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Occupational Wage Survey

M IL W A U K E E , W IS C O N S IN
N O VEM BER 1955

B L S B u lle t in N o . 1 1 8 8 - 3

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clagua, Commissionar




O ccu p atio n al W age Su rv e y
M IL W A U K E E , W IS C O N S IN




NOVEMBER 1955

Bulletin No. 1188-3
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clagw, Commissioner

F e b ru a ry 1956
f o r sale by the Superinten den t of Docum ents, U .S . G o v e rn m e n t Printing O ffic e , W a sh in g to n 2 5 , D .C . - P rice

25 cents




Contents

Page
1

I n t r o d u c t io n --------------------------------------------------------W age tre n d s fo r s e le c te d occu p a tion a l g rou p s

3

T a b le s:
1„
2.

A:

B:

E sta b lish m e n ts and w o r k e rs within sco p e o f s u r v e y ------------------------------------------------- In d ex es o f standard w eek ly s a la r ie s fo r o ffic e c le r ic a l and a v e ra g e s tra ig h t-tim e
h o u rly e a rn in gs fo r s e le c te d plant o ccu p a tio n a l g r o u p s , and p e r c e n t o f in c r e a s e
fo r s e le c t e d p e r i o d s -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------O ccu p a tio n a l e a r n in g s * A - 1: O ffic e occu p a tion s _______________________________________________________________
A - 2: P r o fe s s io n a l and te ch n ica l o ccu p a tio n s ______________________________________ —
A - 3: M aintenance and p ow erplant o c c u p a t io n s _______________________________________
A - 4: C u stod ia l and m a te ria l-m o v e m e n t o ccu p a tio n s __________________ - ____________
E sta b lish m e n t p r a c t ic e s and su p p lem en tary w age p r o v is io n s * B - l : Shift d iffe re n tia l p r o v i s i o n s _________________________________
B -2 : M in im u m en tran ce ra tes fo r w om en o ffic e w o r k e r s ______
B -3 : S ch edu led w eek ly hou rs _____________________ ;________________
B -4 : P a id h o l i d a y s _________________________________________________
B -5 : P a id v a ca tion s ________________________________________________
B -6 : H ea lth , in s u ra n ce , and p en sion p l a n s ______________________

A pp en d ix:

2

3

5
7
8

9

11
12

13
13
14
16

17

Job d e s c r ip tio n s

* NOTE:
S im ila r tabulations o f th ese ite m s a re a v a ila b le in the M ilw aukee a re a r e p o rts fo r
M a rch 1952, A p r il 1953, and A p r il 1954.
The 1954 r e p o r t a ls o p r o v id e s tabu lation s o f wage
stru c tu re c h a r a c t e r is t ic s , la b o r-m a n a g e m e n t a g r e e m e n ts , and o v e rtim e pay p r a c t ic e s .
A d i­
r e c t o r y in d ica tin g date o f study and the p r ic e o f the r e p o r t s , as w e ll as r e p o r ts fo r oth er m a jo r
a r e a s , is a v a ila b le upon re q u e st.
C u rre n t r e p o r ts on occu p a tion a l ea rn in gs and su p p lem en ta ry w age p r a c t ic e s in the M ilw aukee
a re a a re a ls o a v a ila b le fo r m a ch in e ry in d u strie s (D e ce m b e r 1955), p o w e r la u n d ries and d ry cle a n e r s
(June 1955), and o ffic e building s e r v ic e (A p ril 1955).
Union s c a le s , in d ica tiv e o f p re v a ilin g pay
l e v e l s , a r e a v a ila b le fo r the follow in g tra d e s o r in d u strie s: B uilding c o n s tr u c tio n , p rin tin g , lo c a l
tra n s it op e ra tin g e m p lo y e e s , and m o to r tr u c k d r iv e r s .




I 11




Occupational Wage Survey - Milwaukee, Wis.
In tr o d u c tio n
O c c u p a t io n a l e m p lo y m e n t e s t im a t e s r e p r e s e n t th e to t a l in a ll
e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith in th e s c o p e o f th e stu d y a n d n o t th e n u m b e r a c t u a lly
s u r v e y e d . B e c a u s e o f d i f f e r e n c e s in o c c u p a t io n a l s t r u c t u r e a m o n g e s ­
t a b li s h m e n t s , th e e s t im a t e s o f o c c u p a t io n a l e m p lo y m e n t o b t a in e d f r o m
th e s a m p l e o f e s t a b lis h m e n t s s t u d ie d s e r v e o n ly to in d ic a t e the r e la t iv e
im p o r t a n c e o f th e jo b s s t u d ie d .
T h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s in o c c u p a t io n a l
s t r u c t u r e d o n o t m a t e r i a l l y a f f e c t th e a c c u r a c y o f th e e a r n in g s d a ta .

T h e M ilw a u k e e a r e a is o n e o f s e v e r a l im p o r t a n t in d u s t r ia l
c e n t e r s in w h ic h th e B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s h a s c o n d u c t e d s u r v e y s
o f o c c u p a t io n a l e a r n in g s an d r e la t e d w a g e b e n e fit s o n an a r e a w id e
b a s is o
In e a c h a r e a , d a ta a r e o b t a in e d b y p e r s o n a l v i s i t s o f B u r e a u
f i e l d a g e n ts to r e p r e s e n t a t i v e e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith in s i x b r o a d in d u s tr y
d i v i s i o n s : M a n u fa c t u r in g ; t r a n s p o r t a t io n (e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n i­
c a t i o n , a n d o t h e r p u b lic u t ili t ie s ; w h o le s a le tr a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; f in a n c e ,
in s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e ; an d s e r v i c e s . M a jo r in d u s t r y g r o u p s e x ­
c lu d e d f r o m t h e s e s t u d ie s , b e s i d e s r a i l r o a d s , a r e g o v e r n m e n t o p e r a ­
t io n s a n d th e c o n s t r u c t i o n an d e x t r a c t iv e in d u s t r ie s .
E s t a b lis h m e n t s
h a v in g f e w e r th a n a p r e s c r i b e d n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s a r e o m i t t e d a l s o
b e c a u s e th e y fu r n is h in s u f f ic ie n t e m p lo y m e n t in th e o c c u p a t io n s s t u d ie d
to w a r r a n t i n c l u s i o n . 1
W h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e , s e p a r a t e ta b u la tio n s a r e
p r o v i d e d f o r e a c h o f th e b r o a d in d u s tr y d iv is io n s .

E s t a b lis h m e n t P r a c t i c e s an d S u p p le m e n ta r y W a g e P r o v i s i o n s
I n fo r m a t io n is p r e s e n t e d a l s o (in th e B - s e r i e s t a b le s ) o n s e ­
l e c t e d e s t a b lis h m e n t p r a c t i c e s a n d s u p p le m e n t a r y b e n e fit s a s th e y r e la t e
to o f f i c e an d p la n t w o r k e r s . T h e t e r m " o f f i c e w o r k e r s , " a s u s e d in
t h is b u ll e t in , in c lu d e s a l l o f f i c e c l e r i c a l e m p lo y e e s an d e x c lu d e s a d ­
m i n i s t r a t i v e , e x e c u t iv e , p r o f e s s i o n a l , an d t e c h n ic a l p e r s o n n e l . " P la n t
w o r k e r s " in c lu d e w o r k in g f o r e m e n a n d a l l n o n s u p e r v is o r y w o r k e r s ( i n ­
c lu d in g le a d m e n a n d t r a i n e e s ) e n g a g e d in n o n o f f i c e fu n c t io n s . A d m in is ­
t r a t iv e , e x e c u t iv e , p r o f e s s i o n a l , a n d t e c h n ic a l e m p lo y e e s , and f o r c e a c c o u n t c o n s t r u c t i o n e m p l o y e e s w h o a r e u t ili z e d a s a s e p a r a te w o r k
f o r c e a r e e x c lu d e d . C a f e t e r ia w o r k e r s an d r o u t e m e n a r e e x c lu d e d in
m a n u fa c t u r in g in d u s t r ie s , bu t a r e in c lu d e d a s p la n t w o r k e r s in n o n m a n ­
u fa c t u r in g in d u s t r i e s .

T h e s e s u r v e y s a r e c o n d u c t e d on a s a m p le b a s i s b e c a u s e o f th e
u n n e c e s s a r y c o s t i n v o l v e d in s u r v e y in g a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s , an d to in s u r e
p r o m p t p u b li c a t io n o f r e s u l t s . T o o b ta in a p p r o p r ia t e a c c u r a c y at m i n i ­
m u m c o s t , a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f la r g e th an o f s m a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s
is s t u d ie d .
In c o m b i n in g th e d a ta , h o w e v e r , a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s a r e
g iv e n t h e ir a p p r o p r ia t e w e ig h t . E s t im a t e s b a s e d o n th e e s t a b lis h m e n t s
s t u d ie d a r e p r e s e n t e d , t h e r e f o r e , a s r e la t in g to a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s in
th e in d u s t r y g r o u p in g a n d a r e a , 2 e x c e p t f o r th o s e b e l o w th e m in im u m
s i z e s t u d ie d .

S h ift d if f e r e n t ia l d a ta (t a b le B - l ) a r e li m i t e d to m a n u fa c tu r in g
in d u s t r i e s . T h is i n fo r m a t io n is p r e s e n t e d b o th in t e r m s o f (a ) e s t a b ­
lis h m e n t p o l i c y , 3 p r e s e n t e d in t e r m s o f t o t a l p la n t w o r k e r e m p lo y m e n t ,
an d (b ) e f f e c t i v e p r a c t i c e , p r e s e n t e d o n th e b a s i s o f w o r k e r s a c tu a lly
e m p lo y e d o n th e s p e c i f i e d s h ift at th e t im e o f th e s u r v e y . In e s t a b ­
lis h m e n t s h a v in g v a r i e d d i f f e r e n t i a l s , th e a m o u n t a p p ly in g to a m a jo r it y
w a s u s e d o r , i f n o a m o u n t a p p lie d to a m a j o r i t y , th e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n
"o th e r " w as u sed.

O c c u p a t i o n s a n d E a r n in g s
T h e o c c u p a t i o n s s e l e c t e d f o r stu d y a r e c o m m o n to a v a r ie t y o f
m a n u fa c t u r in g a n d n o n m a n u fa c t u r in g in d u s t r ie s . O c c u p a t io n a l c l a s s i f i ­
c a t io n is b a s e d o n a u n if o r m s e t o f jo b d e s c r ip t i o n s d e s ig n e d to ta k e
a c c o u n t o f in t e r e s t a b l is h m e n t v a r ia t io n in d u tie s w ith in th e s a m e jo b
( s e e a p p e n d ix f o r l i s t i n g o f th e s e d e s c r i p t i o n s ) .
E a r n in g s d a ta a r e
p r e s e n t e d (in th e A - s e r i e s t a b le s ) f o r the fo llo w in g t y p e s o f o c c u p a ­
tio n s :
(a ) O f f i c e c l e r i c a l ; (b ) p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n ic a l ; ( c ) m a in t e ­
n a n c e an d p o w e r p la n t ; a n d (d ) c u s t o d ia l an d m a t e r ia l m o v e m e n t .

M in im u m e n t r a n c e r a t e s (t a b le B - 2 ) r e la t e o n ly to the e s t a b ­
lis h m e n t s v i s i t e d .
T h e y a r e p r e s e n t e d o n a n e s t a b lis h m e n t , r a th e r
th an on a n e m p lo y m e n t b a s i s .
S c h e d u le d h o u r s ; p a id h o lid a y s ; p a id
v a c a t i o n s ; an d h e a lth , in s u r a n c e , an d p e n s io n p la n s a r e t r e a t e d s t a t is ­
t i c a l l y o n th e b a s i s th at th e s e a r e a p p lic a b le to a ll p la n t o r o f f i c e
w o r k e r s i f a m a jo r i t y o f s u c h w o r k e r s a r e e lig i b l e o r m a y e v e n tu a lly
q u a lify f o r th e p r a c t i c e s l i s t e d . 4
B e c a u s e o f r o u n d in g , su m s o f in d i­
v id u a l i t e m s in t h e s e ta b u la tio n s do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y e q u a l t o t a ls .

D a ta a r e s h o w n f o r f u l l - t i m e w o r k e r s , i . e . , t h o s e h ir e d to
w o r k a r e g u la r w e e k ly s c h e d u le in the g iv e n o c c u p a t io n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .
E a r n in g s d a ta e x c lu d e p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e a n d f o r w o r k o n
w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , a n d la te s h ift s .
N o n p r o d u c tio n b o n u s e s a r e e x ­
c lu d e d a l s o , b u t c o s t - o f - l i v i n g b o n u s e s and in c e n tiv e e a r n in g s a r e i n ­
c lu d e d . W h e r e w e e k ly h o u r s a r e r e p o r t e d , a s f o r o f f i c e c l e r i c a l o c ­
c u p a t io n s . r e f e r e n c e is to th e w o r k s c h e d u le s (r o u n d e d to th e n e a r e s t
h a lf h o u r ) f o r w h ic h s t r a ig h t - t im e s a l a r i e s a r e p a id ; a v e r a g e w e e k ­
ly e a r n in g s f o r t h e s e o c c u p a t io n s h a v e b e e n r o u n d e d to th e n e a r e s t
h a lf d o l l a r .

T h e s u m m a r y o f v a c a t io n p la n s is li m i t e d to f o r m a l a r r a n g e ­
m e n t s , e x c lu d in g in f o r m a l p la n s w h e r e b y t im e o f f w ith p a y is g r a n t e d
at th e d i s c r e t i o n o f th e e m p l o y e r .
S e p a r a te e s t im a t e s a r e p r o v id e d

3 A n e s t a b lis h m e n t w a s c o n s i d e r e d a s h a v in g a p o l i c y i f it m e t
e it h e r o f th e fo llo w in g c o n d i t io n s :
( l ) O p e r a t e d la te s h ift s at the tim e
o f th e s u r v e y , o r (2 ) h a d f o r m a l p r o v i s i o n s c o v e r in g la te s h ift s .
4 S c h e d u le d w e e k ly h o u r s f o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s ( f i r s t s e c t io n o f
ta b le B - 3 ) a r e p r e s e n t e d in t e r m s o f th e p r o p o r t io n o f w o m e n o f f i c e
w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d in o f f i c e s w ith th e in d ic a t e d w e e k ly h o u r s f o r w o m e n
w ork ers.

* T h is r e p o r t w a s p r e p a r e d in th e B u re a u * s r e g io n a l o f f i c e in
C h ic a g o , 111. , b y W o o d r o w C . L in n , u n d er th e d i r e c t i o n o f G e o r g e E .
V o t a v a , R e g io n a l W a g e a n d I n d u s tr ia l R e la t io n s A n a ly s t .
1 S e e ta b le 1 f o r m i n i m u m - s i z e e s t a b lis h m e n t c o v e r e d .
T h e ta b u la t io n o f m in im u m e n tr a n c e r a t e s f o r w o m e n o f f i c e
w o r k e r s r e l a t e s o n ly to p r o v i s i o n s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s s t u d ie d .




1

2

according to employer practice in computing vacation payments, such
as time payments, percent of annual earnings, or flat-sum amounts.
However, in the tabulations of vacation allowances by years of service,
payments not on a time basis were converted; for example, a payment
of 2 percent of annual earnings was considered as the equivalent of
1 weekrs pay.
Data are presented for all health, insurance, and pension
plans for which at least a part of the cost is borne by the employer,
excepting only legal requirements such as workmen^ compensation and
social security. Such plans include those underwritten by a commercial
insurance company and those provided through a union fund or paid
directly by the employer out of current operating funds or from a fund
set aside for this purpose. Death benefits are included as a form of
life insurance.
Sickness and accident insurance is limited to that type of in­
surance under which predetermined cash payments are made directly
to the insured on a weekly or monthly basis during illness or accident
disability. Information is presented for all such plans to which the
employer contributes. However, inNew York and New Jersey, which
have enacted temporary disability insurance laws which require em­
ployer contributions, 5 plans are included only if the employer (l) con­
tributes more than is legally required, or (2) provides the employee

T a b le 1:

with benefits which exceed the requirements of the law.
Tabulations
of paid sick leave plans are limited to formal plans which provide full
pay or a proportion of the worker*s pay during absence from work
because of illness.
Separate tabulations are provided according to
(l) plans which provide full pay and no waiting period, and (2) plans
providing either partial pay or a waiting period.
In addition to the
presentation of the proportions of workers who are provided sickness
and accident insurance or paid sick leave, an unduplicated total is
shown of workers who receive either or both types of benefit.
Catastrophe insurance, sometimes referred to as extended
medical insurance, includes those plans which are designed to protect
employees in case of sickness and injury involving expenses beyond the
normal coverage of hospitalization, medical, and surgical plans. Med­
ical insurance refers to plans providing for complete or partial payment
of doctors* fees. Such plans may be underwritten by commercial in­
surance companies or nonprofit organizations or they may be selfinsured. Tabulations of retirement pension plans are limited to those
plans that provide monthly payments for the remainder of the worker *s
life.
5
The temporary disability laws in California and Rhode Island
do not require employer contributions.

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s an d w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e o f s u r v e y a n d n u m b e r s tu d ie d in M ilw a u k e e ,
M in im u m
s iz e
e s ta b lis h ­
m en t
in s c o p e o f
s tu d y 2

I n d u s t r y d iv is i o n

W i s . , 1 b y m a jo r in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , N o v e m b e r 1 9 5 5

N u m b e r o f e s ta b lis h m e n ts
W it h in
scop e o f
stu d y

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s

S tu d ie d

W ith in s c o p e o f s tu d y
T o ta l3

O ffic e

S tu d ie d
P la n t

T o ta l3

____________

51

732

177

2 4 1 ,5 0 0

3 9 ,0 0 0

1 7 2 ,4 0 0

1 5 7 ,3 2 0

M a n u fa c tu r in g
_ _
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g
T r a n s p o r t a t io n ( e x c lu d i n g r a i l r o a d s ) ,
c o m m u n ic a t i o n , a n d o t h e r p u b lic u t i l i t i e s 4 _______
W h o le s a le t r a d e
....
___ _
____
R e t a i l tr a d e
...
_
F i n a n c e , in s u r a n c e , an d r e a l e s t a t e
_ .. .
S e r v ic e s *

51
-

367
365

86
91

1 6 9 ,2 0 0
7 2 ,3 0 0

2 2 ,5 0 0
1 6 ,5 0 0

1 2 6 ,2 0 0
4 6 ,2 0 0

1 1 2 ,8 9 0
4 4 ,4 3 0

51
51
51
51
51

42
72
141
50
60

17
18
26
15
15

1 6 ,9 0 0
8 ,7 0 0
2 9 ,8 0 0
8 ,6 0 0
8 ,3 0 0

3 ,9 0 0

1 0 ,9 0 0

1 4 ,5 0 0
4 ,0 7 0
1 7 ,8 8 0
5 ,2 8 0
2 ,7 0 0

A l l d i v i s i o n s _______

______

„

__

„

__________

(5 )
(?)
(5 )
(5 )

(5 )
(* )
(5 )
(5

1 T h e M ilw a u k e e M e t r o p o li t a n A r e a (M i lw a u k e e C o u n t y ) . T h e " w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e o f s t u d y " e s t i m a t e s sh o w n in t h is t a b le p r o v i d e a r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p ­
tio n o f th e s i z e an d c o m p o s i t i o n o f th e l a b o r f o r c e in c lu d e d in th e s u r v e y .
T h e e s t i m a t e s a r e n o t in te n d e d , h o w e v e r , to s e r v e a s a b a s i s o f c o m p a r i s o n w it h o t h e r a r e a
e m p l o y m e n t in d e x e s to m e a s u r e e m p l o y m e n t t r e n d s o r l e v e l s s i n c e ( l ) p la n n in g o f w a g e s u r v e y s r e q u i r e s the u s e o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t d a ta c o m p i l e d c o n s i d e r a b l y in a d v a n c e
o f the p a y p e r i o d s t u d ie d a n d ( 2 ) s m a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a r e e x c lu d e d f r o m th e s c o p e o f th e s u r v e y .
In c lu d e s a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w ith t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t a t o r a b o v e th e m i n i m u m s i z e l i m i t a t i o n . A l l o u t le t s (w ith in th e a r e a ) o f c o m p a n i e s in s u c h i n d u s t r i e s a s t r a d e ,
f in a n c e , au to r e p a i r s e r v i c e , an d m o t i o n - p i c t u r e t h e a t e r s a r e c o n s i d e r e d a s 1 e s t a b l i s h m e n t .
3 I n c lu d e s e x e c u t i v e , t e c h n i c a l , p r o f e s s i o n a l ,a n d o t h e r w o r k e r s e x c lu d e d f r o m th e s e p a r a t e o f f i c e an d p la n t c a t e g o r i e s .
4
A l s o e x c l u d e s t a x i c a b s , a n d s e r v i c e s in c id e n t a l to w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .
5 T h is in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n i s r e p r e s e n t e d in e s t i m a t e s f o r " a l l i n d u s t r i e s " a n d " n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g " in th e S e r i e s A an d B t a b l e s , a lt h o u g h c o v e r a g e w a s i n s u f f i c i e n t
to j u s t i f y s e p a r a t e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f d a t a .
H o t e l s ; p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s ; b u s i n e s s s e r v i c e s ; a u t o m o b ile r e p a i r s h o p s ; r a d i o b r o a d c a s t i n g an d t e l e v i s i o n ; m o t io n p i c t u r e s ; n o n p r o f it m e m b e r s h i p o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; an d
e n g in e e r in g and a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s .




3
W a g e T r e n d s f o r S e l e c t e d O c c u p a t io n a l G r o u p s
T a b u la t e d b e l o w a r e in d e x e s o f s a l a r ie s o f w o m e n o f f i c e c l e r i ­
c a l w o r k e r s , an d o f a v e r a g e e a r n in g s o f s e l e c t e d p la n t w o r k e r g r o u p s .
F o r o f f i c e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s , the in d e x e s r e la t e to a v e r a g e
w e e k ly s a l a r i e s f o r n o r m a l h o u r s o f w o r k , that i s , the s t a n d a r d w o r k
s c h e d u le f o r w h ic h s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r i e s a r e p a id . F o r p la n t w o r k e r
g r o u p s , the in d e x e s m e a s u r e c h a n g e s in s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s ,
e x c lu d in g p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t im e and f o r w o r k o n w e e k e n d s , h o l i ­
d a y s , an d la te s h i f t s .
T h e in d e x e s a r e b a s e d o n d a ta f o r s e l e c t e d
k e y o c c u p a t io n s an d in c lu d e m o s t o f the n u m e r ic a l ly im p o r t a n t jo b s
w ith in e a c h g r o u p . E ig h t e e n jo b s w e r e in c lu d e d in the o f f i c e c l e r i c a l
in d e x ; 10 s k i l l e d m a in t e n a n c e jo b s and 3 u n s k ille d jo b s w e r e in c lu d e d
in th e p la n t w o r k e r in d e x e s .
S e e fo o t n o t e s to ta b le 2.
A v e r a g e w e e k ly s a l a r i e s o r a v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s w e r e
c o m p u t e d f o r e a c h o f the s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s . T h e a v e r a g e s a l a r i e s
o r h o u r l y e a r n in g s w e r e th en m u lt ip lie d b y the a v e r a g e o f 1953 an d
19 54 e m p lo y m e n t in the j o b .
T h e s e w e ig h te d e a r n in g s f o r in d iv id u a l
o c c u p a t io n s w e r e th en a d d e d to o b ta in an a g g r e g a t e f o r e a c h o c c u ­
p a t io n a l g r o u p .
F i n a l l y , th e r a t io o f th e s e g r o u p a g g r e g a t e s f o r a
g iv e n y e a r to th e a g g r e g a t e f o r the b a s e y e a r (1 9 5 3 ) w a s c o m p u t e d
a n d the r e s u l t m u lt ip lie d b y the b a s e y e a r in d e x (1 0 0 ) to g e t th e in d e x
f o r the g iv e n y e a r .

T a b le

2:

Indexes

of

standard
in

w eek ly

sa la rie s

M ilw a u k ee,

fo r

W is. ,

o ffice

A p ril

c le r ic a l1 and

1954

and

T h e in d e x e s m e a s u r e p r i n c i p a l l y the e f f e c t s o f ( l ) g e n e r a l
s a l a r y an d w a g e c h a n g e s ; (2) m e r i t o r o t h e r i n c r e a s e s in p a y r e ­
c e i v e d b y in d iv id u a l w o r k e r s w h ile in the s a m e jo b ; and (3) la b o r
t u r n o v e r o r f o r c e e x p a n s io n o r r e d u c t io n .
A f o r c e e x p a n s io n m ig h t
i n c r e a s e the p r o p o r t i o n o f lo w e r p a id w o r k e r s in a s p e c i f i c o c c u ­
p a tio n an d r e s u lt in a d r o p in the in d e x , w h e r e a s a r e d u c t io n in the
p r o p o r t i o n o f l o w e r p a id w o r k e r s w o u ld h a v e the o p p o s it e e f f e c t . T h e
in d e x e s a r e a l s o a f f e c t e d b y s h ift s in the p r o p o r t io n o f w o r k e r s e m ­
p lo y e d b y e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith d if f e r e n t p a y l e v e l s .
F o r e x a m p le ,
the m o v e m e n t o f a h ig h -p a y in g e s t a b lis h m e n t ou t o f an a r e a c o u ld
c a u s e the in d e x to d r o p , e v e n th ou gh no c h a n g e in r a t e s o c c u r r e d in
o t h e r a r e a e s t a b lis h m e n t s .

T h e u s e o f c o n s t a n t e m p lo y m e n t w e ig h ts e lim in a t e s the e f f e c t s
o f c h a n g e s in the p r o p o r t i o n o f w o r k e r s r e p r e s e n t e d in e a c h jo b i n ­
c lu d e d in th e in d e x .
N o r a r e the in d e x e s in flu e n c e d b y c h a n g e s in
s t a n d a r d w o r k s c h e d u le s o r in p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e , s in c e th ey
a r e b a s e d on p a y f o r s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r s .
In d e x e s f o r the p e r i o d 1952 to 1955 f o r w o r k e r s in 17 m a jo r
la b o r m a r k e t s , a p p e a r e d in B L S B u ll. 1 1 7 2 , W a g e s and R e la t e d
B e n e f i t s , 17 L a b o r M a r k e t s , 1 9 5 4 -5 5 .

avera g e

N o v e m b e r

1955

stra ig h t-tim e
and p e rce n t

h o u rly

of

e a rn in g s

in cre a s e

fo r

fo r

s e le cte d

s e le cte d

p la n t o c c u p a t io n a l

grou ps

p e rio d s

In dexes
(A p ril
In du stry

and

o ccu p a tio n a l

grou p

N o v e m b e r

P e r c e n t

100)
A p ril
1954

1955

A ll

1953 =

A p ril

A p ril

1954

in cre a s e s

M a rch

1954

A p ril

to

to
N o v e m b e r

A p ril

1955

fr o m —

1953

1952

to

M a rch

N ov em b er

in d u strie s:
O ffice

c le r ic a l

S k illed

(w om en )

m a in ten a n ce

U n sk ille d

p la n t

110. 1

104. 5

5. 3

4. 5

6. 5

1 7 .2

1 1 3 .0

105. 9

6. 7

5 .9

7. 4

2 1 .3

_____________________

111. 1

104. 6

6 .2

4 .6

9 .9

22. 1

________________________________________

112. 6

105. 5

6. 7

5. 5

6. 8

2 0 .3

113. 6

1 0 6 .3

6 .9

6 .3

6. 8

2 1 .3

1 1 3 .6

105. 8

7. 4

5. 8

1 0 .4

2 5 .4

( m e n ) _____________________________________

( m e n ) ________ ____________

M a n u f a c tur in g :
O ffice

c le r ic a l

S k illed

U n sk ille d

1

(w om en )

m a in ten a n ce
p la n t

B a se d

on

_

( m e n ) _____________________________________________

data

O ffice




(m en )

fo r

the

c le r ic a l
B ille r s ,

follow in g

job s:

2

( w o m e n ):
m a ch in e

on

d ata

S k illed
(b illin g

B o o k k e e p in g -m a ch in e
C o m p to m e te r

B a se d

m a ch in e )

o p e ra to rs,

follow in g

A

and

B

m a in ten a n ce

job s:

( m e n ):

E le ctricia n s
M a ch in ists

C le r k s ,

file ,

C le r k s,

o r d e r

M e c h a n ic s ,

C le r k s,

p a y ro ll

M illw rig h ts

K e y -p u n ch
O ffice

A

th e

C a rp en ters

cla ss

op era tors
cla ss

fo r

and

B

M ech a n ics

o p e ra to rs

P a in te rs

g irls

P ip e fitte rs

S e cre ta rie s

S h e e t-m e ta l

S te n o g ra p h e rs,

gen eral

T o o l

S w itch b o a rd

o p era tors

S w itch b o a rd

o p e ra to r-re ce p tio n ists

T a b u la tin g -m a ch in e

U n sk illed

cla s s

A

and

o p e ra to rs,
B

and

d ie

p la n t

J a n ito rs,

op era tors

T r a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e
T y p is ts ,

a u tom otiv e

L a b o r e r s ,
gen eral

W atch m en

w o rk e rs
m a k e rs

(m e n ):
p o r te r s ,
m a te ria l

and

cle a n e rs

h a n d lin g

1952

to
1953

1955




A : O c c u p a t i o n a l E a r n in g s

5

Table A-l: Office Occupations
(A verage straigh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings 1 fo r s e le c te d occu p ation s studied on an a re a b a sis
in M ilw aukee, W is. , by ind u stry d iv isio n , N ovem b er 1955)
A v e r ag e
Sex,

o cc u p a tio n ,

Number
of
workers

an d in d u stry d iv isio n

Weekly
hours
(Standard)

Weekly
earnings
(Standard)

N U M B ER OF WOR KE RS R EC EI VI NG S TR A IGH T- T IM E W E E K L Y E AR NI NGS OF—

U nder
$
3 5 .0 0

$
3 5 .0 °

$
40. 00

$
4 5 .0 0

$
5 0 .0 0

$
55. 00

$
6 0 .0 0

$
6 5 .0 0

$
7 0 .0 0

$
7 5 .0 0

$
8 0 .0 0

$
8 5 .0 0

$
9 0 .0 0

$
9 5 .0 0

under
4 0 .0 0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

60, 00

6fL_0(L

7 0 .0 0

7 5 .0 0

8 0 . 00

8 5 .0 0

-9 0 ,0 0 -.

9 5 .0 0

1 Q 1 L .Q Q .

1Q 5JH L

40

27

11

3

39
1

26
1

11

3

-

-

45, 00_

5 0 .0 0

.5 5 .0 0

$
1 0 0.00

$

$

ioaoo
1 1 Q. QQ

$

11 0 .0 0

1 15.00

-

and

11 t i .n o

over

M en
$
C le rk s,

a c co u n tin g ,

c la ss

A

_________________________________

_

M a n u f a c t u r i n g -------------------------------------------------------------------------

388
• 314

4 0 .0

8 7 .0 0
8 9 .0 0

_

_

_

_

_

_

3

17

15

44

76

104

_

-

-

-

-

-

3

4

39
38

-

-

-

-

-

13

28
16

90

-

11
4

55

8 0 .0 0

21

14

1

3
3

9
8

26
17

17
10

6
6

19
10

4
2

13

1
1

1

2

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

15

24
4
20

27
15
12

25
20
5

33
13
20

4

7
7

3
3

16
16

.

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

*

-

-

6

10

15

18

9

4

1

_

_

1

________________________________________________

74

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

C l e r k s , a c c o u n t i n g , c l a s s B _________________________________
_
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________________________________________

101
70

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

7 1 .5 0

_

_

_

_

7 1 .0 0

-

-

-

-

C l e r k s , o r d e r --------------------------------------------------M an u factu rin g _
_

4 0 .0
4 0 .0 '
4 0 .0

7 6 .5 0
7 9 .5 0
72. 50

_

_

.

.

_

-

_

_

‘ 2
_

________________________________________________

171
101
70

-

-

-

-

2

9

15
14
1

p a y r o l l ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

104

4 0 .0

7 5 .0 0

_

_

1

6

11

20

2

O f f i c e b o y s -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ______________________________________ ______________

204
155

39. 5
4 0 .0

4 6 . 50
4 7 .0 0

6
6

37
28

68
50

19
14

24
12

32
27

14
14

4
4

T ab u latin g -m ac h in e
M an u factu rin g

171

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

8 2 .0 0

_

_

_

3

2

4
2

9
4

9
7
2

N on m an u factu rin g

No n m an u fac tu rin g
C le rk s,

o p erato rs

-------------------------

_______________________________

_

118

8 2 .0 0

1

6 ~

13

3
1

■

r~
9

—

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

13
9

19
9

32

15

18
16

3

_

10

26

19
18

2
2

12

_

4

_

_

9

12

_

4

_

_

9

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

22
18

12

1

W om en
B i l l e r s , m a c h i n e ( b i l l i n g m a c h i n e ) ________________________
_
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________________________________________
N on m an u factu rin g
.......................

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .5

5 4 .5 0
6 0 .0 0
5 0 .0 0

_

_

85
102

_

_

-

B o o k k e e p in g -m a ch in e
M an u factu rin g

128
78

3 9 .5
3 9 .5

6 6 .0 0

B o o k k e e p in g -m a ch in e

o p erato rs,
_
__
o p erato rs,

c la ss

c la ss

A

________________
. .
..

B

187

________________________________________________

M a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________________________________
C le rk s , o rd e r
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ---------------------------------------------------------------C l e r k s , p a y r o l l _________________________________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------------------------------------

See footnote at end o f tab le.




5

-

52
8
44

73
12

142
63

35

12
4

1
1

9
1

79

29
6

24
13

61

86
58
28

11

8

_

_

_
-

53
15

58
28

43

-

-

-

-

22

38

30

23

46
14
32

39

_

22
-

66

-

29
10

24
-

91
22

161
67
94

165
57

213
114

171

50

23

17

23

16
16

4
4
_

5
4

5
5

_

-

.

„

_

_

3
3

3 9 .5
4 0 .0

6 9 .5 0
7 2 .0 0

_

178

-

6 7 .5 0

79

B

17

5 4 .5 0
5 7 .0 0
5 2 .5 0

M a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________________________________________
c la ss

17

39-5
4 0 .0
3 9 .5

437

110

file ,

20

-

________________________________________________

C le rk s,

9

-

_

3 9 .5
4 0 .0

A

_

-

997
437
560

c la ss

5

69. 50

C le rk s,

file ,

17

1

3 9 .0

C le rk s,

22

2

183

_____________________________________

30

_

361

B

23
8

21

-

7
2

_

C l e r k s , a c c o u n t i n g , c l a s s A _____________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________________________________
c la ss

9
8

-

189
248

a c co u n tin g ,

17

56
15
41

M a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________________________________________
N n n m a n u f a r t u r i n g ...

M a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________________________________________
N on m an u factu rin g
_
................... .

71
27
44

9
2
7

825
408
417
257
140
117

666
455
211

_

5 6 .0 0

_

5 9 .0 0
5 4 .0 0

-

24

69

39. 5
4 0 .0

5 8 .5 0

_

_

7

6 0 .5 0

-

-

3 9 .5

4 6 .5 0
5 1 .5 0
4 2 .5 0

8
_

3 9 .5

4 0 .0
39. 5
4 0 .0
4 0 .0
39. 5
4 0 .0
4 0 .0
3 9 .5

5 6 .0 0
56. 50
5 6 .0 0
5 9 .5 0
59. 50
6 0 .0 0

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

_

_

-

_

-

45

10
3
7

5
4

14

38

8

7

1

_

2
12

1
1

2
1

_

_

-

1

-

-

_

1
1
_

_

_

_

-

_

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

.

_

_

-

_

_

_

_

108

99

93

78
38
40

25

28

22

10

-

8
4

18

19

20

9

123
15
108

322
100
222

136
88
48

88
83
5

71
45
26

73
73

4
4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

39
20

15

30
10

9
5
4

4
4

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

38
23
15

32

-

44
20
24

40

_

6
3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

1
-

18
8
10

55
41
14

47
36

17
7

8

3

7

-

_
-

8

_

-

1

19
21

23

9

78

19

13

2

168
135

140
85

110
65

70
53

33

55

45

17

33

20
29
18

1
1

1
1

10

1

_
-

-

_

-

_

-

_

_

-

3

Occupational Wage Survey, Milwaukee, Wis. , November 1955
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

6

Table A-1: Office Occupations - Continued
(A verage

straig h t-tim e

w e e k ly h o u rs

in M i lw a u k e e ,

and earn in gs 1 fo r
W is. , by in d u stry

s e le c te d o cc u p a tio n s
d iv isio n ,

A v e ba gx
Sex,

o cc u p a tio n ,

W om en

Nu mbe r
of

an d in d u stry d iv isio n

Weekly
hours
( Standard)

Weekly
earnings
(Standard)

N ovem ber

stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s i s
1955)

N U M B E R OF W OR K E R S R E C E IV I N G S T R A IG H T -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S OF—
U nder
$
3 5 .0 0

$
35. 00

$
4 0 .0 0

$
4 5 .0 0

$
5 0 .0 0

$
5 5 .0 0

$
6 0 .0 0

$
6 5 .0 0

$
7 0 .0 0

under
4 0 .0 0

"
4 5 .0 0

5 0 .0 0

■
5 5 .0 0

6 0 .0 0

■
6 5 .0 0

"
7 0 .0 0

$
7 5 .0 0

$
80. 00

$
8 5 .0 0

7 5 .0 0

8 0 .0 0

8 5 .0 0

9 0 .0 0

32
31

18
10

1

8

_

-

-

-

$
90. 00

$

9 5 .0 0

1 0 0 .0 0

-

9 5 .0 0
-

$
1 0 0 .0 0

$
10 5 .0 0

$
1 1 0 .0 0

$
1 1 5 .0 0

“
1 0 5 .0 0

11 0 .0 0

1 1 5 .0 0

and
over

-

- C on tin u ed
$

C om ptom eter o p erato rs

______________________________________

732
381
351

39. 5
4 0 .0
3 9 .0

5 5 . 50
5 7 .0 0
5 3 .5 0

163

39. 5
4 0 .0

5 3 . 50
5 7 . 50

326

3 9. 5
4 0 .0

O ffice g irls
________________________________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------------------------------------------

202
92
110

Secretaries
-------------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g __________________________________________________

M a n u f a c t u r i n g _________________________________________________

D u p lica tin g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s (m im e o g r a p h o r
d i t t o ) _________________________________________________________
_____
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ___________________________________________ ______

K ey-punch op erato rs

Sten ograph ers,

general

-----------------------

—

------------------------

u tilitie s *

_________________________________________

Sw itch b oard o p e ra to rs

------------------------------------------------------

M a n u f a c t u r i n g __________________________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g -------------------------------- ^-----------------------

___________________________________________

183
75

48

108

132
68
64

119
67
52

63
38
25

15
15

58
57

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
_
—

—

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

167

128
83
45

89
54
35

26
20
6

22
18
4

2
-

24

11

13

11

2

11

-

2

1

_

_

_

_

.

2

5

7

1

39. 5
4 0 .0
3 9 .0

4 3 . 50
4 7 . 50
4 0 . 50

4
4

44

97
35
62

28
21
7

13
11
2

5
5
_

11
11
_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

3 9 .5

7 4 .5 0
7 7 . 50

_

_

_

-

-

-

12
2

73
5

195
96

173
124

190
120

68

72
24
48

178
83

596

39. 5
3 9 .0

95

99

-

-

-

2
-

23
-

60

222

360

466

365

286

23

84

182

304

268

44

-

-

-

-

97

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

-

31

18
2

-

29

20
11

1
-

-

162
36

209
77

96

178
25

-

-

-

-

-

36

56

72

34

22

27

10

2

_

_

_

.

1
35

1
55

13

10
12

25
2

7

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

59

6
28

3
3

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

116
27

73
51

73
58

62
36

61

10
5

9
9

1
-

3
3

1
1

_

_

_

_

-

18
-

-

-

-

_

_

-

-

18

89

22

15

26

5

-

1

~

-

-

~

-

“

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

5 5 .0 0
6 0 .0 0

2

-

273

4 0 .0

5 3 .0 0

68
20 5

4 0 .0
40. 0

6 4 .0 0
4 9 .5 0

2
-

9
-

2

9

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

5 6 .0 0
5 9 .0 0
5 2 . 50

_

_

-

229
198

4 0 .0

-

18
42

39
22

20

12

6

11
6

70

3 9 .5

6 1 .0 0

-

-

-

4

11

22

14

g e n e r a l ____________

43 6

3 9 .0

5 3 .0 0

_

103

36

84

102

M a n u f a c t u r i n g __________________________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ___________________________________________

186
250

4 0 .0
3 9 .0

5 8 .0 0

_

12
_

4

4 9 . 50

-

12

99

13
23

44
40

55
47

661
394
267

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

5 8 .0 0
6 2 .5 0
5 1 .0 0

_

_

-

-

39
1

69
7

134
36

-

-

38

62

98

7
-

140
24
116

457

477
267
210

—

—

T y p i s t s , c l a s s A __________________________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g __________________________________________________
N on m an u factu rin g
...................

_ .............
............ .

__

1 ,8 6 4
948
916
118

3 9 .5

3
4
3
4

9
0
9
0

.5
.0
.0
.0

4 8 . 50
5 1 .0 0
4 5 . 50

62

138
16

758
151

6 1 .0 0

49
116

113
54

13
12

39. 5
4 0 .0
3 9 .0
4 0 .0

34

7

4 9 .0 0

H o u r s r e f l e c t the w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e th e ir r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t i m e
T r a n sp o r ta tio n (e xc lu d in g r a ilr o a d s ), c o m m u n ic a tio n , an d o th e r p u b lic u tilitie s.




-

7

26

13

1
*

_

-

27

43

24

.... _..

.

-

62

79

13

_

_

-

92

54

17

u tilitie s *

_

-

75

75

-

P u b lic

_

-

107

-

.................

_
-

53
15

-

_

-

26

6 2 .0 0

T y p ists, c la ss R
_
_
M a n u factu rin g
.... .............................
N o n m a n u fa c tu n in g

-

-

107

6 1 .5 0

o p erato rs,

-

-

39. 5
4 0 .0

T ran sc rib in g -m ac h in e

-

12

72

___________________________________________

-

-

5 8 . 50

-

-

_

1 ,9 7 8
1 ,2 2 0

_

-

5 5 .0 0
5 9 .0 0

70

_

_

-

19

10

_

_

-

32

12

70. 50

_

_

-

24

9
35

_

_

-

27
5

142

T a b u l a t i n g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s _____________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________ ________________________________

_

-

7

_

N on m an u factu rin g

_

2

427

—

S w itch b o ard o p e r a to r -r e c e p tio n ists
_____________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g __________________________________________________
N on m an u factu rin g

112
64

1 ,3 6 2

M a n u f a c t u r i n g __________________________________________________ __
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ___________________________________________
P u b lic

49
28
21

-

547

---------------------------------------------------------

___________________________________________

24
24

-

110

M a n u f a c t u r i n g _________________________________________________

N on m an u factu rin g

_
-

99
358
27

salarie s

47

a n d the

_

20

10

3

3

_

3

3

3

-

-

-

5

13
7

7

-

-

-

-

“

-

-

60

34

4

_

_

_

1

_

_

_

_

_

45
15

20
14

4

-

-

-

1

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

-

-

136

140

31
31

6
6

1
1

_

_

_

.

.

.

117

105
105

_

90
46

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

23

-

-

-

-

-

438

252

15
12

_

_

.

_

_

_

_

_

_

143

78
64
14

_

339
99
21

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

109
16

earn in gs

3

7

correspon d

to t h e s e

w e e k ly h o u r s .

-

7
T a b le A - 2 : P r o f e s s io n a l q n d T e c h n ic a l O c c u p a t io n s
^(A verage str a ig h t- tim e w e e k ly h o u rs an d e a rn in g s 1 fo r s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s stu d ie d
in M ilw a u k e e , W is. , b y in d u s t r y d iv isio n , N o v e m b e r 1955)

A v e r ag e
Sex,

o cc u p a tio n ,

an d in d u stry

Number
of
workers

d iv isio n

Weekly
hours
(Standard)

Weekly
earnings
(Standard)

on an a r e a

b a sis

N U M B E R O F W O R K E R S R E C E I V I N G S T R A I G H T - T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N I N G S O F—
U nder
$
5 5 .0 0

$
5 5 .0 0
and
under
6 0 .0 0

$
6 0 .0 0

$
65. 00

$
7 0 .0 0

$
7 5 .0 0

$
80. 00

$
85. 00

$
90. 00

$
9 5 .0 0

$
1 0 0 .0 0

$
1 0 5 .0 0

6 5 .0 0

7 0 , 0Q

7 5 .0 0

8 0 .0 0

8 5 .0 0 -

9 0 .0 0

9.5. 0 0

1 0 0 .0 0

1 0 5 .0 0

1 1 0 .0 0

140

%

$

$

n o . oo 1 1 5 . 0 0 1 2 0 . 0 0

$
125. 00

$
$
1 3 0 .0 0 135. 00

1 3 0 .0 0

1 3 5 .0 0

and
1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0

1 2 5 .0 0

over

M en
$
D raftsm en ,

996
950

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

98. 50
9 8 .5 0

3 74
“ 1 4 4

4 0 .0

7 8 .0 0

4 0 .0

77. 50

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

73. 00
7 3 .0 0

sen io r

M an u factu rin g.

D ra ftsm e n , ju n io r
M an u factu rin g

_
_ .

“

“

8
8

8

15

6

15

11

20

11

18

"

12
12

70
70

132

163
161

142

211
“ 2UI

31
31

81

95

78

86

42
41

33
30

40
31

19
16

2
2

58
56

73
6&

41

21

17

39

19

17

7
5

151

123
117

62
54

~

40
58

.

~

11
11

~

5
4

1
1

7
7

_
“

"

W om en

N u r s e s , i n d u s t r i a l ( r e g i s t e r e d ) _____________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _____________________________ _ _

H ours

r e fle c t the w o rk w e e k




fo r w h ich

251
235

em p lo y ees

re c e iv e

th eir

reg u lar

2

straig h t-tim e

s a l a r i e s a n d th e

earn in gs

correspon d

to th e s e

1
1

w e e k ly h o u r s .
O ccu p atio n al

W age S u rv e y ,

M ilw au k e e ,
U .S .

W is. , N o v e m b e r

1955

D E P A R T M E N T O F LA BO R
B u re a u of L a b o r S tatistic s

8
T a b le

A -3 :

M a in t e n a n c e a p d

P o y v erp la n t O c c u p a t io n s

(Average hourly earnings 1 for men in selected occupations studied on an area basis
in Milwaukee, W is. , by industry division, November 1955)
N U M B E R OF WORKEBS RECEIVIN G S TRAIG H T-TIM E H O U R LY E A R N IN G S OF—
O ccu patio n

Number
of
workers

an d in d u stry d iv isio n

C a rp e n te rs, m ain ten an ce
__ -------------------- __
M an u factu rin g
__ ______________________________________
N o n m an u factu rin g

E le ctricia n s,

m ain ten an ce

M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____

E n g in e e rs,

______________________________________

$
U nder
$
1. 50

$

1. 50
and
under
1. 60

$

$

1 .6 0

1 .7 0

1 .8 0

$ 1. 90

$2 . 0 0

1 .7 0

1 .8 0

1 ,9 0

2 .0 0

2 . 10

station ary

__

s t a t i o n a r y b o i l e r _____________________________
______

H e l p e r s , t r a d e s , m a i n t e n a n c e ________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________ ____________________________

$ 2 .3 0

2 .2 0

2 . 30

2 .4 0

$

2 .4 0

2 . 50

-

3
2

18
18

45
24

52
25

57
34

70
57

19
17

21
21

125

2 .3 9

-

"

-

1

1

-

21

27

23

13

2

-

41
37
4

142

220

129

129

1

_________________
....................

$2. 80

$2 . 90

2 . 80

2 . 90

3 .0 0

$

3 .0 0

$

3 . 10

14

3 . 10

over

5
3
2

11
1
10

-

-

13

-

8

61

51

123

14

26

13

61

33

87

5

19

11

1

8

2 .4 7

_

_

.

.

40

42

70

113

-

-

-

-

-

40

40

69

96

149
135

39
22

77

38

41

51

6

1

_

_

.

75

28

41

42

5

1

-

-

-

58
40

3

79

3

79

2 .3 6

_

_

_

_

_

_

34

46

2^9

2 .3 8

-

-

-

"

-

-

16

39

737

1 .9 8

42

37

46

67

97

I l l

110

64

23

596

1 .9 9

42

31

13

55

91

107

60

52

23

3
M

1 .8 6

10

233

44

_

_

33

141

43

5
4

5

42

73
71

78

9

23
23

42

1 .8 3

-

-

■ -

_

.

.

-

-

513

_

.

_

_

758

2 . 57

-

-

-

-

_____________

533

2. 25

_

_

_

M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ______________________________________

140
393
310

2 . 35
2 .2 1

-

-

-

-

2 .2 3

-

-

889
853

2 .3 0

_

_

2 . 31

-

..................

M a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------------------------------------------------

(m ain ten an ce)

___________________________________

M e c h a n i c s , m a i n t e n a n c e _________________________________
M an u factu rin g
__________
_____________________________

-

13
10

13
11

65
53

65

173
166

129
109

42
42

15

265

63

15

265

3
3

2

1

_

17

86

156

12

4

.

.

.

-

-

-

22
134

_

_

_

-

-

-

_

4

88

131

3
1
1

-

-

5
7
5

-

-

49
38
10

_

-

8
78
70

31

1
1

7
10

-

-

139
15
124

87

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

35

67

108

235

176

52

161

27

9

_

_

_

-

-

-

19
17

35

61

96

230

169

51

160

25

9

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

20

39

59

28

60

41

5

-

-

20

39

59

28

58

41

-

-

-

-

2 .0 9

17

24

37

140

75

11

15

2

104

2 .0 9

-

-

17

24

37

140

70

7

15

2

104

_

_

_

11

16

11

-

-

10

15

9

_

219

2 .3 1

_

M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________________________________________

159

2 .2 9

-

-

2. 37
2 .3 8

_

_

-

-

_

125
117

2 .4 3
2 .4 4

_
-

-

1 ,5 3 5

2 . 65

.

2 . 65

-

-

-

-

15
15

24
22

_

1 ,5 3 3

-

_

43
30

28
. 23

-

-

-

-

9

8

-

12

139
136

48

-

5

-

13
13

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

59
44

4

_

.

1

-

-

-

-

_

_

58
58

_

1
1

-

-

7

11

5

11

13
11

21

9

57

2

55

67
67

19

-

48

9

45
45

2

25

17

46
42

-

24

40

90
76

31

-

_

25

2

-

1
1

5

-

1 Excludes premium pay for overtim e and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
* Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.




.

19
19

429

_ .

_

-

-

.

438

M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________________________________________

_

-

6
6

_

S h e e t - m e t a l w o r k e r s , m a i n t e n a n c e _________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________________________________________

.

-

15
15

_

313

_

-

37
37

-

7
M

_

65
65

-

P ip e fitte rs, m ain ten an ce
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________________________________________

_
84
84

2 . 30

_______ _____

_
-

85
85

2 .3 0

_

.
-

87
87

464

______

_

-

87
85

458

_________________________________

.

-

61
61

_______________

___ _______

.
-

73
73

M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________________________________________

_________________________________

.
-

6
6

_

....

2 . 70

2 .4 4

2. 56

T o o l an d d ie m a k e r s

$

854

804

m ain ten an ce

m ain ten an ce

2 . 70

-

-

P ain ters,

2 . 60

-

-

M a n u factu rin g

$ 2 . 60

-

-

O ile rs

2 . 50

$
2 .3 5
2 . 32

2 .3 9

M illw rig h ts

$

365
240

2 .3 9

P u b lic u tilitie s *

$ 2 .2 0

and

606
604

M ach in e-to o l o p e r a t o r s , to o lro o m
M an u factu rin g
_
...

M e c h a n ic s, au to m o tive

2 . 10

333

.... ...

M a n u f a c t u r i n g ___________________________________

M a ch in ists,

$

1 ,0 6 4

_

______________________________________

M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________________________________________

F ire m e n ,

Average
hourly
earnings

6
6

-

_

12
12

14
14

17
17

5
5

16
16

-

-

137

260

2 60

356
356

356

137

356

189
189

106
To6

5

5
-

Occupational Wage Survey, Milwaukee, W is. , November 1955
U .S . DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

9

Table A-4: Custodial and Mgterial-Movement Occupations
(A verage hou rly ea rn in g s 1 fo r s e le c te d occu p ation s 2 studied on an a re a b a sis
in M ilw aukee, W is. , by industry d iv isio n , N ovem b er 1955)

0 .9 0

E le v a to r o p e r a t o r s ,

and c le a n e r s

$
1 .7 0

$
1 .8 0

$
1 .9 0

2 .0 0

$
2 . 10

$
2 .2 0

$ „
2 .3 0

1 .1 0

1 .2 0

1 .3 0

1 .4 0

1 .5 0

1 .6 0

1 .7 0

1 .8 0

1 .9 0

2 .0 0

2 .1 0

2 .2 0

2 .3 0

2 .4 0

and

14

56

8

1

24

13

19
19

10
10

2
2

_

_

_

3

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

575
555

1 .8 1

-

1

1

18

2

26

101

-

-

14

-

24

64
63

131

-

47
42

71

1 .8 2

4
3

69

131

101

1 .5 7
1 .6 7
1 .3 3

4
-

27
8

160

282
201
81

361
347
14

163

100

93

519
55

117
46

92

92

3

4

_

4

170
127
43

574

1 ,6 2 4
711

8

1

1

-

-

-

1 ,2 1 5
528

1 .2 5
1 .4 8

22
-

24

206

_

_

4

_

.

_

.

.

24

205

_

_

4

_

_

_

_

_

687

1. 08

22

89
84
5

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4 ,0 8 2
2 ,8 4 0
1 ,2 4 2

155
124
31

162
135

524
490

391
341

479
296

349
46

6
6

50

183

303

100
62

632
632

34

262
16
246

6
6

27

513
480
33

162

1 .8 9
1 .8 0

-

-

-

1 ,6 7 9
765

33

47
10

109
38

170
145

324

164

342

_

270

_

37

71

25

54

97
67

401
33
368

-

85
77
8

129
100

151

178

127

139
12

170
8

_

2 .3 3 5

( m e n ) __________
_ .

(w o m e n )
.. .
_ _______

120

116
60
56

87

181

455

34

46

39
35

37

29
58

71
30

147

409

41

4

-

_

. ....
................. .

P a c k e r s , s h ip p in g (w o m e n )
M a n u fa c tu r in g
_ ......

.

.... .

R e c e iv in g c le r k s
M a n u fa c tu r in g
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

...........

...........
......

.

2
-

43
-

41
-

31
-

117
16

207
152

2

43

41

31

101

55

1 .9 0
1 .8 6

-

-

2

-

-

14
-

31
15

27
18

1 .9 3

-

-

14

2

16

9

1, 119
959
160

1 .8 7
1 .8 7

_

_
-

9
9

1 .8 9

-

-

4

-

3
3

10

-

4
-

420
332

_ .

1 .4 2

_

2

1 .5 0

-

-

97
32

15
10

28
28

367
195
172

1 .8 6

134
16
118

143
23

19

15
145

914

...

37

-

11
22

10

27
27

-

-

71
71

7
5

76

53

69

50

5
2

22
21

26
26

20

27

10
10

19
8

41
31

100
61

10

39

27
26

25
25

22
21

1 .9 2

_

_

_

_

1 .9 4
1 .8 8

-

-

-

-

5
-

4
-

23
-

12
-

-

5

4

23

12

-

-

-

29

126
126
-

JT 5 — r r ~
2~ T
4 4
33

-----

_
-

59

17

-------

57
70
_
-

_

-

"

-

_

_

-

_
-

_
-

_

128

7
-

_

8
_

214

7

-

8

156
136

97

13

91
6

13

4
4

_

-

“

-

16
16

2

_

_

_

2

-

-

-

20

50

50

25

24
26

2
23

9
1
8

1
_

_

47
3

1

-

87

28
20

16
16

30
4

22
12

2

59

6
5

9
8

45

22

26

12

15

9

1

21
21

.

44

140
132
8

118

133

692

107
11

n o
23

39
653

1 ,4 9 9
3
1,496

-

_

291
188

.

_
_
_

...

__ . _

_
_

_.

P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s * ___________________________________
T r u c k d r iv e r s , lig h t (u n d e r
M a n u fa c tu r in g

T r u c k d r iv e r s , m e d iu m
in c lu d in g 4 t o n s ) _
M a n u fa c t u r in g
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g
P u b lic u t ilit ie s *

(

l 1/?. t o n s )
.
..

.

_

_

_

_

_

_

26

_

1 .9 4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2 .0 4
2 .0 5

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

12

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

7
3

14

130

c le r k s

1 .9 5

178

...

7

12

2 ,8 8 7
584
2 ,3 0 3

-

-

-

-

52
-

70

-

16
-

23

-

10
-

41

1 .9 9
2 .1 6

10

16

52

24
17

22
1

54
16

1 ,4 6 9

2 .2 0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

9

13

272

1 ,1 7 3

413

2 .0 1

_

_

_

_

2

_

3

23

_

3

268

1

1 .8 7

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

21

-

34
34

31

140

32
32

31

2

4

-

-

1 .0 4 3
313

2 .0 4
1 .9 3

_

_

_

_

23
22

38
22

79
70

100
78

_

-

_

_

2 .0 9
2 .20

-

-

-

-

8

16

-

-

-

9

13

42

406

-

-

-

-

16
2

406

-

1
-

22

-

11
-

9

-

49
-

26
192

409
3

_

-

14
3

218

-

16
-

89

-

8
-

49

-

730

2 .1 2

....

_

472

89
-

-

-

10
10

93
93
-

-

-

-

-

_

16
16

-

-

1V 2 t o a n d

See footn otes at end o f table,,
* T ra n sp orta tion (exclu d in g r a ilr o a d s ), com m unication, and other pu blic u tilitie s.




over

72
72

__________________________________

P a c k e r s , s h ip p in g (m e n )
M a n u fa c tu r in g
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

$
2 .5 0

33
33

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

M a n u fa c tu r in g .
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

$ ,
1 .6 0

3 38
38

O rd e r fille r s
M a n u fa c tu r in g

T r u c k d r iv e r s 4

$
1 .5 0

1 .0 3
1 .0 2

m a t e r i a l h a n d l i n g ....... _ ...........

S h ip p in g a n d r e c e iv in g
M a n u fa c tu r in g

$
1 .4 0

177
174

M a n u f a c t u r i n g __________________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g
.
_ ...

S h ip p in g c l e r k s
M a n u fa c tu r in g

f . 30

( w o m e n ) ________

N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g

L ab orers,

$
1 .2 0

$
1 .3 4

and cle a n e r s
_
_____

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

1 .1 0

116

G u a r d s _______________________________________________________
M a n u fa c tu r in g

J a n ito rs , p o r t e r s ,
M a n u fa c tu r in g

!.0 0

(m e n )

passen ger

E le v a to r o p e r a t o r s , p a s s e n g e r
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

J a n ito r s , p o r t e r s ,
M a n u fa c tu r in g

S .9 0
and
under
1 .0 0

O

^Jnder

is)

O c c u p a tio n a n d in d u s tr y d iv is io n

Average
hourly
earnings

J!
O

NU M BER OF W ORKERS RECEIVIN G S TRAIG H T-TIM E HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
Number
of
workers

_

-

O ccupation al Wage S urvey, M ilw aukee, W is. , N ovem ber 1955
U .S . D E PA RTM EN T OF LABOR
B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t is tic s

10

Table A-4:

Custodial and MaterialrMovement Occupations - Continued

(A v e r a g e

h o u r ly e a r n in g s 1 fo r
in M i l w a u k e e , W i s . ,

s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s 2 s t u d ie d o n a n a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d iv is io n , N o v e m b e r 1 9 5 5 )
NU M BER OF WORKERS RECEIVIN G STI^AIGHT-TIME H O U R LY E A R N IN G S OF—

Average
hourly
earnings

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

1 .0 0

1 .1 0

1 .2 0

1 .3 0

1 .4 0

1 .5 0

1 .6 0

1 .7 0

1 .8 0

1 .9 0

$
2 .0 0

$

0 .9 0
and
under

2 . 10

$
2 .2 0

$
2 .3 0

$
2 .4 0

$
2 .5 0

1 .0 0

O ccu pation an d in d u stry d iv isio n

Number
of
workers

1 .1 0

1 .2 0

1 .3 0

1 .4 0

1 .5 0

1 .6 0

1 .7 0

1 .8 0

1 .9 0

2 .0 0

2 .1 0

2 .2 0

2 .3 0

2 .4 0

2 .5 0

over

$
U nder
$
0 .9 0

and

T r u c k d r iv e r s 4 - C on tin u ed

$

T r u c k d r iv e r s, h eavy (ov er 4 to n s,
tr a ile r ty pe)
M an u factu rin g
...... _
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g .......
P u b lic

T r u c k d riv e rs, h eav y (ov er
o th er th an t r a ile r ty p e)
N on m an u factu rin g

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

13

6

.3 1

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

_

-

_

-

_

9
4

2

6
_

4

-

_
_

_

_

_
_

-

"

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

4

_

_

4

_

24

-

-

-

-

-

-

4

-

-

4

-

8

31

88

97

229

182

-

-

10
10

9

-

7

7

30

88

97

229

159

10

9
9

35

52
52

66

5

8

1

35

65

1

-

1

30
27

22

32
32

2 .2 2
2 .2 3

940
728

2 .2 2
2 .2 2

410
360

u tilitie s*

2 .2 0

_

2 .1 9

-

-

-

8
6

27
1

907
_
907
727

_

36

_

_
_

36
-

_

-

-

-

_

21

-

-

-

_

4 tons,

T r u c k e r s , p o w e r ( f o r k l i f t ) ______
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____

830
718

T r u c k e r s , p o w e r (o th er th an fo rk lift)
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________

1 .9 5
1 .9 4

8

218

1 .9 4

------ 1 & 5

1 .9 3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

10

57 5

W a t c h m e n ___________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ......
. __

1 .3 8
1 .5 6

5

93

52

67
37

59
50

22

33
32

62
60

352

'

p a y fo r o v e r tim e

1

E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m

D a ta lim it e d to m e n w o r k e r s

3
4

W o r k e r s w e r e a ll a t $ 0 .8 0 to $ 0 .9 0 .
In clu d e s a ll d r iv e r s r e g a r d le s s o f s iz e a n d ty p e o f tr u c k o p e r a te d .

*

T r a n s p o r ta tio n

(e x c lu d in g

and fo r w o rk on w e e k e n d s,

e x ce p t w h e re o th e r w is e

r a ilr o a d s ),

c o m m u n ic a tio n ,

14

47

51

46

42

12

~

175
170

182
182

69
28

36

2

37

24

-

2

37

24

26

-

26

6
6

'

2




*

_
_

1 .0 0 1
61

h o lid a y s ,

a n d la t e

in d ic a t e d .

a n d o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .

s h ifts .

'




11

B: Establishment Practices and Supplem entary W age Provisions
Table B-l: Shift Differential Provisions 1
P e r c e n t of m an u factu rin g plan t w o r k e r s—

(a)

(b)

In e s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v in g
fo rm al p ro v isio n s fo r—

Sh ift d iffe re n tia l

A c tu ally w o rk in g on—

S e c o n d sh ift
w ork

T o t a l —............................................ —

W ith s h ift p a y
U n iform

9 3 .6

85. 1

___________________________

9 1 .9

_________________________________________

7 8 .4

-------------------------------------

d ifferen tial

cen ts

T h ird o r oth er

_______________

(p er hour)

-------------------------

4. 5

14. 6

2 .9

.4
-

.3
3 .0
. 7

3. 1

2 .3

2. 7
2. 5

3. 6
.2

U n iform

p e r c e n t a g e _____________

______

—

—

—

Sh ift
sh ifts at
d itio n s:
t

data

are

presen ted

in

term s

of

-

. 7

.8

. 1

. 1

. 5
.2

5 .9

.8

.4

12. 9

2 .8

. 7

-

8 .3
3 .5

-

1 .9
. 7

3 .5

.4

1 .2

.2
.2

1 0 .3

.4

.9

1 .7

(a)

9 .4

.6

__________________________________________________

d ifferen tial

.8

-

2 .9

_________ ____________________________________________________________

sh ift p a y d iffe re n tia l

t
. 2
. 1

1 2 .9

-------------------

5 p e r c e n t __ -------------------- -----------------------------------------------------6 p e r c e n t -------------- -----------------------------------------------------------------9 p e r c e n t ____________________________
_______ ________________________
___________ ______________
1 0 p e r c e n t ______________________________
O th er2

_
_

2 .5
_

6 .0
7.2

1 .3

_

1. 1

1 5 .9
3 .4
1 3 .4

1 0 .7
-

1 3 c e n t s _________________________________________________________________
1 5 c e n t s ____________________________________________ __________________
O v e r 1 5 c e n t s ________ ___________________
_______________________

No

1 7 .8

6 1 .3

-

1 1 c e n t s ________________________________________________
______________
1 2 c e n t s --------------------------------------------------------------------------------1 2 V 2 c e n t s _________________ ___________ __ -------- -------------------

sh ift

84. 5

1 7 .4
3. 1
10. 7

1
!z

T h ird o r oth er

4. 6

2 .8
1 0 .8

8 cen ts
____________________________________________ — ------------------9 cen ts
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10 c e n t s
_____________________________________ — — -------------------

sh ift

1 8 .2

1. 1
17. 6

U n d er 5 cen ts
-----------------------------------------------------------------------5 cen ts
----------------------- -------- -----------------------------------------------6 cen ts
_________________ ______ — -----------------------------------------7 or 7
c e n t s _____________________________________
______________

Second

sh ift w o rk

. 6

. 4

t

e stab lish m e n t

p o lic y ,

and

(b)

w orkers

. 3

ac tu a lly

em p lo yed

th e t im e o f th e s u r v e y .
A n e s t a b li s h m e n t w a s c o n s id e r e d a s h a v in g a p o lic y if it m e t e ith e r o f the
(1) O p e r a t e d la t e s h if t s a t th e t i m e o f th e s u r v e y , o r (2) h a d f o r m a l p r o v i s i o n s c o v e r i n g l a t e s h i f t s .
In c lu d e s p r o v is io n s fo r fu ll
L e s s than 0 .0 5 p e r c e n t.

d a y 's

pay

for

reduced

hours

in

co m b in atio n

w ith

a

cen ts

O ccu p atio n al W age S u rv e y ,

on

late

fo llo w in g

con-;

W is. , N o v e m b e r

1955

d iffe re n tia l,
M ilw au k e e ,
U .S .

D E P A R T M E N T
B u reau

O F

L A B O R

of L a b o r S ta tistic s

12

Table B-2:
N um ber

Minimum Entrance Rates for Women Office Workers1

of e stab lish m e n ts

w ith

sp e c ifie d

M an u factu rin g
M in im u m rate
(w eek ly s a la r y )

B ase d

A ll
in d u stries

s t u d i e d ____________________________________________________

177

86

U
$
$
$

n d er $ 3 0 .0 0
3 0 .0 0 and un
32. 50 an d u n
3 5 . 00 an d u n

a

sp e c ifie d

m in im u m

............... .

___________________________________________________________
d e r $ 3 2 . 5 0 ____________________________________________
d e r $ 3 5 . 0 0 _________________________________________ _
d e r $ 3 7 . 5 0 ____________________________________________

$ 3 7 . 5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 4 0 . 0 0 ____________________________________________
$ 4 0 . 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 4 2 . 5 0 ____________________________________________
$ 4 2 .5 0
$ 4 5 . 00
$ 4 7 . 50
$ 50. 00

and
and
and
and

u
u
u
u

n
n
n
n

der
der
der
der

$
$
$
$

4 5 .
4 7 .
50.
52.

0 0 ____________________________________________
5 0 _________________________ ___________________
0 0 ____________________________________________
50
...
_ ..

$ 5 2 . 5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 5 5 . 0 0 ____________________________________________
$ 55. 00 an d u n d e r $ 5 7 .5 0
.
..
$ 5 7 .5 0

a n d o v e r __________________________________________________________

E sta b lish m e n ts h avin g no

sp e c ifie d

m i n i m u m __________________

E s t a b l is h m e n t s w h ich d id n ot e m p lo y
category
D ata

rate

in —

N um ber

s t a n d a r d w e e k ly h o u r s 2 of—

53

A ll
sch ed u les

91

IN E X P E R IE N C E D

46

3 7 Va

XXX

A ll
sch ed u les

40

XXX

177

T Y P IST S

_____________________________________________________

m in im u m

h irin g

rate

in —

N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g
s ta n d a r d w e e k ly h o u r s 2 of—

51

7

41

123

1
3

_

_

.

.

.

-

1

-

-

-

-

3

2
1
15

1
1
5

1
3

1
13

5

13
43

1
18
10
8
5
4

8
15

1
3
1

12
5
4

9
8
4
3

5
4

-

2
7

-

1

2
6

2

13
11

A ll
sch ed u les

XXX

O TH ER

91

IN E X P E R IE N C E D

_

_

1

-

3
2
24
8

2
2
20
8

W O R K ER S

50

8

.

2
1

1

1

1

1

-

XXX

XXX

64

40

37 V2

C L E R IC A L

52

59

1
1
7

-

10
11

1

4

7
16
5

1

19
5
3

-

8
6

-

2

12
6
5
2

4

6

1

2
3

2
3

4

-

4
4

2

-

2

2

2

-

-

-

1

-

■

-

~

-

8

2

-

2

2

-

-

-

■

"

1

27

21

XXX

6

XXX

XXX

29

22

XXX

7

XXX

XXX

44

12

XXX

32

XXX

XXX

23

5

XXX

18

XXX

XXX

2

“

XXX

2

XXX

XXX

2

-

XXX

2

XXX

XXX

2
1

2
2

L o w e st s a la r y ra te fo r m a lly e sta b lish e d fo r h irin g in e x p e rie n c e d w o r k e r s fo r ty p in g o r o th er c le r ic a l jo b s .
H o u r s r e f le c t th e w o r k w e e k fo r w h ich e m p l o y e e s r e c e iv e th e ir r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t im e s a l a r i e s .
D a ta a r e p r e s e n te d fo r a ll w o rk w e e k s c o m b in ed ,




on

40

86

FO R

-

12
7

B a se d

A ll

1
1
8

11
4

sp e c ifie d

M an u factu rin g

.

9
33
15

of e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith

in th is

__________ ___________________________________________________________

n o t a v a i l a b l e ____

1
2

w orkers

104

40

XXX

FO R

E s ta b lis h m e n ts h avin g

h irin g

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

in d u stries
A ll
sch ed u les

E sta b lish m e n ts

on

m in im u m

O ccu p atio n al

an d fo r the m o s t

W age

Survey,

com m on w orkw eeks

M ilw a u k e e ,
U .S .

W is.,

repo rted .

N ovem ber

1955

D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B u re a u of L a b o r S tatistic s

13

Table B-3:

Scheduled Weekly Hours

--------------- 1 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------P E R C E N T O F O F F IC E W O R K E R S E M P L O Y E D I N —

P E R C E N T O F P L A N T W O R K E R S E M P L O Y E D IN —

W eek ly h o u rs

A il

w orkers

-------------------------------------------------------------------

lx
k

U n d e r 3 7 l/ 2 h o u r s -------------------------------------------------------3
h o u r s — ------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 3 7 V 2 a n d u n d e r 4 0 h o u r s -------------------------------4 0 h o u r s -------------------------------------------- •----------------------------O v e r 4 0 a n d u n d e r 4 4 h o u r s ----------------------------------44
45
48
O v

ho
ho
ho
er

100

100

100

3

!
•

A ll industries3

P u b lic u tilities5
!'

M an u facturin g

A ll industries 1
2

100

_

t

5
3

Pu blic u tilities*

100

100

3

3

-

t
t

t
t

92

99

78

78

96

t

-

t

3

-

-

-

t

t
t

4

7

9

-

-

4

3

-

t

t

t

10
3
81

u r s -------------------------------------------------------------------------u r s -------------------------------------------------------------------------u r s -------------------------------------------------------------------------4 8 h o u r s -------------------- ------------------------------------------

!

-

|

“

-

j

|

1
2
3

D a ta r e l a t e to w o m e n w o r k e r s o nly .
I n c lu d e s d a ta f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; fin a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e ; a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d itio n to t h o s e i n d u s t r y d iv i s i o n s
I n c lu d e s d a t a f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e , r e t a i l t r a d e , r e a l e s t a t e , a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d itio n to t h o s e i n d u s t r y d iv i s i o n s sh o w n s e p a r a t e l y .

■f
*

L e s s th an 2. 5 p e r c e n t.
T r a n sp o r ta tio n (exclu din g

ra ilro ad s),

M an u facturin g

co m m u n ica tio n ,

and

o th e r p u b lic

show n

-

se p arate ly .

u tilitie s.

Table B-4: Paid Holidays1
P E R C E N T OF O FF IC E W O R K E R S E M P L O Y E D IN —

P E R C E N T OF PL A N T W O R K E R S EM P L O Y E D IN —

Item
All industries 2

A ll w o r k e r s

Manufacturi ng

Public u t i li t ie s*

All industries 3

-----------------------------------------------------------------

100

100

100

j

W o r k e r s in e s t a b li s h m e n t s p r o v id in g
p a i d h o l i d a y s --------------------------------------------------------------

99

100

100

_

_

-

-

L e s s th an 5 h o lid a y s
-----------------------------------------5 h o lid a y s
---------------------------------------------------------------F u l l d a y s o n l y -------------------------------------------------P lu s
6 h o lid a
F u ll
P lu s

2 h a l f d a y s ------------------------------------------------ys
---------------------------------------------------------------d a y s o n l y -------------------------------------------------1 h a l f d a y -------------------------------------------------

65
50
6

P lu s 2 h alf d ay s
--------------------------------------------7 h o l i d a y s ----------------------------------------------------------------F u l l d a y s o n l y --------------------------------------------------

9
24
23

P lu s 2 h alf d ay s
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8 h o lid ay s

t
10

F u l l d a y s o n l y -------------------------------------------------P l u s 1 h a l f d a y ------------------------------------------------

3
3

t

P lu s

t
3

-

P lu s

2 h alf d ay s

---------------------------------------------3 h a l f d a y s -----------------------------------------------

9 h o lid a y s
---------------------------------------------------------------F u l l d a y s o n l y -------------------------------------------------P l u s 1 h a l f d a y ------------------------------------------------1 1 h o l i d a y s -------------------------------------------------------------O t h e r 4 ----------------------------------------------------------------------W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g no
p a i d h o l i d a y s --------------------------------------------------------------

1 E stim a te s
who re c e iv e

th ose

_

In clu d es d ata fo r
In clu d es data for
T h r e e to 6 d a y s ,

f
*

L e s s th an 2 .5 p e rc e n t.
T r a n sp o r ta tio n (exclu d in g




w h o lesa le
w h o lesa le
acco rd in g

94

98

98

t
t

t
t
t
t
67
50

i
!
i
!

t
t
70

55
3
12

5
5
-

i

9
9
-

_
_

-

t
t

-

_
_
_

-

-

6

t

-

!
_

t

as

in e a r l i e r

stu d ie s.

T h ese

are

fu rth er

d iv id ed

betw een

w ork ers

who

t

re c e iv e

t r a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; fin a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e ; a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d it io n to t h o s e i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s
t r a d e , r e t a i l t r a d e , r e a l e s t a t e , a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d i t i o n to t h o s e i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
to le n g th of s e r v ic e .

m erely

show n

co m m u n ica tio n ,

and

o th e r p u b lic u tilitie s .

th e in d ic a te d

t

num ber

of

fu ll-d ay h o lid ay s,

and

se p arate ly .

O ccu pation al
ra ilro a d s),

19
_

-

-

t

88
70

6
6
_
-

-

-

!

_
_
_

t
15
22
22
-

17
17
-

-

-

r e la te to f u ll- d a y h o lid a y s p ro v id e d an n u ally ,
1 o r m o r e h a l f h o li d a y s in a d d itio n .

2
3
4

100

-

t

t
-

100

29
3
16
16
-

t
15
32
32
-

t
-

100

!

84
53

66
49

Public utilities *

1

-

-

Manufacturing

W age S u rv e y ,

M ilw au k e e , W is ., N o v e m b e r 1955
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R

B u re a u o f L a b o r S t a t is tic s

14

Table B-5: Paid Vacations
P E R C E N T OF O FFICE W ORKERS EM PLO Y ED IN—
V acatio n p o lic y

All i ndustries1

Ma nufacturi ng

P E R C E N T OF P L A N T W O R K E R S E M P L O Y E D IN —

Public utilities *

All industries 2

Ma nuf act uri ng

Public utilities *

—

100

100

100

100

100

100

W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s p r o v id in g
p a i d v a c a t i o n s _____________________________________________

99

100

99

99

t

t

99
-

99
84
15

100

99

80
20

100
100
-

t

t

-

-

t
86

78
_

9

t
91
5
4

t
56

t
66

17

24

25

JO
-

A ll w o rk e rs

_______ ;_____

M ETH O D

L
P
W or
no

_____________________________

O F

PA Y M E N T

e n g t h - o f - t i m e p a y m e n t ______________________ ___
e r c e n t a g e p a y m e n t __________________________________
k e r s in e s t a b li s h m e n t s p ro v id in g
p aid v acatio n s
............
_ ...

AM O UNT

O F

A fter

V A C A T IO N

1 y e ar of se rv ic e

1 and under 2 w eeks

______________________________

________________________________________________________

2 w eeks

A fter 2 y e a rs

1 and under 2 w eeks

2w eeks
3

______________________________

________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

w eeks

A fter

3 y ears

3

________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

w eeks

A fter
1 w eek

_

5 y ears

_
57

t
50

3
40

_
66
_
34

4

_

22

_

_

_

7

8

t
91

5
_

_
22
>

t
90

94

t

-

-

_

_

_

6
t

_
-

37

t
22

46
30

92

99

40

23

98

t

-

-

t

-

-

t
t

t
t
91
6
t

t

78

-

of se rv ic e

U n d e r 1 w e e k _______________________________________________
1 w e e k _________ _________________________________________________
O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ______________________________

2w eeks

_
49

of se rv ic e

U n d e r 1 w e e k _______________________________________________
1 w e e k ___________________________________________________________
O ver

_

PA Y

U n d e r 1 w e e k ________________________________________________
1 w e e k __________________________________________________________
O ver

t

4

t

94

t

_

t
_

of se rv ic e

_

_

___

______________________________

O ver 2 and under
3 w eeks

______________________________

2

3 w eeks

_

_

_

_

_

97

.

O ver 1 and under 2 w eek s
w eeks _ _

99

99
_

t
3

t
t

See footnotes at end o f tab le.
* T ra n sp ortation (exclu din g r a ilr o a d s ), com m u n ica tion , and oth er pu blic u tilitie s .




N OTE:

89

5
3

_
_
96
_
4

O ccupation al W age S u rv e y , M ilw a u k ee, W is. , N o v e m b e r 1955
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T OF LA BO R
B ureau o f L a b o r S ta tistics

In the tabulations o f va ca tion a llow a n ces by y e a rs o f s e r v ic e , paym ents other than "length o f t i m e , "
such as p ercen ta g e o f annual earnings o r fla t-s u m p a ym en ts, w ere co n verted to an equivalent tim e
b a s is ; fo r ex a m p le, a paym ent o f 2 p e rce n t o f annual earnings was co n sid e re d as 1 w e e k 's p a y.

15

Table B-5:

Paid Vacations - Continued

PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—

PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—

V acation p o lic y
All industries 1

M
anufacturing

Public utilities *

All industries 2

M
anufacturing

Public utilities*

100

100

100

100

100

100

74
t
23
t

_
75
4
21
-

_
67
32
-

t
t
64
15
19
t

t
67
20
13
"

_
55
45
-

__ __
__
____

_
16
83
t
r

_
11
88
t
t

_
3
97
_

t
14
77
4
4

_
9
81
5 ,
5 '

__ __ __ _____ ____
__ __ _____ ________
____________________
__ __ ___________ __

15
82
t
r

11
86
t
t

t
13
75
5
5

_
8
80
6
6

_
11
76
_
13

_
9

t
12
64
4
18

_
7
75
6
12

A ll w o r k e rs

AM OUNT O F VAC A TION P A Y - Continued
A fte r 10 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w e e k __ _ _ __
O v er 1 and under
2 w eek s __
_
O ver 2 and under
3 w eek s
__
_
4 w eek s and o v e r

_
_
____
2 w eek s ____________________
_ _ _ _ _
3 w eek s ____ ______ __ __ __
_
- — ___ ______ __________

A fte r 15 y e a rs o f s e r v ic e
1 w e e k __ __ __ __
2 w eek s ____ _____
3 w eek s _ __ __ __
O v er 3 and under 4
4 w e ek s and o v e r _

_____ __
_
__ __ __
w eek s _
__ __ __

__ __ __ __
_
„ _____ __
__ __ __ __
_____ _____

____

-

_
t
99
_
-

A fte r 20 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1
2 w eek s _ ________
3 w eek s _ __ __ __
O v er 3 and under 4
4 w eek s and o v e r _

_
__ __
_____
w eek s
__ __

_

!

3
97

-

_
t
96
_
4

A fte r 25 y e a rs o f s e r v ic e
1 w e e k __ ____ __
2 w eek s _ __ _____ __ _____ __ _____
___ __
3 w eek s _ __ _______________ _____ __ ________
O v er 3 and under 4 w eek s _ _ __
__ _
4 w eek s and o v e r __________

1
2
f
*

85
6

_
!
j

3
53
44

In clu des data fo r w h o le s a le tra d e; reta il tra d e; fin a n ce, in s u ra n ce , and re a l e sta te; and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in d u stry d iv isio n s shown sep a ra te ly .
Inclu des data fo r w h olesa le tra d e, reta il tra d e, rea l e sta te , and s e r v ic e s in addition to those industry d iv isio n s shown se p a ra te ly ,
L e s s than 2 .5 p e r c e n t.
T ra n sp orta tion (exclu d in g r a ilr o a d s ), com m u n ica tion , and other public u tilitie s.




_
t
47
52

16

Table B-6: Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
PERCEN T OF OFFICE W ORKERS EM PLOYED IN—

PERCENT OF P LA N T W O R K E R S E M P L O YE D IN—

T y p e o f p la n
All industries

A ll w o rk e rs

-------------------------------------------------------------

W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s p r o v id in g :
L ife in s u r a n c e -------------------------------------------------A c c id e n t a l death and d i s m e m b e r m e n t
in s u r a n c e --------------------------------------------------------S ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e o r
s i c k le a v e o r b oth 3 ---------------------------------------S ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e ----------S ic k le a v e (fu ll p a y and no
w a itin g p e r i o d ) ----------------------------------------S ic k le a v e (p a r t ia l p a y o r w a itin g
p e r io d ) ------------------------------------------------------H o s p it a liz a t io n i n s u r a n c e -----------------------------S u r g ic a l i n s u r a n c e ------------------------------------------M e d ic a l i n s u r a n c e -------------------------------------------C a ta s tr o p h e i n s u r a n c e -----------------------------------R e t ir e m e n t p e n s i o n ----------------------------------------N o h e a lth , in s u r a n c e , o r p e n s io n
pla n

1

Manufacturing

’

All industries 1
2

Manufacturing

Public utilities *

100

100

93

Public utilities *

100

1

100

100

100

98

99

j

92

97

100

48

64

36

i

50

59

44

81
65

92
89

95
35

!

85
77

93
92

99
46

36

50

j

4

t

8

-

44
55
53
35
29
91

7

99
99
75
t
81

!

91

t
99
98
72
t
65

65
76
76
65
19
90

t

t

37

!

i

6
87

86

64
9
77

3

!

|
i

;

I
i

|

!

89
64
3

63
4

!

|

t

________________________________ i
1 In clu d e s data f o r w h o le s a le t r a d e ; r e t a il t r a d e ; fin a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e ; and s e r v i c e s in a d d it io n to th o s e in d u s t r y d iv is io n s s h ow n s e p a r a t e l y .
2 I n clu d e s data f o r w h o le s a le t r a d e , r e t a il t r a d e , r e a l e s t a t e , and s e r v i c e s in a d d it io n to t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s sh ow n s e p a r a t e ly .
3 U n d u p lica te d to ta l o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g s i c k le a v e o r s i c k n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y b e lo w .
t L e s s than 2 . 5 p e r c e n t .
O c c u p a t io n a l W a g e S u r v e y , M ilw a u k e e , W is . , N o v e m b e r 1955
* T r a n s p o r t a t io n ( e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o t h e r p u b lic u t i li t ie s .
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B u rea u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s




17

Appendix: Job Descriptions
The p r im a r y p u rp o se of p re p a rin g jo b d e s c rip tio n s fo r the B u r e a u ’s w age s u rv e y s is to
a s s i s t its fie ld s ta ff in c la s s ify in g into a p p ro p ria te o ccu p atio n s w o r k e r s who a r e em p lo yed u n d er
a v a r i e t y of p a y r o ll title s and d iffe r e n t w o rk a r ra n g e m e n ts fro m e s ta b lis h m e n t to e s ta b lis h m e n t
and fro m a r e a to a r e a .
T his is e s s e n tia l in o r d e r to p e rm it the g rou p in g of o cc u p a tio n a l w age
r a te s re p re s e n tin g c o m p a ra b le job co n ten t.
B e c a u se of th is e m p h a sis on in te r e sta b lis h m e n t and
in t e r a r e a c o m p a ra b ility of o c c u p atio n al con ten t, the B u re a u 's jo b d e s c rip tio n s m a y d iffe r s ig n ifi­
c a n tly fro m th o se in u s e in in d iv id u a l e s ta b lis h m e n ts o r th o se p re p a r e d fo r o th e r p u rp o s e s .
In
ap p lyin g th e se job d e s c rip tio n s , the B u re a u ’s fie ld r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s a r e in s tru c te d to ex clu d e w o r k ­
ing s u p e r v is o r s , a p p re n tic e s , le a r n e r s , b e g in n e rs , t r a in e e s , han d icap p ed w o r k e r s , p a r t - t im e ,
te m p o ra ry , and p ro b a tio n a ry w o r k e r s .

O f f ic e
B IL L E R , MACHINE
P r e p a r e s s ta te m e n ts , b ills , and in v o ic e s on a m a ch in e o th e r
th an an o r d in a r y o r e le c tr o m a tic ty p e w r ite r . M ay a ls o keep re c o r d s
a s to b illin g s o r sh ipp in g c h a rg e s o r p e rfo rm o th e r c le r i c a l w o rk in ­
c id e n ta l to b illin g o p e ra tio n s .
F o r w age stu d y p u rp o s e s , b i l l e r s ,
m a c h in e , a r e c la s s ifie d by typ e of m a c h in e , as fo llo w s :
B i l l e r , m a c h in e (b illin g m ach in e) - U ses a s p e c ia l b illin g
m a c h in e (M oon H opkins, E llio tt F is h e r , B u rro u g h s , e t c ., w h ich
a r e c o m b in a tio n typ in g and adding m a c h in e s) to p r e p a r e b ills and
in v o ic e s fr o m c u s to m e r s ' p u rc h a s e o r d e r s , in te r n a lly p re p a r e d
o r d e r s , sh ip p in g m e m o ra n d a , e tc .
U s u a lly in v o lv e s a p p lic a tio n
of p re d e te r m in e d d isco u n ts and shipping c h a rg e s and e n try of
n e c e s s a r y e x te n s io n s , w h ich m a y o r m a y not be com puted on the
b illin g m a c h in e , and to ta ls w hich a r e a u to m a tic a lly a c c u m u la te d
by m a c h in e .
The o p e ra tio n u s u a lly in v o lv e s a la r g e n u m b e r of
c a rb o n c o p ie s o f the b ill being p re p a re d and is o ften done on a
fa n fo ld m a c h in e .
B i l l e r , m a c h in e (bookkeeping m a c h in e ) - U se s a bookkeeping
m a c h in e (S u n d stran d , E llio tt F is h e r , R em ington R and, e tc . , w h ich
m a y o r m a y not h a v e ty p e w r ite r keyb o ard ) to p r e p a r e c u s to m e r s '
b ills a s p a r t of the accou n ts re c e iv a b le o p e ra tio n .
G e n e r a lly
in v o lv e s th e s im u lta n e o u s e n try of fig u re s on c u s to m e r s ' le d g e r
re c o rd .
The m a c h in e a u to m a tic a lly a c c u m u la te s fig u r e s on a
n u m b e r of v e r t i c a l colu m n s and com putes and u s u a lly p rin ts a u to ­
m a t i c a lly the d e b it o r c re d it b a la n c e s . D oes not in v o lv e a k n o w l­
edge o f b oo k k eep in g . W o rk s fr o m u n ifo rm and sta n d a rd ty p es of
s a le s and c r e d it s lip s .
BO O KKEEPIN G-M ACH IN E OPERATOR
O p e ra te s a b ookkeeping m ach in e (R em ington R and, E llio tt
F is h e r , S u n d s tra n d , B u rro u g h s , N ational C ash R e g is te r , w ith o r w ith ­
out a ty p e w r it e r k e y b o a rd ) to keep a re c o r d of b u s in e s s tr a n s a c tio n s .




BOOKKEEPIN G-M ACH IN E O PE RAT O R - C ontinued
C la s s A - K eeps a s e t of r e c o r d s re q u irin g a know ledge of
and e x p e rie n c e in b a s ic bookkeeping p rin c ip le s and fa m ilia r it y w ith
the s tr u c tu r e of the p a r t ic u la r ac cou n tin g s y s te m u sed .
D e te r ­
m in e s p ro p e r r e c o r d s and d is trib u tio n of debit and c re d it item s
to be u sed in e ach p h ase of the w o rk .
M ay p re p a r e co n so lid a te d
r e p o r t s , b ala n c e s h e e ts , and o th e r re c o r d s by hand.
C la s s B - K eeps a r e c o r d of one o r m o re p h ase s o r se c tio n s
o f a s e t of r e c o r d s u s u a lly re q u irin g little know ledge of b asic b oo k­
k eep in g .
P h a s e s o r s e c tio n s in clu d e accou n ts p a y a b le , p a y r o ll,
c u s to m e rs ' a cco u n ts (not in clu d in g a sim p le typ e of b illin g d e sc rib e d
u n d er b i lle r , m a c h in e ), c o s t d is trib u tio n , exp en se d istrib u tio n , in ­
v e n to r y c o n tro l, e tc .
M ay c h eck o r a s s i s t in p re p a ra tio n of t r i a l
b a la n c e s and p r e p a r e c o n tro l sh e e ts fo r the accounting d e p a rtm e n t.
C L E R K , ACCOUNTING
C la s s A - U n d er g e n e r a l d ire c tio n of a b oo k k eep er o r a c c o u n t­
an t, has r e s p o n s ib ility f o r keep in g one o r m o re se c tio n s of a c o m ­
p le te s e t o f books o r r e c o r d s re la tin g to one p h ase of an e s t a b lis h ­
m e n t's b u sin e ss tr a n s a c tio n s . W o rk in v o lv e s p ostin g and b alancing
s u b s id ia r y le d g e r o r le d g e rs su ch a s accou n ts re c e iv a b le o r a c ­
counts p a y a b le ; ex am in in g and coding in v o ic e s o r v o u c h e rs w ith
p r o p e r acco u n tin g d is trib u tio n ; re q u ir e s judgm ent and e x p e rie n c e
in m akin g p r o p e r a s s ig n a tio n s and a llo c a tio n s .
M ay a s s i s t in
p re p a r in g , a d ju s tin g , and c lo sin g jo u rn a l e n trie s ; m a y d ire c t c la s s
B accou n tin g c le r k s .
C la s s B - U nder s u p e r v is io n , p e r fo r m s one o r m o re ro u tin e
accou n tin g o p e ra tio n s su ch a s p o stin g sim p le jo u rn a l v o u c h e rs ,
ac c o u n ts p a y a b le v o u c h e rs , e n te rin g v o u c h e rs in v o u c h e r r e g i s t e r s ;
re c o n c ilin g bank a c c o u n ts; p o stin g s u b s id ia r y le d g e rs c o n tro lle d
b y g e n e ra l le d g e r s .
T his job does not re q u ire a know ledge of
accou n tin g and b ookkeeping p rin c ip le s but is found in o ffic e s in
w h ich the m o re ro u tin e accou n tin g w o rk is sub divid ed on a fu n c ­
tio n a l b a s is am ong s e v e r a l w o r k e r s .

18

C L E R K , FILE
C la s s A - R e s p o n s ib le fo r m a in ta in in g an e s ta b lis h e d filin g
s y s te m . C la s s if ie s and in d ex e s c o rre s p o n d e n c e o r o th e r m a t e r ia l;
m a y a ls o fi le th is m a t e r i a l. M ay keep r e c o r d s of v a r io u s ty p e s
in con ju n ction w ith file s o r s u p e r v is e o th e rs in filin g and lo c a tin g
m a te r ia l in the f i le s .
M ay p e r fo r m in c id e n ta l c le r i c a l d u tie s .
C la s s B - P e r fo r m s ro u tin e filin g , u s u a lly o f m a t e r ia l th at
h as a lr e a d y b een c la s s ifie d , o r lo c a te s o r a s s i s t s in lo c a tin g m a ­
t e r i a l in the f i le s .
M ay p e r fo r m in c id e n ta l c le r i c a l d u tie s .
CLERK,

ORDER

R e c e iv e s c u s t o m e r s 1 o r d e r s fo r m a t e r i a l o r m e rc h a n d is e by
m a il, phone, o r p e r s o n a lly .
D uties in v o lv e an y co m b in a tio n of the
fo llo w in g : Q uoting p r ic e s to c u s to m e r s ; m ak in g out an o r d e r s h e e t
lis tin g the ite m s to m a k e up the o r d e r ; ch eckin g p r ic e s and q u a n titie s
of ite m s on o r d e r sh e e t; d is trib u tin g o r d e r s h e e ts to r e s p e c tiv e d e ­
p a rtm e n ts to be fille d .
M ay c h e c k w ith c r e d it d e p a rtm e n t to d e t e r ­
m in e c re d it ra tin g of c u s to m e r , ackn o w led g e re c e ip t o f o r d e r s fro m
c u s to m e rs , fo llo w up o r d e r s to s e e th at th e y h ave b een fille d , keep
file of o rd e rs r e c e iv e d , and c h ec k sh ipping in v o ic e s w ith o rig in a l
o rd e rs .
CLERK,

K E Y -PU N C H O PERATOR
U nder g e n e ra l s u p e rv is io n and w ith no s u p e r v is o r y r e s p o n s i ­
b ilit ie s , r e c o r d s accou n tin g and s t a t i s t i c a l d ata on ta b u la tin g c a rd s
by punching a s e r ie s o f h o les in the c a r d s in a s p e c ifie d se q u e n c e ,
u sin g an a lp h a b e tic a l o r a n u m e ric a l k e y -p u n c h m a c h in e , fo llo w in g
w r itte n in fo rm a tio n on r e c o r d s .
M ay d u p lic a te c a r d s b y u sin g the
d u p lica tin g d e v ic e atta c h e d to m a c h in e .
K e e p s f i le s o f punch c a r d s .
M ay v e r i f y own w o rk o r w o rk o f o th e r s .
O FFICE BOY OR GIRL
P e r fo r m s v a rio u s ro u tin e d u ties su c h a s ru n n in g e r r a n d s ,
o p e ra tin g m in o r o ffic e m a ch in es su ch a s s e a le r s o r m a i le r s , opening
and d is trib u tin g m a il, and o th e r m in o r c l e r i c a l w o rk .
SE C R E T A R Y
P e r fo r m s s e c r e t a r i a l and c l e r i c a l d u ties f o r a s u p e r io r in an
a d m in is tr a tiv e o r e x e c u tiv e p o s itio n . D u ties in clu d e m a k in g a p p o in t­
m e n ts f o r s u p e r io r ; re c e iv in g p e o p le com in g into o ffic e ; a n s w e rin g
and m ak in g phone c a lls ; handling p e r s o n a l and im p o rta n t o r c o n fi­
d e n tia l m a il, and w ritin g ro u tin e c o rre s p o n d e n c e on own in itia tiv e ;
takin g d ic ta tio n (w h ere tr a n s c r ib in g m a c h in e is n ot u sed ) e ith e r in
sh o rth an d o r b y sten otyp e o r s i m i la r m a c h in e , and tr a n s c r ib in g d ic t a ­
tio n o r the re c o rd e d in fo rm a tio n re p ro d u c e d on a tr a n s c r ib in g m a c h in e .
M ay p r e p a r e s p e c ia l r e p o r ts o r m e m o ra n d a f o r in fo rm a tio n of s u p e r io r .

PAYRO LL
STEN OGRAPH ER, G EN ERAL

C om putes w a g es of com p an y e m p lo y e e s and e n te rs the n e c e s ­
s a r y data on the p a y r o ll s h e e ts . D u ties in v o lv e : C a lc u la tin g w o r k e r s '
e arn in g s b ased on tim e o r p ro d u c tio n r e c o r d s ; p o stin g c a lc u la te d d ata
on p a y r o ll s h e e t, show ing in fo rm a tio n su ch a s w o r k e r 's n am e, w o rk in g
d ay s, tim e , r a te , d ed u ctio n s fo r in s u ra n c e , and to ta l w a g es due. M ay
m ake out p ay c h eck s and a s s i s t p a y m a s te r in m akin g up and d i s ­
trib u tin g p ay e n v e lo p e s .
M ay u se a c a lc u la tin g m a c h in e .

P r i m a r y duty is to take d ic ta tio n fr o m one o r m o re p e r s o n s ,
e ith e r in sh orth an d o r by sten o typ e o r s i m i la r m a c h in e , in v o lv in g a
n o rm a l ro u tin e v o c a b u la ry , and to t r a n s c r i b e th is d ic ta tio n on a ty p e ­
w r i t e r . M ay a ls o typ e fro m w r itte n c o p y . M ay a ls o s e t up and keep
f ile s in o r d e r , keep s im p le r e c o r d s , e tc .
D oes n ot in clu d e t r a n ­
s c rib in g -m a c h in e w o rk (see tr a n s c r ib in g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r ).

CO M PTOM ETER O PE RATO R

STEN OGRAPH ER,

P r i m a r y duty is to o p e ra te a C o m p to m e te r to p e r fo r m m a th e ­
m a tic a l c o m p u ta tio n s.
T his jo b is n ot to be co n fu sed w ith th at of
s ta tis tic a l o r o th e r typ e of c le r k , w h ich m a y in v o lv e fre q u e n t u s e of
a C o m p to m e te r but, in w h ic h , u s e of th is m a ch in e is in c id e n ta l to
p e rfo rm a n c e of o th e r d u tie s .

P r i m a r y duty is to take d ic ta tio n fr o m one o r m o re p e r s o n s ,
e ith e r in sh orth an d o r by ste n o ty p e o r s i m i la r m a c h in e , in v o lv in g a
v a r ie d te c h n ic a l o r s p e c ia liz e d v o c a b u la r y su ch a s in le g a l b r ie fs o r
r e p o r ts on s c ie n tific r e s e a r c h and to t r a n s c r i b e th is d ic ta tio n on a
ty p e w r it e r . M ay a ls o type fro m w r itte n c o p y . M ay a ls o s e t up and
keep file s in o r d e r , keep sim p le r e c o r d s , e tc .
D oes not in clu d e
tra n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e w o rk .

TECHNICAL

DUPLICATING-M ACHINE O PE RATO R (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
SW ITCH BOARD OPERATOR
U nder g e n e ra l s u p e r v is io n and w ith no s u p e r v is o r y r e s p o n ­
s i b ilitie s , re p ro d u c e s m u ltip le c o p ie s o f ty p e w ritte n o r h an d w ritte n
m a tte r , u sing a m im e o g ra p h o r d itto m a c h in e . M akes n e c e s s a r y a d ­
ju stm e n t such a s fo r ink and p a p e r fe e d c o u n te r and c y lin d e r sp ee d .
Is not re q u ire d to p r e p a r e s te n c il o r d itto m a s t e r . M ay keep fi le of
used s te n c ils o r d itto m a s t e r s .
M ay s o r t , c o lla te , and s ta p le c o m ­
p le te d m a te r ia l.




O p e rate s a s in g le - o r m u ltip le - p o s itio n te le p h o n e s w itc h b o a rd .
D uties in v o lv e handling in co m in g , outgoin g, and in tra p la n t o r o ffic e
c a lls .
M a y r e c o r d to ll c a lls and ta k e m e s s a g e s .
M ay g iv e i n f o r ­
m a tio n to p e rs o n s w ho c a ll in, o r o c c a s io n a lly ta k e te le p h o n e o r d e r s .
F o r w o r k e r s who a ls o a c t a s re c e p tio n is ts s e e s w itc h b o a rd o p e r a t o r re c e p tio n is t.

19
SW ITCH BO ARD O PE RATO R -R EC EPTIO N IST
tio n
typ e
T his
tim e

TRANSCRIBING-M ACH INE O PE R A T O R , G EN ER AL - Continued

In ad d itio n to p e rfo rm in g d u ties o f o p e r a to r, on a s in g le p o s i ­
o r m o n ito r - ty p e s w itc h b o a rd , a c ts as re c e p tio n is t and m a y a ls o
o r p e r fo r m ro u tin e c le r i c a l w o rk as p a r t o f r e g u la r d u tie s .
typ in g o r c l e r i c a l w o rk m a y take the m a jo r p a r t o f th is w o r k e r 's
w h ile a t s w itc h b o a rd .

T AB U LATIN G -M A CH IN E OPERATOR
O p e ra te s m a c h in e th at a u to m a tic a lly a n a ly z e s and t r a n s la te s
in fo rm a tio n p u nched in grou p s of tab u latin g c a rd s and p rin ts t r a n s ­
la te d d ata on fo r m s o r accou n tin g r e c o r d s ; s e ts o r a d ju s ts m a c h in e ;
d oes s im p le w ir in g of p lu g b o ard s a c c o rd in g to e s ta b lis h e d p r a c t ic e
o r d ia g r a m s ; p la c e s c a r d s to be ta b u lated in fe e d m a g a z in e and s t a r t s
m a c h in e . M ay f i le c a r d s a f t e r th ey a r e ta b u late d . M a y , in a d d itio n ,
o p e ra te a u x i li a r y m a c h in e s .

in clu d e d . A w o r k e r who ta k e s d ic ta tio n in sh orth an d o r by sten otyp e
o r s i m i la r m a c h in e is c la s s ifie d a s a s te n o g ra p h e r, g e n e ra l.
T YP IST
U se s a t y p e w r ite r to m ak e c o p ie s o f v a rio u s m a te r ia l o r to
m a k e out b ills a f t e r c a lc u la tio n s h a v e b een m ad e by an o th e r p e rs o n .
M ay do c le r i c a l w o rk in v o lv in g li t t le s p e c ia l tra in in g , such a s k e e p ­
ing s im p le r e c o r d s , filin g re c o r d s and r e p o r ts o r s o rtin g and d i s ­
trib u tin g in co m in g m a il.
C la s s A - P e r fo r m s one o r m o re o f the fo llo w in g : Typing
m a t e r i a l in fin a l fo rm fr o m v e r y ro u gh and in vo lve d d ra ft; c o p y ­
ing fro m p la in o r c o r r e c te d cop y in w h ich th e re is a fre q u e n t
and v a r ie d u s e o f te c h n ic a l and u n u su a l w o rd s o r fro m fo re ig n lan guage cop y; com b in in g m a t e r i a l fr o m s e v e r a l s o u r c e s , o r
p lann in g la y o u t o f c o m p lic a te d s t a t i s t i c a l ta b le s to m a in tain u n i­
fo r m ity and b a la n c e in sp acin g ; typ ing ta b le s fro m rou gh d ra ft in
fin a l fo rm .
M ay typ e ro u tin e fo rm l e t t e r s , v a ry in g d e ta ils to
s u it c irc u m s ta n c e s .

TRAN SCRIBIN G-M ACH IN E O PERATOR, G EN ERAL
P r i m a r y d u ty is to tr a n s c r ib e d ictatio n in v o lv in g a n o rm a l
ro u tin e v o c a b u la r y fr o m tr a n s c r ib in g m ach in e r e c o r d s .
M ay a ls o
ty p e fr o m w r itte n co p y and do s im p le c le r i c a l w o rk . W o rk e r s t r a n ­
s c r ib in g d ic ta tio n in v o lv in g a v a r ie d te c h n ic a l o r s p e c ia liz e d v o c a b u ­
l a r y su ch a s le g a l b r ie fs o r r e p o rts on s c ie n tific r e s e a r c h a r e not

Professional

D R A F T SM A N , JUNIOR
( A s s is ta n t d ra fts m a n )
D ra w s to s c a le u n its o r p a r ts of d ra w in g s p re p a r e d by d r a f t s ­
m a n o r o th e rs f o r e n g in e e rin g , c o n s tru c tio n , o r m a n u fa c tu rin g p u r ­
p oses.
U se s v a r io u s ty p e s of d ra ftin g to o ls a s r e q u ire d . M ay p r e ­
p a r e d ra w in g s fr o m s im p le p la n s o r s k e tc h e s , o r p e r fo r m o th e r d u ties
u n d e r d ire c tio n o f a d ra fts m a n .
D R A F T SM A N ,

LE A D E R

P la n s and d ir e c ts a c tiv itie s of one o r m o re d ra fts m e n in
p r e p a r a tio n o f w o rk in g p la n s and d e ta il d ra w in g s fr o m ro u g h o r p r e ­
li m i n a r y s k e tc h e s f o r e n g in e e rin g , c o n s tru c tio n , o r m a n u fa c tu rin g
p u r p o s e s . D u ties in v o lv e a com b in ation of the fo llo w in g : In te rp re tin g
b lu e p rin ts , s k e tc h e s , and w ritte n o r v e r b a l o r d e r s ; d e te rm in in g w o rk
p r o c e d u r e s ; a s s ig n in g d u ties to su b o rd in a tes and in sp e c tin g th e ir w o rk ;
p e r fo r m in g m o r e d iffic u lt p ro b le m s . M ay a s s i s t s u b o rd in a te s d u rin g




C la s s B - P e r fo r m s one o r m o re o f the fo llo w in g : Typing
fr o m r e la t i v e l y c le a r o r typ ed d r a fts ; ro u tin e typing of fo r m s ,
in s u ra n c e p o lic ie s , e tc . ; s e ttin g up s im p le sta n d a rd ta b u la tio n s, o r
cop yin g m o re c o m p le x ta b le s a lr e a d y s e t up and sp aced p r o p e r ly .

and

Technical

D R A FTSM AN , L E A D E R - C ontinued
e m e rg e n c ie s o r as a r e g u la r a s s ig n m e n t, o r p e rfo rm r e la te d d u ties
o f a s u p e r v is o r y o r a d m in is tr a tiv e n a tu re .
D R A F T SM AN , SENIOR
P r e p a r e s w o rk in g p la n s and d e ta il d ra w in g s fro m n o te s ,
ro u g h o r d e ta ile d sk e tc h e s f o r e n g in e e rin g , c o n s tru c tio n , o r m a n u ­
fa c tu rin g p u rp o s e s .
D u ties in v o lv e a c om b in ation o f the fo llo w in g :
P re p a rin g w o rk in g p la n s , d e ta il d ra w in g s , m a p s , c r o s s - s e c t io n s , e tc . ,
to s c a le b y u s e of d ra ftin g in s tru m e n ts ; m akin g en g in e e rin g c o m p u ta­
tio n s su ch a s th o se in v o lv e d in s tre n g th o f m a t e r ia ls , b eam s and
t r u s s e s ; v e rify in g c o m p le ted w o rk , ch eck in g d im e n sio n s, m a te r ia ls
to be u s e d , and q u a n titie s; w ritin g s p e c ific a tio n s ; m aking a d ju stm en ts
o r ch an g es in d ra w in g s o r s p e c ific a tio n s . M ay ink in lin e s and le t t e r s
on p e n c il d ra w in g s , p r e p a r e d e ta il u n its o f c o m p le te d ra w in g s, o r
tr a c e d ra w in g s .
W o rk is fr e q u e n tly in a s p e c ia liz e d fie ld such as
a r c h it e c t u r a l, e le c t r i c a l, m e c h a n ic a l, o r s tr u c tu r a l d ra ftin g .

20
NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (R EG ISTE RE D )

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED ) - C on tinu ed

A r e g is t e r e d n u rs e who g iv e s n u rs in g s e r v ic e to i ll o r in ju re d
e m p lo y e e s o r o th e r p e rs o n s who b eco m e i l l o r s u ffe r an a c c id e n t on
the p re m is e s o f a fa c to r y o r o th e r e sta b lis h m e n t.
D u ties in v o lv e a
com b in ation o f the fo llo w in g : G ivin g f i r s t aid to th e i l l o r in ju re d ;
atte n d in g to su b seq u en t d re s s in g o f e m p lo y e e s 1 in ju r ie s ; keep in g r e c o r d s
o f p a tie n ts tr e a te d ; p re p a rin g a c c id e n t r e p o r ts fo r c o m p en sa tio n o r
o th e r p u rp o se s ; conducting p h y s ic a l e x a m in a tio n s and h e a lth e v a lu a tio n s
of a p p lic an ts and e m p lo y e e s ; and planning and c a r r y in g out p ro g ra m s
in v o lv in g h e a lth e d u c a tio n , a c c id e n t p re v e n tio n , e v a lu a tio n o f p la n t

e n v iro n m e n t, o r o th er a c tiv itie s
s a fe ty o f a l l p e rs o n n e l.

M a i n t e n an c e

a ffe c tin g

the h e a lth , w e lf a r e ,

and

T RACE R
C o p ie s p lans and d ra w in g s p r e p a r e d b y o th e r s , b y p la c in g
tr a c in g c lo th o r p a p e r o v e r d raw in g and tr a c in g w ith pen o r p e n c il.
U se s T - s q u a r e , c o m p a s s , and o th e r d ra ftin g t o o ls .
M ay p r e p a r e
sim p le d ra w in g s and do sim p le le tte r in g .

and

Powerplant

CA RPE N T E R , MAINTENANCE

ENGINEER, STATIONARY

P e r fo r m s the c a r p e n tr y d u ties n e c e s s a r y to c o n s tru c t and
m a in ta in in good r e p a ir b u ild in g w o o d w o rk and eq uip m en t such a s b in s ,
c r i b s , c o u n te rs , b e n c h e s , p a r titio n s , d o o rs , f lo o r s , s t a i r s , c a s in g s ,
and tr im m ade o f wood in an e s ta b lis h m e n t. W o rk in v o lv e s m o s t o f
the fo llo w in g : P lan n in g and la y in g out o f w o rk fro m b lu e p rin ts , d r a w ­
in g s , m o d e ls , o r v e r b a l in s tru c tio n s ; using a v a r i e t y of c a r p e n t e r ^
h an d to o ls, p o rta b le p o w e r t o o ls , and s ta n d a rd m e a s u rin g in s tru m e n ts ;
m aking sta n d a rd shop co m p u tatio n s re la tin g to d im e n sio n s o f w o rk ;
se le c tin g m a t e r ia ls n e c e s s a r y fo r the w o rk . In g e n e r a l, the w o rk o f
the m ain ten an ce c a r p e n te r r e q u ir e s rou n d ed tra in in g and e x p e rie n c e
u s u a lly a c q u ire d th ro u g h a fo r m a l a p p re n tic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t t r a i n ­
ing and e x p e rie n c e .

O p e ra te s and m a in ta in s and m a y a ls o s u p e r v is e the o p e ra tio n
o f s ta tio n a r y en gin es and equipm ent (m e c h a n ic a l o r e le c t r i c a l) to s u p ­
p ly the e sta b lis h m e n t in w h ich e m p lo y ed w ith p o w e r, h e a t, r e f r i g e r a ­
tio n , o r a i r con d ition in g.
W o rk in v o lv e s : O p e ratin g and m a in ta in in g
eq u ip m en t su ch as s te a m e n g in e s , a i r c o m p r e s s o r s , g e n e r a t o r s , m o ­
t o r s , tu r b in e s , v e n tila tin g and r e f r ig e r a t in g e q u ip m en t, s te a m b o i le r s
and b o i le r - f e d w a te r pum ps; m aking e q u ip m en t r e p a i r s ; k eep in g a
r e c o r d o f o p e ra tio n o f m a c h in e ry , t e m p e r a tu r e , and fu e l c o n su m p ­
tio n . M ay a ls o s u p e rv is e th e s e o p e r a tio n s . H ead o r c h ie f e n g in e e rs
in e sta b lis h m e n ts em p lo yin g m o re th an one e n g in e e r a r e e x c lu d e d .

ELE CT R ICIAN , MAINTENANCE
P e r fo r m s a v a r i e t y o f e le c t r i c a l tra d e fu n ction s such a s the
in s ta lla tio n , m a in te n a n c e , o r r e p a i r o f eq uip m en t f o r the g e n e ra tin g ,
d is trib u tio n , o r u tiliz a tio n o f e le c t r i c e n e rg y in an e s ta b lis h m e n t.
W o rk in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : In s ta llin g o r re p a ir in g a n y o f
a v a r i e t y of e le c t r i c a l eq u ip m en t such a s g e n e r a to r s , t r a n s f o r m e r s ,
sw itc h b o a rd s , c o n t r o lle r s , c ir c u it b r e a k e r s , m o to r s , h eatin g u n its ,
conduit s y s te m s , o r o th e r tr a n s m is s io n eq uip m en t; w o rk in g fro m b lu e ­
p r in ts , d ra w in g s , la y o u t, o r o th e r s p e c ific a tio n s ; lo c a tin g and d ia g ­
n osing tro u b le in the e le c t r i c a l s y s te m o r eq uip m en t; w o rk in g s ta n d a rd
com p utations re la tin g to lo a d re q u ire m e n ts o f w irin g o r e le c t r i c a l
eq uip m en t; u sin g a v a r i e t y o f e le c t r ic ia n !s h an d to ols and m e a s u rin g
and te stin g in s tru m e n ts .
In g e n e r a l, the w o rk o f the m a in ten a n ce
e le c tr ic ia n r e q u ir e s ro u n d ed tra in in g and e x p e rie n c e u s u a lly a c ­
q u ire d th rou gh a fo r m a l a p p re n tic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t tra in in g and
e x p e rie n c e .



FIRE M AN , STATIONARY BOILER
F ir e s s ta tio n a ry b o ile r s to fu r n is h the e s ta b lis h m e n t in w h ich
e m p lo y e d w ith h e a t, p o w e r, o r s te a m .
F e e d s fu e ls to f i r e b y han d
o r o p e ra te s a m e c h a n ic a l s to k e r, g a s , o r o il b u r n e r ; ch ec k s w a te r
and s a fe ty v a lv e s .
M ay c le a n , o il, o r a s s i s t in re p a ir in g b o i l e r ro o m eq u ip m en t.
H E L P E R , T RAD ES, MAINTENANCE
A s s i s t s one o r m o re w o r k e r s in the s k ille d m a in te n a n c e
t r a d e s , by p e rfo rm in g s p e c ific o r g e n e r a l d u ties o f l e s s e r s k i ll, su ch
a s keep in g a w o rk e r su p p lied w ith m a t e r i a ls and to o ls ; c le a n in g w o r k ­
ing a r e a , m a c h in e , and eq uipm ent; a s s is tin g w o r k e r b y h old in g m a ­
t e r i a l s o r to o ls ; p e rfo rm in g o th e r u n s k ille d ta s k s a s d ir e c te d b y j o u r ­
n e ym a n . The kind o f w o rk the h e lp e r is p e rm itte d to p e r fo r m v a r i e s
fro m tr a d e to tra d e : In som e tr a d e s th e h e lp e r is co n fin e d to su p ­
p ly in g , liftin g , and holding m a te r ia ls and to o ls and c le a n in g w o rk in g
a r e a s ; and in o th e rs he is p e rm itte d to p e r fo r m s p e c ia liz e d m a c h in e
o p e ra tio n , o r p a rts o f a tra d e th at a r e a ls o
p e r fo r m e d b y w o r k e r s
on a fu ll- t im e b a s is .

21
MACHINE-TOOL. O PE R A T O R ,

TOOLROOM

S p e c ia liz e s in the o p e ra tio n of one o r m o re ty p e s o f m a ch in e
to o ls , su c h a s jig b o r e r s , c y lin d r ic a l o r s u r fa c e g r in d e r s , engine
la th e s , o r m illin g m a c h in e s in the c o n s tru c tio n of m a c h in e -sh o p to o ls ,
g a u g e s, ji g s , f i x t u r e s , o r d ie s . W o rk in v o lv e s m o s t o f th e fo llo w in g :
P la n n in g and p e rfo rm in g d iffic u lt m achin in g o p e ra tio n s ; p ro c e s s in g
ite m s re q u irin g c o m p lic a te d setu p s o r a high d e g re e of a c c u ra c y ;
u sin g a v a r i e t y o f p r e c is io n m e a s u rin g in s tru m e n ts ; s e le c tin g fe e d s ,
s p e e d s , to o lin g and o p e ra tio n seq u en ce; m akin g n e c e s s a r y a d ju s t­
m e n ts d u rin g o p e ra tio n to a c h ie v e re q u is ite to le ra n c e s o r d im e n s io n s .
M ay be re q u ir e d to re c o g n iz e w hen to o ls need d re s s in g , to d r e s s to o ls ,
and to s e le c t p r o p e r c o o la n ts and cutting and lu b ric a tin g o ils .
For
c r o s s - i n d u s t r y w a g e stu d y p u rp o s e s , m a c h in e -to o l o p e r a to r s , to o lro o m ,
in to o l and die jo b b in g shops a r e excluded fro m th is c la s s ific a tio n .

M ECH ANIC, MAINTENANCE
R e p a irs m a c h in e ry o r m e c h a n ic a l eq uip m en t of an e s ta b lis h ­
m e n t.
W o rk in v o lv e s m o s t of the fo llo w in g : E xam in in g m a ch in es
and m e c h a n ic a l eq u ip m en t to d iag n o se s o u r c e of tro u b le ; d ism an tlin g
o r p a r t ly d is m a n tlin g m a c h in e s and p e rfo rm in g r e p a ir s th at m a in ly
in v o lv e the u s e of h an d to o ls in s c ra p in g and fittin g p a r ts ; re p la c in g
b ro k e n o r d e fe c tiv e p a r ts w ith ite m s o btain ed fro m sto ck ; o rd e rin g the
p ro d u c tio n o f a re p la c e m e n t p a r t b y a m a c h in e shop o r sending of
th e m a c h in e to a m a c h in e shop f o r m a jo r r e p a i r s ; p re p a rin g w ritte n
s p e c ific a tio n s f o r m a jo r r e p a i r s o r f o r the p ro d u ctio n of p a r ts o rd e re d
fr o m m a c h in e shop; re a s s e m b lin g m a c h in e s ; and m akin g a l l n e c e s s a r y
a d ju s tm e n ts fo r o p e ra tio n .
In g e n e r a l, the w o rk o f a m a in ten a n ce
m e c h a n ic re q u ir e s rounded tra in in g and e x p e rie n c e u s u a lly a c q u ire d
th ro u g h a fo r m a l a p p re n tic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t tra in in g and e x p e rie n c e .
E xclu d ed fr o m th is c la s s ific a tio n a r e w o r k e r s w h ose p r i m a r y du ties
in v o lv e s e ttin g up o r a d ju stin g m a c h in e s .

M ACHINIST, M AINTENANCE
M ILLW RIGH T
P ro d u c e s re p la c e m e n t p a r ts and new p a r ts in m akin g r e p a i r s
of m e ta l p a r ts o f m e c h a n ic a l equipm ent O perated in an e s ta b lis h m e n t.
W o rk in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : In te rp re tin g w r itte n in s t r u c ­
tio n s an d s p e c ific a tio n s ; planning and layin g out of w o rk ; u sin g a v a ­
r i e t y o f m a c h i n i s t s h an d to ols and p re c is io n m e a s u rin g in s tru m e n ts ;
s e ttin g up and o p e ra tin g sta n d a rd m achin e to o ls ; sh aping o f m e ta l
p a r ts to c lo s e t o le r a n c e s ; m aking sta n d a rd shop com p u tatio n s r e l a t ­
ing to d im e n s io n s o f w o rk , to o lin g , fe e d s and sp ee d s o f m ach in in g ;
kn o w led g e o f th e w o rk in g p ro p e r tie s of the com m on m e ta ls ; s e le c tin g
s ta n d a rd m a t e r i a l s , p a r t s , and equipm ent re q u ire d fo r h is w o rk ; fittin g
and a s s e m b lin g p a r ts in to m e c h a n ic a l eq uip m en t.
In g e n e r a l, the
m a c h in is t's w o rk n o r m a lly re q u ir e s a rounded tra in in g in m a c h in e shop p r a c t ic e u s u a lly a c q u ire d th rou gh a fo r m a l a p p re n tic e s h ip o r
e q u iv a le n t tra in in g and e x p e rie n c e .

I n s ta lls new m a c h in e s o r h e a v y eq uip m en t and d is m a n tle s and
in s ta lls m a c h in e s o r h e a v y eq uip m en t w hen changes in the p lan t la y ­
out a r e re q u ire d . W o rk in v o lv e s m o s t of the fo llo w in g : P lan n in g and
la y in g out of the w o rk ; in te rp re tin g b lu e p rin ts o r o th e r s p e c ific a tio n s ;
u sin g a v a r i e t y of h an d to ols and rig g in g ; m akin g s ta n d a rd shop c o m ­
p u tatio n s re la tin g to s t r e s s e s , s tre n g th o f m a t e r i a ls , and c e n te rs of
g r a v ity ; a lin in g and b a la n c in g o f eq uip m en t; s e le c tin g sta n d a rd to o ls ,
e q u ip m en t, and p a r ts to be u sed ; in s ta llin g and m a in tain in g in good
o r d e r p o w e r tr a n s m is s io n eq uip m en t su ch a s d r iv e s and speed r e "
d u c e r s . In g e n e r a l, the m illw r ig h t's w o rk n o r m a lly re q u ire s a rounded
tra in in g and e x p e rie n c e in th e tr a d e a c q u ire d th ro u g h a fo r m a l a p p re n ­
tic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t tra in in g and e x p e rie n c e .
OILER

M ECH AN IC, AUTOM O TIVE (MAINTENANCE)

L u b ric a te s , w ith o il o r g r e a s e , the m o vin g p a rts o r w e a rin g
s u r fa c e s o f m e c h a n ic a l eq uip m en t o f an e s ta b lis h m e n t.
P AIN T E R , MAINTENANCE

R e p a ir s a u to m o b ile s , b u s e s , m o to rtr u c k s , and t r a c t o r s of
a n e s ta b lis h m e n t.
W o rk in v o lv e s m o s t of the fo llo w in g : E xam in in g
a u to m o tiv e eq u ip m en t to d iag n o se s o u rc e of tro u b le ; d is a s s e m b lin g
e q u ip m en t and p e rfo rm in g r e p a ir s th at in v o lv e the u s e of su ch h an d to o ls a s w r e n c h e s , g a u g e s, d r i l l s , o r s p e c ia liz e d eq uip m en t in d i s ­
a s s e m b lin g o r fittin g p a r t s ; re p la c in g b ro k en o r d e fe c tiv e p a r ts fro m
s to c k ; g rin d in g and a d ju stin g v a lv e s ; re a s s e m b lin g and in s ta llin g the
v a r io u s a s s e m b lie s in th e v e h ic le and m aking n e c e s s a r y a d ju s tm e n ts ;
a lin in g w h e e ls , a d ju s tin g b ra k e s and lig h ts , o r tig h ten in g b ody b o lts .
In g e n e r a l, th e w o rk o f the au to m o tiv e m e c h an ic r e q u ir e s rounded
tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e u s u a lly a c q u ire d th rou gh a fo r m a l a p p r e n tic e ­
sh ip o r e q u iv a le n t tr a in in g and e x p e rie n c e .




P a in ts and r e d e c o r a te s w a lls , w o o d w o rk , and fix tu r e s of an
e s ta b lis h m e n t.
W o rk in v o lv e s th e fo llo w in g : K now ledge of s u rfa c e
p e c u lia r itie s and ty p e s of p ain t r e q u ire d fo r d iffe re n t a p p lic a tio n s;
p re p a r in g s u r fa c e fo r p ain tin g b y re m o v in g old fin is h o r b y p lacin g
p u tty o r f i l l e r in n a il h o le s and in t e r s t i c e s ; ap p lyin g p ain t w ith s p ra y
gun o r b ru s h .
M ay m ix c o lo r s , o ils , w h ite le a d , and o th e r pain t
in g re d ie n ts to o btain p r o p e r c o lo r o r c o n s is te n c y .
In g e n e ra l, the
w o rk o f th e m a in ten a n ce p a in te r r e q u ir e s rounded tra in in g and e x ­
p e rie n c e u s u a lly a c q u ire d th ro u g h a fo r m a l a p p re n tic e sh ip o r e q u iv a ­
le n t tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .

22
P IP E F IT T E R , MAINTENANCE

SH E E T -M E T A L WORKER, MAINTENANCE - C o n tinu ed

In s ta lls o r r e p a i r s w a te r , s te a m , g a s , o r o th e r ty p e s o f pip e
and p ip e fittin g s in an e s ta b lis h m e n t. W o rk in v o lv e s m o s t o f th e f o l ­
low ing: L ayin g out o f w o rk and m e a s u rin g to lo c a te p o s itio n o f p ip e
fro m d ra w in g s o r o th e r w r itte n s p e c ific a tio n s ; cu ttin g v a r io u s s iz e s
o f pipe to c o r r e c t len g th s w ith c h is e l and h a m m e r o r o x y a c e ty le n e
to rc h o r p ip e -c u ttin g m a c h in e ; th re a d in g pipe w ith sto c k s and d ie s ;
bending pipe b y h a n d -d riv e n o r p o w e r - d r iv e n m a c h in e s ; a s s e m b lin g
pipe w ith cou p lin g s and fa s te n in g pip e to h a n g e rs ; m akin g s ta n d a rd
shop com p u tatio n s re la tin g to p r e s s u r e s , flo w , and s iz e of p ip e r e ­
q u ire d ; m akin g sta n d a rd te s ts to d e te rm in e w h e th e r fin is h e d p ip es m e e t
s p e c ific a tio n s .
In g e n e r a l, the w o rk of the m a in te n a n c e p ip e fit te r
re q u ire s rounded tra in in g and e x p e rie n c e u s u a lly a c q u ire d th ro u g h a
fo r m a l a p p re n tic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t tra in in g and e x p e rie n c e . W o rk e r s
p r i m a r i ly engaged in in s ta llin g and r e p a ir in g b u ild in g s a n ita tio n o r
h eatin g s y s te m s a r e e x clu d e d .

and la y in g out a ll typ es o f s h e e t- m e ta l m a in te n a n c e w o rk fr o m b lu e ­
p r in ts , m o d e ls , o r o th e r s p e c ific a tio n s ; s e ttin g up and o p e ra tin g a l l
a v a ila b le ty p es o f s h e e t-m e ta l-w o rk in g m a c h in e s ; u sin g a v a r i e t y o f
h an d to ols in cu ttin g , bending, fo rm in g , sh ap in g , fittin g , and a s s e m ­
b lin g; in s ta llin g s h e e t-m e ta l a r t i c le s a s r e q u ir e d .
In g e n e r a l, the
w o rk o f the m ain ten e n c e s h e e t- m e ta l w o r k e r r e q u ir e s rou n d ed tr a in in g
and e x p e rie n c e u s u a lly a c q u ire d th ro u g h a f o r m a l a p p re n tic e s h ip o r
e q u iv a le n t tra in in g and e x p e rie n c e .

P L U M B E R , MAINTENANCE
K eeps the p lu m b in g s y s te m o f an e s ta b lis h m e n t in good o r d e r .
W o rk in v o lv e s : K n ow led ge of s a n ita r y cod es re g a rd in g in s ta lla tio n of
v e n ts and tr a p s in p lu m b in g s y s te m ; in s ta llin g o r re p a ir in g p ip es and
fix tu r e s ; opening clo g g ed d ra in s w ith a p lu n g e r o r p lu m b e r's s n a k e .
In g e n e ra l, the w o rk of the m a in ten a n ce p lu m b e r re q u ir e s rou n d ed
tra in in g and e x p e rie n c e u s u a lly a c q u ire d th ro u g h a fo r m a l a p p r e n tic e ­
ship o r e q u iv a le n t tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .
SH E E T -M E T A L W O RKER , MAINTENANCE
F a b r ic a te s , in s t a lls , and m a in ta in s in good r e p a i r the s h e e tm e ta l equipm ent and fix tu r e s (such a s m a c h in e g u a rd s , g r e a s e p a n s ,
s h e lv e s , lo c k e r s , ta n k s , v e n tila to r s , c h u te s, d u c ts, m e ta l ro o fin g )
of an e s ta b lis h m e n t. W o rk in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : P lan n in g

Custodial

and

(D ie m a k e r; jig m a k e r;

T ra n s p o rts p a s s e n g e r s b etw een flo o r s o f an o ffic e b u ild in g ,
a p a rtm e n t h o u se , d e p a rtm e n t s t o r e , h o te l o r s i m i la r e s ta b lis h m e n t.
W o rk e rs who o p e ra te e le v a to r s in c o n ju n ctio n w ith o th e r d u ties su ch
as th o se of s t a r t e r s and ja n ito r s a r e ex clu d e d .
GUARD
P e r fo r m s ro u tin e p o lic e d u tie s , e ith e r a t fix e d p o s t o r on
to u r, m a in tain in g o r d e r , u sin g a r m s o r fo r c e w h e re n e c e s s a r y . Inclu d es g atem en who a r e s ta tio n e d a t gate and c h ec k on id e n tity of
e m p lo y ee s and o th e r p e rs o n s e n te rin g .

to o lm a k e r; fix t u r e m a k e r ;

gauge m a k e r)

C o n stru c ts and r e p a ir s m a c h in e -s h o p to o ls , g a u g e s, ji g s , f i x ­
tu re s o r d ies f o r fo rg in g s , punching and o th e r m e ta l- fo r m in g w o rk .
W o rk in v o lv e s m o s t of the fo llo w in g : P la n n in g and la y in g out o f w o r k
fr o m m o d e ls , b lu e p rin ts , d ra w in g s ~ o r o th e r o r a l and w r itte n s p e c i f i ­
c a tio n s ; u sin g a v a r ie t y of to o l and die m a k e r 's h an d to o ls and p r e c is io n
m e a s u rin g in s tru m e n ts ; u n d erstan d in g o f the w o rk in g p r o p e r tie s o f
com m on m e ta ls and a llo y s ; settin g up and o p e ra tin g o f m a c h in e to o ls
and re la te d equipm ent; m akin g n e c e s s a r y shop c o m p u ta tio n s r e la tin g
to d im e n sio n s o f w o rk , sp e e d s , fe e d s , and to o lin g o f m a c h in e s ; h e a ttr e a tin g of m e ta l p a rts d u rin g fa b ric a tio n a s w e ll a s o f fin is h e d to o ls
and d ies to a c h ie v e re q u ire d q u a litie s ; w o rk in g to c lo s e to le r a n c e s ;
fittin g and a s s e m b lin g of p a r ts to p r e s c r i b e d t o le r a n c e s and a llo w ­
a n c e s ; s e le c tin g a p p ro p ria te m a t e r i a ls , to o ls , and p r o c e s s e s .
In
g e n e r a l, the to o l and die m a k e r's w o r k r e q u ir e s a ro u n d ed tr a in in g
in m a c h in e -sh o p and to o lro o m p r a c t ic e u s u a lly a c q u ire d th ro u g h a
f o r m a l a p p re n tic e sh ip o r e q u iv a le n t tr a in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .
F o r c r o s s - in d u s t r y w age stu d y p u r p o s e s , to o l and die m a k e rs
in to o l and die jobbing shops a r e e x c lu d e d fr o m th is' c la s s ific a t io n .

Material

E L E VA T O R O PE RATO R , PASSE N G E R




TOOL AND DIE M AKER

Movement

JAN IT O R, PO R T E R , OR CLE AN ER
(S w e e p er; c h arw o m an ; ja n it r e s s )
C le a n s and keep s in an o r d e r ly c o n d itio n fa c t o r y w o rk in g
a r e a s and w a s h ro o m s , o r p re m is e s of an o ffic e , a p a rtm e n t h o u se ,
o r c o m m e rc ia l o r o th e r e sta b lis h m e n t. D u ties in v o lv e a c o m b in a tio n
o f the fo llo w in g : Sw eepin g, m opping o r s c ru b b in g , and p o lish in g f l o o r s ;
re m o v in g c h ip s , tr a s h , and o th e r r e fu s e ; d u stin g eq u ip m en t, f u r n it u r e ,
o r fix t u r e s ; p o lish in g m e ta l fix tu r e s o r tr im m in g s ; p ro v id in g s u p p lie s
and m in o r m a in ten a n ce s e r v i c e s ; c le a n in g la v a t o r i e s , s h o w e r s , and
re s tro o m s .
W o rk e rs who s p e c ia liz e in w in d ow w a s h in g a r e e x c lu d e d .

23

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker;
stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A w orker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant,
store, or other establishment whose duties involve one or m ore of
the follow ing; Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices;
unpacking, shelving, or placing materials or merchandise in proper
storage location; transporting materials or merchandise by hand truck,
car, or wheelbarrow. Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are
excluded.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK - Continued
other records; checking for shortages and rejecting damaged goods;
routing merchandise or materials to proper departments; maintaining
necessary records and files.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:
Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and “receiving clerk
TRUCKDRIVER

ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from
stored m erchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips,
cu stom ers’ ord ers, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling
orders and indicating items filled or omitted, keep records of out­
going orders, requisition additional stock, or report short supplies
to supervisor, and perform other related duties.

Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport
m aterials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of
establishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, w are­
houses, wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail estab­
lishments and cu stom ers1 houses or places of business. May also
load or unload truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical
repairs, and keep truck in good working order. D river-salesm en and
over-th e-road drivers are excluded.
For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size
and type of equipment, as follow s: (T ractor-trailer should be rated
on the basis of trailer capacity. )

PACKER, SHIPPING
P repares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations perform ed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires
the placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or
m ore of the follow ing: Knowledge of various items of stock in order
to verify content; selection of appropriate type and size of container;
inserting enclosures in container; using excelsior or other m aterial to
prevent breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; applying
labels or entering identifying data on container. Packers who also
make wooden boxes or crates are excluded.
SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares m erchandise for shipment, or receives and is r e ­
sponsible for incoming shipment of merchandise or other m aterials.
Shipping work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, p ra c­
tices, routes, available means of transportation and rates; and p re ­
paring records of the goods shipped, making up bills of lading, post­
ing weight and shipping charges, and keeping a file of shipping records.
May direct or assist in preparing the merchandise for shipment.
Receiving work involves: Verifying or directing others in verifying
the correctn ess of shipments against bills of lading, invoices, or



Truckdriver (combination of sizes listed separately)
Truekdriver, light (under IV2 tons)
Truckdriver, medium ( 1V 2 ton and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)
TRUCKER, POWER
Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-pow ered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about
a warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
F or wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of
truck, as follows:
Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than fork lift)
WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of prem ises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.
☆

U. S . GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1956 O—

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102