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Occupational Wage Survey
BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS
March l95l

Bulletin No. 1033

U N I T E D S T A T E S D E P A R T M E N T OF L A B O R
M A U R I C E J. T O B I N , S E C R E T A R Y




Bureau of Labor S t a t i s t i c s
Ewan C l a g u e , C om m iss ioner
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office
Washington 25, 1). C. - Price 40 cents




Contents

P^
a
number

INTRODUCTION....................................................................

1

THE BOSTOIf METROPOLITAN AREA ....................................................
Labor and Industry in the Boston A r e a ........................................

1
1

OCCUPATIONAL WAGE STRUCTURE .....................................................
Cross-Industry Occupations ............. .......... .............. ...........
Office clerical, occupations
.... .... ................... .
Professional and technical occupations ....................................
Maintenance and power plant occupations .................... .......... .
Custodial, warehousing, and shipping occupations ..... ..... ...............
Characteristic Industry Occupations ...........................
Straight-time average earnings .......... ..................... ...........
Union wage s c ales.... ........................... ................... .
Minimum entrance rates .............. .................... ....................

1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3

SUPPLEMENTARY WAGE PRACTICES ....................................................

I
f

h

TABLES:
Average earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis 1. Office occupations .............................................. .
2.

Professional and technical occupations......... ...................... .

3. Maintenance and pcwer plant occupations
..... .....................
I . Custodial, warehousing, and shipping occupations
f
.......... ...... .
Average earnings far selected occupations studied on an Industry basis 5. Men's and boys' suits and coats ............. ...... ................. .
6. Women's and misses’ dresses ............. ................ ...............
7. Paints and varnishes ...........
8. Machinery industries.... ................................... ........ .
9. Power laundries ................................................. ..... .
10. Auto repair shops .................................................. .
Union wage scales for selected occupations 11. Bakeries ......... .......... ................ ..................... ......
12. Building construction............. ......... ............. ......... .
13. Hotels ..................................................................
I f. Local transit operating employees ................................. ......
l
15. Malt liquors .................. .......... ........... ...... ............
16 . Motortruck drivers and helpers ................... .......... ............
17. Office building service ................... ...... ...................... .
18. Printing..... ............................. ................. ...........
19. Sea food processing .............. ........ ................ .............
20. Structural and ornamental iron workers ................... ...............
21. Stevedoring .............
Entrance rates 22. Minimum entrance rates for plant workers ................... ......... .
Wage practices 2 3 . Shift differential provisions .............. ..................... .......
2lf. Scheduled weekly hours ................................. ......... .......
2 5 . Paid holidays ...........................................................
26. Paid vacationer .............. ............ ....... ........ ...............
2 7 . Paid sick Leave ......... ....................... .......... ......... .
28. Nonproduction bonuses ...... ............. ............... ....... ........
2 9 . Insurance and pension plans ................................. ............

5
11

12
1?
18
20
20
21
22
22
23
23
23
23
2k

2I
f
2k

2I
f
25
25
25
25
25
26

26
27
28
29
29

APPENDIX:
A. Scope and method of survey ................... ....................... .
B. Descriptions of occupations studied................... .

31

I N D E X ............................................... ...........................

I5
f

30

In tr o d u c tio n ^
The Boston area is one of several important industrial centers in which the Bureau
of Labor Statistics conducted occupational wage surveys during early 1951* 2/
Occupations
that are common to a variety, of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries were studied on
a community-wide basis.
Cross-industry methods of sampling were thus utilized in compiling
earnings data for the following types of occupations:
(a) office clerical; (b) professional
and technical; (c) maintenance and power plant; (d) custodial, warehousing, and shipping.
In
presenting earnings information for such jobs (tables 1 through 4) separate data have been
provided wherever possible for individual broad industry divisions.
Occupations that are characteristic of particular, important, local industries have
been studied as heretofore on an industry basis, within the framework of the community survey. 2 /
Although only a limited amount of such data was compiled in the present survey,
greater detail will be provided for in future studies.
Union scales are presented in lieu of
(or supplementing) occupational earnings for several industries or trades in which the great
majority of the workers are employed under terms of collective bargaining agreements, and the
contract or minimum rates are indicative of prevailing pay practice. Data have also been col­
lected and summarized on shift operations and differentials, hours of work, and supplementary
benefits such as vacation and sick leave allowances, paid holidays, nonproduction bonuses,
and insurance and pension plans.

Boston*s position as the largest city and leading seaport and trading area in New
England is reflected in the heavy concentration of employment in trade.
About 165,000 sales
and related distribution workers were employed in retail trade and 66,000 were employed in
wholesale trade.
Nearly as many (60,000) were employed in the finance, insurance, and real
estate industries. A labor force of 60,000 was required by the transportation, communication,
and other public utilities group of industries exclusive of the substantial employment in the
railroad industry.
Building and construction provided employment for almost 50,000 work­
ers. y Approximately 53,000 persons were on the payrolls of the 65 cities and towns compris­
ing the area. Total government employment in the area was estimated at 105,000 in March 1951.
Among the industries and establishment-size groups surveyed by the Bureau in .March
1951, about three-fourths of the workers in nonoffice jobs were employed in establishments
having written agreements with labor organizations. The proportion of such workers covered by
union contract provisions ranged from a third in the service industries to virtually complete
coverage in the transportation, communication, and other public utilities division. About
five-sixths of the plant workers in manufacturing were employed under terms of union agree­
ments covering these workers. One in 10 office workers was employed by a firm having a labormanagement agreement covering office workers. The proportion of office workers covered by
agreements was highest (1 in 4) in manufacturing and wholesale trade.

O c c u p a t io n a l

W age

S tr u c tu r e

T h e B o s to n M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a
The Boston Metropolitan Are a (Suffolk County and part of Essex, Middlesex, Norfolk,
and Plymouth Counties) had more than 2,350,000 inhabitants in 1950. A third of them were con­
centrated in Boston, with th$ remainder distributed among the other 64 cities and towns com­
prising the metropolitan area.
Labor and Industry in the Boston Area
Wage and salary nonagricultural employment (excluding government) in the 53,000 es­
tablishments in the area totaled 780,000 in early 1951.
Approximately 5,S00 manufacturing
plants provided employment for about 304,000 persons with fully a third of these in the metal­
working industries. The leather and leather products industries employed 30,000 and an equal­
ly large labor force was required in the food products industries* Apparel manufacture and
the printing and publishing industries employed 27,000 and 23 ,000• respectively.

l / Prepared in the Bureau*s Division of Wage Statistics by Bernard J. Fahres, Regional
Wage Analyst, Region I, Boston, Mass.
The planning and central direction of the program was
the responsibility of Toivo'P. Kanninen and Louis E. Badenhoop under the general supervision
of Harry Ober, Chief of the Branch of Industry Wage Studies.
2/ Other areas studied are: Atlanta, Chicago, Denver, New York, and S a n Francisco-Oakland.
Similar studies were conducted in 1950 in Buffalo, Denver, Philadelphia, and San FranciscoOakland.
2 / See Appendix A for discussion of scope and method of survey.




The survey was conducted during the relatively unsettled period immediately follow­
ing the issuance of a series of wage stabilization regulations by the then newly established
Wage Stabilization Board.
Some Boston area establishments negotiated wage increases during
this period, but their application was in many cases contingent upon WSB approval.
Between
the date of the Korean outbreak and the January 26 wage f freeze11, general wage increases were
t
widespread and gained momentum as the threat of a freeze order became increasingly more real.
Earlier in 1950 the majority of labo^management agreements were concluded without wage i n ­
creases or with nominal increases of 5 cents or less an hour.
However, many of these con­
tracts as well as many agreements reached later in the year provided other benefits ranging
from an additional paid holiday or increase in shift premium to a comprehensive welfare plan.
During the period January 1950 to January 1951, a majority of the manufacturing workers re­
ceived wage or salary boosts equivalent to 10 or more cents an hour. General increases were
not as prevalent in the nonmanufacturing industries and tended to be somewhat smaller in
amount.
A large proportion of the Boston area firms had written or otherwise generally rec­
ognized rate structures.
About 85 percent of the plant workers and nearly 70 percent of the
office workers were employed in firms having such formalized plans. Plans providing a single
rate for each job were more prevalent for plant workers, whereas office workers typically
worked under plans providing a range of rates within the same occupational classification.
Formal rate structures existed to a lesser extent in wholesale and retail trade establishments
than in manufacturing or in the transportation, communication, and public utilities group.

Lj

More than 14,000 dwelling units were started in the area during 1950

2.

In th^ discussion of wages which follows, two main occupational groupings are dis­
tinguished: (1) cross-industiy occupations, such as office clerical occupations; professional
and technical occupations; maintenance occupations; and custodial, warehousing, and shipping
occupations; and (2) characteristic industry occupations*
The first group of occupations was
studied on a cross-industry basis from employer payroll records. These occupations are usual­
ly found in all or a number of industries. In general, the characteristic industry occupa­
tions are peculiar to a specific industry. As indicated below, straight-time average rates or
earnings are shown for some industries; union scales are shown for others.
Cross-Industry Occupations
Office clerical occupations— Average salaries of women in the 26 office classifica­
tions studied ranged from $33.50 to' $53 a week
(table 1). However, in 13 of these occupa­
tions, accounting for half of the women office workers studied, weekly averages were grouped
at the $40.50 - $43 level. The highest paid groups were secretaries and hand bookkeepers with
average salaries of $53 and $52.50, respectively. At the lower extreme were routine (class B)
file cleiks earning $34*50 and office girls with a $33*50 weekly average.
Among the numeri­
cally important groups employed in Boston offices, routine typists averaged $36.50 weekly,
general stenographers received $43, and accounting clerks $41*50. In almost all jobs the av­
erage salaries of women were higher in manufacturing than in nonmanufacturing establishments.
Weekly earnings in public utilities, however, were generally above or on a par with average
salaries in manufacturing and wholesale trade earnings were only slightly lower. Salaries of
nearly half of the women office workers ranged between $35 and $45 weekly although individual
earnings varied from under $25 to over $85 a week.
M e n were employed in sufficient numbers to permit the presentation of earnings data
in only 10 of the occupations studied. Average weekly salaries in five of these were between
$55 and $60. Accounting clerks formed the largest occupational group among them, and had a
$55 weekly average. Hand bookkeepers, averaging $68.50, had the highest earnings among men.
Office boys with an average salary of $33*50 a week were lowest. Men»s salaries also tended
to be higher in manufacturing than i h nonmanufacturing industries. A comparison of salaries
of men and women in similar jobs requiring substantial amounts of training revealed wage ad­
vantages of $7.50 to $17*50 a week for men. In the more routine office jobs, however, salary
levels were about the same* Differences in average salaries for men and women in particular
occupations generally do not reflect differences in earnings within the same establishment.
In March 1951 average salaries of. office workers were generally from 5 to 10 pelu­
cent above the levels existing in January 1950, the date of a previous office worker salary
survey by the Bureau.
Professional and technical o c cupations-Draftsmen were numerically important among
professional and technical workers employed in Boston industries, and averaged $81.50 a week
(table 2).
This level was midpoint between the $108*50 recorded for chief draftsmen and the
$54 averaged by junior draftsmen. Industrial nurses (registered) averaged $57*50 a week.
Maintenance and power plant occupations— Electriciansf machinists, and millwrights
composed the highest paid occupational groups among skilled maintenance jobs studied. They
averaged $1*76, $1.75, and $1*73 an hour, respectively (table 3)* Trade helpers, the largest
maintenance group surveyed, averaged $1.40. General utility maintenance men, employed in es­
tablishments where craft specialization is impractical, averaged $1.46 an hour. Stationary
engineers and boiler firemen in power plants had average earnings of $1.68 and $1.51 an hour.




Oilers were paid $1.39 an hour on an all-industry basis.
In general, maintenance and power
plant workers * earnings tended to be higher in manufacturing industries than in nonmanufac­
turing, and within the former group, higher in nondurable than in durable— goods establish­
ments.
Custodial, warehousing, and shipping occupations— Stock handlers and hand truckers
employed in Boston area factories, warehouses, and stores had average earnings of $1.30 an
hour in both manufacturing and nonmanufacturing establishments (table 4) • Order fillers and
packers, averaging $1.26 and $1.20, respectively, on an all-industry basis, generally were
paid more in manufacturing plants than in nonmanufacturing. Workers classified as shipping
clerks had average earnings of $1*35 an hour and receiving clerks earned $1.23* Clerks em­
ployed by firms in which shipping and receiving duties are combined averaged $1.32. Drivers
of heavy trailer-type trucks averaged $1.68, the highest pay level for any of the truck driver
classes studied.
M e n janitors, porters and cleaners averaged $1.09 an hour, $1.18 in manufacturing
and $1.02 in nonmanufacturing. Within the latter group average wages ranged from 82 cents an
hour in the service industries to $1.26 in public utilities.
Women performing janitorial
duties averaged 93 cents in all industries combined.
The general average for watchmen was
$1.14- an hour, and guards received an hourly average of $1.25.
Characteristic Industry Occupations
Straight-time average earnings
Following the practice for the cross-industry occupations previously discussed, the
wage or salary information for the following six industries reflects straight-time earnings
derived from employer payroll records.
Men*s and boys * suits and coats— In March 1951, women sewing-machine operators em­
ployed in the men*s suit and coat industry in Boston averaged $1.39 an hour performing sewing
operations on coats and $1.53 on trousers. M e n operators averaged $1.88 an hour on coats and
$1.78 on trousers.
Within these broad classifications, average hourly earnings of operators
varied according to sewing operations performed (table 5)* Highest paid among all jobs stud­
ied were men cutters and finish pressers (pressing trousers) with hourly averages of $2.36
and $2.26, respectively. Lowest paid were women fitters averaging 96 cents an hour.
W o m e n s and misses* dresses— Earaings data reported in table 6 for the dress indus­
try are based on August 19^0 payrolls. Women sewing-machine operators employed on the single­
hand (tailor) system formed the largest occupational group studied, and averaged $1.56 an
hour.
Women operators on the section system had average earnings of $1.20 an hour. Average
hourly earnings for all jobs studied ranged from 78 cents for women thread trimmers to $3*39
for men hand pressers.
Women hand sewers, also a numerically important group received $1.19
an hour.
General wage increases were granted to most workers in the industry between the
survey date and M a r c h 1951. Topically * hourly workers received increases of 7 1/2 to 10 cents
an hour, incentive workers 4 percent, and cutters $5 a week.
Paints and varnishes— Average earnings for me n in the occupations studied in the
paint and varnish industry in Boston fell within a rather narrow range.
A difference of 23
cents separated the lowest paid occupation, labelers and packers, with an hourly average of
$1.37, from the highest paid groups, technicians and varnish makers, who averaged $1.60 an

3*

hour* Among other occupations studied were mixers with average earnings of $ 1 .1*2 and tinters
w ith $1.57 an hour. W o m e n lahelers and packers had average hourly earnings of $1.16 (table 7).

r a t e s of 7 5 a n d 8 1 cents,
respectively.
c o r d i n g to o c c u p a t i o n (table 1 3 ).

Machinery manufacture— Tool-and-die makers in Boston machinery industries averaged
$ 1.83 an hour
in tool-and-die
jobbing shops and $ 1.80 in other types of establishments
(table 8 ). W i t h few exceptions, tool-and-die makers were paid on a time basis. Higher earn­
ings were recorded for workers paid on an incentive basis in a number of skilled production
Jobs.
Incentive earnings of both class A grinding-machine and milling-machine operators a v ­
eraged $ 1 .91* an hour,
class A engine-lathe operators,$ 1 .87 , and class A assemblers $1.85*
Time-rated workers in these jobs averaged from 15 to 2k cents less an hour. In two jobs r e p ­
resentative of wages at the unskilled level, janitors and hand truckers, hourly earnings were
$1.11 and $1.17. The averages reported relate to earnings in January 195^* Between January
and March 1951, however, very few general wage changes occurred in the establishments studied.

Local transit operating employees— The contract covering Metropolitan Transit A u ­
thority employees operating one-man cars and busses provided for hourly wage rates ranging
from a minimum of $ 1 . * * for new employees to $ 1.7 3 for operators wit h a year of service.
**
Guards on the rapid transit lines had a $1.32 beginner’s rate and a scale of $1,615 an hour
after 1 year. Road and yard motormen on these lines had rates of $ 1.6 7 l/2 and $1.73 an hour,
respectively. A **1 l/k hour workweek at straight-time was in effect fer all workers (table 1*
*).

Power laundries— Average earnings of women workers in Boston area power laundries
were under $1 an hour for all selected jobs studied. The highest paid w o m e n ’s group, machine
shirt pressers,
averaged 93 cents, 20 cents an hour above the average received by flatwork
finishers, the lowest paid and largest group surveyed. Among jobs in which men were typical­
ly employed,
average earnings ranged from $ 1.02 an hour for extractor operators to $ 1 .1 * for
*
stationary boiler firemen. Washing-machine operators averaged $1.13 (table 9 ).
A uto repair shops--Class A auto mechanics had average hourly earnings of $1.63 an
hour in March 1951; mechanics performing simpler work
(class B) received $1.31* Automotive
electricians were the highest paid among the classifications studied and averaged $ 1.78 an
hour. Auto washers and greasers, averaging 93 cents and $1.09 a n hour, respectively, were at
the lower extreme. Workers
specializing In body repair averaged $1.76 a n hour (table 10).
U nion Wag e Scales
The Information reported fbr the following 11 industries relates to the minimum wage
rates and maximum straight-time hours per week agreed upon through collective bargaining b e ­
tween employers and trade-unions. The union scales and hours reported were those in effect
April 1, 1951.
Bakeries — Rates In machine shops ranged from $ 1,665 for working foremen to 99 cents
a n hour for w o m e n
(with less than 3 y e a r s 1 service) employed as checkers, packers, wrappers,
cutters and icers. Moldermen and m i xers’ helpers were paid from $1.38 to $1.**65 an hour.
Wages paid in Hebrew bakeries were the highest In the area with hourly- rates for foremen at
$2.20,
second hands at $2.0** and third hands at $1.88 (table 11). Wage scales reported for
the bakery industry were limited to those agreements covering substantial numbers of workers.
Building construction— Among numerically important trades in B o s t o n ’s construction
industry basic wage scales of union journeymen werej $ 2.25 for painters, $ 2,375 for carpen­
ters, $ 2,695 for plumbers and steam fitters, $ 2.75 for electricians, and $ 2,775 for bricklay­
ers (table 12). The scales for building trades'helpers and laborers were usually from 62.5
cents to about $ 1 below the journeymen’s rates.
In general,
the minimum scales reported a p ­
plied to most, but not all the cities and teams within the metropolitan area.
Hotels--Wage rates for union workers employed In hotel kitchens ranged from 7^ cents
an hour far dish wipers to $1.63 for first cooks. Bartenders at service bars averaged $1.**17
an hour;
and those employed at public bars received $1,313* Maids and housemen had hourly




W e e k l y straight-time h o u r s v a r i e d f r o m **0 t o **8 a c ­

Malt liquors— Union wage rates for experienced workers in Boston breweries varied
only slightly b y job classification
(table 15 ).
"First" men in the brewing department were
highest w i t h an hourly scale of $ 1,688 and bottlers
($1 ,625 ) were lowest paid among inside
workers. Drivers and drivers’ helpers received $1,675 and $1.60 an hour, respectively. These
rates and a scheduled **0-hour workweek were in effect in all breweries in the Boston area.
Motortruck drivers and helpers— Although union wage scales for truck drivers ranged
from $ 1.20 a n hour for department stare parcel-delivery drivers to over $2 for* newspaper and
magazine drivers, the rates for most categories were between $1.35 and $1.55 an hour. In gen­
eral, the higher scales applied to drivers operating heavy trucks or transporting heavy m a ­
terials. Hourly scales for helpers ranged from $1.18 to $1.60 but minimum scales for most of
the helper classifications were In the range $1.30 to $1.50. Although some contracts provided
for workweeks as long as **8 hours without overtime pay, the majority called for overtime rates
after **0 hours (table 16 ).
Office building service— Minimum union wage scales for office building service wor k ­
ers in Boston varied only slightly b y occupation
(table 17). Rates of $1 and $1.05 were es ­
tablished for elevator operators, porters, night cleaners (women), and matrons. Watchmen were
paid a minimum rate of $1,025 and firemen $ 1 .1 5 . Rates reported were on the basis of a **0hour straight-time workweek.
Printing— In commercial printing shops in Boston, union contracts provided for min­
imum wage scales of $2.2** an hour for hand compositors, $2.**53 for photoengravers and $1.20
a n hour for bindery women.
In newspaper publishing,
the scale for compositors was $2 .67* an
*
hour far daywork and$g.8o for night work. W e b pressmen received $2 .**8** a n hour for day work and
$ 2,898 for night w o r k
(table 18). Scheduled weekly hours after which overtime rates applied
varied by individual trades from 31 2/3 far night stereotypers to **2 far we b pressman but
37 1/2 hours a w eek predominated.
Sea food processing--The area-wide contract covering workers
in Boston’s sea food
processing plants provided for hourly scales ranging from $ 1 .1 5 an hour for wrappers and
quick-freeze packers to $ 1,563 for cutters, cutter-floormen, and wharf-floormen (table 19 ).
Scalers had an hourly rate of $1.3**.
Structural and ornamental iron workers— The fabricated structural steel and orna­
mental ironwork industries in the Boston area are highly organized wit h a single rate prevail­
ing far each occupation. Scales varied from $1.92 for working foremen to $1.30 for helpers
(table 20).
Stevedoring— Union longshoremen handling cargo in the port of Boston were paid $2
a n hour for handling general cargo. The contract also provided for premium rates which appli-

4

e& in the handling of dangerous, obnoxious, or damaged cargo. These supplemental rates ranged
from 5 cents to $ 1.90 an hour above the general cargo scale according to the type of cargo
handled (table 2 1 ).

and wholesale trade groups. The majority of plant workers in a ll Industry groups except public
utilities and wholesale trade received fewer than 10 paid holidays a year, w i t h 6 or 7 days the
most prevalent practice among the manufacturing industries. In public utilities and wholesale
trade nearly two-thirds of the plant workers had 10 or more paid holidays (table 25 ).

Minimum Entrance Rates
Paid Vacations
Established minimum entrance rates for the employment of inexperienced plant w o r k ­
ers was part of the formalized rate structure in Boston area firms employing approximately
nine-tenths of all plant workers
(table 22). About two-fifths of the plant workers were in
establishments with minimum entrance rates between 75 and 90 cents an hour, whereas a tenth
were in plants with an established minimum of $1.25 or more. No firms in manufacturing or in
the transportation, communication, and other public utilities group reported minimum entrance
rates under 75 cents an hour.
In the retail trade and services groups, however, nearly half
of the workers were employed in establishments having hourly minimum entrance rates under 75
cents.

Almost all Boston office and plant workers were employed by firms which granted paid
vacations after a year of service
(table 26). Among office workers more than nine-tenths r e ­
ceived vacations of 2 or more weeks after a yearns service. Although two-fifths of the plant
workers were eligible for 2 w e e k s 1 paid vacation after a year, the majority (55 percent) were
in plants providing a 1-week vacation. After 15 years* service, practically all plant and of­
fice workers were entitled to 2 or more weeks' vacation leave. A considerable number of w o r k ­
ers, about two out of three office and two out of five plant, were in establishments providing
paid vacations after 6 months* service.
Paid Sick Leave

S u p p le m e n ta r y

W ase

P r a c tic e s

Shift Differentials
About 10 percent of the workers in Boston area manufacturing plants were employed on
second shifts and approximately 3 percent worked on third or other late shifts (table 23 ). In
the durable goods industries all extra-shift workers received premium pay, generally in the
form of a percentage differential over first-shift rates.
In nondurable goods manufacture,
shift differential payments were usually expressed in cents per hour. The amount of shift
differential paid to the largest number of workers was 5 cents an hour on the second shift and
between 5 and 10 cents on the third shift. The amounts varied widely by industry and establish­
ment, however.
Scheduled Workweek
Over half of the women office workers
in all industries had a scheduled workweek of
less than 40 hours in March 1951 (table 24). Most of the others were
on a 40-hour schedule.
The shortest workweek applied to workers in the finance,
insurance, and real estate group in
which two-fifths of the workers were on schedules of less than 37 l/2 hours. Schedules of 40
hours or more were most common for office workers in manufacturing and wholesale trade. W o r k
schedules were seldom under 40 hours for plant workers, about one of every five were scheduled
to work more than 40 hours a week.

Formal arrangements for paid sick leave after a year of service were reported by establishments employing nearly two-fifths of the office workers. Among industry groups,
this
proportion varied from a fourth in retail trade to almost half in the transportation, communi­
cation,
and other public utilities group. Although the number of days of sick leave allowed
ranged from 5 to over 30 days a year,
a large proportion of office workers were employed in
firms having plans that provided either 10 or 12 days. Only about a tenth of the plant workers
in all industries were employed by firms having formal sick leave provisions that applied to
these workers (table 2 7 ).
Nonproduction Bonuses
The payment of nonproduction bonuses, usually in the form of a Christmas or year-end
bonus, was reported by firms employing approximately a third of the office workers and a fourth
of the plant workers. The largest proportion of plant and office workers receiving such pa y ­
ments were in wholesale trade, and bonus payments were least prevalent in transportation, c o m ­
munication, and other public utilities (table 28 ).
Insurance and Pension Plans
Insurance or pension plans financed wholly or in part by the employer were in force
in establishments employing about 9 of every 10 office and plant workers (table 29 ). The types
of insurance made available to workers varied considerably among industry groups;
generally,
establishments providing life and health insurance accounted for the
largest proportion of
workers.

Paid Holidays
Both office and plant workers
in most establishments were allowed time off with pay
on certain holidays. Among office workers, nearly four of every five received ten or more paid
holidays a year, with the most liberal provisions applying in the finance, public utilities,




Retirement pension plans were
in effect in establishments w i t h three-fifths of the
office and two-fifths of the plant worker employment. Relatively few establishments in service
industries had pension plans, whereas in public utilities nine-tenths of the office and almost
three-fourths of the plant workers were employed in establishments having such plans.

5

Table 1.— OFFICE OCCUPATIONS
(Average weekly earnings 1/ and weekly scheduled hours for selected occupations by industry division^

Sex, occupation, and industry division

ef
Number < workers receivi:ig straight-time weekly earnings of Ave rage
r
t
.
f
t
f
t
4
4
4
4
4
4
0
5
?
$
4
0
$
4
v
P
$
&
Number
Under 2 5 . 0 0 27.50 3 0 . 0 0 32.50 35.00 37.50 4 0 . 0 0 4 2 . 5 0 45.00 47.50 k o o 52.50 55.00 57.50 6 0 . 0 0 6 2 . 5 0 65.00 67.50 70.00 72.50 75.00 30.00 8 5 . 0 0
Weekly
Weekly f
of
t
and
scheduled
and
workers
earnings
under
2 5 .0 0
hours
over
50.00 5 2 .5 c 55 . 0 0 57.50 6 0 . 0 0 62.50 6 5 . 0 0 67.50 70.00 72.50 32*00 80.00 35.00
27.50 30.00 32.50 3 5 . 0 0 37.50 40.00 42.50 45.00 47.50

Men
Bookkeepers, hand ............................
Manufacturing 2 / ..........................
Durable goods ........... ..............
No manufacturing 2/ .......... ......... .
Wholesale trade ..................... .
Retail trade ......................... . •
F i n a n c e * * ................. .............
Services ........................... .

312
50

39.5
39.5

1 2

4 0 .0

2 6 2

36
33
91
37

863.50
71.00
72.50

5

39.5
39.0

6 8 .0 0

4 0 .0

6 1 .5 0

33.0

72.00

4 1 .0

6 6 .5 0

«
•

6 6 .0 0

Bookkeepins-machine operators, class A .......

33

39.0

57.00

Bookkseping-machine operators, class B .......

39

39.0

55.00
59.50
58.50
6 1 .0 0

3 8 .0

50.50

-

_

-

-

-

—
3

i

Clerks, accounting ...........................
Manufacturing ....... ........... ..........
Durable goods ... ........................
Nondurable goods ................... ....
Nonmanufacturing 2/ .......................
Public u t i l i t i e s * ................... .
Wholesale trade ......... ..............
Finance** ..............................
Clerks, general ..............................
Manufacturing ................... ..........
Durable goods ................. .........
Nondurable goods .......................
Nonraanufacturing 2/ .......................
Wholesale trade ........................

9 6 2

219
145
74
743
35
293
319

5 6 .0 0

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

6 5 .0 0

40.5
39.5
40.0

6 9 .0 0

4 1 .0

74.00

39.0
37.5
37.0

58.50
56.50
57.50
55.50
59.00
59.50

-

-

-

-

3
3
5
-

1 2

5
5
7
3
4

-

28
33
277
239

39.5
39.5

Clerks, payroll ...............................
Manufacturing ........................... .
Durable goods •• ................. ......
Nondurable goods ................... .
Nonmanufacturing
.......................
Public utilities* ......................

1 3 2

4 0 .0

6 1

85
19

66

3 8 .0

4 0 .0
4 1 .0

63.50
6 2 .5 0

59.50
61.00
0
6 3 . 0 .
60.50

-*
-

_
2

2 1
1

-

-

-

-

■-

-

-

-

-

-

1

1 2

1

1 2

1

_
-

-

1

5 6 .0 0

-

63.00

-

47
14

39.5
39.5
37.5

87
84

39.0
39.0

4 1 .0 0

-

2 2

4 1 .0

43.50

-

_
-

.43

37.5

4 0 .0 0

-

-

41.00

-

-

1

-

24

_

_

_

1 1

36

30

67

53

2 6

2

-

6

8

6

6

4

2

2

2

24
3
5

59
3
17
34

11

-

1

3
3

2 2

1

-

1

1

-

2

1

-

_
-

_
-

44
1

25
18

2

91
7
4
3
84
5
23
51

17
5

1

1

13
1

1

97
25
19

2

6

95
57
38

72

17
5
58

1

8

80
2 2

31
37

48

1 1

17

1

1 2

20

1

4
30
5
19
3

43
2

29
1 1

-

1

2

1

2

2

-

-

-

15
-

17
3
3
14
-

31

1 1

13
4
4
9
9

1 0

1 0

-

-

-

27

19
3

1

2

27
4
3

5

1

1

6

1 1

5

2

1 0

4

23
17

2 0

6

13

2 0

-

3
3
3
-

22

1 6

13

1 6

1 0

1

6

1

1

2

-

-

-

2

6

3
3
25
25

2 1

-

3

1

2 0

23
23
-

13
13

-

3
3

2

1

2

5
5

-

1 0

-

2

2

-

1 0

1

-

—

3

23

3
2
1
1 0
1

1

6
1

19

1 8

1

2

15

15

1

1

«
.

_

4
5
6

-

48
29
9
2 0

19
14
5
___ 2 0
9

-

8

1

1

5
5

1

1

14 ___ 4 1
2
43
14
1 0
13
14
1 6
-

1

2 2

18

2 1

1

2 1

1

1 0

1

17

-

1

8

3

1

9
3

5
3
45
45

2

-

2
1
1 0

2 8

7
4
3
2 1

14
6

4
2
8

1
1

1

___ 4 4 ___ 39_ ___ 2 4
2 1
7
3
1
2
3
36
27
23
2
3
4
2
3
15
14
7
15
15
-

40
8

7

18
17
9

6
1

2

5
3
2

1 0

8
1

23

1

1

-

2 2

19 ___ 1 4 ____ 1
6
3
14
3
9
3
5
3
13
—
■
“
*
“

1 2

3

2 2

____ 2 .
3
2
1
3
19
19
—
3

1 6

-

-

5
3
2

7
7
18
2

2

1 6

1 6

1 6

1 6

8

1

1

6

8

1

1

1

4
4

18

1

1 2

4

2

1

1

1

-

4

1

-

-

1

-

1

-

1 1

4

2

1

6

2

6

-

-

-

1

1

6

-

_

2

—

—

—

-

-

_

See footnotes at end of table.
*
Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
#* Finance, insurance, and real estate.




1
1 1

2

7
15

4
4
-

2

-

___ 1

1
2

2

2

1 1

2

1 1

_
___ 1 Z
13

3
1 0

18
18
1 8

6

6
1

5
-

—

4
3
-

-

-

-

'

~

_

2

-

-

-

-

"

-

-

.

1 1

1

32
4
2 2

1

8
6

3

-

1

31 ____ % ___ 1

1 0

2

-

_

70 ___ 6 1 ___ 3Q_
8
1 1
33
6
30
5
6
2
3
37
57
19
18
1 1
14
6
S
3
5
13
29

21

___ 51 ___ 1

_
-

33

2

1

2 0

1

35
5

2

-

2 2

5
5
17

2

47
4
3

1

3

_ ___ 31
-

1

2

-

_

2

1

6

3

1

1 1

3

-

18

2

2 1

2 1

98
3

2

-

2

-

3
-

_

1

1

1

-

-

4

5
9

_

1

-

2 0

1

2

2

4
-

4
-

5
5
-

2 8

-

1

1

63.50

74
55
19
127
35
338

Duplicating-machine operators 2/ .............
Nonraanufacturing 2 / .......................
Retail trade ...........................
Finance** ...............................

5 8 .0 0

2 0 1

Clerks, order ...................... ..........
Manufacturing ............... ......... .
Durable g o o d s ...........................
Nondurable goods .......................
Nonmanufacturing 2 / .......................
Wholesale trade ........................

2J

53.50

8

-

-

_

41.00

39.0
38.5
38.5
39.0
39.0
37.5
39.5

-

"

'

—
_

Occupational Wage Survey, Boston, Mass., March 1951
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

6
Table 1.— OFFICE OCCUPATIONS - Continued
(Average weekly earnings 1/ and weekly scheduled hours for selected occupations by industry division)

jarniniRS of Number < worltors receiving straight-iime weekly <
>f
&
$
$
$
t
$
%
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Number
Under 25.00 27.50 30.00 32.50 35.00 3 7 .5 0 40.00 42.50 4*5.00 47.50 50.00 52.50 55.00 57.50 60.00 62.50 65.00 67.50 70.00 72.50 75.00 80.00 85.00
Weekly
Weekly
of
and
scheduled
and
earnings
workers
25.00 under
hours
over
27.50 30.00 32.50 35.00 37.50 40.00 42.50 45.00 47.50 50.00 52.50 55too i 7 ^ 0 60.00 62.50 65.00 6Z*5° 70.00 72.50 75.00 80.00 85.00
Ave*rage

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Men - Continued

1A

Nbndur«hla goods .......................
TJnnmnmrPflftt.irrln g .................... .
Public utilities* ............ ........
Wholesale trad© ........................

Tabulating-maehine operators ................
Mamifacturing ............... ..... ......
Durable goods ........................ .
NondimaKla goods ....... ........ .
WnnrnAnnf'actirrHng
...... ........... .
Wholesale trade ................ .
Retail trade ........ ........ ....... .
Finance*# ............. ......... .

39.0
39.0
39.0
39.5
39.0
39.5
39.5
qa n

299
1Q/
J-74

Office b o y s ....... .................. ......
MftmifAntirH n g .......... .................

37.5
/n n

35.00
33.00
34.50
35.50
qo
33.00
71 on

216
28
16
12
188
85
12
69

39.0
39.5
39.0
39.5
39.0
40.0
38.5
37.5

$33.50
35.00
q/

718
288
72
216
430
34
200
81
VA

39.0
38.5
38.0
39.0
39.0
40.0
39.0
37.5
qa

41.00
42.00
40.50
42.50
40.00
44.00
40.50
37.00
40.00

269
48
25
221
31
92
Ot
40

39.0
39.0
39.5
39.0
38.5
39.0
/A n

41.50
44.50
42.00
41.00
48.50
39.50
41.00

1.000
302
158
144
698
44
146
121
88
299

38.0
38.5
39.0
38.5
38.0
38.5
39.0
38.5
36.5
38.0

•
•

55.50
54.00
51.00
58.50
55.50
67.00
50.00
a . 50

52.50
53.50
53.00
53.50
52.50
55.00
55.00
51.00
48.00
52.50

9X3
138
43
145
730
53
136

_
_
_

38
3
q

57
1
i

35

56

2

16
2
0).

qq
77

_

A

8

18
1
1

8

107
19
4
15
88
11
11
j/.
LJ
/I
11

136
31
ia
J.
-7
18
105
6
20
Q

«
■
»
1

6
36
5

14
3
2
1
11

8
4

11

42
6

3

3

5
1

9

_
_

10

_

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

_
_

L

4

10

_

_

10

*

6
3
2
1
3

6
3
3

_
2

3

29
4
3
1
25
17
2
_

22
5
5

12
5
1
4
7

5
5
2
3

7

_

5

10

19 ____1
3
3
16
5
1
3
7
6

1

11

9
8

1
1

11
11

1

114
57
47
10
57
4
16
5
2
30

67
9
4
5
58

9
3
6

,

_

-

13
A7
18
10
4
4

17

33
2
1
1
31

3

1
4

2
6

1
16

2
29

3

4

1

111
79
25
54
32

155
92
8
84
63
3
35
1
1/

73
12
6
6
61
8
12
24
17

41
22
3
19
19

50
29
6
23
21

_

1
_

A

4

1

67

4

55
346
23
56
2i
ia *
m

82
52
2
50
30
5
3
i
18

4

415
69
1/

6
5

3

20
1
1
19
13

ll
l

7
_

6
1

l
10
6
1
3

_

1
5
5

_

12
6
2
4
6
5

_

_

11

11
5

7
5

»

___14 ____2 j____5
1
_
_
1
7
5
13
12
7
5
1
_
_
_
_

Women
filler a r mifthinfi (billing machine) ..... .....
Manufacturing ...................... .
Durable goods ................. ..... .
Nondurable goods ....... .
Nonmanufacturing 2 f .......................
Public utilities* .....................
Wholesale trade ,......... ....... .
Retail t r a d e .... .................... .

Billers, machine (bookkeeping machine) .......
Manufacturing 2 / ..........................
MonraamyTn .turn ng 2/
o
.............. .......
Wholesale trade ........................
aa a

Bookkeepers, hand ................... .......
Manufacturing ........ ............... .
Durable goods ... ...... ...............
Nondurable goods .......................
Nbnmamifacturing .........................
Public utilities*...... ..............
Wholesale trade ................ ......
Retail trade
...................
Finance**
..... ........... .
Services........ .

2

_

7

38

46
4
3
1
42

2

2
4
X

10
13
l/

22
10
/

127
21
10
11
106
11
55
20
2

2
_

14

28

22

48
20

67
12
2

18
4
/
*
¥

22

_

3
1

2

14

28

22

22

2

in
XU

a
O

1/
8

55
5
23

14

2

28
10
A
O
in
XU

8

12

16

27
3
3

56
5

16

24

2
_
_

_

•
•

See footnotes at end of table.
*
Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
** Finance, insurance, and real estate.




7

41
3
3

_
_

_
_

21
7

5
51

44
12
6
6
32

10
14

12
16
23

13
19

_

_
_

_
_
_

—
_
_
_

*

_

_

_
_

_
-

_
_

_

_

q

2

_

16

16

17
12
5

5 ___2L
_
11
_
.
.
11
10
5

161
54
40
14
107
6
12
7
22
60

64
14
2
12
50

7
3
40

188
87
24
63
101
11
44
13
8
25

75
10
10
65
6
16
12
1
30

28
19
11

_

_
_
_

53 ___ 15.
16
3
6
3
10
12
37
10
6
5
_
9
1
2
11
5

37 ___11 ___19.
14
3
3
34
1
16

15

___31 _ 11 ____3_
_
10
2
3
«
.
10
3
2
21
13

14
5

_

_

21

5
17

15

_

_
-

_

_

_

_
_

13

7

Table 1.— OFFICE OCCUPATIONS - Continued
(Average weekly earnings 1/ and weekly scheduled hours for selected occupations by industry division)

Nuniber 0: workers receiving; straight-time weekly earning 3 of ?
*
$
*
$
$
$
1
$
$
5
$
5
$
$
$
$
$
i
1
$
$
1
&
*
Under 25.00 27.50 30.00 32.50 35.00 37.5 0 40.00 42.50 45.00 4 7.5 0 50.00 52.50 55.00 57.50 60.00 62.50 65.00 67.50 70.00 72 .5 0 75.00 80.00
Weekly
85.00
of
and
snhednled Weekly $
and
workers
earnings
hours
25.00 under
over
27.50 30.00 ?2 ,5 0 35tOO 37.50 40.00 42.50 45t°o 47.50 50.00 52,50 55.00 57.50 60.00 62,50 65.00 67.50 70.00 72,50 75.00 80.00 85.00
Aver age

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Women - Continued
Bookkeeping-machine operators, class A ........
Manufacturing ............................
Purabi« goods
itttttti t * t.t.it.
Nondurable goods .....................
Nonmanufacturing 2/ ......................

180
82
36
46
98
16
41
10

39.0
38.0
38.5
37.5
39.5
to ^
40 5
39 5

549.50
51.00
49 50
52.00
48.50

2,073
266
74
192
1,807
430
259
1,020
78

38.5
38.5
37.0
39.5
38.5
39.0
39 v
✓7 •0
'
38.0
V) 5

40.50
44.00
44.50
43.50
40.00
44.00
38.00
38.50
40.50

Calculating-machine operators (Comptometer
type) .....................................
Manufacturing........ ......................
Durable goods .........................
Nondurable goods .......................
Nonmanufacturing 2 / .......................................................................
Wholesale trade .........................................................................
Retail trade ............................................................................ ...
Finance** ...........................................................................................
Services ..............................................................................................

1.553
385
123
262
1,168
418
473
138
39

38.5
39.0
40.0
38.5
38.5
39.0
38.0
38.0
40.5

42.00
47.00
40.00
41.50
46.00
37.50
39.00
40.00

Calculating-machine operators (other than
Comptometer type) ................................................................ ...
Manufacturing 2/. . . - . T T . 1 . T . T - . T T - T t t T I T T t T ,
.
Durable goods ........... T--TTTt.TtT,tT,
Nonmanufacturing 2J TT..,.T,...,T.rtT.rTtTrt
Finance** ..,.TT.T,TTTtTt,T,

204
50
40
154
52

38.5
37.5
3 7 .5
38.5
38.0

3.509
583
320
263
2,926
362
640
336
1,261
327

38.5
39.5
39.5
39.5
38.5
39.0
39.0
38.5
38.0
39.0

41.50
46.00
47.50
44.50
41.00
48.00
41.50
39.00
39.00
40.00

Bookkeeping-machine operators, class B .......
Manufacturing............................
Durable goods .........................
Nondurable goods .......... ............
Nonmanufacturing 2/ ......................
Wholesale t r a d e .......................
Ra +a 11
.
t , t
•
Finance** ....................... ......
S flTM ri O A S

, , , , ,

-

_

-

-

-

-

_

38.50
42.00
42.00
37.00
36.50

Clerks, accounting ..........................
Manufacturing ............................
Durable goods ..........................
Nondurable goods ......................................................................
Nonmanufacturing ............................................................. ...
Public utilities* ....................................................................
Wholesale trade .......................
Retail trade ............. .............
Finance** .............................
Services ..............................

_

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

13
6

26
5

-

*
-

6
7

5
21

__

q
7

49 oo
46 50

35
12
12
23
2
3
3

24 ___30
22
17
4
16
1
18
8
7
7
1
2

8 ____3
_
2
3

12
10

21

2
6
2
/

3
-

10
2
2

_
-

8
8
7

26
25
25

4

_

18

139
13
2
11
126
12
1K
97

344
46
1
45
298
64
200
27

331
7
6
1
324
52
50
212

550
45
9
36
505
167
87
230
18

191
29
13
16
162
73
18
68
3

175
54
34
20
121
48

64
33
2
31
31
7

59
12
7
5
47
28

13
11

9
9
8

_

126
1
1
125
20
105

51
22

22
2

19

2

1

1

6

29

118

313
105

170
18

318
59
18

88
37
27
10
51
7
17
13
6

142
44
22
22
98
21
34
7
4

69
19
14

27
11
3
8
16
4
8

30
13
8
17
13
3

78
14
13
1
64
54
3

40
10
4
6
30
20

-

-

-

1

-

-

1

_

1

-

_

a . 50
-

-

-

71
3
3

-

-

-

-

-

6

29

68

-

-

-

-

-

6
-

23
6

55

-

-

-

-

_

27

16
2

8

27

1
4.

’ g
g

-

-

8
5

j

10

5

-

-

-

-

16

10

5

-

16

-

-

-

_

-•

_

-

_

12

-

-

-

5

4

10

298
3
3
-

295
9
39
66
175
6

a

1
40
77
10
43
20
-

240
21
9
12
219
-

10

a
148
20

5

-

a

5

100
208
52
116
24
9

18
152
50
78
14
2

259
120
72
40
10

36
7
7
29
19
-*7

32
Q
7
3
23
10

31
14
n
17
10

20
2
1
18

23
6
6
17

9
q
7

516
54
14
40
462
66
118
30
196
52

613
55
47
8
558
2
175
44
274
63

271
76
38
38
195
17
36
34
82
26

406
85
29
56
321
83
86
18
94
40

119
52
37
15
67
11

488
61
16
45
427
23
91
48
206
59

50
24
15
6
1

13
37
6

183
63
44
19
120
25
48
16
19
12

13

5

1/
2.
43
39
4
81
37
6
2
16
20

1

1

37
2
-

2

-

4
4

7
4
3
1
3

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

_
_
_
_
-

-

-

-

7
7
7

3
3
3

-

2
2
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

«.

22
1
1

22
1
1
21
Q
V
12

-

See footnotes at end of table.
*
Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
** Finance, insurance, and real estate.




_

_

«.

_

-

_

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

6
6
2
4

3
2
2

2
-

3
1
1

-

_

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

2
2

2
2

-

2
2

-

-

-

1
1

-

1

35

-

35

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

_

_

_

_

84
34
22
12
50
21
21

68
20
19
1
48
38
2

8
-

6
2

_

11
3
2
1
8
4
1
1

31
2

13
5

2
29
24

5
8

2
2

2
_

_

_

1
1
1

4
3

_

_

2

-

-

-

_

2

-

4
2

_

3
1

_

_

_

5

4
_

«
_

2

-

_

_

_

8

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

-

•

-

-

2

1
_

-

a,

Table 1.— OFFICE OCCUPATIONS - Continued

J
q
t
o

(Average weekly earnings 1/ and weekly scheduled hours for selected occupations by industry division)

sdght-time weekly s a m i m zs of Number >f worlcers r«jceivii
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Number
45.00 47.50 50.00 52.50 55.00 57.50 60.00 62.50 65.00 67.50 70.00 72.50 75.00 80.00 85.00
Weekly
Weekly Under 25.00 27.50 30.00 32.50 35.00 37.50 40.00 42.50
of
and
and
workers scheduled earnings $
25.00 under
hours
over
27, ?0 30.00 32.50 35.00 37.50 40.00 42.50 45,00 47,50 50.00 52.50 55.00 57.50 60.00 62.50 65.00 67.50 70.00 72.50 LUtsa 80.00 85.00
Average

%

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Women - Continued
Clerks, file, class A .......................
Manufacturing........ ............. .....
Durable goods ............ .
Nondurable goods ......................
Nonmanufacturing 2/ ......................
Wholesale trade ................... .
Finance** .............................

466
34
56
28
382
51
264

38.5
40.0
41.0
38.5
38.5
39.5
38.0

$42.00
47.50
48.00
47.50
41.00
44.00
40.50

OIat'' ,
Vr
R
............ .........
Manufacturing.......... ...... ..........
Durable goods .........................
Nondurable goods ......................
Nonmanufacturing 2 / ................. .
Public utilities* .....................
Wholesale trade ...................... .
Retail trade ..........................
Finance** .................... .... .

2,583
316
245
71
2,267
264
117
1,485

38.5
39.5
39.5
38.5
38.0
39.5
39.5
38.5
38.0

34.50
39.00
39.00
38.50
33.50
37.00
36.50
33.00
33.00

Clerks, general .......... •••••••••••••••••••
Manufacturing..... ....... ..............
Durable goods .........................
Nondurable g o o d s .................... ..
Nonmanufacturing 2 / ......................
Wholesale t r a d e ...... ...... .........
Retail trade ........... ..............
Finance** ....................... .
Services ..............................

1,572
249
183
66
1,323
121
41
538
151

39.0
39.5
40.0
38.5
38.5
39.0
38.5
38.5
40.0

47.50
52.50
53.50
50.50
46.50
45.50
40.50
46.00
39.50

Clerks• order •••.•••..... ...... ..... .....
Manufacturing............................
Durable goods .........................
Nondurable goods ........... ..........
Nonmanufacturing 2 / ............ ........ .
Public utilities*.................... .
Wholesale t r a d e ..... .................
Retail t r a d e ........ ............ .
Services.......................... .

947
362
209
153
585
12
290
261
22

39.0
39.5
40.0
39.5
38.5
39.5
39.5
37.0
41.0

41.00
41.50
40.50
42.50
41.00
46.00
43.50
38.50
35.50

Clerks, payroll ............ ................
Manufacturing..... ......... ....... .
Durable goods .............. ..........
Nondurable goods ............... ......
Nonmanufacturing........... .
Public utilities*................ *....
Wholesale trade ............. .........
Retail t r a d e ...... ........... ...... .
Finance** ......................... ••••
Services........... ..... ............

1,573
924
435
489
649
129
129
189
116
86

39.0
39.5
40.0
39.0
38.5
38.5
40.0
37.5
37.5
39.5

45.50
44.50
46.00
43.00
46.00
49.00
52.00
43.50
43.00
44.50

33

-

-

6
6
1

“

-

87
1
1
86
8
76

-

-

-

-

_
-

-

—

38
10

92
9
1
8
83
20
60

94
12
12
82
71

56
8
5
3
48
44

974
25
21
4
949
8
93
44
761

620
80
62
18
540
6
28
29
342

450
38
21
17
412
7
40
30
162

133
31
19
12
102
2

139
46
38
8
93
5
21
3
63

67
-

114
3

49

182
2

-

40
30
10

67
1
45
15

3
111
21
39
49

49
24
17

2
180
34
5
ai
16

-

16
16
16
-

96
51
40
11
45
45
-

52
18
18
34
5
21
8

137
68
50
18
69
33
27
9

99
36
2
34
63
31
27
5

208
45
16
29
163

-

1
1
1
—

59
49
42
7
10
-

80
68
5
63
12
-

199
97
13
84
102
15
12

142
63
27
36
79

7

5
4
3

124
63
23
40
61
8
14
22
10

-

See footnotes at end of table.
*
Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
** Finance, insurance, and real estate.




38

40

-

2
1

7

33
3
54

33
22
20

124
39

3
13
35
20

42
4
3
1
38
3
33

26
8
4
4
18
5
10

68 ___28,
47
31
31
45
2
37
31
1
4
8
24
8

183
9
9
174
42
3
62
8

127
38
22
16
89
11
78

45
22
14
8
23
20
3

120
81
21
60
39
8
1

240
172
94
78
68
26

3

15
20

16

4

3

8

11 ___ 12
8
5
1
4
4
4
12
3

3

12

11
5
3
2
6
5

14
13
12
1
1
-

2 ____2
L
2
2
2
2
-

-

4 ____ 5
.
2
1
1
2
3
3
1
1
1
—

-

“
“

2
1
1
1
1

1
1
—
1
“
—
—

—
—
—

—
“
“
“

1
1
~
1
—

—
~
“

-

2

*
"
2

-

-

*
“

-

“
“
“
*
“
*
*

—

-

2

19

114
5
1
4
109
12
40
18

21 ___ 51
12
7
10
4
2
3
46
9
17
3
2
27

u

87
33
30
3
54
4
32
-

257 - 142
30
84
26
45
4
39
112
173
16
5
2
5
56
47
15
—

49 ___ 31
20
8
1
20
7
a
13
5
7
41
1
-

153

78
56
22
75
17
15
38

3
2

182
120
91
29
62
1
11
17
14
19

161 ..47. ___6 1
12
11
48
10
7
45
2
3
4
36
51
119
1
5
5

28 ____ 4 ___14
1
10
1
10
1
1
18
13
3
1
-

3

7
-

20
—

6
—

—

—

40 ___21
6
37
1
35
2
5
3
19
19
3

-

7
6
6
1
1
-

6
3
3
3
2
1
-

1
“
1
—
1
-

31
8
8
23

11
2
2

7

-

13
1
2

9

7
1
1
6
—
6
-

32

65
44
31
13
21
15
1
-

62
27
26
1
35
17
2
13
-

80
45
2
43
35
12
17
-

5

3

2

4

9

-

3

-

—
-

*
•

14
—
—
14
—

-

-

14
—

*
“

-

2 ____ 1
1
3
1
3
—
1
—
—
—
1
—
-

*
■
*
—
—

1
—
—
1
“
—
1

-

—

6 ____4
1
3
1
1
2
1
5
—
1
5
—
-

2
—
2
—
2
—
—

5
1
1
-

—

—
—

“

*
"
*
“

4
—

4
—

-

—
”

—

9

Table 1*— OFFICE OCCUPATIONS - Continued
(Average w e e k l y earnings 1 / and we e k l y scheduled hours for selected occupations b y industry division)

Average

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
*
$
*
$
$
t
Number
Under 25.00 27.50 30.00 32.50 35.00 37.5 0 40.00
Weekly
of
Weekly
and
scheduled
earnings $
workers
25.00 under
hours
27t50 30.00 32.50 35,00 37.50 40.00 42.50

sarninf*s of >f workers rciceivirt straight-1:ime w >ekly (
g
t
$
$
1
$
%
$
$
i
*
1
4
$
42.50 45.00 47.50 50.00 52.50 55.00 57.50 60.00 62.50 t o o 67.50 70.00 72.50 75.00 80.00 85.00
and
over
45,00 47t50 50,00 52.50 55.00 57,50 60.00 62.50 65.00 67,50 70.00 72.50 75,00 80.00 85.00

Women - Continued
2 11
50
iK
xp
35
l6l
29

Duplicating-machine operators...... ........
Manufacturing ........ ...................
Nondurable goods .................. ..
Wholesale trade ......................

39.0
39.5
/i n
39.5
fQ n
t
py. v
40.0
■a n
a

6A
790
--- lfo”
xpy
PP
104
631
76
112
*a
a
f» C
7
Pt/P

139.00
41.50
/o *n
. ;
41.50
38.00
40.00
if* nn
37.50

/n k
fa n
t
38.0
39.5
39.5
fa
t
PO n
on k
j t .p

42.00
42.50
/ t nn
f
/o
42.00
45.00
52.00
38.00
38.00

XO?
31

38.5
fQ K
t
py.p
fQ c
t
Py.P
fQ c
t
P7.P
f*
t7
ot c
f
po.P
in n
y f .w
40.0

33.50
36.00
fA
t
po.pu
f/
t
p^-.pv'
fp
t
f / nn
t
32.00
30^50

Secretaries............... ............ .
Manufacturing........................ .
Durable g o o d s ....... .................
Nondurable goods ......................
Nonmanufacturing.................... .
Public utilities*.....................
Wholesale t r a d e ...... ................
Retail trade ..•••,••......... ........
Finance**
.......
Services............... ....... .....

3.445
916
540
376
2,529
228
586
227
1,076
412

38.5
40.0
40.5
39.0
38.5
38.5
39.0
39.0
37.5
38.5

53.00
56.00
57.00
54.50
52.00
62.00
54.00
49.00
51.50
47.00

Stenographers, general.... ....... .........
Manufacturing.............. ......... .
Durable goods ...... .............. ••••
Nondurable goods ......................
Nonmanufacturing ••••••.......... ........
Public utilities*.....................
Wholesale trade ..••••••..... ...... .
Retail trade .........................
Finance**
Services .................. .

4.327
1,191
712
479
3,136
205
897
295
1,083
656

38.5
39.0
39*0
39.0
38.5
38.5
39.0
39.0
38.0
38.0

43.00
45.50
46.50
44.50
42.50
48.00
45.50
40.00
40.00
41.50

Key-punch operators................. ......

Nonmanufacturing 2 / .....................
Public utilities* ....................
Wholesale trade ............ ..........
Po+.o■1
?
UM r o
\ rw«oft4
Office girls ...............................
a
no
r r Y e na
>i»V
a
Wnnrinno o ortndQ
Yvn^o
v\tf 9 /
Uh/\1aaala
a
TM noniwH
Services .............................

—

487
i7i~
X /X
136
fe
t
pp
316

38.0
fQ n
t
j>y •v

-

-

.
.




11
5

1

43
9
9
f/
t

4
6

JHr

6

5
i/
14

29

71
P

59
1

20
12
17
xx
34

20
3
3
17
7

10
g

4
ft
p
f
t
p

33
f2
t
px
f2
t
px

2
_

111
42
Hr*
OK
xp
17
x»
69
Q
7
PO
*y
12

58
pp
26
7
OK
xp
7
1
11

26
«
p
/
H
r

07

208
42
Hr*
fC
t
yy
•7
166
XX
IIP
8

43

56

_
43
3
40

56
8
20
7
21

207
23
12
11
184
5
5
52
81
41

658
74
40
34
584
21
97

_

20
20

3

•
_
-

-

—

-

_
-

3
-

81
4
4
77
-

3

U

-

53
10

-

-

a
277
148

9
6
2,
5
f
t
p
3

4
1
1
f
t
p
2

4
4
4

1
1

1

1

_

21
f
t
p
14
X|
*-

p
f
t
p
2

1
1

_
-

_
-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

1

—

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

1
65
18
£
12
47
17
3
2
25
xp

27

.
.
-

4

85
52
px
16
pu
33
18
1
1
if
t
xp

<
66
ft
p
At
f
op

_
-

1

139
47
Hr!
18
20
xy
92
35
K
P
52
px

29
7
1
22

20

5
1

123
12
8
/
111
15
19
£
71
<x

_
-

*y
11

4
17
5
11

27
9
g
1
18
2

136
8
2
A
128
3
7
10
108

_
-

-

25
8
4

15
X/
«

7
g
6

-

See footnotes at end of table*
*
Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
** Finance, insurance, and real estate.
9o50f>r» o — rvi-------3

1
1

72
o
y
f
t
P
g
63
12
2
10
xy

11
f
t
p
2
1
8
2
2
2
2

8

2

18

15
2

1

f
t
p
15
9
6

2
13

1

-

2

-

-

8

-

-

-

15

13

1

-

2

-

-

8

-

-

-

15

118
46
29
17
72
12
13
7
27
13

142
31
26
5
111
11
46
5
38
11

56
14
12
2
42
10
11
8
10
3

106
60
32
28
46
19
1
4
10
12

23
6
6
17
7
9
1
-

67
26
19
7
41
16
16
1
7
1

16
10
10
6
4
2
-

49
15
12
3
34
16
13
3
2

8
3
2
1
5
5

6
2
2
-

4
-

-

3
-

4
'4

4

-

-

4

-

1
1
1
-

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

15

3

f
t
p

2

1

82
23
3
20
59
18
1
20
20

283
48
19
29
240
10
28
33
107
62

233
66
26
40
167
44
28
84
11

388
83
33
50
305
12
67
26
138
62

261
44
26
18
217
9
67
42
86
13

440
105
89
16
335
25
99
14
160
37

?48
62
40
22
186
18
41
5
108
14

fff
ttt
117
72
45
216
25
28
9
113
41

230
87
47
40
143
23
15
10
94
1

246
73
55
18
173
11
60
8
66
28

555
88
31
57
467
7
122
43
183
112

658
188
73
115
470
13
188
39
158
72

542
156
96
60
386
19
105
22
141
99

493
170
116
54
323
47
95
47
91
43

282
148
114
34
134
15
31
10
34
44

402
198
156
42
204
14
72
7
51
60

196
87
55
32
109
14
76
8
11

57
12
10
2
45
27
11
1
2
4

92
26
26
66
19
19
8
1
19

51
9
3
6
42

■
■

"V

38

4

21 ___ 2_
3
2
1
21
4
3
1
21

-

*
•

3
-

10,

Table 1.— OFFICE OCCUPATIONS - Continued
(Average weekly earnings 1 / and w e ekly scheduled hours for selected occupations b y industry division)

>^
Numbei* of w<Drkers receiirL n s straight-time weeklyr earn.Lngs oi
$
$
$
*
*
*
*
*
1
*
♦
i
*
i
1---?
i—
*
Number
Under 25.00 27.50 30.00 32.50 35.00 37.50 40.00 42.50 45.00 47.50 50.00 52.50 55.00 57.50 60.00 62.50 65.00 67.50 70.00 72.50 75.00 80.00 85.00
Weekly
Weekly
of
scheduled
and
*
and
earnings
workers
25.00 under
hours
over
60.00 62.50 65.00 67.50 70.00 72.50 15*00; 80.00 85.00
40.00 42,50 4?i00 47.50 50.00 52.J0 55.00 57.50
27.50 30.00 32.50 35foo
Ave:rase

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Women - Continued
146.00
49.50
48.50
*>
r
44.50
39.50
47.50

S r - c t h t T ooerators.... .
iifrhrAd
Manufacturing...........................
Durable goods ........................
Nondurable goods .....................
Nonmanufaoturing........................
Public utilities* ....................
Wholesale trade ......................
Retail trade .........................
Finance** ............ ...... .
Services .............................

949
i28
75
53
821
39
101
155
293
• 233

39.5
40.5
41.0
39.5
39.5
39.5
39.5
39.5
38.0
41.5

43.00
50.00
48.00
52.50
41.50
45.50
44.00
41.50
43.00
38.50

-

Switchboard operator-receptionists..........
Manufacturing ...........................
Durable g o o d s ....... ................
Nondurable goods ..... ...... ........
Nonmanufacturing..... *.......... .......
Public utilities* ....................
Wholesale trade ........... ....... ..
Retail trade .........................
Finance**............................
Services ........................ ..

1.034
361
118
243
673
25
305
94
88
161

39.0
39.5
39.5
39.5
38.5
39.5
39.0
37.5
38.0
37.5

42.50
44.00
46.00
43.00
a . 50
45.00
42.50
38.50
42.50
40.50

Tnbul fl+.IncrumimMnft rmoT»vtorS ................
Manufacturing............ ..... ........
Durable goods ........................
Nondurable g o o d s ......... ...........
Nonmanufacturing 2 / .....................
DiilO 4/ , +4H+-t<aa#
% ,
Wholesale trade ......................
Finance** ............................

339
48
21
27
291

38.5
39.5
41.0
38.0
38.5

38
159

40.0
38.0

47.50
50.00
50.50
49.50
47.00
51 00
59.50
41.00

TVflnse'H'Mmr.-mAftMna «n«rators. eenepal ----Manufacturing.............. ....... ..
Durable g o o d s .... ........ ...........
Nondurable goods ...............
Nonmanufacturing 2 / .............. ......
Wholesale t r a d e ........... .

941
154
77
77
787
93
ir
517
144

38.5
39.5
39.5
39.0
38.5
39.5
30 n
38.0
39.5

39.50
42.50
43.50
41.00
38.50
42.00
3A nn
JO.UU
38.50
37.00

Finance** ........... ...1............ .
Services .............................

10
2
2

2L

10 ____ 1
4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

24
20
4

li
li
-

25
21
4

19
9
10

’12
2
2
10
10
-

68
68
8
28
4
20
8

104
5
5
99
28
14
57

138
138
6
35
52
45

169
15
11
4
154
34
17
51
52

105
8
5
3
97
5
3
16
61
12

96
11
11
85
7
13
13
44
8

59.
24
17
7
35
2
20
8
5

66 ___ 2L
16
18
12
13
4
5
18
48
2
5
1
5
8
1
a
3
-

5
3
2
19
1
3
1
1
13

14
8
8
6
3
2
1
—

16
9
9
7
5
2
-

_5_
5
5
—

57
57
16
26
15

36
15
15
21
20
1

152
48
48
104
5
62
13
24

100
19
7
12
81
64
13
3
1

186
86
35
51
100
5
46
8
16
25

136
50
20
30
86
1
12
28
45

119
38
15
23
a
5
22
6
38
10

36
9
7
2
27
7
5
15

93
38
21
17
55
9
25
6
15

52
41
a
n

27
6
3
3
21

21
10
10
11

6
1
1
5

-

2
2

1
1

-

-

*
*
-

-

11
-

21

11

5

-

2

1

-

-

-

—

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

—
—

33

20

22
1
1
21

26
.5
1
4
21
6

34
8
8
26
6

5____
3
1
2
2

4.
2
1
1
2
2

_

2
2

_

-

-

_ ____ 1
-

27
-

“

-

5

—
27

—
—

-

2

-

-

5

12

-

14

20

23 ___43.___1Q_ ___
6
1
17
10
5
1
1
7
6
37
9
9
8
5
1 . 14
•
_
29 _ 28
16
3
1
11
2
5
25
13
6
3

7
2
1
1
5
5

1

-

2

-

-

1
1

—

-

—

—

-

2
2

—

—
■
*

19

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

24
-

-

-

-

-

li
-

25
-

22
3
3

43
26
25
1
17
7
10

55 ___42
15
19
12
8
7
7
30
40
6
3
27
34

-

30
30

10
10
10

-

-

-

-

-

10

33

20

43
4
3
1
39

-

-

-

8

31

19

5
15

1
18

32
1
1
31
4
8
19

2

64
1
1
63
16
3
40
4

127
23
23
104
5

145
4
2
2
141
4
/
*
¥

193
58
33
25
135
26

p
m
*

163
8
6
2
155
5
r

65
11
6
5
54
2

58
21
14
7
37
13

27
7
2
5
20
5

74
23

117
28

127
4

85
12

40
12

11
8

15
*
*

30
-

-

30
-

-

_

-

30

■
■

See footnotes at end of table.
*
Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
** Finance, insurance, and real estate.




22
19
10
9
3
1
2

10

208
83
117

304
96
65

30
8
5
3
22
5
17

30

Nonmanufacturing 2/ .....................
Finance** .............. ............. .
Services .............................

39.0
40.5
40.5
/n n
.
38.5
39.5
38.5

Stenographers, technical ......... ........ .
Manufacturing...........................
Durable g o o d s .......... •............

-

2
2
*
•

p

6
4

—
4
6
3

8
6

_3
—

-

"

—

—

"
—

“
*
“

1

“
-

1
1
1
—
*
"

2
1
—
1
1
—
1
-

- ____5
_
—
—
5
“
—
5
—
•
■
“

-

'

1
1
-

-

—

—
-

*
-

-

—

-

-

11

Table 1 . — OFFICE OCCUPATIONS - Continued
weekly scheduled hours for selected occupations b y industry division)

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number of workers
$
1
♦
$
$
IT
NirmhoT*
Weekly
Under 25.00 27.50 30.00 32.50 35.00 37.50 40.00 42.50 45.00
Weekly
Of
scheduled
and
workers
earnings $
25.00 under
hours
27.50 30.00 32.50 35.00 37.50 40.00 42.50 45too 47.50

1

/and

1

Average

1
t
o
0

(Average weekly earnings

receiving s braigiit-time weeklyr earn]
i
1
$
1
1
1
$
1
1
$
1
1
1
i
&
47.50 50.00 52.50 55.00 57.50 60.00 62.50 65.00 67.50 70.00 72.50 75.0 0 80.00
85.00
and
50.00 52.50 55.00 57.50 60.00 62.50 65.00 67.50 70.00 72.50 75.00 80.00 85.00 over

Women - Continued
Transcrdbinff-menhine operators, technical ...

129

39.5

$41.50

_

Typists f class A .... ......................
Manufacturing................ .........
Durable g o o d s .... .
Nondurable goods ................... ..
Nonmanufacturing 2 / ....................
Wholesale trade .....................
Retail t r a d e ........ ....... ...... .
Finance * * ............ .............

U034
391
328
63
643
54
29
390

38.5
39.5
39.5
39.0
38.0
39.5
40.0
38.0

45.50
45.50
45.50
a . 50
49.00
43.00
40.00

-

Typists, class B ......................... .
Manufacturing..................... .
Durable g o o d s ................. .
Nondurable goods .....................
Nonmanufacturing 2/ ................. *...
Wholesale trade ................. .
Retail trade .................... .
Finance ** .............
Services ............. ..............

A *407
749
507
242
3,658
654
296
2,090
414

38.5
40.0
40.0
39.5
38.5
39.5
38.5
38.0
39.0

36.50
40.00
39.00
41.00
35.50
37.50
34.00
34.50
34.00

8

l/
2/
*
**

15
31

A 3 .0 0

_

-

-

21

31
-

8
—

-

8

6

-

-

-

31 1.003
1
28
—
23
1
5
30
975
94
20
116
10
549
211

12

10

20

6

7

6

10

120
49
45
4
71
10
1
48

142
84
57
27
58
1
2
40

164
114
112
2
50
14

47
31
26
5
16

22
7

20
5
2
3

18

£

177
68
46
22
109
16
12
45
3

186
105
89
16
81
13
10

38
24
13
11
14
8

16

140
28
28

58

112

101
15
13
2
86

K
J

o
78

1
73

164
52
37
15
112
9
7
84

848 1,117
139
145
102
97
37
48
972
709
190
114
33
31
663
495
45
79

485
111
64
47
374
76
35
231
17

377
86
73
13
291
88
25
92
55

2

6
6

11

61
3
3

_
-

11

a

16
15

'k

4
15
10

H

26

8

39
36
34

26
2

.
8
1

4

Table 2.~PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL OCCUPATIONS
(Average earnings 1/ and weekly scheduled hours for selected occupations by industry division)

_
-

-

_

2

-

-

2
2

2

75
39

Excludes premium pay for overtime.
Includes data for industry divisions not shown separately.
Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
Finance, insurance, and real estate.




20
3
2
1
17

6
3
3
3
3

_

_
_

—

_
_

_
-

_
_
_

_

-

_
_

-

-

_
_

_

_

12,

Table 2.— PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL OCCUPATIONS - Continued
(Average earnings 1/ and weekly scheduled hours for selected occupations by industry division)

Number of workers receiving stiraight-time weekly eamd

Average
Weekly
sched­
uled
hours

Hourly
earnings

Weekly
earnings

i

$

£

%

i

1

i

$

5

of _

1

$

$

&

$

*

30.00 35.00 40.00 45.00 50.00 55.00 60.00 65.00 70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110 .0 0 115 .0 0 120.00 125.00
and
and
under
over
35.00 40.00 45*00
55.oo 60.00 65.00 70.00 75.00 80.00 85,00 90.00 95.00 300.00 105.00 22Q *oo 115.00 120.00 125.00

L°
O
;o

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

Women
Tracers ......................................

117

38.5

fcL.09

$i2.00

12

34

Nurses, industrial (registered) ...............
Manufacturing..............................
Durable goods .................. .........
Nondurable goods ........................
Nonmanufacturing 2 / ....... ......... ......
Retail t r a d e ........ ...................
Finance ** ..............................

206
144
87
57
62
21
19

40.0
AO. 5
4 1.0
40.0
39.0
39.5
38.5

1 .U
1.43
1.39
1.51
1.44
1.33
1.45

57.50
58.00
57.00
60.50
56.00
52.50
56.00

—

—

l/
2/
**

24

38

8

_

1

_

_

_

_

9
4
3
1
5

17
10
9
1
7

36
16
13
3
20

57
49
28
21
8

65
55
32
23
10

10
4
1
3
6

9 ___ 3_
1
5
1
5
2
4
1
1
—

-

—

4

5

3

3

5

-

—

1

12

1

2

2

_

_

_

-

-

-

—

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

■
*

—

—

—

- *
—

—

—

Excludes premium pay for overtime.
Includes data for industry divisions not shown separately.
Finance, insurance, and real estate.

Table 3. — MAINTENANCE AND POWER PLANT OCCUPATIONS
(Average hourly earnings l/ for men in selected occupations by industry division)

See footnotes at end of table.
* Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities,
** Finance, insurance, and real estate.




Occupational Wage Survey, Boston, Mass., March 1951
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

13

Table 3 •— MAINTENANCE AND POWER PLANT OCCUPATIONS - Continued

(Average hourly earnings 1/ for men in selected occupations by industry division)

Occupation and industry division

Electricians* maintenance....... ..
Manufacturing ................... *
Durable goods *............ ..
Nondurable goods •*.*•.........
Nonmanufacturing 2/
PnKH/* irf n f h t n *
----o
Retail trade ................ .
Finance * * .......... .
Services.... *............... .
Engineers, stationary ••.••••••••••••*
Manufacturing ....................
Durable goods .................
Nondurable g o o d s ........ *....
Nonmanufacturing 2/ ..............
V i I f r 11+414+4 a a #
iW- >
Wholesale t r a d e .... *....... ..
Retail t r a d e .............
Services .*•••.................

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
earnings

934
642
389
253
292
163
74
27
22

$1.76
1.77
1.70
1.88
1.72
X* IJ
1.71
1.74
1.41

632
258
49
209
374
yo

48
30
171

F4remAii. stations+’ V>n41at* ..........
v
762
Manufacturing •••••••••••••...... . ---- 392---Durable goods ........... ••••••
149
Nondurable goods ........ .
243
370
Nonmanufacturing 2/ •*••••..... . ••
Retail t r a d e ...... .......... *
55
oj
r
</
A/
04

1.68
1.81
1.82
1.80
1.60
i on
1.74
1.74
1.37

-

—
-

2
-

18
18
18
-

1.40
1.40
1.37
1.43
1.38
1.41
1.44
1.32
1.31

Machinists, maintenance ••••••*•»•••••
Manufacturing ................... .
Durable go o d s ......... .
Nondurable goods ..............

674
632
314
318
4*
28

1.75
1.75
1.69
1.82
1 Ij
l. 75
1.81
1.46
1747---1.46
1.48
1.43

—

X
o

•
-

1.10

1.15

-

-




1 #25

1.30

1.35

1.40

21
20
20
1

7
7

4
2
2
2

3
1
1
2

34
27
26
1
7

2

_
1

7

_
2

2
-

5
2

-

8
5
5
3

461

22
■22

-

_
3

_
46

2
18

20
*r
3
17
i/

x4

1
1
..
.
—
-

46

23

11

23

29
20
20
9

11

5
12

5

5Q
51
3
48
8
2
i
X

35
32
22
10
3
2
i
X

37
16
6
10
21
1

0
O

17
17
12
4
1

72
71
21
50
1
■1

10
10
3
7

68
25
9
16
43
31
8
4

51
28
27
1
23
15
7
1

77
65
39
26
12
4
7
1

281
154

20
20
20
-

-

-

-

-

13
13
3
10

16
16
6
10

a

113
127
102
6
6
13

1.45

-

-

2
2

21
8
--- S T --- T
20
3
1
5

26
_ —
_
26

-

-

15
23
Jr " T O
10
ii
13
4

2
-

—

1

5

12
10

4

2

-

1
10

16
16
36
c

5
2
24

91
20
-

20
71
25

5
20
21

1.50
_ 42.
_
30
22
8
12
8
2
2

1.60

65
44
19
25
21
J
L

i

11
66
61
37
24
5
1
a

12
12

256 _ 92_ _ 52_ _ 96.
_
_
_
210
62
19
29
28
10
173
37
19
34
19
30
77
46
23
27
44
33
9
2
4
10
31
9
3
4
2
-

15
15
15
m
m

-

95
21
15
6
74

32
27
22

132
134
2
132
1
i
X

73
73
41
32

5
5

21
15
3
12
£
>

53
30
30
23

9
-

2

-

-

-

12

1,6?

101 ___59_
98
39
73
33
6
25
20
3
1
9
9
2
2
-

9
6
5
5
1

.
.
18
38
25
11
14
13

-

28
15
31

56
25
7
18
31
6
19
4
2

19
8
8
11

39
15
5
10
24

1
1
ix

it55

61
40
40
21
8

21
3
3
18

2

X .P J L

1.41
1.41
1.43

11

33
25
33
~ ^ r --- 12 “ T o
2
10
3
10
21
10
22
23
16
9
£
n
c
in
1o
XU
XX
(
0

10

See footnotes at end of table*
*
Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities*
** Finance, insurance, and real estate*
955055 0 — 51____4

-

4

2
2

1.20

-

1.20

Number of workers rec€dving straitjht-tiiae hourly earnings °f $
4
$
4
4
*
4
4
1.30 1.35 1 .4 0 1.45 1.50 1 .5 5 1.60 1.65 1.70 1 . 7 5 1.80

.
.
2

-

5
9
3

1.05

$
1.25

4

2

_
-

1^

1,202
756
348
408
446
265
42
103
35

876
Maintenance men, general utility •••••
Manufacturing....... ............
---- 530---- —
Durable goods
127
Nondurable goods •••*.••..... . •
403
Nonmanufacturing 2/ ............. .
346
PtiM 4 t +4T 44 4ao
i
*
04
Wholesale trade •••••*.••••••,••
74
Retail t r a d e .......... ................................
76
Services..... .......................................
124

1*00
1*05

-

1.51
1.51
1.48
1.53
1.52
1.41
1 1C
i.J-5
1 1S
J . Lt
LJo

Helpers, trades, maintenance •*•••••••
Manufacturing •••«•••••••••*•••*••»
Durable goods .................
Nondurable goods
Nonmanufacturing 2/ ......... .....
Public utilities * ............
Wholesale trade *............ ..
Retail t r a d e .... *............
Finance * * .......... ....... ..

Public utilities * ....... .

Under
$1.00

4
i
1.10 1.15

158
147
32
115
. 11
/
*¥

36
8
8
28
20

4

4

$
1.9 0

1 .9 5

4
2.0 0

2 .1 0

2 .2 0 -tun. .?i.4£L

1.70

lf7?

1.80

it*5

lf?0

i,?5

2.00

2 .1 0

67
43
10
33
24
20
2
2
-

105
55
23
32
50
38
6
4
2

77
32
21
11
45
28
12
5
-

21
n
11
10
6
3
-

64
27
27
37
34

88
82
82
6
4
2
-

27
12
7
5
15
9

95
92
23
69
3

35
23
4
19
12

2
-

12
—
-

11 .. 3?..
1
4
1
4
10
33
m
m
12
m
m

-

16
21
24
13
2
12
11
2
6
5
6
6
22
5
13
9
w
4
4
20
5
1
1
4
1
5
196 ___ 4. ___ 4J .-37_
80
4
4
80
4
4
116
33
4
2
16

4
1

8
-

34
30
27
3
4
-

35
2
1
1
33
-

1
-

12
-

1 _ 95_
_
93

1

12

1

93
2

2

1

12

1

2

4
2
11
6
1
5
5
«
•
4

$
2 .20

$
2 .3 0

4
1.85

-

2
2

127 ___3l_
88
ll
10
7
81
l
20
39
20
30
6
2
-

2*52.

l
l

4
2.50
and
over
23
23
23
-

m
m

m
m

-

4
2 .4 0

1
—

1
-

21
21
1
20
-

3
3
3
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

—
-

-

•
“
-

—

-

2

8

46

4
2
2

44

4,
3

2

16
28

4
17
3
—
3
3

122 _ 84.
_
77
115
75
54
40
23
7
7
7
5

10
13
/

71
58
16
42
13
12

13
11
10
1
2

5
2

2
7

1

1

-

-

-

-

27
14

4

24
5
-

-

8
5
5
3

-

64,
63
10
53
1

6
6
6
-

2
2

2
-

- :

10
-

-

10

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

2

-

70 _ 25_
_
15
69
50
15
19
1
10
1
10

10 _ 44.
_
10
44
10
9
35

6
-

5

-

-

6

5

-

-

3
3
3

-

4
-

-

-

2

4

_

2

-

-

-

4

-

-

-

14

“

-

-

-

-

2 _ 19_ _ 14_
_
_
19
19

14
-

m
m

5
19
7
f

L

4

2

__

-

-

5

8

-

-

-

10

H. ,

Table 3.— MAINTENANCE AND POWER PLANT OCCUPATIONS - Continued

(Average hourly earnings l/ for men in selected occupations by industry division)

Occupation and industry division

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
earnings

Under
$1.0 0

1 --- 1
1.0 0 1.05 1 .1 0

1.05
Mechanics, automotive (maintenance) ..
Manufacturing ...... ....... ••••••
Nonmanuf acturing 2 / ..... .
Public utilities * ...........
Wholesale trade......... ....
Retail trade .................

973
159
814
445
109
104
1.151
753

1 .6 8

iM

1.59
1.64
1.82
1.55

116

1.70
1.57
1.73
1.64
1.59
1.78

81

1.73
1.73
1.75
1.71

Oilers ......... ...................
Manufacturing................. .
Durable goods.............. .
Nondurable goods .............
Nonmanufacturing........... .

209
148
93
55

1.39
d.37
1.39
1.34
1.43

Paintersg maint.pnflnflR ................
Manufacturing ••••••.............
Durable goods ............... .
Nondurable goods .............
Nonmanufacturing 2/ ••••••••••..........

472
218

-

_
_
-

-

-

-

...

1.25
46

lt30 1.35 1.40 1,45
27
63
47
33

-

46
-

47
12

30
-

1

4

2

2

-

-

1.2 0

2

16

8

_

-

2

2

16

5
5
3

11
1

-

_
-

-

-

2

1
10
10

-

12

-

-

2

1

e r

27
12

132
118
4
114
14

1 66

283
26$
141
128

1.15
2

$1.6 0

Mechanics, maintenance •••••••......
Manufacturing...... ...... .....
Durable goods ••••••••••••••••••
Nondurable goods........ .
Nonmanufacturing 2/ .............
Public utilities * ............
Wholesale trade.....••••••••••

1 .1 0

NumbeiT of \
workers receiving straiffht-time hour*ly eai•nines of *
$
t
1
1 --- *
$
i
4
1
1.35 1.4 0 1.45 1 .5 0 1.55 1 .6 0 1.65 1.70 1.75 1.80

1 --- 1 --- 1
1
1.15 1.2 0 1.25 1.3 0

Manufacturing ••••••••......... .
Durable goods ................
Nondurable goods............ .

156

597
398
182

61

254

1.53
1^53
1.59
1.67
1.45

116
102
1
4A
o

i Ai
JL.Oi.

Retail trade .................................... ..
Finance ** •••••••••••••••••••••
Services ........................................... ..

76
59
60

1.55
1.45
1.17

Pine fitters. maintenance •. ••••••••••
Manufacturing.............. ............................ ..
Durable goods .......................................
Nondurable goods
Nonmanufacturing.......... .....

371
280
125
155
91

-

-

-

-

1.6 8
1 .6 2

-

1

87
39

42

10 1

26
16
10
16
11

77

10

29
48
23
24

-

1

2

-

-

5
3
3

10

-

3
3
3

10

-

7
7

9
6

5

5
5
5
-

1
1

7
7

30
4

7
7

21
21

12
12

2
2

1
6

3
18

7
5

38
38
30

3
39
39
36
3

17
17

10

19
7

22

55
24-

130
95
73
22

5

_
-

12

_

2
1
1

15
15

14

19
10

-

13

2
12

-

-

1

7
-

4
4
4
-

2
2
2

3
3
3
-

18

8

20

12

-

-

-

-

9
5
5

17

-

-

2

11
2

-

-

-

-

10

5

18

8

20

12

4

7

4

4

4

-

4
12

-

5

-

-

-

1.56

12

1 .6 1

._
-

-

-

-

-

2

14

8

16

8

-

5

5

-

-

-

_
_

-

5

-

5

-

9

-

12

6

15

13
18
1

2

6
2

4

1
8

9
7

11

1
1

9
7

5
5
3
2

18

2
2

34
34
7
27

-

-

17

16

1.70

83

1

66
62

4
17
13
3
-

55
52
46
6

2

1 .5 6

-

5

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

2

-

-

2

-

-

1.75

Excludes premium pay for overtime and night work*
Includes data for industry divisions not shown separately.
Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
Finance, insurance, and real estate.

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
1

16
16
12

2
—
-

-

1

17
17
6

7
5
2
3
2

-

-

-

-

-

n

16

9
7

—

-

11
8

59
55

7
5

1

4
4
4
-

-

15
15
15
—

50
71
- ____ 5_j
5
-

19
19

28

-

2

-

12 1

32,
18
4
14
14

-

3

-

-

123

39 __33_
15
5
9
6
5
18
34
6
19
1
13
2
5

11

3

-

-

30

3

1

-

3

_

-

9
- _3Q_
-

39
4

1

5
-

1.6 6

1.63
1.67

16 _J3_

-

$

$

4

2.0 0

2 .1 0

2 .2 0

1.90

1.95

2.0 0

2 .1 0

-

- 1515
-

-

-

10
10
10

—
-

-

r

2 .2 0 -2*30

$
$
2.30 2.40

$
2 .5 0

and
2,40 ■A5P- over
—
—

20

29

-

18
18

20

28

-

18

-

~

42
42

209

2

6

202

-

-

2
2

- ___ 4^
4
—
4

20 ..29_

-

2

40

22 ___ 5_
22
5

202

7
7

2

6

-

-

2

6

~
-

—
-

-

2

-

—

28

25
24

3
19
-

5
—
-

26
22
1
21

2 ___ 4_
2
2
2
1

1

-

-

—
-

—
“
-

—

-

—

-

4
4
—
4

-

-

-

—

5
12

34

5
-

-

6
5
2
3

16
10
10

1

6

-

5
7

-

20
10
10

9

14

5

4

3
7

8
1

'14

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

-

-

2

2

1

-

-

32
14

19

-

29
14
14

4

5

-

-

8

2

4
1.95

48 _ 52_ _ 50_ -44_ __ 50^__ 22_
_
_
42
39
19
14
44
2
1
1
5
14
38
40
2
19
43
9
8
32
36
25
15
6
16
20
14
24
2
2
5
5
3
15

4

35
23

1 Af
J..O7

94
68
42
26
26

8
6

$
1.9 0

16

51
51

20

J

_

39

1.67

65
14

26

-

1 .6 1

Sheet-met®1 workers, maintenance •••••
Manufacturing .............................................
Durable goods ............••••••••••••
Nondurable goods •••.•••......
Nonmanufacturing ............... .




14

-

74
35

Nonmanufacturing 2 / ................................
Retail trade ........................... ••••••
Finance * * ................ ................... ..

1/
2/
*
**

14
13
-

-

<o

Plumbers. maintenance .•••••••.....
Manufacturing 2/ ................

11

1,55 1 .6 0 1.65 1,7 0 1.75 1.80 1.85
6
_
87 _ 5 2 _ - 1 4 2 - 230 _ 2Q___ 45_
6
21
36
4
31
43
3
2
24
84
44
23
139 199
22
2
10
1
83
95 187
12
1
5
1
2
12
23
43

2
1

_
-

1.6 6

1.67
1.67

-

33

lt?0
14

%

1.85

-

-

—

—

—

—

70

1
1
1

8

1515
15

23
17
5

-

-

-

3
3

2
1
1

-

60
2

39
7
7
-

-

-

10

32

—

5

1

—

12
6

—

—
—
—

■”

1
1

58

—

6
2
2

2

1

-

1

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

-

—
-

1

1
1
2

-

“

1

2

-

—
—

-

-

—

-

■—

2

6

4

-

-

-

1
1

“

-

“

2
2

5
4
4

—

2

4

3

1

-

-

l

2

4

4
4

2

1

—

-

-

2

1

8
6
6

1
1
1

1 1 ____ 2 _

6
4
2
5

3
3

7
7

-

2

-

1

—
-

-

15,

liable 4.— CUSTODIAL, WAREHOUSING AND SHIPPING OCCUPATIONS
(Average hourly earnings 1/ for selected occupations 2/ by industry division)

Number
of
workers

Occupation and industry division

Crane operators, electric bridge (under
20 tons) ••••••••••••••••••........... .

43

*1.47

922
684

Guards ............ ................... .......
Manufacturing.............................
Durable goods ................... .
Nondurable goods ........... ............
Nonmanufacturing 2 / ............... ........
Finance * * ..................... ........
Services ..................... ..........
Janitors, porters and cleaners (men) ......... .
Manufacturing.... .................. .
Durable g o o d s ........ .............. .
Nondurable g o o d s ......................
Nonmanufacturing ...... ....................
Public utilities * ................. •••••
Wholesale trade .................. .
Retail t r a d e ........... ......... .
Finance * * ....................... .
Services......... .................. .

Average
hourly
earnings

1.25
1.27
1.28
1.23
1.22
1.26
.89

m

196
238
141
19

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

24

17

14

-

_

20
7
-

17
12
5

14
12
2

70
68
48
20
2
2

76
73
16
57
3
3

169
64
13
51
105
6
7
45
5

298
98
9
89
200
16
17
40
no
17

705
255
60
195
450
12
12
118
293
15

4n
105
17
88
306
21
36
57
167
25

417
266
179
87
151
12
49
A1
49

54
3
l
2
51

24
16
2

47

41
25
8
17
16
5
9

83
18
2
16
65
36
28

86
9
2
7
77
69
g

76
3
2
1
73
69

57
37
32

L
*t

1
/5

24
m
m

6

7
03
7
1
6

k * m ____ ___ 1,09
2,081
1.18
696
1.18
1,385
1.17
2,772
1.02
1.26
305
188
1.17
1.01
542
1,282
1.03
.82
455

321
321

282
49
40
9
233

142
21
21
121

148
16
1
15
132
5

16
030
175

107
42
84

15
56
50

12
87
28

Janitors, porters and cleaners (women) .........
Manufacturing................ ............
Durable goods
Nondurable goods........ ...............
Nonmanufacturing 2 / ............... ........
Retail trade .............................
Finance #* ........ .......... .
Services........ .......... .......... .

1,397
173
94
79
1,224
115
789
152

.93
1.04
1.00
1.09
.92
.82
•99
.65

136

38

130
13

132
18
14
4
114
19
4
4

111
5
2
3
106
2
97

155
5
5
150
5
124

546
70
67
3
476
7
469

Order fillers.... ..... ............ ........ .
Manufacturing....... .
Durable goods •••••••••..................
Nondurable goods .............. ........ .
Nonmanufacturing 2/ ........................
Wholesale trade ............... .
Retail trade ....... ................. ...

2,077
774
204
570
1,303
926
347

1.26
1.33
1.25
1.36
1.22
1.19
1.31

-

209
5
4
1
204
178
18

Packers ...................... .. .............................................................................. t
Manufacturing ........................... .. ........................ ...
Durable g o o d s ................
Nondurable g o o d s ...... ............ .
Nonmanufacturing 2 / ........................
Wholesale t r a d e ............... ..... .
Retail t r a d e ......... .. ...... .. ...... ..

1,643
899
308
591
744
579
159

119

____

_
38
27

117

9

13
117
31
32
22

8

45
4

54
5

36
4

73
3

-

-

-

_

8

4
41
03
28

5
49
41
g

4
32
24
g

3
70
67
2

221
157
80
77
64
51
12

1.20

12

28

U2&

-

-

23
1

38
15

54
20

91
20

-

8
-

—

~

12

28

-

~

12

28

See footnotes at end of table.
*
Transportation (excluding railroads), commmication, and other public utilities.
** Finance, insurance, and real estate.




Le *
H2
*

136
19

1.37
1.20
1.12
1.15
1.00

workers receiv:
ie hourly eamirigs oi
i
*
&
*
1
r ~ %
$
1
$
1
1
*
1 1 — 1 — 1— 1 —
1 . 1 5 1 .2 0 1 .2 5 1.30 1.35 1.40 1.65 1.50 1 .5 5 1.60 1.65 1.70 1 . 7 5 1.80 1.85 1 .9 0 1 .9 5 2.0 0
and
1,20 1,2? 1 ,3 0 1 ,?? I.40 1 .4? l.?0 1.?? 1,60 1 ,6 5 if 7° 1,75 1,80 1,8? 1 ,9 0 it 9? 2.00 over

1
22
10
12

15
23
7
16

20
34
20
14

20
71
67
4

7

7
112
97
15

_

3

30 • 22
22
17
2
16
20
1
8
5
5
8
✓

172 291
98 "166“
20
3
95 146
74 125
56 120
h
17
*r

l

B

Number of
$
$
$
*
*
*
*
Under 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0 .95 1.0 0 1.05 1 . 1 0
*0.75
.80 ,8? ,90 ,9? 1,00 1,0? 1.10 1,1?

10

•
•

25
17
7
10
8
8

174
165
165

2n
13 1
128
3
80
38

9
2

263 620 215
169 503 “ n r
58 106
33
i n 397
78
94 n 7 104
Q
7
32
7
1
1
23
8
3
0
2H
* Lr
*
60
a
59
19
J7
-

340
187
109
78
153
32
g
n5

2

4

4

46
39
4
35
7
7
1

92
86
74
12
6
3

15

160
4

67
40

95
37
37

4
156
123

40
27
g
21

1
5
28

15
7
r

58
c
?
A3
30

14

30

36
15

19
16

19
16
16

15
21
21

16
3

100
72
23
49
28
19
8
1

79
74
1
73
5

1

5

11
10
10
1

266
205
31
174
61
60

91
40
33
7
51
48

75
49
48
1
26
20

222
192
26
166
30
30

5

5
—>
_

.
.
5

V
mm

mm

5

mm

5

1
5

mm

33
33
29
4

1

103
9
6
3
92
63
29

m
m

1

...

m
m

3
q

5

5
5

12
12
12

14
2

10
10

Ik

2

10

8

22

7
1

63
24
n
13
39
35
L

*+

94
57

77
44
33
n
33
30

35
15
5
10
20
20

31
31
31

_

88
13
10
3
75
21
P*f

K
s

66
52
35
17
14
7
7
1

74
55
40
15
19
5
14

49
kk

13
31
5
5

82
41
37
4
41
34

150
4

16
1

191
95

4
146
n
13 1
-O *
P

1
15

95
96
96

50
15

14
14
10
4

29
28
23
5
1
1

15
35
35

7
(

Occupational Wage Survey, Boston, Mass., March 1951
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

mm

7
7
7

57
57

30
5

1
1

57

5
25
25

1

1
1
1

2
2

4
4
1
3

mm

2
2

,

2
mm

2

a*

16,

Table 4.— CUSTODIAL, WAREHOUSING AND SHIPPING OCCUPATIONS - Continued
(Average hourly earnings 1/ for selected occupations 2/ by industry division)

Number of workers receiving straight-time hourly eamin
$
$
$
1
J
$
$
$
f
t
$
$
t
%
J
$
$
1
$
1
1--- 1--- 1
V'"
Under 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1.30 1.35 1.40 1.45 1.50 1.55 1.6 0 1.65 1.70 1.75 1.80 1.85 1.90 1.95 2.00
#0 .75
and
,80 *3? •?o ,?5 1.0 0 1 ,0 5 1 .1 0 1 , 1 5 1,2 0 1,25 1 .J0 it?? I.40 1 t45 1 .5 0 1 ,5 5 1.6 0 1.65 1.70 1 ,7 5 1,80 1.85 1.90 1.95 2.00

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
earnings

%

Shinning clerks ...............................
Manufacturing....
Durable goods .................. ........
Nondurable g o o d s ........... ........... r
Nonmanufacturing 2/ ........................
Wholesale trade ................. ..... ..
Retail trade ...... ............ .
Services.......... ....... .

1,291
463
194
269
82a
513
221
64

#1 .3 5
1.3 0
1 .1 6
1.41
1.38
1.43
1.28
1.25

4
-

Receiving c l e r k s ..... ............ ...........
Manufacturing............ .................
Durable g o o d s ............. ....... ......
Nondurable goods ........................
Nonmanufacturing 2 / ....................... Wholesale trade ................. .
Retail t r a d e ...... .............. ......
Services ...... .........................

947
466
324
142
481
217
174
38

____1*23
1.22
1.16
1.38
1.24
1.28
1.18
.82

____ 1 1

Shinning-and-receiving clerks .................
Manufacturing •••••••.... ..... ............
Durable goods ...........................
Nondurable g o o d s ..... .............. .
Nonmanufacturing 2 / .......... •••••••..... .
Wholesale trade ............... .
Retail trade .......................... .
Services........... .

890
400
140
260
490
220
178
77

1.32
1.38
1.33
1.41
1.27
1.30
1.30
1.07

Stock handlers and truckers, h a n d .......................
Manufacturing ....................................................
Durable g o o d s ......... ........... .............• • • • • • •
Nondurable goods ..................... ......... .
Nonmanufacturing 2 / ..........................................
Public utilities * ......................................
Wholesale trade ........................ .
Retail trade ......... ...............................

3,885
1,866
668
1,198
2,019
571
803
645

1.30
1.30
1.33
1.29
1.30
1.52
1.19
1.23

777
351
285
426
179
108
124

1.54
1.90
2.00
1.25
1.15
1.34
1.29

Truck drivers, light (under l£ tons) 3/ .......
Manufacturing % ] ................. .
Nondurable goods
Nonmanufacturing 2/ ......... ••............
Wholesale trade ....................... .
Retail trade ..... • • • • • • • • . . . .... ......
Services.... ................ ......... .

4
4

8
8
8

2
2
2

72
60
60
.
.
12
8
A

48
29
20
9
19
13
6

29
10
10

128
120
120
_
8
8

15
10

-

11
11
6
5

29
29
18
6
5

27
20
20
7
6
1

20

35
14
21

26
-

24
5

-

-

20

-

20

39
-

9
9

—

-

-

9

39

-

26
12
4
10

I
-

19
12
2
7

30
5
5

2
-

5
19

-

2

9

-

_
2

10

38
20

38

-

—

20
18

38

-

-

46
17
3
14
29

83
61
-

61
22

11
—

41
3
3

_
11
5
1

38
12
22

7

a

36
38
32
6

44
12
12

mm

32
24
8

m
m

42
-

42
21
4
15
265
117
48
69
148

51
43
A
H
39

8
8
_

71
48
22
26
23
5
3
15

76
39
4
35
37
30
7

57
26
_
26
31
19
7

71
26
4
22
45
23
17
c
7

105
21
8
13
84
65
19

112
3

42
6
5
1
36
13
23

68
38
19
19
30
9
17
4

51
18
10
8
33
24
7

43
27
16
11
16
10
6

61
14
3

95
23

32
9
Q
7

46
12

23

A

19
72
53

9
10

182

99
27
72
83

179
73

44
29
106

8
15
290
93
30
63
197

65
31
25
6
34
6
28

169
13
5
8
156
155
1

127
75
4
71
52
20
27

29

28
7
5
2
21
3
18

70
17
5
12
53
40
11
2

61
61
29
32

6
5
5

47
23
22

54
6
5
1
48
29
14

15
12
12

92
66
66

55
23
q
7

25
25

61
18
10

3
3

26

20
32
12
20

25

34
24
10

160
141
20
121
19

464
101
49
52
363

178
151
107
44
27
15
6
6

376
298
108
190
78
0

450
330
61
269
120

63
13

69
51

194
134
30
1Q4
60
40
20

45
4
2
41

7
3

23
2
2
21

12

K

7
_

•

39

16
2

34
4

-

-

-

-

•

-

•

-

See footnotes at end of table*
*
Transportation (excluding railroads), coonunication, and other public utilities
** Finance, insurance, and real estate*




1
1

!

Occupation and industry division

-

18
4

46
3
-

43
28
12

..
—

26
3

*•

_

2

*■

123
25

72
11

44
62

182
15

27
10
10
17
16

20

44

mm

6
6
38
36
2

113
5

**

_

20

10
10

—

108
69
4
35

53
305

11

11
15

A

3
109
77
27
c
7

3
7
—

18
20

4
20

m
m

8
43
17
24
23
17

4
13
6
A

29
9

1

28
7
6
1
21
6
15

45
12
2
10
33
23
10

16
16
15
1

29
21
1
20
8

47
5
4
1
42

16

wm

0
e

19

453
76
17
59
377
272

2

36

57

36
16
18

57
35
18

347
118
78
40
229
227
2

24
18

24
9
1
8
15

—

46
20
20
26
26

14

3
3
3

16
10
10
6
6

14
14

-r
15
32 ■ - 3
3
32
1
32
2

5
5

_____

21
21

1
16
16

1
1
1

3
3

7

1

7

17
1

3

5

16
16

1

2

2

2
1

2
2

21

1
1
1

-

4

8

1
1

8

5

1

53

136
125
58
67
11

12

12

45

11

12

45

5

4
14
6
L
O

2
2
2

5
5

_____

-

5

-

-

5

105
48
27
20
21
16
2

59
2
1
57
c
7

49
40

17
35

9

Q
7

57
15
15
42
r
7

c
7

30
-

2

2
2
2

227
227
227

17,

'Cable 4.--CUSTODIAL, WAREHOUSING AND SHIPPING OCCUPATIONS - Continued
(Average hourly earnings 1/ for selected occupations 2/ by industry division)

Occupation and industry division

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
earnings

Number of
*
*
$
$
$
fi
¥
*
Under 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.0 0 1.05 1 .1 0
10.75
,80 *8? ,90 ,9? 1,0 0 1 ,0 ? lf 10 1 ,1 ?

workers receiveLng straight-time hourlv eamir igs of ¥
¥
¥
*
$
¥
¥
1
1—
¥
j — 1
1—
1
1.15 1 .2 0 1.25 1.3 0 1.35 1.40 1.45 1.5 0 1 .5 5 1.60 1.65 1 .7 0 1 .7 5 1.80 1.85 1.90 1 .9 5 2.00
and
1 ,2 0 1 ,2? 1,^ 0 if?? I.40 1.45 l.? 0 1.55 1,60 1,6? 1 ,7 0 1.75 1.80 1.85 1.90 1.95 2.00

Truck drivers, medium (l£ to and including
- i tons) ............. ........ ..............
Manufacturing.................
Durable goods...... ......... ..........
Nondurable goods .••••••••••••••....... .
Nonmanufacturing 2/ .........................
Wholesale trade ............. ..... .
Retail trade ............. ..............
Services ....................... ..... .

1,761
556
233
323
1,205
565
407
32

track drivers, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer
type) 2 / ...................................
Nonmanufacturing 2/ ............ •........ .
Retail t r a d e ...... ................... .

776
655
206

1.68

Truck drivers, heavy (over 4 tons, other than
trailer type) ..............................
Manufacturing .............. ..... ....... ..
Nonmanufacturing 2/ ....................... .
Wholesale trade ....................... .

865
108
757
331

___ 1*51____
1.51
1.51
1.62

4

tuckers, power (fork-lift) ............. .
Manufacturing............................ .
Durable g o ods......... .
Nondurable goods ........ ...............
Nonmanufacturing 2/ ........................
Wholesale t r a d e ........ ............... .
Retail trade ......................... .

540
347
75
272
193
3d
69

1.56
1.57
1.48
1.60
1.55
1.40
1.53

8
2

trackers, power (other than fork-lift) 3 / .....
Manufacturing •••••••••••••....... ........ .
Durable g o o d s ...... ...... ........
Nondurable goods ..................... .

265
238
78
160

Watchmen ................... ...... ....... .
Manufacturing ........ ............ ........
Durable g o o d s ...... .......... ....... .
Nondurable goods ....................... *
Nonmanufacturing....... ................ .
Public utilities * ..................
Wholesale trade .................
Retail trade .......... ........ ..... .
Finance * * .................. ......... .
Services......... ......... •••••••••••••

1,056
577
289
288
479
29
104
166
109
71

_ J1.A4____
1.57
1.46
1.64
1.38
1.40
1.35
1.24

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

5

35

1
5
i
.
*
¥

35
22
13

1.50

___1*43____
1.41
1 *2
5
1.35
1.14
1.22
1.13
1.32
1.03
1.29
1.23
.97
1.05
.76

L
*
+

27
27
27

33
24
13
11
9

74
11
q
J

4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

15
10
1A
w

53
53
J
.
CO
52

181
8
0
j

3
•

10
60
/a
to
32
16

4

6
A
O

5
c
s

16
16
16

254
2
252
11
14
39
12
a
8
4
27

-

-

-

-

-

-

57
57

1
1

1
1

1
1

20
20

-

-

-

-

-

-

57

1

1

1

8

55

62

45

-

4
4

hk

125
62
60

29
5

37
5

36
2
2

59
9

95
75
71

28
10

2

5

4

63
5

24

1
32

10?
71
32
39
31
1
10
34
6

3
18
1

55
•
»

58

6
38
1

5

22

10

27

45

9

4

1

21
30

11

3

10
20

2

10

2

34

4
5
50

2
22

14
31

9

5

1

20
2

2
£
8

2

7
f

1
16

6
6
1
5

7

s
K

-

-

12

12
O
4

22

6
1
4
0
<
c

1
1
1

32
27
27

326
243
69

17
14
14

59
59
59

12
1
1

205
21
184
88

52
16
36
16

50
50
—

—

74
56
18
*

18
3
15
15

21
15

3
3
3

45
45
1f
44
1

67
57
45
12
10
2

1?
7
2

5

13
3
3
10
c
>
c
?

10
10
10

7
f

5
5

15
6

5

q

-

29
19

-

3
Q

-

19
10
10

-

3

-

•
•

—

—

•
•

16
-

139
139

*101,

-

--- A.
a
8

-

102
5
—
5
97

u

4

—

-

14 --90 __76
L~_
90
76
34
14
—
90
76
-

-

5
q
2

4
4
1
,

138
138

124

—

—

-

-

l

—

—

-

-

-

-

-

-

6

•

-

-

5

-

-

-

7
3

-

-

-

-

8
31

3
4

_

-

*
,

99
95

39
8

95
4

8

42

A

5
5

77
67
33
34

17

L

X

42
42

6

23
3
—
3
20

14
14
2
12

36
36

-

138
—

Ot
f
37

4

15
j

5
1

126
126
/
0
120

10

36
71
53
21
32
18

6
5

30

20
20
20

-

1

75
63
31
32
12

-

301
154
73
81
147
no
113

87
81
81

27
.

i/ Excludes premium pay for overtime and night work.
2/ Study limited to men wrkers except where otherwise indicated.
2/ Includes data for industry divisions not shown separately.
*
transportation (excluding railroads), coraminication, and other public utilities.
** Finance, insurance, and real estate.
o.or o— n __
rnn,
i




-

420 406
52
30
29
25
8
1
5
27
63 173 368 376
1o
qA JAtf J 70
1A
-O
L
L
J o L t 1QA
>
12
47 112 179
15

8
8
8

-

*
*

-

..

-

-

18.

CHARACTERISES INDUSTRY OCCUPATIONS
(Average earnings in selected occupations in manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries)
Table 5.— MEN'S AND BOYS' SUITS AND COATS 1/

Occupation and sex

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
earnings
2/

0.75
and
under
.80

4

Nmliber >t woi•kers rece:Lying straight-tdime hou
earnings of *
$
*
E
r*
4
T
4
*
*
*
0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1.30 1.35 1.40 1.50 1.60
..70 1.80

$

%

W

.90

.95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1.30 1.35 1.40

1.50

3
3

.85

2
2

1.60

1.70

..80 1.90

i

—
$
2.80
3.00
and
over
3.00

4
1.90

2.00

4
2.20

— i —
2.40 2.60

2.00

2.20

2.40

2.60

2.80

TO
5
5
9
7
2

8
4
4
6
3
3

45
33
12
5
5

25
5
20
TO

17
17
2

5
3
2
8

-

-

-

-

2

8

2

-

_
-

Men
Cutting
Cutters and markers:

Total .......
T i m e....... ,
Incentive ....
Total .......
T i m e .........
Incentive

U1
64
77
54
26
28

*2.36
2.12
2.56
2.22
1.83
2.59

Basters, body-lining and facing, hand
Basters, collar, hand ..............
Pressers, finish, hand ........... .
Pressers, finish, machine: Tbtal ....
Time....
Incentive
Sewing-machine operators 2/ ..........
Join shoulders, cloth ...........
Join side seams ...................
Sew edge tape ..................
Sew in sleeve...... ...........
Stitch edges ...... .
Shapers, edge and bottom...........
Under-press e r s ....................

53
21
43
251
135
116
434
22
26
34
42
23
50
180

1.75
1.82
1.86
2.02
1.99
2.05
1.88
1.69
1.92
1.84
2.05
1.77
1.97
1.79

Cutters, body-lining:

4
4

5
5

2
1

—

a.

-

mm

-

2
2
3
2
1

10

-

H
-

14
2

Coat fabrication
5

1

1
1

3

—

->

3

2
1

12
3

1
3

3
4

1
3

-

11
«.

-

-

1

1

-

2

10

2

6
1

-

«.

-

_

-

4

1

-

7

16
4

1
-

-

-

-

-

_

4

—

1
9

-

2

5

•

_

4
.-

1
4

10
20

3
3
34

-

2

-

-

10

-

2
46
8
6
6

mm

7

-

1
1

K)

12

2

1

'

1
4

«.

mm

—

25
5

2

1

3
1
9

1
2
2

1
1

—

..

4

4

4
1
5

3

3
2
2

10

5
15

4
16

7
6
10
165
123
42
60
3
4
3
8

9

1

1

•

-

-

2
20

-

-

aa

—

1
aa

-

13
24

4
15

1
4

•

-

•

•

a.

1

1
1
3

..

a.

-

a.

2

—

4
3

4
1

-

1
1

3
1
1

1
1

a.

-

-

13

-

20
48
aa

8
22

2
6
6
4
1
19

4

2
3
2

5
1
3

-

-

-

4
6
3
2
6
33

4
5
19

2
4

-

1

2

-

4
-

-

57

1
5
10

6

1
3

1
23
19
TO
9
38
1
5
3
6
2
1
9

•

-

4
2
5
4

6

_

1

“

Tfrouser fabrication
Pressers, finish..................
Under-press e r s .............. ..... .
Sewing-machine operators..........

19
24
39

2.26
1.83
1.78

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

1

-

1

4

2

“

Miscellaneous
Inspectors, final (examiners)......
Packers...........................
Work distributors....••••••••••••••

See footnotes at end of table




35
23
52

1.45
1.17
.98

4
—

11

1
5

•m

2

5

•

M

12

1

7

—

8

—

6

1

2

8
1

1
2

—

—

-

10

-

Occupational Wage Survey, Boston, Mass., March 1951
U. S. DEPARTMENT OP LABCR
Bureau of labor Statistics

Bible 5.— M E N * S A ND BOYS* SUITS A N D CQAT3

Occupation and sex

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
earnings
S/

X /

Number of workers
1
4
$
*
1
$
$
V
0.75 0.30 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20
and
under
.80
.8?
lt00 lfO? 1.10 lt15 lf20 lt25

Continued

recejLving stra.Lght-t Lae hourly earnings of $
*
t
1
*
1 —
T —
v —
1.25 1.30 1.35 1.40 1.50 1.6 0 1 .7 0 1.80 1.90 2.00 2.20
ltJO 1035 I .40

Z .k O

~i—
2.60

|
2.8Q

1 —

1.50

1.60

1.70

1.80

1.90

2.00

2.20

2.40

2.60

2,gQ

3.00

7
17
26
—

4
8
13
-

—
•
•
2
—
1

—
—
1
-

1
—
2

1
-

-

-

—
-

A
f
3.00
and
over

Women
Coat fabrication
Button sewers, harxi ..... .... ......
Buttonhole makers, h a n d ...... ............... *
Finishers, hand ................... .
Fitters ................................. ,ttt,
Pairers and turners: Total ........ ........
T i m e ....................
Incentive ....... .
Sewing-machine operators 2/ ........... *......
Baste edges ................ ..........
Baste. .map-stitch machine.... .......... .
1
Buttonhole making •••••...... ..............
Fell body-lining, bottom and side: Tbtal ...
Time ....
Incentive
Join side seams ........ ...... .
Join under-collar, join sleeve-lining, or
piece pockets .......... -_____
Pad collar and lapels ............. ....... .
Pipe edge8 ............. ......... ttT.tTlttf
Sew in sleeves...... .. ...... ...........
.
Thread trimmers (cleaners) ......... .

57
88
376
17
51
18
33
844
3L
103
17
45
14
31
25

11.34

52
32
31
19
115

1.30
■4.PV
1.37
1 L2.
J-.*K
1 .J C
.
1.10

174
46
15
16
18

1.53
1.57
1 .51
- 2L
L J
1 U.
1*22

l

on

.96
1.13
1.00
1.21
1.39
l j.
i
X.AfX
1.50
1.16
1.36
1.35
1.37
1 .u .

q
q
c
0
2
3
9

a

q
Q
7
1
A
o
8
i
.
*
f

nn
xr

J

o
o
in
XU
o
1
J

1
16

q
x>
q
1

T
X
13

1
4
X
oo
29
r
5
5

X

-

~

1

•

21

o

1

32

-

5
13
1
7
6
X
39
in
XU
1

4

i
X

4
i

X

i
*
*

—

Q

Q
12

12

11

7

12

-

-

1

-

-

5
e
5
29

9
5
42

X

1
X

1
X
38
o

X
42
i
4
z
O
5

"
3
1
2
70

X

3
1
1

q
7
1
X

o
3
i
4
25

t
>

*,

"
2
q
6
6
3

3n
XX
X
24
2
3
1
2
70
4
14
1
4
3
1
4

_

X
5
m
m

11

5
3
5

6

3
2

8
o
3
1

2
1
—

11
2
*
•

3
1
2

X

3

1

3
7
22
*
•
2

6
9
37
—
2

2
16
35
"
■
4

2
55
6
in
10
1
1

2
65
2
7

2
90
*
•
7

4
82
5
10

12
9
3

6
2
4
4

8

78
3
8
X
2

8
1

2
8

“
•

1

10
•
*
1
1
6

5
3
2
1
3

1
2
6
5
6

1
2
1
1
1

—
2
3

23
4
1
1

20
3
4
1
1

9
4
1
1

13
5
—
—

1
*
*

-

—

39
1
13

1
23
—
1

2
19
1
4

9
1
3

4
1

1
1

3
1
1

•
•

1

—

*
*
-

-

-

*
*
-

1
1
1
2

2
—
-

-

-

-

-

-

1

8
4
1
-

3
2
-

18
—
2
1
1

*
■

_

1
n
X

1
3
24
"
2

1

l
X
1

4
X
1

4

10

1

-

1
10

1
2
8

7
*
*
2

2

1

14
7
~
1
1

13
5
1
2
2

1

1

-

-

Trouser fabrication
Sewing-machine operators 2/ ••••••••••
Make pockets .................. .
.
Serging ..................... ........... .
Stitch pockets ...... ............ .
Thread trimners (cleaners) ••••••••........... ,

X

I
X

“
X

"
1
.

q

0

X

40
3
2
9

i/
study covered regular (inside) shops and contract shops with more than 20 Markers, and cutting shops with more than 4 workers engaged in the manufacture
36 establishments and 5,080 workers in the industry, 17 establishments with 3,884 workers were actually studied.
2/ Excludes premium pay for overtime and night work.
2/ Data relate to all sewing-machine operators including those shown separately.




\J1

iU O li *

tU lK l

5
1
1
1

-

WMWW a

-

-

_
-

6 .—

Table

Occupation and sex

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
earnings
2/

Cutters and markers (men) •••••••••.... .......
Inspectors, final (women) .....................
Pressers, hand (men and women) ........ ..... .
M e n ......... ......... ...... ....... .
Women ....................... ......... .
Pressers, machine (6 men and 16 w o m e n ) ....... .
Pressers, hand and machine (77 men and
7 w o m e n ) ..... .............. ...............
Sewers, hand (women) .......... ...............
Sewing-machine operators, section system
(women) .......................... ..........
Sewing-machine operators, single-hand (tailor)
system (men and women) .....................
M e n ..................................... .
Women ••••....... ............ ....... ••••
Thread trinmers (cleaners) (women) ............
Work distributors (2 men and 21 women) •••••••.,

WOMEN’S A N D MISSES* DRESSES l/

. . l umber of workers receiveLng straight-time hourly earnings of <
$0.75 $0.80 $0.85 $0.90 $0.95 $1.0 0 $1.05 $i.io 1 1 0 5 $1 .2 0 $1.30 $1.40 $1.50 $1.60 $1.70 $1.80 $2*00 ^ 2 0
and
under
,80
,?0
if?o l.6o 1 ,7 0 1.80 2.00 2.20 2 t¥>
*9? 1.00 1.05 1 .1 0 Ifl? 1 .2 0 lt30

86
20
171
85
86
22

$2 . 1 1
1.07
2,36
3.39
1.34
1.75

_

84
216

..

..

_

9
10
«
10
-

_

1
1
1
-

6
6
1

1
4
4
-

4
9
9
3

12
2
10

4
l
11
.
.
n

-

i

1
JL

12

11

22

21

188

1 .2 0

11

15

13

7

10

17

9

15

11

27

1*057
42
1,015
175
23

1 .5 8
2.07
1 .5 6
.78
.85

123
14

14
14
25
5

7
_
7
15
"
■

20
20
7
2

19
19
2

30
30
3

28
28

32
~
32

51
51

10 1
10 1

-

97

6

31
-

12
-

~
-

1
-

12
-

11

9

4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

83
5
78

85
2
83

10 1
5
96

79
6
73

59
3
56

21
7
14

5
5

7
6
1

3
3

4
4

-

105
5
100

11

-

4

97

1
5

3

-

106
3
103

15

-

-

7

11

38
38
-

m
m

18
~

14

21

8
8

3
2

4

20

21
21
-

-

5
5
--

-

12

3

?t¥>

-

24

2*80
1.19

3
2
2

?»20

-

26

4
4
1

5
5

?.oo

10
5
3
2
2

5
5
~
5
2

2
1
1
3

2t80

27
4
2
2

4
•
4
4

2
1
1
-

2.60

$3. AO
and
over

27
3
3
1

m

5
8
3
5
1

2
~
2
-

-

$2.60 $2.30 $37oo $3.20

4
2
1
1

1 / The study covered establishments with more than 7 workers engaged in the manufacture of women*s and misses* dresses* Of the estimated 49 establishments and 2,720 workers in the industry, 22 establishments
with 1,612 workers were actually studied. Data in the table relate to August 1950, Between the date of survey and March 1951* 20 of the 22 companies studied granted wage increases* Seventeen gave increases of
7j to 10 cents to hourly workers, 4 percent to incentive workers, and 5 dollars weekly to cutters, Three other firms gave general increases of 5 to 7£ cents an hour*
2/ Excludes premium pay for overtime and night work*

Table 7.— PAINTS AND VARNISHES 1 /

Occupation and sex

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
earnings
2/

$0.75
and
under
.80

$0.90

$0,80

*85

.90

$0.95

$1.0 0

.95

1.0 0

1.05

Number >f workers receiving straigb r-time hourly earnings of $1.05 $1 .1 0 $1.15 $1.2 0 $1.25 $1.30 $1.35 $1.40 $1.45
1 .1 0

1.15

1 .2 0

1.25

1 .3 0

i»?5

1.40

9
3

$1.5 0

"i“
$ . 4o

*1.70

$1.80

$1.90

1,5 0

1 .6 0

1.70

1.80

1.90

2.00

1
1

34
5

4
4

11

6

13

26

—

7
9

10
1

4

1
6

2

1

9

4
-

8

2
2

7
7

3
-

6

1

-

-

-

1.45

$2.00
and
over

Men
Labelers and packers ...................... .
Maintenance men, general utility ......... .
Mixers ......... ......... ................
Technicians ........ ........ ......... ••••••
Tinters............... ...... .............
Truckers, h a n d ........................... .
Varnish makers ..... ................. .••••.

115
33
72
18
38
34
24

35

«.

$1.37
1.54

—
•

-

3
•

-

-

-

•
-

•
-

-

-

3

-

-

6

2

-

-

1.6 0

1.16

1

1.57
1.37

6

-

—
•
-

1 .4 2
1.6 0

_

3

1

-

5
-

-

3
3
-

2

1

6

2

-

1

8

2

58
9

-

1

3
-

11

-

4
-

-

11

-

_

1

3

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

Women
Labelers and packers ............ ..........

l/ Ihe study covered establishments with more than 7 workers engaged in the manufacture of paints and varnishes* Of the estimated 21 establishments and 1,260 workers in the industry, 12 establishments with 936
workers were actually studied*
2/ Excludes premium pay for overtime and night work.
Occupational Wage Survey, Boston, Mass,, March 1951
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics




2 1,

Ihble

Occupation 2/

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
earnings
2/

LOO

Tine t.*T**Tr*Ttt-tTrtt>
Assemblers, class B:

Assemblers, class C:

To t a l .... ............
Time ............ .....
Total •••••....... •••••

Incentive .............
Drill-press operators, single- and multiplespindle, class A ....... ............... .
Drill-press operators, single- and multiplespindle, class B .........................
Drill-press operators, single- and multiplespindle, filARS C: TVvhal
Time ••****+-+•«**«****•
Incentive
F lec+.ri ei ana, ma 5
.
ce •tti-rtt***........**
Engine-lathe operators, class As Total .....
Time .......
Incentive **
Engine-lathe operators, class B: Total ••••••
T i m e ......
Incentive *•
Engine-lathe operators, class C ..............
(binding-machine operators, class A: Ibtal ..
Time
Sacentive
Grinding-machine operators, class B .........
Grinding—machine operators, class C
Inspectors, class A
........
Inspectors, class B ...... ..................
Inspectors, class C t M M .tt.tt,t,M ,tl,tltll,
Janitors • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • * • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Machinists, production ................................... ..
Milling-machine operators, class A: Total ...
Time • * • *
Incentive
Milling-machine operators, class B; Total . . .
Time ...*
Incentive
Milling-machine operators, class C: Total *..
Time ....
Incentive
Tool-and-die makers (jobbing shops)
Tool-and-die makers (other than jobbing
shops) ......... ........ ....................... ..................
Truckers, hand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Welders, hand, class A
Welders, hand, class B .................................... *

-

130

1 .6 6

-

5A
26
28

224
259
192
76
116
133
71
62
57
22
35
74

1*37
1 027
1»46
1*64
1.78
1,72
1.87
1.46
1.40
1.63
1*33
1.86
1.76
1.94
1.49
1.21
1.76
1.54
1*33
■•••p p
1.11
1.55
1.85
1.70
1.94
1.47
1.35
1.60
1.33
1.13
1.46
1.83

191
87
0 1
173
— 1p
112

1.80
1*17
1.62
1.50

52

302
193
109
175
131
44
17
201
90
111
145
63
103
125
LL

INDUSH U E S

1/

•
a

$1*76
1*69
1*85
1.51
1.42
1*73
»P
1.27
1*19
1*42

1.44

MACHINERY

Number of welters receiving st.raight-time hourlyr earnings of *0.85 S0T90 10 .95 *1.00 H I 05 *1 . 1 0 *1.15' *1 .2 0 $1.25 *1 .3 0 $1.35 $1.40 $1.45 $1.5 0 i n t o $1.70 $1.80 $1.9 0 $2.00 $2 .1 0 $2 .20 $2.30 $2.40
*2.50
and
and
under
over
.90
t?? 1.00 •lfO? 1.10 lfl£ 1.2 0 It2? lf?0 I,?? lf 40 if4? 1.50 1.6 0 lf70 1.80 lt?0 2.00 2.30 2.20 2 t?0 2f 40 2 t?0

236
164
548
367
161
283
18A
99

103

8.—

*
.
-

10
10

6
6

*
.

_
-

22
22

21
15
JP
6

-

.
.

•
*

-

5
5

19
19

18
18

12
12

27

15
11
4

27
2L
3

12
Q
7

—

3
30
28
2
28
21
7

19
19

*
.

2L

3
.
.

3

3
3
p
51
46
26
21
5
8

—

1

12

4

13

13

6
6

3

1

p
2
3
p

1

11
10
1

p

p
2

1

7

g

72
1—

h a

51
p1
**
A2
O

22
10
12
25

36
pw

25
*P
>

3

g

12

14

11

c.
p

12

4

1A
2

11
1

K
P

9

p
p
9

0
7

0
7

L
H

2

1

•
—

16
12

32
p*
133
100
pp
22

83
°p
31
p*
-53
36
17
4

19

25
1*
•A
4
n
61
48
jp
31
10
21

22

4

1

_

1

—

2

51

15

8

6

14

9

4

K
J

3

57
46
11
28
9

12

11

6

LD
HU

3
p

3
p
3
p
2

3
p

17

10

34
12
22
1

27
Q
7
8

L
H

1
*
.
5

5

2

1

2

1

1

■
M

-

-

-

-

-

-

■
M

-

*
.

•
.

3

«
.

21
91
59
32
5

36
24
34
3

45
32
13
1

6
_
6
2

8
—
8
*
*

7

10
10

5

-

ID
10

3
4
L

1
1

-

-

—

2

1

14
11
3
4

5

3

1

2
11
11
3

17
13
4
26

29
17
12
38

34
12
22

48
36
12
1

23
12
11
2

6

0
56

A7
HI
5

26
7

2
2

«*

«,

37
37
18
19
14
5
9
9

13
21
8
33
7

2
26
12
14
2

4
26
15
11
5

5
16

3
16

1
8
1
7
6

76
27
22
5
20
4
16
4

16
3

16
1

12

7

2

5

3

1

-

6
3

4
3

9
8

13

25

4

6

-

3

7

50

32

47

24

12

L
H

5A
Po

16
xo
11

«
.

-

17
11
6
60
A9
*7
r
11

30
1A
63
50
13
16
6
30

J

L
H

17
17
18
18

25
17
-w
8

-

-

-

—

*
.

j

m
m

5
-

18

44

-

10

57

-

34

3
p

20
2

3
5

5

23

7
6
41

-

-

m
m

4

8

4

-

3

8
L
H

4
1
11

L
H

11
5

-

18
0
7

6
3

2

3
15

2
9

L
H

-

-

6
6

12
3
p

2
1
16

10

33
1

65
1

6
6

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

•

2
2

7
7

-

_

9
6
3
*
»

2
2
_

—

•
•
*
■
.
.

-

—

-

-

-

19

15

P

-

2

-

—

m
-

p
-

-

mm

15
-

-

-

-

-

K

1

22
20

20
18
2
3
3

4
3
1
•
•

-

24
10

2
11

n

17
«

1
13
9
4
3
3

12
8
4
6
6
_

3
2
5

p
5

20

1
•
*

-

4
4

1
1

2
2

7
7

2
*
.
2

4
4

•

10

3

_

p

2

_

73

rp
33

33

X X

2

1
13
13
1

1

8
8
1

7

1

*
*.

c
p

7
1

..

_

«*

**

3
8

1
1

8
-

1

12

2
mm

•

-1

_

mm
mm

mm

4

*.

mm

*a

1 2

9

-

-

0
p

-

-

-

y
m e study covered establishments with more than 20 workers in non-electrical machinery industries (Group 35) as defined in the Standard Industrial Glassification Manual (1945 edition) prepared by the Bureau of
the Budget; machine-tool accessory establishments with more than 7 workers were surveyed* Of the estimated 123 establishments and 18,960 workers in these industries, 45 establishments with 12,410 workers were
actually studied* Data in the table relate to January 1951* Between the date of survey and March 1951, 3 relatively small companies of the 45 in the sample granted wage increases averaging about 7 cents an hour*
2/ Data limited to men workers.
2/ Excludes premium pay for overtime and ni^it work.
Occupational Wage Survey, Boston, Mass*, March 1951
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
!:nr; o—51
),o.,
6
Bureau of Labor Statistics




Table 9.— POWER LAUNDRIES l/

Number
of
workers

Occupation and sex

Average
hourly
earnings

v

$0.55
and
under

dumber of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings of
$1 .0 0 $1.05 $1.10 $1.15 1 0 5 - *1.25

$0.65 *0.70 *0 .75 l $0.80 $0.85 $0.90 $0 .95

$0.60

.60

.65

-

_

-

-

-

•75

.80

.85

.90

.95

1.00

1.05

1.10

1.15

1 .2 0

8

_

_

-

-

_
-

16

9

26

3

4

-

1
18
-

2
17
3
1

8
5

16

_

21
7

7

-

.70

1.25

1.30

2
9

9

—

_
_
_
_

$1.40

1.U0

$1.45 1 0 5

18
8

11
-

*1.301 T1.35

and
over

_
_
_

1.35

1.45

1.50

Men
Extractor operators................... ...........
Firemen, stationary boiler ........................
Identifiers ...................... ................
Washers, machine .................................
Wrappers, bundle .................................

131
33
42
146
23

$1 .0 2

832
60

.73
.85

l4i
87
54
402
112
290
124

.7 7

l.l4

8
12
-

1.03

-

-

1.13
.77

-

-

-

-

-

-

10

8
9

_
3

3
-

35

206

254

-

25
24
1

8
46
44
2

170
19

70
1
29
4
25
47

10
28

*7
8

28
23

15

2
2

16

27
-

*

8

9

8

Q
P

-

-

-

-

Women
Finishers, flatwork, machine ......................
Identifiers ......................................
Markers} Total ..................................
Ti m e .................. ............ .
Incentive ..............................
Pressers, machine, shirts
Total .............
T i m e ....................
Incentive...............
Wrappers, bundle .................... ...............

.7*
.82
.93
.85
.95
.8 0

-

-

-

49

35
14
50
8
42
46

26

24
2
28

65

29
8
5
4
1
21

_

_

2
18

21

10

18

_

24
2

_

_

_

_

120
56
64

10

24

17

16

10

24
1

17

10

—

-

16

_
_
_

_
_

-

-

-

-

sl
l/
2/

The study covered power laundries with more than 20 workers.
Excludes premium pay for overtime and night work.

Of the estimated 97 establishments and 4,800 woikers in this industry, 21 establishments with 1,670 workers were actually studied.

Tabl* 10.— AUTO REPAIR SHOPS 1/

Number
of
workers

Occupation 2/

IMlM
Incentive....... ..... .
Tj' I

a

« i4

a

4 a v te

avm a^

4

q

88
33

*
1

Average
hourly
earnings
2/
J l f0
k
▼x. 7A
1 AQ
X .O 7
1.94
1 (O
f
X * 7t

11 .
llA jk U a M 4

a

• •
a

...... •
a

n n> n

• • • • • * • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
4VA
fl 0 f l A s
0 *1

....

101

1.0 9

c o c
pup
p q 7

Incentive
Mechanics, automotive, class B

...

• • • * • •

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

268
91
67

4
4
15
15

1
-

P
<
C

-

31

18

Q
7

4

9
1
.

17

9
in
JU
L

21

q
p

15

2

9

1
12
12
9

17
57
44
13
15

27
9

18
4

58
40
18
2

11
2
9
2

9
7

2
2
24
11
13
1

2
95
50
45
25

16
16

4
4

10
10

0

11

l

1 . O pt
X Af

x.pu
1.75
1.31
.93

11

9
9
2

20
20

1 *%ft
X .p o
0 1 ),

TVS

Greasers

f
Number of workers receiving strain(ht-tiLme hourly earnings 0, *
$
$
$
$
$
$
*
*
$
*
$
1
1
1 * * 1 1
*
r - 1
$
1 .2 0 1 .2 5 1 .3 0 1 .3 5 1 .4 0 1 .4 5 1 .5 0 1.60 1 .7 0 1.80 1.90 2.00 2.10 2.20 2.30 2.40 2.50 2.60 2.70
Under 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.0 0 1 .0 5 1 .1 0 1 . 1 5
and
and
*0.85
under
over
1
1 ,4 5 1,50 1,60 1 ,7 0 1,80 1*20 2*°° 2,10 2,20 2*2° 2,40 2*20 2 * & 2*20
•?0
t?5 lf00 lfOJ lt10 1,15 1,20 1.2 5 1,30
1 ----

3
3

30
11
19
2

98
70
28
—

18
18
4

6

2

2

8
2
6

8
6
2
2

22
20
2
1

2
2
10

1
3

10

21

13

2

10

3

10

21

13

2

4

2
2

4

6

2

2

“

-

4
-

12

4

12

0

\J
The study covered establishments with more than 4 workers in general automobile repair shops (Group 7538) and motor vehicle dealer establishments* new and used (Group 551) as defined in the Standard Industrial
Classification Manual (1949 edition) prepared by the Bureau of the Budget. Of the estimted 91 establishments and 1,920 workers in these industries, 22 establishments with 631 workers were actually studied.
2/ Data limited to men workers.
3/ Excludes premium pay for overtime and night work.
Occupational Wage Survey, Boston, Mass., March 1951
*
U. S. DEPARTMENT OP LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics




23

UNION WAGE SCALES
(Minimum wage rates and maximum straight-time hours per week agreed upon through collective bargaining between
employers and trade unions. Rates and hours are those in effect April 1, 1951.)

Classification

Table 13.— HOTELS

Table 12.--BUILDING CONSTRUCTION l/

Table 11.--BAKERIES

Rate
per
hour

Hours
per
week

Classification

Raie
per
hour

yours
per
week

Journeymen
Bread and cake - Machine shops:
Agreement A:
$1^3

1*0

1.38
1.33

1*0
1*0

1.30

1*0

Mixers* helpers, ingredient scalers, moldermen,
Wrappers, packers, floorraen (after 3 years) .......
Flour blenders, molders* helpers, rackers, pan

Agreement B:
Mixers

Bakery helpers, pan greasers, floormen, flour
dumpers
Agreement C:
Overmen
Helpers
Checkers, packers, wrappers, cutters,
icers (women):
Over 3 years ..................... ............

1*0
1*0

1.38

10
*

1,21*
1.33

Mixers* helpers, ingredient scalers, molder
operators, overmen's helpers ............. .....
Checkers and rackers:

1.5*
1.1*3

1*0
1*0

1.30

1*0

1.1*5
1.21*

1*0
1*0

.99
1.03

10
*
10
*

Agreement D:
Doughnut-machine operators, m i x e r s .... .
Divider operators, depositor operators, rollmachine operators, henchmen and stockmen.... .
Molder operators, ingredient scalers, selectors,
mixers' helpers, steam boxmen, ovenmen,
blenders
Molders* helpers, pan greasers, packers, various
machine operators •••••••••..... •••••••........
General bakery helpers, inspectors, fore ladles ••••
Icers and decorators ...... •••••.............. ..
Doughnut-tray packers, cake -cutting-mach ine opera­
tors, hand icers, panners and make-up workers ...
General bakery helpers (women) ...................
Hebrew baking:
Foremen
Second hands
Third hands




1.665
1.565

1*0
1*0

1.515

1*0

1.
1*65

10
*

1.1*15
l.3i*5
1.13

1*0
1*0

1.0 6
1.01

1*0
1*0

2.20
2.01*
1.88

1*5
15
*
15
*

ko

Asbestos workers ......... ..................
$2.^5
2.60
Boilermakers .................. ........ •••••
Bricklayers ........ ...... .................
2.775
Carpenters ....................... •••••••••••
2.375
Cement finishers ....................... •••••
2.775
Electricians .................. ......... .
2.75
Elevator constructors .......................
2.6^5
Engineers - Power equipment operators:
Building construction and heavy construction:
Heavy equipment:
Power shovels, pile drivers and
hoisting engines .................
2.80
Medium equipment:
Bulldozers, concrete mixers and
2.
1*25
steam boilers .......... .........
Light- equipment:
Pumps, coEpressors and welding
machines ........................ .
2.225
Glaziers .................. ..... ...........
2.225
lathers .................... ......... ..... .
2.85
Painters .......... .........................
2 .2 5
Plasterers ...... ...........................
2 .8 5
Plumbers ...................... ....... .
2.695
Rodmen ............. ................... ....
2.70
Roofers, composition ........ ...............
2 .30
Sheet-metal workers ............ ............
2.1*5
Steam fitters ......... .....................
2.695
Sprinkler fitters ...............
2.1*5
Stonemasons .... ..................... ..... .
2.775
Structural-iron workers ...............
2.70
2 .5 2 5
Tile layers ........ ........ ....... ...... .

1*0
1*0
1*0
1*0
1*0
1*0
1*0

1*0

1*0
1*0
1*0
1*0
1*0
1*0
1*0
1*0

1*0
1*0
1*0
1*0

1*0
1*0
1*0

Helpers and laborers
Bricklayers' tenders ..... ..................
Building laborers ................. .........
Composition roofers' helpers •••••••••••.....
Elevator construction helpers •••••....... .
Plasterers' tenders ........ ........... ..
Tile layers' h e l pers..... ..................

1.75
1.75
1.675
1 .8 5
1.9 0
1.90

1*0

1*0
1*0
1*0
1*0
1*0

1/ In general, the scales reported apply within the terri­
torial Jurisdiction of the Boston Building and Construction
Trades Council of the Metropolitan District which covers the
following cities and towns: Arlington, Boston, Belmont,
Brookline, Cambridge, Chelsea, Dedham, Everett, Malden, Med­
ford, Melrose, Milton, Revere, Reading, Somerville, Stoneham,
WInthrop, Wakefield, Winchester and Woburn.

Classification

Baggage porters, bellmen, doormen ...........
Bartenders:
Service bars ............ ....... ........
Public bars ............................ .
Cooks:
First ...................................
Rounds .......... ............ ...... ....
Dish men or women (wipers) ..... ............
Elevator operators ........... ..............
Housemen ......... ........ ....... .........
Maids ...... ..... ........ ............ .
Pot washers .......... .................... .
Salad m e n .... ..... .............. .........
Salad women .................. ..... . r....
.
Telephone‘operators ........ ................
Waiters ............. ................ .
Waitresses..... ...... ........ ............

Rate
per
hour

HOUT8
per
week

$0.1*5

18
*

1.1*17
1.313

18
*
18
*

1.63
1.53
.1
7*
.81
.81

1*0
1*0
1*0
18
*
18
*
18
*
1*0
1*0
1*0
15
*
18
*
1*8

.7 5

.92
1 .0 7
1.03
.831*
•583
.513

Table 1^.— LOCAL TRANSIT OPERATING EMPLOYEES l/

Classification

1-man cars and busses:
First 3 months .......... ........ ......
1 to 6 months ....... .......... ....... T
*
7 to 9 months ........ ...... ...........
10 to 12 months ...... ..................
After 1 year ........................... .
Rapid transit lines:
Guards:
First 3 months ............... ........
1 to 6 months ............. ..........
*
7 to 9 months ................. ......
10 to 12 months ....................__
After 1 year ....................__
Motormon:
Road ........................... r_ tt
_
Yard ................................

per
hour

$1.1*1*
1.555
1.59
1.635
1 .7 7
x. j
i

1 .3 2
l.W
1.^75
1.52
1.615
1.675
1.73

Hours
per
week

Ul*

H

i

a
i*it
1*1 1

Kf

l/ The rates listed pertain to employees of the Metropoli­
tan Transit Authority which serves all of Boston, Brookline,
Cambridge, Somerville and most of the contiguous cities and
towns in the Boston Metropolitan Area,
Occupational Wage Survey, Boston, Mass., M a r c h 1951
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau o f Labor Statistics

-U
2<
UNION WAGE SCALES - Continued

Classification

First men:
R t «w 1ng department .............................
Bottling department ............................
Brewery workers
...........................
Bottlers
Apprentices:
First year
...........................
Second year
Drivers
Drivers* helpers ......................... .........

Rate
per
hour

Hours
per
week

$1,688
1.6 7 5
1.638
1.6 2 5

4o
40
40
40

1.3 7 5
1.500
1.6 7 5
1.600

40
40
4o
40

Table 16.--MOTORTRUCK DRIVERS AND HELPERS

Classification

Armored car
Bakery:
Cooky and cracker ....,....... ............. ..
Transport trucks:
Up to 3 tons ........... ..................
3 to 5 tons ........................... .
5 tons and o v e r .......... ................
Beer:
Bottle and keg .. •••..........................
Helpers
Beer and l i q u o r ..... ....... .....
Helpers •••••••••»•*••••••••••••••••••••••••
Building:
Construction:
Concrete-mixer truck, Euclid tractor .......
Dump truck:
l4 tons or less ....... ...... .........
Over l4 tons ................. .
Helpers ....... ........................
Material:
Concrete
Helpers ................................
Lumber
Helpers ....... ........................
Carbonated beverage ............................
Helpers
Coal
Helpers ................................ .




Table 18.--PRINTING

Table 16. — MOTORTRUCK DRIVERS AND HELPERS - Continued

Table 1 5 . — MALT LIQUORS

Rate
per
hour

Hours
per
week

$ 1 ,4 0 5

40

1 .4 o

^5

1 .3 5
1 .4 0
1 .5 0

48
48
48

1 .6 7 5
1 .6 0
1 .4 2
1 .3 2

4o
40
40
40

1 .7 0

40
40
4o

1 .5 0
1A 5
1 .3 9
1 .3 ^
1*3 8

40
40
40
40
44

1 .1 8

44

1 .5 1 8
1 .4 o 8

40
40

m

z

per
hour

Department store:
$1.2 0
Parcel and transfer .................. .
1.50
Garbage disposal .............................
1.5 0
Helpers ....................... .
General hauling:
1.41
Up to 3 tons .............................
3 to ‘ tons ................................. 1 .4 35
S
5 ten8 and over ................ .
1.51
1.385
Helpers
Grocery:
Chain store ...... .............
1.679
Helpers ........ .
1.535
Linen supply
1.263
2.271
Magazine
Movers - Piano and household:
Trailer ............... .............. .
1.35
1.3 0
Regular ....................................
1,2 0
Helpers .............. .
Newspaper:
Day ,
2 .1 6
Night ....................................
2.33
Oil:
Agreement A:
After 30 months .......................
1.91
Agreement B (asphalt and oil) .............
1.50
1.3 0
Helpers
Agreement C ............. ........... .
1.43
Railway express:
l4 to 5 tons ........ ....... .............
1.729

40

1 .3 8
1 .5 5
1 .3 5

—

Classification

40
44
44
40
40
40
40
48
48
40
40
48
48
48
42
40

40
40
40
40
4o

Table 17.--OFFICE BUIIDING SERVICE

Classification

Agreement A:
Elevator operators, porters, night
cleaners (women), matrons •••••••••••••••
Watchmen ................. ...... .
Agreement B:
Elevator operators, porters, night
cleaners (women) ........ ..... ........
Firemen .............. .............. .....
Janitors ................................

Rate
per
hour

Hours
per
week

$1.05
1.0 2 5

40
40

1.0 0
1.15
1.05

Saie

Hours
per
week

40
40
40

Classification

per
hour

Hours
per
week

Book and Job shops:
Bindery w o m e n ....... ............. ........
Bookbinders
........
Compositors, hand; machine operators, machine
tenders (linotype or monotype) ...........
Electrotypers ........................ ..
Photoengravers ........ .............. .
Press assistants and feeders:
Single presses, cross-feeding presses under
65 inches, pile-feeding presses, cylinder
presses, hand and Job automatic ..........
1 two-color press, 1 perfecting press,
cylinder presses with two-pile feeding
machines ...................... 2.0 6
Pressmen, cylinder:
1 perfecting press, 1 two-color press, 2
high-speed cylinder presses 25 x 38 inches
or larger ............. .................
Under 65 inches with two-pile feeding
machines ......... •••••••••.... ........
Under 65 inches, all types of Job cylinder
presses ............ ....................
Pressmen, platen, automatic ............ ••••••

$ 1.20

374

2 .2 1

37f

2.24
2.40
2.453

37i
40
374

1.96

3Ti

37i

2 .3 8

374

2 .2 9

374

2.21
2.09

37
37

2 .671+
2.80

37*
375

2 .1 2
2.271

37i
35

\

Newspapers:
Compositors, hand; machine operators, machine
tenders:
Day w o r k ...... .................. ......
Night work ..................... .
Mailers:
Day work .................. ...... .
Night work .............................
Photoengravers:
Day work ...............................
Night w o r k .............................
Pressmen, web presses:
Day w o r k ............................... .
Night work ........ •••••••...... ....... .
Pressmen-in-charge, web presses:
D a y w o r k ........ ................ .
Night work ............. ........... .
Stereotypers:
Day work ............. .................. .
Night w o r k ....... ...................... .

2.81+6
3.03

37i
37}

2.1+81+
2.898

1+
2
36

2.663
3.107

1+
2
36

2.73*1
3.022

35,
3l|

Occupational W a g e Survey, Boston, Mass., March 1951
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bu r e a u of Labor Statistics

25.

UNION WAGE SCALES - Continued
Table 20.— STRUCTURAL AND ORNAMENTAL IRON WORKERS

Table 19.--SEA POOD PROCESSING

Rate
per
hour

Classification

$

Cutters .......... ..........
Cutter-floormen ............
Wharf-floormen .............
Floormen ..................
Scalers ....................
General helpers (fillet room)
Qjiick-freeze operators.....
quick-freeze packers .......
Wrappers ....... ...........

1,563

1.563

1.563
1.46
1.34
1.25
1.25
1.15
1.15

Hours
per
week

Rate
per
hour

Classification

I)
K

'Table 21.— STEVEDORING

Hours
per
week

Working foremen .................................

$1,9 2

to

Lay-out men ............................ ....... .

1,82

to

Welders and mechanics............. .............

1.5*

to

Heluers ............ ....... ...... ..............

to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to

1,30

to

Rate
per
hour

Classification

Longshoremen:
General cargo
Bulk cargo, ballast and all coal cargoes, cement
or lime in b a g s .... .........................
Wet hides, creosoted poles, creosoted ties, creosoted shingles, cashew oil, gasoline, soda-ash in
bags, carbon-black, cotton seed meal in bags ....
Refrigerated space cargo (temperature freezing or
lower), grain in bulk ........................
Bags of scrap m i c a ........... .................
Casks of pickled skins from New Zealand and
Australia ............... .
Naphthalene in bags ........ ................ .
Explosives or damaged cargo ..... ...............

Hours
per
week

$2.00

to

2.05

to

2.15

to

2*20
2.25

to
to

2.50
2.75
3.90

to

to
to

Table 22.— MINIMUM ENTRANCE RATES FOR PLANT WORKERS 1/

P e r c e n t o f P la n t 2 / w orkers in e sta b lish m e n ts w ith s p e c if ie d mil
Minimum rate
(in cents)

A ll
industries

2/
All establishments .....
60 or un d e r............
Over 60 and under 65 .....
65 .....................
Over 65 and under f O ....
7 0 ....................
Over 70 and under 75 ....
7 5 ....................
Over 75 aad under SO ....
S O ....................
Over 80 and under 8 5 ....
85 .....................
Over 85 and under 90 ....
9 0 ....................
Over 90 ahd under 9 5 ....
9 5 ....................
Over 95 and under 100 ....
1 0 0 ...................
Over 100 and under 105 ...
1 0 5 ...................
Over 105 and under 110 ...
1 1 0 .......... .........
Over 110 and under 115 ...
1 1 5 ...................
Over 115 and under 120 ..•

1 2 0 ...........................

100.0

100.Q

100.0

100.0

100.0

Retail

tra d e

100.0

imum rates in
Public
utilities*

100.0

100.0

6.2

9.6
0.7

u
J

W

&
3.8
2.8

2.1

5.6
2.1
2.3
7.5
10.9

15.1

.7

9.^

Information not available ,

5.2

.7
2.2
2.6

7.3

1679
ill
3.8

12T0

fc?
1 .5

57o

7.5
9.6

1 I5

2.4

1675

10.5

.2

5.2

1.3

12.5

to5
7.2

674

3-g

V i

44.4

25.4

1.8

Establishments with no
established minimum ....

2 .1
8.4
2.9
.2

2.8

l74

7s

67i

£§
3.9
.1

2:i
7.7
4.2

72

5.1

2 .6

3.9
1.5

74

hi

i:i

.1

1.9

9.5

•3

3.7

18.7

.-5
6.3

673

•3

2 .2

174

1 .2

1.3

5.5
2.1
.2

3.4

4.0
6.7

22.7

3*.2

76

<s?>

2.5
1.5

hi
12:l

1.8

8.4
7.8
1.3

I2 3
T

7.1
9.2

22.4
5.9
.5

25.2

lU

Z

1.4
1.5
2.1

74

.4.2
3.0

.2

.7
—
-

2.8

3.6

-

Receiving shift differentials .•
Uniform cents (per hour) ....
^
Under 5 cents ..........
5 cents
Over 5 and under 10
cents ................
10 cents...............
Over 10 cents ..........
Uniform percentage
5 percent ...............
Over 5 and under 10
percent ..............
10 percent .............
Over 10 percent ........
Receiving no differential ......

-2*2=

3.2

7.6

1.5

1 1 .6

4.4

2 .0

0 .2

7.1

2 .0

8.5
5.^
.5
3.0

3.2

7.6
1.5
-

1.5

2 .0
2 .0

.2
»2

2 .0
.1

1.1

-

2 .0

-

7.1
2.3

-

9.2
8.3
.9
4.4

k.k

-

•3
.4

1 .6
.3
.7

.3

2 .6

.6
2.1

.4
1.3

1 .2

3.1
.4

2 .6

.6
-

•3
1.4

-

.2

.2
.2

-

-

-

6.1

1.3

.2
.4
—

.9

-

.8

.3
2 .1

.2
-

.1
.2
1 .0

3.8
.6

“

-

-

.2

.5
.7
l.l

-

.9
-

.1

-

-

-

.9

.1

-

-

2 .1

-

-

-

-

2.7

-

-

4.8
-

_
2.4

—

•
-

.1

1.9
-

wm

.4
1.5

-

1/

Includes data for industries other than those shown separately.

to7

13.8

Percent of workers on extra shifts,
all establishments ............ .

Percent of ulant workers employed on each
Paints
All manudfacturing industries 1 /
Durable
Nondurable
All
£
uxd
Machinery
van tishes
industries _ goods
goods
3d or
3d or
3d or
3d or
3d or
2d
2d
2d
2d
2d
shift other shift other shift other shift other shift other
shift
shift
shift
shift
shift

474
3.^

1676
9.5

1 8 .3

28.6

Lowest rates formally established for hiring either men or women plant workers, other than watchmen.
Other than office workers.
Includes data for Industries other than those shown separately.
Less than 0.05 o f 1 percent.
Transportation (excluding railroads) , communication, and other public utilities.




Table 23. SHIFT DIFFERENTIAL PROVISIONS
—

S e r v ic e s

Shift differential

1.4
2.7

ff

100.0

W h olesale
tra d e

tl

Over 120 and under 125 ...
1 2 5 ...................
Over 125 and under 130 ...
1 3 0 ...................
Over 130 and under 135 ...
135 and over ...........

1/

Manufac turing
Durable goods I Nondurable goods
Establishments with
101 - 500 501 or
101 - 500 501 or
more
more
workers
workers
workert
workers

Occupational Wage Survey, Boston, Mass., March 1951
TJ.S, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

Table 2 4 . — SCHEDULED "WEEKLY HOURS

Percent of women office workers employed in -

1
1
!

§
*

Man
Weekly hours

All
industries

All
manu­
facturing

Durable
goods

Mondurable
goods

Wholesale
trade

Retail
trade

Finance**

All establishments ..................

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

_
5.6
.6
13.8
9.C
62.8
.2
6.3
1.7
—

_
_
5.2
.2
11.5
5.5
62.8
.4
11.3
3.1
—

7.6
32.8
15.9
27.1
16.6
-

_
3.0
.5
49.6
.5
46.4
—

_
6.2
6.2
19.0
9.5
46.8
2.9
2.8
.3
6.3

Under 35 hours ................ .....
35 hours ....... ...................
Over 35 and under 37^ hours ........
3 - - h o u r s .........................
7J
Over 37& and under 40 h o u r s .......
40 hour 8 .......................
Over 40 hours and under 44 hours ....
44 hour 8 .......... ...............
Over 44 and under 4$ h o u r s ........
48 hours ..........................
Over 48 h o u r s .....................
1/
2/
2/
*
**

_

6.2
15.9
16.9
18.0
39.5
.A
2.2
(2/)
.9

_
_
6.2

4.1
3.2
11.9
10.9
68.2
.8
.9
*

1.0
16.7
13.4
62.7
-

6.2
18.3
9.1
31.9
30.3
4.2
-

Public
utilities*

Services

—

All
industries
2/
100.0
0.4
.7
.3
3.8
5.0
68.6
1.8
3.2
6.5
7.0
2.7

Percent of plant 1/ workers employed in
Mamofactiming
All
Retail
Wholesale
Non­
Durable
trade
trade
manu­
durable
goods
facturing
...goods .
100.0
_

1.0
6.2
(2/)
76.0
.3
2.1
6.3
3.6
4.5

100.0
■_
3.5
81.0
•6
4.3
3.6
6.0
1.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

1.9
8.5
(2/)
71.7
8.7
1.5
7.7

_
•1.9
72.9
4.4
6.6
11.9
2.3

_
0.6
1.8
24.9
43.4
5.4
5.3
12.3
6.3
—

Public
utilities*
100.0

-

97.0
3.0
—

Services

100.0
2.7
.5
1.8
.4
2.0
40.9
3.9
6.6
7.6
3 3 .3
.3

Other than office workers.
Includes data for industries other than those shown separately.
Less than 0.05 of 1 percent.
Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
Finance, insurance, and real estate.

Table 25.~PAID HOLIDAYS

Number of paid holidays

All establishments ................
Establishments providing paid
holidays ....... ...... ..........
1 to 5 d a y s .............. .
6 days •••••...................
7 days ................... ....
7& days .......................
8 days ....... ...... ..........
8J- d a y s ........... ...........
9 days •••••••.................
9& d a y s .......................
10 days .......................
10J- d a y s ................. . ••••
11 d a y s ......................
Uj- d a y s .... .
12 d a y s ................ ..... .
13 or more days ................
Establishments providing no paid
holidays....•••••...............
1/
2/
*
**

All
industries

Percent of office workers employed in Manufacturing
All
Non­
Wholesale
Retail
Finance**
Durable
manu­
durable
trade
trade
goods
facturing
goods

Services

Percent of plant 1/ workers employed in Mamufacturing
All
Non­
Wholesale
Retail
Durable
manu­
durable
trade
trade
goods
facturing
goods

Public
utilities*

Services

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

96.4
.4
3.2
3.0
1.8
4.4
.4
3.8
.5
22.5
.1
50.4
.1
3.6
2.2

100.0
9.9
9.9
7.9
12.3
6.8
35.1
16.1
2.0

100.0
7.9
8.4
13.4
17.6
4.3
36.5

100.0
12.9
12.2
4.6
10.4
32.9
22.1
4.9

100.0
1.8
1<1
8.7
39.3
48.4
.7
-

57.1
.5
3.4
12.4
.3
15.0
1.2
24.1
.2
—

100.0
1.9
8.7
80.0
8.0
1.4

100.0
3.6
1.8
.7
3.5
1.1
57.9
31.4
•
-

99.9
5.0
5.9
5.4
7.2
3.7
6.7
9.6
38.9
2.8
14.7

86.A
6.4
20.7
15.9
2.8
7.4
.6
4.8
.1
18.6
8.6
.1
.4

95.1
7.2
30.7
23.4
4.9
7.5
5.2
12.3
3.1
.8

89.7
22.6
28.9
10.3
11.8
—
7.5
•
8.1
.5
-

100.0
13.8
38.0
18.5
3.6
_
3.1
_
16.0
5.5
_
1.5

97.6
5.7
3.2
2.7
3.4
16.0
_
27.4
_
37.2
2.0

58.5
2.3
5.3
7.2
13.9
_
2.2

92.1
6.5
5.9
9.4

74.2
10.9
19.7
6.2

2.2
4.2
3.5

2.5

23.8
_
3.8

48.3

-.1

13.6

4.9

10.3

3.6

11.9
-

—

Other than office workers.
Includes data for industries other than those shown separately.
Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
Finance, insurance, and real estate.




Public
utilities*

All
. industries
i
2/

—

42.9

—

—

— .

2.4

41.5

1.4
.8
10.8

12.1
_
_
-

21.5

7.9

25.8

.4

O c c u p a t i o n a l W a g e Surrey, B o ston, Hass., M a r c h 1951
U. S. D S F A B T M E H T OF LABOR
B u r e a u o f L a b o r Statistics

Table 26.— PAID VACATIONS (FORMAL PROVISIONS)

Vacation policy

All
industries

Percent of off:Lee workers employed in Manufacturing
Wholesale
All
Retail
Non­
Finance**
Durable
manu­
trade
trade
durable
goods
facturing
goods

Public
utilities*

Services

All
industries
2/

Percent of slant 1/ workers employed in *
Manufacturing
Retail
Wholesale
Non­
All
Durable
trade
trade
durable
manu­
goods
goods
facturing

Public
utilities*

Services

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Establishments with paid vacations ...
Under 1 week ..... ........... .
1 week ...........................
Over 1 and under 2 weeks ......... .
2 weeks ............. ........... .
Over 2 weeks .....................

65.9
1.2
35*7
.5
28.4
.1

62.4.

62.5
.6
51.7

62.2
3.6
38.9
1.2
18.5

55.1
4.7
43.4
7.0
-

63.6
63.6
-

74.3
17.3
56.9
.1

35.7
2.4
33.3
-

77.8
* 61.2
5.3
9.8
1.5

43.8
16.2
26.3
1.3
(2/)

43.2
28.2
14.7
.3
-

41.3
27.0
13.8
.5
-

44.9
29.3
15.6
-

48.8
2.6
43.6
2.6
-

52.6
52.6
-

27.4
1.3
26.1
-

39.9
•4
27.0
12.1
.4

Establishments with no paid vacations
1 year of service

34.1

37.6

37.5

37.8

44.9

36.4

25.7

64.3

22.2

56.2

56.8

58.7

55.1

51.2

47.4

72.6

60.1

Establishments with paid vacations ...
Under 1 week ......... ...... .....
1 week ................... ...... .
Over 1 and under 2 wee k s ......*....
2 weeks ............... ..........
Over 2 weeks ........ .... .

99.7
6.7
85.0
8.0

100.0
7.5
88.6
3.9

100.0
1.9
92.0
6.1

100.0
15.5
83.7
.8

98.2
14.7
83.5
-

100.0
19.4
•
80.6
-

100.0
84.1
15.9

100.0
1.4
98.6
-

99.8
17.4
75.5
6.9

98.0
.2
54.9
1.0
40.7
1.2

98.7
73.4
1.8
21.4
1.8

100.0
.7
65.3
30.3
3.7

97.5
80.8
3.4
13.3
-

99.7
32.4
67.3
-

100.0
30.8
69.2
-

92.1
14.1
78.0
-

97.5
54.4
40.6
2.5

.2

2.0

1.3

2.5

.3

7.9

2.5

99.8
5.3
47.6
46.9

98.5
3.8
82.X
12.6

99.5
3.9
90.1
5.5

99.0
6.8
89.0
3.2

99.7
9.7
84.7
5.3

92.1
88.5
3.6

97.5
6.7
80.5
10.3

.2

1.5

.5

1.0

.3

7.9

2.5

99.8
5.3
40.4
54.1

98.5
3.8
59.3
35.4

99.5
3.9
66.0
29.6

99.0
6.8
55.3
36.9

99.7
9.7
66.0
24.0

92.1
15.9
76.2

97.5
6.7
78.6
12.2

.2

1.5

.5

1.0

.3

7.9

2.5

All establishments
6 months of service

Establishments with no paid vacations

.3

1.8

46.5
.5
13.6

-

10.2
-

-

-

1.8

-

(2/)

-

.3

-

-

5 years of service
Establishments with paid vacations ...
1 week ........................ .
2 w e e k s ........ ......... ••••••••
Oyer 2 weeks .... ......... ...... .
Establishments with no paid vacations
15 years of service
Establishments with paid vacations ...
1 week ......... .............•••••
2 weeks............. ..... ......
Over 2 weeks •••••••••..... ••••••••
Establishments with no paid vacations

1/
2/
2/
*
**

99.7
1.5
69.5
28.7
.3
99.7
1.5
39.3
58.9
.3

100.0
1.4
92.5
6.1
100.0
1.4
69.5
29.1
-

100.0
•
93.9
6.1

100.0
3.5
90.3
6.2

100.0
76.8
23.2
-

1.8
100.0
3.5
59.0
37.5
-

Other than office workers.
Includes data for industries other than those shown separately*
Less than 0.05 of 1 percent.
Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities,
Finance, insurance, and real estate.




98.2
5.8
89.0
3.4

98.2
5.8
67.3
25.1
1.8

100.0
54.7
45.3
100.0
40.9
59.1
-

100.0
53.4
46.6

(2/ )
100.0
18.4
81.6
(2 /)

100.0
99.4
.6
100.0
11.4
88.6
-

100.0
.6
91.2
8.2
100.0
.6
77.9
21.5
-

100.0
2.2
55.7
42.1
100.0
2.2
50.8
47.0
-

Occupational Wage Survey, Boston, Hass., March 1951
. U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

28,
Table 27*— PAID SICK LEAVE (FORMAL PROVISIONS)

Provisions for paid sick leave

All establishments .................

All
industries

Percent of office workers employed
Manufacturing
Wholesale
All
Non­
Retail
Durable
trade
manu­
durable
trade
goods
goods
facturing

-----All
industries
2/

Percent of1 plant 1/ workers employed in Manufacturing
m r
Wholesale
Retail
Non­
Durable
manu­
durable
trade
trade
goods
goods
facturing

Finance**

Public
utilities*

Services

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

35.9
5.2
8.7
1.9
14.8
2.5
2.8
-

15.6
9.1
5.2
.7
.6

33.9
6.7
13.7
4.6
3.8
2.2
2.9
-

5.0
.3
1.1
.6
.1
.1
1.6
.2
.5
0.2
.3

0.7
.1
.6

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

29.5
.2
• 5.3
2.7
.8
.4
9.8
1.0
6.5
1.0
1.1
.2
.5

25.0
4.4
1.4
1.7
14.7
1.3
1.5

29.3
4.4
3.0
18.0
2.2
1.7

18.9
4*4
3.4
9.3
1.3

29.2
1.1
7.5
1.3
2.8
15.3
1.2

17.3
.1
U.o
3.2
-

70.5

75.0

70.7

81.1

70.8

82.7

64.1

84.4

66.1

95.0

99.3

38.6
7.9
1.7
•A
.5
12.2
.9
8.2
3.1
1.1
1.6
1.0

36.9
8.3
.3
21.7
1.5
1.7
3.4

34.3
5.6
20.1
2.2
3.0
3.9

40.0
12.2
.6
24.0
.6
_
2.6

46.4
.7
.8
2.8
1.1
17.1
1.0
11.5
10.2
1.2

24.6
7.5
13.7
_
3.2
.2
_
_
-

39.1
6.8
8.7
1.9
16.4
2.5
2.8
_

47.0
31.6
_
14.1
.7
.6

35.2
4.5
4.9
4.6
3.6
2.2
10.1
2.4
2.9
-

8.7
3.2
.9
.1
.1
2.5
.3
.3
.5
.3

.7
.1
.6

61.4

63.1

65.2

60.0

53.6

75.4

60.9

53.0

64.8

91.3

99.3

38.8
3.3
1.7
.3
.5
11.0
1.0
8.2
2.2
1.1
3.1
6.4

36.9
4.5
.3
•
20.7
1.5
.4
9.5

34.8
5.6
18.4
2.2
.7
7.9

40.0
2.9
.6
24.0
.6
-

46.4
.7
.8
2.8
1.1
11.5
1.0
9.0

-

-

_
11.9

7.0
12.5

26.3
5.2
13.7
3.4
.2
2.1
1.7

39.1
.1
8.7
1.9
16.4
2.4
2.8
4.1
2.7

43.5
24.7
•5.3
.7
17.8

35.2
.9
4.9
4.6
7.3
2.1
10.1
2.9
2.4

9.5
2.2
.8
.1
.1
'2.5
.6
.8
.6
1.8

.7
.1
.6

61,2

63.1

65.2

60.0

53.6

73.7

60.9

51.5

64.8

90.5

99.3

100.0

100.0

Public
utilities*

Services

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

1.2
.1
1.1

23.0
6.2
2.4
1*7
12.7
-

3.7
1.4
.1
2.2
-

14.4
5.3
6.9
1.7
-

12.7
2.0
5.7
1.6
1.4
2.0
-

98.3

77.0

96.3

85.6

87.3

1.2
.1
1.1

29.8
3.0
.3
1.7
13.1
2.1
4.3
5.3
-

7.4
5.1
.1
2.2
-

37.5
19.7
16.0
1.8
-

15.2
2.0
7.7
1.6
1.5
2.0
.4

98.8

70.2

92.6

62.5

84.8

1.2
.1
1.1

33.8
3.0
4.4
1.7
12.6
2.0
4.3
2.3
3.5

9.1
2.3
1.4
.1
2.2
1.4
1.7

40.4
15.1
1.8
9.5

15.2
2.1
3.8
—
1.5
3.9
1.4
2.1
.4

98.8

66.2

90.9

59.6

84.8

6 months of service
Establishments 'with formal provisions
for paid sick leave ...............
Under 5 days .................. .
5 days ................... .
6 d a y s .............. ........ .
7 days .........................
8 days •••••....................
10 days .................... .
11 days ..................... .
12 days ........................
15 days ........................
16 days ........................
20 d a y s ........ ...............
Over 20 days ...................
Establishments with no formal
provisions for paid sick leave ....

.100.0

1 year of service
Establishments with formal provisions
for paid sick leave ..............
5 d a y s ........................
6 d a y s ................... .....
7 days ......... ................
8 d a y s ........... .............
10 d a y s ........... ............
11 days ........................
12 d a y s .......... .............
15 days ............ ............
l6 days ....................... .
20 days ........................
Over 20 d a y s ............... .
Establishments with no formal
provisions for paid sick leave ....

100.0

15 years of service
Establishments with formal provisions
for paid sick leave ..............
5 d a y s ........... .............
6 d a y s .................. .
7 d a y s .... ......... ...........
8 d a y s .........................
10 days ........... .............
11 d a y s ............. .
12 d a y s ...................... .
15 days ......... ...............
16 days ........................
20 d a y s ........................
Over 20 days •••••••............
Establishments with no formal
provisions for paid sick leave .....
1/
2/
*
**

Other than office workers.
Include data for industries other than those shown separately.
Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
Finance, insurance, and real estate.




100.0

u .o

Occupational Wage Survey, Boston, Mass., March 1951
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

Table 28.— NONPRODUCTION BONUSES

Percent of office workers employed in Manufacturing
All
Wholesale
Retail
Non­
Durable
Finance**
trade
manu­
trade
durable
goods
facturing
goods

Type of bonus

All
industries

All establishments .................

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Establishments with nonproduction
bonuses 3 / ..... ...................
Christmas or year-end...........
Profit-sharing ..................
O t h e r .......... .................

35.8
27. A
3.3
7.0

35.6
24.4
8.0
3.6

30.0
13.9
10.0
6.1

43.8
39.7
5.2
-

45.4
45.2
1.0
2.4

27.3
27.3
.2
.2

39.2
23.2
3.2
14.0

1 4 .8
1 4 .8
-

Establishments with no nonproduction
bonuses ............... .

64.2

64.4

70.0

56.2

54.6

72.7

60.8

85.2

Public
utilities*

Services

All
industries
2/

Percent of plant 1/ workers employed _n Manufacturing
Non­
Wholesale . Retail
All
Durable
trade
trade
durable
manu­
goods
goods
facturing

Public
utilities*

Services

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

29.4 .
29.4
.8
-

27.6
24.0
3.4
1.9

25.6
20.0
4.5
1.9

18.0
11.0
3.0
4.1

32.5
28.1
5.9
—

53.2
47.3
3.2
2.9

36.7
36.7
2.8
2.8

3.3
3.3
-

28.8
27.2
1.8
1.6

70.6

72.4

74.4

82.0

67.5

4 6 .8

63.3

96.7

71.2

100.0

1

1/

Other than office workers.
Includes data for industries other than those shown separately.
2 / Unduplicated total.
*
Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
** Finance, insurance, and real estate.
2/

Table 29.— INSURANCE AND PENSION PLANS

Percent of o
jffice workers employed in Manufacturing
All
Retail
Wholesale
Non­
Finance**
Durable
manu­
trade
trade
durable
goods
facturing
goods

Public
utilities*

All
Industries
2/

Percent of plant 1/ workeip s employed in Manufacturing
Retail
Wholesale
Non­
All
Durable
durable
trade
trade
manu­
goods
goods
facturing

Type of plan

All
industries

All establishments ..................

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Establishments with insurance or
pension plans 2 / ........... .......
Life insurance..... .........
Health insurance.... ...........
Hospitalization..... ........
Retirement pension .............

9 1 .9
7 9 .2
6 3 .3
5 0 .8
62.8

92.7
80.0
80.4
70.5
49.6

94.5
87.2
87.7
78.5
52.1

90.1
69.5
69.9
59.0
46.0

83.7
6716
48.2
45.2
43.1

9 4 .0
72.1
62.8
36.7
33.4

96.2
93.6
65.5
52.9
80.2

91.8
48.9
46.0
30.1
90.2

7 9 .2
54.0
4 3 .0
2 5 .8
48.9

89*3
69.3
70.1
54*9
38.5

9 5 .0
7 7 .8
83.6
72.8
40.6

Establishments with no insurance or
pension p l a n s ........... ..........

8.1

7.3

5.5

9.9

16.3

6.0

3.8

8.2

20.8

10.7

5.0

1/ .Other than office workers.

2/

Includes data for industries other than those shown separately.

2/
*
**

Unduplicated total.
Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities
Finance, insurance, and real estate.




Services

100.0

95.1
79.0
87.8
70.8 .
43.0

4.9

Public
utilities*

Services

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

94.9
76.6
79.9
74.7
38.4

79.1
69.9
50.2
40.6
33.1

91.9
71.7
67.4
32.9
27.5

79.2
34.5
31.1
23.4
72.7

71.1
51.0
49.7
34.6
17.1

5.1

20.9

8.1

20.8

28.9

Occupational Wage Survey, Boston, Mass., March 1951
U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

30,

A ppendix A “

Scop* and Method of Swumjf

With the exception o f the union scale of rates, Information presented in th is b u lletin was collected
by v is its of f ie ld representatives of the Bureau to representative establishments in the area surveyed. In
cla ssify in g workers by occupation, uniform job descriptions were used; they are presented in Appendix B.
Six broad industry d ivision s were covered in compiling earnings data for the following types of oc­
cupations; (a) o ffic e c le r ic a l, (b) professional and technical, (c) maintenance and power plant, and (&) cus­
to d ia l, warehousing and shipping (tab les 1 through *). The covered industry groupings are: manufacturing;
transportation (except railroad s), communication, and other public u t ilit ie s ; wholesale trade; r e ta il trade;
finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. Information on work schedules and supplementary benefits
was also obtained in a representative group of establishments in each of these industry d ivision s. As indi­
cated in table A, only establishm ents above a certain size were studied. Smaller establishments were omitted
because they furnished in su fficien t employment in the occupations studied to warrant their inclusion in the
study.
Among the industries in which characteristic jobs were studied, minimum s ise of establishment and
extent of th e area covered were determined separately for each industry, and are Indicated in table B. Al­
though else lim its frequently varied from those established for surveying cross-industry o ffic e and plant
jobs, data for these jobs were included only for firms which sa tisfie d the size requirements of the broad in­
dustry d iv isio n s.
A greater proportion of large than of small establishments was studied in order to maximize the
number of workers surveyed with available resources. Bach group of establishments of a certain s iz e , however,
was given i t s proper weight in the combination of data by industry and occupation.

The earnings information in the report excludes premium pay for overtime and night work. Nonproductlon bonuses are also excluded, but incentive earnings, including commissions for salespersons, have been
included for those workers employed under some form of incentive wage system. Where weekly hours are reported
as for o ffic e c le r ic a l, they refer to the work schedules for which the salaries are paid rounded to the near­
est half-hour; average weekly earnings for these occupations have been rounded to the nearest 50 cents. The
number of workers presented refers to the estimated total employment in a ll establishments within the scope
of the study and not to the number actually surveyed. Data are shown for only fu ll-tim e workers, i . e . , those
who were hired to work the establishm ents fu ll-tim e schedule of hours for the given occupational c la s s ifi­
cation.
Information on wage practices refers to a ll o ffic e workers and to a ll plant workers as specified in
the individual tab les. It is presented in terms of the proportion of a ll workers employed in o ffic e s (or plant
departments) that observe the practice in question, except in the section relatin g to women o ffic e workers of
the table summarizing scheduled weekly hours. Because of e lig ib ility requirements, the proportion actually
receiving the sp ecific benefits may be smaller. The summary of vacation and sick leave plans is lim ited to
formal arrangements. It excludes informal plans whereby time o ff with pay is granted at the discretion of
the employer or other supervisor. Sick leave plans are further lim ited to those providing fu ll pay for at
lea st some amount of time o f f without any provision for a waiting period preceding the payment of b en efits.
These plans also exclude health insurance even though i t is paid for by employers. Health insurance is in­
cluded, however, under tabulations for insurance and pension plans.

Table A.—ESTABLISHMENTS AHD WORKERS II MAJOR INDUSTRY DIVISIONS IN BOSTON, MASS., AND
NUMBXB STUDIED BY THE BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS, MARCH 1951
Item
Industry D ivision
A ll division s ............................................................................
M anufacturing.................................................................
Nondurable goods */ ..................................................
Nonmanufacturing..............................................................
Transportation (excluding railroad s),
communication, and ether public u t ilit ie s
Wholesale trade ..............................................
R etail trade .................................................................
Pinaaoe, insurance, and real estate ...............
Services:
Industries covered £/ ..................................... .
Industries net covered .....................................
S ise of Establishment
A ll sise groups ............................... .......................................
3J and o v e r ............................. ................................... .
001

Number o establishments
f
fcployment
Estimated Estimated
Estimated Estimated
In establishments
total
Studied total in a ll
total
total in a ll
studied
Industries within scope Total
industries within scope
O ffice
of study 2/
of study 2/
1/
11
2 , 2b0

b30
180
75

b88

56
63
*5

729,500
304,200
128,500
175,700
*25,300
58,300
66,300
16 b , 800
58,900

7,3*«
5.067

bb5

65
-

56,600
20,boo

3*,200

*7 . 5*7
68

2,2b0
5b
82
221

b30

729,500
151,500
57,600
6b,600
101,100
70,600
108,700
175.*00

**2,800
1*5,900

*7,5*7
5,799
2,3*1
2,1*7

5.838
16.639
*.709

501 - 1,000 ............................................................
79
2 5 1-50 0 ................................................................
179
101 - 250 ................................................................
613
909
5 1 -1 0 0 .................................................................
2.991
a - 5 0 ................................................................... *2.708
1 - 2 0 .....................................................................

671
256
b i5
1,569
68

262
306

-

599
518
690
(2 /)

105
250
21

50
38
50
115
75
88

{ 2/)

**2,800
2ib ,600
103,900
110,700
228,200
3*,boo
39,boo
71,100
*9,100

-

59.500
72.900
36,boo
2b,300
<3 /)

102,800

*3.350

213,180
10q ,260
6b , 200
*5,060
103,920

31.190

23,850
9.820
37.*80
22,910

*,380
3,000
* , 2*0
17.700

9.860

1,870

-

213.180

1*1,060
27.290
17,160
19.150
5.250
3,070
(2/)

12,160
8,090
*,070

-

*3.350
29,860
5,060
1%
1,260
560
( 2/)

1/ Includes establishm ents with 1 or more workers in the Boston Metropolitan Area (includes Suffolk County, lb communities in Essex
County, 28 in Middlesex County, 17 in Norfolk County and 2 in Plymouth County, M assachusetts).
2/ The survey of o ffic e , professional and technical, maintenance and power plant, custodial, warehousing and shipping jobs reported
in tables 1 , 2 , 3 and * was lim ited to establishments with more than 100 workers in manufacturing, transportation (excluding railroads),
communication*and ether public u t i li t ie s , and r e ta il trade, and to establishments with mere than 20 workers in wholesale trade,, finance,
insurance, real e sta te , and service industries; exceptions made in industries in which characteristic jobs were surveyed are indicated in
table B.
3 / Metalworking; lumber, furniture and other wood products; stone, clay and glass products; instruments and related products; and
Miscellaneous manufacturing.
b7 Pood and kindred products; tobacco; te x tile s; apparel and other fin ish ed te x tile products; paper and paper products; printing and
publishing; chemicals; products of petroleum and coal; rubber products; and leather and leather products.
jjjf Hotels; personal services; business services; automobile repair shops; radio broadcasting and television , motion pictures; non­
p r o fit membership organizations; and engineering and architectural services.




Table B. —ESTABLISHMENTS AND WORKERS IN SELECTED INDUSTRIES IN
BOSTON, MASS., AND NUMBER STUDIED BY THE
BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS, MARCH 1951 1/

Selected industries in which
characteristic jobs were
surveyed 2/

Minimum
size of
estab­
lishment
studied

Men's and boys' su its and c o a t s ........... 1 / 21
Women* s and m isses1 d r e s s e s ...................
8
Faints and v a rn ish es...................................
8
Machinery Industries ................................... */ 21
Power laundries .............................................
21
into repair shops .........................................
5

Number of
Employment
establishments
Estimated
Estimated In
to ta l
total sstabwithin Studied within lish scope of
scope of ments
study
study studied
?6
*9
21
123
97
91

17
22
12
*5
a

22

5,080 3,88*
.2,720 1,612
1,280
936
18,960 12,410
*,800 1.670
1.920
631

l / Industries surveyed in months other than March 1951 were; women*s
misses* dresses, August 1950;and machinery industries, January 1951.
2/ Industries are defined in footnotes to tab les 5 through 10.
3/ Cutting shops with 5 or more workers were included.
by Establishments manufacturing machine-tool accessories with 8 or more workers
were included.

Appendix B “

^eA&UfUia+ui

o.£ QccufuUiotvi S tu died

31

Office - Continued
The primary purpose of the Bureau*s job descriptions is to assist its field
staff in classifying workers who are employed under a variety of payroll titles and
different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area,
into appropriate occupations. This is essential in order to permit the grouping of oc­
cupational wage rates representing comparable job content. Because of this emphasis on
interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the Bureau’s
Job descriptions differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or
those prepared for other purposes.
In view of these special characteristics of the
Bureau’s job descriptions, their adoption without modification by any single establish­
ment or for any other purpose than that indicated herein is not recommended.
Where
office workers regularly perform duties classified in more than one occupation, they
are generally classified according to the most skilled or responsible duties that are a
regular part of their job and that axe significant in determining their value to the
firm.

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR
A worker who operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott Fisher, Sundsstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register) to keep a record of business transactions.
Class A - A worker who uses a bookkeeping machine with or without a typewriter key­
board to keep a set of records of business transactions usually requiring a knowledge of and
experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with the structure of the particu­
lar accounting system used.
Determines proper records and distribution of debit and credit
items to be used Sn each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance sheets,
and other records by hand.
Class B - A worker who uses a bookkeeping machine with or without a typewriter key­
board to keep a record of one or more phases or sections of a set of records pertaining to
business transactions usually requiring seme knowledge of basic bookkeeping.
Phases or sec­
tions include accounts payable, payrolls, customers* accounts (not including simple type of
billing described under Biller, Machine), cost distributions, expense distributions, inventory
controls, etc. In addition, may check or assist in preparation of trial balances and prepare
control sheets for the accounting department.

Office
CALCULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR
BILLER, MACHINE
A worker who prepares statements, bills and invoices on a machine other than an
ordinary, typewriter. May also keep records as to billings or shipping charges or perform
other clerical work incidental to billing operations.
Should be designated as working on
billing machine or bookkeeping machine as described below.

A worker whose primary function consists of operating a calculating machine to pe r ­
form mathematical computations other them addition exclusively.
Comptometer type
Other than Comptometer type

Billing Machine - A worker who uses a special billing machine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott
Fisher, Burroughs, etc., which are combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills
and invoices from customers* purchase orders, internally prepared orders, shipping memoranda,
etc. Usually involves application of predetermined discounts and shipping charges and entry
of necessary extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing machine, and totals
which are automatically accumulated by machine. The, operation usually involves a large num­
ber of carbon copies of the bill being prepared and is often done on a fan-fold machine.
Bookkeeping Machine - A worker who uses a bookkeeping machine (Sundstrand, Elliott
Fisher, Remington Rand, etc., which may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare cus­
tomers* bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally involves the simulta­
neous entry of figures on a customer’s ledger record. The machine automatically accumulates
figures cn a number of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically the deb­
it or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of bookkeeping. Works from uniform and
standard types of sales and credit slips.
BOOKKEEPER, HAND
A worker who keeps a set of books for recording business transactions and whose
work involves most of the following: posting and balancing subsidiary ledgers, cash books or
Journals, journalizing transact ions where judgment is involved as to accounts affected; post­
ing general ledger; and taking trial balances. May also prepare accounting statements f u d
li
bills; may direct work of assistants or accounting clerks.




CLERK, ACCOUNTING
A worker who performs one or more accounting operations such as preparing simple
journal vouchers; accounts payable vouchers; coding invoices or vouchers with proper account­
ing distributions; entering vouchers in voucher registers; reconciling bank accounts; post­
ing and balancing subsidiary ledgers controlled by general ledger, e.g., accounts receivable,
accounts payable, stock records, voucher journals.
May assist in preparing journal entries.
For workers whose duties include handling the general ledger or a set of books see Bookkeep­
er, Han d .

CLERK, FILE
Class A - A worker who is responsible for maintaining an established filing system
and classifies and indexes correspondence or other material; may also file this material. May
keep records of various types in conjunction with files or supervise others in filing and lo­
cating material in the files. May perform incidental clerical duties.
Class B - A worker who performs routine filing, usually cf material, that has already
been classified, or locates or assists in locating material in f i l e s . May perform incidental
clerical duties.

32

Office - Continued

Office - Continued

CLERK, GENERAL

SECRETARY

A worker who is typically required to perform a variety of office operations. This
requirement may arise as a result of impracticability of specialization in a small office or
because versatility is essential in meeting peak requirements in larger offices.
The work
generally involves the use of independent judgment in tending to a pattern of office work
from day to day, as well as knowledge relating to phases of office work that occur only oc­
casionally. For example, the range of operations performed may entail all or some combination
of the following: answering correspondence, preparing bills and invoices, posting to various
records, preparing payrolls, filing, etc. May also operate various office machines and type
as the work requires.

A worker who performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an adminis­
trative cr executive position and whose duties involve the following: making appointments for
superior; receiving people coming into office; answering and making phone calls; handling
personal and important or confidential mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initia­
tive; taking dictation, either in shorthand or by stenotype or similar machine (except where
transcribing machine is used), and transcribing dictation or the recorded information repro­
duced on a transcribing machine.
In addition, may prepare special reports or memoranda for
information of superior.

CLERK, ORDER
A worker who receives customers * orders for material or merchandise by mail, phone,
or personally and whose duties involve any combination of the following:
quoting prices to
customers, making out an order sheet listing the items to make up the order, checking prices
and quantities cf items on order sheet, distributing order sheets to respective departments to
be filled. May also check with credit department to determine credit rating of customer, ac­
knowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow-up orders to see that they have been filled,
keep file of orders received, and check shipping invoices with original orders.
CLERK, PAYROLL
A worker who computes wages of company employees and enters the necessary data on
the payroll sheets and whose duties involve:
calculating worker*s earnings based on time or
production records; posting calculated data on payroll sheet, showing information such as
worker’s name, working days, time, rate, deductions for insurance and total wages due. In
addition, may make out pay checks and assist the paymaster in making up and distributing the
pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.
DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsibilities,
reproduces
multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten matter, using a mimeograph or ditto machine.
Makes necessary adjustment such as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not
required to prepare stencil or ditto master. May keep file cf used stencils or ditto masters.
May sort, collate, and staple completed material.
KEY-PUNCH OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsibilities, records account­
ing end statistical data on tabulating cards by punching a series of holes in the cards in a
specified sequence, using a^numerical key-punch machine, following written information on
records.
May be required to duplicate cards by using the duplicating device attached to ma­
chine. Keeps files of punch cards. May verify own work or work of others.
OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
A worker who performs a variety of routine duties such as running errands; operating
minor office machines;
such as sealers or mailer^; opening and distributing mail; and other
minor clerical work.
(Bonded messengers are excluded from this classification.)




STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
A worker whose primary function is to take dictation from one cr more persons, either
in shorthand cr by stenotype or similar machine, involving a normal routine vocabulary, and to
transcribe this dictation on a typewriter. May also type from written copy. May also set up
and keep files in order, keep simple records, etc.
Does not include transcribing -machine
work.
(See Transcribing-Machine Operator.)
STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL
A worker whose primary function is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by stenotype or similar machine, involving a varied technical or spe­
cialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on scientific research and to tran­
scribe this dictation on a typewriter. May also type from written copy. May also set up and
keep files in order, keep simple records, etc.
Does not include transcribing-machine work.
(See Trans cr ib ing-Machine Operator.)
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
A worker who operates a single or multiple position telephone switchboard, and whose
duties involve: handling incoming, outgoing and intraplant or off ice calls.
In addition, may
record toll calls and take messages. As a minor part of duties, may give information to per­
sons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders.
For workers who also do typing or
other stenographic work or act as receptionists, (See Switchboard Operator-Receptionist.)
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
A worker who in addition to performing duties of operator, on a single position or
monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and/or performs typing or other routine cleri­
cal work as part of regular duties.
This typing or clerical work may take the major part of
this worker’s time while at switchboard.
TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR
A worker who operates machine that automatically analyzes
punched in groups of tabulating cards, and prints translated data
cords; sets or adjusts machine to add, subtract, multiply, and make
cards to be tabulated in feed magazine and starts machine. May
tabulated. May sort and verify punched cards.

and translates information
on forms or accounting re­
other calculations; places
file cards after they are

33

Office - Continued

Professional and Technical - Continued

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL

DRAFTSMAN - Continued

A worker whose primary function is to transcribe dictation involving a normal rou­
tine vocabulary from transcribing-machine records.
May also type from written copy and do
simple clerical work.
A worker who takes dictation in shorthand or by stenotype or similar
machine is classified as a Stenographer, General.

drawings. Work is frequently in a specialized field such as architectural,
chanical, or structural drafting.
DRAFTSMAN, CHIEF

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR , TECHNICAL
A worker whose primary function is to transcribe dictation involving a varied tech­
nical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on scientific research
from transcribing-machine records.
May also type from written copy and do simple clerical
work. A worker who takes dictation in shorthand or by stenotype or similar machine is classi­
fied as a Stenographer, Technical.
TYPIST
A worker who uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to make out
bills after calculations have been made by another person.
May operate a teletype machine.
May, In addition, do clerical work involving little special training,
such as keeping simple
records, filing records and reports, making out bills, or sorting and distributing incoming
mail.
Class A - A worker who performs one or more of the following:
typing material in
final form from very rough and involved draft; copying from plain or corrected copy in which
there is a frequent and varied use of technical and unusual words or from foreign language
copy; combining material from several sources; or planning lay-out of complicated statistical
tables to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing; typing tables from rough draft in final
form. May also type routine form letters, varying details to suit circumstances.
May, in
addition, perform clerical duties as outlined above.
Class B - A worker who performs one or more of the following: typing from relative­
ly clear or typed drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance policies, etc.; setting up sim­
ple standard tabulations,
or copying more complex tables already set up and spaced properly.
May, in addition, perform clerical duties as outlined above.

electrical, m e ­

(Draftsman, head; squad leader; squad boss)
A worker who plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in preparation
of working plans and detail drawings from rough or detail sketches for engineering, construc­
tion, or manufacturing purposes.
The duties performed involve a combination of the follow­
ing:
interpreting blueprints, sketches, and written or verbal orders; determining work pro­
cedures; assigning duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; and performing more
difficult problems.
May assist subordinates during emergencies or as a regular assignment,
and performs related duties of a supervisory or administrative nature.
DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(Detailer, assistant draftsman)
A worker who details units or parts of drawings prepared by draftsman or others for
engineering,
construction, or manufacturing purposes. Uses various types of drafting tools
as required.
May prepare drawings from simple plans or sketches, and performs other duties
under direction of a draftsman.
NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
A registered nurse who gives nursing service to employees or persons who become ill
or suffer an accident on the premises of a factory or other establishment and whose duties
involve all or most of the following:
giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of employeers injuries; keeping records of patients treated; and prepar­
ing accident reports for compensation or other purposes. May also assist Physician in ex­
amining applicants, give instruction in health education and illness prevention, and performs
other related duties.
TRACER

Professional and Technical

A worker who copies plans and drawings prepared by others, b y placing tracing cloth
or paper over drawing and tracing with pen cr pencil. Uses T-square, compass and other draft­
ing tools. May prepare simple drawings and do simple lettering.

DRAFTSMAN
A worker who prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough or de­
tailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. The duties per­
formed involve a combination of the following:
preparing working plans, detail drawings,
maps, cross-sections, etc., to scale by use of drafting instruments; making engineering com­
putations such as those involved in strength of materials, beams and trusses; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quantities; writing specifica­
tions; making adjustments or changes in drawings or specifications.
In addition, may ink in
lines and letters on pencil drawings, prepare detail units of complete drawings, or trace




Maintenance and Power Plant
CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE
A worker who performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and maintain in
good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs, counters, benches, partitions,

Maintenance and Power Plant - Continued

M aintenance a nd Power Plant - Continued

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE - Continued

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE

doors, floors, stairs, casings, trim made of wood in an establishment, and whose work involves
most of the following;
planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models or
verbal instructions;
using a variety of carpenters* hand tools, portable power tools, and
standard measuring instruments; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of
work; and selecting materials necessary for the work.

A worker who produces replacement parts and new parts for mechanical equipment oper­
ated in an establishment, and whose work involves most of the following: interpreting written
instructions and specifications; planning and layout of work; using a variety of machinist*s
hand tools and precision measuring instruments;
setting up and operating standard machine
tools; shaping of metal parts to close tolerances; making standard shop computations relating
to dimensions of work, tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working pro­
perties of the common metals;
selecting standard materials, parts and equipment required for
his work; and fitting and assembling parts. In general, the machinist*s work normally requires
a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship
or equivalent training and experience.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE
A worker who performs a variety of electrical trade functions in the installation,
maintenance or repair of equipment for the generating, distribution, and/or utilization of
electric energy in an establishment, and whose work involves most of the following; install­
ing or repairing any of a variety of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers,
switchboards, controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems or other
transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, layout cr other specifications; lo­
cating and diagnosing trouble in the electrical system or equipment; working standard computa­
tions relating to load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; and using a variety of
electricians* hand tools and measuring and testing instruments.
ENGINEER, STATIONARY
A worker who operates and maintains and/or supervises the operation of stationary
engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to supply power, heat, refrigeration or airconditioning and whose work involves:
operating and maintaining and/or supervising the opera­
tion of such equipment as steam engines, air compressors, generators, motors, turbines, ven­
tilating and refrigerating equipment,
steam boilers auid boiler-fed water pumps; making or
supervising equipment repairs;
and keeping a record of operation of machinery, temperature,
and fuel consumption.
This classification does not include head or chief engineers in estab­
lishments employing more than one engineer.
FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER
A worker who fires stationary boilers used in a factory, power plant, or other es­
tablishment to furnish heat, to generate power, or to supply steam for industrial processes,
and whose work involves feeding fuel to fire by hand or operating a mechanical stoker, gas,
or oil burner;
and checking water and safety valves. In addition, may clean, oil, or assist
in repairing boiler room equipment.
HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE
A worker who assists another worker in one of the skilled maintenance trades, by per­
forming specific cr general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping a worker supplied with m a ­
terials and tools;
cleaning working area, machine and equipment; assisting worker by holding
materials or tools; and perfoftning other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. In some
trades the term helper is synonymous with apprentice,
since the helper is expected to learn
the trade of the worker he assists. The kind of work the helper is permitted to perform also
varies from trade to trade:
in some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting and
holding materials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is permitted to per­
form specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade that are also performed by workers
on a full-time basis.




MAINTENANCE MAN, GENERAL UTILITY
A worker who keeps the machines, mechanical equipment and/or structure of an estab­
lishment (usually a small plant where specialization in maintenance work is impractical) in
repair; whose duties involve the performance of operations and the use of tools and equipment
of several trades, rather than specialization in one trade or one type of maintenance work
only, and whose work involves a combination of the following: planning and layout of work re­
lating to repair of buildings, machines, mechanical and/or electrical equipment; repairing
electrical and/or mechanical equipment; installing, aligning and balancing new equipment; and
repairing building, floors, stairs as well as making and repairing bins, cribs, and partitions.
MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
A worker who repairs automobiles, motor trucks and tractors ct an establishment, and
whose work involves most of the following: examining automotive equipment to diagnose source
of trouble; disassembling equipment and performing repairs that involve the use of such hand
tools as wrenches, gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting valves; reassembling
and/or installing the various assemblies in the vehicle and making necessary adjustments; and
aligning wheels, adjusting brakes auid lights, or tightening body bolts.
MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
A worker who repairs machinery and mechanical equipment of an establishment and whose
work involves most of the following: examining machines and mechanical equipment to diagnose
source of trouble; dismantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
hand tools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts with items ob­
tained from stock; ordering the production of a defective part by a machine shop or sending of
the machine to a machine shop for major repairs; preparing written specifications for major
repairs or for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; and reassembling of machines,
and making all necessary adjustments for operation.
MILLWRIGHT
A worker who installs new machines
machines or heavy equipment when changes in
involves most of the following: planning and
or other specifications; using a variety of

or heavy equipment and dismantles and installs
the plant layout are required, and whose work
laying out of the work; interpreting blueprints
hand tools, and rigging; m ak i n g standard shop

35

Maintenance and Power Plant - Continued

Maintenance and Power Plant - Continued

MILLWRIGHT - Continued

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE - Continued

computations relating to stresses,
strength of materials, and centers of gravity; aligning
and balancing of equipment;
selecting standard tools, equipment and parts to be used; and
installing and maintaining in good order power transmission equipment such as drives, and
speed reducers.
In general, the millwright*s work normally requires a rounded training and
experience in the trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

A worker who fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheet-metal
equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans, shelves, lockers, tanks, venti­
lators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an establishment, and whose work involves most of
the following: planning and laying out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blue­
prints, models, car other specifications; setting up and operating all available types of sheetmetal working machines; using a variety of hand tools in cutting, bending, forming, shaping,
fitting and assembling; and installing sheet-metal articles as required.
In general, the work
of the maintenance sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually acquir­
ed through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

OILER
(Greaser; lubricator)
A worker who lubricates, with oil or grease,
of mechanical equipment found in an establishment.

the moving parts or wearing surfaces
Custodial, Warehousing and Shipping

PAINTER, MAINTENANCE

CRANE OPERATOR, ELECTRIC-BRIDGE

(Painter, repair)
A worker who paints and redecorates walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an establish­
ment and whose work involves the following:
knowledge of surface peculiarities and types of
paint required for different applications; mixing colors, oils, white lead, and other paint
ingredients to obtain proper color or consistency; preparing surface for painting by removing
old finish or by placing putty or filler in nail holes and interstices; applying paint with
spray gun or brush.
PIPE FITTER, MAINTENANCE

(Overhead-crane operator; traveling-crane operator)
A worker who lifts and moves heavy objects with an electrically powered hoist which
is mounted on a metal bridge, and runs along overhead rails.
The work of the operator in­
volves:
closing switch to turn on electricity; moving electrical controller levers and brake
pedal to run the crane bridge along overhead rails, to run the hoisting trolley back and forth
across the bridge, and to raise and lower the load line and anything attached to it.
(Motions
of crane are usually carried out in response to signals from other workers, on the ground.)
For wage study purposes, the Bureau of Labor Statistics classifies workers accord­
ing to type of crane operated, as follows:

A worker who installs and/or repairs pipe and pipe fittings in an establishment,
and whose work involves most of the following: laying out of work and/or measuring to locate
position of pipe from drawings or other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe
to correct lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyaeetylene torch or pipe-cutting machine;
threading pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by hand-driven or power-driven machines;
assembling pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard shop computa­
tions relating to pressures, flow, and size of pipe required; and making standard tests to
determine whether finished pipes meet specifications. This classification does not include
workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building sanitation or heating systems.

GUARD

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER

A worker who keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order and whose
work involves the following:
knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of vents,
traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and fixtures;
opening clogged drains
with a plunger or plumber’s snake; and replacing washers on leaky faucets.

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
(Tinner; tinsmith)




Crane operator, electric-bridge (under 20 tons)
Crane operator, electric-bridge (20 tons and over)

A worker who has routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour, maintain­
ing order, using arms or force where necessary. This classification includes gatemen who are
stationed at gate and check on identity of employees and other persons entering.

(Day porter, sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
A worker who cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas and
washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial or other establishment.
The duties performed involve a combination of the following: sweeping, mopping and/or scrub­
bing, and polishing floors; removing chips, trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furni­
ture, or fixtures; polishing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor main­
tenance services; and cleaning lavatories, showers, and rest rooms. This classification does
not include workers who specialize in window washing.

36

Custodial, W a r e housing an d Shipping - Continued

C u s t o d i a l , Warehousing a nd Shipping - Continued

ORDER FILLER

TRUCK URTVER

(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
A worker who fills shipping or transfer orders from stored merchandise in accord­
ance with specifications on sales slip, customer orders, or other instructions. May, in ad­
dition to filling orders and indicating items filled or emitted, keep records of outgoing
orders, requisition additional stock or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform other
related duties.

A worker who drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport materi­
als, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of establishments such as: manu­
facturing plants, freight depots, warehouses, wholesale and retail establishments and/or b e ­
tween retail establishments and customers * houses or places of business. Duties may also in­
volve loading or unloading truck with or without helpers, making minor mechanical repairs,
and keeping truck in good working order. Ihis classification does not include driver-salesmen
or over-the-road drivers.

PACKER
A worker who prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing them in
boxes or other containers, the specific operations performed being dependent upon the type,
size and number of units to be packed, the type of container employed, and method of shipment.
The work of the packer involves a combination of the following:
knowledge of various items
of stock in order to verify content; selection of appropriate type and size of container; in­
serting enclosures in container;
using excelsior or other material to prevent breakage or
damage;
closing and sealing containers; and applying labels or entering identifying data on
container. This classification does not include packers who also make wooden boxes or crates.

For wage study purposes, the Bureau of Labor Statistics classifies
according to size and type of equipment operated, as follows:
Truck
Truck
Truck
Truck

driver,
driver,
driver,
driver,

truck drivers

light (under 1-1/2 tons)
medium (l-l/2 to and including k tons)
heavy (over k tons, trailer type)
heavy (over k tons, other than trailer type)

TRUCKER, POWER
SHIPPING— AND-KECEIVING CLERK
A worker who prepares merchandise for shipment, or who receives and is responsible
for incoming shipments cf merchandise cm other materials. Shipping work involves: a knowledge
of shipping procedures, practices, routes, available means of transportation and rates; and
preparing records of the goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and ship­
ping charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May, in addition, direct or assist in
preparing the merchandise for shipment. Receiving work generally involves: verifying or di­
recting others in verifying the correctness of shipments against bills of lading, invoices,
or other records;
checking for shortages end rejecting damaged goods; routing merchandise or
materials to proper departments; and maintaining necessary records end files.
For wage study purposes, the Bureau of Labor Statistics classifies these workers on
the following basis:
Shipping clerk
Receiving clerk
Shipping-and-receiving clerk

A worker who operates a manually-controlled gasoline or electric-powered truck or
tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a warehouse, manufacturing plant
or pther establishment.
For wage study purposes, the Bureau of Labor Statistics classifies workers accord­
ing to type of truck operated, as follows:
Truckers, power (fork-lift)
Truckers, power (other than fork-lift)

WATCHMAN
A worker who guards premises of plant property, warehouses, office buildings, or
banks. Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property against fire, theft, and
illegal entry.

STOCK HANDLER AND TRUCKER, HAND
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or
stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)

Men*s and B o y s 1 Suits and Coats

*

A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store, or other establishment
whose duties involve one or more of the following:
loading and unloading various materials
and merchandise on or from freight cars, trucks or other transporting devices; unpacking,
shelving, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location; transporting mate­
rials or merchandise by hand truck, car or wheelbarrow to proper location. May, in addition,
keep a record of materials handled or check items against invoices or other records.
This
classification does not include longshoremen, who load and unload ships.




CUTTER AND MARKER
A worker who
hand or machine. Also
rial by hand or machine
may arrange pattern on

performs a complete job of marking and cutting cloth and/or lining by
includes workers who specialize in either marking or cutting the mate­
after marking.
In addition, may spread or lay up layers of fabric, or
material and outline with chalk.

37

M e n 1s and Boys*

Suits and Coats - Continued

Men's an d B o y s 1 Suits and Coats - Continued

CUTTER, BODY-LINING

INSPECTOR, F I N A L - Continued

A worker who cuts out body-linings (excluding those specializing in sleeve lining)
from single or multiple layers of fabric.
In addition, may also mark the outline for the
cutting operation.

Thread trimmers who may only casually inspect garments are not included in this
classification. In many shops manufacturing inexpensive garments there will be no inspectors
falling within this description;
in those shops whatever inspection is carried on is usually
performed by Thread Trimmers.

BASTER, BODY -LINING AND FACING, HARD
PACKER
A worker who performs one or more of the following hand operations: attach facing
or lining to the forepart, baste facing or shapes after the edge is turned, or baste the body
lining smooth.
This classification does not include basting on canvas, armhole, shoulder,
collar, sleeve lining or cuff.

A worker who places finished garments in shipping containers.
In addition, may
also seal or close container, and/or place shipping or identification marks on container.
PAIRER AND TURNER

BASTER, COLLAR, HARD

garment.

A worker who performs operations which involve attaching top and under collar to
This classification does not include preparing collars before they are attached.

A worker who pairs or brings together various parts of the garment for assembly, or
turns various parts, excluding front edges and collars.
PRESSER, FINISH

BUTTON SEWER, HARD
(Off-presser; over presser; top presser)
A worker who sews buttons to garments by hand,
tion, may match buttons or mark location of buttons.

using needle and thread.

In addi­

BUTTONHOLE MAKER, HAND
A worker who sews buttonholes in garments by hand.

A worker who performs the final pressing operations on completed garments, by means
of a hand-pressing iron, or a pressing machine which is heated b y gas or steam.
Workers who
press only a portion of the completed garment are also included in this classification; h o w ­
ever, those who merely remove creases from body linings are excluded.
For wage study purposes,
in this industry pressers are classified according to the
type of pressing equipment used in coat fabrication departments only;

FINISHER, HAND
A worker who performs one or more of the
ling lining to lining, or lining to cloth at the
lining, top and undercollar to neck of coat, and
undesirable for the various machines to be used turnup, openings over thick seams, etc.

following hand operations: sewing or fel­
armholes, shoulders, Sleeve bottoms, body
felling corners where it is impractical or
such as corners between facing and bottom

FITTER
A worker who sorts, matches and trims cut garment parts and linings preparatory to
the sewing operations.
This classification excludes workers who do only such single opera­
tions as stamping, marking sizes, marking stitches, etc.

Pressers, finish, hand - uses hand-pressing iron.
Pressers, finish, machine - uses pressing machine which is heated by steam.
SEWING-MACHINE OPERATOR
A worker who operates a standard industrial sewing-machine or a special-purpose
sewing machine to perform the stitching involved in making parts of garments, in joining v a ­
rious garment sections together, or in attaching previously completed garment parts to p a r ­
tially completed garments.
For wage study purposes,
in this industry sewing-machine operators are classified
according to garment; for selected sewing operations, workers are further designated accord­
ing to operation, as follows:

INSPECTOR, FINAL
Sewing-machine operators (coats)
(Examiner)
A worker who examines and inspects completed garments prior to pressing or shipping
and whose work involves:
determining whether the garments conform to shop standards of qual­
ity and marking defects such as dropped stitches, bad seams, e t c . In addition, may make minor
repairs.




Baste edge8 - An operator who bastes front edges and bottoms,
Just after the front
edge of the coat has been turned, with a temporary removable chain-stitch.
Baste, jvnnp-stitch machine - A n operator who bastes
body lining operations on Jump-stitch machine.

on canvas or

performs various

38

M e n ’s and B o y s 1 Suits a n d Coats - Continued

M e n ’s a nd Boys* Suits and Coats - Continued

SHAFER, EDGE AND BOTTOM

SEWING-MACHINE OPERATOR - Continued
Buttonhole making - A worker who operates a "buttonhole machine that automatically
cuts and stitches buttonholes
in garments or garment parts, and whose work involves: posi­
tioning garment or part with locating mark for buttonhole under needle; lowering presser foot
and pressing pedal to start machine;
and releasing presser foot and removing garment when
buttonhole is completed.
In addition, may adjust machine to cut different sizes of button­
holes .

Fell body lining, bottom and side - An operator who fells (joins) body lining to
cloth forepart at side seams and bottom of coat with a machine designed to join parts by means
of a blind stitch which does not show on the front side of the cloth.
Join shoulders, cloth - A n operator

who joins shoulder of cloth

A worker who marks and trims lapels, front edge, and bottom of coat with a shears.
Lapels are marked by means of a special pattern or "shaper". The lower part of the front edge
and bottoms may also be marked with the aid of special patterns.
THREAD TRIMMER
(Cleaner; clipper)
A worker who trims loose thread ends,
with scissors prior to pressing or packing.
Workers who
tors, Final.

basting threads

also carefully examine and inspect

and seam edges of garments

garments are classified as Inspec­

forepart to back.

Join side seams - A n operator who joins back to forepart (front) of garment.

For wage study purposes,
to garment, as follows:

Join under-collar, Join sleeve lining, or piece pockets - Includes operators who
join under-collar cloth and under-collar canvas; or join top-sleeve lining to under-sleeve
lining; or sew cloth and lining facings to the pocket lining and may also make the cash pocket.

in this industry thread trimmers are classified according

Thread trimmers (coats)
Thread trimmers (trousers)
UNDER-PRESSER

Pad collar and lapels - A n operator who joins (pads or quilts) collar and lapel of
forepart to canvas b y numerous rows of blind stitching.
Pipe edges - A n operator who, by means of a folder attachment,
strip (piping) to the raw edges of seams to form a binding or piping.
Sew darts (cloth) - An operator who
body at the waist of the coat front (cloth).

sews the "darts”,

sews a narrow bias

"gores", or "clams" in the

(Forepresser; parts presser)
A worker who uses a hand iron, machine iron, or a powered press to press garment
parts such as pockets, seams, shoulders, etc., during the fabricating process.
For wage study purposes,
to garment, as follows:

in this industry under-pressers are classified

according

Under-pressers (coats)
Under-pressers (trousers)
Sew edge tape - An operator who sews narrow tape down front edges of coat and across
bottoms after facing is first attached to front by hand or machine basting. Usually perform­
ed on sewing-machine with cutting attachment.

WORK DISTRIBUTOR
(Bundle carrier)

Sew in sleeve -

A n operator

who sews completed sleeves

to the body

of the coat.

Stitch edges - A n operator who stitches fronts, lapels, and collars along the edges.

A worker who carries or trucks garments in various stages of completion to the work­
er who is to perform the next operation on garment.
May exercise some discretion in distri­
buting work, but has no supervisory responsibilities.

Sewing-machine operators (trousers)
Make pockets - A n operator who makes either complete front, side, or back pockets,
or complete pockets exclusive of sewing facings (piecing) to pocket linings.
Women’s and Misses* Dresses
Serging - A n operator who makes covering (or overlooking, overcasting, or serging)
stitch over raw edges of cloth on a special machine to prevent ravelling.

CUTTER AND MARKER

Stitch pockets - An operator who stitches around edge of pocket lining,
pockets have "been turned, as a reinforcing seam.

A worker who marks the outlines of various garment parts on a ply of fabric and who
cuts out parts with shears, hand knife, or powered cutting machine.
In addition, may spread




after the

39

Women's and Misses' Dresses - Continued

Women's and Misses' Dresses - Continued
CUTTER A H D MARKER - Continued

SEWING-MACHINE OPERATOR, SEC T I O N SYSTEM - Continued

or lay-up cloth on cutting table. This classification includes workers who specialize in cut­
ting or in marking; specialized markers using perforated patterns, marking by use of talcum,
are omitted as are all workers who specialize in spreading cloth.
Workers engaged
classification.

in marking and cutting

linings and trimmings

are included in the

various sections together, or in attaching previously completed parts to partially completed
garments, but who does not construct the entire garment. In shops that operate entirely on a
section (or bundle)
system this classification would include all sewing-machine operators
(except buttonhole makers and button sewers) without any differentiation of operators b y type
of machine or operation performed.
In shops that operate partly on a section system,
this
classification would include all operators who do not construct an entire garment.

INSPECTOR 1 FINAL (EXAMINER)
SEWING-MACHINE OPERATOR, SINGLE-HAND (TAILOR) SYSTEM
A worker who examines and inspects completed garments prior to pressing or shipping
and whose work involves:
determining whether the garments conform to shop standards of qual­
ity, and marking defects such as dropped stitches, bad seams, etc. In addition, may make
minor repairs.
Thread trimmers who may only casually inspect garments are not included in this
classification. In many shops manufacturing inexpensive garments there will be no inspectors
falling within this classification;
in those shops whatever inspection is carried on is usu­
ally performed by Thread Trimmers.

An operator who uses a sewing-machine to perform all the standard sewing-machine
operations involved in the manufacture of a complete garment and whose work involves:
assem­
bling and joining all parts of the garment except those added by finishers. Usually an expe­
rienced operator working on better-grade apparel in which the variety of design is so great
and style changes so frequent as to prevent the economical use of a section system.
This classification includes workers, employed in single-hand system shops who pairup and work as a team and divide work tickets equally; this arrangement is informal, in con­
trast to the section system on wEich rates are established for individual operations.

PRESSER
THREAD TRIMMER (CLEANER)
A worker who performs pressing operations (finish or under) on garments or garment
parts b y means of a hand-pressing iron and/or powered press or mangle.
For wage study purposes, the Bureau of Labor Statistics classifies pressers accord­
ing to type of pressing equipment used, as follows:
Presser, hand
Pressor, machine
Presser, hand and machine

(Clipper)
A worker who trims loose thread ends,
with scissors prior to pressing or packing.

basting threads and seam edges

of garments

Workers who also carefully examine and inspect garments cure classified as INSPECTORS,
.
FINAL.
WORK DISTRIBUTOR

Workers are classified as "pressers, hand and machine" when sizable proportions of
their work are performed b y each of the two methods. Otherwise, the predominant type cf press­
ing is the determining factor in classification.

A worker who carries or trucks garments in various stages of completion to the
worker who is to perform the next operation on garment. May exercise some discretion in dis­
tribution work, but has no supervisory responsibilities.

SEWER, HAND (FINISHER)
(Bench worker)
A worker who performs sewing operations b y hand including sewing on buttons, making
buttonholes, stitching edges, closing openings that have been left by various hand and machine
operations•

Paints and Varnishes
LABELER AHD PACKER

Workers who specialize in sewing tickets or labels are not included in this classification.

A worker who pastes Identifying labels on cans or other containers by hand or by
means of a labeling machine, and/or who packs labeled containers Into boxes or cartons.

SEWING-MACHINE OPERATOR, SECTION SYSTEM
MAINTENANCE MAN, GENERAL UTILITY
A n operator who uses a standard or special purpose sewing-machine to perform the
sewing operations required in making parts of garments, joining parts made by others, joining




(See Maintenance and.Power Plant, page

3U,

for description.)

Paints and Varnishes - Continued

Machinery Industries

MIXER
ASSEMBLER
(Batchmaker; compounder)
(Bench assembler; floor assembler; jig assembler; li;tfe assembler; sub-assembler)
A worker who operates one or more mixing machines in which component parts (liquids
or solids) are blended or mixed in controlled amounts to produce intermediate or finished
products.

TECHNICIAN
(Assistant chemist)
A worker who performs predetermined chemical tests, for example, to ascertain
whether purchased raw materials meet plant specifications, or to determine whether processing
is being performed according to plant standards or specifications. Usually is a college grad­
uate in chemistry or has equivalent training and experience.

TINTER
(Color matcher, enamel maker)
A worker who colors or tints paints, and whose work involves a combination of the
following:
blending basic color pigments in correct proportions to match standard color
sample or according to specifications; using hand paddle or power mixer to mix ingredients
thoroughly;
checking weight and/or viscosity of batch against sample or specifications, and
T r - f necessary additions to mixture to meet requirements. In addition, may add thinner to
ground paint.

A worker who assembles and/or fits together parts to form complete units or subas­
semblies at a bench, conveyor line, or on the floor, depending upon the size of the units and
the organization of the production process. The work of the assembler may include processing
operations requiring the use cf hand tools in scraping, chipping and filing of parts to obtain
a desired fit as well as power tools and special equipment when punching, riveting, soldering
or welding of parts is necessary. Workers who perform any of these processing operations exclusivelyas part of specialized assembling operations are not included in this classification.
Class A - A worker who assembles parts into complete units cr subassemblies that re­
quire fitting of parts and decisions regarding proper performance of any component part cr the
assembled unit, and whose work involves any combination of the following:
assembling from
drawings, blueprints or other written specifications; assembling units composed of a variety
of parts and/or subassemblies; assembling large units requiring careful fitting and adjusting
of parts to obtain specified clearances; and using a variety of hand and powered tools and
precision measuring instruments.
Class B - A worker who assembles parts into units or subassemblies in accordance
with standard and prescribed procedures, and whose work involves any combination of the following: assembling a limited range of standard and familiar products composed of a number of
small or medium-sized parts requiring some fitting or adjusting; assembling large units that
require little or no fitting of component parts; working under conditions where accurate per­
formance and completion of work within set time limits are essential for subsequent assem­
bling operations; and using a limited variety of hand or powered tools.
Class C - A worker who performs short-cycle, repetitive assembling operations, and
whose work does not involve any fitting or making decisions regarding proper performance of
the component parts or assembling procedures.

TRUCKER, HAND
URILL-ER1SS OPERATOR, SINGLE- OR MULTIPLE-SPINDLE
A worker who pushes or pulls hand trucks, cars or wheelbarrows used for transport­
ing goods and materials of all kinds about a warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other estab­
lishment, and usually loads or unloads hand trucks or wheelbarrows.
May stack materials in
storage bins, etc., and may keep records of materials moved.

Performs such operations as drilling, reaming, countersinking, counterboring, spot­
facing and tapping on one or more types of single-spindle or multiple-spindle drill presses.
This classification includes operators of all types
radial-drill presses and portable drilling equipment.

VARNISH MAKER
(Zettleman; oil cooker; varnish cooker)
A worker who cooks necessary ingredients such as resins and gums in kettle to make
various types cf varnishes and oils according to specifications, and whose work involves: regu­
lating controls for temperature;
adding ingredients according to formula or other specifica­
tions checking viscosity of batch and determining when it meets the standard sample. In addi­
tion, may also add thinner to the mixture< See also definition for Mixer.




of drill presses

other than

Class A - Operator who is required to set up machine for operations requiring care­
ful positioning, blocking euad aligning of units; to determine speeds, feeds, tooling and oper­
ation sequence; and to make all necessary adjustments during operation to achieve requisite
dimensions or
Operator who Is required to set up machine where speeds, feeds, ,tooling and operation
sequence are prescribed but whose work involves very difficult operations such as deep drill­
ing, or boring to exacting specifications.

41.

M a c h i n e r y Industries - Continued

DRILL-PRESS OPERATOR, SINGLE- OB MULTI FIE-SPINDLE - Continued
Class B - Operator who is required to set up machine on standard operations where
feeds, speeds/ tooling and operation sequence are prescribed; and to make all necessary adjust­
ments during operation or
Operator who is required to maintain set-up made by others, including making all n e ­
cessary adjustments during operation on work requiring considerable care on the part of the
operator to maintain specified tolerances.
Class C - Operator who is required only to operate machine, on routine and repetitive
operations; to make only minor adjustments during operation;
and when trouble occurs to stop
the machine and call on foreman, leadman, or set-up man to correct the operation.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE
(See Maintenance and Power Plant, page 34, for description.)

ENGINE-LATHE OPERATOR
Operates an engine lathe for shaping external and internal cylindrical surfaces of
metal objects. The engine lathe, basically characterized by a headstock, tailstock, and powerfed tool carriage,
is a general-purpose machine tool used primarily for turning.
It is also
commonly used in performing such operations as facing, boring, drilling, and threading; and,
equipped with appropriate attachments,
it may be used for a very wide variety of special m a ­
chining operations.
The stock may be held in position by the lathe ’
'centers" or b y various
types of chucks and fixtures.
This classification excludes operators cf bench lathes, automatic lathes, automaticscrew machines, and hand-turret lathes and hand-screw machines.
Class A - Operator who is required to set up machine; to select feeds, speeds, tool­
ing and operation sequence; and to make necessary adjustments during operation to achieve
requisite dimensions or
Operator who is required to set up machine from drawings, blueprints or layout, in
accordance with prescribed feeds, speeds, tooling and operation sequence and to make necessary
adjustments during operation where changes
in work and set-up are frequent and where care is
essential to achieve very close tolerances.
Operator may be required to recognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and
to select proper coolants and cutting end lubricating oils.
Class B - Operator who Is required to maintain operation set up b y others, b y making
all necessary adjustments, where care is essential to achieve very close tolerances or
Operator who is required to set up machine on standard or roughing operations where
feeds, speeds, tooling and operation sequence are prescribed;
and to make adjustments during
operation.




M a c h i n e r y Industries - C o n tinued

E N G I N E - L A T H E OPERA T O R - Con t i n u e d

Operator may be required to recognize when tools need dressing,
to select proper coolants and cutting oils.

to dress tools and

Class C - Operator who is required only to operate machine on routine and repetitive
operations!
to make only minor adjustments during operation; and when trouble occurs to stop
the machine and call on foreman, leadman, or set-up man to correct the operation.
GRINDING-MACHINE OPERATOR
(Centerless-grinder operator; cylindrical-grinder operator; external-grinder
operator; internal-grinder operator; surface-grinder operator; Universalgrinder operator)
A worker who operates one- of several types of precision grinding machines to grind
internal
and external surfaces of metal parts to a smooth and even finish and to required
dimensions.
Precision grinding is used primarily as a finishing operation on previously m a ­
chined parts, and consists of applying abrasive wheels rotating at high speed to the surfaces
to be ground.
In addition to the types of grinding machines indicated above,
this classification
includes operators of other production grinding machines such a s :
s ingle -purpose grinders,
(drill grinders, broach grinders, saw grinders, gear cutter grinders, thread grinders, etc.),
and automatic and semi-automatic general purpose grinding machines.
Class A - An operator who is required to set up machine;
to select feeds,
speeds,
tooling and operation sequence; and to make necessary adjustments during operation to achieve
requisite dimensions or
An operator who is required to set up machine from drawings or blueprints or lay-out
in accordance with prescribed feeds, speeds, tooling and operation sequence and to make n e c ­
essary adjustments during operation where changes in work and set-up are frequent and where
care is essential to achieve very close tolerances.
Operator m a y be required to recognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and
to select proper coolants and cutting and lubricating oils.
Class B - An operator who is required to set up machine on standard operations where,
feeds, speeds, tooling and operation sequence are either prescribed or are known from past
experience;
to make adjustments during operation;
and to maintain prescribed tolerances or
A n operator who is required to maintain operation set up by others, b y making all
necessary adjustments, where considerable care is essential to achieve very close tolerances.
Operator may be required to recognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools and
to select coolants and cutting oils.
Class C - A n operator who is required only to operate machine on routine and repeti­
tive operations;
to make only minor adjustments during operation; and when trouble occurs to
stop the machine and call on foreman, leadman, or set-up man to correct the operation.

k2

M a c hinery Industries - Continued

INSPECTOR

M a c hinery Industries - Continued

MILLING-MACHINE OPERATOR

A worker who performs such operations as examining parts or products for flaws and
defects, and checking their dimensions and appearance to determine whether they meet the re­
quired standards and specifications.
Class A - A worker who inspects parts> products, and/or processes with responsi­
bility for decisions regarding the quality of the product and/or operations, and whose work
involves any combination of the following:
thorough knowledge of the processing operations
in the branch of work to which he is assigned,
including the use of a variety of precision
measuring instruments;
interpreting drawings end specifications in inspection work on units
composed of a large number of component parts; examining a variety of products or processing
operations; determining causes of flaws in products and/or processes and suggesting necessary
changes to correct work methods; and devising inspection procedures for new products.
Class B - A worker who inspects parts, products, and/or processes and whose work
involves any combination of the following:
knowledge of processing operations in the branch
of work to which he is assigned, limited to familiar products and processes or where perform­
ance is dependent on past experience; performing inspection operations on products and/or
processes having rigid specifications, but where the inspection procedures involving a se­
quence of inspection operations,
including decisions regarding proper fit or performance of
some parts; and using precision measuring instruments.
Class C - A worker who inspects parts, products and/or processes and whose work in­
volves any combination of the following:
short-cycle, repetitive inspection operations; using
a standardized, special-purpose 'measuring instrument repetitively; and visual examination of
parts or products, rejecting units having obvious deformities or flaws.

JANITOR

(Milling-machine operator, automatic; milling-machine operator, hand)
Performs a variety of work such as grooving, planing, and shaping metal objects on
a milling machine, which removes material from metal surfaces by the cutting action of multi­
toothed rotating cutters of various sizes and shapes.
Milling-machine types vary from the manually controlled machines employed
production to fully automatic (conveyor-fed) machines found in plants engaged in mass
tion. This classification includes operators of all types of milling machines except
purpose millers such as thread millers,
duplicators, die sinkers, pantograph millers
graving millers.

in unit
produc­
single­
and en­

Class A - Operator who is required to set up machine; to select feeds, speeds, tool­
ing and operation sequence; and to make necessary adjustments during operation to achieve req­
uisite dimensions or
Operator who is required to set up machine from drawings, blueprints, or lay-out in
accordance with prescribed feeds,
speeds, tooling and operation sequence, and to make neces­
sary adjustments during operation where changes In work and set-up are frequent and where con­
siderable care is essential to achieve very close tolerances.
Operator may be required to recognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and
to select proper coolants and cutting and lubricating oils.
Class B - Operator who is required to set up machines on standard operations where
feeds, speeds, tooling and operation sequence are prescribed; to make adjustments during oper­
ation; and to maintain prescribed tolerances or
Operator who is required to maintain operation set up by others, by making all neces­
sary adjustments, where considerable care is essential to achieve very close tolerances.

(Sweeper; cleaner)
A worker who sweeps and cleans shop areas, washrooms and offices, and removes waste
and refuse. May wash floors and windows.

MACHINIST, PRODUCTION
A worker who is required to fabricate metal parts involving a series of progressive
operations and whose work involves most of the following: understanding of written instruc­
tions and specifications; plaining and laying out of work; using a variety of m a c h i n i s t s hand
tools and precision measuring instruments;
setting up and operating standard machine tools;
shaping of metal, parts to close tolerances; making standard shop computations relating to di­
mensions of work, tooling, feeds end speeds of machining; understanding of the working proper­
ties of the common metals;
and selecting standard materials, parts and equipment needed for
his work.
In general, the machinist’s work normally requires a rounded training in machineshop practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience .




Operator may be required to recognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and
to select proper coolants and cutting oils.
Class C - Operator who is required to operate only, on routine and repetitive oper­
ations; to make only minor adjustments during operation; and when trouble occurs to stop m a ­
chine and call on foreman, leadman or set-up man to correct the operation.

TOOL-AND-DEE MAKER
(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
A worker who constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges,
jigs, fixtures or
dies tor forgings, punching and other metal-forming work, and whose work involves most of the
following:
planning and laying out of work from models, blueprints, drawings or other oral
and written specifications;
using a variety of tool-and-die mak e r ’s hand tools and precision
measuring instruments; understanding of the working properties of common metals and alloys;
setting up and operating of machine tools and related equipment; making necessary shop compu­

Machinery Industries - Continued

TOOL-AND-DIE MAKER - Continued

EXTRACTOR OPERATOR

tations relating to dimensions of work, speed, feeds, and tooling of machines; heat-treating
of metal parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve required
qualities; working to close tolerances; fitting and assembling of parts to prescribed toler­
ances and allowances; and selecting appropriate materials, tools and processes.
In general,
the tool-and-die maker’s work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom prac­
tice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
For wage study purposes,
of shop, as follows:

Power Laundries

the Bureau of Labor Statistics classifies workers by type

Tool-and— die makers, jobbing shops
Tool-and-die makers, other than jobbing shops

TRUCKER, HARD

(Whizzer operator)
A worker who removes surplus moisture from materials (such as wet cloth, clothing ,
knit goods, and yarn) by operating an extractor and whose work involves most of the following:
loading material into perforated drum of machine by hand or hoist;
closing lid and starting
machine, allowing it to rim a predetermined time or until fluid stops flowing from drain; re­
moving partly dried materials; and hand trucking materials within the department.
In addition,
the worker may assist the Washer in loading, operating, or unloading the washing machine.

FINISHER, FLATWORK, MACHINE

A worker who performs flatwork finishing operations by machine and whose work in­
volves one or more of the following:
shaking out the creases in semi-dry washing to prepare
it for the flatwork ironing machine; feeding clean, damp flatwork pieces into the flatwork
ironing machine by placing the articles on the feeder rollers; and catching or receiving arti­
cles as they emerge from the machine and partially folding them.

(See Paints and Varnishes, page /+0, for description.)
FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER
WELDER, HAND
(See Maintenance and Power Plant, page 34, for description.)
A worker who fuses (welds) metal objects together by means of an oxyacetylene torch
or arc welding apparatus In the fabrication of metal shapes and in repairing broken or cracked
metal objects.
In addition to performing hand welding or brazing operation, he may also lay
out guide lines or marks on metal parts and may cut metal with a cutting torch.

Class A - Worker who performs welding operations requiring most of the following;
planning and laying out of work from drawings, blueprints or other written specifications;
knowledge of welding properties of a variety of metals and alloys; setting up of work and de­
termining operation sequence; welding of high pressure vessels or other objects involving cri­
tical safety and load requirements; working from a variety of positions; and ability to weld
with gas or arc apparatus.

IDENTIFIER

A worker who sorts soiled bundles, places the contents into various bags and by
means of flags, pins or other devices identifies the net with a customer tag or ticket.
In
addition may weigh, list
count some or all articles contained in each bundle. This classi­
fication does not include workers who mark or otherwise identify each individual piece con­
tained in a bundle.

car

MARKER
Class B - Worker who is required to perform either arc or gas welding operations on
repetitive work, where no critical safety and load requirements are involved; where the work
calls mainly for one position welding; and where the layout and planning of the work are per­
formed by others.




A worker who marks or affixes by hand or mechanical means,
customer identifying
symbols on soiled garments, linens, or other articles.
In addition may weigh, list, or count
articles contained in each bundle, sort contents of each bundle into groups according to treat-

kk

Power Laundries - Continued

MARKER - Continued

A u t o Repa i r Shops - Continued

ELECTIRICAN, AUTOMOTIVE

ment to be received,
or note and record any damaged or stained condition of articles. This
classification does not include workers who do sorting, examining, or listing without marking
the various articles.

PRES SEE, MACHINE, SHIRTS
A worker who operates or tends the operation of one or more of the several type
machines that press shirts, and who perform such shirt pressing operations as body pressing,
bosom pressing, collar and cuff pressing, and/or sleeve pressing.

(Ignition repairman)
Repairs and installs ignition systems, starters, coils, panel instruments, wiring,
and other electrical systems and equipment on automobiles: performs such duties as diagnosing
trouble by visual inspection or by use of testing devices; adjusting timing; adjusting dis­
tributor breaker-point gaps with thickness gage; replacing defective parts on starters, gen­
erators, and distributors; and replacing defective ignition and lighting wires. May test and
repair generators. May repair and adjust carburetors.

GREASER
(Lubricating man)

WASHER, MACHINE
A worker who operates one or more washing machines to wash household linens, gar­
ments, curtains, drapes and other articles and whose work involves the following: manipula­
ting valves, switches, and levers to start and stop the machine and to control the amount and
temperature of water for the sudsing and rinsing of each batch) mixing and adding soap, bluing
and bleaching solutions; and loading and unloading the washing machine.
In addition may make
minor repairs to washing machine.

Lubricates, by means of hand-operated or compressed-air operated grease guns and
oil sprays, all parts of automobile or truck where lubrication is required, using proper type
lubricant on the various points cn chassis or motors; drains old lubricant from lubricant reser­
voirs and refills with new. May perform other related duties, such as checking radiator water
level, checking and adding distilled water to battery, repairing tires, etc. May also perform
duties of washer.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE
WRAPPER, BUNDLE
A worker who wraps packages or finished products, or packs articles, goods, or m a ­
terials in cardboard boxes and secures the package or box with twine, ribbon, gummed tape, or
paste. The worker may segregate articles according to size or type, cr according to customer’s
order and inspect articles for defects before wrapping.

Repairs automobiles and trucks, performing such duties as disassembling and overhaul­
ing engines, transmissions, clutches, rear ends, and other assemblies on automobiles, replac­
ing worn or broken parts, grinding valves, adjusting brakes, tightening body bolts, aligning
wheels, etc.
In addition to general automotive mechanics, this classification also includes
workers whose duties are limited to repairing and overhauling the motor.
Class A - Repairs, rebuilds, or overhauls engines, transmissions, clutches, rear
ends or other assemblies, replaces worn or broken parts, grinds valves, bores cylinders, fits
rings.
In addition may adjust brakes or lights, tighten body bolts, align wheels, etc. May
remove or replace motors, transmissions or other assemblies. May do machining of parts.

Auto Repair Shops

BODY REPAIRMAN, METAL

Class B - Adjusts brakes or lights, tightens body bolts, aligns wheels, or makes
other adjustments c r repairs of a minor nature; or removes and replaces motors, transmissions,
t
clutches, rear ends, etc., but does no repairing, rebuilding, or overhauling of these assem­
blies. Workers ■who are employed as helpers to Mechanics are excluded from this classification.

(Automobile-collision serviceman; fender and body repairman; body man)
Repairs damaged automobile fenders and bodies to restore their original shape and
smoothness of surface by hammering out and filling dents, and by welding breaks in the metal.
May remove bolts and nuts, take off old fenders, and install new fenders. May perform such
related tasks as replacing broken glass and repairing damaged, radiators and woodwork.
May
paint repaired surfaces.




WASHER, AUTOMOBILE
(Car washer; wash boy)
Washes automobiles and trucks; sweeps and cleans interior of automobile; may polish
auto vehicle bodies, using polishing compound and a cloth. Various parts of this job may be
performed by individual workers in automobile laundries production lines.

45.

Page Number
Description
Earnings or rate
Apprentice (malt liquors) .... ......... ...... ............ .
Asbestos worker (building construction) ....................
Assembler (machinery) .............. ........................
Baggage porter (hotels) ....................................
Bartender (hotels) ..........................................
Baster, body-lining and facing, hand (men’s and boys* suits
and coats)
.... ...................................
Baster, collar, hand (men’s and boy s ’ suits and coats) ....
Bellman (hotels) .................... .......................
Senchman (bakeries) ................................ ........
Biller, machine (billing machine) ..........................
Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine) .....................
Bindery woman (printing) ............ .......................
Body repairman, metal (auto repair shops) ........... ......
Boilermaker (building construction) .............. .........
Bookbinder (printing) ........................•••••.........
Bookkeeper, h a n d .... •.••••••••••••••••......... ..........
Bookkeeping-machine operator ........... ....... ............
Bottler (malt liquors) ......................................
Brewery worker (malt liquors) ....................... .......
Bricklayer (building construction) ...... ..................
Buttonhole maker, hand (men’s and boys’ suits
and coats) ...... .......... ............................ ..
Button sewer, hand (men’s and boys’ suits and coats) .....
Calculating-machine operator (Comptometer type) ...........
Calculating-machine operator (other than Comptometer type)
Carpenter (building construction) ..........................
Carpenter, maintenance ......................................
Cement finisher (building construction) .... ........ ......
Checker (bakeries) ............................ ......... ..
Cleaner .................................................... •
Cleaner (office building service) .......... ...... .
Clerk, accounting .................... .............. .
Clerk, file .....................••••••...... ...............
Clerk, general ..............................................
Clerk, order .......... .......... ..........................
Clerk, p a y r o l l ..............................................
Compositor, hand (printing) ..................... ..........
Cook (hotels) .... ............ .............................
Crane operator, electric-bridge ......................... .
Cutter (sea food processing) ........................... .
Cutter, body-lining (men's and boys* suits and coats) ....
Cutter and marker (men’s and boys* suits and coats) .......
Cutter and marker (women's and misses' dresses)
Decorator (bakeries) ............ ...........................
Dish wiper (hotels) .................... .......... .........
Dlvlderman (bakeries) ........................... ......... ..
Doorman (hotels) .... .................... ••••.......... .
Doughnut-machine operator (bakeries) .......................
Draftsman ......... .............................. ......... .
Draftsman, c h i e f ......................................... .
Draftsman, junior ........ ...... ....... ....... .............
Drill-press operator, single- and multiplespindle (machinery) .......................................
Driver (malt liquors) ..................................... .
Driver'A helper (malt liquors) ........ .....................
Duplicating-machine operator ................. .
Electrician (building construction) .................... ...




_
-

40
-

37
37
-

31
31
-

44
_

31
31
_
37
37
31
31
33
_
-

35
_
31
31
32
32
32
35
_
37
36
38
■ -

-

33
33
33
40

_

_
32
-

24
23
21
23
23
18
18
23
23
6
6
24
22
23
24
5, 6
5, 7
24
24
23
19
19
7
7
23
12
23
23
15
24
5, 7
8
5, 8
5, 8
5, 8
24
23
15
25
18
18
20
23
23
23
23
23
11
11
11
21
24
24
5, 9
23

Page Humber
Description
Earnings or rate
Electrician, automotive (auto repair shops) ........ .
Electrician, maintenance .......... ..........................
Electrician, maintenance (machinery) ...................... .
Electrotyper (printing) ............ .........................
Elevator constructor (building construction) ..... .........
Elevator operator (hotels) .... .......... ..................
Elevator operator (office building service) ................
Engine-lathe operator (machinery) ..........................
Engineer - power equipment operator (building construction)
Engineer, stationary ........................................
Extractor operator (laundries) ..............................
Finisher, hand (men's and bo y s ’ suits and coats) ...........
Finisher, flatwork, machine (laundries) ....................
Fireman (office building service) ..........................
Fireman, stationary boiler ..................................
Fireman, stationary boiler (laundries) .....................
First man (malt liquors) ....................................
Fitter (men’8 and boys’ suits and coats) ...................
Floorman (bakeries) .............. .......................... .
Floorman (sea food processing) ..............................
Flour blender (bakeries) .................... ................
Flour dumper (bakeries) ......................... ...........
Fare lady (bakeries) .................... ...... .
Foreman, working (bakeries) .... ................ ...........
Foreman, working (structural and ornamental iron) .........
Glazier (building construction) ................ ........... .
Greaser (auto repair shops) .......................... ......
Grinding-machine operator (machinery) ......................
Guard ...................................... ..................
Guard (local transit) ........... ........ ...................
Helper (bakeries) ................................. ..........
Helper (structural and ornamental iron) ........... .
Helper, elevator constructor (building construction) ......
Helper, general (sea food processing) ........ J ............
Helper, motortruck d r i v e r .... ............................ .
Helper, roofer, composition (building construction) ..... .
Helper, tile layer (building construction) ................
Helper, trades, maintenance .................................
Houseman (hotels) ...........................................
Ioer (bakeries) ................... ..........................
Identifier (laundries) ................................. .
Ingredient scaler (bakeries) ................................
Inspector (bakeries) ................................ ........
Inspector (machinery) ................................... .
Inspector, final (men's and boys’ suits and coats) ........
Inspector, final (women’s and misses' dresses) .............
Janitor .......... .......... .................................
Janitor (machinery) ........................... .
Janitor (office building service) ......... ................ .
Key-punchi o p e r a t o r ................ ........................ .
labeler and packer (paints and varnishes) ................. .
Laborer, building (building construction) ................. .
Lather (building construction) ................... ........ .
Lay-out man (structural and ornamental iron) ....... ...... .
longshoreman (stevedoring) ...................... ........... .
Maohineman (bakeries) .................................... .
Machine operator (printing) ........... ................... .
Machine tender (machinist) (printing) ..................... .

44
34
41
-

41
-

34
43
37
43
_

34
43
37
-

-

44
41
35
-

3^
-

43
-

42
37
39
35
42
-

32
39
-

22
13
21
24
23
23
24
21
23
13
22
19
22
24
13
22
24
19
23
25
23
23
23
23
25
23
22
21
15
23
23
25
23
25
24
23
23
13
23
23
22
23
23
21
18
20
15
21
24
9
20
23
23
25
25
23
24
24

1*6.

Page Number
Description
Earnings or rate

Page Number
Description
Earnings or rate
Machinist, maintenance ...................... ..............
Machinist, production (machinery) ..................... .
Maid (hotels) ..............................................
Mailer (printing) ..........................................
Maintenance man, general u t i l i t y ..... ...... ......... .
Maintenance man, general utility (paints and varnishes) ..
Marker (laundries) ............... ..................... .
Matron (office building service) ..........................
Mechanic (structural and ornamental Iron) .... .
Mechanic, automotive (auto repair shops) .................
Mechanic, automotive (maintenance) ........................
Mechanic, maintenance ......................................
Milling-machine operator (machinery) ......................
Millwright ..................................................
Mixer (bakeries) ...... .................... ....... ........
Mixer (paints and varnishes) .................. ....... .
Kolderman (bakeries) .......................... ............
Motorman (local transit) ..................................
Motortruck driver ................. ........................
Nurse, industrial (registered) ............................
Office boy ......................... ........................
Office g i r l ................................................
Oiler .......................................................
Operator (local transit) .......................... ........
Order filler ...................................... .........
Oven feeder (bakeries) ............ ........................
Overman (bakeries) ...................................... .
P a c k e r ..... ................................................
Packer (bakeries) ................ • ••••....................
Packer (men's and boys' suits and coats) .................
Painter, maintenance .... *........................ ........
Painter (building construction) .......................... .
Palrer apd turner (men's and boys' suits and coats) .....
Pan greaser (bakeries) .......................... ..........
Photoengraver (printing) ...................... ............
Pipe fitter, maintenance .......................... ........
Plasterer (building construction) .•••••.............. .
Plumber, maintenance ........... ........... .............. .
Plumber (building construction) ...........................
Porter ............................................... .......
Porter (office building service) ....... ••••••••..........
Press assistant (printing) .................................
Press feeder (printing) ............................ .......
Presser, finish (men*6 and boys' suits and coats) .......
Presser, finish, hand (men's and boys' suits and coats) ..
Presser, finish, machine (men's and boys' suits and coats)
Presser, hand (women's and misses' dresses) ..............
Presser, hand and machine (women's and misses' dresses) ..
Presser, machine (women's and misses' dresses) ...........
Presser, machine, shirt (laundries) .......................
Pressman, cylinder (printing) .............................
Pressman-in-charge, web presses (printing) ........... .
Pressman, platen (printing) ...... ................... ..
Pressman, web presses (printing) .... .....................
Quick-freeze operator (sea food processing) ..........
Quick-freeze packer (sea food processing) ............ .
Backer (bakeries) ..................... ....................
Receiving c l e r k ..... .................................... .
Rodman (building construction) ............................




3b

12
*
3^
39
^3
_
11
**
3b
3k

12
*
3b

10
*
-

_

33
32
32
35
36
36
37
35
37
_

_

35
35
35

_

13
21
23
2k
13
20
22
2*
1
25
22
1*
1
1*
1
21
l*
l
23
20
23
23
2*
1
12
6
9
lb

23
15
23
23
15
23
18
l*
l
23
19
23
2*
1
lb

23
1*
1
23
15
2*
1
2*
1
2b

37
37
37
39
39
39
11
**

_
_

_
36
-

18
18
18
20
20
20
22
2*
1
2*
1
2*
1
2*
1
25
25
23
16
23

Boll-machine operator (bakeries) ........ ............. ..........
Boofer, composition (building construction) ............... .
Scaler (sea food processing) ............................... ......
S e c r e t a r y ..... ....................................................
Sewer, hand (women's and misses* dresses) ........................
Sewing-machine operator (men's and boys' suits and coats) .......
Sewing-machine operator, section system (women's and
misses' dresses) .................... ........... .................
Sewing-machine operator, single-hand (tailor) system (women's and
misses' dresses) ................................ ............. ..
Shaper, edge and bottom (men's and boys* suits and coats) ......
Sheet-metal worker, maintenance •••••.... .............. .........
Sheet-metal worker (building construction) ......................
Shipping clerk ....................................................
Shlpping-and-recelvlng clerk .....................................
Sprinkler fitter (building construction) .......... ...... ...... .
Steam fitter (building construction) .............................
Stenographer, general ................................. ...........
Stenographer, t e c h n i c a l ..... .....................................
Stereotyper (printing) ............................................
Stock h a n d l e r .... ...... ......................... ........ ........
Stockman (bakeries) ...............................................
Stonemason (building construction) .......................... .
Structural-iron worker (building construction) ..................
Switchboard operator ..............................................
Switchboard operator-receptionist............ ....................
Tabulating-machine operator .......................................
Technician (paints and varnishes) ................... .......... .
Telephone operator (hoteIs) ...... ...............................
Tender, bricklayer (building construction) ................ ......
Tender, plasterer (building construction) .......................
Thread trimmer (men'B and boys' suits and coats) ................
Thread trimmer (women's and misses* dresses) ....................
Til© layer (building construction) ........ ..................... ..
Tin ter (paints and varnishes) .......... ........... ..............
Tool-and-die maker (machinery) ......... ..........................
Tracer ...................... ..................... .......... .
Transcribing-machine operator, general ...........................
Transcribing-machine operator, technical .........................
Truck d r i v e r ........... ...... ..................... ...............
Trucker,' h a n d .... ............................. ............. .
Trucker, hand (machinery) ..................... ....................
Trucker, hand (paints and varnishes) ........................... ..
Trucker, pcftrer .............................. ......................
Typist ................................ .......... •••••..... .......
Under-presser (men's and boys' suits and coats) ..................
Varnish maker (paints and varnishes) ............................ .
Walter (hotels) .................. .............................. ..
Waitress (hotels) .................... .......... ........... .
Washer, automobile (auto repair shops) .... ......................
Washer, machine (laundries) ................................ .
W a t c h m a n .................................... ......................
Welder (structural and ornamental iron) ..........................
Welder, hand (machinery) .... ........................... .
W ork distributor (men's and boys' suits and coats) .... ........ .
Wo r k distributor (women's and misses' dresses) ......... .........
Wrapper (bakeries) ..................................... ..........
Wrapper (sea food processing) ...... ........................... ..
Wrapper, bundle (laundries) ......................................

-

32
39
37

23
23
25
9
20
18

39

20

-

39
38
35
-

36
36
-

32
32
_

36
-

32
32
32
10
*
-

38
39
-

10
*
12
*
33
33
33
36
36
*■
*3
10
*
36
33
38
10
*
-

11
**
11
**
36
-

b3

38
39
-

M*

20
18
l*
l
23
16
16
23
23
9
10
2*
1
16
23
23
23
10
10
6, 10
20
23
23
23
19
20
23
20
21
11
10
11
16
16
21
20
17
11
18
20
23
23
22
22
17
25
21
18
20
23
25
22


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102