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CLEVELAND, OHIO
O C T O B E R 1954

BLS Bulletin No. 1172-2

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
 James P. Mitchell, Secretary


BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Aryness Joy Wickens, Acting Commissioner







CONTENTS
Page
INTRODUCTION _______________________________________ *________ _____

1

TABLES:
A:

B:

APPENDIX:

Occupational earnings * A - 1 O ffice o c c u p a t io n s _______________________________
A - 2 P ro fe s s io n a l and tech n ical o c c u p a t io n s _______
A - 3 M aintenance and pow erplant o c c u p a t io n s ______
A -4 C ustodial and m aterial m ovem ent
o c c u p a t io n s _____________________________________

3
6
7
8

Establishm ent p r a c tic e s and supplem entary wage
p ro v isio n s B - 1 Shift d ifferen tial p ro v isio n s * __________________
B -2 M inim um entrance rates fo r w om en o ffic e
w o r k e r s ________________________________________
B -3
F req u en cy o f wage paym en t_____________________
B -4
Scheduled w eekly h ou rs * _______________________
B -5
P aid holiday p r o v i s i o n s * _______________________
B -6
P aid vacations * _________________________________

11
12
12
13
14

Job d e scrip tio n s _____________________________________

17

10

* NOTE: Sim ilar tabulations (also cov erin g health, insurance,
and pension plans) a re available in the C leveland area re p o rts
fo r O ctober 1951 and O ctob er 1952. A d ire c to ry indicating date
o f study and the p r ic e o f the r e p o rts , as w ell as re p o rts fo r
other m ajor a re a s, is available upon request.
A current re p o rt on occupational earnings and supplem entary
wage p r a c tic e s is a lso available fo r the m achinery in dustries in
the C leveland a rea (O ctober 1954).
Union s ca le s , in dicative o f
prevailin g pay le v e ls , a re available fo r the follow in g tra d es o r
in dustries: Building con stru ction , printing, lo c a l transit operating
em p loyees, and m otortru ck d r iv e r s .

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C.

-

Price 25 cents




OCCUPATIONAL

WAGE

SURVEY

Introduction

Th e C le v e la n d a r e a i s one o f s e v e r a l im p o rta n t in d u s tria l
c e n t e r s in w h ich th e B u r e a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s h a s c o n d u cte d
su rvey s
o c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s and r e la te d w age b e n e fits o n an
a re a -w id e b a s is .
In e a c h a r e a , data a r e ob tain ed b y p e r s o n a l
v i s it s o f B u re a u f ie l d a g e n ts to r e p r e s e n ta tiv e e s ta b lis h m e n ts
w ith in s ix b r o a d in d u s tr y d iv is io n s :
M a n u fa ctu rin g ; t r a n s p o r t a ­
tio n (e x c lu d in g r a i lr o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and o th e r p u b lic u t il­
i t i e s ; w h o le s a le tr a d e ; r e t a il tr a d e ; fin a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l
~ s ta te ; a n d s e r v i c e s . M a jo r in d u s try g r o u p s e x c lu d e d f r o m th e s e
s tu d ie s a r e g o v e r n m e n t in s titu tio n s and the c o n s tr u c tio n and e x ­
t r a c t iv e in d u s t r ie s .
E s t a b lis h m e n ts having fe w e r than a p r e ­
s c r i b e d n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s w e r e a ls o o m itte d s in c e th ey fu r n is h
in s u ffic ie n t e m p lo y m e n t in the o c c u p a tio n s stu died to w a rr a n t
in c lu s io n . 1 W h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e , s e p a ra te ta b u la tio n s a r e p ro ^
v id e d f o r the in d iv id u a l b r o a d in d u s try d iv is io n s .
T h e s e s u r v e y s a r e co n d u cte d on a sa m p le b a s is b e c a u s e
o f the u n n e c e s s a r y c o s t in v o lv e d in s u rv e y in g a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts ,
and t o e n s u r e p r o m p t p u b lic a tio n o f r e s u lt s .
T o o b ta in a p p r o ­
p r ia t e a c c u r a c y at m in im u m c o s t , a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t io n o f la r g e
than o f s m a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s is stu d ied . In co m b in in g the d ata,
h o w e v e r , a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s a r e g iv e n th e ir a p p r o p r ia te w e ig h t.
E s t im a t e s a r e p r e s e n t e d t h e r e f o r e a s re la tin g to a ll e s t a b lis h ­
m e n ts in th e in d u s tr y g r o u p in g and a r e a , but not to th o s e b e lo w
the m in im u m s iz e s t u d i e d .2
O c c u p a tio n s and E a r n in g s
O c c u p a tio n a l c l a s s if i c a t io n is b a s e d on a u n ifo r m se t o f
jo b d e s c r i p t io n s d e s ig n e d to ta k e a cco u n t o f in te r e s ta b lis h m e n t
v a r ia t io n in d u t ie s w ith in th e sa m e jo b (s e e A p p e n d ix f o r lis t in g
o f th e s e d e s c r i p t i o n s ) . E a r n in g s data a r e p r e s e n te d f o r the f o l ­
lo w in g ty p e s o f o c c u p a t io n s : (a) O ffic e c l e r i c a l ; (b ) p r o f e s s i o n a l
and t e c h n ic a l; ( c ) m a in te n a n c e and p o w e rp la n t; and (d) c u s to d ia l
and m a t e r ia l m o v e m e n t .

* T h is r e p o r t w a s p r e p a r e d in the B u re a u 18 r e g io n a l o f f i c e
in C h ic a g o , 111., b y W o o d r o w C . L in n u n d er th e d ir e c t io n o f
G e o r g e E . V o ta v a , R e g io n a l W age and In d u stria l R e la tio n s A n a ly s t.
1 S ee fo llo w in g ta b le f o r m in im u m -s iz e e s ta b lis h m e n t c o v ­
e r e d b y stu d y .
2 A n e x c e p t io n i s m a d e in the ta b u la tio n o f m in im u m e n ­
t r a n c e r a t e s f o r w o m e n o f f i c e w o r k e r s w h ich r e la t e s to p r o v i s io n s
in e s t a b lis h m e n t s a c tu a lly s tu d ie d .




(i)

CLEVELAND,

OHIO*

D ata a r e show n f o r f u l l - t i m e w o r k e r s , i . e . th o s e h ir e d
to w o r k a f u ll-t im e s ch e d u le f o r the g iv e n o c c u p a tio n a l c l a s s i f i ­
c a tio n .
E a r n in g s data e x c lu d e p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r tim e and
n ig h tw o rk .
N o n p ro d u ctio n b o n u s e s a r e a ls o e x c lu d e d , but c o s t o f - l i v i n g b o n u s e s and in c e n tiv e e a r n in g s a r e in c lu d e d .
W h ere
w e e k ly h o u r s a r e r e p o r t e d , a s f o r o f f i c e c l e r i c a l o c c u p a tio n s ,
r e f e r e n c e i s to the w o r k s c h e d u le s (ro u n d e d to the n e a r e s t h a lfh o u r ) f o r w h ich s t r a ig h t -t im e s a la r ie s a r e p a id ; a v e r a g e w e e k ly
e a r n in g s f o r th e s e o c c u p a tio n s h ave b e e n ro u n d e d to the n e a r e s t
50 c e n t s .
O c cu p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t e s t im a t e s r e f e r to the tota l in
a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith in the s c o p e o f the study and not to the
n u m b e r a c tu a lly s u r v e y e d . B e c a u s e o f d if f e r e n c e s in o cc u p a tio n a l
s tr u c tu r e a m o n g e s ta b lis h m e n ts , the e s tim a te s o f o cc u p a tio n a l
e m p lo y m e n t o b ta in e d f r o m the s a m p le o f e s ta b lis h m e n ts stu died
s e r v e o n ly to in d ic a te the r e la tiv e im p o r ta n c e o f the jo b s stu d ied .
T h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s in o c c u p a tio n a l s tr u c tu r e d o not m a te r ia lly
a ff e c t the a c c u r a c y o f the e a rn in g s d ata .

E s ta b lis h m e n t P r a c t i c e s and S u p p le m e n ta ry
W age P r o v i s i o n s
In fo r m a tio n i s a ls o p r e s e n t e d on s e le c t e d e s ta b lis h m e n t
p r a c t i c e s and s u p p le m e n ta ry b e n e fits a s th ey r e la t e to o f f i c e and
p la n t w o r k e r s .
T h e t e r m , " o f f i c e w o r k e r s , M a s u s e d in th is
b u lle tin in c lu d e s a ll o f f i c e c l e r i c a l e m p lo y e e s and e x c lu d e s a d ­
m in is t r a t iv e , e x e c u t iv e , p r o f e s s i o n a l , and t e c h n ic a l p e r s o n n e l.
" P la n t w o r k e r s " in c lu d e w o r k in g fo r e m e n and a ll n o n s u p e r v is o r y
w o r k e r s (in clu d in g le a d m e n and t r a in e e s ) e n g a g e d in n o n o ffic e
fu n c tio n s . A d m in is t r a t iv e , e x e c u tiv e , p r o f e s s i o n a l , and te c h n ic a l
e m p lo y e e s , and f o r c e a c c o u n t c o n s t r u c t io n e m p lo y e e s w h o a r e
u t iliz e d a s a s e p a r a te w o r k f o r c e a r e e x c lu d e d . C a fe t e r ia w o r k e r s
and r o u te m e n a r e e x c lu d e d in m a n u fa ctu rin g in d u s tr ie s but a r e
in c lu d e d a s p la n t w o r k e r s in n o n m a n u fa ctu rin g in d u s t r ie s .
S h ift -d iffe r e n t ia l data a r e lim it e d to m a n u fa ctu rin g in ­
d u s t r ie s .
T h is in fo r m a tio n i s p r e s e n t e d b o th in t e r m s o f (a)
e s ta b lis h m e n t p o l i c y 3 and (b) e f fe c t iv e p r o v i s io n s f o r w o r k e r s

3
A n e s ta b lis h m e n t w a s c o n s id e r e d a s h a v in g a p o lic y i f it
m e t e ith e r o f th e fo llo w in g c o n d itio n s :
( l ) O p e ra te d la te sh ifts
a t the tim e o f th e s u r v e y , o r (2) had f o r m a l p r o v i s io n s c o v e r in g
la te s h ifts .

2

a ctu a lly e m p lo y e d on e x tr a s h ifts at the tim e o f the s u r v e y .
T a b u la tio n s r e la tin g t o e s ta b lis h m e n t p o l i c y a r e p r e s e n t e d in
t e r m s o f to ta l p la n t w o r k e r e m p lo y m e n t; e s t im a t e s in the s e c o n d
ta b u la tion r e la t e o n ly to th o s e w o r k e r s a c tu a lly e m p lo y e d on the
s p e c ifie d s h ift.

q u ir e m e n t s , the p r o p o r t io n a c tu a lly r e c e iv in g the s p e c if ic b e n e fits
m a y be s m a lle r .
M o r e o v e r , a p r a c tic e w as c o n s id e r e d a s a p ­
p lic a b le to a ll o f fi c e o r p la n t w o r k e r s in an e s ta b lis h m e n t i f it
a p p lie d to a m a jo r it y o f su ch w o r k e r s .
B e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g ,
su m s o f in d ivid u al ite m s in th e s e ta b u la tio n s d o n ot n e c e s s a r i l y
eq u a l t o ta ls .

S u p p le m e n ta ry p r a c t i c e s , o th e r than m in im u m e n tr a n c e
r a te s f o r w o m e n o f f i c e w o r k e r s , and s h ift d if fe r e n t ia ls , a r e
tr e a te d s t a t is t ic a lly on the b a s is that th e s e a r e p r o v id e d to a ll
w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d in o f f i c e s o r p la n t d e p a r tm e n ts that o b s e r v e
the p r a c t i c e in q u e s t io n .4
B e c a u s e o f v a r y in g e lig ib ilit y r e -

T h e s u m m a ry o f v a c a tio n p la n s i s lim it e d to f o r m a l
a r r a n g e m e n ts , e x clu d in g in fo r m a l p la n s w h e r e b y tim e o f f w ith
p a y is gra n ted at the d i s c r e t io n o f th e e m p lo y e r o r the s u p e r ­
v is o r .
S ep a ra te e s tim a te s a r e p r o v id e d a c c o r d in g to e m p lo y e r
p r a c t i c e in co m p u tin g v a ca tio n p a y m e n t s , s u ch a s tim e p a y m e n ts ,
p e r c e n t o f annual e a r n in g s , o r f la t - s u m a m o u n ts .
H o w e v e r , in
4
S ch e d u le d w e e k ly h o u r s f o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s ( f i r s t s e c tio n ta b u la tio n s o f v a ca tio n a llo w a n c e s b y y e a r s o f s e r v i c e , p a y ­
the
o f ta b le B - 4 ) a r e p r e s e n t e d in t e r m s o f the p r o p o r t io n o f w o m e n
m e n ts not on a tim e b a s is w e r e c o n v e r t e d ; f o r e x a m p le , a p a y m e n t
o f fi c e w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d in o f f i c e s w ith th e in d ic a te d w e e k ly h o u r s
o f 2 p e r c e n t o f annual e a r n in g s w a s c o n s id e r e d a s th e e q u iv a le n t
fo r w om en w o r k e r s .
o f 1 w eek fs pay.

E sta b lish m e n ts and W o rk e rs W ithin Scope o f Survey and N um ber Studied in C leveland, Ohio, 1 by M ajor Industry D iv isio n , O ctober 1954

Industry division

A ll d ivision s

__ _

M inim um size
e stablishm en t
in scope o f
study 2

W ithin
scop e o f
study

W o r k e r s in e stab lish m en ts
W ithin scop e o f study

Studied

Studied
T o ta l3

O ffice

Plant

T o t a l3

935

228

3 3 0 ,0 0 0

4 8 ,8 0 0

2 2 5 ,7 0 0

1 8 4 ,8 0 0

101
-

462
473

105
123

2 3 7 ,9 0 0
9 2 ,1 0 0

3 0 ,7 0 0
1 8 ,1 0 0

1 7 5 ,9 0 0
4 9 ,8 0 0

1 3 6 ,2 6 0
4 8 ,5 4 0

101
51
101
51
51

60
151
76
78
108

22
32
18
24
27

2 6 ,6 0 0
1 6 ,5 0 0
2 4 ,2 0 0
1 1 ,2 0 0
1 3 ,6 0 0

1 1 ,3 0 0
8 ,0 0 0

1 9 ,7 6 0
6 ,6 5 0
1 0 ,7 1 0
6 , 540
4 ,8 8 0

_______

M anufacturing (excluding n e w s p a p e r s ) ____________________
Nonm anufacturing
_
_
___ __ __
T ran spo rtatio n (excluding r a ilr o a d s ),
com m u nication, and other public u t i lit i e s 4 _________
W h olesa le trade _
R eta il trade (excluding departm ent s t o r e s ) __________
F in ance, in su ran ce, and re a l e s t a t e __________________
S e r v ic e s 7 _
_
_________

N um ber of estab lish m en ts

4 ,9 0 0
4 , 100
(5 )
5 ,8 0 0
(5 )

4
6

(5)
2 ,0 0 0
(5)

1 The C leveland M etrop olitan A r e a (Cuyahoga and Lake C ou n ties). The "w o r k e r s within scope o f stu d y" e stim a tes shown in th is table provide a rea so n a b ly a ccu rate d e scrip tio n
o f the size and com p osition o f the labor fo rce included in the su rv ey . The estim a te s a r e not intended, how ever, to serve a s a b a sis o f co m p a riso n w ith other a re a em ploym ent in dices
to m e a su re em ploym ent trend s or le v e ls since (1) planning of wage su rv ey s r e q u ire s the use of establishm en t data com p iled co n sid era b ly in advance of the pay period studied and
(2) s m a ll e sta b lish m en ts a re excluded fro m the. scope o f su rv ey .
2 Includes a ll e sta b lish m en ts with total em ploym ent at or above the m inim um s iz e lim itation . A ll outlets (within the area ) o f com p an ies in such in d u strie s as tra d e , finance,
auto rep air s e r v ic e , and m otio n -p ictu re th ea te rs are con sid ered as 1 e stab lish m en t.
3 Includes e x e cu tiv e, tech n ica l, p ro fe ssio n a l and other w o rk e rs excluded from the sep arate office and plant ca te g o rie s.
4 A ls o exclu d es ta x ic a b s, and s e r v ic e s incidental to w ater transp ortation included in e a r lie r studies.'
5 T h is indu stry d ivision is rep re se n te d in e s tim a te s for " a l l in d u s t r ie s " and "n on m a n u factu rin g" in the S e rie s A and B ta b le s, although c o v e ra g e w as in sufficient to ju stify s e p ­
arate p resentation o f data.
* E stim a te r e la te s to r e a l estate estab lish m en ts only.
7 H o te ls; pe rson al s e r v ic e s ; b u sin e ss s e r v ic e s ; autom obile rep air shops; rad io broadcasting and television ; m otion p ictu res; nonprofit m e m b e r sh ip o rga n ization s; and en gi­
neerin g and arch ite ctu ra l s e r v ic e s .




A: Occupational Earnings
Table A-1: Office Occupations
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings1 for selected occupations studied on an area basis
in Cleveland, Ohio, by industry division, October 1954)
NU M BER O F W ORKERS R E C E IV IN G ST R A IG H T-TIM E W EEK LY EA RN IN G S O F

Aybbasb

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

Weekly
Weekly
earnings
(Standard) (Standard)

Under

lo .o o

12 .5 0 1 5 .0 0 1 7 .5 0 lo .o o I 2 , 50 I s .

40.00 under

4 2 .5 0 4 5 .0 0 4 7 .5 0

00

5 0 .0 0 52.50 55.00 5 7.50

1 7 .5 0 lo .o o

60.00

s

1

»

I

1

»

»

6 2 .5 0 65 .0 0 6 7 .5 0 7 0 .0 0 72 .5 0 7 5 .0 0 8 0 .0 0 8 5 .0 0 9 0.00

1

95.00

1

100.00

l

105.00

and

6 2 .5 0 6 5 .0 0 6 7 .5 0 7 0 .0 0 7 2 .5 0 75.00 8 0 .0 0 8 5 .0 0 9 0 .0 0 95 .0 0 10 0 .0 0 105.00

Men
C lerks, accounting, cla ss A __________
Manufacturing_______________________

548
393
155

39 .0
3 9 .0
3 9 .5

8 2.50
84 .0 0
79 .0 0

161
109

4 1 .0
4 1 .0

7 1 .5 0

646

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

81 .5 0
87 .5 0
7 9 .0 0
78 .5 0

171

4 0 .5
4 0 .0

77 .5 0
7 8 .5 0

O ffice boys _ _ ._
. . . .
Manufacturing _
Nonmanufacturing .........................
Finance**
...
.... _

252
116
136
78

3 9 .0
3 9 .5
3 9 .0
3 8 .5

52.00
52.00
52.00
53.00

Tabulating-machine operators

188
145

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

* 2 .5 0
84 .5 0

B iller s, machine (billing m achine)_____
M anufacturing--Nonmanufacturing ... .
.. .__

293
175
118

39 .5
3 9 .0
4 0 .0

56.50
56.50
57.00

4
4

B illers, machine (bookkeeping
machine)
------

127

4 1 .5

56.50

-

11

241
160
81

3 9.5
39 .5
3 9 .5

68 .5 0
6 7 .5 0
70 .0 0

.

.

Bookkeeping-machine op erators,
cla ss R
----Manufacturing _
_
Nonmanufacturing
Wholesale trade _
Finance**

840
268
572
144
400

3 9.0
3 9 .5
3 9 .0
3 9.5
3 9 .0

54.50
58.50
52.50
56.00
51.50

_

C lerks, accounting, cla ss A
Manufacturing
Nonmanufactur ing _ _
_

646
362
284

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .5

70 .5 0
7 1.00
69 .5 0

1.184
616
568
58

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .5

57s. 50
60.00
55.00
54.50

N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _ ....... _

......... .

C lerks, accounting, cla ss B ------rtiirtn^r
C lerks, order

.

_

_

. ...

--------

_ .........

Nonmanufacturing ------------------ - . __
Wholesale trade ,
.
C lerks, payroll

...

__

_

__ .

...

220

426
415

201

-

-

68.00

M a im fa c t n r in g

Nonmanufacturing

._ .

C lerks, accounting, cla ss B
Manufacturing
—
Nonmanufacturing
Public utilities*

. __
----____

-

-

12
12

4

1

-

18

2

-

4

2

6

_

_

_

_

_

18

4

-

6

2
2

18
18

6
6

1
13
9
4

3
3

16
10
6

40
14
26
15

2

27
15

27

12
6

15

12
6

4
_

31
31
4
24

.

_

t
6
33

10

22

13

10

22

2

-

11

8

.

-

_

_

3
3

4

27

12

15
4

.9
_

_

97

80

16

“ 15—

76
5
69

64

93

21

2
2

10

34

46

97

10

8

33
13

46

26

51
3

51

16

35
32

108

38
32

43

92

100
29
71
16
51

79
38
41
27

_

11

2
2

22

4
4

66

2

3

11
4
7

23
23

45

7

7
4

_

20

111

4

14

73

75
40
35
3

16

112

48
64
14

1

14

16

9

7

11

63

32

18

4

2
2

4

6
4

7

13

46
34

17
9

8

7
4

5

7

23
23

116
41
75
75

75
72

27
61
61

74
39
35
35

41
18
23
18

17
14
3

31
31

29
27

16
11

15
14

2
2

31
29

17
15

10
6

4
A
T
T

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

1

29

13

2
2

9

11
10

12

13

11

96

21

21

75
13

39
30

27
26

29
29

18
13
5
3

88

23

1

17

98
77

97
23

31
30
18

120

22

16

10

57
35

5

8

47
47
24

6
11

13

22

8

22

2

6
4

22
18

18
14

34
28

5
5

_

_

4

3

37
31

6
4

1

9

3

1

2

0

4

8
8
88

9

5

6
2

11
6
5

1?
16
3

5

8

23

8

6

1

5

1

1

43
26
17

7
1

8

23
18

29
28

26

28
17

4

4

4

2

1

36
18
18

11

4

1

4

2

20
7
12

11
7
4

6
5
1

1
1

15
14

13
13

1
1

48
32

103
25
78

68
10

35
26

61
49

71
54
17

18
15

9

12

23
23

58

3

"4
8

62
41

42
38
4

26
24

53
48

15
15

6
6

-

1
1

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

’

-

12

12

39
14
25

62

68

142
39
103

75
33
42

75
41
34

13

2

142
74

4

2
2
2

18
7

14

42
33
9

21
11

9

52
16
36

4

107
49
58
25
29

32

-

13

15

4

16

3
11
11

21

54

5

2
1
1
1

22
21

8

8
8

3

2
1
1

11

18

8

4
4

1

22
10
12

22

15
15

12
4

4

6

84
19
64

_

1

_

-

1

1

1

Women

Bookkeeping-machine operators,
cla ss A _
_

-

-

6

60
40

27
35

1

5

25

12

16
60
36
24

_

5

21
5

2

21
1

1

3
_

3
_

3
?

_

1
_ •

_

1

2

5

12

_

3

3

See footnotes at end o f table.
Occupational Wage Survey, Cleveland, Ohio, October 1954
* Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
U .S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
** Finance, insurance, and real e s t a t e . ______________________________________________________________________
Bureau of Labor Statistics




NOTE: Data for nonmanufacturing do not include information for department stores;
the remainder o f retail trade is appropriately represented in data for all
industries combined and for nonmanufacturing.

4

Table A-l: Office Occupdtions - Continued
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings1 for selected occupations studied on an area basis
in Cleveland, Ohio, by industry division, October 1954)
NUM BER O F W ORKERS R E C E IV IN G STR A IG H T-TIM E W EEK LY EA R N IN G S OF—

Sex, occupation, and industry division

N ber
um
of
w
orkers

W
eekly Under 40.00 42.50 45.00 *47.50 ^ 0.00 *52.50 *55.00 *57.50 *
W
eekly
60.00 *62.50 *65.00 *67.50 *70.00 *72.50 V s . 00 *80.00 *85.00 *90.00 * 9 5 DO *100.00 *105.00
hours
(Standard) (Standard)
and
under
42. SO 45.00 47.50 50.00 52.50 55.00 57.50 60.00 62.50 65.00 67.50 70.00 72.50 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 10000 105.00 over

Women - Continued
$
59.50

Clerks, file, class A
Manufacturing
__ _
Nonmanufactur i n g ___________________

265
161
104

39.5
39.5
39.0

60.00

Clerks, file, class B _____ __________ ___
M anu factu ring______________________

844
362
482
145
195

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 8 .5

Clerks, order
__ __
Manufacturing
_ .
_______________
Nonmanufacturing ___—

398
299
99

39.5
3 9 .5
4 0 .0

Clerks, p a y r o ll___ _____________ _______
Manufacturing
_ _
Nonmanufacturing
__
Public utilities*

875
636
239

Finance**

— —

---- —

_
-

_
-

4 8 .0 0
50.00
4 6 .0 0
4 7 .5 0
4 6 .5 0

a91
29
62
4

5 5.50
55.50
54.50

2
2

.. J*iL9_ 6 4 .0 0

62
14
48
4
19

124
48
76
33
38

188
55
133
49
54

34
16
18

26

26

44
29
15

27
19

-

2

14

26

-

Comptometer operators
- Manufactur ing
Nonmanufacturing ------ ---, , , ,.. , ----Public utilities *________ ____ ____
Wholesale trade --------

875
482
393
74
99

39 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9.5

6 3 .0 0
56 .5 0
6 0 .5 0
5 7.50

-

Duplicating-machine operators
(mimeograph or d i t t o ) ______________ __
Manufa ctur ing
_____ __
____
Nonmanufacturing _

104
44

3 9 .5
3 9 .5

51 .5 0
5 3.50
-

Key-punch o p e r a t o r s _______ _
Manufactur i n g ___ ____________________
Nonmanufactur i n g ___________________
Public utilities*
__

549
413
136
44

Office girl 8 _____
_
_____
Manufa ctur i n g ____________ ________ ■
r__.
Nonmanufacturing __________________

243
“ TJZ

Secretaries
__
Manufacturing_______________________
Nonmanufacturing
Public u t ilit ie s * _______________ ___
Wholesale trade
_ _ F in a n ce * * ________________ _______

2.374
1,427
947
148
251
333

101

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
3 9 .5
4 0 .0

5 8.50
6 0 .0 0
55.00
55 .5 0

2
-

7 4 .0 0
7 7 .0 0
6 9 .0 0
7 8 .0 0

68.00

19
15
4
-

14

12

11

5

-

_
_

_
.

_
.

_

-

_

_

6 7 .5 0

8
4

.
4
-

4

See footnotes at end o f table.
* Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
** Finance, insurance, and real estate.

10
10

2

2
2

-

17
4
13

2

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

40
16
24

102

88

107
85

48
27

94

38
28

24
16

76
65

17
16

12
12

7

11

l

_

12

40
33
7

-

-

-

-

82
34
48
3

68

79
23

—

T~~ —
9

1

53
18
35

28

2

16
70

_

11

32
18

17

26

9

86

33
35
7

10

12
6
94
39

55
4
13
25

-

22
2

21

86
8

9

-

1

95
63
32
9
15

78
54
24
15

39
29

1

52
47
5
4
-

-

5
5
“

2
2

2
2

-

~

35
29

47
42
5

4

45
40
5
4

5

2
2

.
-

■

*

139
35
104
14
37
25

57
31
9

18

13

„
-

3
3

-

10
10

33

16

T T ~~TL

_

16
16

19
IF”

43

12

-

37
30
7

16

58

~~n

1

-

19
3

4

34

-

8

-

22

77
55

48
30
18

-

21
10
11

32
29
3
“

34
25
9

_

40
35
5

39
29
4

6
1
1

_

-

68

7

_

-

46
38

3
3
~

_

-

56
30
26
7

1

.

“

-

-

1

_

-

_
-

-

*

-

-

1
1

1
1
-

-

-

8

“

_
-

1

-

2

-

3

----

-

7

-

4

3

6

4
*

1

8

—

3

2

2

6

14
4
*

95

5

2

18

5

8
8

12
12

4

-

20

14
14
“

5

17
9
-

3

16

23
4

9
7

5

8

12

-

2

10

28

6

.

36
29
7
3

58

i*

57
47

16

3

36
25

115

1

4

17
14
3

1

25
14
9

65
32
33
7
5

-

10

27
26

17

39

22

39

"

-

35
25
3

8

11
2
2

“ IS ­
IS

44

20

23
15

“

-

15
4

34
16
18
5

10
6

10
10

11

'




12

8

10
8
2

3 9 .5 46 .5 0
*27
4 0 .0 - 4 8 . 0 0 ’ ------F“
3 9 .5 4 3 .5 0
19
39 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .0
3 9.5
3 9.5
38 .5

2
12

“

26

64
35
29
13
14

51

23
13

10

14
5
9

84
33
51
27
18

6

16

U

43
24
19

93
57
36

88

-

18

12
6

6 5 .5 0
59.50
56.00

-

3

2
1

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

60.00

2
2
-

59.00

112
68
44

6

24

9

22

10

8
1

12

11
1

2

1

_

6

1
1

3

— ‘S
_

12
12

9
9

.

.

_
_

_
.
_

.
.

_
_
_

.
_
_

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

1
1

_
-

_
-

.
-

-

_
-

-

_
_

“

■

~

"

~

-

*

-

10
10
~

16
16
■

“

-

2

24
24
~

4
4
”

_

.

_

.

.

_

.

"

~

“

“

“

“

167
113
54
4

188
87

231

101

194
108

19
45

40
41

335
243
92
17
18
30

162
122

1
1

141
82
59
14
25

303
227
76
27

7

121
110
12

7

12

27

6

10
6

86

4
23
48

7
5

2

8

37
36

1

22

-

.
_

-

_
_

-

-

-

“

-

“

-

106

83
77

28

32
25
7
5

■

40
19

9

91
15
13

1
1

6

21

7

4

_

1

4
3

_

2
'

Table A-l: Office Occupations - Continued
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings 1 for selected occupations studied on an area basis
2
in Cleveland, Ohio, by industry division, October 1954)

W
eekly
earning* Under
(Standard) (Standard)

o

l o .o o

O

Sex, occupation, and industry division

t

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF

Avmuos
Number
of
worker*

S
t
S
S
S
S
1
1
•
S
$
S
S
t
42.50 45.00 47.50 50.00 52.50 55.00 *57.50 60.00 62.50 65.00 67.50 70.00 72.50 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00 105.00
and
45.00 47.50 50.00 52.50 55.00 57.50 60.00 62.50 65.00 67.50 70.00 72.50 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00 105.00 over

Women - Continued

Nonmanufacturing___________ _______
Public utilities* _______ __________
Wholesale tra d e------------------- -------Finance**_______ ______________ __

2.238
1,415
823
138
263
310

39.5
40.0
39.0
40.0
39.0
38.5

$
62.00
64.00
58.50
60.00
60.00
56.50

Stenographers, technical ____________ __

130

39.0

67.00

Switchboard o p e r a t o r s ----- ^
--------- ,.------Manufacturing_ ,________________ ] __
_
_
_
Nonmanufactur ing ___ ______________

406
171
235

41.0
40.0
42.0

59.50
63.50
56.00

2

3
_
3

10
1
9

40
1
39

Switchboard op era tor-recep tion ists____
Manufacturing ------ ---------------- ---- ----N onm anufaetur ing
_
... . _ _
Wholesale t r a d e ____ ____

606
341
265
107

39.5
40.0
39.5
39.5

-5.7»50
•59.50
55.00
56.00

1
.
1
“

7
7
“

_
_
“

Tabulating-machine operators -----------Manufacturing _________________ _____
Nonmanufacturing . . . .
_

152
II
71

40.0
40.0
40.0

64.50
68.00
61.00

_
~

"

455
298
157

40.0
40.0
39.5

59.00
61.00
55.00

_
_
*

Sten ograp h ers, gen era l
M anufacturing

^

Transcribing-m achine operators,
gen era l

-

Manufacturing_______________________
N onm anufacturing

2

151
58
93
10
18
34

140
65
75
11
30
24

171
90
81
16
25
37

204
110
94
20
32
20

274
180
94
5
51
26

294
242
52
3
21
21

213
147
66
13
41
11

216
164
52
11
17
21

156
116
40
17
_
14

85
68
17
1
5
10

109
91
18
7
3
8

14
12
2
1
1
“

7
7
_
-

7
6
1
1
_
"

2

2
_
2
.
_
2

7

11

8

12

12

14

22

11

12

10

1

7

1

43
16
27

40
12
28

23
6
17

27
7
20

30
11
19

24
15
9

33
17
16

28
18
10

22
21
1

43
21
22

14
14
"

9
6
3

11
1
10

4
4
-

50
16
34
15

25
4
21
1

94
58
36
23

60
34
26
8

70
25
45
17

75
47
28
9

66
42
24
4

63
36
27
24

26
26

~

29
23
6
6

22
16
6
'

1
1
■

11
7
4
“

3
3
“

_
*

1
_
1

“

10
2
8

24
8
16

2
2

20
14
6

15
7
8

11
6
5

12
9
3

6
6
■

10
9
1

11
10
1

13
4
9

2
2
■

7
2
5

20
8
12

30
19
11

6
21

71
38
33

52
31
21

33
16
17

65
38
27

41
35
6

29
29
"

21
19
2

48
47

6
6
■

2
2
■

_
•

_
.
_

10
_
10
_
10

4
_
4
.
_
3

94
40
54
14
3
29

86
19
67
8
15
40

i
1
2
7
13

1

1.212
911
301
63
85

39.5
40.0.
39.0
40.0
39.5

60.50
61.50
57.00
58.00
56.00

_
.
.
"

1
1
.
_
-

3
3
.
■

24
11
13
11
2

49
29
20
1
11

129
71
58
9
13

76
47
29
3
9

121
83
38
9
15

142
98
44
4
12

145
104
41
6
12

224
202
22
8
7

126
no
16
2
3

65
62
3
3
*

43
42
1
.
1

49
37
12
6

12
11
1
1

Typists, class B ______ ____________ _

1.848
939
909
118
268
355

39.5
40.0
39.0
40.0
39.5
37.5

52.00
54.00
50.00
52.50
52.00
47.50

34
1
33
_
8
21

78
27
51
_
15
25

137
45
92
6
11
55

275
76
199
45
32
79

201
79
122
17
24
62

300
170
130
19
40
46

22?
134
95
6
54
32

210
130
80
7
30
21

1?2
153
39
1
22
7

112
79
33
5
15
7

5
4
1
1

37
16
21
2
13

?
3
6
2
4

19
19

4
3
1
1

_
_
_
■

_
_
_
-

_
“

_
-

_
-

.
-

3
3
"

_
”

_
_
“

_
_

“

1
1
"

3
3
■

■

■

“

_
_

1
_
1

_
_
■

_
_

_
_
■

3
_

_
_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_

_
_

_

_

2

-

Typists, class A _______________________
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing__________________
Public u t ilit ie s * __________ ____ ^
Finance** _______________________

1
_
1
.
1
-

-

-

-

-

-

_

2
_
2
2

_
_

2

M a n u fa c tu r in g

Nonmanufacturing _______ ___________
Public u tilities*__________ _______
Wholesale t r a d e _________________
Finance** _______________________

1
2
5
*
**

Hours reflect the workweek for which
W orkers were distributed as follows:
W orkers were distributed as follows:
Transportation (excluding railroads),
Finance, insurance, and real estate.




.

employees receive their regular straight-time salaries and the earnings correspdnd to these weekly hours.
16 at $30 to $32.50; 31 at $32.50 to $35; 24 at $35 to $37.50; 20 at $37.50 to $40.
15 at $35 to $37.50; 12 at $37.50 to $40.
communication, and other public utilities.

-

2
2

3

2
2

Table A-2: Professional and Technical Occupations
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings 1 for selected occupations studied on an area basis
in Cleveland, Ohio, by industry division, October 1954)
Averaob
Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

NUMBER OP WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF

Weekly
Weekly
earnings
hours
(Standard) (Standard)

$
S
s
s
1
I
s
$
$
*
$
S
I
$
>
S
»
$
Under io.oo 62.50 65.00 67.50 70.00 72.50 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130..00 135.00 140.00 145.00
and
and
$
60.00 under 65.00 67.50 70.00 72.50 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00
105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00 over
62.50

Men

$

Draftsmen, le a d e r _____________________
Manufacturing _ _____________
___

164
145

40.0
40.0

112.00
114.00

-

Draftsmen, s e n io r __ __ ____ _________
Manufacturing______________________

988
953

40.0
40.0

99.00
99.50

-

Draftsmen, ju n ior___________________ __
Manufacturing _
_ __ __ ____ _____

601
531

40.0
40.0

77.00
77.00

27
17

-

-

-

2
2

14
13

21
20

24
21

36
35

56
50

29
27

2

29
22

-

5
2

8
2

11
8

15
12

30
30

29
29

9
6

14
14

8
7

4
4

9
9

7
7

15
15

40
36

94
91

86
78

114
112

146
141

161
161

79
79

57
57

78
72

22
22

21
21

9
9

12
12

43
43

137
112

88
87

66
66

33
31

13
11

5
4

6
5

9
*
*

_

.
~

“

-

-

-

'

14
14

1
1

15
12

"

“

Women
j

N u rses,

in d u s t r ia l ( r e g i s t e r e d )

Manufacturing

„

_________________

317

..ToT”

40.0
40.0

74.50
74.50

4
4

13
13

9
9

21

22

FT

22

55
51

29
27

101
100

45
41

11

8

5
3

.

.

2
2

.

.

_

|
i

1 Hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.




Occupational Wage Survey, Cleveland, Ohio, October 1954
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics
NOTE: Data for nonmanufacturing do not include information for department stores;
the remainder o f retail trade is appropriately represented in data for all
industries combined and for nonmanufacturing.

Table A-3: Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(Average hourly earnings 1 for men in selected occupations studied on an area basis
in Cleveland, Ohio, by industry division, October 1954)

Occupation and industry division

N ber
um
of
w
orkers

%

Carpenters, m aintenance----------------------M anufacturing-----------------------------------Nonmanufacturing------------------------------

585
499

Electricians, m ain ten an ce--------------------M anufacturing-----------------------------------Nonmanufacturing-----------------------------Public utilities * ----------------------------

1.948
1,754
194

Engineers, stationary----------------------------M anufacturing-----------------------------------Nonmanufacturing------------------------------

470
306
164

Firem en, stationary b o ile r --------------------M anufacturing------------------------------------

667
584
83

1,94
1.94
1.90

Helpers, trades, m ain ten an ce---- ---------Manufacturing-----------------------------------Nonmanufacturing------------------------------

L iP l
1,418
89

1.91
1.57

56
36

Machine-tool op erators, t o o lr o o m --------M anufacturing--------— --------------- —
-------

1^191
1,191

2.27
2.27

-

Machinists, maintenance ----------------------Manufacturing--------— ---- --------------------

1,208
1 . 1*2

2.28
2.28

Mechanics, automotive (maintenance)---M anufacturing----------------- —
---------------Nonmanufacturing —--------- --------- --------Public utilities * ----------------------------

456
178
278
165

2 .22
2 .22
2 .22

Mechanics, m aintenance---- — -------— ----M anufacturing------------------------------------

1.771
1,700

M illw rights_____________________________
Manufa c tu r ing ------------------------------------

86

111

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

«
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
S
$
A
verage
.
hourly Under L 60 L. 65 1 .70 1.75 1.80 1.85 1.90 1.95 2 . 0 0 2.05 2 . 1 0 2.15 2 . 2 0 2.25 2.30 2.35 2.40 2.45 2.50 2.60 2.70 2.80 2 . 9 0 3.00
and
earnings $
1.60 under
t 65 ),7 0 It 75 1.80 1,95 1 . 0 0 1.05 2 . 0 0 2.05 2 . 1 0 2.15 2 , 2 0 2,25 2.30 2,35 2,40 ? , 45 2,50 2,60 2.70 2.80 2.90 3.00 3.10
$
73
54
18
65
76
4
2 .22
14
5
12
22
38
22
43
11
11
2
39
49
2
1
1
_
11
70
47
2 .2 1
6
22
38
72
32
18
6
5
12
4
2
2
59
39
49
1
7
7
10
6
4
1
2.33
14
6
6
5
1
*
“
_
.
2.32
90 243
96 1 1 0
6
23
23
63 136 177
274 245 188
3
26
62
9
2
29 1 2 1
19
_
.
.
1
87 1 0 1
82 2 22
225 2 2 1
2.32
3
21
27 113
174
25
62
3
23
49 133 163
19
3
1
8
14
14
8
24
2.30
3
2
2
21
14
9
1
9
49
9
2.37
18
48
24
2
8
1
1
8
“
"
'
“
1
_
_
_
_
71
2.29
12
28
13
26
28
33
35
14
56
6
18
16
53
21
4
1
12
12
27
13
23
18
16
30
11
27
2.31
18
8
3
42
22
4
1
9
12
12
3
6
5
2.23
1
6
6
53
5
3
8
11
9
19
29
-

1 '

24
15
2 92

55
55

14
14

—1L_ 258
21
233
10
25

35
35

33
32

43
43

76
61
15

48
40

2

93
59
34

20

103

234
232

13
7

40
40

40
40

5
5

11
11

4
4

4
4

8

4

76
76

105
105
*

77
76

164
164

57
57

136
136

21
21

18
18

2
2

-

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

101
2

___L_
1

.
-

8
8

25
25

28
28

34
34

90
90

66
66

59
59

86
86

16 0
16 0

117
117

150
150

59
59

55
55

54
54

142
142

24
24

14
14

2
2

6
6

2
2

8
8

_
-

18
18

36
36

51
5l

34
34

32
32

55
55

99
99

91*

185
184

69
68

31
27

149
149

98
98

61
60

133
133

11
11

17

“

11

2
2

17
17

15
15

4
4

11
8

47
7
40
34

38
15
23
23

47

78
38
40
40

35

5
61
-

34
19
15

-

-

37
36

50
19
31
15

21

3
3

_
_

4
4
_

_
-

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

6
2

2.29
2.30

_
-

16
16

6

-

_
-

3

15
15

10
10

_

1.451
1,451

2.23
2.23

.
'

_
-

_
-

_
-

Oilers ™
.r~._____________ ___________ , — ,

486
475

1.90
1.91

9

7
7

24
23

Painters, m ain ten an ce--------------------------Manufacturing-----------------------------------Nonmanufacturing----------- —
--------------—

444
285
159

2.13
2.17
2.07

_
.
-

.
-

_
-

P ipefitters, m aintenance---------- —
-----------Manufacturing------------------------------------

857
847

2.28
2.28

Sheet-metal w orkers, m aintenance-------M anufacturing------------------------------------

134
134

2.24
2.24

_

T ool and die m a k ers-----------------------------Manufac tur i n g --------— --------------------------

1.701
1,701

2.48
2.48

_

1

88

■

_

_

3

17

-

*

2
1
1

11
6
6

-

2
2

51
42

46
46

245
244

74
72

150
148

62
48

82
81

143
109

109
109

44
41

218
217

65
64

427
427

9
9

44
44

49

49

27
27

44
44

153
153

73
73

81
81

149
149

134
134

152
152

128
128

54
54

149
149

132
132

18
18

34
34

47
47

38
38

67
67

164
163

32
32

43
43

_

_

27
.
27

3
_
3

5
5

17
7

45
7
38

33
33
-

60
35
25

3
3
-

79
74
5

52
33
19

17
15

24
24
-

8

24
24

2

12
10
2

3
3
-

25
25

_
■

-

107
107
“

_
-

-

10
10

10

_

_
"

3
_
3
-

39
29

1
1

_
-

23
4
19

61
58
3

.
"

2.17

46
42

$
3. 10
and
over

103
103

30
30

101
101

36
36

100
100

127
117

_

_

-

-

_
"

-

_

10

10

■

.
-

_

31
31

2
2

_
-

2
2

13
13

3
3

_

52
52

6
6

23
23

51
51

32
32

•

-

4
3

_

_

-

-

1

-

-

_
.

_

5
5

12
12

8
8

-

.
-

.
-

20
20

47
47

_
-

2
2

-

2
2

2
2

6

3
3

7
7
-

1

_

.

.
_
_

.

_

_
.

3

3
3
•

14
5

3

_

3
3

66

27
277
119
119

77
1

-

_
_
_
-

_

_

.

-

-

-

-

-

2

3 70

-

5
5

2

70

1

_

24
24

50
50

88
88

43
43

10 0
100

30
30

15
15

4
4

15
15

16
16

3
3

_
-

153
153

82
82

174
174

134
134

496
496

265
265

34
34

18
18

Excludes premium pay for overtim e and nightwork.
W orkers were distributed as follows: 9 at $1.25 to $1.30; 13 at $1.35 to $1.40; 8 at $1.40 to $1.45; 18 at $1.45 to $1.50; 14 at $1.50 to $1.55; 30 at $1.55 to $1.60.
W orkers were distributed as follows: 37 at $3.10 to $3.20; 2 at$3.20 to $3.30; 29 at $3.30 to $3.40; 2 at $3.60 to $3.70.
Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
Occupational Wage Survey, Cleveland, Ohio, October 1954
DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics
NOTE: Data for nonmanufacturing do not include information for department stores;
the remainder of retail trade is appropriately represented in data for all
industries combined and for nonmanufacturing.




1

Table A-4: Custodial and Mdterial Movement Occupations
(Average hourly earnings for selected occupations 2 studied on an area basis
in Cleveland, Ohio, by industry division, October 1954)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

Occupation and industry division

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
earnings

$
$
$
Under 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95
and
$
0.80 under .90
.95 1.00
.85

$
$
$
$
1.00 1.05 1. 10 1.15

$
$
$
$
1.20 1.25 1.30 1.35

1.05 1. 10 1.15 1.20

1.25 1.30 1.35 1.40

1.276
1 10)
' 175

$
1.83
1 84
L74

Janitors, porters, and cleaners
(men) __
_ _
___ _ _ _
Manufa ctur i n g _________ __________ _
Nonmanufacturing _________________
Wholesale t r a d e ________________
Finance** ______________________

3.576
2,707
869
94
195

1.53
1.64
1.19
1.42
1.33

3 115
_
115
-

52
_
52
-

21
_
21
_
-

32
7
25
-

6
6
-

99
21
78
9
~

56
12
44
.
-

42
7
35
9
6

33
_
33
12

Janitors, porters, and cleaners
(w om en)____________ ________________
Manufacturing___ _ _ _
Nonmanufacturing _________________
Finance**_______________________

1,976
650
1,326
847

1.18
1.43
1.06
1.07

40
_
40

17
_
17
-

27
12
15
-

154
_
154
18

18
5
13
3

124
12
112
60

660
13
647
640

32
11
21
9

Laborers, material h a n d lin g_________
Manufacturing______________________
Nonmanufacturing
......
Public utilities* _______________
Wholesale tra d e _________________

5.399
3,362
2,037
689
508

1.75
1.73
1.77
1.89
1.71

_

12
12

13
13

3
3

6
6

55
55

11
11

-

-

-

-

“

-

Order fillers _________________________
Manufacturing _____________________
Nonmanufacturing __ _
Wholesale trade ________________

1.617
688
929
785

1.84
1.91
1.78
1.77

-

-

-

-

-

Packers, shipping (men)
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing__________________
Wholesale trade ________________

1.280
1,076
204
15$

1.83
1.90
1.49
1.55

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

Packers, shipping (w o m e n )___________
Manufacturing ____________________

388
308

1.31
1.38

6

-

- t
24

22
3

Receiving clerks _____________ ________
Manufacturing ____________________
Nonmanufactur i n g ____________ ______

545
429
116

1.88
1.90
1.82

Shipping clerks ______________________
Mantifartiif inp
Nonmanufacturing _________________

419
^4&
71

1.91
1.89
2 !o i

Guards

_

1
1

1.45 1.50 1.55

1.60

1.70 1.80

11
3
8

7

12

4

7

12

9
7
2

16
10
6

46
36
10
9

104
23
81
15
38

185
94
91
2
81

73
37
36
2
4

148
117
31
4
2

261
211
50
18
5

147
110
37
11
25

431
365
66
1
11

185
24
161
44

95
19
76
69

109
64
45
4

75
62
13

42
42
-

101
90
11

83
83
-

18
17
1

45
45

73
73

22
3
19

30
30

47
10
37

56
40
16

53
49
4

25

10
15

10
4
6

310
297
13

115
72
43

221

8

4

“

4

4

4

6

6

13

40

68
2
66

901
696
205
19
96

4

-

-

-

8
8

4
4

45
3
42
40

13
4
9
6

45
16
29
25

38
20
18
18

11
11
8

47
10
37
33

25
4
21
17

131
46
85
72

_
-

_
-

6
_
6

3
3

12
_
12

24
18
6

29
_
29
20

18
2
16
16

24
16
8
5

42
36
6
6

42
25
17
17

104
65
39
36

184
146
38
35

10

21

29
20

27
12

62
62

24
21

1
1

1
1

3
"

72
72

40
40

■

7
7

8

-

4

8

6

10
8
2

8

12
5
7

26
19
7

21
15
6

2
2

14
14

•

4

.

4

.

4

See footnotes at end of table
* Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
** Finance, insurance, and real estate.




$
$
*
$
1.40 1.45 1.50 1.55 *1.60 1.70 *1.80 1.90

“

4

"

“

153

1.90 2.00

$
2.00 2.10
2.10 2.20

l

249
217
32

226
187
39

479
430
49

70
70

14
14

12
12

371 1033
354 1007
17
26
8
11
2
-

266
252
14
4
-

28
28
_
_
-

24
23
1
_
-

3
3
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
*

_
.
_
_
-

5
5

_

_
_

_
_

_
_

_

_
-

1003 1206
852 671
151
535
90 278
42 134

911
316
595
296
29

161
79
82
4
11

167
59
108
_
41

45

.
.
_
_

16
16
-

224
90
134
115

416
149
267
235

165
85
80
29

306
153
153
144

59
28
31
31

27
27
“

42
42
*

11
11
-

106
84
22
22

157
156
1

•171
171
-

145
144
1
1

77
77
-

43
43
-

17
17
-

476
76
-

-

4
4

17
17

12
12

1
1

5
5

7
3
4

90
64
26

126
119
7

lip
85
25

88
76
10

14
3
11

?2
30
2

5
5

8
5
3

50
50

69
61
8

71
67
4

69
47
22

54
50
4

35
33
2

7
6

14
14

26
4
22

155
141
14

73
73

1

Occupational Wage Survey, Cleveland, Ohio, October 1954
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau o f Labor Statistics

NOTE: Data for nonmanufacturing do not include information for department stores;
the remainder of retail trade is appropriately represented in data for all
industries combined and for nonmanufacturing.

*
$
2.20 2.30 2.40
and
2.30 2.40 over

35

10
_
-

i

1

_
_
-

-

-

Table A-4: Custodial and Material Movement Occupations - Continued
(Average hourly earnings 1 for selected occupations 2 studied on an area basis
in Cleveland, Ohio, by industry division, October 1954)
NUMBER OP WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OP—

Occupation and industry division

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
earnings

N onm anufacturing__________________

419
335
84
287
155
132

1.87
1.95
1.78

T ruckdrivers, medium ( 1 V2 to and
including 4 t o n s ) ___________ __________
M anufacturing___________________ __
Nonmanufactur i n g __________ _____

1.259
456
803

745
153
592
304

1.92
1.92

329
316

1.43
1.55
1.16

1.45 1.50

1.55 1 . 6 0

1.90 2.00

1.70 1.80

2.00
2.00

795
545
250

1.80. f . 90 1 .00 i . 10 1 .2 0 1.30

2.09
2.06
2.10
2.07

1.660
1,507

1 .50 ! . 55 1 .6 0 f.7 0

2.04
1.99
2.06

Shipping and receiving clerks

Truckdrivers, heavy (over 4 tons,
trailer ty p e)___________________________
M anufacturing______ _____ ____ ____
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g

Public u t ilit ie s * _________________
Truckers. Dower (forklift)
M a n u fa r tiir in g

Truckers, power (other than
forklift) ________ _______ _____________

W atch m en______________________________
Manufactur i n g _______________________
Nonmanufacturing __________________

7
7

12
2
10

31
24
7

52
42
10

262
235
27

14

1

■

14
14
■

68
7
61

79
22
57

18
14
4

25
11
14

10
"

“

“

"

"

10

~

■

■

"

4
4

g

8
2

6

6

50
50
-

50
50
-

2
2
-

56 211
43 , 209
13
2

607
85
522

42
28
14
14

22
20
2

6
6

18
18
-

?4

4
4

12
12

12
12

22
15
7

27
27

6
6

34
5
29

28
6

22

74
60
14

78
26
52

20
12
8

28
24
4

_

3

84
84

40
31
9

27
27

35
34
1

14
4

-

10

-

10
10
-

4
.
4

314
79
235

10
5
5

_
-

14
6
8

367
65
302
284

257
30
227
6

51
4
47

_

6
6

-

47
47

261
176

400
365

515
506

238
232

61
43

67
67

15
15

24

3

Excludes premium pay for overtim e and nightwork.
Data lim ited to men w orkers, except where otherwise indicated.
W orkers were distributed as follow s: 1 at $0.50 to $0.55; 2 at $0.60 to $0.65; 2 at $0.65 to $0.70; 61 at $0.70 to $0.75; 49 at $0.75 to $ 0.8 0.
Workers were distributed as follow s: 18 at $2.40 to $ 2.5 0; 13 at $2.50 to $ 2 .6 0 ; 39 at $2.60 to $ 2.7 0; 6 at $3.10 to $ 3.2 0.
W orkers were distributed as follow s: 10 at $2.40 to $2.50; 15 at $2.60 to $2.70; 4 at $2.70 to $ 2.8 0; 2 at $3 to $ 3.1 0.
Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.




2.10 2.20

1

■

$
2.40
and
2.30 2.40 over

1.40 f.4 5

$
1.95
1.95
1.94

Truckdrivers, light (under IV2 tons)___
Manufacturing ______________________
Nonmanufacturing___________________

$
$
$
1.05 ! . 10 1*.15 !.2 0 *1.25 1.30 f . 35
Under 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 $
and
0.80 under
.85 .90
.95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1.30 1.35 1.40

43
43

84
83

60
57

?3
23

5Q
41

23

8?
87
2

57
44
13

71
67
4

32
28
4

18
18

-

-

6
g

29
29

*31
31

.

_

lb




B: Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Table B-l: Shift Differential Provisions*
P ercen t of m anufacturing plant w o rk e rs
(a)
In establish m en ts having
fo rm a l p ro vision s for—

Shift d ifferen tial

Second
shift
w ork

Third or
other shift
work

(b)
A c tu a lly w orking on—

Second
shift

T o t a l ______________________________ *________________

9 0 .2

8 1 .5

1 8 .2

W ith shift pay differen tial ______________________

8 9 .0

8 1 .1

18.

___________

60. 5

5 1 .3

13. 5

3 c e n t s __ ___________________________ __
5 ren ts _ . .
. .. _
6 cents ________ _______ _________________
7 ren ts
. ... .. .. ___ ________
7l/z cents __________________________________
8 cen ts _____________________________________
9 cents ____ __ __________________ _____
10 c e n t s _____________ _____________________
11 cents _______________________ _________
12 cents __ _ __ _________________________
.............. ........ __ _______________
13 cents
14 c e n t s ____________________________________
15 cents
— _______________
_____ „ _

.6

.6
2. 1
. 1

.2

U n iform cents (per hour) ______

1 3 .2
1 3 .8
1 1 .9
3. 1
3 .7
3 .6

8.6
-

7. 1

1.1
2.0
1 3 .1
17. 3

1 .0
2 .5
1. 5

.6

1 .9

2 .3

U n iform percentage _________________________

2 7 .2

2 5.1

5 percent -----------------------------------------------------

17.1

6l/z

-

-

-

1 .8
.9
1 2 .5
9 .4
.5

O th er* _________________________________________

1 .2

4 .7

N o shift pay d if f e r e n t ia l________________________

1 .2

.4

percent _ _________________ _______
7 percent
______________ ______________
7l/z percent - _________________________ —
10 percent
.
___________________________
15 percent _______________________________

1 .4
-

8. 7

0

1 .5
4 .0
3. 3
. 8
1. 2
.7
1. 6
-

T h ird or
other
shift

6 .7

6 .7
5.

8

. 1
. 1
1. 1
2. 5
1. 5
. 1
. 1

-

-

-

.2

. 3

t

4 .4

.9

2. 5

-

. 2
-

1 .8
~

t

.5
.3

t

. 1

. 1

.2

t

1
Shift d ifferen tial data a re p resen ted in te r m s o f (a) estab lish m en t po licy, and (b) w orkers a ctu ally em p loy ed on late shifts, at the tim e
of the su rv ey . A n establish m en t w as co n sid ered as having a p o licy if if m et either of the follow ing con d itio n s: (l) O p erated late sh ifts at the
tim e of the s u rv e y , o r ( 2) had fo r m a l p ro vision s cov erin g late s h ifts.
* Includes such p ro v isio n s a s fu ll pay fo r reduced hours and full pay for reduced hours plus a cen ts o r p ercen tag e d iffe re n tia l,
t L e s s than 0. 05 p ercen t
O ccupational W age S u rv ey , C le v e la n d , O hio, O ctober 1954
U . S. D E P A R TM E N T O F LA B O R
B u rea u o f L a b o r S ta tistic s

11

Table B-2: Minimum Entrance Rates for Women Office Workers
N um ber of establishm en ts with sp e cified m in im u m hiring rate in—

M in im u m rate (w eekly salary)

B a s e d on standard w eekly hours

A ll
industries
A ll
schedules

E sta b lish m e n ts s t u d ie d ___________________________________

228

105

N um ber o f establish m en ts with sp e cified m inim um hiring rate in—

N onmanuf ac tur ing

M anufacturing

A ll
sch edules

37 l/z

40

XXX

XXX

123

2

Manufac tur ing

of

37y,

XXX

A ll
schedules

40

XXX

$ 2 7 . 50
$ 3 0 .0 0
$ 3 2 . 50
$ 3 5 . 00
$ 3 7 , 50
$ 4 0 . 00
$ 4 2 . 50
$ 4 5 .0 0
$ 4 7 . 50
$ 5 0 . 00
$ 5 2 . 50
$55. 00

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under $ 3 0 . 00 ____________________________
under $ 3 2 . 50 ____________________
_____
under $ 3 5 . 00 --------- --------------------------------under $ 3 7 . 50 ____________________________
under $ 4 0 . 00 ____________________ ______
under $ 4 2 . 50 ____________________________
under $ 4 5 . 00 ____________ ___________
under $ 4 7 . 50 ____________________________
under $ 5 0 . 0 0 ------------------------------------------under $ 5 2 . 50 ________________________ . .
under $ 5 5 . 00 _______________________________________
o v e r ______________________________________________________

114

61

6

55

1

-

_

-

-

3
5

26

1
12
10

-

-

3

1
1
1

-

53

1

-

3

1

4
14
9
15

9
9

35

1

-

-

1
2

35

14
16
17

-

-

3

1
2
2

-

1

-

4

1
12

2
21

12
12

8
7

-

3
3

-

3

1

4
4

-

XXX

XXX

42

20

48

XXX

XXX

54

12

1

XXX

XXX

1

-

4

-

-

-

3

-

3

2

1

E sta b lish m e n ts having no sp e c ifie d m i n i m u m ------------------

44

23

XXX

XXX

21

E stab lish m e n ts w hich did not em p loy w ork ers
in this ca te g o ry _ -------------------------- --------------------- --------------------------

69

21

XXX

XXX

1
.

L o w e st s a la r y rate fo r m a lly esta b lish ed for hiring inexperienced w orkers for typing or other c le r ic a l jo b s .
H ours r e fle c t the w orkw eek fo r which em ployees rece iv e their regu lar s tra ig h t-tim e s a la r ie s .

3

XXX

10

-

1

21

37V*

58

14
16
7
7

4

of

67

2
2
1
1

4




1

6

27

7

4
5

1

73

2

40

XXX

:R IN e x p e :RIENCED C L E R IC A L , W O R K E R S

10

-

*

131

othe

1

4

1

123

3

8

--------------

XXX

10

1

-

-

______________________________________

XXX

3

8

D ata not a v a il a b l e ________________—

105

228

1

12

5

A ll
sch edules

5
3
4

17

6

40

4

19
32
7

16

37y,

F OR

11

N onm anufacturing

B a se d on standard w eek ly hours

A ll
indu stries

F'OR IN E X P E R IEN C EI> TY P IS TS

E sta b lish m e n ts having a sp e c ifie d m in i m u m _________

i

5

10

38

1
1

-

1
1
4

1

1
2
2
17
4

5

4

2

5

-

1

3

1
1

-

-

-

XXX

XXX

22

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

42

XXX

XXX

1

XXX

XXX

1

4

O ccupational W age Su rvey, C lev elan d , Ohio, O ctober 1954
U. S. D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B ureau of L a bor S tatistics

1
2

Table B-3: Frequency of Wage Payment
PERCENT OF OFFICE WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—
F re q u e n cy o f paym ent

All
.
industries *

M
anufacturing

Public
utilities *

W
holesale
trade

PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—
AB ,
industries2

Finance**

____________________________________

100

100

100

100

100

W e e k ly ................ __...........................................................
B iw eekly __ __ __
__ — — — -----------S e m im o n th ly _____________________________________
M onthly ____ ________ „ ____ —
— — —
Other in terv als ___
__ __ — — ------- __ —

15
25
58

8
19
74

t

t

49
40
8
3

18
38
45
-

5
52
31
12

A ll w o r k e rs

M
anufacturing

Public
utilities*

W
holesale
trade

100

100

100

100

67

66

25

26

61
3$

53
41

-

6

t

t
-

-

6

-

7

1 Includes data for reta il trade (except departm ent s to re s ) and s e r v ic e s in addition to those industry d ivisions shown sep arately.
2 Includes data for reta il trade (except departm ent s to r e s ), r e a l esta te , and s e r v ic e s in addition to those industry division s shown sep arately,
f L e s s than 2 . 5 percen t.
* Transportation (excluding r a ilr o a d s ), com m u nication, and other public u tilitie s .
* * Fin ance, in su ran ce, and re a l esta te .

Table B-4: Scheduled Weekly Hours
PERCENT OP OFFICE WORKER^ EMPLOYED IN—

W eekly h ou rs

A l l w o r k e r s ______

__ __ _

— __________

Under 35 hour s _____________ _ __ ------- __— __
35 hours ___ _____
__
__ __ __ ____ _
O v er 35 and under 37 V2 h o u r s _________________
37 */a hour s _________________________________ ______
O ver 37*/2 and under 40 hou rs -----------------------40 hour s
__
_ __
__ __ __ __ __ __
O v er 40 hou rs and under 44 h o u r s ____ _______
44 hou rs
__
_ _ _
_
_____
O ver 44 hours and under 48 h ou rs . . . ___ ____ __
48 hou rs and o v e r ______________________________ _

,
industries 2
AU

100

M
anufacturing

100

Public
utilities*

100

t
t
t
t

W
holesale
trade

100

3

8

7

3
84

92

95

89

t
f

t
t

-

t
t
t
t

Finance **

100

1
9

-

|

8
-

t

21
21
49
-

PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—
AU

industries3

100

t
t

M
anufacturing

100

Public
utilities*

100

W
holesale
trade

100

3

t

“

85

-

-

-

91

87

97

t
t
t

-

-

8

3

-

t
t

t

5

t

e

*

Data rela te to w om en w orkers only.
Includes data for reta il trade (except departm ent s to re s ) and s e r v ic e s in addition to those industry division s shown sep arately.
Includes data for reta il trade (except departm ent s to r e s ); finance, insurance and rea l e sta te; and s e r v ic e s in addition to those industry d iv isio n s shown se p a ra te ly ,
f L e s s than 2 . 5 percent.
* Transportation (excluding ra ilr o a d s ), com m u nication, and other public u tilitie s .
* * F inance, in surance, and re a l e sta te .

2
3




O ccupational W age S u rv ey , C lev elan d , O hio, O ctober 1954
U . S. D E P A R T M E N T OF L A B O R
B ureau o f L a b or Statistics

13

Table B-5: Paid Holiday Provisions
PE R C E N T OP OFFICE W ORKERS E M PLO YED IN —

Item

A ll w o r k e r s

A
U _
industries1
2
_ _

M
anufacturing

P E R C E N T OF P L A N T W O RK ERS EM PLO YED IN—

1

All ,
industries3

I
1

100

100

100

100

15
3

92
t
83
7
-

95
t
88
6
-

97
_
50
47
_
-

86
_
76
10
_
_
_

-

Public
utilities *

W
holesale
trade

|

8

5

3

14

Finance **

M
anufacturing

Public
utilities*

W
holesale
trade

100

100

100

100

100

99
t
87
9
t
t
f
t

99
t
96
4
-

100
46
54
-

100
94
6
-

100
66
7
8

t

t

29
20
7

27
17
9

80
79
t

27
10
12

7
7
_

62
15
47

68
11
57

85
65
20

39
23
13

-

-

5

-

-

t

-

-

-

_
3

t

t

6

-

-

5

t

12

t

70

72

14

73

93

26

26

1

47

87
87
t

87
87
t

97
97
-

81
81
-

92
92
-

81
78
3

84
80
3

97
97
_

74
74
_

_

-

-

-

-

T
-

-

-

-

13

12

3

19

8

11

11

-

12

79
66
11

80
60
17

90
90
-

78
74
-

75
75
-

79
36
39

81
33
46

97
52
19

79
71
4

3

4

-

4

-

t

t

-

4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

t

-

25

22

25

14

14

N um ber o f p a id h olid a ys
W o rk e rs in esta b lis h m e n ts p ro v id in g p a id
h o l i d a y s _________
______ _____________ —
L e s s than 6 d a ys
_
_
6 d a y s ______ —
______ ________
7 days
8 days
__ __ __ __
__ __
__ __ __ _
9 day 8 _-_______ _______ ______ _________ _______
10 d a y s ________ _________ ____ __ ____ ____ ______
12 da ys
—
_ _ _ _ _ _
W o rk e rs in es ta b lis h m e n ts p ro v id in g no paid
h o lid a y s __

I

P r o v is io n s fo r h olid a y s o c c u r r in g
on non w ork d a y s 4
W ith p r o v is io n s fo r h olid a y s fa llin g on
S a tu r d a y ______________ ________ ________ ___ _____
A nother day o ff w ith pay
E x tra d a y 's p a y ______________________________
O ption o f a nother day o ff o r e x tra
d a y 's p a y __ __________ _______________ _______
P r o v is io n s d iffe r fo r v a rio u s h o lid a y s _____
O ther p r o v i s i o n s _____________________ __ ___ _
S aturday is a s ch e d u le d w ork d a y fo r a ll
w o r k e r s _____________________ __ ____ ____________
No p r o v is io n s (o r no p ay) fo r h olid a y s
fa llin g on S aturday
„ __ ___
__ __ __ _
W ith p r o v is io n s fo r h o lid a y s fa llin g on
Sunday
....
_ _ . ........... - _
A n oth er day o f f w ith p a y _____________________
E x tra d a y 's p a y ____________________ __________
O ption o f a nother day o f f o r e x tra
d a y 's pay
___ _ _,________ __ ___ ,
P r o v is io n s d iffe r fo r v a rio u s h o l i d a y s _____
O ther p r o v is io n s __
__ ___ __ __ __ ____
N o p r o v is io n s (o r no pay) fo r h olid a y s
fa llin g on S u n d a y ______________________________
W ith p r o v is io n s fo r h olid a y s fa llin g
durin g va ca tion _________ _________ ____ ______
A n oth er day o ff w ith pay ____
__ __ _ _
E x tra day* 8 p a y __ ________ ________________ ___
O p tion o f another day o f f o r ex tra
d a y 's p a y ___ ___ ________ ____ __ __________ ____
P r o v is io n s d iffe r fo r v a rio u s h o l i d a y s _____
O ther p r o v is io n s _________ ____ _______ r___ ^___
No p ro v is io n s (o r no p ay) fo r h olid a y s
fa llin g during v a ca tio n ____ _ __ ____ _ _

20

19

10

t

t

-

7

1
2
3
4

E stim a te s include on ly fu ll-d a y holidays provided annually.
Includes data for r e ta il trade {except departm ent s to re s ) and s e r v ic e s in addition to those industry division s shown sep a ra tely .
Includes data for r e ta il trad e (except departm ent s to r e s ), re a l e sta te , and s e r v ic e s in addition to th ose industry d ivision s shown sep arately.
L im ited to p ro v isio n s in esta b lish m en ts having a form al policy applying when holidays occur on nonwork da ys; som e o f the e s tim a te s would be slig h tly higher if p ra ctic e s determ ined
in fo rm a lly as the situation o c c u r s w ere included.
t
L e s s than 2 . 5 p e rce n t.
O ccupational W age Su rvey, C leveland, O hio, O ctober 1954
*

**

Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
Finance, insurance, and real estate.




U .S . DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

14

Table B-6: Paid Vacations
PER C E N T OP OFFICE W ORKERS EM PLO YED I N -

V acation p o lic y

A ll w o rk e rs

__ -----------------------

A
U .
industries1

_ -------

---------

Manufacturing

Public
utilities *

P E R C E N T OF PL A N T W O R K E R S EM PLO YE D IN —

W
holesale
trade

Finance **

A
U ,
industries2

Manufacturing

Public
utilities *

W
holesale
trade

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100
99

100
99

t

t
t

100
100
-

100
100
-

99
92
5
-

f

100
100
-

100
91
6
3

100
100
-

83
83
-

METHOD O F PA Y M E N T
W ork ers in esta b lish m en ts p rov id in g
paid v a c a t io n s _____ —
— _____ _________
L e n g th -o f-tim e p a y m en t_____ __ _____ —
P e rcen ta g e p a y m e n t ____ „ __ __ __ __ __
F la t-su m p a y m e n t___________________________
O t h e r ___ _____ __
_____
__ ------- --W orkers in esta b lish m en ts p rov id in g no
paid va ca tion s __
__ __ __
__ __ __

t

17

t

'
AMOUNT O F VACATION PA Y
A fter 1 yea r o f s e r v ic e
W ork ers in esta b lish m en ts p rovid in g
paid va ca tion s _ _ __ _ __ __ __ __ __ __
1 week
_
_
___
_ __ _ __ __
O ver 1 and under 2 w eeks __________________
2 w eeks
_
_ _
O ver 2 and under 3 w eeks ____ __ _________
3 w e e k s ____________ ___________________ __
W ork ers in esta b lish m en ts p rov id in g no
paid va ca tion s _
_____
__________

100
8
3
89
-

100
71
_
29
-

t

t

“

-

-

■

100
7

100
3

100
30

100
14

100
18
t
80

t
t

100
22
76
t

100
8
92
-

99
85
3
10

t
t

100
89
4
6
-

t

t

-

99
57
20
21

100
64
24
12

t
t

f

100
82
18
-

83
44
_
35
4
17

A fter 2 y e a rs o f s e r v ic e
W ork ers in esta b lish m en ts p rov id in g
paid v a c a t io n s __ __
__________
__ _____
1 w eek
T
_ __
O ver 1 and under 2 w e e k s ___________________
2 w eeks _ _
O ver 2 and under 3 w eeks _______ _____ _____
3 w eeks
_
______
__
W ork ers in esta b lish m en ts p rov id in g no
paid va ca tion s
_ - ..

100
4

_

-

-

-

90
3

97

69

85

-

-

t

t

t

t

82
15
-

-

t

See footnotes at end o f ta b le .
O ccupational W age S u rvey, C lev elan d , O hio, O ctober 1954
* T ransportation (excluding r a ilr o a d s ), com m u nication, and other public u t ilit ie s .
* * F in ance, in su ran ce, and r e a l e s ta te .




NOTE:

In the tabulations of vacation allow an ces by y e a rs of s e r v ic e , paym ents other than "length o f t i m e ", such
a s percentage o f annual earn in gs or fla t -s u m paym ents, w ere converted to an equivalent tim e b a s i s ; for
exa m p le, a paym ent o f 2 p ercen t o f annual earnings was con sid ered as 1 week*s pay.

-

100
47
-

53
-

83
24
3
52
4
_

17

U .S . D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
B ureau o f L a b or S ta tistic s

15

Table B-6:

P,aid Vacations - Continued

P ERCEN T OP OFFICE W ORKERS EM PLO YED I N -

P E R C E N T OF PL A N T W O RK ERS EM PLO YED IN—

V a ca tion p o lic y
AU
.
industries

A ll w o r k e r s

___

__

__

__

AM OU N T O F V A C A T IO N P A Y

-

_______

__

—

M an u factu rin g

P u b lic
u tilitie s*

W h olesale
trade

F in a n ce * *

AU
,
industries

M an u factu rin g

P u blic
utilities *

W holesale
trade

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

99

100

100

83

t

3

-

86

40

47

5

20

24

-

5

38

26

95

61

T
t

t
t

-

4

C ontinued

A fte r 3 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
W o rk e rs in esta b lish m en ts p rov id in g p aid
v a ca tio n s _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _____ _ _
______
1 w e ek
........ _____ - r .T -n .- T - .- O v e r 1 and under 2 w eek s
_
_____ _ _ __
2 w e ek s
_ _____
_ _ _ _ _ _ ___
O v e r 2 and under 3 w e e k s _____________________________
_____ _______
_______
__
_______
___
3 w e ek s ______
W o rk e rs in es ta b lis h m en ts p rov id in g no
p aid v a c a t i o n s __ __ _____ __ __
__ __ __

t

-

95

97

98

3

-

-

t

t

-

t

99

15

-

t
i

-

13

17

A fte r 5 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
W o rk e rs in es ta b lis h m en ts p rov id in g p a id
v a ca tio n s _
__ __ __ _____ __ __
1 w e ek
__
_ __
_ _ _ _ _ _
O v e r 1 and un der 2 w eek s
__
___ __
2 w e ek s
_
_ _ _ _ _ __ __
O v e r 2 and under 3 w eek s __ __
_____ __
3 w e ek s
__ __ __ __
__
__ ______ __
W o rk e rs in e sta b lish m en ts p ro v id in g no
p aid va ca tion s _
___

100

100

100

100

-

-

99

99

97

3

-

-

t

t

t

t
94

t

t
t

100

78
18
4

99

t
T
90

4
3

100

t
92

5

t

100

~
100

-

t

83
3
74
4
f
17

A fte r 10 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
W o rk e rs in es ta b lis h m e n ts p rov id in g p aid
v a ca tio n s
1 . , . ........ . . .
___
1 w eek _
_
_
2 w e e k s ____________ ___________________________
O v e r 2 and under 3 w eek s
__ _ _ _ _
3 w e e k s _________ ___________ ___________...___ ______
W o rk e rs in es ta b lis h m en ts p ro v id in g no
p a id v a c a t i o n s ___________________________________________________

100

t
86

4
10

100
_

100
.

100
-

93

97

87

3
4

See footnotes at end o f ta b le.

* Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
** Finance, insurance, and real estate.




-

3

t
12

100

99

_

t

66
18

80

17

11

7

t

100

t
82

9
9

100

83

-

3

95

69
4
6

-

5

17

16

Table B-6:

Paid Vacations - Continued
PERCENT OF PLANT WORKERS EMPLOYED IN—

PERCENT OP OFPICE WORKERS EMPLOYED I N -

V acation p o lic y
All
,
Industries1

A il w o r k e r s ___

___

_

__

_

_

Manufacturing

Public
utilities*

Wholesale
trade

Finance * *

All 2
industries

Manufacturing

Public
utilities *

Wholesale
trade

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

AMOUNT OF VAC A TION P A Y - Continued

A fter 15 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
W orkers in esta b lish m en ts p rov id in g paid
v a c a t i o n s ______________________________________
1 w eek ......................
2 w e e k s _________ ___________ _________________
O ver 2 and under 3 w e e k s ____ — --------- --------- --------3 w eeks

_

_

_....

.

.

.... ___

O ver 3 and under 4 w eeks ___ _ _ ____________ ________
4 w eeks and ov er
W orkers in esta b lish m en ts p rov id in g no
paid va ca tion s _ _ _ _ _

t

17

100

100

100

99

-

_

_

_

13

8

38

t

_

-

81

87

92

61

t

17
15
69

-

-

-

-

_

t

-

_

_

_

-

*

~

■

t

78

84

100

t

t

_

83
3
26
4
50
_

_

_

17

t

t

13

t

t

“

99

100

t

t

_

t

17

A fter 20 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
W ork ers in esta b lish m en ts p rov id in g paid
v a c a t io n s ____ ___________ ________ _________________________ ______ __
1 w e e k ___________ -r______ _______________ ________ ___ „ t
2 w eeks ___________________ __ _______ __ _______ ____ __
O ver 2 and under 3 w e e k s ___________________________
3 w eeks
O ver 3 and under 4 w eeks -------------. - r4 w eeks and o v e r
__
__
W ork ers in esta b lish m en ts p rov id in g no
paid v a c a t i o n s _______________________________ __ ________ _______

100

t

16

t

100

100

-

-

13

8

100
-

38

100
-

17

15

13

100
_

t

_

_

83

87

92

61

80

_

_

_

_

_

t

_

_

_

3

t

-

“

t

-

100

100

99

100

100

13

t

-

t

_

t

80

f

t

84

f

100

83
3
26
4
50

_

_

_

_
17

A fter 25 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
W ork ers in esta b lish m en ts p rov id in g paid
v a c a t i o n s ______________________________________________ ___________
1 w e e k ___ _ T m r
_ r_,., _ „
_
....
_ _ .... ____
2 w eeks _ _ _ _
O ver 2 and under 3 w eeks ______ r- . r - T- 1 r _______
_
3 w eeks -------.
___ __ ________________
O ver 3 and under 4 w eek s -------------------------- ___________
4 w eeks and o v e r
W orkers in esta b lish m en ts p rov id in g no
paid v a c a t i o n s ___ __ ____ ______________

100

t

16

100

100

_

_

_

13

8

38

t

_

-

74

80

81

54

-

-

_

_

11

7

11

7

t

.

9
_

57
-

34

t

15

t

75

t

5

t

J Includes data for re ta il trade (except departm ent s to r e s ) and s e r v ic e s in addition to those industry division s shown sep arately.
Includes data for re ta il trade (except departm ent s t o r e s ), r e a l esta te, and s e r v ic e s in addition to those industry d ivisions shown sep arately,
L e s s than 2 . 5 p ercen t.

t

*

Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
and r e a l esta te.

** F in a
n ce, in su ra n ce,


f
t

81

t

3

_

92
_

7

83
3
26
4
31
_
18
17

17
A P P E N D IX :

JO B

D E S C R IP T IO N S

T h e p r i m a r y p u r p o s e o f p r e p a r i n g j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s f o r th e B u r e a u fs w a g e s u r v e y s is to
a s s i s t it s f i e l d s t a f f in c l a s s i f y i n g in t o a p p r o p r i a t e o c c u p a t i o n s w o r k e r s w h o a r e e m p l o y e d u n d e r
a v a r i e t y o f p a y r o l l t i t l e s an d d i f f e r e n t w o r k a r r a n g e m e n t s f r o m e s t a b l i s h m e n t t o e s t a b l i s h m e n t
a n d f r o m a r e a to a r e a .
T h is is e s s e n t i a l in o r d e r t o p e r m i t th e g r o u p in g o f o c c u p a t i o n a l w a g e
r a te s r e p r e s e n t in g c o m p a r a b le jo b co n te n t.
B e c a u s e o f t h is e m p h a s i s o n in t e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t a n d
i n t e r a r e a c o m p a r a b i l i t y o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c o n t e n t , th e B u r e a u * s j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s m a y d i f f e r s i g n i f i ­
c a n t l y f r o m t h o s e in u s e in in d iv id u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s o r t h o s e p r e p a r e d f o r o t h e r p u r p o s e s .
In
a p p ly i n g t h e s e j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s , th e B u r e a u * s f i e l d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a r e i n s t r u c t e d t o e x c l u d e w o r k ­
in g s u p e r v i s o r s , a p p r e n t i c e s , l e a r n e r s , b e g i n n e r s , t r a i n e e s , h a n d ic a p p e d w o r k e r s , p a r t - t i m e ,
t e m p o r a r y , and p r o b a tio n a r y w o r k e r s .

O ffic e
B IL L E R ,

M A C H IN E

B O O K K E E P I N G -M A C H I N E

P r e p a r e s s t a t e m e n t s , b i l l s , a n d i n v o i c e s on a m a c h i n e o t h e r
th a n a n o r d i n a r y o r e l e c t r o m a t i c t y p e w r i t e r . M a y a l s o k e e p r e c o r d s
a s t o b i l l i n g s o r s h ip p in g c h a r g e s o r p e r f o r m o t h e r c l e r i c a l w o r k i n ­
c id e n ta l to b illin g o p e r a t io n s .
F o r w age stu d y p u r p o s e s , b i lle r s ,
m a c h i n e ,a r e c l a s s i f i e d b y ty p e o f m a c h in e , a s fo llo w s :
B i l l e r , m a c h i n e ( b i l l i n g m a c h in e ) - U s e s a s p e c i a l b i l l i n g ,
m a c h i n e ( M o o n H o p k in s , E l l i o t t P i s h e r , B u r r o u g h s , e t c . , w h i c h
a r e c o m b i n a t i o n t y p in g a n d a d d in g m a c h i n e s ) to p r e p a r e b i l l s a n d
in v o i c e s f r o m c u s t o m e r s * p u r c h a s e o r d e r s , in te r n a lly p r e p a r e d
o r d e r s , s h ip p in g m e m o r a n d u m , e t c . U s u a lly in v o l v e s a p p l i c a t i o n
o f p r e d e t e r m i n e d d i s c o u n t s a n d s h ip p in g c h a r g e s a n d e n t r y o f
n e c e s s a r y e x t e n s i o n s , w h i c h m a y o r m a y n o t b e c o m p u t e d o n th e
b illin g m a c h in e , a n d to t a ls w h ich a r e a u to m a t ic a lly a c c u m u la te d
b y m a c h in e .
T h e o p e r a t io n u s u a lly in v o lv e s a la r g e n u m b e r o f
c a r b o n c o p i e s o f th e b i l l b e i n g p r e p a r e d a n d is o f t e n d o n e o n a
fa n fo ld m a c h in e .
B i l l e r , m a c h in e (b o o k k e e p in g m a c h in e ) - U s e s a b o o k k e e p in g
m a c h i n e ( S u n d s t r a n d , E l l i o t t T F i s h e r , R e m in g t o n R a n d , e t c . , w h i c h
m a y o r m a y n ot h a v e ty p e w r ite r k ey b oa rd ) to p r e p a r e c u s to m e r s *
b i l l s a s p a r t o f th e a c c o u n t s r e c e iv a b le o p e r a t io n .
G e n e r a lly
i n v o l v e s th e s i m u l t a n e o u s e n t r y o f f i g u r e s o n c u s t o m e r s 1 l e d g e r
record .
T h e m a c h in e a u to m a t ic a lly a c c u m u la te s fig u r e s on a
n u m b e r o f v e r t i c a l c o lu m n s a n d c o m p u te s and u s u a lly p r in ts a u to ­
m a t i c a l l y th e d e b i t o r c r e d i t b a l a n c e s . D o e s n o t in v o l v e a k n o w l­
e d g e o f b o o k k e e p in g . W o r k s fr o m u n ifo r m and sta n d a rd ty p e s o f
s a le s and c r e d it s lip s .
B O O K K E E P I N G -M A C H I N E

OPERATOR

O p e r a t e s a b o o k k e e p i n g m a c h in e (R e m in g t o n R a n d , E l l i o t t
F i s h e r , S u n d s t r a n d , B u r r o u g h s , N a t io n a l C a s h R e g i s t e r , w it h o r w it h ­
out a ty p e w r
 i t e r k e y b o a r d ) t o k e e p a r e c o r d o f b u s i n e s s t r a n s a c t i o n s .



OPERATOR

-

C o n t in u e d

C l a s s A - K e e p s a s e t o f r e c o r d s r e q u i r i n g a k n o w le d g e o f
a n d e x p e r i e n c e in b a s i c b o o k k e e p i n g p r i n c i p l e s a n d f a m i l i a r i t y w ith
th e s t r u c t u r e o f th e p a r t i c u l a r a c c o u n t i n g s y s t e m u s e d .
D eter­
m i n e s p r o p e r r e c o r d s a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f d e b it a n d c r e d i t it e m s
t o b e u s e d in e a c h p h a s e o f th e w o r k . M a y p r e p a r e c o n s o l i d a t e d
r e p o r t s , b a la n c e s h e e t s , an d o th e r r e c o r d s b y h an d.
C la s s B - K eep s a r e c o r d o f on e o r m o r e p h a s e s o r s e c tio n s
o f a s e t o f r e c o r d s u s u a l l y r e q u i r i n g l i t t l e k n o w le d g e o f b a s i c
b o o k k e e p i n g . P h a s e s o r s e c t i o n s i n c l u d e a c c o u n t s p a y a b le , p a y r o l l ,
c u s t o m e r s * a c c o u n t s (n o t in c l u d i n g a s i m p l e t y p e o f b i l l i n g d e s c r i b e d
u n d e r b i l l e r , m a c h in e ), c o s t d is t r ib u t io n , e x p e n s e d is tr ib u tio n ,
i n v e n t o r y c o n t r o l , e t c . M a y c h e c k o r a s s i s t in p r e p a r a t i o n o f t r i a l
b a l a n c e s a n d p r e p a r e c o n t r o l s h e e t s f o r th e a c c o u n t in g d e p a r t m e n t .
CLERK,

A C C O U N T IN G

C la s s A - U n d er g e n e r a l d ir e c tio n o f a b o o k k e e p e r o r a c c o u n t­
a n t , lia s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r k e e p in g o n e o r m o r e s e c t i o n s o f a c o m ­
p le t e s e t o f b o o k s o r r e c o r d s r e la t in g to on e p h a s e o f an e s t a b lis h ­
m e n t s b u s i n e s s t r a n s a c t i o n s . W o r k i n v o l v e s p o s t in g a n d b a la n c in g
s u b s id ia r y le d g e r o r le d g e r s su ch as a c c o u n ts r e c e iv a b le o r a c ­
c o u n t s p a y a b l e ; e x a m i n in g a n d c o d i n g i n v o i c e s o r v o u c h e r s w ith
p r o p e r a c c o u n t i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n ; r e q u i r e s ju d g m e n t a n d e x p e r i e n c e
in m a k in g p r o p e r a s s i g n a t i o n s a n d a l l o c a t i o n s .
M a y a s s i s t in
p r e p a r i n g , a d ju s t i n g , a n d c l o s i n g j o u r n a l e n t r i e s ; m a y d i r e c t c l a s s
B a c c o u n tin g c l e r k s .
C l a s s B - U n d e r s u p e r v i s i o n , p e r f o r m s o n e o r m o r e r o u t in e
a c c o u n tin g o p e r a t io n s s u c h a s p o s tin g s im p le jo u r n a l v o u c h e r s ,
a c c o u n t s p a y a b l e v o u c h e r s , e n t e r i n g v o u c h e r s in v o u c h e r r e g i s t e r s ;
r e c o n c i lin g b a n k a c c o u n t s ; p o s tin g s u b s id ia r y le d g e r s c o n t r o lle d
by g e n e ra l le d g e r s .
T h is j o b d o e s n o t r e q u i r e a k n o w le d g e o f
a c c o u n t i n g a n d b o o k k e e p i n g p r i n c i p l e s b u t is fo u n d in o f f i c e s in
w h i c h th e m o r e r o u t in e a c c o u n t i n g w o r k i s s u b d iv i d e d o n a f u n c ­
tio n a l b a s is a m o n g s e v e r a l w o r k e r s .

18
CLERK,

F IL E

K E Y -P U N C H

C l a s s A - R e s p o n s i b l e f o r m a in t a in in g a n e s t a b l i s h e d f i l i n g
s y s t e m . C l a s s i f i e s a n d in d e x e s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e o r o t h e r m a t e r i a l ;
m a y a l s o f i l e th is m a t e r i a l . M a y k e e p r e c o r d s o f v a r i o u s t y p e s
in c o n j u n c t io n w it h f i l e s o r s u p e r v i s e o t h e r s in f i l i n g a n d l o c a t i n g
m a t e r i a l in th e f i l e s .
M a y p e r f o r m in c i d e n t a l c l e r i c a l d u t ie s .
C l a s s B - P e r f o r m s r o u t in e f i l i n g , u s u a l l y o f m a t e r i a l th a t
h a s a l r e a d y b e e n c l a s s i f i e d , o r l o c a t e s o r a s s i s t s in l o c a t i n g m a t e ­
r i a l in th e f i l e s .
M a y p e r f o r m in c i d e n t a l c l e r i c a l d u t ie s .
CLERK,

U n d e r g e n e r a l s u p e r v i s i o n a n d w it h n o s u p e r v i s o r y r e s p o n s i ­
b i l i t i e s , r e c o r d s a c c o u n t in g a n d s t a t i s t i c a l d a ta o n t a b u la t in g c a r d s
b y p u n c h in g a s e r i e s o f h o l e s in th e c a r d s in a s p e c i f i e d s e q u e n c e ,
u s in g a n a l p h a b e t ic a l o r a n u m e r i c a l k e y - p u n c h m a c h i n e , f o l l o w i n g
w r it t e n in f o r m a t io n on r e c o r d s .
M a y d u p l i c a t e c a r d s b y u s i n g th e
d u p lic a t in g d e v i c e a t t a c h e d t o m a c h i n e .
K eep s file s o f pu nch c a r d s .
M a y v e r if y ow n w o r k o r w o r k o f o t h e r s .

O F F IC E

B O Y O R G IR L

ORDER

R e c e iv e s c u s to m e r s * o r d e r s fo r m a te r ia l o r m e r c h a n d is e b y
m a il, p h on e, o r p e r s o n a lly .
D u t ie s i n v o l v e a n y c o m b i n a t i o n o f th e
fo llo w in g :
Q u o t in g p r i c e s to c u s t o m e r s ; m a k in g o u t a n o r d e r s h e e t
lis t i n g th e it e m s t o m a k e u p th e o r d e r ; c h e c k i n g p r i c e s a n d q u a n t it ie s
o f it e m s o n o r d e r s h e e t ; d is t r ib u t i n g o r d e r s h e e t s to r e s p e c t i v e d e p a r t ­
m e n ts to b e f i l l e d .
M a y c h e c k w ith c r e d i t d e p a r t m e n t t o d e t e r m i n e
c r e d i t r a tin g o f c u s t o m e r , a c k n o w le d g e r e c e i p t o f o r d e r s f r o m c u s ­
t o m e r s , f o l l o w up o r d e r s t o s e e th a t t h e y h a v e b e e n f i l l e d , k e e p f i l e
o f o r d e r s r e c e i v e d , a n d c h e c k s h ip p in g i n v o i c e s w ith o r i g i n a l o r d e r s .
CLERK,

OPERATOR

PAYROLL

C o m p u t e s w a g e s o f c o m p a n y e m p l o y e e s a n d e n t e r s th e n e c e s ­
s a r y d a ta on th e p a y r o l l s h e e t s . D u t ie s i n v o l v e :
C a lc u la t in g w o r k e r * s
e a r n in g s b a s e d o n t i m e o r p r o d u c t i o n r e c o r d s ; p o s t i n g c a l c u l a t e d d a ta
o n p a y r o l l s h e e t , s h o w in g in f o r m a t i o n s u c h a s w o r k e r * s n a m e , w o r k ­
in g d a y s , t i m e , r a t e , d e d u c t io n s f o r i n s u r a n c e , a n d t o t a l w a g e s d u e .
M a y m a k e o u t p a y c h e c k s a n d a s s i s t p a y m a s t e r in m a k in g up a n d d i s ­
t r ib u t in g p a y e n v e l o p e s .
M a y u s e a c a lc u la tin g m a c h in e .
COM PTOM ETER

OPERATOR

P r i m a r y d u ty is t o o p e r a t e a C o m p t o m e t e r t o p e r f o r m m a t h e ­
m a tic a l c o m p u ta tio n s .
T h is j o b is n o t t o b e c o n f u s e d w ith th a t o f
s t a t i s t i c a l o r o t h e r ty p e o f c l e r k , w h ic h m a y in v o l v e f r e q u e n t u s e o f
a C o m p t o m e t e r b u t, in w h i c h , u s e o f th is m a c h in e is in c i d e n t a l to
p e r fo r m a n c e o f o th e r d u tie s .
D U P L I C A T I N G -M A C H I N E

OPERATOR

(M I M E O G R A P H

O R D IT T O )

U n d e r g e n e r a l s u p e r v i s i o n a n d w ith n o s u p e r v i s o r y r e s p o n ­
s i b i l i t i e s , r e p r o d u c e s m u l t i p l e c o p i e s o f t y p e w r i t t e n o r h a n d w r it in g
m a t t e r , u s in g a m i m e o g r a p h o r d it t o m a c h i n e .
M akes n e c e s s a r y
a d ju s t m e n t s u c h a s f o r in k a n d p a p e r f e e d c o u n t e r a n d c y l i n d e r s p e e d .
Is n ot r e q u i r e d t o p r e p a r e s t e n c i l o r d it t o m a s t e r . M a y k e e p f i l e o f
u s e d s t e n c i l s o r d it t o m a s t e r s .
M a y s o r t , c o lla t e , an d sta p le c o m ­
p le t e d m a t e r i a l .




P e r f o r m s v a r i o u s r o u t in e d u t ie s s u c h a s r u n n in g e r r a n d s ,
o p e r a t i n g m i n o r o f f i c e m a c h in e s s u c h a s s e a l e r s o r m a i l e r s , o p e n in g
a n d d is t r ib u t i n g m a i l , a n d o t h e r m i n o r c l e r i c a l w o r k .

SECRETARY

P e r f o r m s s e c r e t a r i a l a n d c l e r i c a l d u t ie s f o r a s u p e r i o r in a n
a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r e x e c u t iv e p o s i t i o n . D u t ie s i n c l u d e m a k in g a p p o i n t ­
m e n t s f o r s u p e r i o r ; r e c e i v i n g p e o p l e c o m i n g in t o o f f i c e ; a n s w e r i n g
a n d m a k in g p h o n e c a l l s ; h a n d lin g p e r s o n a l a n d i m p o r t a n t o r c o n f i ­
d e n t ia l m a i l , a n d w r it in g r o u t in e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e o n o w n i n i t i a t i v e ;
ta k in g d ic t a t io n (w h e r e t r a n s c r i b i n g m a c h i n e is n o t u s e d ) e i t h e r in
sh o rth a n d or b y sten oty p e o r s im ila r m a c h in e , an d tr a n s c r ib in g d ic t a ­
t io n o r th e r e c o r d e d i n f o r m a t i o n r e p r o d u c e d o n a t r a n s c r i b i n g m a c h i n e .
M a y p r e p a r e s p e c ia l r e p o r t s o r m e m o r a n d a f o r in fo r m a tio n o f s u p e r io r .

STEN O GRAPH ER,

GENERAL

P r i m a r y d u ty is t o ta k e d i c t a t i o n f r o m o n e o r m o r e p e r s o n s ,
e i t h e r in s h o r th a n d o r b y s t e n o t y p e o r s i m i l a r m a c h i n e , in v o l v i n g a
n o r m a l r o u t in e v o c a b u l a r y , a n d to t r a n s c r i b e th is d i c t a t i o n o n a t y p e ­
w r i t e r . M a y a l s o ty p e f r o m w r i t t e n c o p y . M a y a l s o s e t u p a n d k e e p
f i l e s in o r d e r , k e e p s i m p l e r e c o r d s , e t c .
D o e s n ot in c lu d e t r a n ­
s c r ib in g -m a c h in e w o rk (se e t r a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r ).

STEN O GRAPH ER,

T E C H N IC A L

P r i m a r y d u ty is t o ta k e d i c t a t i o n f r o m o n e o r m o r e p e r s o n s ,
e i t h e r in s h o r th a n d o r b y s t e n o t y p e o r s i m i l a r m a c h i n e , i n v o l v i n g a
v a r i e d t e c h n i c a l Or s p e c i a l i z e d v o c a b u l a r y s u c h a s in l e g a l b r i e f s o r
r e p o r t s on s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h a n d to t r a n s c r i b e th is d i c t a t i o n o n a
t y p e w r i t e r . M a y a l s o ty p e f r o m w r i t t e n c o p y .
M ay a ls o se t up and
k e e p f i l e s in o r d e r , k e e p s i m p l e r e c o r d s , e t c .
D o e s n ot in c lu d e
tr a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e w o rk .

19
S W IT C H B O A R D

OPERATOR

T R A N S C R I B I N G -M A C H I N E

O p e ra te s a s i n g l e - o r m u lt ip le -p o s it io n te le p h o n e s w it c h b o a r d .
D u t ie s i n v o l v e h a n d lin g i n c o m i n g , o u t g o in g , a n d in t r a p la n t o r o f f i c e
c a lls .
M a y r e c o r d t o l l c a l l s a n d ta k e m e s s a g e s .
M a y g iv e i n f o r ­
m a t i o n t o p e r s o n s w h o c a l l in , o r o c c a s i o n a l l y ta k e t e l e p h o n e o r d e r s .
F o r w o r k e r s w h o a l s o a c t a s r e c e p t io n is t s s e e s w it c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r r e c e p t io n is t .

OPERATOR,

GENERAL

-

C o n tin u e d

ty p e f r o m w r it t e n c o p y a n d d o s i m p l e c l e r i c a l w o r k . W o r k e r s t r a n ­
s c r i b i n g d ic t a t io n in v o l v in g a v a r i e d t e c h n i c a l o r s p e c i a l i z e d v o c a b u ­
l a r y s u c h a s l e g a l b r i e f s o r r e p o r t s on s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h a r e n o t
i n c l u d e d . A w o r k e r w h o t a k e s d ic t a t io n in s h o r t h a n d o r b y s t e n o t y p e
o r s i m i l a r m a c h in e is c l a s s i f i e d a s a s t e n o g r a p h e r , g e n e r a l .
T Y P IS T

S W IT C H B O A R D

O P E R A T O R -R E C E P T IO N IS T

In a d d it i o n t o p e r f o r m i n g d u t ie s o f o p e r a t o r , o n a s i n g l e p o s i ­
tio n o r m o n it o r -t y p e s w it c h b o a r d , a c ts a s r e c e p t io n is t and m a y a ls o
t y p e o r p e r f o r m r o u t in e c l e r i c a l w o r k a s p a r t o f r e g u l a r d u t i e s . T h is
t y p in g o r c l e r i c a l w o r k m a y ta k e th e m a j o r p a r t o f t h i s w o r k e r * s t i m e
w h ile a t s w it c h b o a r d .
T A B U D A T I N G -M A C H I N E

U s e s a t y p e w r i t e r t o m a k e c o p i e s o f v a r i o u s m a t e r i a l o r to
m a k e ou t b ills a ft e r c a lc u la tio n s h a v e b e e n m a d e b y a n o th e r p e r s o n .
M a y d o c l e r i c a l w o r k in v o l v in g l i t t l e s p e c i a l t r a i n in g , s u c h a s k e e p ­
in g s i m p l e r e c o r d s , f i l i n g r e c o r d s a n d r e p o r t s o r s o r t i n g a n d d i s t r i b ­
u tin g i n c o m i n g m a i l .
C l a s s A - P e r f o r m s o n e o r m o r e o f th e f o l l o w i n g :
T y p in g
m a t e r i a l in f i n a l f o r m f r o m v e r y r o u g h a n d in v o l v e d d r a f t ; c o p y ­
in g f r o m p la in o r c o r r e c t e d c o p y in w h ic h t h e r e is a f r e q u e n t a n d
v a r ie d u s e o f te c h n ic a l and u n u su a l w o r d s o r fr o m fo r e ig n - la n ­
g u a g e c o p y ; c o m b i n in g m a t e r i a l f r o m s e v e r a l s o u r c e s , o r p l a n ­
n in g la y o u t o f c o m p l i c a t e d s t a t i s t i c a l t a b l e s t o m a in t a in u n i f o r m i t y
a n d b a l a n c e in s p a c i n g ; t y p in g t a b le s f r o m r o u g h d r a f t in f in a l
fo rm .
M a y ty p e r o u t in e f o r m l e t t e r s , v a r y in g d e t a ils to s u it
c ir c u m s ta n c e s .

OPERATOR

O p e r a t e s m a c h i n e th a t a u t o m a t i c a l l y a n a l y z e s a n d t r a n s l a t e s
i n f o r m a t i o n p u n c h e d in g r o u p s o f ta b u la tin g c a r d s a n d p r i n t s t r a n s ­
la t e d d a ta o n f o r m s o r a c c o u n t in g r e c o r d s ; s e t s o r a d ju s t s m a c h i n e ;
d o e s s im p le w ir in g o f p lu g b o a r d s a c c o r d in g to e s t a b lis h e d p r a c t ic e o r
d i a g r a m s ; p l a c e s c a r d s t o b e ta b u la t e d in f e e d m a g a z in e a n d s t a r t s
m a c h i n e . M a y f i l e c a r d s a f t e r t h e y a r e t a b u la t e d . M a y , in a d d i t i o n ,
o p e r a te a u x ilia r y m a c h in e s .
T R A N S C R I B I N G -M A C H I N E

r o u t in e

P r i m a r y d u ty i s
v o c a b u la r y f r o m

OPERATOR,

GENERAL

t o t r a n s c r i b e d ic t a t io n i n v o l v in g a n o r m a l
t r a n s c r i b i n g m a c h in e r e c o r d s .
M ay a ls o

P r o fe s s io n a l

DRAFTSM AN,

J U N IO R

(A s s is ta n t d r a fts m a n )

D r a w s to s c a l e u n it s o r p a r t s o f d r a w in g s p r e p a r e d b y d r a f t s ­
m a n o r o t h e r s f o r e n g i n e e r i n g , c o n s t r u c t i o n , o r m a n u fa c t u r in g p u r ­
poses.
U s e s v a r io u s ty p e s o f d r a ftin g to o ls a s r e q u ir e d . M a y p r e ­
p a r e d r a w in g s f r o m s i m p l e p la n s o r s k e t c h e s , o r p e r f o r m o t h e r d u t ie s
u n d er d ir e c tio n o f a d r a fts m a n .




C l a s s B - P e r f o r m s o n e o r m o r e o f th e f o l l o w i n g ;
T y p in g
f r o m r e l a t i v e l y c l e a r o r t y p e d d r a f t s ; r o u t in e ty p in g o f f o r m s ,
i n s u r a n c e p o l i c i e s , e t c . ; s e t t in g u p s i m p l e s t a n d a r d t a b u la t io n s , o r
c o p y i n g m o r e c o m p l e x t a b le s a l r e a d y s e t u p a n d s p a c e d p r o p e r l y .

and

T ech n ical

DRAFTSM AN,

LEADER

P la n s a n d d i r e c t s a c t i v i t i e s o f o n e o r m o r e d r a f t s m e n in p r e p ­
a r a t i o n o f w o r k in g p la n s a n d d e t a il d r a w in g s f r o m r o u g h o r p r e l i m i n a r y
s k e t c h e s f o r e n g i n e e r i n g , c o n s t r u c t i o n , o r m a n u fa c t u r in g p u r p o s e s .
D u t ie s i n v o l v e a c o m b i n a t i o n o f th e f o l l o w i n g :
I n t e r p r e t in g
b lu e ­
p r i n t s , s k e t c h e s , a n d w r it t e n o r v e r b a l o r d e r s ; d e t e r m i n i n g w o r k p r o ­
c e d u r e s ; a s s i g n i n g d u t ie s t o s u b o r d in a t e s a n d in s p e c t i n g t h e ir w o r k ;
p e r f o r m i n g m o r e d i f f i c u l t p r o b l e m s . M a y a s s i s t s u b o r d in a t e s d u r in g
e m e r g e n c i e s o r a s a r e g u l a r a s s i g n m e n t , o r p e r f o r m r e l a t e d d u tie s
o f a s u p e r v is o r y o r a d m in is tr a tiv e n a tu re .

20
DRAFTSM AN,

S E N IO R

NU RSE,

P r e p a r e s w o r k i n g p la n s a n d d e t a i l d r a w in g s f r o m
n o te s,
ro u g h o r d e t a ile d s k e t c h e s f o r e n g in e e r in g , c o n s t r u c t io n , o r m a n u ­
f a c t u r in g p u r p o s e s .
D u t ie s i n v o l v e a c o m b i n a t i o n o f th e f o l l o w i n g :
P r e p a r in g w o r k in g p la n s , d e t a il d r a w in g s , m a p s , c r o s s - s e c t i o n s ,
etc, ,
t o s c a l e b y u s e o f d r a f t i n g in s t r u m e n t s ; m a k in g e n g i n e e r i n g c o m p u t a ­
t io n s s u c h a s t h o s e in v o l v e d in s t r e n g t h o f m a t e r i a l s , b e a m s a n d
t r u s s e s ; v e r i f y i n g c o m p l e t e d w o r k , c h e c k i n g d i m e n s i o n s , m a t e r i a l s to
b e u s e d , a n d q u a n t i t ie s ; w r i t i n g s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ; m a k in g a d ju s t m e n t s o r
c h a n g e s in d r a w in g s o r s p e c i f i c a t i o n s .
M a y in k in l i n e s a n d l e t t e r s
o n p e n c i l d r a w i n g s , p r e p a r e d e t a i l u n it s o f c o m p l e t e d r a w i n g s , o r
t r a c e d r a w in g s .
W o r k is f r e q u e n t l y in a s p e c i a l i z e d f i e l d s u c h a s
a r c h it e c t u r a l, e le c t r ic a l, m e c h a n ic a l, o r s tr u c tu r a l d r a ftin g .

IN D U S T R IA L

(R E G I S T E R E D ) -

C o n t in u e d

c o m b i n a t io n o f th e f o l l o w i n g :
G iv in g f i r s t a i d t o th e i l l o r in ju r e d ;
a t t e n d in g t o s u b s e q u e n t d r e s s i n g o f e m p l o y e e fs i n j u r i e s ; k e e p in g r e c o r d s
o f p a t ie n t s t r e a t e d ; p r e p a r i n g a c c i d e n t r e p o r t s f o r c o m p e n s a t i o n o r
o t h e r p u r p o s e s ; c o n d u c t in g p h y s i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n s a n d h e a lt h e v a lu a t io n s
o f a p p lic a n t s a n d e m p l o y e e s ; a n d p la n n in g a n d c a r r y i n g o u t p r o g r a m s
in v o l v in g h e a lt h e d u c a t io n , a c c i d e n t p r e v e n t i o n , e v a lu a t io n o f p la n t
e n v ir o n m e n t , o r o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s a f f e c t i n g th e h e a lt h , w e l f a r e , a n d
s a fe ty o f a ll p e r s o n n e l.

TRACER
NURSE,

IN D U S T R IA L

(R E G I S T E R E D )

A r e g i s t e r e d n u r s e w h o g i v e s n u r s i n g s e r v i c e t o i l l o r in ju r e d
e m p lo y e e s o r o th e r p e r s o n s w h o b e c o m e i l l o r s u ffe r an a c c id e n t on
th e p r e m i s e s o f a f a c t o r v o r o t h e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t .
D u t ie s i n v o l v e s

M aintenance

CARPENTER,

M A IN T E N A N C E

P e r f o r m s th e c a r p e n t r y d u t ie s n e c e s s a r y to c o n s t r u c t a n d
m a in t a in in g o o d r e p a i r b u il d in g w o o d w o r k a n d e q u ip m e n t s u c h a s b in s ,
c r ib s , c o u n te r s , b e n c h e s , p a r titio n s , d o o r s , f l o o r s , s t a ir s , c a s in g s ,
a n d t r i m m a d e o f w o o d in a n e s t a b l i s h m e n t .
W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t o f
th e f o l l o w i n g : P la n n in g a n d la y in g o u t o f w o r k f r o m b l u e p r i n t s ", d r a w ­
i n g s , m o d e l s , o r v e r b a l i n s t r u c t i o n s ; u s in g a v a r i e t y o f c a r p e n t e r * s
h a n d t o o ls , p o r t a b l e p o w e r t o o l s , a n d s t a n d a r d m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t s ;
m a k in g s t a n d a r d s h o p c o m p u t a t io n s r e l a t i n g t o d i m e n s i o n s o f w o r k ;
s e l e c t i n g m a t e r i a l s n e c e s s a r y f o r th e w o r k . In g e n e r a l , th e w o r k o f
th e m a in t e n a n c e c a r p e n t e r r e q u i r e s r o u n d e d t r a i n in g a n d e x p e r i e n c e
u s u a ll y a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t i c e s h i p o r e q u iv a l e n t t r a i n ­
in g an d e x p e r i e n c e .
E L E C T R IC IA N ,

M A IN T E N A N C E

P e r f o r m s a v a r i e t y o f e l e c t r i c a l t r a d e f u n c t i o n s s u c h a s th e
in s t a ll a t i o n , m a in t e n a n c e , o r r e p a i r o f e q u ip m e n t f o r th e g e n e r a t i n g ,
d is t r i b u t i o n , o r u t i l i z a t i o n o f e l e c t r i c e n e r g y in a n e s t a b l i s h m e n t .
W o r k i n v o l v e s m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g :
I n s t a lli n g o r r e p a i r i n g a n y o f a
v a r i e t y o f e l e c t r i c a l e q u ip m e n t s u c h a s g e n e r a t o r s , t r a n s f o r m e r s ,
s w i t c h b o a r d s , c o n t r o l l e r s , c i r c u i t b r e a k e r s , m o t o r s , h e a t in g u n it s ,




C o p i e s p la n s a n d d r a w in g s p r e p a r e d b y o t h e r s , b y p l a c i n g
t r a c i n g c l o t h o r p a p e r o v e r d r a w in g a n d t r a c i n g w it h p e n o r p e n c i l .
U s e s T -s q u k r e , c o m p a s s , an d o th e r d r a ftin g t o o l s .
M ay p rep a re
s i m p l e d r a w in g s a n d d o s i m p l e l e t t e r i n g .

and

P ow erplant

E L E C T R IC IA N ,

M A IN T E N A N C E

-

C o n t in u e d

c o n d u it s y s t e m s , o r o t h e r t r a n s m i s s i o n e q u ip m e n t ; w o r k i n g f r o m b l u e ­
p r i n t s , d r a w in g s , la y o u t , o r o t h e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ; l o c a t i n g a n d d i a g ­
n o s i n g t r o u b le in th e e l e c t r i c a l s y s t e m o r e q u ip m e n t ; w o r k i n g s t a n d a r d
c o m p u t a t io n s r e la t in g t o lo a d r e q u i r e m e n t s o f w i r i n g o r e l e c t r i c a l
e q u ip m e n t ; u s in g a v a r i e t y o f e l e c t r i c i a n ^ h a n d t o o ls a n d m e a s u r i n g
a n d t e s t in g in s t r u m e n t s .
In g e n e r a l , th e w o r k o f th e m a i n t e n a n c e
e le c t r ic ia n r e q u ir e s ro u n d e d tr a in in g a n d e x p e r ie n c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d
th r o u g h a fo r m a l a p p r e n tic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t t r a in in g an d e x p e r i e n c e .
E N G IN E E R ,

S T A T IO N A R Y

O p e r a t e s a n d m a in t a in s a n d m a y a l s o s u p e r v i s e th e o p e r a t i o n
o f s t a t i o n a r y e n g in e s a n d e q u ip m e n t ( m e c h a n i c a l o r e l e c t r i c a l ) t o s u p ­
p l y th e e s t a b lis h m e n t in w h i c h e m p l o y e d w it h p o w e r , h e a t , r e f r i g e r a ­
tio n , o r a ir -c o n d itio n in g . W o rk in v o lv e s :
O p e r a t in g a n d m a in t a i n i n g
e q u ip m e n t s u c h a s s t e a m e n g i n e s , a i r c o m p r e s s o r s , g e n e r a t o r s , m o ­
t o r s , t u r b i n e s , v e n t ila t in g a n d r e f r i g e r a t i n g e q u ip m e n t , s t e a m b o i l e r s
a n d b o i l e r - f e d w a f e r p u m p s ; m a k in g e q u ip m e n t r e p a i r s ; k e e p in g a
r e c o r d o f o p e r a t io n o f m a c h in e r y , t e m p e r a t u r e , an d fu e l c o n s u m p ­
tio n , M a y a ls o s u p e r v is e th e se o p e r a t io n s .
H ead o r c h ie f e n g in e e r s
in e s t a b lis h m e n t s e m p lo y i n g m o r e th a n o n e e n g i n e e r a r e e x c l u d e d .

21

F IR E M A N ,

S T A T IO N A R Y

B O IL E R

F i r e s s t a t i o n a r y b o i l e r s t o f u r n i s h th e e s t a b lis h m e n t in w h ic h
e m p l o y e d w it h h e a t , p o w e r , o r s t e a m .
F e e d s f u e ls t o f i r e b y h a n d
o r o p e r a te s a m e c h a n ic a l s t o k e r , g a s, o r o il b u rn e r; c h e c k s w a ter
and s a fe ty v a lv e s .
M a y c l e a n , o i l , o r a s s i s t in r e p a i r i n g b o i l e r r o o m e q u ip m e n t .
HELPER,

TRADES,

M A IN T E N A N C E

A s s i s t s o n e o r m o r e w o r k e r s in th e s k i l l e d m a in t e n a n c e
t r a d e s , b y p e r f o r m i n g s p e c i f i c o r g e n e r a l d u t ie s o f l e s s e r s k i l l , s u c h
a s k e e p in g a w o r k e r s u p p l i e d w it h m a t e r i a l s a n d t o o l s ; c l e a n i n g w o r k ­
in g a r e a , m a c h i n e , a n d e q u ip m e n t ; a s s i s t i n g w o r k e r b y h o ld in g m a ­
t e r ia ls o r t o o l s ; p e r f o r m in g o th e r u n s k ille d ta s k s a s d ir e c t e d b y jo u r ­
n e y m a n . T h e k in d o f w o r k th e h e l p e r is p e r m i t t e d t o p e r f o r m v a r i e s
fr o m tra d e to tra d e :
In s o m e t r a d e s th e h e l p e r is c o n f i n e d t o s u p ­
p l y i n g , l i f t i n g , a n d h o ld in g m a t e r i a l s a n d t o o l s a n d c le a n i n g w o r k in g
a r e a s ; a n d in o t h e r s h e i s p e r m i t t e d t o p e r f o r m s p e c i a l i z e d m a c h in e
o p e r a t i o n s , o r p a r t s o f a t r a d e th a t a r e a l s o p e r f o r m e d b y w o r k e r s
on a fu ll-tim e b a s is .
M A C H IN E -T O O L

OPERATOR,

TOOLROOM

S p e c i a l i z e s in th e o p e r a t i o n o f o n e o r m o r e t y p e s o f m a c h in e
t o o l s , s u c h a s j i g b o r e r s , c y l i n d r i c a l o r s u r f a c e g r i n d e r s , e n g in e
l a t h e s , o r m i l l i n g m a c h i n e s in th e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f m a c h i n e - s h o p t o o l s ,
g a u g e s , j i g s , f i x t u r e s , o r d i e s . W o r k i n v o l v e s m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g :
P la n n in g a n d p e r f o r m i n g d i f f i c u l t m a c h in in g o p e r a t i o n s ; p r o c e s s i n g
i t e m s r e q u i r i n g c o m p l i c a t e d s e t u p s o r a h ig h d e g r e e o f a c c u r a c y ;
u s i n g a v a r i e t y o f p r e c i s i o n m e a s u r i n g in s t r u m e n t s ; s e l e c t i n g f e e d s ,
s p e e d s , t o o l i n g a n d o p e r a t i o n s e q u e n c e ; m a k in g n e c e s s a r y a d ju s t m e n t s
d u rin g o p e r a t io n to a c h ie v e r e q u is it e t o le r a n c e s o r d im e n s io n s . M a y
b e r e q u ir e d to r e c o g n i z e w h en to o ls n eed d r e s s in g , to d r e s s t o o ls ,
a n d t o s e l e c t p r o p e r c o o l a n t s a n d c u t t in g a n d lu b r i c a t i n g o i l s .
F or
c r o s s - in d u s t r y w a g e stu d y p u r p o s e s , m a c h in e -to o l o p e r a t o r s , t o o l­
r o o m in t o o l a n d d i e j o b b i n g s h o p s a r e e x c lu d e d f r o m t h is c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .
M A C H IN IS T ,

M A IN T E N A N C E

P r o d u c e s r e p l a c e m e n t p a r t s a n d n e w p a r t s in m a k in g r e p a i r s
o f m e t a l p a r t s o f m e c h a n i c a l e q u ip m e n t o p e r a t e d in a n e s t a b l i s h m e n t .
W o r k i n v o l v e s m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g :
I n t e r p r e t in g w r it t e n i n s t r u c ­
t i o n s a n d s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ; p la n n in g a n d la y in g o u t o f w o r k ; u s in g a v a ­
r i e t y o f m a c h i n i s t 's h a n d t o o ls a n d p r e c i s i o n m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t s ;
s e t t in g u p a n d o p e r a t i n g s t a n d a r d m a c h in e t o o l s ; s h a p in g o f m e t a l
p a r t s t o c l o s e t o l e r a n c e s ; m a k in g s t a n d a r d s h o p c o m p u t a t io n s r e l a t ­
in g t o d i m e n s i o n s o f w o r k , t o o l i n g , f e e d s a n d s p e e d s o f m a c h in in g ;
k n o w le d g e o f th e w o r k i n g p r o p e r t i e s o f th e c o m m o n m e t a l s ; s e l e c t i n g
s t a n d a r d m a t e r i a l s , p a r t s , a n d e q u ip m e n t r e q u i r e d f o r h is w o r k ; f i t ­
t in g a n d a s s e m b l i n g p a r t s in t o m e c h a n i c a l e q u ip m e n t . In g e n e r a l , th e
m a c h i n i s t 's w o r k n o r m a l l y r e q u i r e s a r o u n d e d t r a i n in g in m a c h i n e s h o p p r a c t i c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th ro u g h a fo r m a l a p p r e n tic e s h ip o r
e q u iv a l e n t t r a i n in g a n d e x p e r i e n c e .




M E C H A N IC ,

A U T O M O T IV E

(M A I N T E N A N C E )

R e p a ir s a u to m o b ile s , b u s s e s , m o t o r t r u c k s , and t r a c to r s o f
an e s ta b lis h m e n t.
W o r k i n v o l v e s m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g :
E x a m in in g
a u t o m o t i v e e q u ip m e n t t o d i a g n o s e s o u r c e o f t r o u b l e ; d i s a s s e m b l i n g
e q u ip m e n t a n d p e r f o r m i n g r e p a i r s th a t i n v o l v e th e u s e o f s u c h h a n d t o o l s a s w r e n c h e s , g a u g e s , d r i l l s , o r s p e c i a l i z e d e q u ip m e n t in d i s ­
a s s e m b l i n g o r f it t in g p a r t s ; r e p l a c i n g b r o k e n o r d e f e c t i v e p a r t s f r o m
s t o c k ; g r in d in g a n d a d ju s t i n g v a l v e s ; r e a s s e m b l i n g a n d i n s t a ll in g th e
v a r i o u s a s s e m b l i e s in th e v e h i c l e a n d m a k in g n e c e s s a r y a d ju s t m e n t s ;
a l in in g w h e e l s , a d ju s t i n g b r a k e s a n d l i g h t s , o r tig h t e n in g b o d y b o l t s .
In g e n e r a l , th e w o r k o f th e a u t o m o t i v e m e c h a n i c r e q u i r e s r o u n d e d
t r a i n in g a n d e x p e r i e n c e u s u a l l y a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t i c e ­
s h ip o r e q u iv a l e n t t r a i n i n g a n d e x p e r i e n c e .
M E C H A N IC ,

M A IN T E N A N C E

R e p a i r s m a c h i n e r y o r m e c h a n i c a l e q u ip m e n t o f a n e s t a b l i s h ­
m en t.
W o r k i n v o l v e s m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g :
E x a m in in g m a c h in e s
a n d m e c h a n i c a l e q u ip m e n t t o d i a g n o s e s o u r c e o f t r o u b l e ; d is m a n t lin g
o r p a r t l y d is m a n t lin g m a c h i n e s a n d p e r f o r m i n g r e p a i r s th a t m a in ly
i n v o l v e th e u s e o f h a n d t o o ls in s c r a p i n g a n d fit t in g p a r t s ; r e p l a c i n g
b r o k e n o r d e f e c t i v e p a r t s w it h i t e m s o b t a in e d f r o m s t o c k ; o r d e r i n g th e
p r o d u c t i o n o f a r e p l a c e m e n t p a r t b y a m a c h i n e s h o p o r s e n d in g o f
th e m a c h i n e t o a m a c h i n e s h o p f o r m a j o r r e p a i r s ; p r e p a r i n g w r it t e n
s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r m a j o r r e p a i r s o r f o r th e p r o d u c t i o n o f p a r t s o r d e r e d
f r o m m a c h i n e s h o p ; r e a s s e m b l i n g m a c h i n e s ; a n d m a k in g a l l n e c e s s a r y
a d ju s t m e n t s f o r o p e r a t i o n .
In g e n e r a l , th e w o r k o f a m a in t e n a n c e
m e c h a n i c r e q u i r e s r o u n d e d t r a i n in g a n d e x p e r i e n c e u s u a ll y a c q u i r e d
t h r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t i c e s h i p o r e q u iv a l e n t t r a i n in g a n d e x p e r i e n c e .
E x c l u d e d f r o m t h is c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a r e w o r k e r s w h o s e p r i m a r y d u t ie s
in v o l v e s e t t in g u p o r a d ju s t i n g m a c h i n e s .
M IL L W R IG H T
I n s t a l l s n e w m a c h i n e s o r h e a v y e q u ip m e n t a n d d is m a n t le s a n d
i n s t a l l s m a c h i n e s o r h e a v y e q u ip m e n t w h e n c h a n g e s in th e p la n t l a y ­
o u t a r e r e q u i r e d . W o r k i n v o l v e s m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g : P la n n in g a n d
la y in g o u t o f th e w o r k ; i n t e r p r e t i n g b l u e p r i n t s o r o t h e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ;
u s i n g a v a r i e t y o f h a n d t o o ls a n d r i g g i n g ; m a k in g s t a n d a r d s h o p c o m ­
p u t a t io n s r e l a t i n g t o s t r e s s e s , s t r e n g t h o f m a t e r i a l s , a n d c e n t e r s o f
g r a v i t y ; a l in in g a n d b a la n c in g o f e q u ip m e n t ; s e l e c t i n g s t a n d a r d t o o l s ,
e q u ip m e n t a n d p a r t s t o b e u s e d ; i n s t a ll in g a n d m a in t a in in g in g o o d
o r d e r p o w e r t r a n s m i s s i o n e q u ip m e n t s u c h a s d r i v e s a n d s p e e d r e ­
d u c e r s . In g e n e r a l , th e m i l l w r i g h t 's w o r k n o r m a l l y r e q u i r e s a r o u n d ­
e d t r a i n in g a n d e x p e r i e n c e in th e t r a d e a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h a f o r m a l
a p p r e n t i c e s h i p o r e q u iv a l e n t t r a i n in g a n d e x p e r i e n c e .
O IL E R

s u r fa c e s

L u b r i c a t e s , w it h o i l o r g r e a s e , th e m o v in g p a r t s
o f m e c h a n i c a l e q u ip m e n t o f a n e s t a b l i s h m e n t .

o r w e a r in g

22
P A IN T E R ,

M A IN T E N A N C E

S H E E T -M E T A L W O R K E R ,

P a in ts a n d r e d e c o r a t e s w a lls , w o o d w o r k , an d fix t u r e s o f an
e s t a b lis h m e n t .
W o r k i n v o l v e s th e f o l l o w i n g ;
K n o w le d g e o f s u r f a c e
p e c u l i a r i t i e s a n d t y p e s o f p a in t r e q u i r e d t o r d i f f e r e n t a p p l i c a t i o n s ;
p r e p a r i n g s u r f a c e f o r p a in t in g b y r e m o v i n g o l d f i n i s h o r b y p l a c i n g
p u tty o r f i l l e r in n a il h o l e s a n d i n t e r s t i c e s ; a p p ly i n g p a in t w it h s p r a y
gun o r b r u s h .
M a y m i x c o l o r s , o i l s , w h it e l e a d , a n d o t h e r p a in t
in g r e d ie n t s t o o b t a in p r o p e r c o l o r o r c o n s i s t e n c y .
In g e n e r a l , th e
w o r k o f th e m a in t e n a n c e p a i n t e r r e q u i r e s r o u n d e d t r a i n in g a n d e x ­
p e r i e n c e u s u a l l y a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t i c e s h i p o r e q u iv a l e n t
t r a i n in g a n d e x p e r i e n c e .
P IP E F IT T E R ,

M A IN T E N A N C E

I n s t a lls o r r e p a i r s w a t e r , s t e a m , g a s , o r o t h e r t y p e s o f p ip e
a n d p ip e fi t t i n g s in a n e s t a b l i s h m e n t . W o r k i n v o l v e s m o s t o f th e f o l l o w ­
in g : L a y in g o u t o f w o r k a n d m e a s u r i n g t o l o c a t e p o s i t i o n o f p ip e f r o m
d r a w in g s o r o t h e r w r i t t e n s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ; c u t t in g v a r i o u s s i z e s o f p ip e
t o c o r r e c t le n g t h s w it h c h i s e l a n d h a m m e r o r o x y a c e t y l e n e t o r c h o r
p i p e - c u t t i n g m a c h i n e ; t h r e a d in g p i p e w it h s t o c k s a n d d i e s ; b e n d in g p ip e
b y h a n d - d r i v e n o r p o w e r - d r i v e n m a c h i n e s ; a s s e m b l i n g p ip e w it h c o u ­
p li n g s a n d f a s t e n i n g p ip e t o h a n g e r s ; m a k in g s t a n d a r d s h o p c o m p u t a ­
t io n s r e l a t i n g t o p r e s s u r e s , f l o w , a n d s i z e o f p i p e r e q u i r e d ; m a k in g
sta n d a rd te s ts to d e te r m in e w h e th e r fin is h e d p ip e s m e e t s p e c if i c a ­
tio n s .
In g e n e r a l , th e w o r k o f th e m a in t e n a n c e p i p e f i t t e r r e q u i r e s
ro u n d e d tr a in in g an d e x p e r ie n c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th ro u g h a f o r m a l
a p p r e n t i c e s h i p o r e q u iv a l e n t t r a i n in g a n d e x p e r i e n c e .
W ork ers p r i­
m a r i l y e n g a g e d in i n s t a l l i n g a n d r e p a i r i n g b u il d in g s a n i t a t io n o r h e a t ­
in g s y s t e m s a r e e x c l u d e d .
PLUM BER,

M A IN T E N A N C E

K e e p s th e p lu m b in g s y s t e m o f a n e s t a b l i s h m e n t in g o o d o r d e r .
W o r k i n v o l v e s : K n o w le d g e o f s a n i t a r y c o d e s r e g a r d i n g i n s t a l l a t i o n o f
v e n t s a n d t r a p s in p lu m b in g s y s t e m ; i n s t a l l i n g o r r e p a i r i n g p i p e s a n d
f i x t u r e s ; o p e n in g c l o g g e d d r a in s w it h a p lu n g e r o r p l u m b e r fs s n a k e .
In g e n e r a l , th e w o r k o f th e m a in t e n a n c e p l u m b e r r e q u i r e s r o u n d e d
t r a i n in g a n d e x p e r i e n c e u s u a l l y a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t i c e ­
s h ip o r e q u iv a l e n t t r a i n i n g a n d e x p e r i e n c e .

C ustodial

and

GUARD

M A IN T E N A N C E

F a b r i c a t e s , i n s t a l l s , a n d m a in t a i n s in g o o d r e p a i r th e s h e e t m e t a l e q u ip m e n t a n d f i x t u r e s ( s u c h a s m a c h i n e g u a r d s , g r e a s e p a n s ,
s h e lv e s , l o c k e r s , ta n k s, v e n t ila t o r s , c h u t e s , d u c t s , m e t a l r o o fin g )
o f a n e s t a b l i s h m e n t . W o r k i n v o l v e s m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g :
P la n n in g
a n d la y in g o u t a l l t y p e s o f s h e e t - m e t a l m a i n t e n a n c e w o r k f r o m b l u e ­
p r in t s , m o d e ls , o r o th e r s p e c if i c a t io n s ; s e t tin g u p a n d o p e r a t in g a ll
a v a ila b le ty p e s o f s h e e t -m e t a l-w o r k in g m a c h in e s ; u s in g a v a r ie t y o f
h a n d t o o ls in c u t t in g , b e n d in g , f o r m i n g , s h a p in g , f i t t i n g , a n d a s s e m ­
b l i n g ; i n s t a ll in g s h e e t - m e t a l a r t i c l e s a s r e q u i r e d .
In g e n e r a l , th e
w o r k o f th e m a in t e n a n c e s h e e t - m e t a l w o r k e r r e q u i r e s r o u n d e d t r a i n ­
in g a n d e x p e r i e n c e u s u a l l y a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t i c e s h i p
o r e q u iv a le n t t r a i n in g a n d e x p e r i e n c e .
T O O L A N D D IE M A K E R
(D ie m a k e r ; j i g m a k e r ; t o o l m a k e r ; f i x t u r e

m a k er; gauge m a k er)

C o n stru cts and r e p a ir s m a c h in e -s h o p t o o ls , g a u g e s , ji g s , f i x ­
t u r e s o r d ie s f o r f o r g i n g s , p u n c h in g a n d o t h e r m e t a l - f o r m i n g w o r k .
W o r k i n v o l v e s m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g :
P la n n in g a n d l a y in g o u t o f w o r k
f r o m m o d e ls , b lu e p r in ts , d r a w in g s , o r o t h e r o r a l a n d w r it te n s p e c i f i ­
c a t i o n s ; u s in g a v a r i e t y o f t o o l a n d d ie m a k e r 's h a n d t o o ls a n d p r e c i s i o n
m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t s ; u n d e r s t a n d in g o f th e w o r k i n g p r o p e r t i e s o f
c o m m o n m e t a ls a n d a l l o y s ; s e t t i n g u p a n d o p e r a t i n g o f m a c h i n e t o o l s
a n d r e l a t e d e q u ip m e n t ; m a k in g n e c e s s a r y s h o p c o m p u t a t i o n s r e l a t i n g
to d im e n s io n s o f w o r k , s p e e d s , f e e d s , a n d t o o lin g o f m a c h in e s ; h e a t tr e a t in g o f m e t a l p a rts d u rin g fa b r i c a t io n a s w e ll a s o f fin is h e d t o o ls
a n d d i e s to a c h i e v e r e q u i r e d q u a l i t i e s ; w o r k i n g t o c l o s e t o l e r a n c e s ;
f it t in g a n d a s s e m b l i n g o f p a r t s t o p r e s c r i b e d t o l e r a n c e s a n d a l l o w a n c e s ;
s e le c t in g a p p r o p r ia te m a t e r ia l s , t o o l s , a n d p r o c e s s e s .
In g e n e r a l ,
th e t o o l a n d d ie m a k e r 's w o r k r e q u i r e s a r o u n d e d t r a i n i n g in m a c h i n e sh op and t o o lr o o m p r a c t ic e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th rou g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n ­
t i c e s h i p o r e q u iv a l e n t t r a i n in g a n d e x p e r i e n c e .
F o r c r o s s -in d u s t r y w a g e s tu d y p u r p o s e s , t o o l an d d ie m a k e r s
in t o o l a n d d ie j o b b i n g s h o p s a r e e x c l u d e d f r o m t h is c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .

M ateria l

M ovem ent

J A N IT O R ,

PORTER,

OR C LE A N E R

(S w e e p e r ; c h a r w o m a n ; j a n i t r e s s )
P e r f o r m s r o u t in e p o l i c e d u t i e s , e i t h e r a t f i x e d p o s t o r o n
t o u r , m a in t a in in g o r d e r , u s in g a r m s o r f o r c e w h e r e n e c e s s a r y .
In ­
c l u d e s g a t e m e n w h o a r e s t a t io n e d a t g a t e a n d c h e c k o n i d e n t i t y o f
e m p lo y e e s and o th e r p e r s o n s e n t e r in g .




C le a n s a n d k e e p s in a n o r d e r l y c o n d i t i o n f a c t o r y w o r k i n g a r e a s
and w a s h r o o m s , o r p r e m is e s o f an o f f ic e , a p a rtm e n t h o u s e , o r c o m ­
m e r c i a l o r o t h e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t . D u t ie s i n v o l v e a c o m b i n a t i o n o f th e

23
J A N IT O R ,

PORTER,

OR CLEAN ER

-

C o n tin u e d

S H IP P IN G A N D R E C E IV IN G

f o l l o w i n g : S w e e p i n g , m o p p i n g ja r s c r u b b i n g , a n d p o li s h in g f l o o r s ; r e ­
m o v i n g c h i p s , t r a s h , a n d o t h e r r e f u s e ; d u s t in g e q u ip m e n t , f u r n i t u r e ,
o r f ix t u r e s ; p o lis h in g m e t a l fix t u r e s o r t r im m in g s ; p r o v id in g s u p p lie s
a n d m i n o r m a i n t e n a n c e s e r v i c e s ; c le a n in g l a v a t o r i e s , s h o w e r s , a n d
r e s t r o o m s . W o r k e r s w h o s p e c i a l i z e in w in d o w w a s h in g a r e e x c l u d e d .
LABORER,

CLERK

C o n t in u e d

M a y d i r e c t o r a s s i s t in p r e p a r i n g
th e m e r c h a n d i s e f o r s h ip m e n t .
R e c e iv in g w o rk in v o lv e s :
V e r i f y i n g o r d i r e c t i n g o t h e r s in v e r i f y i n g
th e c o r r e c t n e s s o f s h ip m e n t s a g a i n s t b i l l s o f l a d i n g , i n v o i c e s , o r o t h e r
r e c o r d s ; c h e c k i n g f o r s h o r t a g e s a n d r e j e c t i n g d a m a g e d g o o d s ; r o u t in g
m e r c h a n d i s e o r m a t e r i a l s t o p r o p e r d e p a r t m e n t s ; m a in t a in in g n e c e s ­
s a r y r e c o r d s and f ile s .

M A T E R I A L H A N D L IN G
F o r w a g e stu d y p u r p o s e s ,

(L o a d e r an d
stock m a n o r

u n lo a d e r ; h a n d le r and s t a c k e r ;
s t o c k h e lp e r ; w a re h o u se m a n o r

s h e lv e r ; tr u c k e r ;
w a r e h o u se h e lp e r )

A w o r k e r e m p l o y e d in a w a r e h o u s e , m a n u f a c t u r in g p la n t ,
s t o r e , o r o t h e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t w h o s e d u t ie s in v o l v e o n e o r m o r e o f
th e f o l l o w i n g : L o a d in g a n d u n lo a d in g v a r i o u s m a t e r i a l s a n d m e r c h a n ­
d is e o n o r f r o m f r e ig h t c a r s , t r u c k s , o r o th e r tr a n s p o r t in g d e v ic e s ;
u n p a c k i n g , s h e l v i n g , o r p l a c i n g m a t e r i a l s o r m e r c h a n d i s e in p r o p e r
s t o r a g e lo c a t io n ; tr a n s p o r tin g m a te r ia ls o r m e r c h a n d is e b y hand tr u c k ,
c a r , o r w h e e l b a r r o w . L o n g s h o r e m e n , w h o lo a d a n d u n lo a d s h ip s a r e
e x c lu d e d .
O R D E R F IL L E R
(O rd e r p ic k e r ;

s to ck s e le c to r ; w areh ou se

stock m a n )

F i l l s s h ip p in g o r t r a n s f e r o r d e r s f o r f i n i s h e d g o o d s f r o m s t o r e d
m e r c h a n d i s e in a c c o r d a n c e w it h s p e c i f i c a t i o n s o n s a l e s s l i p , c u s t o m e r
o r d e r s , o r o t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n s . M a y , in a d d it i o n t o f i l l i n g o r d e r s a n d
i n d i c a t i n g i t e m s f i l l e d o r o m i t t e d , k e e p r e c o r d s o f o u t g o in g o r d e r s ,
r e q u i s i t i o n a d d i t i o n a l s t o c k , o r r e p o r t s h o r t s u p p l ie s t o s u p e r v i s o r ,
and p e r f o r m o th e r r e la t e d d u tie s .
PACKER,

-

P r e p a r e s m e r c h a n d i s e f o r s h ip m e n t , o r r e c e i v e s a n d i s r e ­
s p o n s i b l e f o r i n c o m i n g s h ip m e n t s o f m e r c h a n d i s e o r o t h e r m a t e r i a l s .
S h ip p in g w o r k i n v o l v e s :
A k n o w le d g e o f s h ip p in g p r o c e d u r e s , p r a c ­
tic e s ^ r o u t e s , a v a ila b le m e a n s o f tr a n s p o r t a tio n and r a t e s ; a n d .p r e ­
p a r i n g r e c o r d s o f th e g o o d s s h i p p e d , m a k in g u p b i l l s o f l a d i n g , p o s t ­
in g w e ig h t a n d s h ip p in g c h a r g e s , a n d k e e p in g a f i l e o f s h ip p in g r e c o r d s .




as fo llo w s ;

T R U C K D R IV E R
D r i v e s a t r u c k w ith in a c i t y o r i n d u s t r i a l a r e a t o t r a n s p o r t
m a t e r i a l s , m e r c h a n d i s e , e q u ip m e n t , o r m e n b e t w e e n v a r i o u s t y p e s o f
e s t a b l i s h m e n t s s u c h a s : M a n u fa c t u r in g p l a n t s , f r e i g h t d e p o t s , w a r e ­
h o u s e s , w h o le s a le a n d r e t a i l e s t a b lis h m e n t s o r b e tw e e n r e t a il e s t a b ­
lis h m e n ts an d c u s t o m e r s 1 h o u s e s o r p la c e s o f b u s in e s s .
M ay a ls o
l o a d o r u n lo a d t r u c k w it h o r w it h o u t h e l p e r s , m a k e m i n o r m e c h a n i c a l
r e p a i r s , a n d k e e p t r u c k in g o o d w o r k i n g o r d e r .
D r iv e r -s a le s m e n and
o v e r - t h e - r o a d d r iv e r s a r e e x c lu d e d .
F o r w a g e stu d y p u r p o s e s , tr u c k d r iv e r s a r e c la s s ifie d b y s iz e
a n d t y p e o f e q u ip m e n t , a s f o l l o w s :
( T r a c t o r - t r a i l e r s h o u ld b e r a t e d o n
th e b a s i s o f t r a i l e r c a p a c i t y ) .
T r u c k d r iv e r ,

CLERK

c la s s ifie d

R e c e iv in g c le r k

1V2 t o n s )

lig h t (u n d e r

Truckdriver, medium ( 1 V2 to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
T r u c k d riv e r ,
TRUCKER,

heavy

(o v e r 4 to n s,

o t h e r th a n t r a i l e r t y p e )

POW ER

O p e ra te s a m a n u a lly -c o n tr o lle d g a s o lin e - o r e le c t r ic -p o w e r e d
t r u c k o r t r a c t o r t o t r a n s p o r t g o o d s a n d m a t e r i a l s o f a l l k in d s a b o u t
a w a r e h o u s e , m a n u f a c t u r i n g p la n t , o r o t h e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t .

tru ck ,

F o r w a g e stu d y
a s fo llo w s :
T ru ck er,

S H IP P IN G A N D R E C E IV IN G

are

Shipping c l e r i c
Shipping and receiving clerk

S H IP P IN G

P r e p a r e s f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t s f o r s h ip m e n t o r s t o r a g e b y p l a c i n g
t h e m in s h ip p in g c o n t a i n e r s , th e s p e c i f i c o p e r a t i o n s p e r f o r m e d b e i n g
d e p e n d e n t u p o n th e t y p e , s i z e , a n d n u m b e r o f u n it s t o b e p a c k e d , th e
t y p e o f c o n t a i n e r e m p l o y e d , a n d m e t h o d o f s h ip m e n t . W o r k r e q u i r e s
th e p l a c i n g o f i t e m s in s h ip p in g c o n t a i n e r s a n d m a y i n v o l v e o n e o r
m o r e o f th e f o l l o w i n g : K n o w le d g e o f v a r i o u s i t e m s o f s t o c k in o r d e r
to v e r it y co n te n t; s e le c t io n o f a p p r o p r ia te ty p e an d s i z e o f c o n t a in e r ;
in s e r t in g e n c lo s u r e s in c o n t a in e r ; u s in g e x c e l s i o r o r o th e r m a t e r ia l to
p r e v e n t b r e a k a g e o r d a m a g e ; c l o s i n g a n d s e a l i n g c o n t a i n e r ; a p p ly i n g
l a b e l s o r e n t e r i n g id e n t i f y i n g d a ta o n c o n t a i n e r .
P a ck e rs w ho a ls o
m a k e w o d d e n b o x e s o r c r a t e s a r e e x c lu d e d .

w ork ers

pow er

p u rp oses,

w ork ers

a r e c l a s s i f i e d b y ty p e o f

(fo r k lift)

Trucker, power (other than forklift)
W ATCHM AN

M a k e s r o u n d s o f p r e m i s e s p e r i o d i c a l l y in p r o t e c t i n g p r o p e r t y
a g a in s t f i r e , th e ft, a n d ill e g a l e n tr y .
☆

U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1955

O—

327023


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102