ent No. 298

O ccu p atio n al W age S u rv e y
S A N F R A N C IS C O - O A K L A N D , C A L IF O R N IA




JA N U A R Y 1956

Bulletin No.

1188-7

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR S
TATISTICS
Ewan Clague, C
ommissioner
M a r c h 1956
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C.

Price 25 cents




Contents
Page
Introduction ___________________________________________________________________________________________
W a g e trends for selected occupational g r o u p s _________________________________________________________

1
3

Tables:
1.
2.

A:

2

3

Occupational earnings * A-l:
Office occupations _____________________
A - 2:
Professional and technical occupations
A - 3:
M a i n t e n a n c e and powerplant occupations
A-4: Custodial and material m o v e m e n t occupations ________________________________________

10

E s t a b l i s h m e n t practices and supplem e n t a r y w a g e provisions * B-l: Shift differential provisions ___________________________________________________________
B-2: M i n i m u m entrance rates for w o m e n officew o r k e r s ___________________________________
B-3: S c h eduled weekly hours _______________________________________________________________
B-4: P a i d holidays___________________________________________________________________________
B-5: P a i d vacations _________________________________________________________________
B-6: Health, insurance, and pension p l a n s _________________________________________________

12
13
14
14
15
17

Appendix:

Job descriptions __________________________________________________________________________

* NOTE:
Similar tabulations for m o s t of these items are available in the Sa n F r a n c i s c o - O a k l a n d
a r e a reports for J a n u a r y of each year since 1950.
T h e 1954 report also provides tabulations of
w a g e structure characteristics, l a b o r - m a n a g e m e n t a g r eements, and overtime pa y provisions. T h e
1955 report also included data on frequency of w a g e p a y m e n t s , and pa y provisions for holidays falling
on nonworkdays.
A directory indicating date of study and the price of the reports, as well as
reports for other m a j o r areas, is available up o n request.
C u r r e n t reports o n occupational earnings and supplem e n t a r y w a g e practices in the San F r a n ci s c o - O a k l a n d a r e a are also available for m a c h i n e r y industries ( D e c e m b e r 1955), p o w e r laundries
a n d dr y cleaners (July 1955), office building service (June 1955), contract cleaning service (July
1955), a n d hotels (July 1955).
Union scales, indicative of prevailing p a y levels, are available
for the following trades or industries: Building construction, printing, local-transit operating e m ­
ployees, a n d m o t o r t r u c k drivers.



iii

i ) 00 o
f

B:

Establishments and w o r k e r s within scope of s u r v e y ________________________________________
Indexes of standard weekly salaries for office clerical and average straight-time
hourly earnings for selected plant occupational groups, and percent of increase
for selected p e r i o d s ________________________________________________________________________

19




Occupational Wage Survey - San Francisco-Oakland, Calif. *
Introduction
The San Francisco-Oakland area is one of several important
industrial centers in which the Department of Labor*s Bureau of
1
Labor Statistics conducted surveys of occupational earnings and r e ­
lated wage benefits. In each area, data are obtained by personal visits
of Bureau field agents to representative establishments within six
broad industry divisions: Manufacturing; transportation (excluding
railroads), communication, and other public utilities; wholesale trade;
retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. Major
industry groups excluded from these studies, besides railroads, are
government operations and the construction and extractive industries.
Establishments having fewer than a prescribed number of workers are
omitted also because they furnish insufficient employment in the o c ­
cupations studied to warrant inclusion.1 Wherever possible, separate
tabulations are provided for each of the broad industry divisions.

Occupational employment estimates represent the total in all
establishments within the scope of the study and not the number actually
surveyed. Because of differences in occupational structure among e s­
tablishments, the estimates of occupational employment obtained from
the sample of establishments studied serve only to indicate the relative
importance of the jobs studied. These differences in occupational
structure do not materially affect the accuracy of the earnings data.
Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Information is presented also (in the B -series tables) on se­
lected establishment practices and supplementary benefits as they relate
to office and plant workers. The term “ office w ork ers," as used in
this bulletin, includes all office clerical employees and excludes ad­
ministrative, executive, professional, and technical personnel. "Plant
w orkers" include working foremen and all non supervisory workers (in­
cluding leadmen and trainees) engaged in nonoffice functions. Adminis­
trative, executive, professional, and technical employees, and forceaccount construction employees who are utilized as a separate work
force are excluded. Cafeteria workers and routemen are excluded in
manufacturing industries, but are included as plant workers in nonman­
ufacturing industries.

These surveys are conducted on a sample basis because of the
unnecessary cost involved in surveying all establishments, and to insure
prompt publication of results. To obtain appropriate accuracy at m ini­
mum cost, a greater proportion of large than of small establishments
is studied. In combining the data, however, all establishments are
given their appropriate weight. Estimates based on the establishments
studied are presented, therefore, as relating to all establishments in
the industry grouping and area, 2 except for those below the minimum
size studied.
Occupations and Earnings
The occupations selected for study are common to a variety of
manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries. Occupational cla ssifi­
cation is based on a uniform set of job descriptions designed to take
account of interestablishment variation in duties within the same job
(see appendix for listing of these descriptions). Earnings data are
presented (in the A -se rie s tables) for the following types of occupa­
tions: (a) Office clerica l; (b) professional and technical; (c) mainte­
nance and powerplant; and (d) custodial and material movement.

Shift differential data (table B -l) are limited to manufacturing
industries. This information is presented both in terms of (a) estab­
lishment p o licy ,3 presented in terms of total plant worker employment,
and (b) effective practice, presented on the basis of workers actually
employed on the specified shift at the time of the survey. In estab­
lishments having varied differentials, the amount applying to a majority
was used o r, if no amount applied to a m ajority, the classification
"other" was used.
Minimum entrance rates (table B-2) relate only to the estab­
lishments visited. They are presented on an establishment, rather
than on an employment basis. Scheduled hours; paid holidays; paid
vacations; and health, insurance, and pension plans are treated statis­
tically on the basis that these are applicable to all plant or office
workers if a majority of such workers are eligible or may eventually
qualify for the practices listed .4 Because of rounding, sums of indi­
vidual items in these tabulations do not necessarily equal totals.

Data are shown for full-tim e workers, i . e . , those hired to
work a regular weekly schedule in the given occupational classification.
Earnings data exclude premium pay for overtime and for work on
weekends, holidays, and late shifts. Nonproduction bonuses are ex ­
cluded also, but co st-of-liv in g bonuses and incentive earnings are in­
cluded. Where weekly hours are reported, as for office clerical o c ­
cupations, reference is to the work schedules (rounded to the nearest
half hour) for which straight-tim e salaries are paid; average week­
ly earnings for these occupations have been rounded to the nearest
half dollar.

The summary of vacation plans is limited to formal arrange­
ments, excluding informal plans whereby time off with pay is granted
at the discretion of the employer. Separate estimates are provided
3 An establishment was considered as having a policy if it met
either of the following conditions: (l) Operated late shifts at the time
of the survey, or (2) had formal provisions covering late shifts.
4 Scheduled weekly hours for office workers (first section of
table B-3) are presented in terms of the proportion of women office
workers employed in offices with the indicated weekly hours for women
w orkers.

* This report was prepared in the Bureau1s regional office in
San F rancisco, C a lif., by William P. O* Connor, under the direction
of John L. Dana, Regional Wage and Industrial Relations Analyst.
1 See table 1 for m inim um -size establishment covered.
2 The tabulation of minimum entrance rates for women office
workers relates only to provisions in establishments studied.



1

2

according to employer practice in computing vacation payments, such
as time payments, percent of annual earnings, or flat-sum amounts.
However, in the tabulations of vacation allowances by years of service,
payments not on a time basis were converted; for example, a payment
of 2 percent of annual earnings was considered as the equivalent of
1 week1s pay.
Data are presented for all health, insurance, and pension
plans for which at least a part of the cost is borne by the employer,
excepting only legal requirements such as workmen* s compensation and
social security. Such plans include those underwritten by a com m ercial
insurance company and those provided through a union fund or paid
directly by the employer out of current operating funds or from a fund
set aside for this purpose. Death benefits are included as a form of
life insurance.
Sickness and accident insurance is limited to that type of in­
surance under which predetermined cash payments are made directly
to the insured on a weekly or monthly basis during illness or accident
disability. Information is presented for all such plans to which the
employer contributes. However, in New York and New Jersey, which
have enacted temporary disability insurance laws which require em ­
ployer contributions,5 plans are included only if the employer (l) con­
tributes more than is legally required, or (2) provides the employee

with benefits which exceed the requirements of the law. Tabulations
of paid sick-leave plans are limited to form al plans which provide full
pay or a proportion of the worker*s pay during absence from work
because of illness. Separate tabulations are provided according to
(l) plans which provide full pay and no waiting period, and (2) plans
providing either partial pay or a waiting period. In addition to the
presentation of the proportions of workers who are provided sickness
and accident insurance or paid sick leave, an unduplicated total is
shown of workers who receive either or both types of benefit.
Catastrophe insurance, sometimes referred to as extended
medical insurance, includes those plans which are designed to protect
employees in case of sickness and injury involving expenses beyond the
normal coverage of hospitalization, m edical, and surgical plans. Med­
ical insurance refers to plans providing for complete or partial payment
of doctors* fees. Such plans may be underwritten by com m ercial in­
surance companies or nonprofit organizations or they may be selfinsured. Tabulations of retirement pension plans are limited to those
plans that provide monthly payments for the remainder of the worker*s
life.
5 The temporary disability laws in California and Rhode Island
do not require employer contributions.

Table 1: Establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied in San Francisco-Oakland, Calif. , 1 by major industry division, January 1956
Minimum
Workers in establishments
Number of e:stablishments
size
establish­
Within scope of study
Within
Studied
Industry division
ment
Studied
scope of
in scope of
Office
Total 3
Plant
study
Total 3
study 2
80,500
176,300
248
315,100
1,096
167,990
All divisions --------------------------------------------------------129,300
22,700
88,000
81
101
343
58,990
Manufacturing ---------------------------------------------- -------57, 800
185,800
88,300
753
167
109,000
Nonmanufacturing -------------------------------------------------Transportation (excluding railroads),
29,900
8, 800
47, 670
27
54,300
101
58
communication, and other public utilities 4 ------12,600
34
30,300
7,200
9, 400
51
Wholesale trade ----------------------------------------------239
5, 800
31,600
46
27,930
107
42,200
101
Retail trade -----------------------------------------------------5 1,200
184
36
37, 600
51
29,600
19,320
Finance, insurance, and real estate -----------------21,400
6, 880
165
24
51
Services 6 -------------------------------------------------------(7)
(7)
_

1 San Francisco-Oakland Metropolitan Area (Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, San Francisco, San Mateo, and Solano Counties). The "workers within scope of study"
estimates shown in this table provide a reasonably accurate description of the size and composition of the labor force included in the survey. The estimates are not in­
tended, however, to serve as a basis of comparison with other area employment indexes to measure employment trends or levels since (l) planning of wage surveys re­
quires the use of establishment data compiled considerably in advance of the pay period studied, and (2) small establishments are excluded from the scope of the survey.
2 Includes all establishments with total employment at or above the minimum size limitation. A ll outlets (within the area) of companies in such industries as trade,
finance, auto repair service, and motion-picture theaters are considered as 1 establishment.
3 Includes executive, technical, professional and other workers excluded from the separate office and plant categories.
4 Also excludes taxicabs, and services incidental to water transportation. San Francisco's transit system is municipally operated, and is therefore excluded, by defi­
nition, from the scope of the studies.
5 Estimate relates to real estate establishments only.
6 Hotels; personal services; business services; automobile repair shops; radio broadcasting and television; motion pictures; nonprofit membership organizations; and
engineering and architectural services.
7 This industry division is represented in estimates for "all industries" and "nonmanufacturing" in the Series A and B tables, although coverage was insufficient to
justify separate presentation of data.



3

Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups

Tabulated below are indexes of salaries of women office c le r i­
cal workers, and of average earnings of selected plant worker groups.
For office clerica l w orkers, the indexes relate to average
weekly salaries for normal hours of work, that is, the standard work
schedule for which straight-tim e salaries are paid. For plant worker
groups, the indexes measure changes in straight-time hourly earnings,
excluding premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, h oli­
days, and late shifts.
The indexes are based on data for selected
key occupations and include most of the numerically important jobs
within each group. Eighteen jobs were included in the office clerical
index; 10 skilled maintenance jobs and 3 unskilled jobs were included
in the plant worker indexes. See footnotes to table 2.
Average weekly salaries or average hourly earnings were
computed for each of the selected occupations. The average salaries
or hourly earnings were then multiplied by the average of January 1953
and January 1954 employment in the job. These weighted earnings for
individual occupations were then added to obtain an aggregate for each
occupational group. Finally, the ratio of these group aggregates for a
given year to the aggregate for the base period (survey month, winter
1952-53) was computed and the result multiplied by the base year index
(100) to get the index for the given year.

The indexes measure principally the effects of (l) general
salary and wage changes; (2) merit or other increases in pay r e ­
ceived by individual workers while in the same job; and (3) labor
turnover or force expansion or reduction. A force expansion might
increase the proportion of lower paid workers in a specific occu ­
pation and result in a drop in the index, whereas a reduction in the
proportion of lower paid workers would have the opposite effect. The
indexes are also affected by shifts in the proportion of workers em­
ployed by establishments with different pay levels. For example,
the movement of a high-paying establishment out of an area could
cause the index to drop, even though no change in rates occurred in
other area establishments.
The use of constant employment weights eliminates the effects
of changes in the proportion of workers represented in each job in­
cluded in the index. Nor are the indexes influenced by changes in
standard work schedules or in premium pay for overtim e, since they
are based on pay for straight-time hours.
Indexes for the period 1952 to 1955 for workers in 17 major
labor markets, appeared in BLS Bull. 1172, Wages and Related
Benefits, 17 Labor Markets, 1954-55.

Table 2: Indexes of standard weekly salaries for office clerical1 and average straight-time hourly earnings for selected plant occupational groups2
in San Francisco-Oakland, Calif. , January 1955 and January 1956 and percent of increase for selected periods
Indexes
Percent increases from—
(January 1953 = 100)
January 1954
January 1953 January 1952
January 1955
Industry and occupational group
January 1952
January
January
to
to
to
to
to
1956
1955
January 1956
January 1954
January 1953
January 1956
January 1955
A ll industries:
3.0
4.4
Office clerical (women) __ _________ ______ _
112. 7
107. 6
4.8
5.2
18.6
2.4
4.0
110.4
3.7
Skilled maintenance (men)____________________
106. 5
5.8
16.8
3.0
6. 1
114. 1
4.4
Unskilled plant (m en)______________ ________
109.3
6.8
21.8
Manufacturing:
2.4
4.5
5.4
7.0
Office clerical (women) _____________________
112.8
107. 0
20.7
2.2
4.0
110. 7
106. 3
4. 1
5.8
Skilled maintenance (men)--------------------------------17.1
4.2
4.2
113.2
4.3
21.0
Unskilled plant (men) ________________________
108. 5
6.9
1 Based on data for the following jobs:
Office clerical (women):
B illers, machine (billing machine)
Bookkeeping-machine operators, class A and B
Comptometer operators
Clerks, file, class A and B
Clerks, order
Clerks, payroll
Key-punch operators
Office girls
Secretaries
Stenographers, general
Switchboard operators
Switchboard operator-receptionists

Tabulating-machine operators
Transcribing-machine operators, general
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
Typists, class
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis A and B

2 Based on data for the following jobs:
Skilled maintenance (men):
Carpenters
Electricians
Machinists
Mechanics
Mechanics, automotive
M illwrights
Painters
Pipefitters
Sheet-metal workers
Tool and die makers
Unskilled plant (men):
Janitors, porters, and cleaners
Laborers, material handling
Watchmen




A : O c c u p a tio n a l Earnings

5

Table A-1: Office O ccu pation s
(Average straight-tim e weekly hours and earnings 1 for selected occupations studied on an area basis
in San Francisco-O akland, Calif. , by industry division, January 1956)
A verage

S e x , o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s t r y d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

Weekly
hours
(Standard)

Weekly
earnings
(Standard)

N U M B E R OF W O R K E R S R E C E I V I N G S T R A I G H T - T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S OF—
$
3 5 .0 0

$
4 5 .0 0

$
50. 00

$
6 0 .0 0

$
6 5 .0 0

$
7 0 .0 0

$
7 5 .0 0

$
8 0 .0 0

“

$
4 0 . 00

$
5 5 .0 0

“

~

”

“

“

“

“

“

~

65. 00

7 0 .0 0

7 5 .0 0

8 0 .0 0

85. 00

9 0 .0 0

9 5 . 00

under
4 0 .0 0

4 5 . 00

5 0 .0 0

5 5 .0 0

6 0 .0 0

10

66

47

74

166

-

-

6

20

26

30

l W

4

46

21

44

$
8 5 .0 0

$
90 . 00

$
9 5 .0 0
-

$
100.00

10 0.00

$

$

105.00
“

■
105. 00

$

11 0.00
■

$

1 1 5.00
■

1 1 0.00

11 5.00

12 0.00

10

12 0.00
and
0ver

6

M en
703

T a b u l a t in g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s
M a n u f a c t u r in g ---------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g ---------------F i n a n c e * * -------------------------

8 7 . 50

-

-

-

3 9 .5

8 2 .0 0

-

-

"

71
53

160

64

11

17

l l

'

56

11
_

i

7

9 --------------F
_
1
_
_

1
_

-

-

-

-

1
1

_

102

3 9 .0

8 5 .5 0

-

-

-

-

3

5

8

10

12

12

89
50

3 9 .5

7 9 .0 0

-

-

-

-

-

“

38

4

19

29

-

32

297

3 9 .0

9
-

10
-

17
-

47

46

47

62

21

30

2

1

4

2

12

23

15

10

17

45

34

24

49
13

8

9
1

13

15

2
-

1
-

4
_

-

11

25

32

12

-

"

-

-

-

170

66

18

8
2

>

-

7 2 .0 0

_

-

117

3 9 .5

*79.00

180

3 9 .0

67 . 50

-

-

81

3 8 .0

6 6 .0 0

-

846

3 9 .5

8 5 .0 0

_

_

_

_

_

18

81

70

113

106

132

62

57

277

39. 0
4 0 .0

8 7 .0 0

-

-

-

-

-

9

12

22

20

41

62

54

26

8 4 .0 0

-

-

-

-

-

9

48

93

44

78

36

i9
38

43

89

129
115

38

65

31

33

10

21

24

30

27

6
5

.

1
.

_

-

122

C l e r k s , o r d e r ----------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g ---------------W h o l e s a l e t r a d e -------------

O f f i c e b o y s ----------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r in g ----------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ---------------P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s * ------------F i n a n c e * * -------------------------

$
8 5 .5 0

39 .5

298

C le r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c la s s B M a n u f a c t u r in g ----------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g ---------------F i n a n c e * * ---------- --------------

C l e r k s , p a y r o l l -------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ---------------P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s * ------------

3 9 .5

405

C le r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c la s s A M a n u f a c t u r in g ----------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g ---------------P u b li c u t i l i t i e s * ------------W h o l e s a le t r a d e -------------

-

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

15
-

10

4

8

4

15

6

4
_

4
4

4

569
502

4 0 .0

84. 00

-

-

-

-

-

9

69
54

156

3 9 .5

84. 50

_

_

2

_

4

14-

39."0
3 9 .5

8 9 . 50
7 9 .0 0

-

-

2
-

-

2
-

-

-

5

12

8

16

2

4

14

5

16

14

F5
8

44

3 9 .5

8 1 .0 0

-

-

-

“

-

3

5

9
6

16

10

4

-

-

-

-

-

-

576

3 9 .0

5 2 .0 0

11

40

160

195

113

40

3

14

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-----------7 T ~
77

—

n

r

382

n

6

55

83

28

15

5 1 .5 0

39. 5

10

34

105

112

85

25

3
-

5

2

-

" 5Z750- —

3 8 .5

38

3 9 .5

52 . 50

_

189

3 8 .5

5 1 .5 0

2

13

9
53

429

3 9 .0

77. 50

_

_

_

-'

3 9 .0

7 5 .0 0

-

-

148

3 9 .0

7 0 .5 0

*

-

2

5

_

"9
_

2
_

5
_

_

_

6

16

53

61

7

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

48

60

42

75

81

31

7

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

8
-

14

36

2 1

69
28

26

f

8
5

8

46

46

28

41

5

4

3

-

44

37

20

39
18

54

6

12

8

3

“

‘

“

111

142

54

37

15

13

6

5

48

27

i r

13

4

-

4

9
9

41

2

1
-

-

-

-

41

2

-

-

-

-

7

1

-

“

------ " 3 3 7 0 5 “

_

1

6

9

40

-

2 74

—

11
-

'

15

-

2

"

T T

-

-

-

-

”

“

W om en
B i l l e r s , m a c h i n e ( b il l in g m a c h i n e ) -----------M a n u f a c t u r in g --------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g --------------------------------------P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s * ------------------------------------B i l l e r s , m a c h i n e (b o o k k e e p i n g m a c h i n e )
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g --------------------------------------R e t a i l t r a d e ----- -------------------------------------B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c la s s A
M a n u f a c t u r in g ---------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----- 1
--------------------------------W h o l e s a le t r a d e ------------------------------------B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c la s s B
M a n u fa c tu r in g ---------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g --------------------------------------W h o l e s a l e t r a d e -----------------------------------R e t a i l t r a d e --------------------------------------------F i n a n c e * * ------------------------------------------------

466

6 6 .0 0

3 9 .5

332

3 9 .5

6 4 .0 0

-

225

4 0 .0

66 . 00

-

-

-

161

4 0 .0

_

_

_

9

44

86

ITT

40 . 6

6 1 .5 0
6 I.O O

-

-

-

9
5

44

86

22

84

10

12
-

22

11

11

134

—

129

■3975—

'3 9 .5 0 “

■

6 2 .0 0

■7

-

-

7 4 .0 0

4 0 .0

3 9 .0
1/ 69
--------- 6 5 ~ “ 3 1 7 0 —
3 9 .0
104

.

_

_

-

73

3 9 .0

7 2 .0 0

-

1,54 4

3 9 .5

5 8 .5 0

_
_
_

-

17

22

2

42

11

13

2

10

8

4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

10

8

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

8

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

31

54

24

7

1

7

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

"3

-

?

-

-

12

11

1
10

22

-

-

12

-

15

4

1

-

-

-

-

-

9

6

19
12

32

12

15

15

4

-

-

-

-

-

-

358

373

335

125

58

53

24

2

9

-

_

-

-

-

-

13

45

51

28

5T

22

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

17
_

190
-----------j—

-------3-

'

9

1 ,33 0

3 9 .5

5 6 .5 0

360

287

74

30

16

2

-

-

-

3 9 .5

6 2 .0 0

_

17
-

189

245

6

18

50

121

13

21

16

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

79

3 9 .5

6 1 .0 0

.

_

1

9

27

20

16

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4 0 .0

5 4 . 50

259

123

949

See footnotes at end of table.
* Transportation (excluding ra ilroa d s), communication, and other public utilities.
** Finance, insurance, and rea l estate.




-

94

79

9
-

2 1 4 " ... 3 5 7 5 -------

■70;35~

-

106

-

3 . 3 0"
72. 50

39
26

41

17

182

355

328

39

5

-

-

1

Occupational Wage Survey, San Francisco-O akland, Calif. , January 1956
U .S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

6
Table A-1: O ffice O ccupations - Continued
(Average straight-tim e weekly hours and earnings1 for selected occupations studied on an area basis
in San F rancisco-O akland, C alif. , by industry division, January 1956)
A verage

S ex , o c c u p a tio n , and in d u stry d iv is io n

of
workers

Weekly
hours
(Standard)

Weekly
earnings
(Standard)

N U M B E R OF W O R K E R S R E C E I V I N G S T R A I G H T - T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S OF—
$
3 5 .0 0
and

4 0 .0 0

$
4 5 .0 0

$
50 . 00

$
5 5 .0 0

$

$
6 0 .0 0

$
6 5 .0 0

$
7 0 .0 0

$
7 5 .0 0

$
8 0 .0 0

$
8 5 .0 0

$
90 .0 0

9 5 .0 0

$
1 0 0.00

$
10 5.00

$
1 1 0.00

$
115.00

$
12 0.00

over

“
4 0 .0 0

4 5 . 00

5 0 .0 0

5 5 .0 0

6 0 .0 0

6 5 .0 0

7 0 .0 0

75 .0 0

8 0 .0 0

8 5 .0 0

9 0 . 00

9 5 . 00

1 0 0.00

105.00

26

and

7

1 1 0.00

11 5. 00

120.00

_

_

_

_
_

_

_

_

_

_

_
_

W o m e n - C o n tin u e d
C l e r k s , a c c o u n t i n g , c l a s s A ----------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------------------------------------- ------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------------------ :------------------P u b li c u t i l i t i e s * -----------------------------------------------------------W h o l e s a le t r a d e ----------------------------------------------------------R e t a il t r a d e -------------------------------------------------------------------F in a n c e * * ----------------------------------------------------------------------C l e r k s , a c c o u n t i n g , c l a s s B ---------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ---------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g -------------------------------------------------------------P u b li c u t i l i t i e s * -----------------------------------------------------------W h o l e s a le t r a d e -----------------------------------------------------------R e t a il t r a d e -------------------------------------------------------------------F in a n c e * * -----------------------------------------------------------------------

1,26 9
197

3 9 .5

$
7 5 .0 0

3 9 .0

82. 00

-

-

1 , 0 72

3 9 .5

7 3 .5 0

430

4 0 .0

73. 50

150

4 0 .0

7 6 .0 0

-

-

72

3 9 .5

7 3 .0 0

147

38. 5

6 8 .0 0

21

4

99
46

108

428

85

33

53

-

13
-

21

49
6

66

44

157

33

8

24

28

35

12

39
6

_
_

_

_

_

.

7

37

—

Z 1 T --------------r
_
1

_

8

4

1

2

1

_

_

_

_

_

40

9
13

27

15

-

39
20

14

12

12

6

-

-

-

-

-

-

396

57

25

7

_

_

_

_

5

7
_

1
1
_

_

49
8

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

6 2 .0 0

-

236

144

-

2

99
10

2 34
3

41

n o

52

84

79
62

1,26 2

6 9 . 50
5 9 .5 0

-

337

286

184

60

17

3 9 .5

6 5 .0 0

21

44

34

14

13

5

_

_

.

_

_

_

6 5 .0 0

-

5

2

40

84

61

31

11

8
-

20

4 0 .0

-

89
-

231

159
234

30
-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

240

4 0 .0

5 8 .0 0

-

-

4

33

121

67

12

2

1

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

517

38. 5

5 6 .0 0

"

30

80

149

116

83

47

12

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

32

378

20

6 4 .0 0

-

21

51

75

37

42

_

_

_

_

_

_

38. 5

6 8 . 50

-

-

11

22

16

-

23

2

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

3 9 .0

6 3 . 50

-

-

329
58

21

53

48

37

_

6

7

7

3

13

_

_

_
_

_
_

_
_

6

_
_

_

-

19
-

13

-

19
8

4

72. 00

69
8

40

3 9 .5

6
-

167

3 8 .5

6 1 .5 0

-

21

6

18

25

36

36

3

4

17

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3 9 .0

5 0 .0 0

2 84

587

481

3 75

250

120

67

84

4

_

3 9 .0

5 9 .5 0

-

-

18

32

39
211

16

32

10

4

74

-

-

-

_
_
-

_
-

_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
_
_

.
_
_
_
_
_

.
_
_
_
.
_

_
_
_
_
_

151

C l e r k s , o r d e r ---------------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u fa c t u r in g -------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ---------------------------------------------------------------

209

74

3 9 .0

_

104

35

65

56

57

18

17

67

26

24

2

13

5 1 .0 0

-

30

37

11

4

-

-

4 6 .5 0

84

494

319

172

118

19

7

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

-

-

-

39. 5
3 9 .5

6 9 .5 0

13

49
15

25

39

5

22

31

13

_

12

15

15

-

5

34

13

29
10

-

13

5

7

16

2

8

_
_
_

2

6

_
_

2

6 9 .0 0

_

6

4 0 .0

_
-

2

_
_

_
_
_

40. 0

5 9 .0 0

-

-

6

13

29

7

3

-

5

-

-

"

-

-

-

-

-

-

3 9 .0

71 .0 0

13

7

60

148

168

138

146

67

23

26

12

2

2

_

6

43

57

86

77

76

2o

-

2

2

17

82

61

70

47

23

5

1

10

17

4

8

3

3

-

6

6

19

13

5

4

2

6

64

21

7

39
6

9
21
1

6

-

-

-

.
_
-

_
_
_
.

_
_
_

1

91
2

19
7

7

1

_
_
_

_

_
_
-

_
_
_

_
_
_

9

-

-

2

13

24

22

12

14

4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

12

82

288

479
93

43 8

106

54

41

_
-

_
-

_
-

70. 50

115

3 9 .5

75 . 50

111
100

3 9 .5

6 5 . 50

3 8 .5

69 . 50

-

6 5 . 00

_
_
-

^
r
413

3 9 .0
3 9 .0

7 1 .0 0

58

3 9 .0

7 7 .0 0

3 9 .5

70. 5o

3 9 7 0

6 8 . 50

1, 1 4 4

3 9 .5

6 4 .0 0

89
486

3 9 .5

72. 50

3 9 .5

6 4 .0 0

456

4 0 .0

6 3 .5 0

81

3 9 .0

5 6 .0 0

91

.

4

_
_
-

193
m

13

55

39. 5
38. 5

1 ,64 9
505

4

5

5 1 .5 0

812

21

55

4 9 . 50
5 8 .0 0

3 9 .5

91
118

64

587

4 0 .0

1 ,21 3

69

-

3 9 .0

222
242
82

6

84

1,90 1

63

4 0 .0
3 9 7 0
39. 5

5 9 . 50
5 9 .0 0

-

4
9

-

463

-

343

-

-

7

59

197

64

27

21

12

75

241

112

42

27

20

-

229
5

386

-

21

13

11

13

6

20

12
11

88

175

112

42

29

16

-

111

111

49

-

5

-

"

42

21

169
17

-

“

1

■

~

~

-

"

•

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

12

.

2

11

40

60

27

1

9
2

23

15

36

Yz

9
4

3

-

2

-

1 7

26

24

15

5

1

6 0 .0 0

1

_

149
37

_

See footnotes at end of table.
* Transportation (excluding railroads), com m unication, and other public utilities
** Finance, insurance, and real estate.




11

197

-

n o

3 9 .0

2,0 5 2

D u p l ic a t i n g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ( m i m e o g r a p h o r
d it t o ) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ---------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g ---------------------------------------------------------------

38

98

21

39. 0
3 9 .0

C l e r k s , f i l e , c l a s s B ------------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ---------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g --------------------------------------------------------------P u b li c u t i l i t i e s * ---------------------------------------------------------W h o l e s a le t r a d e ------------------------------------------------------------R e t a il t r a d e ------------------------------------------------------- ------------F in a n c e * * ----------------------------------------------------------------------

C o m p t o m e t e r o p e r a t o r s ------------------------------------------------------M a n u fa c t u r in g ---------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g --------------------------------------------------------------P u b lic u t i li t ie s * -----------------------------------------------------------W h o l e s a le t r a d e -----------------------------------------------------------R e t a il t r a d e ------------------------------------------------- .-----------------F i n a n c e * * -----------------------------------------------------------------------

lft*

12

21

426

403

W h o l e s a le t r a d e -----------------------------------------------------------R e t a il t r a d e -------------------------------------------------------------------F in a n c e * * -----------------------------------------------------------------------

450

-

219
22

146

-

1 ,68 8

C l e r k s , f i l e , c l a s s A ------------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ---------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g --------------------------------------------------------------P u b li c u t i li t ie s * ---------------------------------------------------------F in a n c e * * -----------------------------------------------------------------------

M a n u f a c t u r i n g ---------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g ---------------------------------------------------------------

20
20

28

-

28
28

41

2

_
2

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

7

Table A-1: O ffice O ccupations - Continued
(A v e ra g e s tr a ig h t-tim e w e e k ly h o u rs and earnings 1 fo r s e le c t e d occu p a tio n s studied on an a r e a b a sis
in San F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d , C a lif. , by in d u stry d iv is io n , Jan uary 1956)
Avehaoe
S e x , o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s tr y d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

Weekly
hours
(Standard)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

Weekly
earnings
(Standard)

$
3 5 .0 0
and
under
4 0 .0 0

$
4 0 .0 0

$
4 5 .0 0

$
5 0 . 00

$
5 5 .0 0

4 5 . 00

5 0 .0 0

5 5 . 00

6 0 .0 0

138
38

211

$
$
$
6 0 . 00 6 5 . 00
7 0 .0 0

$

7 5 .0 0

$
8 0 .0 0

75. 00

8 0 .0 0

8 5 . 00

9 0 .0 0

9 5 .0 0

192
57
135
14
17
75

116
30

42
25
17

8

22

1
16

3
3
_
-

_
_

_
_
_

_
_
-

_
_
_

.
_

41

118
37
81
45

27

14

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5
5
-

1
1

12

5
5
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

.
-

-

.. _
_

.
.

-

-

-

-

-

94
70
24
_

19

5
4

26
25

1

1

_
_
.

_
_
_

$

8 5 .0 0

$

90.00

$

9 5 .0 0

$

$

$

$

100.00 1 0 5 .0 0 110.00 1 1 5 . 00 120.00
and

6 5 .0 0

70. 00

100.00 1 0 5 .0 0 110.00 1 1 5 .0 0 120.00

over

W o m e n - C o n tin u e d
K e y - p u n c h o p e r a t o r s --------------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r in g --------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g --------------------------------------------------------------P u b li c u t i l i t i e s * -----------------------------------------------------------W h o l e s a le t r a d e -------------------------------------------------------------F i n a n c e * * ----------------------------------------------------------------------

1,2 80
3 78
902
134
83
588

39. 0
3 9 .0
38. 5
4 0 .0
3 9 .5
3 8 .5

63.
65.
62.
70.
70.
58.

00
00
00
50
50
50

-

O f f i c e g i r l s ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r in g ----------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g --------------------------------------------------------------F i n a n c e * * ------------------------------------------------------------------------

395
177
218
137

39. 0
3*). 0
39. 5
3 9 .5

5 2 . 00
5 4 . 50
5 0 .5 0
4 9 . 50

S e c r e t a r i e s --------------------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r in g ---------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g --------------------------------------------------------------P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s * -----------------------------------------------------------W h o l e s a le t r a d e -----------------------------------------------------------R e t a i l t r a d e --------------------------------------------------------------------F i n a n c e * * -------------------------------------------------------- ---------------

3 ,1 5 0
1 , 0 75
2 , 0 75
24 0
40 0
192
969

3 9 .0
5 9 .0
3 8 .5
3 9 .5
39. 5
4 0 .0
3 8 .5

S t e n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l ----------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r in g ----------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g --------------------------------------------------------------P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s * -----------------------------------------------------------W h o l e s a le t r a d e -------------------------------------------------------------R e t a i l t r a d e --------------------------------------------------------------------F i n a n c e * * ------------------------------------------------------------------------

4 , 186
1 ,5 1 3
2 , 673
519
40 3
130
1 ,2 1 9

38. 5
3 9 .0
3 8 .0
39. 5
3 9 .0
3 9 .5
3 9 .0

S w it c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s -----------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r in g ----------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g ----------------------------------------------------------------P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s * -----------------------------------------------------------W h o l e s a l e t r a d e -----------------------------------------------------------R e t a i l t r a d e --------------------------------------------------------------------F i n a n c e * * --------------------------------------------------------------------------

917
166
751
127
96
134
179

3 9 .0
4 0 .0
3 9 .0
39. 5
3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .0

6 3 . 00
7 2 . 50
6 1 .0 0
7 0 .5 0
6 3 .0 0
6 0 . 50
6 2 . 50

S w it c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r - r e c e p t i o n i s t s ---------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g --------------------------------------------------------------P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s * -------------------------------------------------------------W h o l e s a le t r a d e -----------------------------------------------------------F i n a n c e * * ------------------------------------------------------------------------

654
237
417
26
170
134

3 9 .0
3 9 .0
3 9 .0
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 8 .0

6 2 . 50
6 4 .5 0
61 . 5 0
7 2 .0 0
6 0 .0 0
6 0 . 50

T a b u l a t in g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s -------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r in g --------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g --------------------------------------------------------------P u b li c u t i l i t i e s * -----------------------------------------------------------F i n a n c e * * ------------------------------------------------------------------------

375
129
246
78
117

3 9 .5
"3 9 7 S
3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .0

7 2 . 50
7 3 .0 0
7 2 . 50
7 9 .0 0
6 7 . 00

T r a n s c r i b i n g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s , g e n e r a l --------------------M a n u f a c t u r in g --------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g --------------------------------------------------------------W h o l e s a l e t r a d e -----------------------------------------------------------F i n a n c e * * ------------------------------------------------------------------------

641
—

TE3~

478
134
321

38. 5
3 9 .5
38. 5
38. 5
3 8 .0

81

357
146

-

1

1O0
4

10

19

6

21

80
3
75

87

3
145

144

7
7
7

34
34
24

82
17
65
40

157
90
67
46

67
34
33
16

37
25

-

_
-

4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

7 9 .0 0
8 5 . 00
7 5 . 50
7 9 . 00
7 9 .0 0
7 3 . 50
7 4 . 50

_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
>
_

7
7
_
_
_
7

28
28
_
.
_
28

55
3
52
3

367
59
30 8

321

269

26 9
11 4
155

170

24
31
136

509
139
370
51
69
41
188

519

6
2

441
97
34 4
32
63
53

68 . 50

56

66.00
69 . 00
69.00
66 . 00

_
_

1

54

_
_
_

2

229
15
214
44
4

10

511
70
441
62
31
27

6 5 .0 0

-

1

39

78

202

_

_
_
_
_
-

214
214

163

_
_
.

13
13

1

2

157
19

_

-

-

12

3
14
19

_

_

19

_

_
_

17
_

89
14
75
37

115
28
87

-

-

16

22

22

_

_

-

-

7 3 .0 0

6 3 .0 0
6 5 .0 0
6 2 .5 0
6 2 .0 0
6 2 .0 0

-

-

-

1
-

2
-

-

2

2
-

_

-

-

2
2

-

_

_

10

-

_

10

69
7
62

.

8

10

54

-

See footnotes at end of table.
* Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities
** Finance, insurance, and real estate.




22
22

-

41
170

41

211
8

20

821
23 9
582
1 27

111
25
266

86

W

224
35
33

20

168

10 8

91 5

669
31 5
35 4
55
55
19
199

44 2
23 3
20 9
55
55

83
49
34
14
5
7

44

8

2
55
19
36
5

298“
61 7
72
105
31
31 7

10
85

T tt~

121

331
26
103
24
132

148
28
40

2 74
193
81
23

168
101

-

-

-

-

5

14

-

59
25
34

106
32
74

42

43
2l

1

6

33

52

31
7
9

60
16
44
31
7

213
47
166
26
130

144

30

19
14
5

5

9

139
29

110
46
61

11

~bb

2

84
49
34

28
3
16

-

5

_
_
-

-

10

11
1
10

.
-

_
-

43
19
24

20

_
_
-

-

106
51
55
5
32

1

-

12
11
1

11
11

211

10
6

_
17

3

3
36

2

_
3

30

11

44

_
14

48
13
35
14

61

92
119
50
45

1

2

37
56

-

11

4
29

8

6

10

1

12

69
32

21
23
14

88

58
31

112

36"
52
46
4

102
30
72
14

56

40
18
70

2
4
14

16
l2
4

4
-

22
5
4

_

1

11
8
4
_

1

_
_
_
_
.

1
_
_

.
_
-

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

_
_
-

-

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

-

.
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

31
3
28
27

5
5
-

7
7
-

-

8
22
22
-

>
-

-

-

_

_

-

_

-

-

-

-

_

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

3
3

1

1

1

1

-

-

-

-

1

1

1

-

-

-

-

-

3

1

1

1

1

3
3
3

3

-

-

2
1

-

-

2

_

51
35"
16
_

67
33
26

209
28
181
27

6

2

10

_
_
_
_
_

1

.

8
Table A-1: O ffice O ccupations - Continued
( A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e w e e k ly h o u r s a n d e a r n in g s 1 f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s s t u d ie d on a n a r e a b a s i s
in S a n F r a n c i s c o - O a k l a n d , C a l i f . , b y i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , J a n u a r y 1 9 5 6 )
N U M B E R O F W O R K E R S R E C E IV IN G S T R A IG H T -T IM E

A verage

S e x , o c c u p a tio n , and in d u s tr y d iv is io n

W om en

-

N um ber
of
w orkers

$
W e e k ly
h o u rs
( S ta n d a rd )

W e e k ly
e a rn in g s
(S ta n d a rd )

4 0 . 00

$
4 5 .0 0

$
5 0 .0 0

$
5 5 .0 0

4 5 .0 0

5 0 .0 0

5 5 . 00

$

3 5 .0 0
and
under
4 0 .0 0

$

$

$

$

$

W EEKLY

$

E A R N IN G S O F—

$

$

$
$
$
$
$
9 5 . 00 1 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 n o . o o 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 . 0 0
and

6 0 .0 0

6 5 .0 0

7 0 .0 0

7 5 .0 0

8 0 .0 0

8 5 . 00

9 0 . 00

6 0 .0 0

6 5 .0 0

70. 00

7 5 .0 0

8 0 .0 0

8 5 .0 0

9 0 .0 0

9 5 . 00 1 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 . 0 0 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 . 0 0

over

C o n tin u e d
d*

T y p is t s , c l a s s A ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------P u b li c u t i li t ie s * ------------------------------------------------------------W h o l e s a le t r a d e --------------------------------------------------- --------R e t a il t r a d e ---------------------------------------------------------------------F in a n c e * * -------------------------------------------------------------------------

1, 776
453
1 ,3 2 3
187
115
55
87 5

3 9 .0
3 9 .0
3 9 .0
4 0 .0
3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .0

T y p is t s , c l a s s B ----------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ---------------------------------------------------------------P u b li c u t i l i t i e s * ------------------------------------------------------------W h o l e s a le t r a d e ------------------------------------------------------------R e t a il t r a d e ---------------------------------------------------------------------F in a n c e * * -------------------------------------------------------------------------

3 ,0 3 5
54 5
2 ,4 9 0
116
3 77
161
1 ,6 6 5

3 9 .0
3 9 .5
3 9 .0
39. 5
4 0 .0
3 9 .5
3 8 .5

_

62 . 00
6 7 . So
6 0 .5 0
66.00
6 3 .5 0
5 9 .0 0
5 9 .0 0
5 4 .0 0

1
2
*
**

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

-

3
3

56
• 56

212
4
208
22
19
167

485
39
446
48
46
15
297

481
124
357
41
14
11
246

257
152
105
5
35
9
53

123
60
63
18
11
32

132
66
66
37
8
21

12
6
6
3
1
1
“

15
2
13
13
-

-

-

-

196
196
2
15
179

612
' 4"5
567
4
90
21
450

984
94
890
53
95
70
55 6

665
161
50 4
38
105
40
315

317
117
200
16
56
23
102

109
50
59
3
14

81
75
6

48
3
45

_
-

_
-

1
1

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

22
22
-

22

3

56
-

-

4
38

-

-

-

2
3
1

-

-

-

1

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

60. Oo
5 3 .0 0
5 5 .0 0
5 4 .0 0
5 5 . 50
5 1 .5 0

_

_

-

-

-

H o u r s r e f l e c t th e w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e t h e i r r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r i e s a n d th e e a r n in g s c o r r e s p o n d to t h e s e w e e k ly h o u r s .
I n c lu d e s 26 w o r k e r s a t $ 3 0 t o $ 3 5 .
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ( e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d o t h e r p u b li c u t i l i t i e s .
F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta te .

Table A-2: Professional and Technical Occupations
( A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e w e e k l y h o u r s a n d e a r n i n g s 1 f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s s t u d ie d o n a n a r e a b a s i s
in S a n F r a n c i s c o - O a k l a n d , C a li f . , b y i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , J a n u a r y 1 9 5 6 )
Average
Sex,

o c c u p a tio n ,

and in d u s tr y d iv is io n

N um ber

of
w o rk e rs

W e e k ly
h o u rs
(S ta n d a rd )

W e e k ly
e a rn in g s
(S ta n d a rd )

N U M B E R O F W O R K E R S R E C E IV IN G

$
6 0 .0 0
and
under
6 5 .0 0

$
6 5 .0 0

$

$

$

$

7 0 .0 0

7 5 .0 0

8 0 .0 0

8 5 . 00

7 5. 00

80. 00

8 5 .0 0

9 0 . 00

$
9 0 .0 0

$

S T R A IG H T -T IM E W E E K L Y

OF—

E A R N IN G S

9 5 .0 0

$
1 0 0 .0 0

$
1 0 5 .0 0

1 1 0 .0 0

$
1 1 5 .0 0

$
1 2 0 .0 0

$
1 2 5 .0 0

$
$
$
$
1 3 0 .0 0 1 3 5 .0 0 1 4 0 .0 0 1 4 5 .0 0

9 5 . 00 1 0 0 .0 0

1 0 5 .0 0

1 1 0 .0 0

1 1 5 .0 0

1 2 0 .0 0

1 2 5 .0 0

1 3 0 .0 0

1 3 5 .0 0

and
7 0 .0 0

1 4 0 .0 0

1 4 5 .oq

over

M en
$
l e a d e r ------------------------------------------------------------------------------

57

3 9 .5

1 1 8 .5 0

-

_

-

-

.

-

_

_

_

3

20

15

10

4

1

2

>

D r a fts m e n , s e n io r
---------------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g -------------------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g -------------------------------------------------------------------------

547
435
114

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

9 4 . 50
95700
9 2 . 50

3
3

10
6
4

12
10
2

37
36
1

17
14
3

80
60
20

145
118
27

98

58
50

46
41
5

16
14
2

14
l2
2

4
3
1

2
2

1
1

2
2

1
1

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

D r a f t s m e n , j u n i o r ----------------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ---------------------------------------------------------.----------------------

127
84

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

7 7 . 00
7 7 .5 0

7
1

14
14

28
16

25
16

24
16

27
20

2
1

-

-

-

_

-

"

-

150
117

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

7 8. 50
7 9 .0 0

5
2

30
29

34
23

28

19
13

8
7

16
15

7
7

2
2

~

D r a fts m e n ,

bt

36

8

2

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W om en
N u r s e s , in d u s tr ia l ( r e g is t e r e d )
M a n u fa c t u r in g

1
2

-------------------------------------------------

2

19

.

1

"

.

_

_

"

“

■

-

H o u r s r e f l e c t th e w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e t h e i r r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r i e s a n d th e e a r n in g s c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e s e w e e k ly h o u r s .
I n c lu d e s 2 w o r k e r s a t $ 5 0 t o $ 5 5 .
O c c u p a t io n a l W a g e S u r v e y , S a n F r a n c i s c o - O a k l a n d , C a l i f . , J a n u a r y 1 9 5 6
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B u re a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tics




9
Table A-3:

Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations

( A v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s 1 f o r m e n in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s s t u d ie d o n an a r e a b a s i s
in S an F r a n c i s c o - O a k l a n d , C a l i f . , b y i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , J a n u a r y 1 95 6)
N U M B E R O F W O R K E B S R E C E IV IN G
N um ber
of
w orkers

O c c u p a t io n a n d i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n

A v e ra g e
h o u rly
ea rn in g s

_
C a r p e n t e r s , m a i n t e n a n c e __
__ __ __ _____ _
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ___ _____ __________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g _________________________________
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s * _______________ _____ ______

336
227
109
33

$
2 . 50
2 .4 9
2 .5 3
2 .3 9

E l e c t r i c i a n s , m a i n t e n a n c e __________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________________________

6 34
48 3

E n g in e e r s , s t a t io n a r y
_____________________________
M a n u f a c t u r in g
____________________________ ______
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g _________ _____ ___________ _
R e t a i l t r a d e _____ _____ ______________________
F ir e m e n , s t a t io n a r y b o i le r
M a n u f a c t u r in g

$
1 . 60
and
under
1. 70

S T R A IG H T -T IM E

HOURLY

E A R N IN G S O F —

$
1 .7 0

$
1 .8 0

$
1 .9 0

$
2 .00

$
2 . 10

$
2 .20

$
2 .3 0

$
2 .4 0

$
2 .5 0

$
2 .6 0

$
2 .7 0

$
2 .8 0

$
2 .9 0

$
3 .0 0

$
3 . 10

$
3 .2 0

$
3. 30

1 .8 0

1 .9 0

2 .00

2 . 10

2.20

2 .3 0

2 .4 0

2 .5 0

2.6 0

2 . 70

2 .8 0

2 .9 0

3 .0 0

3 . 10

3 .2 0

3 .3 0

3 .4 0

13
4
9
1

18
14
4
2

29
9
20
19

136
135
1
1

36
21
15
9

12
9
3
1

3
2
1

_
_

60
25
35

1
_
1

3
_
3

1
_
1

_

-

-

-

*

-

-

-

14
9

49
45

71
52

279
172

135
131

16
14

17
16

1
-

-

15
13

31
31

-

-

102
4
98
20

26
12
14
2

94
47
47
32

26
14
12
11

38
18
20
5

73
54
19
7

1
_
1
1

_
-

19
16
3
2

5
5
_

27
27
_

_
_
_

_
_

-

-

-

-

1

12
5

10
8

_

2
2

_

.

_

_

_

-

-

-

_

.

.

-

-

-

-

-

24
8
16

-

-

-

-

-

2 .4 9
2 . 52

_

.

.

3

3

-

-

-

-

-

488
197
291
80

2 .4 0
2 .6 2
2 .2 5
2 .3 5

_
-

_
-

_
-

6
6

71
71

-

-

-

-

-

121
93

2.21
2 .2 5

1

_

-

-

3
3

34
18

6
6

-

46
45

-

-

6
6

H e l p e r s , t r a d e s , m a i n t e n a n c e ______________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________ _________________

1, 196
978

2 .0 8
2 . 11

2

182
30

113
111

46
44

725
709

72
60

17
17

2

_

4
4

_

_

_

_

-

33
3

-

-

-

-

-

M a c h i n e - t o o l o p e r a t o r s , t o o l r o o m ________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________________________

213
21 3

2 .3 7
2 .3 7

_

_

_

.

_

3
3

_

-

21
21

.

-

32
32

_

-

131
131

_

-

17
17

_

-

9
9

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

M a c h i n i s t s , m a i n t e n a n c e _______________ __________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________________________

1 ,3 7 5
1 ,2 5 8

2 . 50
2 .5 0

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

43
43

387
31 3

44 1
439

196
175

197
178

16
16

26
26

44
44

5
5

16
16

_

-

2
1

-

2 2
2

M e c h a n i c s , a u t o m o t iv e ( m a in t e n a n c e ) ____________
M a n u f a c t u r in g
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g _________________________________
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s * _______________________________

877
110
767
68 7

2 .5 5
2 .5 4
2 .5 5
2 . 56

_

.

_

_
_

_
-

_
_

396
17
379
37 2

30
22
8
2

_
_

_
_

-

306
14
292
244

_
_

-

62
52
10
4

1
_
1

-

61
_
61
61

_
_

-

5
3
2
2

_
_

-

14
2
12
2

.

_
-

2
_
2

-

-

-

-

"

-

M e c h a n i c s , m a i n t e n a n c e _____________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g ______________________________ _

668
589
79

2 .4 4
2 .4 5
2 .3 6

_
-

.
_

_

1
1

86
66
20

75
65
10

109
101
8

-

39
39
-

_

-

3
1
2

_

-

1 64
163
1

_

-

150
122
28

_

-

38
29
9

2
2

-

1
_
1

-

-

M i l l w r i g h t s ------------------------------------------------------- ---------M a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________________________

221
221

2 .4 5
2 .4 5

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

1
1

19
19

185
185

12
12

"

-

~

3
3

-

-

-

-

O i l e r s _____ _____________________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________________________

183
140

2 .00
2.00

1
1

_

87
72

54
26

10
10

9
9

.

_

_

.

_

_

-

-

-

2
2

.

-

20
20

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

P a i n t e r s , m a i n t e n a n c e ___ _________________ __ _
_
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _______ _________________________ _
_
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g _________ ______________________

314
178
136

2 .4 1
2 .4 6
2 .3 4

_

_

_

_

_

_

.

-

-

-

-

36
16
20

.
_

-

15
11
4

5
5

-

102
86
16

_

-

38
20
18

.

-

62
36
26

2

-

29
2
27

_

-

25
2
23

2

-

-

-

P i p e f i t t e r s , m a i n t e n a n c e ________________________ _
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ___________________
„
__________

38 7
359

2 .5 0
2 . 50

.

284
284

37
22

-

16
16

4

-

18
9

_

-

13
13

_

-

1
1

-

-

-

-

2
2

12
12

63
58

2 .4 6
2 .4 6

_

_

_

_

_

_

1

_

_

_

.

-

-

-

-

-

33
31

_

-

14
14

2

-

13
13

"

-

-

-

-

719
719

2 . 68
2 . 68

_

_

_

_

_

3
3

3
3

414
414

247
247

20
20

_

12
12

......

................

S h e e t - m e t a l w o r k e r s , m a i n t e n a n c e ___________
M a n u f a c t u r in g

_
_

T o o l a n d d ie m a k e r s
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________________________

1
*

-

.

-

_

.

E x c l u d e s p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e a n d f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o l i d a y s , a n d la t e s h i ft s
I n c lu d e s 1 w o r k e r a t $ 3 . 4 0 t o $ 3 . 5 0 .
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ( e x c l u d i n g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a t i o n , an d o t h e r p u b lic u t i l i t i e s .




-

-

20
20

-

-

O c c u p a t io n a l W a g e S u r v e y , S a n F r a n c i s c o - O a k l a n d , C a l i f . , J a n u a r y 195 6
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B u re a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tics

10

Table A-4:

Custodial and Material Movement Occupations

(A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n i n g s 1 f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s 2 s tu d ie d o n an a r e a b a s is
in S a n F r a n c i s c o - O a k l a n d , C a l i f . , b y i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , J a n u a r y 1 9 5 6 )
N U M BER

O ccupation and industry d ivision

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
earnings

$
1 .0 0
and
under
1. 10

OF

W O R K E B S R E C E IV IN G

S T R A IG H T -T IM E

H OURLY

E A R N IN G S

OF—

$
1. 10

$
1.20

$
1.30

$
1 .40

$
1 .50

$
1.60

$
1 .70

$
1.80

$
1.90

$
2 .0 0

$
2. 10

$
2 .2 0

$
2 .3 0

$
2 .4 0

$
2. 50

$ ,
2. 60

$
2. 70

$
2 .8 0

$
2. 90

1 .20

1 .30

1 .4 0

1 .5 0

1 .6 0

1 .70

1 .80

1.90

2 .0 0

2. 10

2 .2 0

2. 30

2 .4 0

2 .5 0

2 . 60

2. 70

2 .8 0

2. 90

3 .0 0

_

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_

-

_

E leva tor o p e r a t o r s , p a ss e n g e r (m en)
__ ___ _
N onm anufacturing _____________________ _____
F in a n c e * *
__ _» ________ ________ _____

420
405
181

$
1 .5 4
1.53
1 .63

_
-

_
-

_
-

149
149
1

3
3
3

9
9
5

236
232
172

17
12
“

1
_

E lev a tor o p e r a t o r s , p a ss e n g e r (wom en) _______
N onm anufacturing ____ __________________ __
R eta il trade __ ---------------------------------------------

3 50
308
147

1.63
1 .60
1 .62

-

13
13
5

7
7
3

16
16
13

5
5
-

24
24
-

242
242
125

Guards _______________________ ___T
____ _________
M a n u factu rin g_________ _____ _____________ _
N onm anufacturing _____________________________
F inance ** -----------------------------------------------------

591
323
268
118

1 .7 8
1 .93
1 .5 9
1 .6 6

_
_
-

.
_
-

6
_
6
6

2
_
2
2

18
_
18
17

149
3
146
20

40
9
31
20

J an itors, p o r t e r s , and c le a n e rs (m en) _________
M anufacturing ____ ___________ ____________
N onm anufacturing _____________________________
P u b lic utilities * __________ _______________
W holesale trade ______ _____ ____________
R eta il trade „ ____ ____________ ________
F in a n c e * *
___ .

4 ,4 0 4
1 ,3 9 9
3, 005
470
126
413
686

1 .7 0
1 .8 4
1 .63
1 .6 5
1. 74
1 .6 2
1 .6 4

_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_

-

-

151
6
145
6
13
38
-

214
2
242
33
2
25
-

112
26
86
46
_
13
9

255
50
205
58
_
45
18

1,543
101
1,442
61
29
245
642

Jan itors, p o r t e r s , and cle a n e rs (w o m e n )____;___
M anu factu ring___ ________ ________ __ _____
N onm anufacturing _____________________ _______
P u b lic u tilities * ___ ___________ __ _____
R etail trade __ __ ________ ________________
F in a n c e * *
...... _
.. . _ .

647
79
568
49
84
239

1 .6 0
1.70
1 .5 9
1 .4 9
1. 63
1. 61

2
2
_
_
_

11
11
3
8
-

7
_
7
6
1
-

77
10
67
8
_

-

2
_
2
_
2
-

174
13
161
28
9
94

L a b o r e r s , m a teria l handling
M a n u factu rin g______ _____________________ __
N onm anufacturing _ _ _
_ _
P u b lic u tilities * _____________________ t
_____
W holesale trade ______ ___________ _____
R eta il trade __ __ ________ __ ____________

5 ,7 8 7
2 ,9 9 5
2, 792
831
1 ,5 0 4
457

2 .0 3
2 .0 0
2 .0 6
2 .2 0
1 .9 7
2 .0 9

_
_
_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_
_

_
_

-

-

-

-

-

O rd er fille r s
_______ _ _ __ _
M anufacturing __ __ __ __________________
N onm anufacturing
._
....
. ..
W h olesale trade ______ ____ ________ __
R eta il trade »_ ________ __ — __ _________

1 ,648
438
1,210
1,072
138

2 .0 3
2 . 11
2 .0 0
2 .0 0
2 .0 5

_
_
_

1
_
1
_
1

6
6
_
_

_
_

_
_
_

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

5
_
-

-

7
1
1

36
-

-

-

62
34
28
20

95
64
31
29

150
144
6
4

24
24
-

39
39
-

914
281
633
255
28 1
11
11

538
481
57
8
24
4
2

352
219
133
3
18
12
2

250
188
62
_
12
20
2

301
2
299
_
57
144

30
18
12
4
2
1

19
19
_
_
_

19
15
4
_
_

-

-

5
_
5
_
5
-

13
_
13
6
_
7

51
29
22
5
14
3

79
51
28
13
15
-

1,386
1,017
369
160
204
5

2,2 72
1,163
1,109
16
1,006
87

25
12
13
_
13

31
26
5
_
5

12
6
6
_
6

156
67
89
89
-

691
134
557
526
31

.
_
_
-

64
41
23
«.
23

P a c k e r s , shipping (m en) __ __ __ __ __ ____
M a n u factu rin g__ _
.
N onm anufacturing
W h olesale trade ___________________________
R eta il trade ___
_
__
_
_ _
_

795
436
359
262
95

1 .9 3
1 .93
1 .9 2
1 .9 4
1 .8 6

_
_
_

_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_
_

-

-

-

-

9

5
_
5
_
5

P a c k e r s . shipping (wom en)

323

1.52

_

8

43

18

196

15

43

R eceivin g c le r k s __ — _ _
__
M anufacturing ____ ____ __ ___________
N onm anufacturing _____________________________
W holesale trade __
__ __ __ ________
R eta il trade __ __ _____ ________________ _

444
208
236
149
83

2 .0 7
2 .0 7
2 .0 8
2 .0 9
2 .0 7

_
_
_

1
_
_
_

_
_
_

_
_

1

3
2
1
_
1

11
1
10
_
10

_

.

_
_
_

9
_
9

1

26
16
10
_
7

558
252"
296
254
42

_
-

_
-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

_

_
-

_
-

_
_
'

_
_

_
-

_

_

-

-

_
-

-

6
6
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
_
-

45
45
_
_
_
_

_
»
_
_

_
_
_
_
_

-

-

_
_
_
_
_

-

_

_
_
-

_

_
_
_

_
_

_
_
_
_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_

_
_

_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_
_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

531
241
290
4
153
133

251
79
172
3
27
142

317
317
2 70
20
27

319
319
309
_
10

153
153
45
65
43

415
415
_
_

_
_

_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_

-

-

-

-

*

235
7
228
220
8

271
15
256
211
45

41
10
31
26
5

10
_
10
_
10

"5
_
5

164
155
9
_
9

_
-

_
_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_

-

-

-

-

16
16
_

_
_
_

_
_

_
_
-

_
_
_

-

_
_
-

-

-

-

-

_
_
_
_
-

.
_
_
_
-

_

_

_

_

_

15
_
15
13
2

2
2
_

20
20

2
2
2

20
13
7
6
-

35
18
17
2
14

_

88
86
2
_
2

-

_

_

53
43
10
_
10

185
85
100
92
7

98
38
60
40
20

28
1
27
2
25

_

5

_

_

_

_

_
_

_
_

_
_
_

'

See footn otes at end o f tab le.
* T ra n sp ortation (exclu din g r a ilr o a d s ), com m u n ica tion , and other p u b lic u tilitie s .
** F in a n ce, in su ra n ce, and re a l esta te.




O c c u p a t io n a l W a g e S u r v e y ,

S an F r a n c is c o - O a k la n d , C a l i f . , J a n u a ry 1956
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B u re a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tics

11

Table A-4: Custodial and Material Movement Occupations - Continued
(A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n i n g s 1 f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s 2 s t u d ie d o n a n a r e a b a s is
in S a n F r a n c i s c o - O a k l a n d , C a l i f . , b y i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , J a n u a r y 1 9 5 6 )
N U M BER

O ccu p a tion and in d u stry d iv isio n

N um ber
of
w orkers

A vera ge
h o u r ly
e a r n in g s

Shipping c le r k s .
M a n u fa ctu rin g______
N onm anufacturing _
W h olesa le trade

335
166
169
138
693
270
423
299
98
4 ,2 1 5
815
3 ,4 0 0
2 ,0 1 2
897
411
464
181
283
118
1,961
384
1 ,577
892
391
287
881
117
764
548
671
133
538
285
247
1,097
811
286
108
142
322

2 .0 8

W atchm en _____________________________________
M a n u fa ctu rin g_____ _____________ ___________
N onm anufacturing _______ __________________

390
231
159

S T R A IG H T -T IM E

$
1.80

$
1. 90

1. 90

2 .1 1
2. 10
2 . 16
2 .2 6
2 .0 9

T r u c k e r s , p ow er (oth er than fo rk lift) ______
M a n u fa ctu rin g______________________________

R E C E IV IN G

H OURLY

2 .0 0

$
2 .0 0

$
2. 10

E A R N IN G S

1
2
3
*

29
26
3
3

$
2 .3 0

$
2 .4 0

$
2 . 50

$
2. 60

$
2. 70

$
2 .8 0

$
2. 90

2 .3 0

2 .4 0

2 .5 0

2. 60

2 . 70

2 .8 0

2 .9 0

3 .0 0

~Tl£

90
44
46
42

23
3
20
6

5
19
13

~5z

19
15

19
38
20
18

71

905
196
709
396
305
2

1,4 7 0
92
1 ,3 7 8
778
286
314

43
29
14
13

53
9
44
26

____28

475
71
404
342
61

601
80
521
376
139

519
64
455
136
50
269

133
128
5

435
12
423
280

306
14
292
265

388
16
372
262
110

31
8
23
23

75

92
89
3
3

18
10
8

43
10
33

11

22
8
37
9
12
16

102
9
93
27
59
7

312
64
248
53
111
12

601
145
456
342
112

2
30
12

49
T
43
12

154
42
112
29
117

11
11

16

117
34
82
1

43
38

146
46
100
99

190
21
21

26

515
3 72
143
22
108

98
83
15

67

19
19

28

109
107

15
7

10
12

9
14

94
34
60

25
6

65
49
16

29
9

64
44
20

2
2

TT"
44
3

~6T
1.80
1.63

239
12
227
215

25

E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e and fo r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , an d la te s h ifts .
D a ta l im it e d t o m e n w o r k e r s e x c e p t w h e r e o t h e r w is e in d ic a te d .
I n c lu d e s a ll d r i v e r s r e g a r d l e s s o f s iz e a n d ty p e o f t r u c k o p e r a t e d .
T r a n s p o r t a t io n (e x c lu d in g r a i lr o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a t io n , a n d o t h e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .




59
62
57

144

26
26

0 F -

$
2 .2 0

2 .3 8
2 .3 1
2 .4 0
2 .4 3
2 .3 6

T r u c k e r s , p ow er (fo rk lift) ---------------------------M a n u fa ctu rin g______________________________
N onm anufacturing _________________________
P u b lic u tilities * _______________________
W h olesa le trade _______________________

1 .60

$
1. 70

2 .4 6
2 .4 0
2 .4 7
2 .4 8

T r u c k d r iv e r s , h eavy (o v e r 4 to n s , oth er
than t r a ile r t y p e )_________________________
M a n u fa ctu rin g ___________________________
N onm anufacturing ______________________
P u b lic u tilities * ____________________
W holesa le trade ____________________

W ORKEBS

2 .3 5
2 .4 5
2 .3 2
2 .3 1
2 .2 4
2 .4 8

T r u c k d r iv e r s , heavy (o v e r 4 ton s,
t r a ile r type) ______________________________
M a n u fa ctu rin g ----------------------------------------N onm anufacturing --------------------------------P u b lic u tilities * ____________________

1 .5 0

OF

$
1 .6 0

2 .2 6
2 .4 0
2. 17
2 .2 2

T r u c k d r iv e r s , m ed iu m ( l 1/z to and
including 4 tons) _____________________
M a n u fa ctu rin g _______________________
N onm anufacturing __________________
P u b lic u tilities * ________________
W h olesa le trade ________________
R e ta il trad e --------------------------------

1.40

$
1.50

2 .3 6
2 .4 1
2 .3 5
2 .3 7
2 .3 0
2 .4 5

T r u c k d r iv e r s , ligh t (under \ llz tons)
M a n u fa ctu rin g _______________________
N onm anufacturing __________________
W h olesa le trade ________________

$
1.30

2. 16
2 .0 9
2 .2 1
2 .2 9
2 .0 1

T r u c k d r iv e r s 3 ____________________________
M a n u fa ctu rin g ____________________ ______
N onm anufacturing _____________________
P u b lic u tilities * ___________________
W h olesa le trade ___________________
R e ta il trade ________________________

$
1 .2 0

$
2 . 13
2 .0 9
2. 18
2 .1 6

Shipping and re c e iv in g c le r k s
M anu factu ring _
N onm anufacturing
W holesa le trade
R e ta il trade ____

$
$
1.00
1.10
and
under
1. 10

553
153
400
368
32

148
143
5

5
12

5

11

90
90

6

30
5
12
12
24
19
5




B: Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Table B-l: Shift Differential Provisions '
P e rc e n t o f m anufacturing plant w ork ers
(a)
In esta blishm ents having
fo rm a l p ro v is io n s f o r —

Shift d ifferen tia l

Second shift
w ork

T o t a l __ _____ ________

__ __ _____ _______

T h ird o r other
shift w ork

(b)
A ctu a lly w orking on—

Second shift

T h ird o r oth er
shift

93. 8

U n iform cents (p er hour) ___ ______________ ___________

15.9

93. 8

With shift pay d ifferen tia l ------------------------------------------------------

9 1 .3
9 1 .3

1 5.9

5. 5

4 2 .9

__ ___________

5. 5

3 4.3

9. 1

4. 7

.6
.4
2. 5
.4
.2
2. 5
-

_
. 1
.6
. 2
.9
1. 2

4 cen ts __________ _____ ______ ____________ ______ ______
5 cen ts _ ---------- -------------------- --------------- — ---------6 cen ts _________________ _ ____________ _ __________
7 cen ts
____ _____ ____ _______________ ___________
8 cen ts _______________ _______________ _____ ______
9 cen ts _____ _____ ____________
__
___________
10 cen ts ______
__ ___________ ______________
__ ___ __ ___ __ ____
12 cen ts __________________
I 2 V2 c e n t s __ ___________ __ _________________________
13, 13V3 , or 13 V2 c e n t s _______________________________
14 cen ts ________________________________________________
IS ren ts _ _
_
....... .
....... ........... . ............. ....
20, 23, 25, o r 30 cen ts _______________________________

2. 8
4. 2
13. 1
1. 6
1. 0
10. 8
6 .9
1 .4
1. 0

_
1.0
2. 8
1. 0
5 .4
4 .2
7 .7
2 .6
1 .0
.6
4 .9
3. 1

U n iform p ercen ta g e ______________________________________

15. 8

14.3

1. 7

. 1

5 p ercen t __________________________ ____________________
10 p ercen t ______________________________________________
15 p ercen t ----------------------------------------------------------------------

6. 8
9. 1
■

w
10. 1
4 .2

1. 7

•1
t

F ull d a y 's pay fo r red u ced hours _____________________
O th e r2 ___ __________

_____________________

____

-

2. 0
.3

-

1.6

-

35. 1

41. 1

5. 1

-

_

___________

No shift pay d iffe r e n t ia l______________________________

-

-

-

.
.
.
1.

1
1
3
1

-

.7

1 Shift d ifferen tia l data a re p resen ted in te rm s o f (a) establish m en t p o lic y , and (b) w o rk e rs actually e m p lo y e d on late
shifts at the tim e o f the su rv ey .
An esta b lish m en t was co n s id e re d as having a p o licy if it m et eith er o f the fo llo w in g c o n d i­
tion s: (l) O perated late shifts at the tim e o f the s u rv e y , o r (2) had fo rm a l p ro v is io n s co v e rin g late sh ifts.
2 Inclu des such com b in a tion plans as a c e n ts -p e r -h o u r o r p ercen ta g e d iffe re n tia l plus a paid lunch p e rio d ; full d a y 's pay
fo r red u ced hours plus a flat sum ; and fu ll d a y 's pay f o r red u ced hours plus a c e n ts -p e r -h o u r o r percen tage d iffe re n tia l.
t L e s s than 0 .0 5 p ercen t.
O ccup ation al Wage S u rvey, San F ra n cisco -O a k la n d , C a lif. , January 1956
U. S. D E P A R T M E N T OF L A B O R
B ureau o f L a b o r S ta tistics

13

Table B -. Minimum Entrance Rates for Women Office Workers1
-2
N u m b e r o f e s t a b lis h m e n t s

w it h s p e c i f i e d m in i m u m

M a n u fa c t u r in g
M in im u m r a te
(w e e k ly s a la r y )

s tu d ie d _

______

____________________

____________

248

81

40

XXX

A ll
s c h e d u le s

167

F O R IN E X P E R IE N C E D

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v i n g a s p e c i f i e d m i n i m u m _______________
$ 3 2 . 50
$ 3 5 .0 0
$ 3 7 .5 0
$ 4 0 .0 0
$ 4 2 . 50
$ 4 5 .0 0

and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under

$
$
$
$
$
$

3 5 . 00
3 7 . 50
4 0 . 00
4 2 . 50
4 5 . 00
4 7 .5 0

__ ___________ _____________________
___________ _________________________
_______________
___________ _______
______ ______________________________
_______________________________________
_______________________________________

$ 4 7 . 50 an d u n d er

$ 5 0 . 0 0 ------------------------------------------------------------

$ 50. 00 and u n der
$ 5 2 . 50 a n d u n d e r
$ 5 5 .0 0 an d u n d er

$ 5 2 . 5 0 _______________________________________
$ 5 5 . 0 0 _____
__ __ ______ _____ ____
$ 5 7 . 5 0 _______________
__ -------- -------------

$ 5 7 . 50 a n d u n d er
$ 6 0 .0 0 a n d u n d er

$ 6 0 . 0 0 --------------------------------------------------------$ 6 2 . 5 0 __ ------------------------------- __ -----------

$ 6 2 . 5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 6 5 . 0 0 _______________________________________
$ 6 5 . 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 6 7 . 5 0 ______ _____________ .________________
$ 6 7 . 5 0 a n d o v e r _____________________ ___________ _ ______ ___
E s ta b lis h m e n ts

h a v in g n o s p e c i f ie d

m i n i m u m _______

_

ra te

in —

N u m b e r o f e s ta b lis h m e n ts

37V z

3 8 ’ /.

XXX

XXX

A ll

40

XXX

s c h e d u le s

248

T Y P IS T S

34

71

10

10

42

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

2
8

-

1
1

7

3

13

1
2

11

1

16
11

3
4

3
3

13
7

4

1
2
6
6

17

-

1
2
2
2

4

12

15
13

9

6

6

6

7

-

3

5
4
4
4

19
9
16

-

128

1
1
4

12
12

9

5
3
7

1

-

-

5
4
3

4

3

2

2

1
1
2

-

-

3

-

-

1
1
2
2

67

20

XXX

47

XXX

XXX

XXX

69

66

18

XXX

48

XXX

XXX

XXX

50

1

-

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

9
14

3

6
5

1
1

81

40

XXX

A ll
s c h e d u le s

167

F O R O T H E R IN E X P E R IE N C E D

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

13
4
5

1
2

h ir in g

r a t e in —

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

B a s e d on sta n d a rd w e e k ly h o u r s 2 o f—

A ll
in d u s tr ie s

43

114

w it h s p e c i f i e d m in im u m

M a n u fa c t u r in g

B a s e d on sta n d a rd w e e k ly h o u r s 2 o f—

A ll
in d u s tr ie s
A ll
s c h e d u le s

E s ta b lis h m e n ts

h ir in g

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

48

38

_

_

-

-

1
1
1
6
6

1

9
4

7
4

10
6

9
4

80

1
1
3

-

11

1

IT

5
4

11
6
10

3 7 V2

3 8 3/ 4

XXX

XXX

C L E R IC A L

40

XXX

W ORKERS

12

9

_

1

1
1
2
2
2

_

_

-

1
3

5

3
-

2
1
1
2
1
1

6

1

-

-

50

8
6
3

6
4
4
7
4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

2
1
1

-

-

2
1
1

19

XXX

50

XXX

XXX

XXX

14

XXX

36

XXX

XXX

XXX

“

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

-

-

3
-

2

1

-

7
4

E s ta b lis h m e n ts w h ic h d id n o t e m p lo y w o r k e r s
in t h is c a t e g o r y _

______

_____

D a t a n o t a v a i l a b l e _____________

1

______

___

_

______________________

___________

__

____________

1

1

1

L o w est s a la ry rate fo r m a lly esta b lish ed fo r hiring in ex p erien ced w o r k e rs fo r typing or other c l e r ic a l jo b s .
H ours r e fle c t the w ork w eek fo r w hich em p loy ees r e c e iv e their re g u la r stra ig h t-tim e s a la r ie s . Data a re p re se n te d fo r a ll w orkw eeks com b in ed , and fo r the m o st com m on w orkw eeks re p o rte d .




O ccupation al Wage S urvey, San F ra n c is co -O a k la n d , C a lif. , January 1956
U .S . DEPA RTM EN T OF LABOR
B ureau o f L abor S tatistics

14

Table B-3: Scheduled Weekly Hours
T

PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS EMPLOYED I N -

PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—

W eekly hours
A ll
in d u s t r ie s

z

M a n u fa c t u r in g

P u b lic
u t ili t ie s

*

W h o le s a le
tra d e

R e ta il tra d e

F in a n ce

**

W
holesale

A ll
in d u s tr ie s

S e r v ic e s

i

M a n u fa c t u r in g

P u b lic
u t ili t ie s

100

100

_

_

t

9
_
_
91
■

AU w o r k e r s ____________________________________

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Under 37 l z hours
f
2
__ ------- — ----------------------37V2 hours _ __ __ „ __ „ __ ------------------ __
O ver 37V2 and under 383 h o u r s ____ __ _____
/*
383/ j h o u r s _____________________________________
O v er 383 and under 40 h o u r s ________________
/4
40 hours ____ ____________ ______ ______________
O v er 40 h o u r s ____ ____ _____________________

5
17
5
10
t
63

7
16

6
9

t
9

t
10

-

-

-

'

'

"

"

trad e

-

6
79

t
24
12
17
46
-

t
11

10
67

t
6
t
7
84

*

-

-

t
91
_

t

-

t

86
t

87

98
t

t

R e ta il tra d e

S e r v ic e s

100
t
13
_
_
_
83

t

1 Data rela te to w om en w o r k e rs only.
2 Inclu des data f o r s e r v ic e s in addition to those industry d iv isio n s shown sep a ra te ly .
3 Inclu des data fo r re a l esta te and s e r v ic e s in addition to those ind ustry d iv isio n s shown se p a ra te ly ,
t L e s s than 2. 5 p e rce n t.
* T ra n sp ortation (exclu d in g r a ilr o a d s ), com m u n ica tion , and other public u tilitie s.
* * F in a n ce, in su ra n ce, and re a l esta te.

Table B-4: Paid Holidays1
PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—
Item

All
2
industries

Manufacturing

Public j.
utilities v

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—
Finance**

Services

All
,
industries

Manufacturing

Public
utilities *

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

__

10 0

100

1 00

100

100

100

100

100

1 00

10 0

100

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g
p a i d h o l i d a y s _________
__________________________

100

1 00

1 00

100

100

100

95

92

1 00

1 00

99

t
-

-

-

t
-

_

3

-

_

-

t
4
12
10
t
49
47

t
16
11
4
56
53
3

16
4
4
62
60

-

-

7
7
23
23
70
70
-

_
7
7
57
57
36
36
-

-

-

-

-

-

5

8

-

Services

t

A l l w o r k e r s ___

_
_

_ __

_________

__________

2
3
5
6

h o lid a y s
__ __ __ __ __ _____ __________
h o l i d a y s _____________________________________ _____
h o l i d a y s __________________________________________
h o l i d a y s _________________________________________
F u l l d a y s o n l y _________________________________
P lu s 2 h a lf d a y s
_ ______
_ —
------- __
7 h o l i d a y s ___^____________________________________
F u l l d a y s o n l y _________________________________
P l u s 1 h a l f d a y ____ __ --------- __ __ __ __
P l u s 2 , 3 , o r 4 h a l f d a y s __ --------- __ __
8 h o l i d a y s _______________ __________________________
F u l l d a y s o n l y _________________________________
P l u s 1 h a l f d a y ________________________________
9 h o l i d a y s __ __ _________ __ __ ___ ____ __
F u l l d a y s o n l y _____ ; _________________________ _
_
P lu s 1 h a lf d a y
_ __ _
__ __ __ __ __
P l u s 2 h a l f d a y s ______________________________
10 h o l i d a y s a n d o v e r
W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g
n o p a i d h o l i d a y s ____________________________________

t
5
5
t
50
48
t
t
36
34

t
7

4
t
t
3

■

t
t

t
t

-

-

9
9
75
75
15
15
-

t

4

-

-

■

■

■

“

11
9
3
69
68
t
19
19
-

t
t
20
20
t
72
72
-

T
9
9
78
71
6
9
9
-

3
3
-

t
t
27
27
51
47
5
15

8
5

3
6

t
t
27
26

t
t
t

t

20
18

t

t
15

15
t
t
-

1 E stim a tes rela te to fu ll-d a y holid a ys p rov id ed annually, a s in e a r lie r stu d ie s. T h ese a re fu rth er divid ed betw een w o r k e rs who r e c e iv e m e r e ly the in d ica ted n u m ber o f fu ll-d a y h olid a y s, and
th ose who r e c e iv e 1 o r m o re h a lf h olid a ys in addition.
2 Inclu des data fo r s e r v ic e s in addition to th ose industry d iv isio n s shown se p a ra te ly .
3 Includes data fo r r e a l estate and s e r v ic e s in addition to th ose industry d iv isio n s shown s e p a ra te ly.
f L e s s than 2 .5 p e rce n t.
O ccupational Wage S u rvey, San F r a n c is c o -O a k la n d , C a l i f ., January 1956
* T ra n sp orta tion (exclu d in g r a ilr o a d s ), com m u n ica tion , and other p u b lic u tilitie s .
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
** F in a n ce, in su ra n ce, and r e a l esta te.
B ureau o f L a b o r S ta tistics




Table B-5:
PERCEN T

V a c a t io n p o l i c y

A ll w o rk e rs

A ll
.
i n d u s t r ie s 1

M a n u fa c t u r in g

O F O F F IC E

P u b lic
u t ili t ie s *

W ORKERS

W h o l e s a le
tra d e

Paid Vacations

EM PLOYED

R e ta il tra d e

IN —

PERCEN T

F in a n ce * *

S e r v ic e s

A ll
2
in d u s t r ie s

M a n u fa c t u r in g

OF PLAN T

P u b lic
u t ilit ie s *

W ORKERS

EM PLOYED

W h o l e s a le
tra d e

IN —

R e ta il tra d e

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100
100

100
100

100
100

100

98

100
100

100

99

100
100

100
100

t

-

73
26

100
100

t
~

— -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

"

“

t

M ETHOD OF PAYM EN T

W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g p a id
v a c a t i o n s -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------L e n g t h - o f - t i m e p a y m e n t ------------------- --------------------------------P e r c e n t a g e p a y m e n t ------------------------------------------------- --------------O th e r --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-

-

87
13

“

“

t

-

-

-

.

-

-

-

A M O U N T O F V A C A T IO N P A Y

A fte r 1 y e a r o f s e r v ic e
18

1 w e e k ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ----------------------------------------------------------2 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------3 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

7

61

-

-

-

82

93

38

t
t

-

t

28
-

72

62
-

38

_

61

-

9
25

100

-

-

-

t

-

-

“

t
t

_

t

_

12

-

-

-

7
75

55
19

62

22

24
15

73

_

4

72

_

_

27

28

-

_

_

-

-

t
99

4
95

_

_

-

-

-

A fte r 2 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e

t
t

1 w e e k ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------2 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------3 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

t
-

98

98

t
t

t
5
92

t

-

t

100

99

-

-

-

100
-

t

_

81
15

-

4

-

4

20
12
61
8

t

-

A fte r 3 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e

_

_

t

t

85

99

98

10

-

-

4

-

-

1 w e e k ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------

_

_

_

_

_

_

4

8

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

96

93

5
79

-

w e e k s ------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3
87

O v e r 2 an d u n d e r 3 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------3 w e e k s ------------------------------------------------------ --------------------------------------------------------

t
4

-

t

-

t

-

7

3

t

5

9

2

96

100
■

100
"

98

A fte r 5 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
_

O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------3 w e e k s ----------------------- -----------— — — —- —- —---------------------- —
4 w e e k s and o v e r ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

_

_

_

_

_

t

t

86
6
8

O v er 1 and un d er 2 w eek s
------------------------------------------------------2 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

93

82

95

89

t

85
14

89

4

89
3

16

t

8

t

9

-

7

*

O c c u p a tio n a l W a g e S u r v e y ,

T r a n s p o r t a t io n (e x c lu d in g r a ilr o a d s ),
F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s ta te .




10

_

90

10

-

_

89

3
9

6

-

10

t

S e e fo o tn o te s a t en d o f ta b le .
**

t

_

84

c o m m u n ic a tio n ,

NOTE:

San F ra n cis co -O a k la n d ,

a n d o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s

U .S .

C a lif. , J a n u a ry

DEPARTM EN T

OF

1956

LABOR

B u re a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s

In t h e t a b u l a t i o n s , o f v a c a t i o n a l l o w a n c e s b y y e a r s o f s e r v i c e , p a y m e n t s
o t h e r th a n "le n g t h o f t i m e , "
su ch as p e rce n ta g e
o f a n n u a l e a r n in g s
o r fla t-s u m
p a y m en ts, w e re
c o n v e r t e d to a n e q u iv a le n t t im e
b a s is ; fo r
e x a m p le ,
a paym ent of 2 percen t
o f a n n u a l e a r n in g s
w as
c o n s id e r e d a s
1 w e e k ’s p a y .

16

Table B-5:

Paid Vacations - Continued

PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—
V a c a tio n p o l i c y

All
industries1

Manufacturing

PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—
All 2
industries

Manufacturing

100

100

100

71
14
16
-

t
81
4
15
t

t
75
4

40
5
55
-

t
31
t
67
t

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

100

100

100

82
t
15
t

90

87

6

-

3
-

13
-

9
t
89
t

21

34

-

-

79
‘

66

9
t
89

21

34
-

9

66

82

68

67

10
86

■

8

t

t

t

Public
utilities #

Finance# #

100

100

2 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------- -?------------------

75

76

O v e r 2 and u n d e r 3 w e e k s ------------------------------------3 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------------------4 w e e k s and o v e r ------------------------------------------------------

6

-

19
t

24
-

28
t
70
t

20

16
t
79
4

18
78
4

.

_

.

14
t
67
19

18

9
t
85
5

21

34

-

-

-

64
15

52
14

65
28

A l l w o r k e r s ----------------------------------------------------------------

Services

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade:

100

100

100

84
4
t

89
3
9
-

87
_
13
-

t

10

41
59

Public
utilities *

A M O U N T O F V A C A T IO N P A Y - C o n tin u e d

A f t e r 10 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e

O v e r 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s

.

-------------------------------------

20
“

10

A f t e r 15 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e

O v e r 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s

-------------------------------------

2 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 and u n d er 3 w e e k s ------------------------------------3 w e e k s ----------------------------------------------------------------------4 w e e k s and o v e r ----------------------------------------------------

80

"

t
33
-

67
-

10
86
t

90
-

A f t e r 20 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e

O v e r 1 and u n d er 2 w e e k s --------------------------------------

2 w e e k s ----------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 and u n d e r 3 w e e k s -------------------------------------3 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------------------------------4 w e e k s and o v e r ------------------------------------------------------

t

79
-

-

t
29
t

t

30
-

t

10
90
“

41
59
"

10

38

A f t e r 25 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e

O v e r 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s --------------------------------------

2 w e e k s ------------------------------—--------------------------------- ----O v e r 2 and u n d er 3 w e e k s ------------------------------------3 w e e k s ------------------------------------------ ----------------------------4 w e e k s and o v e r ------------------------------------------------------

-

63
18

_

1 In c lu d e s data f o r s e r v i c e s in a d d itio n to th o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
In c lu d e s data f o r r e a l e s t a t e and s e r v i c e s in a d d it io n to t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y ,
t L e s s than 2 . 5 p e r c e n t .
* T r a n s p o r t a t io n (e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o t h e r p u b lic u t i li t ie s .
* * F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e .




t

t

7

29
t
59

30

10

-

55
14

_
t

10
86

-

-

84

51

t

6

11

17

Table B-6: Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans1
4
3
2
PERCENT

T y p e o f p la n

A l l w o r k e r s ----------------------------------------------------------------

A ll
,
in d u s t r ie s

M a n u fa c t u r in g

OP

P u b lic
u t ili t ie s *

O F F IC E

W ORKERS

EM PLOYED

W h o le s a le
trad e

R e ta il tra d e

10 0

1 0 0

100

100

10 0

IN —

PERCEN T

F in a n ce * *

1 0 0

S e r v ic e s

A ll
,
in d u s tr ie s

M a n u fa c t u r in g

1 0 0

10 0

OF

PLAN T

P u b lic
u t ilit ie s *

1 0 0

W ORKERS EM PLOYED

IN —

W h o le s a le
tra d e

R e t a il t r a d e

1 0 0

10 0

S e r v ic e s

W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g :
L i f e i n s u r a n c e ----------------------------------------------------A c c i d e n t a l d e a th and d i s m e m b e r m e n t
i n s u r a n c e -----------------------------------------------------------S ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t i n s u r a n c e
o r s i c k le a v e o r b o t h 3 ------------------------------------S ic k n e s s and a c c i d e n t i n s u r a n c e 4 -----------S ic k l e a v e (fu ll p a y a n d n o
w a it in g p e r i o d ) ------------------------------------------S ic k le a v e ( p a r t ia l p a y o r
w a it in g p e r i o d ) ------------------------------------------H o s p it a liz a t io n i n s u r a n c e --------------------------------S u r g i c a l .i n s u r a n c e ----------------------------J
----------------M e d i c a l i n s u r a n c e ---------------------------------------------C a t a s t r o p h e in s u r a n c e --------------------------------------R e t i r e m e n t p e n s i o n -------------------------------------------N o h e a lt h , i n s u r a n c e , o r p e n s i o n
p l a n -----------------------------------------------------------------------

95

94

95

99

76

1 0 0

95

98

94

42

55

13

56

38

39

49

65

14

67

29

66

57
27

91

66
22

77
42

55
23

46
31

64

16

41
29

85

30

8

6

46
28

47

44

58

47

17

56

17

13

34

6

t
86

9
83
79
70
14
47

9
78
83
80
15
26

3
83
83

2 0

77
76
63
15
70

29
33
33
33

49
23
23
23

51

5
90
90
80
7
52

t

t

t

86

73
12

70
t

8

87

t

61
21

84

7

In c lu d e s data f o r s e r v i c e s in a d d it io n to t h o s e in d u s t r y d iv is io n s sh o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
I n c lu d e s data f o r r e a l e s t a t e an d s e r v i c e s in a d d itio n to th o se in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
U n d u p lica te d to t a l o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv i n g s i c k le a v e o r s ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e sh o w n s e p a r a t e l y bel<'""
N ot c o m p a r a b l e w ith e s t im a t e s in p r e v io u s s t u d ie s ,
t
L e s s than 2 . 5 p e r c e n t .
* T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ( e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o th e r p u b lic u t i li t ie s .
* * F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e .

1
2
3
4




79
79
74
8

8

94

10 0

11

49
87
87
83
14
35

86

2 0

12

93
93
91
10

25
t

O c c u p a t io n a l W a g e S u r v e y , San F r a n c i s c o -O a k la n d , C a lif. , J a n u a ry 1956
U. S. D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B u rea u o f L a b o r S t a t is tic s




19

Appendix*. Job Descriptions

The
a ssist
a

its

v a riety

and

of

from

rates

p rim a ry

field

sta ff

p a y roll

area

to

ca n tly

title s

and

in

of

use

in to

is

co m p a ra b le

those

p re p a rin g

w ork

esse n tia l

job

in d iv id u a l
the

in g

a p p re n tice s,

lea rn ers,

su p e rv iso rs,
and

p rob a tion a ry

to

B ecause
the

B u r e a u ’s

fie ld

the

th is

jo b

on

prepared

tra in e e s,

are

surveys

is

e m p lo y e d
to

of

to

under

e s ta b lis h m e n t

o ccu p a tion a l

wage

i-n te re sta b lish m e n t

d escrip tion s

re p re se n ta tiv e s

b eg in n ers,

are

g rou p in g

em p h a sis

those

wage

who

e s ta b lis h m e n t

the

B u r e a u ’s
or

B u r e a u ’s

w orkers

from

p e rm it
of

e s ta b lis h m e n ts

d escrip tion s,

for

occu p a tio n s

order

con ten t,

a p p ly in g th e se jo b
tem p orary,

d escrip tion s
a rra n gem en ts

in

con ten t.

occu p a tion a l

in

jo b

a p p rop ria te

d ifferen t

T h is

com p a ra b ility

from

of

cla ssify in g

area.

rep re se n tin g

in tera rea

purpose
in

for

m ay

d iffer

oth er

purposes.

in s tr u cte d to

h a n d ica p p ed

and

sig n ifi­
In

exclu d e w o r k ­

w ork ers,

p a rt-tim e ,

w orkers.

O f f i c e
B IL L E R ,

P repares
than
as

an

statem en ts,

ord in a ry

to b illin g s

cid en ta l

B O O K K E E P IN G -M A C H IN E

M A C H IN E

to

m a ch in e ,

or

or

sh ip p in g

b illin g

are

b ills ,

electrom a tic
charges
by

For

type

in v o ice s

of

wage

on

M ay

or p erform

o p e ra tio n s.

cla ss ifie d

and

ty p e w r ite r.

other
stu dy

m a ch in e,

as

a m a ch in e

a lso

keep

cle rica l w ork
purposes,

C la s s

other

records
in ­

b ille rs ,

the

stru ctu re

m in e s

m a ch in e
are

(M oon

ord ers,

from

typ in g

a n d a d d in g

m em oranda,

by

d iscou n ts

e x ten sion s,

m a ch in e ,

m a ch in e.

The

carbon

cop ie s

of

fa n fold

and
m ay
w h ich

b ill

sp ecia l

be

prepare

in v o lv e s

m ay

are

charges
not

be

in v o lv e s

a p p lica tio n
entry

com p u ted on

of
the

a ccu m u la te d

a

la rg e

is

and

and

prepared

and

a u to m a tica lly

prepared

w h ic h

b ills

in tern a lly

U su a lly

or

b illin g

e tc .,

orders,

u su a lly

b ein g

a

B urroughs,

sh ip p in g

w h ich

o p e ra tio n
the

U ses

m a ch in e s) to

etc.

tota ls

and

-

F ish er,

cu s to m e rs ’ purchase

sh ip p in g

n ecessary

m a ch in e )

E llio tt

p re d e te rm in e d

b illin g

(b illin g

H op k in s,

co m b in a tio n

in v o ice s
of

m a ch in e

often

num ber
done

on

of
a

used

of a

m a ch in e
m ay
b ills

or
as

in v o lv e s
record .
num ber

(S u n d stra n d ,
m ay

not

part
the

E llio tt F is h e r ,

h ave ty p e w r ite r

of

the

accou nts

s im u lta n e o u s

The

m a ch in e
d e b it o r

cred it

ed ge o f b o o k k e e p in g .
W orks
s a le s and c r e d it s lip s .

U ses

of

b ook k eep in g

prepare

on

cu stom ers’
G e n e ra lly

cu stom ers’

a ccu m u la te s

b a la n ces.

e tc . , w h ich

o p e ra tio n .

fig u res

and com pu tes
from

a

R em in g ton R a n d ,

re c e iv a b le

entry

-

k e y b o a r d ) to

a u to m a tica lly

o f v e r tic a l colu m n s

m a t ic a lly the

m a ch in e )

fig u re s

and u s u a lly p rin ts

D oes

u n ifo rm

not. in v o lv e
and

stan dard

led ger
on

a

auto­

a k n ow l­
types

under b ille r,
ven tory

C LE R K ,

etc.

and p re p a re

F ish er,
out

a

a

has

S u n d stran d ,

ty p e w r ite r

B urroughs,

m a ch in e

p lete

-

N a tion a l C a s h R e g is t e r ,

k e y b o a rd ) to k eep




a

record

of

b u s in e ss

Rand,
w ith o r

E llio tt

and

w ork.

other

set of

books

m e n t ’s b u s in e s s
su b sid ia ry

or

used.

and

by

or m ore

or

ite m s

con solid a ted

hand.

accou nts

or

se ctio n s

of b a sic b o o k ­

p a y a b le ,

p a y roll,

o f b illin g d e s c r ib e d

expense

a s s i s t in

sheets

of

D eter­

cred it

phases

little k n o w le d g e

d istrib u tion ,

con trol

k n ow led g e

prepare

a s im p le type

check

proper

a cco u n tin g

m a k in g

d istrib u tion , in ­

p re p a ra tio n

fo r the a cco u n tin g

of

tria l

departm en t.

a cco u n tin g
C la s s

B

U nder

le d g e rs .
and

w h ic h

the

tra n sa ctio n s.

tio n a l

b a sis

as

and

of

p ostin g

accou nts

of

a com ­

an e s ta b lis h ­
and

b a la n c in g

re c e iv a b le

in v o ic e s

req u ires

or accou nt­

s e ctio n s

or

ju d gm en t

and

a llo c a tio n s .

M ay

jou rn a l en tries;

or

vouchers

a c­
w ith

e x p e rie n ce
a ssist

in

m a y d ire ct cla ss

cle rk s.
-

bank

w ith ­

m ore

to one p h a se

cod in g

and clo s in g

su p erv ision ,
such

p a y a b le v o u c h e r s ,

a cco u n tin g

and

a ssig n a tion s

o p e ra tio n s

general

of a bookkeeper
or

W o rk in v o lv e s
such

d istrib u tion ;

a d ju s tin g ,

one

rela tin g

le d g e rs

ex a m in in g

proper

p rep a rin g ,

records

or

p a y a b le ;

B

M ay

in clu d e

tra n sa ction s.

le d g e r

cou nts
in

cost

d e b it

records

of one

re q u irin g

M ay

system

of

U nder g en era l d irection

re co n cilin g
(R e m in g to n

the

r e s p o n s ib ility fo r k eep in g

a cco u n tin g

b ook k eep in g

of

a

a n d f a m i lia r it y w ith

A C C O U N T IN G

by
O perates

a cco u n tin g

s e ctio n s

m a ch in e),

co n tro l,

b a la n ce s

of

O PE R ATO R

or

re q u irin g

p rin cip le s

d istrib u tio n

a record

u s u a lly

Phases

accou nts
B O O K K E E P IN G -M A C H IN E

sheets,

C o n tin u e d

records

c u s t o m e r s ’ a c c o u n t s (n ot in c lu d in g

ant,
(b ook k eep in g

of

and

phase

K eeps

set of re co rd s

k e e p in g .

set

p a rtic u la r

each

-

C la s s A

m a ch in e

the

b a la n ce
B

a

records

in

C la s s

m a ch in e.

B ille r,

K eeps

-

in b a s i c b o o k k e e p i n g
of

proper

reports,
B ille r,

-

and e x p e r ie n ce

to

fo llo w s:

A

O PE R ATO R

m ore

accou nts;
T h is

b ook k eep in g
rou tin e

am ong

as

one

s im p le

p ostin g
job

not

p rin c ip le s
w ork

w orkers.

is

rou tin e

reg isters;

led g ers

req u ire

but

m ore

vouchers,

su b sid ia ry

does

or

jo u rn a l

in v o u c h e r

e n terin g v o u c h e r s

a cco u n tin g

several

p e rfo rm s

p ostin g

is

a

fou n d

co n tro lle d

k n ow led g e

of

in

in

su b d iv id ed

o ffices
on

a

fu n c­

20
C LER K ,

K E Y -P U N C H

F IL E
C la ss

system .
m ay

A

-

R e sp on sib le

C la s sifie s

a lso

file

th is

in c o n j u n c t io n
m a teria l

in

m a teria l.

w ith file s
the

for

m a in ta in in g

and in d e x e s
or

file s.

M ay

keep

su p erv ise

M ay

an

correspon den ce

records

others

p e rfo rm

e sta b lish e d
or

of

v a rio u s

in filin g

in cid en ta l

and

U nder

filin g

other m a te ria l;
types

loca tin g

cle rica l

d u ties.

OPERATO R

b ilitie s,
by

p u n ch in g

u sin g

gen era l su p erv ision

records

an

w ritte n

a

a cco u n tin g

se rie s

a lp h a b etica l
in fo rm a tio n

d u p lica tin g
C la s s
has

B

-

t e r i a l in the
C LER K ,

ro u tin e

cla s s ifie d ,

file s.

or

filin g ,

lo ca te s

M ay p erform

u s u a lly

or

of

a ssists

m a te ria l

that

in l o c a t in g

fo llo w in g :

ow n

v e rify

O F F IC E

in cid en ta l c le r ic a l d u ties.

or

cu stom ers1 orders
p e rs o n a lly .

ite m s

to

p rice s

to

m ake

for

D u ties

m a teria l or

in v o lv e

cu stom ers;

up the

order;

any

m a k in g

m erch a n d ise

co m b in a tio n
out

an

ch eck in g p r ic e s

cu stom ers,
file

of

follow

orders

cu stom er,

up

orders

re c e iv e d ,

a ck n ow led g e

to

and

see

that

check

re c e ip t

by

of

order

th ey

have

s h ip p in g

the

sheet

and

OR

s a r y data

on the

ea rn in g s

based

on p a y ro ll
out

trib u tin g

p a y roll
on tim e

sh eet,

tim e ,

rate,

sh eets.
or

va riou s
and

m in o r

P erform s
a d m in istra tiv e
for

other

secreta ria l and

or

ex ecu tiv e

su p erior;

such

as

se a le rs

ru n n in g

or

clerica l

o rig in a l

op en in g

w ork.

cle rica l

p osition .

re c e iv in g

d u tie s

D u ties

p eop le

for

a

in clu d e

com in g

in to

su p erior

m a k in g
office;

phone

or

the

ca lls;

h a n d lin g

sten otype

or

personal

s im ila r

r e c o r d e d in fo rm a tio n
sp e cia l re p o rts

and

m a ch in e,

reproduced

im p orta n t

and

or

co n fi­

in itia tiv e ;
e ith e r
in

tra n scrib in g

on a tra n scrib in g

or m em ora n d a for

in a n

a p p o in t­

a n sw e rin g

d en tia l m a il, and w ritin g ro u tin e
correspon den ce
on ow n
ta k in g
d icta tio n
(w h ere tra n s crib in g
m a c h in e is
not u sed )

w ith

the

cards.

errands,

m a ile rs,

keep

m a k in g

for

in su ra n ce,

a ssist
M ay

such as

a

C a lcu la tin g

p ostin g

in form a tion

d icta ­

m a ch in e.

of su p e rio r.

and

tota l

in

w ages

m a k in g

ca lcu la tin g

up

duty

is

w o rk e rs1
d ata

w o rk in g

other

type

but,

of

other

in

of

P rim a ry
eith er

in

norm al

due.

M ay
d is­

files

rou tin e

w r ite r.

and

m a ch in e .

duty

shorthand
M ay

in

jo b

a lso

order,

cle rk ,

w h ich ,

not

w h ich

use

of

to

be

m ay
th is

con fu sed
in v o lv e

m ath e­

w ith

type

m a ch in e

P rim a ry

duty

eith er

in

use

of

v a ried

te ch n ica l or

in cid en ta l

is

to

reports

shorthand
on

file s

M ay
in

O PE R ATO R

(M IM E O G R A P H

OR

such

m im e o g ra p h

as

re q u ired

u sed s te n cils o r
p leted m a te ria l.

for

to

and

prepare

d itto




in k

or

d itto

paper

sten cil

m asters.

m a ch in e.
feed

M akes

cou n ter

and

necessary
cy lin d e r

or

d itto

m aster.

M ay

M ay

sort,

colla te,

and

is

M ay

a lso

D oes

set
not

person s,

in v o lv in g

d icta tion

tra n s crib in g -m a ch in e

to tak e

by

d icta tion

sten otyp e

research

a lso

order,

S W IT C H B O A R D

a

th is

etc.

or m ore

m a ch in e,

on

up

a

a type­

and

in clu d e

keep
tran ­

o p era tor).

type

and

s im p le

to

fro m

one

s im ila r

voca b u la ry

from

keep

or

such

as

tra n scrib e

w ritte n

copy.

record s,

or

m ore

m a ch in e,
in

le g a l

th is

M ay

etc.

persons,

in v o lv in g
b rie fs

d icta tion
a lso

D oes

set

on

up

not

a
or
a

and

in clu d e

w ork.

D IT T O )

U n d e r g e n e r a l s u p e r v is io n a n d w ith n o s u p e r v is o r y
respon ­
sib ilitie s,, re p r o d u c e s
m u ltip le
c o p ie s o f ty p e w ritte n o r h a n d w ritten
u sin g

(see

copy.

record s,

one

s im ila r

to tr a n s c r ib e

w ritte n

s p e cia liz e d

tra n scrib in g -m a ch in e
D U P L IC A T IN G -M A C H IN E

fro m

or

s cie n tific

ty p e w r ite r.

and

or

T E C H N IC A L

of

d u ties.

d icta tion fr o m

sten otyp e

s im p le

w ork

that

freq u en t

to take

by

keep

scrib in g -m a ch in e

a C o m p to m e te r to p e r fo r m
is

is

or

v o ca b u la ry ,

STEN O G RA PH E R ,

to o p e ra te
T h is

GEN ERAL

n eces­

ca lcu la te d

w o r k e r ’s n a m e,

paym aster

use

the

keep

not

d u ties

fille d ,

O PE R ATO R

C om p tom eter

p erform a n ce

Is

rou tin e

and

and enters

in v o lv e :

records;

in form a tion

e n v e lo p e s.

P rim a ry
or

D u ties

p rod u ction

and

com p u ta tion s.

s ta tis tica l

com p a n y e m p lo y e e s

d ed u ction s

paychecks
pay

of

sh ow in g

C O M PTO M E TER

ju stm en t

punch

G IR L

STEN OG RAPH ER,

m atter,

of

u sin g

P A Y R O L L
C om pu tes w ages

a

file s

follow in g

by

oth ers.

m a il,

sh orth an d or b y

m a tica l

of

K eeps

cards

cards

sequence,

m a ch in e ,

d u p lica te

d istrib u tin g

M ay prepare

days,

k ey -p u n ch

M ay

m a ch in e.

w ork

sp e cifie d

SEC R ETA R Y

tio n

m ake

to

a

resp o n si­

tab u la tin g

from

orders.

C LER K ,

n u m e rica l

on

orders

been

in v o ic e s

or

cards

such as

an d q u a n tities

of

in

record s.

attach ed

w ork

the

in

m a ch in es

m ents

of

a

su p erv isory

data

office

m in e

ra tin g

or
on

w ith n o

m in o r

o f item s on o r d e r sh eet;
d istrib u tin g o r d e r sh eets to r e s p e c t iv e d e ­
p a rtm e n ts to b e fille d .
M a y c h e c k w ith c r e d it d e p a rtm e n t to d e t e r ­
cred it

BOY

o p e ra tin g

Q u otin g

lis t in g the

M ay

h oles

and

s ta tis tica l

m a ­

ORDER

phone,

d evice

P erform s

R ece iv e s
m a il,

P erform s

a lre a d y b een

of

and

keep
sta p le

ad­

O perates
D u ties

speed.

ca lls.

file

m a tio n

of

co m ­

O PERATO R

in v o lv e
M ay
to

record

persons

F or w orkers
re ce p tio n ist.

a s in g le -

h a n d lin g
to ll

who

w ho a lso

or m u ltip le-p osition

in com in g ,
ca lls

ca ll

and

in ,

act as

or

o u tg oin g ,
take

te le p h o n e

and

m essa ges.

o cc a s io n a lly

recep tion ists

see

sw itch b oa rd .

in tra p la n t
M ay

or

g iv e

take te le p h o n e
sw itch b oa rd

office
in for­

ord ers.

operator-

21

SW IT C H B O A R D

In a d d it io n to p e r f o r m i n g
tio n
type

or

m o n ito r-ty p e

or

p erform

T h is

ty p in g

tim e

or

w h ile

d u ties

sw itch b oa rd ,

rou tin e

of

acts

cle rica l

cle rica l w ork

at

T R A N S C R IB IN G -M A C H IN E

O P E R A T O R -R E C E P T IO N IS T

w ork

m a y tak e

operator,

as

on

recep tion ist

as

part

the m a j o r

of

a s in g le p o s i ­

in clu d ed .

and

or

m ay

reg u la r

part of

th is

a lso

A

w orker

sim ila r

T A B U L A T IN G -M A C H IN E
O perates

a u to m a tica lly

in

groups

form s

or

a cco u n tin g

records;

w irin g

s im p le

or

that

of

p lu g b o a rd s

d ia g ra m s;

p la ces

cards

to

of

a n a ly zes

a ccord in g

on

ta b u la tin g

b e tab u la ted

m a c h in e . M a y file c a r d s a fte r
op era te a u x ilia ry m a ch in e s .

they

out

M ay

O PERATO R

m a ch in e

punched

does

are

cards
sets
to

in f e e d

and

and

or

tra n s la te s

p rin ts

a d ju s ts

tab u la ted .

M ay,

trib u tin g

w ork

in co m in g
C la s s

m a teria l

v o ca b u la ry

s crib in g
la ry

duty

w ritte n
as

from
copy

d icta tion

such

is

to

A

from

and

a d d itio n ,

GEN ERAL

tra n scrib in g
and

do

in v o lv in g

lega l

tra n scrib e

a

b rie fs

d icta tion

v a ried

-

m a ch in e

s im p le

v a r ie d te ch n ica l

or

record s.

cle rica l

reports

on

w ork.
or

a

D R A FTSM A N ,
(A ssista n t

M ay

W orkers

p la in

s p e cia liz e d

scie n tific

research

D raw s
p oses.

others

use

U ses

C la s s
from

vocabu­
are

in su ra n ce

not

a n d

u n its

or parts

e n g in eerin g ,

v a riou s

types

of

of

d ra w in g s

con stru ction ,
d ra ftin g
or

prepared by

or

lim in a ry

of

to o ls

as

re q u ire d .

sk etch es,

or

p erform

M ay

pu r­

and

a

w ork in g

p la n s

for

D u ties

in v o lv e

procedu res;
p e rform in g

sk etch es,
a ssig n in g
m ore

and

and

a

to

or

one

d ra w in g s
of

m ore
from

the

B

or

M ay

rough

or

p re ­

m a n u fa ctu rin g
In terp retin g

d e te rm in in g

w ork

and in s p e ctin g th e ir w o r k ;
a ssist

su b ord in a tes

or

by

m a teria l
another

tra in in g ,

reports, or

of

the

rough and

copy
and

in

such

or

to

person.
as

so rtin g

keep­

and

unusual

d is­

is

ta b les

ta b les

form

letters,

to

from

copy­

a

fre q u e n t

fro m

fo re ig n -

several

ty p in g

rou tin e

or

T yp in g

d ra ft;

there

w ords

from

s ta tis tica l

in s p a c in g ;

follo w in g :

in v o lv e d

w h ich

m a teria l

com p lica te d
type

m ore

-

P erform s
cle a r

one

or

or

typ ed

m ore

c o m p le x ta b les

of

d ra fts;

p o l ic i e s , e t c . ; s ettin g up

LEAD ER
or

D R A FTSM AN ,

o th e r d u ties

d r a f t s m e n in

follow in g :

verbal orders;

s u b ord in a tes

p rob lem s.

or

co n stru ctio n ,

co m b in a tio n

w ritte n

d u ties

of

d eta il

e n g in e e rin g ,

d iffic u lt




of

M ay

as

su p erv isory

a

or

-

sources,
m a in ta in
rough

v a ry in g

or
u n i­

d ra ft

d eta ils

in
to

s im p le

a lrea d y

the

follow in g :

rou tin e

set

typ in g

T yp in g

of

fo rm s,

sta n d a rd ta b u la tion s,
up

or

and sp a ced p rop erly .

C o n tin u e d

reg u la r

a ssig n m en t,

a d m in istra tiv e

or

p erform

rela ted

d u ties

nature.

SE N IO R

P repares
rough

a ctiv itie s

v a riou s

m ade

sp ecia l
and

very

te ch n ica l

w ork in g

d e ta iled

sk etch es

or

purposes.

d u rin g

s ca le

tio n s

by

such

trusses;
to be

of

as

used,

ch an ges

on

p e n cil

and

com p leted

q u a n tities;

d ra w in g s,

d ra w in g s.

a rch ite ctu ra l,

or

in v o lv e

a

is

e le ctrica l,

in

w ritin g

m aps,

m a k in g

strength

w ork,

d ra w in g s

of

ch eck in g

freq u en tly
m ech a n ica l,

M ay

u n its
in
or

a

of

of

or

the

notes,
m anu­

fo llo w in g :

c r o s s -s e c tio n s , etc. ,
en g in eerin g

m a teria ls,
m a k in g

sp ecia lized
stru ctu ral

and

m a te ria ls

a d ju stm e n ts

in k in lin e s
co m p le te

com puta­

beam s

d im en sion s,

sp e cifica tio n s;

d eta il

from

con stru ction ,

co m b in a tio n

sp e cifica tio n s.

prepare

W ork

d eta il

in stru m en ts;

in v o lv e d

in d r a w in g s

and

e n g in e e rin g ,

d e ta il d r a w in g s ,

d ra ftin g

those

v e rify in g

or

trace

use

p la n s
fo r

D u ties

P r e p a r in g w ork in g p la n s ,

d ire cts

of

been

p re ­

LE A D E R

sk etch es

b lu e p rin ts,

sten otyp e

d ra fts­

m a n u fa ctu rin g

to
P la n s

purposes.

by

T e c h n i c a l

e m e rg e n cie s

s ca le

one

from

co m b in in g

b a la n ce

co p y in g m o r e

d ra ftsm a n )

for

cop ies

little

corrected

of

rela tiv ely

fa ctu rin g

p re p a ra tio n

or

g en era l.

circu m sta n ce s.

D R A FTSM AN ,

p a re d ra w in g s fr o m
s im p le p la n s
u n d er d ire ctio n o f a d ra ftsm a n .
D R A FTSM A N ,

and

form .

JU N IO R

to

form
or

la you t

a lso
tran ­

of
or

shorthand

norm al

P r o f e s s i o n a l

m an

in

sten ogra p h er,

have

records

P erform s

copy;

fin a l
in v o lv in g

m ake

in v o lv in g
filin g

in fin a l

in g

and starts

su it
P rim a ry
from

a

m a il.

la n g u a g e

O PE R A TO R ,

to

ca lcu la tio n s

record s,

form ity
T R A N S C R IB IN G -M A C H IN E

rou tin e

as

tran s­

p ra ctice

in

ty p e w r ite r
a fter

clerica l

s im p le

m a ch in e ;

e sta b lish e d
m a g a zin e

do

a

b ills

p lan n in g

type

d icta tion

C o n tin u e d

T Y P IS T

in g

data

tak es

cla ss ifie d

-

sw itch b o a rd .
U ses

in fo rm a tio n

is

G E N ER A L

d u ties.

w o r k e r ’s

m ake

la ted

who

m a ch in e

O PE R A TO R ,

and

letters

d ra w in g s,
field

d ra ftin g .

such

or
as

22
NU RSE,

N U RSE,

IN D U S T R IA L (R E G IS T E R E D )

A r e g i s t e r e d n u r s e w h o g iv e s n u r s in g s e r v i c e to i l l o r in ju r e d
e m p lo y e e s o r o t h e r p e r s o n s w h o b e c o m e i l l o r s u ffe r an a c c id e n t on
th e p r e m i s e s o f a f a c t o r y o r o th e r e s t a b lis h m e n t .
D u tie s in v o lv e a
c o m b in a tio n o f the f o l l o w i n g : G iv in g f i r s t a id to th e i l l o r in ju r e d ;
a t te n d in g t o s u b s e q u e n t d r e s s in g o f e m p lo y e e s * i n j u r i e s ; k e e p in g r e c o r d s
o f p a tie n ts t r e a t e d ; p r e p a r in g a c c id e n t r e p o r t s f o r c o m p e n s a t io n o r
o th e r p u r p o s e s ; c o n d u c tin g p h y s ic a l e x a m in a tio n s an d h e a lth e v a lu a t io n s
o f a p p lic a n ts a n d e m p lo y e e s ; an d p la n n in g an d c a r r y in g ou t p r o g r a m s
in v o lv in g h e a lth e d u c a t io n , a c c id e n t p r e v e n t io n , e v a lu a t io n o f p la n t

Maintenance

CARPEN TER,

M A IN T E N A N C E

P e r f o r m s the c a r p e n t r y d u tie s n e c e s s a r y to c o n s t r u c t a n d
m a in ta in in g o o d r e p a ir b u ild in g w o o d w o r k an d e q u ip m e n t su ch a s b i n s ,
c r i b s , c o u n t e r s , b e n c h e s , p a r t it io n s , d o o r s , f l o o r s , s t a i r s , c a s i n g s ,
an d t r im m a d e o f w o o d in an e s t a b lis h m e n t .
W o r k in v o l v e s m o s t o f
th e fo llo w in g : P la n n in g an d la y in g out o f w o r k f r o m b l u e p r i n t s , d r a w ­
in g s , m o d e l s , o r v e r b a l in s t r u c t io n s ; u sin g a v a r ie t y o f c a r p e n t e r *s
h a n d to o ls , p o r t a b le p o w e r t o o l s , an d s ta n d a r d m e a s u r in g in s t r u m e n t s ;
m a k in g s ta n d a r d sh op c o m p u ta tio n s r e la t in g to d im e n s io n s o f w o r k ;
s e le c t in g m a t e r i a l s n e c e s s a r y f o r the w o r k . In g e n e r a l , the w o r k o f
the m a in te n a n c e c a r p e n t e r r e q u ir e s r o u n d e d t r a in in g an d e x p e r i e n c e
u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t t r a i n ­
in g and e x p e r i e n c e .

E L E C T R IC IA N ,

M A IN T E N A N C E

P e r f o r m s a v a r ie t y o f e l e c t r i c a l tr a d e fu n c tio n s s u c h a s the
in s t a lla t io n , m a in t e n a n c e , o r r e p a ir o f e q u ip m e n t f o r the g e n e r a t in g ,
d is t r ib u t io n , o r u t iliz a t io n o f e l e c t r i c e n e r g y in an e s t a b lis h m e n t .
W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t o f the f o llo w in g : I n s ta llin g o r r e p a ir in g an y o f
a v a r ie t y o f e l e c t r i c a l e q u ip m e n t s u c h as g e n e r a t o r s , t r a n s f o r m e r s ,
s w it c h b o a r d s , c o n t r o l l e r s , c i r c u i t b r e a k e r s , m o t o r s , h e a tin g
u n it s ,
c o n d u it s y s t e m s , o r o th e r t r a n s m is s io n e q u ip m e n t; w o r k in g f r o m b l u e ­
p r in t s , d r a w in g s , la y o u t , o r o th e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ; lo c a t in g an d d ia g ­
n o s in g t r o u b le in the e l e c t r i c a l s y s t e m o r e q u ip m e n t; w o r k in g s t a n d a r d
c o m p u ta tio n s r e la t in g to lo a d r e q u ir e m e n t s o f w ir in g o r e l e c t r i c a l
e q u ip m e n t; u s in g a v a r ie t y o f e l e c t r i c i a n Js h a n d to o ls an d m e a s u r in g
an d te s tin g in s t r u m e n t s .
In g e n e r a l, the w o r k o f the m a in te n a n c e
e l e c t r i c i a n r e q u i r e s r o u n d e d tr a in in g an d e x p e r i e n c e u s u a lly a c ­
q u ir e d th r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t tr a in in g an d
e x p e rie n c e .




IN D U S T R IA L (R E G I S T E R E D ) -

e n v ir o n m e n t , o r o th e r a c t i v it ie s
s a fe t y o f a ll p e r s o n n e l.

C o n tin u e d

a ffe c t i n g

th e

h e a lt h ,

w e lfa r e ,

and

TRACER
C o p ie s p la n s an d d r a w in g s p r e p a r e d b y o t h e r s , b y p la c in g
t r a c in g c lo t h o r p a p e r o v e r d r a w in g an d t r a c in g w ith p e n o r p e n c i l .
U s e s T - s q u a r e , c o m p a s s , and o t h e r d r a ft in g t o o l s .
M ay p rep a re
s im p le d r a w in g s and do s im p le le t t e r i n g .

and

Powerplant

E N G IN E E R ,

S T A T IO N A R Y

O p e r a te s and m a in ta in s an d m a y a l s o s u p e r v i s e th e o p e r a t io n
o f s t a t io n a r y e n g in e s an d e q u ip m e n t ( m e c h a n ic a l o r e l e c t r i c a l ) to s u p ­
p ly th e e s t a b lis h m e n t in w h ic h e m p lo y e d w ith p o w e r , h e a t , r e f r i g e r a ­
t io n , o r a i r - c o n d it io n in g .
W o r k in v o l v e s : O p e r a tin g an d m a in ta in in g
e q u ip m e n t su ch a s s te a m e n g in e s , a i r c o m p r e s s o r s , g e n e r a t o r s , m o ­
t o r s , t u r b in e s , v e n tila tin g and r e f r i g e r a t i n g e q u ip m e n t , s t e a m b o i l e r s
an d b o i l e r - f e d w a te r p u m p s ; m a k in g e q u ip m e n t r e p a i r s ; k e e p in g a
r e c o r d o f o p e r a t io n o f m a c h in e r y , t e m p e r a t u r e , a n d fu e l c o n s u m p ­
t io n . M a y a l s o s u p e r v is e th e s e o p e r a t i o n s . H e a d o r c h i e f e n g in e e r s
in e s t a b lis h m e n t s e m p lo y in g m o r e th an on e e n g in e e r a r e e x c l u d e d .
F IR E M A N ,

S T A T IO N A R Y B O IL E R

F i r e s s t a t io n a r y b o i l e r s to fu r n is h th e e s t a b lis h m e n t in w h ic h
e m p lo y e d w ith h e a t, p o w e r , o r s t e a m .
F e e d s fu e ls to f i r e b y h an d
o r o p e r a t e s a m e c h a n ic a l s t o k e r , g a s , o r o il b u r n e r ; c h e c k s w a t e r
an d s a fe t y v a lv e s .
M a y c le a n , o i l , o r a s s i s t in r e p a ir in g b o i l e r r o o m e q u ip m e n t.
HELPER,

TRADES,

M A IN T E N A N C E

A s s i s t s on e o r m o r e w o r k e r s in th e s k i lle d m a in t e n a n c e
t r a d e s , b y p e r fo r m in g s p e c i f i c o r g e n e r a l d u tie s o f l e s s e r s k i l l , s u c h
a s k e e p in g a w o r k e r s u p p lie d w ith m a t e r i a l s an d t o o l s ; c le a n in g w o r k ­
in g a r e a , m a c h in e , and e q u ip m e n t; a s s i s t i n g w o r k e r b y h o ld in g m a ­
t e r i a l s o r t o o l s ; p e r fo r m in g o th e r u n s k ille d ta s k s a s d i r e c t e d by j o u r ­
n e y m a n . T h e k in d o f w o r k the h e lp e r is p e r m it t e d to p e r f o r m v a r i e s
f r o m tr a d e to tr a d e :
In s o m e t r a d e s th e h e l p e r is c o n fin e d to s u p ­
p ly in g , lift in g , an d h o ld in g m a t e r ia l s an d t o o l s a n d c le a n in g w o r k in g
a r e a s ; an d in o th e r s he is p e r m it t e d to p e r f o r m s p e c i a l i z e d m a c h in e
o p e r a t io n s , o r p a r t s o f a tr a d e th at a r e a l s o p e r f o r m e d b y w o r k e r s
on a f u ll- t i m e b a s i s .

23
M A C H I N E -T O O L

OPERATOR,

TOOLROOM

S p e c i a l i z e s in th e o p e r a t io n o f on e o r m o r e ty p e s o f m a c h in e
t o o l s , s u c h a s j i g b o r e r s , c y l i n d r i c a l o r s u r fa c e g r i n d e r s , e n g in e
la t h e s , o r m i llin g m a c h in e s in the c o n s t r u c t io n o f m a c h in e - s h o p t o o l s ,
g a u g e s , j i g s , f i x t u r e s , o r d i e s . W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t o f the f o l l o w i n g :
P la n n in g a n d p e r f o r m i n g d iffic u lt m a c h in in g o p e r a t io n s ; p r o c e s s i n g
it e m s r e q u ir i n g c o m p l i c a t e d se tu p s o r a h igh d e g r e e o f a c c u r a c y ;
u s in g a v a r i e t y o f p r e c i s i o n m e a s u r in g in s t r u m e n t s ; s e l e c t in g f e e d s ,
s p e e d s , t o o lin g a n d o p e r a t io n s e q u e n c e ; m a k in g n e c e s s a r y a d ju s t ­
m e n t s d u rin g o p e r a t io n to a c h ie v e r e q u is it e t o l e r a n c e s o r d im e n s io n s .
M a y b e r e q u i r e d to r e c o g n i z e w h en t o o ls n e e d d r e s s i n g , to d r e s s t o o l s ,
a n d t o s e l e c t p r o p e r c o o la n t s and cu ttin g an d lu b r ic a t in g o i l s .
F or
c r o s s - i n d u s t r y w a g e stu d y p u r p o s e s , m a c h in e - t o o l o p e r a t o r s , t o o l r o o m ,
in t o o l a n d d ie jo b b in g s h o p s a r e e x c lu d e d fr o m th is c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .

M A C H IN IS T ,

M E C H A N IC ,

M A IN T E N A N C E

R e p a ir s m a c h in e r y o r m e c h a n ic a l e q u ip m e n t o f an e s t a b lis h ­
m en t.
W o r k in v o l v e s m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g : E x a m in in g m a c h in e s
an d m e c h a n ic a l e q u ip m e n t to d ia g n o s e s o u r c e o f t r o u b le ; d is m a n tlin g
o r p a r t ly d is m a n t lin g m a c h in e s an d p e r f o r m i n g r e p a ir s that m a in ly
in v o lv e th e u s e o f h a n d to o ls in s c r a p in g an d fittin g p a r t s ; r e p la c in g
b r o k e n o r d e fe c t iv e p a r t s w ith it e m s o b ta in e d f r o m s t o c k ; o r d e r in g the
p r o d u c t io n o f a r e p la c e m e n t p a r t b y a m a c h in e sh op o r sen d in g o f
the m a c h in e to a m a c h in e sh o p f o r m a jo r r e p a i r s ; p r e p a r in g w r it te n
s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r m a j o r r e p a i r s o r f o r th e p r o d u c t io n o f p a r t s o r d e r e d
f r o m m a c h in e s h o p ; r e a s s e m b lin g m a c h in e s ; an d m a k in g a ll n e c e s s a r y
a d ju s tm e n t s f o r o p e r a t io n .
In g e n e r a l , the w o r k o f a m a in te n a n ce
m e c h a n ic r e q u i r e s r o u n d e d t r a in in g an d e x p e r i e n c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d
th r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t tr a in in g an d e x p e r i e n c e .
E x c lu d e d f r o m th is c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a r e w o r k e r s w h o s e p r im a r y d u ties
in v o lv e s e ttin g up o r a d ju s tin g m a c h in e s .

M A IN T E N A N C E
M IL L W R IG H T

P r o d u c e s r e p la c e m e n t p a r t s an d n ew p a r t s in m a k in g r e p a i r s
o f m e t a l p a r t s o f m e c h a n i c a l e q u ip m e n t o p e r a t e d in an e s t a b lis h m e n t .
W o r k in v o l v e s m o s t o f th e fo llo w in g : In te r p r e t in g w r it t e n i n s t r u c ­
t io n s a n d s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ; p la n n in g an d la y in g out o f w o r k ; u s in g a v a ­
r i e t y o f m a c h i n i s t ’ s h a n d to o ls an d p r e c i s i o n m e a s u r in g in s t r u m e n t s ;
s e t tin g up a n d o p e r a t in g s ta n d a r d m a c h in e t o o l s ; sh a p in g o f m e t a l
p a r t s to c l o s e t o l e r a n c e s ; m a k in g s ta n d a r d sh op c o m p u ta tio n s r e l a t ­
in g to d im e n s io n s o f w o r k , t o o lin g , fe e d s and s p e e d s o f m a c h in in g ;
k n o w le d g e o f th e w o r k in g p r o p e r t i e s o f the c o m m o n m e t a ls ; s e l e c t in g
s t a n d a r d m a t e r i a l s , p a r t s , an d e q u ip m e n t r e q u ir e d f o r h is w o r k ; fittin g
a n d a s s e m b li n g p a r t s in to m e c h a n ic a l e q u ip m e n t.
In g e n e r a l, the
m a c h i n i s t ’s w o r k n o r m a l l y r e q u ir e s a ro u n d e d t r a in in g in m a c h in e s h o p p r a c t i c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th r o u g h a fo r m a l a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r
e q u iv a le n t tr a in in g a n d e x p e r i e n c e .

I n s t a lls n ew m a c h in e s o r h e a v y e q u ip m e n t and d is m a n t le s and
in s t a ll s m a c h in e s o r h e a v y e q u ip m e n t w h en c h a n g e s in the p la n t l a y ­
out a r e r e q u ir e d . W o r k in v o l v e s m o s t o f the f o llo w in g : P la n n in g and
la y in g ou t o f th e w o r k ; in t e r p r e t in g b lu e p r in t s o r o th e r s p e c if i c a t io n s ;
u s in g a v a r ie t y o f h a n d to o ls an d r ig g in g ; m a k in g s ta n d a r d sh op c o m ­
p u ta tio n s r e la t in g to s t r e s s e s , s t r e n g th o f m a t e r i a l s , and c e n t e r s o f
g r a v it y ; a lin in g an d b a la n c in g o f e q u ip m e n t ; s e le c t in g s ta n d a r d t o o l s ,
e q u ip m e n t , an d p a r t s to b e u s e d ; in s t a llin g an d m a in ta in in g in g o o d
o r d e r p o w e r t r a n s m i s s i o n e q u ip m e n t su c h a s d r iv e s an d s p e e d r e ­
d u c e r s . In g e n e r a l, the m i l l w r i g h t ’s w o r k n o r m a lly r e q u ir e s a ro u n d e d
tr a in in g an d e x p e r i e n c e in the tr a d e a c q u ir e d th r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n ­
t i c e s h i p o r e q u iv a le n t tr a in in g an d e x p e r i e n c e .

O IL E R

M E C H A N IC , A U T O M O T I V E

(M A IN T E N A N C E )

R e p a i r s a u t o m o b il e s , b u s e s , m o t o r t r u c k s , an d t r a c t o r s o f
an e s t a b lis h m e n t .
W o r k in v o l v e s m o s t o f the f o l l o w i n g : E x a m in in g
a u t o m o t iv e e q u ip m e n t to d ia g n o s e s o u r c e o f t r o u b le ; d is a s s e m b lin g
e q u ip m e n t a n d p e r f o r m i n g r e p a i r s that in v o lv e the u s e o f s u c h h a n d t o o l s a s w r e n c h e s , g a u g e s , d r i l l s , o r s p e c i a l i z e d e q u ip m e n t in d i s ­
a s s e m b li n g o r fit tin g p a r t s ; r e p la c in g b r o k e n o r d e f e c t iv e p a r t s f r o m
s t o c k ; g r in d in g a n d a d ju s tin g v a lv e s ; r e a s s e m b lin g an d in s t a llin g th e
v a r i o u s a s s e m b l i e s in the v e h ic le an d m a k in g n e c e s s a r y a d ju s t m e n t s ;
a lin in g w h e e l s , a d ju s tin g b r a k e s an d lig h t s , o r tig h te n in g b o d y b o l t s .
In g e n e r a l , th e w o r k o f th e a u to m o tiv e m e c h a n ic r e q u i r e s r o u n d e d
tr a in in g a n d e x p e r i e n c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th ro u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t i c e ­
sh ip o r e q u iv a le n t tr a in in g an d e x p e r i e n c e .




s u r fa c e s

L u b r i c a t e s , w ith o il o r g r e a s e , the m o v in g p a r t s o r w e a r in g
o f m e c h a n ic a l e q u ip m e n t o f an e s t a b lis h m e n t .

P A IN T E R ,

M A IN T E N A N C E

P a in t s an d r e d e c o r a t e s w a l l s , w o o d w o r k , and fix t u r e s o f an
e s t a b lis h m e n t .
W o r k in v o lv e s th e fo llo w in g :
K n o w le d g e o f s u r fa c e
p e c u l i a r i t i e s an d ty p e s o f p a in t r e q u ir e d f o r d iffe r e n t a p p lic a t io n s ;
p r e p a r in g s u r f a c e f o r p a in tin g b y r e m o v in g o ld fin is h o r b y p la c in g
p u tty o r f i l l e r , in n a il h o le s an d i n t e r s t i c e s ; a p p ly in g p a in t w ith s p r a y
gun o r b r u s h .
M a y m ix c o l o r s , o i l s , w h ite le a d , a n d o th e r p a in t
in g r e d ie n t s to o b ta in p r o p e r c o l o r o r c o n s i s t e n c y .
In g e n e r a l, the
w o r k o f th e m a in te n a n c e p a in t e r r e q u ir e s r o u n d e d tr a in in g and e x ­
p e r i e n c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r e q u iv a ­
le n t tr a in in g an d e x p e r i e n c e .

24

P IP E F IT T E R ,

S H E E T -M E T A L W O R K E R ,

M A IN T E N A N C E

I n s t a lls o r r e p a i r s w a t e r , s t e a m , g a s , o r o t h e r ty p e s o f p ip e
and p ip e fit t in g s in an e s t a b lis h m e n t . W o r k in v o l v e s m o s t o f th e f o l ­
lo w in g : L a y in g out o f w o r k an d m e a s u r in g to l o c a t e p o s it io n o f p ip e
f r o m d r a w in g s o r o th e r w r it t e n s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ; cu ttin g v a r io u s s i z e s
o f p ip e to c o r r e c t le n g th s w ith c h i s e l an d h a m m e r o r o x y a c e t y le n e
t o r c h o r p ip e -c u t t i n g m a c h in e ; th r e a d in g p ip e w ith s t o c k s an d d ie s ;
b e n d in g p ip e b y h a n d -d r iv e n o r p o w e r - d r i v e n m a c h in e s ; a s s e m b li n g
p ip e w ith c o u p lin g s an d fa s te n in g p ip e to h a n g e r s ; m a k in g s t a n d a r d
sh op c o m p u ta tio n s r e la t in g to p r e s s u r e s , flo w , a n d s i z e o f p ip e r e ­
q u ir e d ; m a k in g s ta n d a r d t e s t s to d e t e r m in e w h e th e r fin is h e d p ip e s m e e t
s p e c ific a tio n s .
In g e n e r a l, the w o r k o f the m a in te n a n c e p ip e fi t t e r
r e q u i r e s r o u n d e d tr a in in g an d e x p e r i e n c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th r o u g h a
f o r m a l a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t t r a in in g an d e x p e r i e n c e . W o r k e r s
p r i m a r i l y e n g a g e d in in s t a llin g an d r e p a ir in g b u ild in g s a n ita tio n o r
h e a tin g s y s t e m s a r e e x c lu d e d .
PLUM BER,

M A IN T E N A N C E

K e e p s th e p lu m b in g s y s t e m o f an e s t a b lis h m e n t in g o o d o r d e r .
W o r k in v o l v e s : K n o w le d g e o f s a n it a r y c o d e s r e g a r d in g in s t a lla t io n o f
v e n ts an d tr a p s in p lu m b in g s y s t e m ; in s t a llin g o r r e p a ir in g p ip e s an d
fix t u r e s ; o p e n in g c lo g g e d d r a in s w ith a p lu n g e r o r p l u m b e r ^ s n a k e .
In g e n e r a l, the w o r k o f the m a in te n a n c e p lu m b e r r e q u i r e s r o u n d e d
tr a in in g and e x p e r i e n c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t i c e ­
sh ip o r e q u iv a le n t tr a in in g an d e x p e r i e n c e .
S H E E T -M E T A L W O R K E R ,

M A IN T E N A N C E

F a b r i c a t e s , i n s t a l l s , an d m a in ta in s in g o o d r e p a i r the s h e e t m e t a l e q u ip m e n t an d fix t u r e s (s u c h a s m a c h in e g u a r d s , g r e a s e p a n s ,
s h e l v e s , l o c k e r s , ta n k s , v e n t i l a t o r s , c h u t e s , d u c t s , m e t a l r o o f in g )
o f an e s t a b lis h m e n t . W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t o f the f o l l o w i n g : P la n n in g

Custodial

ELEVATOR

OPERATOR,

and

T r a n s p o r t s p a s s e n g e r s b e t w e e n f l o o r s o f an o f f i c e b u ild in g ,
a p a r tm e n t h o u s e , d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e , h o t e l o r s i m i l a r e s t a b lis h m e n t .
W o r k e r s w h o o p e r a t e e l e v a t o r s in c o n ju n c t io n w ith o t h e r d u tie s s u c h
a s th o s e o f s t a r t e r s an d ja n i t o r s a r e e x c lu d e d .
GUARD
P e r f o r m s r o u tin e p o l i c e d u t ie s , e it h e r at fix e d p o s t o r on
t o u r , m a in ta in in g o r d e r ,
u s in g a r m s o r f o r c e w h e r e n e c e s s a r y . In ­
c lu d e s g a te m e n w h o a r e s t a t io n e d at g a te an d c h e c k on id e n tity o f
e m p lo y e e s an d o th e r p e r s o n s e n t e r in g .




-

C o n tin u e d

an d la y in g out a ll ty p e s o f s h e e t - m e t a l m a in t e n a n c e w o r k f r o m b l u e ­
p r i n t s , m o d e l s , o r o th e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ; s e t tin g up an d o p e r a t in g a ll
a v a ila b le ty p e s o f s h e e t - m e t a l- w o r k in g m a c h i n e s ; u s in g a v a r i e t y o f
h a n d to o ls in c u ttin g , b e n d in g , f o r m i n g , s h a p in g , fit t in g , an d a s s e m ­
b lin g ; in s t a llin g s h e e t -m e t a l a r t i c l e s a s r e q u i r e d .
In g e n e r a l , the
w o r k o f the m a in te n a n c e s h e e t - m e t a l w o r k e r r e q u i r e s r o u n d e d tr a in in g
an d e x p e r i e n c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t i c e s h ip o r
e q u iv a le n t tr a in in g an d e x p e r i e n c e .
T O O L A N D DIE M A K E R
(D ie m a k e r ; ji g

m a k e r; to o lm a k e r ;

fix t u r e

m a k e r; gauge

m a k er)

C o n s t r u c t s and r e p a ir s m a c h i n e - s h o p t o o l s , g a u g e s , j i g s , f i x ­
t u r e s o r d ie s f o r f o r g i n g s , p u n ch in g a n d o t h e r m e t a l - f o r m i n g w o r k .
W o r k in v o l v e s m o s t o f the f o l l o w i n g : P la n n in g an d la y in g out o f w o r k
fr o m m o d e l s , b lu e p r in t s , d r a w in g s , o r o t h e r o r a l an d w r it t e n s p e c i f i ­
c a t i o n s ; u s in g a v a r ie t y o f t o o l a n d d ie m a k e r ’ s h a n d to o ls an d p r e c i s i o n
m e a s u r in g in s t r u m e n t s ; u n d e r s ta n d in g o f th e w o r k in g p r o p e r t i e s o f
c o m m o n m e t a ls and a l lo y s ; s e ttin g up a n d o p e r a t in g o f m a c h in e t o o l s
an d r e la t e d e q u ip m e n t; m a k in g n e c e s s a r y s h o p c o m p u t a t io n s r e la t in g
to d im e n s io n s o f w o r k , s p e e d s , f e e d s , a n d t o o lin g o f m a c h in e s ; h e a t tr e a t in g o f m e t a l p a r t s d u rin g f a b r i c a t i o n a s w e ll a s o f fin is h e d t o o l s
an d d ie s to a c h ie v e r e q u ir e d q u a l it i e s ; w o r k in g to c l o s e t o l e r a n c e s ;
fittin g an d a s s e m b lin g o f p a r t s to p r e s c r i b e d t o l e r a n c e s a n d a l l o w ­
a n c e s ; s e le c t in g a p p r o p r ia t e m a t e r i a l s , t o o l s , a n d p r o c e s s e s .
In
g e n e r a l, the t o o l and d ie m a k e r ’ s w o r k r e q u i r e s a r o u n d e d tr a in in g
in m a c h in e - s h o p and t o o l r o o m p r a c t i c e u s u a lly a c q u i r e d th r o u g h a
f o r m a l a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t t r a in in g an d e x p e r i e n c e .

in t o o l

M aterial

PASSEN G ER

M A IN T E N A N C E

F o r c r o s s - i n d u s t r y w a g e stu d y p u r p o s e s , t o o l a n d d ie m a k e r s
and d ie jo b b in g s h o p s a r e e x c lu d e d f r o m th is c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .

Movement

J A N IT O R ,

PORTER,

OR C L E A N E R

(S w e e p e r ; c h a r w o m a n ; j a n i t r e s s )
C le a n s and k e e p s in an o r d e r l y c o n d it io n f a c t o r y w o r k in g
a r e a s an d w a s h r o o m s , o r p r e m i s e s o f an o f f i c e , a p a r tm e n t h o u s e ,
o r c o m m e r c i a l o r o th e r e s t a b lis h m e n t . D u t ie s in v o lv e a c o m b in a t io n
o f th e fo llo w in g : S w e e p in g , m o p p in g o r s c r u b b in g , a n d p o lis h in g f l o o r s ;
r e m o v in g c h ip s , t r a s h , and o th e r r e f u s e ; d u s tin g e q u ip m e n t , f u r n it u r e ,
o r f ix t u r e s ; p o lis h in g m e t a l fix t u r e s o r t r i m m i n g s ; p r o v id in g s u p p lie s
an d m i n o r m a in te n a n c e s e r v i c e s ; c le a n in g l a v a t o r i e s , s h o w e r s , an d
r e s t r o o m s . W o r k e r s w h o s p e c i a l i z e in w in d o w w a s h in g a r e e x c lu d e d .

25

LABORER,

S H IP P IN G A N D R E C E IV IN G

M A T E R I A L H A N D L IN G

( L o a d e r a n d u n lo a d e r ; h a n d le r an d s t a c k e r ; s h e l v e r ; t r u c k e r ;
s t o c k m a n o r s t o c k h e l p e r ; w a r e h o u s e m a n o r w a r e h o u s e h e lp e r )

CLERK

-

C o n tin u e d

o t h e r r e c o r d s ; c h e c k in g f o r s h o r t a g e s and r e je c t i n g d a m a g e d g o o d s ;
r o u t in g m e r c h a n d i s e o r m a t e r i a l s to p r o p e r d e p a r t m e n t s ; m a in ta in in g
n e c e s s a r y r e c o r d s an d f i l e s .

A w o r k e r e m p lo y e d in a w a r e h o u s e , m a n u fa c tu r in g p la n t ,
s t o r e , o r o t h e r e s t a b lis h m e n t w h o s e d u tie s in v o lv e on e o r m o r e o f
th e f o l l o w i n g : L o a d in g a n d u n lo a d in g v a r io u s m a t e r ia l s an d m e r c h a n ­
d is e on o r f r o m f r e ig h t c a r s , t r u c k s , o r o th e r t r a n s p o r t in g d e v i c e s ;
u n p a c k in g , s h e lv in g , o r p la c in g m a t e r ia l s o r m e r c h a n d i s e in p r o p e r
s t o r a g e l o c a t i o n ; t r a n s p o r t in g m a t e r ia l s o r m e r c h a n d is e b y h a n d t r u c k ,
c a r , o r w h e e l b a r r o w . L o n g s h o r e m e n , w h o lo a d an d u n lo a d s h ip s a r e
e x c lu d e d .

F or w age

stu d y p u r p o s e s , w o r k e r s

R e c e iv in g c l e r k
S h ip p in g c l e r k
S h ip p in g an d r e c e i v i n g

are

c l a s s i f i e d a s fo llo w s :

c le r k

T R U C K D R IV E R
ORDER

F IL L E R

(O rd e r p ic k e r ;

stock

s e le c to r ; w areh ou se

stock m a n )

F i l l s s h ip p in g o r t r a n s f e r o r d e r s f o r fin is h e d g o o d s f r o m
s t o r e d m e r c h a n d i s e in a c c o r d a n c e w ith s p e c if i c a t io n s on s a le s s l i p s ,
c u s t o m e r s 1 o r d e r s , o r o t h e r in s t r u c t io n s . M a y , in a d d itio n to f illin g
o r d e r s a n d in d ic a t in g i t e m s f il l e d o r o m it t e d , k e e p r e c o r d s o f o u t­
g o in g o r d e r s , r e q u i s i t i o n a d d itio n a l s t o c k , o r r e p o r t s h o r t s u p p lie s
to s u p e r v i s o r , a n d p e r f o r m o th e r r e la t e d d u tie s .

PACKER,

D r iv e s a t r u c k w ith in a c it y o r in d u s t r ia l a r e a to t r a n s p o r t
m a t e r i a l s , m e r c h a n d i s e , e q u ip m e n t , o r m e n b e t w e e n v a r io u s ty p e s o f
e s t a b lis h m e n t s su c h a s : M a n u fa c t u r in g p la n t s , fr e ig h t d e p o t s , w a r e ­
h o u s e s , w h o l e s a l e a n d r e t a i l e s t a b lis h m e n t s , o r b e t w e e n r e t a i l e s t a b ­
lis h m e n t s an d c u s t o m e r s * h o u s e s o r p l a c e s o f b u s i n e s s .
M ay a ls o
lo a d o r u n lo a d t r u c k w ith o r w ith o u t h e l p e r s , m a k e m in o r m e c h a n ic a l
r e p a i r s , a n d k e e p t r u c k in g o o d w o r k in g o r d e r . D r i v e r - s a l e s m e n and
o v e r -t h e -r o a d d r iv e r s a r e e x c lu d e d .
F o r w a g e stu d y p u r p o s e s , t r u c k d r i v e r s a r e c l a s s i f i e d b y s iz e
a n d ty p e o f e q u ip m e n t , a s f o l l o w s :
( T r a c t o r - t r a i l e r s h o u ld b e r a te d
on th e b a s i s o f t r a i l e r c a p a c it y . )

S H IP P IN G

P r e p a r e s fin is h e d p r o d u c t s f o r sh ip m e n t o r s t o r a g e b y p la c in g
th e m in s h ip p in g c o n t a i n e r s , the s p e c i f i c o p e r a t io n s p e r f o r m e d b e in g
d e p e n d e n t u p o n th e t y p e , s i z e , and n u m b e r o f u n its to b e p a c k e d , th e
ty p e o f c o n t a in e r e m p l o y e d , an d m e t h o d o f s h ip m e n t. W o r k r e q u i r e s
th e p la c in g o f i t e m s in sh ip p in g c o n t a in e r s and m a y in v o lv e on e o r
m o r e o f th e f o l l o w i n g : K n o w le d g e o f v a r io u s it e m s o f s t o c k in o r d e r
to v e r i f y c o n t e n t ; s e l e c t i o n o f a p p r o p r ia t e ty p e an d s i z e o f c o n t a in e r ;
in s e r t in g e n c l o s u r e s in c o n t a in e r ; u sin g e x c e l s i o r o r o th e r m a t e r i a l to
p r e v e n t b r e a k a g e o r d a m a g e ; c lo s in g and s e a lin g c o n t a in e r ; a p p ly in g
la b e ls o r e n t e r in g id e n t ify in g da ta on c o n t a in e r .
P a c k e r s w ho a ls o
m a k e w o o d e n b o x e s o r c r a t e s a r e e x c lu d e d .

T r u c k d r i v e r (c o m b in a t io n o f s i z e s l i s t e d s e p a r a t e l y )
T r u c k d r i v e r , lig h t (u n d e r lV z to n sl
T r u c k d r i v e r , m e d iu m (\ l/z to a n d in c lu d in g 4 t o n s )
T r u c k d r i v e r , h e a v y ( o v e r 4 t o n s , t r a i l e r type")
T r u c k d r i v e r , h e a v y (o v e r 4 t o n s , o t h e r than t r a i l e r t y p e )

TRUCKER,

O p e r a t e s a m a n u a lly c o n t r o l l e d g a s o l i n e - o r e l e c t r i c - p o w e r e d
t r u c k o r t r a c t o r to t r a n s p o r t g o o d s an d m a t e r i a l s o f a ll k in d s ab ou t
a w a r e h o u s e , m a n u fa c tu r in g p la n t , o r o th e r e s t a b lis h m e n t .

S H IP P IN G A N D R E C E IV IN G C L E R K
tru ck ,
P r e p a r e s m e r c h a n d i s e f o r s h ip m e n t , o r r e c e i v e s an d is r e ­
s p o n s ib l e f o r in c o m in g s h ip m e n t o f m e r c h a n d is e o r o t h e r m a t e r i a l s .
S h ip p in g w o r k i n v o l v e s : A k n o w le d g e o f sh ip p in g p r o c e d u r e s , p r a c ­
t i c e s , r o u t e s , a v a i la b le m e a n s o f tr a n s p o r t a t io n an d r a t e s ; a n d p r e ­
p a r in g r e c o r d s o f th e g o o d s s h ip p e d , m a k in g up b i l l s o f la d in g , p o s t ­
in g w e ig h t a n d s h ip p in g c h a r g e s , an d k e e p in g a file o f sh ip p in g r e c o r d s .
M a y d i r e c t o r a s s i s t in p r e p a r in g the m e r c h a n d is e f o r s h ip m e n t .
R e c e iv in g w o r k i n v o l v e s :
V e r ify in g o r d ir e c t in g o t h e r s in v e r if y in g
th e c o r r e c t n e s s o f s h ip m e n t s a g a in s t b i l l s o f la d in g , i n v o i c e s , o r




POW ER

F o r w a g e stu d y p u r p o s e s , w o r k e r s a r e
as fo llo w s :
T ru ck er,
T ru ck er,

c l a s s i f i e d b y ty p e o f

p o w e r (fo r k lift)
p o w e r (o th e r th an f o r k l i f t )

W ATCHM AN
M a k e s r o u n d s o f p r e m i s e s p e r i o d i c a l l y in p r o t e c t in g p r o p e r t y
a g a in s t f i r e , th e ft, a n d i l l e g a l e n t r y .
☆

U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1956 O— 380025


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102