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Occupational Wage Survey

LAWRENCE, M ASSACHUSETTS
F E B R U A R Y

B L S

B u lle tin

N o.

1 1 8 8 -1 1

UNITED STATES DEPARTM ENT O F LABOR
P. M itchell, Secretary


Jam es


1 9 5 6

BUREAU OF LABOR STA
TISTIC
S
Ewan Claguw, Commissioner




O c c u p a tio n a l W a ge S u r v e y
LAW RENCE, M ASSACH U SETTS




FEBRUARY 1956

Bulletin No. 1188-11
UNITED

STATES D E P A R T M E N T

OF

LABOR

J a m e s P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

M a y 1956
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. - Price 25 cents




Contents
P ag e
Introduction---- — ------------------ ------------ -------- ----------------- ----------------------------- ----S u m m a r y ---- — ------- --------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------- ---------

1
1

Tables:
A:

B:

C:

D:

E:

Cross industry occupations (Average earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis)
A-l:
Office occupations — --- ------------ — — — ------------ ------- ------------------- ----- ----- --A-2:
Professional and technical occupations --------- -------------------------------------------— — -A-3:
Maintenance and powerplant occupations --------------------------------------------------------A-4:
Custodial and material m o v e m e n t occupations---- ------------ ---- -------- ----------------------

3
4
5
6

Characteristic industry occupations (Average earnings for selected occupations studied on an industry basis)
B-l: W o m e n ' s cement process shoes - conventional l a s t e d --- — — — --------------- — —
--------B-2: Metalworking industries ----------------- ----- - — ---------- -------- ---------------- --------

7
8

Union
C-l:
C-2:
C-3:
C-4:

9
9
9
9

scales for selected industries by occupation Building construction----- ----------------------- --------------------------- -------------- ---Printing trades
— --------- ---------- ------ — ---------- -------- --------------— -------- ---Local transit operating employees --------------------------------------------------------------Motortruck drivers and helpers — ----------- ------------------------- -------------- -----------

Entrance rates D-l:
M i n i m u m entrance rates for w o m e n office workers

---------------------------------- -----------

10

Supplementary w a g e practices E - l : Shift differential provisions — ----- -------- ---- ------------ - ---------- — ------------- -------E - 2 : Scheduled weekly hours — ---- ---------------- -------- -------- - -------------- ----- ----------E-3:
Overtime pay practices--------------- — ------------ ------------------------ ------------ ------ E-4:
Frequency of wa g e payment ----------------------------- --------------------- --------- -------E-5:
W a g e structure characteristics and labor-management agreements -- ------ — ---- - --------- —
E-6:
Paid holidays----- ---------------- ---------------- ■
--- ------- --------------------------------E-7:
Paid vacations ------------------------- -------------- ---------------------------------- ------E-8:
Health, insurance, and pension p l a n s ------------------------------------- -------- -------------

11
12
12
13
13
14
15
16

Appendix A:
Scope and m e t h o d of s u r v e y ----------- ------------------------------------------------------- -----------Appendix B:
Descriptions of occupations s u r v e y e d --------------------------------- --- — -------------------------------




iii

17

19




O C C U P A T I O N A L W A G E S U R V E Y - L A W R E N C E , MASS. *
Introduction

tablished entrance rates, the most commonly specified rate was between $30 and $32.50 a
week. About a third of the total number of establishments had no policy in this regard.

The Lawrence Metropolitan Area is composed of the city of Lawrence and the
neighboring towns of Andover, North Andover, and Methuen. In 1956,the estimated total
population for this area was approximately 125,000 with 2 out of 3 persons living within the
city limits of Lawrence. Located on the banks of the Merrimac River, the city at an early
date had become a key manufacturing center. Over the past century there developed an
increasing concentration on the manufacture of textile products until thfe area became the
center of the woolen and worsted industry. By 1941, out of a total manufacturing employ­
ment of 37,000, almost 31,000were engaged in the manufacture of textile products, primarily
woolen and worsted goods. Within 10 years, however, a serious decline in textile employ­
ment was apparent and by 1956 total employment in this industry had decreased to slightly
under 6,000 persons. The decline in textile employment brought with it serious economic
problems to the community and especially to the older textile worker. In May of 1949 it was
estimated that approximately 21,000 persons in the area were unemployed. At the time of
this survey, improvement had taken place but there were still an estimated 6,000 unemployed.*
1

Almost half of the companies in the survey reported that they did not have a
minimum hiring rate policy for inexperienced typists since they did not employ workers in
this category. Of the companies having an established policy, the most commonly speci­
fied minimum salary for inexperienced typists was between $40 and $42.50 a week with
the next largest number specifying a rate between $30 and $32.50 a week.
Occupational Pay Levels
Straight-time average hourly earnings for the skilled maintenance jobs studied
on a cross-industry basis ranged from $1.67 for painters to $2.15 for tool and die makers.
Maintenance electricians received $1.91, machinists $1.84, and carpenters $1.71 an hour
on the average. Maintenance trades helpers averaged $1.49 an hour. Among custodial and
material movement occupations surveyed, pay levels of men ranged from $1.19 for janitors,
porters, and cleaners to $1.59 an hour for guards. Laborers engaged on material handling,
the largest numerical job category studied in this group, averaged $1.32 while truckdrivers,
the next largest group, averaged $1.53 an hour.

During recent years a number of different industries have developed, tending
to give balance to the overall economy. In February 1956, total nonagricultural employment
was approximately 40,000 with over 22,000 employed in manufacturing.1 Of the manufac­
turing total approximately 6,000 were engaged in the manufacture of textile goods, 4,000 in
metalworking, slightly under 4,000 in footwear and other leather products, 2,000 in paper
products, and approximately 1,400 in the apparel industries. Wholesale andretail trade with
an employment of approximately 7,500 accounted for the largest group in the nonmanufac­
turing division. Other groups accounting for sizable numbers of employees were the service
industries with approximately 2,400; transportation, communication, and utilities with 1,300;
construction with 1,100; and finance, insurance, and real estate concerns with an employ­
ment of slightly over 1,000 persons.

Salaries of women office workers averaged $48 or more in most occupations
surveyed with the range extending from $40.50 for file clerks on routine work to $67 for
secretaries. Payroll clerks were numerically the most important office occupation studied
and averaged $49 a week. Among other classifications, stenographers received $54.50 and
routine typists an average of $43 a week. Of the professional and technical occupations
studied, senior draftsmen earned $84.50 and junior draftsmen $66 a week on the average.
Industrial nurses averaged $61.50 a week.
Shift Operations

The survey conducted in February 1956 presents information on wages and
related practices based upon data from 77 establishments employing 17,000 workers which
were selected to represent 204 establishments employing 25,000 workers in 6 major indus­
try groupings within scope of the study. (See table in appendix A.)

About one-fifth of the plant employees in manufacturing establishments were
employed on extra shifts at the time of the survey. Differentials over day shift rates were
paid to almost all of these workers, the form and amount varying among plants. Over half
of these second shift workers received 4 cents additional hourly pay and the remainder
were about equally divided between those receiving 5 cents and 10 percent. For work on
the third shift the differential received by the largest number of employees was 7 cents per
hour in addition to their regular rate. Among all establishments providing for shift differ­
entials, although not necessarily operating extra shifts at the time of the survey, the pro­
visions most typical were 4 cents an hour additional for work on the second shift and 7
cents for third shift work.

Summary
Wage Structure
The number of plant workers paid on an incentive basis was only slightly
lower than those who were paid on the basis of time. Piecework was the most prevalent
type of incentive plan with 2 out of 3 incentive workers paid on this basis. Of the plant
workers paid on a time-rate basis, about three-fifths were in plants having formalized wage
plans providing either a single rate or a range of rates for each job. Establishments with
single-rate structures accounted for a higher proportion of the plant workers than those with
rate ranges. Office workers by contrast were about equally divided between those employed
in establishments with a formal wage structure and those whose pay was determined on an
individual worker basis. Those in formal rate establishments were usually classified under
a rate range rather than on a single-rate basis.

Work Schedules
Approximately nine-tenths of the office workers and two-thirds of the plant
workers were on a 40-hour schedule in February 1956. Few office workers were scheduled
to work more than 40 hours, whereas 1 out of 5 plant workers were employed in establish­
ments having a 48-hour work schedule.
Overtime Pay

Over one-half of the establishments surveyed had specified minimum rates
for hiring inexperienced clerical workers other than typists. The largest number of these
had an established minimum of between $40 and $42.50 a week. Of the remainder with es­

Seven out of 10 workers in the manufacturing group, both plant and office,
were employed in establishments providing premium pay of one and a half times the regular
rate for work in excess of 8 hours a day. In nonmanufacturing establishments one-third of
the plant employees and one-sixth of the office employees received premium pay for daily
overtime. The provisions governing weekly overtime for office employees were generally
only slightly less liberal than those for plant workers.

* T h is report was prepared in the Bureau's regional office in B oston, Mass., by Paul V. Mulkern, R egional
Wage and Industrial R elations Analyst.
1 Estim ates prepared by the R esearch and Statistics D ivision of the M assachusetts D ivision o f Employ­
ment Security.




1

2

Frequency of Wage Payment
All plant workers and those office workers employed in manufacturing estab­
lishments were paid weekly. In nonmanufacturing concerns, 7 out of 10 office employees
were paid on a weekly basis with most of the remainder being paid semimonthly.

occurring during the vacation period, usually in the form of another day off with pay. A
slightly smaller number of plant workers were employed in establishments having such pro­
visions afid in these cases the prevailing practice was to grant an extra day’s pay for holi­
days occurring during the vacation period.
Paid Vacations

Labor-Management Agreements
Slightly over one-half of the plant workers in the industry and establishmentsize groups included in the Lawrence survey were in establishments reporting labor-manage­
ment agreements covering a majority of their plant workers. With 60percent of plant workers
in manufacturing establishments covered by such agreements, the proportion was considerably
higher than in nonmanufacturing establishments where only 1 out of 4 workers were covered.
Establishments with agreements covering a majority of their office employees accounted for
about 5 percent of the total number of office workers.
Paid Holidays
Paid holidays were an established policy in firms employing virtually all
office workers and slightly over 85 percent of plant workers. On an all-industry basis, plant
workers most frequently received 6 days annually while the most prevalent provision for
office employees was 7 paid holidays. In nonmanufacturing establishments^2 out of every
5 office workers and 1 out of every 5 plant workers received 10 paid holidays.
Slightly over half the plant workers received an extra day’s pay for holidays
falling on Saturday. By contrast more than two-thirds of the office workers were employed
in establishments where no special provisions were made. For holidays falling on Sunday
about 70 percent of plant and 90 percent of office workers were employed in establishments
where special provisions were made mainly in terms of another day off with pay. The ma­
jority of office workers were employed in establishments having provisions for holidays




All office workers and over 9 out of 10 plant workers were employed in es­
tablishments having-provisions for paid vacations. The amount of vacation pay varied with
the workers’ length of service and was generally based on his regular straight-time hourly
or weekly rate; however, among manufacturing establishments vacation pay for one-fourth
of the plant workers was based on a percentage of their earnings. Eighty percent of the
plant employees were in establishments providing 1 week’s vacation with pay upon com­
pletion of a year of service. After this same period, approximately 2 out of 5 office workers
were eligible for 1 week and an even greater percentage for 2 weeks. At the end of 5 years’
service^the majority of plant workers were provided a second week’s vacation. One-third
of the plant workers became eligible for 3 weeks’ vacation after 15 years’ service and there
was little change in this figure for additional years of service. A slightly higher percentage
of office workers received a third week’svacation and about 1 in 10 received a fourth week
at the completion of 15 years’ service. For office workers, also, there was little change in
these provisions for additional years of service.
Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
Approximately two-thirds of the plant workers and thre e-fourths of the office
workers were employed in establishments which paid wholly or in part for life, hospital,
and surgical insurance. Over half the plant workers were covered by accidental death and
dismemberment, and sickness and accident insurance, with a slightly lower percentage of
office workers covered under such plans. By contrast ,only 1 out of 5 plant workers were in
establishments with pension plans, whereas over half of the office workers were in estab­
lishments where retirement programs were available.

A*.

Cross Industry

Occupations

Table A-1: O ffice O c c u p a tio n s
(Average straight-tim e w eekly hours and e a rn in g s1 fo r selected occupations studied on an area basis
in L aw ren ce, M a s s ., by industry d ivision , F ebruary 1956)
Aveeage

NUMBER OP WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OP—

$
35.0 0

$
40.00

$
45.00

$
50.00

$
55.00

$
60.00

$
65.00

$
70.00

$
75.00

$
80.00

$
85.00

$
90.00

$
95.00

! 00.00

105.00

?Sd85

Sex, occup ation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

$
Weekly
Weekly 30.00
earnings
hours
(Standard) (Standard) and

40.0 0

45.00

50.00

55.00

60.00

65.00

70.00

75.00

80.00

85.00

90.00

95.00 100.00

105.00

110.00

_
-

2
2

1
-

14
13

3
-

2
2

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

.

_

_

.

_

.

-

10
10

_
-

-

-

-

-

4

6
_
6

18
5
13

5
5
-

_
_
-

_
_•
-

W omen
B ille r s , m achine (billing m a c h in e )___ ________________
N onm anufacturing ____________________________________

22
17

40.0
40.0

«
P
48.0 0
4 6.5 0

B ille r s , m achine (bookkeeping m achine) _______________
N onm anufacturing — ____
__ ____ ___________

13
13

4 1.5
4 1.5

4 3.0 0
4 3.0 0

_______
B ookkeeping-m achine o p e r a to r s , c la s s B «_
M anu factu ring_________________________________________
N onm anufacturing — ____ ________________________ _

47
10
37

40.0
39.5
40.0

4 7 .0 0
53.50
45.0 0

_
-

4

14
_
14

C le r k s , accounting, c la s s A _____________ ___________ _
M anufacturing _ _ _ _ _ _ _
_ _
___
N onm anufacturing ____ _____

63
28
35

4 0.5
40.0
4 1.0

59.50
56.00
62.00

_
-

1
1

4
2
2

1
1
-

17
11
6

6
-----6
-

11
3
8

____ ______________ __ _
C le r k s , accounting, c la s s B
M anufacturing ___________ ____________ ________ __
Nonm anufacturing ____ __ ____ __ ____ _______ *

75
21
54

4 0.5
4 0.0
40.5

4 8.0 0
4 8.0 0
48.0 0

2
' _
2

2
2

20
4
16

13
4
9

28
12
16

1
1
-

_
-

C le r k s, file , cla s s B _________ ____ ________________
N onm anufacturing _______ _ ____ ___________ _______

26
24

4 0.5
4 0.5

4 0.5 0
4 0.5 0

7
7

3
2

10
10

5
4

-

1
1

-

-

C le r k s, p a y r o ll__ __ ____ ____ __ __ __ _______ ____
Manufacturing __ ------------ __ ________ __ __ ____ _

126
119

40.0
40.0

4 9 .0 0
4 8.5 0

-

4
4

33
33

38
34

18
17

13
13

14
14

4
2

9

40.0

50.50

_

_

3

2

1

3

_

3

D uplicating-m achine o p era tors
(m im eograph o r ditto) _____
K ey-punch op era tors ____________________________________

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

_
_
-

.
_
-

.
_
-

_

_
-

_
_
-

-

-

16
5
11

2
_
2

-

5
_
5

-

-

-

-

-

9
_
9

.
_
-

-

_
-

_

_
-

_
-

-

-

.

.

_

_

.
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

16

4 0.0

4 9 .0 0

4

5

4

__________________ __________

9

40.0

4 4.0 0

5

3

1

S e cre ta rie s _____________
____ ___ _________ __ __ _
Manufacturing ___________ ____ __ ___________ ___
Nonm anufacturing ________ __________________________

84
65
19

4 0.0
39.6
40.0

67.00
" 6 7 .0 0 “
68.50

-

_
-

_
-

5
4
1

2
2
-

13
12
1

17
12
5

14
9
5

13
9
4

9
9
-

6
4
2

2
1
1

1
1
-

1
1
-

S ten ogra p h ers, gen eral __ _ _
M anu factu ring___ _________
_
_ _
N onm anufacturing ____________________________________

93
31

39. 5
39.5
39.0

54.50
55.00
54.00

_
-

1
1

5
_
5

20
20
-

22
9
13

20
15
5

11
— 6
5

14
12
2

_
-

_
-

-

_
-

_
-

S w itchboard op era tors
___________ ____________________
N onm anufacturing ____________________________________

19
15

4 0.0
40.0

4 9.5 0
4 7 .0 0

2
2

-

5
5

-

9
7

-

2
1

1
“

-

-

-

_

O ffice g irls

____

__ ____

S w itchboard o p e ra to r-re ce p tio n ists
M anufacturing ____ ___________

62

____________________
________ __________

24
17

3 9.5
39.5

4 7.5 0
50.50

T y p is ts , cla ss B _____________ ____ _________________
M anu factu ring_________________________________________
N onm anufacturing ____________________________________

68
40
28

40.0
40.0
39.5

4 3.0 0
4 2.0 0
4 4.0 0

_

4
4

5
-

4
3

6
4
2

34
22
12

_

----- 1_
r

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

_

-

8
7

2
2

2
2

2
2

1
1

_

.

_

_

-

-

.
-

-

-

-

-

-

20
6—
14

3
3

1
1

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

.

Hours r e fle c t the w orkw eek fo r which em ployees receiv e their regular straigh t-tim e s a la rie s and the earnings co rre sp o n d to these weekly h ou rs.




Occupational Wage Survey, L aw ren ce, M ass. , February 1956
U .S. DEPARTMENT O F LABOR
Bureau o f Labor Statistics

4
Table A-2: Professional and Technical Occupations
(A verage straigh t-tim e weekly hours and earnings1 fo r s e le cte d occupations studied on an area b a sis
in L a w ren ce, M a s s ., by industry d ivision , F ebruary 1956)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

A verage

Sex, occup ation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

$
$
$
$
$
$
Weekly
Weekly 40.00 4 5.0 0 50.00 55.00 60.00 65.00
hours
earnings
and
(Standard) (Standard) under
45. Q .. 50J?IL 55. QP 60. QQ_ 65. Q JK L U fl
.Q
Q

$
70. 00

$
75.00

$
80.00

$
85.0 0

$

75.00

80.00

85.00

90.00

95.00

3
3

4
4

9
9

$

95w00

$

$

1 0 0 .0 0

105.00

1 0 0 .0 0

105.00

1 1 0 .0 0

2

2

1

2

2

1

9 0 .0 0

1 1 0 .0 0

$
115.00

115.00

1 2 0 .0 0

$

Men
Draftsm en, s e n io r ----------------- ----------------------------------------M anufacturing------------------- -----------------------------------------

31
31

4 0.0
4 0.0

$
84.50
84.50

Draftsm en, j u n i o r ------------------------------------------ ------- -----Manufacturing -------------------------------------------------------------

16
16

3 9.5
39. 5

17
17

3 9.5
3 9.5

2

6

-

-

-

-

-

2

6

1

1

2

2

1

2

3
3

1

“

4
4

2

6 6 .0 0

-

1

1

2

2

61.50
61.50

2
2

3
3

4
4

5
5

1

1

.

1

1

1

6 6 .0 0

“

1

1

-

1

1

“

"

Women
N urses

___________________________________________________

1

1 Hours re fle ct the workweek for which em ployees receiv e their regular straigh t-tim e sala ries and the earnings correspon d to these weekly h ou rs.




Occupational Wage S urvey, L a w ren ce, M a s s ., F eb ru a ry 1956
U .S . DEPARTM EN T OF LABOR
Bureau o f L a b or Statistics

5

Table A-3: Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(A verage hourly earnings1 fo r m en in se le cte d occupations studied on an area basis
in L a w ren ce, M a s s ., by industry d ivision , F eb ru a ry 1956)
NU M BER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

O ccupation and industry d ivision

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
earnings

$
1.00
and
under
1. 10

$
1. 10
1.20

$

1.20
1.30

$

1.30
1.40

$

1.40

$
1. 50

1.50

1.60

1. 70

$

1. 60

$

1.70
1.80

$

1.80
1.90

$

1.90
2 .0 0

$

2 .0 0
2 .1 0

$

2. 10

2 .2 0

$

2 .2 0
2 .3 0

C a rp en ters, m aintenance _______________________
M anufacturing_________________________________

42
41

$
1.71
1. 72

"

■

-

■

2
1

2
2

22
22

2
2

5
5

5
5

4
4

~

42
42

1.91
1.91

-

-

-

-

-

-

4
4

6
6

16
16

-

8
8

6
6

1
1

E n g in e e rs, stationary
— __ ________ __ __ __
Manufacturing ___
____
_ _
N onm anufacturing ____________________________

43
31
12

1.80
1 .79
1.83

-

_
-

-

_
-

9
9
-

4
2
2

_
-

9
3
6

5
5
“

7
7
-

3
3
-

4
4

-

F ire m e n , stationary b o i l e r ______________________
Manufacturing __ _
N onm anufacturing ____ ___________ __ __ __

47
39
8

1.67
1. 64
1.81

_
-

-

-

_
-

9
6
3

8
8
-

11
11
-

7
7
-

7
7
“

_
-

5
5

.
-

H e lp e rs, tra d e s, m aintenance __ _________ __
M anu factu ring_________________________________

41
34

1.49
1.45

"

6
5

14
14

1
1

1
1

12
12

6
1

1
"

"

-

”

M a ch in e -to o l o p e ra to rs , t o o l r o o m _____________
Manufacturing ____ __ __

24
24

1.79
1.79

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

13
13

8
6

-

2
2

M a ch in ists, m aintenance
__ __ _______________
Manufacturing ____ ____ ____ ____ _____

72
72

1.84
1.84

-

-

-

-

-

3
3

13
13

18
18

11
11

1
1

25
25

M e ch a n ics, autom otive
(m a in te n a n ce )___________________________________
N onm anufacturing ________________________ __

40
37

1.83
1.83

.
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

6
5

14
13

_
-

13
13

7
6

-

O U ers _____________________________________________
M anu factu ring_________________________________

13
11

1.44
1.35

3
3

"

•

3
3

3
3

1
1

-

1
1

■

2
“

“

“

P a in te rs, m a in ten a n ce___________________________
Manufacturing ____________
_ __

9
9

1.67
1.67

•

*

■

2
2

■

1

3
3

3
3

~

“

“

24
24

1.81
1.81

-

“

-

-

1
1

5
5

3
3

2
2

2
2

10
10

1
1

-

S heet-m etal w o rk ers, m aintenance _____________
M anufacturing---------------------------------------------------

9
9

1.79
1.79

■

“

“

“

4
4

“

”

1
1

1
1

3
3

”

32
32

2. 15
2. 15

5
5

7
7

8
8

8
8

$
2 .4 0

2 .4 0

2. 50

“

T o o l and die m akers _____________________________
M anufacturing_________________________________

2 .3 0

”

E le c tr ic ia n s , m aintenance __
__ _________ _
M anu factu ring_________________________________

$

P ip e fit t e r s , m aintenance _______________________
M anufacturing ------------ ------------ ------------

1 E xcludes prem iu m pay fo r ov ertim e and fo r work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.




1

2 .5 0
2 .6 0

$

2 .6 0
2 .7 0

$

2. 70
and
over

. "

"

"

-

1
1

-

-

-

_
-

1
1
-

-

.
*

1
1
-

-

-

“

.
-

_
-

_
-

"

"

“

_

-

*

-

“

1
1

“

“

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

*

-

“

-

$

“

.

.

"

.
“

“

"

"

"

"

~

"

-

-

_

"

1
1

"

"

2
2

~

1
1

Occupational Wage Survey, L a w ren ce, M a s s ., F ebruary 1956
U .S . DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

6
Table A-4: Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(A verage hourly earnings1 fo r s e le cte d occup ations2 studied on an area basis
in L a w ren ce, M a s s ., by industry d ivision , F ebruary 1956)
NU M BER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

Occupation and industry division

Number
of
workers

Guards
_____________________________________ __
Manufacturing ___________ ____ __ ________

22
22

Jan itors, p o r te r s , and clea n ers (men) ________
M anufacturing_________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________

148
28

Average
hourly
earnings

$
0. 70
and
under
.80

$
1.59
1.59
1. 19
i . id
1.23

$
0 .8 0

$
0. 90

♦90

1.00

$

1.00

$ 1.10

1.10

1.20

$

1.20
1.30

$

1.30
1.40

$

1.40

$ 1.50

$ 1. 60

$ 1. 70

1.50

1.60

1. 70

1.80

1.80
1.90

$

1 .90

$2 .0 0

$2. 10

2 .0 0

2 .1 0

2 .2 0

$

2 .2 0

$2. 30

2 .3 0

2 .4 0

$
2 .4 0
and
over

6
6

-

5
5

5
5

-

-

-

"

-

-

24
24
-

-

7
2
5

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_

_
-

_
-

2

1

.

_

-

'

$

-

-

-

1
1

5
5

-

1
1
-

23
18
5

8
8
-

14
10
4

23
19
4

29
22
7

19
16
3

6

-

Janitors, p o r te r s , and clea n ers (w om en )_______

13

1. 16

1

2

_

1

L a b o re rs , m aterial h a n d lin g------------------------------M anufacturing_________________________________
Nonmanufacturing __ _________________________

364
322
42

1.32
1.30
1.48

_
_
-

2
2
-

7
7

31
29
2

52
48
4

104
93
11

51
46
5

43
41
2

36
36
-

13
13
-

5
5
“

20
2
18

.
-

_
-

_

_

-

-

-

-

P ackers , shipping (men) __
_
M anufacturing_________________________________

86
86

1.43
1.43

-

“

-

-

9
9

20
20

29
29

9
9

4
4

4
4

-

2
2

-

3
3

1
1

1
1

2
2

2
2

P a c k e r s , shipping (women) _______
M anufacturing_____________________________ __

81
81

1. 10
1. 10

-

3
3

15
15

10
10

39
39

12
12

2
2

-

R eceiving cle rk s _______________________________
M anufacturing_________________________________

14
9

1.48
1.57

_

_

.

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

7
3

-

Shipping cle rk s __________________________________
M anufacturing___
__
_
_

49
26

1.54
1. 61

_
“

-

-

-

-

3
3

Shipping and receiv in g clerk s __ _______________
M anufacturing_________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________

65
55
10

1.43
1.41
1.58

_
_
-

_
"

_
-

_
-

7
5
2

Truckd rivers 3 __________________________________
M anufacturing_________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________

276
126
150

1. 53
1.53
1.54

-

-

-

4
_
4

6
4
2

.

.

_

’

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

1
1

_

-

1
1

-

1
1

-

-

-

-

6
1

10
4

18
6

4
4

3
3

2
2

“

3
3

-

-

-

-

18
18
-

2
2
-

10
8
2

9
9
-

13
13
-

3
_
3

3
3

-

_
-

-

-

_
-

-

24
12
12

15
5
10

6
5
1

73
40
33

123
47
76

13
11
2

2
2
-

10
10

-

-

_
-

-

-

.

22
2

_

2
-

-

*

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_

-

-

'

T ru ck d riv e r s , light (under l l!z tons) _______
M anufacturing_____________________________

2
1

'

36
8

1.39
1.26

"

-

-

4
-

4
4

2
-

2
2

108
68

1.54
1.60

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

12
2

13
3

T ru ck e rs , pow er (forklift)
Manufacturing ------------------------------------------------

31
25

1.54
1.45

-

-

7
7

-

1
1

-

11
11

6

-

6

-

-

6
-

-

-

-

Watchmen ___ ____ ____ ___________ ____ __
M anufacturing---------------------------------------------------

63
56

1.39
1.39

_

_

4
4

3
3

27
27

12
12

4
4

3

_

_

_

_

_

_

T ru ck d riv e rs, m edium (11/a to and
including 4 tons)
M anufacturing_____________________________

5
1

1 E xcludes prem ium pay fo r overtim e and fo r work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Data lim ited to men w orkers except where otherw ise indicated.
3 Includes all drivers reg a rd less o f siz e and type o f truck op erated .




5
5

_

-

5
------- 5 —

10
-

-

57
-------¥ 7

11
T I-----

-

-

O ccupational Wage S urvey, L a w ren ce, M a ss. , F eb ru a ry 1956
U .S . DEPARTM EN T OF LABOR
Bureau o f L a b or Statistics

B:

Characteristic Industry Occupations
7

T a b le B-l:

W o m e n ’s C em ent Process S h oes - Conventional Lasted 1
2

(Average straight-tim e hourly earnings for se le cte d occupations studied on an industry basis
in L a w ren ce, M a ss. , F ebruary 1956)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

Occupation and sex

of
workers

earnings

$
$
0. 75 0 . 8 0
an d
under
.80
.90

$
1.30

$
1.40

1.30

1.40

1.50

1.60

-

-

-

2

-

1

5

2

2
1

3
1

2

1
4

2
3
1
5
-

2
-

3
2

5
2

2
-

7
-

7
-

4
-

4
2

13

11

-

-

-

-

.
11
6

1
1
4

4
1
1

1

1

2
1
4

2
5
4

4
2
1

3
1

2

2

2

2
11

15

5

-

1

-

1

4

4
1

4
2

2

$
0.90

$
1.00

$
$
1 . 10 1 . 2 0

1.00

1 . 10

1.20

-

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
5
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
1 . 5 0 1 . 6 0 1. 70 1 . 8 0 1 . 9 0 2 . 0 0 2 . 10 2 . 2 0 2 . 3 0 2 . 4 0 2 . 5 0 2 . 6 0 2 . 70 2 . 80 2 . 9 0 3 . 0 0 3. 10 3 . 1
an
1.70

1.80

1.90

2 .0 0

2 . 10

2 .2 0

2 .3 0

2.40

2.50

2 . 60

2
3

13

-

7
3

11
1

6
2
2

7
-

2 . 70

2 . 80

2.9 0

3 .00

3. 10

3.20

OV(

Men
A ss e m b le rs fo r p u llov er, m achine 3 -----B ed-m ach in e op era tors 3 ------------------------C utters, vamp and whole shoe,
Edge trim m e rs , m achine 3
----------------------J an itors, p o r te r s , and c le a n e r s 4 ----------L a b o re rs , m ateria l handling4----------------Shipping and receiv in g clerk s 4>5 ----------Side la s te rs , m achine 3 --------------------------Sole a tta ch e rs, cem ent p r o c e s s 3 ----------T re e r s 3 ----------------------------------------------------

10
47

$
2 .2 4
2.3 8

119
11
10
25
21
18
36
20
24

2 .29
2.23
1.04
.93
.98
1.24
2 . 19
1.92
1.69

11
16
121
18
48

2 . 13
1.05
1.41
1. 19
1 . 10

103
71

1.08
1. 72
1. 70

-

-

-

_

.
.
-

.
1
6
2
.
.
-

2
8
7
.
1

-

1
-

8

_
1
1
-

1
9
11
_
-

2

8
-

4
22

1
11

3

7

3

3

3

6

10

15

12

13

15
3

11
1

15

-

8
5
9*

1
-

.
5

.
2

1

_
1

3

_

11
2

5
-

4
-

5
_

8
1

2
_

1
_

5
_

1
-

1
1

1
-

1

-

_
-

.
-

1
-

1

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

23
-

_

1
1

-

2
1

1
4
-

W omen
A ss e m b le rs fo r p u llo v e r, m achine 3 -----C ro w n e rs, (in s p e c to r s )4 ------------------------F ancy stitch ers 3 --------------------------------------F lo o r g ir ls 4 ---------------------------------------------P a ck e rs , shipping4 --------------------------------Pasterns, b a ck ers , o r fitte rs , upper,
Top stitchers 3 ------------------------------------------

55

_

3

7
5

2
17
2

15

3

2

2
2

7
5

-

7

6

1
13

2

1
4

1

1

9

5

7
5

3

1

6
7

3

-

2

2

3

1 The study co v e re d establishm ents with 21 o r m ore w orkers engaged in the m anufacture of w om en's cem ent p r o c e s s shoes - conventional lasted, part of group 3141 as defined in the Standard Industrial
C la ssifica tion Manual (1945 edition) p rep a red by the Bureau of the Budget.
2 E xcludes p rem ium pay fo r overtim e and fo r w ork on weekends, holid ays, and late shifts.
3 Insufficient data to w arrant p resentation of separate averages by method of wage payment; all o r predom inantly incentive w o rk e rs.
4 Insufficient data to w arrant presentation of separate averages by method of wage paym ent; all o r predom inantly tim e
w o rk e rs .
* Includes data fo r receiv in g c le r k s , shipping cle rk s , and shipping and receivin g cle r k s .
Occupational Wage Survey, L aw ren ce. M a s s .. F ebruary 1956
U .S . DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics




8
T a b le B -2 :

M etalw orking Industries1

(A verage straigh t-tim e hourly earnings fo r s elected occupations studied on an industry basis
in L a w ren ce, M a ss. , F ebruary 1956)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

Occupation 2

Number
of
workers

Average $
hourly ,
1.00
earnings
and

under
1.10

$

1. 10

$

1.20

$

1.30

$

1.40

$

1.50

1.20

1.30

1- 40

1.50

1.60

$

1.60

$

1.70

1. 70

1.80

$

1.80
1.90

$

1.90
2 .0 0

$

2 .0 0
2 .1 0

$

2 . 10
2 . 20

$

2 .2 0
2 .3 0

$

2 .3 0
2 .4 0

$

2 .4 0
2. 50

$

2. 50
2. 60

$

2 .6 0
2. 70

$

2. 70
and
over

Men
A ss e m b le rs , cla ss A 4 --------------------------------------A ss e m b le rs , cla ss B 5 --------------------------------------C arpenters, m aintenance4 — — — --------------- ------E lectrician s, m ain ten an ce4 -------------------------------Inspectors, cla ss A 4 -----------------------------------------Janitors, p o rte rs , and c le a n e r s 4 ---------------------L a b o re rs, m ateria l handling4----------------------------M ach in e-tool o p era tors, production,
cla ss A 6 ------------------------------------------------------ -----D r ill-p re s s o p e ra to rs, radial, cla ss A 4 -----M illin g-m achine op era tors, cla ss A 4 ----------M ach in e-tool o p e ra to rs, production,
cla ss B 6 -----------------------------------------------------------D r ill-p re s s o p e ra to rs, radial, cla ss B 4 -----M illin g-m achine op era tors, cla ss B 4 ----------M ach in e-tool o p e ra to rs, t o o lr o o m 4 -----------------M achinists, m aintenance4 — -------------- —------------M achinists, p rod u ction 4 -------- ---------------------------P a ck e rs, shipping4 ---- ------- ------- — ------- — ---- -----Shipping and receiv in g c le r k s 4*7 ----------------------T ool and die m akers ------------------------------------------Tru ckdrivers 4 , 8 -------------------------------------------------Medium ( l l to and including 4 to n s )4 --------/z
T ru ck ers, pow er (fo rk lift)4 ------------------------------W elders, hand, c la ss A 4 ----------------------------------W elders, hand, cla ss B 4 -----------------------------------

38
145
16
12
21
39
73

$
1. 76
1.69
1. 74
2 .0 8
1.77
1.33
1.36

.
1
-

.
9
8

2
.
3
26

6
.
.
10
13

6
1
14
13

3
67
1
1
.
8

17
42
7
.
5
2
3

6
4
2
.
6
.
2

4
1
3
6
.
.

4
1
1
1
-

1
4
2
1
.
-

3
5
1
-

1
1
-

1
1
.
.

1
1
.
-

1
.
.
.

4

.
.
.
.
-

7
.
.
.
.

139
15
10

1. 76
1.75
1. 78

-

-

-

-

3
2
-

21
1

41
5
2

19
2

26
7
4

14
1
-

9
1

5
-

1
-

-

-

-

.
-

.
-

72
8
10
23
6
20
52
26
22
11
9
6
40
11

1. 73
1.55
1.56
1.79
1.89
1 .9 7
1 .5 4
1.60
2 .2 0
1 .65
1.60
1 .58
1.86
1.61

-

20

10
2
2
9
7
.
4
4
-

6
1
1
4
7
.
6

17
4
6
1
.
4
6
.
2
2
-

-

7
-

_
_
-

2
.
-

2
1
-

_
.
.
-

-

-

-

-

-

3
2
1
3
2
3
.
2

1
2
.
1
.
-

-

9
8
2
8
2
1
2
14

2
1
6
.
-

-

9
12
3
3
3
3
12

8
1

.
.
-

2
1
1
•
4
.
-

14
3
-

.
-

.
.
.
.
.
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

1

9

-

-

-

2
12

-

-

The study co v e re d s elected m etalworking establishm ents (industry Groups 34, 35, 36) as defined in 1945 edition o f the Standard Industrial C la ssifica tio n Manual p rep a red by the Bureau o f the Budget.
Data could not be shown fo r a ss e m b le rs , cla ss C; in sp ectors, cla ss B and cla ss C; and m ach in e-tool o p e ra to rs, production, cla ss C.
Excludes prem ium pay fo r overtim e and fo r w ork on w eekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Insufficient data to warrant presentation of separate a verages by m ethod of wage paym ent; all o r predom inantly tim e w o rk e rs.
Insufficient data to warrant presentation of separate averages by m ethod o f wage paym ent; all or predom inantly incentive w ork ers.
Includes data fo r m a ch in e-tool op erators in addition to those shown separately.
toclud e, data fo r receiv in g cle rk s shipping cle rk s and ship pm gan d re ce iv in g c le r k s .
Occupational Wage Survey, L a w ren ce, M a s s ., F eb ru a ry 1956
Includes a ll d n v e r s reg a rd less o f s iz e and type o f truck op era ted .
P
8
U .S . DEPARTM EN T OF LABOR
Bureau o f L a b or Statistics




9

C:

Union Wage Scales

(Minimum wage rates and m axim um straigh t-tim e hours p er week a greed upon through c o lle ctiv e bargaining
between em p loyers and trade unions. Rates and hours a re those in effe ct on dates ind icated .)

T able C-1:

Building Construction

Table C-3.‘

Local Transit O p era tin g Employees
M arch 1, 1956

M arch 1, 1956__________________________
Rate
p er
hour

T rad e o r occupation

Hours
p er
week

Journeym en
A sb e sto s w ork ers __________________________________________
B o ile rm a k e rs __ ______________ ________________________
B rick la y e rs
__________________
________ _
C arpenter s ____________________ _____________________________
C em ent fin ish ers
____ _ _ __________ ______ _
E le c tr ic ia n s _______
_________________________________
P a in te r a

P ip efitters __
________________ ______________
____
P la s te r e r s _
______
______ __ ___ ____
P lu m b ers
_____ __________
_____ __ _
R odm en
_
__
__
S tru ctu ra l-iron w o r k e r s ___________________________________

$ 3 ,0 7 0
3 . 150
3 .2 5 0
2 .8 7 5
3 .4 0 0
2 .9 0 0
2 .2 5 0
3 . 100
3 .4 0 0
3 . 100
3 .4 0 0
3 .4 0 0

B uses:
_____________ _____________ _ _
Thirst. 12 months
1^ _ 94. mnrttVt a
_____ ___. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A fte r 24 months — — — — —— —
— —— —— — — — -

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

2 . 150
2 .0 5 0
2 .3 0 0

Rate
per
hour

Trade o r occupation

$ 1 ,6 1 0
1.710
1.810

Hours
p er
week

40
40
40

40
40
40

H elp ers and la b o r e rs
B r ic k la y e r s 1 tend ers __ __ _________ _ _ _____ ______
Building la b o r e r s _____ ____ ____ __ ________ ________
P la sterers* ten d ers __ __ _______
__ -------------------------

Table C-4*

M otortruck Drivers an d Helpers
M arch 1, 1956

T able C -2 :

Trade o r occupation

Printing Trades

M arch 1.

Hours
per
week

1956

Trade o r occupation

Rate
per
hour

H ours
per
w eek

B ook and jo b
C o m p o s ito r s, hand _________________________________________
Machine op e ra to rs _________________________________________
P re s sm e n , c y lin d e r ......
. .. ... _ „
.... _

$ 2 ,4 0 0
2.4 0 0
2 .4 0 0

3 7 y2
37 %
3 7 y2

N ew spaper
C o m p o s ito r s, hand - dayw ork
_________ ______________
C o m p o s ito r s, hand - night w ork _________
__________ __
M achine op era tors - dayw ork ______
____________________
Machine op era tors - night w ork ____________________________
P re s sm e n , w eb p r e s s e s - dayw ork _______________________
P re s sm e n , w eb p r e s s e s - night w ork _____________ ___
P r e s s m e n -in -c h a r g e , w eb p r e s s e s - d a y w o r k ____________
P re s s m e n -in -c h a r g e , w eb p r e s s e s - nightw o r k ___________
S tereoty p ers - dayw ork ____________________________________
S tereoty p ers - n i g h t w o r k __________________________________




Rate
per
hour

2.506
2.667
2.506
2.667
2.5 2 0
2.6 8 0
2.653
2.813
2.506
2.667

37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37

y2
y2
y2
y2
y2
y2
y2
y2
y2
y2

B akery:
Hauling and transport:
1 - 3 t o n s __ ___
3 - 5 t o n s __ __
5 tons and o ve r ___
H e lp e r s — _ ___
B iscu it:
D riv e rs ________
T ra ile r d riv e rs
. _
B eer and liqu or
H elpers ___
....
_
_
C oal, oil,and building supply
...
__
H elpers _
C onstruction:
S pecialized earth m oving eq u ip m en t____________________
2-a x le equipment
3-a x le equipment __
F ood s e rv ice - W h o l e s a l e
H elpers __
_
_
General transportation _
H elpers
___
M iscellaneou s m anufacturing _________________________
O il
____
Railway e xp re ss

O c c u p a t io n a l W age S u r v e y ,

$ 1 ,7 0 0
1.750
1.850
1.650

48
48
48
48

1.850
1.900
1.750
1.700
1.600
1.500

45
45
40
40
40
40

2 .3 5 0
2. 095
2. 150
1.970
1.820
1.820
1.720
1.620
1.900
1.935

40
40
40
50
50
40
40
48
48
40

L a w r e n c e , M a s s . , F e b r u a r y 1956
U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B u rea u o f L a b o r S ta tis tics

10

D: Entrance Rates
Table D-l: Minimum Entrance Rates for Women Office Workers
N um ber o f e stablishm ents with specified minimum hiring rate in—
Manufa ctu ring
Minimum rate
(weekly salary)

A ll
schedules

Establishm ents studied

77

43

40

XXX

Number of e stablishm ents with sp e cifie d m inim um h iring rate in—

Nonmanufacturing

B ased on standard weekly hours 2 of—

A ll
industries

i

A ll
schedules

34

M anufacturing

B ased on standard w eekly hours 2 of—

A ll
industries

A ll
schedules

40

XXX

77

Nonmanufactur ing

43

40

XXX

A ll
schedules

34

40

XXX

FOR OTHER INEXPERIENCED C L E R IC A L WORKERS

FOR INEXPERIENCED TYPISTS

______________

32

20

20

12

11

44

27

26

17

16

________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
______________________________
________________________________
_____________________________ _
________________________________
______ __________________________

9
2
2
1
15
1
2

4
1
1
11
1
2

4
1
1
11
1
2

5
2
1
4
-

5
2
1
3
-

11
3
3
4
21
1
1

5
2
2
16
1
1

5
2
1
16
1
1

6
3
1
2
5
-

6
3
1
2
4
-

E stablishm ents having no specified m in im u m ______________

8

5

XXX

3

XXX

24

13

XXX

11

XXX

Establishm ents which did not em ploy w ork ers
in this category ___________________________________________

37

18

XXX

19

XXX

9

3

XXX

6

XXX

Establishm ents having a sp ecified m inimum
$ 30. 00
$ 32. 50
$ 35. 00
$ 37.50
$ 4 0 .0 0
$ 4 2 .5 0
$ 4 5 .0 0
$47 . 50

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$ 32.50
$ 35. 00
$ 3 7 .5 0
$ 4 0 .0 0
$ 4 2 .5 0
$ 4 5 .0 0
$ 4 7 .5 0
$ 50. 00

~

1 Lowest salary rate form a lly established fo r hiring inexperienced w ork ers fo r typing or other c le r ic a l jo b s .
2 Hours re fle ct the workweek fo r which em p loyees re c e iv e their regular straigh t-tim e sa la rie s. Data are presented fo r all workweeks com bined, and fo r the m ost com m on workweek re p o rte d .




Occupational Wage Survey, L a w ren ce, M a s s ., F eb ru a ry 1956
U .S . DEPARTM ENT OF LABOR
Bureau o f L abor S tatistics




E: Supplementary Wage Practices
T a b l e E -l:

S h if t

D iffe r e n tia l

P r o v is io n s 1

P e rce n t o f m anufacturing plant w o rk e rs—

Shift differential

(a)
In establishm ents having
fo rm a l p rov ision s fo r—
Second shift
w ork

T o t a l -------- —------------ ---------------------------------------------------------------

Third o r other
shift w ork

6 7.0

4 9.9

With shift pay d ifferential ----------------------------------------------------

53. 7

U niform cents (per h o u r ) ------------------------------------------------

4 2.6

(b)
A ctually w orking on—

Second shift

T hird o r other
shift

15. 1

5 .3

4 9 .9

12.2

5.3

37.9

10.0

5.1

7.2
2 .6
.2

1 .6
2 .2
1.1
.1
t

_

cents ------------------------------------------------------------------------cents ------------------------------------------------------------------------c e n t s ------------------------------------------------------------------------cents — —— — —— — — —— — — —— —— —
—
—
—
ll
lz c e n t s --------------------------------------------------------------------8 cents ------------------------------------------------------------------------10 cents --------------------------------------------- ------------------------

2 8 .0
11. 1
2 .7

.7

14.6
5.2
4. 7
4 .0

U niform p e r c e n t a g e ---------------------------------------- ----------------

11. 1

12.0

2 .2

.2

10 p ercen t --------------------------------------------------------------------

11. 1

12.0

2 .2

.2

No shift pay d ifferential ------------------------------------------------------

1 3.4

2 .9

“

4
5
6
7

.

_
-

9 .5
-

-

-

-

1 Shift d ifferential data are presented in term s o f (a) establishm ent p o lic y , and (b) w ork ers actually em ployed on late
shifts at the tim e of the survey. An establishm ent was con sid ered as having a p o lic y if it m et either of the follow ing co n d i­
tion s: (l) Operated late shifts at the tim e o f the su rvey, o r (2) had form a l p rov ision s cov erin g late shifts,
t Less than 0 .0 5 p ercen t.
Occupational Wage Survey, L aw ren ce, M a ss. , F eb ru a ry 1956
U. S. DEPARTM ENT OF LABOR
Bureau o f L abor Statistics

12

Table E-2: Scheduled W eekly Hours
PERCENT OF OFFICE W O R K E R S^M PL O YE D IN —

j

PERCENT OF PLANT W ORKERS EM PLOYED IN—

Weekly hours
All industries

M
anufacturing

Nonmanufacturing

A ll w orkers ___________________________________

100

100

100

Under 37 Vi hours ---- ---- ------------------------ __
37V h o u r s _____________________________________
2
Over 37
and under 40 hours ________________
40 hours _______________________ _______________
Over 40 and under 44 hours __________________
44 hours ______________________________________
Over 44 and under 48 hours __________________
48 hours
___
Over 48 hours ________________________________

f
4
t
90
t
3
t
t

t
5
92
3
f

.

t
t

89
t
t

All industries

100

100

-

i

I

t
t

Nonmanufacturing

100

_

•

!

M
anufacturing

-

67
9

t

66
t
8
3
21
t

t

23

3
58

t

7
12
10
9

1 Data relate to wom en w ork ers only,
t L ess than 2. 5 p ercen t.

Table E-3: Overtime Pay Practices
PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS EMPLOYED IN —

1

PERCENT OF PLANT W ORKER8 EM PLOYED IN—

O vertim e p olicy
All industries

A ll w orkers ___________________________________

M
anufacturing

Nonmanufacturing

]
i
'
1
l
i
1
!
!!

Manufacturing

Nonmanufacturing

100

100

100

67
67

73
73
73
-

34
34
34
-

All industries

100

100

100

48
46
46
t

71
69
69
3

16
16
16
■

52

29

84

33

27

66

83
82
t
80
-

73
73
73
-

95
95
94

t

91
88
3
85
3

100
100
100
-

68
68
61
7
-

17

9

27

5

Daily overtim e
W orkers in establishm ents providing
prem ium pay ________________________________
Tim e and one-half _________________________
E ffective after le s s than 8 hours ______
E ffective after 8 hours _______________
E ffective after m ore than 8 hours _____
Othe r 1 __________ __________________________ _
W orkers in establishm ents providing no
prem ium pay o r having no p o lic y ___________

i
!
j

67
”

W eekly overtim e
W orkers in establishm ents providing
prem ium pay ________________________________
Tim e and one-half _________________________
E ffective after le s s than 40 hours _____
E ffective after 40 hours ________________
E ffective after m ore than 40 h o u r s ____
Other 1 _____________________________________
W orkers in establishm ents providing
no prem ium pay o r having no p olicy ________

t
-

32

1 Includes p rov ision s fo r a sp ecified num ber o f overtim e hours at either ( l ) no pay, (2) regular rate, o r (3) a prem ium rate; and prem ium pay at another rate th e re a fte r,
f L ess than 2. 5 p ercen t.




Occupational Wage Survey, Lawrence, M a ss., February 1956
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

13

Table E-4:

Frequency of W age Payment

P E R C E N T OF O FFICE W O RKERS E M P LO Y E D I N -

F req u en cy o f paym ent

P E R C E N T OF PLAN T W O RKERS E M P LO Y E D IN —

All industries

M
anufacturing

Nonmanufacturing

!j
•
.

A ll w ork ers ____________________________ _________

100

100

100

|

100

W e M y __________________________________________
B iw eekly ________________________ ________________
Sem im onthly _______________ ___________________
____ _________ _
_ ____
_____
Monthly __
O t h e r ---------- ------- —
------- — —

88
8
4

100
-

73

j
;

100

i

18

!
i

All industries

M
anufacturing
*

Nonm
anufacturing

100

100

100

100

9

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

~

1
|

-

“

"

Table E-5: W a ge Structure Characteristics and Labor-Management Agreements
P E R C E N T OF O FFICE W O RKERS E M P L O Y E D IN —

Item

[

ji

P E R C E N T OF PLAN T W O RKERS E M P LO Y E D IN —

M
anufacturing

Nonmanufacturing

All industries

M
anufacturing

Nonmanufacturing

100

100

100

100

100

100

49
5
44
51

50
t
50
50

47
11
36
53

61
36
25
39

66
36
31
34

43
36
6
57

100

100

100

53
47
30
15
3

48
52
36
16
-

77
23

56

61

28

All industries

WAGE STRUCTURE FO R TIM E­
R ATE D WORKERS 1
A ll w ork ers

__ „

__

—

________

F o rm a l rate structure _________________________
Single r a t e ___________________________________
Range o f ra tes _______________________________
Individual ra tes ________________________________
METHOD O F WAGE PAYM EN T FO R
P LA N T WORKERS
A ll w o rk e rs „

„

______

.. _

„

________

DATA NOT C O LLE CTE D

T im e w o r k e rs __________________________________
Incentive w o r k e rs
__
....
................
P ie ce w o r k
_
_
Bonus w ork
_ _
_ ____ _
C om m iss ion ________________________________

-

7
16

LABO R-M AN AGEM ENT AGREEMENTS *
W ork ers in establishm ents with agreem ents
cov erin g a m a jo rity o f such w o r k e rs ____

_

5

“

1

1
1

1 E stim a tes fo r o ffic e w ork ers a re based on total office em ploym ent, w h ereas estim ates fo r plant w orkers a re based on tim e -ra te d em p loyees only.
* E stim a tes rela te to a ll w ork ers (office or plant) em ployed in an establishm ent having a con tract in effect cov erin g a m ajority o f the w ork ers in their re sp ectiv e category.
The e s ti­
m ates so obtained a re not n e c e s s a r ily representative o f the extent to which a ll w o rk e rs in the a rea m ay be co v e re d by p ro v isio n s o f labor-m anagem ent agreem ents due to the exclusion o f
s m a lle r s iz e establish m en ts.
t L e s s than 2 .5 p e rce n t.
Occupational Wage Survey, L aw ren ce, M a s s ., F ebruary 1956
U .S . DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics




14

T a b le E-6*

P a id H o l i d a y P r o v is io n s

P E R C E N T OF P LAN T W O R K E R S E M P L O Y E D IN —

P E R C E N T OP OFFICE W O RKERS E M P LO Y E D IN —

Item
All industries
A ll w orkers ___________

M
anufacturing

All industries

Nonmanufacturing

M
anufacturing

Nonmanufacturing

100

100

100

100

100

100

97

98

96

86
3
3

88

77
14
10
3
14
14
4
4
5
5

Number of paid holidays 1
W orkers in establishm ents providing paid holidays ________
L e ss than 4 holidays _____________________________________
4 holidays ________________________________________________
6 holidays

________________________________________________

Plus 2 half days ______________________________________
7 holidays ________________________________________________
Full days only ________________________________________
Plus 1 half d a y ________________________________________
8 holidays ____________ _____________________ ;-------------------Full days only ________________________________________
Plus 1 half day ________________________________________
Plus 2 half days ______________________________________
9 holidays ________________________________________________
Full days only ________________________________________
Plus 1 half day ________________________________________
10 holidays _____________________________________________ —
11 holidays _______________________________________________
W orkers in establishm ents providing no paid holidays ____

t

t
t

t

21
21

34
34

-

-

-

31
31

52
51

5
5

t

t

t

4
4

13
11

7
4

t

t

t

t

45
42
t

26
25
t

-

31
29
t

7
7
-

22
20
-

7
7

-

t

-

-

-

3

11

4

3

t
t

8
8

3

-

6
5

t

t

t

20
4
3

40
38

?

3

t

-

11
43
9
4

-

19

-

14

12

23

40
12
25
-

64
7
55
-

69
9
58
-

r

t

36
36
19

3

-

P rov ision s fo r holidays o ccu rrin g
on nonworkdays"2
With p rov ision s fo r holidays falling on Saturday ----------------Another day off with p a y ---------------------------------------------------Extra d a y 's pay __________________________________________
Option o f another day o ff or extra d a y's pay ----------------P ro v isio n s d iffer fo r variou s holidays --------------------------Other p rov ision s ________________________________________
Saturday is a scheduled workday fo r all w ork ers -------------No p rov ision s (or no pay) fo r holidays falling on
Saturday ____________________________________________________
With p rov ision s fo r holidays falling on S unday--------------------Another day o ff with p a y __________________________________
Extra d a y 's pay __________________________________________
Option o f another day off o r extra d a y 's p a y ------------------P ro v isio n s d iffer fo r variou s holidays --------------------------Other p rov ision s __________________________________________
Sunday is a scheduled workday fo r a ll w o r k e r s ------------------No p rov ision s (or no pay) fo r holidays falling on
Sunday _____________________________________________________
With p rov ision s fo r holidays falling during vacation --------Another day off with p a y __________________________________
Extra d a y 's pay __________________________________________
Option of another day o ff o r extra d a y's p a y ------------------P ro v isio n s d iffer fo r various holidays --------------------------Other p rov ision s __________________________________________
No provision s (or no pay) fo r holidays falling during
vacation ___________________________________________________

23
9
13
_
_

10
7
3
-

t

_
-

4

t

6

3

70

86

50

19

18

22

93
87
1

84
71
4
t
5

88
76
3

69
45
11
5
■
8

95
88
f
t

96
89
t
t

t

t

6

t

t
t

t
t

4
“

t

-

3

3

1

t

“

"

t

37
37

10

68
46
4
18

“

42

30

59

43

t

-

t

6

t

43
5
32
6

55
42

“

-

8

44
37
7

37
33
4
-

43

40

m erely the indicated num ber o f fu ll-d a y holidays, and those who r e 1 E stim ates relate to fu ll-d ay holidays p rovid ed annually.
These are further divided between w ork ers who receive
ceiv e 1 o r m ore half holidays in addition.
o f the estim ates would be slightly higher if p ra ctice s d eterm ined in 2 L im ited to p rov ision s in establishm ents having a form a l p olicy applying when holidays o ccu r on nonworkdays; some
form a lly as the situation o c c u r s w ere included.
Occupational Wage Survey, Lawrence, M ass., February 1956
f L e ss than 2. 5 p ercen t.
U.S. PEFARTMENT OF LABOR




Bureau of Labor Statistics

15

T a b le E -7:

P a id V a c a t i o n s

P E R C E N T OF OFFICE W O RKERS E M P LO Y E D IN —

PE R C E N T OF PLANT W O RKERS E M P LO Y E D IN —

i
1

V acation p o lic y
All industries
A ll w o r k e r s ---------------------------------------------------------

M
anufacturing

Nonmanufacturing

All industries

M
anufacturing

Nonmanufacturing

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100
100

100

-

.

92
62
27
3

1 98
87

t

93
66
24
3

*

-

-

7

8

t

_
38
5
47

_
49
_
51
-

25

83

METHOD OF PAYM EN T
W ork ers in establishm ents providing
paid v a ca tion s---------------------------------------------------L e n g th -of-tim e paym ent ------------------------------P ercen tag e paym ent — ----------------------------------O t h e r --------------------------------------------------------------W ork ers in establishm ents p rovid in g no
paid vacations --------------------------------------------------

99
t
-

98

11

_

AMOUNT OF VACATION PA Y
A fter 1 yea r o f s e rv ice
U nder 1 w e e k ------------------------------------------------------1 w e e k ------------------------------------ ----------------------------O ver 1 and under 2 w eeks —-------------------------------2 w e e k s ----------------— — ---------------------------------------3 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------------------------

10

t
11

t

42

6

22

t

t

87
_
4
-

_
61
5
21

8

A fter 2 yea rs o f s e r v ic e
Under 1 w eek — ------— — ------------------------------------1 w eek — — --------------------------------------------------------O ver 1 and under 2 w e e k s ---- ---------------------------2 w e e k s --------------------------- — -------------------------------3 Weeks — —---- --------------------------- -------------------------

_
26
9
56
10

_
32
16
52
-

.
18
.
60
22

t

t

57

59
15
16
-

12
21
t

_
44
_
43
8

A fter 3 yea rs o f s e r v ic e
Under 1 w e e k --------- -------------------— ---------------------1 w e e k -----------------------------------------------------------------O ver 1 and under 2 w e e k s --------------------------------2 w e e k s ------— —--------------------------------------------------O ver 2 and under 3 w e e k s --------------------------------3 weeks ----------------------------------------------------------------

_
16
9
65
.
10

_
15
16
69
.
-

_
17
.
60
_
22

t

t

37
24
28

35
29
26

t
t

t

19

17

_
44
_
43
_
11

A fter 5 yea rs o f s e r v ic e
1 w e e k ----------------------------------------------------------------O ver 1 and under 2 w e e k s --------------------------- —
—
2 w eeks ---------------------------------------------------------------O ver 2 and under 3 w e e k s ---------------------------------3 weeks — — — — — —— — ——— ——— — — — —
—
—
4 w eeks and o v e r -------------------------------------------------

t

t
t

14
.
62
„
24
-

11
.
71

8
.
89

14
46

11
.
78
.
11

8
.
89
_

28
.
51
.

t

t

66

69

t

t

6
*

4
-

20

17

28
33

*

A fter 10 yea rs of s e r v ic e
1 we ek ---------------------------------- ----------------------- ,r
—
O ver 1 and under 2 w e e k s ---------------------------------w e e k s ---------------------------------------------------------------O ver 2 and under 3 w e e k s ---------------------------------3 weeks — ——— ------------------- ------- ——-------- --------4 w eeks and o v e r ----------------------- -------------------------

2

See footnote at end o f table.




_

.

-

18

t
t

40
“

t

19
t

t

58

63

t

t
10

15
“

-

38
*

Occupational Wage Survey, L aw ren ce, M a ss., F ebruary 1956
U .S . DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of L abor Statistics
NOTE: In the tabulations of vacation allow ances by years o f s e r v ic e , payments other than "length o f tim e, "
such as percentage of annual earnings, w ere con verted to an equivalent tim e b asis; fo r exam ple, a
payment of 2 percen t o f annual earnings was con sid ered as 1 w eek's pay.

16

Table E-7: Paid Vacations - Continued

Table E
-8*.

Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans

P E R C E N T OF OFFICE W O RKERS E M P LO Y E D IN —

Type of plan

A ll w o r k e r s --------------------------------------- ----------------W orkers in establishm ents providing:
Life in s u r a n c e --------------------------------------- ------A ccidental death and dism em berm en t
in s u r a n c e -----— --------------------------—---------------Sickness and a ccid ent insurance
o r s ic k leave o r b oth 1 ------- ------— ---- — ------Sickness and accid ent in s u r a n c e ------------Sick leave (full pay and no
waiting p e r i o d ) ------------------------ -------------Sick leave (partial pay or
waiting p e r i o d ) --------------------------------- -—
H ospitalization in s u r a n c e ----------------------------S urgical in s u r a n c e ----------------------------------------M edical i n s u r a n c e ----------------------------------------Catastrophe in s u r a n c e ---------------------------------R etirem ent p e n s i o n --------------------------------------No health, insurance, o r pension p l a n --------

All industries

M
anufacturing
100

100

|

Nonmanufacturing

j

All industries

M
anufacturing

Nonmanufacturing

100

f

100

100

100

74

55

!

52

51

52

!

67
58

69
60

57
47

76

92

55

43

47

38

72
50

88
60

49
36

21

28

4

-

25

23
68
67
28
63

3
82
80
52
14
42
*

8
64
62
19
t
19
"

9
65
64
18
21
*

4
56
53
28
4
12
■

24
15
74
73
38
6
54

i
!

i

71

!
|

1 Unduplicated total of workers receiving sick leave or sickness and accident insurance shown separately below.
t Less than 2.5 percent,
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR




P E R C E N T OF P LAN T W O R K E R S E M P L O Y E D IN —

i

Occupational Wage Survey, Lawrence, M ass., February 1956
Bureau of Labor Statistics

17

Appendix A:

Scope and Method of Survey

The Department of Labor’ s Bureau of Labor Statistics regularly conducts sur­
veys of occupational earnings and related wage benefits in important industrial centers.
In each area, data are obtained by personal visits 1 of Bureau field agents to representative
establishments within six broad industry divisions: Manufacturing; transportation (excluding
railroads), communication, and other public utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance,
insurance, and real estate; and services. Major industry groups excluded from these studies,
besides railroads, are government operations and the construction and extractive industries.
Establishments having fewer than a prescribed number of workers are omitted also because
they furnish insufficient employment in the occupations studied to warrant inclusion.2 Whereever possible, separate tabulations are provided for each of the broad industry divisions.
These surveys are conducted on a sample basis because of the unnecessary
cost involved in surveying all establishments, and to insure prompt publication of results.
To obtain appropriate accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of large than of small
establishments is studied. In combining the data, however, all establishments are given
their appropriate weight. Estimates based on the establishments studied are presented,
therefore, as relating to all establishments in the industry grouping and area,3 except for
those below the minimum size studied.
Occupations and Earnings
The occupations selected for study are common to a variety of manufacturing
and nonmanufacturing industries. Occupational classification is based on a uniform set of
job descriptions designed to take account of interestablishment variation in duties within
the same job (see appendix B for listing of these descriptions). Earnings data are presented
(in the A-series tables) for the following types of occupations: (a) Office clerical; (b) pro­
fessional and technical; (c) maintenance and powerplant; and (d) custodial and material
movement.1
Data are shown for full-time workers, i.e., those hired to work a regular weekly
schedule in the given occupational classification. Earnings data exclude premium pay for
overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. Nonproduction bonuses are
excluded also, but cost-of-living bonuses and incentive earnings are included. Where weekly
hours are reported, as for office clerical occupations, reference is to the work schedules
(rounded to the nearest half hour) for which straight-time salaries are paid; average weekly
earnings for these occupations have been rounded to the nearest half dollar.
Occupational employment estimates represent the total in all establishments
within the scope of the study and not the number actually surveyed. Because of differences
in occupational structure among establishments, the estimates of occupational employment
obtained from the sample of establishments studied serve only to indicate the relative im­
portance of the jobs studied. These differences in occupational structure do not materially
affect the accuracy of the earnings data.

With the exception of union rate scales (C-series tables), which were collected only in Lawrence.
2 See table following. For the industries in which characteristic jobs were studied on an industry basis
only (tables B-31 and B-35), minimum size of establishment and extent of area covered were the same as for the
six broad industry divisions.
3 The tabulation of minimum entrance rates for women office workers relates only to provisions in es­
tablishments studied.




Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Information is presented also (in the D- and E-series tables) on selected es­
tablishment practices and supplementary benefits as they relate to office and plant workers.
The term “ office workers,” as used in this bulletin, includes all office clerical employees
and excludes administrative, executive, professional, and technical personnel. “ Plant
workers” include working foremen and all nonsupervisory workers (including leadmen and
trainees) engaged in nonoffice functions. Administrative, executive, professional, and
technical employees, and force-account construction employees who are utilized as a sepa­
rate work force are excluded. Cafeteria workers androutemen are excluded in manufacturing
industries, but are included as plant workers in nonmanufacturing industries.
Minimum entrance rates (table D -l) relate only to the establishments visited.
They are presented on an establishment, rather than on an employment basis. Scheduled
hours; overtime pay practices; frequency of wage payment; paid holidays; paid vacations;
and health, insurance, and pension plans are treatea statistically on the basis that these
are applicable to all plant or office workers if a majority of such workers are eligible or may
eventually qualify for the practices listed.4 Because of rounding, sums of individual items
in these tabulations do not necessarily equal totals.
Shift differential data (table E -l) arc limited to manufacturing industries. This
information is presented both in terms of (a) establishment policy,5 presented in terms of
total plant worker employment, and (b) effective practice, presented on the basis of workers
actually employed on the specified shift at the time of the survey. In establishments having
varied differentials, the amount applying to a majority was used or, if no amount applied to
a majority, the classification “ other” was used.
With reference to wage structure characteristics (table E-5), all time-rated
workers (plant or office) in an establishment are classified according to the predominant
plan applying to these workers. Whereas the proportions of time and incentive workers
directly reflect employment under each pay system, technical considerations required that
the breakdown of incentive-worker employment according to type of incentive plan be based
on the predominant plan in each establishment.
The summary of vacation plans is limited to formal arrangements, excluding
informal plans whereby time off with pay is granted at the discretion of the employer. Sepa­
rate estimates are provided according to employer practice in computing vacation payments,
such as time payments, percent of annual eernings, or flat-sum amounts. However, in the
tabulations of vacation allowances by years of service, payments not on a time basis were
converted; for example, a payment of 2 percent of annual earnings was considered as the
equivalent of 1 week’ s pay.
Data are presented for all health, insurance, and pension plans for which at
least a part of the cost is borne by the employer, excepting only legal requirements such as
workmen’ s compensation and social security. Such plans include those underwritten by a
commercial insurance company and those provided through a union fund or paid directly by
the employer out of current operating funds or from a fund set aside for this purpose. Death
benefits are included as a form of life insurance.

Scheduled weekly hours lex office workers (first section of table B-3) are presented in terms of the
proportion of women office workers employed in offices with the indicated weekly hours for women workers.
3
An establishment was considered as having a policy if it met either of the following conditions:
(1) Operated late shifts at the time of the survey, or (2) had formal provisions covering late shifts.

18

Sickness and accident insurance is limited to that type of insurance under
which predetermined cash payments are made directly to the insured on a weekly or monthly
basis during illness or accident disability. Information is presented for all such plans to
which the employer contributes. However, in New York and New Jersey, which have enacted
temporary disability insurance laws which require employer contributions,6 plans are in­
cluded only if the employer (1) contributes more than is legally required, or (2) provides the
employee with benefits which exceed the requirements of the law. Tabulations of paid sick-

6

The temporary disability laws in California and Rhode Island do not require employer contributions.

leave plans are limited to formal plans which provide full pay or a proportion of the worker’ s
pay during absence from work because of illness. Separate tabulations are provided ac­
cording to (1) plans which provide full pay and no waiting period, and (2) plans providing
either partial pay or a waiting period. In addition to the presentation of the proportions of
workers who are provided sickness and accident insurance or paid sick leave, an undupli­
cated total is shown of workers who receive either or both types of benefit.
Catastrophe insurance, sometimes referred to as extended medical insurance,
includes those plans which are designed to protect employees in case of sickness and injury
involving expenses beyond the normal coverage of hospitalization, medical, and surgical
plans. Medical insurance refers to plans providing,for complete or partial payment of doc­
tors’ fees. Such plans may be underwritten by commercial insurance companies or nonprofit
organizations or they may be self-insured. Tabulations of retirement pension plans are
limited to those plans that provide monthly payments for the remainder of the worker’ s life.

Establishments and workers in major industry divisions and in selected industries
by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, February
Minimum
Number of establishments
size
establish­
Within
Item
ment
Studied
scope of
in scope of
study
study 2
Industry divisions in which
occupations were surveyed
on an area basis
21
204
A ll divisions-----------------------------------------------------77
21
104
Manufacturing__ ___________________________
43
34
Nonmanufacturing ___________ ______________
100
Transportation (excluding railroads),
communication, and other public
4
utilities 4 _______ ______________________
21
8
21
Wholesale trade __________________________
3
9
Retail trade ___________________________ __
21
64
19
21
10
4
Finance, insurance, and real estate__________
Services 6 ________________________________
21
4
9
Industries in which
occupations were surveyed
on an industry basis 7
Metalworking ________________________________
21
21
12
Women's cement process shoes conventional lasted __________________________
10
21
12
-

in Lawrence, Mass. , 1 and number studied
1956

Total3

25,500
20,300
5,200
700
400
3,000
600
500

4, 600
2, 600

Workers in establishments
Within scope of study
Office
Plant

2,300
1,300
1,000
( 56
)
7
(*)
(!)
(•)
( s)

500
100

Studied
Total 3

20,600
17,200
3,400

17,600
15,220
2,380

( 5)
( )
(!)
(*>
( 5)

510
120
1,170
310
270

3, 600
2,400

4,170
2,300

1 The Lawrence Metropolitan'Area (Lawrence City; Andover, Methuen, and North Andover towns in Essex County, Mass.). The "workers within scope of study"
estimates shown in this table provide a reasonably accurate description of the size and composition of the labor force included in the survey. The estimates are not
intended, however, to serve as a basis of comparison with other area employment indexes to measure employment trends or levels since (1) planning of wage surveys
requires the use of establishment data compiled considerably in advance of the pay period studied and (2) small establishments are excluded from the scope of the survey.
2 Includes all establishments with total employment at or above the minimum size limitation. A ll outlets (within the area)of companies in such industries as trade,
finance, autorepair service, and motion-picture theaters are considered as 1 establishment.
3 Includes executive, technical, professional, and other workers excluded from the separate office and plant categories.
4 Also excludes taxicabs, and services incidental to water transportation.
5 This industry division is represented in estimates for "all industries" and "nonmanufacturing" in theSeries A and Btables, although coverage wasinsufficient to
justify separate presentation of data.
6 Hotels; personal services; business services; automobile repair shops; radio broadcasting and television; motion pictures; nonprofit membership organizations; and
engineering and architectural services.
7 Industries are defined in footnotes to wage tables.



19

Appendix B:

Descriptions of Occupations Surveyed

T he p r im a r y p u rp o s e o f p r e p a r in g jo b d e s c r ip t io n s fo r the B u r e a u *s w ag e s u r v e y s is to a s s i s t its fie ld s t a ff in c l a s s i ­
fy in g in to a p p r o p r ia te o c cu p a tio n s w o r k e r s w h o a r e e m p lo y e d u n d er a v a r ie t y o f p a y r o ll t it le s and d iffe r e n t w o r k a r r a n g e m e n ts
f r o m e s t a b lis h m e n t to e sta b lis h m e n t and fr o m a r e a to a r e a . T h is is e s s e n t ia l in o r d e r to p e r m it the g ro u p in g o f o c cu p a tio n a l
w a g e r a te s r e p r e s e n t in g c o m p a r a b le jo b c o n te n t. B e c a u s e o f th is e m p h a s is on in te r e s ta b lis h m e n t and in t e r a r e a c o m p a r a b ility
o f o c c u p a t io n a l c o n t e n tf the B u r e a u Y jo b d e s c r ip t io n s m a y d iffe r s ig n ific a n tly fr o m th o se in u se in in d iv id u a l e s ta b lis h m e n ts
s
o r th o s e p r e p a r e d f o r oth er p u r p o s e s . In ap p lyin g th e s e io b d e s c r ip tio n s * the B u reau *s fie ld r e p r e s e n t a t iv e s a r e in s t r u c t e d
to e x c lu d e w o r k in g s u p e r v i s o r s , a p p r e n tic e s , l e a r n e r s , b e g in n e r s , t r a i n e e s , h a n d ic a p p e d w o r k e r s , p a r t -t im e , t e m p o r a r y ,
an d p r o b a t io n a r y w o r k e r s .

ASSEM BLER
(B e n ch a s s e m b le r ; f l o o r a s s e m b le r ; jig a s s e m b le r ; lin e a s s e m b le r ;
s u b a s s e m b le r )
A s s e m b le s a n d /o r fit s to g e th e r p a r ts to fo r m c o m p le t e units o r
s u b a s s e m b lie s at a b e n c h , c o n v e y o r lin e , o r on the f l o o r , depen din g
u pon the s iz e o f the u n its an d the o r g a n iz a tio n o f the p r o d u c tio n p r o c e s s .
W o r k m a y in c lu d e p r o c e s s in g o p e r a tio n s re q u irin g th e u se o f h a n d tools
in s c r a p in g , c h ip p in g , and filin g o f p a r ts to obtain a d e s ir e d fit a s w e ll
a s p o w e r t o o ls an d s p e c ia l eq u ip m en t w hen pu n ch in g, r iv e t in g , s o l d e r ­
in g , o r w e ld in g o f p a r t s is n e c e s s a r y .
W o r k e r s w ho p e r f o r m an y o f
th e s e p r o c e s s in g o p e r a t io n s e x c lu s iv e ly as p a rt o f s p e c ia liz e d a s s e m ­
b lin g o p e r a t io n s a r e e x c lu d e d .

A S S E M B L E R F O R P U L L O V E R , M A C H IN E
P r e p a r e s the u p p e r f o r la stin g b y a s s e m b lin g the c o u n te r and
u p p e r and o p e r a tin g a m a ch in e to ta ck the u p p e r to the w ood en la s t.
W ork in v o lv e s :
P la c in g c o u n te r s on r a c k o f pan con tain in g
c e m e n t,
lo w e r in g r a c k in to pan to a p p ly c e m e n t to c o u n te r s ; in s e r tin g ce m e n te d
c o u n te r b e tw e e n lin in g and u p p e r at the h e e l; settin g a p ie c e o f w ax o r
t is s u e p a p e r n ex t to lin in g to fa c ilita t e r e m o v a l o f la s t a fte r c o m p le tio n
o f o p e r a t io n s ; p la cin g u p p e r on la s t m a k in g c e r t a in that h e e l se a m is
in c e n t e r o f r e a r o f la s t; settin g la s t on a ja c k and pu sh in g ja c k in to
m a ch in e w h ich a u to m a t ic a lly d r iv e s ta ck s th rou g h the u pper in to the
h e e l se a t and h e e l s e a m .

B E D -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R
C la s s A - A s s e m b le s p a rts in to c o m p le te u n its o r s u b a s s e m ­
b l ie s that r e q u ir e fittin g o f p a rts and d e c is io n s r e g a rd in g p r o p e r
p e r fo r m a n c e o f any c o m p o n e n t p a rt o r the a s s e m b le d u n it.
W ork
in v o lv e s an y c o m b in a tio n o f the fo llo w in g : A s s e m b lin g fr o m d r a w ­
in g s , b lu e p r in ts o r o th e r w ritte n s p e c ific a t io n s ; a s s e m b lin g units
c o m p o s e d o f a v a r ie t y o f p a rts a n d /o r s u b a s s e m b lie s ; a s s e m b lin g
la r g e u n its r e q u ir in g c a r e fu l fittin g and adju sting o f p a rts to obtain
s p e c if i e d c le a r a n c e s ; u sin g a v a r ie ty o f hand and p o w e r e d t o o ls and
p r e c i s i o n m e a s u r in g in s tr u m e n ts .

(B e d la s t e r ; b e d -la s t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r ; h e e l and fo r e p a r t la s t e r )
C o m p le te s the o p e r a t io n s o f d ra w in g the t o e , o r toe and h e e l,
o f the u p p er o f a sh oe tig h tly o v e r the la s t .
W o rk in v o lv e s :
Setting
sh oe on m a ch in e w ith s o le u p , an d m a n ip u latin g hand le v e r s c o n tr o llin g
a s e r i e s o f w ip e r s (fr ic t io n p u lle r s ) w h ich d ra w the u p p er o v e r ed g e o f
in s o le at toe o r to e and h e e l; h o ld in g u p p e r in p la c e w ith the w ip e r s ;
s e c u r in g u p p e r at the to e in on e o f the fo llo w in g w a y s:
M cK a y s y s t e m - T a ck in g u p p e r , u sin g a u to m a t ic a lly -fe d h an dta ck in g d e v ic e , the ta ck s r e m a in in g in the fin is h e d sh oe.

C la s s B - A s s e m b le s p a r ts in to units o r s u b a s s e m b lie s in a c ­
c o r d a n c e w ith sta n d a rd an d p r e s c r i b e d p r o c e d u r e s .
W ork in v o lv e s
an y c o m b in a tio n o f the fo llo w in g : A s s e m b lin g a lim ite d ra n g e o f
sta n d a rd an d fa m ilia r p r o d u c ts c o m p o s e d o f a n u m b er o f s m a ll- o r
m e d iu m - s iz e p a r t s r e q u ir in g so m e fittin g o r a d ju stin g ; a s s e m b lin g
la r g e u n its that r e q u ir e lit t le o r n o fittin g o f c o m p o n e n t p a r t s ;
w o rk in g u n d e r c o n d itio n s w h e r e a c c u r a t e p e r fo r m a n c e and c o m p le ­
tio n o f w o r k w ith in s e t tim e lim its a r e e s s e n t ia l f o r su b seq u en t
a s s e m b lin g o p e r a t io n s ; u sin g a lim ite d v a r ie ty o f hand o r p o w e r e d
to o ls .
C la s s C - P e r f o r m s s h o r t - c y c l e , r e p e titiv e a s s e m b lin g o p e r ­
a t io n s .
W o r k d o e s n ot in v o lv e any fittin g o r m akin g d e c is io n s r e ­
g a r d in g p r o p e r p e r fo r m a n c e o f the com p on en t p a rts o r a s s e m b lin g
p roced u res.




W elt s y s t e m - P a s s in g a w ir e fr o m an a n c h o r ta ck , w h ich he
d r iv e s on one sid e o f the s h o e , a rou n d the d r a w n -in u pper at the
t o e , to the o p p o s ite sid e w h e r e he w in ds it a rou n d a n oth er a n ch o r
ta c k , to h o ld u p p er in p la c e u n til it is s titc h e d to in s o le b y a la te r
o p e r a tio n ; o r m a y sta p le u p p er in ste a d o f u sin g ab ove m e th o d s.
C em en t s y s t e m - W ip in g to e in p la c e and h o ld in g it w ith w ip e r ;
tr im m in g o f f su rp lu s to e b o x , lin in g and u p p e r , b y h and, c lo s e to
in s o le ; ap p lyin g c e m e n t to in s o le b e tw e e n lin in g and u pper at toe
and fold in g o v e r la stin g a llo w a n ce o f u p p e r and stick in g it in in ­
so le .
If the h e e l a l s o is la s t e d in the p r o c e s s , an a u to m a tic a lly fe d h a n d -ta ck in g d e v ic e is u s e d to d r iv e ta ck s th rou gh the u p p er
at the h e e l.

20
B IL L E R , M ACH IN E

C A R P E N T E R , M A IN TE N A N C E - C on tin u ed

P r e p a r e s s ta te m e n ts , b i l l s , and in v o ic e s on a m a ch in e oth er
than an o r d in a r y o r e le c t r o m a t ic t y p e w r it e r .
M a y a ls o k e e p r e c o r d s
a s to b illin g s o r sh ipp ing c h a r g e s o r p e r f o r m o th e r c l e r i c a l w o r k in ­
cid e n ta l to b illin g o p e r a t io n s .
F o r w a g e stu d y p u r p o s e s , b i l l e r s , m a ­
ch in e, a r e c la s s if i e d b y type o f m a c h in e , a s fo llo w s :

m a d e o f w o o d in an e s ta b lis h m e n t. W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g :
P lann in g and la yin g out o f w o r k f r o m b lu e p r in t s , d r a w in g s , m o d e ls , o r
v e r b a l in s tr u c tio n s ; u sin g a v a r ie t y o f c a r p e n t e r * s h a n d to o ls , p o r ta b le
p o w e r t o o l s , and sta n d a rd m e a s u r in g in s t r u m e n ts ; m a k in g sta n d a r d sh op
com p u ta tion s rela tin g to d im e n s io n s o f w o r k ; s e le c t in g m a t e r ia ls n e c e s ­
s a r y f o r the w o r k .
In g e n e r a l, the w o r k o f th e m a in te n a n ce c a r p e n t e r
r e q u ir e s rou n ded tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th rou g h a
fo r m a l a p p re n tice s h ip o r eq u iv a len t tr a in in g an d e x p e r i e n c e .

B i l l e r , m a ch in e (b illin g m a c h in e ) - U s e s a s p e c ia l b illin g m a ­
ch in e (M oon H op k in s, E llio t t F is h e r , B u r r o u g h s , e t c . , w h ich a r e
c o m b in a tio n typin g and addin g m a c h in e s ) to p r e p a r e b i lls and in ­
v o i c e s fr o m c u s to m e r s * p u r c h a s e o r d e r s , in te r n a lly p r e p a r e d o r ­
d e r s , sh ipp ing m e m o r a n d u m , e t c .
U s u a lly in v o lv e s a p p lic a tio n o f
p r e d e te r m in e d d is co u n ts and sh ipp in g c h a r g e s and e n tr y o f n e c e s s a r y
e x t e n s io n s , w h ich m a y o r m a y n ot b e c o m p u te d on the b illin g m a c h in e ,
an d to ta ls w h ich a r e a u to m a t ic a lly a c c u m u la te d b y m a c h in e .
The
o p e r a t io n u s u a lly in v o lv e s a la r g e n u m b e r o f c a r b o n c o p ie s o f the
b i l l b ein g p r e p a r e d and is o fte n don e on a fa n fo ld m a c h in e .
B i l l e r , m a ch in e (b o o k k e e p in g m a c h in e ) - U ses a b oo k k e e p in g
m a ch in e (S u n dstra n d, E llio tt F is h e r , R em in g ton R a n d , e t c . , w h ich
m a y o r m a y n ot h ave ty p e w r ite r k e y b o a r d ) to p r e p a r e c u s to m e r s *
b i lls as p a rt o f the a c c o u n ts r e c e iv a b le o p e r a t io n .
G e n e r a lly in ­
v o lv e s the sim u lta n e o u s e n tr y o f fig u r e s on c u s t o m e r s * le d g e r r e c ­
ord.
The m a ch in e a u to m a t ic a lly a c c u m u la te s fig u r e s on a n u m b er
o f v e r t ic a l c o lu m n s and c o m p u te s and u s u a lly p r in ts a u to m a tic a lly
the d e b it o r c r e d it b a la n c e s .
D o e s n ot in v o lv e a k n ow led g e o f
b o o k k e e p in g .
W o r k s fr o m u n ifo r m and sta n d a rd ty p e s o f s a le s and
c r e d it s lip s .

B O O K K E E P IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R
O p e ra te s
a b o o k k e e p in g
m a ch in e (R e m in g to n R a n d ,
E llio t t
F is h e r , Su n dstran d, B u r r o u g h s , N a tion a l C a sh R e g is t e r , w ith o r w ith ­
out a ty p e w r ite r k e y b o a r d ) to k e e p a r e c o r d o f b u s in e s s t r a n s a c t io n s .
C la s s A - K eep s a s e t o f r e c o r d s r e q u ir in g a k n ow led g e o f and
e x p e r ie n c e in b a s i c b o o k k e e p in g p r in c ip le s and fa m ilia r it y w ith the
s t r u c tu r e o f the p a r t ic u la r a cco u n tin g s y s t e m u s e d .
D e te r m in e s
p r o p e r r e c o r d s and d is tr ib u tio n o f d eb it and c r e d it it e m s to be
u s e d in e a c h p h a se o f the w o r k . M a y p r e p a r e c o n s o lid a te d r e p o r t s ,
b a la n c e s h e e ts , and o th e r r e c o r d s b y h an d.
C la s s B - K eep s a r e c o r d o f one o r m o r e p h a s e s o r s e c tio n s
o f a s e t o f r e c o r d s u s u a lly r e q u ir in g lit tle k n ow led g e o f b a s ic
b o o k k e e p in g .
P h a s e s o r s e c t io n s in clu d e a c c o u n ts p a y a b le , p a y ­
r o l l , c u s to m e r s * a c c o u n ts (n ot in clu d in g s im p le type o f b illin g d e ­
s c r ib e d u n der b i l l e r , m a c h in e ), c o s t d is tr ib u tio n , ex p e n s e d is tr ib u tio n ,
in v e n to r y c o n t r o l, e t c . M a y c h e c k o r a s s i s t in p r e p a r a t io n o f t r ia l
b a la n c e s and p r e p a r e c o n t r o l sh e e ts f o r the a cco u n tin g d e p a rtm e n t.
C A R P E N T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E
P e r f o r m s the c a r p e n t r y d u ties n e c e s s a r y to c o n s tr u c t and m a in ­
tain in g o o d r e p a ir b u ild in g w o o d w o r k and eq u ip m en t su ch as b in s , c r i b s ,
c o u n te r s , b e n c h e s , p a r t it io n s , d o o r s , f l o o r s , s t a ir s , c a s i n g s , and t r im




C L E R K , AC CO U N TIN G
C la s s A - U nder g e n e r a l d ir e c t io n o f a b o o k k e e p e r o r a c c o u n ta n t,
h as r e s p o n s ib ility fo r k eep in g on e o r m o r e s e c t io n s o f a c o m p le t e
s e t o f b o o k s o r r e c o r d s r e la tin g t o on e p h a s e o f an e s ta b lis h m e n t* s
b u s in e s s tr a n s a c t io n s . W o r k in v o lv e s p o s tin g and b a la n c in g s u b s id ­
ia r y le d g e r o r le d g e r s su ch a s a c c o u n ts r e c e iv a b le o r a c c o u n ts
p a y a b le ; ex a m in in g and c o d in g in v o ic e s o r v o u c h e r s w ith p r o p e r
a cco u n tin g d is tr ib u tio n ; r e q u ir e s ju d g m e n t an d e x p e r ie n c e in m a k in g
p r o p e r a s s ig n a tio n s and a l lo c a t i o n s .
M a y a s s i s t in p r e p a r in g , a d ­
ju stin g and c lo s in g jo u r n a l e n t r ie s ; m a y d i r e c t c l a s s B a c c o u n tin g
c le r k s .
C la s s B - U n der s u p e r v is io n , p e r f o r m s on e o r m o r e r o u tin e a c ­
coun tin g o p e r a tio n s su ch as p o s tin g s im p le jo u r n a l v o u c h e r s , a c c o u n ts
p a y a b le v o u c h e r s , en te rin g v o u c h e r s in v o u c h e r r e g i s t e r s ; r e c o n c i l lin g bank a c c o u n ts ; p o s tin g s u b s id ia r y le d g e r s c o n t r o ll e d b y g e n e r a l
le d g e r s .
T h is jo b d o e s n ot r e q u ir e a k n o w le d g e o f a c c o u n tin g and
b ook k eep in g p r in c ip le s but is fou n d in o f f i c e s in w h ich the m o r e
rou tin e a ccou n tin g w o r k is s u b d iv id e d on a fu n c tio n a l b a s i s a m on g
sev era l w ork ers.

CLERK,

F IL E

C la s s A - R e s p o n s ib le f o r m a in ta in in g an e s t a b lis h e d filin g s y s ­
te m . C la s s ifie s and in d e x e s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e o r o th e r m a t e r ia l; m a y
a l s o file th is m a t e r ia l. M a y k e e p r e c o r d s o f v a r io u s ty p e s in c o n ­
ju n ctio n w ith file s o r s u p e r v is e o th e r s in filin g and lo c a t in g m a t e r ia l
in the f ile s . M a y p e r fo r m in c id e n t a l c l e r i c a l d u tie s .
C la s s B - P e r fo r m s r o u tin e f ili n g , u s u a lly o f m a t e r ia l that h a s
a lr e a d y b e e n c l a s s if i e d , o r lo c a t e s o r a s s i s t s in lo c a t in g m a t e r ia l
in f i l e s . M a y p e r fo r m in c id e n ta l c l e r i c a l d u tie s .

CLERK,

PAYROLL

C om p u tes w a g e s o f c o m p a n y e m p lo y e e s an d e n te r s the n e c e s s a r y
data on the p a y r o ll s h e e ts .
D u ties in v o lv e : C a lc u la tin g w o r k e r 's e a r n ­
in g s b a s e d on tim e o r p r o d u c tio n r e c o r d s ; p o s tin g c a lc u la t e d data on
p a y r o ll sh e e t, sh ow in g in fo r m a t io n su ch a s w o r k e r 's n a m e , w o rk in g
d a y s ,, t im e , r a te , d e d u ction s f o r in s u r a n c e , an d to ta l w a g e s du e.
M ay
m a k e out p a y c h e c k s and a s s i s t p a y m a s t e r in m a k in g up an d d is tr ib u tin g
p a y e n v e lo p e s .
M ay u se a c a lc u la tin g m a c h in e .

21

D U P L IC A T IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R (M IM E O G R A P H OR D IT T O )

CR O W N ER (IN S P E C T O R )
(E x a m in e r )
E x a m in e s sh o e p a r t s , p a r tly fin is h e d sh oes in v a r io u s sta g e s o f
m a n u fa c tu r e , o r fin is h e d s h o e s b e fo r e p a ck in g . W ork in v o lv e s in s p e c tin g
f o r the fo llo w in g im p e r fe c t io n s : Ir r e g u la r it y o f le a th e r s u r fa c e s ; m i s ­
p la c e d o r in c o m p le t e ly d r iv e n ta c k s ; u n ev en n ess and i n c o r r e c t am ou n t o f
stitc h in g ; in s id e m is a lig n m e n t ; im p r o p e r p r o p o r t io n o f to e tip . M ay c o r ­
r e c t m in o r d e fe c t s o r im p e r fe c t io n s and r e je c t m a jo r d e fe c t s f o r r e p r o c ­
e s s in g in p r o p e r d e p a rtm e n t.
CUTTER,

V A M P A N D W H O L E SH O E, M ACH IN E

C uts p a r t s o f sh oe u p p e r s fr o m h id e s , skins o r fa b r ic a t e d m a t e ­
r i a l s , b y m e a n s o f a c lic k in g m a ch in e . W ork in v o lv e s :
Setting le a th e r
o r o th e r sh oe m a t e r ia l on cu ttin g ta b le o f m a ch in e ; s e le c t in g p r o p e r die
and settin g it in p la c e on m a t e r ia l; d e p r e s s in g le v e r to c a u s e u p p er a r m
to d r o p a u to m a t ic a lly on the d ie w ith s u ffic ie n t fo r c e to cut m a t e r ia l to
the sh ape an d s iz e o f the d ie .
DRAFTSM AN,

JUNIOR

(A s s is ta n t d r a fts m a n )
D ra w s to s c a le u nits o r p a rts o f d ra w in gs p r e p a r e d b y d r a fts m a n
o r o th e r s f o r e n g in e e r in g , c o n s tr u c tio n , o r m a n u fa ctu rin g p u r p o s e s .
U s e s v a r io u s ty p e s o f d ra ftin g t o o ls as r e q u ir e d . M ay p r e p a r e d ra w in g s
f r o m s im p le p la n s o r s k e t c h e s , o r p e r fo r m oth er d u ties u n d er d ir e c t io n
o f a d r a fts m a n .
DRAFTSM AN,

SENIOR

P r e p a r e s w o rk in g p la n s and d e ta il draw in gs fr o m n o t e s , rou g h
o r d e ta ile d s k e tc h e s f o r e n g in e e r in g , c o n s tr u c tio n , o r m a n u fa ctu rin g
p u rp oses.
D u tie s in v o lv e a c o m b in a tio n , o f the fo llo w in g : P r e p a r in g
w o r k in g p la n s , d e t a il d r a w in g s , m a p s , c r o s s - s e c t i o n s , e t c . , to s c a le
b y u s e o f d r a ftin g in s t r u m e n ts ; m akin g en g in eerin g co m p u ta tio n s su ch
a s th o s e in v o lv e d in s tre n g th o f m a t e r ia ls , b ea m s and t r u s s e s ; v e r i ­
fy in g c o m p le t e d w o r k , c h e c k in g d im e n s io n s , m a te r ia ls to b e u s e d , and
q u a n titie s ; w r itin g s p e c if i c a t io n s ; m akin g ad ju stm en ts o r ch a n g e s in d r a w ­
in g s o r s p e c ifi c a t io n s . M a y ink in lin e s and le t te r s on p e n c il d r a w in g s ,
p r e p a r e d e ta il u n its o f c o m p le t e d r a w in g s , o r tr a c e d r a w in g s . W ork is
fr e q u e n t ly in a s p e c ia liz e d fie ld su ch a s a r c h it e c t u r a l, e l e c t r i c a l , m e ­
c h a n ic a l, o r s t r u c t u r a l d r a ftin g .

U nder g e n e r a l s u p e r v is io n and w ith n o s u p e r v is o r y r e s p o n s i­
b i l i t i e s , r e p r o d u c e s m u ltip le c o p ie s o f ty p e w ritte n o r h an dw ritten m a tt e r ,
u sin g a m im e o g r a p h o r ditto m a c h in e . M a k es n e c e s s a r y a d ju stm en t su ch
a s fo r ink and p a p e r fe e d c o u n te r and c y lin d e r s p e e d .
Is not r e q u ir e d
to p r e p a r e s t e n c il o r ditto m a s t e r .
M ay k e e p file o f u s e d s te n c ils o r
ditto m a s t e r s .
M a y s o r t , c o lla t e , and sta p le c o m p le t e d m a te r ia l.
ED G E T R IM M E R , M A C H IN E
(E d g e -t r im m in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r ; t r im m e r , a p ex ; t r im m e r , m a rg in )
T r im s , cu ts to s i z e , and sm o o th s the ed g e o f sh o e s b y turning
and m a n ip u la tin g the sid e s u r fa c e s o f the s o le s a g a in s t the r e v o lv in g
cuttin g t o o l o f an e d g e -t r im m in g m a c h in e .
E L E C T R IC IA N , M A IN T E N A N C E
P e r fo r m s a v a r ie t y o f e l e c t r i c a l tr a d e fu n ction s su ch as the
in s t a lla tio n , m a in te n a n ce , o r r e p a ir o f eq u ip m en t f o r the g e n e ra tin g ,
d is tr ib u tio n , o r u tiliz a tio n o f e l e c t r i c e n e r g y in an e s ta b lis h m e n t. W ork
in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : In sta llin g o r r e p a ir in g any o f a v a r ie ty
o f e l e c t r i c a l eq u ip m en t su ch a s g e n e r a t o r s , t r a n s f o r m e r s , s w itch b o a rd s ,
c o n t r o l l e r s , c ir c u it b r e a k e r s , m o t o r s , h eatin g u n its , con d u it s y s t e m s ,
o r o th e r t r a n s m is s io n e q u ip m en t; w o rk in g fr o m b lu e p r in t s , d ra w in g s ,
la y o u t, o r oth er s p e c ific a t io n s ; lo c a tin g an d d ia g n o sin g tr o u b le in the
e l e c t r i c a l s y s te m o r e q u ip m en t; w o rk in g sta n d a rd com p u ta tion s rela tin g
to lo a d r e q u ir e m e n ts o f w irin g o r e l e c t r i c a l eq u ip m en t; u sin g a v a r ie ty
o f e le c t r ic ia n *s h a n d tools and m e a s u r in g and te s tin g in stru m e n ts .
In
g e n e r a l, the w o r k o f the m a in te n a n ce e l e c t r ic ia n r e q u ir e s rou n ded tr a in ­
ing and e x p e r ie n c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th rou g h a fo r m a l a p p re n tice s h ip o r
e q u iv a le n t tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .
E N G IN E E R , S T A T IO N A R Y
O p e ra te s and m a in ta in s and m a y a l s o s u p e r v is e the o p e r a tio n o f
sta tio n a r y en g in es and eq u ip m en t (m e c h a n ic a l o r e l e c t r i c a l ) to su pply th e
e sta b lis h m e n t in w h ich e m p lo y e d w ith p o w e r , h e a t, r e fr ig e r a t io n , o r
a ir co n d itio n in g .
W o rk in v o lv e s :
O p era tin g and m a in tain in g equ ipm ent
su ch a s ste a m e n g in e s , a ir c o m p r e s s o r s , g e n e r a t o r s , m o t o r s , tu r b in e s ,
v en tila tin g and r e fr ig e r a t in g e q u ip m e n t, s te a m b o i l e r s and b o i l e r - f e d
w a te r p u m p s; m a k in g eq u ip m en t r e p a ir s ; k e e p in g a r e c o r d o f o p e r a tio n o f
m a c h in e r y , te m p e r a tu r e , and fu e l c o n s u m p tio n .
M ay a ls o s u p e r v is e
th e se o p e r a t io n s .
H ead o r c h ie f e n g in e e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts em p loy in g
m o r e than one e n g in e e r a r e e x c lu d e d .
F A N C Y ST IT C H E R

D R IL L -P R E S S O P E R A T O R ,

R A D IA L

O p e ra te s on e o r m o r e ty p e s o f r a d ia l-d r illin g m a c h in e s d e s ig n e d
p r im a r i ly f o r the p u r p o s e o f d r illin g , r e a m in g , c o u n te r s in k in g , c o u n t e r ­
b o r in g , s p o t -fa c in g , o r tap p in g h o le s in la r g e o r h e a v y m e ta l p a r t s .
S e v e r a l ty p e s o f r a d ia l d r i l l s a r e in u s e , the m o s t c o m m o n type b ein g
d e s ig n e d s o that th e t o o l h e a d and sa ddle a r e m o v a b le a lon g a p r o je c t in g
a r m w h ich ca n b e r o ta te d a b ou t a v e r t ic a l co lu m n and a d ju ste d v e r t i ­
c a l l y on that c o lu m n .
(F o r d e s c r ip t io n o f c la s s o f w o r k s e e m a c h in e t o o l o p e r a t o r , p r o d u c t i o n .)




(A p p liq u e s t it c h e r ; b lin d -r o w s t it c h e r ; etch in g s t itc h e r ; e y e le t -r o w
s t it c h e r ; s t r ip p e r , stitch in g ; tr im m in g s t it c h e r )
O p e ra te s a p o w e r -d r iv e n sew in g m a ch in e to s titch d e c o r a tiv e
d e s ig n s on sh oe u p p e r s , su ch a s ou tlin in g e y e le t r o w , stitch in g im ita tio n
fo x in g s o r fa n c y p a n e l d e s ig n s , running e x tr a r o w s o f stitch in g , and
stitch in g piping and o rn a m e n ta l le a th e r s t r ip s (a p p liq u e ). W ork in v o lv e s :
In se r tin g m a t e r ia l u n d er the p r e s s e r fo o t and n e e d le o f m a ch in e ; d e p r e s s ­
ing le v e r to sta r t m a c h in e ; g u id in g m a t e r ia l b y hand (u su a lly along p r e ­
v io u s ly m a r k e d lin e s on m a t e r ia l)a s stitch in g is p e r fo r m e d .

22

F IR E M A N ,

S T A T IO N A R Y B O IL E R

F ir e s s ta tio n a ry b o i l e r s to fu rn ish the e s ta b lis h m e n t in w h ich
e m p lo y e d w ith h e a t, p o w e r , o r ste a m .
F e e d s fu el to f ir e b y hand o r
o p e r a te s a m e c h a n ic a l s t o k e r , g a s , o r o il b u r n e r ; c h e c k s w a te r and
sa fe ty v a lv e s .
M a y c le a n , o i l , o r a s s i s t in r e p a ir in g b o i le r r o o m
eq u ip m en t.
FLOOR BOY

IN S P E C T O R - C on tinu ed

C la ss B - W ork in v o lv e s an y c o m b in a tio n o f the fo llo w in g : K n o w l­
e d g e o f p r o c e s s in g o p e r a tio n s in the b r a n c h o f w o r k to w h ich h e is
a s s ig n e d , lim ite d to fa m ilia r p r o d u c ts and p r o c e s s e s o r w h e r e p e r ­
fo r m a n c e is depen den t on p a s t e x p e r i e n c e ; p e r fo r m in g in s p e c t io n
o p e r a tio n s on p r o d u c ts a n d /o r p r o c e s s e s h a v in g r ig i d s p e c if i c a t io n s ,
but w h ere the in s p e c tio n p r o c e d u r e s in v o lv e a se q u e n c e o f in s p e c tio n
o p e r a t io n s , in clu d in g d e c is io n s r e g a r d in g p r o p e r fit o r p e r fo r m a n c e
o f s o m e p a r t s ; u sin g p r e c i s io n m e a s u r in g in s t r u m e n ts .

(A s s e m b ly b o y ; flo o r m a n ; r o u t e r )
K eep s s t o c k and d is tr ib u te s p a r t ia lly fin is h e d m a t e r ia ls u s e d in
the m a n u fa ctu re o f fo o tw e a r to v a r io u s d e p a rtm e n ts to k eep w o r k e r s
su p p lied w ith m a t e r ia l, u sin g tr u c k o r c a r r y in g m a t e r ia l. M ay p e r f o r m
sim p le m a ch in e o p e r a tio n s u n d er d ir e c t io n o f fo r e m a n , su ch a s te m p e rin g
s o le s and m o ld in g e d g e s o f s o l e s .

C la s s C - W ork in v o lv e s an y c o m b in a tio n o f the fo llo w in g : S h o r tc y c l e , r e p e titiv e in s p e c tio n o p e r a t io n s ; u sin g a s t a n d a r d iz e d , s p e c i a l p u r p o s e m e a s u rin g in stru m e n t r e p e t it iv e ly ; v is u a l e x a m in a tio n o f
p a r t s or p r o d u c t s , r e je c t in g u n its h a v in g o b v io u s d e fo r m it ie s o r
fla w s .

G U AR D
J A N IT O R ,
P e r f o r m s rou tin e p o li c e d u tie s , e it h e r at fix e d p o s t o r on t o u r ,
m a in tain in g o r d e r , u sin g a r m s o r f o r c e w h e r e n e c e s s a r y *
In clu d e s
g a te m e n w h o a r e sta tio n e d at gate and c h e c k on id en tity o f e m p lo y e e s
and o th e r p e r s o n s e n te r in g .

H ELPER,

T R A D E S , M A IN T E N A N C E

A s s i s t s one o r m o r e w o r k e r s in the s k ille d m a in ten a n ce t r a d e s ,
b y p e r fo r m in g s p e c if i c o r g e n e r a l du ties o f l e s s e r s k ill, su ch a s k eep in g
a w o r k e r su p p lied w ith m a t e r ia ls and t o o l s ; cle a n in g w o rk in g a r e a , m a ­
ch in e and e q u ip m en t; a s s is tin g w o r k e r b y h old in g m a t e r ia ls o r t o o l s ;
p e r fo r m in g o th e r u n s k ille d ta s k s a s d ir e c t e d b y jo u r n e y m a n .
T h e kin d
o f w o r k the h e lp e r is p e r m it te d to p e r f o r m v a r ie s fr o m tr a d e to tr a d e :
In s o m e tr a d e s the h e lp e r is c o n fin e d to s u p p ly in g , lift in g , and h o ld in g
m a t e r ia ls and t o o ls and cle a n in g w o rk in g a r e a s ; and in o th e r s he is
p e r m it te d to p e r f o r m s p e c ia liz e d m a ch in e o p e r a t io n s , o r p a rts o f a tra d e
that a r e a ls o p e r fo r m e d b y w o r k e r s on a fu ll-t im e b a s is .
IN SPE C TO R
In s p e c ts p a r t s , p r o d u c ts a n d /o r p r o c e s s e s . P e r fo r m s su ch o p e r ­
ation s as ex a m in in g p a rts o r p r o d u c ts fo r fla w s and d e f e c t s , c h e c k in g
th e ir d im e n s io n s and a p p e a r a n ce to d e te rm in e w h eth er th ey m e e t the
r e q u ir e d sta n d a rd s and s p e c ific a t io n s .
C la s s A - R e s p o n s ib le f o r d e c is io n s re g a rd in g the q u a lity o f the
p r o d u c t a n d /o r o p e r a t io n s .
W ork in v o lv e s any co m b in a tio n o f the
fo llo w in g : T h o ro u g h k n ow led g e o f the p r o c e s s in g o p e r a tio n s in the
b r a n c h o f w o r k to w h ich he is a s s ig n e d , in clu d in g the u se o f a
v a r ie t y o f p r e c i s io n m e a s u r in g in s tru m e n ts ; in te r p r e tin g d ra w in g s
an d s p e c ific a t io n s in in s p e c tio n w o r k on u nits c o m p o s e d o f a la r g e
n u m b er o f co m p o n e n t p a r t s ; e x a m in in g a v a r ie t y o f p r o d u c ts o r p r o c ­
e s s in g o p e r a t io n s ; d e te rm in in g c a u s e s o f fla w s in p r o d u c ts a n d /o r
p r o c e s s e s and su g g estin g n e c e s s a r y ch a n g es to c o r r e c t w o r k m e th o d s ;
d e v is in g in s p e c tio n p r o c e d u r e s f o r new p r o d u c t s .




PORTER,

OR C L E A N E R

(S w e e p e r; c h a rw om a n ; ja n i t r e s s )
C lean s and k e e p s in an o r d e r l y c o n d itio n f a c t o r y w o rk in g a r e a s
and w a s h r o o m s , o r p r e m is e s o f an o f f i c e , a p a r tm e n t h o u s e , o r c o m m e r ­
c ia l o r oth er e s ta b lis h m e n t. D u ties in v o lv e a c o m b in a tio n o f the fo llo w in g :
S w eep in g , m op pin g o r s c r u b b in g , an d p o lis h in g f l o o r s ; r e m o v in g c h ip s ,
t r a s h , and oth er r e fu s e ; du sting e q u ip m e n t, fu r n itu r e , o r fix t u r e s ; p o l ­
ish in g m e ta l fix tu r e s o r tr im m in g s ; p r o v id in g s u p p lie s an d m in o r m a in ­
ten a n ce s e r v ic e s ; clea n in g l a v a t o r ie s , s h o w e r s , and r e s t r o o m s . W o r k e r s
w ho s p e c ia liz e in w in dow w ash in g a r e e x c lu d e d .

K E Y -P U N C H O P E R A T O R
U nder g e n e r a l s u p e r v is io n an d w ith n o s u p e r v i s o r y r e s p o n s i ­
b i l i t i e s , r e c o r d s a ccou n tin g and s t a t is t ic a l data on ta bu la tin g c a r d s b y
pu nch ing a s e r ie s o f h o le s in the c a r d s in a s p e c ifi e d s e q u e n c e , u sin g
an a lp h a b e tica l o r a n u m e r ic a l k e y -p u n c h m a c h in e , fo llo w in g w r it te n
in fo r m a t io n on r e c o r d s .
M a y d u p lic a te c a r d s b y u sin g the d u p lica tin g
d e v ic e atta ch ed to m a ch in e .
K e e p s f i l e s o f p u n ch c a r d s .
M ay v e r ify
own w o r k o r w o rk o f o th e r s .

L A B O R E R , M A T E R IA L H AN DLIN G
(L o a d e r and u n lo a d e r ; h a n d le r and s t a c k e r ; s h e lv e r ; t r u c k e r ; sto ck m a n
o r sto ck h e lp e r ; w a r e h o u s e m a n o r w a r e h o u s e h e lp e r )
A w o r k e r e m p lo y e d in a w a r e h o u s e , m a n u fa c tu r in g p la n t, s t o r e ,
o r o th e r e s ta b lis h m e n t w h ose d u tie s in v o lv e one o r m o r e o f the fo llo w in g :
L oa d in g and u nloadin g v a r io u s m a t e r ia ls an d m e r c h a n d is e on o r fr o m
fr e ig h t c a r s , tr u ck s o r oth er tr a n s p o r t in g d e v ic e s ; u n p a ck in g , s h e lv in g ,
o r p la c in g m a te r ia ls o r m e r c h a n d is e in p r o p e r s t o r a g e lo c a t io n ; t r a n s ­
p o r tin g m a te r ia ls o r m e r c h a n d is e b y h and t r u c k , c a r o r w h e e lb a r r o w .
L o n g s h o r e m e n , w ho lo a d and u n lo a d sh ip s a r e e x c lu d e d .

M A C H IN E -T O O L O P E R A T O R ,

P R O D U C TIO N

O p e r a te s one o r m o r e n o n p o r ta b le , p o w e r -d r iv e n m a ch in e to o ls
in o r d e r to sh ap e m e t a l b y p r o g r e s s i v e l y r e m o b in g p o r tio n s o f the s to c k
in the fo r m o f c h ip s o r s h a v in g s , o r b y a b ra sion *
F o r w a g e study
p u r p o s e s , th is c l a s s i f i c a t i o n is lim ite d to o p e r a t o r s o f the fo llo w in g
ty p e s o f m a ch in e t o o ls :

A u to m a tic la th e s
B o rin g m a c h in e s
D r il l p r e s s e s , r a d ia l
D r il l p r e s s e s , s i n g le - o r
m u ltip le - sp in d le
E n g in e la th e s
G e a r -c u t t in g m a c h in e s
G e a r -fin is h in g m a c h in e s
G rin d in g m a c h in e s

*M ach in e t o o l s ,
m is c e lla n e o u s
M illin g m a ch in e s
P la n e r s
S c r e w m a c h in e s , a u tom a tic
S c r e w m a c h in e s , hand
S h a pers
T u r r e t la th e s , a u to m a tic
T u r r e t la th e s , hand

C la s s A - S ets up m a c h in e s , by* d eterm in in g p r o p e r fe e d s ,
s p e e d s , t o o lin g an d o p e r a t io n se q u e n ce o r b y s e le c t in g th o s e p r e ­
s c r ib e d in d r a w in g s , b lu e p r in ts o r la y o u ts ; m a k es n e c e s s a r y a d ju s t­
m e n ts du rin g op e r a ti on w h e r e ch a n g es in w o r k and setup a r e r e la t iv e ly
fr e q u e n t an d w h e r e c a r e is e s s e n t ia l to a c h ie v e r e q u is ite d im e n s io n s
o f v e ry c lo s e to le r a n c e s .
C la s s B - S ets up m a c h in e s on stan d ard o r rou g h in g o p e r a tio n s
w h e r e fe e d s , s p e e d s , to o lin g and o p e r a tio n seq u en ce a r e p r e s c r i b e d
o r m a in ta in s o p e r a t io n setu p m a d e b y o th e r s ; m a k es a ll n e c e s s a r y
a d ju s tm e n ts d u rin g o p e r a t io n w h e r e c a r e is e s s e n t ia l to a c h ie v e v e r y
c l o s e t o le r a n c e s o r w h e r e ch a n g es in p r o d u c t a r e r e la t iv e ly fr e q u e n t.
C la s s C - O p e r a te s m a c h in e s on rou tin e and r e p e tit iv e o p e r a t io n s ;
m a k e s o n ly m in o r a d ju stm e n ts during o p e r a tio n s ; w hen tr o u b le o c c u r s
s to p s m a ch in e and c a lls fo r e m a n , le a d m a n , o r setup m a n to c o r r e c t
th e o p e r a t io n .

M A C H IN E -T O O L O P E R A T O R ,

T O O LR O O M

S p e c ia liz e s in the o p e r a t io n o f one o r m o r e ty p e s o f m a ch in e
t o o l s , su ch a s jig b o r e r s , c y li n d r ic a l o r s u r fa c e g r in d e r s , en gin e la th e s ,
o r m illin g m a c h in e s in the c o n s tr u c tio n o f m a c h in e -s h o p t o o l s , g a u g e s ,
j i g s , fix t u r e s , o r d ie s . W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : Plann in g
and p e r fo r m in g d iffic u lt m a ch in in g o p e r a tio n s ; p r o c e s s in g it e m s r e q u ir in g
c o m p lic a t e d se tu p s o r a h igh d e g r e e o f a c c u r a c y ; u sin g a v a r ie t y o f
p r e c i s i o n m e a s u r in g in s t r u m e n ts ; s e le c tin g fe e d s , s p e e d s , to o lin g and
o p e r a t io n s e q u e n c e ; m a k in g n e c e s s a r y a d ju stm en ts du ring o p e r a tio n to
a c h ie v e r e q u is ite t o l e r a n c e s o r d im e n s io n s .
M ay be r e q u ir e d to r e c ­
o g n iz e w hen t o o ls n e e d d r e s s in g , to d r e s s t o o l s , and to s e l e c t p r o p e r
c o o la n t s and cu ttin g and lu b r ic a tin g o ils .

* O p e r a to r s r e q u ir e d a lte r n a te ly to o p e r a te m o r e than one type o f
m a ch in e t o o l as lis t e d a b o v e a r e c la s s if i e d as m a c h in e -to o l o p e r a t o r ,
m is c e lla n e o u s .




M A C H IN IS T , M A IN T E N A N C E
P r o d u c e s r e p la c e m e n t p a rts and new p a r t s in m akin g r e p a ir s o f
m e t a l p a rts o f m e c h a n ic a l eq u ip m en t o p e r a t e d in an e s ta b lis h m e n t. W ork
in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g :
In te r p re tin g w r itte n in s tru ctio n s and
s p e c ific a t io n s ; plann in g and la y ou t o f w o r k ; u sin g a v a r ie t y o f m a ch in ist*s
h a n d to o ls and p r e c i s io n m e a s u r in g in s tr u m e n ts ; settin g up and o p era tin g
sta n d a rd m a ch in e t o o ls ; sh aping o f m e t a l p a rts to c l o s e to le r a n c e s ; m a k ­
in g sta n d a rd sh op co m p u ta tio n s r e la tin g to d im e n s io n s o f w o r k , to o lin g ,
fe e d s and s p e e d s o f m a ch in in g ; k n ow led g e o f the w o rk in g p r o p e r t ie s o f
the c o m m o n m e t a ls ; s e le c t in g sta n d a rd m a t e r ia l s , p a r t s , and equ ipm en t
r e q u ir e d f o r h is w o r k ; fittin g and a s s e m b lin g p a r ts in to m e c h a n ic a l e q u ip ­
m e n t.
In g e n e r a l, the m a ch in is t* s w o r k n o r m a lly r e q u ir e s a rou n ded
tr a in in g in m a c h in e -s h o p p r a c t ic e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th rou g h a fo r m a l a p ­
p r e n t ic e s h ip o r eq u iv a len t tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .
M A C H IN IST ,

P R O D U C T IO N

F a b r ic a t e s m e t a l p a r ts in v o lv in g a s e r i e s o f p r o g r e s s iv e o p e r ­
a t io n s . W ork in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : In te r p re tin g w ritte n in s t r u c ­
tio n s and s p e c ific a t io n s ; plann in g and la y in g out w o r k ; u sin g a v a r ie ty o f
m a c h i n i s t s h a n d tools and p r e c i s io n m e a s u r in g in s tr u m e n ts ; settin g up
and o p e r a tin g sta n d a rd m a ch in e t o o l s ; sh aping m e t a l p a rts to c lo s e t o l ­
e r a n c e s ; m a k in g sta n d a rd sh op co m p u ta tio n s r e la tin g to d im e n s io n s o f
w o r k , t o o lin g , fe e d s and sp e e d s o f m a ch in in g ; k n ow led g e o f the w ork in g
p r o p e r t ie s o f the c o m m o n m e t a ls ; s e le c t in g sta n d a rd m a t e r ia ls , p a r t s ,
and eq u ip m en t n e e d e d f o r h is w o r k ; fittin g and a s s e m b lin g p a r t s . In
g e n e r a l, the m a c h in is t *s w o r k n o r m a lly r e q u ir e s a rou n d ed tra in in g in
m a c h in e -s h o p p r a c t ic e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th rou g h a fo r m a l a p p re n tice s h ip
o r e q u iv a le n t tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .
M E C H A N IC , A U T O M O T IV E (M A IN T E N A N C E )
R e p a ir s a u to m o b ile s , b u s e s , m o t o r t r u c k s and t r a c t o r s o f an e s ­
ta b lis h m e n t. W o rk in v o lv e s m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : E x a m in in g a u tom otiv e
eq u ip m en t to d ia g n o se s o u r c e o f t r o u b le ; d is a s s e m b lin g eq u ipm en t and
p e r fo r m in g r e p a ir s that in v o lv e the u s e o f su ch h a n d to o ls a s w r e n c h e s ,
g a u g e s , d r i l l s , o r s p e c ia liz e d eq u ip m en t in d is a s s e m b lin g o r fittin g p a rts ;
r e p la c in g b r o k e n o r d e fe c tiv e p a rts fr o m s t o c k ; g rin d in g and ad ju stin g
v a lv e s ; r e a s s e m b lin g and in sta llin g the v a r io u s a s s e m b lie s in the v e h i­
c le and m a k in g n e c e s s a r y a d ju s tm e n ts ; a lign in g w h e e ls , ad ju stin g b r a k e s
and lig h t s , o r tigh ten in g b o d y b o l t s . In g e n e r a l, the w o r k o f the a u tom otiv e
m e c h a n ic r e q u ir e s r ou n d ed tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e u su a lly a c q u ir e d
th rou g h a fo r m a l a p p r e n tic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t tra in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .
M IL L IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R
(M illin g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r , a u to m a tic; m illin g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r , hand)
P e r f o r m s a v a r ie t y o f w o r k su ch as g r o o v in g , p la n in g , and
sh aping m e ta l o b je c t s on a m illin g m a c h in e , w h ich r e m o v e s m a te r ia l
fr o m m e ta l s u r fa c e s b y the cuttin g a c tio n o f m u ltito o th e s rotatin g c u tte rs
o f v a r io u s s i z e s and s h a p e s . M illin g -m a c h in e ty p e s v a r y fr o m the m a n ­
u a lly c o n t r o lle d m a ch in e s e m p lo y e d in unit p r o d u c tio n to fu lly a u tom atic
( c o n v e y e r -fe d ) m a ch in e s fou nd in p la n ts e n g a g ed in mass* p r o d u c tio n .
F o r w a g e study p u r p o s e s , o p e r a t o r s o f s in g le -p u r p o s e m i lle r s su ch as
th r e a d m i l l e r s , d u p lic a t o r s , d ie s in k e r s , p a n tog ra p h m i l l e r s , and en grav in g
m i l l e r s a r e e x c lu d e d ^ (F o r d e s c r ip t io n o f c la s s o f w o r k s e e m a ch in e t o o l o p e r a t o r , p r o d u c t io n .)

24

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL. (REGISTERED)

PASTER, BACKER, OR FITTER, UPPER, HAND - Continued

A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who becom e ill or suffer an accident on the
prem ises of a factory o r other establishment. Duties involve a com bination of the follow ing: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending
to subsequent dressing of em ployee's injuries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;
conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants and
employees; and planning and carrying out program s involving health edu­
cation, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other
activities affecting the health, w elfare, and safety of all personnel.

Reinforces vamps, tops, straps, and other parts of shoes, by
pasting to each a piece of cu t-to -siz e canvas, thin leather, or other lin ­
ing m aterial (doubler). Work involves one or m ore of the follow ing:
P ressing doubler against cem ent-covered ro ll and sticking doubler to
leather parts, using backing tape which is so prepared that it sticks when
pressed on other material with a hot iron. May paste reinforcing over
only a portion of upper that is exposed to extra wear or strain.
PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE

OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
P erform s various routine duties such as running errands, op er­
ating minor office machines such as sealers or m a ilers, opening and
distributing m ail, and other m inor cle rica l work.
OILER
Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing
surfaces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.
PACKER, SHIPPING
Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations perform ed being de­
pendent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the type
of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the p la c­
ing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or m ore of the
following: Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify con tent; selection of appropriate type and size of container; inserting en clo­
sures in container; using excelsior or other m aterial to prevent breakage
or damage; closing and sealing container; applying labels or entering
identifying data on container. Packers who also make wooden boxes or
crates are excluded.
PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates walls, woodwork and fixtures of an e s ­
tablishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface p ecu l­
iarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or fille r
in nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray gun or brush.
May mix co lo rs , oils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain
proper color or consistency.
In general, the work of the maintenance
painter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
PASTER, BACKER, OR FITTER, UPPER, HAND
(Backer; backing paster; backing cem enter; canvas backer, upper;
cem enter, upper to lining; fitter, upper to lining; paster, line and
brush, hand; paster; plain paster; rein forcer paster; quarter and
lining fitter; upper doubler)



Installs or repairs water, steam , gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. W ork involves m ost of the follow ing:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from draw ings or other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe to c o r ­
rect lengths with chisel and hammer o'r oxyaceylene torch or pipe-cutting
machine; threading pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or pow er-driven machines; assem bling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to p r e s ­
sures, flow, and size of pipe required; making standard tests to determine
whether finished pipes meet specification s. In general, the work of the
maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers prim arily engaged in installing and repairing building
sanitation or heating systems are excluded.
SECRETARY
Perform s secretarial and c le rica l duties for a superior in an
administrative or executive position. Duties include making appointments
for superior; receiving people com ing into office; answering and making
phone calls; handling personal and important or confidential m ail, and
writing routine correspondence on own initiative; taking dictation (where
transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand or by stenotype
or sim ilar machine, and transcribing dictation or the recorded inform a­
tion reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare special reports
or memoranda for information of su perior.
SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lock ers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishment. Work involves m ost of the follow ing: Planning and laying
out all types of sheet-metal maintenance w ork from blueprints, m odels, or
other specifications; setting up and operating all available types of sheetmetal working machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting, bending,
form ing, shaping, fitting, and assem bling; installing sheet-m etal a rticles
as required. In general, the work of the maintenance sheet-m etal worker
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a f o r ­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training experience.

25

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR

P repares m erchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­
sible fo r incoming shipments of merchandise or other m aterials. Ship­
ping work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, p ra ctices, routes,
available means of transportation and rates; and preparing records of the
goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping
charges, and keeping a file of shipping record s. May direct or assist
in preparing the m erchandise for shipment. Receiving work involves;
Verifying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipments
against bills of lading, invoices, or other records; checking for short­
ages and rejecting damaged goods; routing merchandise or m aterials to
proper departments; maintaining n ecessary records and file s.

Operates a sin gle- or m ultiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing and intraplant or office calls.
May record toll calls and take m essages. May give information to p e r­
sons who call in, or occasionally take telephone ord ers. For workers
who also act as receptionist see switchboard operator-reception ist.

F or wage study purposes, workers are classified as follow s:
Shipping clerk
R eceiving clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk
SIDE LASTER, MACHINE
Operates a machine to last the sides and shanks of the upper.
Work involves: Drawing out lining and upper with hand p in cers, holding
shoe so that pincers of machine grasp edges of upper and draw them
evenly and clo s e ly about the last, and manipulating lever of machine to
operate device which drives staples or tacks through the upper at the
sides and shanks.
SOLE ATTACHER, CEMENT PROCESS
(C om po-conveyor operator; sole layer, machine; sole-laying machine
operator; soler)
Operates a sole-layin g machine to cement outs ole s permanently
to the uppers of shoes. W ork involves: Setting toe part of shoe on which
outsole has been positioned and heel part of last directly below c o r r e ­
sponding jacks (lugs) of machine; pressing air pedal (which opens valve
on pipe leading to air com p ressor storage tank) to fill the air cushion
and fo rce the shoe against the jacks .which hold the outsole firm ly in
place while the cem ent d ries. May also, p rior to permanent attachment
of outsole, brush a coat of solvent over the inner surface of the outsole
from the heel seat to the toe and press outer sole on shoe, being certain
that edges of sole p roject evenly over the edges of shoe.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to perform ing duties of operator, on a single position
or m onitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also type or
perform routine cle rica l work as part of regular duties. This typing or
cle rica l work may take the m ajor part of this w ork er’s time while at
switchboard.
TOOL AND DIE MAKER
(Diemaker; jig maker; toolmaker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
Constructs and repairs m achine-shop tools, gauges, jig s, fix ­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other m etal-form ing work. Work
involves m ost of the follow ing: Planning and laying out of work from
m odels, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifications;
using a variety of tool and die m a k er’ s handtools and precision m easur­
ing instruments; understanding of the working properties of common m et­
als and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making n ecessary shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, speeds, feeds, and toolings of machines; heating-treating of
metal parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to
achieve required qualities; working to close tolerances; fitting and a s ­
sembling of parts to prescribed tolerances and allowances; selecting ap­
propriate m aterials, tools, and p ro ce ss e s . In general, the tool and die
m aker's work requires a rounded training in m achine-shop and toolroom
practice usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.
F or cross-in d u stry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.
TOP STITCHER

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
P rim ary duty is to take dictation from one or m ore persons,
either in shorthand or by stenotype or sim ilar machine, involving a n o r­
m al routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter.
May also type from written copy. May also set up and keep files in
ord er, keep sim ple re co rd s , etc. Does not include tran scribin g-m achine work (see transcribing-m achine operator)^



Operates a sewing machine to stitch the lining to the upper part
of a shoe and to trim off excess edges of lining. Work involves: Fitting
lining to upper to obtain proper allowance for insertion of counter or
receiving upper and lining already fitted or cemented together; setting
parts into machine at heel seam, lowering guide down to the edge of top
of upper, and guiding parts through machine by hand to complete stitching
and trimming operation.

26

TREER

TYPIST - Continued

(Polisher, uppers; shoe treer)
Cleans and finishes shoes by removing spots and discolorations,
remedying any slight cut or blem ish, and rubbing uppers with a hot iron
to smooth out wrinkles. Work involves m ost of the following: Setting
shoe on a treeing form , the shape of the last, and depressing lever ex­
panding form so that shoe will fit tightly over it; brushing, cleaning,
dressing, and finishing shoe according to the kind of leather or m ate­
rial; applying color stain or bleach to blemished spots; burnishing shoe
parts; smoothing out wrinkles in the uppers with a hot iron.
TRUCKDRIVER
Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport m a­
terials, m erchandise, equipment, or men between various types of e s ­
tablishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and cu stom ers1 houses or places of business. May also load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working ord er. D river-salesm en and over-th e-roa d drivers
are excluded.
F or wage study purposes,
and type of equipment, as follow s:
the basis of trailer capacity).

truckdrivers are cla ssified by size
(T ra ctor-tra iler should be rated on

Class A - Perform s one or m ore of the following: Typing m a ­
terial in final form from very rough and involved draft; copying from
plain or corrected copy in which there is a frequent and varied use
of technical and unusual words or from foreign-language copy; co m ­
bining material from several sou rces, or planning layout of com p li­
cated statistical tables to maintain uniform ity and balance in spacing;
typing tables from rough draft in final form . May type routine form
letters varying details to suit circu m stan ces.
Class B - Perform s one or m ore of the following: Typing from
relatively clear or typed drafts; routine typing of form s, insurance
p olicies, e tc .; setting up sim ple standard tabulations, or copying
m ore complex tables already set up and spaced properly.
VAMPER
(Vamp closer; vamp stitcher; zigzag seam er)
By use of a pow er-driven sewing machine, sews together the
forepart of the upper (tip and vamp) and the two quarters of a shoe.
Work involves: Setting overlapped edges together under p re sse r foot and
needle of machine; depressing lever to start machine and guiding m aterial
through stitching p rocess; sewing top to entire low er part of upper when
shoe has a cut separate from quarters, or has a whole vamp.
Parts
are sometimes first pasted together by another w orker to insure m ost
accurate stitching.
WATCHMAN

T r u c k d r iv e r ,

lig h t

(u n der lVa t o n s )

Truckdriver, medium (lVa to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)

Makes rounds of prem ises p eriodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.
WELDER, HAND

TRUCKER, POWER
Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-p ow ered
truck or tractor to transport goods and m aterials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
F or wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of
truck, as follow s:
Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than fork lift)
TYPIST
Uses a typewriter to make copies of various m aterial or to make
out bills after calculations have been made by another person. May do
clerica l work involving little special training, such as keeping simple r e ­
cord s, filing records and reports or sorting and distributing incoming
mail.



Fuses (welds) metal objects together by means of an oxyacetylene
torch or arc welding apparatus in the fabrication of metal shapes and in
repairing broken or cracked metai ob jects.
In addition to perform ing
hand welding or brazing operation, the welder may also lay out guide
lines or marks on metal parts and may cut metal with a cutting torch.
Class A - Perform s welding operations requiring m ost of the
following: Planning and laying out of work from drawings, blueprints, or other written specifications; knowledge of welding p rop ­
erties of a variety of metals and alloys; setting up work and d eter­
mining operation sequence; welding high pressu re vessels or other
objects involving critical safety and load requirem ents; working from
a variety of positions.
Class B - Perform s welding operations on repetitive work,where
no critical safety and load requirem ents are involved; where the work
calls mainly for one-position welding; and where the layout and plan­
ning of the work are perform ed by others.

☆ U S G VR MN P ININ O E: 15 O-3 5 1
. . O E N E T R T G FFIC 96 8 8 7


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102