View PDF

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

Occupational Wage Survey

DETROIT, MICHIGAN
O CTO BER 1955

B L S B u lle tin No. 1 1 8 8 -2

UNITED STATES D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
J a m e s P. Mitchell, Secretary



BUREAU OF LABOR S A I T C
TTSIS
Ewan Clagua, C m i s o «
om$«nr




O c c u p a tio n a l W age S u rv ey
D E T R O IT , M IC H IG A N




OCTOBER 1955

Bulletin No.
U N I T E D STATES D E P A R T M E N T

OF

1188-2
LABOR

James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner
J a n u a r y 1956
F r s l by t e S p r n e d n o Documents, U S Government P i t n O f c , Washington 2 , D C • P i e 25 c n s
o ae
h ueitnet f
..
rnig f i e
5 . . rc
et




Contents
Page
In trod u ction ___________________________________________________________________________________________________
W age tre n d s f o r s e le c te d occu p a tion a l g r o u p s ___________________________________________________________ —

1
3

T a b le s :
1:
2:

A:

B:

E s ta b lis h m e n ts and w o r k e r s w ithin sco p e o f s u r v e y ____________________________________________ ,
P e r c e n t ch a n ges in standard w eek ly s a la r ie s fo r o ffic e c le r ic a l and a v e ra g e stra ig h ttim e h o u rly ea rn in gs fo r s e le c te d plant o ccu p a tio n a l g ro u p s, s e le c te d p e r io d s ___________

2
3

O ccu p a tio n a l ea rn in gs * A - 1: O ffic e o c c u p a t io n s ____________________________________________________
A - 2: P r o fe s s io n a l and te ch n ica l o c c u p a t i o n s ____ ____________.___________________________________
A - 3; M aintenance and pow erp lan t o ccu p a tio n s _________________________________________________
A - 4 : C u sto d ia l and m a te ria l-m o v e m e n t o c c u p a t io n s ___________________________________________

5
8
9
10

E sta b lish m e n t p r a c t ic e s and su p p lem en tary w age p r o v is io n s * B - 1; Shift d iffe re n tia l p r o v is io n s ________________________________________________________________
B - 2 : M in im u m en trance ra te s fo r w om en o ffic e w o r k e r s ________________________________
B -3 ; S ch edu led w eek ly h o u r s ____________________________________________________________________
B -4 : P a id h o lid a y s ________________________________________________________________________________
B - 5 ; P a id v a ca tion s _______________________________________________________________________________
B - 6 : H ealth, in su ra n ce , and p e n sio n p la n s _____________________________________________________

12
13
14
14
15
17

A pp en d ix:

J ob d e s c r ip t io n s __________________________________

* N O T E : S im ila r tabu lation s fo r m o s t o f th e se ite m s a re a v a ila b le in the D e tro it a re a re p o rts
fo r D e c e m b e r 1951 and O cto b e r 1953. The 1953 r e p o r t a ls o p r o v id e s tabu lation s o f w age stru ctu re
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , la b o r-m a n a g e m e n t a g re e m e n ts , and o v e r tim e p ay p r o v is io n s . A d ir e c t o r y in d i­
ca tin g date o f study and the p r ic e o f the r e p o r t s , a s w e ll a s r e p o r ts f o r oth er m a jo r a r e a s , is
a v a ila b le upon r e q u e s t.
C u rre n t r e p o r t s on occu p a tion a l ea rn in g s and su p p lem en ta ry w age p r a c t ic e s in the D e tro it a rea
a r e a ls o a v a ila b le fo r m a ch in e ry in d u strie s (N o v e m b e r 1955), in d u stria l c h e m ic a ls (A ugust 1955),
p o w e r la u n d rie s and d ry c le a n e r s (June. 1955), o ffic e building s e r v ic e (June 1955), and con tra ct
cle a n in g s e r v ic e (June 1955). Union s c a le s , in d ica tiv e o f p re v a ilin g pay le v e ls , a re a v a ila b le fo r
the fo llo w in g tr a d e s o r in d u strie s: B u ild in g c o n s tr u ctio n , p rin tin g , lo c a l tra n sit op era tin g e m ­
p lo y e e s , and m o to r tr u c k d r iv e r s .



iii

19




Occupational Wage Survey - Detroit, Mich. *
Introduction
Occupational em ploym ent estim ates represen t the total in ail
establishm ents within the scope o f the study and not the number actually
su rveyed. B ecause o f d ifferen ces in occupational structure among e s ­
tablishm ents, the estim ates o f occupational employment obtained from
the sam ple o f establishm ents studied serve only to indicate the relative
im portance o f the job s studied.
These d ifferen ces in occupational
structure do not m a terially a ffect the a ccu ra cy o f the earnings data.

The D etroit a rea is one o f several important industrial cen ters
in which the B ureau o f Labor Statistics has conducted surveys o f o c ­
cupational earnings and related wage benefits on an areawide b a sis.
In each a rea , data a re obtained by personal v isits o f Bureau field
agents to rep resen ta tiv e establishm ents within six broad industry d iv i­
sion s: M anufacturing; transportation (excluding ra ilro a d s), com m u nica­
tion, and other public u tilities; w holesale trade; retail trade; finance,
insu ran ce, and rea l estate; and s e r v ic e s . M ajor industry groups e x ­
cluded fro m these studies, b esides ra ilroa d s, are governm ent o p e ra ­
tions and the con stru ction and extractive indu stries. Establishm ents
having few er than a p re s cr ib e d number of w orkers are om itted also
because they furnish insufficient employment in the occupations studied
to w arrant in c lu s io n .* W herever p ossible, separate tabulations are
1
p rovided fo r each o f the broad industry division s.

E stablishm ent P r a c tice s and Supplementary Wage P rovision s
Inform ation is presented a lso (in the B -s e r ie s tables) on s e ­
le cte d establishm ent p ra ctice s and supplem entary benefits as they relate
to o ffice and plant w o rk e rs. The te rm “ o ffice w ork ers, M as used in
this bulletin, includes all o ffice c le r ic a l em ployees and excludes ad­
m in istra tive, executive, p ro fe ssio n a l, and technical personnel. “ Plant
w o r k e r s ” include working forem en and all nonsu pervisory w orkers (in­
cluding leadm en and train ees) engaged in n on office functions. A dm inis­
trative, execu tive, p ro fe ssio n a l, and technical em ployees, and fo r c e account con struction em ployees who are u tilized as a separate work
fo rc e are excluded. C afeteria w ork ers and routem en are excluded in
manufacturing indu stries, but are included as plant w orkers in nonman­
ufacturing indu stries.

These su rveys are conducted on a sample basis because o f the
u n n ecessa ry co st involved in surveying ail establishm ents, and to insure
prom pt publication o f re s u lts . To obtain appropriate a ccu ra cy at m in i­
mum co s t, a g rea ter prop ortion of large than o f sm all establishm ents
is studied. In com bining the data, how ever, all establishm ents are
given their appropriate weight. Estim ates based on the establishm ents
studied are p resen ted, th erefore, as relating to all establishm ents in
the industry grouping and area, 2 except for those below the minimum
size studied.

Shift differential data (table B - l ) are lim ited to manufacturing
in d u stries. This inform ation is presen ted both in term s o f (a) estab­
lishm ent p o li c y ,3 presented in term s o f total plant worker employment,
and (b) e ffe ctiv e p ra ctice , presen ted on the b asis of w orkers actually
em ployed on the sp ecified shift at the time o f the survey. In estab­
lishm ents having va ried d ifferen tials, the amount applying to a m ajority
was used o r , if no amount applied to a m a jority, the cla ssifica tion
“ oth er1 was used.
1

O ccupations and Earnings
The occupations selected for study are com m on to a variety of
m anufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries. Occupational c la s s ifi­
cation is based on a 'u niform set of job description s designed to take
account o f interestablishm ent variation in duties within the same job
(see appendix fo r listin g o f these d escrip tion s).
Earnings data are
presen ted (in the A -s e r ie s tables) for the following types o f occu p a ­
tion s: (a) O ffice c le r ic a l; (b) p rofession a l and techn ical; (c) m ainte­
nance and pow erplant; and (d) custodial and m aterial m ovem ent.

Minimum entrance rates (table B -2 ) relate only to the estab­
lishm ents v isited .
They are presented on an establishm ent, rather
than on an em ploym ent b a s is . Scheduled hours; paid holidays; paid
vacations; and health, insurance, and pension plans are treated statis­
tica lly on the b asis that these are applicable to all plant or office
w ork ers if a m a jority o f such w ork ers are eligible or may eventually
qualify fo r the p ra ctice s lis t e d .4 B ecause o f rounding, sums o f indi­
vidual item s in these tabulations do not n e ce ssa rily equal totals.

Data are shown fo r fu ll-tim e w ork ers, i . e . , those hired to
w ork a regu la r w eekly schedule in the given occupational cla ssifica tio n .
Earnings data exclu de prem ium pay for overtim e and for w ork on
w eekends, h olidays, and late shifts. Nonproduction bonuses are e x ­
cluded a ls o , but c o s t -o f-liv in g bonuses and incentive earnings are in­
cluded. W here w eekly hours are reported, as fo r o ffice c le r ic a l o c ­
cupations, re fe r e n c e is to the w ork schedules (rounded to the n earest
half hour) for which straigh t-tim e salaries are paid; average w eek­
ly earnings fo r these occupations have been rounded to the nearest
half d o lla r.

The sum m ary o f vacation plans is lim ited to form al arran ge­
m ents, excluding inform al plans w hereby tim e o ff with pay is granted
at the d iscre tio n o f the em p loy er.
Separate estim ates are provided
3 An establishm ent was con sid ered as having a p olicy if it met
either o f the follow ing con ditions: ( l ) Operated late shifts at the time
o f the survey, or (2) had form a l p rovision s coverin g late shifts.
4 Scheduled weekly hours for o ffice w orkers (first section o f
table B -3 ) are presented in term s o f the proportion of women o f f ic e
w ork ers em ployed in o ffice s with the indicated weekly hours for women
w o rk e rs.

* This rep ort was prepared in the Bureau*s regional o ffice in
C hicago, 111., by W oodrow C . Linn, under the d irection o f George E.
Votava, R egional Wage and Industrial Relations A nalyst.
1 See table 1 fo r m in im u m -size establishm ent co v e re d .
2 The tabulation o f m inim um entrance rates for wom en office
w ork ers rela tes only to p rovision s in establishm ents studied.



1

2

according to em ployer p ra ctice in computing vacation paym ents, such
as time paym ents, percent o f annual earnings, or fla t-su m amounts.
However, in the tabulations o f vacation allow ances by yea rs o f s e rv ice ,
payments not on a tim e b asis were converted; for exam ple, a payment
o f 2 percent o f annual earnings was con sidered as the equivalent of
1 week’ s pay.
Data are presented for all health, insurance, and pension
plans for which at least a part of the cost is borne by the em p loyer,
excepting only legal requirem ents such as w orkm en’ s com pensation and
social secu rity. Such plans include those underwritten by a co m m e rcia l
insurance com pany and those provided through a union fund o r paid
d irectly by the em ployer out of current operating funds o r fro m a fund
set aside for this pu rp ose. Death benefits are included as a fo rm o f
life insurance.
Sickness and accident insurance is lim ited to that type o f in­
surance under which predeterm ined cash payments are made d irectly
to the insured on a weekly or monthly b asis during illn ess or accident
disability. Inform ation is presented for all such plans to which the
em ployer con tribu tes. H ow ever, inNew Y ork and New J ersey , which
have enacted tem porary disability insurance laws which requ ire e m ­
ployer contributions, 5 plans are included only if the em ployer ( l ) co n ­
tributes m ore than is lega lly requ ired, or (2) p rovides the em ployee

T A B L E 1:

with benefits which exceed the requ irem en ts o f the law .
Tabulations
o f paid sick -le a v e plans are lim ited to form a l plans which provide full
pay or a proportion o f the w o rk e r’ s pay during absen ce fro m w ork
because o f illn ess.
Separate tabulations are p rovided a ccord in g to
( l ) plans which provide full pay and no waiting p eriod , and (2) plans
providing either partial pay or a waiting p e rio d .
In addition to the
presentation o f the proportions o f w o rk e rs who a re provided sickn ess
and accident insurance or paid s ick leave, an unduplicated total is
shown o f w orkers who re ce iv e either or both types o f benefit.
Catastrophe insurance, som etim es r e fe r r e d to as extended
m edical insurance, includes those plans which are designed to p rotect
em p loyees in case of sickness and injury involving expenses beyond the
norm al cov era ge o f hospitalization, m e d ica l, and su rgica l plans. M ed ­
ical insurance re fe rs to plans providing fo r com plete o r partial payment
o f d o c to r s ’ fe e s. Such plans may be underwritten by co m m e rc ia l in ­
surance com panies or nonprofit organ ization s o r they m ay be s e lfinsured. Tabulations of retirem en t pension plans are lim ited to those
plans that provide monthly payments fo r the rem ain der o f the w o r k e r ’ s
life .
5 The tem porary disability laws in C aliforn ia and Rhode Island
do not requ ire em ployer contributions.

E s t a b lis h m e n t s a n d w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e o f s u r v e y a n d n u m b e r s t u d ie d in D e t r o it , M ic h . , 1 b y m a jo r in d u s t r y d iv is io n , O c to b e r 1 955

I n d u s tr y d iv is io n

M in im u m
s iz e
e s ta b lis h ­
m ent
in s c o p e o f
stu d y 2

N u m b e r o f e s t a b lis h m e n t s
W it h in
sc o p e of
stu d y

W o r k e r s in

e s ta b lis h m e n ts

S t u d ie d

W it h in s c o p e o f s t u d y
T o ta l3

O f f ic e

S tu d ie d
P la n t

T o ta l 3

A l l d i v i s i o n s _______________________________________________

_

1 ,2 4 2

254

7 9 7 ,7 0 0

1 2 0 ,2 0 0

5 6 7 ,8 0 0

5 7 7 ,8 7 0

M a n u f a c t u r i n g — _______________ _______________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _________________________________________
T r a n s p o r t a t io n ( e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) ,
c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d o t h e r p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 4 ______
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e - - _________________ '___ ___ — __
R e t a i l t r a d e 5 ___ — — — ________ ________ - _______
F i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e __ _____________
S e r v i c e s ' ----------------------------------------------------------------- ---------

1 01
-

485
757

87
167

5 9 8 ,7 0 0
1 9 9 ,0 0 0

7 5 ,4 0 0
4 4 ,8 0 0

4 5 6 ,5 0 0
1 1 1 ,3 0 0

4 6 7 ,4 8 0
1 1 0 ,3 9 0

1 01
51
101
51
51

67
190
1 60
139
201

26
33
33
35
40

4 6 ,1 0 0
2 5 ,8 0 0
6 8 ,9 0 0
2 8 ,0 0 0
3 0 ,2 0 0

1 0 ,3 0 0
6 ,2 0 0
( 6)
1 7 ,5 0 0
4 ,8 0 0

2 2 ,6 0 0
1 0 ,6 0 0
,
(6)
7 3 ,5 0 0
1 8 ,3 0 0

3 7 ,1 9 0
8 , 180
3 8 ,6 9 0
1 6 ,5 8 0
9 ,7 5 0

1 T h e D e t r o i t M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a ( W a y n e , O a k la n d , a n d M a c o m b C o u n t i e s ) . T h e ’’w o r k e r s w i t h i n s c o p e o f s t u d y " e s t i m a t e s s h o w n i n t h i s t a b l e p r o v i d e a r e a s o n a b l y a c c u ­
r a t e d e s c r ip t io n o f th e s i z e a n d c o m p o s itio n o f th e la b o r f o r c e in c lu d e d in th e s u r v e y .
T h e e s t i m a t e s a r e n o t in t e n d e d , h o w e v e r , t o s e r v e a s a b a s i s o f c o m p a r i s o n w i t h o t h e r
a r e a e m p lo y m e n t i n d e x e s to m e a s u r e e m p l o y m e n t t r e n d s o r l e v e l s s i n c e (1 ) p l a n n in g o f w a g e s u r v e y s r e q u i r e s t h e u s e o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t d a t a c o m p i l e d c o n s i d e r a b l y i n a d v a n c e o f
th e p a v p e r io d s t u d ie d a n d (2 ) s m a l l e s t a b l is h m e n t s a r e e x c lu d e d f r o m th e s c o p e o f th e s u r v e y .
* I n c lu d e s a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w i t h t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t a t o r a b o v e t h e m i n i m u m s i z e l i m i t a t i o n . A l l o u t l e t s ( w it h in t h e a r e a ) o f c o m p a n i e s i n s u c h i n d u s t r i e s a s t r a d e , f i n a n c e ,
a u to r e p a ir s e r v ic e , a n d m o tio n - p ic tu r e t h e a t e r s a r e c o n s id e r e d a s 1 e s t a b lis h m e n t .
3 I n c lu d e s e x e c u t i v e , t e c h n i c a l , p r o f e s s i o n a l , a n d o t h e r w o r k e r s e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e s e p a r a t e o f f ic e a n d p la n t c a t e g o r i e s .
4 A ls o e x c lu d e s t a x ic a b s , a n d s e r v ic e s in c id e n ta l to w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t io n .
D e t r o i t ’s t r a n s i t s y s t e m i s m u n i c i p a l l y o p e r a t e d a n d , t h e r e f o r e , e x c l u d e d b y d e f i n i t i o n f r o m
th e s c o p e o f th e s t u d i e s .
5 E x c lu d e s d a t a f o r tw o l a r g e d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e s .
^ T h is i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n e s t i m a t e s f o r " a l l i n d u s t r i e s " a n d " n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g " i n t h e S e r i e s A a n d B t a b l e s , a l t h o u g h c o v e r a g e w a s i n s u f f i c i e n t t o j u s t i f y
s e p a r a t e p r e s e n ta tio n of d a ta .
7 E s t i m a t e r e l a t e s to r e a l e s t a t e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s o n l y .
8 H o t e ls ; p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s ; b u s i n e s s s e r v i c e s ; a u t o m o b i l e r e p a i r s h o p s ; r a d i o b r o a d c a s t i n g a n d t e l e v i s i o n ; m o t io n p i c t u r e s ; n o n p r o f i t m e m b e r s h i p o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; a n d e n ­
g in e e r in g an d a r c h it e c t u r a l s e r v ic e s .




3
Wage Trends f o r Selected Occupational Groups
The table below presents percents of change in sa la ries of
wom en o ffice c le r ic a l w o r k e r s , and in average earnings of selected
plant w ork er grou ps.
F o r o ffice c le r ic a l w ork ers, the percents of change relate to
average w eekly sa la ries for norm al hours of w ork, that is , the stand­
a rd w ork schedule for which straight-tim e salaries are paid.
F or
plant w ork er grou ps, they m easure changes in straigh t-tim e hourly
ea rn in gs, excluding prem ium pay for overtim e and fo r w ork on w eek­
en ds, h olidays, and late shifts.
The percentages are based on data
fo r selected key occupations and include m ost o f the n u m erically
im portant job s within each group.
Eighteen jobs w ere included in
the o ffic e c le r ic a l data; 10 skilled maintenance job s and 3 unskilled
job s w ere included in the plant w orker data.
See footnotes to table
below .
A verage w eekly salaries or average hourly earnings w ere
com puted for each of the selected occupations. The average salaries
o r hourly earnings w ere then m ultiplied by the average of O ctober
1953 and O ctober 1955 employment in the job. These weighted ea rn ­
ings for individual occupations w ere then totaled to obtain an a g g re ­
gate for each occupational group.
Finally, the ratio of these group
aggregates fo r a given year to the aggregate for other yea rs was
com puted and the d ifferen ce between the result and 100 is the p ercent
o f change from one p eriod to another.




The percen t of change m e a su re s, p rin cip a lly, the effects of
(1) general salary and wage changes; (2) m e rit or other in crea ses in
pay re ce iv e d by individual w ork ers while in the same job; and ( 3) labor
turnover or fo rc e expansion or reduction.
A fo rce expansion might
in cre a se the p roportion of low er paid w ork ers in a sp ecific occupation
and resu lt in a drop in the occu pational average without any change
in ra te s, w hereas a reduction in the p rop ortion o f low er paid w orkers
would have the bpposite e ffe ct.
The average earnings are a lso a f­
fected by shifts in the prop ortion of workers- em ployed by establish ­
m ents with different pay le v e ls .
F or exam ple, the m ovem ent of a
high paying establishm ent out o f an area could cause the averages
to d rop , even though no change in rates o ccu rre d in other area
establishm ents.
The use of constant em ploym ent weights elim inates the e f­
fects o f changes in the p rop ortion of w ork ers represented in each
job included in the data. Nor are the percents of change influenced
by changes in standard w ork schedules or in prem ium pay for o v e r­
tim e, since they are based on pay for straigh t-tim e hours.
Indexes for the p eriod 1952 to 1955 fo r w orkers in 17 other
m a jo r labor m arkets appeared in BLS Bull. 1172, Wages and Related
B en efits, 17 Labor M arkets, 1954-55.

T A B L E 2: P e r c e n t changes in stan dard w e e k ly s a la r ie s f o r o f fic e c l e r i c a l 1 and a v e r a g e
s tr a ig h t-tim e h o u r ly e a rn in g s fo r s e le c t e d plant o ccu p a tio n a l g ro u p s * in
D e tr o it, M ic h . , fo r s e le c t e d p e r io d s
P e r c e n t in c r e a s e s fro m —
D e c e m b e r 1951
to
O cto b e r 1955

O cto b e r 1953
to
O cto b e r 1955

D e c e m b e r 1951
to
O cto b e r 1953

A ll in d u strie s:
O ffice c le r i c a l (w om en) -------------------------------------------S killed m aintenance ( m e n ) ---------------------------------------U nskilled plant (m en) _ ------- ------- ----— -----

7 .5
8 .3
6. 2

1 1 .8
1 1 .0
1 0 .0

2 0 .2
2 0 .2
1 6 .8

M an u factu rin g:
O ffice c le r i c a l (w om en) ------- — — — ------- ------S killed m aintenance (m en) — — — — ------------ —
U n sk illed plant (m en) — ---------- — —
— — —

7. 1
8. 1
6 .4

1 2 .0
11. 1
8 .0

19.9
20. 1
14.9

Industry and o ccu p a tio n a l group

1 B a se d on data fo r the fo llo w in g jo b s :
O ffic e c le r ic a l (w o m e n ):
B i l le r s , m a ch in e (b illin g m a ch in e )
B o o k k e e p in g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s , c la s s A and B
C o m p tom eter o p e r a to r s
C le r k s , file , c la s s A and B
C le r k s , o r d e r
C le r k s , p a y r o ll
K ey-pu nch o p e r a to r s
O ffice g ir ls
S e c r e ta r ie s
S ten ogra p h ers, g e n e r a l
Sw itchboard o p e r a to r s
Sw itchboard o p e r a t o r -r e c e p t io n is t s
T a bu latin g-m ach in e o p e r a to r s
T r a n sc r ib in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , g e n e r a l
T y p is ts , c la s s A and B

2 B a s e d on data f o r the fo llo w in g jo b s :
S k ille d m ain ten an ce (m e n ):
C a rp e n te rs
E le c t r ic ia n s
M a ch in ists
M e ch a n ics
M e c h a n ic s , au tom otiv e
M illw r ig h ts
P a in te rs
P ip e fitte r s
S h e e t-m e ta l w o r k e r s
T o o l and die m a k e r s
U n sk illed plant (m e n );
J a n ito r s , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s
L a b o r e r s , m a te r ia l handling
W atchm en




A :

O c c u p a tio n a l

E a r n in g s

5

Table A-l: Office Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e w e e k ly h o u r s an d e a r n in g s 1 f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s t u d ie d o n an a r e a b a s i s
in D e t r o i t , M ic h . , b y in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , O c t o b e r 1955)
NUMBER OP WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OP-

Average
S e x , o c c u p a t i o n , and in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n

Number
of
workers

S
$
$
$
S
s
S
$
1
$
S
)
$
$
S
I
$
$
$
$
Weekly
Weekly J n d e r 4 0 .0 0 4 5 .0 0 5 0 .0 0 55. 00 6 0 .0 0 65 . 00 7 0 .0 0 75 . 00 8 0 .0 0 8 5 .0 0 9 0 . 00 9 5 . 00 100 .00 105 .00 110 .00 1 15 .00 120 .00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00
hours
earnings
and
and
(Standard) (Standard)
1 0 .0 0 under
4 5 .0 0 5 0 .0 0 55. 00 6 0 . 00 6 5 .0 0 7 0 .0 0 7 5 .0 0 80. 00 8 5 .0 0 9 0 .0 0 95 . 00 100 .00 105 .00 110 .00 115 .00 120 .00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140 .00 o v e r

M en
C l e r k s , a c c o u n t in g , c l a s s A ---------------------M a n u fa c tu r in g . . . .
—
— --------N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g -----------------------------------P u b li c u t ilit ie s * __
-------- — —

1 ,6 0 5
1, 309
296
99

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
3 9 .0
4 0 .0

$
95. 50
95 . 50
9 5 .0 0
9 5 .5 0

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

.
-

8
8
-

10
1
9
3

22
16
6
1

33
14
19
13

207
142
65
23

203
186“
17
1

407
372
35
10

210
182
28
3

,156
133
23
16

223
186
37
11

40
28
12
5

19
9
10
7

20
14
6
3

12
11
1
-

6
3
3
"

12
5
7
-

17
7
10
3

C l e r k s , a c c o u n t in g , c l a s s B ---------------------M a n u f a c t u r in g ____________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g _______________________
P u b li c u t ilit ie s * __ _ __ __ __ _

328
171
157
61

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
39. 5
4 0 .0

76. 00
82. 00
6 9 .0 0
7 1 .0 0

_
-

1
1
-

8
8
-

2
2
1

2
2

69
19
50
14

41
18
23
13

58
28
30
24

53
45
8
-

19
18
1
-

20
18
2
“

23
21
2
“

1
1
-

1
1
■

_
”

l

1
~

_
"

_
-

_
*

_
-

-

29
1
28
9

_
“

_

_

_
-

17
11
6
6

16
3
13
13

20
10
10
10

57
26
31
31

46
18
28
28

41
41
37

44
44
40

55
18
37
29

79
22
57
35

72
9
63
39

76
31
45
22

20
2
18
16

15
12
3
3

27
18
9
9

36
34
2
2

33
26
7
7

4
1
3
“

1
1
”

2
2
-

11
11

49
46

4
1

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

.
-

_
-

-

_
-

-

-

6

2
2
“

_
~

C l e r k s , o r d e r ________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r in g ____________________________
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g
__ _____ ____
W h o le s a le t r a d e ______________________

661
244
417
327

4 0 .0
3 9 .5
40. 5
4 0 .0

9 1 .0 0
97 . 00
87. 50
85. 50

-

-

C le r k s , p a y r o ll
_____ _________ ____ _
M a n u f a c t u r in g ____________________________

295
234

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

8 7 .0 0
9 1 .0 0

_

_
-

12
-

_

-

-

4
4

16
4

12
3

7
5

10
9

67
52

28
28

55
54

20
17

O ff ic e b o y s ___________________________ _______
M a n u f a c t u r in g ---------- .-------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g ______ _________________
P u b li c u t ilit ie s * __ _____ _ _ ___
F in a n c e * * ___________________________ _

537
256
281
76
69

3 9 .5
39. 5
3 9 .0
3 9 .0
3 9 .5

5 0 .0 0
52. 50
4 8 . 00
52. 50
4 3 . 50

21
6
15
4

no
21
89
45

133
49
84
36
14

119
73
46
23
4

99
81
18
9
2

43
22
21
1
-

7
3
4
3
-

_

4
4
4
-

1
1
-

_
-

.
-

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

T a b u la tin g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ___________
M a n u f a c t u r in g ------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g ------------ ------- ------- _

560
358
202

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

83. 00
84. 50
8 1 .0 0

_

_
-

2
2

16
5
11

43
29
14

43
24
19

48
25
23

177
117
60

116
72
44

54
44
10

24
21
3

11
8
3

13
7
6

_

~

2
2

3
1
2

■

_
-

B i l l e r s , m a c h in e (b illin g m a c h in e ) _____
M a n u fa c tu r in g _ ____________ __ ______
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g _______________________

677
355
322

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .0

6 3 .5 0
6 7 .0 0
60. 00

_
-

6
6

46
23
23

58
24
34

133
38
95

125
36
89

99
79
20

78
35
43

125
115
10

2
2

5
5
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

•-

-

-

-

_
-

B o o k k e e p i n g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c l a s s A ___ __ __________„
. •..._ __________
_
M a n u fa c t u r in g _ __ __ __ ____ _______
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g _______________________
F in a n c e * * __ _____ _____ __ __ _

574
265
309
138

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .5
3 9 .5

7 3 .0 0
74. 50
7 1 .5 0
6 6 .0 0

-

-

-

11
1
10
2

28
2
26
11

77
10
67
45

155
92
63
50

115
51
64
24

58
49
9
2

48
30
18
4

12
12
-

40
15
25
-

16
2
14
-

14
1
13
-

■

B o o k k e e p i n g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c l a s s B ______________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r in g _______'__;__________________
__ __ ------- _
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g --------W h o l e s a le t r a d e ______________________
F in a n c e * * ___________ ’_________________

1 ,9 7 6
438
1 ,5 3 8
132
1, 120

3 9 .5
40. 0
3 9 .5
39. 5
3 9 .5

58. 50
67. 50
5 6 .0 0
6 8 . 00
54. 00

-

65
65
49

395
9
386
343

378
59
319
7
268

341
42
299
20
218

342
51
291
21
199

148
69
79
19
40

119
79
40
28
3

119
76
43
23
-

54
38
16
14
-

11
11
-

4
4
-

-

-

C l e r k s , a c c o u n t in g , c l a s s A ______________
M a n u f a c t u r in g ____________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g ______________________
P u b li c u t ilit ie s * __ „ _____ __ __
F i n a n c e * * _____________________________
S e r v i c e s ___________ _____ ____ ____

1 ,0 2 3
379
644
50
155
140

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
3 9 .5
4 0 .0
38. 5
3 9 .0

7 8 .0 0
8 5 .0 0
74. 00
81. 50
6 9 .0 0
76. 00

93
2
91

84
27
57
21
1

104
23
81
11
38
13

192
72
120
7
7
33

139
79
60
17
4
2

142
53
89
6
8
11

112
61
51
6
11
24

47
44
3
3

13
9
4
-

“

_

-

$

_
-

3

*

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

“

"

-

“

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3
3

12
3
9
9

_

3
3

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

“

“

W om en

See
*

fo o tn o te

a t e n d o f ta b le .

T r a n s p o r ta tio n

* * F in a n c e ,

(e x c lu d in g

in s u r a n c e ,

_

15

21

43

-

-

-

-

•-

-

15

21

43

-

-

-

-

-

“

-

6
5

14
15

46
27

-

O c c u p a tio n a l W a g e
r a ilr o a d s ),

and re a l e sta te .




_

-

c o m m u n ic a tio n ,

a n d o t h e r p u b lic

S u rvey,

D e tr o it,

M ic h . ,

u tilitie s .
B u reau of

O c to b er

1955
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F

L abor

S ta tis tic s

*

L A B O R

-

-

~

6

T a b l e

A - 1 :

O

f f i c e

O

c c u p a t i o n s

-

C o n t i n u e d

( A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t i m e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a r n in g s 1 f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d on an a r e a b a s i s
in D e t r o i t , M ic h . , b y in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , O c t o b e r 1955)
Avebaob
S e x , o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n

Number
of
workers

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF

Weekly
Weekly U nder
hours
earnings
(Standard) (Standard) $
4 0 .0 0

W o m e n - C o n tin u e d

$
s
s
S
s
s
S
t
S
$
$
S
$
S
t
$
1
$
$
$
$
4 0 .0 0 4 5 .0 0 5 0 .0 0 5 5 .0 0 6 0 .0 0 6 5 .0 0 7 0 .0 0 75 . 00 8 0 .0 0 8 5 .0 0 9 0 .0 0 9 5 .0 0 10 0 .0 0 10 5 .0 0 1 10 .00 1 1 5 .0 0 120.00 12 5 .0 0 130 .00 135.00 140 .00
and
and
under
4 5 .0 0 5 0 .0 0 5 5 .0 0 6 0 .0 0 6 5 .0 0 7 0 .0 0 7 5 .0 0 8 0 .0 0 8 5 .0 0 9 0 .0 0 9 5 .0 0 100.00 10 5 .0 0 11 0 .0 0 115 .00 1 20 .00 125 .00 1 3 0 .0 0 1 35 .00 140.00 o v e r

<
t

C l e r k s , a c c o u n t in g , c l a s s B ---------------------M a n u fa c t u r in g ____________________________
N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g
_____________________
P u b lic u t ilit ie s * _____________________
W h o le s a le t r a d e ____________________
R e t a il tr a d e 2 _________________________
F i n a n c e * * ____________________________
S e r v i c e s ____________________________

2 ,0 9 4
515
239
602
562
176

3 9 .5
39. 5
39. 5
3 9 .5
40. 0
4 0 .0
3 9 .0
3 9 .5

60. 50
68. 50
57. 50
64. 00
6 4 .0 0
52. 50
53. 50
5 8 .0 0

19
19
3
16
-

193
2
191
5
124
37
25

329
20
309
20
8
132
145
4

433
61
372
79
44
72
134
43

C l e r k s , f i l e , c l a s s A ______________________
N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g ______________________
F i n a n c e * * ____________________________

953
272
179

39. 5
38. 5
38. 5

65 . 50
6 1 .0 0
60. 50

_
-

_
-

23
19
17

C l e r k s , f i l e , c l a s s B ______________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g ____________________________
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g _______________________
P u b lic u t ilit ie s * ______________________
W h o le s a le t r a d e _____________________
R e t a il tr a d e 2 _____ __________________
F in a n ce * * ____________________________
S e r v i c e s ----------------------------------------------

1 .9 4 0
390
1, 550
206
166
225
678
275

39. 0
40. 0
3 9 .0
38. 5
39. 5
40. 0
3 9 .0
38. 0

4 8 . 50
53. 50
4 7 . 50
4 4 . 00
5 3 .0 0
4 5 .0 0
4 7 . 50
4 8 . 50

156
156
75
52
29
-

488
33
455
35
20
41
206
153

C l e r k s , o r d e r _______________________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g ____________________________
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g _____________________
R e t a il tr a d e 2 _________________________

394
119
275
133

3 9 .0
39. 0
3 9 .0
39. 5

6 3 .0 0
7 2 .0 0
59. 50
51. 50

1
1

18
18
18

70. 50
73. 50
65 . 50
6 3 .0 0
63. 50

!
1
-

C l e r k s , p a y r o l l _____________________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g ____________________________
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g _______________________
P u b lic u t ilit ie s * _____________________
S e r v i c e s ____________________________

2 ,9 1 2

1 ,4 2 0
886
534
123
149

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .5
39. 0
3 9 .0

1

-

16
3
13
-

414
61
353
75
42
77
141
18

46 2
105
357
89
46
92
87
43

378
209
169
61
27
63
5
13

51
45
26

91
60
43

132
64
38

520
76
444
34
28
71
252
59

433
163
270
54
43
48
116
9

184
56
128
2
63
13
46
4

39

72
5
67
37

53
20
33
27

39
34

73
28
45
9
20

85
34
51
11
22

102
29
73
36
10

_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_
_

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

_
_

-

_

_
_

-

-

-

-

-

_
_
-

_
_
-

.
_
_

_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_
_
_

_
_
.
_
_

_
_
_
_
.

_
_
_
_
_
_

-

-

-

-

-

_
_

_
_

_

_
_

_
_

-

-

-

-

-

.
_

_
_
_

_

_
_

_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_

254
128
126
87
11
6
10
12

255
114
141
82
43
11
3
2

127
72
55
14
16
9
16

38
36
2
_
2
_
-

-

435
39
30

149
30
25

47
10
-

17
3
-

6
_
-

2
2
-

87
50
37
2
12
_
22
1

19
9
10
2
_
7
1

52
3
49
1
_
_
_
48

1
1
1
_
-

_
_
_

_
_
_
_

.
_
_

-

"

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

38
7
31
9

57
23
34

24
16
8
2

30
10
20
4

30
27
3
‘

24
3
21
“

3
3
-

_
■

2
2
“

3
3
“

_
■

_
"

_
~

_
-

_
-

.
-

_
"

6
5
1
1
-

31
10
21
-

.
-

_

_
.

-

-

-

-

-

.
_
-

-

-

-

_
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_
-

_
-

_
_
_
_

_

_
_
_
_
_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

191
112
79
19
14

1
242
148
94
12
34

193
124
69
20
30

159
118
41
9
13

137
118
19
2
-

127
110
17
6

10
10
_
_

57
47
10
4
-

_
-

-

-

-

_
_
_
_

1
I
_
.

-

D u p lic a t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s
(m im e o g r a p h o r ditto) ___________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g ____________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g

_

_ _ ..

K e y - p u n c h o p e r a t o r s _________________________

M a n u fa c t u r in g ___________________________
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g _______________________
P u b lic u t ilit ie s _______________________
F i n a n c e * * ________ __________________

See
*

fo o tn o te s

4 0 .0
40. 0
39. 5
3 9 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0
39. 5

67.
70.
61.
59.
64.
62.
57.

260
137
123

3 9 .5

4o.o
38. 5

58. 50
60. 50
56. 00

4 0 .0
40. 0
39. 5
3 9 .0
4 0 .0

64 . 50
68 . 50
5 9 .0 0
61. 50
57. 50

JL33Q
762
568
114
169

00
50
50
00
50
50
50

84
10
74
10
49
-7

141
36
105
4
1
45
20

284
133
151
13
45
55
26

437
190
247
15
40
36
28

427
287
140
9
12
110
3

367
305
62
8
21
31

389
322
67
2
1
64

-

14
14
5
_
7
2

2

-

3

12

37
17
20

57
11
46

34
25
9

50
46
4

20
18
2

21
20

25

1

25

55
12
43

92
17
75
18
29

207
72
135
14
36

217
85
132
39
39

266
165
101
18
16

295
271
24
7
12

131
115
16
8

5
5
5

-

-

3

12

6

32

-

-

6
6

32
-

6

-

29

a t en d o f ta b le .

T r a n s p o r ta tio n

* * F in a n c e ,

-2. 305
1 ,4 1 0
895
67
133
417
89

(e x c lu d in g

in s u r a n c e ,

and




r a ilr o a d s ),
re a l e sta te .

c o m m u n ic a tio n ,

and o th e r

p u b lic

u tilitie s

-

38
36
2
1
_
1

8
8
_
-

1
1
_
_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

24
21
3
3

5
4
1
1

-

.

_

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

.

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

'

C o m p t o m e t e r o p e r a t o r s ___________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g ___________________________
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g _______________________
P u b lic u t ilit ie s * _____________________
W h o le s a le t r a d e
R e t a il tr a d e 2 _________________________
F in a n ce **
____________ ____ ________

_
-

'

'

110
82
28
13
14
1

1

-

.

_
_

2

7

T a b l e

A

- l :

O

f f i c e

O

c c u p a t i o n s

-

C o n t i n u e d

(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e w e e k ly h o u r s an d e a r n in g s 1 f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d o n an a r e a b a s i s
in D e t r o it , M ic h . , b y in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , O c t o b e r 1955)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF-

Average
S e x , o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n

Number
of
workers

$
S
$
s
S
s
$
$
*
S
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
S
Weekly
Weekly U nder 4 0 .0 0 4 5 .0 0 5 0 .0 0 5 5 .0 0 6 0 .0 0 65. 00 7 0 .0 0 7 5 .0 0 8 0 .0 0 8 5 .0 0 9 0 .0 0 9 5 .0 0 100.00 105 .00 110 .00 115 .00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00
earnings $
hours
(Standard) (Standard)
and
over
4 5 .0 0 50. 00 5 5 .0 0 6 0 .0 0 6 5 .0 0 7 0 .0 0 7 5 .0 0 80. 00 8 5 .0 0 9 0 .0 0 9 5 .0 0 10 0 .0 0 105.00 1 10 .00 115 .00 120 .00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00

W o m e n - C o n tin u e d

229
33
112

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .0
3 9 .0
3 9 .0

4 9 .5 0
52. 50
4 7 . 50
5 4 .0 0
4 6 . 50

24
16
8
3
3

95
24
71
3
37

122
17
105
11
64

62
36
26
3
7

58
49
9
3
1

19
18
1
1
-

13
8
5
5
-

4
4
4
-

_
-

_
"

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

"

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

S e c r e t a r i e s --------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r in g ____________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g _______________________
P u b li c u t ilit ie s * ______________________
W h o le s a le t r a d e ______________________
R e t a i l t r a d e 2 _____ — ______________
F i n a n c e * * _____ _____ __ _____ __
S e r v i c e s -----------------------------------------------

4 .0 7 1
2 , 579
1 ,4 9 2
120
345
232
450
345

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .0
3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .5
3 9 .0
3 8 .0

8 1 .0 0
8 5 .0 0
7 5 .0 0
8 9 .5 0
7 7 .0 0
74. 50
7 2 .0 0
72. 50

_
-

6
6
6
-

20
20
18
2

24
2
22
7
1
12
2

107
10
97
15
43
39

241
* 28
213
4
10
46
75
78

294
119
175
8
39
33
60
35

403
195
208
11
97
31
47
22

969
727
242
14
89
34
46
59

673
475
198
11
34
21
75
57

382
240
142
18
38
21
'3 9
26

339
283
56
6
17
7
12
14

256
228
28
8
9
4
5
2

209
155
54
20
4
15
9
6

77
60
17
15
2
-

20
15
5
2
3

27
22
5
3
1
1
-

2
2
1
1
-

7
7
-

4
4
-

6
4
2
1
1
-

5
5
-

_
_ ______
S t e n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l ______
M a n u f a c t u r in g ____________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g _______________________
P u b li c u t ilit ie s * ______________________
W h o le s a le t r a d e ______________________
R e t a i l t r a d e 2 _ _____ _____ _______
F i n a n c e * * _____________________________
S e r v i c e s ------------------------------------------------

6 ,4 1 8
4 , 569
1 ,8 4 9
299
492
181
47 6
401

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .0
3 9 .5
4 0 .0
4 0 .0
3 9 .0
37. 5

69. 50
7 2 .0 0
6 4 .5 0
68. 00
6 5 .0 0
6 1 .0 0
63. 50
63. 50

7
7
3
4
-

62
3
59
5
13
6
30
5

291
76
215
24
31
27
64
69

710
432
278
43
84
47
65
39

966
491
475
49
120
43
108
155

1001
746
255
25
100
27
87
16

1536
1306
230
52
107
7
48
16

895
648“
247
78
25
12
40
92

493
431
62
20
8
2
25
7

250
231
19
3
4
7
3
2

130

-

76
76
-

1
1
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

“

-

-

-

_
-

-

-

__ _

182

4 0 .0

8 1 .0 0

_

_

_

1

5

3

10

11

31

76

28

17

_

_

_

_

S w it c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s ______________________
M a n u fa c tu r in g _ __ _ _______ ___ ___
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g ________ _____________
P u b li c u t ilit ie s * ______________________
R e t a il t r a d e 2 _________________________
F in a n c e * * ___ .
, ________
S e r v i c e s -----------------------------------------------

989
43 0
559
44
121
97
215

40. 5
4 0 .0
41. 5
40; 0
40. 5
40. 5
4 3 .0

6 3 .0 0
70. 50
57. 50
69. 50
60. 50
5 8 .0 0
5 0 .0 0

16
16
6
10

25
25
11
12
2

134
134
17
11
106

78
1
77
1
14
5
51

91
30
61
4
22
14
21

137
41
96
6
15
26
23

206
140
66
13
16
6
1

161
125
36
6
14
-

113
73
40
14
24
2
-

20
15
5
2
1
-

5
2
3
1

3
3
-

.

_

-

.
-

-

"

-

-

-

S w it c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r - r e c e p t i o n i s t s _____
M a n u fa c t u r in g _ ______________ ______
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g _______________________
P u b li c u t ilit ie s * ______________________
W h o le s a le t r a d e _ _ ______
__ _ _
R e t a i l t r a d e 2 _________________________
S e r v i c e s -------------------- --------------------------

879
431
448
51
150
80
70

3 9 .5
3 ^ .5
3 9 .0
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .0
38. 5

62. 50
65. 00
6 0 .0 0
58. 00
6 2 .0 0
57. 50
6 3 .0 0

-

5
5
5
-

135
58
77
17
37
3
10

220
95
125
9
38
16
26

151
49
102
3
60
18
8

101
73
28
2
4
3
17

27
25
2
2
-

31
25
6
4
1
1

-

_
-

-

-

3
2
1
1

_
-

-

125
63
62
11
7
16
2

25
25
-

-

56
16
40
3
22
5

-

-

-

T a b u la t in g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ___ ______
M a n u f a c t u r in g ____________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g ________
______

272
100
172

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
3 9 .5

68. 50
78. 50
6 3 .0 0

.
-

11
11

17
17

16
16

23
23

35
3
32

28
9
19

37
16
21

37
22
15

44
32
12

18
14
4

5
3
2

1
1
-

-

_
-

T r a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
gen eral
_____
___
_
__ _
M a n u fa c tu r in g
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g _
___
_______

568
176
392

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .5

63. 50
6 6 .0 0
62. 50

3
3

1
1

68
10
58

91
14
77

71
18
53

117
29
88

68
48
20

63
31
32

32
24
8

20
2
18

-

16
16

-

-

-

18
18

-

-

3 ,6 5 2
2, 838
814
147

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0
39. 5

6 7 .0 0
68. 00
6 3 .5 0
71. 50

_
-

3
3
-

35
_
35
-

137
19
118
-

294
118
176
16

425
262
163
15

1730
1649
81
23

633
557
76
30

330
200
130
58

38
30
8
2

19
19
-

5
_
5
3

_
_
-

O ff ic e g i r l s ____________________________ _____
M a n u fa c tu r in g - __ __ ______ _ _______
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g _______________________
P u b li c u t ilit ie s * „ _ ___ __________
F i n a n c e * * --------------------------------------------

S t e n o g r a p h e r s , t e c h n i c a l _____

____

T y p is t s , c l a s s A - _____________
______
M a n u fa c tu r in g _
_
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g _______________________
P u b lic u t ilit ie s *

397
168

-

_

-

•

S e e fo o t n o t e s at e n d o f t a b le .
* T r a n s p o r t a t io n ( e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a t io n , an d o t h e r p u b lic u t i li t ie s .
* * F i n a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e .




126

2
2
-

_

_
_

_

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

_

_

_

-

_
-

_
• -

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

.
-

_
-

. _
~

.
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
■

*

-

_

.

_
-

!
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

3
3

-

-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

"

-

■

_

8
T a b l e

A

- l :

O

f f i c e

O

c c u p a t i o n s

-

C o n t i n u e d

(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t i m e w e e k ly h o u r s an d e a r n in g s 1 f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d o n an a r e a b a s i s
in D e t r o it , M ic h . , b y in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , O c t o b e r 1955)
NUM BER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGH T-TIM E W E E K LY E ARNING S OF

A verage

S e x , o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n

Number
of
workers

Weekly
hours
(Standard)

Weekly
earnings
(Standard)

U n d e r 4 0 .0 0 4 5 .0 0
and
$
4 0 . 00 u n d e r
4 5 .0 0 5 0 .0 0

50. 00 5 5 .0 0 6 0 .0 0

%
$
s
65. 00 70. 00 7 5 .0 0 *80. 00 8 5 .0 0 9 0 .0 0

5 5 .0 0

7 0 .0 0 7 5 .0 0

6 0 .0 0 6 5 .0 0

s

t

s

s

5

$

s

%

$

S

9 5 .0 0 1 00 .00 1 0 5 .0 0 110 .0 0 11 5 .0 0 120 .00 1 2 5 .0 0 1 30 .00 135 .00 14 0 .0 0

8 0 .0 0 8 5 .0 0 9 0 .0 0 9 5 .0 0 100.00 105 .00 1 1 0 .0 0 11 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 125 .00 13 0 .0 0 1 35 .00 1 40 .00

a n
over

W o m e n - C o n tin u e d
*

T y p is t s , c la s s B ____________________________ 4 , 535
M a n u fa c t u r in g ------------------------------------------ 1 ,9 7 3
N on m an u fac t u r i n g ----- ------------------------2, 562
384
P u b lic u t ilit ie s * __ _____________ __
W h o le s a le t r a d e ----------------------------------------379
264
R e t a il tr a d e 2 -----------------------------------------------4
3
F i n a n c e * * -------------------------------------------- 1 ,1 5 1

1
2
*
**

3 9 .5
39. 5
3 9 .0
3 9 .0
3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .5

53. 50
5 7 .0 0
5 1 .0 0
56. 50
55. 50
4 8 . 50
4 9 . 00

66
3
63

378
65
313
13
25
24
187

-

23
36

1105
283
822
36
63
111
538

1088
401
687
125
89
62
235

854
495
359
88
108
33
84

615
442
173
46
37
11
69

256
16F
88
53
30

134
91
43
23
13

25
11
14

_
-

-

-

-

-

2

~

"

”

-

14

_

14
14

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

“

-

-

-

“

-

_

_

‘

H ou rs r e f l e c t the w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e t h e ir r e g u la r s t r a ig h t - t i m e s a l a r ie s an d the e a rn in gs c o r r e s p o n d t o th e s e w e e k ly h o u r s .
E x c lu d e s d a ta f o r 2 la r g e d e p a r tm e n t s t o r e s .
T r a n s p o r t a t io n ( e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a t io n , a n d o t h e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .
F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e .

Table A-2: Professional ajnd Technical Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t i m e w e e k ly h o u r s an d e a r n in g s 1 f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d o n an a r e a b a s i s
in D e t r o i t , M ic h . , b y in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , O c t o b e r 1955)
N U M B E R O F W ORKERS R E C E IV IN G S T R A IG H T -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S O F

A verage

S e x , o c c u p a t io n ,

a n d in d u s t r y d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

$
6 0 .0 0 6 5 .0 0
<

Weekly
hours
(Standard)

Weekly
Under
earnings
(Standard)

f o . 00

$
$
70. 00 7 5 .0 0

s
S
S
S
s
%
$
1
S
$
$
$
s
S
$
s
S
80. 00 85. 00 90 . 00 9 5 .0 0 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 1 20 .00 1 2 5 .0 0 1 3 0 .0 0 1 3 5 .0 0 1 40 .00 14 5 .0 0 1 50 .00 1 55 .00 1 6 0 .0 0

and
under

and

65. 00 70 . 00 75. 00 8 0 .0 0

8 5 .0 0 9 0 . 00 9 5 ,0 0 LOO. 00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 1 2 5 .0 0 1 3 0 .0 0 1 35 .00 1 4 0 .0 0 145 .00 150. 00 15 5 .0 0 16 0 .0 0

over

M en
$
D ra fts m e n ,

D ra fts m e n ,

ju n io r

_

M a n u fa c tu rin g

___________

Tra c e rs

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

2 ,2 3 0
1 ,6 6 9

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

120. 50
117. 56

“

-

_ _
1, 213
________ ____ “ 855

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

9 0 .0 0
88. 00

5
5

33
32

20
12

66
43

436
371

40. 0
4 0 .0

71. 50
72. 50

3 64
*46

30
15

85
79

521
482

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

81. 50
82. 00

1

11
4

s e n i o r ____________________________________

M a n u f a c t u r i n g ______________________________________

______________________________________
_ __ _____________________

M a n u fa c tu rin g

197 161

208
194

12 8

238
201

204
125

47
18

71
23

40
28

29
2

74
73

20
8

116
105

91
81

135
108

181
142

178
147

190
160

104
87

81
62

68
65

66
63

29
28

13
13

.

_

_

_

_

■

“

~

~

“

62
59

169
163

130
121

74
68

53
51

5
5

1
1

4
1

1
1

3
3

3
3

114
48

171

207
155

230
131

92
85>

118
87

57
53

90
50

17
9

2 100
23

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

•

“

*

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

W om en
N u rs e s ,

in d u s t r ia l (r e g is t e r e d )

M a n u f a c t u r i n g ______ —

1
2
3
4

_____________

---------------------------------------------

H ou rs r e f l e c t the w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h
W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d a s f o ll o w s :
W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d a s f o ll o w s :
W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d a s f o ll o w s :




2

_

1
1

1
1

e m p lo y e e s r e c e i v e t h e ir r e g u la r s t r a ig h t - t i m e s a l a r ie s and th e e a r n in g s c o r r e s p o n d to th e s e w e e k ly h o u r s .
47 a t $ 1 6 0 to $ 1 7 0 ; 18 at $ 1 7 0 to $ 1 8 0 ; a n d 35 at $ 1 8 0 and o v e r .
14 a t $ 4 5 to $ 5 0 ; 26 at $ 5 0 to $ 5 5 ; and 24 at $ 5 5 t o $ 6 0 .
O c c u p a t io n a l W a g e S u r v e y , D e t r o i t , M ic h . , O c t o b e r 1955
14 a t $ 4 5 to $ 5 0 ; 13 at $ 5 0 to $ 5 5 ; and 19 at $ 5 5 t o $ 6 0 .
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s

d

9
T a b le

A

- 3 :

M

a i n t e n a n c e

a n d

P o w e r p la n t

O c c u p a t i o n s

(A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s 1 f o r m e n in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d on an a r e a b a s i s
in D e t r o i t , M ic h . , b y in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , O c t o b e r 1955)
N U M B E R O F W O R K E B S R E C E IV IN G S T R A IG H T -T IM E H O U R L Y E A R N IN G S O F—

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
earnings

$
U n d er
$
1 .6 0

$
1 .6 0
and

1 .7 0

rto r

1 .8 0

o
o
00
O'
. 1 .
60 ,"H

O c c u p a t io n an d in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n

$
1 .9 0
2 .0 0

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

2. 00

2. 10

2. 20

2. 30

2 .4 0

2 .5 0

2 .6 0

2. 70

2 . 80

2. 90

3 .0 0

3. 10

3 .2 0

2 .1 0

2. 20

2 .3 0

2 .4 0

2. 50

2. 60

2. 70

2. 80

2 .9 0

3. 00

3. 10

3 .2 0

and
over

C a r p e n t e r s , m a i n t e n a n c e _________ — ----------M a n u fa c tu r in g _ ---------------------- — - —
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g ________________________________

1 ,3 6 4
1 ,0 2 0
344

$
2. 51
2. 50
2. 55

-

-

-

1
1

42
42

41
5
36

29
22
7

51
29
22

142
117
25

292
229
63

597
586
11

17
12
5

5
5

11
8
3

12
12

3
3

121
12
109

E l e c t r i c i a n s , m a in t e n a n c e ________________________
M a n u fa c tu r in g - _____ _____ ___ ____
__ _
N o n m a n u fa c tu r i n g -------------------------------------------------

4 ,4 1 2
4 , 100
312

2. 60
2. 60
2 .6 2

-

l
l

_
-

1
1

13
13
-

20
20

_
-

27
5
22

262
214
48

497
484
13

880
873
7

235 8
233 2
26

221
67
154

24
24
-

20
18
2

_
-

„
_
-

88
70
18

E n g in e e r s , s t a t i o n a r y ___________ __________________
M a n u fa c tu r in g
_ _____ _____ _____ ________
____ ______
____ _ ____
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

666
445
221

2. 57
2. 66
2. 39

_
"

_
-

7
7

_
“

17
17

34
34

8
8

64
40
24

56
21
35

89
65
24

87
76
11

105
89
16

75
60
15

11
7
4

18
2
16

17
17
■

57
53
4

21
15
6

F i r e m e n , s t a t io n a r y b o i l e r __ __ __ _ _ __
M a n u f a c t u r in g ____________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g ________________________________

745
570
175

2. 14
2. 21
1 .9 1

35
10
25

21
16
5

43
19
24

70
36
34

48
16
32

88
81
7

92
89
3

85
75
10

102
74
28

43
43
-

118
111
7

.
-

.

_
-

_

-

.
-

_

-

-

-

-

H e lp e r s , t r a d e s , m a in t e n a n c e ____________________
M a n u f a c t u r in g -------- _ _____ ___________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g ________________________________

1 ,3 3 6
1, 188
148

2. 10
2. 12
1 .9 3

12
12

5
5

45
21
24

102
91
11

547
• 527
20

77
38
39

85
54
31

38
38
-

289
289
-

136
130
6

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

_
_

_
-

-

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

M a c h i n e - t o o l o p e r a t o r s , t o o l r o o m _______________
M a n u f a c t u r in g ____________________________________

3 ,4 6 6
3 ,4 6 3

2 .6 2
2. 62

_

-

_

_

-

_

-

-

-

-

21
20

348
348

638
638

1883
1883

377
377

143
143

23
23

_

-

3
1

_

-

30
30

_

.

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

12
8

72
68

50
47

130
122

223
222

51
51

16
16

_

-

6
6

.
-

-

_
-

-

-

20
13
7
7

29
24
5
1
2

19
3
16
2
14

159
35
124
110
-

381
110
271
141
41

342
52
290
239
42

278
160
118
87
28

70
33
37
36
-

3
3
_

-

8
1
7
7

_

_

-

-

-

-

40
30
10

1
1

7
1
6

95
85
10

345
295
50

440
420
20

802
785
17

_

_

_

_

_

23
22

180
180

661
661

1681
1681

M a c h in is t s , m a in t e n a n c e
M a n u fa c tu r in g _
__ _ _ _ _ _

-

633
613

2. 64
2 .6 5

M e c h a n i c s , a u t o m o t iv e (m a in te n a n c e )
M a n u f a c t u r in g ____________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g _______ _
_
__ _ __
_ _
P u b lic u t ilit ie s * ______________________________
W h o le s a le t r a d e ______________________________

1 ,3 1 3
43 4
879
620
141

2. 39
2 .4 1
2. 37
2. 39
2. 32

M e c h a n i c s , m a i n t e n a n c e ___________________________
M a n u fa c tu r in g _ _ _
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

4 , 528
4, 280
248

2. 59
2. 59
2. 54

M illw r ig h t s _ _ _
M a n u f a c t u r in g ____________________________________

3 ,9 2 2
3 ,9 2 1

2. 54
2. 54

-

-

-

-

7
7

-

35
35

O il e r s
M a n u f a c t u r in g ____________________________________

1 ,4 3 9
1 ,4 1 9

2 .0 8
2. 09

_
-

8
-

22
10

40
40

260
260

382
382

580
580

49
49

98
98

-

-

-

-

989
684
305

2 .4 1
2. 4 4
2. 34

_

_

_

■

*

-

17
17

54
10
44

42
9
33

26
9
17

105
98
7

159
76
83

155
129
26

343
340
3

1
1
-

54
54

2 ,4 2 8
2, 366

2. 54
2. 53

_

_

_

_

“

-

-

-

7
7

-

14
14

12
10

198
198

323
321

1294
1281

531
522

46
l6

-

528
524

2. 53
2 .5 3

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

3
3

2
1

58
57

76
74

259
259

124
124

4
4

2
2

6 .2 5 5
6 ,2 5 4

2 .7 5
2. 75

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5
5

44
44

309
309

745
745

4418
441 7

450
450

114
114

_

P a in t e r s , m a in t e n a n c e
___ ___
M a n u fa c tu r in g
_
_
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g _________________________________

P i p e f i t t e r s , m a i n t e n a n c e ___________________________
M a n u f a c t u r in g ____________________________________
S h e e t - m e t a l w o r k e r s , m a i n t e n a n c e ----------------------M a n u fa c tu r in g
__
_
_
__
T o o l an d d ie m a k e r s
M a n u f a c t u r in g ____________________________________

-

1 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e , an d f o r w o r k o n w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , an d la t e s h ift s .
* T r a n s p o r t a t io n (e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a t io n , an d o th e r p u b lic u t i li t ie s .




_

_

-

*

-

_

_

_
_

.
-

_
_
-

-

4
.
4
4
-

-

-

-

-

229 8
223 8
60

410
336
74

15
15
-

-

56
56
-

15
15
-

4
4
-

1335
1335

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

54

-

19
------- F T " —

_

_

_

.
-

-

-

_
-

-

29
— rr~
17

-

-

4
-

-

_

4

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

120
120

12
12

—

3
5-----_

38
38

O c c u p a t io n a l W a ge S u r v e y , D e t r o it , M ic h ., O c t o b e r 1955
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B u re a u o f L a b o r S t a t is tic s

10

Table A-4:

Custodial and Material-Movement Occupations

(A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s 1 f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s 2 s tu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
in D e t r o i t , M ic h . , b y in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , O c t o b e r 1955)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

E le v a t o r o p e r a t o r s , p a s s e n g e r (w o m e n ) ----------N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g ----------------------------------------------R e t a il t r a d e 4 ------------------------------------ — _
F in a n ce * * ______________________________ ___
S e r v i c e s --------------------------------- -------- -------q nar^Q
M a n u fa ctu rin g __
_, „. ,
.
__
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g ___ _____ ________________
F in a n ce * * _____ __ __ ------ ----- -----------J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s (m e n ) ------------M a n u fa ctu rin g _ __ ______ ____________________
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g ______________________________
P u b lic u t ilit ie s * __ -----------------------------------W h o le s a le t r a d e -------------------------------------------R e t a il t r a d e 4 _______________ ______ _______
F i n a n c e * * _____ ____________________ — ___
S e r v i c e s ______________________________________

358
151

$
1. 56
1. 23

-

155
453
156

1. 11
1 .1 1
1. 00
1. 12
1. 11

4 . 120
3 ,8 8 8
232
186

2. 10
2. 13
1 .6 8
1. 62

806
WT~

1 1 ,0 7 7
8 ,0 9 9
2 ,9 7 8
403
139
1 ,1 6 6
666
604

1 .7 2
1. 85
1. 36
1. 72
1. 66
1. 24
1 .3 5
1. 29

$
U n d er 1. 00
and
$
under
1 .0 0
1. 10

$
1. 10

$
1. 20

$
1. 30

$
1 .4 0

1 .2 0

1 .3 0

1 .4 0

1 .5 0

-

52
52

109
85

2
2

3
3

3 90
90
78
12

190
190
22
168
-

481
480
53
278
143

8
7
2
3
1

23
21
2
-

_
-

_
-

4
4
4

37
37
37

11
11
7

.

323
323
164
159

196
196
99
12
85

300
300
2
230
44
24

727
54
673
26
9
323
210
105

502
101
401
20
22
134
216
9

1. 50

$
1 .6 0

$
1. 70

$
1. 80

$
1 .9 0

$
2. 00

$
2. 10

$
2. 20

$
2. 30

$
2 .4 0

$
2. 50

1 .6 0

1 .7 0

1 .8 0

1 -9 0

2 .0 0

2 .1 0

2. 20

2. 30

2. 40 _ 2. 50

2. 60

$

-

7
7

2
2

-

1
-

3
3
2
-

10
10
-

16
16
16

24
8
16
16

65
42
23
20

38
5
33
24

185
171
14
14

681
543
138
44
8
81
2
3

5341
5154
187
102
27
41
3
14

1413
1343
70
36
15
8
3
8

625

22

601

ll

24
24

180
17
163
12
25
84
42

305
82
223
17
29
38
60
79

593
378
215
117
16
23
32
27

154
•- •
-

$
2. 70

$
2. 80

$
2. 90

$
3 .0 0
and

o
ffsi

E le v a t o r o p e r a t o r s , p a s s e n g e r ( m e n ) ---------------N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g -----------------------------------------------

Average
hourly
earnings

o
vO
«»(VJ

O c c u p a t io n and in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n

Number
of
workers

2. 80

2. 90

3. 00

over

_

29

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

*

-

-

-

-

“

525
453
72
48

388
386
2
-

1009
1005
4
-

1706
1706
-

104
104
-

.
-

6
r
-

2
2
-

.
-

_
-

_
-

-

248
207
41
23
11
7

115
73
42
4
38

83
77
6
2
4

55
55
-

15
15
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

7
7
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

—

-

109
108
1
1
-

-

-

L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l h a n d lin g ____________________
M a n u fa ctu rin g __ _______________________________
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g ----------------------------------------------P u b lic u t ilit ie s * -------------------------------------------W h o le s a le t r a d e ------------------- - ----- --------R e t a il tr a d e 4 --------------------------------------------------

16, 503
1 2 , 959
3, 544
902
1 ,2 3 9
1 ,3 9 3

1 .9 3
1 .9 5
1. 83
2. 11
1. 81
1. 68

34
34
34

35
35
35

123
123
121

73
73
72

56
56
19
37

179
179
170
8

240
72
168
41
127

562
137
425
40 6
19

790
563
227
4
223

2403
1808
595
64
124
407

6918
6593
325
88
74
163

3298
29 4 b
352
64
221
61

1262
427
835
682
67
86

343
283
60
60
-

51
22
29
29
-

108
108
-

28
28
28
-

-

-

-

-

-

O rd er fille r s
M a n u fa c t u r in g ___________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g ----------------------------------------------W h o le s a le t r a d e _____________________________
R e t a il tr a d e 4 ________________________________

2 ,3 2 2
959
1 ,3 6 3
990
357

1 .9 3
2. 00
1. 88
1 .8 9
1 .8 9

_
-

10
10
-

17
17
12

10
10
10
-

45
3
42
42
-

73
73
73
-

10
10
9
-

244
244
206
38

46
&
40
35
5

99
77
22
14
8

845
546
299
86
213

558
110
448
373
75

187
175
12
10
2

56
9
47
43
4

96
9
87
87
-

_
-

26
24
2
2
-

-

_
"

_
-

_
-

_
-

P a c k e r s , sh ip p in g ( m e n ) ___ ____________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g -----------------------------------------------------

3, 546
“ 575 W ~

1 .9 6
1. 97

_

2
-

_

57
-

64
42

22
20

43
20

1756
1750

594
594

496
496

106
104

29
3

3
-

_

_

_

206

155
155

-

-

12
-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

275
275

14
10

_

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

2
2

_

-

263
263

_

-

114
114

_

-

20
5

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

6
6

25
25

9
9

1
1

13
13

35
35

27
24
3

41
40
1

62
52
10

206
187
19

303
290"
13

48
44
4

19
4
15

12
1
11

~

_

_

-

-

_
-

-

-

_
“

1
1

1
1

1
1

5
2

1
1

13
2

31
16

8
1

44
12

73
17

488
2

36
1

38
15

47
“

7
-

29
9

10
10

-

-

11
11

3
3

3
3

_
“

13
13

19
19

14
14

9
9

199
15

636
38

86
67

83
52

27
24

11
2

52
33

21
2

7
7

*

23
9

J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , an d c le a n e r s (w o m e n ) _ ----- ' 3 ,5 6 6
1 ,0 5 8
M anufac tu r in g - _............... ._______________________
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g ______________________________
2, 508
317
R e t a il t r a d e 4 ________________________________
F i n a n c e * * __ __ __ ------------------- _ -----------1 ,5 4 9
586
S e r v i c e s _______________________________________

1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

29
68
13
06
11
20

5 253
253
66
114
73

395
iii
283
136
70
69

1576
21
1555
91
1332
117

342
8
334
2
28
295

89
... f>7
32
11
3
6

15
10
5
1
1
1

75
58
17
6
1

58
54
4
4
-

P a c k e r s , sh ip p in g (w o m e n ) ______________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g _______•
____________________________

729
669

1. 84
1. 88

6
-

14
-

R e c e iv in g c le r k s . _________________ __ __ ___ _
M a n u fa c t u r in g ___________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g ______________________________

807
642
165

2 .0 1
2 .0 7
1. 77

_
-

_

-

S h ippin g c le r k s __ ____________
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g __________

844
102

2. 15
2. 24

_

_

-

-

1 ,2 0 6
310

2 .0 8
2. 15

_

.

_

■

"

"

__

S h ippin g and r e c e iv i n g c l e r k s ___________________
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g ---------------------------------------------

See fo o tn o te s a t en d o f t a b le .
*

T r a n s p o r t a t io n (e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o t h e r p u b lic u t i li t ie s .




21
“

207

_

_
“

Occupational Wage Survey, D etroit, Mich. , October 1955
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

11

T a b le

A

- 4 :

C u s t o d ia l

a n d

M

a t e r i a l - M

o v e m

e n t

O c c u p a t i o n s

-

C o n t in u e d

(A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s 1 f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s 2 s t u d ie d o n an a r e a b a s i s
in D e t r o i t , M ic h . , b y in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , O c t o b e r 1955)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
O c c u p a t io n a n d in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
earnings

$
U n d e r 1 .0 0
and
$
1 .0 0

6 .8 8 6
3 ,4 2 6
3 ,4 6 0
1, 593
1 ,0 0 2
784

$
2. 20
2. 17
2. 24
2. 31
2. 21
2 .1 7

805
281

2 .0 3
1. 88

-

2 ,0 6 9
1 ,4 5 2
617

2. 20
i . 19
2. 22

T r u c k d r iv e r s , heavy (o v e r 4 to n s ,
2 ,9 3 5
t r a i l e r t y p e ) _______________________ _____ ____
M a n u fa c tu r in g
_______________________________ T , i $ *
1 ,7 8 2
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g _______ _____ ___________
982
P u b l i c u til it ie s * ____________ _____ ____

2.
2.
2.
2.

T r u c k d riv e r s , heavy (o v e r 4 to n s,
o t h e r th a n t r a i l e r t y p e ) -------- ------------------- _
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g ___________________________
T r u c k e r s , p o w e r ( f o r k l i f t ) _______ ___ ___ _____
----__ _
—
M a n u fa c tu r in g
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g ----------------------------------------------P u b li c u t ilit ie s * --------------------------------------------

$
1. 10

$
1. 20

1. 20

1 .3 0

2
2
-

4
4
-

-

2
2

-

-

24
18
28
33

•

355
288

2. 27
2 .3 1

-

5 ,1 7 7
4 , 736
441
118

2 .0 1
2 .0 1
2 .0 3
2. 09

T r u c k e r s , p o w e r ( o th e r th an f o r k li f t ) ---------------- _ 1 , 1 9 2
1. 365
673
692
54
92

T r u c k d r i v e r s 4 ______________________________________
M a n u fa c tu r in g _
_
------------ ------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g
_
_ ____ __
____ _______
P u b li c u t ilit ie s * __ ___
W h o le s a le t r a d e _____________________________
R e t a i l t r a d e 4 _________________________________
T r u c k d r i v e r s f lig h t (u n d e r IV 2 t o n s ) _
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g
__ __ __ ___________
T r u c k d r i v e r s , m e d iu m ( 1 V2 to an d
in c lu d in g 4 t o n s ) ________________________________
___________________________ —
M a n u fa c tu r in g
__________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

W a tch m en
M a n u fa c tu r in g -------__
___
__ -----N o n m a n u fa c t u r i n g ----------------------------------------------P u b li c u t ilit ie s * _
_______
R e t a il t r a d e 4 --------------------------------------------------

$

$

$

$

$

1 .4 0

1. 50

1. 60

1 .7 0

1 .4 0

1. 50

1 .6 0

1 .7 0

1. 80 .. 1« 9Q„

$
2. 00

2 .0 0

$

$

$

2. 10

2. 20

2. 30

$
2. 40

$
2. 50

$
2. 60

$
2. 70

$
2. 80

$
2. 90

$
3. 00

2. 10

2 .2 0

2. 30

2 .4 0

2. 50

2. 60

2. 70

2. 80

2. 90

3 .0 0

and
over

-

12
12
3

62
62
9
50

57
36
21
5
12
3

193
145
48
3
42
3

127
46
81
2
67
7

240
222
18
2
7
-

1032
843
189
80
19
90

842
532
310
9
150
148

1906
1330
576
10
210
327

2145
-------5 T
2090
1482
486
116

4
4

10
10

9
9

62
62

20
18

27
3

17
7

48
17

173
62

122
72

303
15

8
-

-

-

-

-

-

37
34
3

156
112
44

39
30
9

135
134
1

478
399
79

301
152
149

382
355
27

■

“

-

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

1
1
-

71
6
65
-

32
32
-

144
128
16
-

393
320
73
9

-

-

-

-

"

-

-

-

-

25
-

30
28

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

1
1
-

1
1
-

12
12
-

18

19
18
1
-

289
219
70
-

2384
2279
105
40

2 .0 3

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

15

3

1. 54
1. 84
1. 26
1. 72
1 .3 4

6
6
2

305
305
6
5

96
21
75
16

67
67
5
13

88
24
64
24

43
24
19
8

48
19
29
11

67
67
-

154
109
45
9
6

-

-

_

-

T r a n s p o r t a t i o n (e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a t io n , an d o t h e r p u b lic u t i li t ie s .




$
1 .9 0

11
11
1

-

59
21
38
17

1 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e an d f o r w o r k o n w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , an d la t e s h ift s .
2 W r r d is r
r
p
e
r is
ic
2 D aotakleims i twe e r eto dm et nibwuotrekde a ss feoxlcl oe wts :w h1e rat o$t0h. e70w to e $in.d80;a te d .at $ 0 . 80 to $ 0 . 9 0 ; a n d 37 at $ 0 . 90 to $ 1 .
0
52
4 E x c lu d e s d a ta f o r 2 l a r g e d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e s .
8 W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d a s f o l l o w s : 20 at $ 0 . 70 to $ 0 . 80; 49 at $ 0 . 80 to $ 0 . 90; a n d 184 at $ 0 . 90 to $ 1 .
6 I n c lu d e s a l l d r i v e r s r e g a r d l e s s o f s i z e and ty p e o f t r u c k o p e r a t e d .
*

$
1. 80

1 .3 0

16

-

_
-

46
28
18
_
18

_
-

18
18
.
18

-

189
T5T"
-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_
-

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

306
1$
287

"

28

-

18
18

-

-

“

-

189
169
-

1151
647
504
8

1142
20
1122
965

“

-

-

-

-

-

-

17
7

32
10

233
225

-

18
18

-

-

-

-

-

1743
1693
50
11

526
354
172
67

128
99
29
-

_
-

16
16
-

3
3
-

4
4
-

5
5
-

16

203

926

17

4

3

_

8

13

_

272
249
23
6
1

147
128
19
15

3
1
2
2

1
1
-

-

8
8
-

1
1
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

28

-

16

-

12
12
-

-

-

_
-

-

12




B: Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions

Table B-l: Shift Differential Provisions'
P e rce n t o f m anufacturing plant w o r k e rs —
(a)
In establishm ents having
fo rm a l p ro v is io n s for—

Shift d ifferen tial

S econd shift
w ork

T hird or other
shift w ork

(b)
A ctu a lly w orkin g on—

Second shift

T h ird o r other
shift

T otal

9 9 .3

94. 1

2 5 .7

7 .0

With shift pay d ifferen tia l _________ — ________ __________

9 8 .4

94. 1

2 5 .4

7 .0

U niform cents (p er hou r) ________________________________

29. 1

25.0

6 .6

2 .6

5 cen ts --------------------------------------------------------------------------6 r#»nts
..........................
_
_
....... .
7 o r 7 l c e n t s ___________ ____________ __ __________
/z
8 cen ts — __
_____ _ — ____ __ ______________
9 or 9 Vz c e n t s _________________________________________
10 c e n t s ____ _________________________________________ _
11 cen ts ________„_________________ _______ __________
12 o r 12/4 c e n t s ___ — — — __ __ __ ______________
13 o r 14 c e n t s _____ __ _____ ___________ __________
15 c e n t s ____________ ____ _ ____________ _____ ____
O ver 15 cen ts _______ ___ _____________________ ____

4 .7
5. 1
5 .3
2 .0
.5
7 .0
1.3
1 .4
1.7
-

1.0
1.3
2. 1
1.5
4i 7
6 .4
2 .0
1.5
2. 1
2 .5

1.0
1.5
1.0
.4
.2
1.6
.2
.2
.6
-

.2
.3
. 1
t
.9
.4
.2
. 1
t
.3

6 8 .0

6 5.7

18. 3

4. 3

6 3 .5
2 .4
2. 1
-

.4
2 2.3
4 2.5
.5

17.8
.2
.3
-

. 1
1 .8
2. 3
. 1

_________

1. 3

3 .4

.5

.2

No shift pay d ifferen tia l ____________________________________

.9

-

.3

-

U niform p ercen ta g e _____

__ _

____

___________

____

5 p ercen t ____ _____ ____ __ _________________
7 p ercen t ___________________________ „ ______ ___________
____
_____________ __ __ __________
7 /4 p ercen t
10 p ercen t _____________________________________________
127* p ercen t ----------------------------------------------------------------Other

____________________________________

1
Shift d ifferen tia l data a re p re se n te d in te rm s o f (a) establishm ent p o lic y , and (b) w ork ers a ctually e m p lo y e d on late
shifts at th e tim e o f the su rv ey.
An establish m en t was c o n sid e re d as having a p o lic y i f it m et eith er o f the fo llo w in g co n d i­
tion s: (1) O perated late shifts at the tim e o f the su rv e y , o r (2) had fo rm a l p ro v isio n s co v e rin g late sh ifts,
t L e s s than 0 .0 5 p ercen t.

O ccupational Wage Survey, D etroit, M ich . , O cto b e r 1955
U .S . DE P A RT M EN T OF LABO R
Bureau o f L a b o r S ta tistics

13

Table B-2: Minimum Entrance Rates for Women Office Workers1
N um ber o f e sta b lish m en ts with s p e c ifie d m inim um hiring rate in—

M inim um rate
(w eek ly sa la ry )

A ll
schedules

E sta blish m en ts stu died

_

254

_

M anufacturing

B a se d on standard w eekly h ou rs 2 o f -

A ll
industries

87

N um ber o f esta b lish m en ts with s p e c ifie d m inim um hiring rate in—

N onm anufactur ing

M anufactu r ing

40

A ll
sched ules

XXX

167

37 Va

XXX

A ll
sched ules

XXX

254

FOR INEXPERIENCED TYPISTS

E sta blish m en ts having a s p e c ifie d m inim um

,

^ T

B ased on standard w eekly hours 2 o f —

A ll
ind u stries
40

N onm anufacturing

87

40

A il
schedules

XXX

167

37 Vz

XXX

40

XXX

FOR OTHER IN EXPERIENCED C LER IC AL WORKERS

146

61

57

85

11

63

164

56

52

108

2
5
3
3
18
18
23
15
23
13
9
8
4
1
1

1
1
6
5
8
6
10
8
6
6
2
1
1

1
1
6
4
8
5
9
7
6
6
2
1
1

2
5
2
2
12
13
15
9
13
5
3
2
2
_
-

" ■
_
2
1
2
2
2
1
1
_
_
-

2
5
2
1
9
8
11
7
9
3
2
2
2
-

1
1
6
5
7
35
17
26
14
22
9
7
5
5
3
1

_
1
1
7
4
7
8
9
7
4
5
2
1
-

1
1
7
3
7
7
8
6
4
5
2
1
-

1
1
6
4
6
28
13
19
6
13
2
3
.
3
2
1

-

1
1
5
4
6
19
10
12
4
12
1
2
_
3
1
1

E sta blish m en ts having no s p e c ifie d m inim um

43

17

XXX

26

XXX

XXX

45

19

XXX

26

XXX

XXX

E sta blish m en ts w h ich did not e m p lo y w ork ers
in this c a t e g o r y ___

63

8

XXX

55

XXX

XXX

43

11

XXX

32

XXX

XXX

2

1

XXX

1

kxx

XXX

2

1

XXX

XXX

XXX

Under $ 3 0 .0 0 ______________
_
_
$ 3 0 .0 0 and under $ 3 2 .5 0
$ 3 2 .5 0 and tinder $ 3 5 .0 0 _________________________________
$ 3 5 .0 0 and under $ 3 7 .5 0
$ 3 7 .5 0 and under $ 4 0 .0 0 _
$ 4 0 .0 0 and under $ 4 2 .5 0 _________________________________
$ 4 2 .5 0 and under $ 4 5 .0 0 _________________________________
$ 4 5 .0 0 and under $ 4 7 .5 0 _________________________________
$ 4 7 .5 0 and under $ 5 0 .0 0
__ _
__________________
$ 5 0 .0 0 and under $ 5 2 .5 0
$ 5 2 .5 0 and under $ 5 5 .0 0 _________________________________
$ 5 5 .0 0 and under $ 5 7 .5 0 _________________________________
$ 5 7 .5 0 and under $ 6 0 .0 0
$ 6 0 .0 0 and under $ 6 2 .5 0
$ 6 2 .5 0 and under $ 6 5 .0 0 _________________________________
$ 6 5 .0 0 and o v e r
_______
_
____

Data not a v a i l a b l e _____

1

______

1

9

_
>
_
_
2
1
4
2
_
_
_
_

82

L ow est s a la ry rate fo r m a lly esta b lish ed fo r hiring in ex p erien ced w o r k e rs fo r typing or other c l e r ic a l jo b s .
H ours r e fle c t the w ork w eek fo r which em p loy ees re c e iv e th eir reg u la r s tra ig h t-tim e s a la r ie s . Data a re p re se n te d fo r a ll w orkw eeks com b in ed , and fo r the m o st com m on w orkw eeks re p o rte d .




O ccupation al Wage S urvey, D etroit, M i c h ., O ctob er 1955
U .S . DEPARTM EN T OF LABOR
B ureau o f L abor Statistics

14

Table B-3: Scheduled Weekly Hours
PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS1 EM PLOYED IN—

W eekly hours

A ll w orkers _____________________________________
Under 35 h o u r s __________________________________
35 hours ________________________________________
O ver 35 and under 37 lfz h o u r s -------------------------37 l/z hours _____________________________________
O v er 37 x/z and under 40 hou rs -----------------------40 hours ____________________________________ —
O ver 40 and under 44 h o u r s -----------------------------------------------------44 hours ________________________________________
O ver 44 and under 48 h o u r s -----------------------------------------------------48 hours ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------- —
O ver 48 h o u r s _____________________________________________________________

1
2
3
t
*
**

I

W h o le s a le
trad e

1

P u b lic ^
u t ili t ie s *

A ll
in d u s t r ie s

M a n u fa c t u r in g

10 0

10 0

1 0 0

.

_

_

-

-

t

t
t

9
5
83

t
t
t
t
~

-

-

54

3

t

t

46

95

t

-

-

10 0

12

t

81
4

R e ta il tra d e 2

10 0

-

3
t

5

86

4
-

F in a n ce

S e r v ic e s

10 0

10 0

_
5
t

5

-

13
12

48

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

t

-

“

-

100

t
t
t
t
t

2 2

75
-

M a n u fa c t u r in g

10 0

_

12

PERCENT OF P L A N T W O R K E R S E M PLO YE D IN —
A ll
3
in d u s tr ie s

-

85
4
3

t
t

“

'

-

4

~

t

t
t
t

-

-

-

-

4

10 0

1 0 0

_

-

t

S e r v ic e s

1 0 0

-

92

R e ta il tra d e 2

■

_

-

t
t
t

4

W h o l e s a le
tra d e

t
t

t

3

1 0 0

“

t

t

P u b lic *
u t ili t ie s *

98
-

79
6

34
33

t

7

11

-

t

-

7
10

8

-

-

59
25
-

5
7

Data rela te to w om en w o r k e rs only.
E xcludes data fo r 2 la rg e departm ent s to r e s .
Includes data fo r re a l estate in addition to those industry d iv ision s shown se p a ra te ly ,
L e s s than 2. 5 p e rce n t.
T ransportation (excluding r a ilr o a d s ), com m u n ica tion , and other p u b lic u tilitie s.
F inance, in su ra n ce, and rea l esta te.

Table M : Paid Holidays1
PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS EM PLOYED IN—

Item

A ll w ork ers _____________________________________
W orkers in establishm ents p rovid in g
paid holidays ----------------------------------------------------

1 holiday _____________________ ________________
4 holidays __ _____________________ _________
5 holidays -----------------------------------------------------6 holidays _________________________________ _
F u ll days o n ly _____________________________
Plus 1 half day -----------------------------------------Plus 2 half days _________________________
Plus 3 half days _______________________ _
7 holidays ___________________________________
F ull days o n ly _______________ :_____________
Plus 1 half day
--------------------------------------8 holidays ___________ ______________________
F ull days o n ly ___________ _______________
Plus 2 half days _________________________
9 holidays ___________________________________
F ull days o n ly _____________________________
Plus 1 half day ................ .................................
10 h o lid a y s ___________________________________
12 h o lid a y s ___________________________________
W orkers in establishm ents p rovid in g
no paid holidays ______________________________

All
industries

M
anufacturing

100

100

Public .
utilities *

100

W
holesale
trade

100

Retail trade 2

100

PERCENT OF PL A N T W O R K E R S E M PLO YE D IN—

Finance **

100

99

100

100

100

100

100

t
t
83
31

_
t
95
18

_
53
50
3

_
77
64
4

_
96
82

42
31

t

t

t

76
5
5
_
_
-

47
47
_
_
_
-

t

~

•

49

t

8
8

t
t

t
t

5
5

t

3

t

10

19
19
4
t

3
_
_
■

10
4
-

t
t

t
t

_
_
_
_
-

t

3

6

100
99
3
96
80
14

t

t

-

t

-

t

t
-

35
34
t

20

1
I
1

M
anufacturing

Public
utilities *

100

Services

_
_
_
-

t
t

A
U ,
industries

100

100

100

100

100

9
8

4100

97

96

93

65

t
93
19

57
55

_
-

75
69

t

t

t

_
85
83
-

t
t
t
90
30

t

59
7
7

73
-

t

_

_
-

-

41
41
-

t

*

3

t
t

-

t
t

6
6

W
holesale
trade

6
4
-

12
12

Retail trade 2

t
4
3

Services

t
t
62
60

t

t

_
_
_
_
_
.
_

3
3
-

t

4
4
_
_
_
-

-

4

7

35

_

E stim ates rela te to fu ll-d a y h olidays p rov id ed annually, as in e a r lie r stu dies. T hese a re fu rth er divid ed betw een w ork ers who r e c e iv e m e re ly the in d ica ted nu m ber o f fu ll day h o lid a ys, and
those who re c e iv e 1 o r m o re half holidays in addition.*
2 E xcludes data f o r 2 la rg e d epartm en t s to r e s .
3 Includes data fo r re a l estate in addition to those industry d ivision s shown se p a ra te ly .
4 The in crea se fr o m 82 p erce n t rep orted in a s im ila r study m ade in O cto b e r 1953 re su lte d ch ie fly fr o m co n v e rs io n to paid holidays in establishm ents w h ich fo r m e r ly gave pay in lie u o f h olid a ys,
t L e s s than 2. 5 p ercen t.
* T ransportation (exclu d in g r a ilr o a d s ), com m u n ica tion , and oth er public u tilitie s.
O ccupational W age S u rvey, D e tro it, M ic h ., O cto b e r 1955
 ra n ce, and re a l esta te.
** F inance, in su
U. S. D E P A R T M E N T OF L A B O R
B u rea u o f L a b o r S ta tistics
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/

Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

15

Table B-5: Paid Vacations
PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS EM PLOYED I N -

V a ca tion p o lic y

A ll w o r k e rs

_

__

_ _

All
industries

__

___

100

W
holesale
trade

P ERCENT OF PLANT W O RK ERS EM PLOYED IN—

All 2
industries

Public .
utilities *

W
holesale
trade

M
anufacturing

Public
utilities*

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

10 0

100

100

100

100
100

10 0
100

100
100

100
100

10 0

-

99
t
-

100
100

-

89
9
t

100
10 0

-

98
91
7
t

100

-

99
96
3
-

-

-

94
94
t
.

*

“

t

t

“

■

“

•

6

58
t
41
_
-

3
_
97
_
-

t

t
89
7
t
t
t

56
_
44

61
_
39
_

82
t
17
_

85

-

-

-

-

27
3
69
■

39

73

Retail trade*

Finance**

Services

M
anufacturing

Retail trade1

Services

M ETH OD O F P A Y M E N T
W ork ers in e sta b lish m en ts p rov id in g paid
v a c a t io n s ________________________________________
L e n g th -o f-tim e paym ent
P e rc e n ta g e paym ent __
_ __
__ __ _
O ther ______________________________ ______ _____
W ork ers in e sta b lish m en ts p rov id in g no paid
v a ca tion s _____________________________________

99
99
t
••
t

99
t
*

AM OU N T O F V AC A TIO N P A Y
A fte r 1 y e a r o f s e r v ic e
L e s s than 1 w e e k _______________________________
1 w e e k __ __
O v er 1 and under 2 w eek s __________ ____________
2 w eek s
_
_ _ _ _ _______
O v er 2 and under 3 w eek s _ _
3 w eek s _ _ _ _ _ _

_

_

_

_

44
_
56
-

22

_
-

4
_
96
-

3

t

4
_
96
-

8

12

t
88

_
78
_
-

_

_

_

28
72
_
-

86
6
6

-

17
_

68
22

17

100

66

62
18
18

7

81

“

17

t
t

t
t

"

t
t

_
_

8

A fte r 2 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
w e e k ________ _____________________________ _____
O v er 1 and under 2 w eek s _______________ _____
2 w eek s
__
_ __ ___
O ver 2 and under 3 w eek s _____________________
3 w e e k . ----------------------------------------------------------------1

t

96
t

98
“

_
92
-

5
t
94
-

_

t

t

_

60
~

19

5
_
95
_

65

-

t

_
82

7
85

t

A fte r 3 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
w e e k ___________________________________________
O v er 1 and under 2 w eek s
__
_ _ T_ r
_
_____ __ __ __ __
2 w eek s
__ __ ______
O v er 2 and under 3 w e e k s _________ ___________
3 w eek s _
_ _
- r^
T
1

t

98
t
t

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

17
_

100

100

100

100

t

-

t

-

.
-

-

_
-

84

t
_
98

-

10

66

17
-

t
t

60
30
t

_
76
17
7

89

_

8

48
40

t

t

99
-

15
4
81
_
-

_
_

28

A fte r 5 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
w eek _______ ______ _____________________________
2 w eeks
.
_______ ________ _____ . . ....M
O v er 2 and under 3 w eek s
__ __
3 w e e k . ----------------------------------------------------------------1

82
14
4

_
79
18

100

_
85

-

t

8
7

_
77
t
21

8
8

t

6
4

_
90

8

_
100

.

2

84
16

‘
S ee footn otes at end o f ta b le .
* T ra n sp orta tion (exclu d in g ra ilro a d s ), com m unication, and other public u tilitie s .
** F in a n ce, in su ra n ce, and re a l esta te.




O ccupation al W age S urvey, D etroit, M i c h ., O ctob er 1955
U .S . DEPARTM EN T OF LABOR
B ureau o f L abor S tatistics

NOTE: In the tabulations o f va ca tion a llow a n ces b y y e a rs o f s e r v ic e , paym ents other than “ length o f tim e ,"
such as p ercen tage o f annual ea rn in gs o r fla t-s u m paym ents, w ere co n v e rte d to an equivalent tim e
b a s is ; for exa m p le, a paym ent o f 2 p e rce n t o f annual ea rn in gs was co n sid e re d as 1 w e e k 's pay.

t

17

_

t

16

Table B-5: Paid Vocations - Continued
PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—

PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—
V acation p o lic y
W
holesale
trade

All ,
industries

Public
utilities *

W
holesale
trade

All
industries

A ll w o rk e rs _______________________ ____________

M
anufacturing

Public
utilities*

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

_
95
t
4
-

_
56
t
42

_
52
t
36

_
34
4
62
*

.
40

t
27
62
9
t

_
15
77

_
73
4
23

66

8

_
97
3
-

-

-

_
9
_
91

_
23
_
76
t

_
29
t
59
.

t
9
3
83
4
t

_
4
3

t

1
1

_
16
_
81
t
t

_
23
_
76
_
t

_
27
t
56
15

_
13
69
_
18

_
38
55

6

t
9
3
78
5
4

23
61
_
16

_
27
t
30
_
41

_
13
_
53
_
34

_
35
_
58
.

9
3
75
4

Retail trade1

Finance**

Services

M
anufacturing

Retail trade1

Services

100

AMOUNT O F VACATION PA Y - Continued
A fter 10 y e a rs o f s e r v ic e

1 w e e k ___________________________________________
2 w eeks
O ver 2 and under 3 w e e k s ______________________
3 w e e k s _______________________________________ _
4 w eeks and o ve r ________
_________________

_
30
5
64
t

.

1
6
6
77
-

1
1

60
*

.
t
24
9

7
82
t
t

A fter 15 y e a rs o f s e r v ic e

1 w eek
2 w eeks

_ _
___
____
O ver 2 and under 3 w e e k s ______________________
3 w eeks _ _
_______
_
____
O ver 3 and under 4 w eeks
4 w eeks and o v e r _ _______
_ _

_

t
t

_
4
t
94
_
t

_
9
t
85
t
5

_
4
t
93
t
t

_
9

77
_

_
4
t
93
_

14

t

10
t

88

-

39
56
5

88
5
-

_

_
32
_

99
_

68

-

-

_

_

_
32
_
58
_

11

10

_

_
27
t
63
.
9

7
82
f
t

_
25
t
57
_
17

7
82
t
t

t

A fter 20 y e a rs o f s e r v ic e

1 w eek
2 w eeks

____
_____
_
_
_____________________________________ __
O ver 2 and under 3 w e e k s ___________________ _
3 w e e k s __________________ ______________________
O ver 3 and under 4 w eeks _____________________
4 w eeks and o v e r
____ __ _ __ _

_

6

_
93

-

t

-

_
4
3
84

6
2

t

88

t

A fter 25 y e a rs o f s e r v ic e

1 w e e k __. . . __________ ___________ ______________

2 w eeks
_ _ _ _ _ ..... .
_ . _ . ...... _ _
O ver 2 and under 3 w eeks
3 w e e k s __________________
O ver 3 and under 4 w e e k s ______________________
4 w eeks and o ve r ....

t

_

6

_
46
_
48

1 E xcludes data fo r 2 la rge departm ent s to r e s .
Includes data fo r rea l estate in addition to those industry d ivision s shown se p a ra te ly ,
t L e s s than 2 .5 p e rce n t.
* T ransportation (exclu din g r a ilro a d s ), com m u n ica tion , and other pu blic u tilitie s .
** Finance, in su ra n ce, and rea l esta te.




6

t

8

_
4
3
84
5
3

_
t

48
_
51

32
_
44
24

_
25

7

75

t

t

41
_
33

9
t

17

Table B-6: Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
PERCENT

O F O F F IC E

W ORKERS EM PLOYED

IN —

PERCEN T OF PLAN T W ORKERS EM PLOYED

IN —

T ype o f plan
A ll
in d u s t r ie s

A ll w o r k e r s _____________________________________
W o rk e rs in esta b lish m en ts p rov id in g :
L ife in su ra n ce ----------------------------------------------A ccid e n ta l death and d ism em b erm en t
in su ra n ce —
'------------------------------------- ------------S ick n ess and a ccid e n t in su ra n ce o r
s ic k lea v e o r both3 ----------------------------------------------------------------S ick n ess and a ccid e n t i n s u r a n c e --------------------S ick lea ve (fu ll p a y and no
w aitin g p e r i o d ) -------------— ----------------------------------------------S ick lea ve (p a rtia l pay o r
w aitin g p e r i o d ) ------------------------------ ---------------------------------H o sp ita liza tion i n s u r a n c e ----------------------------S u rg ica l i n s u r a n c e ------------------------------ —
-----—
M e d ica l in su ra n ce ----------------------------------------C ata strop h e i n s u r a n c e ---- ------------------------------------------------R e tire m e n t p e n s i o n ------------------------------------------------------------------N o health, in su ra n ce, o r p en sion p l a n ------------

1
2
3
t
*
**

M a n u fa c t u r in g

100

100

100

P u b lic
u t ilit ie s *

W h o le s a le
tra d e

R e ta il tr a d e 3

100

100

F in a n ce * *

100

S e r v ic e s

AU
2
in d u s tr ie s

100

100

100

M a n u fa c t u r in g

P u b lic
u tilitie s *

W h o le s a le
trad e

100

100

R e t a i l t r a d e 12
3

100

S e r v ic e s

100

94

98

98

82

73

92

77

97

99

97

93

86

89

46

56

9

48

62

20

33

57

58

20

58

69

38

84
67

95
92

97
14

76
53

69
48

46
9

51
34

93
88

96
95

100
22

90
74

76
65

80
79

56

56

92

68

35

42

37

9

3

40

40

33

3

18
86
86
77
14
78
3

27
97
97
90
18
88
t

t
60
60
54
7
91

t
83
81
72
16
52
5

13
48
48
44

4
77
77
61
12
73
8

71
71
34
30
8

4
92
92
81
t
79
t

t
98
98
87

37
63
63
58
4
99

5
82
82
54
4
45
4

9
66
66
50

80
80
67

24
3

10
11

-

18
16

-

89

-

-

_

E x clu d es data fo r 2 la rg e departm ent s to r e s .
O ccupation al W age S urvey, D etroit, M ich . , O ctober 195c
Includes data fo r r e a l estate in addition to those industry d ivision s shown s e p a ra te ly .
U .S . DEPARTM EN T OF LABOR
U nduplicated total o f w o r k e rs re c e iv in g s ic k leave o r s ick n e s s and a ccid en t insurance shown s e p a ra te ly b e lo w .
3u rea u of Labor S tatistics
L e s s than 2. 5 p e r c e n t.
T ra n sp orta tion (exclu d in g ra ilro a d s ), com m unication, and other pu blic u tilitie s.
F in a n ce , in s u ra n ce, and rea l estate.







19
Appendix: Job Descriptions

The prim ary purpose o f preparing job d escription s for the B ureau1s wage surveys is to
a ssist its field staff in cla ssifyin g into appropriate occupations w ork ers who are em ployed under
a variety o f payroll titles and different w ork arrangem ents from establishm ent to establishm ent
and from area to area.
This is essential in ord er to perm it the grouping o f occupational wage
rates representing com parable job content.
B ecause o f this em phasis on inter establishm ent and
interarea com parability o f occupational content, the Bureau*s job d escription s m ay differ sign ifi­
cantly from those in use in individual establishm ents or those prepared for other p u rp oses.
In
applying these job d escription s, the Bureau*s fie ld represen tatives are instructed to exclude w ork ­
ing su p ervisors, apprentices, le a rn e rs, begin n ers, train ees, handicapped w o rk e rs, p art-tim e,
tem p orary, and probationary w o rk e rs.

Office

B ILL E R , MACHINE
P r e p a re s statem ents, b ills , and invoices on a machine other
than an ord in ary o r electrom a tic typew riter. May a lso keep re co rd s
as to b illin gs or shipping charges or p erform other c le r ic a l w ork in­
cidental to billing op era tion s.
F or wage study p u rp oses, b ille r s ,
m achine, are cla s s ifie d by type o f m achine, as follow s:
B ille r , m achine (billing m achine) - U ses a special billing
machine (M oon Hopkins, E lliott F ish er, Burroughs, e t c . , which
are com bination typing and adding m achines) to prepare b ills and
in v oices fro m custom ers* purchase o rd e r s, internally prepared
o r d e r s , shipping m em oranda, e tc.
Usually involves application
o f p red eterm in ed discounts and shipping charges and entry o f
n e ce s s a r y exten sions, which may or may not be com puted on the
billin g m achine, and totals which are autom atically accum ulated
by m achine.
The operation usually involves a large number o f
carbon cop ies o f the bill being prepared and is often done on a
fanfold m ach ine.
B ille r , m achine (bookkeeping m achine) - U ses a bookkeeping
m achine (Sundstrand, E lliott F ish er, Remington Rand, e t c ., which
m ay or m ay not have typew riter keyboard) to prepare custom ers*
b ills as part o f the accounts receivable operation .
G enerally
involves the sim ultaneous entry o f figures on custom ers* ledger
record .
The m achine autom atically accum ulates figu res on a
number o f v e r tic a l colum ns and com putes and usually prints auto­
m a tically the debit o r cred it balances. Does not involve a knowl­
edge o f bookkeeping. W orks from uniform and standard types of
sales and cred it s lip s .
BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR
O perates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, E lliott
F ish er, Sundstrand, B urroughs, National Cash R egister, with or with­
out a typew riter keyboard) to keep a re c o r d of business tran saction s.




BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR - Continued
C lass A - Keeps a set o f re c o rd s requiring a knowledge of
and experien ce in b a sic bookkeeping prin cip les and fam iliarity with
the structure o f the particular accounting system used. D eter­
m ines proper re c o rd s and distribution o f debit and cred it item s
to be used in each phase o f the w ork.
May prepare consolidated
re p o rts, balance sheets, and other re c o rd s by hand.
C lass B - Keeps a r e c o r d o f one or m ore phases or sections
o f a set o f re c o rd s usually requiring little knowledge o f basic book­
keeping. P hases o r sections include accounts payable, payroll,
custom ers* accounts (not including a sim ple type o f billing d escribed
under b ille r , m achine), co s t distribution, expense distribution, in ­
ventory con trol, e tc.
May ch eck or a ssist in preparation of trial
balances and prepare con trol sheets fo r the accounting department.
CLERK, ACCOUNTING
C lass A - Under general d irection o f a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has resp on sibility fo r keeping one or m ore sections o f a c o m ­
plete set o f books or re c o rd s relating to one phase o f an establish ­
m e n ts business tran saction s. W ork involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or led gers such as accounts receivable or a c ­
counts payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with
prop er accounting distribution; req u ires judgment and experience
in making p rop er assignations and a lloca tion s.
May a ssist in
preparing, adjusting, and closin g journal en tries; may d irect cla ss
B accounting cle r k s .
C lass B - Under su pervision , p e rfo rm s one or m ore routine
accounting operations such as posting sim ple journal vou chers,
accounts payable vou ch ers, entering vou chers in voucher re g iste rs;
recon cilin g bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers con trolled
by general le d g e r s .
This job does not require a knowledge of
accounting and bookkeeping p rin cip les but is found in o ffice s in
which the m ore routine accounting w ork is subdivided on a func­
tional basis among severa l w o rk e rs.

20
CLERK, FILE
C lass A - R espon sible for maintaining an established filing
system . C la ssifies and indexes corresp on den ce or other m aterial;
may also file this m a terial. May keep re c o rd s o f various types
in conjunction with files or supervise others in filing and locating
m aterial in the file s .
May p erform incidental cle r ic a l duties.
C lass B - P e r fo r m s routine filin g, usually o f m aterial that
has already been cla ss ifie d , or loca tes or a ssists in locating m a ­
terial in the file s . May p erform incidental c le r ic a l duties.
CLERK, ORDER
R eceives cu s to m e r s 1 o rd e rs for m aterial or m erchandise by
m ail, phone, or p erson ally.
Duties involve any com bination o f the
follow ing: Quoting p rice s to cu stom ers; making out an ord er sheet
listing the item s to make up the o rd e r; checking p rice s and quantities
of item s on ord er sheet; distributing o rd er sheets to resp ective d e ­
partments to be fille d .
May check with cred it department to d e te r­
mine credit rating o f cu stom er, acknowledge receip t o f o rd e rs fro m
cu stom ers, follow up ord e rs to see that they have been filled , keep
file of ord ers receiv ed , and ch eck shipping in voices with origin al
o rd e r s.
CLERK, PAYROLL

KEY-PUNCH OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no su p e rv iso ry re s p o n s i­
b ilitie s, re c o r d s accounting and statistical data on tabulating card s
by punching a series o f holes in the ca rd s in a sp e cifie d sequence,
using an alphabetical or a num erical key-punch m achine, follow ing
written inform ation on re c o r d s .
May duplicate ca rd s by using the
duplicating device attached to m achine.
Keeps file s o f punch ca rd s .
May v e rify own w ork or w ork o f oth ers.
OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
P e r fo r m s various routine duties such as running erran d s,
operating m inor office machines such as s e a le rs o r m a ile rs , opening
and distributing m ail, and other m inor c le r ic a l w ork.
SECRETARY
P e r fo r m s secretaria l and c le r ic a l duties fo r a su perior in an
adm inistrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint­
ments for su perior; receivin g people com ing into o ffice ; answering
and making phone ca lls; handling p erson al and im portant o r c o n fi­
dential m a il, and writing routine co rresp on d en ce on own initiative;
taking dictation (where transcribing m achine is not used) either in
shorthand o r by stenotype or sim ilar m achine, and tran scrib in g d icta ­
tion or the re co rd e d inform ation rep rodu ced on a tran scrib in g m achine.
May p rep are special rep orts or m em oranda fo r inform ation o f su p erior.
STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL

Computes wages o f com pany em ployees and enters the n e c e s ­
sary data on the payroll sh eets. Duties involve: Calculating w orkers*
earnings based on tim e or production r e c o r d s ; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing inform ation such as w o r k e rls nam e, working
days, tim e, rate, deductions for insurance, and total w ages due. May
make out pay checks and a ss is t paym aster in making up and d is ­
tributing pay en velopes. May use a calculating m achine.

P r im a r y duty is to take dictation fro m one o r m o re p erson s,
either in shorthand or by stenotype or sim ila r m achine, involving a
norm al routine vocabulary, and to tra n scrib e this dictation on a typ e­
w rite r. May a lso type from written cop y. May a lso set up and keep
file s in o r d e r , keep sim ple r e c o r d s , e tc .
Does not include tran ­
scrib in g-m a ch in e work (see tran scrib in g-m a ch in e o p e ra to r).

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR

STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL

P rim a ry duty is to operate a C om ptom eter to p e rfo rm m athe­
m atical com putations. This job is not to be confused with that of
statistical or other type of cle rk , which m ay involve frequent use o f
a Comptometer but, in which, use o f this machine is incidental to
perform ance of other duties.

P r im a r y duty is to take dictation fro m one o r m ore p erson s,
either in shorthand or by stenotype or sim ila r m achine, involving a
va ried techn ical or specialized vocabu lary such as in legal b rie fs o r
rep orts on scien tific re se a rch and to tra n scrib e this dictation on a
typ ew riter. May also type from written co p y . May a lso set up and
keep file s in ord er, keep sim ple r e c o r d s , e tc .
D oes not include
tran scrib in g-m a ch in e w ork.

DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Under general su pervision and with no su pervisory re sp o n ­
sib ilities, rep rodu ces m ultiple cop ies o f typewritten o r handwritten
m atter, using a m im eograph or ditto m achine. Makes n e ce ssa ry a d ­
justment such as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed.
Is not required to prepare stencil or ditto m a ster. May keep file o f
used stencils or ditto m a sters.
May sort, collate, and staple c o m ­
pleted m aterial.




O perates a sin gle- or m u ltip le-p osition telephone sw itchboard.
Duties involve handling incom ing, outgoing, and intraplant or o ffice
c a lls .
May re c o rd toll ca lls and take ^ m essages.
May give in fo r ­
mation to p erson s who call in, or o cca s io n a lly take telephone o r d e r s .
F or w o rk e rs who also act as recep tion ists see sw itchboard o p e ra to rre ce p tio n ist.

21
TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL, - Continued

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR - RECEPTIONIST
tion
type
This
tim e

In addition to perform ing duties of o p era tor, on a single p o s i­
or m on itor-typ e switchboard, acts as recep tion ist and may a lso
or p e rfo rm routine cle rica l work as part of regular duties®
typing or c le r ic a l w ork may take the m ajor part o f this w o rk e rfs
while at switchboard®

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR
O perates m achine that autom atically analyzes and translates
inform ation punched in groups o f tabulating cards and prints tran s­
lated data on form s or accounting re co rd s; sets or adjusts machine;
does sim ple w iring o f plugboards according to established p ra ctice
or d ia gra m s; p la ces ca rd s to be tabulated in feed magazine and starts
m ach ine. May file ca rd s after they are tabulated. May, in addition,
operate auxiliary m ach ines.

included® A w orker who takes dictation in shorthand or by stenotype
or sim ilar machine is cla ss ifie d as a stenographer, general.
TYPIST
U ses a typew riter to make cop ies o f various m aterial or to
make out b ills after calculations have been made by another person®
May do c le r ic a l w ork involving little special training, such as keep­
ing sim ple re c o r d s , filing re c o rd s and rep orts or sorting and d is­
tributing incom ing mail®
C lass A - P e r fo r m s one or m ore of the follow ing: Typing
m aterial in final fo rm from v e ry rough and involved draft; cop y­
ing from plain or co r re c te d copy in which there is a frequent
and va ried use o f technical and unusual w ords or from foreign language copy; com bining m aterial fro m several sou rces, or
planning layout o f com plicated statistical tables to maintain uni­
form ity and balance in spacing; typing tables from rough draft in
final form® May type routine fo rm le tte rs , varying details to
suit circu m sta n ces.

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
P r im a r y duty is to tran scribe dictation involving a norm al
routine vocab u la ry fro m transcribing machine r e c o r d s .
May also
type fro m written copy and do sim ple cle rica l work® W orkers tran­
scrib in g dictation involving a varied technical or sp ecia lized vocabu­
la ry such as legal b rie fs or reports on scien tific re s e a rc h are not

Professional

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(A ssistan t draftsm an)
Draws to sca le units or parts o f drawings prepared by d ra fts­
man or oth ers for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
poses® U ses variou s types o f drafting tools as required® May p r e ­
pare draw ings fro m sim ple plans or sketches, or p e rfo rm other duties
under d irection o f a draftsman®
DRAFTSMAN, LEADER
Plans and d irects activities of one or m ore draftsm en in
p reparation o f working plans and detail drawings fro m rough or p r e ­
lim in ary sketches fo r engineering, construction, or manufacturing
p u rp oses. Duties involve a com bination of the follow in g: Interpreting
blu eprints, sketch es, and written or verbal o rd e r s ; determ ining w ork
p ro ce d u re s ; assigning duties to subordinates and inspecting their work;
p erform in g m o re difficu lt problems® May a ss is t subordinates during




C lass B - P e r fo r m s one or m ore o f the following: Typing
from rela tively cle a r or typed drafts; routine typing o f form s,
insurance p o lic ie s , e t c .; setting up sim ple standard tabulations, or
copying m ore com plex tables already set up and spaced properly®

and

Technical

DRAFTSMAN, LEADER - Continued
em ergen cies or as a regu lar assignm ent, or p erform related duties
of a su pervisory or adm inistrative nature.
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
P re p a re s working plans and detail drawings from notes,
rough or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manu­
facturing pu rp oses.
Duties involve a com bination of the following:
Preparin g working plans, detail draw ings, m aps, c r o s s -s e c tio n s , etc®,
to scale by use of drafting instrum ents; making engineering com puta­
tions such as those involved in strength o f m aterials, beams and
tru sse s; verifying com pleted w ork, checking dim ensions, m aterials
to be used, and quantities; writing sp ecification s; making adjustments
or changes in drawings or specifications® May ink in lines and letters
on pencil drawings, p repare detail units o f com plete drawings, or
trace draw ings.
W ork is frequently in a specialized field such as
arch itectural, e le ctr ic a l, m echanical, or structural drafting®

22
NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED) - Continued

A reg istered nurse who gives nursing s e rv ice to ill or injured
em ployees or other p erson s who b ecom e ill or suffer an accident on
the p rem ises o f a fa ctory or other establishm ent.
Duties involve a
combination of the follow in g: Giving first aid to the ill or injured;
attending to subsequent d ressin g o f em p loy ees1 in ju ries; keeping re co rd s
o f patients treated; preparing accident rep orts for com pensation or
other purposes; conducting physical examinations and health evaluations
o f applicants and em p loyees; and planning and carryin g out program s
involving health education, accident prevention, evaluation o f plant

environm ent, or other activities affecting the health, w elfa re, and
safety o f all personnel.

Mainte nanc e

TRACER
C opies plans and drawings p rep ared by oth ers, by placing
tracing cloth or paper over drawing and tracin g with pen or p e n cil.
U ses T -sq u a re , com pass, and other drafting to o ls .
May prepare
sim ple drawings and do sim ple letterin g.

nd

Powerplant

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

ENGINEER, STATIONARY

P e rfo rm s the carpentry duties n e cessa ry to construct and
maintain in good repair building woodw ork and equipment such as bins,
cr ib s , counters, bench es, partitions, d oors, flo o r s , stairs, casin gs,
and trim made o f wood in an establishm ent. W ork involves m ost of
the follow ing: Planning and laying out of w ork from blueprints, draw ­
ings, m odels, or verbal instructions; using a variety o f ca rp e n te rfs
handtools, portable pow er to o ls, and standard m easuring instrum ents;
making standard shop com putations relating to dim ensions o f work;
selecting m aterials n e cessa ry for the w ork. In general, the w ork of
the maintenance carpenter req u ires rounded training and experien ce
usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent train ­
ing and exp erien ce.

O perates and maintains and m ay a lso su pervise the operation
o f stationary engines and equipment (m echanical or e le c tr ic a l) to sup­
ply the establishm ent in which em ployed with pow er, heat, r e fr ig e r a ­
tion, or air conditioning. W ork involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air c o m p r e s s o r s , g en era tors, m o ­
to r s , turbines, ventilating and refrigeratin g equipm ent, steam b o ile rs
and b o ile r -fe d water pumps; making equipment re p a irs; keeping a
r e c o r d o f operation of m achinery, tem peratu re, and fuel consum p­
tion. May a lso supervise these op era tion s. Head o r ch ie f en gin eers
in establishm ents employing m ore than one engineer are excluded.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE
P e rfo rm s a variety o f e le ctr ic a l trade functions such as the
installation, m aintenance, or rep air o f equipment for the generating,
distribution, or utilization o f e le c tr ic energy in an establishm ent.
W ork involves m ost o f the follow ing; Installing or repairing any of
a variety of e le ctrica l equipment such as gen erators, tra n sfo rm e rs,
switchboards, co n tro lle rs , circu it b rea k ers, m otors, heating units,
conduit system s, or other tran sm ission equipment; working fro m b lu e­
prints, drawings, layout, or other sp ecification s; locating and diag­
nosing trouble in the e le ctr ic a l system or equipment; working standard
computations relating to load requirem ents o f wiring or e le ctr ic a l
equipment; using a variety o f e le c tr ic ia n ls handtools and m easuring
and testing instrum ents.
In gen eral, the w ork o f the maintenance
electricia n req u ires rounded training and experien ce usually a c ­
quired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experien ce.




FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER
F ire s stationary b o ile rs to furnish the establishm ent in which
em ployed with heat, pow er, or steam .
F eeds fuels to fir e by hand
or operates a m echanical stoker, gas, or oil burn er; checks water
and safety va lves. May clean, o il, or a s s is t in repairin g b o ile r ro o m equipment.
H ELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE
A ss ists one or m ore w ork ers in the sk illed maintenance
trad es, by perform ing sp e cific or general duties o f le s s e r skill, such
as keeping a w orker supplied with m a terials and to o ls ; cleaning w ork ­
ing area , m achine, and equipment; a ssistin g w ork er by holding m a­
te ria ls or to o ls; perform ing other unskilled tasks as d ire cte d by jo u r ­
neyman. The kind of w ork the helper is p erm itted to p e rfo rm va rie s
fro m trade to trade: In som e trades the helper is confined to sup­
plying, lifting, and holding m aterials and to o ls and cleaning working
a rea s; and in others he is perm itted to p e rfo rm sp e cia lize d m achine
operation s, or parts o f a trade that are a lso p e rfo rm e d by w ork ers
on a fu ll-tim e b asis.

23

M ACH INE-TOOL OPERATO R, TOOLROOM

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE

S p ecializes in the operation of one or m ore types o f machine
to o ls, such as jig b o r e r s , cylin drical or su rface g rin d e rs, engine
lath es, o r m illing m achines in the construction o f m ach ine-sh op to o ls,
gauges, jig s , fix tu res, or dies* W ork involves m ost o f the follow ing:
Planning and p erform in g difficult machining operations; p rocessin g
item s requ irin g com plicated setups or a high degree o f accu racy;
using a v a riety o f p re cis io n m easuring instrum ents; selecting feeds,
speeds, tooling and operation sequence; making n e ce s s a ry adjust­
ments during operation to achieve requisite tolera n ces o r dimensions*
May be req u ired to recogn ize when tools need d ressin g, to d re ss to o ls,
and to se le ct p rop er coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils .
F or
cr o s s -in d u s tr y wage study purposes, m ach ine-tool op e ra to rs, to o lro o m ,
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded fro m this cla ssifica tio n .

R epairs m achinery or m echanical equipment o f an establish­
m ent.
W ork involves m ost o f the follow in g: Examining m achines
and m echanical equipment to diagnose sou rce o f trouble; dismantling
or partly dismantling m achines and perform in g rep a irs that mainly
involve the use o f handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing
broken or defective parts with item s obtained from stock; ordering the
production o f a replacem ent part by a machine shop o r sending of
the m achine to a machine shop for m a jor re p a irs; preparing written
specification s fo r m a jor re p a irs o r for the production o f parts ord ered
fro m machine shop; reassem blin g m achines; and making all n ecessary
adjustments for operation .
In gen eral, the w ork o f a maintenance
m echanic req u ires rounded training and experien ce usually acquired
through a form a l apprenticeship o r equivalent training and experien ce.
Excluded fro m this cla ssifica tio n are w ork ers whose prim ary duties
involve setting up or adjusting m ach ines.

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
MILLWRIGHT
P ro d u ce s replacem ent parts and new parts in making rep a irs
o f m etal parts o f m echanical equipment operated in an establishment*
W ork in volves m ost o f the following: Interpreting written in stru c­
tions and sp ecifica tion s; planning and laying out o f w ork; using a v a ­
riety o f m a ch in is t^ handtools and p recision m easuring instrum ents;
setting up and operating standard machine to o ls; shaping o f metal
parts to c lo s e tolera n ces; making standard shop com putations re la t­
ing to dim ensions o f w ork, tooling, feeds and speeds o f machining;
knowledge o f the w orking prop erties of the com m on m etals; selecting
standard m a teria ls, p arts, and equipment requ ired for his w ork; fitting
and assem blin g parts into m echanical equipment* In gen eral, the
m a ch in ist1s w ork n orm a lly requ ires a rounded training in m achineshop p ra ctice usually acquired through a form a l apprenticeship or
equivalent training and exp erien ce.

Installs new m achines o r heavy equipment and dism antles and
installs m achines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant lay­
out are req u ired. W ork involves m ost o f the follow ing: Planning and
laying out o f the work; interpreting blueprints o r other specifications;
using a variety o f handtools and rigging; making standard shop co m ­
putations relating to s tr e s s e s , strength o f m aterials, and centers of
gravity; alining and balancing o f equipment; selecting standard tools,
equipment, and parts to be used; installing and maintaining in good
ord er power tran sm ission equipment such as d rives and speed r e ­
d u ce rs. In general, the m illw rig h ts w ork norm ally requ ires a rounded
training and exp erien ce in the trade acquired through a form al appren­
ticesh ip o r equivalent training and exp erien ce.
OILER

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
R ep a irs autom obiles, buses, m otortrucks, and tra cto rs o f
an establish m en t.
W ork involves m ost o f the follow ing: Examining
autom otive equipment to diagnose source o f trouble; disassem bling
equipment and p erform in g, rep airs that involve the use o f such handtools as w ren ch es, gauges, d rills , or specialized equipment in d is ­
a ssem blin g o r fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts fro m
stock; grinding and adjusting valves; reassem bling and installing the
variou s a sse m b lie s in the veh icle and making n e ce ssa ry adjustm ents;
alining w h eels, adjusting brakes and lights, o r tightening body b olts.
In gen eral, the w ork o f the automotive m echanic req u ires rounded
training and exp erien ce usually acquired through a form a l appren tice­
ship or equivalent training and exp erien ce.



L u bricates, with o il or g re a se , the moving parts or wearing
su rfaces o f m echanical equipment o f an establishm ent.
PAIN TER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and red ecora tes w a lls, w oodwork, and fixtures of an
establishm ent.
W ork involves the follow ing: Knowledge of surface
p ecu lia rities and types o f paint requ ired for different applications;
preparing surface for painting by rem oving old finish or by placing
putty o r fille r in nail holes and in te rstice s; applying paint with spray
gun or brush.
May m ix c o lo r s , o ils , white lead, and other paint
ingredients to obtain proper co lo r or con sisten cy. In general, the
w ork o f the maintenance painter req u ires rounded training and e x ­
p erience usually acquired through a form a l apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and exp erien ce.

24

PIPE FITTE R , MAINTENANCE

SH EET-M ETAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE - Continued

Installs or rep a irs w ater, steam , gas, or other types o f pipe
and pipefittings in an establishm ent. W ork involves m ost o f the f o l­
lowing: Laying out of w ork and m easuring to locate position o f pipe
fro m drawings or other written sp ecification s; cutting variou s sizes
o f pipe to c o r r e c t lengths with ch isel and ham m er or oxyacetylene
torch or pipe-cutting m achine; threading pipe with stocks and dies;
bending pipe by hand-driven or p ow er-d riven m achines; assem bling
pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard
shop computations relating to p re s su re s, flow , and size o f pipe r e ­
quired; making standard tests to determ ine whether finished pipes m eet
sp ecification s.
In general, the w ork o f the maintenance pipefitter
requ ires rounded training and experien ce usually acquired through a
form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and exp erien ce. W orkers
p rim arily engaged in installing and repairing building sanitation or
heating system s are exclu ded.

and laying out all types o f sh eet-m etal maintenance w ork fro m b lu e­
prints, m od els, or other specification s; setting up and operating ail
available types o f sheet-m etal-w orkin g m ach ines; using a va riety o f
handtools in cutting, bending, form ing, shaping, fitting, and a s s e m ­
bling; installing sheet-m etal a rticles as re q u ire d .
In gen eral, the
w ork o f the maintenance sheet-m etal w ork er re q u ire s rounded training
and experien ce usually acquired through a form a l apprenticeship or
equivalent training and exp erien ce.

FLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system o f an establishm ent in good o rd e r .
W ork involves: Knowledge o f sanitary codes regarding installation o f
vents and traps in plumbing system ; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plu m berrs snake.
In general, the w ork o f the maintenance plum ber req u ires rounded
training and experien ce usually acquired through a form a l a ppren tice­
ship or equivalent training and exp erien ce.
SH EET-M ETAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
F a bricates, in stalls, and maintains in good rep air the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lo ck e rs , tanks, ven tilators, chutes, ducts, m etal roofing)
o f an establishm ent. W ork involves m ost o f the follow ing: Planning

Custodial

and

(D iem aker; jig m aker; toolm aker; fixture m aker; gauge m aker)
Constructs and rep a irs m ach ine-sh op to o ls , gauges, jig s , fix ­
tures or dies for forgin gs, punching and other m eta l-fo rm in g w ork.
W ork involves m ost o f the follow ing: Planning and laying out o f w ork
fro m m od els, blueprints, drawings, o r other ora l and w ritten s p e c ifi­
cations; using a variety o f tool and die m a k e rfs handtools and p re c is io n
m easuring instruments; understanding o f the working p rop erties o f
com m on m etals and a lloys; setting up and operating o f m achine tools
and related equipment; making n e ce s s a ry shop com putations relating
to dim ensions o f work, speeds, feeds, and tooling o f m achines; heattreating o f m etal parts during fabrication as w ell as o f finished tools
and dies to achieve required qualities; working to clo s e to le ra n ce s;
fitting and assem bling of parts to p re s cr ib e d tole ra n ce s and a llo w ­
ances; selecting appropriate m a terials, to o ls , and p r o c e s s e s .
In
gen eral, the tool and die m a k erfs w ork re q u ires a rounded training
in m ach ine-sh op and toolroom p ra ctice usually acqu ired through a
form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and e x p e rie n ce .
F or cro ss-in d u stry wage study p u rp oses, to o l and die m akers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded fro m this cla ss ifica tio n .

M aterial

ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER
Transports passen gers between flo o r s of an o ffice building,
apartment house, departm ent store, hotel o r sim ilar establishm ent.
W orkers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such
as those o f starters and jan itors are excluded.
GUARD
P e r fo r m s routine p olice duties, either at fixed post or on
tour, maintaining o rd e r , using arm s or fo rc e where n e ce s s a r y . In­
cludes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity o f
em ployees and other p erson s enterin g.




TOOL AND DIE MAKER

Movement

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
(Sweeper; charwoman; jan itress)
Cleans and keeps in an o rd e r ly condition fa cto ry working
areas and w ashroom s, or p rem ises o f an o ffic e , apartm ent house,
or com m e rcia l or other establishm ent. Duties involve a com bination
o f the follow ing: Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing flo o r s ;
rem oving chips, trash, and other refu se; dusting equipm ent, furniture,
or fixtures; polishing metal fixtures o r trim m in gs; providing supplies
and m inor maintenance s e rv ice s ; cleaning la v a to rie s, sh ow ers, and
re s tr o o m s .
W orkers who specialize in window washing are excluded.

25

LA B O R E R, M A TER IA L HANDLING
(L oader and unloader; handler and stacker; sh elver; tru ck er;
stockm an or stock helper; warehouseman or w arehouse helper)
A w ork er em ployed in a w arehouse, manufacturing plant,
s to re , or other establishm ent whose duties involve one or m o re of
the follow in g: Loading and unloading various m aterials and m erch an ­
dise on or from freigh t ca r s , tru ck s, or other transporting d evices;
unpacking, sh elving, or placing m aterials or m erchandise in p rop er
storage loca tion ; transporting m aterials or m erchandise by hand truck,
c a r , or w h eelbarrow . Longshorem en, who load and unload ships are
exclu ded.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK - Continued
other r e c o r d s ; checking fo r shortages and rejectin g damaged goods;
routing m erch an dise or m a terials to p rop er departm ents; maintaining
n e ce ssa ry re c o rd s and file s .
F o r wage study p u rp oses, w ork ers are cla ssifie d as follow s:
R eceiving cle rk
Shipping cle rk
Shipping and receivin g cle rk
TRUCKDRIVER

ORDER FILLER
(O rder p ick e r; stock s elector; warehouse stockman)
F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from
stored m erch an d ise in a ccordan ce with specification s on sales slip s,
c u s to m e r s 1 o r d e r s , or other instructions. M ay, in addition to filling
o rd e rs and indicating item s filled or omitted, keep re co rd s of out­
going o r d e r s , requ isition additional stock, or rep ort short supplies
to s u p e rv is o r, and p erform other related duties.

D rives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport
m a te ria ls, m erch an d ise, equipment, or m en between various types of
establishm ents such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, w a re ­
h ou ses, w holesale and retail establish m en ts, or between retail estab­
lishm ents and cu s to m e r s 1 houses or p la ces of business. May also
load or unload truck with or without h e lp e rs, make m inor m echanical
re p a ir s , and keep truck in good working o rd e r. D riv e r-sa le sm e n and
o v e r -th e -r o a d d rivers are excluded.
F o r wage study p u rp o se s, tru ck d riv ers are cla ssifie d by size
and type of equipment, as follow s: (T r a c to r -tr a ile r should be rated
on the b asis o f tra ile r c a p a c ity .)

PA C K E R , SHIPPING
P r e p a re s finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping con ta in ers, the sp ecific operations p e rform ed being
dependent upon the type, siz e , and number of units to be packed, the
type of container em ployed, and m ethod of shipment. Work requ ires
the placing o f item s in shipping containers and m ay involve one or
m ore o f the follow in g: Knowledge of various item s o f stock in ord er
to v e r ify content; selection of appropriate type and size of container;
insertin g e n closu res in container; using e x ce ls io r or other m aterial to
prevent breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; applying
labels or entering identifying data on container.
P ack ers who also
make wooden boxes or crates are excluded.
SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
P r e p a re s m erchandise for shipment, or re ce iv e s and is r e ­
sponsible for incom ing shipment of m erchandise o r other m a teria ls.
Shipping w ork in v o lv e s : A knowledge of shipping p ro ce d u re s , p r a c ­
t ic e s , rou te s, available means of transportation and rates; and p r e ­
paring re c o r d s o f the goods shipped, making up b ills of lading, p o st­
ing weight and shipping ch a rg es, and keeping a file o f shipping re c o r d s .
May d irect or a ss is t in preparing the m erchandise fo r shipment.
R eceiving w ork in v o lv e s : V erifying or directing others in verifyin g
the c o r r e c tn e s s of shipments against bills of lading, in v o ic e s, or




T ru ck d river
T ru ck d riv e r,
T ru ck d riv e r,
T ru ck d riv e r,
T ru ck d riv e r,

(com bination of size s listed separately)
light (under IV2 tons]
m edium ( 1V2 to and including 4 tons)
heavy (over 4 ton s, tra ile r type)
heavy (over 4 ton s, other than tra ile r type)

TRUCKER, POWER
Operates a m anually con trolled ga solin e- or e le ctric-p o w e re d
truck or tra cto r to transport goods and m aterials o f all kinds about
a w areh ou se, manufacturing plant, o r other establishm ent.
F o r wage study p u rp o se s, w ork ers are cla ssifie d by type of
truck , as follow s:
T ru ck e r, pow er (forklift)
T ru ck e r, pow er (other than fork lift)
WATCHMAN
M akes rounds o f p re m ise s p e rio d ica lly in protecting property
against fir e , theft, and illega l entry.

ft U. S . GOVERNMENT

PRINTING OFFICE : 1956

0 —374793


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102