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MINNEAPOUS-ST. P A U L . MINN.
NOVEMBER 1954

BLS

Bulletin No. 1172-5

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary



BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Aryness Joy Wickens, Acting Commissioner




Page
I N T R O D U C T I O N ___________________________________________________

1

TABLES:
A:

B:

Occupational earnings * A - 1 Office occupations _______________________________
A - 2 Professional and technical occupa t i o n s __________
A - 3 Maintenance a n d p o w e r plant o c c u p a t i o n s ________
A - 4 Custodial and material m o v e m e n t
occupations ____________________________________

3
6
7
8

Establishment practices and supplementaryw a g e provisions B - 1 Shift differential provisions * ___________________
B - 2 M i n i m u m entrance rates for w o m e n
office w o r k e r s ______________________________
B - 3 F r e q u e n c y of w a g e p a y m e n t ____________________ _
B -4 Scheduled w e e k l y hours * ________________________
B -5 P a i d holiday provisions * ________________________
B - 6 P a i d vacations * _________________________________

APPENDIX:

10
11
12
12
13
14

Job descriptions----- -------------------------------

16

* N O T E : Similar tabulations (also covering health, insurance, a n d
pension plans) are available in the Minneapolis-St. Paul a r e a r e ­
ports for N o v e m b e r 1951, N o v e m b e r 1952, and N o v e m b e r 1953.
T h e 1953 report also provides tabulations of w a g e structure c h a r ­
acteristics, l a b o r - m a n a g e m e n t agreements, and overtime p a y
provisions. A directory indicating date of study and the price of
the reports, as well as reports for other m a j o r areas, is avail­
able upon request.
A current report o n occupational earnings a n d s u p p l e m e n t a r y
w a g e practices is also available for the m a c h i n e r y industries in
the Minneapolis-St. Paul area ( N o v e m b e r 1954).
Union scales,
indicative of prevailing pa y levels, are available for, the following
trades or industries: Building construction, printing*; local transit
operating e m ployees, and m o t o r t r u c k drivers.
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C.

Price 20 cents

84th Congress, 1st Session

House Document No. 37

OCCUPATIONAL

WAGE

SURVEY

M INNEAPOLIS-ST .

Introduction
The M in n ea p olis-S t. Paul a rea is one o f Several im p o r ­
tant in d u strial c e n te r s in which the B ureau of L a b or S ta tistics has
con d u cted s u rv ey s o f occu pation al earnings and rela ted wage ben e­
fits on an a rea w id e b a s is .
In each a rea , data a re obtained by
p e rs o n a l v is its o f B u reau fie ld agents to rep resen ta tiv e e sta b lish ­
m en ts within 6 b ro a d industry d iv ision s: M anufacturing; tra n s­
p orta tion (exclu din g ra ilr o a d s ), com m unication, and oth er public
u tilitie s ; w h olesa le tra d e; reta il trad e; fin ance, in su ra n ce, and
r e a l esta te; and s e r v ic e s . M ajor industry groups excluded fr o m
th e se stu dies a re govern m en t institutions and the con stru ction and
e x tra ctiv e in d u s trie s. E stablish m en ts having fe w e r than a p r e ­
s c r ib e d num ber o f w o r k e r s w ere a lso om itted sin ce they furnish
in su fficien t em p loym en t in the occu pations studied to w arrant
in clu s io n . 1 W h erev er p o s s ib le , separate tabulations a re p r o ­
vid ed fo r the individual b roa d industry d iv is io n s .
T h ese s u rv e y s a re conducted on a sam ple b a s is b eca u se
o f the u n n e ce s sa ry c o s t involved in surveying a ll estab lish m en ts,
and to en su re p rom p t p u blication of re su lts.
T o obtain a p p ro ­
p ria te a c c u r a c y at m in im u m co s t, a greater p ro p o rtio n o f la rg e
than o f sm a ll estab lish m en ts is studied. In com bining the data,
h o w e v e r, a ll esta b lish m en ts a re given their a pp rop riate weight.
E stim a te s a r e p re s e n te d , th e r e fo r e ,a s relating to a ll e s ta b lish ­
m en ts in the indu stry grouping and a rea , but not to th ose below
the m in im u m s iz e s tu d ie d .2
O ccu p ation s and E arn in gs
O ccu p ation al cla s s ific a tio n is based on a u n iform set of
jo b d e s c r ip tio n s d esig n ed to take account o f in ter establish m en t
va ria tion in duties w ithin the same jo b (see A ppendix fo r listin g
o f th ese d e s c r ip t io n s ). E arnings data a re p resen ted fo r the f o l ­
low in g ty p es o f occu p a tion s: (a) O ffice c le r ic a l; (b) p ro fe ss io n a l
and te ch n ica l; (c) m aintenance and pow erplant; and (d) cu stod ia l
and m a te ria l m ovem en t.
* T h is r e p o r t w as p rep a red in the B ureau’ s reg ion a l o ffic e
in C h ica g o , 111., by W oodrow C . Linn under the d ir e ctio n of
G e o rg e E . V otava, R egion a l Wage and Industrial R ela tion s A n alyst.
1 See follow in g ta ble fo r m in im u m -size establish m en t c o v ­
e r e d by study.
2 A n e x ce p tio n is m ade in the tabulation o f m inim um en­
tra n ce r a te 8 fo r w om en o ffic e w o rk e rs which re la te s to p ro v is io n s
in esta b lish m en ts a ctu a lly studied.



(i

PAUL,

MINN.*

Data a re shown f o r fu ll-tim e w o r k e r s , i.e ., those h ired
to w ork a fu ll-tim e schedule fo r the given occu pational c la s s if i­
ca tion . E arnings data exclu de p rem iu m pay fo r overtim e and fo r
w ork on w eekends, h olid a ys, and late sh ifts. N onproduction b o ­
nuses a re a ls o exclu ded, but c o s t -o f-liv in g bonu ses and incentive
earn in gs a re in clu d ed. W here w eekly h ou rs a re rep orted, as fo r
o ffic e c le r ic a l o ccu p a tion s, re fe r e n c e is to the w ork schedules
(rounded to the n ea rest h a lf-h o u r )fo r w hich stra ig h t-tim e s a la rie s
a re paid; a vera ge w eek ly earn in gs f o r th ese occu pations have been
rounded to the n ea rest 50 ce n ts.
O ccupational em ploym en t estim ates r e fe r to the total in
a ll estab lish m en ts within the sco p e o f the study and not to the
num ber a ctu ally su rvey ed . B eca u se o f d iffe r e n ce s in occupational
stru ctu re am ong estab lish m en ts, the estim ates o f occupational
em ploym en t obtained fr o m the sam ple o f establish m en ts studied
s e rv e only to indicate the re la tiv e im portan ce o f the jo b s studied.
T h ese d iffe r e n ce s in occu pation al stru ctu re do not m a terially
a ffe ct the a ccu r a c y o f the earnings data.

E stablish m en t P r a c tic e s and Supplem entary
Wage P r o v is io n s
Inform ation is a ls o p resen ted on se le cte d establishm ent
p r a c tic e s and supplem entary b en efits as they relate to o ffice and
plant w o r k e r s .
The te r m , " o ffic e w o r k e r s " , as used in this
bulletin in clu d es a ll o ffic e c le r ic a l em p lo y e e s and exclu des ad­
m in istra tiv e , execu tiv e, p ro fe s s io n a l, and tech n ica l p erson n el.
"P lant w o r k e r s " include w orkin g fo re m e n and a ll n on su p ervisory
w o r k e r s (including leadm en and tra in e e s) engaged in n on office
fu n ction s. A d m in istra tiv e, e xecu tiv e, p r o fe s s io n a l, and tech n ical
e m p lo y e e s, and fo r c e accou n t con stru ction em p loy ees who a re
u tilized as a separate w o rk fo r c e a re exclu d ed. C afeteria w o rk e rs
and rou tem en a re exclu d ed in m anufacturing in d u stries but are
included as plant w o r k e r s in nonm anufacturing in d u stries.
S h ift-d iffe re n tia l data a re lim ite d to m anufacturing in ­
d u s tr ie s .
T h is in form ation is p re se n te d both in term s o f (a)
establish m en t p o l i c y 3 and (b) e ffe c tiv e p ro v is io n s fo r w o rk e rs
3
An establish m en t w as co n s id e r e d as having a p o licy if it
m et eith er o f the follow in g con d ition s: (l) O perated late shifts at the
tim e o f the su rvey, o r (2)h ad fo rm a l p ro v is io n s co v e rin g late sh ifts.

2

actually em p loyed on extra shifts at the tim e o f the su rvey .
Tabulations relatin g to establish m en t p o licy a re p resen ted in
te rm s o f total plant w ork er em ploym en t; estim ates in the secon d
tabulation rela te on ly to th ose w o r k e r s actu ally em p loyed on the
sp e cified shift.

q u ire m e n ts, the p rop ortion a ctu ally re c e iv in g the s p e c ific b en efits
m ay b e s m a lle r.
M o re o v e r, a p r a c tic e w as c o n s id e r e d as a p ­
p lica b le to all o ffic e or plant w o r k e r s in an estab lish m en t i f it
a pp lied to a m a jo rity o f such w o r k e r s .
B eca u se o f rounding,
sum s o f individual item s in th ese tabulations do not n e c e s s a r ily
equal to ta ls.

Supplem entary p r a c tic e s , other than m inim um entrance
ra tes for w om en o ffic e w o r k e r s , and shift d iffe re n tia ls , a re
treated sta tistica lly on the b a s is that th ese a re p rovid ed to all
w o rk e rs em p loy ed in o ffic e s o r plant departm ents that o b se rv e
the p ra ctice in q u e s tio n .1* B eca u se o f varyin g e lig ib ility r e 4
*

The sum m ary o f vacation plans is lim ite d to fo rm a l
arra n gem en ts, excluding in form a l plans w h ereby tim e o f f with
pay is granted at the d is cr e tio n o f the e m p lo y e r or the s u p e r­
v is o r .
Separate estim ates a re p ro v id e d a cco r d in g to em p lo y e r
p r a c tic e in com puting vacation paym ents, su ch as tim e paym ents,
p e rce n t o f annual earn in gs, o r fla t-s u m am ou nts.
H ow ever, in
the
4
Scheduled w eek ly hours fo r o ffic e w o r k e r s (fir s t section tabulations o f vacation a llow a n ces by y e a rs o f s e r v ic e , p a y­
m ents not on a tim e b a sis w ere co n v e rte d ; fo r e x a m p le , a paym ent
o f table B -4 ) a re p resen ted in te r m s o f the p ro p o rtio n o f w om en
o ffice w o rk e rs em p loyed in o ffic e s with the indicated w eekly hours
o f 2 p e rce n t of annual earnings w as c o n s id e r e d as the equivalent
for w om en w o r k e r s .
o f 1 week*s pay.

Establishments and Workers Within Scope of Survey and Number Studied in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minn. , 1 by Major Industry Division, November 1954

Industry division

Minimum size
establishment
in 8cope of
study 2

Number of establishments
Within
scope of
study

Workers in establishments
Studied

Within scope of study
Studied
Total3

Office

Plant

T otal3

All division s_________________________________________

51_________

998

237

225,300

46,600

139,700

135,640

Manufacturing________ _______ __________________ __
Nonmanufacturing ______________________________
Transportation (excluding railroads),
communication, and other public utilities 4---- -----Wholesale trade _________________________________
Retail trade
_________________ ___________________
Finance, insurance, and real estate ____________ Services6 __________________ _______

51
51

409
589

89
148

114,600
110,700

16,100
30,500

79,300
60,400

69,540
66,100

51
51
51
51
51

66
134
231
83
75

23
37
41
29
18

24,700
18,600
39,600
17,800
10,000

4,700
6,300
5,200
13,100
(7)

15,100
7,200
29,700
5 1,400
<
7)

19,960
8,660
22,650
11,760
3,070

1 The Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area (Anoka, Dakota, Hennepin, and Ramsey Counties). The "workers within scope of study" estimates shown in this table provide a
reasonably accurate description of the size and composition of the labor force included in the survey. The estimates are not intended, however, to serve as a basis of comparison
with other area employment indices to measure employment trends or levels since (1) planning of wage surveys requires the use of establishment data com piled considerably in ad­
vance of the pay period studied, and (2) small establishments are excluded from the scope of the survey.
Includes all establishments with total employment at or above the minimum size limitation. A ll outlets (within the area) of companies in such industries as trade, finance,
auto repair service, and motion-picture theaters are considered as one establishment.
Includes executive, technical, professional,and other workers excluded from the separate office and plant categories.
Also excludes taxicabs, and services incidental to water transportation included in earlier studies.
6 Estimate relates to real estate establishments only.
Hotels; personal services; business services; automobile repair shops; radio broadcasting and television; motion pictures; nonprofit membership organizations; and engineer­
ing and architectural services.
7 This industry division is represented in estimates for "all industries" and "nonmanufacturing" in the Series A and B tables, although coverage was insufficient to justify
separate presentation of data.




A : O c c u p a t io n a l E a r n in g s

Table A-1: Office Occupations
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings 1 for selected occupations studied on an area basis
in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minn., by industry division, November 1954)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF-

A vera q k

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

Weekly

Weekly

(Standard) (Standard)

1
S
$
S
S
S
»
1
S
S
1
S
s
$
S
»
t
>
S
$
Under 35. 00 37. 50 40.00 42. 50 45. 00 47. 50 50.00 52. 50 55. 00 57. 50 60.00 62. 50 65. 00 67. 50 70.00 72. 50 75.00 80. 00 85.00 90.00 95.00
and
$
and
35. 00 37. 50 40. 00 42. 50 45.00 47. 50 50.00 52. 50 55. 00 57. 50 60.00 62. 50 65. 00 67. 50 70.00 72. 50 75.00 80.00 85. 00 00. 00 05. 00 e v e r
<

Men
$
76. 50
75.50
77.00
71. 50

C lerks, accounting, class A ----------------Manufacturing . ___________________
Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------------Wholesale trade ______________________

652
250
402
178

40.0
40.0
40.0
39.5

C lerks, accounting, class B ______________
Manufacturing _____________________________
Nonmanufacturing_______________ —

351
138
213

39. 5
40.0
39.5

6 0 . 00

63.00
58. 00

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4

6

4

C lerks, order _ __________ __________________
Manufacturing --------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ________________________
Wholesale trade ________________

463
165
298
245

40.0
40.0
40.0
40. 0

72. 00
72. 00
72. 50
73.00

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

Office boys ___________________________
Manufacturing___________________ __
Nonmanufacturing__________________

194
62
132

39.5
40.0
39.5

43.00
43.00
42. 50

Tabulating-machine operators ________
Manufacturing--------------------------------Nonmanufacturing__________________
Finance * * ______________________

268

39. 5
40.0
39.0
38. 5

66. 50
72.00
63.00
59.00

97
171
122

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

4

6

4

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

3

3

-

-

-

-

10
10

3
-

3

-

-

-

-

29
4
25

8

18
3
15

6
6

6

-

-

8
-

26

7
19

3

74
23
51
45

60
35
25
8

43
16
27
7

65
30
35
14

82
39
43
14

72
38
34
13

50
19
31
8

52
3
*49
8

29
19
10

34
24
10

14

19
7
12

9
2
7

1
1
-

_
-

_
-

12

-

_
‘

44
19
25
22

45
16
29
29

48
6
42
38

38
12
26
20

102
41
61
53

60
27
33
27

16

10
16
7

8
4
4
3

16
16

10
7
3
-

10
2
8
8

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

1
1

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

50
29
21
12

12
6
6
3

9
1
8
1

9
5
4

1
1
-

“

“

12
2
10
10

36
3
33
20

41
9
32
26

2

24
4
20

32
20
12

66

28
12
16

26

33
33

5
2
3
3

5
5

11

-

11
10

23
8
15
9

1
1

5
5

_
-

-

37
17
20

12
6
6

2

-

~

-

-

~

-

22

11
11

24
2
22

20
7
13

42
11
31

24
7
17

19
1
18

15
9
6

14
11
3

-

4
2
2

-

-

-

-

-

3
3

_
-

-

_
-

.
-

23
2
21
19

20
20
20

14
14
13

6
1
5
5

4
2
2
2

11
6
5
4

24

-

3

6
-

18
12

17
10
7
6

15
2
13
10

13
3
10
5

24
11
13
9

16
12
4
1

'

‘

'

36
33

14
14
2

35
35
7
4

29

18

1
1
1

14
6
6

1
1

8
7
4

2

2
2
2

6

6
4

2
1
1

2

10

6

39
24
1
13

4

26

2
2

2
2

2

-

4
4

28
17
11

46
5
41

9
6
3

20
20

13
-

-

-

-

13

-

2

18
1
17
1
10
4

25
21
4
-

-

2

-

34
21
13

27
12

98

JO

5

15

93
16
10

4
6

_

”
'

-

6

-

Women

_

5

8

-

5
-

8
-

-

2

5

54. 00
54. 00

-

-

-

39. 5
39.5
39.5

61.50
64. 00
60.50

•
-

-

-

39. 5
40.0
39.5
40.0
40. 5
39.0

49. 50
55.00
47. 50
51.80
51.00
44. 00

39.5
39.5
39.5
40.0
39.0

63.00
63.00
63.00
59.00
63. 50

B illere. machine (billing machine) ___
Nonmanufacturing__________________
Public utilities * _______________
Retail t r a d e .......... .................................

219
177
39
60

39.5
39.5
40.0
40.0

49.50
48. 00
56.50
45.50

B illers, machine (bookkeeping
machine) ______________________________________
Nonmanuf acturing _

100
100

40.0
40.0

Bookkeeping-machine operators,
class A ______________ ____________ _____ __
Manufacturing _____________________________
Nonmanufacturing -------------------------------------

198
76
122

Bookkeeping-machine operators,
class B ________________________________________
Manufacturing --------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ____________________ __
Wholesale trade ______________________
Retail tr a d e ..................................................
Finance ** _ __________________________

909
231
678
171
109
349

C lerks, accounting, class A __________
Manufacturing ___________________ .
Nonmanufacturing _______________ _
Retail trade ____________________
Finance ** _ _________________________

495
130
365
81
69

.

See footnotes at end of table.
* Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and
* * Finance, insurance, and real estate.




22

2

2
-

-

1
1

2
2

34
34

10
10

12
12

14
14

3
3

-

-

-

6

-

-

-

-

6

17
1

16

13
9
4

5
1
4

14

-

53

74
3
71

79
5
74
9
10
52

112
21
91
15
8
66

90
10
80

200

37
20
17
7
4
6

24
18
6
4

40
35
5

2

-

22

95
14
81
40
16
17

-

2

7
3
4

25
1
24
16
•

30
6
24
7
1

33
19
14
3
4

41
9
32
11
"

71
19
52
18
23

52
12
40
3
10

-

-

47

53

-

-

2

5
48

16
51

47

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

o e public
th r

“

utilities.

-

2

22

10
32

l6

124
67
20

2

_

_

_

_

-

.

_

-

.

8
8

-

-

-

-

18
17
1

-

3

-

4

-

-

3

-

4

6
6

1
1

-

>

-

-

-

2

47
-

2

-

14

-

__

2

-

4

2

2

1
1

6
6

2

8
-

8
-

8
-

-

4

21
2
19
6
4

-

-

-

-

12
3
9

13
7
6

.

-

-

-

-

2

4

“

-

“

20 _
6
14

1
1
-

Occupational Wage Survey, Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minn., November 1954
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

Table A-l: Office Occupations - Continued
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings 1 for selected occupations studied on an area basis
in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minn., by industry division, November 1954)
A ebaqe
v
Sex, occupation, and industry division

N ber
um
of
w
orkers

NUM
BER O W
F ORKERS RECEIVIN STRAIGHT-TIM W
G
E EEKLY EARNINGS O
F-

s
s
S
s
s
9
9
9
<
$
9
9
*
9
$
»
9
9
S
t
9
W
eekly
W
eekly
earn gs Under 35.00 37.50 40. 00 42. 50 45.00 47. 50 50. 00 52. 50 55.00 57.50 60. 00 62. 50 b5. 00 67. 50 70. 00 72. 50 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00
in
hours
and
(Standard) (Standard) $
and
35. 00
40. 00 42. 50 45. 00 47. 50 50. 00 52. 50 55.00 57. 50 60.00 62. 50 65.00 67. 50 70. 00 72.50 75.00 80. 00 85. 00 90.00 95. 00 over

Women - Continued

-

_
_
-

_
~
-

-

-

-

3
3
“

7
2
5
-

1
1
-

-

14
2
12
1
6

22
11
11
1
-

22
4
18
1
9
8

8
1
7
2
5
-

6
6
3
3

j
1
1
_
-

_
_
-

_
.
-

18
9
9
2
6

22
9
13
6
6

32
1
31
2
27

5
2
3
3

1

_

1
-

_
-

1
-

.
-

-

-

-

-

*

.
-

3
*

3
3

6
1

-

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

14
10
4
4
-

l
1
-

-

_
“

1
1
1
-

>
-

_
-

_
-

.

-

1
1
_
-

-

-

-

.
.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

21
16
5

19
7
12

24
14
10

11
2
9

3
1
2

1
1

71
15
56
9
28
7
12

34
6
28
4
16
8

24
4
20
20
-

8
8
8
-

3
1
2
1
1
-

-

_
-

_
-

-

39
10
29
9

49
24
25
11

32
7
25
13

13
8
5
3

20
18
2
2

33
24
9
3

20
14
6
-

16
3
13
"

6
6
-

1
1
-

22
3
19
2
3
8

27
9
18
8
2
7

49
21
28
4
1
20

47
22
25
4
5
7

62
45
17
3
4
6

61
32
29
2
14
7

79
42
37
8
11
14

40
22
18
6
3
1

36
19
17
6
5
3

41
19
22
3
7
1

21
3
18
11
5

42
4
38
15
16

78
23
55
28
17

105
35
70
36
16

149
30
119
68
28

88
20
68
40
19

82
20
62
32
14

62
22
40
25
6

55
18
37
18
2

43
27
16
15
1

10
8

25
20

14
3

12
5

10
3

10
6

6
6

8
6

2
2

~

59

61
27
34
3
22

56
31
25
1
14

29

22
37
9
16

35
12
23
6
12

18
4
14
11
-

3
2
1
1
-

217
11
206
36
41
62

374
46
334
59
44
72

211
89
122

40.0
39.5
40.0

52.00
53.00
51. 50

_
-

-

-

12
5
7

7
7

37
12
25

40
13
27

Clerks, file, class B ________________ _ 1.159
230
Manufacturing ________________ ____
Nonmanufacturing__________________
929
27
Public utilities * _ -------------------176
Wholesale trade ________________
161
Retail tra d e ................... ...... ...........
496
Finance ** _____________________

39. 5
39. 5
39. 5
40.0
40.0
40.0
39.5

42.00
42. 50
42. 00
46.00
45. 50
41.00
41.00

63
63
1
10
51

233
37
196
22
29
128

248
50
198
3
40
31
113

157
51
106
5
15
14
62

183
35
148
3
18
39
82

Clerks, o r d e r __________________ ___ __
Manufacturing_______________ ______
Nonmanufacturing --------------- ----------Retail trade _____________________

321
133
188
100

39. 5
39.5
40.0
40.0

3 0 . 50
54. 00
48. 50
43. 50

1 . 15

20

1
1

15
15

20
20

24
7
17
14

21
9
12
9

Clerks, payroll ______________ _______
Manufacturing_____________________
Nonmanufacturing________ ______ Public utilities * _______________
Wholesale trade _______________ _
Retail trade _____________________

562
255
307
55
78
95

40. 0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0

57.00
57.00
57.00
56. 50
61. 50
54. 00

1
1
-

1
i
-

1
1
1

22
3
19
3
7

Comptometer operators _______________
Manufacturing---------- -------------------Nonmanufacturing_________________
Wholesale trade ________________
Retail trade ........................... .. ...

810
225
585
299
170

39. 5
40.0
39. 5
39,5
39.5

54.00
55. 50
53. 50
53.00
54. 50

-

2
2
1

4
4
1
3

Duplicating-machine operators
(mimeograph or ditto) ------------------- ..
Nonmanufacturing________ ___ ____ _

114
68

40.0
40.0

48. 50
47. 50

2„„
2

1
1

Key-punch op e ra to rs __________ ________ __k Q 2 —
Manufacturing_____________________
199
410
Nonmanufacturing_________________
Public utilities * --------- --------------44
261
Finance ** _____________________

39. 5
39.5
40.0
39.5

-49. 50
52. 50
48. 00
52. 50
47.00

......J. -1-0-

Office girls _________ ____ _______ _____
Manufacturing_____ _______________
Nonmanufacturing .....__ ___
___
Public utilities
____________ ___
Retail trade ____________________
Finance ** _____________________

39,5
39. 5
39. 5
40.0
40.0
39.0

222 291
46
60
182 231
68
79
41
22
25 ! 54

1
-

10
7

22
4
18
17

45
11
34
4
26

68
10
58
4
41

134
30
104
4
63

72
15
57
6
43

37
.
37
7
23

112
23
89
12
70

93
19
74
9
58

106

59
21
38
10
13
9

18
5
13
1
2
7

6
1
5
2

l6

90
15
13
45

See footnotes at end of table.
* Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities,
** Finance, insurance, and real estate.




3
3
-

28
15
13

239
25
214
66
25
102

40.00
41.00 '
40.00
46. 50
39. 50
38. 50

3
3

51
20
4
20

118
5
113
10
23

457
92
365
42
56
214

1
1
-

85
52
6
18

17
5
12
5
1
2

47
18
29
7
16

135
31
104
2
7
31
40

1
1
-

98

16
16
3

Clerks, file, class A _________________
Manufacturing_____________________
Nonmanufacturing_________________

1
1
-

62
12
50
19
6
4

49.00
51.50
49.00
51.50
48. 50
48. 50

2

26
3
2
-

-

-

2
2
-

-

-

li

-

2
2
2
-

71

26

44
3
41
7
4
27
l
-

1
_
-

1
1
-

-

_
-

_
-

22
2
20
12
8

92
14
78
31
14
14

39, 5
39. 5
39.5
40.0
39.5
40. 0

_
_
-

17
6
11
5
3
-

171
40
131
17
18
35

Clerks, accounting, class B __________ 2. 120
316
Manufacturing--------------------------------Nonmanufacturing __________________ 1,804
476
Public utilities * _______________
246
Wholesale trade _______________
485
Retail trade — -------------------------

_
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

_
_

.
.
.
-

_
_
-

Table A-l: Office Occupations - Continued
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings 12 for selected occupations studied on an area basis
in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minn. , by industry division, November 1954)
N U M B E R O F W O R K E R S R E C E IV IN G S T R A IG H T -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S OF-

A veraqb
S e x , o c c u p a tio n , a n d in d u s t r y d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

Weekly
Weekly U n d e r 3 5 . 0 0
hours
earnings
and
(Standard) (Standard) $
under
3 5 . 00 3 7 . 5 0

$
3 7 . 50 4 0 .0 0

$
4 2 . 50 4 5 .0 0

4 0 .0 0

4 2 . 50

4 5 .0 0

12
12

_

4 7 .5 0

s
$
4 7 . 50 5 0 .0 0

f
S
*
S
s
S
S
$
5 2 . 50 5 5 .0 0 5 7 . 50 6 0 .0 0 6 2 . 50 6 5 .0 0 6 7 . 50 7 0 .0 0

5 0 .0 0

5 5 .0 0

5 2. 50

5 7 .5 0

6 0 .0 0

6 . 50
2

1

1
7 2 . 50

7 5 .0 0

7 5 .0 0

8 0 .0 0

S
t
»
8 0 . 00 8 5 .0 0

S

9 .0 9 5 . 0 0
00
and

6 5 .0 0

6 7 .5 0

7 0 .0 0

7 2 . 50

8 3 . 00

9 0 .0 0

9 5 .0 0

over

W o m e n - C o n t in u e d
S e c r e t a r i e s ____________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________ —
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------------------------P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s * _____________________
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e ______________________
R e t a i l t r a d e ____________________________
F i n a n c e * * _____________________________

1.8 6
2

$
6 5 . 50
4 8 .0 0
6 3 . 50

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

8
2
2
2

6 0
1.0

_

_

_

40. 5
4 0 .0
4 1. 0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0
3 9 .0

5 3 .5 0
5 8 . 50
5 2 . 00
6 1 . 50
4 7 .0 0
5 3 .5 0

-

6
6
1

3
3
-

-

-

-

604
237
367
117

4 0 .0
3 9 .5
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

5 0 .5 0
5 1 .5 0
4 9 . 50
5 0 .5 0

_
-

32
9
23

4
4

-

-

“

13 4

3 9 .5
39. 5
3 9 .0

5 6 . 50
5 4 .0 0
5 2 . 50

5 1 .0 0
5 0 .0 0
5 1 .5 0
5 3 .0 0
5 0 .5 0

857
969
17 1
206
18 5
277

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .0

6 5 .0 0
6 0 . 50
6 5 .0 0

2 .3 4 6
940
1 ,4 0 6
279
309
254
441

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .0

5 4 . 50
5 6 .5 0
5 3 . 50
5 8 . 50
5 6 .0 0
5 1 .0 0
5 1 .5 0

t e c h n i c a l __________________

10 6

4 0 .0

S w i t c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s ______________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _____________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s * _ ------------------------------------R e t a i l t r a d e ___________________________
F i n a n c e * * _____________________________

368
97
271
45
65
52

S w i t c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r - r e c e p t i o n i s t s ___
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _____________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ___________________ —
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e ____ _______________
T a b u l a t i n g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s . . . ________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________
_____
F i n a n c e * * _____________________________

S te n o g ra p h e rs, g e n e ra l
__________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _____________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s * _____________________
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e ______________________
R e t a i l t r a d e ____________________________
F i n a n c e * * _____________________________
S te n o g ra p h e rs,

10
1
69

6 .0
6 0

T r a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
g e n e r a l ______________________ __________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _____________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e ______________________
F i n a n c e * * _____________________________

726
18 8
538
258

16
6

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
39. 5
3 9 .5
3 9 .0

T y p i s t s , c l a s s A _____________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________________
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s * _ ______________
F i n a n c e * * ------------------------------------------------------------

624
304
320
80
10 5

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
39. 5
4 0 .0
3 9 .5

5 2 . 50
5 3 .0 0
5 1 . 50
5 9 .5 0
4 9 .5 0

T y p i s t s , c l a s s B -----------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g -------------------------- ---------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s * _____________________
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e _______________________
R e t a i l t r a d e ________________________ —
F i n a n c e * * ------------------------------------------------------------

2 ,17 2
74?
1,4 2 6
13 1
3 10
14 4
733

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
39. 5
4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0
3 9 .0

4 6 .5 0
^ .0 0 “
4 5 .0 0
5 0 .0 0
4 9 .0 0
4 3 .0 0
4 2 . 50

1

_
-

-

_

2
2
2
2
0
2
0
2
0
9

-

- -

“

-

-

38

77
19
58
7
14
28

1

37
-

_ •

1
1

15
-

2
1
12

-

2
1
40
71

6
2

15

1

14
3
325
74
251

12
2
6
2
0

-

8
5
12 9

11
11
11
8

8
11

-

17 4
28
14 6

3

3

17
44
24

2
2
15
2
6

28
3
3
13

28
4
24

-

1

17 7
45
13 2

70

2
2

28

27
7

16 4

70

2
0

50
24

1
0

42

6
36
1

15
370

12
2

248
4
39

1
0

14 9

1
0

25
29
87

53
17 3

32

38

80
16
64
14
15
13

38 9
14 6
243
34
31
63
58

30

2
1
1
0
1

7

4
-

15

231
97
13 4

27

5
5
4

-

9
-

_

6
12
14
1
1

37

29

1
6
1
2
1
2
1

-

-

1
0
23
2
0

26
2

43

19
-

_

-

-

113
31
82
17

3
7
3
3

19

2

-

•

1
0

2
1
12
5

13 0
45
85
43

8
8
6
10 9
41

6
8
8
31

95
29

6
6

4
37
368
12 6
242
24
44
34

10
2

16
0
50
56

12
7
7
5

92
26

6
6

41
18
75
39
36

6
16
18 7
79
10 8
13
42
9
39

2
0
1
9
7

87
31
56
18

1
6
16
15

14 4
48
96
43

1
0

95
69
26
7

2

19 9
64
13 5
43
45
23

2
0

8
6
2
2
64
24

6
13
8

12 9
38
91
13
15
27
25

15 9

6
8
12

91

18
14
27

205
93

224
10 4

24
38
25

2
2

17
30
40
30

2 18
6
13 2
23
41
28
31

9

15

7

112 12
0

6
6

2
2

14
52

4
18

6
1
2

32

11
2
1

1

5
7
43
31

12

4

7

11
5
2

11
11

8
6

6
1
11

13
73
49
23
79
62
17

6

4
91
41
50
15
19

2

14

4

50
35

1
0

73
50
23
9

8

30

6

24
4

6
12

42
16

2
6
6
13

12
1
0
45
13
32

2
2
1
0
6
6

25
41

285
12 7
15 8
17
27
41
55

16 9
67

248
14 0
10 8

113
45

8
6

38

14

1
6

6
1
6
1
0
6
2

12
18
11
-

38
18

2
0
5
15

8
2

31
9

2
2
9
11

27

8
19
8
6
34
3
31

16

19
4

8

-

11
9
2
2
9
4
4

1
1
-

3
19

1
6
3
-

2
6
1
5
4

6
3
3

17

2
1
0
15

-

-

16
12
4
4

1
0
1
0
1
0

-

-

14 0
13 1
9
-

8
1

11
2

40

13

30

16 4
92
72
4

18
31

37

32
7
25
7

2

12

6
8
25
2
1
2

47
24
23
5

-

2
1

73
4

2
2
2

40

1
0
1
0

7

24
40

16
1
8
8

34
52
25
13
-

11

11

10
2
12

11
11
1
0
1

11

27
13

116
74
42
7
25

2
6

45

2
0

-

25
7
14
-

4

67
35
32

1

9
4
13
54
44

1
0
8
2

4

1
0

6
1
0
2
8
7
-

1

5

1
4

7
3

1

6
6
2

-

* Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
* * Finance, insurance, and real estate.

6

13

2
2
2
2
0
15
4
_

3

3

1
12

4
3

2

7

-

"

12
2
85
37

12
12
1
12
6
2
4
4
_

41
16
25
14

6
-

2
2
8
14
5
4
5

5

11
1
0
1
1

2
2

37
27

1
0
5
1
2
_

-

_

.
.

3

5
5
-

1

-

-

-

-

3

_

_

_

3
3
-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

.

_

_

-

-

-

-

1
2
2
2
1
0
6

3
3

-

3
-

3

-

“

-

-

-

-

-

15
15
7

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

-

_

-

-

_
-

6

_

4

-

8

9

4

_

_

_

-

-

-

1
8
8

-

-

4
4

-

3
3
3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

_

_

_

.

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

"

-

-

-

“

~

"

1 Hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
2 Workers were distributed as follows: 13 at $95 to $100; 9 at $100 to $105; 8 at $105 to $110; 8 at $110 to $115; 4 at $115 to $120; 6 at $120 to $125; 1 at $125 to $130.
2 W orkers were distributed as follows: 4 at $25 to $27. 50; 3 at $30 to $32. 50; 15 at $32. 50 to $35.




12 3
73
50
15
7

-

-

-

Table A-2: Professional and Technical Occupations
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings1 for selected occupations studied on an area basis
in Minneapolis-St. Paul, M inn., by industry division, November 1954)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF

Av eka q b

S ex,

occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

Weekly
Weekly
earnings
hours
(Standard) (Standard)

9

9

9

9

9

9

$

9

9

9

1

9

I

9

1

»

»

9

1

9

»

Under 45.00 47.50 50.00 52.50 55.00 57.50 60. 00 62.50 65.00 67. 50 70.00 72.50 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95. 0( lO d O O 105.00 110.00 115.00
and
and
45.00 under 5 0 . 0 0 5 2 . 5 0 55.00 57. 50 60.00 62.50
65.00 67.50. 70.00 72.50 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 100. 0( 105.0Q 110.00 LI 5.00 .a v e r ,,
4 7 «in

Men
$

88.00

Draftsmen, s e n io r ---------------- ------------------------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------- -----Nonmanufacturing — ---------------------------------

538
457
81

40..0
40.0
40.0

1

*

87.50
92.00

-

-

.

-

.

1

-

-

-

*

”

-

-

3
-

3
3
-

4
4
-

Draftsmen, junior --------- ------------------------------M anufacturing ----- —
-------- — --------------------—

394
343

40.0
40.0

73.00
72.00

-

-

-

-

7
7

8
8

18
16

32
32

33
30

53
41

Tracers -------------------------------------------------------------Manufacturing --------------------- -------- --------------

81
51

40.0
40.0

64. 50
59.50

3
3

2
2

1
1

2
2

2
2

6
6

no
87

39.5
39.5

72.50
73.50

2
1

1

a16
16

31

-

16
16
*

12

45
“i r l

16
16

33
32

39
37

39
“ 3T“

9

3

3

2

23
16

~

“

16

11

1
1

5

22

5

9

2

6

•

■

“

1

6

5
3

11

11

1

1

48
36

90
82

8

99
94
5

8

34
- I T

-

50
46
4

32

14

11
21

6
8

7
4

26

116
108

9

2
-

"

“

•

20

6

11

15
13

2

-

1
*

Women
Nurses, industrial (r e g is t e r e d )-----------Manufacturing ---- ----- — ----- — — --------

4

7

9

33
30

9

8

4

1

T3

9

1 Hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
* Workers were distributed as follows: 9 at $35 to $37. 50; 4 at $37. 50 to $40; 2 at $40 to $42. 50; 1 at $42. 50 to $45.




Occupational Wage Survey, Minneapolis-St. Paul, M inn., November 1954
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

Table A-3: Maintenance apd Powerplant Occupations
(Average hourly earnings1 for men in selected occupations studied on an area basis
in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minn., by industry division, November 1954)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
Number
of
workers

Occupation and industry division

Average
hourly
earnings

$
2.90 3.00
Under f . 50 1.55 1.60 1.65 1. 70 1.75 1.80 1.85 !.9 0 1.95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1.30 1 .3 5 1 .40 1.50 1.60 1. 70 1.80 $
and
and
1.50 under
1.55 1.60 1.65 1.70 1.75 1.80 1.85 1.90 1.95 2.00 2.05 2.10 2.15 2.20 2.25 2.30 2.35 2.40 2.50 2.60 2.70 2.80 2.90 3.00 over

$
2.38

251
114
137

-

-

•

1
1

_
*

.
.
-

.
.
•

.

„
.
*

.
*

1.92
1.92
1.93

18
9

18

10

6

435
311

1.85
1.82

1?
18

3

224
“ 224

2.10
2 .11
2.10
2 . 06

.
*

2.31
2.31

Mechanics, automotive (maintenance)—
— 725

4
2
2

2.17
2. 17

587
572

4
3
1

1

_
*

.
-

3
3
-

-

.
•
“

E lectricians, maintenance
—.....
Manufacturing ---------- --- ........ —

■
—

Engineers, stationary-----------------------------

F irem en, stationary boiler ----------- ---—

M achine-tool operators, to o lr o o m ---- —

Nonmanufacturing ------------------- -------

0 2 “

-

2.52

”

2.38
2.34
2.56

.
"

. . 2 . Ifr
2.18
2.15

425
248
177

379
305
74
5?3„.
252
271

88

637
522
534
357
177

■ —... ...................
Millwrights --------------- — ■

_

J

2 .12
2.10
2.16

■
......... -

Pipefitters, maintenance

Sheet-metal w orkers, maintenance — —
Manufacturing — .....- ..... —............
T ool and die makers ---------------- —
------- ---

7

181
179
Manufacturing

245
241

1.86
1.86

-

3
3

“

-

14
14

1
31
23

5
5

2?
24
5

8

8

18

1

2

1

i

1

5

17

“

“

15
13

20

13
13
-

30
27
3

4
4
•

*

.
“

9
9
-

28
24
4

34
34
“

9
7

3

25
16
9

42
24
18

28
24
4

17
15

17

12
5

18
13
5

,8
7

75
60

4
4

j

39

2
2

8
8

2

3

22

\7

17

?5
24

g
3

n

2

27

-

21

g

6

g

63
61

.
-

_
.
-

.
-

.
-

1

1

.

3

j

i
i

1

2
1
i
1

11

1

11

12

11

1

2

1

9

9
3

_

181

7A

2
2

3

3

-

*

1

5
5

88
88

634
634

2 .4 4

A7

2.44

_
•

3
3

10
10

166

166

5
5

202

7
.
7
7

31
7
24
23

2
2

29

-

18

11

2
2

•

55

92

2

.
.

3
3
.

_
.
>

.

_
.
_

_
.

.

.
-

_

.
_

.
_

.

-

-

-

-

-

96
28

4
.
4

_
-

2
2

_
-

57

2

2

4
4

9
8

-

-

-

14
14

17
10
7

.
*

18
9
9

25
16
9

2
2
•

_
-

1

30
30

19
19

1
1

13
13

37
37

2
2

2
2

1
1

12

7

12

6

16

2
2

7
7

5
5

“

5
5

26
26

59
59

11

15
15

1

16

3

j

5
5

6
2
4

1
2

1
1

2
2

*

53
44
9

6
1

49
47

2

1

3
3

15
15

2

2

-

3
3

2
2
•

1

_

4

203

27
27

4
4

5

2
.

.

38
38

3
3

2.42
2.42

1

22 . 49
22
49

8

93
23
70

1
1

42
42

22

7
_
7

15
15

12
12

1

73
72

?
1

23
23

61
15
46

46
46

\

.
-

2
2

3
3

2

1

1

_

g

18
.
18

2

7

.
•

8

50
49
1

3

2.45

.
-

47
47

75
17

9

1
_

1

1

7

3

182
164

.
-

4

2

37
7
30

15

8
7

2.42
2.33
2.48

11

170
165

4
7

•

70
57
13

6

185
76
109

39

58
74

4

-

1
1

2.24

_

-

266

26

„

-

39

20
11

_ .

11

59
58

78
47
31

_

4

36
36

41
41

32
27
5

.
14
_ — 5
9
-

6

78

5
4

26
20

.
-

39
30
9

29

8
8

-

_
_
-

6
2

11
11

26
240
236

_

19
19
-

32
32

2

4

16
9
7

9

37
JX

8

49
19
30

12
11

2
3
1
1

17
9

10
10

137
49

72
9
63
46

31
4
27

112

15

5

15
15
-

98

26

12
2
10
10

13
5

8

16

14
7
7

1

-

15
71

29

“

2
2

4

9

4

77
77
-

17
13
4

g

11

t

1

86

13

2

3

18
17

28
13
15

2

7

i

30
29
1

2d

l

12

13
7

5
5

4

18
16

*

2

6

9

28
24
4

1 Excludes premium pay fo r overtim e and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
* W orkers were distributed as follows: 42 at $3 to $3.10.
* Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.




32
27

14
2
12

3
2
1

2
2
“
20
15.

-

.
.
*

68

8

26
25

7
7

1

*42
37

34
34

-

3
3

"

-

-

28
28

-

-

36
36

75
75

175
175

33
33

179
179

“

"

“

“

Occupational Wage Survey, Minneapolis-St. Paul, M inn., November l'*54
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

Table A-4:

Custodial and Mqterial Movement Occupations

(Average hourly earnings 1 for selected occupations 2 studied on an area basis
in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minn., by industry division, November 1954)

%

$

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

Occupation and industry division

N ber
um
of
w
orkers

$
$
$
$
«
$
$
$
$
$
$
S
$
$
$
$
$
S
«
$
I
$
A
verage
hourly Under 1 .0 0 1.05 1 . 10 1. 15 1 . 20 1.25 1.30 1.35 1.40 1.45 1. 50 1. 55 1 . 60 1.65 1.70 1.75 1 . 80 1. 85 1.90 1.95 2 .0 0 2 . 10 2 . 20 2.30
earn gs
in
and
$
1 .0 0 under 1 . 10
1.05
1. 15 1 . 20 1 . 25 1.30 1.35 1.40 1.45 1.50 1. 55 1.60 1.65 1.70 1.75 1 , 80 1. 85 1.90 1.95 2 .0 0 2 . 10 2 . 20 2.30 ?. 40

560
453
107
93

$
1.75
1.78
1 . 60
1.60

Manufacturing--------------------------------Nonmanufacturing--------------------------Public utilities * -----------------------Wholesale trade ----------- ------------Retail tra d e ____________________
Finance ** ---------------------------------

2.583
1, 127
1,456
175
108
603
353

1.41
1. 57
1 . 28
1. 57
1.40
1 . 21
1. 37

Janitors, porters, and cleaners
(women) _____________________________
Manufacturing-------------- ---------------—
Nonmanufacturing................................

961
278
683

1 .2 2

Laborers, material handling _________ ..4,959
2,286
Manufacturing____________ _________
Nonmanufacturing---------------------------- 2,673
1,130
Public utilities * _______________
937
Wholesale trade ________________
595
Retail tra d e _____________________

1.72
1.70
1.74
1. 85
1.77
1. 50

2.407
502
1,905
1,076
580

1.67
1 . 68
1.67
1.79
1. 38

959
435
524
463

1.71
1.67
1.75
1.79
1.41

Guards _________________ _____ ______
Manufacturing_______ 1____ ________
Nonmanufacturing_________________
Finance ** --------------------------------Janitors, porters, and cleaners

Order fillers ____ ___________________
Manufacturing _ ----- -----------------------Nonmanufacturing______________ —
Wholesale trade ________________
Retail tra d e .......... ............. .............
P ackers, shipping (men) --------------------Manufacturing..................................... Nonmanufacturing --------------------------Wholesale trade ________________
Retail tra d e -------------------------------Packers, shipping (women) ___________
X X a n u f a r h i ‘r i n g

Nonmanufacturing--------------------------Receiving clerks ___________ _________
Nonmanufacturing_________________
Wholesale trade ________________
Retail tra d e .............................. ......

6
1

366

20
2
146

428
244
184

10
2
73

1. 37
1 . 16

6
6

95 —225 -165
7
10
4
91 218 155
6
30 152
93
43
3
"

106
7
44

3169
41
128

!

61 I

-

61
10 1
10 1
10 1

■

1. 83

4
4

8

53_
7
46

106

1

6

15
15
15

61

28 ... 134
26
1
108
10

58
14
44
-

91
40
51
3

6

3
35
56

6
20
6

24

409
4
405

5
5

24
18

6

53
14
39
-

28
7

59
35
24
-

42
5

8
16

21
12

9

21

1
8

28
33

53

35
35
35

20
16

53
53

7
7
7

35
35

32
32

134
26
108

11

-

25
9

11

16

-

30

32

’

-

5

38
28

108

4
4

1

21 '

4
17
17

8

31

21

7
14

33
9
24

22
20
2

91
89

53
11

90

217
206

-

13

8

4
4
88
10

78
63
14

72
18
18

26

66

15

32
34
7
15

11

4
4
4

12

13

2

15

9
3

3

39

1
6
2
2

_

_

_

_

_

_

7

-

-

-

_

-

-

7

-

46
40

4
62

5
5
5

2
2
1
0

-

10
11

10

”

16
9
7

-

11

383
159
224
17

11

14

-

-

300
172
128
35
17
51
23

124
25
99

24

1
0

14

11

8

16

n

5

7

6

56
48

2
2

l

3
~

-

See footnotes at end of table.
* Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
* * Finance, insurance, and real estate.




-

21

-

1

1
1

27
4
17

2

2

3

1

"

43
43

-

6*

46

l! 77
1 . 88
1 . 61

~

4

9

■

1.27
1. 33
1. 19

1 . 88

9

6

~

32

-

38

7

12
1
1

-

2
2

12
3

3

84
66
18

12
12

2

3

8

2

3

8

11
11

2

3

8

5

1

58
148

2

11

-

11

35
26
9
5

53
46
7
7

JJ08
159
49
23
15
9

8

5
3
3

63
54
9
7

62

2

6

35
32
3

3
3
“

12
10
2

3
3

373
310
63
56
7

461
445

293
218
75
-

190
87
103

61

89

12

14

2

17

65
31
34

218
140
78
54
24

229
27

42
36

80
18
62
57
5

10

1

-

16

4

2

14

116

6
2

28
28
“

18
18
-

16
14

2
1
2
1

16

66

6

13

2

1
0
6
6

55
41
14
14

2

20

20

2

31
13
18
17

131
97
34
19
15
■

229

209

7
5

16
8
8

85
67
18
9

113
3

3

8
8

6
5
1

.

23
i

7

-

22

7

7

-

14

11

-

2
0
U
9
7
2

38
38

7
7

107
107

-

13
13

-

-

-

1?
14
3
-

45
41
4
4

_
-

_
_
-

-

-

-

-

3

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

323 1051
374
677
140
51 450
150
87

502
46
456
264
189
3

690
46
644
639
5

88
88

42
3
39
39

160
154

22
22

•
•

.
“

-

194
77
117
117
■

335

471
130

323
168
50

84
84
32

45
45
■

-

_
-

.
-

159
47

317
55

33
-

-

-

-

7
•
7
f

3
*

-

-

-

82
66
16
16

35
27
18

2

12

202

194
8

6

17
17

14

53
13

s
2. 40
and
over

6
11
7

4
4
-

-

12 2
201

607
6
60 1

112 2 2
6
110
249
2 13

12

33
33

2

75
75
-

■

2

-

2
2

103
81

6

“
1
1

22

-

-

-

*

1

1
1

2
2
46
45
-

1

51
36
15

1
0
5

C OD
t
C O

49

27
24

2

73
15
58

43

15

30
1
15
14

1

55
ec

1
0

.

_
.

-

-

O
_
_

Occupational Wage Survey, Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minn., November 1954
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

Table A-4: Custodial and Material .Movement Occupations - Continued
(Average hourly earnings 1 for selected occupations 23studied on an area basis
in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minn., by industry division, November 1954)

Occupation and industry division

Shipping clerks _______________________
Manufacturing______________________
Nonmanufacturing __________________
Wholesale trade .......................... .

of
w era
ork

421
228
193
137

Shipping and receiving clerks -..............
Manufacturing________________ ___
Nonmanufacturing__________________
Wholesale trade .................... .........

255
164
91
50

Truckdrivers, light (under 1*/a ton s)__
Manufacturing___ ________ _____ ____

1.053
139

Truckdrivers, medium (iVa to and
including 4 tons) ............................ .........
Manufacturing ....... ..... ............. ............
Nonmanufacturing....... ...... ......... ........
'PiiHli/* nfilUiAR ♦
Wholesale trade ......... ............. .......
Truckdrivers, heavy (over 4 tons,
trailer type) ............................ ...........
Nonmanufacturing_________ _____
Wholesale trade ________________
Retail trade .....................................

ECK
O
E O RLY EARN GS O
IN
F—
NUM
liKlt O W RK
K O ERS K IVIN 8TRAIGHT-TIM H U
$
$
9
9
$
$
9
9
9
s
$
$
9
S
1
$
9
9
9
9
9
$
9
9
lion
rlv Under 1 .0 0 1.05 1 . 10 1. 15 1 . 2 0 1.25 1.30 1.35 1.40 1.45 l. 50 1. 55 1.60 1.65 1.70 1.75 1.80 1. 85 1.90 1.95 2 . 00 2 . 10 2 . 20 2.30
earn g* $
in
and
under
1 00
1.05 1 . 10 1. 15 1 . 2 0 1. 25 1. 30 1.35 1.40 1.45 1. 50 1. 55 1 . 60 1.65 1.70 1.75 1 . 80 1. 85 1 .9 0 1.95 2 . 00 2 . 10 2 . 20 2. 30 2. 40
$
1. 87
1 .8 8

1.85
1.90
1. 84
1. $3
1.84
1.93

_
-

-

_
-

-

-

-

_
-

-

_
-

1.92
1.97
1.90
1. 90
l! 89

583
559
109

_
-

-

_
-

-

_
-

-

2

-

11
11

-

-

2

2

2

-

-

2

7
7
-

4
4

9
9

5
5

110

Truckdrivers, heavy (over 4 tons,
other than trailer ty p e )......... .......... .....
Nonmanufacturing...... ....................... .

ii
604
278
326

1. 87
1.85
1.90

Truckers, power (other than
forklift) ......... ................................... . __
Manufacturing.............. .......... .......... .

236
2 16

6

-

-

2

-

3

1

1. 54
1 . 62
1.48
1 . 62

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

-

-

.

26

-

19
3

-

16
16

5
V ------5“|
1

10

27

.
-

17

Watchmen _ __________________________
_
Manufacturing...................................... .
N on m an u factu rin g___________________
Public u tilities *
..... ............. _

1
a
3
*

160

8
1

67
51
16
10

27
16

79
60
19
11

70
67
3

26
11

15
14
15
8

115
28
87
76
52
14
38
19

29
13
16
16

12
12

.
-

—
~
w
18

-

9
9
_
-

36
33

32
-

2
2

42
42

28
28

-

94
64
30
■
»n

753

53

80

28

55

117
52
65

38
31
7
c

54

4

802
50
752
485
214

-

3
-

18
18
18

7

-

491
485
43

45
45
45
-

.

-

-

-

.
-

-

-

-

3
3

3
3

-

2

9

16

11

2

8
1

16

11

10
1
1 — r
4

10
10

9
4
5

15
5
10

18
13
5

1
1

60

-

54

54
48

3
3

“

56
56
“

7
7
“

14
8
6

36
33
3

25
25

287
4
283

2
2

32
32

11
10

97
95

6
6

•
-

22
11

6

-

?7
27
70
33

38
13
25

21

22
10
12
12

31
5
26
24

7
3
4
4

17
9

18
18

15
14

8

-

1
1

-

8

14
7

“

1

.

1

-

21

19
14
5

"

2
1
1

5
5

1

17
13
4

3
3

11
11

1
1

1

11

3
3
-

5
5
5

15
-

T
W l
W

.
.
-

4
4
_
-

36
9 -----7

n

7
7
-

26

.
-

1

11
8

23
3
3

10
10

7
7

*

Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Data limited to men w orkers, except where otherwise indicated.
Workers were distributed as follows: 6 under $0.85; 17 at $0.85 to $0.90; 44 at $0.90 to $0.95; 102 at $0.95 to $1.
Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.




9

8
5
- — r — r
i

2
2
2

. 1.75
i.7 r

373
155
218
82

-

1.91
1.90

Truckers, power (forklift) .....................
Manufacturing............. ..........................
Nonmanufacturing........................ .......

8
2
6

10 2

_

-

1.93
1.92
1.93
1.96

1 .2 6 6

31
11
20

25

7

1.91

2. 11

311
955
542
297

-

2

7
7

•7

-

9
2. 40
and
over

52
52

11
8

*w ~
- z
~
30

12
12

6

-

-

-

-

-

.
-

.
.
-

6

.

.
-

-

.

-

8

“

1
1

4
4

1?

110
110

”

9
9
"

.
“

4
4

-

-

■

‘
4
4

.

_

.

-

-

-

-

-

—

-

~
-

4
4
"

3
3

-

_

.

-

-

10




B: Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Table B-l: Shift Differential Provisions*
Percent of manufacturing plant workers—
(a)
In establishments having
form al provisions for—

Shift differential

Second shift
work

Total ------------ ---------------------------------------------------------------------

88.1

Third or other
shift work

(b)
Actually working on—
Second shift

Third or other
shift

79.7

11.8

2 .4

7 cents ........ ....—
...................

-—

— — -----------------

87.4

79.0

11.5

2 .4

69.3

With shift pay d iffe re n tia l--------— ---- ---- —- — ---- ---- — —
—
— -

60.9

8.4

1.9

14.6
3.8
.8
4 .8
7.0
29.2
.
1.3
3.6
3.8

3.1
1.6

2.0
.3
.2
.7
.1
3.0
.
.1
.7

-

.1
-

.9

.1
1.1
.1
A
.1
.1

.2

.3

.5

1.1
7.0
17.4
8.3
.8
4 .6
8.3
8.8

Uniform percentage — — — — — — — — — ---- -------— —

17.8

17.8

3.0

.4

p e r c e n t ----- — ----- — ----- —---- ------ -----------------------7i/ j percent — ---- — --------------------------------------------—
10 percent ------ ------- ------------------------------—----- -------12l/a percent --------------- ---------- ■—— — — -----------13 percent — -------------- ---- ------------ ---- ---------- -----------

2.1
10.9
4.9
•
"

.
2.1
1.8
10.9
3.1

.1
2.0

.

Other — -------—....----- — ------------------ — ------------------ -----

.3

shift pay differential ----- -- ----------------------------- ---- ----- —

.7

9 c e n t s ----------------------------------- ------------- -----------------10 c e n t s -----------------------— --------------------------------- ----12 c e n t s ---------- ------------------------- ---------— -— ---------- —
12 */» c e n t s -------------------------------------------------------------Over 12Va and under 15 ce n ts ----- — -------—
----- -------15 c e n t s ---------------— — --------------------------------------------Over 15 cen ts----------- ------ ------------- ---- ---------------------

5

No

.9

A
A

•
“

.3

.3

.1

.1

.7

.3

*

A

1
Shift differential data are presented in terms of (a) establishment policy, and (b) worker* actually employed on late
shifts at the time of the survey. An establishment was considered as having a policy if it met either of the following condi­
tions: (1) Operated late shifts at the time of the survey, or (2) had form al provisions covering late shifts.
A Less than 0. 05 percent.
Occupational Wage Survey, Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minn., November 1954
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

Table B-2: Minimum Entrance Rates for Women Office Workers
Number of establishments with specified minimum hiring rate in—
Nonmanufacturing

Manufacturing
Minimum rate
(weekly salary)

All
schedules

237

89

Number of establishments with specified minimum hiring rate in—
Manufacturing

|
|

Based on standard weekly hours 2 of—

All
industries

Establishments stu died_________

II

40

37l/a

40

XXX

148

XXX

XXX

All
schedules

|

II

237

FOR INEXPERIE]MCED TYPIS TS
Establishments having a specified
m in im u m

$27. 50
$30.00
$32. 50
$35.00
$37.50
$40.00
$42. 50
$45.00
$47. 50
$ 50.00
$52. 50

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under $30.00 ---------------under $32. 50 . ___
under $35.00 __________
under $37. 50 __________
under $40.00 __________
under $42. 50 __________
under $45.00 ----------under $47. 50 __________
under $50.00 ---------------under $ 52. 50 _
_
o v e r ___________________

89

40

All
schedules

37l/z

40

XXX

148

XXX

XXX

I'OR OTHER ]:n e x p e r ie n c : e d CLERIC AL WORKERS

1
7
6
17
4
5
1
1
1

40
1
6
5
16
4
5
1
1
1

80
7
2
13
19
9
15
5
5
3
2
-

9
2
1
3
3

“

8
16
6
12
2
5
3
2
-

69

36

XXX

33

XXX

XXX

XXX

42

10

XXX

32

XXX

XXX

XXX

3

XXX

3

XXX

XXX

123
7
2
14
26
15
32
9
10
4
3
1

43
-

XXX

XXX
XXX

124
6
2
6
30
16
36
8
11
5
3
1

44
2
5
4
19
5
5
2
1
1

40
2
4
4
17
5
5
1
1
1

80
6
2
4
25
12
17
3
6
3
2

10
•
2
1
3
3

-

63
6
2
1
20
9
14
1
5
3
2

-

-

-

XXX

35

XXX

30

XXX

3

-

Nonmanufacturing

Based on standard weekly hours 2 of—

All
industries

All
schedules

1

-

1
-

-

-

63
7
2

Establishments having no specified
72

37

Establishments which did not
employ workers in this c a t e g o r y ____

38

8

Data not a va ilab le--------------------------------

3

m in im u m

_

.

XXX

1 Lowest salary rate form ally established for hiring inexperienced workers for typing or other clerica l jobs.
2 Hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries. Data are presented for all workweeks combined, and for the most common workweeks reported.




Occupational Wage Survey, Minneapolis -St. Paul, Minn., November 1954
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

Table B-3: Frequency of W a ge Payment
PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—

F requ ency o f payment

A ll w ork ers _________

W e e k ly

_ ..

All
.
industries

_________________________

_______________

_____________

_____

B iw e e k ly ----------------------------------------------------------------------------S em im on th ly____________________________________
M onthly__________________________________________
Inform ation not available
—________________________

1
2
A
*
**

Manufacturing

Public .
utilities*

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—
Finance**

100

100

100

100

100

30
25
46

69
21
10

31
18
46

52
24
24

-

-

-

-

10
20
66
4

5

Public
utilities*

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

io o

100

100

100

100

92
8
A

69
28
A

70
18
9

75
16
9

-

j
i
'1
1
I
I

Manufacturing

81
13
5

Services

100

30
22
46
A
A

All .
industries

-

-

-

-

Services

3

A

Includes data for services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Includes data for real estate and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Less than 2. 5 percent.
Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
Finance, insurance, and real estate.

Table B-4:

Scheduled Weekly Hours2
3

PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS1EMPLOYED I N -

Weekly hours

All
2
industries

Manufacturing

Public
utilities *

Wholesale
trade

Retail t'.ade

PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—
Finance * *

Services

J

All 3
industries

Manufacturing

Public ^
utilities *

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

Services

ji
1
|

All w o rk e rs __________________________________

Under 3 7 V z h o u rs __________ _____________
3 7V g hours ______________ ___________________
Over 3 7 l/ z hours and under 4 0 h o u r s _________
4 0 hours
_________________________ __________________ . .
Over 4 0 and under 4 4 h o u rs ____________ _________
4 4 hours
_______ ________________________________________
4 5 hour 8 __________________________________________________
46 hour8 _____________________________________
48 hours _____________________________________
Over 48 hours ______________________________

1 00

1 00

100

100

_
_

3
7
_

A

A

14
11
73

16
76

100

A
A

A
A

_

A

A

_

-

_

_
_

5

-

90
_
_
_
_
_

1 00

100

100

1 00

A

A

A

7
3
87

33
18
48
_
-

5
_

7
_

_
_

80
4

84
_

98

A

3

A

A

-

-

4
A
3
A

5

_
_

A
A

A
A
_
-

^ ata relate to women workers only.
Includes data for services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Includes data for real estate and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
& Less than 2. 5 percent.
* Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
** Finance, insurance, and real estate.
2

3




_
_
_

-

100

.

100

100

3

_
_

_
91

3
.
_

67
16
6

_

4
5
A

Occupational Wage Survey, Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minn. , November 1954
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

13

Table B-5: Paid Holiday Provisions1
PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS EMPLOYED I N -

Item

_

_

100

100

100

100

100

,

99

99

100

84
10
5
A

58
42

100
_
48
43
9
"

A

__

M
anufacturing

Public
utilities *

71
17
8
4

All workers

A
ll 2
in stries
du

A

47
32
7

51
39
8

81
57
24

A
8
A

2
A

■

A

A

W
holesale
trade

PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—

A 3
ll
indu
stries

M
anufacturing

100

100

100

100
_
90
10
_

100
_
63
7
17
13

97
A
77
11
5
A

_

_

47
32
12

49
49
-

3
-

■

W
holesale
trade

R trade
etail

100

100

100

97
A
77
9
10
A

98
11
61
26
“

97
57
39
"

98
4
86
8
“

3

3

A

3

A

33
8
A

69
30
36

81
29
50

85
44
41

68
31
30

40
35
5

26
■

A
A
A

A
A

"

6
“

-

A

R
etail trade

3

A

-

-

11

13
“

26
3

47
“

Finance **

S
ervices

Public *
u
tilities

S
ervices

Number of paid holidays
Workers in establishments providing paid
holiday s _________________ _______________

Workers in establishments providing no paid

“

Provisions for holidays occurring
on nonwork days4
With provisions for holidays falling on
Saturday
Another day off with pay _ __
Extra day's p a y ____________________________
Option of another day off or extra
day's pay _____ _________________________
Provisions differ for various h olid a y s______
Other provisions __________________________
Saturday is a scheduled workday for all
workers
_ .................... _
No provision (or no pay) for holidays
falling on Saturday _________________________
Information not available _____________________
With provisions for holidays falling on
Sunday
.........
- Another day off with pay ______________ _
_
Extra day's p a y ____________________________
Option of another day off or extra
day's pay ______________________ _________
Provisions differ for various h olid a ys_____
Other provisions __ ______________________
No provisions (or no pay) for holidays
falling nn Sunday
_ ..... _
..
Information not available
..... ....... .......
With provisions for holidays falling
during vacation ___________________________ _
Another day off with p a y __ _______________
Extra d a y 's pay
.. ............ ..
Option of another day off or extra
day's p a y ________________________ ________
Provisions differ for various h olid a ys_____
Other p r o v is io n s

51
A

49
-

19
-

48
5

51
■

66
"

25
A

15
~

95
93
A

98
94
A

100
100
■

85
82
"

83
83
~

100
100
■

92
85
3

97
86
4

87
82
5

94
94

88
88
A

A
A

A

■

3
-

-

“

4

7

-

-

-

4
A

A

_
_

10
5

17

_

_

5
A

_

11
-

3

10
-

89
63
24

93
45
47

87
80
7

87
82
3

83
83
A

89
64
25

91
49
35

93
33
57

92
76
16

90
80
7

89
79
A

A
-

A
-

-

3
-

-

-

7
-

3
-

"

3
*

9
■

11
A

7

13

7
5

17

11

6
A

4

6

3
3

9

_ ....

No provisions (or no pay) for holidays
falling during vacation _____________________
Information not available _____________________

2 Estimates include only full-day holidays provided annually.
Includes data for services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
3 Includes data for real estate and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
4 Limited to provisions in establishments having a formal policy applying when holidays occur on nonwork days; some of the estimates would be slightly higher if practices determined informally
as the situation occurs were included.
A Less than 2 .5 percent.
Occupational Wage Survey, Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minn., November 1954
* Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
u . S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
** Finance, insurance, and real estate.
Bureau of Labor Statistics




14

Table B-6

Paid Vacations
PERCENT O PLANT W
F
ORKERS EM
PLOYED IN—

PERCENT O O
P FFICE W
ORKERS EM
PLOYED IN—
Vacation policy

All workers ___ _____________________ _______

A
ll
industries *

M
anufacturing

Public
utilities*

W
holesale
trade

R
etail trade

Finance**

Services

A ,
ll
industries2

M
anufacturing

Public
utilities *

W
holesale
trade

R
etail trade

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

99
99
A
-

99
96
3
-

100
100
_

100
100
-

100
100
-

100
100
-

99
93
5
A

100
90
9
A

100
95
5
-

100
100
_

100
100
_

A

A

-

-

-

A

A
30
A
69
A
-

A
22
A
76
_
-

_
72
_
28
_
-

_
40
_
60
_
-

A
9
A
88
A
-

A
8
A
90
_
-

11
_
89
_
-

A
A
A
95
A
A
-

A
3
A
93
_
A
-

A
98
_
-

A
A
89
6
4

A
A
87
A
10

_
100
_
.

METHOD OF PAYMENT
Workers in establishments
providing paid vacations ______ ____________
Length-of-time payment _T ... ._ .....
__ _ _
Percentage payment
Other
—- - - ___ __
Workers in establishments
providing no paid v a ca tio n s ___ ____________

-

-

AMOUNT OF VACATION PAY
After 1 year of service
_
72
_
28
_
-

_
A
_
97
A
-

A
77
4
17
_
A

A
84
7
7
-

_
78
_
22
_
-

_
_
_
98
A
-

A
49
8
41
_
A

A
61
14
23
_
-

28
A
70
_
-

A
15
8
73
A
A
A

A
22
13
59
A
A
-

_
18
A
80
_
_
-

_
_
6
94
_
_
-

A
A
89
A
6
A

A
3
84
4
7

_
100
_

_
100
_

_

_

7

'

Less than 1 week ._ _
1 week _
_
_ _ _ _ ....
Over 1 but less than 2 weeks , -_____________
2 weeks _________ ________ ___ ___________ _
Over 2 but less than 3 w e e k s ------------------------4 weeks and o v e r __________________________

'

73
_
27
_
-

61

_
34
A
63

_
27
A
72

-

-

_

39
-

After 2 years of service
Less than 1 w e e k ____________________________
1 week
Over 1 but less than 2 weeks , ..— - -...
2 weeks
_ _
Over 2 but less than 3 weeks _____________
4 weeks and o v e r ____________________________

_

_
17
_
83
_
-

_
23
_
77
_
-

_

_

After 3 years of service
Less than 1 week
1 week _
_
Over 1 but less than 2 weeks
2 weeks
_ ......
T
Over 2 but less than 3 w e e k s ---------------- -------3 weeks
__ ___ __
4 weeks and over ....

_

_

_

_

_
_
100
_
.
-

7
_
93
_
.
-

_
_
98
A
_
-

_
_
100
_

A
_
98
_
A

_
83
17

3
A
96
_
-

After 5 years of service
l week ...
_
.. . .
Over 1 but less than 2 weeks ________ _______
2 weeks __
Over 2 but less than 3 weeks
3 weeks
__
_
.... ,_
_
rT .r
n
4 weeks and over

_

See footnotes at end of table.
* Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities,
** Finance, insurance, and real estate.




_

_
_

_

_

A
_
92

Occupational Wage Survey, Minneapolis-St. Paul, M inn., November 1954
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

NOTE: In the tabulations of vacation allowances by years of service, payments other than "length of tim e",
such as percentage o f annual earnings or flat-sum payments, were converted to an equivalent time
basis; for example, a payment o f 2 percent of annual earnings was considered as 1 week's pay.

Table B-6:

Paid Vacations - Continued

PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—

Vacation policy

A ll workers

_ _ __

__

PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—

All
,
industries *

________ __

Manufacturing

Public ^
utilities *

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

A
66
5
29
-

A
51
4
44
-

_
59
_
41
-

_
83
_
17
-

A
81
19
-

_
72
12
16
"

A
67
4
27
A

A
59
7
32
"

_
65
A
34
-

_
83
_
17
-

A
81
_
18
-

A
19
A
80
_
A

A
23
_
75
_

_
6
_
94
_
-

_
21
_
79
_
-

A
29
71
-

_
9
A
88
_
-

A
29
A
68
A
A

A
20
A
75
A
-

_
4
96
_
-

_
18
82
_
-

A
53
_
46
_
-

A
17
A
75
_
6

A
22
_
76
_
A

_
6
_
94
_
-

_
21
_
73
_
6

_
29
.
71
_
A

_
7
A
73
_
18

A
27
A
69
A
A

A
18
A
77
A
A

_
4
_
96
_
-

_
18
_
82
_
-

A
53
_
45
_
A

A
17
A
61
_
20

A
22
_
65
_
11

_
6
_
94
_

_
21
_
57
_
22

A
28
_
39
_
33

7
A
57
_
34

A
26
A
61
A
10

A
16
A
69
A

_
4
_
96
_

_
18
_
71
_
11

A
51
_
33
_
15

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

Finance**

Services

All
2
industries

Manufacturing

Public ^
utilities*

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

AMOUNT OF VACATION PAY - Continued
After 10 years of service
L ess than 2 w e e k s ________ ___________________
2 weeks r
_
Over 2 but less than 3 weeks _______________
3 weeks ______________ _________________ _____
4 weeks and over ______ _____ ________________
After 15 years of service
Less than 2 w e e k s ___________________________
2 weeks
_
_
Over 2 but less than 3 weeks
_ _
3 weeks
--------Over 3 but less than 4 w e e k s ________________
4 weeks and over
______
_ __
After 20 years of service
Less than 2 weeks ------------ -------------------2 w e e k s ___ _ _ _ _ _ _
_____
Over 2 but less than 3 weeks __________ ._____r
3 weeks
,,
Over 3 but less than 4 weeks ________________
4 weeks and over __ _
_
_
_ _____
After 25 years o f service
Less than 2 w e e k s ______ _________ __________
2 weeks
'
Over 2 but less than 3 weeks
_ _
3 weeks
_
.... ....
Over 3 but less than 4 weeks
4 weeks and over

_

“
Includes data for services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Includes data for real estate and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
A Less than 2 .5 percent.
* Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
** Finance, insurance, and real estate.




16

APPENDIX:

JOB

DESCRIPTIONS

The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau*s wage surveys is to
assist its field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under
a variety of payroll titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment
and from area to area. This is essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage
rates representing comparable job content. Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and
interarea comparability of occupational content, the Bureau*s job descriptions may differ signifi­
cantly from those in use in individual establishments or those prepared for other purposes. In
applying these job descriptions, the Bureau's field representatives are instructed to exclude work­
ing supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped workers, part-time,
temporary, and probationary workers.
Of f i c e
BILLER, MACHINE
Prepares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records
as to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work in­
cidental to billing operations.
For wage study purposes, billers,
machine, are classified by type of machine, as follows:
Biller, machine (billing machine) - Uses a special billing
machine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, etc. , which
are combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and
invoices from customers' purchase orders, internally prepared
orders, shipping memoranda, etc. Usually involves application
of predetermined discounts and shipping charges and entry of
necessary extensions, which may or may not be computed on the
billing machine, and totals which are automatically accumulated
by machine. The operation usually involves a large number of
carbon copies of the bill being prepared and is often done on a
fanfold machine.
Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine) - Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, etc. , which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers'
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally
involves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers' ledger
record.
The machine automatically accumulates figures on a
number of vertical columns and computes and usually prints auto­
matically the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowl­
edge of bookkeeping. Works from uniform and standard types of
sales and credit slips.
BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or with­
out a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.




BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR - Continued
Class A - Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of
&nd experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Deter­
mines proper records and distribution of debit and credit items
to be used in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated
reports, balance sheets, and other records by hand.
Class B - Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections
of a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers'accounts friot including a simple type of billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation of trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.
CLERK, ACCOUNTING
Class A - Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a com ­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase of.*an establish­
ment's business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or ac­
counts payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with
proper accounting distribution; requires judgment and experience
in making proper assignations and allocations. May assist in
preparing, adjusting, and closing journal entries; may direct class
B accounting clerks.
Class B - Under supervision, performs one or more routine
accounting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers,
accounts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers. This job does not require a knowledge of
accounting and bookkeeping principles but is found in offices in
which the more routine accounting work is subdivided on a func­
tional basis among several workers.

17

CLERK, FILE
Class A - Responsible for maintaining an established filing
system^ Classifies and indexes correspondence or other material;
may also file this material. May keep records of various types
in conjunction with files or supervise others in filing and locating
material in the files. May perform incidental clerical duties.
Class B - Performs routine filing, usually of material that
has already been classified, or locates or assists in locating ma­
terial in the files. May perform incidental clerical duties.
CLERK, ORDER
Receives customers* orders for material or merchandise by
mail, phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination of the
following: Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet
listing the items to make up the order; checking prices and quantities
of items on order sheet; distributing order sheets to respective de­
partments to be filled. May check with credit department to deter­
mine credit rating of customer, acknowledge receipt of orders from
customers, follow up orders to see that they have been filled, keep
file of orders received, and check shipping invoices with original
orders.
CLERK,

PAYROLL

KEY-PUNCH OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards
by punching a series of holes in the cards in a specified sequence,
using an alphabetical or a numerical key-punch machine, following
written information on records. May duplicate cards by using the
duplicating device attached to machine. Keeps files of punch cards.
May verify own work or work of others.
OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands,
operating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening
and distributing mail, and other minor clerical work.
SECRETARY
Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an
administrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint­
ments for superior; receiving people coming into office; answering
and making phone calls; handling personal and important or confi­
dential mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative;
taking dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in
shorthand or by stenotype or similar machine, and transcribing dicta­
tion or the recorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine.
May prepare special reports or memoranda for information of superior.

Computes wages of company employees and enters the neces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers*
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker*s name, working
days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out pay checks and assist paymaster in making up and distri­
buting pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR

STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL

Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathe­
matical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of
statistical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of
a Comptometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to
performance of other duties.

Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by stenotype or similar machine, involving a
varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or
reports on scientific research and to transcribe this dictation on a
typewriter. May also type from written copy. May also set up and
keep files in order, keep simple records, etc. Does not include
transcribing-machine work.

DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
Under general supervision and with no supervisory respon­
sibilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwriting
matter, using a mimeograph or ditto machine. Makes necessary ad­
justment such as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed.
Is not required to prepare stencil or ditto master. May keep file of
used stencils or ditto masters. May sort, collate, and staple com­
Digitizedpleted material.
for FRASER


Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by stenotype or similar machine, involving a
normal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a type­
writer. May also type from written copy. May also set up and keep
files in order, keep simple records, etc. Does not include tran­
scrib ing-machine work (see transcribing-machine operator).

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office
calls. May record toll calls and take messages. May give infor­
mation to persons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders.
For workers who also act as receptionists see switchboard operatorreceptionist.

18

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL - Continued

In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single posi­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also
type or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties •
This typing or clerical work may take the major part of this worker’ s
time while at switchboard.

included. A worker who takes dictation in shorthand or by stenotype
or similar machine is classified as a stenographer, general.

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Operates machine that automatically analyzes and translates
information punched in groups of tabulating cards and prints trans­
lated data on forms or accounting records; sets or adjusts machine;
does simple wiring of plugboards according to established practice
or diagrams; places cards to be tabulated in feed magazine and starts
machine. May file cards after they are tabulated. May, in addition,
operate auxiliary machines.

TYPIST
Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to
make out bills after calculations have been made by another person.
May do clerical work involving little special training, such as keep­
ing simple records, filing records and reports or sorting and dis­
tributing incoming mail.
Class A - Performs one or more of the following: Typing
material in final form from very rough and involved draft; copy­
ing from plain or corrected copy in which there is a frequent
and varied use of technical and unusual words or from foreignlanguage copy; combining material from several sources, or
planning layout of complicated statistical tables to maintain uni­
formity and balance in spacing; typing tables from rough draft in
final form. May type routine form letters, varying details to
suit circumstances.

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal
routine vocabulary from transcribing machine records. May also
type from written copy and do simple clerical work. Workers tran­
scribing dictation involving a varied technical or specialized vocabu­
lary such as legal briefs or reports on scientific research are not

Professional

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
poses. Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May pre­
pare drawings from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties
under direction of a draftsman.
DRAFTSMAN, LEADER
Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in
preparation of working plans and detail drawings from rough or pre­
liminary sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing
purposes. Duties involve a combination of the following: Interpreting
blueprints, sketches, and written or verbal orders; determining work
procedures; assigning duties to subordinates and inspecting their work;
performing more difficult problems. May assist subordinates during



Class B - Performs one or more of the following: Typing
from relatively clear or typed drafts; routine typing of form s,
insurance policies, etc; setting up simple standard tabulations, or
copying more complex tables already set up and spaced properly.

and

Technical

DRAFTSMAN, LEADER - Continued
emergencies or as a regular assignment, or perform related duties
of a supervisory or administrative nature.
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes,
rough or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manu­
facturing purposes. Duties involve a combination of the following:
Preparing working plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-sections, e t c .,
to scale by use of drafting instruments; making engineering computa­
tions such as those involved in strength of materials, beams and
trusses; verifying completed work, checking dimensions, materials
to be used, and quantities; writing specifications; making adjustments
or changes in drawings or specifications. May ink in lines and letters
on pencil drawings, prepare detail units of complete drawings, or
trace drawings. Work is frequently in a specialized field such as
architectural, electrical, mechanical, or structural drafting.

19

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL. (REGISTERED)

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED) - Continued

A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on
the premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve _a
combination of the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured;
attending to subsequent dressing of employees injuries; keeping records
of patients treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or
other purposes; conducting physical examinations and health evaluations
of applicants and employees; and planning and carrying out programs
involving health education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant

environment, or other activities affecting the health, welfare, and
safety of all personnel.

Maintenanc e

TRACER
Copies
tracing cloth or
Uses T-square,
simple drawings

and

plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing
paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil.
compass, and other drafting tools. May prepare
and do simple lettering.

Powerplant

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

ENGINEER, STATIONARY

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and
maintain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins,
cribs, counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings,
and trim made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most of
the following; Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, draw­
ings, models, or verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter's
handtools, portable power tools, and standard measuring instruments;
making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work;
selecting materials necessary for the work. In general, the work of
the maintenance carpenter requires rounded training and experience
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent train­
ing and experience.

Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air compressors, generators, mo­
tors, turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers
and boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a
record of operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consump­
tion. May also supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers
in establishments employing more than one engineer are excluded.

ELECTRICIANS, MAINTENANCE
Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating,
distribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment.
Work involves most of the following; Installing or repairing any of
a variety of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers,
switchboards, controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units,
conduit systems, or other transmission equipment; working from blue­
prints, drawings, layout, or other specifications; locating and diag­
nosing trouble in the electrical system or equipment; working standard
computations relating to load requirements of wiring or electrical
equipment; using a variety of electrician's handtools and measuring
and testing instruments. In general, the work of the maintenance
electrician requires rounded training and experience usually ac­
quired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.



FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER
Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand
or operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water
and safety valves. May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom equipment.
HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE
Assists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance
trades, by performing specific or general duties of lesser skill, such
as keeping a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning work­
ing area, machine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding ma­
terials or tools; performing other unskilled tasks as directed by jour­
neyman. The kind of work the helper is permitted to perform varies
from trade to trade: In some trades the helper is confined to sup­
plying, lifting, and holding materials and tools and cleaning working
areas; and in others he is permitted to perform specialized machine
operations, or parts of a trade that are also performed by workers
on a full-time basis.

20

MACHINE-TOOL, OPERATOR, TOOLROOM

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE

Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine
lathes, or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools,
gauges, jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most of the following:
Planning and performing difficult machining operations; processing
items requiring complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy;
using a variety of precision measuring instruments; selecting feeds,
speeds, tooling and operation sequence; making necessary adjust­
ments during operation to achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions.
May be required to recognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools,
and to select proper coolants and cutting and lubricating oils. For
cross-industry wage study purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom,
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establish­
ment. Work involves most of the following: Examining machines
and mechanical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling
or partly dismantling machines and performing repairs that mainly
involve the use of handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing
broken or defective parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the
production of a replacement part by a machine shop or sending of
the machine to a machine shop for major repairs; preparing written
specifications for major repairs or for the production of parts ordered
from machine shop; reassembling machines; and making all necessary
adjustments for operation. In general, the work of a maintenance
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
Excluded from this classification are workers whose primary duties
involve setting up or adjusting machines.

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
MILLWRIGHT
Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs
of metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment.
Work involves most of the following: Interpreting written instruc­
tions and specifications; planning and laying out of work; using a va­
riety of machinist’s handtoo Is and precision measuring instruments;
setting up and operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal
parts to close tolerances; making standard shop computations relat­
ing to dimensions of work, tooling, feeds and speeds of machining;
knowledge of the working properties of the common metals; selecting
standard materials, parts, and equipment required for his work; fitting
and assembling parts into mechanical equipment. In general, the
machinist’ s work normally requires a rounded training in machineshop practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant lay­
out are required. Work involves most of the following: Planning and
laying out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications;
using a variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop com ­
putations relating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of
gravity; alining and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools,
equipment, and parts to be used; installing and maintaining in good
order power transmission equipment such as drives and speed re­
ducers. In general, the millwright’ s work normally requires a rounded
training and experience in the trade acquired through a formal appren­
ticeship or equivalent training and experience.
OILER

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
Repairs automobiles, busses, motortrucks, and tractors of
an establishment. Work involves most of the following: Examining
automotive equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling
equipment and performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches, gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in dis­
assembling or fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts from
stock; grinding and adjusting valves; reassembling and installing the
various assemblies in the vehicle and making necessary adjustments;
alining wheels, adjusting brakes and lights, or tightening body bolts.
In general, the work of the automotive mechanic requires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprentice­
ship or equivalent training and experience.



Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing
surfaces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.
PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an
establishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface
peculiarities and types oi paint required for different applications;
preparing surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing
putty or filler in nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray
gun or brush. May mix colors, oils, white lead, and other paint
ingredients to obtain proper color or consistency. In general, the
work of the maintenance painter requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience.

21

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE - Continued

Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe
and pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most of the fol­
lowing: Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe
from drawings or other written specifications; cutting various sizes
of pipe to correct lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene
torch or pipe-cutting machine; threading pipe with stocks and dies;
bending pipe by hand-driven or power-driven machines; assembling
pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard
shop computations relating to pressures, flow, and size of pipe re­
quired; making standard tests to determine whether finished pipes meet
specifications. In general, the work of the maintenance pipefitter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. Workers
rimarily engaged in installing and repairing building sanitation or
eating systems are excluded.

and laying out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blue­
prints, models, or other specifications; setting up and operating all
available types of sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of
handtools in cutting, bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assem­
bling; installing sheet-metal articles as required. In general, the
work of the maintenance sheet-metal worker requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumberls snake.
In general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprentice­
ship or equivalent training and experience.
SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing)
of an establishment. Work involves most of the following: Planning

Custodial

and

(Diemaker; jig maker; toolmaker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix­
tures or dies fgr forgings, punching, and other metal-forming work.
Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying out of work
from models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifi­
cations; using a variety of tool and die maker's handtools and precision
measuring instruments; understanding of the working properties of
common metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools
and related equipment; making necessary shop computations relating
to dimensions of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools
and dies to achieve required qualities; working to close tolerances;
fitting and assembling of parts to prescribed tolerances and allow­
ances; selecting appropriate materials, tools, and processes. In
general, the tool and die maker's work requires a rounded training
in machine shop and toolroom practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this* classification.

Material

GUARD
Perform s routine police duties, either at fixed post or on
tour, maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. In­
cludes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity of

employees and other persons entering.


TOOL AND DIE MAKER

Movement

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working
areas and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house,
or commercial or other establishment. Duties involve a combination

22

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER - Continued

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK - Continued

of the following: Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors;
removing chips, trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture,
or fixtures; polishing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies
and minor maintenance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and
restrooms. Workers who specialize in window washing are excluded.

paring records of the goods shipped, making up bills of lading, post­
ing weight and shipping charges, and keeping a file of shipping records.
May direct or assist in preparing the merchandise for shipment.
Receiving work involves: Verifying or directing others in verifying
the correctness of shipments against bills of lading, invoices, or
other records; checking for shortages and rejecting damaged goods;
routing merchandise or materials to proper departments; maintaining
necessary records and files.

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker;
stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant,
store, or other establishment whose duties involve one or more of
the following: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices;
unpacking, shelving, or placing materials or merchandise in proper
storage location; transporting materials or merchandise by hand truck,
car, or wheelbarrow. Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are
excluded.
ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
Fills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from
stored merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips,
customers1 orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling
orders and indicating items filled or omitted, keep records of out­
going orders, requisition additional stock, or report short supplies
to supervisor, and perform other related duties.
PACKER, SHIPPING
Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires
the placing of item in shipping containers and may involve one or
more of the following: Knowledge of various items oi stock in order
to verify content; selection of appropriate type and size of container;
inserting enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to
prevent breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; applying
labels or entering identifying data on container. Packers who also
make wooden boxes or crates are excluded.
SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is re­
sponsible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials.
Shipping work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, prac­
tices, routes, available means of transportation and rates; and pre


For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:
Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk

Shipping and "receiving clerk
TRUCKDRIVER
Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport
materials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of
establishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, ware­
houses, wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail estab­
lishments and customers* houses or places of business. May also
load or unload truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical
repairs, and keep truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and
over-the-road drivers are excluded.
For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size
and type of equipment, as follows: (Tractor-trailer should be rated
on the basis of trailer capacity. )
Truckdriver,
Truckdriver,
Truckdriver,
Truckdriver,

light (under l 1 tons)
/2
medium ( l 1 to and "including 4 tons)
/*
heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)

TRUCKER, POWER
Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about
a warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of
truck, as follows:
Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)
WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.

F o r the convenience of users of B L S data, copies of bulletins m a y also b e p u r c h a s e d f r o m
the following sales offices:

U. S. D e p a r t m e n t of L a b o r
B u r e a u of L a b o r Statistics
341 Ninth A v e n u e
N e w Y o r k 1, N. Y.

U. S. D e p a r t m e n t of L a b o r
B u r e a u of L a b o r Statistics
105 W e s t A d a m s Street
C h i c a g o 3, 111.

U. S. D e p a r t m e n t of L a b o r
B u r e a u of L a b o r Statistics
630 S a n s o m e Street
S a n F r a n c i s c o 11, Calif.

Occupational w a g e surveys are being conducted in 17 m a j o r labor m a r k e t s during late 1954
a n d early 1955. Bulletins for the following areas are n o w available and m a y be p u r c h a s e d f r o m
the Superintendent of D o c u m e n t s , G o v e r n m e n t Printing Office, W a s h i n g t o n 25, D. C . , or f r o m
a n y of the regional sales offices listed above.

Labor

Market

Buffalo, N. Y.
Cleveland, Ohio
D a l l a s , Tex.
Philadelphia, Pa.
Minneapolis-St. Paul,
Minn.




Survey Period

B L S Bulletin
Number

S e p t e m b e r 1954
O c t o b e r 1954
S e p t e m b e r 1954
N o v e m b e r 1954

1172-1
1172-2
1172-3
1172-4

25
25
20
25

N o v e m b e r 1954

1172-5

20 cents

Price
cents
cents
cents
cents


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102