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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
JAMES J. DAVIS, Secretary

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
ETHELBERT STEWART, Commissioner

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES 1
BUREAU OF LABOR STA TISTICS] • • • •
M I S C E L L A N E O U S

M
A QA
NO.

S E R I E S

CARE OF AGED PERSONS
IN THE UNITED STATES

OCTOBER, 1929

UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON: 1929

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C.




-

Price 70 cents

Acknowledgment
This report was prepared by Florence E. Parker,
of the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, with the
exception of Chapter II, prepared by Estelle M.
Stewart, of the U. S. Department of Labor, and
Chapters X II and X III, by Mary Conymgton, of
the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.




Contents
Page

Chapter I.— Summary_________________________________________________________
Retirement and pension plans___________________________________________
Homes for the aged______________________________________________________
Chapter II.— American almshouses___________________________________________
Systems of control________________________________________________________
Systems of operation_____________________________________________________
Value of property, income, and maintenance___________________________
Chapter I I I .— Care of old people in homes for the aged___________________
Number of persons provided for________________________________________
Age of homes__________________________________________ __________________
Entrance requirements___________________________________________________
Types of persons now in homes__________ ________________ ______________
Withdrawals and dismissals__________________ __________________________
General atmosphere and spirit of homes________________________________
Duties of residents_______________________________________________________
Privileges of members, and benefits provided__________________________
Supplementary activities of homes__________________ ___________________
Maintenance and cost of homes_________________________________________
Administration of old people’s homes___________________________________
Physical conditions at the homes_______________________________________
Chapter IV .— Care of aged by the Federal Government___________________
Soldiers’ pensions_________________________________________________________
Soldiers’ and sailors’ homes______________________________________________
Chapter V .— State provision for the aged___________________________________
Public pensions for aged dependent citizens____________________________
Progress of the movement in the United States__________________
Provisions of pension laws__________________________________________
Old-age pension laws in operation__________________________________
Criticisms of old-age pension systems now in force_______________
Appraisal of pension system by counties__________________________
Homes for soldiers and sailors and their wives and widows___________
Entrance requirements______________________________________________
Medical and recreational provision_________________________________
Home location and plant____________________________________________
Other State homes for aged______________________________________________
Chapter V I.— Care of the aged by labor organizations_____________________
Old-age and disability pensions_________________________________________
Requirements for receipt of pension_______________________________
Amounts of annuity, and expenditure for pensions_______________
Source of revenues of plans_________________________________________
Basis and status of trade-union pension plans_____________________
Payments to wife, widow, or other beneficiaries__________________
Discontinued or rejected plans_____________________________________




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IV

CONTENTS

Chapter V I.— Care of the aged by labor organizations— Continued.
Homes for the aged______________________________________________________
Carpenters’ Hom e___________________________________________________
Printing Pressmen’s H om e__________________________________________
Home for Aged and Disabled Railroad Employees_______________
Railway Conductors’ H om e________________________________________
Union Printers’ H om e_______________________________________________
Chapter V II.— Care of the aged by religious organizations_________________
Church pension and relief plans for ministers__________________________
Seventh-Day Adventists____________________________________________
Northern Baptist Convention_____________________________ ________
Congregational Church_____________________________________________
Latter Day Saints________________________________ ___________________
Methodist Episcopal Church (North)_________________ ____________
Methodist Episcopal Church, South________ ______________________
Moravian Church (Northern Province)___________________________
Presbyterian Church (N orth)_______________________________________
Presbyterian Church (South)_______________________________________
•Protestant Episcopal Church_______________________________________
Reformed Church in the United States____________________________
Roman Catholic Church____________________________________________
Unitarian Church____________________________________________________
Church of United Brethren in Christ______________________________
Other churches having pension plans______________________________
Pension and insurance plans of church fraternal organizations_______
Homes for the aged maintained by religious organizations____________
Terms of admission__________________________________________________
Rules and regulations governing home____________________________
Duties of residents__________________________________________________
Benefits provided____________________________________________________
Support and cost of homes_______________________________________ _
Land holdings______________________________________________________ ■
_
Value of home property_____________________________________________
Chapter V II I.— Provision for the aged by fraternal organizations________
Fraternal insurance_______________________________________________________
Pension plans_____________________________________________________________
Old-age relief______________________________________________________________
Homes for the aged_______________________________________________________
Terms of admission________________________ r ________________________
Benefits provided_________________ __________________________________
Duties of inmates____________________________________________________
Support and administration of home_______________________________
Cost of operation of homes_________________________________________
Homes proposed or in process of building_________________________
Chapter I X .— Care of the aged by various nationality groups_____________
Old people’s homes_______________________________________________________
Terms of admission__________________________________________________
Benefits provided____________________________________________________
Duties of residents___________________________________________________
Support of home_____________________________________________________
Cost of operation__________________________________ _____________ _ - Other provision for the aged___________________________________




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CONTENTS

Y
Page

Chapter X .— Old people’s homes of other organizations____________________
Terms of admission_______________________________________________________
Duties of residents________________________________________________________
Benefits provided_________________________________________________________
Location, and home plant________________________________________________
Support of home__________________________________________________________
Cost of operation_________________________________________________________
Chapter X I .— Private benevolent homes for the aged______________________
Size of homes______________________________________________________ ____ _
Age of homes________________________________________________ ___________ _
Kind and character of persons admitted_ _____________________________
_
Terms of admission___________________ ____________ _______________________
Duties of residents________________________________ _ _.____________________
Benefits provided_____________________________ _______________ ____________
Special activities _ ^___________________________ ____ _______________________
Location, and home plant________________________________________________
Support of home__________________________________________________________
Cost of operation_________________________________________________________
Chapter X I I .— Retirement systems for public employees__________________
Federal employees’ retirement system__________________________________
Scope of the system _________________________________________________
Source of funds. I ____________________________________________________
Conditions for retirement___________________________________________
Allowances___________________________________________________________
Refunds______________________________________________________________
Provision for dependents____________________________________________
Statistics of system__________________________________________________
Retirement of State and municipal employees_________________________
Systems for State employees_______________________________________
Systems for municipal employees__________________________________
Retirement systems for police and firemen_____________________________
Police retirement systems___________________________________________
Retirement systems for firemen____________________________________
Combined systems for police and fire departments_______________
Principal provisions of plans________________________________________
Statistics of the systems____________________________________________
State and city retirement systems for teachers_________________________
Scope of systems_____________________________________________________
Date of establishment, and membership___________________________
Employee representation in management__________________________
Character of plans and source of funds____________________________
Conditions for retirement___________________________________________
Retirement allowances______________________________________________
Refunds______________________________________________________________
Provision for dependents____________________________________________
Principal provisions of plans________________________________________
Statistics of State and city systems________________________________
Carnegie fund for teachers’ retirement__________________________________
1 Present plan_________________________________________________________
Teachers’ Insurance and Annuity Association____________________
Annuitants, and annuities paid in 1 9 2 7 -2 8 ______ _________________
Special reserves of the foundation_________________________________




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VI

CONTENTS
Page

Chapter X I I I .— Pension plans of private employers________________________
Kinds of pension plans____ ___
_____________________________________
Purpose of pension plans____________ ___________________________________
Attitude toward pension plans__________________ ________________________
Substitutes for pension systems_________________________________________
Chapter X I V .— Insurance annuities as support for old age________________
Insurance annuities purchased from eight companies__________________
Savings bank annuities in Massachusetts_______________________________
State insurance in Wisconsin____________________________________________
Appendix.-— Menus of representative h o m e s ......___________________________
____ ______.. . .
Index___ ______ _____________________




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BULLETIN OF THE

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
NO. 489

WASHINGTON

OCTOBER, 1929

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES
Chapter I.—Summary

B

ECAUSE of the growing interest in the subject of the care of
the dependent aged in the United States, the Bureau of Labor
Statistics has recently been making a survey of the various
means by which wage earners and others are provided for in their old
age. Earlier studies of the bureau have dealt with the subject of Amer­
ican almshouses, retirement systems for public employees of various
classes (Federal, State, and municipal employees, teachers, policemen
and firemen, etc.), and pension plans for employees in private industry.
The present study rounds out and supplements these earlier studies,
bringing together in summary form the material already collected,
and adding new data on homes for the aged, on the present status of
public old-age pensions in the United States, and on the ministers’
pension plans of religious denominations.
As is seen, these various means of care all fall under one or the
other of the two classifications—pensions or homes.
Retirement and Pension Plans
HERE are many systems of retirement in this country for
superannuates. Members of the military services of the United
States receive pensions from the Federal Government, and employees
in the United States Civil Service have a contributory annuity system
of retirement. Private citizens in 10 States who are in need may
receive an old-age pension, and State and municipal employees are
quite generally provided for by retirement systems. Teachers form
a class of public employees widely provided for, as also do police and
firemen. Also, teachers in universities and colleges may benefit under
the retirement fund of the Carnegie Institution.
Certain private agencies have made provision for their aged
employees. Pensions for superannuated clergymen are increasingly
prevalent. Many private industrial employers, including the large
railroads of the country have adopted retirement plans of some sort.
Even a few of the fraternal organizations and a small number of the
trade-uni'ons have pension plans.
To receive the annuity or pension, a certain age (usually 60 to 70
years) must have been reached, and a certain period of service or
membership (generally from 25 to 30 years) in the organization is
also required.

T




1

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

2

Retirement plans may be either contributory or noncontributory
on the part of the beneficiary. The Federal military pensions are
noncontributory, but the cost of the retirement system for Federal
employees has been largely borne by the employees themselves. Eight1
of the 10 States which provide old-age pensions for citizens who are
in need have systems by which the adoption of the plan is optional
with the individual counties and the whole cost is borne by them.
In the other two instances the State bears part of the cost (one-third
in Wisconsin and one-half in California). All but 7 of the approxi­
mately 70 State and city retirement systems for public employees
(including teachers, police, firemen, and others) require contribu­
tions from the employees. This is true also of the Carnegie Teach­
ers’ Insurance and Annuity Association plan. The cost of the tradeunion pension plans is, of course, borne entirely by the member­
ship, sometimes through the medium of a per capita tax for this
particular purpose, sometimes from the general funds of the union,
and sometimes (in those cases in which membership in the pension
plan is optional) only by the members of the pension system. In­
dustrial pension plans are divided as between the contributory and
noncontributory types.
In order to give some idea of the number of persons protected by
retirement plans, the number of beneficiaries under such plans, and
the cost, the following table was compiled. This table makes no
pretense as to completeness, except as regards the Federal, Carnegie,
trade-union, and fraternal systems. The data shown as to the
citizens’ pension plans are without doubt practically complete, for
while reports were not received from all the counties in those States
having pension plans, it is probably safe to say that practically all
of the counties which have adopted the scheme have replied. The
data as to public employees are far from inclusive, however. Taking
the country as a whole, there are literally hundreds of such plans.
There is a police and firemen’s retirement system in almost every
city, and, as already stated, systems for teachers are also very general.
The bureau’s studies, however, have covered only the six States
having a state-wide plan and the plans of those cities of a popula­
tion of 400,000 or over. No data are available as to the extent and
coverage of the industrial pension plans. Many studies, public and
private, have been made of these, but none have been all inclusive.
Epstein, in his Challenge of the Aged, estimates that his study of
370 such plans covered approximately 90 per cent of the total number,
that some 90,000 are receiving pensions from their employers, and
that the amounts so spent total about $43,000,000 per year.
All the above limitations should be borne in mind when studying
the table.
i C olorado, K e n tu ck y , M a ry la n d , M in n esota, N e v a d a , U ta h , and W y o m in g .




CHAPTER I.— SUMMARY
TABLE

i

.— n u m b e r

o f

3

b e n e fic ia r ie s
a n d
a m ou n ts
P E N S IO N O R A N N U IT Y P L A N S

T y p e of pension or a n n u ity

Federal:
M ilita ry service_____________ ______ __________ _____
C ivil service____________________ _______ _____ ____ __
State:
P rivate citizens 2 ____________________________________
State em ployees 3_______ ______ ______________________
Teachers 4 ___________________________________________
M u n icipa lities:
Teachers 5____ . . .
................... ........................ ...........
P olice and firem en 6_______________ _______ ______ __
O ther m unicipal em ployee 7_ _______________________
Carnegie teachers’ retirem ent fu n d _______ _________ __
L a bor organizations___________________ _________________
M in isters' r e t i r e m e n t _______________________________
Fraternal organizations_________ ________________________
P rivate industrial pension plans 1 __ _ ______________ __
0
Insurance ann uities........................ ....... ............... .....................

N u m ber in
system

d is b u r s e d

u n d e r

A v er­
N u m b e r of A m o u n t spent
age per
benefi­
in allow ances
benefi­
ciaries
in one year
ciary

453,088
15,383

$228,965, 672
10,990,454

$466
734

0)
31,572
371,835

1,003
1,458
13, 094

208, 624
968,984
5,977, 675

208
550
457

54, 776
67, 765
93,374
8 7,600
0)
0)
0)
951,801
“ 59,075

3,949
20, 327
4, 619
922
11, 306
14,806
152
10,644
0)

3,829,989
14, 768,605
3,373, 644
1,372,866
3,350,995
5, 594,862
21, 890
6, 674,044
(0

970
726
730
1, 489
296
373
144
627
0)

550, 751

286,098,304

519

0)
0)

T ota l ____________ _________ _______________________

1 N o data.
2 6 States havin g old-age pension laws.
35 State system s.
4 16 State system s.
5 7 city system s.
6 17 cities.
7 9 cities.
8 U nder an n u ity plan.
9 11 national organizations.
10140 plans.
1 W ritten b y 8 large insurance com panies and b y the M assachusetts savings banks.
1

Homes for the Aged

A

S IS well known, the Federal Government operates a number of
l homes for disabled soldiers in various parts of the country, some
of whose inmates are aged. Also, the majority of the States have
established homes for soldiers of the Civil War (admitting also, in
many cases, their wives or widows), of which a number have also
begun to admit soldiers of the later wars— Indian, Spanish, and Mexican^and even of the World War. There are still, however, many
residents of these homes who come properly within this study of the
aged. In addition to these homes there are many homes for the aged
maintained by organizations of various types. Thus a number of the
fraternal organizations have such homes, as have also a very large
number of churches and other religious organizations, and a third large
group of homes is run by private philanthropy. In addition there are
a number of homes for the aged supported by groups of various na­
tionalities— German, Scandinavian, English, Scottish, etc.— for the
benefit of their fellow countrymen. All of these types of homes have
been included in the bureau’s study.
From all possible sources of information the bureau was able to
ascertain the existence of some 1,270 homes for the aged in this coun­
try, and data have been obtained for 1,037. These include 9 Federal
soldiers or sailors’ homes, 46 State homes, 102 fraternal homes, 444
homes maintained by religious organizations of various sorts, 38 homes
of miscellaneous organizations, 33 homes of nationality groups, 5
trade-union homes, and 360 private homes.




4

CARE OF AGET) PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

The 1,037 homes for which data were obtained are caring for 68,659
persons at an annual cost of $26,306,477. This number does not
include persons cared for in almshouses, a study of which in 1923 and
1924 showed a resident population therein of 85,889 and an annual
disbursement of $28,740,535.
Homes for the aged are, in general, most numerous in industrial
sections and least numerous in the agricultural parts of the country.
Some of the homes have been in existence a long time. Thus, three
were found which were established more than 100 years ago, and more
than a sixth of the total number have been in existence half a century
or more.
Not everyone is eligible to these homes: 59 take only men, 328 take
only women, 39 take individuals of both sexes, and 608 take both sexes
and married couples as well. Also, membership in the group which is
supporting the home is often a requisite. Thus, the homes of tradeunions and fraternal organizations take only members of the organiza­
tion; church homes usually require membership in the denomination.
Residence requirements are common among the homes supported by
contributions from the community. In cases where the home is
supported by the proceeds of a legacy, the applicant must fill the
membership requirements laid down in the will of the founder. Age
requirements are also common, 60 and 65 years being the most com­
mon ages below which admission is denied.
In most instances the home contracts, for a flat sum, usually of $300
or $500, to care for the inmate for the remainder of his life, whether
this be 1 year or 20 years. For this sum the resident receives board,
lodging, and laundry, in the majority of cases nursing and medical
care, in some instances an allowance for “ pin money,” and also in some
cases burial in the home’s burial plot.
Each incoming resident is accepted on probation for a period of
from three to six months. At the end of that time, if still acceptable,
the inmate becomes a life member of the home. If, however, the
applicant is found not to be congenial, or is a trouble maker, or is for
any other reason considered undesirable, he is dismissed and his
entrance fee returned, minus a small weekly charge for board and
room during the period of probation.
Once accepted, the inmate becomes eligible to all the privileges of
the home. All life residents are treated alike regardless of the amount
turned over to the home at time of admission, the only exception
being that those who had property in excess of the admission fee often
receive interest on the excess.
The guests are usually free to go and come as they please during
the day, though for safety’s sake they are often required to return
by a fixed time at night. Some of the homes have specified days and
hours for the reception of visitors, but most of them are very lenient
in this respect. It is also a general practice to permit guests to go
aw^ay for extended visits to friends and relatives, their places being
reserved for them during their absence.
Physical conditions at the homes.— Most of the data regarding the
homes had to be gathered by mail, but in order to obtain information
as to the actual conditions under which the old people are living,
personal visits were made to some 150 homes of all types.




CHAPTER I.----SUMMARY

5

The overwhelming majority of these homes were in or just outside
some city or town. With a few exceptions, the homes were found
to be well located and housed in good buildings. Generally the rooms
were well arranged, especially in cases where the building had been
built for the purpose of an old people’s home.
Although the yard space available varied in size from one small
city lot to grounds of more than 2,000 acres in extent, almost invari­
ably an attempt had been made to beautify the grounds with lawns,
flowers, and shrubs. Some homes were outstanding by reason of the
beauty of the grounds.
The average home visited provided at least one well-furnished
general sitting room for the use of the residents, and sun parlors were
very frequently found.
Individual bedrooms were found to be the general rule, though a
few institutions require two residents to share a room, and some homes
operate on the dormitory system. The bedrooms varied greatly in
attractiveness, from dark, poorly furnished rooms to those which
were light, cheerful, and well furnished. In general the sleeping
accommodations were good.
Where opportunity offered to judge the menus and food served, the
latter appeared to be good in quality, though plain and perhaps
lacking something in variety.
The homes are usually run by a board of directors which has full
powers, in most cases, through committees. Actual management is
in the hands of the matron, and she holds the most important position
in the home, from the point of view of the inmates. It was found that,
as a group, the matrons were of a type above the average, being in a
number of cases women of superior ability. The exceptions were so
infrequent as to be noticeable for that very reason. Study of the
homes leads to the conclusion that while the existence of a good, live,
house comittee of the board of directors is very important, to a very
much greater degree the success of the home and the happiness of the
residents depend upon the personality and ability of the matron.
The physical and mental well-being of the residents are in her hands.
It was therefore interesting to find that in the great majority of the
homes visited the matron had succeeded in making the scene of her
endeavors a real home.




Chapter II.—American Almshouses
HE almshouse or poorhouse or poor farm, as it is variously
known, has been the long-established method of taking care of
aged dependents in the United States. Until comparatively
recently, these institutions were accepted more or less as a matter of
course. During the past few years, however, discussions of old-age
pension and retirement plans have led to more critical examination
of the conduct and cost of the almshouse system.
In 1923 and 1924 the Bureau of Labor Statistics made a study of
poor farms and almshouses in each of the 48 States. Cooperating
with the bureau, various fraternal organizations throughout the
country supplemented the scope of the Government investigation.
The bureau found the value and extent of public property used or
intended for poor farms and almshouses and the cost of operating
these institutions over a period of one year, while the fraternal
societies studied the physical and social conditions surrounding alms­
house inmates.
The bureau’s report1 covered 2,183 almshouses, or 93 per cent of
the public pauper institutions of the country. These almshouses
were sheltering a total of 85,889 persons. Though some institutions
were good, appalling conditions were found in others. Many of the
houses were dangerous firetraps. Conditions of extreme filth and the
grossest neglect were discovered. Moral conditions were often very
bad. Generally the diseased mingled freely with the well inmates.
No restraint was exercised, and inmates were free to leave when so
inclined, even though a menace to society because of disease or mental
condition.
Not all of the inmates were aged people; on the contrary they in­
cluded persons of all ages, from babes in arms to men and women of
extreme age. The inmates included children, hospital cases, feeble­
minded, insane, deaf and dumb, and blind, as well as able-bodied and
mentally capable paupers. In New England, particularly in Massa­
chusetts, the insane had been removed to insane asylums and an
effort was being made to remove to suitable institutions the feeble­
minded and epileptic. “ The result is that the almshouses of New
England more nearly fulfill the real purpose of an almshouse— that
of providing refuge and care and a fair degree of comfort to the old
and infirm— than those of any other section of the country.”
No data are available as to what proportion of the inmates of the
almshouses in the United States come properly within the scope of
this study of aged. The almshouses are, however, included here be­
cause they are one means by which some of the aged in this country
are cared for.
It was found that the average cost of maintaining these 85,889
paupers in almshouses was $334.64 each for the year. The average
number of acres of institutional land per inmate was 4.02, over half
of which was being cultivated. The total property value per inmate

T

i P u blish ed as B u lletin N o . 386,

6



CHAPTER II.— AMERICAN ALMSHOUSES

7

was $1,752.09. The income per pauper from the sale of farm prod­
ucts was $33.91. The maintenance cost per inmate was found to
vary greatly from State to State; for example, this average cost in
Alabama was $187.53 and in Nevada it was $865.10. These 2,183
almshouses had 345,481 acres of land, of which 184,087 acres were
cultivated. The value of the land and farm equipment was $48,366,556 and that of the buildings and furnishings $102,118,675, repre­
senting a combined investment of $150,485,231.
Systems of Control
I n m o s t States the governing body of the county, whether known
as county commissioners, trustees, or supervisors, constitutes the
controlling responsible factor in almshouse management. In New
England, control is vested in the town, with the overseers of the
poor as the immediately responsible officials. California, Michigan,
and New York have an elected county official, usually called the
county superintendent of the poor, who is the administrative head of
public poor relief, including the county almshouse. In Louisiana
the police jury is the controlling body, and in Arkansas, Missouri,
Oregon, and West Virginia the almshouses are under the jurisdiction
of the county courts.
In States which have official bodies in the field of public charity
and social work, such as State departments of public welfare, public
welfare commissions, State boards of charity, and the like, some
degree of centralized control, or at least supervision, obtains. In only
one, however, has the State body actual authority over the local man­
agement. The Michigan State Welfare Department has power to
enforce its recommendations for the improvement of physical condi­
tions in county almshouses, and to administer State laws with regard
to poor relief. But in most States the State body merely has the
right to inspect local institutions and to recommend changes and
improvements.
Systems of Operation

Tw o d i f f e r e n t s y s t e m s of operation of almshouses are found in
practically every State. These are (1) direct management by the
county officials, or, in States not organized on the county basis, the
poor officials, through a hired superintendent or “ keeper,” and (2)
the contract system.
The first prevails in 88 per cent of the institutions. Under it the
public officials responsible for the care of paupers and the adminis­
tration of the poor laws employ a superintendent, on a stated salary,
to run the almshouse. This superintendent either has a definite
appropriation on which to operate, as is the case in the large institu­
tions, or he charges the needs of the institution to the county or town
and the treasurer pays all bills. The produce of the farm belongs to
the institution. What is not consumed by the inmates and staff is
sold, the proceeds in some cases reverting to the local treasury and
in other cases being available to the superintendent for almshouse
use. Other employees are hired by the officials, the number depend­
ing on the size of the farm, the number of inmates, and the funds
available.




8

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

The hired manager thus becomes the immediately responsible
party. Theoretically he is held accountable by the public, through
its selected officials, for the successful, economical, and humane
administration of the almshouse. The degree of supervision over
him maintained by county and town officials depends, of course,
on the interest which those officials take in their local institutions
and the conscientiousness with which they discharge their duties.
Under the contract system responsibility is even less definitely
fixed. By this scheme the farm and almshouse are leased to an
operator for the care of the poor. There are several different ways
in which this plan is used. One is on a “ full maintenance” contract,
under which the lessee operates the farm and takes entire care of the
inmates, feeding and clothing them, and furnishing necessary med­
ical attention for a stipulated sum per inmate per month, paid by
the community. This sum is usually $25, $30, or $35 per month.
Produce of the farm is consumed in the institution, and generally the
lessee is entitled to the proceeds of the sale of the surplus after
almshouse needs are supplied.
More frequently, however, the lessee is paid a much smaller amount,
ranging from $7 to $20 and averaging about $12 per month, for
the board of each inmate, the county or town furnishing in addi­
tion clothing, bedding, fuel, tobacco, medical service, and drugs.
Under this arrangement the lessee generally pays a nominal rent for
the farm ($75 to $150 a year), furnishes his own farm implements,
and is entitled to all produce. This system is quite extensively used
throughout the South.
It should be understood that “ contract,” as here used, refers to
contracts leasing public almshouse property. There is, of course,
another form of contract for the care of paupers used in many coun­
ties and communities which do not maintain almshouses. That is the
system by which an individual farmer undertakes for a certain
amount of money to board and care for paupers on his own farm and
in his own home. This expenditure would have to be included in any
complete survey of the entire expense of maintaining paupers. But
inasmuch as no capital investment of public money is involved, this
form of pauper maintenance, as well as outdoor relief, was not in­
cluded in the bureau’s study of the subject.
Value of Property, Income, and Maintenance
I n o r d e r to show the public expenditure for this institution, the
almshouse, statistical data showing the plant, cost of operation, etc.,
are given in the tables following.
Table 2 shows the number of institutions reporting, the average
number of inmates, and the total value of the institution’s property.




CHAPTER IT.— AMERICAN ALMSHOUSES
T

able

9

2 .— N U M B E R OF A L M S H O U S E S , A V E R A G E N U M B E R OF IN M A T E S , A N D T O T A L

VALUE

OF P R O P E R T Y , B Y ST A T E

N u m ber
o f insti­
tutions
reporting

State

A la b a m a ______ ________________________________ __ . .
A rizon a __________________ _____________
_______
A rka n sas___________________________________
___
C a lifornia____________ _ ________ __________________
C o lo r a d o . ___________
_________
___
Connfintimit,
D elaw are ________
D istrict of C olu m bia
F lorid a __________________ . . .
______ ______ ■___
__
_________________ _
G e o r g ia _____________
Idah o
_______________
_ ___ ___ ________ ______
__________
Illin ois_________________ __ ___
_ ____
In dian a_______
I o w a ________
K ansas______
_
.
Lou isiana
- _________
M ain e
- -- _____
M a ryla n d
- ________
_________
M assachusetts
M ich igan
- ___________
M in n esota
..
______
M ississippi
- __________
M issouri
_
_
__________
M on ta n a
__________
N ebraska
__
__
_ ______
_
N eva d a
.
_
_
________ _______
N ew H a m p s h ire..
__
_ _________ _______
N ew Jersey.
- _________
N ew Y ork
_ _ _
_
. ______
N orth Carolina
__
_
_ ___________ _.
N orth D a k ota
__
__ _______________
O hio
_
_
- _______ _
_
O klahom a
_________
_ - - - ______________ ____
O regon ____ ____ _____________ - . . . ____________
P en n sylva n ia
________ ____ ______
R h o d e Island
_
_
_ ___ _____ _______
South C a rolin a. __
.
__ _ __________
South D a k ota
__________
T en nessee. _ _
___
. _
_______
T exas
____________
U ta h ___________________________
___________________
V erm on t
_
- __
V irgin ia . _
_______
_
_
- __ - __________
W a s h in g to n ._______ __ . .
- ___
W est V irgin ia ______
__
_______
_
__
_ _ ____
___
W is c o n s in .______ __
____________ . . .
_____ o m in g
Wy _
_____
T o t a l . . ______

_ -




...

_____ __

_.

A v erage nu m ber o f inm ates
V a lu e of
prop erty
M ales

55
7
28
42
25
48
2
1
11
58
10
90
92
97
83
71
5
100
15
144
81
44
27
85
22
54
8
11
30
61
97
11
89
31
17
79
20
27
29
59
54
7
38
91
24
45
52
6

432
162
216
4,485
702
919
180
197
155
378
105
4,095
2,177
1,945
775
619
17
439
687
3,738
3,678
854
130
1,955
247
417
107
719
1,438
6,092
830
110
4,844
254
499
7,272
431
229
138
799
657
181
157
632
747
409
1,389
30

2,183

57,688

Fem ales

448
21
165
1,325
376
452
55
107
78
464
28
1, 583
1,041
1,171
316
417
8
262
290
2,321
1, 544
177
108
889
23
163
19
410
669
3, 111
954
48
2,303
92
64
3,401
336
240
48
796
294
79
82
567
115
284
454
3
28,201

T o ta l

900
183
381
5,810
1,078
1, 371
235
304
233
842
133
5, 678
3,218
3,116
1,091
1,036
25
701
977
6,059
5, 222
1, 031
238
2,844
270
580
126
1,129
2,107
9,203
1,784
158
7,147
346
563
10, 673
767
469
186
1, 595
951
260
239
1,199
862
693
1,843
33

$516, 225
236,095
395, 925
6,654,845
806, 502
2,939, 398
613, 800
325,000
345,170
843, 506
323, 930
14, 633, 819
6,149, 242
9,117,087
2, 205, 063
1, 373, 629
11, 300
1, 208, 902
3, 098, 740
9,073, 572
5, 955,179
2, 424, 264
98,920
5, 952, 581
518, 747
2,148,053
176, 530
1, 631,071
3, 682, 499
16, 321,338
3, 313, 694
457, 561
11, 828,020
632,161
633, 720
16,376,833
2, 707, 926
688, 298
1,041, 765
1, 983,469
1,399, 506
656,860
437,025
1, 778,829
1, 677,828
1, 608, 771
3,364, 510
117, 525

85,889

150,485, 233

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

10

The following table shows the annual income from various sources
and the annual maintenance cost, by State:
T a b l e 3 .— A N N U A L I N C O M E A N D M A I N T E N A N C E C O S T O F A L M S H O U S E S , B Y S T A T E i

State

A la b a m a _______ ______
A riz o n a ............... ............
A rkansas.........................
C a liforn ia....... ................
C o lo r a d o ........................
C o n n e cticu t__________
D elaw are_____________
D istrict of C o lu m b ia .
F lorid a_______________
G eorgia____ __________
I d a h o _________________
Illin ois..................... .......
In d ia n a _____ _____ ____
I o w a ___________ ______
K an sas_______________
K e n t u c k y ____________
L ou isian a_____________
M a in e ________________
M a r y la n d ......................
M assachusetts. _..........
M ic h ig a n _____________
M in n esota ____________
M ississip p i___________
M issou ri______________
M o n ta n a _____________
N ebrask a_____________
N e v a d a _______________
N ew H am psh ire_____
N e w Jersey___________
N e w Y o r k _____ ______
N orth C arolina_______
N orth D a k o ta ________
O h io __________________
O kla h om a____________
O regon _______________
P en n sylva n ia ________
R h od e Isla n d _________
South C a rolin a _______
South D a k o ta ________
T en nessee____________
T e x a s .. _____ _________
U ta h __________________
• V e r m o n t_____________
V irgin ia ______________
W a sh in g ton ..................
W est V irgin ia ...............
W iscon sin __________
W y o m in g ................... ..
T o t a l 2.

Num ­
ber of
insti­
tutions
report­
ing

55
7
28
42
25
48

A n n u al in com e from —

P u b lic
funds

6

$164,022
107,614
102,963
2, 510,064
236, 216
532, 740
77,482
84, 752
72,914
214,049
45, 651
1,627, 547
955, 577
771, 901
257, 277
193,114
5, 940
253, 921
245, 902
2, 723, 313
1,452, 322
371, 970
50,637
622, 237
143, 699
207,654
104, 547
361, 490
759,220
2, 552, 690
387,170
64, 093
2,016,850
99,357
137, 889
2, 820,177
239, 511
120, 372
78,072
327, 225
223,067
88, 358
102,007
253,456
262, 655
179, 965
432, 670
20, 635

2,183

25,662, 954

2
1
11

58

10
90
92
97
83
71
5

100
15
144
81
44
27
85

22
54

8

11

30
61
97

11

89
31
17
79
20
27
29
59
54
7
38
91
24
45
52

Sale of
farm
p rodu ce

R efu n d
O ther
sources

$2,000

$2,789
574
8,358
194, 226
17, 767
51, 552
1, 639

245
1,480
134, 561
8, 773
45, 580
521

9,800
9,101
5,956
197, 516
118, 346
309, 345
61, 573
19, 660

683
1,132
847
36.000
20, 443
78.000
9,836
11, 625

93,447
14, 285
279, 906
92, 411
60, 531
250
49, 633
6,167
60,178
774
100, 740
53,438
203, 894
33, 565
15,168
248, 787
6,789
4, 751
177,120
45,499
15, 650
26,062
25, 712
52, 684
2,536
46, 656
36, 972
40, 752
26, 057
81,350
2,600

29,046
4,061
209, 608
494, 810
36, 635

2,912, 566

1, 826, 851

16, 337
4, 329
9,752
4,171
28, 733
3, 210
108,198
3,070
11,003
118,498
7, 397
5,672
193,932
42,046
4, 550
5,083
6,424
36,186
11, 619
7,450
2,909
5, 259
11,806
53,332

$14,947
” 36,'567

630
3, 598
50, 080
13, 987
946
5, 258
600
489, 513
480
15, 522

1.500
"i§, 597
24, 946
31, 747
3, 560
4.500
43, 752
16, 257
764
5,174
9,547
7,200
17, 613

813,169

N et annual
incom e

A n nual
m ainte­
nance
cost

$168,812
108,433
112,801
2,823,903
262, 757
593,304
79, 641
84, 752
82, 514
223, 652
52,454
1, 857,465
1,044, 285
1,145, 260
327, 739
224, 399
5,940
371,155
263, 648
2, 723, 313
2,039,063
453, 615
50, 887
688, 207
154,196
276,083
109, 492
477, 366
790, 922
2,833,035
420, 244
85, 765
2, 340, 383
113, 543
148, 311
3,174, 971
326, 292
140, 572
109, 218
354,187
302, 390
95, 313
156,113
293, 338
291, 053
217,827
567,352
23, 235

$168, 779
107,974
112,801
2,413,493
246, 217
591,152
79, 641
84, 583
82,085
218, 095
50, 856
1,831,104
1,003, 858
1,114,982
311,174
224,183
5, 940
354, 016
263, 291
2, 723, 388
1,935, 708
505,998
50,887
681,186
140,109
267, 788
109, 003
470, 844
790,136
2 2, 753, 327
419, 674
82, 529
2, 304, 548
111, 805
147,871
3,160, 488
325, 930
138, 874
105, 390
352,089
293, 689
93, 793
152, 953
291, 763
290,471
217, 807
535, 327
22, 935

29, 589, 202

I 740, 535
,

1 In som e instances the sum of the details d o not agree w ith the total sh o w n because the cents have
been elim inated to save space.
2 Inclu des N ew Y o r k C ity p a y roll.




CHAPTER II.— AMERICAN ALMSHOUSES

11

Similar data per inmate are given in the table below:
T

able

4 .— A V E R A G E A N N U A L I N C O M E A N D M A I N T E N A N C E C O S T O F A L M S H O U S E S ,
PE R IN M A T E , B Y ST A TE

A n n u al in com e, per
inm ate, from —

State
P u b lic
funds

A la b a m a ......... ......... $182. 25
A rizon a ..................
588.06
Arkansas__________ 270. 24
C aliforn ia_________ 432.02
C olora d o __________ 219.12
C on n ecticu t_______ 388. 58
D elaw are__________ 329. 71
D istrict of C olu m ­
b ia ______________ 278. 79
F lorid a____________ 312.94
G eorgia____________ 254. 22
I d a h o ______________ 343. 24
Illin ois_____________ 286. 64
In d ia n a ____________ 296. 95
I o w a _______________ 247. 72
K an sas____________ 235. 82
K e n t u c k y _________ 186. 40
L ou isiana__________ 237.60
M a in e _____________ 362. 23
M a r y la n d _________ 251. 69
M assachusetts____ 449. 47
M ich ig a n __________ 278.12
M in n esota _________ 360. 79
M ississip p i______
212. 76
M issou ri___________ 218. 79
M o n ta n a __________ 532. 22
N ebraska__________ 358. 02
N e v a d a ____________ 829. 74
N ew H am psh ire—_ 320.19
N ew Jersey________ 360. 33
N ew Y o r k _________ 277.38
N orth C arolina___ 217. 02
N orth D a k o ta ____ 405. 65
O h io _______________ 282. 20
O k la h om a _________ 287.16
O regon ____________ 244. 92
P en n sylva n ia _____ 264. 23
R h o d e Isla n d_____ 312. 27
S outh C a rolin a___ 256.66
South D a k o ta _____ 419. 74
Ten nessee_________ 205.16
T exa s______ _____
234. 56
U ta h ______________ 339.84
V e r m o n t ___________ 426.81
V irgin ia ___________ 211. 39
W a sh in g ton _______ 304. 70
W est V irgin ia _____ 259.69
W iscon sin _________ 234. 76
W y o m in g _________ 625.29
T o t a l________

298.79

Sale of
farm
Other
pro d ­ sources
uce

$3.10
3.13
21.94
33.43
16.48
37.60
6.97

R e­
fund

$2.22

1. 34
3.88
23.16 $2.57
8.14
33. 25 26.67

2.22

42.06
10.81
44.78
34.79
36.78
99.28
56.44
18.98

2.93 3.79
.75
1.34
6.37
.63
6.34
6.35 15.56
25.03 4.49
.87
9.02

133. 31
14. 62
46.20
17.70
58. 71
1.05
17.45
22.84
103. 75
6.14
89.23
25. 36
22.16
18. 81
96.00
34.81
19. 62
8.44
16.60
59. 32
33.37
140.12
16.12
55. 40
9.75
195. 21
30.84
47.28
37.60
44.14
78.79

41.43 7.50
.61
4.16
34.59 80. 79
94. 75
.09
35.53 15.05

33.91

i E xclusive of N e w Y o r k C ity.

35777°— 29------- 2




A n n u al m aintenance cost, per inm ate

11.22

5.74
16.03
16.81
33.10
25.45
1.53
11.76
1. 72
69.64
16.58
21. 38
10.07
18.17
54.82
9.70
27.33
4.03
38.05
44. 69
31.17
2.43

2.59
12.04
11.84
3.45

2.00
28. 48
6.12
1. 52

1.00
3.24
10.04
27.69

6.10 20.43
17.04
28.94
21. 27

9.46

N et
annual
incom e

P a y roll
A ll
other
Super­ M a ­ C ooks,
L a b o r­ e x p e n d ­
intend' trons dom es­
ers,
itures
ents,
and
tics,
etc.
nurses etc.

$187.57 $65.64
592. 53 60.44
296.06 113.12
486.04 17.40
243. 74 28.29
432. 76* 31.08
338.90 17. 62

$4.99
58. 65
12.44
54.93
18. 76
22.67
10.83

$6.44
33.42
10. 71
23. 60
19. 87
16.88
25.99

$7.09 $103.37
31.15 406.34
5. 67 154.12
21.09 298. 38
11. 55 149.93
34.76 325.80
284.47

T o ta l

$187. 53
590.00
296.06
415.40
228. 40
431.19
338. 91

278. 79
354.14
265. 62
394. 39
327.14
324. 52
367.54
300.41
216. 60
237.60
529.47
269. 86
449. 47
390. 48
439. 98
213. 81
241.98
571.09
475.99
868. 98
422.83
375. 38
307.85
235.55
542.81
327.47
328.16
263.43
297.48
425.41
299.73
587.19
222.07
317.97
366.59
653.19
244.66
337.65
314.33
307.84
704.08

3.95 28.12
28. 05
47.58 37.35
13.19 17.48
48.49
7.04
9.51
13. 79
100.41
18.05 18. 97 22.97
9.07 42.49
21.81 36.49
27.39 11.09 14. 48 23. 72
44. 52
9.99 14.47 24.64
9.33 15.81
69. 65 11.45
63.63
5.79 10.50
148. 80
14.40
68.96 19.24 17.06 50.83
18.02 26.04
8.11 11.38
28.58 55.74 27.11 45. 77
6.94 41.87 36.94
17.80
67.76
9.09 16.91 28.13
139.58
.50
39.94 12.'98' 14.94 "2L 4 2
156.85 43. 77 22.44 25. 76
78.85
9.07
10.50 34. 73
190. 76 108.65 44.90 25.63
14.03 17.41
14. 61 36. 92
18. 87 30.78 19. 68 57. 87
U6.83 117.28 120. 73 128. 52
53.64
7.62
6.40
7.68
49.62 70.14 17.24 52.00
15. 42 26.86 23.14 25. 77
11. 79 12. 72
66. 32
8.93
48.38
19.53 21. 77 15.47
11.27 24.30
9.83 24.36
32. 79 54.05 30.38 21.35
48.49
8.07
8.36 20. 65
145.98 25.22
8.69 35.91
37. 36 16. 65
5. 21 13.70
63.80 12. 25
12.85
9.86
29. 66 26.54 2i. 54 27.25
120. 26 13. 37
6.66 31.15
32.28
18.76
7.36 27.88
46.30 21.81 24.13 28.68
81.36 25.17 10. 79 24.93
25. 79 12.11 19. 72 25.36
190. 73 54. 55 14. 55 10.91

209.23
236. 71
180. 20
221. 99
212. 63
235.28
264. 21
178. 98
129.50
74.40
348.93
205. 94
292. 28
267.14
368.89
73.73
150.24
270.09
328. 55
495.16
334.07
247.80
213. 25
159.90
333.33
231.26
223. 38
157. 50
226.37
286.37
210. 54
350. 81
147.82
210.05
255. 76
468. 53
157.05
216.05
172.04
207.48
424. 26

278. 23
352. 31
259.03
382. 39
322.49
311.96
357.83
285. 22
216.40
237.60
505.02
269.49
449. 48
370. 69
490.78
213.81
239. 52
518. 91
461. 70
865.10
417.04
375.00
299.18
235.24
522.33
322.45
323.14
262. 65
296.13
424.94
296.11
566. 61
220. 74
308. 81
360. 75
639. 97
243.33
336.97
314.29
290.46
695.00

344.51

128.84 124.02 U 7 .18 126. 76

234.48

334.64

12
T

able

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES
5 .— C O M P A R I S O N O F I N V E S T M E N T A N D C O S T O F M A I N T E N A N C E O F S M A L L
A L M S H O U S E S W IT H T H A T O F L A R G E A L M S H O U S E S

Item

N u m b er of alm shouses________________________________________ _______ _________
N u m b er of inm ates
____ _____ __________ _____ ________________________________
V alue of land and farm eq u ip m e n t_____________________________________________
In vestm en t per in m ate_______________ _____________________________________
V a lu e of buildin gs and furnishings
__________________________________________
A verage per in s titu tio n . _________________________ _____ ___________________
A verage per in m a te ___ _______________________________________ ______ ____ __
T o ta l investm en t (land, buildin gs, and farm and h om e e q u ip m e n t)_______ _
A verage per in m a te ________________________________________________________
N u m b er of acres em braced in in stitu tion s _____________________________________
N u m b er of acres under cu ltiv a tio n ___________ _________________________________
N u m b er of acres per in m a te .. ___
_ _________ ____________________________
N u m b er of acres cu ltiva ted per in m a te___________ ____ _________________ _______
E m ployees in service of in s t it u t io n s ________ _____ _________ ___________________
R a tio of em plovees to inm ates
_
...................
_ _ _ _ _
T ota l wages and salaries o f em ployees
_
_ _
.
A n nual cost of wages and salaries of em ployees per inmate_ _ ___ _________
A n nual m aintenance cost per in m a te___________ _______ ________ ___ . . . _____

Large alm s­
Sm all alm s­
houses (26 to houses (501 to
50 inm ates) 2,000 inm ates)

334
11,989
$8,107, 961
$678
$13, 911, 713
$41, 777
$1,163
$22, 019, 674
$1, 841
58, 699
38,134
4 .9
3.2
1,918
1 to 6. 24
$1,145,185
$95. 62
$335. 50

16
11,959
$3, 594, 308
$301
$15,043, 955
$940, 247
$1, 258
$18,638, 263
$1, 559
5, 597
2,588
.47
.22
1,168
1 to 10. 24
$1,068,887
$89. 38
$293. 89

It will be seen from the table that 334 institutions on 58,699 acres
of land, representing a total investment of $22,019,674, cared for
11,989 paupers at $335.50 per capita for the year covered, while 16
other institutions, with 90 per cent less land and $3,381,411 less in­
vested, maintained their inmates at $293.89 per head. Attention is
also called to the probable superiority of institutions and equipment
averaging approximately a million dollars in value to those averag­
ing a little less than $42,000. Moreover, 334 institutions necessitate
334 superintendents and staffs, and of the 1,918 employees in the
first group only about 800 can properly be considered as ministering
directly to the inmates. The other 1,118 are farm laborers, unskilled
workers, and domestics in the 334 separate dining rooms and kitchens.
For this whole group of 334 almshouses only 135 nurses are reported—
1 to each 89 paupers— and only 9 of these institutions had staff
doctors.
Each of the 16 institutions in the second group has a resident
physician, and the number of nurses, orderlies, and other persons
directly concerned in caring for the paupers is 566. Although a
large percentage of the employees in these 16 institutions are skilled
professional mep and women, the service cost per inmate is $6.24
less per annum than in the first group in which the labor overhead
covers twenty-one times as many almshouses.
Manifestly it is reasonable to assume that the 11,959 indigents
who are housed in institutions constructed and equipped to care for
them in illness or in health and who are in the care of trained per­
sons are better off than are the 11,989 scattered throughout 334
institutions with 334 different standards of treatment and efficiency
in management.




Chapter III.—Care of Old People in Homes for the Aged
HE bureau, after inquiry to the authorities of the various
States and the larger cities, was able to locate some l,268a
homes for the aged throughout the country. Inquiry made
of these brought replies from 1,037. These homes are supported in
various ways. Some are operated by church organizations, some are
public institutions (such as State or Federal homes for soldiers and
their widows), som.3 are run by groups of various nationalities for the
benefit of their fellow countrymen who are aged and infirm and unable
to look out for themselves, others are supported by private philan­
thropy, etc. The returns from the homes were therefore classified
according to the type of home. These are shown in the table following:

T

T able 6 .— N U M B E R

O F H O M E S F O R A G E D OF S P E C IF IE D T Y P E S R E P O R T IN G A N D
N O T R E P O R T IN G , B Y S T A T E S

Federal and;
State hom es

Religious
hom es

Fraternal
hom es

Private
Trade-un ion
N a tio n a lity
benevolent
and other
hom es
hom es
hom es

T otal

State
N ot
N ot
N ot
N ot
N ot
N ot
N ot
R e­
R e­
R e­
R e­
R e­
R e­
R e­
re­
re­
re­
re­
re­
re­
p ort­
port­
p ort­
p ort­
port­
p ort­
p ort­
port­
port­
port­
port­
p ort­
port­
po rt­
ing
ing
ing
ing
ing
ing
ing
ing
ing
ing
ing
ing i
ing
ing

A la b a m a ______
A riz o n a .............
A rkansas. _ __
C a lifo r n ia ___
C olora d o_____
C on n ecticu t— .
D elaw are____
D istrict of C o ­
lu m b ia -........
Florida.. ___ _
G eorgia.............
Id a h o _________
Illinois________
In d ia n a _______
I o w a .................
K a n s a s ______
K e n tu c k y
L ou isian a _____
M a in e ______
M a r y la n d ____
M assachusetts
M ic h ig a n _____
M in n e s o ta ____
M ississippi
M i s s o u r i . ___
M o n ta n a _____
N ebrask a_____
N ew H a m p ­
shire______ __
N ew Jersey. „ _
N ew Y o r k ____
N o rth C aro­
lin a _________
N o rth D a k ota .
O h io __________
O k la h om a ___
O r e g o n ............
P en n sy lv a n ia .
R h o d e Island .

1
1
1
3
1
1

3

11

1
1
2

1
1
1
1
2
2
1
3
1
1

2

a
2
13

11

6

10
4
'3
5

1
1
1
1
2
1
2

21
4
5

2

10

23

2

13

7

1
1

20

4

28
159

1
3
2

24

6

4

1
2
1

4

53
3
5

16

2

1
3

19
6

110

1
14

13

1 M a y includ e a few h o m e s o f other classifications; all hom es n ot reporting w h ich d id not clea rly belon g
in the other classifications o f this table w ere in clu d ed here.
2 N o t yet in operation.
° R ev ised lists of houses received from four States (C o n n e cticu t, N e w Jersey, N e w Y o r k , a n d P e n n ­
sylvan ia) since this co m p u ta tio n w as m ade b rin g the to ta l to 1,323; a d ir e cto r y o f these is given in
B u lletin N o . 505.




13

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

14
T

able

6 .— N U M B E R

O F H O M E S F O R A G E D OF S P E C IF IE D T Y P E S R E P O R T IN G A N D
N O T .R E P O R T I N G , B Y S T A T E S — C o n tin u e d

Federal and
State hom es

Fraternal
hom es

Religious
hom es

P rivate
Trade-un ion
N ation a lity
and other
benevolent
hom es
hom es
hom es

T otal

State
N ot
N ot
N ot
N ot
N ot
N ot
N ot
Re­
R e­
R e­
R e­
R e­
R e­
Re­
re­
re­
re­
re­
re­
re­
re­
port­
port­
port­
port­
port­
port­
p ort­
port­
port­
port­
port­
po rt­
port­
port­
ing
ing
ing
ing
ing
ing
ing
ing
ing
ing
ing
ing
ing
ing

South Carolina
South D a k ota .
T ennessee____
T ex a s. _______
U t a h . . ...........
V erm on t______
V irgin ia . _
W ash in gton . __
W est V irginia.
W isconsin____
W y om in g
T o t a l. __

1
2
2

1
1

1
1
1

3
1
2
9

2
4

2
2
2

8

1

2

3
7
1
3
2
3
3
10

1
1

2
3
3
1
2

16
1

2

1

5
5

2
55

5

4
3

2

2
5
1
1
1

1
1
1

360

126

43

5
2
11
22
1
7
12
13
4
31

[8
2
6
3

1 31,036

231

I

444

82

102

10

3 32

4

4
7
3
1
1
1

3 N o t in clu d in g 1 hom e w hose loca tion is not k n ow n .

It can be seen that the greatest proportion of homes are those of the
religious and private groups, these accounting for 804 of the 1,037
homes reporting.
An interesting feature of the table is the geographical distribution
of these homes for the aged. Industrial areas, with their many wage
earners who are unable for numerous reasons to make provision for
their old age, are those areas where the need for such homes is un­
doubtedly the greatest. As the table shows, it is in most cases pre­
cisely in these industrial States where the greatest number of homes
is found. Illinois, Massachusetts, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania
are the outstanding States in this respect. California, Indiana,
Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, and Wisconsin— States which are
partly agricultural and partly industrial— all stand fairly high in the
number of homes provided. Few homes were found in the predomi­
nantly agricultural States.
Number of Persons Provided For
M o r e than one-third of the homes have fewer than 25 residents each,
and more than three-fifths have fewer than 50 residents each. The
largest proportion of small homes is found among those of the private
groups and the largest proportion of large homes among those of the
Federal Government. Table 7 shows for each type of sponsoring
organization the distribution of homes according to the average num­
ber of residents.




15

CHAPTER III.— IN HOMES FOR THE AGED

T able 7 .— H O M E S F O R T H E A G E D . C L A S S IF IE D B Y A V E R A G E N U M B E R O F R E S ID E N T S

H om es w ith residents n u m b e r in g Sponsoring organization

25 and
under
50

Less
than
25

Federal G overn m en t (soldiers’ and sailors’
h o m e s )----------------------------------------------------------State governm ents:
Soldiers’ h om es____________________________
O ther h om es_______________________________
L a bor organization s______________________ ____
Religiou s den om in ation s______________________
Religiou s ph ilan th ropic organizations________
Fraternal organizations_______________________
N a tion a lity g ro u p s --------- --------- ----------------------V arious organizations_________________________
Private grou ps____________________ ___________

50 and
under
75

75 and
under
100

100 and
under

200

200

Total

and
over

9
143

2

1
119
14
30
9
16
191

12
19
14

12

102
272

T o ta l..

23
3 388
48
* 100
i 32
38
4 358

103

127

62

113

66

81,021

1 N o t in clu d in g 1 w h ich d id n o t report on this point.
2 2 n ot yet in operation.
3 N ot in clu d in g 7 w h ich d id n o t report on this point.
4 N o t in clu d in g 2 w h ich d id not report on this poin t.
6 N ot includ ing 15 a b o v e n o te d , an d 1 religious fraternal h om e w h ich d id n o t report on this p oin t.

The table below shows for the various types of sponsoring organiza­
tions the total capacity of the homes operated, the total average
number in residence, and the aggregate amount spent annually for
the maintenance of the homes. For purposes of comparison, similar
data are shown, in the last line of the table, for almshouses.
T a b l e 8 .— N U M B E R O F A G E D I N , A N D A N N U A L C O S T O F O P E R A T I O N O F , H O M E S
O F V A R IO U S T Y P E S

S ponsoring organization

T o ta l
num ber
o f hom es

___________ __________________________
_____________________________

1 A ll ages.
2 A g ed on ly.
3 38 hom es.
4 3 hom es; 2 hom es not y e t occu pied.
8 2 hom es.
6 391 hom es.
? 387 hom es.
* 293 hom es.
9 40 hom es.
i° N o data.
ii 99 hom es; data in clu d e children also in 4 cases.
12100 hom es; aged on ly.




A n n u a l cost
o f operation

9

17,402

2 8,155

* $4,602,599

44
2
5
395
48
1
102
14 32
38
360

1 16,662
218
990
6 28,093
4, 256
125
1 10,895
1
1,750
1,845
13,466

2 8,419
173
4 254
7 24,765
3, 706
(i°)
1 7,678
2
1,601
1, 462
1 12,448
7

3 4, 225, 858
79,160
8 418, 736
8 6, 453,179
9 1,688,811
(1)
0
1 3, 260,908
3
i8 528,177
1 554,240
6
is 4,595,809

1, 268 14 1,036
2 2, 348
2
2,183

is 95,702
(i°)

2 68,661
0
85,889

2 26,407,477
1
28, 740, 535

Federal G overn m en t (soldiers’ and sailors’ h o m e s )..
13
State governm ents:
48
Soldiers’ hom es _________________________________
____ _________________________hom es . 2
Other
5
L a b or organizations
________________________________
Religiou s den om in ation s_____ ____ ______ _____________
467
R eligiou s p h ilan th ropic organizations_______________
58
1
R eligiou s fraternal organizations_ __________________
_
112
Fraternal organization s__ ____________________________
37
_________ lity groups
N a tion a __________________________
39
Various o rg a n iz a tion s............ ..................... .......................
489
Private g r o u p s ___
_________ _____ _________________
T ota l
Alm shouses

Inm ates
N um ­
ber of
hom es
A verage
report­ C a p a city n u m ber
ing
of hom es
in resi­
dence

13 88 hom es; data in clu d e children also in 4 cases,
u N o t in clu d in g 1 w h ich d id n o t report o n these
points.
i8 29 hom es.
1 32 hom es.
6
1 358 hom es.
7
18 292 hom es.
1 1,030 hom es.
9
2 1,022 hom es.
0
2 822 hom es.
1
2 E stim ated.
2
a 6 hom es.

16

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

It is seen from the above table that there is apparently a wide margin
between the number of persons the homes can accommodate and the
number actually being cared for. In view of the need, this occa­
sioned some surprise. It is seen that the widest margin occurred in
the case of the Federal and State homes where soldiers and sailors
are cared for and where the accommodations are far in excess of those
living there. Some of the soldiers’ homes are restricted to veterans
of the Civil War whose number is dwindling. The plant remains
at its former size, however, accounting for the difference between
capacity and residents. The discrepancy in the case of the tradeunion homes lay in the fact that two homes, although ready for
occupancy, had not yet been opened for residents. Their capacity
therefore is known, but not the actual number who will live there.
In the case of the other homes, visits to some 150 homes disclosed
that the excess of accommodations was more apparent than real.
Some homes which make a practice of giving each person a private
room had calculated their “ capacity ” on double the actual number
there, figuring that at a pinch two persons could be put in a room.
Others had included in the capacity figures the number of beds in
the infirmary. In other cases there were really some vacant rooms,
but the vacancy was only temporary, pending the action of the board
of trustees upon applications for admission; in several other cases
the home was seizing the opportunity afforded by the death of an
inmate to have the room redecorated before taking in a new resident.
In some instances a new wing or extension to the building had been
built whose capacity was known but which had not yet been opened
for occupancy.
In other cases, where the home is really not filled to capacity,
possible reasons are the reluctance of old people to leave familiar
surroundings if this can possibly be avoided, the dislike of life in an
institution with consequent curtailment of personal liberty and
independence, lack of privacy, and above all the aversion to accept­
ing charity, which all self-respecting persons have. The size of the
entrance fees and other monetary requirements may also act as a bar
to old people with no means and no relatives or friends who could sup­
ply these. Inability to meet some of the other conditions imposed—
membership in a specified organization for a required time, a certain
period of residence, citizenship, religious affiliations, etc.— also still
further limits the number of eligibles for admission.
Some 90 per cent of the homes visited have waiting lists, many
of whom report that the home is “ always full,” while others have
a long waiting list. These tell moving tales of some of the cases they
are forced to turn away for lack of room or of funds to care for them.
In this connection, it is of interest to note a new type of home which
has been opened in New York City. This is a “ waiting home,”
exclusively for the benefit of persons on the waiting lists of the homes
for aged in the city. The period of residence in the home averages
about two years.1 A nominal board is charged to guests able to pay,
otherwise the service is free. The home is small, heretofore accommo­
dating only 11 old ladies, but a new acquisition will enlarge the capac­
ity considerably. Here, it would seem, is a new field for philanthropy.
1 One hom e visited has such a long w aiting list that it takes an ap p lican t 9 or 10 years to get into the h om e.




CHAPTER III.— TN HOMES FOR THE AGED

17

Age of Homes
T h e data as to year of establishment show that some of the homes
are very old. Of the various groups (aside from soldiers), the churches
and private groups were the first to undertake the care of needy old
people in homes especially for them. Three of the private benevolent
homes are more than 100 years old, and more than one-fifth have been
in existence half a century or more, as have also about the same
proportion of the church homes. The fraternal organizations and
the nationality groups were somewhat later in undertaking such
work but even in these cases more than two-fifths of the homes are
25 years or older. The details are shown in the table following:
T

able

9 — HOM ES FOR TH E

A G E D , C L A S S IF IE D
E X IS T E N C E

BY

NUM BER

OF Y E A R S

IN

H om es in existence

25
50
2
5
10
1
100
and
and
and
and
and
year
years
under under under under under
or
and
25
100
50
5
10
less
over
years years years years years

Sponsoring organization

Federal G overn m en t (soldiers’ and sailors’ h o m e s).
State governm ents:
Soldiers’ h om es___________________________________
O ther h om es _____________________________________
L a bor organizations ________________________________
R eligious denom inations .
___ _____________ _
R eligious ph ilan th ropic organization s_______________
Fraternal organization s.
_______ _____ _____ ________
_
_
____________________ _
N a tion a lity groups
___
Various organizations_____ __________ _______
Private g rou p s______________________ ______ _______
T ota l _

...

___ _ ___

_________________

_

T o ta l

4

5

9

3
75
2
3
1
4
74

3

i 43
2
23
8 380
1 47
4 98
i 32
8 36
6 349

167

3

7 999

2

1
23
2
7
5
1
11

30
6
U
4
3
25

114
20
32
11
10
71

40
1
2
130
17
41
11
18
163

14

50

79

259

427

1
8
4

1 N o t including 1 w hich did not report on this point.

2 T w o hom es, though built, are not yet in operation.
3 N ot in clu d in g 15 w hich d id not report on this point.
4 N o t includ ing 4 w h ich d id not report on this point.
5 N ot including 2 w h ich d id n ot report on this point.
6 N ot including 11 w h ich d id not report on this point.
i N ot including 37 hom es, ab o v e noted, and 1 religious fraternal hom e, w h ich d id not report on this poin t.

Entrance Requirements
G e n e r a l l y , the first qualification required is that the applicant be
a member of the sponsoring group. Thus to gain admittance into
the church homes the candidate must generally be a member of the
denomination (or sometimes of the local church) which supports the
home; if the home is one of a fraternal organization, he must belong
to the order, etc. On the other hand, some of these church groups,
notably the Catholic homes, are remarkably liberal in this respect,
opening their doors to the poor and infirm aged of whatever creed.
Only honorably discharged soldiers or sailors (and in some cases their
wives or widows), of course, are eligible for residence in the soldiers’
homes.
In some instances the group eligible for admission is still further
limited. Thus, 2 homes admit only volunteer firemen, 1 home admits
only men who have worked in the construction of wooden ships, 2 are




18

CABE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

open only to the blind or deaf, 1 only to deaf mutes, 1 only to “ child­
less women,” 9 only to ministers and their wives and widows and to
missionaries, 23 only to negroes, 2 only to sailors, 1 only to destitute,
sick, or infirm mothers, wives, sisters, daughters or widows of seamen,
1 only to retired music teachers, 2 only to professional people, and
2 only to actors on the speaking stage. Two homes limit their resi-

FlGURE 1.—ONE OF THE RESIDENTS OF AN EASTERN CHURCH HOME

dents to men who have attained a position of some responsibility
and standing in the community. There are 15 so-called “ widows'
homes,” which provide living quarters (in some instances charging a
nominal rent, in others nothing), and in some cases light, heat, water
and janitor service, but expect the residents to be otherwise selfsupporting.




CHAPTER III.---- IN HOMES FOR THE AGED

19

Character qualifications are a very general requirement. Persons
seeking admission to the home must be “ respectable/’ “ of good moral
character/’ of “ Christian character,” or of good reputation. Several
of the homes require references on this point. Temperate habits are
a universal requirement.
Good health is also a general requisite, most of the homes requiring
that the applicant be in fairly good health, taking into consideration
his age, and free from mental, contagious, or malignant disease. In
some instances a physician’s certificate to this effect is required.
This is done because the homes hesitate to admit persons who, from
the outset, will need constant attendance and nursing. In case of ill­
ness after entering the institution, the home usually provides the
physician and the nursing.2
Sex.— The old ladies seem to be much better provided for than the
old men. Of the 1,034 homes reporting on this point, women are
admitted to all but 59; in fact 328 homes admit women only. The
59 above noted are restricted to men only. Inasmuch as separation of
aged couples is a special hardship to those who have spent their lives
together, it is interesting to see that 608 homes, or nearly 60 per cent,
admit not only both sexes but married couples as well. Of all the
groups studied, the fraternal organizations are the most considerate in
this respect. Individuals of both sexes are taken in 39 homes, but
they must come as individuals and not as couples. The details are
shown in the table following:
T able

1 0 —ENTRANCE

R E Q U IR E M E N T S AS T O

SEX

AND

CO N JU G AL

C O N D IT IO N

H om es adm ittin g—

B oth
sexes and
m arried
couples

Sponsoring organization
M en
o n ly

Federal G overn m en t (soldiers’ and sailors’ h o m e s)__
State governm ents:
Soldiers’ hom es
_ _ _ __________________
O ther hom es
_
_ ______ _________________ ____
L a bor organizations
_ ____________________ ________
R eligiou s denom inations
_ ________________ _______
_
R eligiou s ph ilan th ropic organizations ___ __ _ _ __
R eligiou s fraternal organizations_ _____ __ ________ _
Fraternal o r g a n iz a t io n s .________ ________ ____ - ___
N a tion a lity groups ______________ - _
_
- - - ___
V arious organizations
_ ____________ ____ ____
Private groups
-_________________
T ota l

________________________________________

W om en
on ly

8

B o th
sexes

T otal

9

1

18
1
1
3
2

2
22

10
1
20
202

12

22
1
2
286
2 39
1
88
29
4 16
124

o9

328

39

608

2

4
85
6

2
19
1
2
2

44
2
5
1 393
48
1
102
3 32
38
350
» 1,034

i

1 N o t includ ing 2 w h ich d id not report on this point.
2 In clu d in g 1 w h ich takes w o m e n and m arried couples.
3 N o t in clu d in g 1 w h ich d id n ot report on this poin t.
* In clu d in g 1 w h ich takes m e n and m arried couples an d 1 w h ich takes w om en and m arried couples.
« N o t in clu d in g 3 w h ich d id not report on this p o in t.

Age.— Sixty-five years is the minimum age of admission most
commonly set, followed by 60 years. ^ Two homes set the age limit
as low as 45 years and one home as high as 80 years, while 250 have
no fixed age limit. Here again, the fraternal organizations are the
most liberal of all the groups (except the State and Federal Govern­
2 F or a discussion of m edical care, see p p . 23 an d 60.




20

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

ments), need rather than age being the criterion for entrance.
age limits set by the different groups are shown in Table 11:
T

able

The

1 1 .— M I N I M U M A G E O F A D M I S S I O N T O H O M E S F O R T H E A G E D

N u m b e r of hom es setting m in im u m age of
adm ission at—
Sponsoring organization
51
to
59

50

F ederal G overn m en t (soldiers’ and
sailors’ h om e s )__________ ______ ______
State governm ents:
Soldiers’ h om es____________________
Other hom es___________ ______________
L a b or o r g a n iz a tio n s _____________________
R eligiou s den om in ation s.
R eligious p h ilan th ropic organization s. . _
R eligious fraternal organizations___ _____
Fraternal organizations_____ . . . . . .
N ation a lity groups _ ____________ _____ _
V arious organizations ..................................
P rivate grou ps. _________ _______ ________
T o t a l___________________ _____ ______

61
to
64

60

65

66
to
69

70

No
age
re­ T o t a l
quire­
Over
m ent
70

9
4

3

9
1

1
4 153
21
li 2

1 ,5
5

1 4
6

18
1 4
3
4
95

25

6

299

1

21

i 1

1 2
7

I
1
132
» 23
1
9
14 23
17
169

5

376

«1

i1

61
1 1
0

« 20

1 1
0

1
3
3
26

1 1
9

53

3

is n
14

71

9

3 35
1
3
73
2

44
2
5
8 390
48
1
102
b 32
38
360

1 66
2
14
2 47
0

250 "1,031

1 62 years.
2 80 years.
3 In clu d in g 1 w h ich takes w om en at 50.
4 1 takes w om en at 50 years.
6 63 years.
6 68 years.
7 75 years.
8 N o t including 5 w hich d id not report on this point.
9 1 takes w om en at 60.
1 67 years.
0
1 55 years.
1
1 In cluding 2 w hich require that the applicant be “ o ld .”
2

1 1 takes w om en at 55.
3
1 2 take w om en at 60.
4
1 2 at 45 years.
5
161 at 54 years, 2 at 55 years, and 1 at 56 years.
171 at 62 years and 1 at 63 years.
1 2 at 66 years, 2 at 67 years, 6 at 68 years, and 1 w h ich takes m en at 68 and w om en at 65.
8
1 73 years.
9
2 In clu din g 4 w hich require that app lican t be “ o ld .”
0
2 N o t includ ing 6 w h ich did n ot report on this point.
1
° 1 takes w om en at 65.
6 N o t including 1 w h ich did not report on this point.

Admission fee and other monetary requirements.— In general these
homes are maintained for aged persons either with no means or with
incomes insufficient for their full support. Some of the homes,
notably those of the labor and fraternal organizations, even declare
that no one shall be admitted except those who are indigent and
unable, by reason of age, illness, or infirmity, to support themselves.
Nearly half of the homes (479) require no admission fee; 108 of
these, however, are boarding homes of private groups or miscellaneous
organizations in which the resident pays a weekly or monthly charge
for board. Even allowing for these, it is seen that more than 35
per cent of the whole group require no money of the applicant. Of
those which do require the payment of a specified amount at time of
entrance, $500 is the most common sum required, but about 20 per
cent charge less than this amount and about 40 per cent charge less
than $1,000.




CHAPTER III.— IN HOMES FOE THE AGED
T

able

1 3 .— M I N I M U M

21

A D M IS S IO N F E E S O F H O M E S F O R T H E A G E D
N u m b e r o f hom es setting entrance fee at—

S ponsoring organization

No
$300
fee re­ Less
and
q u ir e d than
under
$300
$400

Federal G overn m en t (soldiers’ and
sailors’ h om es).
________ _
State governm ents:
Soldiers’ hom es ................................
Other h o m e s . ___ _______ ______
L a bor organizations_____ ______________
Religious d en om in ation s______ _ __
R eligious p h ilanthropic organizations _
Religious fraternal organization s______
Fraternal organizations__________ *_. N ationa lity groups ______
_____ _
Various organizations___ _______ __
P rivate groups
______ __ . - _ __
T o t a l _____

_ _______ ______

Fee
varies
$400 $500 $600 $1,000
$2,000 a ccord­ T o ta l
and
and
and
and
and ing to
under under under under
over m e a n s
$500 $600 $1,000 $2,000

9

9

44
2
5
i 182
} 29
2 30
1
100
61
6
1
« 21
0
9 79 1 49
479

80

44
2
5

j
4 14

5 45

24

o,
34

10

55

443

71
4
ii 60

2
1
K 35

4
1
25

1
1
3

6

2
1 22
2

1
12
8
1 76
3

1
102
33
38
360

85

38

142

62

64

15

3 20

is a
72

1,037

1 In clu din g 76 boarding hom es.
2 In clu din g 2 boarding hom es.
3 Inclu din g 2 w ith fee varyin g from $300-$500 and 1 from $300-$600.
^ Inclu din g 1 w ith fee varyin g from $400-$800.
s In clu din g 1 w ith fee varyin g from $500-$1,000.
6 $200 charged to social m em bers (carrying no insurance in the order) and m em bers o f lodges outside
of State w here h om e is located.
7 In clu din g 1 w ith fee v aryin g from $300-$500.
8 In clu d in g 6 boarding hom es and 1 w id o w s ’ hom e.
9 In clu d in g 23 boarding hom es and 1 w h ich requires $150 for burial.
1 In clu d in g 1 w ith fee varyin g from $250-$1,000.
0
1 In clu d in g 2 w ith fee varyin g from $300-$500.
1
1 In clu d in g 1 w ith fee v a ryin g from $400-$600.
2
1 In clu d in g 1 w ith fee varying from $500-$750 and 1 from $540-$5,076.
3
1 In clu d in g 1 w ith fee v ary in g from $800-$l,400.
4
is In clu d in g 1 w hose fee varies accordin g to age and 1 accordin g to age and room .

Since the home which admits life residents contracts in considera­
tion for this fee to furnish the resident with board, lodging, and
laundry for the rest of his life in all instances, and often as a matter
of fact furnishes medical care, nursing, and burial, it is at once evident
that the entrance fee by no means covers the actual cost to the home.
The resident may live only one or two years after admission. On the
other hand, he may live for 15 or 20 years. One home studied whose
resident population averages 60 persons, reports that of these one has
been living at the home for 19 years, one for 21 years, one for 24
years, one for 25 years, and one for 37 years. The person entering this
home pays a fee of $600 and transfers all property to the home.
Another home has one resident who has been there for 20 years,
another for 25 years, and another (just deceased) for 28 years. At a
third home the inmate with the longest period of residence has been
there for 17 years, but one who died last spring had lived at the
home for 50 years.
In order to cover some of the margin between fee income and
obligations assumed, it is a general practice of these homes to require
the incoming resident to transfer to the home all (or a specified part)
of such income or property as he possesses and to bind himself to
turn over also any of which he may become possessed in the future.
In return the home may bind itself to pay to the resident as long as he
lives all or part of the income from such property or a certain rate of
interest upon it. Of the 1,037 homes included in the study, 168 report
such an arrangement with residents possessing property.3
8 F or rates of interest paid see page 29,




CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

22

Although charging an admission fee in ordinary cases, a large
number of homes nevertheless accept persons without means, who
fulfill all the other conditions, up to the limit of the resources of the
home.
Some of the homes take temporary or boarding guests as well as life
members, while 108 others are exclusively boarding homes. The
latter are found only among the homes sponsored by the religious
groups, miscellaneous organizations, and private groups. The
widows* homes, furnishing only living quarters, and in some cases
heat, light, and janitor service, have already been mentioned
The table below shows the rates charged by reporting boarding homes
and by 13 others which offer the incoming resident a choice of life mem­
bership or boarding rates.
T able 1 3 — R A T E S

CHARGED

BY

B O A R D IN G

HOM ES

R eligious
organiza­
tions

R a te

FOR

O ther
organiza­
tions

TH E

AGED

P rivate
groups

T o ta l

W e e k ly rate of—
Less than $5.............................................................................
$5 and under $10......... ........... ....... ......... ......... ...................
$10 and under $20....... ............. ....... .....................................
M o n t h ly rate of—
$10 and under $20- _________ __________ _____ _________
$20 and under $ 3 0 .............................. ........................... ..
$30 and under $ 4 0 ....................... .........................................
$40 and under $ 5 0 ..................................................... ...........
$50 and ov er.............................................................................

4
18
1

3
2

1
2

8
22
1

15
2 16
3 20
6
3

1

3
1
3
*3
6

9
17
23
9
9

T o t a l . . .................................................... ........................... .

73

6

19

98

1 In clu d in g
2 In clu d in g
3 In clu d in g
4 In clu d in g

1 w hose
1 w hose
1 w hose
1 w hose

charges
charges
charges
charges

range
range
range
range

from
from
from
from

$16-$30 and 1 from $18-$22.
$20-$35, 1 from $20-$40, 1 from $25-$35, and 1 from $25-$40.
$30-$100, 1 from $35-$50, and 1 from $35-$60.
$40 u pw ards.

As is seen, the rates in the great majority of instances are extremely
low, considering the benefits obtained. In nearly two-thirds of the
homes, the rate is less than $40 per month and in more than 10
per cent less than $20 per month. Some of the homes are, however,
institutions maintained for elderly people with some means who
desire and can pay for quiet and pleasant quarters, with personal
care, and their charges are correspondingly higher than those of a
semicharitable type.
Other requirements.—As would be expected, nationality require­
ments are more common among the homes maintained by the various
nationality groups than among those sponsored by the other types of
organizations, just as religious requirements are most common m the
church homes. American citizenship is a fairly common require­
ment, and among the private benevolent homes, residence in the city
or county for a specified time.
The requirements as to personal property and clothing vary. Some
homes require that the incoming resident be equipped with sufficient
clothing to last for a year or two, and the fraternal homes quite
generally require that clothing sufficient to last two years be fur­
nished by the local lodge of which the resident was a member. Other
homes furnish all clothing from the time the guest begins his stay at
the home.




CHAPTER III.— IN HOMES FOR THE AGED

23

Some homes demand that the resident supply his own bed linen or
furnish his own room. Others go to the opposite extreme and pro­
hibit his bringing with him any furniture, except possibly a favorite
chair, etc. Here may be a clue to the reluctance of old people to
enter a home, especially of those who have had their own homes
and their own personal belongings.
Where the guest is required to furnish his room, the furnishings
usually become the property of the home at his death.
Types of Persons now in Homes
S o m e h o m e s take only indigent persons; indeed one group of homes
refuses admittance to those who have any means whatever, preferring
to take only those whose situation is desperate. One such home
which was visited had, at the time of the agent’s visit, a man who
had been brought to the home some four or five days before in a
starving condition. His recovery was still uncertain. Other persons
have been rescued from terrible conditions. The inmates of homes
of this class are indeed forlorn, in most cases. These homes provide
only the barest necessaries and practically no comforts, but at least
they are a refuge where the old people are sure of being fed, sheltered,
and nursed. It is evident in many instances that even in their best
days they have never had many comforts. The refined look of
others, however, makes one wonder what series of misfortunes or
circumstances have reduced them to their present plight.
Inmates in the homes for the aged represent all walks of life. Some
had been domestic servants whose entrance fee was paid by their
mistresses, some had been farmers, some actors, some school-teachers,
some music teachers, some had been in business or professional lines,
some had been housewives, some sailors, some common laborers, etc.
In a number of homes visited the former matron (now retired) was
living as an inmate. One matron, still in active service, expressed
the opinion that a home for retired executives of homes should be
established.
The class and type of guests in residence varies from home to home.
In some cases the character of the residents leaves something to be
desired. This is apt to be true where the home is run by any organi­
zation of miscellaneous membership. Often in such cases the needy
members are entitled to admission to the home by reason of their
membership. Where this is true, of course, the home members are
apt to include not only unfortunates but also those whose present
condition is due to their own bad habits— habits which they bring
with them into the home. Thus in one home the matron had to
keep all the supply cupboards locked, as there were several inmates
who would carry things off.
In other homes where a special effort is made to see that only
persons of good character are admitted, and long membership in a
church, certificates of good character, etc., are required, the result is
a high type of guest and in some cases a type much above the average.
In home after home the matron paid tribute to the class of residents
there, saying what fine people they were.
The appearance of the residents also varies from home to home—
in some wide-awake, sprightly, and cheerful, in some happy and even
gay, in others resigned but not especially contented, while in others
most forlorn in appearance.




CARE
O
F
AGED
PERSONS
I
N
UNITED
STATES




to

F i g u r e 2 —G r o u p

o f r e s id e n t s a t a

Fraternal Hom e

CHAPTER III.---- IN HOMES FOR THE AGED

25

jThe general level of intelligence does not appear highf]in some of
the homes visited. Blank faces and vacantly staring eyes show the
inert minds of the residents. This was especially evident in the
homes in which no effort was made to arouse their interest. The
inmates of a number of homes had no duties to perform, nothing to
read, no games or other amusements— in short, nothing to take them
out of themselves. Sleeping and eating were the sum of their
existence.
In other homes where either the inmates were of better class or
some effort was made to divert them, they were alert and interested
in the happenings of the home and what is going on in the world.
In some instances the guests have afflictions or abnormalities which
make them a problem. Thus one home visited takes only deaf people;
among these are some who are also dumb and blind. In another home
the guests are all blind. Several others were visited which had one
or two blind residents and one had three cripples. There were also
a number one or more of whose inmates were mental cases, requiring
special care. These were in all cases harmless. Some of these were
also helpless physically, but some were able-bodied and needed some
restraint to keep them from wandering away.
In one home the four mental cases were in a small separate wing,
with a nurse in attendance. Each room, in addition to the regular
door, had a half door of lattice work which was locked at night to
confine the patient but permit the nurse to see in.
In another home there were two old men locked in a room by them­
selves, one of whom had been helpless for seven years, and the other
was mentally deficient.
Withdrawals and Dismissals
G e n e r a l l y the home regulations provide for a period of probation
of from three to six months. During this time a new resident may
become a permanent life member only if he has shown himself
acceptable during the probationary period. Even though accepted
as permanent, almost all homes also retain the right to dismiss at
any time an inmate who becomes insane, persistently refuses to obey
the rules, becomes quarrelsome, proves to be a trouble maker, or is
objectionable for any other reason.
One home makes the following provision in this connection:

Should any of the members repeatedly and purposely violate the rules of the
home, or show bad temper, intemperance, or become unmanageable, disturbing
the peace of the home, etc., or in the opinion of the board of directors act in a
manner detrimental to the welfare of the home, the board of directors reserve the
right to dismiss them at any time, with the loss to them of all rights and claims;
and their admission to the home is conditioned on this authority of the board.
Any member who in the opinion of the board of directors shall be guilty of
circulating reports injurious to the reputation of the home, criticizing and find­
ing fault with its management, creating dissatisfaction or disturbance among its
members, shall thereby forfeit his or her privileges and be dismissed from the
institution.

On the other hand, a resident who is dissatisfied or unhappy may
leave at any time, receiving any remainder from entrance fee and
transferred property after deduction of a reasonable charge for board
and lodging (usually at the rate of $6, $7, or $8 per week).




26

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

One home observes in this connection:
The first six months are generally considered a period of trial residence. How­
ever, no guest is at any time under compulsion to remain, and the management
reserves the right to request at any time the withdrawal of any guest whose
presence disturbs the harmony and general happiness in such a group.

One home in New Jersey provides that in case of an inmate deciding
voluntarily to leave the home within the period of one year after
admission, half of the admission fee of $500 shall be remitted, the
remainder being retained by the home to cover the expense incurred
during the period of residence. Another also allows residents to
leave the home if not satisfied, but requires payment at the rate of
$10 per week for the time spent at the home. In such cases one of
the Scandinavian homes retains a “ reasonable sum” as payment for
board and lodging, while another requires residents desiring to leave
the home to give written notice and “ satisfactory reasons ” for leaving.
General Atmosphere and Spirit of Homes4
T h e
h o m e s
covered were of all degrees of merit as regards the
general atmosphere maintained at the home, ranging from the most
rigidly regimented system to those whose main emphasis is upon the
maintenance of an atmosphere of the utmost liberty and homelike
comfort. In some cases the rules of the home are of the most minute
sort, covering all possible contingencies and providing rules to govern
each situation. In such institutions the unfortunate inmate finds
himself regulated at every turn. It is understandable, of course,
that certain general rules are necessary for the orderly conduct of
the home; also, that as some of the old people become childish or
mentally or physically incapacitated, more direction is necessary than
would be required for younger or more mentally alert persons. In
some instances, however, institutionalism and regulation are carried
to extremes.
Others are real “ homes,” where the residents are cared for lovingly
and every care is taken to insure the happiness of the aged people
living at the home.
Some of the homes are so concerned for the well-being and selfrespect of the old people committed to their care that they avoid
anything likely to convey to these charges the idea that they are in
any degree recipients of charity. The tacit assumption is that the
residents are being cared for, not as paupers, not as “ charity cases,”
but as those whose labors during their productive years have entitled
them, as a matter of right, to care in their helpless old age. One
home, which is a purely charitable institution, always refers to the
old people in the home as “ residents,” stating in this connection:
“ We endeavor to steer away from the stigma usually attaching to
inmates of a charity old people’s home.” Other homes refer to the
inmates as “ guests,” “ members,” or “ the home family.”
One home reports:

In planning a home for the aged, there has always been in this organization
the ideal of a real home, such as loving children would build for much honored
and revered parents.

Another remarks in this connection:
In outward appearance it (the home) resembles a country estate. Inside it is
a “ hom e” in which the aged men and women are honored guests. Homeless
* For

further data on this point see p, 39,




CHAPTER II I .— IN HOMES FOR THE AGED

27

and friendless as most of them are when admitted, there is nothing in the conduct
of the home to remind them of their misfortunes or lead them to feel that they
are dependent on the generosity of others. Rather, they are encouraged to
forget, and to feel that at last they have reached a haven of rest where they can
await the final summons with tranquillity of mind and spirit.

Another states:
The home is conducted with the thought uppermost in mind that so far as
possible dull routine and fetish observance of ironclad rules is to be avoided.
Individuality is given free play and each member is impressed with the idea that
he is to have as great a degree of liberty as he would have in his own domicile.

This from an institution with more than 100 residents.
Contrast with this the rules laid down in another home, which
houses 24 persons:
All residents shall be required to conform strictly to the rules. They shall
rise and retire at the time specified, keep their rooms in order, be neat and tidy
in dress and person, and obey such directions as may be given them by the
matron and committee.
Punctual attendance shall be required morning and evening at family worship.
The residents, except in cases of sickness, are expected to take their meals at
the general table, and for sanitary reasons no one will be allowed to carry food
or drink from the table to their rooms. Good manners will be strictly enforced
at table.
The discipline of the home shall be strictly parental in its character. Obedience
shall be required of the residents, and the order and decorum of a well-regulated
Christian family shall be observed.
In case of persistent disregard of the rules, the committee reserves the right of
dismissal from the home.

Duties of Residents 5
T h e m e m b e r s of the home family are expected to be friendly,
courteous, cheerful, prompt, and neat and to cooperate in every way
possible to make the home a pleasant place of residence. They must
obey the regulations of the home, and comply with the requests of
the matron or superintendent. Aside from that their time is usually
their own and they are free to do as they please.
In some instances, however, certain light duties are required of
able-bodied residents, such as preparing the vegetables for meals,
setting the tables, cleaning the silver, mending bed and table linen,
making their own beds, etc. Of the 1,037 homes, 513 make this re­
quirement. Sometimes such requirements are made for the benefit
of the residents themselves, on the assumption that busy people are
more contented and alert than idle ones. In other instances the
home is poor and needs whatever help the inmates can give.
There are no service requirements in 426 homes, but in 51 of these
voluntary assistance from the old people is encouraged. A few homes
practice occupational therapy, encouraging the members to make
articles of whatever kind they have the knack. Some of the homes
sell these, and the proceeds, less cost of materials, are returned to
those who did the work. Two homes have a toy shop for the men
and one of these a general workroom for the women, and another home
is planning to erect a workshop. Others which require no services
nevertheless encourage the residents to perform such service around
the home and grounds and pay them for their services.
5 F or data obtain ed in a su pplem en tal stu d y of w ays ad op ted to keep inm ates b u sy and contented
see M o n th ly L a bor R e v ie w for D ecem b er, 1929.

35777°— 29------- 3




28

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

Although many homes encourage their residents to keep busy,
making any little useful articles which may be sold, individual inmates
are often forbidden to dispose of these articles themselves; this must
be through the home. The following is a common provision in this
respect:
No inmate will be permitted to leave the institution to procure work, solicit
assistance, or dispose of any article made by himself unless by special permission.
All that is necessary for the comfortable support of the inmates of the home will
be provided from the funds of the corporation.

Privileges of Members, and Benefits Provided

As b e f o r e noted, the homes accepting life members contract to
furnish board, lodging and laundry for the remainder of the resident’s
life. Many also furnish burial 6 in the plot owned by the home,
while others do this only if there are no friends or relatives who will
do so. As will be seen, the great majority of homes also furnish medi­
cal and nursing service.
The personal comforts provided vary from home to home. Some
of the larger homes have sleeping quarters on the dormitory plan.
Others have sleeping rooms accommodating two or three persons each.
Still others provide each guest or couple with a private room; these
of course are of all degrees of comfort and attractiveness, varying with
the funds at the disposal of the management and the policy of the
home. A few homes (mainly on the Pacific coast) have adopted the
cottage plan; if an old couple, they are assigned to a cottage by them­
selves just as if they were living at home, if single people, three or four
share a cottage, each having his private room. In this way “ in­
stitutionalism” is avoided and the surroundings are much more home­
like than is possible in a large building. The superintendent of one
of these homes, a private, endowed institution which stands very
high as far as benefits and comforts provided are concerned, says that
of all the many advantages furnished at the home the one most appre­
ciated and making for the greatest happiness is the separate living
quarters provided.
Religious services are quite a general feature of homes for the aged,
especially those of the church organizations. A considerable number
of homes have a chapel in the building where such services are held.
One home reports that “ there is no service which so unites the family
as the Sunday service.” Even homes which do not have services
on the premises make arrangements for attendance at local churches
by those who wish to go, and morning and evening prayers and at
meals are almost universal. One very large home has a resident
minister, and another pays one of the ministers of the city $600 a
a year to conduct services at the home.
Medical and nursing care.— Provision of medical attention and nurs­
ing care is very general. As already mentioned, fairly good health
at time of entrance is an almost universal requirement of these homes.
It is expected, in the natural course of things, however, that as time
passes, the guests will become more and more infirm and will require
more and more personal care and medical attention. Of the 1,037
homes covered, 962 (or 93 per cent) provide medical care when needed,
and 171 employ one or more full-time resident physicians. A hospital
6 In som e instances a special fee collected at tim e of entrance is set aside to cover cost of burial.




29

CHAPTER III.---- IN HOMES FOR THE AGED

or infirmary department was reported by 75 homes. No question
was asked on this particular point and doubtless a good many more
homes which did not think to mention their hospital also have this
feature. Some 674 homes have one or more resident nurses. Table 14,
which follows, shows for each of the types of home the provision made
for the care of the sick.
T

able

1 4 .— P R O V I S I O N O F M E D I C A L A N D N U R S I N G C A R E

H om es
furnishing
m edical care

S ponsoring organization

Federal G overn m en t (soldiers’
and sailors’ hom es)
_
_ .
State governm ents:
Soldiers’ h om es. _ __________
O ther hom es ___ _ _
L a b or o r g a n iz a t io n s ._
_
Religiou s denom inations and
orga n iza tion s.- __ ___
___
Fraternal organizations _
___
N a tion a lity grou p s_____
___ _
V arious organizations___________
P rivate groups___ _ _ _ _ _
_
T o t a l ______________ ______

N u m b e r w ith specified nu m ber of
resident nurses

N um ­
N um ­
ber
ber of
Of
having
hom es
these,
resident
covered
num ber
in
! physiN u m ­ report­
stu d y
j cian
ing
ber
hospital
or in­
firm ary

9

9

8

1

2

3

27

4

4

2

5

G

7

9

8 or T o ­
m ore tal

8
1

1

8

6

41
1
3

44
2
5

44
2
5

16
1
4

30
1
1

444
102
33
38
3C0

399
98
31
35
339

20
11
2
4
9

61 217
27 54
8 16
2 14
32 177

31
6
1
2
32

16
5

3
1

4

3
15

4
4

5
1

1

1

2

273
70
17
28
233

1,037

962

75

171 506

76

42

13

11

4

2

20

674

"T
1

1

1
2
1

3

One home reports that about one-fourth of the guests require
medical or nursing service, sometimes over a period of years, and
another that of its 50 residents, 12 are blind, 8 are paralyzed, and 4
are feeble-minded, while 18 are over 95 years of age.
Such service as the above is costly, especially where full-time phy­
sicians and nurses are employed and a hospital unit is maintained.
Some homes are even equipped to perform major and minor opera­
tions, w hile others give only ordinary medical care at the home. In
7
the latter cases if the illness requires special or surgical treatment,
the patient is removed to a local hospital at the home’s expense.
Practically all homes provide, however, that in case the resident
becomes insane or afflicted w
rith some incurable or malignant disease
the home may have him removed to an appropriate institution.7
Where the services of the physician are paid for and are often
required, this increases the per capita cost of operation of the home
considerably. In many of the homes covered, however, particu­
larly those whose w^ork is largely charitable, one or more local phy­
sicians donate their -services, and in some cases there are available
to the home the services of a whole panel of general practitioners and
specialists who give their time and service whenever needed.
Money benefits.— As already stated, a number of the homes pay
the resident the income from property turned over to the home or pay
a certain rate of interest upon it, thus insuring a person with some
means a certain amount of spending money, even though small. Of
7 F or a description of the hospitals and infirm aries at the hom es w h ich w ere visited, see p. 60.




30

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

the homes covered, 168 report such an arrangement. The rate of
interest paid varies from 2 to 7 per cent, the most common rate
reported being 4 per cent.
In order to give the guests a sense of independence and personal
freedom, 137 homes make either regular or occasional small money
allowances. Such money is used to cover tobacco, candy, small needs,
and the purchase of any little article to which the resident may take
a fancy. The allowances for this purpose are small, usually $1 or $2
per month, though in some instances they run as high as $5 or $10
per month, and 1 home pays each old lady an allowance of $1 per week.
The residents at State or Federal soldiers’ and sailors’ homes draw
pensions which provide them ample spending money. Some of the
homes for the dependents of soldiers, however, require that all or
part of any Federal pension received must be turned over to the home.
Reception of visitors.— Many homes are open for visits by friends
of the inmates all day and every day of the week. One home receives
visitors at “ all reasonable hours,” another at any time except meal
hours, and another at any time which does not “ interfere with the
arrangements of the home.” Others have definite hours and days
for such visits. Where there are such restrictions the hours of 2
to 5 p. m. on specified days are usually those set. One home allows
the inmates to receive their friends only from 2 to 5 p. m. on Wed­
nesdays and Saturdays; it specifically prohibits visits on Sundays.
Such a provision against Sunday visits is unfortunate in that it
practically bars visits from working friends whose only free day is
Sunday.
One home forbids the members to receive visitors in their rooms,
requiring that these be entertained in the general living rooms.
Some homes specifically forbid the inmates to invite a visitor to
remain overnight or to a meal. Others allow the latter, but make
a charge for the meal so served, the price usually being 25, 35, or
50 cents. Still other homes have set aside a special bedroom for vis­
itors, especially those coming from a distance. “ Visitors’ rooms”
are usually found only in homes located in the country districts or
in the suburbs, where hotel accommodation is not easily available.
Visits by inmates.— As a general thing, able-bodied inmates are
free to come and go throughout the day— to call on their friends,
go shopping, go to the movies, etc. In such cases, however, they
are expected to return by nightfall unless some younger person is
with them, or by the closing hour at night. (The closing hour is
usually 9 or 10 p. m., at which time all inmates are expected to be
in their rooms with all lights out.)
One home, which has a nominal closing hour of 10 o’clock, does not
in practice enforce this rule. Most of the residents are church mem­
bers, and many church entertainments and other affairs which the
guests like to attend are not finished by thai) hour. The home has
therefore adopted a plan by which each person who is going out for
the evening writes her name on a tablet in the front hall. The light
in the hall is left burning and the door unlocked. As each returns
she crosses off her name, and the last one in locks the door and turns
out the light.
In another home each resident has her own key to the front door
and comes and goes as she pleases. As these old ladies are great
bridge players, this privilege is greatly appreciated.



CHAPTER III.— IN HOMES FOR THE AGED

31

Some homes require that permission to leave the home be obtained
from the matron, others merely that the latter be informed of the
departure.
These regulations are adopted as safety precautions, as in many
instances the old people do not see or hear distinctly, and the home
is afraid of accident.
It is a practically universal practice among the homes to allow guests
to go away for a “ vacation” — sometimes for an extended period—
to visit relatives or friends. In one home five old ladies saved their
pensions and spent a week at a nearby ocean resort. Such vacations
are found to be beneficial both for the home and the guest. One
home which has plenty of money will pay for the transportation of
any guest who wishes to visit his relatives.
Recreation.— As one of the measures to insure the contentment and
happiness of the residents, many homes, or the organizations spon­
soring them, make a special attempt to provide recreation of various
sorts. It was interesting to see how widespread this attempt was
and how varied the recreations provided. Of the 1,037 homes,
covered, 723 report that recreation of some sort is provided.
The Federal soldiers’ homes are especially active in this respect,
as would be expected considering that many of their residents are
men young and restless and with a keen zest for life and amusement.
The strictly old people’s homes are not lacking, however, though
many which might be disposed to furnish recreation are hampered
by lack of funds. Of all the groups of homes (aside from soldiers’
homes) recreation is most generally provided in the trade-union
homes. All of these have recreational features. Of the larger groups,
recreation is a most common feature of the church, fraternal, and
private homes, where in from 70 to 75 per cent of the cases an attempt
is made to furnish diversion for the residents.
The amusements provided are of the most varied sort, the most
popular being motion pictures, entertainments of different kinds,
and the radio. Other recreations (in diminishing order) are cards,
billiards, musical programs, rides or outings of various sorts, reading,
lectures, other games (pool, bowling, checkers, chess, croquet, golf,
and quoits), parties, picnics, hunting, fishing, boating, and dancing.
Some homes make a regular practice of celebrating the birthdays of
the residents, either singly or by having a joint party in honor of all
those whose birthdays occurred during the month. One home has an
annual ball, one gives occasional theater parties, and one takes the
guests to the opera.
The residents of several of the homes visited are admitted free of
charge to the motion-picture theaters in the vicinity, and the guests
at one actors’ home have free entree to all the legitimate theaters
in the city.
Quite a few of the homes are situated on the shores of or near by a
lake, and in such cases boating and fishing are a regular diversion of
the able-bodied residents.
Smoking, lounging, and game rooms and sun parlors are a common
feature of the larger homes. One private, endowed home has a
library and smoking room, swimming pool, billiard and pool tables,
bowling alleys, shuffleboard, and other games such as chess, checkers,
cards, etc., and a dance hall. Motion pictures are shown at the home,




32

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

and during the season members have a yacht trip once a week on the
bay on which the estate fronts.
In some places there is a good deal of local interest in the homes,
especially those which are dependent upon the philanthropy of the
local citizens. The clubs and other organizations in the town become
interested and in some cases make it their duty to see that the old
people are made as happy as possible. Where the home is sponsored
by a local church or by a fraternal or other organization, that organi­
zation usually looks after the recreational as well as other needs of
the home guests. Often members of theatrical troupes or concert
artists appearing at local theaters give a performance or entertain­
ment for the old people.
Supplementary Activities of Homes

A f e w homes, all but one of which are in Massachusetts, also give
outside assistance to persons in their own homes. One regards this
service as a most important feature of its work and one well worth
extending; the funds available for the purpose obviate this. Another
has a “ field service/’ through which practical aid and advice are
given. One of the points most often raised against old-age pensions
and outdoor relief is that the persons who need such assistance need
it because they are poor managers of what money they have had.
Such an argument, of course, ignores all the misfortunes and other
causes of poverty and need. But one of the services this home is
giving to the persons it aids is the planning of their budget to fit their
incomes; in other cases where the beneficiaries are obviously incom­
petent to handle money it does so for them.
Maintenance and Cost of Homes
N a t u r a l l y , besides the income from entrance fees and transferred
property, the main support of homes operated by a specific organiza­
tion is the organization itself. The fraternal organizations, for
instance, make a special assessment on the membership or meet the
cost of maintenance out of the general funds of the order; these homes,
as already noted, make no charge for admission,8 the entire cost being
met by the organization. The cost of the soldiers’ homes is of coursc
borne by the State and Federal Governments, and those of the labor
organizations by the union or unions which erected the home. The
homes run by the church organizations and national groups are often
only partially supported by the organization, being dependent upon
contributions from individual members or even upon the citizens for
assistance in meeting the annual budget. This is true to the greatest
extent among the private homes, where the problem of making ends
meet is perennial and pressing. Not only do many of the homes find
it difficult to supply the absolute necessaries, but desirable projects
and benefits have to be postponed indefinitely. “ Lack of funds’ 7
is a widespread complaint.
In some instances a certain amount is received from the community
chest. In other cases, various means are resorted to in the attempt
to meet the budget. Benefits, bazaars, card parties, showers,
8 Except in 2 instances; there are 101 homes in this group.




CHAPTER III.— IN HOMES FOR THE AGED

33

membership drives, etc., are among the measures adopted. Many
homes hold an annual “ donation day.” Gifts in kind often form a
considerable item in the upkeep of the home. These may range all
the way from a box of toothpicks to a set of furniture or 100 pounds
of meat, but they are all acceptable.
A good many of the homes, particularly the private ones, were
established under the terms of a will, the bequest consisting of the
donor’s residence, or of a more or less considerable amount of money,
or both. Others are trying to build up endowment funds, inviting
persons to leave their money or property to the home. In this way
a good deal of property has been acquired by the home, the income
from which forms a considerable proportion of the home funds. The
church homes seem to have been particularly fortunate in this respect.
Homes amply endowed are of course relieved from the hard struggle
for existence which many of the less fortunate institutions are having,
and can support their aged charges in comfort and give the many
additional advantages that money can buy. In some instances,
however, homes have started with what seemed an adequate sum at
the time, but have found this sum growing more and more inadequate.
Altogether, the proportion of homes which can say, as one home did,
that the funds of the home are 1 ample and sufficient,” is small.
1
Many homes own considerable property, and a number operate
farms in connection with the home. In this way the home is supplied
with some or all of its fresh vegetables and small fruits, and in some
instances there is a surplus which is sold on the open market. One
home last year had under cultivation more than 1,700 acres (most of
which was left to the home), and the proceeds from the crops covered
a large part of the expenses of the institution. Another owns some
2,700 acres.
The table following shows for the various groups of homes the
lowest, highest, and average per capita cost of operation. It is seen
that, of all the homes, those of the labor organizations had by far the
highest average cost of operation, while the least amount per person
was spent by the religious denominations and nationality groups.
T

able

1 5 .— P E R C A P I T A

C O ST O F O P E R A T IO N O F H O M E S F O R A G E D

P er capita cost
Spon soring organization
Low

H igh

A v erage

Federal G overn m en t (soldiers’ and sailors’ h o m e s)___ ......................................
State governm ents:
Soldiers’ hom es____ _______ ______________________________ ___________ ____
O ther h om es. _ ................................................ ....................................................
L a b or organizations _ ________________________________________ _____________
R eligiou s d e n o m in a tio n s ..
.............. ............................... ............................... .......
R eligiou s p h ilan th rop ic organizations_
Fraternal o r g a n iz a tio n s .................. ......... ........................... ......... ............................
N a tion a lity groups
..................... .......................................... ............................. ..
Various organizations_________________ _____________________________________
P rivate grou p s________ _____ _________________________________ ________________

$391.25

$764. 74

$485.69

55.50
418.18
830. 73
83.33
136.14
33. 33
201.47
156. 25
' 118.30

1,575.00
475.93
837.98
1,279. 85
1,631.83
911.24
979.17
1, 000.00
2, 290. 00

501.94
457. 57
834. 35
366.94
506. 85
457. 03
345.94
444. 26
454. 77

A ll organ ization s........................................ ...........................................................

33. 33

2,290.00

437. 57




34

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

Table 16 shows the homes classified by number of residents and by
annual per capita cost of operation:
T

able

1 6 — P E R C A P IT A

C O S T O F O P E R A T I O N , C L A S S I F I E D B Y S IZ E O F H O M E S

H om es having classified nu m ber of residents
A n n u al per capita expense of
operation

Less
than
25

25
and
under
50

50
and
under
75

75
and
under

100

100
and
under
200

200
and
under
500

T o ta l

500
and
over

Less than $100. .. ........... .
$100 and under $200___
$200 and under $300___
$300 and under $400___
$400 and under $500___
$500 and under $600___
$600 and under $700___
$700 and under $800___
$800 and under $900___
$900 and under $1,000-_
$1,000 and under $1,200
$1,200 and under $1,500.
$1,500 and under $2,000.
$2,000 and o v e r .. ...........
T o ta l____________

3
53
126
177
147
120
58
40
25
18

283

218

55

1 N o t in clu d in g 229 hom es for w h ich operating expense w as n ot reported and 18 for w h ich neither aver­
age n um ber in residence nor operating expense was reported.

Administration of Old People’s Homes
S i n c e m o s t o f the data in this study had to be gathered by mail,
the returns gave no indication of what the homes themselves were
actually like. In order, therefore, to gain some idea of the physical
conditions in a representative group of homes, it was decided that an
agent should visit every home that could be found in a specified area.
The homes in the States of Maryland and Connecticut and the eastern
half of Pennsylvania were covered in this way, as well as four homes in
New York and one each in New Jersey, Colorado, Illinois, and Ten­
nessee, so that altogether some 150 homes were visited. The re­
mainder of this chapter is based upon the observations at the homes
visited.
The homes visited included the following:
Number

Federal homes________________
State homes__________________
Religious homes______________
Fraternal homes_____________
Homes of nationality groups.
Trade-union homes__________
Private homes________________
Other homes__________________
T otal_________________________________________________________

1

2

74
13

2

3
52
4
151

Private homes.— The so-called “ private homes” may be divided
into two classes: Those established under the terms of a will and sup­
ported by the funds made available thereunder; and those whose sup­
port is derived from contributions from citizens of the community.
In the latter case the home is usually started by a group of citizens
who, acting as incorporators, provide for the formation of a “ home
association” to which any adult citizen of the community is eligible,




CHAPTER III.— IN HOMES FOR THE AGED

35

upon payment of prescribed membership dues. Often several classes
of members are constituted, based upon amount of contribution.
Thus one home has five classes of members: Annual members paying
yearly dues of $1; contributing members, consisting of those paying
yearly dues of not less than $10; sustaining members, consisting of
those paying yearly dues of $25; life members who have paid $100 or
more; and honorary members elected in recognition of “ interest in or
services rendered to the home.” Usually, however, there are only
two or three such classes.
This association meets once a year, at which time a board of
“ directors” or “ managers” is chosen, generally for terms of one year.
Sometimes provision is made for longer terms, part of which expire
each year, making the board a continuing body. The number of
directors or managers varies from home to home, ranging from 10 or
12 to as high as 60.
The full board of directors holds regular meetings at quarterly or
monthly intervals and special meetings at such other times as is
necessary.
Generally the directors are empowered to choose from their own
number the officers of the association— usually president, one or more
vice presidents, secretary, and treasurer. Sometimes, however, the
officers as well as directors are elected at the annual meeting of the
members of the association, but in such cases the officers are almost
always members of the board by virtue of their office. These officers
are charged with the usual duties pertaining to the position.
The board of directors is usually given “ entire charge of the affairs
of the home,” with power to transact all its business; to appoint and
dismiss the matron or superintendent of the home, as well as the
other employees, and to fix their salaries; and to pass upon applications
for admission. In practice, however, some of its powers are delegated
to others. This is done because the number of directors is large and
sometimes unwieldy, and the meetings are at wide intervals. It is
the usual practice for the board to choose (generally from its own
number) certain standing committees which meet frequently and
which are charged with the practical carrying on of the current affairs
of the home. The president is usually an ex officio member of all
committees, but in some cases has no vote.
In most instances these committees include: An executive commit­
tee generally composed of the officers, which is given general charge
of the home; a finance committee which has charge of the securities,
funds, etc., and their investment; and an admission committee which
interviews all applicants for admission, investigates their circum­
stances, sees to their having a physical examination if the rules
require this, and reports to the directors.9
Although the purchases of food are generally made by the matron,
some homes have a committee which buys all the provisions. Some
also have a clothing or wardrobe committee which takes charge of all
gifts of clothing for the home and is in charge of all sewing done for it.
One home association has a committee which assigns the bedrooms
in the house of the various guests. It also has a “ health com®A variant of the ab ov e practice is that o f electing not o n ly a board of m anagers or directors, b u t also a
board -of trustees, the form er having activ e oversight of the con d u ct of the hom e and the latter having charge
of the'finances. Som e hom es have not o n ly a board of trustees w h ich has the pow ers usual to the board o f
directors b u t also a board of m anagers, delegating to the latter the duties custom arily perform ed b y the
various com m ittees.




CARE OF AGED

36

PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

mittee,” which “ shall visit and provide for the comfort of the sick,
purchasing necessary medical supplies; in event of death shall take
charge of their effects, give public notice and make all necessary
arrangements for burial. ”
Other standing or special committees, frequently but not univer­
sally found, include a visiting committee which is charged with
“ keeping itself informed as to the condition and conduct of the home
and the welfare of the residents,” and one or more of w^hose mem­
bers visit the old people at the home once every week or two,1 “ to
0
give such encouragement and advice as the circumstances of each may
seem to require” ; a committee on household supplies; a committee
on collections of contributions (sometimes called “ w^ays and means
committee” ); a committee on religious instruction; an auditing com­
mittee; committee on rooms and property; committee on buildings
and grounds; entertainment committee; committee on discipline,
etc.
Sometimes, also, an advisory committee of citizens is provided
for, consisting of representatives of the various churches of the
locality, or of other organizations w^hich give support to the home.
In this way the churches or other organizations are brought into con­
tact with the home and see its needs.
Two homes have a self-perpetuating board of trustees which each
year chooses a “ board of visitors” to carry on the operation of the
home.
In the case of homes whose sole support comes from the legacy
of the founder of the home, there is no home association. A board
of trustees is usually appointed under the will and these, while having
control of the home funds and general oversight of the conduct of
the institution, usually select for the actual conduct of the home a
board of managers, usually women, who perform the duties of a board
of directors with power to appoint committees, etc.
Fraternal homes.— The fraternal homes are generally administered '
through a corporation w^hose powers are vested in a board of trustees
representing the supporting organization. Thus the Masons* and
Odd Fellows’ homes are usually supported by the grand lodge of
the State, which therefore either controls the board or is represented
upon it. In the latter case provision is made for the representation
of the local lodges. In the case of a national home, like that of some
of the other orders, the national grand lodge through its board of
trustees controls the home.
As in the private homes the actual duties are delegated to com­
mittees appointed for the purpose.
Homes oj religious groups.— The machinery of administration of
the homes of religious groups varies according to the degree of sup­
port and control by the religious organization. Where the whole
support comes from the church organization as such the home is
usually administered through a board of trustees elected by the annual
meeting of the church conference. In other cases where the financial
connection is not so close a separate association is formed whose
membership consists of the individuals who are members of the
churches; the various churches of the denomination in the district
may also be admitted as members. Annual dues are paid in each
In one home, a member of the board of managers visits the home every day.




CHAPTER I I I .— IN HOMES FOR THE AGED

37

case in amounts varying according to the class of membership taken
out. Under this latter arrangement the directing board is elected
by the members of the association, the procedure, from this point
on, being the same as in the private community homes, except that
in some cases where churches are members there is a limit upon the
number of directors which may be elected from any one of the member
churches.
Some of the homes are supported by some or all of the Protestant
churches in the city, in which case the board of directors includes a
representative from each.
In the case of many of the Catholic homes, the entire conduct of
the home is carried on by a church order. In such cases the Mother
Superior of each home has practically a free hand, subject to some
oversight by the order.
Handling of Complaints

One of the important committees is that which is called variously
the “ welfare committee,” “ complaint committee,” “ house commit­
tee,” or “ visiting committee.” This committee is the safety valve
of the members of the home, for to it they may air whatever griev­
ances they may have or think they have.1 Tact is the essential
1
qualification of this committee, for it must steer a middle and impar­
tial course between matron and guests. One of its hardest problems
is to determine what complaints are justified. Some of the old people
are subject to delusions of persecution, and fancy all sorts of wrongs
and neglect. In such cases the committee must satisfy itself that
there is no basis for the accusations made, without giving offense to
the matron. The chairman of one such committee told the investi­
gator of such an instance. The committee was a conscientious one,
taking its duties seriously. Consequently its members were much
shocked when an inmate drew aside one of their number and said,
“ Don’t tell anybody, but they haven’t given me anything to eat
to-day.” “ Why, Mrs. H.— ,” the member said, “ Are you sure?
Stop and think, now. Haven’t you just forgotten? You surely
must have had something to eat.” “ No, I didn’t,” the old lady said.
“ They didn’t give me anything all day. But don’t tell anybody.”
Investigation proved that this tale was a figment of the old lady’s
imagination, and this incident marked the beginning of a progressive
decay of the faculties of the complaining guest.
On the other hand, the committee can not ignore any complaint,
however trivial, for fear it may prove to be justified. It should be
remembered that the old people are, for all practical purposes, in the
power of the matron and should she be of an undesirable type this is
a serious matter. One home well furnished but looking singularly
bleak and uninhabited for all its good furniture, was visited in which
it is doubtful if the guests would dare to complain even to the com­
mittee, so fearful were they of the matron, and so afraid of their con­
sequent treatment by her if they complained.
The Home Matron or Superintendent

In general the home is under the direction of a matron. The matron
is responsible for the running of the home, the meals, and the general
1
1 In some cases there is no committee for this purpose; complaints are submitted directly to the board
of directors at its regular meetings.




38

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

welfare of the inmates. In larger institutions she may work under
the direction of a resident male superintendent; though there are
exceptions to this, in such cases it is a general practice to hire a mar­
ried couple, the husband acting as superintendent and the wife as
matron.
The matron holds the “ key position” in the home. Her duties
are many and various. In the small homes she does the greater part,
if not all, of the work. True, the old people usually give what help
they can. It is a general practice for the inmates, who are able to do
so, to care for their own rooms, except when these are given the
(usually) weekly thorough cleaning, and the matron is therefore
spared this part of the work. The help of the guests is uncertain
at best, however, for they may feel able to help one day, and feel ill
the next. But the household duties go on forever.
Homes were visited in which the matron also acts as cook; also
several in which she even does part of the laundry work. In one
home, in addition to her other duties the matron makes all the
butter for the home family of about 60 persons. In another home,
which was visited during the housecleaning season, a man and his
wife and son do all the work. The man is a practical farmer whose
whole time is absorbed in the farm, while the wife acts as matron.
At the time of the visit she was doing the cooking and other house­
work for a family of nine old men and was trying to clean house in
the intervals. The son, a boy of high-school age, cares for the yard
and chickens.
The larger the home, of course, the more assistance is given the
matron. A cook and one or more general helpers are employed; in
some cases a “ housekeeper” who, either personally or with helpers,
attends to getting the kitchen work and general housework done.
Usually the laundry work (or a greater part of it) is done in the
home, and some effort is made to lighten this work. Where the home
was located in a country district and electricity was not available or
was too expensive, instances werte found in which the ironing was
being done in the kitchen, the irons being heated on a coal range.
Electric washers and electric irons are practically universal, however,
and many homes have either a hand or electric mangle for the flat
work. Extractors are also becoming a fairly common appliance in
the home laundries.
Only about half of the homes have resident nurses, and where there
is no nurse the matron is expected to act as nurse in cases of slight
illness. But this becomes a serious additional burden in those homes
where most of the other work is done by the matron; especially is this
true where the patient requires care at night. One matron who had
had a good deal of nursing to do in the past few months and who was
on the point of resigning because she could not stand the work, said:
“ You can stand it for one or two nights, but after that its too much.”
In one home caring for both children and old people the matron
(a registered nurse) has given personal care to one inmate who has
been bedridden for four years in a room adjoining that of the matron.
This old lady has softening of the brain and is completely helpless.
But so well has she been cared for that she is otherwise in good con­
dition and without a bedsore.
It is a general practice, however, in case of extended illness in homes
which have no resident nurse, to call in a nurse to care for the patient.




CHAPTER II I .— IN HOMES FOR THE AGED

39

Even in such cases the matron must assume part of the burden, for
the nurse can not be expected to work day and night.
But aside from the practical work of the home, the matron has
very important functions to perform. The happiness and well-being
of the inmates are in her hands. From their point of view she is the
all-important part of the home, for she can make it a real home or a
place of torment for them. An attractive personality, endless
patience and tact, ready sympathy, and a real interest in the guests
as individuals— these are indispensable in the matron if the institu­
tion is to fulfill its purpose of being a home. To have the bodily
comforts provided is good, but these old people need something
more. They are like children in their need of attention and affection,
and even luxury without these is barren to them.
That the matrons are, to a surprising degree, making the homes
real homes is worthy of note. It should be emphasized here that
the matrons of the homes visited (with some few exceptions which
stand out by the very reason of their infrequency) are a most re­
markable group of women. Most of them are women of middle age
or older, women of experience, and in many cases women formerly of
some means who have lost their husbands or their money, or both.
In several instances they had had training or experience in social
work of various kinds. Quite generally they were interested in
doing their jobs as efficiently as possible and had been at some pains
to find out how other matrons were meeting their problems. One
matron spends her vacations visiting other homes, to get “ pointers.”
A sense of humor is a great asset in this work, and most of the
successful matrons are gifted with this. One matron said she’d
“ die the death of seven rag dolls,” if she couldn’t see the funny side
of life in the home. Another is writing a book on her life in an old
ladies’ home.
Almost invariably the low-grade matron, the dreary home, and
the dull-looking inmates were found together. The dreariness of
the home was not a matter of furnishings or material comforts,
necessarily. Some of the shabbiest homes were the happiest. It
usually meant that the matron didn’t care or know how, or lacked
the “ homemaking touch.”
The success of the matrons, generally, is all the more noteworthy
when their problems are considered. The old people enter the home
with all their habits formed and must be accepted as they are. Many
are cheery and lovable, but many, also, are crabbed, irritable, and
crochety. There are some whom it is impossible to please and these,
strange to say, are usually those who have had the least before coming
into the home. Especially as they get along in years they get
“ notions,” perhaps even ideas of neglect and ill-treatment. As one
matron said: “ They are just like children, but with this disadvantage:
That you can’t discipline them as you would a child.” Some are
unreasonable and have an exaggerated idea of the advantages to
which their entrance fee entitled them. Some try to interfere with
the servants and to “ boss the house,” forgetting they are no longer
in their own homes.
In many cases the matter of discipline or correction of the residents
is in the hands of a committee; the matron may report any repeated
infractions of rules or any unbecoming conduct on the part of the
guests but she can take no action, In other instances the matter is




40

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

entirely in her hands. This is unfortunate, however, for as already
stated, she has the power to make life very unpleasant for the in­
mates if she cares to, and can do this even when she can take no
openly disciplinary measure. Where she is allowed the latter func­
tion the guests can only appeal to the board of directors, if they dare.
Many matrons assume little or no authority over the inmates,
but treat them merely as fellow residents presumably trying to make
the home as pleasant as possible. In one home the matron is called
the “ hostess,” and she assumes her position to be that and nothing
more. One matron, a superior woman of alert intelligence and
understanding, who had had a good deal of experience in many lines
of work— all dealing with people— said the idea of old people having
to submit to regulation and discipline was abhorrent to her. Others,
while not expressing themselves on the matter, evidently take the
same view, and allow the guests all possible latitude consistent with
peace and order.
Other matrons, however, feel that their position is one of almost
parental authority, and act accordingly. In one home visited, one
old lady had just been released from her room after two weeks’ con­
finement there as punishment for fault finding. In another the
guests were obviously in fear of the matron, a coarse overbearing
woman who was nevertheless all smiles in greeting a committee from
the church which supports the home.
Generally, the matrons treat the residents tolerantly and with a
genuine desire to visualize their point of view. In a few cases, which
were outstanding because of their small number, the guests were
spoken to and ordered around with no consideration for their feelings
whatever. One superintendent, a conceited, swaggering man, spoke
of the residents, in their hearing, as “ hogs,” saying that the men who
went to such homes were all “ bums” and the women all “ dope
fiends.” The feelings of the inmates at hearing themselves so charac­
terized can be imagined.
While the spirit of some of the old people in those homes has been
broken to the point of humility by their position, the humiliation of
people of spirit who find themselves exposed to such treatment must
be a constant thorn to them.
While there are undoubtedly cases in which guests are hopelessly
disagreeable and nothing can be done with them, in general it is true
that to a great extent the residents reflect the attitude of the matron
toward them and the home. If she loves them, they love her, and
show it. Where no interest is taken in them, they take no interest in
themselves. In one home visited the old ladies had formerly gone
around with their hair uncombed, their shoes unbuttoned, wearing
kitchen aprons all day, etc. The matron said that when she came into
the home they were the “ bluest looking lot of people she ever saw.”
By a word of praise or interest here and there, a suggestion as to how
pretty white hair is when it is well cared for, etc., a change of attitude
has been effected that is surprising. The guests in this home now
take pride in dressing themselves up and looking their best. They
go in for all the little fads— shoulder knots of flowers, etc.— and have
even begun to take an interest in current events. They read the
newspapers and the new books, and can talk intelligently on what is
going on.




CHAPTER l i t .— IN HOMES FOR THE AGED

41

This is in direct contrast with another home, filled with apathetic
old people of both sexes, who, according to the superintendent, feel
that they are simply there to “ await the end.”
One Jewish home was visited whose matron was a middle-aged
Irish woman. She had been in the home for 30 years, and had a heart
full of love for the old people. They were like well-loved children to
her. They, on their part, quite plainly adored her. Most of them
were so old as to be childish and need a good deal of direction and
advice about such serious matters as whether an extra wrap is neces­
sary to wear out upon the porch on a sunny day. All of which she
gives patiently.
In another home, caring for nine old ladies, the matron had been
called away unexpectedly and the bureau's agent was shown through
the home by one of the guests. This was a delightful place. Every­
thing was shining with cleanliness. The old lady guide said the
guests “ just loved” it there and thought the matron was perfect— so
thoughtful and considerate. They, to show their appreciation, tried
to be as little trouble as possible, and took pride in keeping the tablecloth spotless, to help the matron.
The matron of one of the most homelike places is a spirited and
unfailingly humorous person, and she has managed to infuse her
“ never say die” spirit into the residents. They are the most alert
and sprightly group found anywhere, and not one is younger than 76
years of age. She is on the most familiar terms with them, calling
one “ Dad,” another “ M a,” another “ Auntie,” and so on. They
think she is lovely because she is never “ stiff” with them, as they say.
The home atmosphere is remarkably good. Practically all the light
work is done by the guests and they are busy and happy, taking an
interest in all the church affairs and in what is going on generally.
Another problem faced by the matron is that of so many masters.
The matron must be able to work successfully with the various com­
mittees. In some homes the matron has practically a free hand; she
works on a budget, purchases the provisions and even minor house­
hold equipment, and hires and fires the other employees. In other
instances, however, her authority is much restricted; there may be
a committee which buys the groceries and household supplies, another
which assigns the bedrooms, another which visits the home to see if
there are any complaints, etc., while the hiring and firing of employees
is done by the board of directors. While there is nothing that will
keep a matron “ on her toes” more successfully than the knowledge
of a good live committee on the job, nevertheless such strict and con­
stant supervision (even amounting to unwarranted interference in
some cases) is likely to prove decidedly irksone to a capable woman
of spirit. “ Oh, these committees!” said one highly intelligent and
successful matron. “ They nearly drive me mad. M y friend Mrs.
D. [matron of an endowed home in the same city] can thank her stars
she has only one man to please.”
In one large institution several rooms on the first floor are reserved
for the use of the directors, each of whom has a key. The superin­
tendent says he often wakes up in the morning and finds that one or
two of the directors have arrived unexpectedly during the night.
In another home a committee member will drop in at odd times—
perhaps in time to take a meal there— just to be sure everything is
going on as it should.




42

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

Not all the committees are so active and interested as those just
cited, however. The home association of one institution has a com­
mittee that comes to the home about once a year “ to see how things
are going, and whether there are any complaints.”
Physical Conditions at the Homes
Location of Homes

O f t h e h o m e s visited, all but 11 were in or just outside some city
or town. These 11 were situated in the country, some distance from
any settlement, and in one or two cases so secluded that they could
be reached only by automobile, there being no regular means of
transportation. In several instances these country homes had a
beautiful location. One such was in the center of an exquisite little
valley, which at the time of the agent’s visit, was lovely with blos­
soming orchards. Another stood on the ridge of a chain of moun­
tains, from which there was a splendid view of the surrounding coun­
try. But such homes, while peaceful and healthful, have the disad­
vantage of being too removed from settlements to permit of easy
access by the friends of the inmates. This is a great disadvantage in
the eyes of many old people. There were in fact several instances
in which a home, located in a neighborhood which had run down since
the establishment of the home there, was planning on removal to the
outskirts of the city where a better and more spacious site could be
secured. In nearly every instance the move was vigorously opposed
by a majority of the old folks in the home, on the ground that while
the present location was poor, at least it was handy and easy for their
friends to drop in for a visit.
Of the homes visited which were in towns or cities, about 70 per
cent were in a good neighborhood or location (and in some 30 cases
the location was excellent). In about 25 cases the neighborhood
had been good but had run down considerably, in 13 cases it could be
definitely classed as poor, and in 4 cases as very poor and altogether
unsuitable. In one home of the last-named class the home w
^as an
old house in the wholesale district of the city, in another case the
district in which the home was had become the manufacturing dis­
trict, and in a third instance the neighborhood was known to be the
rendezvous for the roughest and most lawless classes in the community.
One home stands on the end of a precipitous hill at the foot of
w~hich are railroad tracks and a factory which emits black smoke all
day, so that the air is filled with it. In other cases the neighborhood
was neither bad nor good, but simply dingy and most unattractive.
In the great majority of cases the homes visited showed evidence
of a desire to secure the best possible location for the home. Many
of them were in the best residential sections, on wide shady streets,
often overlooking a park or lake and in several instances a river.
In some instances the location was superb. One such home, for
instance, located on a broad plateau in the bend of a beautiful river;
and the porches of the home afford a wonderful view of the river for
miles, with the mountains rising on either side. Back of the home
rises a mountain the springs of which supply the home with pure,
ice-cold water. To the right of the building is a lovely little lake and
a waterfall. The home grounds are at the southern edge of a village




CHAPTER I I I .— IN HOMES FOR THE AGED

43

of several thousand people. In another place there is a group of
homes all overlooking a beautiful park; one of these homes faces the
park in front, while its rear grounds adjoin the rolling land of a
country club. Another is situated in a leafy suburb and the home
faces a wide river where the university boat races are held, affording
the old people a source of interest. Still another is built on the top
of a hill overlooking a small town; its grounds are beautiful with
flowering shrubs and enormous pine trees, and its porches afford a
beautiful view over the rolling countryside for miles around. This
home and grounds were peacefulness personified. A number of other
homes are so situated as to command a view of the mountains.
Home Buildings

The buildings in which the old people are housed are of all sorts,
ranging from dingy, run-down buildings which were hopeless from
the point of view of sanitation and renovation to new fireproof
buildings shining with cleanliness and equipped with all modern
conveniences.
Many of the smaller homes are occupying ordinary dwelling houses,
some in good repair, some not. Some have begun with a small house,
and as the home family grew in numbers have either added a wing
here and there to the original building or have moved to a larger
building. A number of homes now occupying old buildings are plan­
ning to remove to a new home in a better location.
In a few instances the arrangement of rooms could be improved
upon. Thus one home, which has a dormitory for the men, has
opening off from the corners of the room four rooms for married
couples, the only means of ingress and egress from these rooms being
through the dormitory. In another the upstairs porches could be
reached only through the toilet# rooms. In a third the pressing and
sewing room (or “ handy room ” ) opened off the reception room which
was at the right of the front entrance. In another the infirmary was
located on the first floor between the general living room and the
dining room.
These, however, were the exceptions. Generally the arrangement
of rooms is very good.
In two of the States whose homes for the aged were visited the
State requirements as to safety and sanitation must be complied
with and inspectors visit the homes to see that this is done. As a
general rule the new buildings are of fireproof construction, but some
of the old buildings are not, and a number of homes were visited
which had had to construct a special fireproof tower with staircase
opening onto each floor of the home to provide a means of escape in
case of fire.
In one home whose family is drawn from a steadily decreasing
group, the guests now occupy only one of a number of the buildings
formerly used. The building they are in is very old and no amount of
labor will make it appear clean. The furnishings are also old and
shabby. The few remaining guests occupy scantily furnished north
rooms opening out upon a fairly wide bare hall. At the time of the
agent’s visit the majority were drawn up around the windows in the
hall, in the sunshine, preferring this to the dingy sitting room down­
stairs. This home has an unusually high per capita cost of operation,
35777°— 29------- 4




44

CAKE OF AO ED PERRONS IN UNITED STATES

but most of this goes for the upkeep and repair of the buildings on the
home grounds and not for the comfort of the inmates. For the same
maintenance cost the residents could be given all the comforts in a
small modern home.
One home was in a bad state of disrepair. The paint had gone long
since, the porches were sagging and rotten. An unkempt yard and
rusty iron fence, only part of whose gate was left, added to the gen­
erally disreputable aspect of the place. This, however, was the
exception.
On the whole the home buildings are good. Only five visited could
be called poor, a number were only fair, but a large number were very
good indeed.
Brick and stone were the materials most generally used in the larger
institutions. The smaller buildings were mostly of frame construc­
tion.
Home Grounds

Well-trimmed lawns and some attempt to beautify the grounds are
the almost universal rule among the homes visited. As a number
of homes were in the city where land is expensive some of these had
only the lot on which the home stood. Almost invariably, however,
this was beautified by lawns, hedges, or other shrubs, or perhaps a
bed of flowers. Many had flowering trees which were in blossom at
the time of the agent’s visit.
In one or two instances no attempt was made even to tidy up the
yard; in one case there was no yard at all, and in one case this had been
cemented over.
One home which had no front yard at all, but had a very small space
in back, had this in a velvety lawn around the edges against an iron
fence, being planted with perennials which blossom at different times
during the summer, and in the center a small bed of flaming red cannas.
A small rear porch had been supplied with splint rockers which the
matron herself had painted orange and black; these had cushions
to match, while an orange and black awning provided an additional
note of color. The result was a very attractive spot, though small.
The majority of homes have managed to secure a good-sized plot
of ground and to beautify this with shrubs, flowers, and winding
walks or drives.
In some cases where landscaping has been done, broad, low terraces,
often with flagging or red tile, add to the beauty of the place.
One home which has very little ground has made its small yard a
beautiful place, by judicious use of shrubs and flowers, utilizing even
the rocks, with which the ground had been thick, in a lovely rock
garden. Another (rural) home has terraced its broad front lawn
down to a stream which flows through the property, making use of
iris and other flowers in a broad strip at the side of the grounds.
A city home is set back from the street behind a fence whose base
and supports are of the same tapestry brick used in the construction
of the house but is open in its effect because of the iron grating used
between the pillars. About 12 feet back of this fence, at the top of a
bank is a low brick wall beyond which on either side of the central
walk is a garden with flowers and box. A porch whose tiled floor is
flush with the ground extends across the front of the building between
the jutting wings. Climbing roses are planted in front of each of the
pillars to the porch.



CHAPTER I I I .— IN HOMES FOR THE AGED

45

Another home is set in 80 acres of lawn, groves, and landscaped
gardens. In several other cases the grounds are of park size, with
winding roads and beautiful gardens.
Furnishings of Homes

Entrance Halls
)The entrance halls of some of the homes, especially in the new^er
buildings, are most attractive. Part of the beauty was usually sup­
plied by the stairway. In many homes the main stairway is directly
opposite the front door, dividing at the top of a short flight and
continuing on either side. In one home with such a stairway the

F ig u r e 3.—H a l l w a y

in a

M id d l e

w estern h o m e

railings and stairs were of cream color and the carpet in the center
of the stairs a deep rich red. A small home with a narrow winding
staircase had this finished in pure white, the runner being of black
and gray.
In another home the stairway ran up along the back wall which
had windows set in at the level of the stairs all the way up. These
windows were gay with flowering plants.
Two homes visited had a central rotunda reaching to the roof, with
a gallery on each floor.
General Living Rooms
Practically all homes have a general gathering room for the inmates
or for the reception of visitors, and many of the homes have parlors
and sitting rooms beautifully and tastefully furnished. Though in
some instances these did not appear to be used to any great extent




46

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

by the guests, others were quite evidently the center of the life of the
home.
Some of the larger homes have one or more sitting rooms on each
floor. It is a fairly common arrangement to have a sitting room or
sun room at the end of each corridor. Where the building is wider
that it is deep, the room directly above the entrance, on the second
floor, is almost invariably a sitting room or library. Deep blue and
ivory is a favorite color scheme for the parlors. One very attractive
new home has a large general sitting room which runs across the
whole side of the building. This room has many windows, some of
which look out upon the boulevard upon which the home is situated
and some upon a rock garden at the side. There is a big open fire­
place in the center of the room and easy chairs are everywhere. The
rugs and upholstery of this room are of deep blue while the woodwork
and window hangings are the color of ivory. The room has a victrola
with many records, and a radio. Out of this room opens a smaller
one, with the same color scheme, which is used as a music room.
Both rooms were sweet with fresh flowers. Several old ladies were
reading in the sitting room at the time of the agent’s visit.
One institution conducted on a lavish scale has several luxuriously
furnished gathering rooms in the main building. In each of the other
buildings there is a sitting room on each floor; these are much used.
Other favorite assembly places are the glassed-in corridors which
connect these buildings with the main buildings. These corridors
are furnished with rustic furniture and are steam heated in winter.
The windows slide back so as to provide a cool place in the summer.
Still another home furnished in the most luxurious manner has a
general living room or ‘ 1
lounge ’ ’ which is magnificent. It is two stories
high with an arched beamed ceiling. The walls are panelled part
way up in walnut. The furniture— easy chairs and davenports— is
upholstered in brown leather. In this room are many books, a piano,
and a radio. At one end are French windows leading out upon a
terrace.
The use made of the general living rooms varies from home to
home. In some places the sitting rooms are the center of the life of
the home. Here the old ladies and gentlemen gather in the everting
and at off moments during the day for a friendly chat or to read. In
some homes the matron reads aloud in the evening from the daily
newspaper or a book. This is especially appreciated, as many of the
guests are afflicted with poor eyesight and can not see to read in the
evening. In one home for ladies this is a general practice all through
the winter. The ladies bring their knitting or tatting and one of
their number or the matron reads aloud. In another it is a common
practice to sing together in the evenings after the paper has been read.
In several cases the living room is provided with a row of chairs
and each inmate has her own special chair.
In other cases it was quite evident that the parlors were intended
for the use of visitors to the home rather than for the guests them­
selves. In one instance the inmates say that they have to die to get
into the parlor, as that room is the one in which the funeral services
are held.
Sometimes, however, where the guests are free to use the living
rooms they do not do so, preferring to stay in their own rooms.
Indeed, one matron said she had a hard time getting them into the




CHAPTER III.— IN

HOMES FOR THE AGED

47

home’s very attractive parlors even when an entertainment was being
given. In certain cases the living rooms are so dreary and unpleasant
that it is no wonder they remain unused. In one home the superin­
tendent threw open the door of a bleak, stuffy-smelling room and said:
“ This is the sitting room, but nobody sits here except one old lady
who comes in for a few minutes every day.” In this case a sunny
sewing room on the other side of the building was used more as a
sitting room than the sitting room itself, because it was more inviting
in appearance. In another home an attractive upstairs sitting room
with books, magazines, and radio is neglected in favor of a large,
rather formal room downstairs, for no reason that the matron could
see except that the latter faces on the street and the old ladies can
see the people passing by.
In several homes the so-called living room was a room furnished
with a row of splint rockers extending around the walls, and a table
in the center of the room. There were no pictures, no rugs, and no
attempt to beautify the place or make it livable. Another group of
homes which provide only the barest necessaries of life have no sitting
rooms; the only concession in this respect is a row of dilapidated
chairs around the w^alls of the dining room.
In many instances the living rooms are shabby but very comfort­
able and bear the marks of continuous usage.
Sleeping Rooms
The individual accommodations for sleeping purposes vary from
home to home. In some cases the dormitory system is used, the
number of beds in a dormitory varying from 3 or 4 to as many as 25
or 30. One boarding home which has some private rooms also has
a dormitory partitioned off into cubicles large enough to hold bed,
dresser, and chair, by white curtains, on poles, which can be drawn
back. In the majority of homes visited, however, each individual
has his own private bedroom, though in a few cases there were two
persons sharing a room. One home provides each of its 28 woman
residents with a suit of two rooms (bedroom and sitting room).
The building was originally planned for individual housekeeping,
with each resident cooking her own meals and caring for herself, as
in the “ widows’ homes.” This plan was later changed, however, and
the home is now run like the usual home, with a common table.
Generally married couples are assigned to a double room, but one
home provides each married couple with separate but communicating
rooms.
Some homes place two persons in a room so that they can look
after each other. One matron remarked on the other hand, that
she couldn’t see how such an arrangement could be successful; if she
tried it “ her folks would tear each other’s hair.”
Some few of the homes which provide private bedrooms for the
women provide dormitories for some or all of the men. The men, it is
said, do not mind sharing a room with others, but the women like a
room to themselves. The matron in one home which provides most
of its inmates with private rooms but also has a dormitory with five
or six beds says that often when a private room became available
she has offered to remove one of the men from the dormitory but is
almost invariably met with the reply that they prefer the dormitory,
as they like the company of the others.




48

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN U NITED

STATES

Management of the home is generally easier where each person has
his own room, as clashes of temperament over the arrangements
within the room are thereby avoided. This is a factor worth consid­
eration, since each old person usually has his or her own notions of
things and may defend these valiantly, to the detriment of the
general peace.
Where each person has a private bedroom there is provided drawer
and closet space for clothes,1 and personal belongings and the room
2
may be decorated with pictures and the little knicknacks which
appeal to the occupant. This feature is especially appreciated by
the women. In fact some of them go to such extremes in this respect
that their rooms are literally crammed with odds and ends. The,
men’s rooms usually remain rather bare and unadorned. There were,
however, two exceptions to this last statement: The two sailors’ homes
visited (admitting only men) showed a degree of ability in imparting
the “ lived-in look” that was not found in any of the other men’s
homes.
The tendency of some of the women to strew their rooms with
photographs, doilies, and ornaments of various kinds, and the ten­
dency of the men to keep the furnishings of their rooms reduced to a
minimum has led several matrons to a settled conviction that the men
are “ neater” than the women.
The problem of the disposal of personal belongings becomes acute
when the dormitory system is used. Generally there is space between
the beds only for a commode and a chair, or a small table or chest
and a chair. One or two homes provide lockers in or near the sleep­
ing room, each individual being assigned one of these. In one or­
ganization which runs many old people’s homes throughout the
country all of which are practically uniform in general layout and
practices, each person is provided with a small dark blue bag in which
are kept brush, comb, and other small articles. This hangs at the
head of the bed out of sight. Here also is a small towel rack on which
the towel is kept. Each home has four dormitories: One each for
the able-bodied men and the able-bodied women, and one each for
the infirm men and the infirm women. Each dormitory has a large
wardrobe in which the everyday clothes are hung, all together. The
Sunday clothes were in another wardrobe all rolled up in bundles
and tied.
There is no attempt at decorations in the dormitories; there are no
rugs and no pictures, just beds and a few chairs, and in one case not
even chairs. In one or two of the homes visited the old people (ex­
cept those who are bedridden or ill, and these are usually in a room
by themselves) are forbidden to lie down on the beds during the day,
and the dormitory doors are kept locked. Inquiry as to what pro­
vision there was, in case an afternoon nap was desired or in case an
inmate did not feel well and wished to lie down, elicited the informa­
tion that in such cases they must either doze in their chairs or lie
down on one of the few couches provided in the general sitting room
if fortunate enough to find one of these vacant.
In the homes with the private bedrooms, on the other hand, an
inmate may stay in her room all day if she desires and may lie down
i2 T h ou g h one h om e w as fou n d w h ich p ro v id e d private room s w h ich had no clothes closets. T h ere is a
large central space on each floor w here each resident has a locker. T h e m atron said she preferred this arrangem ent to closets, as w here there w ere closets the inm ates “ w o u ld throw a n yth in g into i t .”




49

CHAPTER III.— IN HOMES FOR THE AGED

when she pleases. Indeed, some homes have what they call a “ quiet
hour” after the midday meal, during which absolute quiet is expected
to prevail, so that those who wish to take naps may do so undisturbed.
The private rooms are generally furnished at least with metal bed,
dresser, one or two chairs, and table. This is the minimum supply.
Other articles of furniture may be added, if the size of the room and
the funds of the home permit. In general the rooms in the older
homes are larger than those in the new. New homes, designed
especially for the purposes which they are to serve, usually have
medium-sized or small bedrooms all of a size and almost invariably
furnished with the same articles of furniture in every room. In some
cases the occupant may add some of her own furniture, a rug or two,

F ig u r e 4 —B e d r o o m

at

Haven

H u b b a r d M e m o r ia l O l d
C a r l is l e . I n d .

P e o p l e ’s

Ho m e

(E v a n g e l ic a l ),

New

etc.; this practice is more general in the older homes than in the newer
ones. In the latter, especially where the home is supported by an
organization, the rooms are usually furnished by different units of
the organization and in such cases the objection is often made that
furniture brought in by the guest would be out of harmony with the
general scheme.
Some homes encourage the inmates to supply all of the furniture
for their own rooms, if they can, on the ground that they are happier
among their own things.
The furnishings of the bedrooms vary from home to home from the
shabby to the luxurious. One home in the latter class furnishes its
bedrooms in three general color schemes for carpet, bedspread, win­
dow hangings, and upholstery— tan, old rose, and Delft blue— the




50

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

guest being given his choice of these. Each bedroom contains a
four-poster bed, a big arm chair and a smaller wing chair upholstered
in tapestry, a desk chair, a writing desk, and a chiffonier. Each room
also has an open fireplace with a clock of good make on the mantel,
a wall bookcase, and a wall telephone. At the head of each bed is a
cord with a push button to summon an orderly if attention is needed
during the night. The room is provided with a floor lamp, a cluster
of lights in the center of the ceiling, and wall lights at either side of
the chiffonier. The carpets are deep and soft. The closets have
a built-in chest of drawers at one end above which is a tier of shelves.
In connection with each bedroom is a private toilet and bowl with
running water, and medicine cabinet.
This, however, is an unusual home, and while many homes each
provide some of the features mentioned, in no other instance were all
found in any one place. Only six others of the homes visited had
running water in all the rooms, and one other had it in a few of the
rooms. One of these had private toilets as well as washbowls in the
new wing, and two others in a few of the rooms. One home, in addi­
tion to the one described at length above, had an electric pushbutton
in every room, while two others have a watchman who makes the
rounds of the rooms every hour during the night to make sure every­
thing is all right.
Some of the rooms are delightful places. One home visited, for
instance, was occupying a former dwelling house which had been
renovated throughout. This was a small home, accommodating
only 19 old ladies, and the bedrooms varied considerably in size. All
had been freshly papered with dainty and attractive bedroom paper 1
3
and all the furniture was new. Each room was decorated in a differ­
ent color, with dainty ruffled curtains at the windows and a gay rug
(generally a rag rug) on the floor, and each had some individual touch
that set it apart from all the others.
In one very delightful home for women perhaps a majority of the
residents have substituted a couch for the usual bed, making their
rooms more like sitting rooms than bedrooms. This was the only
instance of its land discovered.
Metal furniture is much in use for the bedrooms in the newer
homes, on grounds of sanitation. One such home furnishes each bed­
room with bed, straight chair, rocker, dresser, table, and night table,
all of metal so treated as to look like wood. The chairs of some
rooms are upholstered in tapestry, others in flowered* cretonne.
Each room has two good rugs.
In many instances the bedrooms are not remarkable in any respect,
but are comfortable, cheerful, and light. In the older homes, espe­
cially, the woman residents have their windows full of flowering
plants in which they take a good deal of pride and which add to
the attractiveness of the room. One home has a general conserva­
tory for the home and another where the individual residents may
keep their plants.
Window curtains and rugs are two articles which do much toward
making a room attractive, and lack of these in many cases made
an otherwise pleasant room seem somewhat bare and cheerless.
i* It m ight be said here, parenthetically, that especially in the larger institutions w all paper is giving
w a y to tin ted plaster w alls.




CHAPTER III.— IN HOMES FOR THE AGED

51

It was noticeable that the newly constructed buildings usually
have no wall paper in any of the rooms, but have the plaster tinted
various colors. In one home the bedroom walls were tinted a faint
green, another home had chosen for this purpose a cold, peculiar blue,
but cream color was the favorite hue.
Matron or superintendent's quarters.— The matron, except in the
smallest homes, usually has a private suite of sitting room, bedroom,
and bathroom; in some cases her office is in connection, but usually
the office is in another part of the house, generally near the main
entrance to the building. In one home the matron had an apart­
ment of six rooms in the home building. Where there is a superin­
tendent (which is true only of the large institutions), he and his
family live in one wing of the building or even in a separate residence
on the home grounds. Only one instance was found in which the
superintendent did not live in the home, and the appearance of the
home certainly indicated absentee management.
The matron’s quarters are likely to be more attractively furnished
than those of the residents.
Provision for employees.— Some of the institutions complained that
they were unable to obtain helpers for the home. In one or two
cases this was because the home was situated so far from town that
the young people would not stay. In other cases their inability to
retain the help may have been due to the quarters provided for them.
Thus, in one home the servants’ dining room and sitting room were
in a damp, gloomy basement. The sitting room was furnished with
stray bits of furniture and was most unattractive.
Other homes, however, provide cheerful and pleasant quarters.
The servants are usually expected to live at the home and one floor
in one wing is usually provided for them, each having a private bed­
room. In one home visited the servants occupied a new wing and
their rooms were more inviting than those of the residents. In other
cases the rooms are about the same as those of the residents. Two
homes provided for the employees dainty dining rooms with white
woodwork, and small tables and chairs painted apple green; and in
one of these there was a small kitchen also in green and white.
Dining Rooms
There appears to be a general tendency away from the long rectan­
gular tables formerly used in institutions toward small (usually
round) tables seating from 4 to 8 persons each. Although many
homes still have the long tables, the great majority of those visited
are using the small tables. The result is a much more homelike
and less institutional appearance. Many have the Windsor style of
chairs. One home, in which most of the guests are old and clumsy
and find it hard to draw their chairs up to the table, has instead of
chairs revolving stools fastened to the floor.
Use of linen tablecloths is most general, but there were found
quite a number, invariably in the less modern and comfortable homes
in which the long tables were covered with oilcloth (white, brown,
or a mixture of colors) which was the exact size of the tables and
was fastened to them. Several used an oilcloth, with a raised pattern
resembling a damask pattern, which was laid upon the table and
hung over the edge like a linen cloth, One or two homes used tables
with white porcelain tops.




52

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

In a group of homes operated by one organization each resident
has at his or her place at the table a small drawer in which knife,
fork, and spoon, napkin ring, cup and saucer, salt and pepper shakers,
etc., are kept between meals.
One or two of the homes furnish instead of napkins a sort of bib
for the men, with a strip which slips over the head, and these hang
on the chairs between meals.
The dining room is a very pleasant room in most homes. In a
large number of the homes the dining room was in a wing running
out from the rest of the house and extending across the. whole width

Fig u r e 5 -

d in in g

h a l l at a

La r g e Fra t ern a l Ho m e

of the wing so that it had windows on both sides. Many rooms were
brightened by the presence of flowers, fresh or artificial, upon the
tables.
In one endowed home with an especially attractive dining room,
the tables were set, for the noon meal, with good linen, shining silver,
and cut glass, and a low bowl of flowers in the center of each table.
This room has a bay window which occupies the whole of one side
of the room. Plain silk curtains hung at the windows.
Another home run on a lavish scale has a dining hall two stories
in height, with an immense open fireplace, walls paneled nearly half




CHAPTER III.— IN

HOMES FOR THE AGED

53

way up, and Gothic-beamed ceiling. There are large stained glass
windows at either end, and all along one side above and in the panel­
ing. The round tables seat 8 each; 230 persons are served here three
times a day.
Matron’s dining room.— In the majority of cases the matron eats
in the same room and often at the same table as the residents. In a
few cases, however, a private dining room is provided for her. In
one home visited, in which the inmates were served on tables covered
with oilcloth, the matron’s table* in a private room, was laid with
good linen and silver.
Food served.— The matrons of several homes emphasized that al­
though the food served is plain it is of good quality, and in some cases
where the home finances permit, no pains are spared to obtain variety
and quality.
Some attempt was made to obtain menus from the homes and such
were obtained from a number of institutions. These are given in
the Appendix. The meals generally provide for breakfast a cereal,
coffee, some hot dish, and (usually) fruit; for dinner (noon), meat,
potatoes, at least one other vegetable, dessert, coffee, tea, or milk,
and sometimes soup; for supper, cold meat, some hot dish, a beverage,
and fruit.
One matron said that when she took charge of the home the resi­
dents were being fed mainly on meat and potatoes. Now they get
meat only once or twice a week, but have plenty of eggs, milk, and
fresh vegetables raised on the home farm.
The homes which take children as well as old people sometimes
have difficulty in giving each the diet they should have. This is
especially likely to occur where both children and old people eat in
the same dining room. The matron of one such home says if she
serves any special dish to the children she must also serve it to the
old people or there is complaint from the latter.
Other homes, which have room and are better arranged, solve this
problem by having separate dining rooms for the children and the
old folks.
In one home visited five meals are served each day— breakfast at
8 a. m., dinner at noon, lunch at 2.30 p. m., supper at 6 p. m., and
hot or cold milk and crackers at bed time.
Libraries
Generally some attempt is made to provide reading matter for the
inmates. The home usually takes one or more newspapers and maga­
zines and in many cases the residents themselves subscribe to a maga­
zine, church paper, etc., turning these over to the home after reading.
A» bookcase or two filled with books is found in nearly all homes,
and some homes have a great many. One home with wide halls had
in the hall on each floor several tables piled high with books. In
another every available nook and corner all over the building had
its shelves of books.
Some homes have a library room lined with books. In one such
the library was a large room on the second floor directly over the
entrance. The room has paneled walls, built-in bookcases, and many
easy chairs. A large table is covered with magazines. Large high
windows, low cushioned window seats, and an open fireplace add to
the attractiveness of the room. The prevailing color is brown.




CARE
O
F
AGED
PERSONS
I
N
"UNITED
STATES




Or

F i g u r e 6 — L ib r a r y

in

a

La r g e Ea st ern H o m e

CHAPTER III.— IN HOMES FOR THE AGED

55

In another home the library is on the ground floor overlooking the
garden, that side of the room rounds out and is all windows, with a
French window in the center leading out upon a terrace. The wood­
work of the room is ivory, and the carpet is sapphire blue, as is also
the upholstery of the easy chairs. The room is lined with books.
This home is occupied by well-educated and cultured people who
make a good deal of use of the library.
One of the largest institutions has a library with nearly 12,000
volumes. One of the residents acts as librarian. (See fig. 6.)
Another home has a library to which the guests come a good deal to
get books, but as the room is on the north side, crowded and rather
cheerless, they do not stay there to read but take the books to their
rooms. (This home has a formal parlor but no general sitting room.)
Another home has a reading room (the reading matter consisting
mainly of newspapers) for the men only. The women are evidently
not supposed to read.
The matron of another home exhibited “ the library” a room about
5 by 10 feet, the only books in sight being a pile in one corner which
looked as though they might have been bound periodicals.
The largest institution visited has in it a branch of the public
library of a near-by city. The books are changed every three months.
There is also a periodical room where all the morning and evening
papers issued round about are received, and the wide corridors ex­
tending from wing to wing are lined with reading desks for the use
of the men.
Another home with a library has an active library committee
which is constantly obtaining new books for the home. Two homes
which have several blind inmates provide books in Braille for these,
besides reading matter for the seeing guests.
Generally the library is open to the guests at all times and they are
free to take the books as they like. In one home, however, books
are given out three times a week. Another home has a committee
which issues books once a month. The day of the agent’s visit was
“ library day” and the old people were filing in to return their books
and get new ones. Some had 8 or 10 books each.
The value of a library to a home is of course dependent upon the
culture, class, and habits of the inmates. In some homes reading is
one of the main diversions of the residents and they would be lost
without books. The library of one home visited had a number of
people reading there, although it was not yet 10 o ’clock in the
morning. On the other hand, the director of a large home for men
which has a library of thousands of volumes says that probably not
more than 5 per cent of the men make any use of the library^
Where the residents have never acquired the habit of reading the
absence of books, of course, is not felt. Home after home was
visited in which there was in evidence no reading matter of any kind.
It was noteworthy that these usually were also homes which pro­
vided nothing in the way of diversion or recreation. The sitting
room in such homes was usually found fairly well filled with old
people who were doing nothing at all, not even talking. The blank,
hopeless faces of the residents were really not surprising under the
circumstances.




CARE
O
F
AGED
PERSONS
I
N
UNITED
STATES




F ig u r e 7 — S e c o n d F l o o r P o r c h

of

an

old

L a d ie s * H o m e

w

El

w
o
g
H
m
o
w

w
§

Oi

merely. I one home the matron h
n
ad t turn o the electricity to
o
n
exhibit this room; it was beautifully furnished, but could hardly be
called accurately a su room. The majority of those visited, how­
n
ever, have a attractive su room; some of these a charmingly
n
n
re




W
>

o

58

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

furnished. One home has six such porches, one of which has a radio,
while those guests who desire quiet may use the other porches.
Kitchen Equipment
The home kitchens visited were, almost without exception, light,
airy, commodious, and usually well arranged. Installation of laborsaving devices is most general where the home funds permit of this.
Automatic refrigeration, dishwashing machines, potato parers, bread
cutters, meat grinders—some or all of these are very commonly
found among the kitchen equipment of homes for the aged. One
large home has a machine that spreads and bakes 100 pancakes a
minute. Several are equipped with steam-jacketed pots for cooking.
A few, especially the large homes in which it is a problem to keep
the food hot while it is being served, have steam tables for this
purpose.
Other Features or Conveniences
Elevators.—Elevators, especially the automatic kind, are becoming
a common feature of old people’s homes. Nearly every home has at
least one or two inmates who are unable to walk up and down the
stairs. The matron of a home which recently installed an elevator
said that four inmates who hadn’t been able to come down to the
dining room for years were thus enabled to come to their meals.
Elevators are expensive to install, but they do serve to eliminate
labor otherwise necessary— as, for instance, the service of meals in the
rooms in the case just cited.1 Also, they enable the residents to
4
move more freely about the home. Inmates confined to wheel
chairs can be wheeled into the elevator and moved from floor to
floor. The elevator also enables the better use of ground space
where the cost of land is an important item. The general desire in
homes for old people is for a building not more than three stories in
height, two being preferable. Several of the new homes, however,
situated where land is very costly, have erected buildings four to
seven stories in height. In all cases elevator service is provided,
one home having three elevators, with regular attendants.
Floor coverings.— Quite generally the general living rooms, recep­
tion rooms, and parlors are well carpeted. The main exceptions to
this were one or two homes for colored people whose carpets were
very old and even worn through in places, and the homes of some of
the stricter religious sects. At the other end of the scale were
several homes whose parlor floors were covered with oriental rugs
of great beauty.
Hall-floor coverings were in perhaps a majority of cases linoleum
cemented down. In one case this was so slippery as to present a
considerable hazard, especially to old people uncertain on their feet.
One home had its hall floors covered with rubber several inches thick.
Other conveniences.— Several of the homes visited had placed hand­
rails along the walls of the halls, for the convenience of the old people
who were shaky and infirm.
Another home had placed most attractive Dutch benches in odd
spots throughout the home, upon which the guests may drop down
and rest.
1 T h at this m ay be quite a factor m ay be seen b y the fact that in one hom e 38 persons are served in their
4
room s. A n oth er hom e has seven persons w h o are unable to com e to meals because of there being no
elevator,







60

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

A number of homes allow the residents the use of the laundry at
specified hours or on certain days. Others provide a special “ handy
room ” which has a gas plate, a stationary tub, ironing board, elec­
tric iron, etc. Here they may come to wash out small articles, do
their pressing, or make themselves a cup of tea.
Some homes either allow the residents to bring their own sewing
machines or provide a room equipped with one or more of these
which the guests may use.
One institution visited has on each floor a portable porcelain bath­
tub which can be wheeled from room to room when a guest is ill or
infirm and unable to go to the bathroom to bathe. In another the
bathtubs are in the center of the room to facilitate assistance by the
orderly in the case of those who are unable to manage by themselves.
Two homes maintain a motor car for the use of the residents.
Another has no stairs. There is an inclined runway leading from
floor to floor which is used not only by the able-bodied residents but
over which guests can be moved in their wheel chairs.
The homes which have men among their residents almost invari­
ably provide a smoking room (often in the basement) sometimes
providing card tables or billiard tables as well. They are usually
forbidden to smoke in their rooms.
In one or two homes there is a room with a telephone which the
guests are at liberty to use when they please.
Several of the men’s homes have a barber shop to which a barber
either comes periodically or in which one or more full-time workers
are employed. One large home employs five barbers. In other
homes there is a barber’s chair and the men shave each other.
A number of the newer homes have drinking fountains in all the
halls.
Several homes which are a number of stories high have roof gardens.
Infirmary or Hospital

All but the smallest homes— and even some of these— have a room
or two set aside in which guests may be cared for in serious illnesses.
Minor ailments are usually treated in the patient’s own room.
The equipment in this “ infirmary” room may be merely a white
iron bed and a chair or two. A number of the homes have beds
adjustable at the head and in some cases at the foot also. A diet
kitchen may be provided somewhere near. Sometimes an adjoining
room and bath is provided for the use of a nurse. In a few cases
visited, the infirmary, and the nurse’s room and bathroom are in a
wing by themselves so as to insure quiet and prevent the possible
spread of contagion to the rest of the house.
One new home has one floor of one wing devoted to infirmary pur­
poses. Here are a diet kitchen, a room for minor operations, and a drug
closet. At the north end of the corridor are the acute cases in private
rooms fitted with hospital beds and tables, and a small dining room for
convalescents who are almost well enough to go back to their regular
bedrooms. At one end of this section is a beautifully furnished sun
parlor for the use of the convalescents. Patients afflicted with chronic
illnesses occupy ordinary bedrooms at the south end of this floor.
Many of the homes visited had no patients in the infirmary at
the time of the visit, but in one home a whole building was required
for use as an infirmary.




CHAPTER
II I .— I
N
HOMES
FR
O
TH
E
AGED




F i g u r e 1 0 —H o s p it a l C l in ic

of a

La r g e Ea s t e r n

home

62

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

In another institution where the infirmary occupies one wing the
individual rooms are separated by partitions of glass. Another has
a doctor’s office, rooms for general and special examinations, diet
kitchen, and a room where an orderly is on duty. This last-men­
tioned room is connected by electric buttons with all the residents’
rooms; if anyone needs attention during the night he presses the
button, which causes a light to flash on the board in the orderly’s
room.
Most of these rooms are light, clean, pleasant places. One home
was visited, however, in which the infirmary, so called, consisted of
a large, dark, and dingy room with five ordinary beds, four of which
were occupied by bedridden residents. The matron appeared to
resent the care that these inmates caused, although the actual work
of caring for them was done by a resident nurse.
In several instances, the home for the aged forms one department
of a large general hospital, and when the members of the home
family need hospital care they get it there.
Others have a hospital exclusively for the residents of the home.
One home solves the problem of the care of chronic cases by having
in the same grounds an endowed “ home for incurables” to which
the old people are sent when they become hopelessly disabled. Acute
cases are treated in the general (public) hospital operated by the
same organization. Three other large institutions remove their
chronic cases from the dormitory buildings to the hospitals operated
for the purpose. One of these hospitals has 100 beds, the second 110
beds, and the third 400 beds. All three of these accept persons who
are disabled at the time of their admission into the home; they feel
that it is this class of people who most need the benefit of the home’s
care.




Chapter IV.—Care of Aged by the Federal Government
Soldiers’ Pensions

A

LARGE number of aged are provided for by pensions from the
United States Government. These include soldiers of the
. regular war establishment, veterans of the various wars in
which this country has engaged, their widows, and minor children.
The report of the United States Bureau of Pensions, covering the
fiscal year 1927-28, shows that on June 30, 1928, there were on the
pension rolls 453,08s1 persons, of whom 258,620 were old soldiers, 410
were nurses, 186,608 were soldiers’ widows,1 3,239 were minor or
helpless children of veterans, and 4,211 were other dependents.
During the year $228,965,672 was disbursed to these pensioners.
The average pension, all classes combined, was $466.14.
The following table shows the amounts paid in pensions to the
various classes of pensioners during 1927-28;
T

able

1 7 .— N U M B E R

Class of pensioner

Regular establishm ent:
Soldiers_ _ ___________
W id ow s, e t c __________
C iv il W ar:
Soldiers_______________
N urses _ _______ _____
W id ow s, e tc __________
Spanish W ar:
S oldiers_______________
N urses
W id ow s, e t c __________
W a r of 1812: W i d o w s _____

OF P E N S IO N E R S OF V A R IO U S C L A S SE S A N D
B U R S E D T O T H E M , 1927-28

N um ber
of pen­
sioners

A m o u n t dis­
bursed in
pensions

13, 665
3, 555

$3, 255, 566. 50
840,196. 73

74,929
43
159,828

69,683, 556. 28
26, 750.00
79,958,669.91

164, 708
367
26,195
14

59,908,097. 53
150, 625.18
10,615, 696. 56
8,903.34

Class of pensioner

M exican W ar:
Soldiers ..................... ..
W id o w s ______________
Indian wars:
S o ld ie r s ______ _______
W id ow s, e tc __________
W o rld W ar:
S o ld ie r s _________ . . .
W id ow s, e t c . . . ...........
T o ta l...................... ..

AM OUNTS

N um ber
o f p en ­
sioners

D IS ­

A m o u n t dis­
bursed in
pensions

4
845

$5,886.00
538,520.46

5, 267
3, 604

2,618,189. 84
1, 338, 753.96

47
17

11, 365. 53
4,894. 67

i 453,088 228,965,672.49

* N o t in clu d in g 38,106 w id o w s o f soldiers o f the C iv il W ar w hose pensions began Ju ly 4, 1928.

Of the 491,194 pensioners on the roll June 30, 1928, 484,275 were
resident in the United States, and the remaining 6,919 were residing
in Alaska, the Canal Zone, in one of the insular possessions, or abroad.
The annual value of pensions payable to pensioners residing in the
United States proper was $219,209,494.52.
i N o t including 38,106 w id ow s o f C iv il W ar veterans w hose pensions began Ju ly 4, 1928.




63

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

64

Table 18 shows the number of pensioners of all classes on the roll
June 30, 1928, and the annual value of their pensions, by States:
T a b le

18.— N U M B E R

State

A la b a m a ______________
A laska_________________
A rizon a________________
A rk a n sas______________
C a liforn ia_____________
C o lo r a d o ______________
C o n n e c tic u t___________
D elaw are______________
D istrict of C olu m b ia ..
F lorid a ________________
G eorgia________________
Id a h o __________________
Illin o is________________
In d ian a_______________
I o w a __________________
K an sas________________
K e n t u c k y _____________
L ou isiana_____________
M a in e_________________
M a r y la n d _____________
M assachusetts________
M ich ig a n _____________
M in n esota____________
M ississip p i___________
M issou ri______________
M o n ta n a _____________
N ebraska______________
N ev a d a _______________
N ew H a m p s h ire N ew I

O F P E N S IO N E R S A N D A N N U A L V A L U E OF T H E I R P E N S IO N S , F O R
1927-28, B Y S T A T E S

N um ­
ber of
pen ­
sioners

2,315
56
948
5, 222
33,104
5,432
5,153
1,063
6,111
4, 334
3,270
1,649
33,096
27, 897
15, 624
17, 736
12,950
3, 206
6,641
5,589
17,879
19, 233
7, 953
2,151
22,899
1, 987
7, 216
274
3,131
10, 808

A n n u al value
o f pensions

$918, 516.00
18, 354.00
356, 038. 00
2, 407, 546.00
13, 440, 799. 00
2.406, 457.00
2, 330, 636.00
508, 603.00
2,138, 728. 00
2, 059,059. 00
911,590.00
712, 935.00
15, 536,116.00
13, 473, 408.00
7, 734, 658.00
8,924, 659.00
5, 706, 759.00
1, 346, 520.00
3.184.070.00
2.459.778.00
7,922, 516.00
8,969, 757.00
3, 633,751.00
1.068.429.00
10,971,471. 52
790, 955.00
3.454.972.00
99,917.00
1.468.418.00
4, 722,039.00

State

N e w M e x ico ____
N e w Y o r k ______
N o rth C arolina..
N orth D a k o ta ,
O h io____________
O kla h om a ______
O regon__________
P en n sylva n ia ___
R h od e Isla n d___
South C a rolin a.
South D a k o t a ..
Ten nessee______
T exa s___________
U ta h ____________
V e r m o n t________
V irg in ia________
W a sh in g to n ____
W est V irgin ia. . .
W isco n sin ______
W y o m in g ______
T o ta l..
Canal z o n e _________
Insular possessions..
F oreign countries. _.
G rand to ta l______

N um ­
ber o f
pen­
sioners

A n n u al value
o f pensions

1,038
38,600
2,871
1,070
43, 740
7,206
5,666
40, 267
2,539
1,437
2.487
9,123
6, 799
1,503
3, 111
5, 590
7, 615
5, 615
12, 333
794

$423, 232.00
17,732, 166. 00
1,061, 355.00
462, 346.00
20, 633, 157.00
3, 360, 276.00
2, 433, 355.00
17, 907, 011.00
1, 120, 439.00
494, 449.00
1.140, 250.00
4,014, 327.00
2, 634, 273.00
452, 049.00
1,497, 695. 00
2,084, 976.00
3, 339, 617.00
2, 565, 137.00
5,893, 296.00
300, 988.00

484, 331

219, 227, 848. 52

24
3,825
3,014

6, 256.00
908, 368.00
1,306,025.00
221,448,497. 52

Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Homes
HE National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers was estab­
lished at Dayton, Ohio, in the last year of the Civil War.
Since that time branches have been established at various times and
there are now altogether 11 such homes, located at Santa Monica,
Calif., Danville, 111., Marion, Ind., Leavenworth, Kans., Togus, Me.,
Bath, N. Y., Dayton, Ohio, Hot Springs, S. Dak., Johnson City,
Tenn., Hampton, Va., and Milwaukee, Wis.
To residence in these homes are eligible “ honorably discharged
officers, soldiers, sailors or marines who served in the regular, volun­
teer, or other forces of the United States, or in the organized militia
or National Guard when called into Federal service, and who are
disabled by diseases or wounds and who have no adequate means of
support, and by reason of such disability are either temporarily or
permanently incapacitated from earning a living.”
The report of one of the homes emphasizes that it is in no sense a
poorhouse. “ It is a ‘ home’ in every sense of the word. As near as
it can be made so, provided by a grateful government for those who
gave their services in its time of need, and everything is done for their
comfort and pleasure. Their personal liberties are not infringed
upon, they can come and go at will; except that certain rules of
conduct are necessary to maintain order and discipline in so large an
institution, but these are designed to work no hardship, and are made
as easy and lenient as possible consistent with proper conduct of the
institution.”

T




CHAPTER IV .---- BY FEDERAL GOVERNMENT

65

The branch at Johnson City, Tenn., is devoted exclusively to the
care of tuberculosis, and on January 1, 1921, it was decided that
thereafter the branch at Marion, Ind., should be devoted to the treat­
ment of neuropsychiatric diseases, the Civil War membership being
transferred to other branches.
There is also at Washington, D. C., a soldiers’ home open only to
enlisted men in the Regular Army— and a naval home at Philadelphia.
It is evident from the above that these homes are caring for many
soldiers and sailors who can not properly be classified as “ aged,”
since many World War veterans are among their number. Neverthe­
less, since these homes, do care for a certain number of aged, the nine
homes for which the bureau has data are included here.
The table below shows for these nine homes the year of establish­
ment, the capacity of the home, the number of aged cared for, and the
cost of operation (all ages) in 1927:
T

able

1 9 —N U M B E R OF R E S ID E N T S A N D C O ST OF O P E R A T IO N OF F E D E R A L H O M E S
F O R S O L D I E R S A N D S A IL O R S

H o m e and loca tion

W h o m adm itted

Year of
estab­
lish­
m ent

H om es for D isabled V olunteer Soldiers:
Santa M on ica , C a lif_________________ . . .
M arion , I n d .1
__ . _
L ea ven w orth , K ans
_
__ ___
D a y ton , O h io ___________
__
__ Johnson C ity , T e n n .4
___ ____
H am p ton , V a _________ ______ . ________
M ilw au kee, W is ___ __ __ ......... ..............
U . S. Soldiers’ H om e, W ashington, D . C ___
U . S. N aval H om e, Ph iladelphia, P a ________

M e n o n l y . ..............
_ d o______ ____
_d o______ __
___ d o ______________
__ _ d o_____
___
____ d o ___
_ ___
M e n and w o m e n . _
M e n o n ly .
_
_
_____do ______ _____

1888
1890
1885
1867
1903
1870
1867
1851
1833

T o ta l. __________________________________

C apac­ A verage
ity of
num ber
hom e
60 years
(all
o f age
ages)
an d over

Cost of
operation

2,956
1,092
1,926
3,100
1, 653
2,147
2, 252
2, 000
276

1, 700
2 1,040
980
500
1, 205
(fi)
1, 700
788
242

$1,206,000
795, 328
697, 203
0
(5)
0
886,143
866, 340
151, 585

17,402

8,155

8 4, 602, 599

1 C on verted to sanatorium for care of neuropsychiatric diseases Jan. 1, 1921.
2 All ages.
3 $458.52 per capita.
4 T u bercu lar patients on ly.
5 $745.90 per capita.
6 N o data.
7 $431.70 per capita.
8 6 hom es.

Marion, Ind., home.— The Marion home is constructed on the cot­
tage plan, “ with comfortable detached buildings of moderate size,
set in a fine park of trees and lawns.”
Four types of medical service are given: Diagnostic, educational,
continued treatment, and convalescent treatment. There are 15
resident physicians and 52 nurses.
Amusements include motion pictures, radio, library, and various
kinds of games.
Leavenworth, Kans., home.— The Leavenworth home is located in
a wooded tract of 640 acres on the west bank of the Missouri River.
Although originally built to care for veterans of the Civil, Mexican,
and Indian Wars, only about one-fourth of the membership is now
of this class.
There are 66 buildings on the grounds of this institution, including
among others a hotel, store, theater, chapel (with Catholic and Prot­
estant auditoriums), and library containing 10,000 volumes. Some
60 acres are used for farm, ore hard} and vineyards,






F ig u r e 11.- P a n o r a m ic V ie w

of the

So l d ie r s ’ H o m e

at

W a s h in g t o n ,

d

.

c

.

CHAPTER I V — B Y FEDERAL GOVERNMENT

67

The home furnishes all necessary medical attention and has 8
resident physicians and 18 nurses.
Amusements furnished include motion pictures, baseball games,
band concerts, billiards, pool, card games, boating, fishing, etc.
Dayton, Ohio, home.— The central branch of the National Home for
Disabled Volunteer Soldiers is located 2 miles west of Dayton, Ohio.
Its hospital gives general medical treatment and has a tuberculosis
department. There are 23 resident physicians and about 70 nurses.
Amusements include radio for each bed, motion pictures, plays,
baseball games, etc.
Hampton, Va., home.— This home, like the others, provides medical
service, having a well-equipped hospital with physicians and nurses.
Amusements include band concerts, baseball, radio, etc.
Milwaukee, Wis., home.— The home at Milwaukee, unlike the others
for which the bureau has data, has since June, 1923, admitted “ all
honorably discharged ex-service women who had served in the Army,
Navy, or Marine Corps, and who come under the eligibility clauses
of the home admission act.”
The home gives all types of dental and medical attention, including
physiotherapy and hydrotherapy. It has 13 resident physicians, 2
resident dentists, and some 60 nurses.
There is a full-time employee whose duty it is to provide recrea­
tion for the residents. Amusements so furnished include motion
pictures, vaudeville, parties, radio, and band concerts. A reader is
furnished for blind residents.
United States Soldiers’ Home.— This home, as stated before, admits
only enlisted men of the Regular Army. The home is situated on a
large tract of 503 acres in the city of Washington, D. C. (See Fig. 11).
There is a hospital on the grounds and resident physicians and
nurses.
Amusements include library, billiards, motion pictures, band con­
certs, etc. Men who care to may perform work about the home and
grounds and receive pay therefor.
Although the home is operated under the direction of the United
States War Department, it is maintained entirely from the funds
accumulated from the contributions of the enlisted men. Until a
few years ago each enlisted man was taxed 25 cents per month for
the maintenance of the home. Under this plan so much money was
accumulated that it was found possible to discontinue the contribu­
tions of the soldiers. Now the only additions being made to the
fund are the fines imposed at court-martials.
United States Naval Home, Philadelphia.— The United States Naval
Home antedates the soldiers’ homes, having been authorized by an
act of Congress approved February 26, 1811. The building itself
was not completed until 1833. It is operated on the same basis as
the soldiers’ home at Washington.
Minor illnesses are treated by the resident physician, but cases
requiring hospital treatment are sent either to the United States
Naval Hospital at League Island or to the United States Veterans’
Bureau Hospital located on the grounds of the home.
Motion pictures are shown three nights a week for 10 months of
the year, parties of residents are taken occasionally to baseball
games, and various civic organizations provide outings and enter­
tainments.




Chapter V.—State Provision for the Aged
Public Pensions for Aged Dependent Citizens
HERE appears to be a growing tendency by commissions
appointed to study the subject of old-age dependency to
recommend some form of public pension, to be regarded not
as charity but rather as a recognition of service, to be paid under careful
supervision, but to be sufficient to enable the recipient to remain
with his family or friends instead of obliging him to become a resident
in an institution.
There are at present ten States (and Alaska) which have adopted
some form of pension legislation designed to provide for aged depend­
ents, and measures on the subject are pending or being studied in
many other States and in the Congress of the United States. It may
be of interest, therefore, to review briefly the progress in such legisla­
tion.

T

Progress of the Movement in the United States
L it t l e attention was paid to this question in the United States until
the present century. The first active step in connection therewith
seems to have been the appointment of a commission by Massachusetts
in 1907 to investigate and report on the subject. No action resulted
from that report.
In 1914 Arizona had made an attempt to provide a system of oldage pensions. An initiative act was passed (Acts of 1915, initiative
measures, p. 10) abolishing almshouses and establishing old-age and
mothers’ pensions. The act was so loosely worded that before it could
come into effect it was pronounced unconstitutional on the ground of
its vagueness, the constitutionality of its pension provisions, if properly
expressed, being left undiscussed. Alaska followed suit with a law,
passed in 1915, providing a pension of $12.50 a month to those aged
65 and upward who met certain requirements as to residence, need,
and character. This law has been amended several times, but is
still in operation.
The effects of the war renewed interest in the idea of provision for
the aged, and within the last decade a number of State commissions
have been appointed and in some cases action has followed their re­
ports. In 1923 Nevada, Montana, and Pennsylvania enacted oldage pension laws. In Ohio in the same year the question of establish­
ing an old-age pension system w submitted to a referendum vote,
^as
and was decided adversely by a vote of almost 2 to 1. In 1924
the Pennsylvania law was declared unconstitutional, the decision being
based largely on a clause in the constitution which prohibits the legis­
lature from making appropriations for charitable, benevolent, and
educational purposes.
The year 1925 saw much activity in regard to old-age pensions,
with varying results in different States. In both Nevada and M on­
tana bills were introduced repealing the old-age pension laws, and in




CHAPTER V .— STATE PROVISION

69

Nevada the repeal was accomplished. A number of State commis­
sions brought in favorable reports, and by the middle of the year
bills were pending in Michigan, Illinois, Minnesota, Ohio, Maine,
New Jersey, and Indiana. In Texas and Kansas bills were reported
favorably, but failed to pass either house of the legislature. In New
Jersey and Indiana they passed the lower house, but were not acted
upon by the upper chamber. In Colorado, Minnesota, and Utah
commissions to study the subject were appointed. In Pennsylvania
the legislature created a new commission to study the question further,
and passed a resolution providing for a constitutional amendment to
permit appropriations for old-age pensions. In Nevada a new law
was enacted, differing in some respects from the former one. Wiscon­
sin passed an old-age pension law, which was signed by the governor,
and California passed one, which was vetoed.
In January, 1926, the Legislature of Washington passed an old-age
pension act, but this was vetoed by the governor. Early in 1926 the
Virginia State Commission brought in a favorable report recommend­
ing the adoption of an old-age pension system, and a bill to that effect
was introduced into the Virginia Legislature. In Massachusetts a
commission on the subject handed in a divided report. The majority
recommended a bill establishing a pension not to exceed $1 a day to
needy citizens aged 70 or over, but the legislature adjourned without
taking any action. In the spring of 1926 the Legislature of Kentucky
passed an old-age pension law which became effective June 24 of that
year, Maryland and Colorado each passed one in 1927, and a year
later a law was passed in Massachusetts. Mention has been made
above of the report of the Massachusetts commission and its recom­
mendation. In the law which was finally passed, the report of the
majority of the commission was ignored and a suggestion made in one
section of the minority report was adopted instead. This law, which
can hardly be termed an old-age pension law but might more accu­
rately be called a “ public bequest law,” was approved June 12, 1928.
A joint legislative committee was appointed in New York in 1926
to make a survey and report upon the condition of the aged poor in
the State, with a view to legislative action.
Thus, the close of 1928 found old-age pension laws in effect in six
States (Colorado, Kentucky, Maryland, Montana, Nevada, and
Wisconsin) and Alaska, with bills pending in the legislatures of a
number of other States.
Since the beginning of 1929, pension laws have been enacted in
four additional States— Wyoming, Minnesota, Utah, and California.
Provisions of Pension Laws
A l l o f t h e p e n s i o n laws provide for a county system.
In general,
applicants for the pension must be at least 70 years of age (65 years
in Nevada, Maryland, Utah, and Wyoming), be citizens of the United
States for 15 years, and residents of the State or county at least 15
years (10 years in Nevada).
Montana and Utah limit the benefits payable to $25 per month
and Kentucky to $250 per year, while in the other States, the total
income of a person aided with a pension may not exceed $1 per day
from all sources (including pension).




70

CAKE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

Only persons are eligible to benefit who have not been imprisoned
for a specified period, who have not within the past 10 years (15 in
California) deserted their family, who are not professional beggars or
tramps, and who have no relatives responsible for their support.
The whole cost of the plan in all the States except Wisconsin is borne
by the individual county. In Wisconsin one-third of the cost of the
plan up to a total of $200,000 per year, is borne by the State. If this
amount is not sufficient it is pro rated among them according to the
amounts paid out.
Montana.— Under the Montana law (Acts of 1923, ch. 72), the pen­
sions are strictly county matters. The law contemplates the estab­
lishment in each county of an old-age pension board or commission,
which may receive applications from persons who are 70 years of age
and have been citizens of the United States and residents of the State
of Montana for at least 15 years. The amount of benefits may not
exceed $25 a month, and may be less than that according to the
conditions in each case.
The following are excluded from pensions: (1) Persons who have
been imprisoned in the State penitentiary during the past 10 years;
(2) a man who during the past 10 years has, for a period of 6 months
or more, deserted his wife or failed to support her and his children
under 15 years of age, or a wife who has deserted her husband or
failed to support such of her children as she was bound to support;
(3) persons who have been professional beggars or tramps within one
year preceding application for the pension; (4) persons who have
children or other relatives responsible for their support; (5) persons
who have an annual income exceeding $300; and (6) persons who have
deprived themselves of property in order to become eligible for the
pension.
Nevada.— The Nevada law (Acts of 1925, ch. 121) authorizes the
county commissioners to pay pensions to the aged poor when they
consider this method desirable. The act specifically states that the
pension is established “ in recognization of the just claims of the
inhabitants mentioned upon the aid of society, without thereby annex­
ing the stigma of pauperism by legal definition.”
Applicants must be at least 65, and must have been residents of
the State for 10 years and citizens of the United States for 15 years.
Practically the same provisions are made with respect to exclusions
from benefits as in the Montana law except that instead of provision
(1) in that law, the Nevada law excludes present inmates of prisons,
jails, workhouses, insane asylums, or any other public reform or cor­
rectional institution; also, the value of a beneficiary’s property may
not exceed $3,000.
The pension must not exceed an amount which, when added to the
applicant’s other income from all sources, will bring the total income
to $1 a day. Funds are raised by a special tax of 2 ^ mills on each
$100 of taxable property in each county.
Wisconsin.— The Wisconsin law (Acts of 1925, ch. 121; amended Acts
of 1929, ch. 181) also throws upon the county the primary responsi­
bility for pensions, but gives the State a measure of supervision based
upon its contribution of one-third of the amount thus paid out. Appli­
cations for pensions must be made to the county judge, who “ shall




CHAPTER V .— STATE PROVISION

71

promptly make or cause to be made such investigation as he may deem
necessary.” If he approves the application, the judge issues to the
applicant a pension certificate, stating when payments are to com­
mence and the amount of the installments, which may be paid either
monthly or quarterly. Applicants must be at least 70, and must have
been citizens of the United States and residents of the county in
which application is made for 15 years, or have resided in the State
for 40 years at least 5 of which must have immediately preceded the
application for pension.
Persons excluded from benefits include those enumerated in both
the Montana and Nevada laws, as well as inmates of public charitable
institutions or fraternal, benevolent, or private charitable institutions
or homes for the aged. The property qualification is set at $3,000.
The amount of the pension plus the applicant’s income from all
other sources may not amount to more than a dollar a day. A
county establishing the system must appropriate annually enough to
meet its demands, and from this the county treasurer must pay out
the pensions upon the orders of the judge of the county court. This is
to be repaid by the local units which are responsible for the pensioner,
each city, town, and village reimbursing the county for all amounts
of money paid in old-age pensions to its residents less the amounts
received by the county from the State. Each city, town, or village
shall annually levy a tax sufficient to meet such charges, which shall
be collected as are other taxes and paid into the county treasury.
Each year the county treasurer is to certify to the secretary of state
and the State board of control the amount paid out in old-age pensions
during the preceding year, and if the board of control approves the
report, the State gives the county a credit of one-third of the amount
paid in pensions against the State taxes next due from it. To meet
this provision, the State appropriates annually an amount not to
exceed $200,000. If this is not enough to meet all the credits due the
counties, it is to be prorated among them according to the amounts
paid out. The State also appropriates annually $5,000 for its
administrative expenses in connection with old-age pensions.
Kentucky.— The Kentucky act (Acts of 1926, ch. 187) provides that
in any county which accepts the provisions of the act, an old-age pension
may be granted to persons 70 years or over who have been American
citizens for at least 15 years and residents of the county for at least
10 years. No person may receive the pension who (1) has an income
of more than $400 per year or who possesses property in excess of
$2,500, (2) who is a professional beggar, (3) who is an inmate of a
public charitable institution, (4) who deprives himself of property in
order to obtain the pension, or (5) who has children or relatives re­
sponsible for his support.
The amount of the pension is determined by the county judge, but
may not exceed $250 per year.
Colorado.— The Colorado act (Acts of 1927, ch. 143), likewise
provides for a county system from which any adopting county
may withdraw after one year’s trial. The administration of the
act is in the hands of the board of commissioners of the county.
Pensions under the act may not exceed an amount which, when
added to the other income, will total $1 per day, and may be




72

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

granted only to persons 70 years of age or over who have been
citizens of the United States for 15 years and have resided in the
State and county 15 years.
No person shall be granted a pension (1) who is an inmate of a
prison, jail, workhouse, infirmary, insane asylum or any other public
correctional institution; (2) who has been imprisoned for a felony
within the past 10 years; (3) who without just cause has deserted
wife (or husband) and children under 15, for 6 months or more
during the past 15 years; (4) who has been a habitual vagrant or
beggar within the past year; (5) who has children or others responsible
for his support; (6) who has property in excess of $3,000; or (7) who
has deprived himself of property in order to receive the pension.
The county judge may require the transfer of any or all of the pen­
sioner’s property to the county, if he deems it necessary, the net
income to go to the pensioner.
Maryland.— The old-age pension act of Maryland (Acts of 1927,
ch. 538), like those of most of the other States, provides for a
county system, which may be abandoned after one year’s trial if the
county so desires. To be eligible for the pension the applicant must
be 65 years of age or over, have been a citizen of the United States
for 15 years and a resident of the county continuously for 15 years
or of the State for 40, at least 5 of which must have immediately
preceded the date of application for pension. Exclusions are the
same as in Nevada. The amount of the pension plus the income
from all other sources may not exceed $1 per day .
Massachusetts.— The Massachusetts act (Acts of 1928, ch. 383),
which as before stated can hardly be termed an old-age pension act,
provides merely for the creation of a public bequ€*st commission con­
sisting of the secretary of state, the State treasurer, and the commis­
sioner of State aid and pensions. No additional compensation is al­
lowed the officials for their service on the commission. A “ public
bequest fund” is provided for, to be under the control of the com­
missioners. It is to be made up of gifts to the fund or to the com­
mission for the use of the fund. (No State contribution was pro­
vided for.) The State treasurer is to be the custodian of the fund.
When, and so long as, the principal of said fund amounts to $500,000
the commission, with the approval of the governor and council,
may distribute, in accordance with its rules and regulations relative
thereto, the income from said fund to such worthy citizens of the
Commonwealth, as, in its opinion, by reason of old age and need, are
entitled thereto. No man under 65 and no woman under 60 is
entitled to assistance from such fund. The commission, subject to
the approval of the governor and council, may make, and from time
to time may alter and amend, rules and regulations governing
payments.
Minnesota.— This law (Acts of 1929, ch. S. F. No. 102), like those
of most of the acts which preceded it in other States, makes the
adoption of its provisions optional with the county. To obtain a
pension the applicant must have attained 70 years of age, have been
a resident of the State and county for 15 years (or 40 years, 5 of
which have immediately preceded the application). The property
qualification is set at $3,000 and the maximum pension at $1 per day.
The system is administered by the county judge.




CHAPTER V .---- STATE PROVISION

73

Utah.— The Utah law (Laws of 1929, ch. H. B. No. 28) makes ac­
ceptance of the provisions mandatory upon the counties, sets a maxi­
mum age of 65, and a maximum pension of $25 per month. The
applicant must have resided in the State for 15 years and in the
county for 5 years preceding date of application. No person is
eligible for a pension whose income during the past year exceeded
$300.
In this State the law is administered by the county commissioners.
Wyoming.— The Wyoming statute (Acts of 1929, ch. 87) also pro­
vides for a system whose adoption is obligatory upon the counties.
To obtain the pension the applicant must be 65 years of age or older,
have been a resident of the State for 15 years and of the county 5
years, and his total annual income (including pension) must not
exceed $360 per year. The pension must not exceed $30 per month.
The act is to be administered by the county commissioners acting
as a pension committee. Funds are to be raised by a tax of 1 mill
on all taxable property.
California.— In California the act (Acts of 1929, ch. 530) entitles
to aid any person 70 years of age or over who has been a citizen of
the United States for 15 years and has resided in the State for 15
years and in the county or city for 1 year, who has no children able
to support him, and who has not deserted his family within the past
15 years. No pension can be paid to a person whose property exceeds
$3,000, nor may the pension exceed an amount which added to the
other income will equal $1 per day.
This law creates a State division of State aid to the aged, to super­
vise the measures taken by the counties under the law, and provides
that one-half of the cost of the system shall be borne by the State,
Old-Age Pension Laws in Operation

In t h e a t t e m p t to ascertain to what extent the counties were
availing themselves of these old-age pension laws and how many
aged were actually being assisted under their provisions, the Bureau
of Labor Statistics addressed an inquiry to each of the 280 counties
of Colorado, Kentucky, Maryland, Montana, and Nevada, and to the
State Board of Control in Wisconsin (reporting for 71 counties).1 The
replies, covering 264 counties in these States, show that only 53 of the
counties reporting have adopted the pension system provided by the
law. The greatest proportion of adopting counties was found in
Montana, as would be expected, since this was the first State to pass
old-age pension legislation which is still in effect. The replies from
some of the counties which have not yet adopted the plan indicate
that they would have done so, but were financially unable. Others
replied that they already had a considerable amount of money invested
in a county infirmary or almshouse and therefore felt that care of the
aged in the almshouse should be continued.
Only two of the counties reporting in Nevada have adopted the
county pension plan. Since its adoption in one of these, the county
commissioner reports, the tax income has been insufficient to pay any
pensions, though some poor relief has been given.
i
N o in q u ir y w as addressed to M assachusetts, for it w ill b e som e tim e before a n y pensions w ill be
p aya ble in that State. I n fact, press reports from that State, dated F eb . 8,1929, state th at u p to th e present
o n ly $1,000 has been given to the fu n d . T h e States w h ose law s w ere n ot passed u n til 1929 h ave, o f course,
n ot y e t had a n y experien ce u n d e r th e system .




74

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

The table below shows, for each State, the status of pensions for
aged dependents and the actual cost to the counties.
T

able

3 0 —N U M B E R O F P E N S IO N E R S A N D C O S T O F P E N S IO N P L A N S IN S IX S T A T E S

Pensions

State

Y ea r
o f law

C olora d o ............ ................... ...........
K e n tu c k y _______________ _______
M a r y la n d _______________________
M o n ta n a ................ ............... ...........
N e v a d a ____________ __________
W iscon sin ..................... ............... .

1927
1926
1927
1923
1925
1925

T o t a l_____________________

N um ­
ber o f
cou n ­
ties

N um ­
N um ­
ber
ber re­
w ith
N um ­
p o rt­
pension
ing
b er re­
system
ceiving

A verage
pension
per
m on th

A v erage
cost per
m on th

T o ta l
cost per
year

63
120
3 24
56
17
71

53
64
3 12
51
13
71

1
3
0
42
2
5

1
i 30

$10.00
i 20.00

$10
2 672

$120
2 8,064

666
4 11
295

16. 59
* 15.00
19.20

11,048
*175
5,515

132, 575
4 1, 680
6 66,185

351

264

53

1,003

17.37

17,420

208, 624

11 c o u n ty on ly; 1 has system b u t has paid no pensions; 1 d id not report on this p o in t.
22 counties o n ly .
i n c lu d in g B a ltim ore C ity .
* 1 c o u n ty o n ly ; the other has m ade no paym en ts as yet.
5 O ne-third paid b y State.

As the above table shows, 1,003 aged persons are being cared for
through the old-age pension plans of 53 counties, an average of about
20 per county. (Many of these counties also have aged people at
the county poor farm or infirmary.) The largest average pension is
being paid in Kentucky. A greater number of persons per county are
receiving pensions in Wisconsin than in any of the other States, and
in its four counties nearly half as much is being spent for pensions as
in the 42 pension counties of Montana, which has the largest total
annual expenditure. In Wisconsin, however, as already stated, onethird of the expense is borne by the State.
A recent report by the Wisconsin Board of Control2 contains some
interesting data as to the pensioners in that State. Of the 295 per­
sons on the county pension rolls in 1927, 178 were men and 117 were
women; 164 were widowed, 84 were married, 31 were single, 9 were
separated from husband or wife, and 7 were divorced. The ages of
the pensioners ranged from 70 to 94 years, 75 per cent being between
70 and 80 years old. Approximately 60 per cent were native-born
Americans. The following statement shows the causes of dependency
of the pensioners:
N um ber of
pensioners

Old age__________________________________________________________
Disease__________________________________________________________
Crippled________________________________________________________
Deformity or loss of lim b______________________________________
Partial disability_______________________________________________
Total disability_________________________________________________
Blindness_______________________________________________________
Deaf and dumb_________________________________________________
Other____________________________________________________________
N ot reported____________________________________________________

159
21
18
17
10
8
2
1
21
38

It is seen that the chief cause of dependency was old age itself,
followed by disease, crippling conditions, and deformities.
W isconsin.

State B oa rd o f C on trol.




Old-age pensions in W isconsin, 1927.

(M a d is o n ), 1928-

92

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

organization the amount of assessment can be changed only by
action of the general convention.
The original old-age pension plan of the International Typo­
graphical Union, as adopted in 1907, provided for a pension of $4 a
week. This was increased to $5 in 1911, to $6 in 1919, and to the
present rate of $8 in 1920. The revenues, however, continued until
1924 to be derived from a one-half of 1 per cent assessment upon mem­
bers’ earnings; in 1924 the assessment was raised to three-fourths of
1 per cent of earnings. The effect of the increased benefits upon
the condition of the pension fund is shown by the following table
which was submitted to the 1927 convention of the union:
T

able

2 5 .— C O N D IT IO N O F P E N S IO N F U N D O F I N T E R N A T I O N A L T Y P O G R A P H I C A L
U N I O N , 1909 T O 1927

Y ea r ending M a y 31—

R eceipts

Benefits
and
expenses

1909 ______________________________________________________
1910
__________________________________________________
1911_______________________________________________________
1912_______________________________________________________
1913_______________________________________________________
1914_______________________________________________________
1915_______________________________________________________
1916
_____________________________________________
1917
__________________________________________________
1918
________________________________________________
1919
________________________________________________
1920
_____________________________________________
1921
_______________________________________________
1922
_________________________________________________
1923 ______________________________________________________
___________ - _
1924
1925
_______________
__________________________
1926_ ____________________________________________________
1927
_______________________________________________________

$202,940
233, 227
255, 267
278, 779
298, 361
325, 982
328,475
336, 201
356, 267
384,155
447, 271
622,123
758, 305
655, 721
701, 600
762, 765
968, 086
1, 313, 416
1, 357, 246

$69, 550
115, 398
128, 043
176, 320
248, 582
270, 396
302, 652
358, 369
356, 692
359, 720
346,114
376, 730
529, 777
729, 870
823, 435
876, 610
923, 744
1,010, 730
990, 360

Excess of
receipts
over
expendi­
tures

$133,390
117,830
127, 224
102, 459
49, 779
55, 586
25, 824
i 22,168
i 425
24,434
101,157
245, 393
228, 528
i 74,148
i 121, 834
i 113, 845
44, 343
302, 687
366, 974

A ccu m u ­
lated
surplus

$159, 767
277, 597
404, 821
507, 280
557, 059
612, 645
638, 469
616, 301
615, 876
640, 310
741, 466
986, 860
1, 215, 387
1,141, 239
1, 019, 405
905, 559
9-19,902
1, 252, 589
1, 619, 475

i D eficit.

It is seen that with the $4 pension a generous surplus accumulated
in the treasury. From 1912, when the effects of the 1911 increase
began to be felt, the yearly surplus of receipts over expenditures
declined steadily until in 1916 a deficit of $22,000 for the year was
incurred. The condition of the fund began to improve thereafter,
even considering the increase of pension in 1919. The prosperity
of the fund during the years 1919, 1920, and 1921 was undoubtedly
the result of the increased employment and earnings among the
membership and the fact that older men— pensioners— were recalled
to industry to replace the younger men called to the colors. On
the strength of this prosperity a further increase in the annuity
was voted. Then came the years of deflation, the return of the
younger men from the war, decreased employment and earnings,
and the strike for the 44-hour week, and these combined factors
were at once reflected in the condition of the fund, which in 1923
was “ in the red” almost $122,000 for the year. The increased reve­
nues due to the raising of the proportionate share of the pension fund
in the 1 per cent assessment, from one-half to three-fourths, in
1924, operated to wipe out the yearly deficit and has gradually caused
the annual surplus to increase until in May, 1927, the surplus of
receipts over expenditures was $367,000,




CHAPTER V I .— B Y LABOR ORGANIZATIONS

91

ment elective. In the former case a flat amount of dues is collected
for pension purposes from all members regardless of age, making
slight increases from time to time, if this becomes necessary. In the
latter case, pension assessments vary with the age of entrance into
the plan and with the number of contributions paid.
The Bricklayers, Masons, and Plasterers’ International Union
assesses each member 80 cents per month for pension purposes. The
International Association of Bridge, Structural, and Ornamental Iron
Workers maintains its pension fund by setting aside from the general
monthly dues 15 cents per member; in case the fund falls below
$50,000 an assessment of $1 per member becomes automatically
payable. Fifteen per cent of the general income from dues main­
tains the granite cutters’ pensions, and a per capita tax of 25 cents
per month those of the printing pressmen. The rules governing the
pressmen’s fund provide that—
For the establishment and maintenance of the old-age pension system the sum
of $3,500 per annum shall be drawn from the pension fund. This amount to
continue as a basic cost of operation until the number of pensioners shall be 200,
then immediately the cost of maintenance shall be based upon the expenditures
for the pensioners, and the amount to be thus appropriated shall not exceed
3 per cent.
The pension system shall not become operative for at least five years imme­
diately following M ay, 1917, or until the sum of $750,000 has accumulated in
the said pension fund, which fund shall be established through the 25 cents per
capita tax per month per member and interest upon said fund.

Members of the International Typographical Union pay as dues
65 cents per month, plus 1 per cent of their earnings. Of this 1 per
cent, one-fourth goes to the mortuary fund and three-fourths to the
pension fund.
In the pension departments of the railroad brotherhoods, member­
ship is voluntary. The locomotive firemen and enginemen admit to
membership in the pension department only members in good stand­
ing in the brotherhood who are under 40 years of age; the locomotive
engineers and the trainmen make the same provision but the former
place the age limit at 50, and the latter at 45 years. The applicant
must, in all three organizations, pass a physical examination.
The monthly assessments according to the age at which the mem­
bers enter are, in the firemen and enginemen’s organization, as
follows:
1 8-30
31 -3 5
3 6 -4 0
41 -4 5

years______________________ $0. 50
years______________________
1. 00
years______________________
1. 50
years______________ ________
2. 00

46 -5 0 years______________________
51-55 years______________________
56 -6 0 years______________________

$2. 50
3. 00
3. 50

Those in the trainmen’s fund are the same as the above, except
that the class of those 61 to 65 years of age at entrance is added, and
their dues set at $4.50 per month. The dues of the locomotive
engineers who elect to become members of the pension fund are set
at $1 per month for all who join before reaching the age of 31 years.
Dues increase 10 cents per month with each year above 31, reaching
the maximum of $4 per month levied upon all who become members
of the fund after reaching 60 years of age.
The firemen and enginemen and the trainmen reserve the right to
levy additional assessments in case the income from those set is
insufficient to meet the demands upon the fund, but in the firemen’s
35777°— 29------- 7




90

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

The amount disbursed in trade-union pensions varies with the size
of the pension, the number of annuitants, the size of the union, and
the time during which the plan has been in force; in some cases the
total amounts are quite impressive, especially in the case of those
unions whose plans have been in effect for some years. The Brother­
hood of Railroad Trainmen has been paying pensions only since 1925
and, therefore, although it is a large organization with about 180,000
members, its pension roll is small, the disbursements for 1926 amount­
ing to only $31,080. The Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers, an
organization with some 88,000 members, has been paying pensions
since 1914, its pension roll having passed the 4,000 mark and its
expenditure for this purpose amounting to nearly a million dollars in
1926 and to more than four and three-quarter millions in the 13 years'
operation of the pension department. The granite cutters, who were
the first to pay this type of benefit, have had a very modest outlay
for pensions, having paid slightly less than a quarter of a million
dollars during the 23 years’ life of the fund. Theirs, however, is a
small organization of some 8,500 members, and the pension amounts
to only $10 per month and is payable for only six months of each
year.
The International Typographical Union, which has a membership
of some 78,000, leads the list with an expenditure of nearly a million
dollars during the year ending May 31,1927, and a whole-time expend­
iture of $8,740,939. The growth of the outlay for pensions by five
of the unions is shown by the following figures:
T

able

2 4 .— G R O W T H O F P E N S IO N S Y S T E M

A m o u n t paid in pensions b y -

Y ear
B rick ­

L oco­
m otive

layers i

engi­

neers

L oco­
m otive
firem en
and enginem en

O F F IV E U N IO N S

P rinters 2

Num ­
ber of
pe n ­
sioners

542
642
808
1,038
1,108

1909 _
1910_
1911 _
1912_
1913 _
1914 _
1915_
1916.
19171918_
1919_
1920 _
1921 _
1922 _
1923 _
1924 _
19251926 _
1927-

$217,
277,
371,
295,
414,
426,
443,
485,
608,
783,
858,
955,
1, 021,

1 Y ea r ends A u g. 31.
2 Year ends M a y 31.

$18, 250
45, 386
93, 010
154, 895
204, 965
248, 618
293, 420
358,981
445, 087
519, 036
633,795
828, 606
988, 518

1,210

$1, 350
6, 570
18, 390
41, 282
73,855

1,342
1,440
1, 509
1,501
1, 483
1, 510
1, 683
1,869
2,077
2, 208
2,499
2, 461
2,430

A m ou n t
paid in
pensions 3

Street-railw ay
em ployees 4

N um ­
ber of
p en ­
sioners

$69, 550
115, 398
128, 043
176, 320
248, 582
270, 396
302, 652
358, 369.
356, 692
359, 720
346,114
376, 730
529, 777
729, 870
823,435
876, 610
923,744
1, 010, 730
990, 360

2
5
5
5
8
9
21
70
53
63
77
82
80

Am oun t
paid in
pensions

$1, 600
4, 000
4, 000
4, 000
6,400
7, 200
16, 800
56, 000
42,400
50,400
61, 600
65, 600
64,000

3 Inclu des expenses of adm inistration.
4 Year ends Ju ly 31.

Source of Revenues of Plans
S e v e r a l of the unions make the old-age pension one of the bene­
fits to which all members are eligible upon reaching the age desig­
nated, Others, however, make membership in the pension depart-




89

CHAPTER V I.— BY LABOR ORGANIZATIONS

long as she remains unmarried, or if she has reached a specified age
and has no means of support.
T a b l e 2 2 . — N U M B E R O F P E N S I O N E R S , A M O U N T O F P E N S I O N , A N D A M O U N T S D IS
B U R S E D T H E R E F O R I N L A S T F I S C A L Y E A R A N D W H O L E P E R I O D , B Y U N IO N S

N um ber
at pres­
ent in
receipt
of pen ­
sion

U n ion

i 2, 954
331

B rick layers__________________________
B ridge and structural-iron w ork ers. _
C arpenters___________________________
Electrical w ork ers___________________
G ranite cutters_______________________
L o co m o tiv e engineers_______________
L o com otiv e firem en and enginem en.
Printers______________________________
P rintin g pressm en___________________
Q uarry w ork ers______________________
Railroad train m en___________________
Street-railw ay em ployees____________

*

37
405
4, 467
230
2, 430
244
s 18
10 1 1 0

8 80

T o t a l-

A m o u n t paid in
pensions in —
A m o u n t of pension
per m em ber

W h o le
period of
operation

Latest
fiscal year

$7 per w eek ___________
$25 per m o n th ________
$15 per m o n th ________
$40 per m o n th ________
$60 per year 3_________
$25 to $65 per m on th 5.
$30 to $70 per m on th 6.
$8 per w eek ___________
$7 per w eek 7__________
$50 9___________________
$35 to $70 per m o n t h , .
$800 in lu m p s u m . ___

11, 306

$1,021, 858
86, 300

$7,160, 205
(2
)

17, 214
16, 335
988, 519
73, 855
990, 360
60, 974
500
31, 080
64,000

17,214
241, 044
4, 832, 567
141,447
8, 740, 939
71, 349
6, 350
78, 330
384,000

3,350, 995

1 Inclu des 76 persons receiving “ disability relief,” and 823 w idow s.
2 N o data.
s $10 per m on th for six m on th s of each year.
4 Inclu des 1,533 w idow s.
6 F rom this, u nion dues of abou t $4 per m on th are dedu cted.
6 W id ow s receive pensions of $35 per m onth.
7 N o t y e t paya ble in full, as funds do not warrant.
8 R eceived the lu m p sum in 1926.
9 F iat sum , ded u cted from death benefit.
1 Inclu des 13 w idow s.
0

The amount of pension paid by the three railroad brotherhoods
which pay pensions varies with the number of contributions made
by the member, as shown below:
T

able

2 3 . — A M O U N T O F O L D -A G E P E N S I O N S P A I D B Y T H R E E R A I L R O A D
BROTHERHOODS
A m o u n t of pen ­
sion receivable
per m on th

N u m ber of m on th s’ assessment
paid

12_____
13-24...
25-36...
37-48...
49-60..
61-72...
73-84...
85-96...
97-108..
109-120.
121-132
133-144.
145-156.
157-168.
169-180.
181-192.
193-204.
205-216.
217-228.
229-240.




L oco­
m otive
engi­
neers

$25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44

Fire­
m en
and
train­
m en

$30

A m o u n t of pen­
sion receivable
per m on th
N u m b e r of m o n th s’ assessment
paid

241-252______
253-264______
265-276______
277-288______
289-300______
301-312______
313-324_______
325-336______
337-348_______
349-360_______
361-372_______
373-384______
385-396______
297-408______
409-420______
421-432______
433-444______
445-456______
457-468______
469-480______
481 and over..

L oco­
m otive
engi­
neers

$45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64

Fire­
m en
and
train­
m en

$50

60

65

70

88

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

The Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers makes practically the
same provision, but adds two other classes of pensioners— members
who resign or are dismissed or lose their positions and those who were
not in active service at the time of joining the brotherhood. In the
former case, the member becomes eligible for pension only after a
membership of 12 years and upon reaching the age of 60 years, except
in cases where it is shown that the member is “ physically and men­
tally unable to perform remunerative employment,7 in which event
7
he becomes entitled to benefits on the same terms as active members.
In the latter case the member must reach 70 years before attaining a
pensionable status and must show inability, from physical, mental,
or other cause, to secure remunerative employment. Only members
incapacitated for employment in the trade are entitled to the old-age
pension paid by the printing pressmen’s and the printers’ unions,
while the railroad trainmen require proof of permanent total disquali­
fication for work from physical or mental causes or old age.
The bridge and structural-iron workers provide also that a disa­
bility pension is payable to any member in continuous good standing
for 15 years who is disabled by an injury sustained in the course of
his employment, provided (1) that the injury “ was not contributed
to or brought about by his own improper conduct,” (2) that the
member is unable to secure sustaining employment at any occupation,
and (3) that he has no other means of support.
The locomotive firemen and enginemen and the railroad trainmen
specifically provide that “ no member will be entitled to a pension on
account of disability caused while under the influence of intoxicants or
narcotics or while participating in war, riots, disreputable or unlawful
acts,” and the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers bars pensions
for disability caused by the use of intoxicants or by unlawful acts.
Return to active work causes a forfeiture of the pension paid by
the railroad trainmen, while the bridge and structural-iron workers
provide that a pensioner loses his pension for any month in which
his income from other sources than the pension reaches $60, the
pensioner being “ deemed to have secured sustaining employment for
that month.” The locomotive engineers cease payment upon return
to active engine duty; the pensioner may, however, perform remu­
nerative labor other than that of his trade and still retain his pension;
this provision is made also by the firemen and enginemen. The
International Typographical Union formerly provided that any
annuitant who received pay for two days’ work in any week should
forfeit his pension for that week. The 1927 convention made a change
in this provision, taking the view that pensioners should be encouraged,
as an aid to preserving self-respect, to do whatever work they are
able to perform without being penalized by the loss of the pension.
Hereafter pensioners may perform not more than two days’ paid work
per week and still receive the pension. The Printing Pressmen and
Assistants’ Union has the same provision.
Amounts of Annuity, and Expenditure for Pensions
T a b l e 2 2 , below, shows, for each of the unions which pay old-age
pensions, the number of annuitants, the size of the pension, and
the amounts paid during the latest fiscal year for which data are avail­
able and during the whole period of operation. As the table indicates,
several of the unions continue payment of the pension to the widow as




CHAPTER V I .---- B Y LABOR ORGANIZATIONS

87

to enable a retired member to engage in some new business. Pay­
ment of benefits under the new scheme began in 1915. The Inter­
national Typographical Union inaugurated its pension system in 1907
and began payment of such pensions in 1909, and the locomotive
engineers followed suit in 1913 and the bricklayers in 1915. The
year 1920 saw the establishment of old-age pensions by the bridge
and structural-iron workers and the locomotive firemen and enginemen. Two pension schemes were adopted in 1925— those of the
printing pressmen and of the railroad trainmen. The Brotherhood of
Electrical Workers in 1927 and the United Brotherhood of Carpenters
and Joiners in 1928 adopted an old-age pension plan.
Requirements for Receipt of Pension
T h e a g e and membership requirements of the unions which have
established old-age pensions have undergone modification from time
to time. At present, however, the age at which the member becomes
eligible to the pension is set at 60 by the bricklayers, the bridge and
structural-iron workers, the printing pressmen, and the printers;2 at
62 by the granite cutters; and at 65 by the electrical workers, the
locomotive engineers, the street-railway employees, and the locomo­
tive firemen and enginemen, and at 70 years by the carpenters. The
locomotive firemen and enginemen also pay pensions for disability
(1) to active members disabled for engine service, and (2) to retired
members disabled for any occupation; in these cases there is no age
requirement.
Requirements as to membership in the union vary considerably.
One year’s membership in the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers
entitles to the receipt of the old-age pension; 3 membership of 2 years
is required by the locomotive firemen and enginemen and the railroad
trainmen, of 20 years by the bricklayers, the bridge and structuraliron workers, the electrical workers, the printing pressmen, and the
street-railway employees, of 25 years by the granite cutters and
the printers, and of 30 years by the carpenters. The bricklayers, the
bridge and structural-iron workers, the printing pressmen, and the
street-railway employees require also that the specified membership
must have been continuous.
Applicants for the pension in the bricklayers’ and the bridge and
structural-iron workers’ unions must show that they are unable to
secure employment in any industry, because of bodily infirmity, and
that they are without other means of support. Members of the
Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen who have been
retired from active service by reason of age or who attain the age of
65 and retire voluntarily become eligible for the pension of the
brotherhood without fulfilling any requirement as to their physical
or financial condition. To receive the pension for disability, how­
ever, a member must show that he is permanently and totally dis­
abled— for engine service, if he is still in active service at the time of
becoming disabled;4 if he is not in active service, for any kind of
employment in which his earnings are sufficient to support him.
2 B y action of 1927 con ven tion ; form erly 65 years. In cases of incapacitated m em bers w ith contin uous
m em bership of 20 years w h o m the U n ion Printers’ H o m e is unable to accom m od ate the age lim it required
for the pension m a y be w aived .
3 E xcep t in the case of m em bers w h o resign or lose their positions or are dism issed, in w h ich case 12 years’
m em bership is required.
* I f he ever becom es able to resum e engine service be ceases to receive the pension.




Chapter VI.—Care of the Aged by Labor Organizations
Old-Age and Disability Pensions
M A TTER that is receiving more and more the attention of
organized labor is the question of what shall be done to care
for members who by reason of age or of mental or physical
disability become unable to work at the trade. A number of unions
have expressed themselves as being in favor of old-age pensions pro­
vided by the State or Federal Government. Several States have
already adopted such measures, and the 1927 convention of the
American Federation of Labor authorized the executive committee
to have drafted a bill providing for old-age pensions, the passage
of which local trade-union bodies are to work for in States where
there is as yet no such legislation.
Pending the general acceptance of the principle, some labor organ­
izations are providing such care as they are able for their infirm mem­
bers, to prevent their becoming a public charge. To date 11 national
or international unions— those of the bridge and structural-iron
workers, bricklayers, carpenters, electrical workers, granite cutters,
printing pressmen and assistants, street-railway employees, printers,
locomotive firemen and enginemen, locomotive engineers, and railroad
trainmen— have adopted an old-age pension plan for those of their
members who fulfill certain requirements as to age, union member­
ship, and physical or financial condition.1 Of these, six also operate
a home for aged or disabled members, there being a choice between
receipt of the pension and residence at the home. The Order of
Railway Conductors has established a home but has discontinued its
pension. In addition to these unions, several others provide some
sort of old-age benefit. Thus the quarry workers pay, to their
members who reach the age of 60 and have had 10 years' continuous
membership in the union, $50, which is deducted from the funeral
benefit. The oil field and gas well workers exempt aged members
from the payment of union dues, while in the paving cutters’ union
the dues of a superannuated member are reduced to 25 cents a
month. Federal employees— postal clerks, letter carriers, railway
mail clerks, and other Government employees— are covered by the
Federal retirement law, thus relieving their respective un^onf of the
task of providing old-age benefits.
Of the 11 unions which pay an old-age pension, the Granite Cutters’
International Association of America was the pioneer, establishing
its pension in 1905. The street-railway employees’ organization had,
prior to 1912, an old-age benefit of from $1 to $3 per week. In 1912
the system was changed, the benefit being commuted to a lump sum
upon the member’s reaching 65 years of age. This was done in order

A

iS o m e local u n ion s also p a y old-age benefits, b u t as this s tu d y was con fin ed to the organization s
o f national scope, n o a ttem pt w as m ade to gather local data. It is reported that local N o. 2 o f the In tern a­
tional F u r W orkers’ U nion has adop ted an old-age pension schem e under w h ich m em bers w h o reach
65 and retire from w ork in the fur or a n y other in du stry, w ill be entitled to receive benefits of $8 per week.
A m em ber 65 years and over w h o retired from w ork after Jan. 1,1926, m a y also a p p ly for benefits, w h ich w ill
be granted if, after in vestiga tion b y a special com m ittee, he is fou n d to be in need. M em bers w h o had
retired before Jan. 1, 1926, are not e n titled to the pension. T h e pension m a y also be paid in cases of per­
m anent total disability. (F o r a m ore detailed a cco u n t of care of the aged b y labor organizations, see
B u reau of L a b or Statistics B u i. N o . 465, C h s. I l l and I V .)




CHAPTER V .— STATE PROVISION

85

New Jersey.— The State of New Jersey finances the operation of
the New Jersey Firemen’s Home at Boonton.5 This home was opened
in 1900 and is operated for the benefit of indigent fire fighters who
have served at least seven years. Wives are not admitted.
The home can accommodate 100 persons but the average number
in residence is only 55. The cost of operation last year was about
$23,000.
The home has a resident physician who looks after the physical
welfare of the men.
5 T h ere is also a firem en’ s hom e at H u dson , N . Y .; this, h ow ever, is m aintain ed not b y the State b u t
b y the F irem en ’ s A ssociation o f the State o f N e w Y o r k . See pages 188,190.




84

CARE OP AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

able as to when the State assumed the cost of operation, which now
amounts to about $50,000 a year.
Only men are admitted, and the only requirement is that the appli­
cant be a veteran of the Confederate Army. The building can ac­
commodate 110, but the average number in residence is about 65.
All necessary medical attention is provided. There is a 25-bed hos­
pital, with a chief surgeon, two internes (who are senior medical stud­
ents), and two practical nurses in attendance.
Amusements furnished include motion pictures, radio, card games,
etc., and each resident is allowed $1 a week for “ pin money.”
Another interesting home is that of Iowa, located in Marshall­
town. The home was opened in November, 1887, the sum of $100,000
having been appropriated by the legislature as a result of the efforts
of the Grand Army of the Republic; the citizens of Marshalltown do­
nated 128 acres of land and the sum of $12,000. The land has since
been added to, and the holdings of the home now cover 156 acres, some
of which is used for farming, some for gardens, and the remainder for
lawns, walks, and drives.
The first building erected housed 300 persons. It soon proved
inadequate and a hospital was added. This in turn proving insuffi­
cient, a new hospital was built and the first was turned into a dormi­
tory. Since that time many other buildings have been added, in­
cluding a headquarters building, a building for women, one for men,
a general old people’s building with an annex for the use of married
couples, and 10 small cottages also for married couples. There are
six residences for the use of the home officers, besides numerous work
buildings (laundry, barn, garage, greenhouse, etc.).
As the above indicates, the home admits soldiers, their wives and
widows. Data furnished by the home show that the number of men is
decreasing, while the number of wives and widows in residence is in­
creasing. On December 23, 1903, there were 714 men, on January 1,
1915, 573, and on January 1, 1925, 335. On the same dates the
women numbered 90, 225, and 294. In 1928 there were altogether
only 450 inmates, as against 629 in 1925. The capacity of the home
is 750.
The cost of operation in 1927-28 was $245,000.
All medical attention is furnished and there is a 200-bed hospital,
having two resident physicians and two nurses.
Amusements include motion pictures twice a week, with music;
band concerts during the summer, reading, etc.
Other State Homes for Aged
ARIZONA.— The State of Arizona maintains what is known as the
Arizona Pioneers’ Home, at Prescott. It was established in
1911 and is open to needy persons of both sexes, 65 years of age and
over, who have been residents of Arizona for 35 years. There is no
admission fee.
The home accommodates 106 men and 12 women, and its cost of
operation last year amounted to $56,160.
All necessary medical attention, including minor operations, is
given in the home. There is a hospital accommodating 12 men, and
a 2-bed hospital in the women’s department. A physician is on call
and there are four practical nurses,




CHAPTER V .— STATE PROVISION

83

Entrance Requirements
I n m o s t cases the only requirement for entrance is that the applicant
shall have been honorably discharged from the military service of
the United States. In cases where women are admitted they must
show that they are wives or widows of honorably discharged soldiers,
sailors, or marines. In two or three cases admittance is refused to
persons having property in excess of a certain amount ($1,000 or
$2,000) or with income in excess of a fixed amount, and a few require
that the applicant be a resident of the State to whose home he makes
application for admittance. Two homes for soldiers’ widows require
that the applicant be “ needy,” and three institutions require that a
certain proportion of the pension received from the United States
Government be turned over to the home during the resident’s stay
there.
One of the hardships of aged people who enter homes of various sorts
is that in many cases married couples are not admitted, or, if admitted,
are taken only as individuals and are therefore separated in living
quarters. Of the 44 soldiers’ homes covered, 18 admit men only, 4
admit women (soldiers’ wives or widows) only, while 22 admit both
sexes and married couples as well.
Most of the homes (35) make no requirement as to age (though one
of these sets the admission age for women at 50), but 4 set the age of
admission at 50 years, 3 at 60 years, 1 at 62 years (unless disabled),
and 1 at 80 years.
Medical and Recreational Provision
A l l give medical care, and practically all have one or more resident
physicians and nurses. Sixteen report that they have a fully equipped
hospital in connection with the home; doubtless many more which did
not mention this feature also have a hospital.
Thirty homes of the 40 reporting on this subject provide recreation
for the residents. Of the kinds of recreation provided, motion pic­
tures were by far the most common, entertainments of various sorts
and reading being a poor second. Other recreations less commonly
mentioned include pool, bowling, radio, cards, fishing, checkers, cro­
quet, golf, dancing, and music.
In the Northern States the soldiers who are inmates of homes have
all or part of their Federal pensions for use as spending money. Some
of the Southern States, the residents of whose homes do not receive
such pensions, allow their inmates a certain amount each month for
personal use, and in some instances where the inmates perform work
around the building or grounds they receive pay therefor.
Home Location and Plant
O n e of the interesting soldiers’ homes is that of Georgia.
The
home was started about 1901, not by the State but from funds solicited
from public-spirited citizens. A tract of about 120 acres just outside
the city of Atlanta was purchased and the home was built there.
Shortly afterwards the building burned, but was replaced the next
year, all without assistance from the State. No information is avail-




CARE
O
F
AGED
PERSONS
I
N
UNITED
STATES




F ig u r e 12.- S o l d i e r s ’ H o m e

of

Ve r m o n t

at

B e n n in g t o n

81

CHAPTER V .— STATE PROVISION
T

able

2 1 .— N U M B E R OF R E S ID E N T S A N D C O ST O F O P E R A T IO N OF S T A T E H O M E S
F O R S A I L O R S , S O L D I E R S , A N D T H E I R W I V E S A N D W I D O W S — C o n tin u e d

A n n u a l cost o f opera­
tion (all ages)

Inm ates

State

M a r y la n d _____________________________________
_______________ _________
M assachusettsM ississip pi—
M is s o u r i ________ _ ______ ______ ______ ____
M o n ta n a ___________ __ __ _ _ _____ __
______
______ .
N ebrask a __________ .
N e w H am psh ire. _ __
_
N ew Jersey__________ _____ _____ __ _ _
N ew Y o r k .
_________ __ _____________
N o rth Carolina
_______ _______________ _ _
N o rth D a k o ta . _
___________ ____________
O h io . ____________________________ __________
O regon .
___
______ __ ___ __ _
P en n sy lv a n ia ___ ______ __ ___ ______________
R h od e Isla n d .
._ _______
_ _ ______
South C arolina________ ____________________
South D a k o ta ____________ ________
__
Ten nessee________________ _______
_
_
T ex a s ________________________ ____________ _
V e r m o n t___ ________________________________
_
W a sh in g ton ___________ _ _____________
W iscon sin ____ __________________________
W y o m in g ____________ __________ ______
T o t a l_______________________________
2 N o data.

T otal
num ­
ber

Num ­
ber
report­
C a pacity
ing
(all ages)

1
1
1
1
1

1,575.00
732.39

500
160
600
125
770
1,700

408
80
415
45
340
363

3 83,926
48, 000
150,000
30,000
3 133,749
322,467

3 349. 69
600.00
361.45
666. 67
31,114. 58
888.34

50
1,140
175
600
300

28
433
94
60
96

20, 782
310, 619
(2
)
118, 200
59, 741

742. 21
454. 79

305
35
457
31
200
450

134,175
(2
)
226,000
30,191
76,165
258,118

494. 53
973.90
380.83
573. 60

8, 419

« 4, 225,858

501.94

1
2
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
2
1
1
1

400
100
472
100
250
600

44

16,662

1
1
1
1
48

12,600
260, 000
(2
)
221,000

8
500
1, 500
475

2
1
2
1
2
2

1

a 1 hom e on ly.

P er
capita

T o ta l

8
253
600

1
1
1
1

1

Average
num ber
of aged
in
residence

0

622.30
439. 92

4 38 hom es.

As the above table shows, the per capita cost of these homes ranges
from $55.50 to $1,575, w
rith an average cost .of $501.94. TJ\e high
cost of the Maryland home is due to the large plant, with few inmates,
making the cost of upkeep and operation per person unusually high
in this State.
It is seen that the average number in residence is far below the
number which the homes can accommodate. In some cases the dis­
crepancy between capacity and actual number of residents is due to
the fact that admittance is limited to veterans of the Civil War,
whose number is decreasing from year to year. In general, however,
it is because the figure for capacity includes the total number which
the home can accommodate, regardless of age, while the average
number of residents given includes only those aged 60 or over. The
column showing the number of residents is the significant one for the
purposes of this study, inasmuch as it shows the number of old
people being cared for in these homes.
The size of these homes is indicated by the statement below:
N u m b e r of
hom es

Homes caring for—
Fewer than 25 persons_______________________________________
25 and under 50 persons____________________________________
50 and under 75 persons____________________________________
75 and under 100 persons___________________________________
100 and under 200 persons__________________________________
200 and under 500 persons__________________________________
500 and under 1,000 persons________________________________
1,000 persons and over______________________________________
Not reported_________________________________________________

2
0
3
5
8
11
4
1
1

T otal_______________________________________________________

44




80

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

instead of cash.” Another county has a monthly allowance system
through which 100 persons are now receiving aid at the rate of $15
per month.
Wisconsin.— In the three years’ operation of the law, five counties
have put the pension plan into effect. Taking advantage of the
former provision of the law permitting a county to discontinue the pen­
sion plan after it has been in effect one year, Wood County, which had
adopted the plan in 1925, discontinued it a year and a half afterward,
but six months later adopted it again. Another of the original five
counties revoked its acceptance, but its place was taken by another
county which has recently accepted the plan.
Homes for Soldiers and Sailors and Their Wives and Widows
HERE are 39 States which have erected homes where soldiers
and/or sailors honorably discharged from the forces of the
United States may spend their declining years. Many of these were
opened after the Civil War and were restricted to veterans of that war.
Practically all of those in the North, however, have changed their
requirements in this respect, so as to admit veterans of the later wars
and even of the World War. In one or two of the border States there
are two homes— one for the veterans of the Confederate Army and one
for those of the Union Army— while several States have homes espe­
cially for soldiers’ and sailors’ widows. In some cases the home was
founded originally not by the State but by some organization, such
as the Grand Army of the Republic or the Woman’s Relief Corps,
and was later turned over to the State.4 Those of the Northern
States receive a certain amount of Federal aid.
Altogether there are 48 such homes, and the Bureau of Labor
Statistics has data for 44 of these. The table below shows for each
of the States the total number of soldiers’ and sailors’ homes, the
number reporting, the number of residents, and the cost of operation
in their last fiscal year:

T

T

able

2 1 .—N U M B E R O F R E S ID E N T S A N D C O S T O F O P E R A T IO N O F S T A T E H O M E S
F O R S A IL O R S , S O L D IE R S , A N D T H E IR W IV E S A N D W ID O W S

A n n u a l cost of opera­
tion (all ages)

Inm ates

State

A la b a m a______________ _____ ______ _____ ______
A rkansas_________________________ _____ _______
C alifornia_________
________________________
C olora d o__________________________ _____ ______
C on n ecticu t________ ______ ________ _______ . _ _
F lo rid a . _____________________________________
G eorgia _______ ______________ _______________
Id a h o ____ _____________ ______________ ______
I llin o is .. _______
___________________________
Indiana .
__ . _____ __ ______
Iow a . . . ___ __ ___________ .
K ansas. ___ _ __
_
_ _ _____ ________
_
K e n t u c k y .. _
_ _
_
____ __
L o u is ia n a _______ . . . ______________
_

T otal
num ­
ber

Num ­
ber
report­
ing
C a p a city
(all ages)

1
1

1
1

1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

100
200
949
250
400
50
110
150
1,615
700
750
683
80
100

A v erage
nu m ber
o f aged
in
residence

30
170
828
96
105
20
65
85
730
450
450
613
48
28

T otal

$24,000
95.000
335,882
116, 212
(b)
1,110
50.000
38,191
354,922
258, 387
245, 000
144, 981
42, 440
24, 000

P er
capita 0

$800.00
558.82
405. 65
726. 33
55. 50
769. 23
449. 31
486.19
574.19
544. 44
236. 51
884.17
857.14

“ P er capita cost sh ow n b e lo w is n ot in all cases the cost d iv id e d b y n u m ber of aged inm ates, as
som e of the hom es ad m it y o u n g m en also.
b N o data.
4 F or data o n hom es for soldiers, their w iv e s and w id o w s , w in ch are n o t operated b y the State, see
p . Is4.




CHAPTER V .---- STATE PROVISION

79

own (not the State) system is aiding some 70 aged persons at a cost
of about $7,500 a year; in this county the relief system is regarded
as “ much better than the almshouse but not nearly so good as a home
for the aged [who are chronic invalids or incurable], which the Eastern
Shore counties are working to get at the coming session of the legis­
lature/’ Another county aids about 150 persons with an allowance
of $5 per month, another 6 persons at the rate of $1 per month each,
and a third 25 at the same rate.
Montana.— In Montana, among the auditors of the counties which
have the pension system, 21 are unqualifiedly favorable to it, and
7 unqualifiedly opposed. Of those opposed, one county auditor
states that he favors the almshouse plan because the pension is not
adequate for the pensioner’s entire support and the latter could live
better at the county poor farm. Another expresses the opinion
that the county should have a “ home” large enough to care for the
aged dependents in the county. Another states that the prevailing
opinion in his county is that the almshouse would be more economical,
and another prefers the almshouse system because fewer persons
would make application for entrance to a poor farm than apply for
the pension. A fifth replies that the pension system “ is not as
economical as an almshouse, and the fact that mismanagement has
been the cause of a pensioner’s plight, so the habit of mismanagement
does not help him in his status as a pensioner. Many of the inhabi­
tants of our county farm seem to be much more satisfied with their
present conditions than they were when receiving their pensions.”
Other opinions are that the pension plan is “ very satisfactory in our
county as we have been able to care for many of our people at a less
expense than at the farm and our farm is full at the present time” ;
that the pension is preferable to the almshouse “ from the viewpoint
of saving to the county” ; preferable “ both for the people and the
county” ; “ because the majority [of the pensioners] are partially
self-supporting or are aided by their children” ; or that the “ pension
is by far the best.”
One auditor thinks the results are about the same under either
pension or almshouse plan, and two others think the pension plan is
better in small counties and the almshouse in larger ones (in one case
because of the expense in large counties). One report states that the
county in question “ is going to try out the home system when they
get it fixed up for that purpose; put them in the home and have a
caretaker.”
In the eight counties reporting which have not adopted the pension
plan, four think the almshouse preferable to the pension plan; and one
auditor states that “ neither is the proper way to care for paupers,”
but does not state what, in his opinion, would be the proper way to
handle the problem.
Nevada.— Only two counties reporting in Nevada have formally
adopted the pension plan and in one of these it is as yet inoperative
because of lack of funds.
The commissioner of one county which has no pension plan but
does give “ aid” at the rate of $17.50 per month each to 24 persons
states that in his opinion, the pension plan is impracticable for the
reason that “ many indigents in this county are not capable of han­
dling their money and our county gives orders for groceries, etc.,




78

CARE OF AGED

PERSONS IN

UNITED STATES

funds or relatives, because the majority of the pensioners are incapable
of handling money wisely, etc. One county judge, in a county which
had a pension system but discontinued it, gives his reasons for pre­
ferring the almshouse to the pension as follows :
There are too many people who can not take care of money given to support
them and many swear falsely to secure same. If they are in need they would
prefer a comfortable infirmary to a poor living allowance given them.

Another expresses his opinion as follows: “ If the person lived with
relatives who would assist him, the pension would be preferable. If
destitute or wholly dependent the almshouse system is preferred.”
Another states:
In some cases I would prefer the pension system but in many cases it would
cost much more to care for them with a pension. W e care for old or helpless
persons who are without means of support and have no one to support them, either
at our almshouse or by an amount allowed by the court per month for their aid
and support when it costs less than the cost of the almshouse.

Another county which has no regular pension system and dis­
approves of it, but which practices something very like that system
in an informal way, reports as follows:
W e have several old people who are too old to help themselves and too poor to
live without some assistance whom we help by making small monthly allowances
and let them stay at home or remain with some member of the family. W e have
been doing this for years and find it gives satisfaction. Our county is not able
to have a general old-age pension system and merely help these who are needy.
Of course we have the usual Kentucky “ poorhouse” but usually have but three
or four there. Have five now.

One county gives aid to aged poor in certain cases, one is paying
$10 per month to 12 old people, and a third pays $5 per month in
certain cases where the old person can live with relatives.
“ We
find it cheaper to keep charity claims other than blind with relatives
if possible. But we can not do without the almshouse for we find
cases that no one will keep in their families.”
The reporting officer in a fourth county, which has no pension sys­
tem but has four persons who are each receiving $20, is inclined to
favor a pension system.
Maryland.— None of the counties in Maryland have adopted the
State pension plan, although opinion is quite favorable to old-age
pensions among those counties which reported. Many of the counties
which have not adopted the plan offered by the State law nevertheless
grant allowances (really poor relief) under an informal plan and have
done so for years. One county has abandoned its almshouse entirely
in favor of such relief; in a few instances, former inmates of the alms­
house are boarded in private families. One county reports that this
allowance system has been practiced for at least 40 years; in 1927
there were 76 old people who each received the sum of $15, the county
paying out $1,140 during the year. Another such county makes
allowances of from $10 to $25 a year to some 140 persons, the total
costing from $1,600 to $1,800 per year. A third, which has an
almshouse, nevertheless has for many years been granting small
yearly sums— from $7.50 to $30 to persons able with this help to
get along at home. The number of persons aided and the total
amount paid, it is reported, remains nearly constant from year to
year; during the year ending May 31, 1928, 140 persons received
assistance, at a total cost of $2,265. Another county which has its




CHAPTER V .---- STATE PROVISION

77

when they feel like doing so. Sometimes I have the magistrate commit them as
vagrants for a short time, but I seldom do this with white people as preservation
of self-respect helps many a poor person to start to climb again.
(G) For larger communities I consider almshouses necessary.

The trend of opinion disclosed in the various pension States is
shown below:
Colorado.— The Colorado law is very recent, haying been passed
only in 1927, and the reports received from counties of that State
indicate that only one county has availed itself of the pension law;
and that county reports that it does not believe the system to be
any improvement on the almshouse system. Thirteen other counties
reporting are flatly opposed to the pension system, while five believe
the pension to be preferable to the poorhouse. Several replies indi­
cate that while they have no general criticism to make of the idea of
old-age pensions, they can see no advantage in the adoption of the
present law. Thus, the report from one county runs as follows:
W e can see no advantage in the Colorado old-age pension law" and therefore
have never accepted or put it into use. It is more binding than our law governing
expenditures for care of paupers and anyone requiring assistance can be taken
care of from the poor fund. The old-age pension law limits any person receiving
benefits from it to a total maximum income of $1 per day from all sources and
requires the making of a separate levy, distribution of another fund from taxes
collected, and in all is of no benefit, except that possibly the person receiving it
may not feel that he is receiving charity if called an old-age pension rather than
poor or pauper support. It comes as a direct county tax if adopted by a county
and therefore only adds to the red tape of administration.

Four counties have a system of providing outdoor poor relief. Of
those who have poor relief, one is aiding 8 aged persons at an average
cost of $18.12 each per month, while another is assisting “ a very
large number in this way.” One of the poor-relief counties expresses
the opinion that “ the pension system is not preferable [to the alms­
house] unless the State makes some provision for funds. As long as
the county must supply the funds, we prefer to handle the cases under
the poor fund.”
Three counties prefer the almshouse system because, in their opinion,
it is cheaper. One of these states: “ Pension system induces people
to apply who under the old system would not do so.” Another
expresses practically the same idea thus: “ People will apply for a
pension, but will avoid going to the county poorhouse as long as
possible.” The third reports: “ I think we have gotten along cheaper
this way as many would have been helped by a pension [whom] we
are not now helping.”
Kentucky.— In Kentucky, where only 3 of the 120 counties have
adopted the pension system, the county judge (who administers the
system) in one prefers the almshouse system but without giving rea­
sons, one prefers the pension system, and one failed to reply on this
point.
Of the remaining counties the majority who expressed an opinion
were unfavorable to it, quite generally on the ground of expense.
One of these states:
W e have spent quite a lot of money on our county infirmary and it is costing
$20,000 to $25,000 every year to operate the infirmary in addition to the invest­
ment which we have in the farm. W e have approximately 100 inmates in the
home.

Others frown upon the pension system because of the inadequacy
of the pension to cover the full support of the pensioner who has no



76

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

relatives are willing to receive him into their homes or contribute to
his support.
(2) That pensions are too expensive to be considered by counties
which cover poor districts or which are only sparsely settled.
(3) That dependent aged people find themselves in a position in
which assistance is necessary mainly because of mismanagement in
money matters, lack of thrift, etc.
(4) That persons apply for pensions who would not apply for relief
if this meant being sent to the poorhouse, and the cost to the county
is therefore greater under the pension system.
It is seen that these objections are based upon purely utilitarian
reasons— mainly financial. In only two replies was the matter given
consideration from the point of view of the pensioner, i. e., whether
considering the self-respect and human feelings of the aged applicant
for public assistance, the pension is preferable to the almshouse.
As regards the comparative annual per capita cost of pensions and
almshouses, the following statement is of interest. It shows the
average annual per capita cost of operation of almshouses, as dis­
closed in a previous study of the Bureau of Labor Statistics,3 and the
annual amount of the average old-age pensions now being paid in
these States.
Alm shouse

P ension

Colorado_________________________________________ $228. 40
$120. 00
Kentucky________________________________________
216. 40
240. 00
Maryland________________________________________ 269. 49
__________
Montana_________________________________________
518. 91
199. 08
865. 10
180. 00
Nevada__________________________________________
Wisconsin________________________________________
290. 46
230. 40

The above figures show that as regards actual per capita expendi­
ture for these two purposes, in only one State does the annual pension
per person exceed the amount spent per year to maintain a person
in the county almshouse.
It is true, indeed, as some critics point out, that the present pen­
sions are inadequate for full support. Of interest in this connection,
however, is the report from a county of Maryland— one of the two
cases in which the question was considered from a humanitarian
standpoint.
(A) W e do not have a sufficient number of homeless pensioners to justify
maintenance of such an institution.
(B) It seldom happens that our applicants for county aid are entirely depend­
ent. This is evidenced by the fact that most of them receive not more than $60
annually. Some get $30, others $40 and $50.
(C) In rural communities there is usually some kind neighbor who is willing
to shelter an old or infirm friend with a little help from neighbors and the county.
This, I find, applies to negroes as well as the whites.
(D ) Occasionally we have a case of an old man or woman without a home.
These I have succeeded in placing in almshouses belonging to either Frederick,
Baltimore, or Montgomery counties. At this time we have one such patient who
is in Montevue Hospital, Frederick. W e pay them $300 a year for his maintenance
which includes medical attention and nursing.
(E) M y experience has taught me that old folks prefer to spend their final
years in familiar surroundings, rather than enter an institution of any kind.
(F) In cases of emergency I have used our county jail with very satisfactory
results. All of the wives of our jailors have been exceedingly kind. Mrs. C. is
always ready to take in an unfortunate on my recommendation and in a short
time, with good food and a warm bed, she puts them on their feet. Such cases are
not confined to cells, but sleep in the hospital room and go out in the sunshine




CHAPTER V .— STATE PROVISION

75

Eighty per cent were unable to work, but 50 pensioners were still
able to follow occasional occupations of one sort or another, of whom
20 were in domestic service.
About three-eighths were living with relatives, principally children,
and 24 per cent owned their own homes which the pension enabled
them to keep. There was no other source of income than the pension
for 64 per cent; the others had some income but in no case was this
sufficient for their support. “ The occupations of the pensioners’
children indicate that they are not any more than making a living
for themselves and their family.”
Criticisms of Old-Age Pension Systems Now in Force
T h e o p p o n e n t s of old-age pension legislation base their objections
upon, several grounds. They claim that a noncontributory system,
the only kind which has been adopted in this country, decreases
self-reliance, discourages thrift and energy, and promotes pauperism
by relieving it of some of its more unpleasant features. They object
because of the expense, and because pensions may weaken the sense
of responsibility for their own aged relatives which decent people
should feel. They fear a tendency toward increasing reliance upon
Government aid rather than on private resources, and they claim that
wherever the system has been tried there has been a disposition to
make pensions increasingly large, and the conditions of granting them
increasingly easy.
The friends of such legislation look with apprehension upon the
present situation from entirely different motives. The real purpose
of old-age pensions, they say, is to make it possible for those reduced
to poverty by age to spend their declining years in self-respecting
privacy, free from the anxieties of want and the stigma of pauperism,
living independently in their own surroundings instead of being
massed together in an institution. The mere substitution of outdoor
for indoor relief, although perhaps a step in the right direction, is far
from accomplishing this end. At present, they say, the pension is
not sufficiently differentiated from poor relief, and the laws are
usually administered by the same authorities who have charge of the
poor relief. Consequently their tendency is to look upon the pension
merely as an extension of the principle of poor relief.

Appraisal of Pension System by Counties

I n e a c h case in the present stu dy inquiry w as m ade as to the
opinion o f the adm inistering officer as to the relative valu e o f the
pension system as com pared w ith the alm shouse system (though in
m a n y instances the tw o system s are being practiced jo in tly ).
The replies indicate that, in general, those counties which have
adopted the pension plan like it and feel that it is superior to the
almshouse as a means of caring for aged poor. As would be expected,
the majority of counties which have not accepted the pension plan
cling to the almshouse as preferable.
The main objections raised against the county old-age pensions by
those who are administering them are:
(1) That they are inadequate for full support and are feasible only
where the pensioner has some means of his own or where friends or
35777°—29--- 6




CHAPTER V I.— BY LABOR ORGANIZATIONS

93

The last column of the table shows that, although year by year
the excess of receipts over expenditures fluctuated considerably,
up to 1921 the accumulated surplus rose steadily. The conditions
in the industry and throughout the country reduced this accumulated
fund considerably in the period 1923 to 1925, but recovery is indicated
in the past two years, and the fund would appear now to be on a
safe basis, if the estimate of the actuary be accepted, that safety
would be assured with the maintenance of a fund of $1,250,000 at
a net interest of 3J^ per cent.
Basis and Status of Trade-Union Pension Plans
M o st of the old-age pension plans of the unions are of the cashdisbursement type; i. e., pensions are paid from whatever funds are
at hand. At the same time, study of the proceedings and reports of
the unions discloses a quite general desire to insure the accumulation
of sufficient funds to place the pension department on a sound
financial basis. In a number of cases, actuarial estimates of probable
cost were secured and carefully studied before the plan was put into
effect. In some cases, however, the union failed to see merit in the
actuary’s recommendations and some plans have come to grief or
encountered difficulties because of this fact.
The pension plan of the bridge and structural-iron workers is
stated to be operated on an actuarial reserve basis.
In 1922 and again in 1925, the International Typographical
Union submitted its pension plan to the examination of actuaries.
Both reports declared that unless changes were made in the financial
basis of the plan, failure was certain.
Notwithstanding the serious condition of the fund at the time
of the first report, no action was taken until 1924, when the propor­
tionate share of the fund in the assessment on earnings was increased.
The actuary had recommended that the assessment on earnings
be abandoned in favor of a straight per capita tax. The union’s
committee on laws, however, was of the opinion that this was not
practicable for the organization. “ The present system distributes
the burden so that those best able to pay by reason of large earnings
pay for the less fortunate.”
In 1925 the age limit was raised so as to bring it to 65 by 1930.
The commission appointed to study the whole plan, which reported
to the 1927 convention, adduced data showing that no hardship
would be worked upon the fund by restoring the 60-year age limit,
inasmuch as the tendency was to remain in active service as long as
possible. The following figures were presented by the commission
showing the average age at retirement during the 19 years of operation
o f th e f u n d :

1909____________
1910____________
1911____________
1912____________
1913____________
1914____________
1915____________

Age at
retire­
ment
69. 6
66. 4
66. 7
66. 5
65. 8
65. 7
65. 6

Age at
retire­
ment
1916_______________ 65. 1
65. 1
1917______________
63. 1
1918______________
64. 9
1919______________
64. 2
1920______________
1921______________
60. 1

1922_______________
1923_______________
1924_______________
1925_______________
1926_______________
1927_______________

Age at
retire­
ment
64. 3
64. 3
64. 8
66. 2
66. 9
67. 2

It is seen that although, up to 1925, retirement with pension was
permitted at 60 years, in no year did the actual average of those who




94

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

retired fall that low, with the single exception of 1921, when it is
probable that retirement was due not so much to old age as to the
general economic conditions which made it impossible for the older
men to obtain work.
As the result of the commission’s report the age of eligibility was
again reduced to 60 years.
During the two years of operation of the railroad trainmen’s
pension plan, receipts exceeded expenditures by $97,006 in 1925, and
by $151,573 in 1926. The condition of the fund December 31, 1926,
as shown by the report of the board of trustees for 1926, was as follows:
Balance Jan. 1, 1926___________________________________________________ $233, 518. 52
Cash receipts:
Application fees______________________
$4, 201. 00
Assessments__________________________ 190, 859. 15
Interest received_____________________
12, 101. 68
--------------------- $207, 161. 83
Bond discount realized_________________________________
312. 85
Accrued interest at Dec. 31, 1926:
On bonds_____________________________
$5, 194. 98
On certificates of deposit____________
212. 50
On bank balances___________________
443. 62
---------------------5, 851. 10
----------------------- 213, 325. 78
446, 844. 30
Cash disbursements:
Pensions paid______________________________________
Commissions paid_________________________________
Accrued interest on bonds purchased____________
Expenses of pension department—
Salaries__________________________
$7, 470. 46
Printing, stationery, and sup­
plies___________________________
1, 308. 60
Postage__________________________
331. 61
Freight, express, and dray age __
19. 56
------------------ --

31, 080. 00
12, 662. 04
2, 716. 20

9, 130. 23
----------------------

Balance pension fund, including accrued interest Dec. 31, 1926____

55, 588. 47
391, 255. 83

Payments to Wife, Widow, or Other Beneficiaries

Wije.— The laws of the International Typographical Union pro­
vide that if a member “ is admitted to an eleemosynary institution,
whether publicly or privately maintained, and such member has a
wife dependent on him, the secretary-treasurer is authorized to make
the pension payable to the wife.”
Widow.— The widow of a pensioner of the bricklayers’ union may
receive his pension provided she is 60 years of age and has no other
means of support. A railroad trainman’s widow is entitled to receive
his pension as long as she remains unmarried and keeps his union dues
paid.
The Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen and the
Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers both provide pensions for
widows of members, through a special department operated inde­
pendently of the members’ pension department. The Brotherhood
of Locomotive Engineers also operates a widows’ and mothers’
pension department. Men who are in good standing and have not
reached a specified age (40 for firemen, 50 for engineers) may make




CHAPTER V I — B Y LABOR ORGANIZATIONS

95

provision for their widows through the widows’ pension department.
The medical examination taken for membership in the men’s pension
department suffices also for this. Upon the member’s death the
widow of a fireman is entitled to a pension of $35 per month during
her life or until she remarries. The engineers provide pensions of
$25 and $30 a month until remarriage for widows of engineers who
took out membership in the widows7 pension department, and of $30
per month for the mother if covered by the beneficiary certificate.
An engineer is permitted to take out two beneficiary certificates,
thus doubling the above benefits.
Assessments for the widows’ pension offered by the firemen’s
organization vary from $1 to $3.50 per month, according to the
husband’s age when he entered the scheme. The engineers require
monthly dues of $2 for each certificate in the widows’ pension and
dues ranging from $2 to $3 per month, according to the husband’s
age at entrance, for the “ widows’ and mothers’ pension.”
Other beneficiaries.— The bridge and structural-iron workers’ rules
governing old-age and disability pensions provide that any pensioner
who becomes an inmate of an institution which makes a charge for
residence there may direct that his pension be paid to the institution.
In such cases the officers of the local union “ must visit such member
and see that he is properly cared for.”
Discontinued or Rejected Plans
T h e Order of Railway Conductors inaugurated a pension plan but
later was forced to discontinue it. Membership in the pension
department was optional with the members, and it developed that
only the older men took advantage of it. The result was that the
income of the fund was not sufficient to offset the heavy drain upon
the fund due to the retirement of the older members.
Perkins and Woll in'their study, “ Trade-union benefits,” state that
the Order of Railroad Telegraphers has at different times tried two
old-age pension schemes. Following the convention of 1921, a plan
based on actuarial experience was submitted to the membership. The
acceptance by 1,000 members w required before putting the plan
^as
into practice. Since the interest among the membership proved insuf­
ficient to induce 1,000 to join the plan, it was finally abandoned.
The brewery workers had adopted the pension idea and were about
to put it into force, but the advent of prohibition prevented the con­
summation of the plan, while the bakery workers also made a start
and had accumulated some funds for pension purposes, but the mem­
bership was unwilling to wait until sufficient money was collected and
therefore voted to divert the funds already in hand to the erection
of a headquarters building for the union.
The flint-glass workers by referendum vote rejected the old-age
pension plan submitted to them, and similar action was taken by the
barbers in 1926. The Amalgamated Lithographers of America em­
ployed an actuary to study the feasibility of establishing an old-age
pension plan. His calculations showed that such a plan would not
be practicable for a union of the size of the lithographers’ organiza­
tion,5 except at a cost which would be prohibitive, and the idea was
therefore abandoned.
5 A b o u t 5,700 m em bers.




96

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

Homes for the Aged

T

HERE are five homes for the aged which are owned and oper­
ated by labor organizations for the benefit of the membership.
One of these— the Home for Aged and Disabled Railroad Employees
of America—is owned and operated jointly by three train-service
brotherhoods. Two institutions, those of the International Typo­
graphical Union and the International Printing Pressmen and
Assistants’ Union, also have a tuberculosis sanatorium in connection
with the home.
The question of providing a home for aged and disabled members
has frequently been before the conventions of the American Flint
Glass Workers’ Union, and the matter was referred by the 1924
meeting to the national officers for further study. They reported
to the 1927 convention that, in their opinion, such a step was impracti­
cable, because of the expense, for a union of the size of the flint-glass
workers’ organization.6
The same question has been agitated in the Brotherhood of Main­
tenance of Way Employees, but no action has been taken.
Carpenters’ Home
A f t e r much debate, the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and
Joiners of America decided to provide a home for its aged and infirm
members and their wives. Some years ago the brotherhood acquired
a tract of 1,826 acres near Lakeland, Fla., at a cost of $750,000. Of
this, 600 acres were in orange, tangerine, and grapefruit groves. It is
expected that the income from the fruit will render the home selfsupporting to a great extent.
The building, which was opened early in January, 1929, stands on an
incline facing the east and overlooking Lake Gibson, and is three stories
in height. It cost $875,000 and will accommodate 400 persons. It
is built in the form of the letter E, and is 331 feet in length and 227
feet deep. The home is provided with its own laundry, power plant,
and water system. The north , wing contains the sleeping rooms.
The dining rooms and service kitchens occupy the first floor of the
south wing. The main dining room is a cafeteria. The middle arm
of the E is the assembly hall.
Conditions of admission and residence.— The regulations adopted
require that the candidate for admission must be 65 years of age and
have had a continuous membership in the union of 30 years. He
must also show that he is unable to provide a livelihood for himself.

T h e general secretary states th at it will be the practice to adm it
not only superannuated m em bers bu t their wives also.

Medical care and material and recreational provision.— The insti­
tution contains an auditorium or assembly hall seating nearly
1,000 persons and equipped with a pipe organ and stage; there are
also a library, parlors, and lounging rooms. Recreation is pro­
vided in the form of lectures, motion pictures, radio, and fishing
and boating.
6 6,564 m em bers in 1927, of w h o m 5,264 are a ctu ally e m p lo y e d at the trade.




CHAPTER V I.---- BY LABOR ORGANIZATIONS

97

Io is said that “ the original plans call for the erection of a casino,
boathouse, and band shell on the lake, game courts, roque, croquet,
and bowling green.”
A hospital occupies the third floor of the south wing.
Maintenance.— The construction of the building was financed by
a per capita tax of 10 cents per month upon each of the nearly
400,000 members of the brotherhood.
Printing Pressmen's Home
T h e International Printing Pressmen and Assistants’ Union of
North America has acquired a large tract of land in northeastern
Tennessee, where it has established a number of projects, including
a home for aged pressmen, a tuberculosis sanatorium, a hotel, a
technical trade school, etc. This group of projects forms what is
known as Pressmen’s Home. Situated in a valley in the mountains,
and covering an area of some 1,800 acres, Pressmen’s Home has
become a self-contained community.
The union has built at the foot of the mountain a building of 240
rooms, which will be used as a home for “ aged, invalid, or infirm”
members. It is a white frame building with broad verandas across
the front and sides. From the front of the home the lawn slopes down
in broad terraces to the foot of the valley.
Conditions of admission and residence.— To become a resident of the
home the applicant must have reached the age of 60 years and have
been a member in continuous good standing in the union for 20 years.
He must also show that he is “ incapacitated for employment under
the jurisdiction of the international union.”
As already stated, an aged member eligible for the benefit may
choose between the old-age pension or residence at the home.
Material and recreational provision.— The home contains a large
handsomely furnished library and living room extending across the
eastern end of the building. A smoking room for the men and a
general clubroom for the women are also provided. Both are equip­
ped with couches, easy chairs, etc., and at one end of the room there is
electrical equipment for making coffee, toast, and other dishes.
The home building itself contains no specific recreational features.
At the foot of the terraces in front of the home is a building containing
a swimming pool, dressing rooms, etc. This will be open to the use
of the residents at the home, as also will be the gymnasium, billiard
room, and motion pictures at the hotel maintained by the union just
outside the grounds.
Medical care will be given by the physician at the tuberculosis
sanatorium nearby, maintained by the union.
In case of death, if the body is unclaimed by friends or the local
lodge, burial expenses will be borne by the home.
Administration.— Home and sanatorium are administered by a
board of five members selected by referendum vote of the members
of the international union. The sanatorium is under the immediate
charge of the resident physician.
Funds are secured by a per capita tax of 25 cents per month, levied
upon each of the more than 40,000 members of the international union,




98

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED

STATES

Home for Aged and Disabled Railroad Employees
T h e Home for Aged and Disabled Railroad Employees of America
was established in Chicago in 1891, but was moved to Highland
Park in 1903. Up to August 1, 1911, it was supported “ by soliciting
subscriptions from all possible sources/’ and was open to members
of the four train-service brotherhoods— those of the locomotive engi­
neers, the firemen and enginemen, the trainmen, and the conductors.
The 1909 convention of the trainmen appropriated from the
brotherhood funds the sum of $15,000 to be used toward the con­
struction of a fireproof building. The engineers and firemen each
contributed a like amount, and the home was built. In 1924 the
building was remodeled, and a wing containing 39 rooms was added,
the whole costing some $172,000, the expense again being borne by
the same three brotherhoods. The Order of Railroad Conductors
ceased to have a voice in the management of the home in 1925. Its
retired members, however, continued to reside at the home, but since
the union had made no financial contribution to the building of the
home the order was, thereafter, charged for its residents one and
a half times the per capita cost of maintaining the home. The con­
ductors, in 1927, completed the construction near Savannah, Ga.,of a
home for aged members, and to this its residents at Highland Park
were removed early in November of that year.
The Brotherhood Home is situated at Highland Park, a suburb to
the north of Chicago, and is only four blocks from Lake Michigan.
The home building is a three-story brick structure. Each floor has a
sun porch 10 feet wide and 50 feet long. The building contains 64
single and 30 double rooms and can accommodate as many as 150 at
a pinch, although the normal capacity is 135. At the time of the
agent’s visit, in October, 1927, there were 97 in residence; 13 of these,
however, were conductors who were shortly to leave for their new home
in Georgia.
The power plant and laundry are in a separate building.
The home is surrounded by lawns comprising altogether some 2J^
acres, and buildings and grounds are valued at nearly $350,000.
Conditions of admission and residence.— The object of the home is
to provide a refuge for “ worthy, aged, and disabled, helpless and
destitute railroad men who are no longer able to provide for them­
selves.” To gain admission to the institution it is necessary that the
applicant be a member in good standing in one of the three brother­
hoods and that he be eligible for insurance therein. A certificate from
a physician showing that he is “ permanently incapacitated for rail­
road work” must accompany his application. The home does not
accept “ insane or dangerous persons, or persons afflicted with any
contagious or infectious disease or addicted to the use of liquor/’ nor
any person otherwise eligible “ if suffering from a disabling incurable
affliction or a progressive disease which is liable to result in death
within a reasonably short time after admission to the home, or which
requires at time of admission or is liable to require shortly thereafter
continuous hospital treatment or other constant medical attention.”
The rules of the home require that “ every inmate of this institution
shall make himself useful in every way consistent with his physical
condition and cheerfully cooperate with the management in the per­
formance of such duties as may be assigned to him ” ; also that he
care for his own room, keeping it “ neat and tidy when his physical




CHAPTER V I.— B Y LABOR ORGANIZATIONS

99

condition will permit, attending to it the first thing in the morning
after a thorough airing.” In practice, the manager has rather dis­
couraged the residents from helping around the building. He stated,
however, that when a section of the grounds was being beautified
and he called for volunteers to give 15 minutes’ time each day to
clearing the newly sown grass of weeds, he was surprised at the
ready and general response from the men.
It is pointed out that a member “ can not come and go at will. He
may be furloughed by the management to visit relatives and friends
at reasonable times.” In such cases, while the home does not under­
take to provide transportation, the manager is usually able to secure
railroad tickets through the courtesy of the railroads.
Material, medical, and recreational benefits provided.— All the neces­
saries required by the men are provided. When ill they are cared
for in the home hospital, which consists of two wards and a diet
kitchen. The two wards usually contain eight beds, but on occasion
can accommodate 16. In serious cases or for surgical operations the
patient is removed to an outside hospital, where he is treated at the
expense of the home.
A trained nurse is in attendance at the home hospital and a local
physician visits the home and gives any necessary treatment. The
services of dentist and oculist are also provided by the home as needed.
The building is kept in immaculate condition and, in the interests
of sanitation, it is the present practice to furnish the new bedrooms
with steel furniture. The new wing contains 39 bedrooms, each of
which will be a “ memorial” room; i. e., a member of one of the
supporting organizations undertakes to furnish the room at a cost
of $100, the room being named for the person memorialized and a
bronze tablet to that effect being placed on the door of the room.
The furniture includes armchair, straight-backed chair, bed, and a
dresser one drawer of which pulls out and down to form a desk.
An automatic elevator enables those residents who are confined to
wheel chairs to move about from floor to floor without help.
The meals are prepared under the supervision of the manager’s
wife, who acts as matron. Especial care is taken to provide as much
variety in the menu as possible.
In addition to meals and lodging, each inmate is given clothing,
laundry, and barber service; tobacco, stamps, and numerous small
comforts are also provided.
The home contains, for the recreational use of its inmates, a fine
library, smoking rooms, reading rooms, lounging rooms, billiard
room, and sun room. The institution has its own motion-picture
machine, donated by the ladies’ auxiliary of the locomotive engineers,
and pictures are shown in the chapel once a week during the year
(except during hot weather). Cards, checkers, and a radio also
furnish entertainment.
In 1923 the same ladies’ auxiliary presented the home with a
seven-passenger automobile, and since that time automobile rides
have been a regular recreational feature for the old men at the home.
This was an especially welcome addition to the recreational facilities,
since there are usually in residence men confined to wheel chairs or
on crutches who would otherwise be unable to leave the home grounds.
Administration and maintenance.— The home is under the general
supervision of a society composed of the chief executive of each of




100

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED

STATES

the three supporting brotherhoods, each of whom appoints two addi­
tional members of his organization and three members from the ladies’
auxiliary of his order. The society so composed then elects from its
number a board of three trustees which oversees the management of
the home. The secretary-treasurer of the society is the manager of
the home, hiring all employees and paying all bills.
The funds are furnished by the three brotherhoods, which con­
tribute on a pro rata basis according to the number of days’ occu­
pancy by their members. As already stated, a higher rate has been
charged for members of the Order of Railroad Conductors.
The table immediately following shows the amount chargeable to
each of the organizations in 1926:
T

able

2 6 .— A M O U N T O F H O M E - M A I N T E N A N C E C O S T C H A R G E A B L E T O E A C H
B R O T H E R H O O D , 1926

Average
num ber
of resident
m em bers

A m ount

B roth erh ood of R ailroad T ra in m e n . _ ______ ______________ _____ __________ _____
B roth erh ood of L o co m o tiv e Engineers
__ ______________ _ _
______
B roth erh ood of L oco m o tiv e F irem en and E n gin em en _________
_ __
_
O rder of R ailroad C on ductors . . _______________________________ __ _____________

32
30
7
15

$23,971.
23,416.
5, 639.
16, 754.

T o t a l _________________________________ __________ - ____________________________

84

Organization

10
50
86
21

69, 781. 67

The Brotherhood of Locomotive -Engineers levies upon each of its
members an assessment of 25 cents a year for the home, while each
member of the ladies’ auxiliary of that organization contributes
5 cents a year. Other sources of income are special contributions
from individual members of the brotherhoods, and honorary and
associate memberships, which yield a small income.
The table below shows the expenditure for each item in 1926:
T

able

2 7 — O P E R A T IN G

EXPENSES

OF

E x pen di­
ture

Item
B u ild in g expenses:
M aintenance of b u ild in g ___________
U p k eep of grou n d s. __ _____________
M aintenance of elevator and m a­
c h in e r y .- ___
________________
M aintenance of furniture and fix­
tures . . _____ . . _______________
M aintenance of heating p la n t___ .
L ig h t and p o w e r . __ __
H eating plant fuel
H eating plant, w a g e s . . . .
nti nn UIXLlvllligOf nlH
Xyt5|Jlt5L/lcltlUily l^mlrli'no’Q U —--------lLi
D epreciation, furniture, fixtures,
equipm ent, and m achinery, o ld —.

E x p en d i­
ture

T o t a l . __________ _______________ .

25,946. 35

288. 04
90. 43
1, 456. 66
3, 947. 00
2, 416. 30
1, 388.15

H o m e expenses:
Care of ro o m s ______________________
S u p p lies____________ _. .

674.15
112.15

817. 47

4, 213.19
1,164. 00
120. 60
146. 80
314. 34
395. 95
937. 78

________

7, 292. 66

T a b le expenses:
G r o c e r ie s ______________ ___________
M eats
W a ter__ __
_
_ _
________
Freight and express
R ange fu e l. __________ _______________

13, 548. 98
5, 629. 88
600. 89
214. 95
957.12




Item

1926

262. 55

G eneral expenses:
A d m in istra tive
Office, salary____________ __
Office supplies
Teleph on e and telegrams
T ran sp ortation . __
______
G eneral.
_ ________
__
P u blication _______________________
________

HOM E,

$4, 552. 55
441.98

17, 058. 00

_

BROTHERHOOD

T a ble expenses— C on tin u ed .
K itch en and dining room , w ages. _
R en ew als of wares and lin e n s .. _ _

$6,184. 60
206.80

T o t a l________ ____________ _______

T o t a l.

R A IL R O A D

T o t a l....... ... .....................................

786.30

In m ates’ expenses:
C lo th in g . _____________________ . .
B a rb er______
L a u n d r y ___ . . . .
T o b a cco
A m u sem en ts_______________________

1, 658.07
1,079.50
2, 596. 76
602. 28
134. 67

T o t a l_____________________ _______

6, 071. 28

H ospital expenses:
Salaries of nurses
A tte n d a n ts’ wages
______
M ed ica l attendance . .
D rugs and hospital su p p lies______
A u to m o b ile —
M ain ten an ce__________________
D e p re cia tio n ___________ _______
T o t a l____. . . . ______
T o ta l expenses........................

1,161. 00
2, 001. 00
2,310. 60
906.17
431.07
232. 50
7, 042.34
64,196. 93

101

CHAPTER V I.---- B Y LABOR ORGANIZATIONS

The cost of maintaining a superannuated member varies with the
number in residence and with the amount of medical and other
care necessary. Table 28 shows for the past 13 years the total and
average cost of maintenance:
T able 2 8 .— T O T A L

AND

Year

1914_______________ _____ _________
1915_______________________________
1916______________________________
1917______________________________
1918______________________________
1919______________________________
1920______________________________
1921______________________________
1922______________________________
1923______________________________
1924______________________________
1925______________________________
1926______________________________

AVERAGE
M A IN T E N A N C E E X P E N S E S
B R O T H E R H O O D H O M E , 1914 T O 1926

Average
num ber
of in ­
mates

T o ta l m ain­
tenance
expense

56
55
55
53
52
46
48
59
65
64
74
76
76

$28, 381.19
33,690. 85
34, 455. 93
35, 917. 00
33,914. 81
33, 734.16
44, 371. 91
45, 349. 35
44, 822. 94
50, 217. 01
51,380.48
65,919. 94
64,196. 93

OF

R A IL R O A D

Average cost per inm ate

Per d a y

Per w eek

$1. 39
1.67
1.70
1. 87
1. 81
2. 01
2.54
2.12
1.89
2.15
1.90
2. 38
2. 31

$9. 74
11. 67
11. 91
13.10
12. 72
14.16
17. 82
i 14. 82
13.26
15.09
13. 30
16.68
16. 24

Per m on th

$42.31
50. 73
51. 64
56. 89
55.13
61.38
76. 35
i 63. 53
57.46
65. 39
57. 86
72.28
70.39

Per year

$507. 72
608. 82
619. 66
682. 68
661. 63
765. 57
916. 20
i 772.89
689. 58
784. 64
694. 33
867. 37
844. 70

1 A s show n in the report. Based on n um ber of inm ates and total expense as given, the average cost
should be $768.63 per year, $64.05 per m on th , and $14.78 per w eek.

Railway Conductors’ Home
T h e Order of Railway Conductors until November, 1927, main­
tained its superannuated and disabled members at the Brotherhood
Home owned by the other three train-service brotherhoods— those of
the engineers, firemen and enginemen, and trainmen. The question
of the provision of a home owned by the order itself arose some time
ago, and when it became known that various localities were being
considered for the site of the home, citizens of Savannah, Ga., donated
to the order 100 acres of land on Oatland Island, near Savannah, and
pledged $20,000 toward the construction of the building. The 1925
conductors’ convention authorized the erection of a building to house
not only the superannuated members, but also their wives and the
widows of members. The contract of construction was let early in
1927, and the building was formally opened November 10, 1927.
Its erection cost $366,684.
The home is a 2 -story building of reinforced concrete and brick.
It is built in the form of an H , with a frontage of 250 feet; wings on
each end run back 108 feet. The floors are connected by automatic
elevators. A glass-inclosed porch runs along the entire length of one
wing.
There are 75 bedrooms, 21 of which are on the first floor. The
living room is stated to be a large, attractive room, with paneled
walls and a large fireplace. The kitchen is completely equipped with
electric appliances. The second floor contains bedrooms, linen
rooms, and sewing rooms. One wing on this floor is given over to
the medical department.
Since the opening of the home 37 aged persons have been admitted.
The average number in residence is 30.
The building is steam heated and has its own water system sup­
plied from a pneumatic pump on the grounds. Accommodations for




102

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

30 servants are provided at the rear of the building, and a garage
housing five cars has also been constructed.
It is planned to erect individual cottages, each with its own garden
and orchard, for the use of family groups in residence at the home.
Conditions of admission.— To be eligible for residence at the home
applicants must have been members of the order for 10 years or
more, be “ physically and financially unable to provide for them­
selves/’ of good moral character, and free from contagious or infec­
tious diseases. Wives are also admitted.
Medical care and recreational provision.— Ordinary medical care is
given at the home. Guests requiring hospital attention are sent to a
near-by hospital.
The home contains a card room, billiard room, and a game room,
all situated in the right wing of the building, and recreational activi­
ties will be centered there. Other recreations include hunting, fish­
ing, and boating.
Administration and maintenance.— As already noted, 100 acres of
land and $20,000 were donated by citizens of Savannah. Additional
funds were raised by special assessments levied upon the 60,000 mem­
bers of the Order of Railway Conductors, and individual contribu­
tions were also received. Some of the members have pledged them­
selves to pay $1 a week to the home.
A number of the rooms have been furnished by local divisions or
by the ladies’ auxiliary units.
No data are available as to what the source of funds for the cur­
rent expenses of operation will be. It was stated at the headquarters
of the order, however, that the organization owns some 3,500 acres
of land on which pecan trees have been set out. It is expected that
the income from the pecan groves will eventually Gover the operat­
ing expense of the home. Potatoes and cotton are being raised pend­
ing the attainment of bearing age by the pecan groves.
The home is managed by one of the deputy presidents of the order
and his wife.
Union Printers’ Home
T h e Epochal History of the International Typographical Union,
issued by the union, states that even in the earliest conventions of
that body the matter of the establishment of a home for aged and
infirm members was brought up. Even though discouraged by com­
mittees time and again, the proposal kept recurring.
Finally, in 1886, two wealthy men of Philadelphia made the union
an unconditional gift of $ 10,000. Several offers of land for a site were
received, but that of the city of Colorado Springs, Colo., was finally
accepted. The site included 80 acres of land on a hill situated about
a mile east of the city.
Private subscription had increased the original $ 10,000 to more
than $20 ,000. Additional contributions were secured from the mem­
bers, and union printers throughout the country donated an hour’s
pay, or the price of 1,000 ems of type composition. Later a per
capita tax was levied to increase the funds.
The home was formally dedicated May 12, 1892. This first build­
ing cost approximately $60,000. Successive additions have been
built, and the present edifice has a frontage of some 300 feet. Build­
ing and grounds are now valued at approximately $3,000,000.




CHAPTER
V I.— B
Y
LABOR
ORGANIZATIONS




F ig u r e 1 3 - P a n o r a m ic V ie w

of

U n io n P r i n t e r s ’ H o m e

at

C o l o r a d o S p r in g s , C o l o .

104

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

The grounds of the home now cover some 300 acres situated on an
eminence overlooking the city of Colorado Springs. From the front
of the home can be obtained a panoramic view of the Rocky Moun­
tains for about 120 miles, with Pike’s Peak straight ahead. The
land slopes down to the city on the west and to Prospect Lake on the
southwest.
On each side of the driveway, extending from the front gate to the
main building— a distance of 650 feet— there is a broad cement walk;
bordering it and surrounding the home are lawns comprising an area
of 12 acres. These lawns abound in flowers, shrubs, and trees, maples
and elms alternating in front and along the driveway.
The main building is of white lava stone, with red sandstone trim­
mings. The main edifice is about 300 feet long by 50 feet wide, with
a wing extending to the rear from each end.
The south wing is used exclusively for hospital purposes. Across
the east (rear) side of the building are screened sun porches, those at
the south end being devoted to the use of the tuberculosis patients
for sleeping purposes. Each story of the building contains a main
hallway, extending the entire length of the building, into which all
the rooms open. An automatic electric elevator has been installed
for the convenience of the residents. The most elderly residents, how­
ever, are given rooms on the first floor.
There are three dining rooms, all located on the ground floor. In
the main dining room are served the meals of the able-bodied resi­
dents, the nurses, and the office force; in an adjoining room those
sanatorium patients who are able to dress and come to the table,
wiiile in still another are served those wiio, while able to be out of
bed, are yet too weak to bear the exertion of dressing for meals. To
this room they may come in their bath robes and slippers.
The kitchens are equipped with the most modern appliances.
The meals of the sanatorium patients are prepared under the super­
vision of an expert dietitian in a special kitchen equipped for this
purpose. In addition, there are diet kitchens located in convenient
places on the upper floors where special nourishment is prepared for
bed patients. An automatic dumb-waiter is also provided for carrying
trays from the ground-floor kitchen to the upper floors, to those
patients wiio are confined to their beds.
In August, 1927, there were 140 aged members in residence in the
home, of whom 6 were women. A dormer wing on the third floor
has been set aside for the use of these women.
As already indicated, the hospital occupies the south wing of the
main building; it provides accommodations for 54 patients. The
tower room on each floor (except that on which the offices of the
medical department are located) is used as a recreation and lounging
room for the patients.
In addition, there are 20 octagonal tents grouped at the south end
of the main building. These tents are mounted on cement bases
and are securely anchored to withstand the most severe winds. The
walls are of the best Army canvas, impervious to snow or rain. A
system of ventilators is provided in the floor on four sides of the tent,
as well as in the peak of the roof; these can be opened or closed at
will. Each tent is electric lighted and steam heated and is provided
with an electric call bell. If a patient needs attention he presses
the bell, which rings in the nurses’ room in the hospital and at the




CHAPTER V I — B Y LABOR ORGANIZATIONS

105

same time causes a light over the tent door to glow. This remains
lighted until his call is answered.
To supply a central place for the use of the tuberculosis patients
a solarium was built in 1907. Still more space was found necessary,
and an open-air pavilion was then constructed, supplying accom­
modations for 30 additional patients.
In August, 1927, there were 140 patients in the hospital and
sanatorium.
A separate building houses the laundry, carpenter shop, and power
plant; and the second floor contains sleeping rooms for the male
employees of the institution.
A 3-story building, formerly part of the main building, was moved,
when the hospital wing was built, to a space just back of the main
building. It contains a laboratory, sewing room, 39 bedrooms, and
a barber shop where two union barbers are constantly employed.
The plants and shrubs used in beautifying the grounds and the
flowers for use in the building are grown in a separate greenhouse
built in 1922, which has two wings 68 by 20 feet each. Adjoining
the greenhouse is a potting shed. The whole is heated by a hotwater system in connection with a smokeless furnace.
In 1921 a fruit and vegetable cellar was constructed, 40 by 24 feet,
with concrete walls 16 inches thick and 9 feet high. Adjoining this
cellar is a record vault 10 by 12 feet, with double walls and air cham­
ber, fitted with steel doors. Access to the cellar and vault is had
through a tunnel, 72 feet long and 6 feet wide, leading from the main
building.
Some distance to the east of the home is a dairy building, 100 by
300 feet. There are also large barns about a quarter of a mile to the
east of the main building for the horses and for the large herd of
Holstein cattle from which are obtained the milk and cream so neces­
sary to the treatment of tuberculosis. The milking is done by electric
machinery. There is also a garage building for the cars belonging to
the institution.
The superintendent of the home occupies a 6-room, modern, white
lava-stone cottage, located just north of the main building. It has
telephone connection with every department of the institution. The
medical director occupies a cottage just outside the main grounds of
the institution but on land belonging to it. The other two resident
physicians have quarters in the main building.
Conditions of admission and residence.— Applicants for admission to
the home must have been members of the International Typographical
Union for not less than 10 years, at least 3 of which must immediately
antedate the date of application for admission. Persons suffering
from tuberculosis, however, may be admitted after 18 months’ con­
tinuous membership except in cases where it appears that the appli­
cant joined the union for the sole purpose of securing admission to the
sanatorium.
No persons afflicted with any mental disease are admitted
In case of there being more applications for admission than there
are vacancies the rules provide that preference shall be given “ ( 1) to
the afflicted as against the infirm; (2) to those of the afflicted to whom
the greatest probable good can be done by admission as against those
to whom a less degree of good is probable; and (3) to those of the
infirm whose infirmity is greatest.” If the prospective resident is




106

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED

STATES

unable to defray his traveling expenses to the home, these are borne
by his local union. When he is discharged, an amount equal to that
expended in his transportation to the home is appropriated by the
home to buy him a railroad ticket in whatever direction he may select.
Residents who are able to do so are expected to care for their own
rooms, and may also be asked to perform light tasks relative to the
upkeep of grounds or buildings, subject to the judgment of the
medical director. “ It is recommended without being made a duty
* * * that landscape gardening, or some similar vocation, be
undertaken on said grounds as a source of exercise and recreation
to the persons domiciled at said home. But no task or duty shall
ever be imposed under the guise of exercise or recreation on any
inmate of said home.”
Medical care.— Within 48 hours after admission to the home or
sanatorium the resident is given a thorough physical examination,
and during his period of residence he receives all possible medical care,
including operations. In case of death, the home bears the burial
expenses if the body is unclaimed by friends or the local union.
The institution’s medical staff consists of a medical director, two
resident physicians, a consulting neurologist, a consulting ear, nose,
and throat specialist, a consulting eye specialist, a consulting surgeon,
and a dentist. In addition, when occasion demands, a specialist
in genito-urinary diseases is also called in. Major operations are
provided for by arrangement with a local hospital.
The medical director is of the opinion that some system should
also be worked out by which discharged patients could be kept
under medical observation “ for a long period after leaving.”
The equipment of the medical department cost more than $ 10,000
and includes an up-to-date X-ray machine, ultra-violet lamp, dental
outfit, etc. The home has an arrangement with a local laboratory
clinical company whereby laboratory-test work is done by the
company, which also has supervision of the X-ray department of
the home. The home employs a technician, who is also a nurse, to
do the X-ray work.
In order that the medical department may be in touch with the
latest development in the medical field, the trustees have inaugurated
the practice of sending the medical director or one of the resident
physicians to attend two medical meetings each year, all expenses in
connection therewith being met by the home.
Material and recreational provision.— The rules governing the home
are very restrained in their promises of care for the residents, provid­
ing merely that “ persons admitted into this home shall be fed with
plain but wholesome food, clothed with plain but decent apparel (no
distinctive dress ever to be worn), and lodged in a plain but safe
manner; due regard shall be paid to their health, comfort, and happi­
ness, and to this end their persons, clothes, and apartments shall be
kept clean.” 7
The actual spirit prevailing in the treatment of these aged and
tubercular printers in residence at the home, however, is much better
expressed in another article of the same document which declares
7 T h e rules o f the printing pressm en’s u nion also contain this identical provision, presu m ably adop ted
from the printers’ regulat.ons.




CHAPTER V I.— B Y LABOR ORGANIZATIONS

107

that “ its bounty shall be unpurchasable; its charity shall be given
without price.”
Each resident receives not only food, lodging, clothing, and laundry,
but also 50 cents a week. This sum is granted to those whose local
unions are unable to make any allowance to their members who
are at the home; if the local union supplies pocket money, the home
does not. As the funds of the home warrant, the amount will be
increased to $1 a week. Additional payment is made to those
residents who perform tasks on the grounds or in the buildings.
A room in the main building is equipped with tables for cards,
chess, or checkers for the use of the residents. From this room, an
arched doorway leads into a library which contains between nine and
ten thousand volumes. More than 100 newspapers are received, as
well as magazines and several religious publications. A number of
the magazines are donated by the publishers, and the home subscribes
for two copies of each of the other leading monthlies.
The archway between card room and library is so arranged that
it can be converted into a stage. Here motion pictures are shown
once a week from October 1 to April 1 each year. A 6-piece orchestra
furnishes the music accompanying the pictures. On this stage the
local lodge of Elks gives a performance of its minstrel show every
winter, and various other entertainments are given. The library
will seat 300 persons.
A billiard room with two tables furnishes recreation for those who
care for this type of alnusement, while piano and victrola provide
for those musically inclined. Usually several dances are given during
the winter, those on St. Valentine’s Day and St. Patrick’s Day being
costume affairs. As the inmates consist only of elderly or sick people,
outside amusements are few. There are, however, two croquet
grounds which seem to be well patronized. Tournaments are held
and prizes are given to the most successful players.
During the year ending May 31, 1927, $1,792 was expended to
provide amusement of various sorts for the residents.
Administration and maintenance.— The institution is managed by a
superintendent acting under the direction of a board of seven trustees,
one of whom resides in Colorado Springs. The superintendent’s
wife acts as matron. The physicians are appointed by the board of
trustees, but all other employees are hired by the superintendent.
The institution is supported entirely by the membership of the
International Typographical Union .8 Each union printer pays to
the international union, as dues, 65 cents a month plus 1 per cent
of his earnings. Of this amount 40 cents goes to the home fund .9
As would be expected, the cost of maintenance of this extensive
institution is heavy, amounting to $348,955 during the year ending
M ay 31, 1927. During that year the number of persons in residence
averaged 263. The cost of maintenance per member was therefore
$1,326.83 for the year, or $110.57 per month. Excluding such items
as permanent improvements to the building, insurance, care of ceme­
tery, upkeep of grounds, etc., the average cost per resident was $69.79
per month.
s Since the original gift of land and m on ey, in divid u al donations have am ou n ted to o n ly $9,898.
9 A t the tim e the hom e was started each m em ber paid 5 cents per m o n th tow a rd the su pport 9f the h om e.
T h is am ount was subsequ ently increased to 10 cents, in 1908 to 15 cents, in 1915 to 20 cents, in 1920 to 30
cents, and in 1925 to 40 cents.

35777°—29--- 8




108

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

The table below shows the expenditure for each item:
T

able

2 9 .— C O ST

OF O P E R A T IO N

Item

A d m in istra tive expenses:
Clerical w ork ________ _____ ________
E m p loy ees’ salaries_________________
Trustees’ m eeting s_________________
M edica l care, drugs, etc.:
D e n t is t .. __________________________
D ru gs _____ _________________ _____
Special s e r v i c e . _____________
Spectacles and repairs._ _______. . .
G roceries and m e a ts ..
___________ .
S un dry supplies___ . . . __________ _ .
_____________ .
C lo th in g .. . . . . . . _
F u rn iture and fixtures________________ .
Funeral and burial, etc., expenses:
F or deceased residents_____________
Care of cem etery p lo ts . __ _______
A m u sem en ts. ______________________
A u to m o b ile . __________ . . . _______ . . .
Book s, stationery, and office s u p p lie s ...
Street-car tick e ts . _ _______ ___________
T ran sp ortation of residents_____________

OF U N IO N P R IN T E R S ’ H O M E , Y E A R
M A Y 31, 1927

E x pen di­
ture

$1, 300.00
79, 754. 26
5,199. 46
3,044. 25
7,965. 68
4, 611. 30
583. 95
81, 580. 68
3, 790. 09
15, 308. 63
25, 614. 92
758. 23
305. 00
1, 791. 91
3, 997. 55
1,949. 66
213.00
5, 726.09

ENDED

E x pen di­
ture

Item

Expense of farm ________________________
Freight and express
H a y and grain___
H eat and lig h t_
W ater___________ _____________
_.
L a u n d r y .. ________________
Taxes and insurance
T elephon e and telegraph. __
B uildings:
General repairs _
Perm anent im p rov em en ts
Expense of trip to m edical m eetin g___
Legal services_ __ _
_
L i b r a r y __________ ______________
M iscellaneous p rin tin g__________ _
R esidents’ allow ances_____________
P ostage. _
______________________ __
M iscellaneous___________________ _____
T o t a l................... ............. ............. ..

$5,005.23
568. 72
10,841.70
16,148. 88
2, 204. 20
2,683. 62
5, 733. 97
492.08
12, 773. 43
38, 636.40
285.49
50. 00
167.02
372.07
6, 898. 65
220. 80
2,377. 67
348, 954. 59

The statement below shows how the cost of maintenance of each
resident per month has varied from 3 ' to year since the establishment of the home:
Cost per
m on th
per resi­
dent

July
M ay
July
July
July
July
July
July
July
June
June
June
June
June
June
June
June
June

1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
1,

1892,
1893,
1894,
1895,
1896,
1897,
1898,
1899,
1900,
1901,
1902,
1903,
1904,
1905,
1906,
1907,
1908,
1909,

to M ay 1, 1893_. $43. 43
42. 38
to July 1, 1894..
to July 1, 1895_.
29. 82
26. 43
to July 1, 1 8 9 6 ..
22. 71
to July 1, 1897_.
21. 66
to July 1, 18 98 _.
21. 42
to July 1, 18 99 _.
23. 37
to July 1, 19 00 _.
29. 08
to June 1, 1901__
30. 07
to June 1, 1902_.
to June 1, 1903_.
29. 56
27. 51
to June 1, 1904_.
to June 1, 1905..
26. 20
25. 60
to June 1, 1906_.
26. 81
to June 1, 1907_.
26. 07
to June 1, 1908_.
to June 1, 1909_.
27. 06
30. 66
to June 1, 1910_.

Cost per
m o n th
per resi­
dent

June
June
June
June
June
June
June
June
June
June
June
June
June
June
June
June
June

1
.,
1,
1
1
1
.,
1
.,
1
.,
1
1
.,
1
1,
1,
1
1,
1,
1,
1,

1910,
1911,
1912,
1913,
1914,
1915,
1916,
1917,
1918,
1919,
1920,
1921,
1922,
1923,
1924,
1925,
1926,

to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to

June
June
June
June
June
June
June
June
June
June
June
June
June
June
June
June
June

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1 9 1 1 - $30. 81
1912__ 31. 96
1913__ 31. 49
1914__ 28. 72
1915__ 26. 66
1916__ 28. 35
1917__ 32. 63
1918__ 35. 60
1919__ 35. 78
1920__ 55. 42
1921__ 62. 74
1922__ 63. 52
1923__ 66. 82
1924__ 68. 85
1925__ 68. 76
1926__ 67. 01
1927__ 69. 79

The cost of maintaining a sanatorium or hospital resident is greater
than in the case of the home resident, since the major part of the
salaries of physicians and nurses, as well as of cost of drugs, is included
in the former charge. Last year these costs were $80.80 per month
for the sanatorium patients and $58.77 for the home residents.
Although only the best foodstuffs are used at the home, the cost
of these is lessened by the fact that some of the supplies are furnished
from the farm and gardens of the home. Thus in 1927 the total
value of products from the farm, garden, cattle, and poultry was
$17,456.64. The cattle produced 48,961 gallons of milk, valued
at $14,070.70, while the flock of 1,600 chickens furnished products




CHAPTER V I.---- BY LABOR ORGANIZATIONS

109

valued at $2,186.52. Forage crops are also raised for the cattle,
although in 1926 these crops were a failure due to the exceptionally
hot and dry season.
The 1927 expenditure was made unusually high because of the
construction of the new wing to the main building and other improve­
ments. The expenditure for permanent plant, made since the
inauguration of the home in 1892, is shown in the table below:
Building and furnishing main building______________________________
$70, 114. 44
22, 082. 54
Building and furnishing hospital annex_____________________________
Building and furnishing superintendent’s cottage and addition
thereto______________________________________________________________
3, 824. 57
Building laundry, machinery for same, etc_________________________
12, 241. 55
Heating plant addition_______________________________________________
14, 376. 87
Library, building addition to and furnishing_______________________
42, 297. 79
Main building, addition No. 1 ________________'______________________
14, 023. 15
Main building, addition No. 2 _______________________________________
35, 414. 86
Main building, addition No. 3 _______________________________________
157, 803. 09
Open-air pavilion_____________________________________________________
9, 902. 80
Additional real estate________________________________________________
8, 000. 00
Maintenance, salaries, repairs, improvements, etc., from opening
of home to M ay 31, 1927_________________________________________ 3, 693, 578. 84
Total___________________________________________________________ 4, 083, 660. 50

Conclusion.— The Epochal History of the International Typo­
graphical Union points out that of the benefits derived from the home
not the least has been “ the tightening of bonds of sympathy within
the fraternity and the growth .of pride” in the international union.
The value of the institution has been recognized by the Women’s
International Auxiliary to the International Typographical Union,
which has had the matter of the establishment of a similar home under
consideration for several years. At the 1927 convention of the
auxiliary, by unanimous vote, it was decided to erect a home for auxil­
iary members who have become aged or incapacitated, the building
also to be situated at Colorado Springs. Local unions are making
contributions and every union printer is asked to make a voluntary
contribution of $1 toward the project.




Chapter VII.—Care of the Aged by Religious Organi­
zations
Church Pension and Relief Plans for Ministers

I

NQUIRY was made of 31 national churches as to whether or not
provision is made by them either for aged ministers or for aged
members of the church. Replies were received from 26. Of
these, 16 reported having a pension or relief plan for aged ministers,
and data were secured concerning 11 of these. The 11 organizations
from which data were obtained were the Seventh-Day Adventists;
Northern Baptists; Congregationalists; Methodists, North and South;
Moravian Church (Northern Province); Presbyterians, N orth 1 and
South ; 2 Episcopalians; Reformed Church of the United States; and
the Unitarians. Three other organizations (the United Brethren,
the Anglican Universal, and Universalist Churches) have adopted
pension schemes, but these are not yet in operation. The Reorgan­
ized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints has no regular pen­
sion system, but continues the salary of its ministers as long as they
live.
The Northern Baptists, Congregationalists, Northern Presbyterians,
Reformed Church, and Unitarians have both a retirement fund and
a system of relief for cases of special need.
The system in the Roman Catholic churches is different from that
of the Protestant churches. The church has no general retirement
system; the care of the aged priest is left to the particular diocese
in which he has served. In case of absolute incapacity he is cared for
in one of the Catholic hospitals or he may receive an allowance from
the general diocesan funds. In general, the aged priests continue in
service until death, being usually assigned to light duties in the parish
or to an easy position (such as chaplain) in one of the church institu­
tions. In about two-thirds of the dioceses from which the bureau
received data there is a “ clergy relief fund,” to which the priests
belong and from which retirement or disability allowances are paid.
These funds may be supported entirely by the priests, jointly by the
parishes of the diocese and the priests, or entirely by the dioceses.
The basis upon which pensions of the Protestant churches are
granted varies. In those cases in w
rhich the system is contributory,
the annuitant receives his allowance as a matter of right, and in
at least one case (Congregationalists) retirement is not required, the
annuity beginning on reaching a specified age. Where the allow­
ance is paid for entirely by the church or where the whole system is
one of “ relief,” the need and means of the applicant are more likely
to be taken into consideration. Thus, the Adventists, the Southern
Presbyterians, and the Reformed Church (relief plan) take into con­
sideration the need of the pensioner and whether or not he has private
means. The Adventists, however, state that the pension is not to
1 P resbyterian C h urch in the U n ited States o f A m erica.
2 Presbyterian C h u rch in the U n ited States.

110




CHAPTER V II.— B Y RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS

111

be regarded as charity, but as a just reward for service. The Mora­
vian Church states that need is not a prerequisite for the receipt of
the pension, and the Unitarian Church that the pensions “ are not
a charity; those qualified receive them as a right.”
Age and service requirements.— Sixty-five years is the most usual
age set for the retirement of ministers, the Baptists, Congregationalists, Presbyterians, and Unitarians having this provision. The age
of retirement is set by the Episcopalians at 68 and by the Reformed
Church at 70.
Service requirements vary rather widely. For ordinary retirement
the Moravian Church requires 10 years’ service, the annuity increasing
in amount with additional years of service and the maximum being
reached after 30 years’ employment. The Unitarians set the years
of service at 20 ; and the Northern Baptists, the Congregationalists,
and the Northern Presbyterians require that the clergymen shall have
been in the employ of the church for 35 years (though in the latter
case retirement at a proportionally reduced rate may be allowed for
fewer years of service).
For permanent total disablement while in the service of the church,
the Congregationalists and Northern Presbyterians allow retirement
at any time, and the Reformed Church after five years’ service, the
allowance in all three cases being proportioned upon the number of
years of active service at the time of disablement. If, however, the
disablement proves to be only temporary, the minister may resume
his membership in the pension fund. The Seventh-Day Adventists
allow retirement for disability after 10 years’ service.
Amount of age annuity or pension.— The sustentation allowances
of the Adventist Church vary with the marital status of the pensioner
and his state of health, a greater amount being granted where con­
tinuous medical treatment is necessary. The allowances vary from
$10 per week for single persons not requiring medical treatment to
$17.50 for man and wife, one of whom is undergoing constant treat­
ment. These are maximum rates and may be decreased if the bene­
ficiary has means of his own.
The Northern Baptists set the annuity at one-half the average
salary during the years of membership.
In the “ expanded” retirement plan of the Congregational Church
it is calculated that the pension for a man retiring at 65 after 35 years’
service will be equal to half his average salary for the 35 years.
Under the system now in force in the Methodist Episcopal Church
(North), the rate of pension varies from conference to conference but
may not fall below 1 per cent of the average remuneration for every
year of “ effective” service.
The Northern Presbyterian Church fixes the annuity at 1 / i per cent
x
of the salary for each year of service, using $ 1,200 as a minimum
annual salary. The annuity may not fall below $600 per year nor
exceed $2,000 per year, after 35 years of service.
Under the plan of the Episcopal Church the annuity is fixed at
\x i per cent of the average salary for each year for which contribu­
/
tions have been paid, subject to a minimum of $600 and a maximum
of 50 per cent of the average income.
The maximum pension in the Reformed Church is $500 per year;
in the Unitarian Church it is $700 per year, receivable at 65 after 20
years7 service.




112

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

Amount oj disability 'pension.— Under the retirement plan of the
Congregational Church a disabled minister receives as annuity the
amount purchasable by the accumulations to his credit in the fund
at the time of disablement. The Northern Presbyterians and the
Episcopalians allow 40 per cent of the average annual salary for the
previous five years, but the allowance may not be less than $600 nor
more than $2,000 per year. The Reformed Church allows $100 a
year if the minister becomes disabled after five years’ service, increas­
ing this amount $10 for every additional year of service.
Provision for widows and children.— The amount in the fund to the
credit of a deceased minister of the Congregational Church is used to
pay an annuity to his widow, or if there is no widow, to the minor
children or other dependents.
Widows of Moravian ministers (Northern Province) receive up to
$430 per year, and those of Northern Presbyterian and Episcopalian
ministers one-half the service pension, subject in the latter case to a
minimum of $300 per year.
In the Adventist and Presbyterian Churches a widow’s pension
ceases upon remarriage.
The Moravian and Presbyterian Churches of the north pay to
children of deceased ministers $100 per year, and the Episcopal
Church from $100 to $300 per year, according to the age of the child.
The plans of the Presbyterian (North) and Episcopal Churches
provide that the sum of the grants to widow and minor children may
not exceed the amount of the father’s service pension.
In the Reformed Church a widow receives from the sustentation
fund three-fifths of the amount to which her husband would have been
entitled, and this goes to the minor children in case of her death.
The Adventist, Methodist (North and South), and Unitarian
Churches also make some provision for widows or children or both,
but the reports do not state upon what basis this is done.
Since the priests of the Roman Catholic Church are celebate, the
problem of the care of the family does not arise there.
The table following shows the experience of the churches under the
various plans. As is seen, the relief plans are uniformly noncontrib­
utory, while the pension plans for which this point is known are
about evenly divided between contributory and noncontributory.
The contributory plans are generally on an actuarial basis. Two of
the churches having noncontributory pension plans are now consider­
ing the adoption of actuarial contributory plans. Although the
system in the Roman Catholic Church is different from, that of the
Protestant churches, it is included for the sake of completeness.
As the table shows, the various religious denominations are spend­
ing several millions of dollars every year for the care of their aged
ministers. Of those which do this through the medium of a pension
or retirement system, the most liberal in its allowances is the Protes­
tant Episcopal Church, while of those which make “ relief ” allowances,
the Southern Presbyterian Church is the most liberal. For those
denominations which reported both number of beneficiaries and
amounts disbursed in benefits the average pension allowance is
$373 and the average relief allowance is $225.




113

CHAPTER V II.— B Y RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS
T

able

3 0 .— P E N S IO N S

A N D A L L O W A N C E S P A ID TO M IN IS T E R S
R E L IG IO U S D E N O M IN A T IO N S

Year
estab­
lished

R eligious denom ination

A d v en tist, S ev en th -D a y : Susten tation . __ 1911
B a ptist (N o r th ):
P en sion _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ j _ _ 1913 _
_ _ _
R elief_______________ ___________________ j 1913
Congregational:
I
P en sion.............................................................s 1914
R elief___ ______ ________________________
Latter D a y Saints: P en sio n _______________
M eth od ist (N o r th ):
Pensions, regular service...........................
Pensions, su p p ly service............. .............
R elief___________________________________
M eth od ist, South: P en sion _________ ______
M ora v ia n (N orth ern P r o v in c e ): Pen sion..
P resbyterian (N o r th ):
P en sion .................. ............. ........... ...............
R elief___________________________________
P resbyterian (S ou th ): R e lie f........ .................
Protestant E p iscopal:
R etirin g fu n d __________ _____ __________
Pen sion fu n d ______________ ________ ____
R eform ed:
P e n s io n ....................................... ...................
R e lie f___________________________________
R om a n C a th olic: R elief___________________
U nitarian: P en sions....................................... ..
T ota l:
Pen sion s.
R elief____
1 Inclu des children.
2 N o data.
3 Inclu des 3 orphans.
* Age; original plan.
6 Age; expan ded plan.
6 C on tin u ed salary.

(2
)
)
(2

Y e s ..
_ _

_
Y e s _ _.
No___

1840
_

_

(2_
)

_

2, 268

N o ...

(2
)
N o ...
N o ____
N o ___

74,946
326,963
3 129,

Y e s .._
1,044
45

300,
6 29,

7 8, 530

i 3,069,
10,

2,573
49

1867

(2
)

Y es__.
N o ___
N o ___

1400
l 2,050
1 472

1 176,
(2
)
l 188,

1874
1917

Y e s ...
N o ___

l 297
l 1, 503

1 29,
I 678,

1917
1753

No__.

14
74
287
62

1 3,
i 54,
II 90,
43,

1927

(9
)

1907

(2
)
(2
)

(9
)

N o__.

(2
)

14,806
6,195

Average
allow ance
for age,
per year

1 $470,689 1 $3,953,992

171,
857,
23,

1734

S P E C IF IE D

A m o u n ts paid
S y s te m
N um ber
co n ­
in receipt
tribu­
W h ole
o f benefit L ast fiscal
tory
period o f
year
operation

120

(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

OF

5, 594,862
1,132,187

(2
)
(2
)

144
4 487

541

i 385,900

287

(2
)
(2
)
!, 251,000

(2
)

554

88

(2
)

(2
)
1 176,000

428
570

1440

(2
)

., 988,925

(2
)

199
736

:, 749, 764
12, 598
3 359,856

(2
)
(2
)
47, 529,254
2,348,781

1 267
ii 827
700
1 373
2
225

12

7 Inclu des 917 orphans.
8 Since June 11, 1920; earlier records n ot available.
9 Varies from diocese to diocese.
i° 40 dioceses.
1 11 dioceses.
1
12 C o m p u te d on basis o f those reporting b o th beneficiaries and benefits.

Seventh-Day Adventists
T h e g e n e r a l conference of Seventh-Day Adventists established a
“ sustentation” fund January 13, 1911.
Those eligible to the allowances include “ all laborers under the
direction of conferences and mission fields, including colporteurs,
nurses, and church school-teachers, who have devoted their lives to
continuous service in the work,” and employees in the church insti­
tutions. Sustentation allowances may also be paid to workers of
the above classes who become permanently disabled after having
been employed for at least 10 years. Persons entering the employ
of the church after reaching their fortieth year of age are not eligible
to benefit until they have served 15 years. Widows and orphans of
deceased workers are also eligible to allowances from the fund. Only
members of the immediate family and children under 16 are “ ordi­
narily” considered as dependents.
The sustentation cases are reviewed annually to determine “ whether
support should be continued and whether the rate paid in each case
is proper in view of all the circumstances and conditions of the
beneficiary.” In the case of widows and single women the benefits
cease upon their marriage.




114

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

Cases of temporary sickness or disability are not eligible to benefits
from the sustentation fund. The local conferences and church in­
stitutions provide care in such cases for a period of six months. After
the expiration of that period application may be made to the sustenta­
tion fund.
Rates of allowance.— The maximum allowances payable from the
sustentation fund are as follows:
1. To man and wife one of whom is sick and undergoing medical
treatment, $17.50 per week.
2 . To man and wife not undergoing treatment, $14.50 per week.
3 . To single persons undergoing treatment, $12 per week.
4 . To single persons not undergoing treatment, $10 per week.
The above are maximum rates which are correspondingly reduced
in cases where the beneficiary has private means.
The average amount of pension per week paid in 1927 amounted to
$11.06. Payments are made direct to the beneficiary by the central
committee every four weeks.
Administration.— The fund is administered by a central sustentation
committee at the denominational headquarters in Washington, D. C.
Application is made to the local or State conference which passes upon
the merits of the case. If its decision is favorable to the applicant,
the case is referred to the central committee.
Source of funds.— The funds consist of a certain proportion of the
tithes paid into the local and union conference treasuries. Union
and local conferences pay into the fund 7 per cent of the tithe; pub­
lishing houses and sanitariums 3 per cent of the tithe, and tract
societies 1 per cent on their net sales.
The pension plan is a contributory one in the sense that a part of
each church member’s tithe goes to the fund. Also beneficiaries
of the fund must continue the payment of their tithes.
Emphasis is placed upon the fact that “ in no case is the person re­
ceiving such allowance a subject of charity, but that this arrangement
has been made for the definite purpose of providing a just and neces­
sary support for those laborers who have given their lives and means
for the building up of this cause, but have made no provision for sick­
ness or age, and to supplement such private incomes of our laborers
as prove insufficient for their needs.”
Payments from the fund.— During the year ending December 27,
1927, the payments from the sustentation fund amounted to $470,689,
and during the whole period since 1911 to $3,953,992.
On August 23, 1928, there were 840 persons in receipt of the pension.
Northern Baptist Convention
T h e Northern Baptist Convention established its Ministers and
Missionaries’ Benefit Board in 1913. The board has two lines of
activity: It makes grants on the basis of need, and “ cooperates in the
preparation of a pension for men who are now in active service upon
which they may draw after attaining age 65.”
On April 30, 1928, there were 2,268 persons receiving “ relief,”
and the amount so disbursed during the year ending on that date
amounted to $326,963.
Under the pension plan the pastors, or their churches on their be­
half, contribute 6 per cent of their salaries the first year. The second




CHAPTER V II.---- B Y RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS

115

year the board undertakes to pay 70 per cent of the pastor’s contribu­
tion, the latter therefore being required to contribute only the remain­
ing 30 per cent, or 1.8 per cent of his salary.
Pastors entering at the age of 30 years and remaining in the fund for
35 years become entitled to an annual pension of one-half the average
salary during the years of membership.
On April 30, 1928, there were 2,241 members of the pension plan.
Contributions by the board on behalf of members amounted to
$172?501 during the year, and disbursements for pensions to $74,946.
Congregational Church
Pension Plan
T h e
a n n u it y
’fund for Congregational ministers was put into
operation in May, 1914, and operated until December 31, 1921. At
that time the basis of the scheme was changed, persons who had taken
an annuity under the original plan being allowed the option of con­
tinuing it or of transferring to the new plan. Both plans are con­
tributory, the dues in the original plan being based upon age and in
the so-called “ expanded plan” being based upon salary.'
Operated in conjunction with the annuity plan is the Pilgrim
Memorial Fund, amounting in 1927 to nearly $5,000,000, the income
from which is used to help defray the payments under the original plan
and to assist the members of the “ expanded plan” to meet their
dues after the first year. The credit from this fund in 1928 is $90
per member, “ which takes care of a very considerable portion of the
dues of the member after the first year of membership. During the
first year the full dues must be settled for by, or on the account of,
the member.”
Those eligible for membership in the annuity fund include ( 1) pastors
of Congregational churches; (2) secretaries of church organizations, and
missionaries; (3) editors of denominational literature; (4) professors
in theological seminaries; (5) teachers in school and college whose
work could be considered parallel to that of a Congregational minister;
and (6) pastors of community or federated churches. Others engaged
in undenominational work may also be admitted, each case being
determined on its own merits.
Kinds of annuities.— Under the original plan annuities were paid
at age 65, 68, or 70, without requiring retirement. The premium
payments were met by the minister himself and the Congregational
churches, he paying one-fifth and the church four-fifths. The
premium rates were set at an amount sufficient to produce an annuity
of $500 after 30 years’ service. The maximum annuity payable to
the widow or minor children under the plan was $300.
The annuity was also payable for total disability to perform the
ministerial duties. If the disability proved to be only temporary, the
member could begin the payment of premiums and resume his
standing in the fund.
Under the “ expanded plan” the rates are fixed at 6 per cent of the
salary of the member (the free rent of a parsonage, where furnished,
being regarded as 15 per cent of the salary). It is intended that the
local church shall contribute to the payment of the dues, on a 50-50
basis. Up to December 31, 1927, however, only 624 had done so, a




116

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

number which the 1927 report of the fund characterizes as “ far below
what it ought to be.”
It is calculated that the above dues for a man entering the plan at
30 years of age will be sufficient to provide a single-life annuity at
age 65 equivalent to one-half the average salary for the 35 years, or
a joint life and survivorship annuity of approximately 80 per cent
of the single-life annuity.
Retirement is not a requisite for the receipt of the annuity.
If the member becomes permanently and totally disabled before
beginning to receive the annuity, he may use the entire amount
accumulated to his credit to purchase a disability annuity to con­
tinue for the rest of his life. As in the original plan, if he becomes
able to assume his duties, he may resume his membership in the fund
without prejudice.
If the member dies before receiving the annuity, the entire amount
to his credit is used to pay an annuity to his widow, or if there is no
widow, to his minor children until they become of age, or failing
these, to other dependents.
In case of withdrawal from the fund the amount to the member’s
credit, including the supplement from the Pilgrim Memorial Fund,
remains at interest until he reaches the annuity age, when it becomes
payable on the basis of the amount available. Interest on credits is
computed at the rate of 4 per cent, but is adjusted each year to the
earnings of the investments.
The fund will also receive from members additional payments
which it places to their credit to receive interest at the same rate as
the premium payments. In this way the minister may increase his
final annuity considerably. All such deposits are subject to the rules
of the fund and are not withdrawable.
Administration.— The fund is administered by a board of nine
trustees elected by the membership of the fund from a list of eligibles
approved by the national council of the church. They may be
either clergymen or laymen, but must be male citizens, over 21 years,
and in ecclesiastical relationship with the Congregational churches
in the United States. A majority must be citizens of New Jersey,
the Stata under whose laws the fund is incorporated.
Statistics oj the plan.— At the end of 1927 there were in the original
plan 1,383 members, of whom 350 were receiving annuities. Of
these, 234 were receiving the age annuity, 17 were receiving the dis­
ability annuity, 96 were widows receiving their husband’s benefits,
and 3 were orphans.
The average annuity paid in 1927 for age amounted to $487.24 per
person, and that for disability to $331.63. The widows received an
average annuity of $205.54. The total amount paid in annuities
during the year was $129,336, of which $119,834 was for age. Total
payments made under this plan since its inauguration amount to
$385,707.
The expanded plan had a membership at the end of 1927 of 997.
Of these, 23 were in receipt of the annuity— 3 for age, 2 for disability,
and 18 because of widowhood.
Payments for annuities under this plan in 1927 amounted to
$121.76, an average of $40.59 per annuitant. So far, $193.46 has
been paid in annuities under the expanded plan,




CHAPTER V II.---- BY RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS

117

The amount in the annuity fund— both classes of plan-—at the end
of 1927 was as follows:
Pilgrim Memorial Fund_________________________________________________ $4, 926, 910
Profit reserve____________________________________________________________
132, 980
Assets— annuity fund___________________________________________________
3, 132, 841
Total_____________________________________________________________

8, 192, 731

Income from Pilgrim Memorial Fund_________________________________
Supplementary fund____________________________________________________

231, 213
37, 105

Relief Allow
ances

Along with the annuity fund is operated a relief fund, administered
by the Congregational Board for Ministerial Relief. From this
fund provision is made for sick or aged ministers, their widows, and
orphans, who are known to be in need and for whom no other provi­
sion has been made.
Amounts paid in relief average up to $500 per year. In 1927
there were 1,044 such grants made, the total so expended aggregating
about $300,000.
In addition to the annuities and relief for ministers, it is stated
that “ practically all Congregational churches of any size have small
funds for the relief of the needy, varying in amount according to the
local situation.”
Latter Day Saints

As a l r e a d y noted, the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of
Latter Day Saints has no regular pension system. The report from
that organization states that the church pays its ministry “ on the
basis of lifetime service.” When a minister becomes too old for
service, he is retired and his salary is continued until death, if he
“ continues worthy.” The family of a minister dying in active service
is provided for until the children are able to care for themselves.
There are now 45 superannuated ministers on the retired list.
Their salaries last year amounted to $29,145.
Methodist Episcopal Church (North)
T h e p e n s i o n plan of the Methodist Episcopal Church (North) was
put into operation in 1908. Ministers, their widows and orphans,
and other persons in the employ of the church or its institutions are
eligible to the benefit.
Statistics of the System

The report of the secretary of the board for the year ending Decem­
ber 31, 1927, showed that there were in receipt of the pension 8,530
persons, of whom 3,516 were ministers, 4,097 were the widows of
ministers, and 917 were ministers’ orphan children. A total of
$3,069,343 was disbursed in pensions during the year.
Under the present system the rate of pension may not be less than
1 per cent of the average salary (including free house rent as 15 per
cent of the salary) for every year of “ effective” service. The local
conference may increase the above rate if it pleases. The average
salary paid to ministers varies from conference to conference, falling
below $500 per year in 2 conferences and exceeding $2,000 in 18 con­




118

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

ferences. The pensions therefore vary just as widely. In 1927 there
were 20 conferences where the average annual pension was $50 or less,
while 27 conferences paid pensions of more than $ 1,000. The average
pension in all conferences combined is about $14.50 per year of service.
In 1927 the average pension paid to ministers was $554, to widows
$297, and to children $67.
Since 1908, when the plan was started, $38,251,000 has been dis­
bursed in pensions. The statement below shows the growth of the
pension plan by 4-year periods since 1900:
P en sions paid

1 9 00 -1 903________________________________________________ $1, 183, 000
19 04 -1 907 - _ ______________________________________________
1, 473, 000
19 08 -1 911________________________________________________
3, 171, 000
19 12 -1 915________________________________________________
4, 431, 000
1916 -1 919________________________________________________
5, 497, 000
1920 -1 923________________________________________________
9, 849, 000
19 24 -1 927 ________________________________________________ 12, 647, 000
T otal______________________________________________

38, 251, 000

In some cases where the pension is inadequate it is supplemented
by additional grants. Such grants amounted to $171,266 in 1927.
The amounts so disbursed are decreasing year by year as the regular
annuities increase.
A special committee deals with the retirement of supply pastors.
A yearly appropriation of $ 10,000 is made for this purpose, but, ac­
cording to the report, “ five times that amount is needed.” The
number of beneficiaries from this fund in 1927 was 120 and the total
distribution $10,505.
Basis of Plan, and Substitute Proposed

At present the fund operates largely on a current revenue basis.
There are no actuarial reserves, though approximately $20 ,000,000 is
held in permanent funds.
The actuarial stability of the fund has been causing some concern,
and the General Conference of 1924 directed that the whole matter
be referred for study to a special committee. That committee has
recommended a plan which, if adopted, will place the whole scheme
on an actuarial basis, and make the fund a contributory one.
Under the plan each conference will contribute to the fund an
amount equal to 8 per cent of the minister’s salary, and each minister
will contribute 2 ^ per cent of his salary (subject to a maximum an­
nual payment by him of $200).
The claimant will have the right of retirement at 68 years, but the
conference may, at its option, retire him three years earlier.
Service retirement.—The annual benefits are to consist of a “ service
annuity,” payable out of the funds contributed by the annual con­
ference, and an “ income annuity” payable out of the contributions
of the annuitant, the whole to be termed the “ pension.”
In case the minister dies while still in service his widow shall be
entitled to the annuity provided by her husband’s contributions plus
two-thirds of his accumulated service annuity. If this falls below
$300 per year, the amount may be increased to that amount, in the
discretion of the board. In case of her remarriage her annuity ceases,
but she is to receive any sums remaining from her husband’s contri­
butions to the fund. Each minor child of a deceased member is en­
titled to an annuity of $75 until reaching age 16, unless schooling




CHAPTER V II.— B Y RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS

119

continues beyond that age, in which case the annuity may be increased
$150 to continue until age 21.
The total annuities to the widow and minor children of a deceased
annuitant may not exceed the pension received by him. If a mem­
ber dies before retirement the combined pension may not exceed his
average annual salary for the three preceding years.
Disability benefit may be granted to members less than 65 years of
age if disability “ has been plainly evident” for not less than 180 days,
if it is certified by a physician’s report, and if it is such as to incapaci­
tate him permanently and totally from performing his duties. This
benefit may be equivalent to 40 per cent of his average annual salary,
subject to a maximum of $800 per year. In case of a member dis­
abled between 60 and 65 years of age, the total disability payment
shall not exceed the pension which his income and service annuities
would purchase at age 65, assuming the same rate of contribution as
that prior to the disablement.
Payment of benefits for the waiting period of 180 days is left to the
discretion of the board.
If the disabled pensioner recovers his health he may return to the
employ of the church and reenter the fund.
Methodist Episcopal Church, South
Pension Plan
T h e . 48 annual conferences of the Methodist Episcopal Church,
South, levy an annual assessment upon the local churches of the con­
ference for the support of retired ministers and their widows. The
church at large has a superannuate endowment fund the interest of
which is used as annuities, and many of the annual conferences also
have funds raised for the purpose. During the past four years a
special effort has been made to reach a goal of $ 10,000,000 in the
endowment fund. The 1927-28 report of the church board of finance
shows that on March 31, 1928, the general endowment fund amounted
to $3,110,584 and the conference funds on deposit with the board to
$1,790,795.
During the year 1926-27 there were on the pension rolls of the
church 2,573 persons, of whom 1,090 were superannuated ministers
and 1,483 were widows of ministers. A total of $857,128 was paid
for their support, of which $718,014 came from the conference boards
and $139,114 from the general board. In many cases the superannu­
ated minister is given the use of a house, rent free.
Poor Relief

All the well-organized congregations of the church, it is stated, have
a monthly collection called the “ social service offering,” which is used
for the relief of the poor in the community.
Moravian Church (Northern Province)
Pension Plan

F r o m the very beginning of the Moravian Church in America—
about 1734— the church has made provision for its superannuated
ministers.




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CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

All who have served the church in its ministry, in either the home
field or foreign field, are eligible for the retirement annuity after 10
years’ service. The amount of the annuity is graduated with the
years of service, the maximum, $700 per year, becoming payable
after 30 years of service. Need is not a prerequisite for the receipt of
the pension. The treasurer of the sustentation fund states that the
pension “ goes into effect automatically upon retirement without
application having to be made.”
In addition to the pension certain pensioners also are allowed the
use of a dwelling, rent free.
The widow of a minister may also receive a pension, the maximum
amount being $430 per year. The rules of the fund provide that
children between the ages of 13 and 17 shall receive an allowance of
not to exceed $100 per year when the condition of the fund will allow
it. Such allowances were paid for the first time in 1927-28 to 28
children.
During the year ending April 30, 1928, pensions were paid to 22
retired ministers and 27 widows, the amounts paid totaling $23,448.
The allowances to the children amounted to $2,600.
At the end of the fiscal year the sustentation fund of the church
amounted to $370,658.
Relief Work

Many of the older congregations have “ poor funds” from which
aid is given to aged and needy members.
Presbyterian Church (North)
Annuity Plan
T h e a n n u i t y system of the Presbyterian Church in the United
States of America was established April 1, 1927.
The plan allows retirement at the age of 65 (or earlier if disabled)
after 35 years of service. Retirement is also allowed after a shorter
period of service, but at a proportionally reduced rate.
In calculating the pension $ 1,200 is taken as the minimum salary.
(If a manse is furnished, its rental is calculated as 15 per cent of the
salary.) The pension equals l^ i per cent of the salary for each year
of contribution. The minimum pension is $600 per year and the
maximum $2,000 per year, after 35 years of service.
The disability pension equals 40 per cent of the average salary
for the previous five years, subject to the same minimum and maxi­
mum as above. If granted before the age of 60, the allowance may
not exceed the earned service annuity (subject to a minimum of $600).
Pensions paid to widows of ministers who were retired members
of the fund may not exceed half the service pension. A pension to
the widow of a minister who was still in service may not exceed one-half
the service credits earned by him. Her pension ceases upon remar­
riage. Minor children are entitled to an annuity of not to exceed
$100 per year during their minority, but the sum of the grants to
widow and the minor children may not exceed the amount of the
father’s service pension.
Funds are secured by a contribution of 23^ per cent of the salary
by the minister himself and 73^ per cent by the employing church.
On March 31, 1928, the fund had to its credit $5,473,064.




CHAPTER V II.— B Y RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS

121

On that date it had 7,500 contributing members and 400 pensioners.
The amount paid in annuities during the year ending March 31,
1928, was $176,000.
Relief Department

The board of pensions also administers a relief department. In
1927-28 there were 2,050 persons assisted through this department.
No data are available as to the amount disbursed.
Presbyterian Church (South)
S i n c e 1867 the Presbyterian Church in the United States has been
making provision for its aged and infirm ministers and their widows.
In that year the home missions committee of sustentation was author­
ized to appropriate 5 per cent of all contributions for this purpose.
Several other schemes of relief were tried as years went by, but did not
prove satisfactory
In 1902 the endowment fund of ministerial relief was started, the
income of which has been used for relief purposes. In granting relief
“ service to the church, age, need, number of dependents, and other
sources of supply are all taken into consideration.”
During the year 1927-28 those on the rolls of the fund included 165
ministers, 251 widows, 52 orphans, and 4 unordained missionaries—
a total of 472. The average amount paid to each of the retired min­
isters was $559.55, to the widows $338.89, to the orphans $190.25, and
to the missionaries $259.50. The total amount expended in pensions
during the year was $188,319. Since 1903 the church has spent a total
of $1,988,925 for the relief of aged ministers and their widows and
orphans.
The endowment fund now amounts to $1,564,381.
The church has a reciprocity agreement with the Presbyterian
Church in the United States of America by which each gives credit for
the time spent by a minister in the service of the other.

New Plan

Since the present arrangement is not sound from an actuarial stand­
point, an annuity plan is to be put into effect. This fund will pro­
vide, for each member retiring at the age of 65 years, an annuity of
one-seventieth of his salary for each year of service during which con­
tributions have been made. For permanent total disability after one
year’s membership in the fund, an annuity will be paid amounting
to 40 per cent of the average salary of the member for the five years
previous.
The minimum retirement allowance will be fixed at $600 a year.
Provision will also be made for the widow and minor children of a
deceased minister.
Funds will be provided by joint contributions from churches and
ministers. A sum will be raised from the whole membership of the
church sufficient to cover the accrued liability for service rendered
prior to the inauguration of the plan, each local church or agency
employing a minister will contribute an amount equal to 7 ^ per cent
of his salary, and the minister himself will contribute 2]4, Per cent of
his salary.
It is estimated that approximately $3,000,000 will be needed to
cover the accrued liability, and it is hoped to accumulate this amount
by 1930,



122

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

Protestant Episcopal Church
Retiring Fund Society
I n 1874 the Clergymen’s Retiring Fund Society of the Protestant
Episcopal Church was organized. Its membership was open to all
clergymen of the church. Rates were $12 per year per share taken,
payable until reaching 60 years of age. Funds so accumulated were
also increased by income from investments, legacies and gifts, offerings
from the parishes, etc.
The annuity purchased began at 60; its amount was left to the
discretion of the trustees but usually amounted to 25 per cent of the
member’s payments.
In 1917, however, a general pension system for the whole church
was adopted. Since that time no new members have been admitted
to the society and former members have been forbidden to increase
their holdings. The society is therefore declining and gradually going
out of business.
On October 31, 1927, there were 119 contributing members and 297
annuitants. The average annuity paid to these amounted to about
$99. During the year ending with the above date $29,026 was dis­
bursed in annuities.
Church Pension Fund

The Church Pension Fund started operations on March 1, 1917.
Its plan covers all clergy ordained and in the active service of the
church after that date. Under the scheme four classes of provision
are made:
( 1) For age, 1}{ per cent of the average salary for each year of paid
assessments, subject to a minimum pension of $600. The retirement
age is fixed at 68 years. No pension may exceed 50 per cent of the
average salary.
(2 ) For disability, 40 per cent of the average salary for the previous
five years, subject to a minimum of $600 and a maximum of $2 ,000 .
(3) For widows, one-half of the pension to which the husband
would have been entitled at the time of his death, subject to a mini­
mum of $300 per year.
(4) For minor children, fixed amounts graduated according to age,
ranging from $100 for children below 7 to $300 for children from 14
to majority.
The combined allowance to widow and minor children may not
exceed the annuity to which the husband would have been entitled.
The funds are secured by contributions from each employing
church of a sum equal to 7% per cent of the pastor’s salary. The
minister himself contributes nothing.
As noted above, the scheme contemplated pensions for only clergy
entering the service of the church on or after March 1, 1917. But
there were many who had been in its service long before that date
and who had to be taken care of. The pension fund, upon its forma­
tion, took over liability for all of the grants of the general clergy
relief fund and the various diocesan relief funds. On December 31,
1926, the fund was carrying, on these accounts, an annual expendi­
ture of $51,993 not provided for under the rules of the pension system.
Permission was obtained from the general convention to use a fund
of $450,000 which had been raised previously for the general relief




CHAPTER V II.— B Y RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS

123

fund. When this fund was exhausted the trustees began to use the
surplus income in the pension fund to pay assessments for these priorservice ministers and to grant pensions on the basis of these assess­
ments.
This action, which means an attempt completely to wipe out the accrued
liabilities, was to be done in the order of the ordination of the clergy who were
in active service when the pension system started. In order that all might have
an equal chance of sharing in this improvement in the pension system, such back
assessments were not to be paid all at once for any given clergyman, but only at
one time sufficient to produce the next step in the amount of the pension; and
the clergy were to be grouped, by order of ordination, in hundreds, with one
more hundred always in each step in the pensions than in the step immediately
higher.

On September 1,1927, the pension fund had by this means been able
to pension 319 of these prior-service ministers.
The condition of the funds proving to warrant such action, the
trustees took a further step in adding to the widows’ pension of $300
a year, a lump sum of $1,000 payable immediately upon the death
of the husband.
On December 31, 1927, there were 1,503 persons on the pension roll,
to whom a total of $678,642 was paid during the year. The average
allowances per year for the four classes of pensioners are as follows:
Age annuitants, $735.68; disability annuitants, $603.22; widows,
$369.52; and orphans, $137.95.
Since the inception of the pension plan a total of $4,749,764 has
been disbursed.
Reformed Church in the United States
T h e Reformed Church in the United States has two funds from
which provision is made for retired ministers and their widows—
the relief fund and the sustentation fund. The first grants for minis­
terial relief were made in 1752. The first organization for ministerial
relief was known as the “ Widows’ Fund,” and was established in
1755. Out of this society grew the “ Society of Guardians for the
Relief of Widows of the German Reformed Clergymen Being Mem­
bers of the Society,” chartered on March 26, 1810, and the “ Society
for the Relief of Ministers and their Widows,” established February
28, 1865. The present Board of Ministerial Relief was created by
the General Synod of the Reformed Church in the United States in
May, 1905. The sustentation fund was established in 1917.
Benefits from the relief department vary, according to the need,
from $50 to $700.
The sustentation fund is a contributory one. The maximum
benefit payable for superannuation (at 70 years of age) is $500 a year.
For disability the allowance varies according to the years of service,
beginning with $100 a year for five years’ service, $10 being added for
each additional year. A widow receives three-fifths of the amount
to which her husband would have been entitled, and this amount
goes to any minor children in case of her death. Since the sustenta­
tion fund has not yet been completed, at present only 40 per cent of
the maximum rates are being paid; these range from $24 to $164 per
year.
At the end of 1927 there were 205 annuitants on the roll of the relief
fund, of whom 74 were ministers and 131 were ministers' widows. A

35777°—29--- 9




124

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

total of $54,659 was expended for relief during the year, an average of
$266.63 per person. Many of the early records of the church have
been lost, and therefore no data are available as to the total amount
of ministerial relief paid by this church. Since June 1, 1920, how­
ever, $359,856 has been disbursed.
Pensioners on the sustentation roll at the end of 1927 numbered 35,
of whom 14 were ministers and 21 were widows. Sustentation pay­
ments amounted to $3,132, an average of $89.48 per person. Since
1922, when the fund began the payment of benefits, these have
totaled $12,598.
Roman Catholic Church
T h e p r o b l e m of the care of aged and infirm priests in the Catholic
Church is much simpler than that faced by the Protestant churches.
In the first place, the Catholic clergy being celibate, there are no
families to care for. Again, in the Roman Catholic Church the
priests who are members of religious orders or communities are cared
for in their old age by the order. The matter of the care of aged
priests in charge of parishes, however, is left to the various dioceses,
and the provision made varies from diocese to diocese. In the attempt
to ascertain just what is done for superannuates, the Bureau of Labor
Statistics addressed an inquiry to each of the more than 100 dioceses
of the church in the United States. Replies have been received from
71 of these.
In general these indicate that the great majority of the parish
priests continue “ in harness” to the end of their days. As one
diocesan chancellor expresses it:

The nature of a parish priest’s work is such that he can go on with it at any
age, provided his health is fairly good. Even when his health fails, if it does not
utterly fail, some of the lighter forms of a priest’s work in the diocese are found
for him. In the event that his health fails in a degree that incapacitates him,
he is looked after in our hospitals suited to the illness from which he suffers.

However, all but five of the dioceses reporting make some pro­
vision for the care of the aged priests, though 18 report that no cases
are being cared for at present.
A number of dioceses report that their practice, when a priest
becomes too old or too infirm for active parish work, is to secure for
him a position with very light duties, such as that of chaplain in a
religious institution. In such cases he receives board and lodging in
the institution and often an allowance from the diocese in addition.
In about two-thirds of the dioceses reporting there is a special relief
or pension fund from which allowances are made to superannuated
priests.^ In some instances the clergy relief fund, as it is usually
called, is maintained entirely by an assessment upon the priests who
are members of the fund; this is the situation in 13 of the dioceses
reporting, although in 2 of these if the funds so collected are not
sufficient the difference is made up by the diocese from the general
funds. In these cases the contribution of the priest varies from $5 to
$30 per year. In 7 cases the relief fund is formed from the dues of the
priests plus a certain contribution from the parishes; the latter may
be raised by an assessment upon the parish of a certain amount per
priest or through an annual church collection taken for the purpose,
or through appropriation of a certain proportion of the general income
of the diocesan relief fund. In 19 cases the cost of the fund is met




CHAPTER V II.— B Y RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS

125

altogether from the diocesan funds or by the parishes. Eleven other
dioceses report having a clergy retiring fund but do not state how it is
supported.
The allowances made vary considerably from diocese to diocese.
One diocese pays an allowance of $40-$45 per month, one of $40-$50,
one of $45, one of $40-$70 per month, one of $40-$75, four of $50, and
one of $100 per month. In one diocese the pensioner receives $20 per
month from the funds raised by a levy upon the parishes plus $25 per
month from the fund of the priests themselves, while in another the
allowance is $50 from each of these sources. One diocese each pays
$400 per year, $400-$600, $400-$800, and “ $600 and up,” and two pay
$ 1,000 per year. Several others have no specified pension amounts,
but allow whatever amount the circumstances require.
Some of the provisions made are most liberal. One diocese reports
that a retired priest is generally assigned to a chaplaincy in a religious
institution which gives him his living expenses; in addition he receives
$ 1,000 per year from the parish. Another reports as follows:
The policy in this diocese for superannuated and sickly members of the clergy
is to deal with each case individually. In other words, it is our desire to have
each priest write his own ticket. When his desires are made known to us, then
we make every effort to meet them.
Thus far we have had no trouble in giving satisfaction.
A t this time we have four members of the clergy who are receiving an annual
pension. W e correspond with them regularly in order to see if any new situation
has developed that would suggest a change one way or the other.
On several occasions it has been discussed as to the advisability of building
homes. After mature deliberation it was generally agreed that the clergy
would prefer to be free and spend their declining days as they themselves choose.
Ordinarily they pick a sanitarium, a hospital, one of our many homes for the
aged, and have even been invited to share the hospitality in the bishop’s house.
In other words, there are so many different angles to the solution of the individual
case that we prefer to leave them free to make their own decision.

In some instances the aged priest remains as “ pastor emeritus”
in the parish where he has served, being supported by the parish and
living in the local clerical residence. In one diocese the aged priest
remains as before, but is given an assistant.
The bishop of one diocese takes the stand that “ priests should
provide for themselves by saving some money for days of sickness
and old age; but if they can not do it or have neglected to do so, the
diocese will help when it becomes necessary.” Another, however,
states that “ from their rather meager salary during their producing
years the priests of our diocese can save very little. * * * We
have a fund for infirm and indigent priests. This represents a small
amount of money contributed annually by each parish. The fund
is woefully small and far from meeting the many demands on it.”
The priests have therefore formed a relief fund of their own which
pays a disability or old-age allowance after the third month of
disability or after reaching 65 years of age.
Altogether, 40 dioceses reporting are paying retirement allowances
to 287 superannuated pastors, in addition to those who are being
cared for in hospitals or other institutions of the church or who have
been assigned to some light duties. Data as to the annual amounts
spent for retirement allowances are available in only 11 cases; these
are expending $90,980 per year for the care of 110 priests, making an
annual average pension of $827.




126

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

Of those which make no provision for the aged pastors one reports
that the priests are urged to carry health insurance, but otherwise the
matter is “ left to the charity of the people/’ and another that a plan
is under advisement.
Unitarian Church
T h e r e are several aid and relief associations in the Unitarian
Church. These include temporary aid in case of pressing financial
emergency, special continued relief for unusual cases of necessity
among ministers not yet retired, relief funds for clergymen’s widows,
and a service pension (in operation since 1907) for ministers of
retiring age.
The service pension of $700 per year is payable to Unitarian min­
isters, 65 years of age or over, who have served at least 20 years.
“ These pensions are not a charity; those qualified receive them as a
right.”
On April 30, 1928, there were 62 ministers in receipt of the pension.
The amount paid in pensions during the year ending with this date
was $43,400.
The amount in the permanent pension fund in 1926 was $440,096.
Church of United Brethren in Christ

A m i n i s t e r i a l pension plan has been adopted by the Church of
United Brethren in Christ, but its operation is postponed until a suffi­
ciently large endowment ($ 1,000,000 is estimated as necessary) is
obtained. It is hoped that this can be had by 1930.
Several of the annual conferences of the church have endowments
for the relief of their ministers and their widows.
Other Churches Having Pension Plans
T h e Congregational Methodist Church reports that it has a super­
annuation fund from which small annual amounts are paid to minis­
ters, and the Universalist and Anglican Universal Churches report
that they are just starting a pension plan. No details are available
for any of these plans.
A number of other church organizations reported having pension
plans, but the Bureau of Labor Statistics has been unable to obtain
any data concerning these plans. These include:
African Zion Methodist Episcopal Church.
African Methodist Episcopal Church.
United Presbyterian Church.
United Lutheran Churches in America.
Christian Reformed Church.
Evangelical Synod of North America.

The General Conference of Seventh-Day Baptists has no pension
plan, but has a ministerial relief fund, the interest on which is used in
aiding aged ministers. Some of the regional conferences of this
church have similar funds.




CHAPTER V II.— B Y RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS

127

Pension and Insurance Plans of Church Fraternal Organizations
ATHOLIC.— The Catholic Order of Foresters in its certificates
of insurance includes a clause permitting the policyholder to
surrender it upon his reaching the age of 70 years, the member re­
ceiving its cash value at the time of surrender.
The Ladies’ Catholic Benevolent Association issues paid-up insur­
ance certificates to members who were 59 years of age or older Octo­
ber 1, 1921.
The First Catholic Slovak Ladies’ Union provides for payment of
the cash value of the member’s benefit certificate at age 70, besides
giving relief to needy members in amounts up to $ 100.
The Union Saint-Jean-Baptiste d ’Amerique inaugurated a pension
plan in November, 1918. The plan provides for “ aged, crippled, and
incurable members and the wives and children of deceased members.”
This is done, it is pointed out, not through charity, but “ through
motives of duty and gratitude.”
Members who have reached 70 years of age, the wives and children
of deceased members, and disabled and incurable members, who are
unable to provide for their own wants, are eligible to benefits. The
pension varies according to circumstances and ranges from $15 to
$30 per month.
At the end of 1927 there were 157 pensioners. During the year
$31,161 was paid in pensions and since 1918, when the fund was
started, disbursements have amounted to $189,467.
The Pennsylvania Slovak, Roman, and Greek Catholic Union has
no regular pension plan, but does make allowances of $25 per year
to members submitting proof that they are unable to support them­
selves.
The Polish Roman Catholic Union of America and the Western
Catholic Union issue certificates of insurance which may be surren­
dered at reaching 70 years of age. The latter is considering the
establishment of a home for aged members. Several years ago the
order undertook to place aged needy members in an old people’s
home, the expense to be borne by the order; thus far no members have
made application for such assistance.
The Bohemian Roman Catholic Union of Texas has an old-age
relief fund from which needy members 70 years of age or over may
be assisted.
Jewish.— The Jewish National Workers’ Alliance of America has a
relief fund made up from voluntary contributions from members. In
addition, at least 75 of its branches have local funds for this purpose
raised by voluntary contributions and quarterly assessments upon the
membership.
Lutheran.— There is within the Wisconsin synodical conference a
mutual insurance organization, called the Aid Association for Luther­
ans, which offers a policy covering old-age benefits as well as perma­
nent disability benefits and life insurance. Upon reaching the age of
70 the member may elect ( 1) to receive as an old-age benefit, the full
reserve of $868, in one sum; (2 ) $ 1,000 in 10 equal annual installments,
or (3) $ 1,200 as paid-up insurance for life.

C




128

CARE OP AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

Homes for the Aged Maintained by Religious Organizations
HE Bureau has the names of 526 homes for the aged and infirm
run by religious organizations. These include 444 homes estab­
lished and supported by churches of individual denominations, 13
homes which churches of several denominations cooperate in main­
taining, 58 homes which are run by philanthropic organizations
of a religious aspect or connection, and 1 which is the home of a
religious fraternal society. The church home may be a national
home, such as the National Lutheran Home for the Aged, which is
supported by the whole Lutheran body, it may be maintained by a
State or district conference of a specified denomination, or it may be
a purely local affair supported by one or more local churches. Homes
which are operated through the joint support of several denomina­
tions— say, the various Protestant churches, or the Methodist and
Presbyterian churches of a city, have been classified as “ joint church”
homes. In the classification, “ religious philanthropic organizations,”
have been included organizations which, while undenominational, have
a distinctly religious aspect, such as the King’s Daughters’ and the
Jewish homes. The latter were not included with the “ church ” organ­
izations because it is understood that seldom, if at all, are these homes
supported by any specified Jewish congregation. The Salvation Army
and the Volunteers of America are also included in this group because,
while distinctly religious bodies, they nevertheless are essentially social
service and philanthropic rather than denominational organizations.
Of the 526 homes, the Bureau of Labor Statistics has obtained
data for 444, distributed by States as follows:

T

T

able

3 1 .— D IS T R I B U T IO N O F H O M E S F O R A G E D R U N B Y R E L IG IO U S B O D IE S

State

T o ta l
num ­
ber o f
hom es

Num ­
ber re­
port­
ing

1
25
4
19
2
12
1
4
2
43
14
14
7
7
6
2
19
22
19
24
1

1
19
3
19
2
12
1
4
2
40
13
11
7
3
5
1
19
15
16
22

A la b a m a _____________________________
C a liforn ia ______ _________ ___________
C olo r a d o _____________________ _______
C o n n e c tic u t________________________ _
D elaw are_______________________ _____
D istrict o f C o lu m b ia . ...................... ..
F lo r id a _________ ______ _______ _______
G eorgia...... .................................................
Id a h o ____________________ ___________
Illin ois ______
_______
____
I n d ia n a____ _____ _________ __________
I o w a ........................... ....................... .........
K a n sa s_________________________ _____
K e n t u c k y ___________________________
L ou isiana________________ ___________
M a in e ...................... ..................... ........... .
M a r y la n d .................................... .............
M assachusetts............ ....................... ..
M ic h ig a n _______________ ____________
M in n esota
M ississip p i......................................... ..

State

T o ta l N u m ­
n u m ­ ber re­
ber o f p o r t­
hom es
ing

M issou ri__________________ ________ __
N e b r a s k a ..................................................
N e w H am psh ire.......... _.........................
N e w J e r s e y . . ____________ ____ ______
N e w Y o r k .......... .......................................
N o rth C a r o lin a ...______________
N o rth D a k o t a .........................................
O h io.............................................................
O r e g o n ........................................ ......
P e n n sy lv a n ia . __
R h o d e Isla n d ______
_________
South C arolina
. . . .
South D a k o t a .................................
Tennessee _ ____________ ______
T exa s.............. .................................... ..
V erm on t
_____________ _________
V ir g in ia ____________ _____ ______
W a sh in g to n ________
_____
W isco n s in ...........................................

13
6
6
15
i 86
2
1
27
2
62
5
8
1
3
9
2
7
7
16

10
5
3
11
i 73
1

T o t a l.................................................

i 526

1444

22
2
56
5
3
1
2
9
5
5
16

1 In clu d es 1 religious fraternal h om e.

Table 32 which follows shows the total number of homes and the
number reporting, the capacity and average number in residence,
and the annual cost of operation, classified by type of organization
supporting the home.




129

CHAPTER V II.— B Y RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS
T

able

3 2 .— N U M B E R

O F A G E D IN H O M E S O F R E L IG IO U S G R O U P S , A N D A N N U A L
C O ST O F O P E R A T IO N

N um ­
T o ta l
ber of
nu m ber hom es
of
report­
hom es
ing

Sponsoring organization

Inm ates

C a p acity
o f hom es

Average
n u m ber in
residence

A n nual
cost of
operation

R eligious denom inations:
B aptist

___ ________________________________

D isciples of C h rist-. _________________________
_ ______________________
_
E v an gelical. _
E vangelical S yn od _
_
_ __________
Friends
- - __________
_________ . . .
Latter D a y Saints _ _
_
L u t h e r a n . ________ __
_________ ,
_______
M en n on ite
- ___
M eth od ist.
__ _ - ________
M oravian
_
___
_________
P resbyterian
__
_
___
_______
Protestant E p iscopal
_
R eform ed and Christian R eform ed Churches
_______
of A m erica _
_
_
R eform ed C h urch of the U n ited States______
R iv er B rethren
__
_
__ . . - _______
R om a n C ath olic
Scandinavian E vangelical
__ _________
U n ited B rethren ___
___
__ __ ________
U niversalist___________
._ _
___________
__ ____
____ __ __
U n classified_____
Joint c h u r c h ..
________ ____________________
T o ta l- __ .

______________ _____ ______

R eligious philan th ropic organizations:
_
_______________________
J e w is h ..._
K in g ’s D a u g h te r s .._____________ ________
_
_______________________
Salvation A r m y _
Volunteers of A m e r i c a ______________________
T o t a l . _________ _____ _______________________
R eligious fraternal..................... ............. ......... ..............
G rand tota l___

________________

______

I Inclu des 1 h om e for m inisters.
2 17 hom es.
3 14 hom es.
4 7 hom es.
6 5 hom es.
611 hom es.
7 12 hom es.
8 9 hom es.
9 1 hom e.
i° 48 hom es; includes cost o f orphanage in 2 cases.
II 45 hom es.
1 41 hom es.
2
13 3 hom es.
1 Inclu des 4 hom es for m inisters.
4

1
1
i 20
i2
1
13
8
6
6
1
5
4
2
65
3
48
4
14 21
58

1
1
1 18
12
1
13
8
6
6
1
5
4
2
53
2
46
4
1 18
42

50
20
2 878
50
85
6 472
236
217
352
16
410
154
115
2, 525
48
2, 893
1 72
3
875
1,208

45
18
818
43
85
7 442
221
» 179
272
16
400
139
90
2, 325
46
1 2, 432
1
1 51
3
745
1 1,052
2

$11,335
3,307
3 231,652
12,065
108,074
8 113, 552
4 85, 335
68, 566
86, 706
5, 612
141,014
102,431
9 8,190
1 780,151
0
9 8,000
1 1,158,793
2
9 7, 875
is 300,100
1 504, 985
6

6
2
2
155
2
i4
4
10
13

4
2
2
128
2
14
4
3
13

357
60
125
15,733
132
187
154
93
576

328
49
115
17 13, 795
131
158
146
88
536

87,077
19,844
31, 763
is 2, 201, 766
44,159
13 33, 500
71,855
27, 310
198,162

467

14 395

2 28,093
°

2 24, 765
1

2 6,453,179
2

43
13
1
1

34
12
1
1

3, 879
323
24
30

3, 370
286
20
30

2 1, 619, 900
3
8 46,420
8,270
14, 221

58

48

4, 256

3, 706

2 1, 688,811
4

1

1

125

1 526
9

1 444
4

2< 32, 474
*

( 25)

2 28, 471
7

( 25)

2 8,141,990
8

1513 hom es.
1 24 hom es.
6
1 125 hom es.
7
1 74 hom es.
8
1 Inclu des 7 hom es for m inisters.
9
2 391 hom es.
0
2 387 hom es.
1
2 293 hom es.
2
2 29 hom es.
3
2 40 hom es.
4
2®N o data.
2 440 hom es.
6
2 435 hom es.
7
2 333 hom es.
8

As is seen, the various Catholic organizations operate the largest
number of homes. There are in that church certain orders, such as
the Little Sisters of the Poor, Sisters of St. Francis, etc., whose
members devote their lives to the care of the poor, sick, and aged,
and many of these homes are carried on by those orders. It will be
noted that only 74 of the 128 Catholic homes reporting gave data as
to cost. Failure to report on this point was, in most cases, due to the
fact that these homes are almost entirely supported by contributions
and donations in kind upon which it is impossible to place a value.




130

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

Other denominations or organizations which are especially active in
the care of the aged are the Lutherans, Methodists, Episcopalians,
and Jews.
Some 30 per cent of these homes shelter fewer than 25 persons each,
and 57 per cent have fewer than 50 persons. The largest homes are
run by Catholic and Jewish groups; 22 homes of the Catholic and 5
of the Jewish groups have more than 200 people each. The average­
sized home shelters 65 persons. Table 33 shows the distribution, by
size of home.
T a b l e 3 3 . — S IZ E O F H O M E S F O R A Q E D

O F S P E C I F I E D R E L IG IO U S G R O U P S

N u m b e r o f hom es w ith inm ates
num bering—
Sponsoring organization
Less
than
25

25
50
75
100
200
and
and
and
and
and •
under under u nder under under
75
50
100
200
500

R eligiou s denom inations:
1
A postolic Christian
.
B a ptist
_ __________ _ _ _ ____________________
_
Christian
_
_
_
_
____________________
Christian Science
.. ____________________
C h u rch o f the B reth ren ___________________________
C on gregational____________________________________
D isciples of C h rist_______ ____ ______ ____________
E v a n gelica l__________________ - ___________ - ____
Evangelical Congregational
..
. ___
E vangelical S y n o d ________________________________
F rien ds____________________________________________
Latter D a y S aints. _
_
_
_ __
_
_
_
L u t h e r a n ___________ _____________________________
M en n on ite
_ __
_
-. _
_
M eth od ist __ . . _
_ ______ ______ ____________
_
M o r a v i a n ___________ ._ ________________________
P resbyterian _________________________________ __ _
Protestant E p is co p a l______________________________
R eform ed and Christian R eform ed Churches of
A m erica
.
_
.
___________
R eform ed C h u rch in the U n ited States__________
R iv e r B reth ren ____________________________________
R o m a n C a th olic___________________________________
Scandinavian E v an gelical______ __ _ ________
_
U n ited B rethren_____________________ __________
U niversalist_________________________ _____ ________
U nclassified................. ......... ........... ..................... ..........
Join t ch u r c h ___ ________ ________ _______ __________

1
6
1
7
4
2
1
1
1
1
13
1
14
3
9
24
1
19
1
3
1
5

5
1

4

2
3
1
2

1
1
2
2

3
2
1
21
1
11
5
14
1
1
21
1
1

1

2
1
2
1
1
1

1

1
1
12

4

3

7

6

7

1
2

1
2

2
1

2
2
13

9

41
1

22

2
1

1
4

1
2

1

1

T o ta l

1
1
18
2
1
1 12
8
i 5
6
1
5
4
2
53
2
145
13
18
42
4
2
2
a 125
2
4
4
3
13

T o t a l______________________ _____ __________ ______

119

103

56

29

58

23

a 388

R eligiou s p h ilan th rop ic organizations:
Jew ish__________________________ ______ _____________
K in g 's D aughters_____________ _______ ____________
Salvation A r m y ..... ......................... ........... .....................
V olunteers of A m e rica ........................................ ...........

4
9
1

9
2

7

4

5
1

5

34
12
1
1

T o t a l___________ _____________________ ___________

14

12

7

4

6

5

48

G rand tota l_________________ _____ ______ ________

133

115

63

33

64

28

* 436

1

1 N o t in clu d in g 1 h o m e w h ich d id n o t report on this point.
2 N o t in clu d in g 3 hom es w h ich d id n ot report on this point.
s N o t in clu d in g 7 hom es a b o v e n oted, w h ich d id n ot report on this p oint.
* N o t in clu d in g 1 religious fraternal h om e and 7 hom es abov e noted, w h ich d id n ot report on this p oin t.

Sixty-nine homes have been established during the past decade; but
224 have been in existence twenty-five years or more, and 77 of these,
fifty years or more. The oldest is the Lafon’s Asylum of the Holy
Family, at New Orleans, La., which was established in 1848.
The Baptist, Congregational, Episcopalian, and Catholic homes
are the oldest. Of the Episcopal homes, 24 of the 38 covered are




131

CHAPTER V II.-— BY RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS

more than 50 years old, as are 26 of the 124 Catholic homes, 4 of the
18 Baptist homes, and 3 of the 8 Congregational homes. The details
are shown in the table following:
T

able

3 4 .— A G E S O F H O M E S O F R E L IG IO U S G R O U P S

N u m b e r of hom es in existence—
Sponsoring organization

R eligiou s denom inations:
A d v en tist, S e v en th -D a y __________________
A p ostolic C h ristian________________________
B a p tist_____________________________________
C h ristian____________ ______________________
C hristian Science__________________________
C h u rch of the B reth ren .
C on gregationa l.............................................. _
D isciples of C h rist____________ _ _ _ _ _ _
E v a n g e lic a l..-.................... __ _
_ ._
E vangelical Congregational
_ ___
E v angelical S yn od _ ________
_______ _
F r i e n d s ______________
_____
_ _ _
Latter D a y Saints_________ _
Lu th eran
.......................
M e n n o n ite .
________ _
_ ____ __
M e th o d is t _____ _____ ________ ____________
M ora v ia n
____________________________
P resbyterian
_ _ ..........................................
Protestant E p is c o p a l.. _________________
R eform ed
and
Christian
R eform ed
Churches of A m erica ___________________
R eform ed C h u rch in the U nited States
R iv e r B reth ren ____ _______ ______ _________
R om a n C a th o lic .. ________________ _______
Scandinavian E v an gelical____ __
_______
U n ited B reth ren .
____________ ________
U n iversalist..........................................................
U nclassified................. ..................... ...................
Joint c h u rch _______________________________
T o t a l............ .........................

...................

1 N ot
2 N ot
<N ot
■
4N ot
8 N ot

in clu d in g
in clu d in g
in clu d in g
in clu d in g
in clu d in g

1
5
1

7
1

6
1
3

6
2
2
1

1
1
1
25

3
3
1
15
1
12

1
1
!

1
1
1
1 1
2 1

1
1

2
5

2

7
4
2

i
!
I
4

1
s

1
0

7
1

19
1
6
4
2
1
1
27
1
2
2
1

50
years
and
over

2
1
1
50
1
1
1
1
5

3

1
2
4
1
4
24

130

75

<380

12
5

2

i 33
12
1
1

20

17

2

i 47

134

147

77

s 427

23

30

114

3
2

15
4
1

2

6

25

36

26
1

1

8 |

1
1
18
2
1
13
8
15
6
1
5
4
2
2 51
i 1
145
i3
i 17
* 38

5

2

1
1

8

3
10

4

T o ta l

4
2
2
3 124
2
4
4
3
13

1
1

T o t a l_____________________________________
_ __________ _____________

5 and
under
10
years

1

R eligiou s p h ilan th rop ic organizations:
J ew ish .. ___ ______________________________
K in g ’ s D a u gh ters.
__ __ ___ ______
Salvation A r m y ___________________________
V olunteers of A m erica _________
_______

G rand to ta l.

25 and
under
50
years

2

2 and
under
5 years

10 and
under
25
years

2

1 year
or
less

1 w h ich d id not report on this point.
2 w h ich d id not report on this point.
4 w h ich d id not report on this point.
15 w h ich d id not report on this p oin t.
1 religious fraternal h om e and 16 above noted w hich d id not report on this poin t.

Terms of Admission

Kind and character of persons admitted.— Sound mind and good
health are a general requisite for admission to the church homes,
as to other homes for the aged. One Baptist home requires “ fairly
sound mind and reasonably good health,” and a Catholic home that
the applicant be “ respectable, of sound mind, and free of contagious
disease.” Some homes require that the applicant submit to a physi­
cal examination before admitting him to the home.
“ Good character” or “ Christian character” is often specified as a
requisite. “ Good reputation” is required by one home.
One home accepts only deaf mutes, while another admits only
“ childless women” of good health and sound mind, and a third
“ aged women of the better sort, i. e., women of education and refine­
ment, who have very small means or no relatives.”



132

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

The Salvation Army home, “ Eventide Home,” has as its residents
principally men whom the army has aided through its social service
institutions and who are incapacitated and unable to provide for
themselves.
There is one home in New York City which, as far as the knowledge
of this bureau goes, is unique of its kind. It is a “ waiting home,”
maintained by the Protestant Unity League. This home has been in
operation since April, 1925. No permanent guests are admitted; the
home is operated simply for the benefit of persons who are on the
waiting lists of the benevolent homes of the city. The period of
“ waiting” in the home averages about two years. If the aged resi­
dent is able to pay, a nominal board is charged; otherwise the service
is free. This home is mainly for poor people who have painfully
managed to hoard the entrance fee required by the home on whose
waiting list their names are entered, but who are unable to maintain
themselves until a vacancy occurs. Up to the present the waiting

F ig u r e 1 4 - e n t r a n c e

a n d m e m o r ia l

Pe r g o l a

at

M o n t e f io r e ( J e w is h )

hom e,

C l e v e l a n d , O h io

home has had accommodations for only 11 old ladies, but the league
has been negotiating for the purchase of a larger house which will
enable it to care for five men, for married couples if occasion arises,
and also for a larger number of women.
There are 10 so-called “ widows’ homes” conducted by religious
denominations. Three are Congregational homes, 5 are Episcopal
homes, and 2 are Moravian homes. One home gives preference to
widows of ministers, but ministers’ unmarried daughters, teachers
in church boarding schools, and others, are also admitted. These
homes furnish living quarters either free or at a nominal rental, the
light, heat, water, and janitor service being supplied free in some
cases. The residents are otherwise self-sustaining. Together, these
homes shelter 144 persons.
A number of homes are maintained solely or principally for ministers
and their wives or widows, or for other workers in the church (mis­
sionaries, deaconesses, etc.). Thus, the Baptists of Ohio, Indiana,
Michigan, Illinois, and Wisconsin have a home at Fenton, Mich., for




CHAPTER V I I .---- B Y RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS

133

“ aged, infirm, and destitute” ministers and missionaries of that
faith who have served 5 years in that capacity. The home also
admits their wives, widows, and orphans. A fee of $100 is required at
entrance. There are 14 residents at the home. There is also a privately
endowed home in Philadelphia for retired Baptist ministers.
A home for ministers of the Christian Church is provided at Lakemont, N. Y. This home admits ministers who have served 20 years
in the Christian church or some other Evangelical denomination, and
their wives and widows. Men are admitted at 70 years (unless
unable to preach, in which case at 50) and women at 60. The
nominal entrance fee is $ 100, but this may be waived in the dis­
cretion of the home board of trustees. The home can accommodate
13 persons, but the average number of residents is 6 .
Although there are some 46 homes for the aged conducted by
Methodists, none of these are exclusively ministers’ homes. One
such home which takes only “ Christian people,” is open to ministers

F ig u r e 15.—C o r r i d o r

of

M e t h o d is t

h o m e f o r a g e d , C in c in n a t i .
C o n c e r t s a n d “ S in g s ”

O h io ,

in

T h is R o o m A r e H e l d

and their widows, missionaries, deaconesses, and other workers in the
church. Another, an African Methodist home, was started to care
“ for worn-out ministers and their wives or widows,” but in practice
the home has taken in “ any worthy person of good repute.”
The Presbyterian Board of Ministerial Relief conducts four homes
for retired Presbyterian ministers, one of which is in Indiana, one in
New Jersey, one in New York, and one in Pennsylvania. The bureau
has data only for the Thornton Home, at Newburgh, Ind. Each of
these homes has an average family of 15 persons. Twenty years’
service in the church is required, but there is no admission fee. The
Thornton Home accepts retired ministers and their widows, and
missionaries of the church. No fee is required. The home at present
has 24 residents, but the board announces that enlargement to a
colony is contemplated, so as to “ care for the large number of aged
or disabled ministers and missionaries whose afflictions have made it
impossible for them to be cared for at one of our homes.” The
original tract of 50 acres owned by the board has been added to by
a gift of 25 acres with six houses “ and attractive building sites for
many more.” Cottages will be erected for the use of the residents,



134

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

and a samarium or hospital is also contemplated. There is also a
privately endowed home just outside of Philadelphia.3
The church of the United Brethren in Christ has a home for retired
ministers of that church and their wives, in Puente, Calif. The home
is run on the cottage plan. The superannuated ministers, of whom
there are now 25 in residence, are assigned to a cottage where they
keep house as if in their own homes. No fee is required. The home
association provides the cottage, electric lights, water, and garden,
free, and in needy cases, makes an allowance of from $20 to $30 per
month. This home also takes residents with means, on an annuity
basis, paying 7 per cent interest on all property transferred to the home.
In this way, considerable property has been acquired by the home.
Sex.— The great majority of these homes (326) not only admit
individuals of either sex but also take in married couples. In 91
homes, however, only old ladies are taken, and in 5 homes only old
men. Twenty homes take individuals of either sex but do not admit
married couples.
T

able

3 5 — R E S T R IC T IO N S AS

T O S E X A N D C O N JU G A L C O N D IT IO N IN H O M E S
R E L IG IO U S G R O U P S

OF

N u m b e r of hom es adm itting—
Sponsoring organizations
M en
on ly

R eligiou s denom inations:
A d v en tist, S ev e n th -D a y ________
_ ________ __
_
A p ostolic C h ristian_____ _______ _______ _______
B a ptist
_______________________________ - _ _
C hristian
_________________________
- ____
Christian Science. _
_ C h u rch of th e B rethren _ _
. . .
.
C ongregational
- __ - - ____ - ___
D isciples of C h r i s t __ ______ __
E vangelical
- _ __
_
-_______
E vangelical Congregational
________ ____ - _____
E v angelical S yn o d
_ __
_
- ______________ -- - - -F riends
L atter D a y Saints
- - __ _____________ - Luth eran
______ ______ ______ - -------M e th o d is t
______- ____ - ---------------- M ora v ia n
- __________ - - ________
Presbyterian
_________ ____ ____________
Protestant E p iscopal
_ ______ - _
R eform ed and C hristian R eform ed Churches of
A m erica
___________ ______________ __
R eform ed C h u rch in the U n ited States___
___
R iv e r B rethren
_______________________
R o m a n C a th olic
________________________
S cand inavian E vangelical
_____________
U n ited B rethren
______ _______
U niversalist
_________________________
U nclassified
______________________
Joint ch u rch
__________________

W om en
on ly

B oth
sexes and
m arried
couples

B o th
sexes

50
2
40
1
11
6

1
1
18
2
1
13
8
6
6
1
5
4
2
53
2
46
4
18
42

4
2
2
101
2
3
2
1
4

4
2
2
128
2
4
4
3
a ll

1
1
3
1
1

.

15
1
1
13
4
4
6
J

4
2

_____

' 1
!

!

1

4
2
2

1
4
3
6
33

2
3
I

1

1

17
1
1
1
7

9
1

T o ta l

3

85

19

286

a 393

R eligiou s ph ilan th ropic organizations:
Jewish
- ____________________
_ - _
_______________
K in g ’s D aughters
Salvation A r m y
-- - - ____
V olunteers of A m erica--------------------------------------------

1
1

6

1

6 34
4
1

34
12
1
1

T o t a l.--------------------------- ---------------------------------------

2

6

1

&39

48

1
G rand tota l______ _____ ____ _____ ________________

5

91

20

1

326

a 442

« N o t includ ing 2 w h ich d id n ot report on this point.
h In clu d in g 1 w h ich takes w om en and m arried couples.
3 T h ere is also a Presbyterian rest h om e in M ilw au k ee, established to p rov id e a tem p orary hom e for
P rotestant clergym en and their w ives (b u t Presbyterians are given preference). T h e length of residence
varies from 2 to 6 m onths.




135

CHAPTER V II.— BY RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS

Age.— Seventy-five of the homes have no fixed minimum age of ad­
mission, and 5 did not report on this point. All of the remaining 364
homes have an age below which admission is refused, this age varying
from 50 to 75 years.
The most common ages of admission are 60 and 65 years, these
being set by 174 and 156 homes, respectively , while 21 homes admit
only persons of 70 years or over. The superintendent of one Method­
ist home, in which the age of admission is 60 years, reports in this
connection that in his opinion 60 years is too low by at least 5 years;
“ great care should be taken that homes like this be not made a refuge
for lazy folks. I have found them here and elsewhere.”
The requirements of the various homes in this respect are given
in Table 36:
T a ble 3 6 .— M I N I M U M A G E

O F A D M I T T A N C E T O H O M :E S O F R E L I G I O U S G R O U P S
N u m b e r of hom es setting age of adm ittance at —
51
to
59

Sponsoring organization
50

60.

61
to
64

66
to
69

65

No
T o ta l
O ver age re­
70 quire­
m en t

70

R eligiou s denom inations:
1
___________ _____ B aptist
_
Christian
________________
_______________
Christian Science
C h u rch of the B r e th e r n ....................
________________
Congregational
_
D isciples of Christ _ ______________
E vangelical
_ . ____________
E v an gelical C on gregation a l________
E vangelical S yn od __________________
Friends _ _ ________________________
L a tter D a y S a in t s ________ ________
L u theran
_________________________
M en n finite____ ______________________
____ _______ ___________
M eth od ist
M oravian
____________ ___________
P resbyterian _ _____ ______ ____ ______
_
P rotestant E p iscop a l________________

3
1
1

10
1
1
1

2
2

1
4

1
1
i

9
5
6

2

4
1
2
1

3

1

28

3

1

17
1
4
1
2
13

1

1
1
3 85

2
2
5

1

3
a

4

a

35
1
12
12

1
2

21

2
2
3
13

1
1
18
2
1
13
8
6
6
1
5
i 3
2
53
i 1
46
4
18
42

R eform ed and C hristian Reform ed

C hurches of A m erica________ _____
R eform ed C h u rch in the U nited
States______________________________
R iv e r Brethren ______________ _____
R o m a n C a th olic________ ____________
S candinavian E v an gelical__________
U n ited B reth ren _____________________
U niversalist__________________________
U nclassified_________________________
Joint ch u rch ___________ ____________

6

T o t a l- _________________________

9

3153

1

Religious ph ilan th ropic organizations:
Jew ish _______________________________
K in g ’s D au gh ters .............. ................. ..
Salvation A r m y ______________________
V olunteers of A m erica ............................
T o t a l - - ____________________________
R eligious fraternal

______ _ . . .

1

1
3
6

13
1
1
2

3

2
2
« 126
2
i 3
4
3
13

73

7 390

91

2

34
12
1
1

01

2

48

75

7 439

1
19

2
61

1
1

4
132

61

15
5
1

8 18
4

21

8 23

*1

20

21

1
1

1

___ __

G rand to t a l____________ ________ _

10

1 N ot includ ing 1 w h ich d id not report on this p oint.
2 75 years.
31 takes m en at 60 and w o m e n at 50 years.
4 63 years.
6 N o t in clu d in g 2 w h ich d id not report on this point.
6 68 years.
7 N o t includ ing 5 w h ich d id not report on this point.
8 1 takes w om en at 60.
®67 years.
« 1 h om e takes m en at 70 and w o m e n at 65 years.




41

4

174

1

156

1
2

20

1

136

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

Admission jee and other monetary requirements.— Nearly half of these
homes require no entrance fee. The other 231 reporting have an
admission fee, but in 40 of these admittance is not refused, as long as
the resources of the home permit, to those who are unable to pay the
fee. Many of the homes which require a fee in most cases, neverthe­
less accept persons who are unable to pay it. Thus, one Methodist
home in Illinois, which has 140 residents, reports that 50 of these have
paid nothing whatever to the home. Another, a Catholic home with
accommodations for 50 persons, reports that about half of the resi­
dents are charity cases or have paid only part of the regular fees; in
fact the great majority of Catholic homes, especially those of the
Little Sisters of the Poor, require no fees of any sort from the aged for
whom they are caring. A larger proportion of the homes of this
denomination than of any other have no entrance fee, as Table 37 shows.
T able 3 7 .— R E L IG IO U S H O M E S , C L A S S IF IE D AS T O M O N E T A R Y R E Q U IR E M E N T S O F

IN M A T E S
H om es requir­
ing entrance fee
Sponsoring organization
N um ­
ber

R eligiou s denom inations:
A d ven tist, S e v e n th -D a y .________________________
____________ _. _________
A p ostolic C hristian.
______________________ ____ ____ ____
B a ptist
C h r i s t ia n ______ _ _ ________ ______
_______ Christian Science
_________
_ . _________
_ - _______
C h u rch of B ret hern _____ ________
C o n g r e g a tio n a l____ __ - _ __________ __________
D isciples of Christ
_
_
E v a n g e lic a l.______ __
_ _ _____ __ _________
_
E vangelical Con gregationalE vangelical S yn od
_
_ _
_
F rien d s_______ .
- - _
Latter D a y Saints. _ ____ _______
Luth eran
_ -_ _
_ _
M en n on ite
_ _. . _ _ _ _.
__ . _.........
M eth od ist
. . _ . . . . . . _ . . . . . . . . . _________
M ora via n
_ _ _ _ _ ____
______ _
Presbyterian
_____ _________ _____ ______ _______
Protestant E p iscopal ___ ____________ __
_ __
R eform ed and C hristian R eform ed C hurch es
of A m erica.
_ _ ______________
________
R eform ed C h urch in the U n ited States____ . . .
R iv e r Brethren
____________________________
R om a n C a th olic.
______________ . ________
S candinavian E v a n g e lic a l... ____________________
U n ited B reth ren ___
_________________________
U n iv e rs a lis t... _. . . . . _________________ __ .
U nclassified____ __. __ ._
________ _____ .
Joint church _ __ ____________________ __

1
1
16
2

O f these,
n u m ber
taking
free
residents

H om es
having
H ornet
B o a rd ­
requir­
both
ing
ing no
T otal
life
hom es
entrance
m em bers
o n ly
fee
and
boarders

1
1
18
2
1
13
8
6
6
1

1

4
3
6
6
1
5

2

44

7

42
2
13
22

5

4
2

2

24

12

2

4
1

1

1

1

4
2
53

20

2
104
2
1
]

2
3
2
8

46
4
18
42
4
2
2
128
2
4
4
3
13

T o ta l ____________________________ ______________

213

33

182

395

Religiou s p h ilan th rop ic organizations:
Jew ish ________
________ ___________________ _
K in g ’ s D a u g h te r s ._____
._ _______________
_
S alvation A r m y ___________________________
V olunteers of A m e rica ................................... ................

8
8
1
1

6

26
4

34
12
1
1

T o t a l - - .................................... ..................... ...............

18

7

30

48

1
40

213

444

2
1
1
.1
2
9

2
49

3

6

2

1

231

3
1

R eligiou s fraternal

1

_____________ _____ _______________

G rand tota l........................................................

76

12

2

1

2

2

78

14

1

The size of the minimum fee demanded varies considerably, rang­
ing from $5 (for one home for colored women) to $5,000. In most
cases where there is a range, the fee varies according to the financial
means of the applicant. Such is the case under the arrangement
made by a Methodist home quoted below:




CHAPTER V II .— B Y RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS

137

The home expects each incoming resident to turn over whatever they may have
materially to the home that is going to care for them in their declining years.
Taking this into consideration the home has three plans of entrance to which the
incoming resident adjusts himself as near as possible.

These plans are as follows:
1. People having in the neighborhood of $400 to $600 pay the home an entrance
fee of $400, deposit a burial fee of $150 if possible and designate some responsible
organization, relative or friend who will make an annual payment of $52 a year
as long as that resident remains in the home.
2. Incoming residents having in the range of $700 to $1,500 turn over that
amount upon their entrance and this takes care of every expense during their
stay in the home and no one else is obligated in any manner to pay anything
further.
3. Incoming residents having $1,500 to $4,000 or upwards turn that money
over to the home. From the amount that is turned over, the entrance fee and
burial fee amounting to $550 is deducted and the balance is placed into an annuity
fund yielding a rate of interest according to the resident’s age. This is paid to
them in a regular manner as long as they remain in the home.
In many instances, however, the home waives its rules and regulations and takes
in cases that are penniless or nearly so. This is not an unusual occurrence.

Of the homes which require no entrance fee, 78 are boarding homes
which do not take life members, but charge a specified rate per week
as long as the resident is at the home. Eleven homes take both life
members and those who come in on a temporary (i. e., boarding) basis.
One Catholic home reports that from 1880 (when the home was
established) until 1913 life members were accepted for a fee of $1,000.
Under this arrangement, however, it was impossible to meet expenses,
and so the system was changed. The home now takes boarders only,
the rates being $10, $12, and $15 per week, according to the location
of the room chosen.
The rates of admission and of board are shown in the table below.
T

able

3 8 .— M O N E T A R Y

R E Q U IR E M E N T S O F H O M E S T A K IN G L IF E M E M B E R S A N D
O F B O A R D IN G H O M E S O F R E L IG IO U S G R O U P S

Life members
A m o u n t of entrance fee

$5 ........................ ............. ....................... ...........
.............. . .
$15
$100
. . ............ .
$200
.................... ...........
$250
________________
U p to $300
$300
$300-$500
..........
$300-$600
................
$365
______________
D p to $400
- -$400
________________
$400-$500
______
$400-$800
U p to $500
__________
$500
.....................
$500-$1,000
.................
$600
.................$700
$700-$900
U p to $ 8 0 0 .....................- ................... .............

N um ber
o f hom es

1
2
10
11
4
i 1
15
22
1
1
1
10
22
31
1
4 44
51
89
2
31
1

A m o u n t o f entrance fee

$800................................ .........................................
U p to $1,000____________ ______ —...................
$1,000______________ ______ ______ __________
$1,000 or $2,000............... ............................. .......
$1,000-$3,000_______________________________
$1,200............. ......... ...............................................
$1,200-$3,750_______________________________
$1,500______________ _____ _____ _______ _____
$1,800______________________________________
$2,000________________________ __________
$2,000-$3,500________________________ _______
$2,000-$4,000...... ........................................... — .
$2,500__________ _____ _____ _______ _________
$ 3 ,0 0 0 ....................................................................
U p to $4,000.......... ................................... ...........
$4,000___________________ _____ _______ ______
U p to $5,000...... ..................... .......... ...................
A ccord in g to m eans, e t c . . .............. ...... .........
T o t a l....................................................... ..

N u m ber
o f hom es

®10
1
7 21
1
3 2
2
31
5
2
2
1
31
»1
2
1
1
1
55
231

1 P er year.
2 A ccordin g to age in 1 case.
3 A ccord in g to age.
4 $800 for nonresidents in 1 case; plus funeral expenses (am ount not specified) m 1 case; plus funeral
expenses of $100 in 1 case.
* $1,000 in 1 case if nursing is required.
6 Plus funeral expenses in 1 case.
7 Or $100 and $75 per year in 1 case; plus $200 for funeral expenses in 1 case,
s Or $300 and $8 per w eek.




138
T

able

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES
3 8 .— M O N E T A R Y R E Q U IR E M E N T S OF H O M E S T A K IN G L IF E M E M B E R S A N D
O F B O A R D I N G H O M E S O F R E L I G I O U S G R O U P S -C o n t in u e d

Boarders
R a te

P er day:
$1........................................................ .............
$1.15___________________________________
P er w eek:
$2-$10................................... ..................... ..
$3_.................. ............................. ...................
$5____________ ________ _________________
$5-$6.................... ........... ................... ...........
$5-$8___________ _____ _______ _________ $5.50........... ............... ..................... ...............
$7.............................. ................... .......... .......
$7-$10.................. — ................... ............... ..
$8-$10........................................ .....................
$10-$18 »........ ..................... ............. .............
N o t r e p o r t e d - ............................................
P er m on th :
$10 .............................. ................... ............. $16-30.................................. ...........................
$18-$22.......................................................... ..
$20............................................ ................... „
$20-$35
$20-$40...........................................................

N u m ber
of hom es

8
1
2
2
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
6
3
1
1
2
1
1

R a te

P er m o n th — C on tin u ed .
$ 2 0 .5 0 ......................................................... .
$21. .............. ......................... ................... ..
$25.......................................... ................. .......
$25-$35...................... ......... ................. .........
$25-$40_______________ _______ _________
$30____________________________________ _
$30-$ 100...................................... ...................
$ 3 5 __________________________ _______
$3 5 -$ 4 0 ...................... ............................... ..
$35-$50............................ ...................... .......
$35-$60_______________________ ________ _
$40____ ______ ___________________ ______
$40~$50......................... ................. ................
...................... .................
$45 _
.
$50___________ _____ ____________________
$65................................................ ...................
$65 and $75.............. ................................ ..
N o t reported.................................... ...........
N o t rep orted ........................................................
T o t a l.........................................................

N um ber
o f hom es

1
1
6
2
2
12
1
4
1
1
1
3
1
2
1
1
1
7
3
89

o N o t includ ing m edical care.

The incoming life resident is required by 152 of these homes to
transfer to the home, either at entrance or at death, all or part of
such property, insurance, pensions, and other income as he is or may
thereafter be in possession; in one of these he is required to make over
one-half of his property up to $10,000, in one all up to $1,500, and in
a third all up to $5,000. In 73 of these cases thehom e pays to the
resident who has made such transfer of property either all or part of
the income from it or a fixed rate of interest upon it. Many homes
accept only persons in destitute circumstances and therefore require
no admission fee; in such cases, of course, the applicant has no
property and the property-transfer clause would mean nothing.
Nationality.— One hundred and thirty-six homes make requirements
as to race, nationality, or color. Of these 1 takes only citizens of the
United States, 30 Americans only, 4 only persons speaking English,
6 Germans only, 4 German-Americans only, 1 Germans or Americans,
2 French only, 6 Swedes only, 2 Norwegians only, 7 Scandinavians
only, 27 Jews only, 2 Dutch only, 21 whites only, 11 negroes only,
and 3 homes any but negroes. One home takes all nationalities but
gives preference to Swedes, 2 give preference to Germans, and 6 to
Scandinavians.
Religion.— Of the 395 homes maintained by specified religious
denominations, 194 take only (or give preference to) applicants who
are members of the denomination sponsoring the home.
One Episcopal home makes the following requirement on this point:
No adult shall be received as an inmate of the Church Home unless she has
been a communicant of the Protestant Episcopal Church for two years, and can
give satisfactory testimonials of good character. Exceptions to this rule may
be made by a majority vote of the board of managers if the applicant has been
in regular attendance upon the Episcopal Church services, and through long
attachment to the church m ay be classed as “ ready and desirous to be confirmed.”
Applicants must live within the diocese of western New York, or have previously
been residents of the diocese for a long period of years. Residents of Rochester
shall have the preference.




139

CHAPTER V I I — BY RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS

The requirement of the various homes on this point are shown in
the table below:
T a b le 3 9 .— R E L IG IO U S R E Q U IR E M E N T S O F H O M E S F O R A G E D

O F S P E C IF IE D

D E N O M IN A T IO N S

D en om in a tion

A d v en tist, S even th -D a y A p ostolic C h ristia n ___
B a p tis t___________
_ _
C h ristia n ____ _______ ______________
C hristian Science_________________
C h u rch o f th e B reth ren ________ _
C o n g r e g a t io n a l.._________ _____ __
D isciples of C h rist________________
E v a n gelica l______ _________ _______
E v an gelical C on gregation a l______
E vangelical S y n o d . ......................
Friends
L atter D a y Saints
..................
L u theran
M e n n o n ite ................................... .......
M e t h o d is t............................................

T o ta l
num ­
ber re­
porting

N um ber
requir­
ing
m em ­
bership
in speci­
fied
church

1
1
18
2
1
13
8
6
6
1
5
4
2
53
2
46

1
1
14
2
1
8
5
6
3
1
4
2
2
37
1
30

D en om in a tion

N u m ber
requir­
ing
T o ta l
m em ­
nu m ­
ber re­ bership
portin g in speci­
fied
church

M o ra v ia n ............. ................. .............
Presbyterian ___ _____ _____ __
Protestant E p isco p a l____________
R e fo rm e d and C h ristian R e ­
form ed C h urch es of A m e r ic a R eform ed C h u rch ____________
R iv e r B rethren
____________
R o m a n C a th o lic- _ ____________
Scandinavian E v an gelical_______
U n ited B reth ren ____________ ___
U niversalist______________________
U nclassified........................................
Joint c h u r c h ......................................

4
18
42

2
11
28

4
2
2
128
2
4
4
3
13

2
2

T o t a l , - .....................................

395

22
1
1
7
194

Of the religious philanthropic organizations, 16 require that appli­
cants belong to a Jewish congregation (in 4 cases an orthodox con­
gregation) and 3 that they be Protestants.
Personal property.— The regulations as regards furniture and
personal effects vary. Some homes require that the applicant have
a supply of clothing sufficient to last one or two years. Others
furnish this from the time the person enters the home. In some
instances the home requires that the resident furnish his own room
or that he supply his own bed linen. Others go to the opposite
extreme, and prohibit the resident from bringing any furniture with
him, except possibly a favorite chair.
One home, each of whose residents has a private room comfortably
furnished, allows the members to keep their personal belongings,
“ those little trinkets and mementoes, those precious links to the
unforgettable past. And with what loving care these residents look
after their own little possessions!”
A Methodist home in New Jersey requires that an incoming resident
bring with him the following: “ One single iron bed, one bureau, one
washstand, one mattress, six sheets, six pillowcases, three counter­
panes, six napkins, two pairs blankets, one washbowl, pitcher, and
soap dish, one rocking-chair, one straight chair, three rugs 36 by 72,
one commode, one small table, some family pictures, books, small
clock, six bath towels, six face towels.”
Another, in its prospectus and report, writes as follows:
It is the purpose of the institution to afford comfort and care to the aged
fathers and mothers who make this their home. They are provided with care­
fully prepared food, and their rooms are kept clean and comfortable. The rooms
are nicely furnished, but if those coming into the home desire to bring, say, a
rug, or rocker, or clock, or nice, clean bedding, as good as new, or some other
small things that would.help to make their room more homelike, they should
write the superintendent about it, who would be glad to advise in the matter.

35777°—29- -10
-




140

CAKE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

Residence.— Residence requirements are very infrequent among
these church and religious homes. Only 16 homes make regulations
on this point. Six require residence in the city where the home is
located (one for three years and one for one year), one six months7
residence in the county, and six residence in the State (two for two
years, one for three years, and one for five years); while one home
gives preference to residents of the State. One home accepts only
persons who have been resident in the United States for five years.
Another, while accepting nonresidents, charges them a higher fee at
admission.
Rules and Regulations Governing Home
T h e s t r i c t regulations governing some of the homes undoubtedly
detract from the attractiveness of the prospect of spending the rest
of one’s life there. One home, for instance, reports that “ Inmates
are not permitted to leave the grounds without the permission of the
superior” ; in this home the residents are permitted to receive visitors
only on two days a week from 2 to 5 p. m.
The following extracts from the rules of another home illustrate
another case in point:

4. Rooms must be kept in a neat, orderly condition, and ready for the inspec­
tion of managers at any time after 10 o’clock in the morning.
5. Inmates will not be allowed to bring furniture to the home for storage, and
only such articles as approved by the house committee will be allowed in the
rooms. Position of the furniture in the rooms shall not be changed without
asking members of the house committee. One trunk can be kept in closet of
each room. The matron will store any extra trunks belonging to inmates, not
exceeding two to each person.
7. Driving tacks or nails in the walls of the rooms, closets, or halls forbidden.
8. Inmates are not allowed to go to the kitchen, the pantries, storerooms,
linen closets, laundry, or cellars without permission of the matron. This rule
must be enforced.
11. Each inmate will be allowed eight plain pieces in the wash weekly. All
articles must be plainly marked with the owner’s name. The assistant matron
will advise as to the care of all soiled linen.
12. Food and crumbs for birds or animals must not be thrown from windows
or left on window sills. Clothing shall not be left out to air from either windows
or verandas. Only six potted or growing plants allowed in a room with permission.
13. Keys of bedrooms must not be taken out of the home. Any inmate lock­
ing her door when about to leave the house shall leave the key in her letter box
on first floor. Bedroom doors must not be locked at night except by permission
of the matron.

Quite otherwise is a home which “ relies more upon the good sense
and character of its members for the orderly and happy ongoings of
the family life than it does on formal rules.”
A Cleveland home reports its attitude as regards “ institutionalism”
thus :
T h e ----------- Home is in no sense a place of isolation. Friends and relatives of
residents are welcome at any time. There is a complete absence of the “ visiting
hours” which characterize the routine of so many institutions.
Residents may leave the grounds when they desire and are accorded all reason­
able privileges consistent with their safety and welfare.
^ When the home was built every detail of its design and arrangement was de­
cided upon with a view to eliminating every trace of the institutional. The
paramount object was to make this a real home for our aged and infirm people.
The present building and grounds are striking evidence of the attainment of that
objective.
Everything is done to promote a “ fam ily” spirit, to provide recreation and
entertainment for the residents as a group, yet to preserve for each resident the
privacy so essential to peace and comfort.




CHAPTER
V II.— B
Y
RELIGIOUS
ORGANIZATIONS




F ig u r e 1 6 - d i n i n g R o o m

at

K ir k l e i g h

v il l a .

R o m a n C a t h o l ic B o a r d in g H o m e

for

Aged Wo m en ,

at

Ba l t i m o r e ,

md

.

142

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

One unusual requirement found was that of a home which forbids
marriage of residents. If a resident does marry while in the home
this action “ shall forfeit such person’s place and rights in the home.”
Duties of Residents

•As t o what is expected of the residents, as regards conduct, the
following is typical:
In order to maintain a cheerful home atmosphere, all members are expected to
keep their rooms in order, and to be neat in their personal appearance, to be kind
and obliging to other members of the home, and to those in charge; to be prompt
at meals and give reverent attention upon Divine worship conducted in the
home; to make all criticisms to the matron or members of the board of managers
and to no one else.

The 444 homes reporting are divided in the matter of requiring
service of the residents; 199 require the performance of such light
tasks as the old people are able to do, while 245 require no assistance
(though 58 of these latter accept volunteer assistance from the
residents).
The details are shown in the table following:
T

able

4 0 .— S E R V IC E R E Q U IR E M E N T S O F H O M E S O F R E L IG IO U S G R O U P S
H om es having no serv­
ice requirem ents

N um ber

R eligiou s denom inations:
A d v en tist, S ev e n th -D a y . ______ ______________ _
1
A p ostolic C h ristian________
4
B a p tis t_______________________
__
C h ristia n _____________________ . . .
...
.
____ ..[__________ _
C hristian S cience_________
_
___
1
C h u rch of the B reth ren _____________
4
C on gregational__________ ________ _ . . ________ _
1
D isciples of C h rist_____
___
E v a n gelica l. ________________ ___ ___ ____
... ___
1
E van gelical C o n g re g a tio n a l.. _ _ _ _ _ _
1
E vangelical S y n o d ___ __
F rien d s..... .......
..............
L atter D a y S a in ts ._ ................... .
31
L u th era n _____ _
_ ____________ __ _ _ _
....
1
M e n n o n i t e ________ _____ _
___ __
21
M eth od ist ____________________ _____
. . . ________
M o r a v i a n ______________ _________ ________________
2
10
P resbyterian ___
___
_______
Protestant E p is c o p a l _______ ___________
___ ____
31
R eform ed and C hristian R e fo rm e d Churches in
1
A m e r ic a ______ ____
______________________
1
R eform ed C h u rch in the U nited States____
1
R iv e r B reth ren ___________ _________ _______________
R om a n C a th olic_____________________________________
80
Scandinavian E v angelical_____________________
2
1
U n ited B r e th r e n ._ __________________________________
U niversalist____ ____________ ______________ _______
2
U nclassified___________ ________________ ____________
2
Joint ch u r c h ___ __ ___________________________ _____
T o t a l_____________________________ ________

____

_

R eligiou s ph ilan th ropic organizations:
Jew ish__________ ______ ______________________ _______
K in g ’ s D au gh ters_______ __________ _______________
Salvation A r m y ________________________ ________ _ _
V olunteers of A m erica _____ __
__ ... _ ___________
T o t a l_____ _______ __________________________ _______
R eligiou s fraternal.................
G rand total




_ _ ________

______

________________ _____________________

H om es
requiring
light
duties

O f these,
num ber
acceptin g
voluntiiry
assistance

Sponsoring organization

1
14
2
4
5
i
I
4
1
2
22
1
25
2
8
11

1
1
12
8
1
2

3
1
1
48

27
1

T o ta l

1
1
18
2
1
13
8
6
6
1
5
4
2
53
2
46
4
18
42
4
2
2
128
2
4
4
3
13

1

3
2
1
8

213

55

182

395

27
3

3

7
9
1

34
12
1
1

1
7

48

1

3
1

3
1

1
245 j

58

1
199

444

CHAPTER V II.— B Y RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS

143

Generally the service required is the care of the resident’s own room,
if physically able. In other instances the inmates are expected to
help with the housework (setting the tables, helping with the ironing,
sewing, etc., washing dishes), or (in the case of men) to assist around
the grounds, help in the garden, with the poultry, etc. One Lutheran
home reports that about half of the members help, the men in the
garden and on the lawns and flower beds and the women washing the
dishes, doing mending etc.; “ just a little to keep them more spry,
bodily and mentally.” In another home the old ladies “ knit, patch,
darn, or do any little handwork at which they are proficient. They
have for themselves whatever they earn in such work.”
One or two homes have the cottage system,, and in such cases the
residents are expected to do the housework connected with it. In
the “ widows’ homes,” quarters are provided, the inmates are in all
other respects independent and self-supporting, each doing her own
housework, cooking her own meals, etc., as if in her own home.
Occupational therapy is practiced in several homes in the belief
that those who are busy are happiest. One Methodist home of this
class reports that some of the articles so made are sold and the resi­
dents who made them receive all the money realized by the sale over
the cost of the materials used. The report of this home states:
In this connection we can lay special emphasis on the fine value of our carried
on occupational therapy. More and more is it evidencing a great mental stimulus,
inestimable in its effect on health, as well as according days of delightful busy­
ness. Our pride in the artists we are discovering and developing in this house­
hold is very great. While the changes in coming and going have to be many,
there is no abating in evidence. Homes of this kind now in existence are far
insufficient.

One Catholic home has a special committee whose duty it is “ to
provide work of an agreeable nature for the entertainment and
employment of the members of the home.” Another committee,
called the “ pricing committee,” places a value upon articles so made
for sale by the home.
A Congregational home which holds a yearly “ fair” exhibits
articles made by the members.
The following, taken from the annual report of the home, gives
some idea of the work done by the residents:
Mrs. R. cuts and plans all quilts and most of the linens, crochets, hemstitches,
sews, and does drawn work; 80 years of age.
The late Miss T. quilted on 30 quilts, of which she did 10 alone, tied 4 quilts,
and joined 6, stitched the bindings once around on 22 quilts (by machine); 82
years of age and very poor eyesight.
Miss W . made four hooked rugs, which were sold before they were finished,
assisted in quilting most of the quilts, crocheted two very large and beautiful
corners for a table runner, and assisted in other ways.
Mrs. R. assists with the quilts and general sewing and hemstitching.
Miss P. crochets many corners for the linen pieces.
Miss R., though nearly blind, makes rag rugs.
Miss B. makes rag and braided rugs.
Mrs. Q. and Miss C. make tatting.
Miss H . takes charge of the pillowcases, makes the same, and embroiders.
Miss P. embroiders and makes aprons.
Mrs. P. makes aprons and does plain sewing.
Miss M c K . crochets afghans, baby articles, and pieces quilts.
Miss E. M c K . makes silk quilts and does very fine sewing.
Miss W . pieces quilts and makes herself generally useful.
Miss W ., sr., crochets pillowcase lace.
Mrs. B. crochets lettuce bags.




144

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

Miss L. is unable to work at present, but has hemstitched and crocheted.
The late Miss W . made very artistic silk quilts, knit baby blankets, and
embroidered.
Mrs. R. knits baby articles and sweaters.
Mrs. M ., before she became totally blind, knit horse reins.
Mrs. C. made porch pillows.
Miss L. pieces quilts.
Miss W . pieces quilts.
Mrs. G. does machine sewing.
Mrs. S. hems and does very fine sewing.
Mrs. B., with almost helpless fingers, makes very pretty buffet sets with
corset lace.
Mrs. W ., Miss G., Mrs. G., Mrs. A ., Mrs. E., and Mrs. G., do plain sewing
and piece quilts.
Miss Van V. solicits from her friends and usually has a very good collection of
fancy articles.
Mrs. F. braided rugs and pieced velvet quilts.
Mrs. W . pieces silk quilts.
Miss H . and Miss R. are accomplished pianists, the latter having rendered
very brilliantly two selections at the Christmas entertainment.
Mr. Lawrence entertains the family with his beautiful playing of hymns and
old-time favorites.

One of the most beautiful of the homes studied, an endowed Jewish
home, reports its position as regards the activities of the residents
as follows:
The dominant thought in the management of t h e ----------- Home is that each
resident shall take an active part in its conduct, since it is natural that old people
are infinitely happier when they know that their efforts are helping to make
life easier for themselves and for those about them.
Morning finds them at their simple tasks— putting their rooms in order, doing
their bit around the grounds and gardens, helping with the meals— doing all
those things that make for normal life and remove from their minds all thought
of institutional routine.

Evening finds them in cheerful groups in the reading or recreation rooms,
where the men and women residents may find amusement to their tastes, or
enjoying the peace and quiet of their own individual rooms, where they are as
undisturbed as they would be in a private home.
Benefits Provided
P e r s o n s taken into these homes receive board, lodging, and laun­
dry for the remainder of their lives. The individual accommodations
vary. In some of the larger homes the sleeping quarters are on the
dormitory plan, with many beds in a room. In others, however, each
individual (or couple) has a private room. One home describes the
benefits as follows :
Each person is given a cheerful, well-furnished private room, with furnace
heat and electric lights. Also, the use of the pleasant living rooms, freedom of
the grounds, and every privilege that goes with real family life. Each member
is guaranteed comfortable support, wholesome food, competent medical care and
nursing, and at death, Christian burial * * * unless interment is other­
wise provided.

The president of the home association of another large institution
reports: “ It would take an entire day to tell you the benefits our
old people enjoy. Food of the best, fine rooms, plenty of heat and
light, a beautiful chapel, Sunday services of a high order, etc.”
A Methodist home on the Pacific coast, operated on the cottage
plan, has five “ units,” each with from 4 to 12 rooms. (See fig. 17.)
It describes the rooms and their furnishings as follows:
The bungalow building plan decided on has proven very satisfactory. Five
units, containing 4 to 12 rooms each, have been constructed, a stucco finish of




CHAPTER
V II.— B
Y
RELIGIOUS
ORGANIZATIONS




Fig u r e 1 7 -

b u n g a l o w at

Pa c if ic O l d P e o p l e ’s

home

(M e t h o d is t ) , L o s A n g e l e s , C a l if .

CARE
O
F
AGED
PERSONS
I
N
UNITED
STATES




F i g u r e 18.—K it c h e n e t t e A p a r t m e n t

for

Ma r r ie d C o u p l e

at

B e t h a n y (S w e d is h M e t h o d is t ) H o m e

for the

A g e d , C h i c a g o , 111.

CHAPTER V II.— B Y RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS

147

the soft, yellow color so frequently found in California homes being used, and
another 10-room structure is in process of erection. Each unit is well equipped
with modern features for the convenience and comfort of old people— hot and
cold water, electrical lighting, and gas radiators for heating rooms and halls.
Rooms are large, with recess lavatories, clothes closets, and at least two windows
in each room for light and ventilation.
Furnishings are suitable and attractive. Beds, dressers and chiffoniers,
tables and book shelves are chiefly of ivory finish, and chairs are selected with
ease of the occupant in mind. Good rugs on floors help to establish a feeling
of adequate comfort and gratification, particularly after the personal touch of
the occupant is given. A central corridor or lobby with excellent lighting and
furnished with a large table gives a cheerful and inviting entrance and an at­
tractive assembling place for tenants, when so desired.

Another home of the same denomination in the Middle West has
for its married couples “ kitchenette apartments,” consisting of living
room (with kitchenette), bedroom, and bathroom. (See fig. 18.)
Medical care.— Of the 427 homes reporting on this subject, 399 fur­
nish medical care. Generally a physician is retained who comes on
call or makes periodic visits, but 61 homes have a resident physician
and 273 have one or more resident nurses (31 have two nurses, 16
have three, 3 have four, 4 have five, and 2 have six nurses each).
Some of the Catholic homes are conducted by nursing orders, and in
such cases the nursing care is given by the sisters.
Some of the larger church homes have a hospital or infirmary in
connection with the home. No specific request was made for infor­
mation o-n this point, but 20 homes report having a hospital or in­
firmary, and it is likely that others which did not think to report
this feature also have one. One home has a 12-bed infirmary, an­
other accommodations for 35 patients, with male and female nurses
in attendance, another a 5-bed hospital with dispensary.
In a number of cases medical service is given free by one or more
of the local doctors, and in some instances there is a regular panel
of physicians and specialists upon whom the home may call. Other
homes retain their physician on a yearly basis.
Where medical and nursing care is given and the home pays for
this, such care constitutes an important item of expense for the home,
especially where a considerable proportion of the members are ill or
infirm. Thus a Methodist home for negroes in Louisiana reports
that of its 50 residents 12 are blind, 8 are paralyzed, 4 are feeble­
minded, and 18 are over 95 years of age.
Another home reports: “ Twelve of our inmates are totally blind
and 27 partially blind. We have many inmates of very advanced
years, who are exceedingly infirm and either partially or almost
totally helpless. We have now 18 chair cases, a greater number than
we ever had before.”
Most of the homes require that the applicant be in fairly good
health at the time of his entrance into the home. The Brooldyn
Hebrew Home and Hospital, however, not only admits disabled per­
sons but gives preference to them, on the ground that their need is
greater than that of the able-bodied applicants.
Recreation.— The provision made for recreation for the old people
who are living at these homes varies greatly. In 313 homes some
attempt is made to furnish recreation. In some instances the old
people amuse themselves with the radios, pianos, victrolas, etc., at
the home, or by walks through the grounds; in other cases the church
or supporting organization has a committee whose business it is to




CARE
O
F
AGED
PERSONS
I
N
UNITED
STATES




FIGURE 1 9 —ONE OF THE SIX SUN ROOMS AT KIRKLEIGH VILLA (ROMAN CATHOLIC), BALTIMORE, MD.




150

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED

STATES

arrange for the entertainment of the residents. As would be expected,
most of these recreations are of the passive sort, requiring little or
no exertion on the part of the aged inmates. Entertainments given
at the home are very frequently reported, followed by the radio as a
close second. Motion pictures are reported by a number of homes.
Other recreations reported include automobile and bus rides, “ out­
ings,” picnics, birthday and other parties, musical programs or con­
certs, games of various sorts (such as cards, billiards, quoits, etc.),
teas, etc. One home gives theater parties for its old people, and
another, located in a city which has a municipal opera company,
takes its residents to the opera. A great number of homes, especially
the larger ones, have libraries, smoking and game rooms, sun parlors,
etc., where the residents may enjoy themselves.
One Methodist home visited had, at the time it was built, only the
reception room in which to hold social events. The Epworth League,
feeling that a greater provision should be made along this line, built
a $4,700 building for recreation purposes. This building is connected
with the home building by a curving passage with sun rooms on
either side. The building itself contains an auditorium (with stage),
a library, sun room, two most attractive sitting rooms, and a kitchen
for serving refreshments.
Several homes report that birthdays of members are fittingly ob­
served, with parties, programs, etc. In one home “ once a week
moving pictures are thrown on the screen by our own projector which
is the gift of a kind donor. Films are supplied each week through
the generosity of other friends of the home.”
One home which has a large hospital in connection with it has a
traveling library which visits all the wards and rooms every day,
supplying reading matter to the residents. Last year 4,837 books
were issued in this way. (See fig. 20 .)
In many places there appears to be a good deal of local interest
in the home and its old people and considerable effort is expended
for their pleasure. The following extract from the report of one of
these homes shows how varied organizations have become interested
and what they did for the benefit of home members in one year:
The good times for the family have been as numerous as heretofore. The
Church Extension and Kiwanis joy cars gave untold pleasure on many trips.
The Automobile Club’s annual outing provided joy not only for the children but
for many of the adults who were taken for a ride, and the church school picnics
of both St. Paul's Church and Christ Church proved happy occasions. The
Locust Club field day, the Rochester exposition, and the frequent supper parties
in our summer house all provided pleasant diversion for the summer. The
winter months brought the Shrine circus, the performance of Thurston as guests
of the Times-Union, and St. Paul's annual Thanksgiving dinner and frolic. Mr.
Julius Fredericks provided a delightful musical entertainment at the home, and
St. Paul’s Boulevard Association gave a fine concert. Mr. Harper Sibley came
to the home and showed a moving picture to the family, and St. Marks and St.
Johns Girls’ Friendly Society gave a most enjoyable entertainment. The wonder­
ful New Year’s D ay party given by t h e ----------- Commandery, Knights Templar,
was as usual a most memorable affair. It is impossible to more than make men­
tion of these numerous kindnesses, but the board is very grateful to the many
thoughtful persons who planned them.
In addition to these pleasures there have been various other forms of enter­
tainment especially planned for our older family through the thoughtful courtesy
of many friends of the home.
The Church Home Auxiliary has given special suppers and entertainments for
the household and members of the auxiliary have visited the family at regular
intervals.




CH APTER V II.---- BY RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS

151

Money benefits.— As already noted, 73 homes pay to the resident
who has property to turn over to the home either the income from
it or a fixed rate of interest upon it. One home pays interest at the
rate of 2 per cent, 8 homes at the rate of 3 per cent, 13 homes at the
rate of 4 per cent (1 only on property in excess of $1,000), 3 homes
at the rate of 5 per cent, 1 home at the rate of 5.9 per cent, and 1
at the rate of 7 per cent.
One home makes each inmate an allowance of 75 cents a month, one
home of $1 a month and $5 at Christmas, one of $1.50 a month, one of
$2 a month, one of $10 per year, and one of $20 to $30 per month.4
One gives each resident $1 on his birthday and $5 at Christmas.
Twenty-one others, which do not state amounts, allow car fare and
occasional small amounts, “ pin money,” spending money, etc. Five
homes pay the residents for any work done around the institution.
One Methodist home which pays a small allowance to its residents
explains its attitude thus:
The home is not a poorhouse, but is the home where the church entertains,
as its guests, its worthy men and women of ripe age whose own family circle is
broken up. To contribute to the feeling of independence and self-respect, the
home pays quarterly a certain amount of pocket money to such members as have
no other income; it is sufficient to get the few articles of personal need and of
gratification.

Religious services.— Religious services, as would be expected, are
an almost universal feature of the homes in this group, and a great
many of the homes have their own chapel where the residents assemble.
(See fig. 21.)
One home reports on this point:
The management does not stop with looking after the mere physical welfare
of the members of the home. In all possible ways their religious life is cultivated
and their spirits sustained by a living faith.
Perhaps there is no service that so unites the family as the Sunday service. In
the beautiful chapel they gather every Sunday afternoon for the preaching service.
Attendance is not compulsory, but most of those who are able attend regularly
and greatly enjoy the meetings.

Support and Cost of Homes
T h e main support of these church homes is, naturally, the churches
of the denomination which sponsors the home. One home reports
that it receives its support from the following sources, which are prob­
ably typical of a majority of the church homes: Monthly dues of
members of the home association; voluntary contributions, gifts,
legacies, compensation from local churches for care of their members;
annual collections in all the participating churches; interest on endow­
ments; admission fees; and gifts in kind.
Some of the homes have good-sized permanent or endowment
funds, the income from which helps considerably to defray the operat­
ing expenses of the home. One endowed home, which does not report
the amount of its endowment fund, states that the income from the
fund pays for about one-half the cost of operation of the home, the
institution being dependent for the remainder “ upon gifts from
friends, contributions from our churches, associate memberships,
and funds raised in various ways by the board of managers, one of
their greatest efforts being to see that each year we close our books
without a deficit.”
4 T h is is a h om e for retired m inisters, the allow ance being for m aintenance.




(See p. 134.)

CARE
O
F
AGED
PERSONS
I
N
UNITED
STATES




F ig u

re

21 . - C h a p e l

at t h e c h u r c h h o m e a n d

I n f i r m a r y (E p is c o p a l ) , B a l t i m o r e ,

md

.

C H APTER V II.---- BY RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS

153

One home reports that it receives financial support from the churches
of the denomination in the States of Iowa, Minnesota, and South
Dakota. Another states that its funds are raised by direct levies
on the membership of the supporting synods and by personal gifts of
many friends throughout the church; “ quite a few annuity bonds
have been issued and legacies not a few have come to the home.”
One home reports that in addition to the support received through
“ pledges” from the various parishes in the diocese it has an endow­
ment fund of about $165,000. Another has an endowment of more
than $218,000, another one of more than $400,000, and a fourth one
of more than $181,000. One Chicago home reports permanent
funds of $537,000.
Cost of Operation

Of the homes which furnished data from which per capita cost of
operation could be computed, the Friends’ homes are the group having
the largest average per capita expenditure (considering only those
denominations more than one of which reported). These homes,
however, are all boarding homes. The next highest average is that
of the Episcopal homes, with the Congregational homes following.
The average for the whole group of religious homes is $389.78 per
person per year. Details for the various denominations and organi­
zations are shown in the table following.
T

able

4 1 .— P E R

C A P IT A

C O ST O F O P E R A T IO N

O F H O M E S O F R E L IG IO U S G R O U P S

A n n u a l per capita cost
Sponsoring organization
H igh

R eligious denom inations:
A d ven tists, S even th -D a y 1............... ........... ............... ........... .......
A p ostolic C hristian 1_________________________________________
B a p tis t_______________________________________ _____ . . . _______
Ch ristian______________________________________________________
Christian Science 1____ _________________ ______________________
C h u rch o f th e B re th re n ______________________________________
Congregational _ ____________________________________________
D iscip les of C h rist_____________________________________ ____ _
E v an gelical___________________________________________________
E v a n gelica l C o n g re g a tio n a l*________ ________________________
E vangelical S y n o d ____ _____ __________________________________
____
F rien d s___ ________ _________ _____________________________%
L a tter D a y Saints 1. _____ _______ _____ __________________ '____
L u th era n ____ ___________________ __________ __________ ________
M en n on ite 1_______________________ ______ _____________________
M e th o d is t___________________________ _________________________
M ora via n
_______________________________________ _____ _____
P resbyterian _____________________ ____________________________
Protestant E p is co p a l_______ _________________________________
R e form ed a n d C h ristia n R e fo rm e d C h u rch es o f A m e rica ..
R eform ed C h u rch in the U n ite d States_____________________
R iv e r B rethren_____________ __________ _______________________
R o m a n C a th o lic________________ _______ ______________________
Scandinavian E v a n gelica l____________________________________
U n ited B r e th r e n .______ ________ ___________ __________ _____
U niversalist_________ _____ _____ ______ ________________________
U nclassified___________________________________________________
Joint ch u rch .................. ........................... ........... ............................. ..

A verage

$251.89
183. 72
151. 35
245. 00
1,271.46
152. 51
264. 71
275. 00
198.63
350.75
300.05
474.85
204. 75
187.91
285. 71
214.28
393.75
111. 60
83.33
191. 78
342.10
250.00
100.00
234. 52
200.00
271. 25
230. 76
161. 74

$251.89
183. 72
697. 64
500.00
1,271.46
600.00
634. 96
500. 00
928. 57
350. 75
325. 00
1, 000. 00
204. 75
846. 90
285. 71
1,279. 85
393. 75
775. 55
1,154.96
398. 71
444. 83
304. 78
953. 75
368.89
700. 00
775.08
571. 43
714. 30

A ll d en om inational h om es............

83.33

1, 279. 85

366.94

R eligious p h ilan th rop ic organizations:
J ew ish . _______ ________ _____ _______
K in g ’ s D au gh ters____ _____________
Salvation A r m y i__________________
V olunteers o f A m erica 1.....................

181.82
136.14
413. 50
474.03

1,631.83
583. 29
413. 50
474. 03

490.13
313. 65
413. 50
474. 03

A ll ph ilan th ropic hom es.
A ll religious h om es...........
1 1 h om e on ly.




136.14

$251.89
183. 72
403. 58
280. 58
1, 271.46
295. 71
531.23
341.14
318. 77
350. 75
303. 35
736.91
204. 75
365. 07
285. 71
486. 21
393. 75
487.18
649.30
265.48
404.98
276. 20
283. 72
337. 09
360.22
492.16
310.34
381. 08

1, 631. 83

506. 85

1,631. 83

389. 87

154

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

Some 25 homes of various denominations have furnished the
bureau detailed figures as to cost of operation of the home for their
latest fiscal year. This information is shown in the table below.
In compiling these data certain combinations of items have been
necessary in order to make the information comparable. Also,
expenditures for permanent additions to the building and interest
on mortgages have been omitted, since these are not properly charge­
able to the current upkeep of the home.
T

able

4 2 —D E T A IL E D

O P E R A T IN G

CO ST S, F O R O N E Y E A R , OF S P E C IF IE D
B aptist

Item

H o m e A ,°
N e w Y o rk

HOM ES

E p iscopal

H o m e B ,°
P e n n sy l­
vania

C hurch
H o m e for
Aged
Persons,
C hicago,
111.

Salaries and w a g e s ................................ ......................... $14,096.36 $14,841. 52 $12, 522.75
3,
8,923.33
G roceries and
________ ______________________ 11,704.86 m eats519.87
C loth in g___________________________________________
206. 24
287. 53
L a u n d ry ___________________________________ _______
178. 79
85. 20
T elep h on e and teleg ra ph _________________________
4, 248.48
928.37
3, 512. 26
H eat, light, and p o w e r. ______________ _________
89. 72
78.20
235.14
W ater and ic e _____________________________________
612.03
404. 99
D rugs and m edical supplies
_
_
410. 89
88.62
M ed ica l and hospital care . . . ____ _____ ____
P rintin g and office su pplies. _
. . . ___________
16. 79
868. 71
333. 30
R epairs to eq u ip m en t and structu res____________
180. 92
1, 590. 28
R ep lacem en ts..... ............. ....... ...............
... ____
1,881.38
1, 591. 38
T r a n s p o r t a t io n ___ _____
R ecreation
______
_
___
446. 80
383.82
Insurance...... ......... . - - -__ _________
Taxes
_________
___ - ________________
903. 67
1, 551. 58
M iscella n eou s______ ___________ ___________ ____
1,184. 87

G allaudet
St. J o h n ’s C h urch
H om e
M ission
for O ld
t o D eaf
Ladies,
M u tes,
M ilw a u ­ W a p p in g kee, W is. ers Falls,
N. Y.
$7, 807. 04
6,132.18

2, 716.78
211.44
201. 24
1, 794. 80

$6, 957. 31
2, 748. 58
153. 71
2, 476. 81
589. 78
191. 27
434.00
9.00
1,456.44
574.45
316. 61

1, 048.43

i 175.00

_ _______
_

34, 511. 38

24, 443. 88

28, 953. 39

19, 911. 91

16, 082.96

A llow an ces or interest to inm ates________________
C ost per inm ate (excluding allow ances)__________

884. 21
431.39

181.07

413. 62

538.16

502. 59

T o t a l_______________ _____

-

C h u rch of th e Brethren

Item

E v a n gel­
ical:
H o m e A,®
N e w Y o rk

W estern
G erm an
B aptist
O ld
P e o p le ’s
H om e,
C hicago,
111.

O ld F o lk s’ G erm an
H om e of
B a ptist
Brethren,
H om e
M arshall­ for A ged,
tow n ,
P h iladel­
Io w a
phia, Pa.

Salaries and w ages. _ .................... ............... .................. $18,152.12
G roceries an d m eats___________ ___________ _______ 19,876. 23
C loth in g . ............................................ - ......... - ..............
L a u n d r y __________________ __________________ ______
T eleph on e and telegraph ................................ ............
329. 23
H eat, light, ...................................................
and p o w e r
7,361.40
W ater and ice __________ _____ _________ ______ _____
D rugs and m edical supplies______________________
623.26
M ed ica l and hospital c a r e ________________________ 1 1, 521. 70
P rintin g and office supplies____________ _________
1, 931. 51
R epairs to equ ip m en t and structu res____________
509. 25
_____ ________________________ _______
4,079. 72
R e p la ce m e n ts
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n _________________________ ______
586.27
R ecreation ______ __________________________________
2 392. 78
Insurance....................................... - ........... .......................
2, 526. 70
T a x e s .______ ______________________________ ________
76.82
M iscella n eou s........................................... .........................
727. 53

$6,376.00
6,784.97

T o t a l . . .................................................. .................... 58, 694. 52

19,147. 65

3, 565.19

2,196.99
227. 95

297.10

A llow an ces or interest to in m a tes_____ _____ _____
C ost per inm ate (exclud ing allow an ces)________ _

217.39

222.01
2,442.96
i 628.98
140.10
1, 766. 26
88.79
88.00
180.00
180.35
249. 23

« D esign a tion adop ted, at request o f h om e, to a v o id ide n tifica tio n .
1 Inclu des cost o f burial.
2 Christm as gifts.




Jew ish:
H o m e for
A g ed and
Infirm
H ebrew s,
N ew
Y ork
C ity

$1. 772.12
708.14
25. 52

$3,419.75 $52, 509.95
4,062.34 44, 549.99
2, 668.12
1,562.15
323. 56
236.97
2,337.93
11,951.87
28.50
163.96
110.36
90. 73
4,371.18
71.68
812.75
241.41 ” I*776.’ 49
73.34
312.81
11,971.35
65.00
234. 56
8,130. 74
184.84
345.16
9.00
82.97
22.72
22.’ 70"
1,263.79
211.30
349. 92 i 1, 331. 37 i 3,102. 28
13, 224.17 144, 719. 96
198. 25
330. 60

1, 200.00
425.65

155

CHAPTER VII.---- BY RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS
T

able

4 2 .— D E T A IL E D O P E R A T IN G C O ST S, F O R O N E Y E A R , O F S P E C IF IE D H O M E S —

C o n tin u e d

Luth eran

Item

M e th o d ­
ist
H o m e for
N orw egian
M e th o d ist
A g ed,
W artbu rg
E p iscopal C entral
Lutheran
L u th eran
H o m e A ,a H o m e for P e n n s y l­
B ethesda
H om e,
N ew Y ork
A ged of
H om e,
vania
B ro o k ly n ,
P h iladel­
Annual
C h icago,
N. Y.
phia, P a.
C on fer­
111.
ence,
T y ro n e ,
Pa.

Salaries and w ages...... ................................. ................... $6,294.45
7,125.05
G roceries and m eats________ _________ ____________
451.40
C loth in g
_____ ___________________________
538. 24
L a u n d r y ___
___ __ __________________________
96.13
T eleph on e and telegra ph _________________________
2,550.83
H eat, light, and p o w e r . ................................ ...............
W ater and ice
___
__________ _________________
47.99
D ru gs and m edical su p p lies.........................................
M ed ica l and hospital c a r e ___
________________
170. 00
P rintin g and office supplies____ _________ ________
1,829. 62
R epairs to equ ip m en t and stru ctu res......................
394.16
R ep la cem en ts_________ ______ __________ __________
120. 36
T ra n sp orta tion ___ _____ ___________________ _______
Recreation ________ _____ __________ _____ _________
Insurance _
.................................................. .
_
T a x es _____________________________________ ________
M iscella n eou s _____________________________________ i 1,421.87
T o t a l............ ............................. ............................. .. 21,040.10
A llow an ces or interest to inm ates________________
C ost per inm ate (exclud ing allow ances)__________

M e th o d ist

5,083.18
300.57

$6,622.32 $12,777.80 $19,273.99
15,157.65 22,585. 45
8,791.45
338. 96
644.42
104. 58
103.53
2,460.69
6.643.49
6,796.92
273.10
357. 50
149.11
358.01
(3
)
583.49
« 313.44
301.15
100.16
591. 20
1,592. 22
1,313.10
457. 66
694. 51
1.330.50
1,220. 53
190.63

$9,249.45
8,103.03
1,229.90
159.34
2,985.42
4,247.29
671.40
1,080. 22
810.44
603.18

47. 50'

594.89

2, 237.70'

1 1,596.46

1 2,919. 25

426.44
6.05
1 2,852.89

22, 721.06

39,779.65

57,022. 65

32,425.05

336.90
302.95

1,049. 39
442.00

2, 291. 30
292.42

341.32

M e th o d ist— C on tin u ed

Item

Salaries and w ages.......... ............................................. ..
G roceries and m eats.................................................. ..
C lo th in g ........................... ........... ......... .............................
L a u n d r y ......................... ................... ................... .............
T elep h on e an d teleg ra ph ....... ........... ................... .......
H eat, light, and p o w e r ................................. .................
W ater and ic e _______ ______ ____________________ ___
D ru gs and m edical su p p lies___________ ______
M ed ica l and hospital care _____________________
P rin tin g and office supplies. .......... ....... .....................
R ep airs to equ ip m en t and stru ctu res.......................
R ep la cem en ts __________ _____ ___________ _________
T ra n sp orta tion __ __
........................................
R e c r e a t i o n __________ ________________________ ____
Insurance _________ ______ ________ ___________ ____
T a x es _____________ _______________ __________ _____
M iscella n eou s....................................................................

M eth od ist
C row ell
Ch urch
M em orial
H om e B , 8
H om e,
H om e,
Illinois
W est
B lair,
H aven,
N ebr.
C on n.

$2, 788. 85 $13,131.95
1,684. 89 16, 343.16
17. 50
332. 79
550.40
49.15
164. 43
1,078.96
5,005.03
122. 77
225.14
2, 303.86
322. 25
550. 75
295.85
813. 54
480.01
2,601. 74
34.21
35.00
1,134. 94
226. 50
182. 50 1 2,908.14

20.05
91.60
2,921.50
322. 09
146.81
75.00
181.07
681.44
891.84
952. 54

$2,833.00
1,881. 58
16.19
1,142.96

H o m e C ,°
N ew
Y ork

$5,398.96
1, 719.40
78.31
839. 74

46. 50
211. 89
151.50
4,262. 49
593. 59
84.24
149. 27 " ‘ ""465.’ 12

50.00
68.51
1 2, 923. 99 ""i,"416.’ 45" U ,’ 474."34

45, 768. 65

18,859. 21

12,044. 52

10, 720.96

179.50
3,880. 00
A llow an ces or interest to inm ates____________ ____
C ost per inm ate (exclud ing allow an ces)
.......... .......
380. 78
339.03

187.00
304.18

334. 57

428.84

T o t a l.

___________ _____ _____ _________ _____

7, 615. 66

$5,752.51
3, 780. 26

G erry
H om es,
G erry,
N. Y.

° D esign a tion a d op ted , at request of h om e, to a v o id id en tification .
1 Inclu des cost o f burial.
3 In clu d ed in m edical a n d hospital care.
4 In clu d es m edicines.

35777°—29------11




156
T

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

able

4 3 .—D E T A I L E D O P E R A T IN G C O S T S , F O R O N E Y E A R , O F S P E C IF IE D H O M E S —
C o n tin u e d

U niversalist
R eform ed:
P h oebe
H om e,
A llen ­
tow n ,
Pa.

Item

C h apin
H om e,
Jam aica,
L . I.,
N. Y.

Salaries and w ages____ ____________ ________________________ - $5,669.64 $16, 799. 31
2,348. 76 18,310.43
G roceries and- m eats
________
C lo th in g _______________________ ____________________________ _
L a u n d ry ________ _______________________________ _______ _____
T elep h on e an d telegraph.....................
. ________________
201.42
79. 25
1,402.97
6, 547. 33
H eat, ligh t, and p o w e r _______ __________________ _____________
W a ter and ice _______________________ __________ ___________
421.20
168. 34
D ru gs and m edical su p p lies_________________ _____________
212. 50
M ed ica l and hospital c a r e .______ ___________ _____________
622. 58
P rin tin g and office supplies_____________ _______ __________
1, 323.14
1,122.15
2, 415.08
R ep airs to e q u ip m e n t and structu res____________ _________
R ep lacem en ts_______________________ _______ _______________
169.00
1, 206.38
T ra n sp orta tion _______________ _____ ________ ________________
145.94
R ecreation _________________________________ __________________
Insurance............................. ................... ....................... ............... ........
432. 38
355.00
T a x es _________ ________ ____________________________________
M iscella n eou s..................... ........................... ................... ...............
230. 36 i 1, 460.00
T o t a l . . - ...................... ......................... ............... ........................

5 Inclu des ice.

$1,842.29
4, 393.99

$4,075. 72
6, 727. 30

70.96
548. 39

70.13
« 1,465.22
(fl)
102.03

646. 00
116.16
245.35
51.96

1," 142." 28
3,458.65
313.80

62. 55

118.78
i 610.00

13, 344. 79

48, 298. 37

7,867. 65

17,083.91

444.83

1, 662.12
473. 51

393.38

262.83

A llow an ces or interest to inm ates__________________________
C ost per inm ate (excluding allow an ces)
_____ _______ _____
1 Inclu des cost o f burial.

Joint
ch u rch :
M essiah N orw egian
U n iv er­
Christian
H om e,
salist
B ro o k lyn ,
H om e,
N. Y.
P h iladel­
phia, Pa.

6 In clu d e d in heat, ligh t, an d p ow er.

Land Holdings
I n m a n y cases the homes have extensive grounds, some of which
are used for gardening purposes, and a few homes have good-sized
farms whose crops help considerably in supplying the home with
fresh foodstuffs and in keeping down the food expense. One such
home has a farm of 704 acres and several tracts of timber, one tract
of which covers 84 acres. Another home, whose holdings in farm
land are the most extensive of all the homes studied, last year had
1,100 acres planted to corn alone, in addition to 25,500 strawberry
plants, about 2 acres planted to raspberries, gooseberries, and currants,
and a large orchard. Altogether 1,725 acres are in cultivation.
A large part of the expenses of this home is met by the proceeds from
the farming operations. The farm superintendent’s report contained
the following statement:
W e gathered something over 5,000 quarts of strawberries, about 1,000 quarts
of raspberries, and several gallons of blackberries and gooseberries. M r. S.
harvested a fine crop of 2,125 pounds of excellent honey, which affords us a very
wholesome and tasty food for old and young. W e have served fruits and honey
generously throughout the year, but still the sales from these sources amounted
to nearly $500. W e have butchered all our own meat, buying the cattle and
hogs from the farm. W e feed a small bunch of hogs on the garbage, thus pro­
ducing pork at a very low cost. Our milk is purchased from the farm. W e use
60 gallons a day, almost twice the amount used a year ago. This increase was
made so that the whole milk might be served twice daily as per instructions of
the executive committee and the home’s physician.

Other instances in which ownership of considerable land (usually
used for farming) was reported included two Methodist homes owning
125 and 358 acres, respectively; two Episcopal homes owning 500 and
100 acres; a Jewish home with a truck farm whose acreage was not




CHAPTER VII.---- BY RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS

157

reported; a Presbyterian home with 294 acres of land; a United
Brethren home with holdings of about 490 acres; and three Lutheran
homes with 10^2, 50, and 40 acres, respectively.
Value of Home Property
C o n s id e r a b l e
sums are represented in the property of some
of these church homes for ^the aged for which the bureau has
data. One Lutheran home in Chicago has buildings, grounds, and
furnishings valued at over $500,000; and two United Brethren
homes have land and buildings worth $929,680 and $91,586, re­
spectively, while those of an Evangelical home are valued at $140,000
and those of a home of the Reformed Church at $115,000. A large
Jewish home which has 400 residents values its holdings at $1,104,962,
and another Jewish home has a million-dollar building facing Central
Park in New York City.
Six Methodist homes for which the bureau has data on this point
own property valued, respectively, at $47,780, $102,500, $219,000,
$220,000, $347,599, and more than $2,000,000. The quadrennial
report of the board of hospitals and homes of the Methodist Church
(North),rendered at the 1928 general conference of that church, stated
that the value of property owned by 44 M ethodist homes at that
time aggregated $6,639,132 and their endowment funds amounted to
$3,863,761.
Data furnished by the Disciples of Christ show that the six homes
of that church own land and buildings valued at nearly $750,000.
New buildings are being planned or built in several instances.
One such home has just completed a new wing costing $50,000, and
another a new 18-room wing, and a third during the fall of 1928 in­
creased its capacity from 27 to 42. Another has accumulated $5,000
toward an extension to the building.




Chapter VIII.—Provision for the Aged by Fraternal
Organizations 1

I

NQUIRY was made of 71 national fraternal organizations (which
could not be classified as organizations of either religious or
national groups) as to what, if any, provision was made by the
organization for the aged members, through pensions, homes, or relief.
Replies were received from 61 of these. Seventeen issue beneficial
certificates which can be surrendered for cash benefit, 4 have a pension
plan, and 17 operate one or more homes for the aged.
Fraternal Insurance
ROBABLY the majority of the fraternal organizations provide
benefits or insurance of various sorts— sick, death, disability,
etc.— and some of these have policies which provide that upon reach­
ing a specified age (usually 70 years) the policyholder may elect
to receive the full cash value of the policy at that time as an oldage benefit.
Among the organizations whose policies carry the cash surrender
clause are:

P

Ancient Order of United Workmen.
Artisans Order of Mutual Protection.
Fraternal Aid Union.
Fraternal Brotherhood.
Fraternal Reserve Association.
Modern Brotherhood of America.
Modern Samaritans.
Modern Woodmen of America (disability only).
Mystic Workers.
New England Order of Protection.
Protected Home Circle.
Royal Knights of King David.
Royal League.
Royal Neighbors of America (disability only).
United Order of the Golden Cross.
W om an’s Benefit Association (of Maccabees).

The North Star Benefit Association provides that upon reaching
the age of 70, the beneficiary may elect to receive the amount of his
policy in 10 annual installments.
Pension Plans
OUR fraternal organizations reported having a pension plan.
These were the Arkansas lodge of the Order of the Eastern Star,
the Degree of Honor Protective Association, the Virginia Lodge of the
Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and the Supreme Tribe of BenHur. The bureau has some data for the first three of these.
Order of Eastern Star.— A pension committee of the Arkansas Grand
Lodge of the Order of the Eastern Star was created in 1918. The
edict under which the committee works limits the amount of pension
to $20 per month. In order to receive the pension the applicant must
be a member or widow of a member in needy circumstances.

F

1

E x cep t organizations of religious and national groups, w h ich are in clu d ed under those headings.

158




CHAPTER V III.— B Y FRATERNAL ORGANIZATIONS

159

During the last fiscal year the committee aided 91 persons, of whom
84 were still on the books at the end of the year. The sum of $14,335
was spent for this purpose during the year.
Degree of Honor.— The pension plan of the Degree of Honor Pro­
tective Association is in the form of advances upon the insurance
certificate of the member.
A policyholder 65 years of age or over who is without a home or
anyone sufficiently interested either as relative or friend to provide
for her old age, and who is without income from any source, may
deposit her insurance certificates with the home, relief, and fraternal
service fund of the association, which will thereupon make “ loans or
advances” upon the certificate. The amount so advanced ranges
from $25 to $40 per month. These advances must be repaid at the
maturity of the policy, any balance remaining at that time being paid
to the beneficiary, with “ such additional aid as the board of directors
may determine.”
On December 31, 1927, there were 13 members receiving such
advances, and the total amount so advanced during the year was
$2,015.
Odd Fellows.— The Virginia Grand Lodge of the Independent Order
of Odd Fellows has since 1916 had a pension plan for the benefit of
aged members. To be eligible for the receipt of the pension the appli­
cant must have been a member in good standing (or widow of a mem­
ber) of the Odd Fellows or a member of the Rebekahs for at least one
year prior to application. The applicant must also be aged, infirm,
and indigent.
The pensions granted by the order range from $10 to $15 per month.
The pension is now being paid to 48 persons and the amount so dis­
bursed during the year ending March 31, 1928, totaled $5,540.
Old-age Relief
REGULAR system of old-age relief is apparently not common
among fraternal organizations.
The Fraternal Home Insurance Society reports that it pays old-age
benefits to members 70 years of age who show that they are physically
disabled.
The aged members of the Ancient and Honorable Order of the Blue
Goose will in future be provided for under a sy stem of group insurance.
The plan was adopted July 1, 1928. A special policy will cover mem­
bers 65 years of age and over. It was hoped that 75 to 90 per cent of
the aged members would be covered by January 1, 1929.
The Fraternal Reserve Association reports that it is considering
plans for some system of old-age or disability relief work, and the
Workmen’s Circle that it has a fund of $5,000 from which assistance
is given to indigent members 60 years of age or over.
The Pennsylvania grand lodge of the Maccabees gives aid to old
people not qualified to enter the home for aged. About 400 are being
so aided.
Other organizations which have a regular system of general relief
or which give aid in certain cases of need (all ages) include:

A

Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry.
Ancient Order of United Workmen (Massachusetts grand lodge).
Order of Eastern Star (grand lodges of Colorado, Kentucky, Maine, Michigan,
Mississippi, North Dakota, Ohio, and Wyom ing).




160

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

Equitable Fraternal Union.
Improved Order of Red Men.
Knights of Pythias.
Loyal Order of Moose.
Maccabees.
Patriotic Order of Americans.

Homes for the Aged
F TH E 112 homes for aged known to be operated by fraternal
organizations which are neither of a religious character nor com­
posed of national groups, the bureau has secured data for 102. Three
organizations stand out in respect to their provision for aged mem­
bers. These are the Knights of Pythias (including Pythian Sisters),
the Masons (including the Eastern Star), and the Odd Fellows (in­
cluding the Rebekahs).2 These three organizations together account
for 98 of the 112 homes and for 88 of the 102 for which data Were
secured. The Odd Fellows lead with 47 homes (42 reporting), the
Masons follow with 39 (35 reporting), and the Knights of Pythias
are third with 12 (11 reporting). The other 14 organizations operate
one home each.
Some of the fraternal organizations also operate orphanages,
sanatoriums, etc., but these, of course, do not fall within the scope of
the present study. Where aged and orphans are cared for in the same
institution the home was included here.
Table 43 shows the distribution, by States, of the homes of the
three leading organizations.

O

T

able

4 3 .— D IS T R IB U T IO N

OF P Y T H IA N ,
FOR AGED,

M A S O N IC , A N D
BY STATES

K n ig h ts o f
P yth ias

ODD

FELLOW S’ HOM ES

M asons

O d d F ellow s

State
T o ta l
num ber

A la b a m a ___
__________________________ ______
A riz on a _____
_______________ ________ _______
C aliforn ia__________ _________ ___________________
C olora d o ________ ____________
___________ _____
C on n ecticu t,
___ ______________________________
D istrict of C o lu m b ia _____________________________
F lo rid a ___
_________ _______ _____
Id a h o _______
_________________________________
Illin ois___________ ________________________________
In d ia n a ___ __________ _____________________________
Iowa__
_ ____________________________
K ansas
K e n tu c k y
________________ ________
L ou isian a.
...........
_______________________
M a r y la n d .
M assachusetts
___________ _______ ___
M ic h ig a n ____ _______ __ ______________________
M in n esota .......................... ............................. ..............

N um ber
N u m b er
N um ber
T o ta l
T o ta l
report­
report­
re p o rt­
n u m ber
nu m b e r
ing
ing
ing

1
1

d

« In clu d in g 1 Eastern Star hom e.
b In clu d in g 1 M a so n ic and Eastern Star com b in ed .

1

1
1

a2
1
*1

*3
1
1
1
2

b

« 1
1
1

1

« 2
1
»1
1

1

° 1
1
1

3
1

b 1
1

2

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
e ]_
c 2
1
1
1
1
1

e
c

i
1

c 1 O d d F ellow s and R eb ekah s co m b in e d .
d P y th ia n Sisters’ hom e.

2 T h e hom es o f the w o m e n 's auxiliaries had to be in clu d ed w ith those o f the m en because som e o f the
hom es are operated jo in tly .




161

CHAPTER V III.— B Y FRATERNAL ORGANIZATIONS
T a b le

43.— D I S T R I B U T I O N

O F P Y T H IA N , M A S O N IC , A N D O D D
F O R A G E D , B Y S T A T E S — C o n tin u e d

K n igh ts of
P yth ias

FELLOW S’ HOM ES

O dd F ellow s

M ason s

State
T o ta l
nu m ber

M is sou ri__________ __ _ _______________ ______ ___
M o n ta n a _______ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
_ ___________ __
_
N ebrask a_____________ ____ _______________________
N e w H am p sh ire__________________________________
N e w J e r s e y ._______ _________ _____________________
N ew Y o r k ________ _____________________ __________
N orth Carolina ________ _____ _________
________
N orth D a k o ta _____________._ ____________________
O h io________________ ________ __________ _________
O kla h om a_________________________________________
O regon_______________________________ ________ _
P en n sylva n ia_______ _________ __ _____________
R h o d e Isla n d ___ _________ ____ ______ ___________
South D a k o t a ................................ ........... ... ..........
Tennessee___________ _________ ___________________
T exa s_________ ______________________________ ______
V erm on t____________________ _________________ __
V irginia_________________ ______ ___________________
W ash in gton _______________ ______ _________________
_____________ _____ _
W est V irginia______________
W iscon sin _____ ___________________ _______ _____ _
T o t a l. ___________ __ ______
1I n clu d in g
2I n clu d in g
3 In clu d in g
4 In clu d in g
4 In clu d in g
6 In clu d in g

____________

1

N um ber
N um ber
N um ber
T o ta l
T o ta l
report­
report­ n u m b e r re p o rt­
n u m ber
ing
ing
ing

1

1
1
1
1
1
13
21

1
1
1
1
13
1

1
1
1
1
1

1

1

1

1

2

2

2
1

1
1

2

2

x3

13

1

2
i2
i1
i 1
1

1
12
i 1
i 1
1

1

i

1
1
1

* 39

« 35

a 47

1

12

11

1
1
1
1
1
35
1
1
1
1
1

a4

6 42

1 E astern Star hom e.
1 M a son ic an d E a stern Star c o m b in e d .
1 O d d F ellow s’ an d R eb ek ah s’ h om e, and 1 R eb ek ah s’ hom e.
7 E astern Star h om es and 4 Eastern Star and M a so n ic hom es.
7 Eastern Star hom es, and 3 E astern Star and M a son ic hom es.
1 R eb ek ah s’ h om e, and 3 O d d F ellow s’ and R eb ek ah s’ hom es.

The location of the single homes of the other fraternal organizations
is shown below.
State

Supreme Tribe of Ben-Hur___________________________ _Indiana.
Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks____________Virginia.
Foresters of America__________________________________ _New York.
Knights of D am on ____________________________________ Virginia.
Knights of the Golden Eagle_________________________ _Pennsylvania.
Knights of M a lta ______________________________________
Do.
Maccabees_____________________________________________
Do.
Loyal Order of M oose________________________________ _Florida.
Neighbors of Woodcraft______________________________ _California.
Orangemen_____________________________________________ _Pennsylvania.
Patriotic Order of Sons of America__________________
Do.
Improved Order of Red M en_________________________
Do.
Security Benefit Association__________________________ Kansas.
Sons of Hermann______________________________________ Texas.

The 100 homes from which data as to number of residents were
secured together provide for nearly 8,000 old people. More than
$3,000,000 was spent for this purpose last year by the fraternal
organizations reporting.
The table following shows for the various orders the number of
old people provided for and the cost of such provision during the
last fiscal year.




162
T

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

able

4 4 .—N U M B E R

O F A G E D IN H O M E S O F F R A T E R N A L O R G A N IZ A T IO N S A N D
C O S T O F O P E R A T IO N F O R O N E Y E A R

Inm ates
T o ta l
N um ­
num ber
ber
of
rep ort­
hom es
ing

O rganization

B e n -H u r _ _ .......................................... ................. .................
E lk s ...................... ............. ............... ..................... .................
K n igh ts o f D a m o n ____________________ _____ _____
K n ig h ts o f M a lta ........................ .........................................
K n ig h ts o f P y th ia s ___________ _________ ____________
M a ccabees ____________________ __________ ___________
M a son s_______________ _________ ___ _______ ____ ______
M oose
________________ ______ _____ ___________
____
N eigh bors of W o o d c r a ft__________ __________ _______
O d d F ellow s____ ______ ________________ _______ ______
O rangem en__________________________ ___________ ____
P a triotic O rder o f Sons o f A m e rica . __..........................
R e d M e n .......... ................................................................. ..
S ecurity B en efit A ssociation .................................... .......
Foresters o f A m erica .......... ............... .................................
K n igh ts o f the G old en E a gle........ ........... ........... ...........
Sons of H erm an n ___________ _____ ______ ___________ _
T o ta l—........................................................ ............. ..
1 N o data.
a 10 hom es.
* 9 hom es.
* 34 hom es; d ata in clu d e children also
* 29 hom es; data in clu d e children also
6 D a ta in clu d e children also in 1 case.
* 40 hom es; data in clu d e children also
8 Inclu des also cost o f hospital.
»99 hom es; data in clu d e children also
100 hom es; aged on ly ,
n 88 hom es; data in clu d e children also

C a p a city
of h om e

Average
num ber in
residence

C ost of
operation
last fiscal
year

1
1
1
1
12
1
39
1
1
47
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
11
1
35
1
1
42
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

21
300
35
35
623
300
4 5,079
200
325
®4,316
60
85
20
80
16
C)
1
0)

9
244
25
35
2 362
20
3, 619
167
67
2,927
30
73
10
65
16
9
0)

0)
$112, 000
5, 054
37,317
a 184,442
5,000
* 1,265,745
84,966
0)
7 1,330,440
55,194
16,256
7,162
8 150,000
0)
7,332
0)

112

102

f 10, S95

i° 7, 678

ii 3,260, 908

in 3 cases.
in 2 cases.
in 2 cases.
in 4 cases.
in 4 cases and hospital in 1 case.

Nearly half of these homes care for an average of fewer than 50
old people each, about one-fifth care for from 100 to 200 persons,
and 9 care for 200 or more. The distribution of homes, according
to number of aged who are sheltered there, is as follows:
N u m ber of
hom es

Homes caring for—
Fewer than 25 persons_______________________________________
25 and under 50 persons____________________________________
50 and under 100 persons___________________________________
100 and under 200 persons__________________________________
200 persons and over_______________________________________ „
N ot reported______________________________________________________
Total_______________________________________________________

30
19
24
18
9
2
102

The German Masonic Home of New York was the first fraternal
home to be opened, it having started in 1867, but 33 of the 96 homes
for which data on this point were obtained were opened before 1900.
The distribution of the 98 homes reporting, according to number of
years of operation, is shown below:
N u m b er of
hom es

Homes in operation—
1 year or less_______________________________ __________________
2 and under 5 years__________________________________________
5 and under 10 years________________________________________
10 and under 25 years_______________________________________
25 and under 50 years_______________________________________
50 years and over____________________________________________




TotaU,_________ _ — _____ _______________98

4
7
11
32
41
3

CHAPTER V III.— BY FRATERNAL ORGANIZATIONS

163

Terms of Admission
M e m b e r s h i p in the order is the first requisite in all fraternal
homes. In those cases in which there is a required period of mem­
bership this varies from 1 to 25 years, the most common period being
5 years.
In the majority of cases wives and widows of members3 are also
admitted, subject to the same requirements, and in a number of cases
the mother of a resident or of a deceased member who would have
been eligible for admission may also be admitted. The Masonic Home
of California also admits adult daughters of deceased members eligible
for admission at the time of death, and a number of the other Masonic
homes also admit the adult daughter or sister.
In order that the benefits of the home may be as equitably distrib­
uted as possible many of the fraternal organizations establish a quota
of admission to the institution. In such cases the lodges have the
privilege of sending to the home one resident for every specified
number of members in the lodge.
In the majority of cases admission to the homes of the fraternal
organizations is limited to those who are indigent and “ unable to
support themselves by reason of age and indigence, sickness, or
infirmity.” In a few cases, however, it is provided that persons with
private means may be admitted upon terms mutually agreeable to
home and applicant.
The Illinois Pythian Home specifies that it will not admit any
member “ whose affliction, disability, pr indigency has been caused by
his own misconduct, dissipation, or improper mode of living” ; and,
further, that should any resident, after^ being; admitted, become able
to support himself or cease to be indigent, he shall be discharged
from the home.
Almost without exception it is required that the applicant be of
good moral character, of temperate habits, and free from mental,
infectious, or contagious diseases. Persons unable to dress and care
for themselves are usually specifically excluded, but the Masonic
Home of California, the Odd Fellows’ Home of Kentucky, and the
Pythian Home of California provide that provision may be made for
the maintenance of such persons in sanatoriums or other appropriate
institutions.
The following is a common provision in this connection:
The home is a home for aged and indigent, who can care for their daily necessary
wants, and not a hospital or sanitarium for the care of the sick or disabled, or
those who are suffering with incurable, infectious, or contagious diseases, or from
any other causes which have already rendered them unable to care for their
daily wants.
Hospital facilities are provided for those who are taken sick or become disabled
after they have become residents of the home, but no provision is made in the
law to accept applicants who are already too sick or too disabled to take care of
their physical wants.

One of the two Masonic homes in Pennsylvania maintains a large
hospital in connection with the home, accepting persons who are
disabled at the time of admission.
Age.— Of the 102 homes reporting 64 have no age limit on admit­
tance. Of the remaining 38 which do have an age requirement, 5
3 O rphans or h alf orphans, as w ell, in m a n y cases.




( care
o
f
aged
persons
i
n

UNITED
fst a t e s




F i g u r e 2 2 - I o w a O d d F e l l o w s * Ho m e ,

at

Ma s o n

c it y ,

W h ic h

cost

$177,000

CHAPTER
V III.— B
Y
FRATERNAL
ORGANIZATIONS




F i g u r e 2 3 - B e n -Hu r H o m e ,

at c r a w f o r d s v il l e , in d .

05

Or

166

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

place the age at 50, 2 at 55, 18 at 60, 9 at 65, 1 at 67, and 1 at 70,
while 2 require merely that the applicant be “ old.”
Admission je e .— The charging of an admission fee to the home is
very uncommon among fraternal organizations. The Maccabees’
Home admits without fee beneficial members in the order; social
members who carry no insurance in the order must, however, pay
$200 per year if admitted to residence. Lodges of other States than
Pennsylvania must also pay $200 per year for each of their members
who is at the home. An admission fee of $500 is required at the
Orangemen’s Home.
Property.— Fifty-six homes have no property requirement, 41
require that any property or income possessed must be turned over to
the home, 1 requisitions two-thirds of such property, 1 requires the
forfeiture of all income over $20 per month and 1 of all over $60 per
year, and 2 admit indigents only.
Other requirements.— Only 27 homes have any nationality or racial
requirements. Of these, 13 require that the applicant be white, 10
that he be “ American,” 1 that he be an Anglo-Saxon, 1 that he be
colored, 1 that he be German, and 1 that he be a native of the State
in which the home is located.
Six homes require that the applicant be a Protestant.
Clothing.— Almost without exception the local lodges are required
to provide all aged members seeking admittance to the home from
their lodge with suitable clothing— usually for one or two years. (In
some cases a detailed list of the articles required is given.) Generally
the home furnishes any clothing needed thereafter, but in some cases
the local lodge must continue to bear the clothing expense and see to
it that its residents are “ decently and properly clothed” as long as
they continue in residence at the home.
Benefits Provided
M e d i c a l care is provided in all of the 98 fraternal homes reporting
on this point. Of these, 27 have a resident physician, 70 have one
or more resident nurses, and 11 have either a hospital or infirmary
in the institution. Of those who have resident nurses, 6 have 2
nurses, 5 have 3, 1 has 4, 1 has 6, 1 has 11, and 1 has 24 nurses. In a
number of cases physician members of the order donate their services
to the home.
The Iowa Odd Fellows’ and Orphans’ Home has a hospital building
which cost $47,000, and the Masonic Home of California a hospital
building with accommodations for 20 patients, which was presented
to the organization by one of the officers. The Masonic Home of
Ohio (fig. 24) has on its extensive grounds a hospital building con­
taining 140 bedrooms, an isolation ward with 14 beds, diet kitchen
on each of the three floors, a dental laboratory, consulting rooms, 11
solariums, an auditorium, and a large dining room and kitchen. One
of the Masonic homes in Pennsylvania has a 110-bed hospital on the
home grounds.
Recreation and amusements are provided for the old people in 76
homes. The recreations so provided range from those characterized
as “ limited,” “ ordinary,” “ usual” to those which represent the
result of a good deal of time and thought. Among the recreations
specified are radio, motion pictures, entertainments of various sorts,
concerts, rides, games, etc.




CHAPTER V III.---- B Y FRATERNAL ORGANIZATIONS

167

In addition to providing for all the wants of the residents, six homes
(three Masonic, three Odd Fellows’) pay interest on property made
over to the home at the time of admission. Twenty-one homes make
allowances to the residents to cover their small needs and for spending
money. Of these one allows each resident $1 per month, one $2 per
month, one $3 to $10 per month, according to the circumstances,
and in one each resident receives $1 per month from his local lodge.
Burial.— A number of organizations provide that when a resident
of the home dies he shall be buried in the home cemetery at the ex­
pense of the home (in some cases this is subject to a fixed maximum);
in case relatives or the local lodge desire that other disposition be
made of the body it is often specified that the expense of removal and
burial must be met by the relatives or lodge. Other organizations
require the resident’s local lodge to defray all funeral expenses.
Duties of Inmates
R e s i d e n t s are expected to cooperate with the management in
every way possible, to be friendly and courteous, prompt, and
neat, and to do everything possible to make the home atmosphere
pleasant.
In many homes the residents are also required to do such light chores
and perform such services as their age and physical condition will
permit; 62 of 91 homes reporting on this point make this requirement.
These duties include making beds, washing and wiping dishes, setting
the tables, etc. In 30 homes there is no requirement in this respect,
but 12 of these permit the old people to assist around the place if they
care to.
Among the services performed by the inmates of one home, as
reported by the matron, are: “ The care of the poultry, tending the
cows in pasture, firing the boilers and keeping the basements clean, a
quantity of carpenter w^ork and painting work, preparing fruits for
canning and vegetables for the tables, helping in the garden and
picking fruits, mending and darning and making of all new material
into sheets, pillow cases, table linen, etc., assisting in office errands for
hospital, washing of dishes and dining-room work, cleaning of parlors
every day, washing windows, etc. All hives have some drones, but
we find that these are not our happy and contented residents. I am
telling you these facts, as I am often asked whether the residents,
who are able, do any work in the home.”

Support and Administration of Home
F r a t e r n a l homes for the aged receive support in a number
of ways. The most common is through a per capita tax levied
upon the general membership. Many homes have established an
endowment fund or are endeavoring to do so,4 this being built up
from voluntary assessments, gifts, bequests, etc. Also, in many cases
the home is run by a separate association which the local lodges are
expected to join and which individual members may join for varying
fees, as annual, honorary, life, etc., members. The Masonic Home of
California requires each new member to pay a fee of $25, which goes to
* T h e en d ow m en t fu n d o f the M a so n ic C h a rity F o u n d a tio n o f C o n n e cticu t arpounts t o $316,489.




CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

168

the support of the home, and although a small per capita tax is
levied upon the membership, so great has been the number of acces­
sions to the order that the fees have been sufficient not only to pay the
cost of operation but also to pay for the construction of new buildings.

F ig u r e 2 4 —L o b b y

and

L ib r a r y

in m a i n

B u il d in g

of

O h io M a s o n ic H o m e , S p r i n g f i e l d , O h io

Donations of furnishings, household supplies, as well as canned and
other foods form a considerable item in the operation of many of these
homes.
Usually a separate board of trustees manages the home, these
trustees being so appointed or elected as to be representative of
various districts of the fraternal jurisdiction.



169

CHAPTER V III.— B Y FRATERNAL ORGANIZATIONS

Cost of Operation of Homes
T h e per capita cost of operation varies according to the size of
the home, the service given, etc. Naturally those homes which
furnish such items as burial, clothing, medical and nursing service,
etc., cost more per resident than those which furnish only board and
lodging. The per capita cost in the various homes studied ranged
from $33.33 to $911.24, the average for this group of homes being
$457.03. In some instances where the home is run in connection with
a hospital or orphanage, it was impossible to segregate the cost
chargeable to the old people’s home. The range and average per
capita cost for those homes for which such information was available
in usable form are shown in Table 45 :

F ig u r e 2 5 —A s s e m b l y R o o m
T

able

4 5 .— P E R

at

M in n e s o t a Ma s o n ic H o m e , B l o o m i n g t o n , M in n .

C A P IT A C O ST O F O P E R A T IO N O F H O M E S O F F R A T E R N A L
O R G A N IZ A T IO N S

C ost of operation per inm ate per year
Spon soring organization
L ow

H ig h

E l k s 1......................- ........... .....................
K n igh ts o f D a m o n *............... ...............
K n igh ts o f P y t h i a s . ______________
M accabees i _________ _______ ________
M a s o n s _____ _______________ _____ ____
M o o se i - _____ _______________________
O d d F e llo w s ..................... ............. .........
R e d M e n 1........... ................... ............. ..
P a triotic O rder o f Sons o f A m erica 1

$459.02

.

$459.02
202.16
911. 24
250.00
796. 57
508. 78
908. 25
716. 20

A ll h om es.......................................

33. 33

911. 24

i 1 home only.




202.16
288.88
250. 00

200 00
508.78
33. 33
716. 20
222. 68

.

222 68

A verage

$459. 02
202.16
517.22
250.00
474. 68
508.78
438.03
716.20

222.68
457.03

CARR
O
F
AGED
PERSONS
I
N
UNITED
STATES




F ig u r e 2 6 .- o n e

of the

S un

r o o m s at the

O dd Fe l l o w s ’ Ho m e

of

P e n n s y l v a n ia

CHAPTER V III.— B Y FRATERNAL ORGANIZATIONS

17 1

The bureau has data showing detailed figures of operating expenses
of four fraternal homes, two of which are Masonic homes and two
those of the Odd Fellows. The itemized expenditures of each of
these four homes are given in Table 47. In the last line of the
table is shown the annual cost of operation per inmate. It is seen

F ig u r e 27.—B e d r o o m

at

I n d ia n a P y t h ia n H o m e , I n d ia n a p o l is ,

in d .

in this connection that this average cost is much higher for the
Masonic Home of Illinois than for the others, but this is due to the
unusually large expnediture for repairs in that home. In each case
expenditures (where made) for permanent additions to the home
plant were omitted, as it was felt that such costs are not properly
chargeable to the current operating expenses of any one year.
35777°— 29------- 12




CARE
O
E
AGED
PERSONS
I
N
UNITED
STATES




bO

F ig u r e 2 8 .- O n e

o f the

Bun galow s

for o l d

pe o p le at m o o s e h a v e n . o r a n g e

Pa r k , Fl a .

CHAPTER V III.---- BY FRATERNAL ORGANIZATIONS
T

able

4 6 .— O P E R A T IN G

EX PE N SES OF F R A T E R N A L H O M ES FO R ONE Y E A R

M a son ic
H om e of
California,
D e co to ,
Calif.

Item

M ason ic
H om e of
Illinois,
Sullivan,
111.

O dd
O dd
F e llo w s’
F ellow s'
H om e,
H om e,
Stuyvesant, G rov e C ity ,
N. Y.
Pa.

Salarifis and wngpis _
.......
$11,926.30 $22, 794. 50
$1,805.00
27,912. 66
30,075. 87
G roceries an d m eats- _ __________________________________
3,204.69
C lo th in g ........................ ..................................... ........... ......... .. __
1,978.13
1,688. 67
L a u n d ry an d supplies____
_________ ____ ______________
3,183. 83
4,101. 86
T elep h on e an d teleg ra p h -_ __ _ _______________________
394. 93
40.16
H eat, light, and p o w e r___________________________________ i 7,360. 68
8,971.21
1,116. 65
W ater and ice —_________________________________________ _
D ru gs and m edical su p p lies_________ ___________________
425.02
M ed ica l and h ospital c a r e _________
_ _________ ____ 2 8, 719. 38
_
12,236.85
79.23
P rintin g and office supplies _____________________________
234.04
121.47
R epairs to eq u ip m en t a n d structu res. _ _ ___________
1,499.88 ~l6~935.’ 89~
165.89
9,742. 22
R ep lacem en ts__________________________ _____ _____________
1,385.11
291.70
T ran sp ortation ________________________ ______ _____________
1,100. 69
6.10
R ecreation _________________________ _____________________
5,042.14
762.05 .........345.~45~
In su ran ce.__
_________________________________________
T axes__________________________________________ _____ _____
55.92
M iscellaneous____________________________________________ 3 23,194.66
4 7,060. 22
957.56
T o t a l - . ____ ________ ________ _______ _______________
Cost per inm ate_____________________
1 Inclu des
a Inclu des
3 Inclu des
4 Inclu des
6 Inclu des

173

_ .....................

89,132. 65

119,594.14

353. 27

778.12

«8,189.79
282.44 |

$12,310.34
5,403.97
607.38
940.92
33.15
2, 298.49
646.55
344.55
449.50
880. 32
1, 653.40
186.88
2.25
25.00
4 3,086.76
28,869.46
246. 75

w ater.
dental expense.
$6,133.11 for farm expenditures, freight, and certain expenses o f k itch e n and din in g room .
burial expense.
farm expenses.

A number of fraternal homes have extensive land holdings in
connection with the home, some of which in a number of cases is
used for farming purposes. The farm does not always prove an
asset in dollars and cents—in some cases the cost of operation is
greater than the value of the crops produced— but the residents
are in this way supplied with fresh fruits and vegetables that they
might not otherwise have.
The 42 Odd Fellows’ Homes for which the bureau has data relating
to the land holdings have a combined acreage of 5,007 acres. In 2
cases the grounds are less than 5 acres, 9 homes have from 5 to 25
acres, 11 have from 25 to 100 acres, 11 from 100 to 200 acres, and 9
have 200 acres or more. Of the last group, one home has 316 acres,
one 350 acres, and one 476 acres of land.
Seven Masonic homes report farms, but there are undoubtedly
many more which also have farms but did not think to mention
this feature. Of these seven, one has holdings of 150 acres, one of
slightly over 267 acres, one of 271 acres, one of 400 acres, and one of
more than 1,000 acres. This last-mentioned home, in addition to
raising enough produce to supply the home table, sells some $30,000
worth every year.
The Pythian Home of Indiana has land amounting to 135 acres,
and the Kinkora Pythian Home of Pennsylvania (fig. 29), 2,700 acres.
The Security Benefit Association Home in Topeka, Kans., has 404
acres of ground.
Homes Proposed or in Process of Building
T h e Woodmen’s Circle reports that that society has acquired a tract
of 214 acres in Sherman, Tex., upon which a home for aged members
will be built “ at an early date.” Two needy members are now being




174

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

assisted by the payment of a small monthly allowance until such time
as the home is ready.
The Daughters of America is building a home for aged at Tiffin,
Ohio. It is expected that the cost will reach $250,000, and that it
will be two years before the building is ready foi* occupancy. Only
members in good standing who have belonged 1o the order for 20
years and have reached the age of 65 years will be eligible for
admission.
The Workmen’s Circle reports that it has for the past seven years
been accumulating funds which will ultimately be used for the

F i g u r e 2 9 —G a r d e n

at

K i n k o r a P y t h ia n H o m e , D u n g a n n o n , P a .

erection of a home for aged members. The secretary states that as
few of the members have as yet reached their sixtieth year, the
problem has not become urgent. The few who need aid now re­
ceive it from a relief fund. By the time there is a sufficient number
of old people to make a home necessary it is thought that sufficient
funds will be available to start one.
Other organizations which are accumulating funds for this purpose
are the Ancient Order of Gleaners, and the Eastern Star grand lodges
of Delaware, Mississippi, Nevada, North Dakota, and South Carolina.
The Virginia Grand Lodge of the Knights of Pythias expects to
have a home for the aged “ at some future time."7




Chapter IX.—Care of the Agecl by Various
Nationality Groups 1
Old People’s Homes
HERE are known to be 37 homes for the aged supported by
national groups. In several instances the home is sponsored
by a fraternal organization.
On the 33 homes for which some data were obtained, 2 are run by
groups of British birth or ancestry, 2 by Bohemians (Czechoslovaks),
1 by French, 12 by Germans, 1 by Mexicans, 12 by Scandinavians
(Norwegians, Danes, Swedes), 1 by Scotch, 1 by Swiss, and 1 by
Welsh. The location of one Scandinavian home is unknown. The
other 32 homes are located as follows:

T

N um ber
British:
1
Illinois____________
New Y o rk ________
1
Czechoslovak: Illinois.
___
2
French: New Y o rk ___
1
German:
California_________ _______ __ 1
Illinois____________ __________ 1
Indiana___________ _______ __ 1
Kentucky_________ _______ __ 1
Maryland_________ _______ __ 1
Massachusetts____ _______ __ 1
Missouri___________ _______ __ 1
New Jersey___________________ ___ 2

N um ber

German— Continued
New Y o rk _______
Ohio_____________
Mexican: Arizona___
Scandinavian:
Illinois___________
Massachusetts_
_
Minnesota_______
New Y o rk _______
Wisconsin_______
Scottish: Illinois_____
Swiss: New Y o rk ____
Welsh: Pennsylvania.

2

1
1

The 32 homes from which data as to capacity were obtained can
accommodate 1,750 old people; the average number in residence,
however, aggregates only 1,601. The groups sponsoring 29 of these
homes spent for their maintenance last year nearly $600,000, the
data for 3 homes being not reported. The details for the various
nationality groups are shown in the table below:
T able 4 7 .—N U M B E R

O F A G E D P E O P L E IN H O M E S O F S P E C IF IE D N A T IO N A L IT Y
G R O U P S , A N D C O ST OF O P E R A T IO N F O R O N E Y E A R

Inm ates
N a tion a lity group

N um ber
o f hom es
reporting

B ritish ............ ....................... .......................... ........... ...................
C z e c h o slo v a k ............ ........................................................... .........
F ren ch .............. ___............................... ............. ......... ...................
G erm an .................. ........................................... ........... ................. ..
M e x ica n ........... ....................................................................... .........
S candinavian....... ................................................................... .......
S c o t t is h ............................................................................................
Sw iss................... ............... ...............................................................
W elsh ___________________________________________________
T ota l

C a p a city
o f h om e

A v erage
n u m ber in
residence

A n n u al
cost of
operation

2
2
1
12
1
Ml
1
1
1

90
100
15
930
12
507
50
40
6

90
74
15
875
12
453
37
39
6

$39,515
24,690
3, 214
a 267,744
11, 750
138,079
25, 685
15,000
2,500

fa 32

1,750

1,601

c 528,177

» 9 hom es.
N o t including 1 h om e w h ich d id not report on these points.
0 29 hom es.
1 A ll Jewish hom es were classified in this stu d y as “ religious philanthropic. ”
ter V I I , p. 128.




F o r data on these, see C h ap­

175

176

CAKE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

Most of these homes are institutions of moderate size, housing
fewer than 50 persons each. The table below shows for the various
nationality groups the homes having classified numbers of residents:
T a b l e 4 8 . —H O M E S O F S P E C I F I E D N A T I O N A L I T Y G R O U P S , C L A S S I F I E D B Y A V E R A G E

N U M B E R OF R E S ID E N T S

N u m ber of hom es, w ith classified n u m ber of
resideni s
N a tio n a lity group

25
and
under
50

Less
than
25

50
and
upder
75

1
2

B ritish __
.......................... ............
C zech oslovak ___________________________________
F ren ch ______ ___________________________________
G erm a n ____________ ____________________________
M e x i c a n . ___ ______ ___________________________
Scandinavian _ ______________________________
S c o t t is h ._ ___________ _________ ________________
Swiss
. ________________________________ ___
W elsh
.......................... ............... .........................

1
2
1
4

75
i 100
and
£ind
under
under
100
200

T o ta l
200
and
over

1

5

2

1

1

4
1
1

1

1

14

4

2

2

1

1

1
9

T o t a l .___________ ________________________

1

2
2
1
12
1
i 11
1
1
1
i 32

1 N o t includ ing 1 h om e w h ich did not report on this p oin t.

The Swiss Home for the Aged, at Mount Kisco, N. Y., was the
first of these homes to be established; it has been in existence since
1873. More than 70 per cent of these homes have been in opera­
tion a decade or more. The following table shows the age distribu­
tion of the homes:
table

4 9 .—A G E D IS T R IB U T IO N O F H O M E S F O R A G E D OF S P E C IF IE D N A T IO N A L IT IE S

N u m ber in existence
N a tio n a lity of sponsoring group

B ritish

2 and
10 and 25 and 50 years
5 and
under
under
under u nder
and
5 years 10 years 25 years 50 years over

._ ._ __________ ____ __

1

._ . .

1
1

OAnhnslova.k

F r e n c h __ __________________ ________________________

1

Oflrman

M ex ica n _________ __________________________________ ____
S can d in a via n ________________________________________ . .
Scottish
. __ ___ _____________________________
Swiss
_____ ______________________ _______
W elsh
________________________________________________

1
2

T o ta l. ____________________________________________

5

2
2
1
12

1
1

_i. ______

3

8 i

2

5
1

T o ta l

2
1

1
i 11
1
1

1

i 32

1

1
4

11

11

1
i N ot in clu d in g 1 not reported.

Terms of Admission
I n m o s t instances the first requirement for admission to these
homes is that the applicant be of the same nationality as the group
sponsoring the home, or of that descent. Of the 31 homes reporting
on this point, 22 make this requirement and one adds that the
applicant must also “ understand the Swedish language.” The presi­
dent of the British Old People’s Home in Hollywood, 111., writes
that the home association is very lenient in this respect, and more
than 20 per cent of the residents are Americans. In another home,




!

CHAPTER
I X .— B
Y
NATIONALITY
GROUPS




F i g u r e 3 0 - V ic t o r ia H o m e

for

A g e d B r it is h M e n

and

W o m e n , O s s i n i n g , N. Y .




F ig u r e 31.—S c o t t is h O l d P e o p l e ’s H o m e , R i v e r s id e , I I I .

CHAPTER I X .— BY N ATIONALITY GROUPS

179

a Norwegian institution, while there is no hard and fast requirement
in this respect, applicants of Norwegian birth or descent are given
preference.
In a number of instances the home is sponsored or supported by
an organization, fraternal or otherwise,2 and in these cases the ap­
plicant m u s t usually be a member of that organization. Thus, the
Fritz Reuter Altenheim, at North Bergen, N. J., requires that
applicants must be recommended by a society which is a member
of the Plattsdeutsche Volksfest-Verein.
In general the applicant must be of good moral character and in
as good physical condition as could be expected, having regard to
his age; and in some instances the application must be accompanied
by a physician’s certificate to that effect. Some homes specify that
the person desiring admittance must not be “ afflicted with any
chronic disease, physical or mental.”
Two Scandinavian homes in Wisconsin make the following pro­
vision in this connection:
Persons suffering from insanity, contagious, repulsive, and incurable diseases
will not be admitted as members of the home. In case any one of the residents
of the home, in the opinion of the board of directors, should become in such
degree diseased in mind or body, that the condition of health within the home
or comfort of the other members would suffer thereby, such patient shall be
transferred to a more fitting place, in case the physicians shall counsel such
step. The afssociation shall not be held responsible for such person’s support
after their removal; there shall be no obstacle, however, preventing the board
of directors from rendering such support as they deem right and proper.

Two homes (one German and one French) admit persons of both
sexes but not as married couples, the Welch home admits women
only, while all the rest take in not only both sexes but married couples
as well. The Scottish Old People’s Home, at Riverside, 111., says in
this connection:
The separation of aged married couples is one of the tragedies of life. In the
Scottish Old People’s Home provision is made that such couples may enjoy
each other's companionship. * * * It is unusual, perhaps, for a man and
his wife to be in a home for the aged at the same time. Usually it is the loss
of a husband or a wife which makes it necessary for the survivor to seek refuge
in a home of this kind. But there are cases of aged married couples applying
for admission to such institutions. The usual custom is to separate them on
their admission, thus adding to their cares and burdens.
It was the thought that an aged couple who had shared together the joys and
sorrows of life, who had together borne the heat and burden of the day, might
be together in the twilight of their lives to enjoy each other’s companionship
that caused the builders of the Scottish Old People’s Home to make provision
for such cases.

Age.— All the 32 homes reporting on this point set an age limit on
admission, below which admission is refused. In 1 home this age is
set at 50 years, in 4 at 60 (1 of these takes women at 55), in 1 at 62,
in 23 at 65 (2 of these take women at 60), and in 3 at 70 years.
Admission fe e .— Only six of the homes require no admission fee.
In the other 27 varying amounts are required: In 1 home $300 to
$500; in 12 homes $500; in 2 homes $800; and in 4 homes $1,000. In
5 homes the fee varies with the financial means of the applicant, and
in another case it is required that if the resident has sons they must
pay the home $30 per month as long as the parent remains in the
2 Som e of these organizations are: St. A n d re w Society, D aughters o f the B ritish E m pire, In depen den t
O rder of V ikings, Indepen den t Order o f S vithiod, Swiss B en evolen t Society, F ren ch B en evolen t S ociety,
Sociedad del Socorro, A ften ro Society, P lattsdeutsche V olksfest-V erein, etc,




180

CAKE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

home. One German home in California has a scale of admission
fees based upon the age at the time of admission. The rate varies
from $2,500 for persons 80 years of age at time of entrance to $4,500
for persons 65 years at time of entrance; for persons over 80, special
terms are made by agreement. One home has no fixed admission
fee; persons having property must turn this over to the home, this
entitling them to life care. In other cases a weekly rate of $7 (less,
if the applicant is unable to pay) is charged.
Some of the homes which require a fixed admission fee also take
free, in certain cases, persons who are unable to pay the required fee,
or reduce the entrance fee in such cases.
Property.— In general these homes are maintained for persons who
have little or no property or an amount which is insufficient for sup­
port. (One home takes only persons who are “ homeless and for­
saken.” ) Since the homes are operated on a semiphilanthropic basis,
19 require that what property or income the applicant has must be
made over to the home at time of admission. Six of these, however,
pay the resident the income from, or a certain rate of interest upon,
all turned over in excess of the admission fee.
Other requirements.— Four homes (three German, and one Czecho­
slovak) make religious requirements. The Czechoslovak home re­
quires that the applicant be a Roman Catholic, while two of the German
homes require that the applicant be a Protestant, and the third that
he be a Christian.
Benefits Provided
G e n e r a l l y , an a ttem p t is m ade in these hom es to m ake the insti­
tution seem as hom elike as possible.

Of the 33 homes, 31 provide medical care for residents, 1 does not
do so, and 1 did not report on this point. In most instances the
home has a regular physician who is on call for any services needed,
besides making periodic visits; while in 8 homes there is a resident
physician. Seventeen homes have a resident nurse (in one case two
nurses), and in another home the matron is a nurse. Two institu­
tions have a hospital or infirmary in connection with the home.
In 19 cases, an effort is made to provide recreation for the old
people who are spending the remainder of their lives at the home.
In two other cases the residents find recreation in the garden and
grounds. One home makes a practice of celebrating the birthdays of
the residents, another gives concerts for them, a third provides en­
tertainments and excursions of various sorts, and a fourth gives pic­
nics for their benefit. One home has theatricals every Saturday
afternoon besides occasional concerts. In one home motion pictures,
reading, and music form the recreation of the old people who are
living there.
Allowances for “ pin m oney” are made by three homes, one does so
“ in special cases,” and another “ if necessary.” As already men­
tioned, six homes pay the residents interest on any property that
they may have turned over to the home in excess of the required
admission fee. Two of these homes pay interest at the rate of 3 per
cent, one at 4 per cent, and two at 5 per cent.




181

CHAPTER I X .— B Y NATIO NALITY GROUPS

Duties of Residents
T h e h o m e s are about evenly divided on the question of requiring
that the inmates give their services in prescribed duties. Beyond
asking, as all homes do, that the residents be peaceable and courte­
ous, 17 homes require no assistance from the old people though in 4
of these cases volunteer work is welcomed. Fourteen homes require
that the inmates perform such light duties around the institution as
they are able to or as may be asked of them.
Support of Home
F i n a n c e s are generally a constant problem with homes run by
private philanthropy and most of these homes are no exception to
this rule. One home reports that—
The maintenance of the home has been a constant struggle ever since the
opening of its hospitable doors. In spite of the most rigid economy and the
utmost efficiency in management, the end of each fiscal year has shown a deficit.
The aged men and women in the home have never felt the financial stringency,
however. They have always been cared for as tenderly as if there were unlimited
funds at the disposal of the management.

Various means are resorted to, in the attempt to provide funds.
The entrance fees of the residents are generally by no means suffi­
cient to cover the expense of operation. Therefore, tag days, bazaars,
concerts, card parties, etc., are often given by the sponsoring asso­
ciation; contributions from the charitably minded are, of course,
always welcome. Where the home is sponsored by an organization
the membership fees from the organization help to swell the income
of the home.
In a number of instances, also, the home is endeavoring to raise
an endowment fund the income from which will help to cover the home
expenses. The Scottish Old People’s Home at Riverside, 111., the
British Old People’s Home at Hollywood, 111., and the Norwegian
Old People’s Home of Chicago, are among the homes which are
endeavoring to improve the financial stability of the home by building
up a large endowment fund.
Cost of Operation
P e r c a p it a cost of operation varies considerably in these homes,
ranging from $201.47 to $979.17, and averaging $345.94 for the
group. The low and high figures and the average cost, by nationality,
are shown in Table 50.
T

able

5 0 .- -P E R C A P I T A C O S T O F O P E R A T IO N O F H O M E S F O R A G E D

N A T IO N A L IT Y

P er capita cost

P er capita cost

N a tion a lity group

N ation a lity group
L ow

B ritish ______________
C zech oslova k _______
French 1..... ............... ..
G erm an . .................... ..
M exica n ^

O F V A R IO U S

GROUPS

$320.00
237.43
214. 27
204. 08
979.17

H igh

$484.85
420.00
214.27
650. 76
979.17

A verage

L ow

H igh

A v erage

11 home.



S cand ina via n ______
Scottish i __________
Swiss 1_____________
W elsh i ____________

$201.47
694.19
384. 62
416. 67

$536.12
694.19
384. 62
416. 67

$304.81
694.19
384.62
416. 67

A ll h om es___

$439.06
333. 65
214. 27
342. 38
979.17

201. 47

979.17

345. 94

182

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

As is seen, the highest average per capita cost of operation in this
group is that of the Mexican home. Since detailed data as to items of
expenditure are not available for this home, the reason for this high
figure can not be ascertained. The lowest average cost was that in
the French home.
The bureau has data as to operating expenses of four of these
homes operated by national groups. These are shown in detail in
the table below. These figures do not tell the whole story, however,
since contributions of food— vegetables, fruit, canned stuff— and
even of household supplies and furnishings often form a considerable
item in the upkeep of the home. The expenses given do not include
in any case permanent additions to the home (such as the erection of
a new wing), as it was felt that an outlay for such a purpose was
not properly chargeable under current expenses for any one year.
T

able

5 1 .— O P E R A T IN G

E X P E N S E S OF H O M E S F O R
N A T IO N A L IT Y G RO U PS

AGED

B ritish

B ritish O ld
P eop le’s
H om e,
H o lly ­
w o o d , 111.1

Ite m

...................... ................... ........... .......
Salaries and w ages
Groceries and m eals____ ______ ______ ____________________
C loth in g _________________ ________________________________
L a u n d ry an d supplies. _________ ______________________
T eleph on e and telegraph__________ ______________________
H ea t, ligh t, and p ow er. ______________________

__________

W ater and ice
__ ___ ___
_ _. _.
__ _________
_
D ru gs an d m edical su pplies. __________ __ ____________
M ed ica l and hospital care___________________ ___________
___ _________ _. _________
P rin tin g and office supplies
R epairs to eq u ip m en t and structu res___________________
R ep lacem en ts____________ ________ ____________ ________
T r a n s p o r t a t io n ___ __________ ________________ _______
R e c r e a t i o n . _________________ ______ _. _______ _______
Insu ran ce____________________ _____________________ ______
T a x e s ___ . . . ________ __
_________________ _
M iscellaneous ____ ________ ________
_________________

$7,801.35
6,878. 80
21.27
765.80
399.85
3,912. 35
428. 38
525. 23
970. 50
2,059. 96
376. 89
336. 45
16.29
660. 53
13.89
3 1,474. 85

OF

S P E C IF IE D

Scandinavian

V ictoria
H om e,
O ssining,
N. Y.

D an ish
O ld
P e o p le ’s
H om e,
C h icag o,
in .

$2, 746. 57
2,127.74

$3, 736. 05
6,212. 29

300.14
66.05
743. 69
59. 75
60.00
110. 30
346.12
87. 57

357. 35
52.13
2,320. 94
498. 40
401. 62
273.19
920.57
947.00

D anebo
H o m e for
A ged,
M in n e a p o ­
lis, M in n .

$1,902.15
2,432. 20
104.47
118. 58
1, 023. 93
25.84
233. 67
124.09
448.01
351.81

2 170. 69
95.76

216.00

3 546.98

3 241. 54

30.00
144. 58
318. 98

T o t a l . _______ ___________________ __________ _______

26,642. 39

7, 461. 36

16,177.08

7, 258.41

A llow an ce for interest to inm ates
_ ___
____________
C ost per inm ate per year (excluding allow ances) ...........

99. 35
327. 91

172.24
298. 45

294.13

578.90
302.43

1 D ata are for 15 m onths.
2 Inclu des $128.36 for “ Christm as ch eer.”
3 Inclu des cost o f burial.

Other Provision for the Aged
ERTAIN of the fraternal beneficial organizations of the various
nationality groups furnish relief to their aged members.
Thus, the Western Bohemian Fraternal Association has an “ aid
fund,” available for cases of need arising from various causes, includ­
ing old age. The “ aid” consists of loans (bearing interest at 5 per
cent) against the beneficiary certificate of the member, the total
amount of which is deducted at time of death from the amount of
the certificate.
The Danish Brotherhood in America has an “ old-age relief fund,”
benefits from which may be paid after the member has reached 65

C




CHAPTER I X .— B Y N ATIO NALITY GROUPS

183

years of age. Only persons who have become members of the fund
are eligible to benefits from it.
The National Slovak Society has an “ indigent fu n d /’ but this is a
general relief fund not primarily for the aged.
The Polish National Alliance of America has an old-age relief fund,
benefits from which become payable only after attaining the age of
70 years.
The Bohemian American Union and the Scandinavian-American
Fraternity issue beneficiary certificates one-tenth of which becomes
payable each year for 10 years, after reaching 70 years of age. The
latter organization also has an emergency fund to be used for the
relief of needy cases.
The Royal Highlanders, the Croatian Fraternal Union of American,
the Bavarian National Association of North America, and the
Knights of St. George all have a system of relief through which
aged members may receive assistance, in the first three organizations
at 70 years and in the fourth at 60 years of age.
The Steuben Society of America handles all needy cases on their
merits, as occasion arises, having no regular relief system, while the
Polish Union of the United States of North America provides that
holders of a certain class of certificates may, after 20 years' uninter­
rupted membership and upon reaching 65 years of age elect to receive,
from the death benefit, one-half of the amount for which they are
insured. The remaining half is either paid to the beneficiary upon
the death of the member, or may be in the form of an endowment.
The Association Canado-Americaine has a fund for care of the
aged, constituted by voluntary contributions of 25 cents a year per
member. At present this fund is used to keep in force the insurance
policies of aged members who are unable to do so themselves. The
management is desirous of having the contribution made compulsory
upon the members, as this would enable the fund to undertake such
other services as giving hospital care, paying an old-age pension, or
providing for the care of aged members in some good home. The
report states that “ this can undoubtedly be done later. ”
The German Beneficial Union has at present no provision for caring
for its aged needy members, but reports that the matter may be
considered at the 1929 convention of the order. Members of the
Czechoslovak Protective Society, as w
^ell as those of other Bohemian
societies are cared for in the Bohemian Old People’s Home in Chicago.
It is expected, however, that the whole subject of care of the aged
will be taken up at the next convention in 1930.
The Polish Association of America reports that it has an old-age
pension system, but the bureau has been able to obtain no information
regarding it.




Chapter X .—Old People’s Homes of Other
Organizations

T

HE bureau has data for 38 homes operated by organizations of
various sorts. These homes are located in the following
States:
N u m b e r of
hom es

N u m b e r of
hom es

___ __ ______ . . . _____
California
_________
Connecticut
_________
District of Columbia
_________
Illinois
_________
Indiana
Kansas
_ .
_________
Michigan
_________
Minnesota
Missouri
_________
_________
Nebraska

3
2
1
2
1
1
2
2
3
2

New Hampshire __ ____
New York _____
Ohio
____
_
Oklahoma
Pennsylvania
Tennessee
Vermont
Virginia
.. _
Washington.

_________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________
____________

1
4
4
1
5
1
1
1
1

These homes have accommodations for 1,845 aged persons, but the
average number in residence is more than 400 below that number,
or 1,462; only 15 of the homes reporting are filled to capacity. Over
half a million dollars a year is spent for the operation and maintenance
of these homes. Some of the homes for soldiers or their widows
receive a certain amount of assistance from the State and one a
small yearly appropriation from the United States Government.
The details are shown in the table below:
T

able

5 2 .— N U M B E R O F A G E D I N H O M E S O F V A R I O U S O R G A N I Z A T I O N S A N D C O S T
OF O P E R A T IO N F O R O N E Y E A R

Inm ates
N um ber
o f hom es
reporting

Sponsoring organization

W o m a n ’ s C hristian A ssociation 1___________ _____________
W o m e n ’s C hristian T em peran ce U n io n _____________ __
Y o u n g W o m e n ’s Christian A ssociation _____________
Soldiers’ organizations or auxiliaries _ _______________
A ssociations for the deaf— _____________________________
Various organ ization s._______ _______________ _________ __
T ota l

.

________________

. _____

C a p acity
of hom e

A v erage
nu m ber in
residence

A n n u al
cost o f
operation

8
3
45
10
2
10

385
150
108
713
70
419

349
139
98
515
44
317

2 $96,494
3 4,800
s 35, 539
6 224,193
33,961
' 159, 253

38

1,845

1,462

8 554,240

1 Som e of these are also affiliated w ith the Y . W . C. A.
2 6 hom es,
s 1 hom e.
4 1 of these is run b y the colored (P h y llis W h eatley ) branch o f the organization,
fi 4 hom es.
6 5 of these receive som e State aid an d 1 receives som e Federal aid.
7 9 hom es.
s 32 hom es.

Nearly half of these homes have fewer than 25 residents each.
The number having each classified number of residents is as follows:
N u m ber of
hom es

Less than 25 residents______________________ _____________________
16
25 and under 50 residents________________________________________
12
50 and under 75 residents________________________________________
4
75 and under 100 residents___________________ _____ _____________
3
100 residents and over_____________________________ ___________ 3
184




CHAPTER X . — BY OTHER ORGANIZATIONS

185

More than half have been in existence for more than 25 years and
four homes for more than 50 years:
Homes in operation:
N um ber
2 and under 5 years_________________________________________
1
5 and under 10 years________________________________________
3
10 and under 25 years_______________________________________
10
25 and under 50 years_______________________________________
18
50 years and over____________________________________________
4
Age not reported_____________________________________________
2

Terms of Admission

The m o s t general requisites for admission to these homes for the
aged are those relating to health and character. The following is a
common provision: “ All applicants must be free from incurable dis­
eases of an infectious or contagious character, and be so pronounced
by an examining physician.” One home also adds: “ No persons shall
be admitted to the home but such as bring satisfactory testimonials
of the propriety of their conduct and the respectability of their
character.”
Sex.— Of these homes, 2 admit men only, 20 women only, 14 take
individuals of both sexes and married couples, 1 takes only women
and married couples, and 1 takes only men and married couples.
Age.— Sixty years is the minimum age of admission set by 4
homes, 65 years by 17 homes, and 70 years by 3 homes; 14 have no
definite age limit.
Admission fee and other monetary requirements.—An admission fee
is charged by 19 homes. Two homes require a fee of $300 at entrance,
one of $350 (this home also offers boarding privileges at rates ranging
from $15 to $45 per month), one of $400, one of $400 for single
people and $700 for married couples, eight of $500, one of $750, one
of $1,200, and one of $2,500 for those 70 or over and of $3,500 for
those under 70 years of age, and two set this fee according to the
financial means of the applicant for admission. One home for aged
and infirm deaf charges a fee, in cases where the applicant is able to
pay, of $250 per year if a deaf resident of the State or $300 if not
a resident, and of $300 if both blind and deaf; a certain number of
charity residents are also taken, the number being limited by the
funds available for the maintenance of the home. Seven homes are
boarding homes which charge a certain rate per week; one of these
charges $15 per month, one $4 per week, one $4 or $7 per week
according to the boarder’s means, one $4.50 to $7 per week, one $5
per week, one $6 or $7 per week, while in one the rate varies according
to the boarder’s financial means. The remaining homes make no
weekly or entrance charges, but one of these requires that the resi­
dent have an income of at least $50 a year to cover small personal
wants and another is a widows’ home which supplies to each resident
a suite of two furnished rooms but expects her to be self-supporting
otherwise.
All property or income of the resident at the time of admission or
of which he becomes possessed at any time thereafter must be trans­
ferred to the home at entrance or at death in 17 cases, while another
requires 85 per cent of the property, and two others (both soldiers’
widows’ homes) demand a certain proportion of the pension, in one
case one-half and in the other two-thirds of the pension.







F ig u r e 3 2 - O

ld

P e o p l e ’s H o m e

o f the

W o m a n ’s C h r is t ia n A s s o c ia t io n , O m a h a , N e b r .

CHAPTER X . — BY OTHER ORGANIZATIONS

187

Other requirements.— Nationality requirements are made in 11 homes
only, 7 of which require that the resident be American, while 2 homes
are open only to colored persons, and 2 only to white people.
Four homes have religious requirements and all of these are open
only to Protestants.
In six cases a residence requirement is made. One requires that
the applicant for admission be a resident of the county, one of the
State, and four of the city (for five years in one case).
One home admits only volunteer firemen who have served as such
for five years, ten homes admit only war veterans or their widows,
and one only persons who have worked in the construction of wooden
ships. Two others are operated for the benefit of unfortunate, aged,
blind, and infirm deaf people.
One home for soldiers’ widows writes:
W e care for the wives, sisters, daughters, and nieces of veterans of the Civil
War, whether or not members of our order. Many widows who married too
late to come within the pension law, or whose husbands died in other States and
were nonresidents, can not go to the State homes, so we take them in. That was
really why this home was established.

Duties of Residents
R e s id e n t s are expected to abide by the rules of the home, make
themselves agreeable to the other inmates, and cooperate in making
the home a pleasant place in which to live. Restrictions upon the
liberty of the residents vary from home to home, some allowing as
much individual freedom as is possible consistent with order, while in
others life is rather strictly regulated. Generally, there are fixed
hours for meals, etc., but at other times the inmates are free to do
as they please. Some provision is made in nearly all homes for
visits outside the institutions, merely requiring that the destination
and probable length of stay be reported to the matron.
Another home report states: “ In planning a home for the aged,
there has always been in this organization the ideal of a real home,
such as loving children would build for much honored and revered
parents.”
No services are required of the residents at 13 of these homes, but
in two of these the old people may help about the house if they care
to. Four homes require that they care for their own room, 16 homes
expect the inmates to perform light duties or such as they are able to,
and 1 stipulates that members may be required to work for their
room and board.
In one home which welcomes volunteer assistance from the residents,
such as preparing the vegetables for meals and caring for their own
rooms, there are a number of aged women who are not life members but
pay a monthly board. Several of these earn their way by doing dress­
making.
One home is operated by the New York Association for Improving
the Condition of the Poor. This association, whose work is very
extensive and which approaches the problem of old-age care in a
scientific manner, writes as follows:
Within the limits of their physical ability all persons residing at Ward Manor
are given an opportunity to take part in the work necessary to the maintenance of
the place. This is the general policy, not with any desire to exact work from those
invited to live at Ward Manor, but rather with the desire to preserve for every
35777°— 29------- 13




188

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITE]) STATES

member that feeling of independence and contentment gained through some sort
of work which makes them a part of the general service rendered for themselves
and others. In its gardens, orchards, and general farming operations, Ward
Manor gives opportunity for choice of congenial occupation to those who find
pleasure and contentment in this kind of work. The real desire of those responsi­
ble for Ward Manor is that it be conducted in the same spirit of freedom, homelike­
ness and of general helpfulness one to another as should be characteristic of any
family group.

Benefits Provided

Medical care.— In 35 cases the homes provide all the necessary medi­
cal care; 3 of these homes have their own infirmary and 1 has a 60-bed
hospital. Only 2 institutions have a resident physician, but 28 have
1 or more resident nurses (2 nurses in two cases, 3 in three cases, 4 in
two cases, and 5 in one case).
Recreation.— Some attempt is made to provide recreation and
amusement for the aged inmates in 22 homes. Of those mentioned,
church services are the most common diversions. Others are lectures,
motion pictures, parties, reading, entertainments of various sorts,
concerts, and radio.
Money benefits.— One home provides “ spending money” for its old
people, and one gives each inmate $5 per month. Five others pay
interest on the property transferred to the home at the time of
entrance— one at 4 per cent, two at 5 per cent, and one at 6 per
cent, the rate not being specified in one case.
Some of the residents in the soldiers’ widows’ homes also receive
pensions and in such cases the pensioner retains a certain proportion
of the pension for her own use.
Location, and Home Plant
O n e of the most interesting homes in this group is the Firemen’s
Home of the State of New York, open only to volunteer fire fighters.
In 1891 the Volunteer Firemen’s Association of New York was
enabled by special act of the legislature to purchase for $300 a tract
of 30 acres owned by the State of New York at Hudson, N. Y. This
tract was situated on the east bank of the Hudson River, looking
toward the Catskills. During the next few years private contribu­
tions were received which were used toward the erection of the first
home building, occupied in 1895. In March, 1904, the home asso­
ciation purchased 153 acres adjoining the home, and on this property
there have since been erected a dormitory, an administration building,
a kitchen, and a museum. Auxiliary buildings include barn, ice
house, boiler house, and laundry. In 1925 an infirmary was estab­
lished, consisting of three wards and attended by a nurse, two order­
lies, and a visiting physician. The museum was established in the
realization that the volunteer firemen would soon be only a memory.
In it are housed fire-fighting trophies and relics of historical value.
Part of the home land is cultivated as a farm along strictly scien­
tific lines. On it are grown general farm crops, vegetables, and fruit.
Most of these are used at the home, but there is usually a surplus,
which is sold on the market. Farm stock includes pigs, poultry, and
a herd of pure-bred cows.
Another home, Ward Manor, is a home for aged people made
possible by a gift of 1,000 acres of land and a yearly sum of $100,000
for 10 years, made'in 1926 to the New York Association for Improv­
ing the Condition of the Poor, There were two residential buildings




CHAPTER X . — B Y OTHER ORGANIZATIONS

189

already on the property and a third was added, making a capacity
of 70. These are filled. Residents are free to come and go as they
please, provided they notify the superintendent of their intentions.
The association which directs this work also does work for the aged
in other ways. It maintains a toy shop where aged men can find
work to make them partially self-supporting and a workroom for
aged women; the sum of $40,896 was expended for these shops in
1926-27, of which $23,490 came back from sales of the products.
Funds raised by a New York newspaper through public subscription
and turned over to the association, to the amount of $6,919, were
used to maintain 12 aged couples in their own homes. In 1928 such
relief amounted to $67,572. A gift to the association in the latter
year of $250,000 has paved the way for a new project planned— that
of an apartment house in the heart of New York City, where will
live old people who are still self-supporting. It will be a 6-story
building with capacity for some 65 persons.
In regard to its work the association reports as follows:
During the past year there has been steady progress in rounding out our pro­
gram for the care of the aged. W e are more than ever convinced that what the
person growing old wants more than anything else is opportunity to continue
living in the modest home to which he has been accustomed, and opportunity
also to continue contributing something to the work of the world. Because of
this, we have pursued energetically during the past year our program of pro­
viding work for as many aged women and men as possible. The Crawford Shops,
in which aged women and men are given opportunities for work for a very modest
daily wage, have been filled to capacity during the year.
These facilities should be increased in order to give similar opportunity to a
larger number of people. Because of the handicaps under which these people
work, the shops are necessarily run at a substantial deficit, but this represents
the best form of relief that we know how to give to many such people.
It is now rapidly being discovered in many instances that to be cared for in
their homes is not only the thing in life that they want most, but also that it is
proving to be more economical than the care of such persons in institutions. W e
have pressed forward as rapidly as our resources have permitted in making fur­
ther provision of this kind.
Work for some, home allowances for others, and sympathy and kindly insti­
tutional care for those adapted to neither of these, present an unusually wellrounded program for the care of old age. W e are happy to report progress
during the past year in this general plan, which has increased our ability to
make the sunset years of life happier and more contented.

Another home occupies the former home of Ezra Meeker, who
blazed the trail across the country in an ox team.
New homes or additions are being planned in several cases. One
writes that funds have been raised by private subscriptions sufficient
to build a wing housing 10 more residents, while another is erecting
a new building on a 26-acre tract to which it will move some time in
1929.
Support of Home
T h e s e homes are maintained in various ways.
Generally the
greater part of the expense is borne by the sponsoring organization.
In a number of cases there is an endowment; one home has an endow­
ment of $65,000; another of $79,000; another of $111,636; a fourth
one of $134,000; and another an endowment whose amount is not
stated, but which is reported as providing an income which is “ almost
enough ” for the upkeep of the home.
In some cases assistance is received from the community chest.
The homes for soldiers’ widows also receive some income from the




190

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

pensions of the residents. One such home states, however, that only
22 of the 94 residents receive pensions. Another raises funds through
a per capita tax of 30 cents on members of the supporting organiza­
tion, from a levy of 85 per cent of the pensions of residents, and from
money raised through circles, sewing clubs, and individual donations.
The Firemen’s Home, at Hudson, N. Y., is supported by the in­
come from its endowment fund and by the proceeds of a portion of the
State tax on the premiums on policies issued by foreign fire-insurance
companies. The home grounds, buildings, etc., are valued at $498,750,
and all its property (not including the endowment fund of $133,585)
at $1,749,673.
Cost of Operation

As i n the other groups of homes, there is quite a wide spread in
per capita cost of operation, ranging from $156.25 to $1,000, with an
average of $444.26. The details are shown in the table following:
T

able

5 3 .— P E R

C A P IT A CO ST OF O P E R A T IO N OF H O M E S
O R G A N IZ A T IO N S

FOR A G E D

O F V A R IO U S ^

P er capita cost
Sponsoring organization
Low

W o m a n ’s Christian A ssociation ____ _______________________________________
W o m e n ’ s C hristian T em peran ce U n ion 1___________________________________
Y ou n g W o m e n ’ s Christian A ssocia tion ___________________________________
Soldiers’ a u x ilia rie s ... _____ _ ___________ ________________________ ______
Associations for d ea f____ _____ _______________________________________________
V arious__________________ _____ ______ _________________________________________
A ll h om es_____________________ _________________________________ _____
1 1 hom e.




H igh

A v era ge

$334.00
342. 86
156. 25
240. 74
300. 08
212.00

$471. 50
342. 86
512. 87
1, 000.00
937. 50
733. 33

$395.18
342. 86
423. 08
438.73
771. 84
566.29

156. 25

1, 000.00

444. 26

Chapter X I.—Private Benevolent Homes for the Aged
HERE are many homes for the aged which are not sponsored by
any definite organization but which are dependent upon private
philanthropy. The bureau has reports from 360 such homes.
The number of homes from which reports have been received are
shown, by States, in the statement below:

T

Number
of hom
es
1 Nebraska, _ _ _ _____________________
2
14 New Hampshire___________________
12
2 New Jersey_________________________
10
63
11 New Y o rk __________________________
1
1 North Carolina____________________
3 Ohio________________________________
19
1
2 Oregon_____________________________
31
3 Pennsylvania______________________
15 Rhode Island______________________
6
8 South Carolina_____________________
2
6 Tennessee__________________________
3
3 Texas_______________________________
7
2 Utah_____________________________ _
1
3
6 Vermont____________________________
11 Virginia____________________________
2
3
5 Washington________________________
3
65 West Virginia______________________
13 Wisconsin__________________________
10
4
Total____________________________ 360

N um ber
of hom es

Alabam a___________________________
California__________________________
Colorado___________________________
Connecticut________________________
Delaware___________________________
District of Columbia______________
Florida_____________________________
Georgia_____________________________
Illinois______________________________
Indiana_____________________________
Iow a________________________________
Kansas_____________________________
Kentucky__________________________
Louisiana__________________________
Maine______________________________
M aryland__________________________
Massachusetts_____________________
Michigan___________________________
Minnesota__________________________
Missouri____________________________ 6

T h e s e h o m e s h a v e a c c o m m o d a tio n s fo r 1 3 ,0 0 0 p erso n s.
T he num ­
b e r o f h o m e s, c a p a c ity , a vera ge n u m b e r liv in g th ere, a n d th e a n n u a l
c o s t o f m a in te n a n c e are sh o w n , b y S ta te s , in th e ta b le b e lo w :
T

able

5 4 . -N U M B E R

OF IN M A T E S O F P R IV A T E B E N E V O L E N T H O M E S F O R T H E
A G E D , B Y STATES
Inm ates
State

N u m ber
o f hom es
C apacity
reporting
of hom e

Alabama______________
California.................... ..
Colorado-------------------- Connecticut_________
Delaware............. ...........
District of Columbia,.
Florida______ ______
Georgia............................
Illinois-.......................... .
Indiana...................... ..
Iowa_...................... .........
K ansas.......................... .
Kentucky........ ............. .
Louisiana......................
M aine............. .......... ..
M aryland_____________
M assachusetts.........
Michigan....... ........... ..
Minnesota......................
Missouri.............. ..........
Nebraska_____________
New Hampshire______
1 10 hom es.
2 Inclu des children in 1 c
3 7 hom es.




35
849
191
244
45

88
93
126
711
177
103
90
25
316
230
251
1,582
466
135
218
70
244
4 N o data.
5 2 hom es.
6 12 hom es.

A v erage
nu m ber
in
residence

A n nual
cost of
operation

25
785
152
242

1 217,364
2 178,122
3 107, 221

( 4)

(4
)

«27,207
30,988
5 20,845
6 286, 512
70, 083
7 30, 657
28, 625
10,000
° 53,114
130,313
7 77,482
8 754, 755
6 163, 708
s 30,000
< 58,109
*
25,908
1 98,082

103
165
78
85

20
277
206
240
1,421
413
128
216
70
213

7 4 hom es,
s 57 hom es.
° 5 hom es.

191

192
T

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

able

5 4 .— N U M B E R

OF

IN M A T E S OF P R IV A T E B E N E V O L E N T H O M E S F O R T H E
A G E D , B Y S T A T E S — C o n tin u e d
Inm ates
A verage
n um ber
in
residence

1
3
2
3
3
10

494
!*, 151
25
668
68
j , 408
249
118
119
114
22
53
43
141
103
401

io 371
3, 027
25
595
68
1,367
228
113
118
103
22
53
43
132
75
392

ii $163, 739
1 893, 636
2
3, 500
1 167, 417
3
29, 376
1 508, 850
4
9 75, 262
12, 215
34, 652
« 34,002
8,000
5 19,143
24, 918
s 36, 200
40,148
ii 141, 764

360

State

13, 466

is 12, 448

1 4, 595,809
6

_______________________
N e w Jersey - N ew Y o r k _
- _____________________
N orth C arolina
__
- _____ _______
___
_
_
_____________ ______ ____ - - - - O hio
O regon . ____________________ - _ ___- ______
_
_______
_
_
_ - - _________ _ P en n sy lv a n ia ,
R h od e Island _ _
_
.
_
_
_
_
. . .
South C a rolin a_______ ________
____ ________________ T e n n e s s e e ____
.
_
_
- _________ _______ - - Texas
-___
_
_
____ ______________ U ta h . __ ______________________________________ ____________
V erm on t _
____ ______ ____ __
- _ _____ __ _____
_
Virginia
__ _
_
_ _____________________
_
W ashington __
___
_________
___
W est V irginia
_
_______
_______ _______ - - - W isconsin
__ ____ __
______________ ______
T o t a l.. .

_ __________
_

5 2 hom es.
e 3 hom es.
9 hom es.

A n n u al
cost of
operation

N um ber
of hom es
C a p a city
reporting o f h om e

________
1 8 hom es.
1
1 47 hom es.
2
1314 hom es.

_ __
_

.

10
63
1
19
1
31
6
2
3

1 27 hom es; includes
4
children in 2 cases.
1 358 hom es.
5

1 290 hom es,
6
“ 5 hom es.

Size of Homes
E i g h t y per cent of the homes studied are of moderate size, shelter­
ing fewer than 50 persons each, and slightly more than half have
fewer than 25 residents. Only 19 have 100 residents or more.
The table below shows the size of the various homes, by States:
T

able

5 5 .— N U M B E R

O F P R IV A T E H O M E S F O R A G E D H A V IN G C L A S S IF IE D
N U M B E R OF IN M A T E S , B Y S T A T E S
N u m b e r of hom es w ith inm ates n u m b e r in g -

State

A la b a m a _____________
C aliforn ia_____________
C o lo r a d o _______ _____ _
C o n n e c tic u t__________
D istrict of C o lu m b ia F lorid a____________
G eorgia........ ........... ........
Illin ois________________
In d ia n a _______________
Io w a __________________
K an sas_______________
K e n t u c k y ------------------L ou isian a_____________
M a i n e ..____ _________
M a r y la n d __________
M assachusetts________
M ich ig a n _____________
M in n esota ____________
M issou ri______________
N ebraska_____________
N ew H am psh ire_____
N ew Jersey___________
N ew Y o r k ____________
N orth C arolina_______
O h io __________________
O regon_______________
P en n sylva n ia ________
R h o d e Isla n d...... .........
South C a rolin a _______
T en nessee...................
T exa s_______ _________
U ta h ________ _________

Less
than
25

45

12

N o t in clu d in g 1 w h ich d id not report on this p oin t.




25 and
under
50

50 and
und er
75

75 and
under

100

100 and
under
200

200
and
over

Total

193

CHAPTER X I .— PRIVATE B EN EVO LEN T HOMES
T

able

5 5 —N U M B E R OF P R IV A T E H O M E S F O R A G E D H A V IN G C L A S S IF IE D
N U M B E R O F I N M A T E S , B Y S T A T E S — C o n tin u e d
N u m b e r of h om es w ith inm ates n u m berin g —
Less
than
25

State

V erm on t
_________ Virginia _________ _______ __________________ . .
W a sh in gton _______ - _________________ _
_ ..
W est V irgin ia _________ ________ ________________
_
W i s c o n s i n . . _ _________ _________ _____________
T ota l . . .

..................

................................ ..

25 and
u nd er
50

50 and
under
*75

75 and
und er
100

100 and
under
200

o
1
1
2
6

1
1

1

1

1

191

102

34

12

17

300
and
over

1
1

Total

3
2
3
3
10

2

2

2 358

2 N ot including 1 in D elaw are, and 1 ab o v e n oted, w h ich d id not report o n this p oin t.

Age of Homes
T h e a g e of some of these homes was somewhat surprising, and
shows that concern for the welfare of old people who are unable to
care for themselves and may have no one to care for them is no new
development. Three of these homes are more than 100 years old,
having been established in 1815, 1817, and 1822, respectively; 77
have been in existence 50 years or more, and nearly 70 per cent have
been in operation for a quarter of a century or longer. The details
by States, are shown below:
T a ble 5 6 .— A G E

OF P R IV A T E

HOM ES

FOR

THE

AGED, BY

STATES

N u m b e r of hom es in existence—
State

Alabam a
California
_____ __
C olorado
- .. .
C onnecticut
D elaw are_____ ____ __ _______________
D istrict of C olu m bia
Florida
Georgia
. . _______
Illinois
.
. ._ - _______
Indiana
_
- __ __ _______
Iow a
______- ______ __________
Kansas
_ _ _____ . __________ ______
K en tu ck y
Louisiana
______
M aine
- _
_
M arylan d
- ____________
M a ssa ch u setts.. _
____________
M ichigan
_ . __ _______________
M in nesota
__ _______________ M issouri
__ __ _________ _____
N ebraska .
_________ _____________
N e w H am psh ire___
. ___ N ew Jersev _
__ ________________
N ew Y ork _ ______ __________________
N orth Carolina
. __________ _
_
O hio
____ ___________ ______
Oregon
______
___________
Pen n sylva n ia__________ ____ __________
R h od e Island
______ ___
South Carolina
___________________
Tennessee___ __________________________
Texas
._ - . _ __
_
U tah
_____
___________________
V erm ont _________ __ ..........................
Virginia
_____ _____________
W ashington
............................................
W est V ir g in ia ____ _____ ______________
W isconsin
_________ _______________
T o t a l------------------------------------------

1 year
or less

50 and
5 and
10 and 25 and
2 and
u nder
under under under u nd er
100
5 years 10 years 25 years 50 years
years

2

4

1

1

1
1
1

1
7
1

1
1
1
2
2

4
3

1

8
6
2
1
2
3

2

11

1

6

1

6
1

1

1

1
1

1
3

1
4
3
1
2

1
1
3
1
1
1

6
3
5
1
1
3
6
4
34
3
1
3
5
5
25
1
10
1
13
3
1
3
4

1
2

2
3
1
15
1
1
1
2
4
20

1

2
9
2

1

1

1

5

3
2
1
2
3

25

71

163

1

1

1
2

11

1 N ot includ ing 1 w h ich d id not report on this pointy
2 N o t includ ing 2 w h ich did not report on this p oin t.
3 N o t includ ing 11 w h ich d id not report on this p oin t.




2
1
3

100
years
or over

1
74

3

T o ta l

1
1 13
2
11
1
3
2
12
15
i7
6
21
2
6
11
5
2 63
13
4
6
2
i 11
10
2 61
1
19
1
1 30
6
2
3
7
1
3
2
3
3
10
3 349

194

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

Kind and Character of Persons Admitted

Tw o h o m e s take only “ indigent widows,” one requires that the
applicant be a person of good character and disposition and also that
she be a person of refinement, one takes only “ worthy and needy”
women, and one only “ homeless” and friendless persons of good char­
acter. One admits only sailors who have sailed for five years under
the American flag, another only “ decrepit and worn-out sailors,” and
a third “ aged women of the sea,” i. e., the destitute, sick or infirm
mothers, wives, sisters, daughters, or widows of seamen. One home
is maintained only for persons “ who have labored in art, music, edu­
cation, or any of the various professions,” a second for “ artists, liter­
ary, scientific or professional men reaching their old age without
means of support,” and a third for retired music teachers who have
taught in the United States for 25 years. Two are open to “ any re­
spectable member of the theatrical profession on the speaking stage.”
One home, established under the terms of a will, for “ aged and
respectable white bachelors and widowers,” specifies that—
Applicants must be temperate, of good habits generally, and of a reasonable
and amiable spirit and of good character and reputation. Preference will be
given to those who have been sustaining members of society, contributing to
the business or general prosperity of the community, and have occupied posi­
tions of some responsibility in business or professional life, and are possessed of
social qualifications that would contribute to the happiness of the other members.

A somewhat similar requirement is that of an Illinois home, also
established by will:
The applicant must be a man, who, in the time of his strength, was a selfsustaining member of society, contributing to the business or general prosperity
of the community, who has occupied a position of some responsibility in business
or professional life and who, in the time of his prosperity, contributed to the
wants of those less favored. He must be temperate, of good habits generally,
of a reasonable and amiable spirit, and of good character and reputation. He
must submit references to establish such good name.

Another home of similar foundation, which asks neither admission
fee nor transfer of property, but requires that the residents have
sufficient means to provide clothing and personal expenses, or that
they have relatives who can do so, urges that “ members who have
interests or occupations outside of the home should keep up these
interests.”
A Kansas home is maintained for “ aged women who have never
been public paupers, and who ought not to be treated as such,”
while a Pennsylvania home admits only “ disabled, aged or infirm and
deserving American mechanics.”
Terms of Admission

In g e n e r a l , all homes require that the applicant for admission be
in fairly good health, so that constant personal care will not be
necessary, and of good moral character. One home makes the follow­
ing requirements for admission:
S e c t i o n 1. There shall be an admission fee of 1500.
Every male applicant must be 68 years old and upwards. Each female appli­
cant must be 65 years old and upwards. Each applicant must be a citizen of
the United States; must have been a resident of the Borough of Brooklyn, of the
city of New York, for five years next preceding the application, must furnish
satisfactory testimonials as to respectability of character and previous history;




CHAPTER
X I .— PRIVATE
BENEVOLENT
HOMES




F ig u r e 33.—W a r d

hom e for

Aged

and

R espectable

bachelors and

W id o w e r s , M a p l e w o o d ,

n

.

j

.

C
D

Ox

196




CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

F ig u r e 3 5 - D

i n in g

Room

of

Is a b e l l a H o m e , D e t r o i t , M i c h .

197

CHAPTER X I .---- PRIVATE BENEVOLENT HOMES

must be a Protestant and accept the Bible as the rule of faith. Each must bring
from one of the medical advisors of the home a certificate of physical fitness,
and on entering the home shall execute and deliver the agreement and assign­
ment prescribed by the board.

Another home was founded under the terms of the will of a wealthy
resident of the city which provided as follows:
And while no one is to be excluded on account of religious opinions or the
denominations of Christians with which she may have been connected, preference
is to be given to those of American birth and to those who have not been the
recipients of public charity but have respectably sustained a struggle with disease
or misfortune, till such a refuge as the home will be appreciated and enjoyed by
them.

Sex.— In general, old ladies seem to be better provided for, in the
way of homes for their declining years, than do old men. Of the 360
homes reporting, 202 take women only, whereas only 22 restrict
admission to men only (one home warns that “ no one who has a wife
need apply ” ). Twelve homes take individuals of both sexes (but not
as married couples), while 124 homes admit not only both sexes but
couples. There are a number of homes established for the primary
purpose of caring for married couples, but these generally also receive
single or widowed aged of either sex or both sexes.
T

able

5 7 .— D IS T R IB U T IO N O F H O M E S A D M I T T I N G M E N O N L Y , W O M E N O N L Y , B O T H
SE XE S, A N D B O T H SE XE S A N D M A R R IE D C O U PLE S, B Y ST A T E S

State

A la b a m a ____. _______________ _______. ______ ______ _
___________________________ ______ _____
California
C olora d o ______________ __
_ ___ __ _ _____________
C on n ecticu t___________ ___ _____ - ____________ _
D elaw are _____ _________ .
__ _
_ __ _
D istrict of C olu m b ia ______ ___________ __
F lo r id a .______ _______ ______ . __ _______ . _ __
G eorgia
_______
_ _
Illinois
_
_____
Indiana _____________________________________ __ . _ _
I o w a ____________________________ __ __________ ____ ____
Kansas ____
_ _____________ _________ ______ ______
K e n tu c k y . ___ _______ _________ _ _ ____ _____ _____
L ou isiana___________________________ ______ _ _________
M a in e. ________________________ __________ ___________
M a r y la n d .. ________________ . _____________________
M a s s a c h u s e t t s ..____________ _____ ____ ________________
_ _ _________ _______
_ ______ ________
_
M ichigan _
M in n e s o t a ________ ___________ . ._ _______________
M issou ri____ __ ________ _____ _______________________
N ebraska ___________________________ _______________
N ew H a m p sh ire._______ _______ _________ ____________
N ew Jersey________ _______________ __________ _____ _
N ew Y o r k ________ ___________ _______________________
N orth C arolina_____________________ _____ __________
O h io. _________ . .............. ................. ............. ............. .
O regon ___ ________ ________ _____ _____________________
Pen nsylvania __ ______________________________________
R h od e Isla n d___________ _________ ___________________
South C a rolina. . . ___________________________________
T ennessee___________ _________________________________
Texas
. .
. _________
_
_ ______________
____ _______
_ ______
______________
U t a h ..
V e rm o n t_____________ __ __________
_ ____________
V irgin ia_____________ _______________ _________________
W ash in gton ________________ _ _ _ _ . _ ___________
W est V irgin ia................. .................. . __________________
W iscon sin . _
.................................................. .......... ..
T otal

. .

__________________________ ________

W om en
o n ly

M en on ly

!

1
1
1
10
1
2

10

1

5
7
40
1
9

2
1

19
3

1

1
14
2
11
1
3
2
3
15
8
6
3
2
6
11
5
65
13
4
6
2
i 12
10
163
1
19
1
31
6
2
3
7
1
3
2
3
3
10

124

360

11
1
1

1
6
1
1
1
1

2
5

1
4

1
2
2
2

3
1
1
25
4
3
3
2
i6
2
1 17
7
1
8
2
2
2
1
1

2
2

3
1
22

2
3
202

T o ta l

7

2

2
1

3
8
7
5
3
1
3
10
3
30
9
1
3

i In clu din g 1 w h ich takes m en and m arried couples b u t not single w om en .




B oth
sexes and
couples

B o th
sexes

12

198

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

Age.— Practically all of these homes set a specified minimum age
of admission. The most common age so set is 65 years, nearly half
(169) of the homes having this minimum; while about one-fourth (95)
set 60 years as the age below which admission is refused. In 2 homes
the age of admission is 45 years; in 3 homes, 50 years; in 1 home, 54
years; in 2 homes, 55 years; in 1 home, 56 years; in 1 home, 62 years;
in 1 home, 63 years; in 2 homes, 66 years; in 2 homes, 67 years; in
7 homes, 68 years; in 26 homes, 70 years; and in 1 home 73 years.
There is no fixed age of admission in 43 homes.
Table 58, which follows, shows, by States, the age fixed for ad­
mission.
T

able

5 8 .— M IN IM U M

AGE

OF

A D M IS S IO N T O
STATE S

P R IV A T E

HOM ES

FOR

N u m b e r of hom es setting age of adm ission atState
51 to
59

50

A labam a _____________________
California __
C o l o r a d o . ___
C on n ecticu t
______ ._
Delaw are
D istrict of C olu m bia
F lorid a . _____
G e o rg ia ..
Illinois
In d ia n a . _
I o w a . __________ _______
_
K ansas.
K e n tu c k y .
L ou isia n a ____
M a in e ...................... .. __
M a ry la n d .
M assachusetts _
_____
M ich ig a n _______________
M in n esota _
M is s o u ri___ _________ _____ __ _
N eb ra sk a ___
_______
N e w H am p sh ire_________
N e w Jersey___
N e w Y o r k ___
_____
N o rth C a r o l i n a ______________
___
O h i o ___ _______
O regon .. _________ ___________
P en n sy lv a n ia . _______________
R h o d e Isla n d .
____
Sou th C a r o l i n a .___________ _
T en nessee___ _________ ________
T e x a s ______
_____
U ta h ___________________________
V erm on t
V irginia
W ashington
__ _
W est V i r g i n ia ________________
W iscon sin . ________ ________ _
T o t a l ..................................

61 to
65

60

1
2

i

66 to
69

65

*1

51
41

2
3
3
1
1
2
1
5
2
16
4

21

8
4
3
2
1
3
3
36
5
3
3

3

43

1 356
7

1

i 1

1
1
2

1

21

2

i 1

2

i

6
«1

;

1

94 1

2
io 8

4
3
1

ii 1

12 1

6
2
12
1
4
1
7
1

71

6
6
8 36
12

1 1
8

ii 2
2
1
1

2

1

i 1

15
3

2
2

4
1

1 1
4
15 1

4

3
1
1
2
5

1
1
2
16 5

4

95

1 68 years.
2 66 years.
3 N o t in clu d in g 1 w h ich requires app lican ts to be
‘ o ld .”
* 55 years.
s 54 years.
6 73 years.
7 63 years.
8 1 takes w om en at 60.
9 1 at 67 years, 2 at 68 years, and 1 takes m en at
58 and w om en at 65 years.

2

169

1
1
1
11

26

T o ta l

1
14
2
11
1
3
2
32
15
8
6
3
2
35
11
5
65
13
4
6
31
12
10
3 62
1
19
1
31
6
2
3
7
1
3
2
3
3
10

8
1
3

i 1

1

1

3

No
age
re­
qu ire­
m en t

2

1
1

3

4
1
1

1

O ver
70

70

AGED, BY

1

101 takes w o m e n at 65.
1 45 years.
1
1 56 years.
2
1 62 years.
3
1 T a k es w o m e n at 68.
4
1 67 years.
5
16 2 at 45 y«&rs.
17 N o t i r c ]u d in g 4 w hich require o n ly th at a p p li­
cants b e “ o ld .”

Admission jee and other monetary requirements.— Of the 360 private
homes reporting, all but 79 require an entrance fee varying from
$70 to $5,076. (Twenty-three of the homes which require no admis­
sion fee are boarding homes to which the resident is required to pay a



CHAPTER X I .— PRIVATE BENEVOLENT HOMES

specified rate per week or month.)
requirements as to entrance fees:
T able

5 9 —A D M IS S IO N

FEES

OF P R IV A T E

Fee

$70__________________________________________
$100_______
______
. . __
$150_________________________________________
$200_____________
..
________________
$250____________________
______
$2o0- $ l ,000 3_______
____
$300............ __
__
______________
$300-$400 6___________ _______
$300-$500__ _
..
__
$350_________
.
_
_
___
__
_______
$360_______ __
$400_________________________________________
$400-$600 3_________________________________
$450_.____ __________________________________
$500________________
____________
______
$500-$750 3
___________________________________
$540-$5,076 3___________________________
$600_________________________________________
$600-$1,000 3
$650_________________________________________

The statement below shows the
BEN EVOLENT HOM ES

N um ­
ber of
hom es

11
29
3
23
12
1
4 49
1
2
7
1
6 20
1
1
7 74
1
1
8 15
3
1

199

FOR TH E

N um ­
ber of
hom es

Fee

$700_.............................. .......... ...........................
$750___ _____ ______
$800______________________________
..
$800-$1,400_________________________
$950____________________ ___
$975__.____
________ . _
U p to $1,000-.
_
$1,000_____
. . ___
$1,200______
$1,500_____
._ .
$2,000. . .
______
$3,150_____________________________ ___
Fee varies—
A cco rd in g to age_ __
_
________
A cco rd in g to age and room
A cco rd in g to m ean s_____ __ _
_
O th er............................ - . _ __ _ _
N o fee.........
............................ ..........
T o t a l____

________

AGED

_________

2
4
96
1
1
1
1
io 21
1
3
2
1
1
1
8
1
ii 79
360

1 P lus $150 for burial.
2 P lus $100 per year an d burial fee in 1 case.
3 A ccord in g to age.
4 Plus $800 after com p letio n o f probation in 1 case; plus $150 for burial in 1 case; plus $200 for burial in
1 case.
5 Per year.
6 Plus w eek ly charge in 1 case.
7 Plus $145 for burial in 1 case and $100 in another.
8 $700 if nonresident o f c o u n ty in 1 case.
9 P lus $100 for burial in 1 case.
1 M a y be w a iv ed in 1 case; o p tio n o f p ayin g w eek ly b oard in 1 case.
0
1 Inclu des 23 boardin g hom es; $150 for burial in 1 case.
1

As the above table shows, $300, $500, and $1,000 are the most com­
mon amounts required as entrance fees. More than half of the homes
charge $500 or less. It must be remembered in this connection that,
with the exception of the boarding homes and the few instances in
which an additional amount is required to cover burial expenses, the
entrance fee is the only monetary requirement unless the applicant
has property. An elderly person who enters one of these homes at,
say, 60 years, paying his fee of from $70 to $5,076, is entitled to receive
therefor care for the rest of his life whether he lives 1 or 20 years
longer. Nearly one-seventh of all these homes make no monetary
requirement whatever.
One endowed home which charges an admission fee of $500 puts
this money into a special fund “ used for the benefit of worthy aged
men in need of assistance. There is no charge for maintenance in
the home.”
Seven homes require the resident to furnish her own room and one of
these requires also that she bring with her when she enters the home a
supply of clothing sufficient to last two years.1 Clothing must also
i Som e h om es even sp ecify the articles. A ty p ica l list is as follows:
O utfit for entrance into A g ed W o m e n ’s H om e : 6 sheets, 8 pillow cases, 2 w hite spreads, 1 pair blankets,
1 g ood dress for sum m er, 1 g ood dress for w inter, 2 e veryd a y dresses, 1 w rapper, 1 hat, 2 pair gloves, 2 pair
shoes, 1 w arm w inter w rap, 1 light sum m er w rap, 2 petticoats, 3 undervests, 6 chem ise (if used), 6 pairs
draw ers, 6 handkerchiefs, 6 nightgow ns, 6 pairs stockings, and 8 towels.
O utfit for entrance into A g ed M e n ’s H o m e : 6 sheets, 8 pillow cases, 1 pair blankets, 2 w h ite spreads, 8
tow els, 6 shirts, 12 collars, 4 nightshirts, 3 undershirts, sum m er, 3 undershirts, w inter, 3 pair drawers, w in ­
ter, 3 pair drawers, sum m er, 6 pairs stockings, 6 handkerchiefs, 1 best cloth suit, 1 new e veryd a y suit, 1
overcoat, 1 bath robe, 2 pair shoes, 2 pair gloves, 2 hats, 1 pair slippers, and three neckties. ^(Bedding and
underwear are required to be new.)




200

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

be supplied by the residents in two other homes. One home expects
the residents to supply their own bed linen, towels, and look after
their own laundry.
Other homes specifically forbid the resident to bring any furniture
of his or her own into the home, though sometimes concession is made
in the case of a favorite chair or other article.
There are four so-called “ widows’ homes” which are not homes
for the aged in the same sense as the other homes. In most cases
housekeeping quarters are supplied free or at a nominal rental, and
heat, light, water, etc., may also be supplied; but the resident is
required to provide her own food, clothing, and other necessaries.
One of these homes is located in Pennsylvania, one in New Jersey,
one in New York, and the fourth in South Carolina.
As noted in the table above, some of the homes offer the incoming
resident the option of becoming a life resident or of paying board
by the week. Others accept no life members, but are boarding homes
only. The rates charged in the 23 boarding homes reporting are as
shown below. In cases where a range is reported, the rates vary
according to the financial means of the boarder or the accommoda­
tions provided.
N u m b e r of
hom es

Per week:
_
$ 4 _____
_
$ 7 _____
Per month:
$ 1 0____________________________________________________________

$ 12-$20___________________________________________

21
2
1

1

$ 1 5 ____________________________________________________________

31

$3 0 ____________________________________________________________
$ 3 0 -$ 4 5 _______________________________________________________
$ 3 5 ____________________________________________________________
$4 0 ____________________________________________________________
$ 4 0 -$ 6 0 _______________________________________________________
$40 and up___________________________________________________
$5 0____________________________________________________________
$ 60____________________________________________________________
$ 65____________________________________________________________
$7 5-$ 100_____________________________________________________
Rate not reported___________________________________________

1
41
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
4

$20________________________________________________________

T otal_______________________________________________________

1

23

These private homes are usually maintained for persons of no means
or those whose income or property is insufficient for full support.
Since the entrance fee is in most cases inadequate to cover the cost
of operation per inmate, a common requirement is that upon entrance
or at death the life resident must make over to the home any pen­
sion, property, insurance, or other possession which he has at that
time or may thereafter acquire. The money thus received helps to
cover the deficit incurred on those who are without property of any
sort as well as those who are unable to pay the entrance fee.
Of the 360 homes from which data were obtained, 203 require
relinquishment of all property or income ^t the time of entering the
institution, 3 require that part of the property or income shall be
given up, and 4 that the possessions (in 1 case personal effects only)
shall revert to the home upon the death of the resident. Of these,
2 If able; otherw ise nothing.




3 P a yable in advance.

4 A cco rd in g to room occu pied.

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CHAPTER X I .— PRIVATE BEN EVO LEN T HOMES

however, 78 pay the resident the income from or a specified rate of
interest upon all property in excess of the entrance fee.
Other requirements.— Five homes admit only citizens of the United
States, 63 “ Americans” only, 22 white people only, 16 negroes only;
1 admits all nationalities and races except Mexicans and dark races,
and 1 all but negroes, 1 white Americans only, 1 home each gives
preference to French, Dutch, or English people, and 1 home each
admits only Gentiles, English-speaking persons, and Jews.
Only 75 homes have religious requirements. Of these, 67 require
that the applicant be a Protestant, 2 that he be a Christian, and 1
each that he be a Baptist, Catholic, Jew, Presbyterian, or member
of a specified local church. One home specifically excludes Christian
Scientists and Catholics.
Residence requirements are fairly common. Fifty-six homes re­
quire residence in the city for specified periods ranging from 1 to 20

F i g u r e 3 6 —D o u b l e B e d r o o m

at

C o l b u r n M e m o r ia l

hom e for

A g e d , N ew R o c h e l l e ,

n

.

y

.

years; 13, residence in the county from 1 to 10 years; and 5, residence
in the State from 1 to 10 years. One home each requires that the
applicant be a citizen of the city, State, or city or county, and 1
that he shall have resided in the city or county for 10 years.
Duties of Residents
S o m e service is required of the residents in 217 of these private
homes. Light duties, or such tasks as the inmates are able to per­
form, are required in 107 homes; in 68 homes the residents must care
for their own rooms, if possible (in one case mending also). One
home requires that they iron their own clothes, one that they do any
errands necessary, one that they set the tables for meals. “ Reason­
able” services are required in one home; another requires that the
residents do whatever is necessary (but in practice they are seldom
asked to do anything), and another that they do “ whatever they
can d o ” to help. In one home a few residents have special duties
assigned to them, in another duties in kitchen or garden, and in two




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CAKE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

homes about 4 hours’ assistance a day is required from those who
are able, one of these paying therefor at the rate of 10 cents an hour.
One home reports that its inmates are all too infirm to be of service
around the building. There are no service requirements in 121 insti­
tutions, but in 25 of these the old people are allowed to help in such
ways as they desire.
Among the requirements of one home is that its residents refrain
from religious discussions. “ They shall not obtrude their religious
ideas upon nor in the presence of any other member who does not
care to hear them or is annoyed thereby.”

F ig u r e 3 7 — r e s id e n t ’s B e d r o o m

at

Pr e sser Ho m e
p h ia , P a .

for

R e t ir e d M u s ic T e a c h e r s , P h il a d e l ­

Benefits Provided
B o a r d , room, clothing, laundry,5 etc., are almost universally pro­
vided. (Exceptions were noted above.)
Medical care.— While most homes require that the applicant be of
good health at the time of admission, medical care and nursing are
usually provided in case the resident becomes ill after admission.
Thus of the 360 homes, 339 provide the necessary medical care and
another does so if the entrance fee is all paid. In some instances the
home engages the services of a physician by the year and he visits
the home regularly; in other cases he comes only when called. In
some places the physicians donate their services, and there are in­
stances where the home has a panel of physicians all of whom donate
their services. Thirty-two homes have 1 or more resident physi­
cians (one has 2 and one 5 resident physicians). In 233 homes there
are one or more resident nurses (32 have two nurses, 15 have three,
4 have four, 1 has five, 1 has six, 1 seven, 1 eight, and 1 “ several” ).
8 T h ou g h som e hom es lim it the lau n d ry w ork to a specified nu m ber o f pieces per person per w eek.




CHAPTER
XX.— PRIVATE
BENEVOLENT
HOMES

b u il d in g a t

My r o n St r a t t o n

hom e,

C o l o r a d o S p r in g s , C o l o .

203




F ig u r e 3 8 - H o s p it a l

204

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

One home usually has a resident nurse and one expects to have one in
the future. In three homes the matron is a nurse. In 12 homes a
nurse is called in whenever her services are necessary.
Nine homes have a regular hospital or infirmary department m
connection with the home. One of these, a home which cares for
more than 100 persons, reports that its hospital is “ fully equipped
and regularly operated/’ that it has an operating room, clinic, four 6bed wards, and 14 private rooms.
It is, as already stated, an almost universal requirement of homes
for the aged that at the time of admission the applicant shall be in
a fair state of health, having regard to his advanced years, so as not
to require constant care. One Massachusetts home, however, admits
persons “ of either sex who may be afflicted with incurable malady
and who have no relatives responsible for their support,” provided
the malady is not “ malignant, mental, or contagious.’’ Another home,
in New York, restricted to professional and scientific men, also takes
invalids.
Several homes, one of which is a Chicago home with an emergency
room and dormitory for ill residents but no hospital of its own, pro­
vide that “ any member of the home family who requires a major
surgical operation, or treatment or detention in a general or special
hospital, may be removed to such hospital, as the case may be, and
may there be given required surgical or medical treatment without
expense to the member.’ ’
One home points out that a large part of the cost of operation of
the home is due to the cost of nursing service, “ ’which a fourth of
our number receive, and which often covers a period of many years
in each case.”
The difficulties encountered along this line by one home and the
way these are met a:ce described as follows:
Illness among our beneficiaries has imposed a heavy burden on the workers
and has added greatly to the expense. Sixteen of our men have been in hospitals,
some of whom, discharged as incurable, were removed in ambulances. For others
who could not be admitted, because they were incurable, even though emergently sick, care outside a hospital had to be planned. Twelve men died during
the year, many of whom were long bedridden.
It is probably more difficult to obtain proper care for the helpless aged in a
home with right standards than for any other class of the sick. Prices are pro­
hibitive, and many nursing homes refuse to consider the patient who requires
night and day care. Early in the year the problem became so acute that the
home visitor, a trained nurse, prevailed upon a young woman with some hospital
experience to use, for our old men, her home, established for well, paying guests.
The first patient was brought to her from the hospital on a stretcher. Now we
have seven patients in this house, where they are surrounded by brightness and
warmth and where they receive kindly, intelligent care. This home, however,
could not be maintained if the visitor did not stand back of it, ready to respond
to any emergency and to help ease the burden should it become too great.
Helpless age presents, on the whole, too great a problem for the nursing home
or for family care. Homes have been disorganized and families exhausted in
the effort to care for these bedridden ones. Yet not one hospital in Boston,
even in the group caring for chronics, will admit a man helpless merely from
old age or with palsy or an old hemiplegia. For all other age groups there is
hospital accommodation, even though inadequate to meet the need, but for
these there is no place. Although in the days of their youth and strength they
may have done their part in the community, establishing homes and firesides
of their own; yet brought to dependency by illness and loss of kindred, there
awaits them only the almshouse, ever dreaded, isolated, and far from their friends
and all their old associations.




CHAPTER
X I .— PRIVATE
BENEVOLENT
HOMES

for

Aged

women,

W o r c e s t e r , Ma s s .

205




Fig u r e 3 9 - H o m e

206
CARE
O
F
AGED
PERSONS
I
N
UNITED
STATES




F ig u r e 4 0 - K

n o x v il l e

O l d L a d ie s ’ H o m e . K n o x v il l e . I I I .

CHAPTER X I .---- PRIVATE BENEVOLENT HOMES

207

One of the most beautiful homes studied, which was established
in 1917 under the terms of a will, makes the following statement:
The home is absolutely free. No admission fee is required. Any member
who has not sufficient income to provide for his clothing and personal expenses
will be furnished with sufficient funds therefor. The home provides for each
member a single bedroom and lavatory, together with board and laundry service.
He also has the use of the public rooms, consisting of lounge, library, smoking
room, billiard room, and recreation rooms. The services of a nurse and visiting
physician are furnished to members without charge.

Recreation.— An attempt to provide entertainment for the aged
guests is made in 253 homes by either the home officials or by various
outside groups, such as churches, clubs, etc., which have become
interested in the home. The kinds of entertainment vary from the
simplest sort of recreation afforded by the home grounds, porches,
etc., to an elaborate program of entertainment. Radio programs
form a very popular recreation; 33 homes specify these as one of
the amusements of the residents. Music from other sources— by
piano, victrola, graphophone, etc.— is a recreation feature mentioned
in 18 reports; 2 homes give regular concerts and 1 musicales. In 46
homes special entertainments are given for the enjoyment of the
old people. Automobile or carriage rides are furnished in 16 homes,
outings in 2, and occasional trips in 1. Two homes maintain a
car for the use of the inmates. The residents of one home are admitted
free to the motion-picture theater of the town; those of another to
the legitimate theaters of the city.
Games of various sorts, such as card games, billiards, pool, croquet,
quoits, etc., form part of the recreation in 11 homes, while one
gives card parties for the old people. The recreations furnished by
one include receptions, concerts, lectures, garden parties, and even
an annual ball, and those of another pool, billiards, and other games,
a good library, and motion pictures. In one home the recreations
include plays given at the home for the old people.
One large home, which also takes children, has a community
building in which the social life of the residents centers. Here in
the theater or the gymnasium are given motion pictures once a week,
frequent concerts, plays by the children, entertainments by the
children’s band and orchestra, and basket ball and other games. The
superintendent states that the activities in this building have “ prac­
tically eliminated the desire or need of the residents, young or old,
to visit the city for entertainment.”
Another endowed institution has a library and smoking room,
swimming pool, pool and billiard tables, bowling alleys, shufileboard,
and other games, such as chess, checkers, cards, etc., and a dance hall.
Motion pictures are shown at the home, and during the season mem­
bers have a yacht trip once a week on the bay on which the estate
fronts.
Other recreations enumerated in one or more reports include par­
ties of various sorts, reading and literature, motion pictures, church
services, “ vacations,” picnics, “ social affairs,” “ spreads,” teas, etc.
In some instances recreational affairs occur only occasionally, in
others amusements are a regular feature.
Some of the printed reports contain interesting information as to
what is done for the entertainment of the aged people in these homes.
Thus, according to the 1927 report of a home in Chicago, in May,




208

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

1926, $10 was donated for ice cream and cake, two persons sent flowers,
and an entertainment was given; in July $50 was donated for ice
cream and the Fine Arts Players presented a play; in September
10 gallons of ice cream was donated; in October a dancer and a group
of musicians from a local theater gave a performance at the home;
in November the Fine Arts Players again gave a play; in December
an orchestra appearing at a local theater gave a program at the
home, and the Camp Fire Girls gave an entertainment; and in
January, 1927, there was a motion-picture show, flowers, and two
concerts.
One home starts each month with a birthday party, celebrating all
the birthdays that occur that month, “ and these are particularly
popular because the old ladies themselves provide most of the enter­
tainment, recitations, and dancing, particularly the dancing.”
Another home reports as follows:
It is an established custom that two ladies in turn shall have interest for a
month in the life here, calling upon the old ladies in their rooms to see that they
are made comfortable and reasonably happy in their old age, lending a listening
ear to their joys and sorrows.
The outside world is thoughtful of this home too, as is evidenced by the various
concerts, readings, and suppers for the week-day entertainments given by literary
societies, school children, and church organizations, and by the services held in
the home on Sunday afternoons conducted by ministers and laymen of the
various denominations.

One home has a “ pleasure fund” from which trips to various places
are financed.
Religious services are a very common feature and a number of
homes have a chapel in the home where such services are held.
One home which holds no religious services at the home, but which
is open to the visits of ministers and church workers, gives every
resident desirous of attending service street-car tickets for the purpose.
Money benefits.— In 78 homes the inmate not only receives board,
lodging, laundry, etc., but he also gets monetarj' benefits. Three
homes pay the residents a weekly allowance— one of $1 per week,
and two an amount not specified. Monthly allowances are paid by
25 homes; 1 home each makes its residents a monthly allowance of
25 cents, 75 cents, $1.50, $2, $4, and $5; 2 homes of 50 cents per month
(in 1, also $1 at Christmas); 3 homes make an allowance of $3, 5 of
$1 per month, and 9 others an allowance whose amount was not
specified. One home gives the old people $5 per year and one $6
per year. Thirteen homes give such amounts as are “ necessary,”
1 does so “ upon request,” and 4 occasionally do so. Spending or
pocket money or small amounts for personal needs are given in nine
cases (one of these also gives an extra amount at Christmas time).
One home makes an allowance from the resident’s pension or from
the property which he turned over to the home. Five homes make
occasional gifts of money to the residents (in one case only once a
year), and one home has a special fund for needy residents. Ten
other homes report that they pay monetary benefits to residents, but
these reports give no details. In four homes residents are paid for
any services performed.
As already stated, 78 homes pay over to the resident all or part of
the income received from any property which he may have turned
over to the home or a certain rate of interest upon the property.
Eleven homes pay the resident all of the income from his property




CHAPTER X I .— PRIVATE BEN EVO LEN T HOMES

209

and two others one-half of such income. Two homes pay interest
at the rate of 2 per cent, 1 at the rate of
per cent, 3 at the rate of 3
per cent, 15 at the rate of 4 per cent (1 of these only on amounts over
$750), 8 at the rate of 5 per cent, and 2 at the rate of 6 per cent.
Thirty other homes also pay interest but fail to state at what rate;
one home pays interest on all property over $100, another on bank
accounts, another on cash, and another on $50 of the entrance fee.
Special Activities

A f e w h o m e s , all but one of which are in Massachusetts, in addition
to operating the home, also give outside assistance to needy persons
who are partially self-supporting. One home makes a monthly allow­
ance “ to indigent women in their own homes, when worthy of such
help.” Another regards as “ an important element of its work” its
assistance to women “ who though old and infirm, still retain enough
energy and determination to want to stay in their own homes. Small
sums ranging from $4 to $10 per month are now given to 44 women,
and could be given to many more in pitiful need, if there were ampler
funds.” ‘
A third maintains what it describes as a “ field service” for this
purpose. It reports as follows:
The field service of the Home for Aged Men is an intensely human service.
More than 200 applications were received during the past year. They sought
admission to the home, financial aid, help in solving difficult situations or help
in securing care for the sick and helpless. The problems varied, but all showed
the pathos and the difficulties of the aged man and the few community resources
for helping him. So few are the resources that we have been constantly called
upon for advice by those wiio did not know where else to turn. To a gratifying
degree we were able to disclose a helpful solution, and many conferences resulted
in the entire responsibility being assumed by family or relatives. Eighteen names
were added to the list of outside beneficiaries and twelve vacancies in the home
r
were filled.
Over $11,000 was raised by the secretary to supplement the grants given by
the home. This was obtained from relatives, friends, churches, and private
funds; all the natural sources of aid being called upon. For certain of our cases
aid was sought and received from the overseers of the public welfare, whose
system of outdoor relief for the aged marks a step forward in public aid.
Financial aid to the aged, without supervision, is not always wise. Many can
not handle their funds, for which reason they get into all kinds of difficulties;
and often relatives and friends will not aid the individual, feeling that the money
will not be wisely spent; but they will contribute to a carefully thought out plan.
Because of this the secretary has handled the funds for two-thirds of our bene­
ficiaries, planned their budgets and disbursed the grants held for their benefit.
This service involved many extra hours of time and thought, but there came
out of it the knowledge that the money was spent for their needs; that they had
shelter and warmth and food, care, and medical attention in illness, and a margin
for happiness.
The amount expended in the care of the aged should be regulated by the need
of the individual and not by a fixed sum. It often takes a long time to plan a
budget; again, the needs of the beneficiaries may change because of illness, or
because of improved health due to care given at a time of need. For these reasons
grants have been increased or decreased from time to time, as changing conditions
arose. By keeping a balance on hand for the beneficiary it has been possible to
meet emergencies quickly.
A larger number of outside beneficiaries has been cared for during the past
year than for several years. The total reached 70. W ith changing indus­
trial conditions the problem of the aged will undoubtedly grow more acute.
People no longer work for themselves as they used to do. Men of 45, without
regular positions, are going into the industrial discard. Large plants will not
take them on. This decreases the wage-earning years and the chance of saving
for the future, and causes old age to be looked forward to with dread.




210

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

The Home for Aged Men, a pioneer in outside care, may well be proud of the
fact that its committee has ever been ready to respond to the needs of these
beneficiaries, and to carry each one till the end.

Another New England association does not maintain a home but
gives financial assistance to some 50 aged women in their own homes
or arranges to board them in private homes.
In a Philadelphia home there is a toy shop given to the home by a
private citizen of the city. In this shop some 50 of the old men who
live in the home find interest and employment for their spare time,
being paid 10 cents an hour for work done here. During 1927, these
aged men made 4,300 toys, which the home sold for $8,098.
As mentioned elsewhere, a California home is planning the erec­
tion of a workshop where the able-bodied residents may occupy them­
selves.
A home in Milwaukee has an occupational therapy department
for the old people who wish to keep busy. Articles made in this
department are sold and the proceeds are returned to the residents
who made them.
Another home which requires no services of its residents, but does
believe that busy people are happiest, reports as follows:
All our aged are given opportunity to earn if they so desire. Moderate work
is encouraged, although not insisted upon, for we find that those who work
enjoy better health and are happier. The work consists in care of lawns, roads,
poultry, help in storeroom, cafeteria, laundry, sewing, etc. M any plant gar­
dens, the produce being bought by the home at market rates. Several have
small strawberry patches and sell in town, making an appieciable income. One
aged man builds toy sailing boats. So a large majority are busy— especially
those in the housekeeping cottages.

Location, and Home Plant
T h e p h y s i c a l situation and location of the homes differ widely
Some have extensive grounds, a well-furnished and well-equipped
building, and a favorable location; others are struggling along in
cramped quarters which no longer are well suited to their purpose
and with inadequate means. Mainly the condition of the home
plant reflects the financial condition of the home association. Some,
located in what was at the time of establishment a very desirable
place, find themselves in a part of town no longer attractive.
One interesting home is that of the Mariners’ Family Asylum, on
Staten Island, N. Y. This is a home maintained for aged dependent
relatives of men who have served in the merchant marine. The
home was established in 1843. In 1854, at the instance of a group
of women, the State of New York set aside for the home 6 acres of
land belonging to the State Hospital for Sailors and donated $10,000
from the money accumulated through the seamen’s head tax. Later,
when the hospital was sold to the Federal Government for a marine
hospital, the home and its site were exempted from the sale, and
$68,000 of the net profits from the sale was given to the home. This
sum has been increased from time to time through gifts and bequests,
and the income from it now covers about 50 per cent of the mainte­
nance charges. The home is housed in a plain, square building of
rather forbidding aspect, “ with its back door where its front door
should be; because when the home was built, Tompkins Avenue was
farmland and the entrance wa£ by a pleasant winding road up from
the shore.” Despite its severe exterior, however, “ it is cozy and




CHAPTER X I .— PRIVATE BEN EVO LEN T HOMES

211

homelike w ithin/’ and a constant effort is made to overcome the
handicaps of the building.
Another case in point is that of a home in New York City. The
present building was erected in 1902 “ on a piece of property that was
in every way desirable/’ being located in a residential quarter of the
better sort. During the 27 years the home has been in existence
the character of the neighborhood has completely changed. The
home now is a bleak-looking building with elevated trains hemming
it in on two sides, and these “ keep windows rattling and the air filled
with dust.” The building and land are valued at $203,763, and the
home has been the beneficiary of two legacies of $100,000 and
$200,000. These will be applied to the cost of erection of a new
home in a better and quieter location. It is hoped also that endow­
ments can be obtained for some of the rooms in the new building.
Other homes show a steady development for the better. One such
home in Boston opened the year before the New York home just
described, “ starting with nothing,” passed through successive stages
from a small rented house on an obscure street to the present attrac­
tive building, which with land and furnishings is valued at $231,891.
As already stated, many of these homes are most attractive and
homelike, and a conscious effort is made to keep them so. One such
home occupies the former residence of the founder, who bequeathed
her home and $55,000. The grounds occupy an entire city block
and are beautified by flowers, trees, and shrubs. A large garden
keeps the home supplied with fresh vegetables and small fruits, the
surplus being canned for use during the winter.
Another home writes as follows:
The old gentlemen, while they have to abide by the rules of the matron, are
given practically every leeway so that they may spend the remaining years in
peace and contentment, it being the wish of the founders that the gentlemen
have all of the comforts but none of the annoyances. They are permitted to
take long walks, visit in the city, attend their own church home, supplied with
a small amount of spending money each month, in every way made to feel that
they are old gentlemen having all of the comforts for their declining years.

One home, in California, is worthy of special mention for several
rather unusual features. This institution is surrounded by a 15acre lemon and orange grove and commands a view of the mountains,
ocean, and bay of San Diego. This home was started with the idea
of forming a colony of old people of both sexes. There is a central
building with sleeping rooms, reception rooms, library, chapel, smok­
ing rooms, and the general office. There are also 22 bungalows of
from 2 to 4 rooms each, varying in design and price. The whole
institution houses 110 persons. The minimum entrance fee is
$1,500, entitling to a room in the main building. Those who are
able to pay more receive better accommodations. A resident who
pays a fee of $1,650 is assigned to a room in a cottage having two
rooms with bathroom. A fee of $1,750 to $2,000 entitles to room
and private bath, and one of $2,500 to $3,000 to a suite of sitting
room, bedroom, and bath. These prices are, of course, out of the
question for the average superannuated wage earner, but ideal for
old people with some means.
The home states its position thus:
It should be understood that the association wants to make it possible for
the aged to receive every possible care and comfort at the minimum cost, but




212

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

does not encourage those who have means to believe that they can enter on the
same terms as those who have less.
It is the policy of the association to build a community of intelligent aged
people who will take an active interest in making the home all the promoters
plan to make it, to make terms that are consistent with their means and to
the interests of the home, without taking all they have and robbing them of
independence; rather it is the desire of the management that each member will
take pride in the growth of the enterprise and volunteer to do all he or she can
to make the home in every respect all it should be.

Another feature of the home is what is called the “ insurance
plan” — i. e., any person who makes a contribution to the home has
that amount placed to his credit on the books, to be applied toward
the payment of the entrance fee, if he should desire to enter the
home after reaching the age of eligibility.
In addition to the present plant, the home plans the erection of a
workshop for those who wish to keep up their practice in various
industries, an assembly hall, and a home newspaper.
Another home with the cottage system is a rather remarkable
home in Colorado. This home makes no financial requirements of
any kind. It was established under the will of a very wealthy
resident of the city where it is located, who left an estate of several
millions, the real estate of which alone now brings in an income to
the home of from $100,000 to $125,000 per yeai\ This home has
accommodations for 210 persons, including about 90 children.
The buildings devoted to the care of the aged include a central
“ service building” with kitchen, dining room, laundry, and servants’
quarters; 10 housekeeping cottages for married couples; 15 fiveroom cottages for single persons, and an infirmary. There are also
11 bedrooms in the “ community building,” which are occupied by
the aged residents. The cottages for the single each have four
bedrooms, a living room, and bathroom. Residents in these take
their meals in the central service building, unless unable to go to
the dining room, in which case meals are taken to them.
As to the results of the cottage system, the superintendent reports
as follows:
If doing the most good is to be gauged by the most happiness conferred, and
I were asked which department evinced the greatest appreciation, I would
unhesitatingly answer “ The 10 cottages for married folks.” Here we have
provided for the aged husband and wife who may have lived together 40 or 50
years a haven of refuge. These old couples have been taken from inadequate
shelter, scanty clothing, and insufficient food— no longer able to earn, save
possibly an occasional odd job, and placed in a most comfortable brick cottage,
steam heated, with ample provision of food and clothing, and all anxiety for
the future removed. One of the many happy experiences I have and that
assures me our work is altogether 1 worth while” is the way in which these old
1
couples “ perk u p ” in a few weeks after their arrival at the home.

The community building, used by all the residents young and old,
was erected and equipped in 1925 at a cost of $157,000. It contains
a theater with stage, motion-picture machine, dressing rooms, and
seating capacity of 816 persons; a gymnasium; manual-training
room; the superintendent’s office; a sewing room; a small library
room; and the 11 bedrooms, with a large living room, already men­
tioned.
Other buildings on the home grounds (which comprise 98 acres 6)
include the children’s dormitories, steam plant, laundry, creamery,
0 T h e in stitu tion also o w n s a farm th e size o f w h ic h w as n o t re p o rte d .




CHAPTER X I .— PRIVATE BENEVOLENT HOMES

213

and carpenter shop. Many hundreds of trees have been planted on the
grounds, mainly from the home’s own nursery in Cheyenne Canyon.
The total cost of buildings and equipment (including grading, plant­
ing, sidewalks, etc., but not initial cost of the land) is $1,000,000.
This home owns and operates its own trolley line running from
the home to the terminus of one of the city street-car lines. This line
transports the children at the home to school, and serves also for the
hauling of the home's coal supply from the lignite mines north of the
city*

Another interesting home is the Sailors’ Snug Harbor on Staten
Island, N. Y. This institution was founded by a resident of New
York City. His will, drawn up June 1, 1801, by Alexander Hamilton,
left his entire estate for the establishment of a home for “ aged,
decrepit, and worn-out sailors, ” to be known as the Sailors’ Snug
Harbor. The estate consisted mainly of a farm of about 20 acres on
what is now, roughly, the area bounded by Fourth and Fifth Avenues
and Sixth and Tenth Streets, New York City.
Litigation delayed the establishment of the home. In 1831, how­
ever, the present site on the banks of Kail Van Kull, a part of New
York Harbor, was purchased. The first building was erected in
1831-32. During the year following 50 sailors were admitted, and
since then more than 6,000 seamen have received care there. The
home accommodates about 875 persons and there are usually about
850 in residence.
The home and grounds are described as follows:
The grounds comprise about 150 acres, some 60 of which are laid out in lawns,
flower beds, and fine shade trees. On this part of the grounds stand all the
buildings, costing several millions of dollars. The remainder of the grounds
comprises the farm and a thickly wooded piece of ground, to which the inmates
have free access.
The buildings, of which there are more than 30, are the chief features of the
institution; the 8 main buildings used for dormitories and mess halls being con­
nected with corridors of stone and brick as one building. The rooms are all
bright and cheerful, well heated, and ventilated, lighted by electricity, furnished
with every comfort, and kept scrupulously clean. The number of occupants to
a room varies from one to five, most of the rooms having but two.
The fullest liberty is allowed the inmates consistent with good order and a
due regard for the peace and comfort of the community. It is the intention of
the board of trustees that the institution shall be a home where our worn-out
and disabled sailors may spend their declining years in peace, comfort, and selfrespect, and it is the aim of its officials to faithfully carry out this intention.
The institution is the heritage of the present and future generations of American
sailors, and it is faithfully managed as such by the board of trustees.

Support of Home

A g o o d many of these private homes have been established by the
will of a deceased person, leaving, often, a residence or a sum of
money (or both) to be used as an endowment. As many of these
homes were established a great many years ago when prices were
much lower than at present and the purchasing power of the dollar
greater, what was at that time a sufficient endowment has become
inadequate to meet the growing needs of the home and additions to
the endowments have had to be sought or funds secured from con­
tributions, etc. True, there are a few instances (mainly, however,
of homes in existence only a comparatively few years) in which the




214

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED

STATES

home reports that all expenses are met by the endowment established
by the will of the founder.
A number of homes, whether or not originally endowed, have made
a special effort to build up the endowment or permanent fund and
now have considerable sums to their credit. One home which cares
for 46 aged people reports a permanent fund of $59,736; another
caring for 110 old people an endowment of $200,000; another caring
for 33 aged women, a permanent fund of $300,000; another with 70
residents, a permanent fund of some $345,000; another caring for 45
old men, one of $437,090, and still another caring for 150 aged of
both sexes, one of $585,294.
Even in those homes which charge entrance fees, these are insuffi­
cient to make the home self-supporting and recourse has to be had
to other means to raise the additional sums needed. Some homes
are members of the community chest in their city. Others make a
general appeal for funds periodically or when needed. In some cases
local churches, women’s clubs, young people’s associations of various
kinds, or other organizations have become interested in the home
and contribute in various ways. Donations of foodstuffs, supplies,
furnishings, etc., from individuals and organizations often form a
considerable item of the home’s income. Tag days, bazaars, card
parties, etc., are other means relied upon to increase the funds.
One home for dependents of seamen in the merchant marine receives
aid from the various steamship lines, from collections at Sunday
services and concerts given during the voyage, from marine associa­
tions, etc.
Several homes report having a farm in connection with the home on
which are raised the vegetables and small fruits consumed in the
home. One home has a farm of 45 acres, another of 49 acres, a
third of 78 acres, and a fourth of 120 acres. Four others mention
farms but do not state their acreage. In one case the home associa­
tion owns a 164-acre farm the proceeds of which meet the entire
cost of the home.
Cost of Operation
T h e r e is a wide range of per capita costs among this group of homes.
One home had an average expenditure of only $118.30 per person,
while many homes spent $1,000 or more per resident, the highest
expenditure being $2,290 per person. The average per capita cost of
operation of the private benevolent homes was $454.77. The range
of per capita cost and the average, by States, are shown in the table
following:




215

CHAPTER X I .— PRIVATE BEN EVO LEN T HOMES
T a b le 6 0 .— P E R

C A P IT A

C O S T O F O P E R A T IO N
STATES

OF P R IV A T E H O M E S F O R A G E D , B Y

Per capita cost

Per capita cost

State

State
Low

A laba m a 1_____________
C alifornia.................. ..
C olorado 1..................... ..
C on n ecticu t___________
D istrict of C o lu m b ia ..
F lo r id a ................. ...........
G eorg ia -.............. ..........
Illinois________________
In d ia n a __________ _____
Io w a ___________________
K ansas________________
K e n tu c k y _____________
L ou isiana.........................
M a in e ____ _____ _______
M a ry la n d
M assachusetts________
M ic h ig a n _____________
M in n esota _____________
M issou ri_______________
N ebraska....... ............... ..

___________

A v e r-

H igh

$155. 68 $155. 68
929.10
183. 33
442. 09
442.09
480.00
733. 33
988. 80
375.00
374. 57
315. 38
260.87
173. 43
656.34
300.00
666. 67
291.00
241. 22 1,759. 29
425. 78
250.00
772.73
166. 67
350.00
170. 26
314. 29 1, 928. 20
428. 57
330. 86
200.00 1, 514. 57
250.00 1,078.00
350.00
400.00
250. 00
646. 60
450.00
263. 60

$155. 68
383. 36
442.09
561. 37
566.81
333. 20
214. 90
488.10
424. 75
444. 30
336. 76
500. 00
256. 59
632. 59
350.18
632.12
410. 30
375.00
398. 01
370.11

Low

N e w H am pshire.
N ew Jersey_____
N e w Y o r k ______
N orth Carolina 1
O h io____________
O regon 1________
P e n n s y lv a n ia .. .
R h o d e I s la n d ...
South Carolina
Tennessee______
T exa s___________
U tah i_..................
V e rm o n t________
V irgin ia_________
W a sh in gton ____
W est V irginia . _.
W iscon sin ______
A ll hom es .

A v e r-

H igh

$320. 00 $872. 47
211. 54
625. 00
264. 71 2, 290. 00
140. 00
140. 00
187.00
700. 00
432.00
432.00
232. 56 1,126. 54
435. 48
681.82
195. 47
195.47
344. 26
233. 33
118. 30
811.78
363. 64
363. 64
517.88
555. 56
187. 50
811.78
457.14 1,050.00
349.89
722. 72
250. 00
756.00

$557. 28
394. 03
510. 65
140.00
402. 44
432. 00
431.85
541. 45
195.47
293. 66
414. 43
363. 64
546.94
579.49
489.19
535.31
463. 28

118. 30 2, 290. 00

454. 77

1 1 hom e.

Detailed figures showing the expenditure during one year for each
item were furnished by 35 homes. These data are shown in the
table below:
T a b le

6 1 .—IT E M IZ E D

COST

OF

O P E R A T IO N OF
1 YEAR

H o m e for
Friendless,
N ew
H aven ,
C on n .

Item

P R IV A T E H O M E S F O R A G E D F O R

O ld
P e o p le ’s
H om e,
Ch icago,
in .

A g ed
W o m e n 's
an d A g ed
M e n ’s
H om es,
B altim ore,
M d.

M ount
Pleasant
H om e,
B oston,
M ass.

Salaries and w ages...... ........... ............... ................... .. $8,053. 32 $24,790. 69 $13,710. 47 $10, 307. 66
Groceries and m eat............................ ..................... ...... 5,300. 33 23, 400. 62 13,082. 48
7, 068. 36
C loth in g________________ _____ _____ _______________
69. 05
L a u n d r y ...______ ____________________ _____ ______
83. 70
.................... ............. ..
183. 43
T eleph on e and telegraph
98.43
H eat, light, and p ow er___________________ _______ i 2, 711. 91 11, 386. 62 "4,964.59"
2 ,668. 30
______ __
________________ _______ater and ice
60.90
388.88
W
714.87
D ru gs an d m edical su pplies_____________________
1,008.12
4,915.10
M ed ica l and hospital c a r e .________________ ______
2,536. 65
________________ _____
P rintin g an d office su pplies
938.00
206. 60
619.08
2,354. 34
5,325. 39
R epairs to equ ipm en t an d structu res......... ...........
6,042.17
48.77
5, 270.02
1,763. 25
2,199.64
R ep la cem en ts................. ......................... .......................
256.10
T ra n sp orta tion ........................................ .......................
R ecreation .........................................................................
574.87
Insurance........ ..................... ..................... ..................... 273.64
460.54
0
T a xes....................................... ................... ......................
3 347.40 3 2,783.82 3 1,743.05
M iscella n eou s............... ............................. ............... .
1,875.53
21,538. 67

T o ta l.................................................... ...................

i Inclu des insurance.




538. 47

$9,322.99
8,528. 53
104.03
3, 485.84
177.90
102.02
1,704. 21
112.06
69.60
3 i, 278.10

79,351. 03

43,368. 69

26,328. 30

24,885.28

529. 01

703. 98
305. 41

572. 35

460.84

_________

A llow an ces or interest t o inm ates______ ______ 1
Cost per inm ate (exclud ing allow an ces)_________

C a m b rid g e
H om es
for A g ed
P eop le,
Cam ­
bridge,
M ass.

2 In clu d ed w ith heat, light, and pow er.

3 In clu des cost o f burial.

216

CARE OP AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

T a b le

6 1 .—IT E M I Z E D C O ST OF O P E R A T IO N OF P R IV A T E H O M E S F O R A G E D F O E
1 Y E A R —Continued

M ald en
H o m e for
Item

Salaries and \ _
G roceries an d m eats _
C lo th in g .______ _______________________
L a u n d r y _______________________________
T elep h on e and telegraph______________
H eat, light, and p o w e r________________
W ater and ice _________________________
D ru gs and m edical su p p lies__________
M ed ica l and hospital care_____________
Printin g and office su pplies___________
R epairs to equ ipm en t and structu res.
R ep lacem en ts__________ _______________
T ran sp ortation ________________________
R ecreation _____________________________
Insurance______________________________
T a xes__________________________________
M iscella n eou s_________________________

Persons,
M alden ,
M ass.

H o m e for
A g ed
M en ,
B oston,
M ass.

H o m e for H o m e for
A g ed
A g ed
W om en ,
People,
W orcester, W in ch es­
ter, M ass.
M:1SS.

$5, 727. 55 $13, 491. 36 $12,907.80
7, 580. 62
6,039. 53
3, 701. 92
499. 25

$5,321. 37
1,476.17

251. 61
3,903. 86

93.50
1,072.93

61. 39
1,332. 67
38.28

2 ,8:J5. 60
145. 62

H o m e for
A g e d of
G rafton
C o u n ty ,
W o o d sville,
N. H.

$864.00
933. 29
3. 50
71. 68
34. 42
., 356.13

58.02
188. 67
763. 33

3 2,407. 24
552. 69
1, 320.16

479. 68

441. 66

23.40

25.00

339. 38
3 637. 23

1, 671. 27

2, 307. 24

3 100. 00

170. 80

12,790. 42

32,157. 74

27, 4<>5. 63

8,879.19

3, 913. 31

714. 62

2, 281. 05
723. 57

328. 64
493. 29

559. 04

B eth a n y
H om e,
Ossining,
N Y.

Seabury
M em orial
H om e,
M ount
Vernon ,
N . Y.

Vassar
B rothers’
H o m e for
A g ed
M en ,
P ou gh ­
keepsie,
N. Y.

Salaries and w ages.......... ......... ....... ............... ..........
$9, 318. 84
G roceries an d m eats _
4,196. 01
C loth in g ___ ______ ________
__ _________ .
L a u n d r y _______________________________
_
T elep h on e an d t e le g r a p h ___ ______________ . ___
H eat, light, and p o w e r . __________________ .
4,161. 69
W ater and ice __________________ _____ ________
D ru gs and m edical s u p p lie s ______________
M ed ica l and hospital care____________________ _
200. 00
P rintin g and office supplies _______ __________
63.00
R epairs to equ ip m en t a n d s tr u c tu re s .. __ _ __ 2, 790. 23
R ep lacem en ts________ ________ ___________ _______
301. C9
T ran sp ortation ________ _______ ___________________
R ecreation ________________ _______________________
Insurance____________________ ____ __________ _____
178. 09
Taxes___ ________________________ _______________
M iscellaneous - _________ __________________________
326. 71

$3, 596.05
1, 220. 24

$8, 006. 00
7, 778. 69

T o t a l.................................. ......... ............ .............
A llow ances or interest to inm ates_______________
C ost per inm ate (excluding allow ances)_________

T o ta l..
A llow an ces or interest to inm ates_______
Cost per inm ate (excluding allow ances).

Item

3 Inclu des cost of burial.




Old
La dies’
H om e,
A u bu rn ,
N. Y.

1,616. 55
1, 201. 63

133. 02
986. 57
55. 60

78.95
274.06
380.79

$4, 832. 23
4,124. 41
66.10
22.35
66.23
398.28
240. 43

253. 60

39. 96
41. 58
306.15

O ld
L a d ies'
H om e ,
Pou gh­
keepsie,
N. Y.

$8, 929. 37
7,909.93

3, 690. 65
187.84

688. 50
137. 93
377. 95
279. 68

281. 53
1, 317. 99
3, 24). 88

59. 25
388. 20

3 782. 20

3 368. 91

3 572. 22

21, 535. 57

7,922. 99

22,430.44

10,956. 51

23,460. 63

512.75

1,131.85

44K. 61

521. 74

510. 01

170.00
45.10
375. 75
246. 72

1, 710. 29
460. 33

760. 55

217

CHAPTER X I .---- PRIVATE BEN EVO LEN T HOMES
T a b le

6 1 .—IT E M IZ E D

COST OF O P E R A T IO N OF P R IV A T E H O M E S F O R A G E D F O R
1 Y E A R —Continued

Sam ari­
tan
H om e for
A ged,
N ew
Y ork
C ity

Item

Isabella
H om e,
N ew
Y ork
C ity

Syracuse
H o m e for
A g ed,
Syracuse,
N. Y.

Salaries and w ages___________ __________ _ ___ $8,515.31 $19,142. 85 $12, 230. 25
G roceries and m eats. __________ ____ __ _
5,645.85
16, 440. 08
8,386. 43
C loth in g___ ____________ ________ _____________ _
L a u n d r y ______
_______________ _____ __ ___
1, 272.04
T elep h on e and telegraph _ ___________
_ __
_
162. 00
H eat, light, and pow er _ __________
1, 269.03
7,096.17 4 3,812.15
W ater and ice ____________________________________
(2
)
D ru gs and m edical supplies _ ___ _________ ____
1, 594. 22
220. 43
M ed ica l and hospital care ____________
_____
390.44
331. 25
Printin g and office s u p p lie s ______
__ _ __
284. 61
134. 62
1, 255. 65
Repairs to equ ipm en t and structu res. . ___
1,025. 98
650.18
R ep lacem en ts____ ____
___
___
656.08
477. 97
643. 85
T ran sp ortation .
R ecreation
20. 80
Insurance_____________ . ._ _________________ . . .
757. 39
701. 69
1, 518. 42
T axes____
____ . . . . . . ________ . . . _______
M iscella neous____________________________________ 3 1,067. 35 3 2,191. 39
3 496. 23
T o t a l____________ ________ _

________ . . .

Allow an ces or interest to inm ates
Cost per inm ate (excluding allow ances)

Salaries and w a g e s ______ _________ . . .
_
G roceries and m eats_____________ _ _ ______
C loth in g____________
. . _
L a u n d ry
______________
_ _ _
T eleph on e and telegraph
_ _ _ _ _ _
H eat, light, and p ow er _____
__
______. . .
W ater and i c e . _
D rugs and m edical supplies _
__ __
M ed ica l and hospital care ____ __ _______
P rin tin g and office supplies. ___
_____
_
R epairs to equiprftent and structures
_ _____
R eplacem ents
_ _
T ran sp ortation
_
_ __
_
Recreation
___
_________
Insurance
___ .
_ ______ ____

$2, 788.10
2, 586. 38

965.15
25. 60
120. 01
473. 95
45. 98

$27,102.95
20, 261. 91
132. 26
158. 42
2,328. 58
414. 50
54.00
180. 46
3,890. 33
4, 437. 22
5 212. 00

253. 73
3 546. 72

3 3, 333. 11

18, 676. 54

50, 350.17

29, 364. 00

7,805. 62

62, 505. 74

177. 75
583. 64

359. 64

515.16

269.16

520. 88

O ld
La dies’
H om e,
Schenec­
ta d y ,
N. Y.

Item

A ssocia­
tion for
R elief of
R esp ecta­
ble A ged
H om e A ,«
and In d i­
N ew Y ork
gent
Fem ales,
N ew
Y ork
C ity

H o m e for
A g ed
M en ,
B rooklyn ,
N. Y.

$6,156. 58 $19,938.02
5,150. 76 16,812. 55
191. 31
88. 72
3, 222.86

7,318. 71

227. 46
150. 50

4, 693. 50
2, 202. 56

. _________ ____

572. 04
17, 885. 58

57, 260. 54

A llow an ces or interest to inm ates _ _
___
C ost per inm ate (excluding allow ances)_________

496.82

525. 33

3, 208. 45

3, 367. 30

___________________________

$4,389.59
4,110. 72

$2, 470.00
1, 270. 56

M o rro w
M em orial
H o m e for
A g ed,
Sparta, 1
W is.

$3,096.10
1,899. 80

85. 25
557. 98
27. 35
26. 35

645. 56

1, 252. 50

1, 355. 23
770.12

M arin ers’
GreenF a m ily
point
A sy lu m ,
H o m e for
Stapleton,
A g ed,
Staten
B rook ly n ,
N. Y.
Island

M iscellaneous
T ota l

324. 23

229. 30

631. 84

13,102.19

5, 664. 36

6, 753. 37

485. 27

404. 60

321. 59

155. 84

1, 675. 40

« D esignation adop ted, at request of hom e, to a vo id identification.
2 In clu ded w ith heat, light, and pow er.
3 Includes cost of burial.'




184. 60
449. 08
363. 89

1, 393.43

1 Inclu des w ater.
6 Christm as expenses.

218

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

T a b le

6 1 .—IT E M IZ E D C O S T OF O P E R A T IO N OF P R IV A T E H O M E S F O R A G E D F O R
1 Y E A R —Continued

H o m e for
A g ed
W om en ,
N ew ark,
N . J.

N azarene
H o m e for
A ged,
P h iladel­
phia, Pa.

$5, 627.14
8,027. 26

$4,911. 30
2,912.19
14.85

$3,627. 00
2,272. 34

14. 89
6,497. 57

109. 57
2, 361. 48

1, 280. 46

74. 60
218. 61

226. 83

204.22

193. 65

107. 51

230. 69
485. 36
2, 293. 03
19.00

Salaries and w ages_____________________
Groceries and m eats___________________
C loth in g _______________________________
L a u n d r y _______________________________
T eleph on e and teleg ra p h _____________
H eat, light, and p ow e r________________
W ater and ic e _________________________
D ru gs and m edical supplies___________
M ed ica l and hospital care ____________
P rin tin g and office supplies___________
R epairs to equ ip m en t and structures _
R ep la cem en ts_________________________
T ran sp ortation ________________________
R ecreation _____________________________
Insurance______________________________

O ld
H o m e for
A g ed
L adies’
W om en ,
H om e,
Paterson,
Jersey
N . J.
C ity, N . J.

$8,362. 34
8,565.11

Item

2,176. 43
878. 68

177. 67
288.32

42.20
520.35
456. 77
42.25

102. 67

61. 52

O ld M a n ’s
H om e,
P h iladel­
phia, Pa.

$3,424. 00
24, 298. 25
1,951.14
89.26
117. 53
6,503. 25
748. 39
467.16
503.00
471. 59
11, 798. 63
2,371. 81
469." 95
177.16
34.49
3 1,813. 54

M iscella n eou s.

596. 51
3 1, 084. 50

3 539.16

961. 80

T o ta l___

28,375. 83

20, 026. 61

11,430. 24

7, 423.15

55, 239.15

500. 67

372. 57
228. 60

247. 44

1,707. 69
323. 04

Indigent
W id o w s ’
and
Single
W o m e n ’s
H om e,
Ph iladel­
phia, Pa.

H o m e for
Aged
M on
and
Cou ples,
P r o v i­
dence,
R . I.

300.00
363. 79

A llow an ces or interest to in m ates_______
Cost per inm ate (excluding a llow an ces).

H ayes
M e ch a n ­
ics’
H om e,
Ph iladel­
phia, Pa.

Item

683. 36 $16,148. 07 $17,940. 50
676. 73 18,126. 42 13,845.36
129. 01
2, 39»i. 49
240.17
191. 25
139. 94
177.23
4, 794. 55
5,348. 34
5, 037. 67
31. 47
187. 96
208. 00
859.84
154. 40
221.18
1,118. 31
380. 64
4,639.10
1, 719.99
682. 65
1, 513. 71

Salaries and w ages______________________

G roceries and m eats___________________
C loth in g _______________________________
L a u n d r y _______________________________
T elep h on e and telegra ph_____________
H eat, ligh t, and p ow e r ________________
W ater an d ic e _________________________
D ru gs and m edical supplies___________
M ed ica l and hospital care____________
Printin g and office supplies___________
R epairs to equ ipm en t and structu res_
R ep lacem en ts _________________________
T ra n sp orta tion ________________________
R ecreation _____________________________
Insurance______________________________
T a xes__________________________________
M iscella n eou s_________________________

774. 78
869. 26

Theresa
and
Elizabeth
H om e,
R acine,
W is.

$2, 753. 27
1,829.68

6 1,084. £

Protestant
H o m e for
A g ed,
M ilw a u ­
kee, W is.

$18, 278. 58
14, 772. 47
37.20
173.87
6, 610. 46
342.13
699. 71

87.63
268. 62
169.37

291.10
2, 488. 43
2,482.62

120.00

3 2, 326. 81

3 7,154. 40

133. 27
237. 70

1,755. 36
127. 25
1,439.82

32, 673. 04

9,141.15

48,969. 60

6, 684. 53

49,499. 00

1
6.76

T o ta l-

60.24
535. 78
104.88
1, 365. 30

1, 251.03
434. 88

404. 98
532. 28

383. 37
445. 64

358. 69

A llow an ces or interest to inm ates_______
C ost per inm ate (excluding allow ances).
3 Inclu des cost o f burial.

6 Inclu des w ater and telephone.

The increase in per capita cost of operating even a large home is
shown by the following figures supplied by a home which cares for
150 old people:
April 30 —
191 8
191 9
192 0
192 1
192 2




Per capita cost

$357.
406.
436.
469.
458.

30
02
84
46
96

April 30— Continued
P er capita cost
192 3
$399. 17
192 4
534. 50
192 5
521. 90
192 6
555. 75
1927J_____________________
5 6 5.62

Chapter XII.—Retirement Systems for Public
Employees1
Federal Employees’ Retirement System
HE Federal employees’ retirement system was established by an
act passed in 1920. This was amended several times, and was
reenacted with some important changes in 1926. (44 U. S.
Stat. L., 904.) Its administration is intrusted to the Commissioner
of Pensions under the direction of the Secretary of the Interior. The
Civil Service Commission is required to keep a record of essential
information concerning individual service, and to furnish the Com­
missioner of Pensions such information from this as he may require.
A board of three actuaries is to make an annual report upon the
working of the act, and is to prepare a valuation of the fund at least
every five years. The Secretary of the Interior is to submit annually
estimates of the appropriations necessary to finance the retirement
fund and to continue the act in full force and efficiency, and the
Comptroller General is to establish and maintain an account showing
the annual liability of the Government under this act, and to keep
such other accounts as may be deemed necessary.

T

Scope of the System
T h e system covers all employees in the classified civil service, all
employees of the Panama Canal on the Isthmus of Panama who are
citizens of the United States, all regular annual employees of the
municipal government of the District of Columbia appointed by the
commissioners or other competent authority, certain specified em­
ployees in the District of Columbia and in cities and establishments
in which appointments are made under specified conditions, post­
masters of the first, second, and third classes who have been pro­
moted, appointed, or transferred from the classified civil service, and
any employees or groups of employees in the civil service to whom
the provisions of the act have been or may be extended by executive
order. Certain specified groups of employees, several of which have
retirement systems already established, are excluded from the pro­
visions of the act.
Source of Funds
U n d e r the 1926 act, the employees contribute regularly 3.5 per
cent of their compensation, the amount having been raised to this
from the 2.5 per cent established in the original act. For the year
ending June 30, 1927, these contributions amounted to $24,355,882.
The wording of the act does not definitely commit the Government
to any precise expenditure, but implies that it will make up the dif­
ference between the contributions of the employees and what is
needed to maintain the system, and also that it will meet the accrued
liability for service rendered before the system was adopted. Up to
i F o r a detailed report on p u b lic retirem ent system s see B u rea u of L a b o r Statistics B u i. N o . 477.

35777°—29----- 15



219

220

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

1928 the Government had made no contribution of any kind, beyond
administering the system, but in the budget for 1928-29 it appro­
priated $19,950,000 for the fund to cover both its current and a part
of its accrued liability. The Government actuaries stated that at
the present level of the Federal pay roll ($798,000,000) the amount
required to meet the current liability would equal 0.48 per cent of the
pay roll, while a second contribution of 1.97 per cent of the pay roll
would hold the accrued liability at its present figure ($393,000,000).
The above appropriation, amounting to 2.5 per cent of the pay roll,
met these two obligations and gave a surplus of approximately
$400,000 to apply to the liquidation of the accrued liability.
Conditions for Retirement
A t l e a s t fifteen years of service and the attainment of a specified age
are the qualifications for normal or superannuation retirement. For
employees in general the required age is 70, for letter carriers, post
office clerks, sea post clerks, laborers, and mechanics it is 65, while
for railway postal clerks, employees whose occupations involve
special hazard, great physical effort or exposure to extremes of tem­
perature, and for those who have been in service in the Tropics for
15 years or longer, it is 62. Retirement is compulsory upon reaching
the specified age, but extensions for two-year periods may be granted
on occasion. After August 20, 1930, however, no employee may be
continued in the civil service more than four years beyond the age
of retirement.
Disability retirement is permitted after 15 years’ service if an em­
ployee becomes totally incapacitated for useful and efficient service
from some cause not due to his own fault or misconduct. The fact
of disability must be established by medical examination, and until
the employee reaches the regular retirement age, he must submit to
annual reexaminations so long as the disability continues.
Employees aged 45 or over who, after at least 15 years of service,
are involuntarily separated from the service from some cause other
than their own fault or delinquency, are entitled to certain benefits,
which may take the form of an allowance.
Allowances
. T h e superannuation and the disability allowances are calculated in
the same way, by multiplying the average annual basic salary, not
to exceed $1,500, for the last 10 years before retirement by the number
of years of service, not to exceed 30, and dividing the product by 45.
No minimum is fixed, but there is a maximum of $1,000 a year; since,
however, the act provides that all allowances are to be paid in mul­
tiples of 12, the maximum in practice is $999.96.
The separation benefits vary with the age at separation. If the
retirant is 55 years of age or older, he is given his choice of three
options: (a) The return of the total amount of his contributions with
compound interest; (b) an immediate life annuity beginning at the
date of separation from the service, having a value equal to the present
worth of the annuity which he would have received had he remained
in the service until the regular age for retirement;; or (c) a deferred
annuity, beginning at the age at which he would have become eligible
for retirement, of the amount to which he would have been entitled
at that age. If the retirant is between 45 and 55 years of age, he is




221

CHAPTER X I I .---- PUBLIC EM PLO YEES’ RETIREM ENT

entitled to a deferred annuity, but upon reaching age 55 he may elect
to receive the immediate life annuity based on its present worth at
the time.
Refunds
U p o n separation from the service before becoming eligible for an
allowance, or upon being transferred within the service from an
occupation covered by the retirement system to one not so covered,
an employee is entitled to a refund of all his contributions, with
interest at 4 per cent, compounded annually. If, thereafter, he re­
enters an occupation covered by the system, this refund must be
returned, if he wishes to receive the benefits of the system. If an
employee dies before reaching pensionable status, the refund will be
made to his legal representatives. If, after having retired on allow­
ance, he dies before he has drawn an amount equal to his total con­
tributions with compound interest, the difference between this total
and the amount he has drawn will be paid to his legal representatives.
Provision for Dependents
T h e system m akes no provision of any kind for dependents.
Statistics of System
B e l o w are given the latest available statistics of the system—i. e.,
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1928— taken from the report of the
Commissioner of Pensions:
T h e receipts and disbursem ents during the year were as fo llo w s:
Balance in fund July 1, 1927______________________________________
Amount deducted from salaries and credited to fund___________
Interest, profits, and miscellaneous items________________________

$68, 336, 760. 95
26, 454, 611. 68
3, 048, 244. 55

Total in fund_______________________________________________

97, 839, 617. 18

Disbursements on account of annuities___________________________
Disbursements on account of refunds (including $348,445.44
interest)__________________________________________________________

10, 990, 454. 10

Total disbursements________________________________________

14, 761, 616. 75

Balance in the fund June 30, 1928________________________________

83, 078, 000. 43

3, 771, 162. 65

Table 62 shows the occupations and contributions of annuitants:
T able 6 2 .—N U M B E R , S E X , A N D C O N T R I B U T IO N S O F A N N U I T A N T S O N R O L L , J U N E
30, 1928, B Y O C C U P A T I O N S

M ale
O ccup ation

T o ta l
n um ber

M e c h a n ic s ..- _ . ______ __ _ _
__ __ _
C ity letter carriers
R ural letter carriers___ _________ _ Post-office clerks__________________________
R a ilw a y m ail clerks
______
D epartm en tal and other clerks
Classified laborers_________________________
U nclassified laborers___________
__

3, 362
2, 698
2, 452
1, 355
1,191
3,311
899
115

T o t a l_______ ______ __ ______________
A verage c o n t r ib u t io n s _____

15, 383




Fem ale

R etired
for disa­
b ility

R etired
for age

2, 684
2, 008 '
2,117
896
1, 060
1,905
609
82

R etired
for age

R etired
for disa­
bility

169

43

i

1
116

6
60

421
104
1

322
68
1

2,710

11, 361

466
690
328
283
131
663
118
31

812

Aggregate
co n tribu ­
tions

$456,349
464, 644
392, 272
229, 899
190,140
513, 982
102, 835
36,995

500 1 2, 387,116
155.18
1

222

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

The number of annuitants in specified annuity classes on June 30,
1928, is shown below:
Amount of annuity per year:
a n S ta n ts *
Less than $100__________________________________________________________
9
Between $100 and $200_________________________________________________
116
Between $200 and $300_________________________________________________
428
Between $300 and $400_________________________________________________
854
Between $400 and $500_________________________________________________
1 723
Between $500 and $600_________________________________________________
1 590
Between $600 and $700_________________________________________________
1, 655
Between $700 and $800_________________________________________________
1 761
Between $800 and $900_________________________________________________
2, 277
Between $900 and $999.96______________________________________________
1, 668
The maximum annuity of $999.96_____________________________________
3, 302
Total___________________________________________________________________

15, 383

At the close of the fiscal year 21.5 per cent of the annuitants were
receiving $999.96 per year, the maximum allowable under the act.
The others were receiving amounts grading downward to one annuity
of only $34.44 per year. The average annuity in 1927-28 was
$733.92 as compared with $721.39 for the preceding year.
The following statement shows the number of civil-service an­
nuitants at the end of each year since 1920-21 and the amounts paid
in annuities during the year:
A n nuitants
at end of
year

1 9 2 0 -2
19 21 -2
19 22 -2
19 23 -2
1 9 24 -2
19 25 -2
19 26 -2
1 9 27 -2

A n n u ities paid during
year

6 ,4 7 1
7, 576
9, 334
10, 548
11, 689
12, 524
14, 119
15, 383

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

$ 2 ,5 9 0 ,5 6 8 .5 2
4, 188, 258. 89
4, 964, 001. 92
5, 692, 443. 59
6, 235, 830. 16
6, 766, 601. 17
9, 598, 285. 73
10, 990, 454. 10

Retirem ent of State and M unicipal Employees

I

N THE summer of 1927 the Bureau of Labor Statistics undertook
an inquiry into retirement systems for public-service employees
in the United States, supplemented by a brief survey of retire­
ment systems for Government employees in Hawaii, in Canada, and
in European countries. The data concerning foreign systems were
secured through the courtesy of the State Department from the
governments concerned. For the United States a field survey was
carried on during the summer and early fall of 1927, information
being obtained through personal interviews with the administrative
officers, through consultation of official records, and from published
reports.
Considerations of time and expense forbade an exhaustive study
of the systems of the United States. Taking the country as a
whole, there are literally hundreds of these. Police and firemen’s
pension plans are found in almost every city; retirement schemes for
teachers, while not quite so general, are still ^ery common, and
numerous other groups of public employees have their own pension
plans. Naturally, there is much sameness in these systems; any
attempt to make a complete survey would involve endless duplica­
tion of detail with no compensating advantage. A study of state­




CHAPTER X I I .— PUBLIC EM PLO YEES’ RETIREM ENT

223

wide systems and of municipal systems in cities having a population
of 400,000 and over would, it was thought, include practically all
types of pension plans, and would also give some idea of the relative
advantage of the different kinds of systems.
At the time the study was undertaken, six States had retirement
plans applying to all employees not included in some recognized
pension system. Twenty-one States and the District of Columbia
had plans which included— or might include— all teachers in the
public employ. Eighteen cities, according to the estimate of the
Census Bureau, had in 1927 a population of 400,000 and over. The
survey therefore included plans maintained by 46 agencies, covering
employees ranging from laborers to high administrative, executive,
and professional officers, and this, it was felt, was a sufficiently wide
inquiry to cover all significant variations of the plans now in use.
A study of these plans from an actuarial standpoint would be a
formidable task in respect to both time and cost, so a more modest
program was adopted. For each system data were obtained as to the
kind of employees covered, the differences made between different
classes, the source of funds and the division of cost between em­
ployers and employees, the conditions under which retirement on
pension or allowance is permitted, what provision, if any, is made
for dependents of deceased employees, the practice in regard to pen­
sions for disability, the average age and years of service of those
retiring, the income and expenditures of the system for the latest
year reported upon, and such other matters as might throw light
upon the advantages or disadvantages of a given plan. In practice,
it was not possible to secure all these data for all systems. In fact,
in very few cases were records so kept that reliable information could
be gained on all the points desired, so attention was concentrated
upon the most important items.
Basic classification of retirement plans.— There are two particulars
in which retirement plans differ fundamentally— the source of the
funds by which they are maintained, and the method by which
provision is made for meeting the liabilities incurred. As to the
first, plans may be contributory or noncontributory; as to the second,
they may be managed upon either the cash disbursement or the
actuarial reserve plan.
Under the joint contributory system, each employee contributes
regularly, usually by means of a deduction from his salary or wages,
a fixed amount or a specified percentage of his compensation, while
the employing agency either makes fixed regular contributions or
undertakes to appropriate sufficient funds, as needed, to keep the
system in operation; under the noncontributory system, the whole
cost is borne by one side, usually the employer. Noncontributory
plans are unusual, and do not seem to be gaining in favor. Among
the approximately 70 systems described in the following pages
there are only 7 in which the employees do not contribute to
the funds of the system, and only 2 in which the employing agency
makes no contribution. The Maine and Connecticut State em­
ployees’ systems, the Rhode Island State teachers’ system, the
Detroit system for municipal employees, and the Detroit, New York,
and San Francisco systems for firemen are noncontributory systems
so far as employees are concerned, while the Michigan and Montana
State retirement systems for teachers are the only ones in which the




224

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

employing agencies do not contribute toward the maintenance of
the plans.
Cash disbursement and actuarial reserve systems.— Under the cash
disbursement system, benefits are paid from whatever funds are in
hand, without much reference to the future. During the early years
of a system’s operation, the employees’ contributions are often more
than sufficient to meet all needs, but gradually the growing pension
roll demands heavier and heavier annual payments, the contribu­
tions of the employees are progressively inadequate to the situation,
and the employing agency is called upon for rapidly increasing
annual contributions.
Under the actuarial reserve system a fund is established, and the
employer, like the employee, pays into this regular contributions.
The rate of contribution is so calculated for both sides that the fund
receives annually an amount which, put at compound interest, will be
sufficient to pay each employee, when his time for retirement comes,
the share of the retirement allowance due for one year’s services, and
also to pay one year’s share of such other benefits as the system may
provide. The employing agency usually assumes responsibility for
benefits due for services given before the plan was adopted, and makes
regular contributions to liquidate this accrued liability. Ordinarily
such plans provide for an actuarial review of the situation at stated
intervals, with a stipulation that if the review shows a need for it, the
rate of contribution may be revised.
The actuarial reserve plan is a comparatively recent development,
and is still far from general. There is a good deal of opposition to it
in many places for which it is rather difficult to find a definite reason.
Probably part of the objection is due to the fact that such systems
require careful and systematic operation, while the cash disbursement
systems may be installed and operated for some time with little con­
sideration of any kind. Naturally, those so installed and operated
are likely to come to grief. If, however, the employing agency has
under-taken to make appropriations needed, it may be a long while
before the increasing demands create active dissatisfaction and lead
to a recasting of the system, and meanwhile the plan may be held up
as an example of the success of a cash disbursement system, free from
the red tape and tiresome formality of an actuarial reserve system.
In some cases the objection is due to a belief that the actuarial
reserve systems are less favorable to the employees than the other
form. In one city the charge was definitely brought that under these
systems the employee contributes too much and receives too little.
The argument ran that contributions are based on the life expectation
at the age fixed for retirement, and that this life expectation is cal­
culated from the mortality tables of insurance companies, which, in
turn, are based upon the experience of the compai)ies. But insurance
companies deal only with selected cases; applicants are subjected to a
rigid physical examination, and rejected if they fall below a pre­
scribed standard. Naturally, among such a selected group the life
expectancy at any given age would be greater than in a miscellaneous
group, such as the retirants of a teachers’ or municipal employees’
system, so that contributions based upon insurance experience are
unduly high; that is, the average retirant dies before he has received
the actuarial equivalent of the contributions to his credit. As yet,




CHAPTER X I I .---- PUBLIC EM PLOYEES’ RETIREM ENT

225

tne actuarial systems are rather too new for this objection to have been
either disproved or verified; it seems, however, as if the provision for
reviewing the system at stated intervals with the possibility of revising
the rates of contribution, if desirable, should meet the difficulty, pro­
vided it exists.
Inclusiveness of systems.— Another point of difference is in the inclu­
siveness of retirement systems. Originally such plans were formed
only for a particular group, whose risks were the same, and for whom
uniform provisions could easily be adapted. As the desirability of
having retirement systems became apparent, the number of such
groups increased, until there might be nine or ten systems among the
employees of one municipality, or as many different teachers’ systems
as there were cities in a State. Unfortunately, even this duplication
of systems did not provide for all employees, and in the same city some
groups might be enjoying a prosperous retirement plan, others might
have no such protection at all, and still others be covered by an expen­
sive and ill-managed system. In an effort to meet this situation, the
inclusive plans were formed, designed to cover all the employees of a
State, or a city, thus avoiding duplication of effort and unnecessary
expense, and insuring to all employees the protection of a strong, wellplanned and thoroughly solvent system. When such an inclusive
system is introduced, usually groups already covered by a retirement
system are given their choice of coming in, or remaining under their
own plan, and there is a good deal of diversity in the attitude of the
groups toward such an offer. Generally, the police and firemen cling
to their own systems; in Baltimore the firemen, and in Boston both
police and firemen have been brought into the general system, but
elsewhere they have remained outside. The teachers vary from place
to place, but on the whole seem to prefer their separate organizations.
The Chicago teachers present an interesting argument in favor of this.
The municipal employees, they point out, are largely men, and the
municipal system has been planned with a view to their needs, but the
teachers are largely women. M en’s dependents are usually younger
than themselves, while women’s dependents are apt to belong to a
generation older than themselves. The provision for dependents,
therefore, which is attractive to men is wholly uninteresting to women;
of what use is a “ child’s annuity” to an unmarried woman, supporting
an aged aunt or an invalid parent? If the teachers should go into the
general system, they would be helping to support a plan which is not
adapted to their peculiar needs, as their own system is; therefore,
they prefer to remain under their own.
On the whole, however, where a well-planned State or municipal
system has been inaugurated, there seems an increasing tendency for
it to become all inclusive. Sometimes an outside group comes in as
a whole, bringing with it the funds of its own system, as well as its
liabilities; sometimes it is arranged that those in the service at a
given time shall remain under their own system, the benefits it pro­
vides being guaranteed to them, but all newcomers shall enter the
general system. Thus, in most cities in which a municipal system
has been installed, there are a number of dying systems; they will
remain more or less in force until those who were in the service when
the municipal system came into being have passed out, while their
successors are covered by the general plan.




226

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

Benefits.— A retirement allowance or pension, usually based on age
and length of service, but sometimes on only one' of these factors, is
of course common to all the systems. There is a good deal of diver­
sity as to these qualifications. Among the police and firemen, where
full physical strength and agility may be required for good service,
there are obvious reasons for setting an early age for optional retire­
ment, but the situation is different where clerical and administrative
groups are concerned. Practically all the systems made retirement
compulsory by 70, though some of them provided for extensions in
the case of unusually well-qualified employees. An age for optional
retirement was common, ranging in the different systems from 50 or
under to 65. Among 41 systems, not including police and firemen’s
plans, 14 had only a service requirement, with no reference to age; in
3 the age for optional retirement was set at from 50 to 58, in 16 at 60,
in 5 at 62, and in 3 at 65; in several of these an earlier age was set
for women. Few of these systems kept any record of age at retire­
ment, but in general the officials believed that employees tended to
hold on to their jobs as long as possible, and that unless physical in­
capacity intervened they remained in the service considerably beyond
the age for optional retirement.
The service qualification also presents considerable variation. In
some of the actuarial reserve systems there was neither age nor service
requirement; the amount of the allowance to be drawn by the em­
ployee depended partly upon his length of service and partly upon
his age at retirement, and he might use his own discretion about
withdrawing, unless he should become incapacitated for service,
when retirement would become compulsory. Where a service require­
ment was imposed, it varied from 10 to 40 years, 25 years being the
commonest period and 30 the next in order.
Other benefits are allowances for disability directly due to the per­
formance of duty, allowances for ordinary disability, refund of con­
tributions in case of separation from the service before reaching pen­
sionable status, provision for dependents in case of the death of an
active member or pensioner, and, in a few cases, a separation allow­
ance for those who, after a certain length of service, are dismissed
for some cause not involving their own fault or delinquency. Not
many systems have all these benefits, the particular ones included
depending largely upon the kind of employees covered. In police and
fire departments, for instance, death or serious injury resulting from
the performance of duty is a constant possibility, and disability allow­
ances and provision for dependents are of almost as much importance
to a man as the normal allowance. These benefits, therefore, are
found in nearly all the police and fire systems, and sometimes they
are worked out very elaborately. In some cases the employee’s con­
tribution is calculated to cover his own risk of ordinary disability and
part of the allowance to his widow, if he dies from natural causes,
while the employing agency provides the whole of the special allow­
ance for duty disability and for the widows and children of those
dying as a result of injuries received in the service.
Among teachers and clerical employees, on the other hand, the
service involves little or no risk of this character, and the systems are
less likely to include such benefits. It is unusual for teachers’ sys­
tems, for instance, to make provisions for dependents, and when they
do it is apt to be confined to a choice given the retirant upon with­




CHAPTER X I I .— PUBLIC EM PLOYEES’ RETIREM ENT

227

drawal between taking the full allowance to which he is entitled, with
the understanding that at his death the whole matter is closed, or of
taking a reduced allowance which, in case of his death, is to be con­
tinued to some beneficiary he has named.
On the whole, the tendency among the newer systems is to include
more benefits than are found in the early systems, and especially to
make some provision for dependents. The return of contributions,
commonly with interest and sometimes with compound interest, is
frequent among the newer systems. The omission of this provision
is sometimes defended on the ground that the worker in making his
contributions is really paying for insurance. If he should be injured
or die during his service, he would receive an allowance or his depend­
ents would receive some compensation. He has this protection so
long as he remains in the service, and if he retires before the time when
he would receive a retirement allowance, he has no claim for anything
further. The separation allowance is not common, but seems to have
grown in favor recently. It is intended to prevent hardship in cases
where a faithful and competent employee finds, after he has served
for years, that a reorganization of the service has abolished his posi­
tion, or that a reduction of the force has become necessary and that
he is laid off in consequence, or that some other cause for which he
has no responsibility has left him without a position.
Systems for State Employees
A part
from teachers’ retirement systems and plans for pen­
sioning limited groups, such as judges or war veterans employed in
the public service, six States (Maine, Massachusetts, Connecticut,
New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania) have legislation providing
for the retirement on allowance of State employees. Such legislation
is of decidedly recent date. Massachusetts led the way in 1911, with
an act covering all persons employed “ in the direct service of the
Commonwealth or in the service of the metropolitan district com­
mission, whose sole or principal employment is in such service.”
In 1919 Connecticut passed an act authorizing retirement pensions
for persons in the State service who met certain requirements as to
age and length of service, and Maine recast her laws so as to extend
to all State employees legislation which up to that time had applied
only to those in the prison service and to public employees who were
veterans of the Civil War. New York in 1920, New Jersey in 1921,
and Pennsylvania in 1923 enacted laws establishing state-wide
retirement systems, since which time there has been a lull in such
legislation.

Administration

A comparison of the six systems shows that in the matter of em­
ployee representation they are evenly divided. In Maine and
Connecticut the management of the plan is intrusted to a<State
body, and in New York to a State official, the employees having no
representation whatever. The Massachusetts, New Jersey, and
Pennsylvania systems are administered by boards on which the
employees have either one or two representatives, chosen by them­
selves from their own number.




228

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES
Conditions for Retirement

Age.— In this respect there have been many changes in the various
systems since they were established, but taking them as of the
present date, two make no requirements as to age, and four set 60
as the proper age for optional retirement, sometimes coupling with
it a service requirement. Maine has only a service requirement, and
in general this is true of Connecticut, though here a modification is
made in favor of those who reach 70 without the service qualifica­
tion. New York and New Jersey permit retirement at 60 without
regard to service, and Massachusetts and Pennsylvania permit it
at the same age with a service requirement.
Maine, Connecticut, and Pennsylvania set no age at which retire­
ment is compulsory, but Massachusetts and New Jersey require
it at 70. New York at first did the same, but there was so much
complaint against this feature that the law was amended to set the
compulsory age at 80, with progressive modifications which will
bring it down to 70 by 1936.
Service requirements.— Maine requires 25 consecutive years of
service and Connecticut 30, or 20 if the employee has reached 70
with fewer than 30 years of service. Massachusetts requires 15
years of service for retirement at 60, but permits it at any age after
35 years of service. Pennsylvania requires a minimum of 25 years
and New York and New Jersey make no service requirement.
Disability retirements.— Maine and Connecticut make no special
provision for disability. The other States permit retirement on allow­
ance for disability after a certain length of service. Massachusetts and
New York fixing the term at 15 years, New Jersey at 10, and Penn­
sylvania at 5. Massachusetts, New York, and New Jersey make a
further provision for accident disability, i. e., disability arising from
injury received in the direct performance of duty. For such dis­
ability, retirement on allowance is permitted without any require­
ments as to either age or length of service.
All four States require that the fact of disability shall be estab­
lished by medical examination and certification and provide that
the retirant must submit to reexamination whenever ordered.
Source of Funds

In Maine and Connecticut the State provides the necessary funds,
appropriations being made at the regular sessions of the legislatures,
according to estimates furnished. In the other States the funds are
secured through contributions from the employees, contributions by
the public authorities, interest on investments and money in bank,
occasional profits on investments and the like, the contributions from
the employees and the State being the main sources.
Contributions from employees.— In all four States the employee’s
contribution is made in the form of a percentage of his salary or
wage, which is deducted before his salary is paid him. In Massa­
chusetts, for all who entered the service after June 30, 1918, the
contribution is 5 per cent of the salary up to $1,560 a year, all salary
over that amount being exempt from contribution. In New York
and New Jersey the percentage is determined by the employee’s
sex, age at entrance, and kind of work, and in Pennsylvania the
employee is given a choice between two rates, based on age at en­




CHAPTER X I I .---- PUBLIC EM PLOYEES’ RETIREM ENT

229

trance, the amount of the retirement allowance being determined by
the rate chosen.
Contributions from State.— In Maine and Connecticut appropria­
tions are made as needed for the payment of pensions. In the
other systems the State’s contribution is usually divided into several
parts, determined by different calculations. One part is needed to
provide for the payment of pensions for service currently rendered,
another to defray the cost of special benefits, such as the accident
disability allowance, and another to pay the allowances for service
rendered before the system went into effect. In addition the State,
in all these systems, pays the full cost of administration of the plan.
In theory the different amounts, except the expense of administration,
are calculated either as a percentage of the active pay roll or as a
flat sum which, if continued through a specified period, will extin­
guish the claim, and the total amount thus found is appropriated
regularly. In practice, there is occasionally some irregularity about
the appropriations; the State accepts its full responsibility, but some­
times prefers to postpone its payments or part of them.
In addition to these two sources of income, interest upon the
accumulated contributions of employees and the State is an important
factor in building up the reserves. In 1926 the New Jersey fund
received a gross amount of $61,680 from this source and the New
York fund, $330,290.
Retirement Allowances

Under the Maine law the governor and council have entire discre­
tion as to the amount which may be granted as an allowance, except
that it may not be more than one-half the average annual salary
received for the last five years of service. In Connecticut the amount
is ordinarily one-half of the average annual salary for the last five
years of service, but if the retirant has served 40 years it is threefourths of this average salary.
In the other States the allowance is composed of two parts, an
annuity bought by the retirant’s accumulated contributions and a
pension from the State, which, in the case of service retirement, is
equal to the annuity. For those in the service before the system was
established, the State provides both pension and annuity to cover
the years of prior service, so that the total allowance is the same as
if they had been paying contributions from the time they entered the
public employ. In Massachusetts the minimum allowance is $300
a year, and the maximum is one-half of the average annual salary for
the last five years of service. If the employee has served so long that
his accumulated contributions would purchase an annuity amounting
to more than one-fourth of this final compensation, the State returns
the excess to him in a lump sum at the time of retirement. The other
States do not set a maximum, but the employee’s contributions have
been calculated to produce, for those who enter the service at a rea­
sonably early age and remain until they reach the retirement age, a
sum which will purchase an annuity approximating one-fourth of the
final compensation, so that the total allowance will be around onehalf of this compensation.
The allowances for disability and duty disability retirement are
usually fixed as a proportion of a normal retirement allowance, the
employee’s contributions being used to purchase an annuity and the




230

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

State altering its pension as may be necessary to make the allowance
reach the figure set. In the case of duty disability, the State will, if
necessary, make up the whole allowance, and in any case its contribu­
tion is more liberal than in the case of ordinary disability or service
retirement.
Refund of Contributions

As Maine and Connecticut do not require contributions from their
employees, the question of refunds does not arise. The other States
all return the contributions, with compound interest, upon the death,
dismissal, or withdrawal of the employee. Pennsylvania permits a
retiring employee, if he prefers, to receive the actuarial equivalent
of his accumulated contributions in either an annuity or a deferred
annuity.
Provision for Dependents

Maine and Connecticut make no provision for dependents. The
other States permit options at the time of retirement by which the
retirant may, if he chooses, receive a smaller allowance for himself
with some provision for dependents after his death, the nature of
the options differing considerably in the various States.
If death occurs from ordinary causes while a member is still in the
service, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania make no
provision for the dependents, except as the refund of the accumulated
contributions may be looked upon as a provision; but New York, if
the decedent has served for at least one year, makes an additional
lump-sum payment to his dependents, based upon length of service,
but not to exceed one-half of his last year’s salary.
If death results from some accident or exposure incurred in the
direct performance of duty, Massachusetts, New York, and New
Jersey all provide a pension of one-half of the member’s final com­
pensation to his widow during widowhood, or to children under a
certain age.
Principal Provisions of State Systems

Comparing these plans it is seen that while they differ in various
details there is a considerable resemblance in their outlines.
The Maine and Connecticut systems differ essentially from the
others in that they are noncontributory, and a number of differences
in detail follow from this fundamental divergence. The others are
alike in their main features, varying only in the manner in which
these are worked out. All six are intended to apply to all regular
and permanent State employees not covered by some other recog­
nized pension plan, a provision which in all these States rules out
teachers. In New York special provision is made for bringing in
employees of cities, towns, and counties, and Massachusetts includes
employees paid partly by the State and partly by counties. Table
63 brings together the main features of all six plans:




T a b le

63.—COMPARISON OF STATE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT SYSTEMS
M assachusetts

N ew Y ork

N e w Jersey

Pen nsylvania

A u th o riz a ­
tion .

L a w s of 1919, ch.
38; 1923, ch.
199; 1925, ch.
118.

A cts o f 1911, ch. 532; various
am endm ents, n ow con soli­
dated w ith original act in
ch. 32, G eneral Laws.

L a w s of 1920, ch. 741; L a w s of
1922, ch. 591; am en dm en ts
each year since 1920, in clu d ­
ing 1927.

P u b lic L aw s, 1921, ch. 109;
am ended 1923, 1924.

A cts of 1923, N o . 331 (P . L .
858); am ended, A cts of 1927,
N o . 55.

B y w hom
a d m in is ­
tered.

G ov ern o r
cou n cil.

Public Acts
1919, ch . 210
1921, ch . 74
1923, ch. 119
1923, ch . 217.
State b o a rd of
finance
and
co n trol.

B oa rd of 3: State treasurer,
an em ployee m em ber elected
b y his fellows, and a th ird
elected b y these 2.

State co m p tro lle r ................. .......

B oa rd of 5: State treasurer,
ex officio; 2 ap p oin ted b y
governor; 2 em ploy ee m em ­
bers elected b y their fellows.

C ost o f ad­
m in is t r a ­
tion borne
by.

State..

State-

S t a t e ........................ ............ .........

State..

State___________________________

B oa rd of 5: State secretary and
treasurer, ex officio; 1 m em ­
ber app oin ted b y governor;
and 2 em ployees elected b y
their fellows.
State.

A ll em p loyees o f
State in stitu ­
tion s or de­
partm en ts.

A ll regular State
em ployees.

A ll State em ployees except
teachers.
E m p lo y e e s of
cities, tow n s, and counties
adm itted .

A ll in classified civ il service,
unless covered b y som e
other recognized pension
system .

A ll State em ployees except
judges and those covered b y
school em ployees’ pension
system .

C o n d it i o n s
for retire­
m ent.

25 con se cu tiv e
years’ service
w ith g o o d rec­
ord.

’ service,
or 20 if em ­
p lo y e e
has
reach ed age of
70; larger pen­
sion if 40 years’
service.

Perm anent and regular em ­
ployees n o t covered b y som e
other recognized pension
system . Judges and som e
others excepted.
A g e 60 years, w ith 15 years’
contin uous service, or after
35 years’ service, regardless
o f age. C om p u lsory retire­
m ent at 70. O rdinary disa­
b ility retirem ent: 15 years’
service. D isa b ility incurred
in perform ance o f d u ty : N o
age or service requirem ents.

Service retirem ent: O ptiona l
at 60, com p u lsory at 70, ex­
cept b y special exem ption.
O rd in a ry d isability: 10 co n ­
secutive years’ service; m e d ­
ical certification. D u ty dis­
a b ility incurred in service:
N o requirem en ts b e y o n d
m edica l certification.

Service retirem ent: O ptional
at 60, after 25 years’ service.
N o age for com p u lsory retire­
m en t . D isabil ity retirem ent:
5 years’ service; m edical cer­
tification.

C o n tr ib u ­
tion s
to
fund.

S ystem n o n co n tributory.
State
ap­
propriates

S y ste m n o n con tribu tory.
State
ap­
propriates
biennially

Service retirem ent: O ptional
at 60, co m p u lso ry , w ith ex­
ception s u p to 1936, at 70.
O rd ina ry d isa b ility retire­
m ent: 15 years’ service; m e d ­
ical certification. D u t y dis­
ab ility : I n ju r y received in
service regardless o f length
of service; m edical certifica­
tion. D isco n tin u e d service
retirem ent.
F ro m em ploy ees: P ercentage
of salary d eterm ined b y sex,
age at entrance, and k in d of
w ork .
F ro m
State:
(1)
N o rm a l co n trib u tio n ; (2)
d eficien cy co n trib u tio n ; (3)
cost o f adm inistration. ( 1)
and (2) are percentages o f
activ e p a y roll, determ in ed
ann ually.

F rom em ployees: Percentage
of salary determ ined b y sex,
age at entrance, and k in d of
w ork .
F rom
State:
(1)
N orm a l con trib u tion , equal
to sum o f m em b ers’ con tri­
butions; (2) con trib u tion to
cover prior service; (3) con ­
trib u tion for death benefits
and cost of adm inistration.

F ro m em ployees: Percentage
o f salary based on age at
entrance,
choice
betw een
tw o rates. F rom State: (1)
A m ou n t equal to sum of
m em bers’ con tribu tion ; (2)
con tribu tion to cover prior
service; (3) cost of adm inis­
tration.

Persons
covered.

and

amounts
needed .




amount

needed .

F ro m em ployees: 5 per cent
o f salary, u p to $1,560. F or
those em p loy ed prior to
June, 1918, choice o f either
3 or 5 per c e n t. From S tate:
M o n th ly con tribu tions to
m eet cost o f pensions for
prior and subsequent serv­
ice, and am ounts needed for
lia b ility and accident death
benefits. State m akes u p
a n y deficiency.

EM PLOYEES’ RETIREMENT

C o n n e cticu t

X I I .— PUBLIC

M a in e

CHAPTER

Item

to

00

T a b le 6 3 .—

Item
R e tir e m e n t
a llo w ances.

COMPARISON OF STATE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT SYSTEMS-Continued

Maine

Connecticut

Massachusetts

New York

N e w Jersey

P en n sylva n ia

A t discretion o f
govern or and
c o u n c i l , but
n ot to exceed
one-half aver­
age salary for
last 5 years of
service.

O ne-h alf average
ann ual salary
for last 5 years;
if e m p l o y e e
has served 40
years, threefourths.

Service allow ance: A n n u ity
purchased b y m e m b e r’ s co n ­
tribu tions, plus pension of
sam e am ount from State;
m in im u m , $300 a year; m ax­
im u m , one-half o f final com ­
pensation. O rdinary disab ility : Sam e as for service
retirem ent. A ccid e n t disa­
b ility : O ne-half o f salary at
tim e o f inju ry.

Service retirem ent: F or each
year of service one seventi­
eth of final com pensation.
O rd inary d isability: N inetenths
of
one-seventieth
o f final com pensation, m u lti­
plied b y years o f service.
D u ty
disability : A n n u ity
bou gh t b y e m p lo y e e ’s co n ­
tribu tion s plus pension from
State of three-fourths of final
com pensation.
D is co n tin ­
ued service: A llow an ce as
for service retirem ent, plus
extra pension if em p lo y e e is
50 or over.
On w ithdraw al, dism issal, or
death, con tribu tion s are re­
turned w ith interest at 4 per
cent, com p o u n d e d ann ually.

Service retirem ent: F or each
year o f service one-seventi­
eth o f final com pensation.
O rd in a ry d isability: A n n u i­
t y b o u g h t b y m e m b e r’ s co n ­
tribu tions, plus pension from
State n o t over one-fifth of
final com pen sation . D u t y
d isa b ility due to service:
A n n u ity b ou g h t b y m em ­
b e r ’ s con tribu tion s, plus
pension from State of tw othirds o f final com pensation.

Service retirem ent: F or each
year of service one-eightieth
or one-fiftieth of final com ­
pensation, a c c o r d i n g to
rate of con tribu tion chosen.
D is a b ility retirem ent: A n ­
n u ity and pension to equal
for each year of service oneninetieth of final salary; m in ­
im u m , 30 per cent of final
salary;
m axim um ,
eightninths of allow ance receiv­
able had m em ber served till
age of 60.

O n w ith draw al, dism issal, or
death, con tribu tion s are re­
turned w ith interest at 4 per
cent, co m p o u n d e d annually.

O n w ith draw al or dismissal
m em ber m a y receive accu m ­
ulated con tribu tions w ith
c om p ou n d interest at 4 per
cent or their actuarial eq u iv ­
alent in a n n u ity or deferred
a n n u ity. In case of death,
refund is m ade to estate.
O ptions at tim e of retirem ent;
n o other provision .

R efu n d s,.

In case of w ithdraw al, dism is­
sal, or death, an e m p lo y e e ’s
contribu tion s are returned
w ith interest.

P rovision for
depend­
ents.

F o r depen dents o f m em ber
k illed in service, pension of
one-half o f salary em ployee
received at tim e o f accident.
F o r others, option s at tim e
o f retirem ent.




O ptions at tim e of retirem ent.
O rd inary death benefit; ac­
cident death benefit.

O ptions at tim e of retirem ent.
F or death incurred in line
of d u ty , pension to w id o w
or m in or children.

CHAPTER X I I .— PUBLIC EM PLOYEES’ RETIREM ENT

233

Statistics of System
s

The table below shows the coverage, pensioners and amounts dis­
bursed in pensions in 1926 by the funds in the five States for which
the bureau has data on these points:
T a ble 6 4 .— C O V E R A G E , N U M B E R

AVERAGE

P E N S IO N

OF A N N U IT A N T S , A M O U N T S D IS B U R S E D , A N D
O F S T A T E E M P L O Y E E S , B Y S T A T E S , 1926

N u m ber
covered
by
system

State

C on n ecticu t................................. ....................................... ...........
M aine

___

___________ _________ _____________________

M assachusetts..................... ....................... ................. .................
N ew Jersey________ _________ . . . _______________ ______
N ew Y o r k _______ __________ _______________________ _____
T ota l

_

_________ ______________________

______

N um ber
of
pensioners
on roll

f
1
0)
8, 693 /
\
2, 883
19, 996

A verage
annual
pension

(3
)
* 352
75
965

$52,411
12,420
8,000
167,478
143, 827
35,184
549, 664

$1,123
1,130
539
C)
1
414
469
569

1,458

968,984

s 550

41
2 ii
14

0)

31, 572

A m oun t
disbursed
in
pensions

1 N o t reported.
2 U nder special acts.
3 N u m ber of pensioners under n o n co n trib u to ry system not reported.
4 C on trib u tory system ; includes 3 w idow s.
5 C om p u ted b y d ivid in g am ount disbursed b y num ber of pensioners.

Systems for Municipal Employees

As a g e n e r a l i z a t i o n it is probably safe to say that there is not a
city in the United States which does not have a retirement system
for at least some of its employees. Retirement systems for firemen
and the police are practically universal, retirement systems for teach­
ers are common, and in many cities it will be found that there are
several other schemes, each covering a special group of employees.
Within recent years, however, various cities have concluded that it is
fairer and more effective to provide for the retirement of all city em­
ployees, and have established retirement systems of varying degrees
of inclusiveness. Among the cities having a population of 400,000 or
over there are nine with inclusive systems. These, with the date at
which the comprehensive system went into effect, are as follows:
Baltimore, 1926; Boston, 1923; Chicago, 1922; Detroit, 1923; Minne­
apolis, 1922; New York City, 1920; Philadelphia, 1915; Pittsburgh,
1915; San Francisco, 1922.
Ordinarily these systems are organized under State laws applying to
all cities of a given class, in addition to which there may or may not be
a city ordinance authorizing the establishment of a system under the
terms of the law.
Scope of System
s

A common method when introducing a municipal retirement sys­
tem is to make it apply to all employees not covered by some existing
pension scheme. The police and firemen almost universally have
schemes of their own, which they often prefer to maintain, so that it
is rather unusual to find them included in a general scheme. Teachers
also frequently have their own established plans. In some cities it is
optional with such employees to come into the general system or to
remain under their own, so that there is considerable variation in the
inclusiveness of the municipal systems. The Boston plan includes




234

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

both police and firemen, and the Baltimore plan covers firemen, but
elsewhere these two groups are outside of the general system. In
Boston, Baltimore, and San Francisco the teachers have elected to
come under the city plan, but in the other cities they either have their
own retirement scheme or are included in a State system. The tend­
ency is to make the municipal system as inclusive as possible, with the
idea of substituting one efficient and well-managed plan for a number
of small schemes covering limited groups and offering widely varying
benefits to the different classes of city employees.
Ordinarily employees in the service at the time a system is adopted
are given their choice of entering or remaining outside, but for those
entering the service thereafter membership is compulsory.
Employee Representation in Management

Six of the plans are administered by boards on which the employees
are represented, the other members usually being city officials who
hold the position ex officio. In the Boston plan one of the three board
members is chosen by the other two from among the employees cov­
ered by the system. In Baltimore, Minneapolis, and Pittsburgh,
two, and in Chicago, three of the five board members are employees
elected by their fellows. In San Francisco, where the board consists
of seven members, three are elected by the employees from their own
number.
In the other three cities the employees have no direct representa­
tion, the system being administered in Detroit by the city comptroller
and the civil-service commission, in New York City by the board of
estimate and apportionment, and in Philadelphia by a board of five,
of whom three are city officials and two are elected by the city councils
from their membership.
Character of Plans and Source of Funds

Of the nine cities, Detroit, Philadelphia, and Pittsburgh have cash
disbursement and the others actuarial reserve schemes. Detroit
stands alone in having a noncontributory system. In the other
eight cities, the employees are required to make specified contribu­
tions, which are deducted from their salaries or wages. In Pittsburgh
the contribution is 2.5 per cent of the salary, with a maximum of $72
a year, in Philadelphia 4 per cent with a yearly maximum of $48, and
in Boston 4 per cent without any maximum. Elsewhere the con­
tribution is calculated on a savings-bank basis to insure a certain
annuity after specified conditions as to age and length of service have
been fulfilled, and therefore varies with the age at entrance and, in
some cases, with sex and kind of work done, the clerical group, for
instance, having a lower rate of contribution than employees in more
hazardous occupations. Minneapolis exempts from contribution all
employees, mostly laborers, who do not earn as much as $750 a year,
classing these as noncontributing members, and making special pro­
visions for their retirement allowances, period of service, and the like.
Chicago has rather a complicated contribution plan. Any amount
over $3,000 a year is exempt, but on salary up to that amount the
employee contributes 3.25 per cent for his own annuity, 1 per cent
for his widow’s annuity (female employees do not make this con­




CHAPTER X I I .— PUBLIC EM PLO YEES’ RETIREM ENT

235

tribution), and one-tenth of 1 per cent for expenses of administration..
In addition he contributes annually one-half of 1 per cent of two
months’ salary to provide his share of the allowance for ordinary
disability.
The cities having cash disbursement systems appropriate such
amounts as are required to maintain pension payments. As Detroit
bears the whole cost of the allowances, appropriations have been
made annually since the plan was started. Philadelphia did not con­
sider any appropriation until 1924, when it devoted $50,000 to the
purpose, and Pittsburgh made its first appropriation in 1925, to cover
a deficit in the 1924 operations. The cities having actuarial reserve
systems make annual appropriations to cover their share of the
liability for current service, and also to meet the accrued liability for
service before the plan went into effect. In general, the city bears
the cost of extra benefits, such as special allowances for disability
incurred in the performance of duty, and special provision for the
widows and children of employees killed in the service.
In the actuarial reserve systems, interest on the accumulating
contributions of the employees and the city forms an important part
of the revenue. In the New York City system, for instance, the
interest on the fund for the year 1926 was $1,136,080, while from the
establishment of the fund up to the end of 1926 it was $3,354,600.
In Minneapolis, which has comparatively a small system covering
1,739 members as against the 31,000 to 32,000 of New York, interest
for 1926 amounted to $26,745, or very nearly one-fifth as much as
the city’s contribution.
Conditions for Retirem
ent

Most of the systems recognize at least three kinds of retirement
on allowance: For service or superannuation, for ordinary disability,
and for duty disability. For service retirement the two factors of
age and length of service are frequently linked together. One pur­
pose of a retirement system is to relieve the employing agency of
employees too old to give the best service, so there is a tendency in
the newer systems to fix an age at which retirement is compulsory.
Superannuation.— The following statement shows the conditions for
service or superannuation retirement in the systems considered:
Conditions for superannuation or service retirement
Baltimore: Optional at 60 years of age, compulsory at 70; no service require­
ment.
Boston: Optional at 60 years of age, compulsory at 70; no service requirement.
Chicago: No age requirement; at least 10 years’ service required. The allow­
ance may not be drawn, however, until the retirant has reached age 55.
Detroit: No age requirement; 25 years’ service required, unless employee
reaches 70 first, when 15 suffice.
Minneapolis: Optional for women at 60, and for men at 62; compulsory for
women at 70, and for men at 72; no service requirement.
New York C ity: Optional for clerks at 60; mechanics, 59; laborers, 58. Com­
pulsory for all at 70, with possible extensions for 2-year periods; no service
requirement.
Philadelphia: Optional at 60; no compulsory age; 20 years’ service required.
Pittsburgh: Optional at 60; no compulsory age; 20 years’ service required.
Retirement may be permitted with less, in which case contributions must be
continued to close of 20-year period.
San Francisco: Optional at 62 (at 60, after 30 years’ service) and compulsory
at 70; 10 years’ service required.
35777°— 29------- 16




236

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

It will be noticed that of the three cash disbursement systems one
ignores age altogether, and the other two, while sotting a fairly early
optional age, do not make retirement compulsory at any time. All
three, however, have a definite service requirement— 20 years in two
cases and 25 in one. Of the actuarial reserve systems, on the
other hand, four make no service requirement, and the other two
call for only 10 years’ service. In an actuarial reserve system, of
course, it is of no importance from a financial standpoint, how early
an employee retires. Each year the contributions he makes and the
contributions the city makes on his behalf are credited to his account,
the interest they draw is also credited to the same account, and it is
of no possible importance, financially, to anyone but himself whether
he withdraws early and takes the small allowance his account would
then purchase, or remains late and secures a larger allowance. But
from the standpoint of the work to be done, it is important both that
employees should not be leaving in the prime of life after they have
served their full apprenticeship, and that they should not remain
after they have become less efficient through age, so five of these six
cities set an age below which employees may not retire on allowance
and another beyond which they may not remain in the service at
all. In general, 60 seems to be the accepted age for voluntary and
70 for compulsory retirement.
Disability retirement.— Ordinarily two kinds of disability retirement
on allowance are permitted— retirement for ordinary disability which
arises in the normal course of life and is not due to the sufferer’s
fault or wrong living, and retirement for duty or accident disability,
arising from some condition or accident to which the employee was
exposed in the actual performance of his duty. Medical examina­
tion and certification are required before retirement is permitted for
either of these causes, and in many cases periodic reexaminations are
required as long as the disability allowance is drawn.
The Detroit system makes no provision for disability retirement of
any kind, and the Philadelphia and San Francisco systems provide
simply for disability retirement, making no distinction between the
two kinds. The other six cities permit retirement on allowance for
duty disability without regard to age or length of service, the only
essential being that the disability results from the direct performance
of duty.
For ordinary disability retirement all the cities except Chicago
have a service requirement, ranging from 5 years in Baltimore to
20 in Philadelphia. New York, Minneapolis, Pittsburgh, and San
Francisco require^ 10 years of service. Chicago safeguards its lack
of a service requirement by providing that for ordinary disability
the allowance will be paid only for a period not longer than one-fourth
the length of service, and not, in any case, exceeding five years.
Retirem Allow
ent
ances

Superannuation.— In the cash disbursement systems the allowance
for service or superannuation retirement is very simply calculated.
In Detroit it is one-half the annual salary received at the time of




CHAPTER X I I .— PUBLIC EM PLO YEES’ RETIREM ENT

237

retirement, with a maximum of $900 a year, and in Philadelphia and
Pittsburgh, one-half the average annual salary received during the
last five years of service, with a maximum of $1,200 a year. Under
the actuarial reserve systems the allowance consists of two parts— an
annuity purchased by the retirant’s accumulated contributions, and
another, called a pension, purchased by the city’s accumulated con­
tributions to his credit. The contributions have been so calculated
that for each year of service the allowance will be a specified fraction—
the service fraction— of the average annual compensation received
during either the last 5 or the last 10 years’ service. The service
fraction may vary with the class to which the worker belongs. In
the New York system, for instance, the service fraction for clerical
workers is one-seventieth; for mechanics, one sixty-eighth; and for
laborers, one sixty-sixth of the average final compensation. As a
result the retirants from these groups receive an allowance of approxi­
mately one-half their average final compensation after terms of
service of 35, 34, and 33 years, respectively. Under all the actuarial
reserve systems the city pays the whole allowance for years of service
rendered before the system was adopted.
The custom varies as to setting minimum and maximum limits.
Minneapolis sets a maximum of $500 a year for noncontributing
members— i. e., those who have earned less than $750 a year and
have consequently been freed from the obligation to contribute to the
retirement fund— but has no limits on allowances for contributing
members. Baltimore and New York City have no limits, but Boston
and San Francisco both provide that allowances may not be less than
$480 a year— in San Francisco this provision is confined to those
already in the service when the system was adopted, who are forced
to retire on account of reaching the age of 70— and Chicago has a
minimum of $600 for those in service before the present system was
adopted. Boston provides that no retirant with credit for prior service
may draw an allowance of more than one-half his average annual
salary for the last five years, and Chicago sets a maximum of $1,800,
beyond which no allowance may go. With these exceptions the
amount of the allowance is determined by the amount of the accumu­
lated contributions to the retirant’s credit, including the double con­
tribution made by the city for his years of prior service, and by his
age at retirement, the latter factor determining the amount of the
annuity which the contributions will purchase.
Disability.— There is the same difference between the two kinds of
systems concerning disability allowances as in regard to the allowances
for service retirement, the cash disbursement systems paying a fixed
amount, usually half of the last salary received, while under the
actuarial reserve systems the allowance is made up of annuity and
pension in varying proportions, the pension being enlarged to meet
the needs of the situation. Table 65 shows the allowance for ordi­
nary and for duty ^disability retirement under each of the city plans:




238

CARE3 OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES
T

able

6 5 .— D IS A B IL IT Y R E T I R E M E N T A L L O W A N C E S IN N IN E M U N I C I P A L
E M P L O Y E E S ’ R E T IR E M E N T SY STE M S

C ity

O rd inary disability 1

A n n u ity , plus pension sufficient to bring
allow ance u p to nine-tenths of w hat
superannuation allow ance w ou ld be;
m in im u m , one-fourth of average final
com pensation.
B oston ______________ A n n u ity , plus pension of nine-tenths of
w hat it w o u ld have been had retirant
rem ained in service at sam e salary u p
to age 60.
C h ic a g o ._____ _____
O ne-half salary received at tim e o f retire­
m ent, to be paid for period not longer
th an one-fourth retirant’s length of
service, b u t in no case for over 5 years.
N o a llow an ce____________ ______________
D e tr o it_____________
M in n ea p olis____. . .
A n n u ity , plus pension to bring allow ­
ance u p to w hat con tribu tions to retiran t’s credit w o u ld purchase if kept
at c o m p o u n d interest until earliest
date at w h ich service retirem ent w o u ld
be perm issible.
N e w Y o r k C it y _____ A n n u ity , plus pension to bring allow ance
u p to nine-tenths of service allow ance
at sam e date, w ith m in im u m , if re­
tirant entered service under 40, o f onefourth of average final com pensation.
One-half of average final com pensation,
P h il a d e l p h i a ..___
w ith m axim u m of $1,200 a year.
Pittsburgh
_ _
. d o _____ ____________________________
1.25 per cent of average final com pensa­
San Francisco ___
tion m u ltiplied b y num ber of years of
service.

D u t y disability 1

A n n u ity , plus pension of tw o-th ird s of
retirant’ s average final com pensation.

A n n u ity , plus pension sufficient to bring
allow ance u p to three-fourths of salary
during List year o f service.
Three-fourth s o f salary at tim e disa b ility
w as incurred, w ith $10 per m o n th for
each ch ild u nd er 18, total not to exceed
90 per cent o f full salary.
N o allow ance.
A n n u ity , plus pension to brin g allow ance
u p to w hat it w o u ld be if e m p lo y e e ’s
and c it y ’s con trib u tion s w ere c o n tin ­
ued u p to earliest date at w h ich service
retirem ent w o u ld b e perm issible.
A n n u ity , plus pension o f three-fourths of
average final com pensation.

One-half o f average final com p en sation ,
w ith m axim u m o f $1,200 a year.
D o.
1.25 per cent o f average final co m p e n sa ­
tion m u ltiplied b y n u m ber o f years of
service.

1 “ A verage final c o m p e n s a tio n ” m eans the average salary in B altim ore and San F ran cisco for the last
10, and in N e w Y o r k , Philadelphia, and P ittsburgh, the last 5 years of service.

Refunds

All of the systems considered make some provision for returning
the employee’s contributions in case he dies or leaves the service
before retiring on allowance. Philadelphia and Pittsburgh return
the contributions, without interest, to the employee or to his estate.
The other cities return them with interest, usually 4 per cent, com­
pounded annually. In the systems in which the employee is required
to make specific contributions for expenses of administration or other
nonannuity purposes, it is usually provided that only contributions
intended to apply to the purchase of an annuity are to be returned.
Provision for Dependents

With the exception of Chicago, all the cities having actuarial reserve
systems so arrange that on retirement an employee may either receive
Ins straight allowance or may take one of several options under which
he will receive a smaller allowance, but on his death it will be con­
tinued to a beneficiary he has named or some other benefit of similar
actuarial value will be paid. If an employee on retirement does not
choose to take one of these options, the city does not assume any
responsibility for his dependents in case of his death. Chicago does




CHAPTER X I I .— PUBLIC EM PLOYEES’ RETIREMENT

239

not offer options, since under its system allowances are provided for
the widows and in some cases for the minor children of employees.
The cash disbursement systems do not make any provision for the
dependents of a retired employee.
Upon the death of an employee before retirement, all the cities
return to his heirs his contributions, usually with interest. If the
death was due to normal causes New York City and San Francisco
pay to the dependents a lump-sum benefit equal to the decedent’s
salary for the last six months of his life, while Baltimore pays 50 per
cent of his average final compensation. If death was due to accident
or injury incurred in the performance of duty, Boston, Baltimore, and
New York City pay to the widow, the children under 18, or to de­
pendent parents a pension of one-half the decedent’s annual salary or
one-half of his average final compensation, according to the city,
while San Francisco pays, in addition to the ordinary death benefit,
whatever amount is due to the heirs under the State compensation
law. Chicago, under the same circumstances, increases the pension
paid by the city to the widow so as to bring her total allowance up
to 60 per cent of the employee’s salary at the time of death. Minne­
apolis pays a death benefit of $150 to the heirs of a noncontributing
member who dies before retirement, while Detroit, Philadelphia, and
Pittsburgh make no provision for dependents.
Principal Provisions of Plans

The essential features of the various plans are shown in the table
following:




20
4

t a b l e 6 6 .— C O M P A R IS O N OF M U N IC IP A L P U B L IC S E R V IC E R E T I R E M E N T S Y S T E M S

N a m e of system and auth orization

A nnual con tribu tion s
to cover its share of
benefits earned b y
current service and
to m eet accrued lia­
b ility ; cost o f ad­
m inistration and ex­
tra benefits.

Superannuation: O ptional at
age 60; an d com p u lsory at 70.
No
service requirem ent.
O rdinary disability: 5 years’
service.
D u t y disability:
N o age or service require­
m ent.
M e d ica l certifica­
tion for all d isability retire­
ments.

S uperannuation: A n n u ity and pension to
equal, for each year of service, oneseventieth o f average final com pen sa­
tion; full allow ance for prior service.
O rd inary disa b ility : N ine-tenths o f re­
tirem ent allow ance; m in im u m , 25 per
cent of average final com pensation.
D u t y d isability: A n n u ity plus pension
o f tw o-th ird s o f average final com pensa­
tion .

O rdinary death
benefit; accidental-death
benefit; options.

A n annual am ount
sufficient to m eet
its liab ility for cur­
rent service, and to
defray part of ac­
crued liab ility; cost
of adm inistration.

Superannuation: O ptional at
age 60 and co m p u lso ry at 70;
no service requirem ent. Or­
dinary disability: A fter 15
years’ service. D u t y disa­
b ility: N o age or service re­
quirem ent. M e d ica l certifi­
cation in all cases o f disa­
bility.

A c c id e n t a l-d e a t h
benefit; options.

Percentage of e m p lo y ­
ee’s salary to cover
c it y ’s share of ordi­
nary benefits, and
also entire cost of
d u ty disability al­
low ance, and other
extra benefits

Superannuation: N o age re­
quirem ent, b u t at least 10
years’ service.
O rd inary
and d u ty disa b ility: N o
age or service requirem en t.
M edica l certification.

S uperannuation: A n n u ity plus pension;
m in im u m , after 15 years’ service, $480;
m axim um , one-half average annual sal­
ary of last 5 years. O rd inary disability:
A n n u ity , plus pension equal to 90 per
cent of pension p ay a ble if retirant had
served till 60. D u t y d isability : A n n u ­
ity , plus pension equal to three-fourths
of com pensation du rin g year preceding
injury.
S uperannuation: A n n u ity plus pension,
am ount d e pen din g on length o f service,
salary, and age at retirem ent; m axim u m ,
$1,800. O rd inary d isability: 50 per cent
o f final salary, p aid for n o t m ore than 5
years. D u t y d isability : 75 per cent of
final salary, for life; also allow ance for

F ro m 3 to 8 p e r
cen t o f salaries,
a ccord in g to age
at entrance; e m ­
ployees re ce iv ­
ing less th a n

P rovision for de­
pendents; special
provision if em ­
ployee killed in
perform ance
of
du ty.

ary.
A m o u n t needed to
carry the system .
C o n trib u tio n to cov er
its share o f benefits
earned b y current
service and to m eet
accrued
liab ility ;
cost of adm inistra-

Superannuation: T w e n ty -fiv e
years’ service, or 15 if em ­
ployee has reached age 70.
N o d isa b ility retirem ent.
Superannuation: O ption a l at
age 60 for w o m e n an d 62 for
m en, co m p u ls o ry at 70 for
w om en, 72 for m en. N o n ­
con tribu tin g m em bers m ust
serve till 70 a n d m eet cer-

Superannuation: O ne-half annual salary at
tim e o f retirem ent; m axim um , $900.

N one.

Superannuation: A n n u ity b o u g h t b y retira n t’s con trib u tion s plus pension
b ou gh t b y c i t y ’s con tribu tion s on his b e­
half. Su p plem en tal pension for those
in service before plan was ad op ted . F or
n o n co n trib u tin g m em ber, pen sion not

F or
con tribu tin g
m em bers,
op­
tions; for n on ­
contributors,
death benefit.

STATES

Percentage o f sal­
ary u p to $3,000
(all o ve r that
am ou n t
being
exem pt) tow a rd
ow n
a n n u ity ,
w id o w ’s ann uitv .
o rd in a rv
d is a b ility a llo w ­
ance an d cost o f
adm in istration .
N o c o n tr ib u tio n __

UNITED




Percentage o f sal­
ary (based o n
sex, age at e n ­
trance, an d k in d
o f w ork ) ca lcu ­
lated t o p u r ­
chase a n n u ity of
one one-hundredan d -fortieth of
average f i n a l
co m p e n s a tio n
for each year of
service.
4 per cent of salary
or wages.

I
N

M u n ic ip a l p en sion and re tirem en t
board a n n u ity a n d benefit fu n d o f
M in n ea p olis (Sess. L a w s 1919,
ch. 522).

O ther benefits

PERSONS

R etired em p lo y e e s’ pension fu n d of
D e tr o it (C it y Charter, T it . I X ,
C h . V ).

R etirem en t allow ances

AGED

M u n ic ip a l em p lo y e e s’ an n u ity an d
benefit fu n d of C h icago (111. L a w s
o f 1921, p. 205).

C o n dition s for retirem ent

O
F

B o ston retirem ent system (M a ss.
A cts of 1922, ch. 521; 1923, ch. 381;
1925, ch. 18; an d 1926, ch. 390).

C it y ’ s con tribu tion

CARE

E m p lo y e e s ’ retirem ent system o f the
C ity of B a ltim ore (A cts o f 1924, ch.
411; c ity ordinance N o. 553 o f 1925).

E m p lo y e e s ’
co n trib u tio n

$750 a year do
n o t contribu te.

2.5 per cent of sal­
ary or wages up
to $2,400 a year.

A n nual am ount n eed­
ed to m aintain sys­
tem .

C it y em p loy ees’ retirem ent system ,
San F ran cisco ( C it y C harter, A rt.
X V I I ; charter a m en d m e n t N o . 37
(ad op ted , 1924); c it y ordinance
5561, new series).

Percentage of sal­
ary based on sex
and age at en­
trance; for those
entering under
60, not to exceed
5 per cent.

C ost
of
b e n e fit s
for current service;
a c c r u e d l ia b il i t y ;
cost of adm inistra­
tion.

Superannuation: O ptional at
age 60, after 20 years’ service.
N o co m p u lso ry age. T otal
disability: 15 years’ service.
M ed ica l certification.
Superannuation: O ptional at
age 60, after 20 years’ service.
N o co m p u lso ry age. O rdi­
n ary d isability: 10 years’
service.
D u t y d isability:
N o age or service require­
m ent. M e d ica l certification
and p eriodic exam inations
in both cases.
Superannuation: O ptional at
age 62, after 10 years’ service
(at 60 if retirant has 30 years’
service); com pu lsory at 70.
D isa b ility : 10 years’ service.
M ed ica l certification and
p eriodic exam inations.

Superannuation and disa b ility: One-half
of average annual p a y for last 5 years;
m axim u m , $1,200.

N on e.

Superannuation and ordin ary and d u ty
d isability: O ne-half average final com ­
pensation; m axim u m , $1,200.

N on e.

Superannuation: A n n u ity plus pension, to
equal, for each year of service, for m en
1H per cent and for w om en 1.172 per cent
of average final com pensation. F u ll al­
low an ce for prior service, w ith m in im u m
of $480; no m axim um . D is a b ility : For
each year of service 1.25 per cent of aver­
age final com pensation.

D eath benefit; o p ­
tions.

241




Appropriation
of
w hatever is deem ed
necessary for m ain ­
tenance o f system .

O r d in a r y d e a t h
b e n e f it ;
duty
d ea th
b en efit;
compassionate
allow ance;
op ­
tions.

EM PLOYEES’ RETIREMENT

P en sion fund of th e c it y o f P itts ­
bu rgh (P . L . 596; L a w s o f 1925, N o .
404).

C ost of pensions for
current service, ac­
crued liability, cost
o f extra benefits, and
expense o f adm inis­
tration.

to exceed $500 a year. O rd in a ry disa­
b ility : A llo w a n ce purchasable if present
a ccu m u lated con tribu tion s w ere kept at
c o m p o u n d interest till retirant reached
retiring age. D u t y disa b ility: A llo w ­
ance purchasable if b o th parties con ­
tin ued their con tribu tion s till em ployee
reached retiring age.
S uperannuation: A n n u ity plus pension,
to equal for each year o f service a fraction
of average final com pen sation — for clerks,
one-seventieth; for m echanics, one sixtyeighth; and for laborers, one sixty-sixth.
O rd in a ry d isability:
N in e-tenths of
superann uation allow ance; m in im u m ,
one-fourth o f average final com pensation.
D u t y d isability: A n n u ity plus pension
o f three-fourths of average final com p en ­
sation.

X I I .— PUBLIC

M u n icip a l pension fu n d o f c ity and
c o u n ty of P h ila d elp h ia (P . L . 566
of 1915; am en ded , P . L . 689 o f 1917).

P ercentage of sal­
a ry (based on
sex, age at en­
trance, and char­
acter of w ork)
c a lc u la t e d
to
produ ce
su m
w h ich w ill pur­
chase at retire­
m ent an annui­
t y of one-fourth
o f final average
c o m p e n s a t io n ;
ranges from 3.84
to 8.3 per cent
o f salary.
4 per cent of salary
or wages; m axi­
m u m , $48 a year.

tain service requirem ents;
n o service requirem en t for
others. O rd in a ry disability:
10 y ears’ service. D u t y dis­
a b ility : N o age or service re­
quirem ent. M e d ica l certifi­
cation an d periodic exam i­
nation.
Superannuation: O ptiona l at
age 60 for clerical group, 59
for m echanics, and 58 for
laborers; co m p u lso ry for all
at 70, w ith possible exten­
sions. N o service require­
m ent. O rd inary d isability:
10 years’ service.
D u ty
disability: N o age or service
requirem ent. M e d ica l cer­
tification in b o th cases.

CHAPTER

N e w Y o r k C it y em p lo y e e s ’ retire­
m en t system (L a w s o f 1920, ch . 427;
G reater N e w Y o r k C harter, C h .
X X V I).

tion and entire cost
of pensions for n o n ­
contribu ting m e m ­
bers.

242

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED

STATES

Statistics of Municipal Systems

Coverage, number of pensioners benefited, and the amounts dis­
bursed by each of the plans are shown in the table following:
T a b le 6 7 .— C O V E R A G E , P E N S IO N E R S , A M O U N T D IS B U R S E D , A N D A V E R A G E P E N S IO N

OF M U N IC IP A L

E M P L O Y E E S , 1926

C ity

Y ear ending—

N u m ber
covered
b y sys­
tem

N u r ib e r
of pen ­
sioners
on roll

B a ltim ore ______________ _________ ______________
B oston
____________________ _______________
________ ____
C h ica g o. _ _ ______________
__________ ________
D e t r o i t ____________
M in n e a p o l is .______ ___________ __ __ _______
_____________ _____________
N ew Y o r k C ity
Ph iladelphia __ _ ____________________________
_
P ittsburgh _
__ _ ________ ____________ ____
San Francisco
___
_

June 30,1926
D ec. 31,1926
___ do
June 30,1926
D ec. 31,1926
___ d o _______
___ d o ____
_
___ d o
__
June 30,1926

7,311
18,926
2 13,000
11,802
1,739
31,421
(3
)
2 2, 400
6,775

165
709
1 46<
73
244
966
534
182
279

$95,370
537, 455
815, 253
55,030
98,196
1,148, 318
306,119
120, 758
197,145

$578
758
556
754
402
1,189
573
664
707

93, 374

4. 619

3, 373, 644

730

T ota l

__________________________________

A m oun t
Av erage
disbursed
annual
in pensions pension 1

1 C om p u ted b y d iv id in g am ount disbursed b y n um ber of pensioners.
2 A p proxim ate num ber.
3 N o data.

Retirement Systems for Police and Firemen
ETIR EM EN T systems covering the police and firemen are
usually the earliest established in a community, and often
they may be found even where no other systems have been adopted.
This investigation, as mentioned previously, covered cities having a
population of 400,000 and upwards. Of these, there were 17 having
retirement systems for the police, the firemen, or the police and
firemen combined. (Boston is omitted, as there both police and fire­
men are included in the general plan for the retirement of municipal
employees.) Thirteen cities have separate systems for the police, 13
(not quite identical) have separate systems for the firemen, and 3
have combined the systems covering the two departments.
Of the cities studied, St. Louis is the only one which does not
have some plan for permitting its police to retire on allowance, but
in Los Angeles, Newark, and Washington, D. C., the systems for
police and firemen have been combined. This section, therefore, deals
with 13 systems for the police, 13 for firemen, and 3 for the police
and firemen combined, which will be treated separately.

R

Police Retirement Systems
T h e m a j o r i t y of the police retirement systems date well back into
the last century. Probably the oldest is that of New York City,
which was established in 1857. Practically all of the earlier schemes
have been materially changed from their first forms, and it seems
unnecessary to attempt to fix the precise date of origin. The member­
ship of the systems, by cities, is as follows:
Baltimore
Buffalo,
Chicago
Cincinnati _
Cleveland
___ __
Detroit.
M ilw a u k e e __________




_________
_________
_________
_________
_________
_________
_________

1, 864
1, 144
6, 080
525
1, 421
2, 762
938

Minneapolis
New Orleans
New York Citv
Philadelphia _
Pittsburgh______________
San Francisco_______ _

_______
499
_______
877
_______ 1 5 ,950
_______
5, 600
_______
904
_______
1, 186

CHAPTER X I I .— PUBLIC EM PLOYEES' RETIREM ENT

243

The numbers here given are not comparable, since there are differ­
ences as to the classes of employees included in the schemes, and
occasionally local circumstances affect the number of the force. These
figures are given merely as conveying in a general way some idea of
the number covered.
The custom differs as to the inclusiveness of the systems, some
limiting membership to the uniformed force and detectives, while
others take in all employees of the department. In general, if a
city maintains an inclusive municipal employee system, the civilian
members of the department, such as clerks, janitors, and the like, are
covered by this, and only the so-called “ fighting” force comes under
the terms of the police retirement system. Where policewomen are
employed, they are counted as part of the uniformed force, and some
of the systems specifically include police matrons and assistant
matrons.
Employee Representation in Management

In the matter of giving employees a voice in the management,
the systems are almost evenly divided, seven having employee
representatives on the board of control, while six intrust the admin­
istration either to a single official or to a board composed of city offi­
cials. In the latter group, the Baltimore and the New York systems
are managed by the commissioner of police, the New Orleans system
by the commissioner of public finance and the secretary of the board
of police commissioners, the San Francisco system by the board of
police commissioners, the Buffalo system by a board composed of the
mayor and four councilmen, and the Detroit system by a board of
city officials in which the police commissioner is included. In the
remaining systems the administrative boards contain, in addition to
ex-officio members, a certain number of employee representatives
elected by their fellows, and in several cases these form a majority
of the board. In Milwaukee, for instance, there are three employee
representatives in a board of five, in Minneapolis five in a board of
eight, and in Cincinnati six in a board of seven.
Source of Funds

All of the systems included in this study are contributory, but they
vary considerably in the proportionate amounts contributed by
the force, and by the employing agencies. In many of the systems,
in addition to the contributions from employer and employees there
are receipts from unclassified sources which materially increase the
annual income.
Contributions from employees.— Under four of the systems the em­
ployees contribute a flat sum monthly, the amount being $1 in Cin­
cinnati, $2 in San Francisco, in Cleveland a payment ranging from
50 cents to $1.25 according to the rank of the contributor, and in
Philadelphia an amount equal to one day’s pay, disregarding all
salary in excess of $3,000 a year. In the other nine cities the em­
ployees pay a percentage of their salaries, ranging from 1 per cent in
Detroit and Minneapolis to 4.625 per cent in Milwaukee and in Chi­
cago to 4.75 per cent of the salary up to $2,600 a year. In the last
two cities the proportion of the percentage for each of several distinct
purposes has been carefully allotted. In Chicago, for instance, a
member pays 3.5 per cent of his salary toward the allowance he




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CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

expects to draw upon retirement, 1 per cent for the widow’s annuity,
one-eighth of 1 per cent to provide for ordinary disability retirement,
and the same amount toward the expenses of administration. In
Milwaukee the division is the same, except that the employee pays
3 per cent toward his own retirement allowance, and one-half of 1
per cent for ordinary disability retirement. In the other cities the
employee pays simply the prescribed percentage and its exact assign­
ment is not specified. In Minneapolis, in addition to the percentage
contribution, the members who have completed their probationary
period pay 50 cents quarterly toward expenses of administration.
Contributions from employers.— With few exceptions, the cities
make a practice of turning over to the police retirement fund various
miscellaneous moneys, which in the aggregate make a considerable
addition to its resources. The sources of the amounts thus turned
over vary from city to city. A rather typical list includes all fines and
costs imposed by station-house magistrates, fines imposed upon the
police for disciplinary purposes, all or a part of any rewards and
donations to officers for special services or extraordinary valor, fees
for permits for public entertainments, special permits to dancing
schools and physicians, fees for licenses issued to private detectives,
unclaimed money, and the proceeds of sale of unclaimed property
left beyond a certain length of time in the hands of the police, pro­
ceeds of the sale of unfit, condemned, and unserviceable property
belonging to the department, and other unclassified receipts. Some
cities include the fees for dog licenses, and others the fees for permits
for boxing contests.
In general, all cities, whether or not they make these miscellaneous
contributions, make a direct appropriation for the support of the
system. Baltimore, Buffalo, New York, and Philadelphia provide
that the city shall make appropriations as needed to maintain the
system, New Orleans devotes to this purpose 2 per cent of the amount
appropriated for the support of the police department, and Chicago,
Cincinnati, Cleveland, Detroit, Milwaukee, and Minneapolis provide
for raising, by a special tax, the amounts needed to pay the city’s
share of the system’s benefits. Pittsburgh provides that a certain
percentage of the amount raised by general taxation may be used
for this purpose, while San Francisco makes no direct appropriation
but uses the money derived from certain fines and licenses for this
purpose. In some cases the city simply undertakes to supply what
is necessary to maintain the payment of allowances, while in others
its share of responsibility for benefits promised under the system is
carefully defined. In Chicago, for instance, the city contributes for
each member of the force an amount equal to 10.5 per cent of his
salary, of which 2 per cent is for the widow’s pension and 8.5 per cent
for his own future pension. The city also bears the entire cost of the
extra benefits provided by the system, and makes up any deficiency
in the cost of administration, if the amounts contributed by the
employees for this purpose are not sufficient.
Other sources of income.— In some cities a custom still prevails
under which the police raise funds for retirement and benefit purposes
by staging an annual ball game, or a dance or other entertainment for
which admission is charged. Sometimes they hold a carnival, or
receive the proceeds of a benefit performance, or sell advertising space
in a yearbook, or resort to other money-making devices. Often very




CHAPTER X I I .---- PUBLIC EM PLOYEES’ RETIREMENT

245

considerable sums are raised by such means, but the practice is
looked upon with less favor than in the earlier days, and there is a
general tendency to give it up and support the retirement system by
definite contributions from employer and employees.
Interest on deposits and occasional profits on good investments are
also sources of income, and most systems provide that gifts, donations,
and legacies for the benefit of the fund may be accepted.
Cost of Administration

Three cities (Chicago, Milwaukee, and Minneapolis) require con­
tributions from the employees toward the expenses of management.
In Chicago and Milwaukee each employee contributes one-eighth of
1 per cent of his salary monthly and in Minneapolis after a six months’
probationary period each employee is assessed 50 cents quarterly for
this purpose. In other cities the costs are frequently merged with the
general expenses of the department. Sometimes a particular item of
expense, such as the salary paid for doing the secretarial work, or cost
of printing or postage is paid from the fund, the department meeting
the remaining expenses, and sometimes the city carries the whole
matter as part of the routine cost of the department.
Conditions for Retirement

Service or superannuation retirement.—Age as a condition for retire­
ment plays rather an unimportant part in these systems. In seven
cities (Baltimore, Buffalo, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Detroit, New Or­
leans, and Pittsburgh) there is no age requirement and no age fixed
for compulsory retirement, though it is sometimes provided that
after a given age a man may be compulsorily retired if his condition
renders this advisable. New York expects retirement after 25 years’
service unless an extension is secured, but at 55 retirement is optional
if 20 years’ service has been given, and at 60 regardless of length of
service. Of the other cities, Minneapolis and Philadelphia permit
retirement from 50 onward, but couple this with a service requirement
of 20 years. Chicago and Milwaukee have rather complicated age
requirements. Those in service when the system was adopted may
retire from 50 onward, if they have completed 20 years of service,
and will receive the full allowance. Those who entered after the
adoption of the system may retire under the same conditions, but will
not receive as large an allowance as if they remain until 57; at that
age their allowance is fixed and is not increased by service given there­
after. San Francisco makes no provision for optional retirement
but enforces it at 65.
Baltimore alone among these cities has no service requirement,
basing retirement upon disability rather than upon age or service.
The disability may be due to the infirmities of age, but in that case
it is the disabilities, not the number of years the retirant has lived or
served, which condition the retirement. Of the other cities, seven
(Buffalo, Chicago, Minneapolis, New Orleans, Philadelphia, Pitts­
burgh, and San Francisco) require 20 years’ service, though Chicago
does not insist on this qualification unless the retirant is under 57.
Cincinnati, Cleveland, Detroit, and New York require 25 years’ serv­
ice, New York modifying this requirement as mentioned above, while
Milwaukee calls for 15 years’ service if the retirant is 57 or over,
and 20 if he is under that age,




246

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

Disability retirement.— In all the cities disability due to injuries or
illness incurred in the direct performance of duty is recognized as a
cause for retirement on allowance, regardless of age or length of serv­
ice rendered. All but three (Minneapolis, New Orleans, and Pitts­
burgh) recognize disability arising from ordinary causes as ground
for retirement on allowance, though several require service qualifica­
tions in addition. Cincinnati sets this service requirement at 5
years, New York and Philadelphia at 10, Cleveland at 15, and Balti­
more at 16. All the systems require medical examination and cer­
tification before retirement for disability is permitted, and in the
case of ordinary disability it is frequently specified that the disability
must not be due to the employee’s own fault or misconduct.
Retirement Allowances

Most of the systems provide the same allowance for service and for
duty-disability retirement, and the commonest amount fixed is onehalf the salary drawn at the time of retirement. Two cities, Cleve­
land and Pittsburgh, grade the allowance according to the rank held
by the retirant, the monthly payments ranging in Cleveland from
$87.66 to $125, and in Pittsburgh from $50 to $75. In Chicago and
Milwaukee the allowance consists of an annuity bought by the
retirant’s accumulated contributions and a pension bought by the
city’s contributions on his behalf, the maximum in Chicago being 75
per cent of the salary received at the time of withdrawal (salary over
$2,600 a year being omitted from the calculation) and in Milwaukee
75 per cent of the highest salary received during the period of service.
In Chicago, if the retirant was in the service before the adoption of
the present system, has reached the age of 50, and has given 20 years
of service, he is entitled to retire on an allowance of one-half his sal­
ary, whether or not the accumulations to his credit will purchase
such an annuity, the city making up any deficiency. In Milwaukee
the city provides an allowance for prior service for those on the force
when the system was adopted.
Of the other nine cities, seven fix the allowance at one-half the salary
drawn at the time of retirement, Philadelphia puts it at one-half the
average salary for the last 10 years, and San Francisco at one-half the
salary of the rank held 3 years prior to retirement. Detroit intro­
duces an interesting variant by fixing the pension at one-half the
salary of the rank held by the retirant at the time of withdrawal;
if, later on, the salary attached to that rank is changed, the allowance
changes accordingly. Minneapolis puts the allowance at one-half
the salary, but fixes $75 a month as the maximum to be paid. Since
the adoption of the system, salaries have been raised and now the
salary of the lowest rank is $150 a month, therefore, $75 a month is
at once the minimum and the maximum payable under this system.
Disability retirement allowances.— In 10 of the cities the allowance
for duty disability is normally the same as for service retirement,
though in some of these a certain latitude is permitted, the proviso
reading that the amount is not to exceed one-half the salary at time
of retirement. Of the three remaining cities, Chicago provides for
duty disability an allowance of three-fourths of the recipient’s salary,
with an additional allowance for each child under 18, the whole not
to exceed the salary drawn at the time of injury. Milwaukee gives
55 per cent of the salary with $10 a month for each child under 18,




CHAPTER X I I .---- PUBLIC EM PLOYEES’ RETIREMENT

247

the whole not to exceed 75 per cent of the salary, and Pittsburgh
provides that the retirant shall receive for 52 weeks one-half of the
salary at the time of injury, and then, if permanently injured, he is
entitled to a lump sum of $1,200 from another fund.
As mentioned before, the Minneapolis, New Orleans, and Pitts­
burgh systems do not permit retirement on allowance in case of
ordinary disability. Of the 10 cities which permit such retirement,
4 give the same allowance as for duty disability and 6 either per­
mit or enforce a different pension. Thus, in Buffalo the council
is to set the allowance, but may not give more than one-half the
salary at the time of retirement. In New York, if the retirant has
served 10 but less than 20 years, the pension is to be not less than
one-fourth nor more than one-half the salary, but if he has served
20 or more years it is one-half the salary . Chicago and Milwaukee
give one-half the salary, with the usual deductions for annuity pur­
poses, and both cities provide that this allowance may not be paid
for a period longer than one-fourth the retirant’s term of service,
and not in any case for over five years. Philadelphia allows for each
year of service one-twentieth of the normal retirement allowance,
and Cincinnati gives $36 for each year of service, with a maximum
of $900 a year.
Dismissal allowances.— Only two systems, those of Cincinnati and
Cleveland, include these allowances. Both provide that if a man is
dismissed after 15 years’ continuous service, except for certain speci­
fied faults or misconduct, he is entitled to an allowance which in
Cincinnati is not to exceed $600 a year and in Cleveland is to be
one-half the allowance for service retirement for his rank.
Refunds

Only four of these systems provide for a return of contributions
in case of the death or separation from the service of a member
before reaching pensionable status. In Chicago, if a member with­
draws or is dismissed before reaching pensionable status, he receives
a refund, with interest, of his contributions for annuity purposes,
but not of what he has paid in for ordinary disability retirement (this
being looked upon as in the nature of insurance) nor of his contribu­
tions toward expenses of maintenance. If a member is unmarried
or a widower, upon reaching age 57 or at the time of his retirement,
if that takes place before 57, he is entitled to a refund, with interest,
of his contributions for the widow’s annuity. Upon the death of a
member his heirs are entitled to a refund, without interest, of his
contributions for annuity purposes, provided they have not been
paid out to the policeman himself or to his dependents in the form of
annuity. Milwaukee has a somewhat similar system. Upon with­
drawal or dismissal before reaching pensionable status the officer is
entitled to a refund of the entire amount contributed for his own and
his widow’s annuity with interest. A similar refund is made to his
heirs or estate in case of death. In Pittsburgh a refund of contribu­
tions without interest is made in case of the withdrawal, dismissal,
or death of a member, and in San Francisco, while no refund is made
in case of withdrawal or dismissal, a refund of contributions, without
interest, is made in case of death from natural causes after 10 years
of service, to the widow, minor children, or dependent mother of the
deceased.



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CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES
Provision for Dependents

All the systems considered recognize a responsibility toward the
immediate dependents of a man killed in the performance of duty or
dying as a result of injuries so received, and 9 of the 13 also make
some provision for dependents in case of death irom normal causes.
There is a good deal of variety in the kind and degree of provision
made. In some of the older systems a flat pension was fixed for the
widow or for the dependent children under a certain age; sometimes
the amount was revised as the cost of living rose, but this was not in­
variably done, and so it happens that in some cases the widow’s pen­
sion, which was doubtless entirely satisfactory when the system was
adopted, is now a scant provision for any normal needs. In the
systems which have been reorganized in recent years, the provision
for dependents sometimes receives as careful and detailed attention
as the arrangements for the benefit of the member himself. Chicago
and Milwaukee are good examples of this, annuities for the widows
and provision for minor children of the members being basic features
of the schemes.
The Chicago plan provides that if a member dies from ordinary
causes, his widow is entitled to an allowance purchased by the
accumulated contributions made for this purpose by the member and
the city, the maximum allowance being 60 per cent of the member’s
salary. A prior-service allowance is provided by the city alone for
the widows of members in service before the s} stem was adopted.
In case a member is killed in the performance of duty, his widow is
entitled to what is called the compensation annuity, amounting to
three-fourths of the decedent’s salary, which is paid to her until her
husband, had he lived, would have reached age 57, when it ceases
and she receives only the ordinary widow’s allowance, described
above. This ordinary allowance continues during life, not being
affected by her remarriage. Whether the man’s death was due to
normal causes or to injuries received in the service, an allowance of
$10 is made for each child under 18, until it reaches that age. If the
mother as well as the father is dead, the allowance for the children
is increased to $25 a month. The compensation annuity and the
children’s allowances combined must not exceed the full salary re­
ceived by the deceased, any excess being taken from the children’s
allowances.
The Milwaukee system is in the main similar to that of Chicago in
this matter, though under its terms the combined allowances of the
widow and children may not exceed 75 per cent of the deceased mem­
ber’s salary. Also in Milwaukee the extra allowance made to the
widow of a man killed in the performance of duty is whatever amount
is needed to bring her annuity up to the amount which she would have
received had her husband attained age 57 or, having reached that
age, had completed 15 years of service before his death. This extra
amount is stopped in case of her remarriage, but the normal annuity
continues throughout her life. The allowance for each child under
18 is, as in Chicago, $10 a month, but if the mother as well as the
father is dead this is increased only to $15 a month instead of to the
$25 provided under the Chicago plan.
Few of the other cities make such elaborate provisions. Baltimore,
Detroit, Philadelphia, and San Francisco provide for dependents




CHAPTER X I I .---- PUBLIC EM PLOYEES’ RETIREMENT

249

only in case death is due to the performance of duty. In that case
Baltimore al]ows the police commissioner in his discretion to give the
widow during widowhood the pension the man would have received
if retired; Detroit gives the widow a pension of $100 a month until
remarriage, with an allowance of $20 a month for each child under
16; Philadelphia gives a pension of $20 a month with $6 a month
for each child under 14; and San Francisco gives one-half the dece­
dent’s salary to the widow during widowhood. In case no widow
survives the decedent, the allowance may be paid to dependent
children or, if there are none, to a dependent parent or parents.
In the other cities provision is made for dependents, whether or
not death is incurred in the performance of duty, though occasion­
ally it is provided that an officer must have served for a specified
period or else the dependents are not entitled to the allowance. In
Pittsburgh a flat payment of $1,200 is made. New York provides
that in case of a duty death the allowance is to be not less than
$600 a year, nor more than one-half the decedent’s salary, and that
in addition there shall be a lump-sum payment equal to the annual
salary the decedent was receiving at the time of his death. In the
case of a death from ordinary causes the dependents are entitled to
a pension of $300 a year. In New Orleans the widow of an officer
killed in the discharge of duty or dying from ordinary causes after
20 years of service is entitled to $150 a year, and in the other cities
the allowances range from $300 to $1,200 a year, or, in some cases, to
one-half the salary the officer was receiving at the time of his death.
In these cities the widow’s pension continues only during widow­
hood. Allowances for each child under a given age are common,
the age limit va^ing from 14 to 18, and the amount of the allow­
ance from $6 to $25 a month, Detroit alone exceeding this last figure
with a proviso that if the widow dies or remarries, the person re­
sponsible for the care of the children shall receive $40 a month for
each child under 16.
Retirement Systems for Firemen
I n B a l t i m o r e and in Boston the firemen are included in the
general scheme covering city employees, and in three cities they
and the police are merged in a common system. Elsewhere they are
covered by plans of their own, often dating back to a period very
near the organization of the service as a city department. With the
exception of the San Francisco system, all of these retirement plans
were formed in the last century, the oldest being that of New York
City, which commenced paying benefits in 1871. A number, how­
ever, have been so changed within recent years that they are prac­
tically new systems. Minneapolis, for instance, introduced impor­
tant changes in 1921, Milwaukee and Pittsburgh in 1924, and De­
troit in 1925. Chicago made various changes in its system in 1917,
and since 1925 has had several plans under consideration for reorgan­
izing it, or for including it with the general municipal retirement
plan.




250

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

The systems covered, with their approximate membership in 1926,
are as follows:
Buffalo___________________________
Chicago__________________________
Cincinnati_______________________
Cleveland________________________
D etroit___________________________
Milwaukee_______________________
Minneapolis_____________________

946
2, 341
624
1, 061
1, 698
723
513

New Orleans_____________________
628
New York C ity__________________6, 078
Philadelphia_____________________ 2, 100
Pittsburgh_______________________
931
940
St. Louis_________________________
967
San Francisco.___________________

These systems commonly cover only the uniformed force, but in a
few cases it is specifically stated that all members of the department
are to be included, while in others certain groups of the nonuniformed
members are covered. The Detroit system, for instance, applies to
the uniformed and civilian groups alike, while the Chicago plan
covers the fire-fighting force, the fire-alarm operators, and the linemen
connected with the department.
Employee Representation in Management

In Buffalo the system is managed by a board of 5, consisting of
the mayor and 4 councilmen, in Detroit by a board of 5 all of whom
are ex officio members, in New York the commissioner of the depart­
ment is trustee of the fund with full power to administer and control
it, and in San Francisco the board of fire commissioners has the
trusteeship of the fund. In the nine remaining cities the members
of the force are represented on the administrative body, and not
infrequently form a majority there. In New Orleans, for instance,
the board consists of the president and secretary of the board of fire
commissioners and the chief engineer of the department, ex officio,
and 6 members of the uniformed force elected by their fellows; the
Minneapolis board of 8 includes 6 active members of the force elected
by their fellows, and in Milwaukee the board of 5 consists of the city
treasurer, 1 member appointed by the mayor, and 3 elected by the
firemen from their own number.
Character of Schemes and Source of Funds

Three of the systems, those of Detroit, New York City, and San
Francisco, are noncontributory, the cities bearing the whole expense,
but elsewhere the employees and the cities join in supporting the
plans. In regard to contributions from employees the contributory
systems are evenly divided, five fixing the contribution at a flat sum
monthly, and five requiring a percentage of the salary. In the first
group the Cincinnati system calls for a contribution of 50 cents a
month from each member, in Cleveland the payment ranges from 50
cents to $1.25, according to the rank of the member, in Minneapolis
it is fixed at $1.50 a month, with an initiation fee of $10, in St. Louis
it is $2 per month with an initiation fee of $5, while in Philadelphia
members in active service contribute one day’s pay and pensioners
one-half of a day’s pay, based on their salary at the time of retire­
ment. In the second group the firemen of New Orleans pay 1 per
cent of their salaries for pension purposes, those of Chicago and Pitts­
burgh 2.5 per cent, and those of Buffalo 4 per cent. Under the Chi­
cago system a fireman who retires before reaching 50 must contribute
an amount equal to 2.5 per cent of his final salary yearly until he




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251

reaches that age. Milwaukee has a carefully worked out system
under which members pay 3 per cent of their salaries for their own
annuities, 1 per cent for widows’ annuities, one-half of 1 per cent
for ordinary disability benefits, and one-eighth of 1 per cent toward
administrative expenses. In Minneapolis, New Orleans, and Pitts­
burgh, members are liable to assessments of from $1 to $2 upon the
death of a fellow member.
As in the case of the police retirement systems, it is common for
the cities to use for the benefit of the firemen’s fund a number of
miscellaneous receipts. New Orleans, for instance, turns over to
the fund all fines imposed upon the force and fines imposed upon
others for violations of the fire regulations, 1 per cent of all license
fees, payments for special details, rewards for special services, and
proceeds from the sale of surplus and condemned property of the
department.
Another source of income is often the tax on business done in the
State by outside fire-insurance companies. It is not unusual for a
State tp levy a tax on such business and to turn over to the cities
in which it is done all or part of the tax on the business done in that
city, often specifying that a certain percentage of it is to go to the
fire department’s pension fund.
The city also very generally makes a direct contribution of what­
ever amount is needed to maintain payment of pensions and benefits,
either appropriating it each year from the general revenues or levying
a tax especially for the purpose. Of the cities covered, Milwaukee
alone has a carefully worked out system of contributions designed
to cover each year the liabilities incurred that year. For each man
on the pay roll it contributes annually 9 per cent of his salary for his
pension, 2.5 per cent for the widow’s allowance, and one-half of
1 per cent for ordinary disability benefits. In addition, it contrib­
utes yearly one-eighth of 1 per cent of the aggregate pay roll toward
expenses of administration and makes a deficiency contribution to
meet extra benefits and the prior-service liability. Its contribution
is raised by a tax levy of not to exceed five-tenths of a mill on the
dollar.
In several cities the fire department still maintains the custom of
having an annual carnival, getting up an annual handbook with
charges for advertising, or in some similar manner raising money
either for the retirement fund or for the benefit association which
is sometimes maintained in close connection with the retirement
system.
Cost of Administration

In Milwaukee the city and the members of the force make regular
contributions to defray the cost of administration, but elsewhere
either such expenses are paid out of the general funds of the sys­
tem or there is a rather vague division of costs between the system
and the city, the former perhaps paying for clerk hire, postage,
printing, and the like, while the latter carries such expenses as rent,
heat, and light without making any distinction between what might
justly be debited to the system and what is strictly chargeable to
the department. In a few cases the whole cost of the system is
carried as part of the department’s expenses.
35777°— 29------- 17




252

CAEE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES
Conditions for Retirement

Service or superannuation retirement.— As a condition for retirement
on allowance, age is rather an unimportant matter in the firemen’s
systems, only five cities imposing an age qualification, and several
of these modifying it by other circumstances. Philadelphia puts the
age for optional retirement at 45, with a service requirement of 20
years. Chicago puts it at 50, but permits retirement earlier if the
claimant has served for 20 years; in such a case, however, contribu­
tions to the fund must be continued until the retirant reaches 50.
Minneapolis sets 50 as the normal age for optional retirement, but
permits it earlier if 20 years of service have been given; in that case,
however, the allowance does not begin until the retirant has reached
50. San Francisco makes retirement optional at 55 after 20 years of
service, but permits it at any age after 25 years’ service. Milwaukee
varies its age requirement according to length of service and to the
allowance to be paid. Retirement is optional at 57 if the retirant
has served 15 years, or as soon after 57 as 15 years of service have
been completed. It is also permitted at 50, after 20 years’ service,
or, with a reduced allowance, at 50 after 10 years’ service. The
remaining eight cities have no age requirements.
It is not customary to set an age for compulsory retirement, the
arrangements for disability retirement taking the place of such a
provision. The San Francisco system specifies that a member may
be compulsorily retired at 60 or over, if infirm or incapable, but in
the other systems this is taken for granted.
A service requirement is universal. Milwaukee sets it at 15 years,
though, as mentioned above, it sometimes permits retirement after
10 years, reducing the allowance when this privilege is claimed.
Eight cities (Buffalo, Chicago, Minneapolis, New Orleans, New York,
Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and St. Louis) fix it at 20 years. San
Francisco requires either 20 or 25 years, according to age, and Cin­
cinnati, Cleveland, and Detroit call for 25 years.
Disability retirement.— All these systems provide for retirement on
allowance in case of disability incurred in the performance of duty,
without imposing any conditions as to age or length of service. This
is the only form of disability retirement on allowance permitted in
Detroit, Philadelphia, St. Louis, and San Francisco, but the other
systems give pensions in case of ordinary disability, providing it is
not due to the man’s own fault or misconduct. Cincinnati requires
that such a retirant must have served not less than 5 years, and New
York makes a difference in the amount of pension granted if the
service is of less than 10 years’ duration, but with these exceptions
there are no age or service limitations. Medical certification of dis­
ability, based upon examination, is generally required, and under
some systems periodic reexaminations must be taken so long as dis­
ability pensions are paid.
Retirement Allowances

Nine cities (Buffalo, Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Detroit, New
Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, and San Francisco) give as the
normal retirement allowance half or “ not less than half” the salary
drawn at the time of retirement, five of them modifying this provision
somewhat. Chicago places on it a minimum of $000 and a maximum




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253

of $3,000 a year; Cincinnati sets a minimum of $75 and a maximum
of $100 a month; Cleveland has the same maximum, but makes the
minimum $87.66 a month; Detroit specifies that the allowance is to
be half the salary attached to the rank held at the time of retirement,
and that if this salary is changed at any time the pension is to undergo
a corresponding change; and Philadelphia sets the allowance at onehalf of the average annual salary for the last four years of service.
The four remaining cities use different plans. Under the Mil­
waukee system the allowance consists of an annuity bought by the
retirant’s accumulated contributions, plus a pension bought by the
city’s accumulated contributions to his credit, the two together not to
exceed 75 per cent of the highest salary received during the period of
service. For those in the service before the present system was
adopted, the city provides a prior service allowance. Minneapolis
gives $600 a year to those retiring after 20 years’ service, and increases
this by progressive additions for each 5-year period in excess of the
required 20. Pittsburgh grades its allowances into six classes, ac­
cording to the rank held by the retirant, the annual amounts running
from $600 to $900. St. Louis gives $600 a year.
Disability allowances.— Only two of these cities, Milwaukee and
Minneapolis, make any distinction between the service allowance
and the duty disability allowance.
Cincinnati and New York,
while making no difference between these allowances, pay a smaller
allowance to those retiring on account of ordinary disability with
only a limited term of service. The nine remaining cities pay the
same allowance, whatever the cause of the retirement.
In cases of ordinary disability, Cincinnati pays no allowance unless
the retirant has served at least five years. For those meeting this
condition, the allowance is $3 per month for each year of service
up to 25, at which point it reaches the minimum for service and for
duty disability, and there it stops. In actual practice, since service
retirement is permissible after 25 years of service, the retirant would
probably claim that, rather than the disability allowance.
Under the Milwaukee system the allowance for duty disability is
55 per cent of the salary drawn at the time the disability was incurred,
with an additional allowance of $10 a month for each child under
18 years old, the total amount not to exceed 75 per cent of the highest
salary drawn during the period of service. For ordinary disability
the allowance is 50 per cent of the salary, from which 4 per cent is
deducted for annuity purposes; this allowance may not be paid
for over five years.
Minneapolis grades the allowance according to the degree of in­
capacity. For those who are totally disabled the allowance is* $900
a year; those who are permanently incapacitated for work as firemen
but are able to do light manual labor or office work receive $480;
and those who are disqualified for firemen’s service but able to do
ordinary manual labor receive $180 yearly.
In New York the allowance is the same for service retirement, for
duty disability, and for ordinary disability after 10 years of service;
for ordinary disability with less than 10 years of service, the allow­
ance is not to exceed one-third of the final salary.
Dismissal allowances.— The Cincinnati and Cleveland systems pro­
vide that if a member is dismissed after a stated period of service,
unless it be for certain faults specified in the regulation, he is entitled




254

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

to a dismissal pension. In Cincinnati it is given for dismissal after
15 years of service and amounts to $2 a month for each year of service
rendered, up to 25. In Cleveland the service period is 12 years, and
the amount of the allowance is fixed at three-eighths of the salary.
Refunds

Only 2 of the 10 contributory systems, those of Milwaukee
and Pittsburgh, provide for a refund of contributions in case of
separation from the service before reaching pensionable status.
Milwaukee provides that in case of withdrawal or dismissal the
accumulated contributions for annuity purposes shall be returned
with compound interest. In case of death, if the decedent leaves
dependents no refund is made, since the plan embodies provisions
for their care, but if there are none, a refund is made to the heirs
or the estate. If a fireman in service at age 57 is unmarried or a
widower he may receive a refund, with compound interest, of his
contributions for the widow’s annuity, but if he marries thereafter
his widow will not be entitled to any allowance. Under the Pittsburgh
plan there is no refund in case of death, but if a member withdraws
or is dismissed, his contributions are returned to him without interest.
Provision for Dependents

Without exception these systems make provision for widows and
dependent children of members, and quite frequently it is provided
that if there are no dependents of these categories, a pension will be
paid to a dependent father or mother of the deceased. Under the
Milwaukee system the funds for the care of dependents are financed
as carefully as those for the firemen themselves, the employees and
the city together contributing for the widows’ allowances, and the
city alone contributing for the children’s allowances. Under this
system in case of death from ordinary causes the widow’s allowance
is the annuity purchasable by the accumulated contributions for this
purpose. If death occurs in the line of duty the widow receives an
extra allowance sufficient to bring the annuity up to what it would
have been had her husband lived and continued his contributions up
to the age of 57, or to such time thereafter as he would have com­
pleted 15 years of service. For each child under 18 there is an allow­
ance of $10 a month, or $15 if the mother is not living. In the case
of a duty death, the combined allowances of mother and children
may reach a maximum of 75 per cent of the decedent’s highest salary,
but in case of a death from ordinary causes these may not exceed 50
per cent of the final salary. The ordinary widow’s allowance is con­
tinued throughout her life, but the extra allowance given in case of a
duty death is discontinued if she remarries.
The plans of the other cities present certain variations. Pittsburgh
has no pensions for dependents, but pays a death benefit of $1,100.
Detroit and New Orleans do not pension dependents unless the
death was due to injuries received in the service, but New Orleans
in any case pays a death benefit of $1,000. The other systems all
provide pensions for the widow, whether or not the death was due to
the performance of duty, but in several cities the pension is larger
in case of a duty death. They also either give a monthly allowance
for the benefit of each child under a stated age, or provide that the




CHAPTER X I I .---- PUBLIC EM PLOYEES’ RETIREMENT

255

pension shall go to the children if there is no mother living, or be con­
tinued to them if the mother dies before they have reached the age
limit. In all these systems the widow’s pension is limited to the dura­
tion of her widowhood.
Combined Systems for Police and Fire Departments
I n e a c h case these systems were formed by combining existing
systems covering the separate departments, and none of the plans
has been in operation long in its present form. The oldest is the
Washington system, established in 1916. Newark combined its two
systems in 1920 and Los Angeles in 1923. In Los Angeles, however,
the system was radically changed in 1926, the new plan commencing
to operate in January, 1927. The Los Angeles scheme covers only
the uniformed forces of the two departments, including the police­
women, the Newark plan takes in also the clerical and administrative
officers, and in Washington the system, in its present form, includes
the uniformed members of the fire department, the Metropolitan police
force, the street railway crossing officers, the White House police, and
the United States park police.
Administration

The Los Angeles system is managed by a citizens’ board of 5,
appointed by the mayor, and the Newark system by a board of 5
consisting of the mayor and the chief financial adviser of the city,
ex officio, 1 policeman and 1 fireman, each elected by his fellows, and
1 nonoffice-holding citizen, elected by the 4 other members. In
Washington the system is managed by a board of three, consisting of
the corporation counsel of the District, and one member each from the
police and the fire departments, designated by the District commis­
sioners, who are authorized to change the personnel of the board from
time to time, and are further empowered to make, modify, and amend
the regulations and rules of procedure for the board.
Source of Funds

All three systems are contributory. In Los Angeles the members,
since January 1, 1927, have contributed 4 per cent of the salary,
in Newark they contribute 2 per cent of the salary, except those who
were 35 years of age or over on entering the service, for whom the
contribution is 4 per cent, and in Washington the contribution is 2 ^
per cent of salary, raised in 1924 from 1 per cent.
In Los Angeles the city makes an annual contribution of several
different sums. It appropriates first a percentage of the pay rolls of
the two departments sufficient to cover the liability incurred for that
year’s services; second, a deficiency contribution of $635,000, which
is to be continued for 36 years to liquidate the accrued liability; and,
third, it pays into the fund all fines and deductions from the salaries
of members of the two forces, all proceeds from the sale of unclaimed
property, interest, and rewards and donations. The amount of the
two appropriations is raised by taxation. In Newark the city con­
tributes annually a sum equal to 4 per cent of the combined pay rolls
of the two departments, and also turns into the fund all fines imposed
on members, all deductions from their salaries for absences or lost




256

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

time, and half of all rewards. If at any time the pension fund should
prove inadequate to the demands upon it, the city is to include in any
tax levy a sum sufficient to meet its requirements for the time being.
Under the Washington system no specific contribution is required
from the District, but if at any time the fund is insufficient to meet
the expenditures authorized, the District commissioners are to direct
that such amounts, appropriated from the general revenues of the
District, are to be paid into it as may be necessary. Also, the fund
is to receive all fines imposed for disciplinary purposes upon the mem­
bers of the two forces, all rewards, donations, and the net proceeds
of the sale of unclaimed property in custody of the clerk of the police
force.
Cost of Administration

In Los Angeles the city meets the cost of administration, in Newark
it is paid from the fund, and in Washington it is carried as part of the
general expenses of the departments.
Conditions for Retirement

Service or superannuation retirement.— Los Angeles has no age
qualification for retirement, Newark permits it at 50 and requires
it at 65, and Washington sets 60 as the age at which it may be per­
mitted. Los Angeles requires 35 years of service as a qualification
for the full retirement allowance, but permits retirement with a
smaller allowance after 25 years of service. For those in service
before the adoption of the present system 30 and 20 years of service
are required. Newark sets 20 years of service as a minimum, while
Washington has no service requirement.
Disability retirement.— All three systems permit retirement on allow­
ance for duty disability, without regard to age or length of service.
Medical certification, based on examination, is requisite, and reexam­
ination may be required from time to time. The Los Angeles and
the Newark systems make no provision for ordinary disability, but the
Washington plan permits retirement on allowance in case of perma­
nent disability arising from ordinary causes if the member has reached
age 55 and has given 25 years of service.
Retirement Allowances

Los Angeles gives those who retire after 35 years of service a
pension of two-thirds of the average salary received for the last
three years before retirement. If the service was for 25 years or
longer, but under 35, the pension is one-half ol the average salary
for the last three years, with an addition of 1% per cent of such
salary for each year over 25. For those who were in the service
before the present plan was adopted, these allowances are paid for
service of 30 and 20 years, respectively. The maximum pension
for those entering the service after this plan was adopted is $1,800;
there is no minimum, except as determined by the amount of the
salary. For disability retirement, the board may fix the pension
in its discretion according to the degree of disability, except that it
may not be less than 10 nor more than 90 per cent of the salary
received at, the time of retirement.




CHAPTER X I I .— PUBLIC EM PLOYEES’ RETIREM ENT

257

In Newark the allowance for service and for duty disability retire­
ment is the same— one-half of the salary received at the time of
retirement. In 1926 the lowest salary paid was raised to $2,500, so
that thereafter the minimum pension would be $1,250 a year; no
maximum is set.
In Washington the allowance, whether for service or disability
retirement is one-half the salary attached to the retirant’s rank; if
the salary is increased thereafter, the pension is to be increased
proportionately.
Refunds

No refund of contributions is provided for in any of these systems.
Provision for Dependents

Under the Los Angeles system the widow of a pensioner, or of
an active member eligible for retirement, or of a member dying
from injuries or illness due to the discharge of duty, receives during
widowhood a pension equal to one-half the decedent’s average annual
salary for the last three years of service, with an additional allowance
for children under 18 until they marry or reach that age. Except
in the case of a duty death, the widow must have been married to
the decedent for at least a year before his death in order to receive
the pension; if the decedent is a pensioner, she must have been married
to him for at least a year before he left the service. If there is no
widow, the pension will be paid to a child or children under 18, or
to dependent parents.
In Newark, the widow of a retired or active member, provided
she was married to the decedent before he reached the age of 50,
receives a pension of $1,000 a year during widowhood. If there is
no widow, a pension of $25 per month may be paid to children under
16, or to dependent parents.
In Washington the widow of a pensioner or member in active service
is given a pension during widowhood of $60 a month, with an allow­
ance of $10 a month for each child under 16.
Principal Provisions of Plans
T h e essential features of the plans studied are given in the table
which follows:




28
5

T a b le

6 8 .—C O M P A R IS O N OF P E N S IO N S Y S T E M S F O R P O L IC E A N D F IR E M E N

Police

N a m e o f system an d auth orization

E m p lo y e e s ’ c o n ­
trib u tio n

O ther benefits

C ertain provisions
for w idow s and
m in or children of
m en killed in per­
form ance of du ty.

Superannuation and d u ty d isa b ility: O nehalf salary at tim e o f retirem ent. O rd i­
n ary d isability: A m o u n t fixed b y co u n ­
cil, b u t not to exceed one-half salary at
tim e o f retirem ent.
S uperannuation: A n n u ity b o u g h t b y retiran t’s con tribu tion s, plus pension
b ou gh t b y c it y ’s con tribu tion s to his
credit; m axim u m , $1,950 per annum .
F or em p loyee in service before system
w as a d op ted , after reaching age 50 and
givin g 20 years’ service, one-half salary
at tim e of retirem ent, regardless of
am ou n t o f con tribu tions. O rdinary
d isability: O ne-half salary at tim e of re­
tirem ent, from w h ich usual dedu ctions
for pension purposes are m ade, allow ­
ance n o t to be con tin u ed m ore than 5
vpiars D u t y d isability: Three-fourth s
o f salary at tim e o f in ju ry, plus allow ­
ance for children under 18. If retirant
lives t o reach 57, this allow ance is dis­
con tin u ed and he is given superannua­
tion allow ance he w o u ld h ave received
had he con tin u ed in service to that age.
Superannuation and d u ty disa b ility: Onehalf salary at tim e of retirem ent; m in i­
m u m , $900; m axim um , $1,200 per year.
O rd in a ry d isability : A fter 5 years’ serv­
ice, $36 for each year o f service, m axi­
m u m , $900 per year. If discharged after
15 years’ service, except for specified
faults, n o t to exceed $600 a year.

P rovision s for w id ­
ow s and children
und er 18, and in
som e cases for de­
pend ent parents.
P rovision s for w id ­
ow s and children
u nd er 18.

4 per cen t o f sal­
aries.

C ertain m iscellaneous
m oneys and a direct
appropriation w hen
needed.

P o lic e a n n u ity and benefit fu n d o f
C h icago. (Illin ois L a w s o f 1921, p.
262; L a w s of 1925, p. 208.)

4.75 per cen t o f
salary
up
to
$2,600, all over
that a m o u n t b e ­
ing exem pt.

F or each m em ber, an
am ount equal to 8.5
per cent of his salary
for his retirem ent
and ordinary dis­
ab ility benefit, and
2 per cent for w id ­
o w ’s pension; c ity
also bears w hole
cost o f extra benefits
and m akes u p any
d eficiency in cost of
adm inistration
o f fund.

P olice relief and pension fu n d o f the
c it y of C in cin n ati, O h io (G en .
C od e 1910, secs. 4616-4631).

D u es $1 per m o n th .

Certain
m is c e lla ­
neous m oneys and
a direct appropria­
tion w hen needed.




Superannuation: N o age re­
quirem ents; 25 years’ serv­
ice.
O rdinary d isability: 5
years’ service. D u t y disa­
bility : N o age or service re>quirem ent.

STATES

P o lice pen sion fu n d o f the c it y o f
B u ffalo, N . Y . (L o ca l law N o . 8.)

UNITED

C ertain m iscellaneous
m on eys and a direct
appropriation w hen
fund requires it.

I
N

One-half salary at tim e o f retirem ent; no
m axim u m or m in im u m except as deter­
m in ed b y the am ount of salary.

2 per cen t o f sal­
aries.

PERSONS

Perm itted o n ly for in cap acity
to perform d uties o f position,
w hether due to age or other
causes. If in cap acity re­
sults from d u ty injuries, re­
tirem ent perm itted regard­
less of length of service; if
due to other causes, o n ly
after 16 years’ service.
Superannuation: N o age re­
quirem ent, 20 years’ serv­
ice. D u ty and ordin ary
disability: N o age or serv­
ice requirem ent.
Superannuation: O ptional at
or after age 57; no co m p u l­
sory age. N o service re­
quirem ent for those entering
service since system was es­
tablished, b u t am ou n t of
a l lo w a n c e d e p en d s on
length of service. T h o se in
service before system was
adopted m a y retire at 50
after 20 years’ service. Or­
dinary and d u ty d isability:
N o age or service require­
m ent.

P olice pension plan o f B a ltim ore,
M d . (M a ry la n d L a w s o f 1900, chs.
263, 266; 1924, ch . 411, sec. 2.)

AGED

R etirem en t allow ances

O
F

C on ditions for r e tire m e n t1

CARE

C it y ’s con tribu tion

P rovision s for w id ­
o w s,
c h ild r e n
under 16, or de­
pen d en t parents.

P olice relief fu n d o f the c it y o f C le v e ­
land, O hio ( C it y O rdinance, 37945;
G en. C od e, 1910, secs. 4616-4631).

P olice pension system o f N e w O r­
leans (L a. L a w s o f 1904, act 32,
sec. 11; 1910, act 10; 1912, act 253;
1920, act 97).

4.625 per cent o f
salaries.
R a te
m a y va ry slight­
l y w ith cost of
adm inistration.

1

per cent
of
m o n th ly salary
and dues of 50
cents per quart e r after 6
m o n th s ’ proba­
tion ary service.

2 per

cent of sal­
aries.

Certain m iscellaneous
m oneys,
and
an
annual
appropria­
tion sufficient to
m aintain
pension
paym ents.
per cent o f salary of
each m em ber, and
also 0.125 per cen t of
aggregate salaries of
w hole force for cost
o f adm inistration.
In
addition,
an
annual
d eficiency
con tribu tion to m eet
accrued
liab ility.
P ays
w hole cost
of d u ty disability
benefits,
c h ild ’s
ann uity, and c o m ­
pensation and s u p ­
plem ental a n n u ity .
Certain m iscellaneous
m oneys, and an an­
nual am ount equal
to tw o-tenths, and
n ot to exceed tw ofifths o f one m ill
u p o n each dollar of
all taxable property.
C ertain m iscellaneous
m oneys, and an­
nually 2 per cent of
am ount
app ropri­
ated
for m ainte­
nance o f police de­
partm ent.

1
2

S uperannuation
an d
disability: From
$1,052 to $1,500 per year, a ccordin g to
rank. If discharged, except through his
ow n fault, after 15 years’ service, onehalf o f allow ance for superannuation.

Provisions for w id ­
ow s and children
under 16.

Superannuation an d d isability: O ne-half
of salary attached to rank held at tim e of
retirem ent. I f salary scale is changed,
pensions
un d ergo
a
corresponding
change.

S uperannuation: O ptiona l at
age o f 57, w ith 15 y ears’
service, or at 50, w ith 20
years’ service; also at 50,
w ith 10 years’ service, b u t
sm aller allow ance given.
O rd ina ry and d u ty disabil­
ity : N o age or service re­
quirem ent.

Superannuation: A n n u ity b ou g h t b y retiran t’s con tribu tion s, plus pension
bough t b y c it y ’s con trib u tion s o n his
behalf; m axim u m 75 per cent o f highest
salary received b y retirant. C ity bears
w hole cost o f allow ance for years of
service before system w as established.
O rd in a ry disa b ility: O ne-half salary at
tim e o f retirem ent, m in us 4 per cent
for an n u ity purposes, to be p aid for
not m ore th an 5 years. D u t y d isability:
55 per cent o f salary at tim e o f in ju ry,
w ith extra allow ance for ch ild or children
under 18, total n ot to exceed 75 per cent
of salary.

Pensions for de­
pendents of m an
killed in service
or d y in g from
injuries received
in service.
Provision s for w id ­
ow s and children
under 18; special
benefits if dece­
dents’ death due
to service.

Superannuation: O ptiona l at
age 50, after 20 years’ service.
D isa b ility : N o age or serv­
ice requirem en t, b u t allow ­
ance p aid o n ly for d u ty
disability.

Superannuation and d isability: O ne-half
salary at tim e o f retirem ent; m in im u m
and m axim u m , $900.

P r o v i s i o n s for
w idow s and chil­
dren under 16.

S uperannuation: N o age re­
quirem ent; perm itted after
y ears’ contin uous service.
D u t y d isability; N o age or
service requirem en t.

S uperannuation and d isability: N o t to
exceed one-half salary at tim e o f retire­
m ent.

P rovisions for de­
pendents in som e
cases.

2
0

1A ll the system s require m e d ica l ex am ination and certification as con dition s for d isa b ility retirem ent.

259




EM PLO YEES’ RETIREMENT

M in n ea p olis p olice relief association
(M in n . G en. Stats, of 1923, secs.
1432, 1442; am en d ed b y M in n .
L aw s of 1925, ch . 197; C it y C o u n ­
cil Proceedings, D ec. 14, 1923. v ol.
49, p. 712).

cent of salary;
retired
m em bers, 1 per
cen t of pension.

Superannuation: N o age re­
quirem ent; 25 years’ serv­
ice. O rd in a ry disa b ility: 15
y ears’ service. D u t y disa­
b ility : N o age or service re­
q uirem ent.
S uperannuation: N o age re­
qu irem en t; 25 years’ service.
D isability : N o age or service
requirem en t.

X I I .— PUBLIC

P o lice m e n ’s a n n u ity and benefit
fu n d of M ilw a u k ee (W is. L a w s of
1921, ch. 589; C it y O rdinance, F
20714).

1 per

.d o ..

CHAPTER

P olice pen sion a n d retirem ent fu n d
o f D etroit ( C it y Charter, 1925, ch.
21, secs. 19-26).

Monthly
dues
range from 50
cents to $1.25,
a c c o r d in g
to
rank o f m em ber.

20
6

T a b le

6 8 — C O M P A R IS O N OF P E N S IO N S Y S T E M S F O R P O L IC E A N D F I R E M E N — Continued

Police— Continued

N a m e of system and au th orization

E m p lo y e e s ’ c o n ­
trib u tio n

C it y ’s con tribu tion

Certain m iscellaneous
m oneys, and annual
a p p ro p r ia tio n of
am ount needed.

P olice pension fu,nd association of
c ity of P ittsbu rgh , Pa. (P itts ­
bu rgh D igest, p p . 50, 51, secs. 163169).

Superannuation: N o age re­
quirem ent; 20 years’ se rv­
ice. D u t y disability: N o
age or service requirem en t.

Superannuation: F ro m $50 to $75 per
m on th . D u t y d isability: O ne-half salary for 52 w eeks; then, if perm an en tly
injured, a lu m p sum of $1,200 is paid
from another fund.
Superannuation and d u ty d isa b ility: Onehalf salary attached to rank held three
years prior to retirem ent.

D i s a b i l i t y and
dea th benefit
fu n d
is m aintained; dues $1
per m onth.
P r o v i s i o n s for
w id ow s and children under 16
and
dependent
parents if death
i due lo service.

Superannuation: C o m p u lso ry
at age 65; 20 years’ service.
D u ty disability: N o age or
service requirem ent.

Provisions
f or
w id ow s, children
under 14, or de­
p end ent parents
if death occurs in
line of du ty.

STATES




$2 per m o n t h ___

P r o v i s i o n s for
w id o w s , and
children
under
18, and, in some
cases, dependent
parent,

UNITED

P olice relief and pension fu n d of
San F ran cisco (C h arter o f San
F ran cisco, A rt. V I I I , ch. 10).

Certain m iscellaneous
m oneys, also direct
appropriation
not
to exceed 1.5 per
cent of city taxes.
Certain m iscellaneous
m oneys.

S uperannuation: O ne-half salary at tim e
o f retirem ent.
O rd inary d isability:
Varies w ith length o f service, ranging
from “ n o t less than one-quarter nor
m ore than on e -h a lf” of salary at tim e of
retirem ent after 10 b u t u nd er 20 years’
service, to one-half salary after 20 years’
service. D u t y d isability : N o t less than
one-fourth nor m ore than one-half salary
at tim e o f retirem ent.
S uperannuation and d u ty d isability : Onehalf average salary for last 10 years;
m axim u m $1,500 per year.
O rd inary
d isability: O ne-fortieth o f average salary for last 10 years, m u ltip lied b y years
of service.

I
N

O ne d a y ’s p a y
each m on th , bu t
salary in excess
of
$3,000
per
year is o m itte d
w h en calcu lat­
ing co n trib u tio n .
2 per cent o f sal­
ary.

S uperannuation: N o age re­
quirem ent; com p u lsory after
25 years’ service, unless ex­
tension secured. O ptional,
at 55, after 20 years’ service,
and at 60, regardless of
length of service. O rd inary
d isability: 10 years’ service.
D u ty d isability: N o age or
service requirem ent.
Superannuation: O ptional at
age 50, after 20 years’ service.
O rdinary
d isability:
10
years’ service regardless of
age.
D u t y d isability : N o
age or service requirem en t.

PERSONS

P olice pen sion plan of P h ilad elp h ia
(B r o w n ’s P h ilad elp h ia
D igest,
secs. 7-11, p. 47).

Other benefits
|

AGED

Certain m iscellaneous
m oneys, and a d i­
rect app ropriation
for am ount needed.

R etirem en t allow ances

O
F

2 per cen t o f sal­
aries.

I
|

CARE

P olice p en sion fu n d o f the c it y of
N e w Y o r k (G reater N e w Y o r k
Charter, secs. 351-357, 366).

C on ditions for retirem ent

Firemen

F irem en ’s relief and pen sion fu n d o f
B u ffalo (L o ca l law s o f B u ffa lo, N o .
7; C it y C harter, secs. 275-275J,
277-283).

4 per cent of salary.

F irem en ’s pen sion fu n d o f C h icago
(111. R e v . Stats. 1917, ch . 24, secs.
417-419K, p p . 461-466.).

2.5 per cent o f sal­
ary.

F irem en ’s pen sion fu n d o f C in c in ­
nati (O h io G en. C o d e 1910, secs.
4600-4615).

50 cents a m o n t h . _ Various m iscellaneous
sum s, and proceeds
o f a tax, not to ex­
ceed three-tenths of
a m ill on the dollar.

F irem en ’s pen sion fu n d o f C levela n d ,
O hio (G en . C od e 1910, secs. 46004615).

F ro m 50 cents to
$1.25 a m onth
accordin g to p o ­
sition held.

F irem en ’s pen sion an d retirem ent
fund o f D etroit, M ic h . (C it y
C harter (1925), ch 15, secs. 14-19.)




C i t y ’s contribu tions

C o n d itio n s for retirem ent

R etirem en t allow ances

V arious m iscellaneous
sum s and 2 per cent
o f foreign fire insur­
ance prem ium s, and
in add ition direct
a p p ro p r ia tio n of
am ou n t needed to
m aintain
pension
paym ents.
V arious m iscellaneous
sum s and direct ap­
p ropriation
raised
b y tax levy.

Service: N o age requirem en t;
option al after 20 years’ serv­
ice. O rd in a ry and d u t y
disa b ility : N o age or service
requirem en t.

Service and d u t y d isability : M in im u m ,
one-half salary at tim e o f retirem ent; no
m axim u m set.
O rd inary disability:
M a xim u m , one-half salary at tim e of re­
tirem ent; n o m in im u m set.

Service: O ptiona l
after
20
years’ service, b u t m em ber
retiring u nd er age 50 m ust
c on tin u e con trib u tion s to
that age in order to draw
pension. D isa b ility : N o age
or service requirem en t.
Service: N o age requirem en t;
option al after 25 years’ serv­
ice.
O rd in a ry
d isability:
F ive years’ service. D u t y
d isability: N o age or service
requ irem en t.

Service an d disa b ility: O ne-half salary re­
received at tim e of retirem ent— m in im u m
$600, and m axim u m $3,000 a year.

D o.

Service and d u t y d isability : O ne-half sal­
ary at tim e o f retirem ent— m in im u m
$900, and m ax im u m $1,200 a year. Or­
d in ary d isability : $36 m u ltiplied b y
n um ber o f years o f service u p to 25. If
discharged w ith o u t fault o f his ow n
after 15 y ears’ service: A n n u al pension
o f $24 for each year o f service— m axi­
m u m , $600 a year.
Service and d isability : O ne-half salary at
tim e o f retirem ent— m axim u m , $1,200 a
year. I f discharged except for fault on
his part after 12 con secutive years’ serv­
ice* pension o f six-sixteenths of salary at
tim e of dism issal.

D o.

V arious m iscellaneous
sum s, and app ropri­
ate am ou n t needed
to m aintain pension
p aym ents,
raising
this b y tax le v y not
to
exceed
threetenths o f a m ill on
the dollar.
N o co n trib u tio n s— A ppropriates annual­
ly am ount required
to
m eet
pension
p aym ents
raising
a m ount b y special
tax levy .

Service: N o age requirem en t;
o ption al after 25 years. P er­
m anent d isability : N o age
or service requirem en t.

Service: N o age requirem en t;
25 years’ service. D u t y dis­
ab ility : N o age or service re­
quirem ent.

Service and d u t y d isability : O ne-half of
salary attached to rank held at tim e of
retirem ent. If this salary is changed
later, allow ance is changed to correspond.

Other benefits

P rovision for
pendents.

D o.

D o.

de­

X I I .--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

E m p lo y e e s ’ con ­
tribu tions

CHAPTER

N a m e of system

22
6

T a b le

6 8 .—C O M P A R IS O N OF P E N S IO N S Y S T E M S F O R P O L IC E A N D F I R E M E N —Continued

Firemen— Continued

N a m e of system

E m p lo y e e s ’ c o n ­
trib u tio n s

'7 « 0 -'7 0 1

SOQN

F irem en ’ s pension fu n d , o f P itts ­
burgh, Pa. (C it y O rd. N o . 490,
1924.)




A c t iv e force contrib u te one
d a y ’s p a y per
m o n th ; pensioners o n e - h a l f
d a y ’s pay.
2.5 per cen t o f sal­
aries, plu s assess­
m en t o f $1 on
death o f m e m ­
ber.

Various m iscellaneous
funds and direct apn ro o r i a t i o n of
am ount needed to
m aintain
pension
paym ents.
2 per cent of tax on
foreign fire insurance
com panies, and d i­
rect appropriations
as needed.

Service: N o age requirem en t;
optional after 20 years’ serv­
ice. D isa b ility : N o age or
service requirem en t.

V arious m iscellaneous
sum s
and
direct
appropriations
as

Service: O ptiona l after 20
years’ service w ith o u t re­
gard to age. D u t y disa­
bility: N o age or service re­
quirem ent.

Service: O ptiona l from age
45 on w ard after 20 years’
service. D u t y
d isability:
N o age or service require­
ment.

$200.

D e a t h benefits;
pension for de­
pendents if death
due to service.

Service, d u ty , disability, and ordinary dis­
a b ility after 10 years’ service: O ne-half of
salary at tim e of retirem ent. O rdinary
d isability retirem ent w ith ies;» Ilian 10
years’ service: N o t to exceed one-third
o f salary at tim e o f retirem ent.
Service and d u ty d isability: O ne-half of
average annual salary for last 4 years’
service. O rd inary disability: N o pen­
sion.

P rovision for
pendents.

Service and d u ty disability: F rom $600 to
$900 a year, a ccordin g to rank of retir­
ant.

D eath benefit.

D o.

de­

STATES

F ire m e n ’s pension fu n d o f P h ila ­
delphia. (B r o w n ’ s P h iladelph ia
D igest, secs. 7-11, p. 47.)

Service: O ptional after 20
years’ service regardless of
age. D isa b ility : N o age or
service requirem ent.

P rovision for de­
pendents and fu­
neral benefit of

UNITED

N e w Y o r k fire depa rtm en t relief fu n d
(G reater N ew Y o r k C harter, secs.

Various m iscellaneous
sum s and 1 per cent
of tax on foreign in­
surance com panies.

W id o w ’s annuity,
w id o w ’ s com p en ­
sation and sup­
plem ental annu­
ity , and ch ild ’s
ann uity.

I
N

F ire m e n ’s pension an d relief fu n d o f
N ew Orlenas (L a. A cts, 1902, N o.
43; 1904, N o. 17; 1912, N o . 152; 1914,
N o . 27; and 1926, N o . 321).

Service: O ptional after 20
years’ service, b u t allow ance
m ay not be draw n until re­
tirant reaches ago 50. D isa­
bility: N o age or service re­
quirem ent.

Service: A n n u ity bough t b y retirants’ c o n ­
trib u tion s, plus pen sion bou gh t b y
c it y ’s con tribu tion s on his behalf. M a x i­
m u m , 75 per cent o f highest salary w hile
in service. C ity p rovides full allow ance
for years o f prior service. D u ty disa­
b ility : A n n u ity , as above, w ith pension
to bring it u p to 55 per cent o f salary w hen
in ju ry was received; extra allow ance for
children under 18. O rd in a ry disability:
O ne-half o f salary at tim e o f disability,
for n o t over 5 years.
Service: P rop ortion ed to length of service,
w ith a m in im u m o f $600 per annum for
20 y ears’ service and progressive rates of
increase for each 5 years over that. D is ­
ab ility : G raded accordin g to degree of
d isability, ranging from $180 to $900 a
year.
Service and d isability: O ne-half salary re­
ce iv e d at tim e o f retirem ent.

PERSONS

$1.50 per m o n th ,
w ith in itiation
fee o f $10. O c­
casional assess­
m en ts o f $2 per
m e m b e r for
death benefits.
1 per cen t o f sal­
ary,
plus
75
cents a m on th ,
and
$2 u p o n
death o f m e m ­
ber.
N o co n trib u tio n s..

Service: O ptional at age 50
after 20 years’ service, and at
57 after 15 years’ service, also
perm itted at 50, after 10
years’ service, b u t w ith re­
duced allow ance. O rd inary
and d u ty d isability: N o age
or service requirem ent.

AGED

M in n ea p olis fire depa rtm en t relief
association (G en . Stats. 1923, secs.
3748, 3752; am en ded , L a w s o f 1925,
ch. 204, 205).

A n n u a lly
for each
m em ber 12 per cent
of his salary; also
one-eighth o f 1 per
cent of total salaries
for costs of adm inis­
tration. C o n tr ib u ­
tion to cover accrued
liab ility and extra
be nefits, raising
am ount b y special
tax levy.
Proceeds of tax o f onetenth of a m ill on
the dollar, and 2 per
cent tax on foreign
insurance prem ium s.

O
F

4 625 per cent of
salary.

CARE

F irem en ’ s a n n u ity and benefit fund
o f M ilw a u k e e . (W is . L a w s of
1923, ch. 423; C it y O rd ., F 25191.)

O ther benefits

C i t y ’s contribu tions

$2 per m on th , and
initiation fee of

Certain taxes and va­
rious m iscellaneous
sums.

F irem en ’ s relief fu n d o f San F ran ­
cisco. (C it y Charter, A rt. I X , C h .
V I I .)

N o co n trib u tio n s.

A ppropriates am ount
necessary, raising it
b y special tax le v y .

Service: N o age requirem en t;
option al after 20 years’ serv­
ice, the last tw o contin uous.
D u t y d isability: N o age or
service requirem ent.
Service: O ptiona l at age 55,
after 20 years’ service, and
at an y age after 25 years’
service.
D u t y d isability :
N o age or service require­
m ent.

Service and d u ty d isability: $600 a year.
O rd in a ry d isability : N o allow ance.

Service and d u ty disa b ility : O ne-half of
salary received at tim e o f retirem ent.

P rovision for de­
pendents.

D o.

CHAPTER

F irem en ’ s pension fu n d o f St. L ou is.
(M o . R e v . Stats. 1919, ch. 72, A rt.
X X V I I ; C it y O rds. 30561-63.)

1

4 per cent of sal­
ary since Jan­
u ary 1, 1927.

A percentage of p a y
rolls of the tw o de­
partm ents, and an
annual liat sum to
liqu ida te
accrued
liability; also m is­
cellaneous
sum s,
fines, etc.

Service: N o age requirem en t;
35 years’ service, b u t per­
m itted after 25 years w ith
sm aller allow ance.
D u ty
d isability : N o age or service
requirem en t.

P olice an d fire pen sion fu n d o f N e w ­
ark, N . J. (N e w Jersey L aw s, 1920,
ch. 160.)

2 per cent of salary.
I f em ployee is 35
or over on en­
trance, 4 per
cent.

Superannuation: O ptiona l at
age 50, after 20 years’ service,
and co m p u lso ry at 65. D u t y
d isability: N o age or service
requirem ent.

P o lice m e n ’s and firem en ’s relief
fund, o f W ash in gton , D . C . (U .
S. Stats, at Large, v o l. 39, p. 718;
v ol. 43, p. 176.)

2.5 per cent of sal­
ary.

V arious m iscellaneous
sum s and annual
appropriation equal
to 4 per cent of c o m ­
bined p a y rolls of
the
tw o
depa rt­
m ents.
V arious m iscellaneous
funds, and direct
con tribu tion
from
general revenue of
D istrict as needed.

Service and d isability: O ne-half of salary
received at tim e o f retirem ent. I f the
salary is increased after retirem ent, the
pension is increased to correspond.

P rovision for
pendents.

D o.

D o.

de­

263




Service: O ptional from age 60
on.
D u t y d isa b ility : N o
- age or service requirem ent.
O rd inary d isability: A g e 55,
after 25 years’ service.

Service: F rom one-half to tw o-th ird s of
average salary for last three years accord­
ing to length o f service (from 25 to 35
years, except that for those in service
before system w as a d op ted , it is from 20
t o 30 years). D u t y disa b ility: F ixed
b y board, w ith m in im u m o f 10 per cent
and m axim u m o f 90 per cent o f salary
at tim e o f retirem ent.
Superannuation and d u t y d is a b ility : One
half o f annual salary received at tim e of
retirem ent.

EM PLOYEES’ RETIREMENT

F ire and p olice pen sion system of
L os A ngeles. (L o s A n geles C h ar­
ter, sees. 180-189.)

X I I .— PUBLIC

Police and firem en

264

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

Statistics of the Systems
T

he table

follow ing shows the experience under

the various sys­

tems:
T

able

6 9 .— C O V E R A G E , P E N S IO N E R S , A M O U N T S D IS B U R S E D , A N D
P E N S I O N S O F P O L I C E A N D F I R E M E N , B Y C I T I E S , 1926

C ity

F irem en ’s system s:
B uffalo
C h ica g o. _ _________ _____ ______ ______ _____
Cincinnati
____ ________________________
C levela n d _______________________________ __
D e tr o it .. _________________________ . . __
M ilw a u k e e . ________ __________________ _ _
M in n ea p olis. _____________________________
N ew O rleans. ____________________________
N ew Y o r k
________ ________ _____ __ __ _
P h iladelphia
____________
______
_
_
P ittsbu rgh
_ __ _______________
_
___
St. L o u is ___________________________________
San Francisco

D ec. 31,1926
_
do
_____
N o v . 30,1926
D ec. 31,1926
June 30,1926
D ec. 31,1926
____ d o _______
____ d o ______
D ec. 31,1925
Jan.
7,1926
D ec. 31,1926
do
June 30,1926

T o ta l_______________________________
P olice and firem en’s system s:
Uos Anseles
N e w a rk ______________________ _________ __
W ashington. D . C _
_ __
T o ta l.................................... ......... .............
G rand total

June 30,1926
D ec. 31,1926
June 30,1926

N u m ber
of pensio lers
on roll

A m oun t
disbursed
in pen­
sions

A v erage
annual
pension 1

1,864
1,144
6,080
525
1,421
2,762
938
499
877
15,950
5, 600
904
1,186

257
259
933
412
376
304
222
173
127
f 061
869

$233,167
173, 533
2,056,160
295,166
218,836
340, 752
170,816
95,998
60,682
4,303,157
522, 627

$907
670
701
716
582
1,121
769
555
478
710
601

160

214,975

1, 344

15', 153

8, 685,869

715

946
2,341
624
1,061
1, 698
723
513
628
6,078
2,100
931
940
967

309
1,337
356
342
229
288
242
115
S, 047
350
242
308
293

168, 213
852, 259
236,627
208, 765
258,064
171,985
131,909
69,827
2, 503,382
191, 716
188,102
118,575
376, 355

544
637
665
610
1,127
597
545
607
822
548
777
385
1,284

19, 550

___ ________________ _____

N u m ber
covered
b y sys­
tem

39, 750

Year ending—

P olice system s:
B altim ore ____________________ ______ ______ D ec. 31,1926
B u f f a l o ___ ______ _____ ____________ _ ___ ____ do ______
_
C h ica go__________________ ________ ________ ___ do __ _
C incinnati
_________ ________________ _ ___ do
_____
Cleveland
do
_
D etroit _ _ ____
______ - _
June 30,1926
Milwflnkp.p!
D ec. 31,1926
______
___ __ __ _ ____ ___ do_ __
M in n eapolis
N ew O rleans___ ___ __________ ______ __ ___ d o _____ __
N ew Y o r k C ity
______
_______ _
do _.
P h iladelphia __ __ _____________ ______ _ ____ do
_____
P ittsbu rgh
______________________________ ____ do
_____
San F rancisco
_
_
_ _
____ do ______
T o t a l___

AVERAGE

7, 458

5,475, 779

734

3,979
2,200
2, 286

351
365

286, 766
320,191
(2
)

817
877

(0

8,465

716

606, 957

848

67, 765

2C, 327

14, 768, 605

726

1 C om p u ted b y d iv id in g am ount disbursed b y num ber o f pensioners.
2 N o data.

State and City Retirement Systems for Teachers
N THE summer of 1927, when the inquiry as to retirement systems
w as undertaken by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, 21 state-wide
T
teacher-retirement systems were in effect, and in addition seven
cities having a population of 400,000 and over had retirement systems
for their teachers, independent of those of the States. Of the State
systems, those of Arizona, Maine, and Nevada do not lend themselves
readily to tabulation, so a brief summary of their principal features
will be given, after which the systems of the remaining States and the
seven cities will be discussed in detail.
The Arizona law, passed in 1912, provides for a noncontributory
system under which a teacher is permitted to retire after 25 years of

I




CHAPTER X I I .— PUBLIC EM PLOYEES’ RETIREM ENT

265

service, on an allowance of $600 a year. The administration of the
system is intrusted to the State board of education, and the pensions
are to be paid from the school fund of the State.
The Nevada law, passed in 1915, provides for an annual contribu­
tion of $9 (later raised to $12) from the teacher, and permits retire­
ment after 30 years of service, 15 of which must have been in the
State, on an annua] allowance of $500. In 1919 this amount was
raised to $600.’ Retirement for disability is permitted after 15 years
of service, with a proportionately smaller allowance. The system is
administered by the State board of education, and the money for the
State’s part of the allowance is raised by an ad valorem tax of 3 mills
on the $100. The secretary of the system states that on June 21,
1927, there were 24 teachers on the pension roll, 11 being on service
and 13 on disability retirement, with average allowances of $584 for
service and $389 for disability retirants. The average age of those
on service retirement was 55.5 and their average period of service
was 30.5 years. For those on disability retirement the corresponding
figures were 53 and 20.6 years. The amount paid out in allowances
during 1926 was $10,846.
The situation in Maine is rather involved. In 1913 a noncontribu­
tory system was established under which teachers might retire at 60
on pensions ranging from $200 to $300 a year, according to their length
of service. In 1923 this system was abolished, except that pensions
were confirmed to all to whom they had been granted under its terms,
and a new scheme was established under which members contribute
5 per cent of their salaries, while the State is to give annually an
amount equal to the combined contributions of the members. Retire­
ment is permitted at 60, after 30 years of service, on an allowance
bought by the combined contributions of the teacher and the State.
Membership in the system is optional, and so far only seven teachers
have elected to come under its terms. Pensions granted under the
old system are still being paid, but none of the members of the new
scheme have as yet qualified for retirement.
Scope of Systems
M ost of the systems, whether of State or city, limit membership
to teachers, usually including superintendents and similar officials
under this title. New Jersey and Penns3 lvania include other em­
7
ployees of the school system— janitors, engineers, and the like. In
New York City the teachers’ system covers only the teaching force,
but the board of education has established a special system, included
in this study, for all its permanent, nonteaching employees except
superintendents who come under the teachers’ system.




266

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED

STATES

Date of Establishment, and Membership
T h e follow ing table shows the date of establishm ent and the ap­
proxim ate m em bership of the system s in clu d ed :
T a b l e 7 0 .— D A T E O F E S T A B L I S H M E N T A N D A P P R O X I M A T E M E M B E R S H I P O F S T A T E

A N D C IT Y R E T IR E M E N T SY STE M S FO R T E A C H E R S

Y ear
M e m b e r­
ship
establish ed 1

State or city

State system s:
California
C on n ecticu t
Illinois _________
In d ia n a . _______
M a ry la n d M assachusetts__
M ich igan
M in n esota
M o n ta n a . __
N ew J e r s e y .______
N ew Y ork
N orth D a k o ta _________
O h io .
_______ __
-Penns vl v a n ia ____

1913
1917
1915
1915 (1921)
1927
1914
1917
1915
1915
1903 (1919)
1921
1913
1920
1921

36,108
9, 749
38,888
12, 341
20, 019
24,471
16, 866
5,600
19,830
39,648
8, 226
42, 972
58,409

State or c ity

State system s— C o n tiru e d .
R h od e Isla n d ___ ___
V e r m o n t __________ _.
V irgin ia _______ _______
W isco n sin ___ _________
C ity system s:
C h icag o.
___ __
D e tr o it___________
_
_
M ilw au k ee _____ _
_
M in n e a p o lis __________
N ew O rleans_________
N ew Y o r k ..
N ew Y o rk Board of
E d ucation
________
W ashington, D . C ____

M em ber­
Year
ship
esta b lish e d 1

1908
1919
1908
1911 (1921)

18,054

1896
1895
1909
1909
1910
1894

(1907)
(1923)
(1921)
(1924)
(1918)
(1917)

11,927
6, 300
2, 054
2, 344
1,619
25,995

1921
1920

2, 507
2, 761

3,599
2 425

1 Figures in parentheses indicate year of change in system .
2 M em bersh ip of v olu n tary system .

Some of the earlier systems were established with rather loosely
planned provisions, which were gradually found to be unwise or
unworkable, and the systems were modified accordingly. Sometimes
a complete reorganization took place and a practically new system
was installed; in these cases the year of the change is given in paren­
theses in the above table. Maryland made a complete change while
this study was in progress, substituting for a partial plan of earlier
date an actuarial reserve plan which became effective in 1927. In
some of the other States an unsatisfactory system was modified,
feature by feature, so that the plan now in operation may bear but
slight resemblance to the original, yet no date can be given at which
its character was radically changed.
The figures as to membership are, for the most part, as of 1926.
They are not comparable, owing to differences in the time of enu­
meration and in practice as to including those who have not formally
withdrawn, but who may not be active members at a given time.
The membership may fluctuate materially as between June and
December, for instance, and a comparison as to size between two
systems using different dates for their enumeration might be mis­
leading in the extreme. The figures are given merely as conveying
an approximate idea of the size of the different groups, and can not
be safely used for other purposes.
Employee Representation in Management
# T h e e m p l o y e e s very generally share in the management, and some­
times theirs is the dominant voice. In five systems they have no
representation on the administrative body. In three of these— the
State systems of California, Rhode Island, and Virginia— the system
is administered by the State board of education In Washington,
D. C., it is in the hands of the Commissioners of the District of
Columbia, and the system of the Board of Education of New York




CHAPTER X II.

PUBLIC EM PLO YEES’ RETIREMENT

267

City is managed by the board itself. With these exceptions the
employees have, or may have, representation on all the boards of
management.
The boards usually consist of certain specified officials of the State
or city, holding their position ex officio, and of other members who,
according to the particular system, are either appointed by some
specified authority or elected by the teachers. In six of the States
those who are not ex-officio members are appointed by the governor.
In three of these— Indiana, Montana, and Wisconsin— the governor
has free choice as to whom he will appoint, except that the Indiana
system provides that not more than two of his appointees may be
members of the teaching force. Illinois, Michigan, and North
Dakota, on the other hand, specifically provide that some or all of
the governor’s appointees must be teachers, either in active service
or retired on pension. In Michigan, moreover, at least one must
be a woman teacher in the public schools. The Wisconsin system
really provides for greater representation of the teachers than is
apparent from the above statement, since it calls for three boards of
first instance, one each for the public schools, the normal schools,
and the university, the members of all of which are elected by their
fellows. These act upon all claims for retirement from their respec­
tive departments, but a right of appeal lies from them to the upper
board, composed of two ex-officio members and five appointees of the
governor, which also handles the funds and investments.
The systems of the remaining nine States all provide that one or
more members of the administering body must be elected by the
teachers from among their own number.
In two of the city systems, as mentioned above, the employees are
not represented by elective or appointive members of the adminis­
tering body. In the other six systems the teachers elect representa­
tives and in three of them— Chicago, Minneapolis, and New Orleans—
their representatives form a majority of the board. In New York
City and Detroit the teachers elect 3 of the 7 members, and in Mil­
waukee 4 of the 9. In Milwaukee it is specified that two of the
teachers’ representatives must be women.
Character of Plans and Source of Funds
R h o d e I s l a n d has a noncontributory system under which the
State bears the whole expense, and Michigan and Montana have
wholly contributory systems under which the teachers contribute all,
the State paying in nothing to the fund. With these exceptions, all
the systems, both State and city, call for a division of the cost be­
tween employer and employee, the proportion borne by each and the
methods of determining contributions varying widely. All the funds
may be increased by interest on deposits, profits on investments,
gifts, legacies, and the like, but the contributions from the members
of the systems and the employing agencies are the chief reliance.
Contributions from Employees

In two States the teachers contribute a flat sum yearly, California
requiring $12 per teacher and Montana assessing each teacher $1 for
each month of the school year; as the school year varies in length in
35777°— 29------- 18




CAKE OF AGED PERSONS IN

268

UNITED STATES

different parts of the State, the contributions vary accordingly, but
it is provided that a teacher must have paid in az least $300 (raised,
in 1927, to $600) in order to be eligible for a superannuation allow­
ance. Three States modify this plan by requiring a graded flat sum.
Illinois calls for $5 annually from those who have taught 10 years or
less, $10 a year from those who have taught from 10 to 15 years, and
$30 a year from those who have taught over 15 years. After 25 years
of teaching contributions may cease. Minnesota calls for $5 an­
nually for the first 5 years, $10 for the next 5, $20 for the next 10,
and $30 for the next 5, making a total of $425 for 25 years of teaching,
after which contributions may cease. Those with salaries over $1,500
a year may be required to contribute on a percentage basis, but the
annual contribution must not fall below what the flat sum for the
corresponding year would be. Indiana introduces a further modifi­
cation of the idea by requiring a flat contribution, based on age at
entrance, designed to produce at age 60, after 40 years’ service, an
annuity of $300. The range of contributions is from $35.77 for those
entering the service at age 20 to $18.04 for those entering at age 40.
Four States require the teachers to contribute a flat percentage of
their salaries. In Wisconsin the rate is 5 per cent, but teachers under
25 years of age are not called upon to contribute. New York and
Ohio fix the rate at 4 per cent. Ohio exempts from contribution all
salary over $2,000, but places an additional assessment of $1 per
annum on all teachers to meet the expenses of administration.
Virginia requires a contribution of only 1 per cent of the salary, but
provides that if, at the time of retirement, the teacher’s contributions
have not reached 30 per cent of the average annual salary for the last
five years of teaching, a deduction shall be made from the first year’s
pension to bring the credits up to that amount.
The systems of three other States call for a flat percentage, but set
limits upon the amounts to be collected. Connecticut, Massachu­
setts, and Vermont all require 5 per cent of the salary, and all fix
the maximum contribution at $100 a year, but Connecticut sets a
minimum of $25, Massachusetts of $35, and Vermont of $16 a year.
Two States, Michigan and North Dakota, provide for a graded
percentage. Michigan changed its rate in 1927 and now requires
1 per cent of the salary, not to exceed $10 per annum, for the first
five years; 2 per cent, not to exceed $20, for the next 10 years; and
3 per cent, not to exceed $30, for the next 15 years. The teacher
must have contributed at least 100 per cent of the first year’s retire­
ment allowance. North Dakota requires a contribution of 1 per
cent of the salary, not to exceed $10 annually, for the first 10 years,
and then 2 per cent, but not to exceed $40 a year for 15 years, after
which contributions may cease.
In three States the contribution is a percentage of the salary, based
on sex and age at entrance, which will produce, after normal require­
ments as to age and length of service have been fulfilled, a sum suf­
ficient to purchase a specified annuity. In these States the percentage
ranges, according to age at entrance, as follows:
M en

M aryland___________________per cent__ 4.28 to 6.28
New Jersey_________________ per cent__ 3.60 to 6.11
Pennsylvania_______________per cent__ 3.33 to 5.30




W om en

4.08 to 7.75
3.91 to 7.42
3.69 to 6,59

CHAPTER X I I .---- PUBLIC EM PLOYEES' RETIREM ENT

269

The city systems show much the same kind of arrangements.
Chicago and Milwaukee teachers pay graded flat sums. Chicago
requires monthly payments of $1 for the first 4 years of teaching,
of $1.50 for the second 4, $2.50 for the third 4, and thereafter $5 a
month for as long as the teacher continues in service. In Milwaukee
the contribution is $4 per month for the first 10 years of service,
$6 per month for the next 5 years, and $8 a month thereafter. Both
cities count 10 months to a school year.
Detroit, Minneapolis, and New Orleans require a contribution of
a flat percentage of the salary. Detroit places the rate at 3 per cent,
but exempts salary above $1,500; Minneapolis calls for 5 per cent,
but does not require contributions from those under 25; and New
Orleans sets the amount at 2 per cent.
New York, Washington, and the system of the New York Board
of Education all require a percentage of the salary, based on age at
entrance and calculated to produce, at the normal age for retirement,
a sum sufficient to purchase a specified annuity.
Contributions from State and City

As mentioned before, Michigan and Montana make no contri­
butions to the retirement systems. Rhode Island and Virginia
appropriate annually from their general funds the amounts needed for
payment of current pensions. Four States contribute annually
either the proceeds of a special tax or an arbitrarily determined
amount. Of these, California gives 5 per cent of the inheritance tax,
Illinois and Minnesota the proceeds of a special tax levied for the pur­
pose, and North Dakota gives 10 cents annually for each child in the
State aged 6 and under 21 years.
The remaining 10 States make regular contributions sufficient to
provide a definite share of the retirement allowance earned by cur­
rent service and to liquidate gradually the accrued liability. This
contribution is frequently calculated as a percentage of the teachers’
salary roll for the year. Wisconsin, included in this group, raises
the necessary amount by a special tax, while the others appropriate
what is needed from the general revenues.
Of the eight city systems, four (those of Minneapolis, New York,
Washington, and the New York Board of Education) make appropria­
tions calculated to provide a definite part of the retirement allowance
for each employee, covering both current and accrued liability. The
other four have no uniform principle of contributions. Chicago gives
$2 for each $1 contributed by the teachers. The amount is raised
by a special tax levy, and if at any time it should prove insufficient
the board of education is to appropriate from the general education
fund whatever amount is needed to make up the deficiency. So far,
this has not been found necessary. Detroit contributes the interest
on the daily balances of the teachers’ salary fund and tuition fees from
nonresident pupils, Milwaukee gives 40 per cent of the surtax on net
incomes in excess of $3,000, and New Orleans makes an appropriation
equal to 3 per cent of the teachers’ salary roll, but not to be less than
$30,000 a year.
The systems, it will be seen, fall into two groups. In the first,
the contributions made by the employing agency and by the employees
are carefully calculated to build up a fund which will be increased each
year by an amount sufficient to cover the liability incurred that year



270

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

and to meet a definite portion of the accrued liability. Usually these
contributions are invested at compound interest, and their earnings
are an important factor in building up the reserves. In the other
group, contributions have been fixed without sufficiently careful
calculations as to what the future demands on the fund will be, and
the schemes are, from an actuarial point of view, unsound. In a
system like that of Rhode Island, the question of soundness hardly
enters, since the State bears the whole expense. Some of the other
systems of this group have large balances 011 hand, and the claim is
made that their condition is entirely satisfactory Thus, the report
of the Chicago teachers’ system shows that for the year ending
August 31, 1926, the excess of total income over total disbursement
was $745,731, and that the total reserve fund was $4,324,025. To
any suggestion that this reserve is startlingly smaller than the future
liabilities already incurred, the reply is made that under the law, if
the funds should at any time prove insufficient the board of educa­
tion must appropriate from the general education fund whatever is
needed, and that therefore it is absurd to speak of the danger of
insolvency.
On the other hand, some of these systems are already in distress
and others are trying to recast their schemes so as to avoid future
difficulties. In Montana, for instance, the expenditures of the fund
in 1926 exceeded its income by $18,573, and it was calculated that
in about four years more the reserves would be entirely exhausted.
In 1927, accordingly, the law was so amended that no teacher might
receive a pension without having contributed at least $600 to the fund,
and that the total amount paid out in pensions in any year might not
exceed the fund’s income for that year. If necessary, pensions must
be reduced below their nominal figure to bring outlay down to income.
The Minnesota system guarded against danger of bankruptcy by
inserting a proviso that “ The board of trustees may ratably reduce
the annuities provided in this act whenever, in the judgment of the
board, the condition of the fund shall require such reduction.” So
far, the trustees have never felt that the condition of the fund justified
paying the full allowances called for, and only a percentage has been
paid.
The Minneapolis plan shows a curious variation. When the sys­
tem was under consideration it was estimated that to provide the
contribution called for from the city a tax le^y of approximately
1J^ mills would be required. As adopted, however, the plan limited
the tax to 1 mill, until a higher rate should be authorized after 1927,
and included a proviso that, until such a higher rate should be
authorized, the city’s contribution to the credit of the individual
teachers should be reduced pro rata as much as might be necessary
to bring its total contribution within the amoum; raised by the lower
tax.
Cost of Administration

In 6 S t a t e s the expenses of administering the system are paid
out of the general fund, in 7 the State makes a specific appro­
priation for the purpose, and in 2 they are carried as part of the
general expenses of the department of education. In Ohio, a special
fund for the purpose is raised by an assessment of $1 a year on each
teacher. Vermont maintains a special fund, made up of gifts and




CHAPTER X I I .---- PUBLIC EM PLOYEES’ RETIREM ENT

271

receipts from any other source than the contributions of teachers and
State, and interest thereon, and from this pays cost of administra­
tion and meets any unforeseen expenses that may arise. Wisconsin
provides that the costs are to be paid out of the interest earned by
the fund.
In four of the cities, Chicago, Detroit, Minneapolis, and Milwaukee,
expenses are met from the funds of the system. In New York, the
city defrays the cost, apart from its other contribution. The New
York Board of Education carries the system as part of its normal
expenses, and in New Orleans and Washington the department of
education bears the cost.
Conditions for Retirement
Superannuation or Service Retirement

S u p e r a n n u a t io n retirement may be based
or on a combination of the two. Of the 18
(California, Minnesota, North Dakota, Rhode
sin) have no age reauirements of any kind.
following ages:
T

able

7 1 .— A G E

on age, on service,
States considered, 5
Island, and Wiscon­
The others set the

F O R O P T IO N A L A N D C O M P U L S O R Y R E T IR E M E N T
T E A C H E R S ’ R E T IR E M E N T SY STE M S

State

Connecticut.
Illinois
_______________ _
Indiana
____ _______ _
M arylan d
__ ______
_____
M ich igan
. _ ____
M on tan a
___________
N ew Jersey
N ew Y o r k ___________________

A g e for
optional
retire­
m ent

A g e for
c o m p u l­
sory re­
tirem ent

60
50
60
60
60
M assachusetts
60
55
62
60

70
70
70
__

State

___________ _______
O hio
Pennsyl vania - - _____________
V erm ont:
W o m e n ___________ ______
M en ____________________

SET B Y STATE

A g e for
optional
retire­
m ent

60
62

A ge for
c o m p u l­
sory re­
tirem ent

70
70

60
65

Virginia:

70
70

W o m e n ..________________
M en _____________
.

50
58

Michigan had no age provisions up to 1927, when it amended its
law to make 60 the age for optional retirement. Connecticut and
New York modify their age provision to permit retirement, regard­
less of age, after 35 years’ service, and Ohio after 36.
Five States (Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Ohio, and
Wisconsin) make no service requirements for employees in general,
but Massachusetts and Wisconsin enforce one against those employed
before the system was adopted who wish to claim credit for prior
service. The other States make the following service requirements:
California— 30 years, of which 15, including the last 10, must have been in
the State.
Connecticut— 15 years in State. If retirement is claimed under 60 by virtue
of 35 years’ service, 20 must have been in State.
Illinois— 25 years, of which 15 must have been in State, outside of Chicago
and Peoria.
Indiana— 40 years; on partial allowance, after 25. One-fourth of service
m ay have been outside State.
Michigan— 30 years, of which 15 must have been in State; on partial allowance,
after 25 years’ service.
Minnesota— 20 years, of which 15 must have been in State.




272

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

Montana— 25 years (raised to 30 in 1927), of which 35 must have been in
State.
New York— 25 years. Retirement permitted after 35 years, regardless of age.
North Dakota— 25 years, of which 18 must have been in State.
Pennsylvania— 10 years.
Rhode Island— 35 years, of which 25 must have been in State.
Vermont— 30 years, of which 20 must have been in State.
Virginia— 30 years, all within the State.

It will be seen that one State requires only 10 years of service,
one demands 15, one sets it at 20, four at 25, four at 30, and one
each at 35 and 40 years.
Of the eight city systems, Chicago, Detroit, and Minneapolis have
no age requirement; Milwaukee, New Orleans, and New York permit
retirement, with a service qualification, at 65; Washington at 62,
with a service requirement; and the New York Board of Education
at 60, regardless of service. Milwaukee and the New York Board of
Education permit retirement, regardless of age. after 35 years of
service. New York City and Washington set 70 as the age for com­
pulsory retirement (Washington permits extensions after this age),
while the other systems do not provide for compulsory retirement.
The service requirements of the city systems are as follows:
Chicago— 25 years, of which 15 must have been in Chicago; increased allow­
ance for service over 25 up to 35 years.
Detroit— 30 years, of which the last 20 must have been in Detroit.
Milwaukee— 25 years, of which 15 must have been in Milwaukee; retirement
at any age after 35 years’ service, of which 20 must have been in the city.
New Orleans— 40 years; retirement on smaller allowarce after 30 years.
New York— 35 years, of which 20 must have been in New York City.
Washington— Must serve in District for 10 years preceding retirement, and
for the whole period since reaching age 52. Credit for not to exceed 10 years
given for service outside District.

Minneapolis has no service requirements, and neither has the
system of the New York Board of Education, though the latter,
which places the optional retirement age at 60, permits retirement
at any age after 35 years of service.
Disability Retirement

Ordinary disability such as to unfit the sufferer ior performing satis­
factorily the duties of his position is looked upon in all the systems as a
cause for retirement on allowance, though various restrictions are put
on such retirement. Medical certification of the fact and character
of the disability is almost universally required, and often periodic
reexaminations are enforced. In some cases it is provided that the
disability must be permanent, and in others that when it occurs
after the age for optional retirement, superannuation and not dis­
ability retirement must be taken. None of the systems take age
into consideration in this matter, but all have a service requirement.
In this respect the qualifications are as follows: Maryland and
Wisconsin, 5 years; Vermont, 6; Connecticut, Indiana, New Jersey,
Ohio, and Pennsylvania, 10; California, Illinois. Michigan, Minne­
sota, Montana, and North Dakota, 15; and Massachusetts, Rhode
Island, and Virginia, 20 years. New York requires 20 years' service
for present teachers and 15 for new entrants.
Among the city systems, Minneapolis and New Orleans permit
retirement on allowance for disability after five years’ service, but
Minneapolis specifies that the disability must be complete and per­



CHAPTER X I I .— PUBLIC EM PLOYEES’ RETIREMENT

273

manent. Detroit, New York, and Washington require 10 years’
service, Washington coupling this with a proviso that the retirant
must be 45 or over; if he is under that age, he must have served 15
years. Chicago requires 12 years, and Milwaukee, 25. The New
York Board of Education system, which permits ordinary disability
retirement after 10 years’ service, provides also for duty disability
retirement, permitting retirement on allowance, regardless of length
of service, if the disability is due to accident or injury incurred in the
performance of duty.
Retirement Allowances
Superannuation

In t h e m a n n e r of determining the superannuation or service
allowance, the systems fall into two groups. In the first the amount
of the allowance is determined arbitrarily and is usually given either
as a flat sum or as a percentage of the average final salary, a maxi­
mum and minimum being set in many cases. In some of these sys­
tems it is provided that the retirant must have paid contributions for
a certain length of time or must have paid a specified sum into the
fund in order to draw the full allowance, but there is no definite rela­
tion between the amount of his contribution and the amount of the
allowance. In the second group the allowance consists of an annuity
bought by the retirant’s accumulated contributions, plus a pension
bought by the employing agency’s accumulated contributions to his
credit, so that the relation between contributions and allowance is
direct and immediate.
Eight of the State systems belong to the first group. Of these,
California pays an allowance of $500 and Montana of $600 a year.
(In Montana, beginning in 1927, allowances had to be cut below this
figure to bring the outlay within the limits of the system’s income.)
Illinois allows, for each year of service, an annual payment of $16,
with a maximum of $400 a year, while North Dakota gives 2 per cent
of the average final salary, with a minimum of $350 and a maximum
of $750. The Minnesota system contemplates an allowance of $350
a year to those retiring after 20 years of service, with a progressive
increase for longer service, up to a maximum of $500 after 25 years.
The allowances in practice, however, have had to be scaled down
from this, owing to the insufficiency of the State’s contribution to
meet the share of this allowance assigned to it. Michigan, Rhode
Island, and Virginia allow one-half of the average final salary, but
Michigan provides for a minimum of $300 and a maximum of $500,
Rhode Island a minimum of $500 and a maximum of $700, and
Virginia, setting no minimum, puts a maximum of $400 a year for
those whose salaries have been below $1,000 and of $500 for those
whose salaries have exceeded that amount.
The 10 States of the second group vary as to the part of the allow­
ance provided by the employer and as to the limitations upon the
total amount to be received. Roughly, the allowance is determined
by the amount of the annual contributions, the length of service,
and the age at retirement, but some variable factors are often intro­
duced. If the retirant was in the service before the retirement sys­
tem was adopted, the employing agency usually either increases the
allowance up to what it would have been had the system been in




274

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

effect for the whole period of employment, or provides a part of what
this extra amount would have been.
Several States place a limit upon the amount to be paid. Con­
necticut has a minimum of $350 and a maximum of $1,000, Indiana
a minimum of $131 and a maximum of $700, New York a minimum
of $400 after 25 years’ service, and Ohio a minimum of $300 after
36 years’ service. Massachusetts fixes as a maximum the equivalent
of an annuity of $1,000, purchased at age 60, but provides that if
by reason of long service a retirant’s accumulated contributions reach
a sum which would purchase more than one-half of this, the excess is
to be returned to him on retirement, while the State discontinues its
contributions to his credit when they reach a sum sufficient to pur­
chase the other half.
The city systems are evenly divided between these two methods
of determining the retirement allowance. Of those in the first group,
Chicago pays an allowance of $800 after 25 years of service with an
increase of $20 annually for each year over that period, up to a
maximum allowance of $1,000. In Detroit, the allowance is $1,200.
In Milwaukee it is $600 after 25 years of service, with an increase of
$20 per annum for each additional year of service up to a maximum
allowance of $900. In New Orleans it is one-half the average final
salary after 40 years of service, and for an earlier retirement onefortieth of this amount for each year of service rendered; the mini­
mum is $300 and the maximum is $600.
In the systems of New York, Minneapolis, Washington, and the
New York Board of Education, no limits in either direction are
placed upon the amount of the allowance, which consists of an
annuity bought by the retirant’s accumulated contributions and a
pension bought by the employing agency’s accumulated contributions
to his credit. Minneapolis, however, provides that the pension may
not be drawn until the retirant reaches the age of 50. The city’s
contributions in Minneapolis have not been sufficient to provide the
amount of pension contemplated in the system adopted in 1923, and
the pensions paid have been prorated accordingly.
Disability

Allowances for disability are usually closely related to the service
allowances. In Illinois, North Dakota, and Virginia they are calculated
in exactly the same manner. In California, Michigan, Minnesota,
Montana, and Rhode Island they are such a proportion of the super­
annuation allowance as the retirant’s years of service are of the num­
ber required to qualify for the superannuation allowance. In Connect­
icut, Indiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Ohio,
Pennsylvania, Vermont, and Wisconsin the retirant receives the
annuity purchasable by his accumulated contributions as in the case
of the superannuation allowance, but the pension granted by the
State is increased, if necessary, to bring the total allowance up to
some specified minimum or to some fraction of what the retirant
would have received had he qualified for the superannuation
allowance.
The city systems show the same relation between the two forms
of allowance. In Chicago, Milwaukee, Detroit, and New Orleans
the disability allowance is such a fraction of the superannuation




CHAPTER X I I .— PUBLIC EM PLO YEES’ RETIREMENT

275

allowance as the retirant’s years of service form of the number re­
quired for service retirement. In Minneapolis and in Washington
the allowance consists of annuity and pension, calculated as for super­
annuation retirement. Under the New York system the retirant
receives, in addition to the annuity bought by his own contributions,
a pension of one-fifth of his average final salary, with an allowance
for prior service; the total, however, must not exceed one-half of
his average final salary. Under the New York Board of Education
system the retirant receives his annuity and a pension sufficient to
bring the allowance up to nine-tenths of what would be the service
retirement allowance for the years of service rendered. In case of
duty disability, the retirant receives a pension of three-fourths of the
average annual salary for the last five years, plus the benefit of his
own contributions, which are either used to purchase an annuity or
returned to him in a lump sum, at his option.
Refunds
As R h o d e I sl a n d has a noncontributory system, the question of
refunds does not arise there. California, Montana, and Virginia
make no refunds under any circumstances. In the other States re­
funds of part or all of the employee’s contributions are usually made
in case of withdrawal or dismissal, or of death before reaching pen­
sionable status; Illinois and Indiana, however, do not make any
refund in case of such a death, though they do for dismissal or with­
drawal. Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, and North Dakota refund
one-half of the amount contributed, and Connecticut, Maryland,
Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania re­
turn the whole amount with interest, usually compounded. Indiana
returns the whole amount on separation after 10 years’ service, and
makes a partial refund for a shorter period of service. Vermont pro­
vides that if the teacher has served as long as six years he shall re­
ceive the amount of the State’s contributions on his behalf as well
as his own, and Wisconsin makes the same payment of the total
amount to the teacher’s credit in case of death before reaching pen­
sionable status, though in case of dismissal or withdrawal the State’s
contributions are retained, the retirant receiving the total amount of
his own contributions.
Turning to the city systems, Chicago returns contributions, with­
out interest, on dismissal or withdrawal, but in case of death no re­
fund is made to the estate. New Orleans returns one-half the con­
tributions, without interest, in case of death or withdrawal; in case
of dismissal the total contributions, without interest, are returned.
The other systems all provide that in case of the separation of the
employee from the service, whether by death, resignation, or dis­
missal, the full amount of the contributions is to be returned. Detroit
varies'this by providing that the full amount, with simple interest,
of the contributions paid in between 1923 and 1927 is to be returned,
but only one-half, without interest, of contributions paid in after
September, 1927. Milwaukee specifies that the refund is to be with­
out interest, but the two New York systems, Minneapolis, and
Washington allow interest on the contributions returned.




CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

276

Provision for Dependents
N in e of the State systems— Connecticut, Maryland, Massachu­
setts, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Vermont, and
Wisconsin— provide that at the time of retirement the employee may
choose one of several options, either taking a straight allowance to
be continued through his life, or choosing a smaller allowance, part
or all of which is to be continued after his death to some selected bene­
ficiary, or receiving some other actuarial equivalent of the total
amount credited to him. In case of the death of a contributor before
reaching pensionable status, Maryland and Wisconsin give death
benefits. The other 9 systems make no provision for dependents.
Among the city systems, New York, Minneapolis, and the New
York Board of Education provide options at the time of retirement.
Under the Minneapolis system if a member dies in service the amount
of the city’s deposits to his credit, with interest, is paid as a death
benefit. New York gives six months’ salary as a death benefit if
the decedent had qualified for retirement, and the Board of Educa­
tion system gives the same amount if a member dies in the service
from ordinary causes. If, however, the death was due to injury
received in the service, a pension of one-half the average annual
salary for the last five years is given to the widow, dependent children,
or dependent parent. The other systems make no provision for
dependents of either contributors or pensioners, though in Milwaukee
and in Washington if a pensioner dies before he lias drawn benefits
to the amount of his own contributions to the fund the difference
will be returned to his heirs.
Principal Provisions of Plans
T

he

follow ing table shows the essential provisions of these p lan s:




T a b le 7 3 .—

C O M P A R IS O N OF T E A C H E R S ’ R E T I R E M E N T S Y S T E M S

State systems

C alifornia p u b lic-s ch o o l teach ers’ re­
tirem en t salary p lan (Stats, o f 1913,
eh. 694).

$12 a year in semiannual pay­
m ents.

5 per cent of inherit­
ance tax; extra app r o p r i a t i o n s , if
needed.

C on n ecticu t teachers’ retirem en t sys­
tem (P u b . A c ts of 1917, ch . 411).

5 per cent of salary ;
m in im u m
$25
and m axim um
$100 a year.

B iennial
appropria­
tio n of am ount esti­
m ated as necessary.

Illin ois State teachers’ pen sion and
retirem ent fu n d (L a w s of 1915, p.
649; 1919, p. 746).

A n n u a l paym ents
o f $5 for first 10
years of teach­
ing, $10 for next
5, and $30 for
next 10. C o n ­
tribu tion s cease
after 25 years’
service.
M u st
am ount to $400.
F ro m $18.04 to
$35.77 a year,
accordin g to age
at entrance.

P roceeds of tax le v y
o f one-fifth o f a m ill
on dollar of assessed
valuation in State.

Superannuation: O ptional at
age 50; no co m p u lso ry age;
25 years’ service, of w h ich
15 m ust have been in State.
D isa b ility : 15 years’ service,
of w h ich 9 m ust h ave been
in S t a t e .
C on tribu tion s
m ust be m ade u p to $400.

A m o u n t sufficient to
p a y four-sevenths of
cost of retirem ent
allow ances, and ex­
tra benefits; cost of
adm inistration.

Superannuation: O ptional at
age 60; no co m p u lso ry age;
40 years’ service, o f w hich
30 m ust have been in State;
perm itted after 25 years,
w ith
sm aller
allow ance.
D isa b ility : 10 years’ service,
of w h ich three-fourths m ust
h ave been in State.

In d ia n a State teachers’ retirem ent
fu n d (A cts of 1915, ch. 182; 1921,
ch. 256).

C on d ition s for r e tir e m e n t1

R etirem ent allow ances

S uperannuation: N o age re­
quirem ent; 30 y ears’ service,
of w h ich 15, in clu d in g the
last 10, m u st h ave been in
California.
D is a b ility : 15
y ears’ service in State.
S uperannuation: O ptiona l at
age 60, after 15 years’ service
in State, and at a n y age after
35 years’ service, of w h ich 20
w as in State; co m p u lso ry
at^70. D isa b ility: 10 years’
service in State.

Superannuation: $500 a year. D isa b ility :
Such part o f $500 a year as th e n um ber
o f years of teaching form s o f 30 years;
m in im u m , $250.

N on e.

Superannuation: A n n u ity b o u g h t b y retira n t’s accu m u lated con tribu tion s, plus
pension o f equal am ou n t from State.
M in im u m , $350; m axim u m , $1,000 a
year. A llow an ce for prior service. D is­
ab ility : A n n u ity bou g h t b y retirant’s
accu m u lated con tribu tion s plus pension
from State o f one-thirtieth of w hat pen­
sion w o u ld have been at age 60 m u lti­
p lied b y years of service.
Superannuation and disa b ility: $16 for
each year of service ren d ered . F or super­
ann uation , m in im u m and m axim um
alike are $400 a year; for disa b ility, m in i­
m u m , $240; m axim u m , $400.

O ptions.

S uperannuation: A n n u ity b o u g h t b y re­
tira n t’ s con tribu tion s, plus pension,
am ou n t depen din g on length of service
and age; m in im u m , $131; m axim um ,
$700. D is a b ility : M in im u m , $500 a
year; m axim u m , five-eighths of final
salary.

Other benefits

N one.

D o.

EM PLOYEES’ RETIREMENT

C on tribu tion s from
State

X I I .— PUBLIC

C o n tribu tion s from
em ployees

CHAPTER

N a m e of system and a u th o riza tio n

1 A ll the system s require m edical exam ination and cer tification as co n d itio n s f< d isa b ility retirem ent.
or

277




28
7

T a b le

72 .— C O M P A R IS O N OF T E A C H E R S ’ R E T I R E M E N T S Y S T E M S — Continued
State systems— Continued

C o n trib u tio n s from
em p lo y e e s

C on tribu tion s from
State

T ea ch ers’ retirem ent
system
of
M a r y la n d (L a w s of 1927, ch. 344).

Percentage o f sal­
ary, r a n g i n g
from 4.28 to 7.75,
based o n sex and
age at entrance.

M assachusetts teachers’ retirem ent
system (G en . L aw s, ch. 32; A cts .o f
1923; ch. 381; 1926, ch. 212).

5 per cen t o f sal­
ary; m in im u m
$35 and m axi­
m u m $100 a year;
not required
after 30 ye a rs’
co n trib u tio n s.

M ic h ig a n teachers’ retirem ent fu n d
(P u b . A cts, 1915, A c t N o . 174; 1927,
A c t N o. 135).

F ro m under $5 to
$20 a year, accord in g to le n g th
of service; m axim u m s increased
in 1927 to $10,
«20, and $30.

M in n esota teachers’ insurance and
retirem ent fund (L a w s o f 1915, ch.
199).

F r o m $5 to $30 a
year, accordin g
to length of serv­
ice; not required
after 25 years’
service.
$1 a m o n th for
each m o n th o f
school year.

N a m e of system an d au th orization

Other benefits

Superannuation: O ptional at
age 60, co m p u ls o ry at 70; no
service requ irem en t, b u t
allow ance is affected b y
length of service.
D isa b il­
ity : 5 y ears’ service.

O p t i o n s ; death
benefit of one-half
of average final
com pensation.

N o con tribu tion ..

Superannuation: N o age re­
quirem ent u n til 1927, w hen
60 was set for op tional re­
tirem ent; 30 years’ service,
of w h ich 15, in clu d in g last
5, m ust h ave been in State.
D isability? 15 years’ sp.rvicp
in State.
Superannuation: N o age re­
quirem ent; 20 years’ serv­
ice, o f w h ich 15 m ust have
been in State. D isa b ility:
15 years’ service, o f w h ich 10
m ust have been in State.
Superannuation: O ptional at
age 55; no co m p u lso ry age; 25
years’ service (raised to 30
years in 1927), of w h ich 15
m ust have been in State.
D isa b ility : 15 years’ service
in State.

S uperannuation: A n n u ity bou gh t b y r e tira n t’s con tribu tion s, plus pension of
equal am ou n t, the tw o m aking oneseventieth of average final com pen sation
for each year of service. A llow an ce for
prior service. D isa b ility : A n n u ity plus
pension necessary to m ake nine-tenths
of w hat superann uation allow ance w ould
be; m in im u m 25 per cent of average final
com pensation.
Superannuation: F or future entrants and
present em ployees w ith less than 15
years’ service, an n u ity bou gh t b y retir­
a n t’s con tribu tion s and pension of equal
am ou n t; m axim u m , $1,500. F or present
em ployees w ith 15 years’ service, a d d i­
tional pension if needed to m ake m in i­
m u m o f $400. D isa b ility : A n n u ity and
pension based on service; m in im u m p en ­
sion, one-thirtieth of $250 for each year of
service.
S uperannuation: O ne-half o f average final
com pensation; m in im u m , $300; m axi­
m u m , $500; partial pension for 25 years’
service. D isa b ility : F raction of super­
ann uation allow ance, proportion ed to
length of service.

I
N

N on e.

D o.

S uperannuation: $600 a year for those w h o
have paid in $300 (raised to $600 in 1927);
in practice, allow ance is determ ined b y
co n d itio n of fund. D isa b ility: Such
p rop ortion of full pension as retirant’s
service is of 30 years.

Do.

STATES

Superannuation: $350 a year after 20 years’
service, w ith increm ents of $30 for each
add ition al year, u p to m axim u m of $500.
D isa b ility : F raction of a bov e, prop or­
tioned to length of service.

UNITED

N o con tribu tion ..

O ptions.

PERSONS

Proceeds of a State
tax of one-tw entieth
o f a m ill on all tax­
able property.

Superannuation: O ptional at
age 60 and co m p u lso ry at
70. Fifteen years’ service
in State required o f em ­
ployees
entering
before
system w as a d op ted ; for
others, no service require­
m ent. D is a b ility : 20 years’
service in State.

AGED

Two
contribu tions,
calculated as per­
centages of active
p a y roll: (a) T o
cover lia b ility for
benefits earned b y
current service, and
(6) to m eet accrued
liability; cost o f a d ­
m inistration.
A n nual
app ropria­
tions to cover cur­
rent and accrued
liabilities, and to
pay costs of a d m in ­
istration.

O
F




R etirem en t allow ances

CARE

M on ta n a teachers’ retirem ent salary
fund (L aw s of 1915, ch. 95).

C o n d itio n s for retirem ent

Superannuation: O ptional at
age 62; c o m p u lso ry at 70; n o
service requirem en t. Pres­
en t em ployees m a y retire at
a n y age after 35 years’ serv­
ice. D isa b ility : 10
years’
service in State.

N e w Y o r k State teachers’ retirem ent
fu n d (L aw s of 1920, ch. 503, art.
43-b, secs. 1100-1109q; am en ded ,
1923 and 1927).

4 per cent o f salary.

A n n u al am ount equal
to 5.2 per cen t of
teachers’ salary roll.

N o rth D a k o ta teachers’ retirem ent
system (L aw s of 1913, ch . 251; 1919,
ch. 161).

1 or 2 per cent of
salary, accord­
in g to length of
s e r v i c e , w ith
m axim um s
of
$20 and $40 a
year; con trib u ­
tion s cease after
25 years.
4 per cent o f salary
u p to $2,000. In
ad d itio n , $1 a
year for cost o f
adm inistration.

T e n cents annually for
each child in State
betw een ages o f 6
and 21.

S uperannuation: O ptiona l at
age 60, after 25 years’ service
in State, or at a n y age after
35 years’ service; m a y b e de­
m an d ed at 70. D isa b ility :
F o r present teachers, 20
years’ service, o f w h ich the
last 10 m ust h a ve been in
State; for others, 15 years in
State.
Superannuation: N o age re­
quirem ent.
R e q u ire s 25
years’ service, o f w h ich 18
m ust h ave been in the
State. D is a b ility : 15 years’
service.

Percentage of teachers’
salary roll, vary in g
w ith actuarial state
of fund, to cover
pensions for current
service, and accrued
liab ility.

Superannuation: O ptional at
age 60, except for new en­
trants w ith less th an 5 years’
service, and at a n y age after
36 years’ service; co m p u l­
so ry at 70. D is a b ility : 10
years’ service.

Percentage o f sal­
ary, based on
sex and age at
entrance;
all
salary
above
$2,000 exem pt.

R egular con tribu tion
to cover liab ility for
current service, and
accrued
liabilitycost o f adm inistra'
tion .

S uperannuation: O ption a l at
age 62; co m p u lso ry at 70; 10
years’ service.
D is a b ility :
10 years’ service.

O h io State teachers’ retirem en t sys­
tem (L a w s of 1919, secs. 7896-1 to
7896-63).

P en n sy lv a n ia State sch o o l e m p lo y e e s ’
retirem ent fu n d (L a w s o f 1917, N o .
343).




Superannuation: A n n u ity b o u g h t b y re­
tiran t’s co n tribu tion s, plus pension of
equal a m ou n t, the tw o form ing oneseventieth o f average final com pen sation
for each year o f service. A llo w a n ce for
prior service. D is a b ility : O ne seventi­
eth o f average final co m p en sation for
each year o f service; m in im u m , $300 a
year.
Sup erannuation: A n n u ity b o u g h t b y retiran t’s co n trib u tio n s p lu s pension of
on e-fou rth o f final com p en sation ; m in i­
m u m , after 25 years’ service, $400. A l­
low a n ce for prior service. D isa b ility :
A n n u ity as ab o ve ; pen sion o f one-fifth of
average final salary, b u t n ot over fourfifths o f pension receiva ble had retirant
rem ain ed in service to age 70.

O ptions.

Superannuation an d d isa b ility : 2 per cent
o f average final com pen sation , m u lti­
p lied b y years o f service; m in im u m ,
$350; m ax im u m , $750.

N on e.

Superannuation: A n n u ity b o u g h t b y re­
tira n t’s accu m u lated con trib u tion s plus
pension o f equal am ou n t; m in im u m ,
after 36 years’ service, $300.
F u ll allow ­
ance for prior service.
D is a b ility : A n ­
n u ity plus pension to brin g allow ance to
1.2 per cent of average final com pensa­
tio n for each year o f service; m in im u m ,
30 per cent o f average final com pensation.
Superannuation: A n n u ity b o u g h t b y re­
tira n t’ s con trib u tion s plu s pension of
sam e am ou n t, together equ a lin g oneeightieth o f average final com pen sation
for each year o f service. A llo w a n ce for
prior service. D is a b ility : A n n u ity plus
pension sufficient to brin g allow ance to
one-ninetieth o f average final com pensa­
tio n for each year of service; m in im u m ,
30 per cent of average final com pensation.

O ptions.

Do,

D o.

EM PLOYEES’ RETIREMENT

A p p r o p r ia tio n s to
cover benefits earned
b y current service,
accrued l i a b i l i t y ,
and cost of adm inis­
tration.

X I I .— PUBLIC

Percentage o f sal­
ary, based on sex
an d age at en­
trance.

CHAPTER

State teachers’ pen sion an d a n n u ity
fu n d of N e w Jersey (A c ts o f 1919,
ch . 80).

to
CO

20
8

T a b le

7 2 .—C O M P A R IS O N - OF T E A C H E R S ’ R E T I R E M E N T S Y S T E M S —Continued

State systems — Continued

P ercentage of sal­
ary (at present
5);
m in im u m ,
$16, an d m axi­
m u m , $100 a
year.

A n nual am ount equal
to total co n trib u ­
tion of teachers, u p
to $20,000.

V irginia p u b lic sch ool teachers’ re­
tirem ent fu n d (C o d e of 1919, ch. 36,
secs. 787-805).

1 per cent o f sa la ry.

A nnual appropriation
of am ount needed;
at present, co n trib u ­
tion is $10,000.

W iscon sin teachers’ insurance and
retirem ent system (Stats. 1923,
secs. 42.20-42.57, 20.251, and 20.30).

5 per cent o f sa la ry ;
teachers under
25 do n o t c o n ­
tribu te.

Proceeds of a surtax
on net incom es in ex­
cess of $3,000, to c o v ­
er liab ility for cu r­
rent service, and
accrued liab ility.

N one.

S uperannuation: A n n u ity b o u g h t b y re­
tiran t’s accu m u lated co n tribu tion s and
pension o f equal am ou n t from State;
m axim um , one-half average salary du r­
ing service. D is a b ility : A n n u ity plus
pension, as above, w ith such add itional
pension from State as the retirem ent
board m a y consider ju st; sam e m axi­
m u m as above.
S uperannuation a n d d isa b ility : O ne-h alf of
average salary for last 5 years; n o m in i­
m u m set; m axim u m , $400 if salary w as
below , and $500 if it w as over $1,000.

O ptions.

S uperannuation: A n n u ity b o u g h t b y retiran t’ s accu m u lated con trib u tion s plus
pension b ou gh t b y State’ s accu m u lated
con tribu tion s to his credit, S tate’s part
not to be paid u n til retirant reaches 50.
D isa b ility : Sam e as for superann uation ,
except that 50-year lim it for State’ s penoion clocs n e t o - r r
J^or rotir^int^ ir*
service before system w as a d o p ted w ith
25 years’ service and havin g reached age
o f 50, the State m akes an extra allow ance
in respect o f prior service.

O p t i o n s ; death
benefit.

Superannuation: O ptional at
age 58 for m en, and 50 for
w om en ; n o c o m p u lso ry age;
30 years’ service in State.
D isa b ility : 20 years’ service.
Superannuation: N o age set,
b u t State’ s part of allow ance
w ill not be paid until cla im ­
ant is 50; no service require­
m ent except for those cla im ­
ing prior service allow ance.
D isa b ility: 5 con secutive

N one.

STATES




S uperannuation: O ne-half o f average sal­
ary of last 5 years; m in im u m $500; m axi­
m u m , $700. D is a b ility : Such p ro p o r­
tion o f superann uation pension as years
o f service are o f 35.

UNITED

V erm on t teachers’ retirem ent sy stem
(A cts of 1919, ch . 57).

Superannuation: N o age re­
quirem ent; 35 years’ serv­
ice, o f w h ich 25, including
the last 15, m ust have been
in State.
D isa b ility :
20
years’ service in State.
Superannuation: O ptional at
age 65 for m en, and 60 for
w om en ; n o co m p u lso ry age;
30 years’ service, of w h ich 20,
includ ing the last 5, m ust
have been in State. D is­
a bility: 6 years’ service in
State.

I
N

A n nual appropriation
of am ount needed to
pay current pen ­
sions.

PERSONS

N o c o n t r ib u tio n .-.

R etirem ent allow ances

AGED

R h o d e Island State teachers’ pen sion
system (L a w s o f 1907, ch. 1468;
1909, ch. 401; 1914, ch. 1090; 1921,
eh. 2054; 1926, eh. 776).

Other benefits

C o n dition s for retirem ent

O
F

C on tributions from
State

CARE

C on tribu tion s from
em ployees

N am e of system an d au th o riza tio n

City systems

N a m e of system

M ilw a u k e e p u b lic-sch o o l teachers’
a n n u ity an d retirem ent fu n d
(L aw s of 1909, ch. 510: 1911. ch. 189:
1921, ch. 591; 1925, ch. 243).

C o n dition s for retirem ent

R etirem en t allow ances

A p propriation of $2 for
each $1 from teach­
ers; if insufficient,
a m ount needed is
to be transferred
from general edu ca­
tion fund.
Interest on daily ba l­
ances of teachers’
salary roll, and tu i­
tion fees paid b y
nonresident pup ils,
etc.

S uperannuation: N o age re­
quirem ent; 25 years’ service,
of w hich 15 m ust have
been in C h icago. P erm a­
nent d isability: 12 y ears’
service, three-fifths of w h ich
m ust h ave been in C hicago.
Superannuation: N o age re­
quirem ent; 30 37
ears’ service,
of w h ich the last 20 m ust
have been in D e tro it. D is ­
ability: 10 years’ service in
D etroit.

Superannuation: A fter 25 years’ service,
$800 a year, w ith $20 extra for each year
of service over 25, u p to 10; m axim um ,
$1,000. D isa b ility : Such proportion of
$800 a year as retirant’s contribu tions
form o f $850; m in im u m , $300 a year.

40 per cent of proceeds
of a surtax on net in-

Superannuation: O ptiona l at
age 65, after 25 years’ service,
and at a n y age after 35
years’ service, of w h ich 15
and 20, respectively, m ust
have been in M ilw au k ee.
D isa b ility : 25 years’ service,
15 in M ilw au k ee.
Superannuation: N o age re­
quirem ent, b u t c it y ’ s share
of allow ance n ot to be paid
till age 50 is reached; no
service requirem en t. D is ­
ability: 5 con secu tive years’
service.

M in n e a p o lis teachers’ retirem ent
fu n d association (G e n . L a w s 1909,
ch . 343; 1923, ch. 310).

5 per cent o f sal- j A m o u n t raised b y a
ary. T h o se u n- ;
tax le v y of 1 m ill on
der 25 do not
the dollar,
con tribu te.

N e w Orleans teachers’ retirem ent
fu n d (A c t N o . 116 o f 1910; N o . 263
o f 1914; and N o . 17 o f 1918).

2 per cent of salary.




A m o u n t equal to 3 per
cent of teachers’ sal­
ary roll; m in im um ,
$30,000 a year.

S uperannuation: O ptional u p
to age 65, after w h ich c o m ­
pu lso ry retirem ent m a y be
dem an d ed if advisable; 30
y e a r s ’ s e r v i c e as m i n i ­
m u m , 40 as n orm al require­
m ent. D is a b ility : 5 years’
service.

Other benefits

N one.

Superannuation: $1,200 a year. D isa b ility:
Such p ro p o rtio n of $1,200 a year as re­
tiran t’s years o f service are o f 30; m in i­
m u m , $400.

D o.

Superannuation and d isability : A fter 25
years’ service, $600 a year, w ith $20 ad d i­
tion al for each year o f service over 25, up
to 15; m a xim u m , $900.

D o.

Superannuation: A n n u ity bou g h t w ith re­
tiran t’ s accu m u lated con tribu tion s plus
pension bou gh t w ith c it y ’s accum ulated
con trib u tion s on his behalf; latter not
available und er age 50. A llow an ce for
prior service. D is a b ility : Sam e as super­
ann uation , except that c it y ’s pension is
available at once, regardless of age.
Superannuation: A fter 40 years’ service
one-half of average salary for last 5 years;
und er 40 years’ service, one-fortieth of
norm al allow ance for each year of service;
m in im u m , $300; m axim u m , $600. D is­
a b ility : F or each year of service, one-for­
tieth o f norm al retirem ent allow ance.

Options; death
benefit.

N one.

X I I .----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

D e tr o it pu b lic-sch ool teachers’ re­
tirem ent fu n d (P u b . A cts of 1923,
N o . 152).

Contributions,
g r a d e d by
length of service,
ranging from $10
to $50 a year and
totaling $850 in
25 years.
3 per cent o f sal­
a ry (2 per cent
prior to Septem ­
ber, 1926) b u t
salary over
$1,500 a year ex­
em pt.
Contributions,
graded b y length
o f service, rang­
ing from $4 to $8
a m o n th ; not re­
qu ired after 40
years’ service.

C on tributions from
city

CHAPTER

C h icago p u b lic-s ch ool teachers’ p e n ­
sion
and
retirem en t
system
(L aw s of 1921, p. 821; 1925, p. 571).

j Contributions from
!
em ployees

T a b le

7 2 .-C O M P A R I S O N OF T E A C H E R S ’ R E T I R E M E N T S Y S T E M S —Continued

City systems— Continued

1
N ew Y o r k C it y b oa rd o f ed u cation 1 P ercentage o f sal- A n nual con tribu tion
ary, based o n s e x ,:
for each em ployee of
retirem ent system (L a w s o f 1921, i
age at entrance,
an am ount equal to
ch. 713).
and k in d o f rehis' ow n contribu tirem ent (age or
tion; also contribu service) desired, i
tion to cover accrued
! liab ility and cost of
extra benefits.

A ge retirem ent: O ptional at
age 60. Service retirem ent:
On co m p le tio n o f 35 years’
service. O rd inary disability:
10 years’ service. D u t y dis­
a bility: N o service require­
m ent.

Superannuation: A n n u it y ’ b ou gh t b y re­
tiran t’ s a ccu m u lated con trib u tion s plus
p ension b o u g h t b y c it y ’s accu m u lated
con tribu tion s, a m ou n tin g to one-seven­
tieth of average final salary for each
year o f service. A llo w a n ce for prior
service. D is a b ility :
A n n u ity bou gh t
b y retiran t’ s a ccu m u la te d con tribu tion s
plus pension o f 20 or 25 per cent, accord ­
ing to circum stances, of average final
com pensation.
A g e or service retirem ent: A n n u ity b ou gh t
b y retirant’ s co n trib u tio n s plus pension
b ou gh t b y c it y ’s con trib u tion s to his
credit, the tw o a m ou n tin g to one-seven­
tieth o f average annual salary for last 5
years m u ltip lie d b y years o f service.
A llo w a n ce for prior service. O rd inary
d isability : A n n u ity as a b o v e w ith p en ­
sion to bring allow an ce u p to 90 per cent
o f norm al allow ance for years of service.
D u t y d isa b ility: A n n u ity as a b ov e (or
retirant m a y h a ve his con trib u tion s
returned) plus pension o f three-fourths
o f average annual salary for last 5 years.
S uperannuation and disa b ility: A n n u ity
consisting o f tw o parts: (1) A n a m ou n t
equal to 1 per cent, o f the average sa.larv
for last 10 years m u ltip lie d b y years of
service; (2) an a m ou n t equal to $15
m u ltip lie d b y years of service prior to
1926.
Service in excess o f 40 years n ot
used in calcu lating allow ances.

t

T ea ch ers’ retirem ent fund o f W a s h ­
in gton, D . C . (41 U . S. Stat. L .
” 387*11 17 S P t?/. L.
2 r*. 727\

,




P ercentage o f salary, n o t to exfi
CfilC’ T
I lated o n actu arial basis, b u t all
salary over
$2,000 a year exe m p t.

;
!
;
;

D istrict contribu tes a
percentage of teachora’ ea]tjrT7 roll +
r>
cover its share of
benefits earned b y
current service, and
its accrued liab ility,

Superannuation: O ptional at
age 62; c o m p u ls o ry at 70; 10
<?p.rvif»p in T)ist.riot.
and since reaching age 52.
D isa b ility : 10 years’ service,
if retirant is 45 or over, and
15 years, if under that age.

D eath benefit.

P rovision for de­
pendents; death
benefits; options.

O ptions.

STATES

Superannuation: O ptional at
age 65; co m p u lso ry at 70; 35
years’ service, o f w hich, in
case of future entrant, 20
must h ave been in N e w
Y o rk C ity .
D isa b ility : 10
years’ service.

UNITED

Regular a p p r o p r i a tions, calculated on
actuarial basis, to
cover current and
accrued
liability;
for cost of adm inis­
tration.

I
N

Percentage o f salary, based on
age at entrance.

T ea ch ers’ retirem ent system of the
c it y of N ew Y o r k (L a w s o f 1917,
ch. 303; Charter of G reater N e w
Y o r k , sec. 1092).

O ther benefits

PERSONS

R etirem en t allow ances

AGED

C on dition s for retirem ent

O
F

C on tribu tion s from
city

CARE

C o n trib u tio n s from
em p loyees

N a m e of system

CHAPTER X I I .---- PUBLIC EM PLO YEES’ RETIREMENT

283

Statistics of State and City Systems
T h e t a b l e following shows the pensioners and amounts disbursed
by each of the State and city systems in 1926:
T

able

7 3 .— C O V E R A G E ,

N U M B E R OF P E N S IO N E R S , A M O U N T S D IS B U R S E D , A N D
A V E R A G E P E N S I O N O F S T A T E A N D C I T Y T E A C H E R S , 1926

State or city

Y ear ending—

State system s:
C a lifornia___________ _____ __________
C on n ecticu t- ______ _______________
Illin ois__________ ________ ____ ______
I n d i a n a ______ - _________ - _____
M assachusetts___ __ _ _____________
M ic h i g a n _____ - __ _____________
M in n esota— __ _________ __________
M on tan a
- - _______N ew Jersey— ___ ____
_
_
___
N ew Y o r k _______ _______ . . _____
N orth D a k o t a ,.
___
________
O h io_____ _______________ ________ P en n sylva n ia .- _ _ _________ ______
R h od e Isla n d .- - _____ ____ __ ____
Virginia
W iscon sin .
.
________
___

N u m ber
covered
b y system

June 30,1926
J u ly
1,1926
June 30,1926
Sept. 30,1926
June 30,1926
Sept. 30,1926
June 30, 1926
_ d o . . __ _
_
___ d o _____
_
Ju ly 31,1926
June 30,1926
A u g. 31,1926
June 30,1925
June 30,1926
d o _____
____d o _ .

T o ta l____

A verage
annual
pension *

36,108
9,749
38, 888
12, 341
20,019
24, 471
16, 866
5, 600
19, 830
39, 648
8, 226
42, 972
58,409
3, 599
17, 055
18, 054

1,061
186
1,486
496
852
619
589
130
1,062
1,996
79
2 1,829
1,206
180
758
565

$457,095
95, 592
566, 705
242,450
449, 781
181,844
98, 577
65, 214
910,918
1, 202,619
43, 680
772, 704
421,113
87, 516
129, 665
252, 202

$431
514
381
489
528
294
167
502
852
603
553
422
349
486
171
446

371,835

13,094

5,977, 675

457

1926
1926
1926
1926
1926

11,927
5, 569
2,054
2, 344
1, 619

973
242
89
293
101

3 647, 495
256, 509
» 69, 495
132, 521
41,042

665
1,060
781
452
406

D ec. 31,1926
June 30,1926
_ _do . . .
_

25,995
2,507
2,761

2,041
126
84

2,441,493
176,656
64, 778

1,196
1,402
771

_________ _____ ________

C ity system s:
C h icago
_ _____________ ____
D e t r o i t ___ - - - _______________ ____
M ilw aukee*
_______ ____ _ _
M in neapolis
N ew O rleans.
__ ____
N ew Y o r k —
T ea ch ers’ retirem ent _ _ ____
_
B oa rd of education svstem___
W ashington, D . C
_
_

N u m ber of
A m ount
pensioners
disbursed
on roll
in pensions

Oct.
Aug.
June
D ec.
A u g.

31,
31,
30,
31,
31,

_ _

_ ___________________
_

54, 776

3,949

3, 829,989

970

G rand total

________

426, 611

17,043

9,807,664

575

T o ta l.

1 C om p uted b y d ividing benefits b y n um ber of pensioners.

2 Inclu din g 460 taken over from c ity system s.
3 Year ending A ug. 31.

Carnegie Fund for Teachers’ Retirement2
N 1905, Andrew Carnegie established the Carnegie Foundation
for the Advancement of Teaching; the object of which was the
provision of a free pension for superannuated teachers in colleges and
universities.
Under the rules of the foundation the following benefits were pro­
vided: (1) An old-age pension available at 65 years of age or later
and amounting usually to about 60 per cent of the active salary of the
teacher during his last five years of service but subject to a maximum
pension of $4,000. A teacher whose salary was low received a larger
proportion of his salary as pension. (2) A disability pension, granted
in cases of total disability, after 25 years’ service as professor or 30
years service as professor and instructor. This pension averaged
about 40 per cent of the active salary. (3) A widow’s pension equiva­
lent to one-half of the pension to which the husband would have been
entitled.

I

2 D ata are from annual reports o f the Carnegie F o u n d a tio n for the A d v a n c e m e n t o f T e a ch in g , for the
years 1917, 1918, 1919, 1927, 1928, and its B u lletin N o. 9 (1916),

35777°— 29------- 19




284

CARE OF AGED PERSOxVS IN UNITED STATES

Two classes of beneficiaries were created: (1) Teachers in “ asso­
ciated institutions/7 i. e., in those of college rank which maintained
high standards of work and the tenure of whose teaching force was
“ reasonably secure and respected;” and (2) teachers selected for
pension by virtue of their notable service in the teaching profession.
By the end of the fiscal year 1918-19 the foundation was paying
pensions to 347 retired teachers and to 183 widows of teachers. The
total amount paid to these beneficiaries that year was $828,386. By
that time the trustees of the fund had come to the opinion that the
basis of the plan was unwise, both from a financial standpoint and
from that of the best interests of the teachers themselves. Even as
early as 1914-15, it was pointed out that the pensions being paid to
retirants from associated institutions alone amounted to more than
two-thirds of the income available to the Foundation, to say nothing
of the pensions which had been granted to individual teachers the
payments of which absorbed the income from &bout $2,500,000 of
the endowment of the Foundation. The average pension at that
time was $1,700. Also, the trustees had come to the conclusion,
as a result of their experience, that “ even for high-minded men
such as constitute the membership of the body of college teachers,
it is in the long run undesirable.”
It is one thing to carry out Mr. Carnegie’s kindly conception of a gracious act
to old and worn teachers; it is quite another thing to say to the man of 30 or 40
or 50, “ Your future is cared for years hence by a retiring allowance furnished
without your cooperation.” The trustees of the Foundation came clearly to the
conclusion that only that pension system would be fruitful and feasible which
was provided by annual contributions extending over a torm of years, furnished
by the joint participation of the government of the college and the individual;
that the old-age annuity should be upon a contractual basis; and that it should
be the individual property of the teacher, capable of being continued by him
until such time as he desired to avail himself of its provisions, whether he migrated
from one college to another or whether he went out of college work altogether.

Present Plan
T h e w h o l e b a s is of the scheme was changed in 1918 and a con­
tributory annuity system set up, the Foundation, however, continuing
to make allowances in certain cases. The teachers of associated insti­
tutions are divided into three classes, as follows: (a) Those in the
service of these institutions on November 17, 1915, and who reached
the age of 65 on or before June 30, 1923: (b) those in the service on
November 17, 1915, and who had not yet become 65 years of age by
June 30, 1923; and (c) those entering the service after November 17,
1915, and who are participating in the annuity plan.
Teachers in class (a) become eligible for a pension from the Founda­
tion after 15 years’ service as a professor or 25 years’ service as an
instructor or instructor and professor. Pensions are based upon the

following formula: Retiring allowance =

^ -4 -4 0 0 , but are

subject to a maximum of $4,000 or 90 per cent of the active pay and a
minimum of $1,000 per annum. Disability allowances become receiv­
able after 25 years of service as a professor or 30 years of service as
instructor and professor, upon the basis of the following formula:




CHAPTER X I I .---- PUBLIC EM PLOYEES’ RETIREM ENT

Disability allowance =

(years of service + 15) + 320.

285

The

widow’s pension amounts to one-half of that payable to the husband.
For teachers in class (b) the maximum allowance specified for class
(a) teachers becomes payable between July 1, 1923, and June 30,
1925, to those who reached their 66 year, during the next fiscal year,
to those reaching 67 years, during 1926-27 to those reaching 68 years,
and during 1927-28 to those reaching 69 years. After June 30, 1928,
the maximum allowance becomes available only at age 70.
For those in class (c) there is no fixed age of retirement, since the
teacher holds a deferred annuity contract of which he may avail
himself at any time at which he and his college may agree and with
such a sum as has been earned by the joint contributions of teacher
and college. A teacher who becomes disabled after five years of
service assigns his annuity policy to the Foundation, which assumes
the liability for an annuity of two-thirds of the amount to which the teacher would have been entitled had he continued to contribute
until reaching his sixty-fifth birthday, subject to a maximum of $3,000.
Such payments continue during life, or in case of death, until the
accumulation to the teacher’s credit has been returned to his estate.
Teachers’ Insurance and Annuity Association
T h e c o n t r ib u t o r y system is known as the Teachers’ Insurance
and Annuity Association. This association not only carries the an­
nuity insurance of the system; it also writes straight life, and 20-year
and 30-year endowment policies. Not more than $30,000 can be
written on the life of any one person and not more than $10,000 may
be term insurance nor more than $15,000 decreasing or modified life
contracts.
Under the annuity plan a college which accepts the plan contributes
5 per cent of the salary of the teacher and the teacher himself 5 per
cent. These contributions produce, on the average, an amount
equal to 50 per cent of the active pay at 65, the proportion being
smaller or greater according to whether the teacher elects to retire
before or after reaching that age. A disability pension (as already
mentioned) becomes payable for total disability after 5 years (in­
stead of 25 years, as formerly) of service.
The association began writing insurance in March, 1919. At the
end of six months’ operation it had written more than $750,000 in
life insurance, besides annuity contracts for $116,000 annually at
maturity; making it at that time one of the five leading American
insurance companies with regard to premium income for deferred
annuities. In 1928, after 9 years’ operation, the association had 7,600
policyholders, and had written insurance to the amount of some
$24,000,000 and annuity contracts providing for payments of
$8,970,314 annually.
On June 30, 1927, there were 176 educational institutions which had
entered the scheme; in some of those which have not done so, indi­
vidual teachers are purchasing their own annuities.




286

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

Annuitants, and Annuities Paid in 1927-28
T h e n u m b e r of persons receiving old-age protection from the fou n ­
dation and the annuity association is as follow s:
Foundation:
Number of teachers on roll______________________ .
Number of widows on roll________________________
T otal_____________________________________________

1927-28
468
370
838

Amount paid in retirement allowances and
widows’ pensions________________________________ $1, 386, 823
Average retirement allowance____________________ _____ 1, 630
Teachers’ annuity association:
Number of policies—
E n d of J927
Life insurance____________ _________________________ 4, 316
Annuity insurance_________________ __ _____________ 5, 633
Amount of policies—
Life insurance________________________________ $23, 903, 775
Annuity insurance____________________________
8, 970, 314

At the end of 1927, life annuities totaling $38,812 were being paid
to 84 persons by the teachers’ annuity association.The condition of
its funds at that time was as follows:
Premium income__________________
Insurance reserve_________________
Annuity reserve__________________
Disability reserve_________________
Other funds_______________________
Capital____________________________
Surplus and contingency reserve.

$2, 337, 218
1, 397, 088
7, 963, 173
17, 983
368, 649
500, 000
1, 517, 636

Special Reserves of the Foundation

Tw o s p e c ia l reserve funds have been set up by the foundation, the
first of which was designed to supplement the income from the foun­
dation’s endowment and the second to give special assistance to col­
leges and universities who desire to become members of the annuity
association. Each institution upon becoming a member of the asso­
ciation faces the financial problem of meeting the accrued liability for
the pensions of the older members, since the annuity contract takes
care only of the younger teachers; the reserve fund was established
to assist the colleges to meet this problem. In some cases a sum has
been given to be added to an endowment fund established by the
educational institution to meet the payments for pensions to the older
teachers. In other cases the foundation has granted retirement allow­
ances to these teachers; these allowances, it is stated, have always
been on a modest scale, but total a considerable amount. In certain
other cases the colleges have urged their teachers, young and old, to
enter the annuity association and pay contributions even though the
years remaining before retirement be few, and has then supplemented
the allowances so earned from a special fund raised for the purpose.
In such cases, the foundation has from time to time made a cash con­
tribution to the college fund.




Chapter X III.—Pension Plans of Private Employers
ROBABLY there has never been a time when humane employers
did not expect to provide to some extent for employees who had
grown old in their service, but the definite provision involved in
an organized pension system is largely a growth of the present century.
The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad established its system in 1884, and
a few other plans were in effect before 1900, but for the most part those
now in force have been inaugurated within the last 20 years. From
1910 to 1916, inclusive, some 69 systems were established, but after
1916 the movement slackened, though it has never ceased entirely.
It is difficult to say how widely pension plans are in use at any given
time. Some employers are averse to establishing a formal pension
system, although they make much the same provision for their aged
employees that other employers do through a system. For instance,
10 large corporations, some of which are well known for their fair
and considerate attitude toward their employees, replied that they
had never had a pension system, preferring to treat each individual
case as circumstances seemed to require. Other employers establish
a system tentatively, and it may be in force for some time before any
public mention is made of it.
In 1916, when the Bureau of Labor Statistics published a survey of
civil-service retirement plans and industrial old-age pensions, it
listed 117 plans as then being carried on by private employers. A
study made early in 1925 by the research director of the Pennsylvania
Old Age Pension Commission covered 594 firms providing pensions,
of whom 370 had either a formal pension plan or a definite policy
which had been followed for a number of years, while 224 stated that
they had no formal system but paid pension allowances from time to
time in individual meritorious cases.
In 1925 the Bureau of Labor Statistics made a survey to determine
the extent and character of the pension systems which private em­
ployers had undertaken to provide for their aged employees. In­
quiry was made of all employers known or believed to be maintaining
such a system. Reports were obtained covering 134 pension plans;
but it is believed that actually more than 200 companies were covered,
inasmuch as a single plan might cover a whole group of allied enter­
prises. Thus, a single plan received in answer to the questionnaire
of June, 1925, covers the gas and electric light companies of eight
different municipalities, and some of the railway plans include allied
lines operating throughout a whole section of the country. In some
of these cases there has been a consolidation of plans existing sepa­
rately in 1916. Thus the earlier list showed five pension plans main­
tained by telephone and telegraph companies. In 1925 only two such
plans were reported, but these cover telephone and telegraph systems
in practically every part of the country, and apply to some 280,000
employees. Allowing for such combinations, it is probable that the
systems listed in the present article cover well over 200 companies
and corporations, while it is impossible even to guess at the number
of employees brought within their scope.

P




288

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

Kinds of Pension Plans
T h e r e are two main classes of pension plans— contributory systems,
in which the employee is required to contribute from his earnings to
a fund from which pensions are paid, and noncontributory, in which
no such contribution is required. There is some question as to
whether these are fundamentally different.
Whether the contribution to a pension fund be taken wholly from an em­
ployee’s wages or salary, or be paid wholly by the employer, or be derived in part
from each, these contributions are in all three cases to be regarded as in reality
a deduction from wages or salary. It is the opinion of students of the pension
problem that the existence of a pension system in connection with any position
or employment is taken into account by both parties to the contract of employ­
ment, and that, broadly speaking, wages and salaries actually paid are in due
course reduced below what they otherwise would be by the amoilnt of the total
contributions from both the employer and employee to a pension fund. The
employee will thus pay for his pension by deductions from his wages or salary
whether he is conscious of it or not.
(Illinois, Pension Law:? Commission, Report,
1916, p. 282.)

Various economists hold this theory/ and the civil-service employees
of England were so convinced of its truth that they strove for years
to have their pensions changed from a noncontributory to a contribu­
tory basis, in order that their share in providing them might be recog­
nized, and the right acknowledged of their families to some share in
their accrued interest in the fund in case of the death of employees
before reaching the age of retirement. Generally speaking, however,
in the past this point of view has been ignored, and i t has been assumed
that in noncontributory systems the employer bears the whole cost.
Apart from the matter of contributions, the plans vary widely.
Some employers establish a pension fund by an initial appropriation,
provide for its investment and for future appropriations to keep it up
to a fixed sum, establish a pension committee or board to manage the
system, defining strictly its duties and powers, safeguard the pension
with elaborate provisions as to how it is to be obtained and retained,
and generally plan every detail of the system in advance. Others,
when establishing their plans, prepare little beyond a statement that
every employee who has served a certain length of time and has
reached a certain age shall receive such and such a pension, and still
others draw up plans of all degrees of elaboration between these
extremes.
Purpose of Pension Plans
G e n e r a l l y speaking, the underlying purpose of such plans is to
make life easier for employees who have grown old in the service; in
other words, it is on the whole humanitarian, though a number of
other purposes may play a part. Most employers hope, through the
working of the pension plan, to enlist the loyalty and friendly feeling
of their workers, to secure better service, and to diminish labor turn­
over. Sometimes such a purpose is given as the reason for instituting
the plan.
The company hopes that this voluntary establishment of a pension system
which will assure to faithful employees an income when unable to work, either
by reason of age or permanent incapacity, will confirm 1o them this company’s
appreciation of faithful service, and its interest in their welfare, and thereby in­
crease their desire to render long service and devote their best efforts to the
company, as so many employees have done in the past.
i A m erican E co n o m ic R e v ie w , June, 1913, p. 287: “ Pensions as w a g e s /’ by A lbert de R ood e.




CHAPTEK X I I I .---- B Y PRIVATE EMPLOYERS

289

Sometimes the plan is intended to act as a deterrent to labor
troubles and especially to hinder employees from joining in strikes,
and certain of the plans contain provisions that anyone quitting the
employer’s service, even for one day, forfeits all claim to a pension,
and if he is taken back, must come in as a new employee so far as
pensions are concerned. The contributory plans are sometimes used
to give the employer a kind of insurance against dishonesty, it being
provided that in the event of the employee’s leaving or being dis­
missed, any amount which he may be owing to the employer shall be
deducted before his contributions to the fund are returned to him.
Other subsidiary purposes may enter in, but it is evident that the
humanitarian impulse and the desire to secure more permanent and
devoted service are the leading motives.
Attitude Toward Pension Plans
T h e m e r it s of the pension system from the employer’s standpoint
are readily perceived. It prevents destitution among those who have
grown old in the service, and makes it possible to lay off employees
who through age, injury, or decrepitude have become inefficient,
without involving them in severe hardship. It tends to secure greater
stability, efficiency, and good will in the labor force; it probably
diminishes labor troubles, especially strikes, though this effect is ren­
dered less important by the fact that many of the systems are estab­
lished among the class of employees who do not strike; and it tends
to stabilize wage rates.
Against these advantages must be set the cost of maintaining a
system, and what is far more serious, the uncertainty of the cost
under the common method of establishing pension systems. At first
the expense is usually not serious. When a plan is initiated there are
apt to be but few employees who have reached the retiring age, and
for some years pensioners may be few, but as new workers each year
reach the age limit and are added to the roll, while those already on
it are apt to remain there for some time, the cost mounts rapidly.
One company, whose plan calls for a service qualification of 25 years,
and a pension of 1 per cent of the average earnings of the final 10
years multiplied by the number of years of service, presented figures
covering the first 12 years during which the plan was in operation,
which show how rapidly the annual payments increased:
A n nual
paym en ts

A nnual
paym ents

191
191
191
191
191
191

3
4
5
6
7
8

$37,
43,
55,
83,
96,
109,

031
030
267
897
425
911

191
192
192
192
192
192

9
0
1
2
3
4

$1 20 ,7 80
113, 273
134,923
156, 323
173, 428
199, 100

It will be seen that not only has the annual cost of the system in­
creased more than fivefold, but it is steadily rising, with the constant
load not yet in sight.
The cost, however, is not so serious an objection as the uncertain
basis on which many of the plans are established. A pension system
involves definite commitments for the future, and if it is adopted
without full provision for meeting the coming demands, it is a very
unsafe proposition. In many of the plans studied, the actuarial basis



290

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

on which the system should have been established has been ignored.
In some cases a considerable reserve fund was set aside at the begin­
ning to meet pension costs; in others, the corporation appropriates
year by year what is found to be necessary; in others, an initial re­
serve fund is supplemented by annual appropriations not to exceed
a fixed amount. In general, the reserve funds and annual appro­
priations appear to have been determined rather arbitrarily, without
reference to the age distribution of the employees at the time the
plan was established, or any study of the prospective rates of retire­
ment, the rates of withdrawing before becoming pensionable, the
death rate both for those in active service and on the pension roll,
and other factors which go to determine the future demands on the
pension fund. Some of these plans deal with only a small number of
employees and the systems will probably never grow beyond the
ability of the corporation to handle them; in other cases the fail­
ure to provide a sound basis may lead to serious and embarrassing
consequences.
The danger of this position is recognized by all who have studied
existing pension systems. A committee of employers, appointed in
1920 to investigate the whole matter, in discussing the principles on
which pensions might safely be established, laid special emphasis on
this point:
No pension system should be started without competent actuarial guidance.
The projection into a considerable future of the cost of a pension system is a
highly expert task, based upon the scientific collection of the appropriate data,
the scientific analysis, of those data, and a wide acquaintance with pension
formulae and experience. It is not fair dealing, either with the corporation or
with its employees not to forecast, in such an accurate manner, the cost of the
proposed pension plan.
The employees are entitled to a pension system which has set up an actuarial
balance over the years in which any one of them can expect to be affected. If
the employee is required to contribute to the pension system, this is only honest.
Even if the pensions are apparently the free gift of the corporation, and the
economic possibility of this for a considerable period is doubtful, the employee is
entitled to look forward with assurance to the pension promise. A pension
promise that is uncertain involves an uncertain morality.
(Merchants’ Associa­
tion of New York, Special Committee on Industrial Pensions, Report, p. 6.)

Frequently the plans contain some provision designed to protect
the employing company against the possibility of costs increasing
beyond their expectations. For example, one plan states that—
The board of directors of this company reserve the right to establish a new and
lower basis of pension allowance, if at any time it shall be found that the basis
adopted will create demands in excess of the sum fixed by the board of directors as
the maximum amount to be expended for pension allowances in any one year.

Such provisions protect the companies, but make it impossible for
the employees to take the pension into consideration as a reliable
factor in their plans for the future.
Naturally no individual employee who has readied the age of retire­
ment is averse to taking a pension which he feels he has earned, but
organized labor as a whole looks with disfavor upon such systems.
The objections may be summed up under three heads: First, such
plans reduce the mobility of labor, tend to make the worker submit to
poor conditions without vigorous resistance, and to tie him to one job,
especially as he grows older. The acceptance of a lower wage scale
than could be secured by fighting for increases is prominent among the
effects to which they object. Second, pension systems may be used to
keep the worker from taking part in strikes or other action intended to



CHAPTER X I I I .— BY PRIVATE EMPLOYERS

291

secure an improvement or prevent a worsening of conditions, and may
even be used as a strong lever to force him into strike breaking.
Third, even after fulfilling every condition set, the worker has no legal
right of any kind to a pension, but receives it purely as a gratuity
which may be suspended, reduced, or revoked at the employer’s option.
As to the objections grouped under the first head, it will be noted
that they are, for the most part, the very purposes frequently cited
as grounds for establishing the systems. To lessen labor turnover,
to promote loyal and faithful service, and to induce cordial and effi­
cient efforts on the part of the employees to forward the plans of the
employer are often given in the outline of pension systems as ends
to be obtained by their establishment. Whether or not the noncon­
tributory systems tend to keep down the wage level is perhaps open
to argument, but it is a view accepted by many who study the theory
of pensions, and the workers themselves hold it strongly.
As to the second point, that pension systems may be used to pre­
vent collective action on the part of labor, the wording of many of
the plans confirms the charge. A very common provision is that in
order to qualify for the pension a worker must give continuous service,
and the definition of “ continuous” is such as to bar any one who
takes part in a strike. Voluntary withdrawal from the service con­
stitutes a breach of continuity, and if the worker is reinstated he
comes in, so far as pensions are concerned, as a new employee, or
may forfeit his pensionable status altogether. Some plans put the
matter more explicitly. One limits pensions to employees who “ have
not been engaged in demonstrations detrimental to the company’s
best interests.” Another states that “ employees who leave the
service of their own volition or under stress of influences inimical to
the company, or who are discharged by the company, thereby lose
all benefits of the benefit and pension system,” while another states
flatly that “ employees who leave the service under strike orders
forfeit all claims to pension benefit. ” Under such provisions a man
who has worked all his days for one company and is on the verge of
retiring with a pension may find himself forced to choose between
giving up all hope of the pension he has earned or, as he sees it, being
false to his fellows and to his own lifelong principles as a union man.
The possibility of being called upon to act as a strike breaker is
not so common, but exists under some of the plans. A number
contain clauses giving the company power to revoke pensions at their
discretion, or in case “ the conduct of the pensioner may seem unworthy of this bounty,” or if “ the pensioner displays a decided lack
of appreciation of the company’s liberality in granting the pension.”
It is evident that a refusal to come back to the service, in the event
of a strike, might easily be construed as lack of appreciation or un­
worthy conduct, or as justifying the company in using its discretion
to revoke the pension. A few plans distinctly provide that a pen­
sioner must come back whenever called.
On request of the company at any time, pensioned employees will be expected
to give it the benefit of their knowledge and experience and to act as advisers
whenever called upon.
The employing company reserves the right to recall pensioners to the service
of the company, in which event pensions cease for the time being, and wages are
paid in accordance with the standard wage rates for the occupation for which the
pensioner has been recalled. This right of the company terminates when the
pensioner shall have reached the age of 70 years.




292

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

The acceptance of a pension allowance does not debar a retired employee
from engaging in other business, provided it is not prejudicial to the interest of
this company, but such person shall hold himself in readiness, and be subject to
any reasonable call of the company.

Such clauses are by no means universal, however, and at least one
company distinctly provides against a retired employee’s being forced
into service against his will, by stipulating that while the company
has the right to continue pensioners in service if it wishes, no pen­
sioner “ shall be compelled to accept such employment, and if he
refuse, it shall in no wise affect his rights to a pension.”
Naturally enough, the plans which provide for recalling pensioned
employees to the service are found mainly in industries in which
labor troubles have played a considerable part, and in which the ex­
istence of a body of potential strike breakers may be of value to the
employers. Organized labor cites cases in which employers have exer­
cised this right, and superannuated workers have found themselves
obliged to accept service against their comrades or to forfeit in old
age the pensions for which they have qualified by long and faithful
service.
The third objection, the worker’s lack of any contractual right to
a pension, is considered by many to be an almost fatal objection to
the system. The worker has no rights whatever in the matter, even
when he has fulfilled every condition laid down in the plan. The
plans are frequently explicit on this point. The following provision
is only a trifle more outspoken than those of numerous other plans:
This pension system is established voluntarily by the company and m ay be
amended, suspended, or annulled, and any pension granted under the same may
be revoked at any time at the pleasure of the company, it being expressly under­
stood that * * * every pension allowance hereunder will be granted only
at the discretion of the company and continued only at its pleasure.

Even in the case of contributory pension systems, the employee
has no right to anything beyond the return of his contribution.
This question came before the courts in connection with the sale of
one of the large packing businesses, in which a contributory pension
system had been established and carried on for some 10 or 12 years.
On the sale of the business the purchaser returned from the fund the
contributions of such of the employees as had not yet reached pen­
sionable age, and used the remainder to pay the pensions already
earned for as long as the fund should hold out. The pensioners
sought to have the return of the contributions halted, on the ground
that they had fulfilled all the conditions for securing pensions, that
they had a right to the pensions, and that the pension fund should
not be used for any other purpose than paying pensions. The deci­
sion of the court was that the employees had acquired no rights
beyond the return of their contributions, that many of the pensioned
employees had already received more than they had put into the
fund and therefore had no claim to anything, and that the company
in establishing and maintaining the pension system had not in any
way bound itself to continue in business or to perpetuate the plan.
Substitutes for Pension Systems
T h e d i s a d v a n t a g e s of the pension system are so great, in the
opinion of many, that efforts have been made to find a substitute
which shall avoid its drawbacks and yet retain the advantage of




CHAPTER X I I I .— B Y PRIVATE EMPLOYERS

293

aiding the employee to avoid destitution in old age. The plan which
seems to have won most favor is the purchase of an annuity for each
employee, payments being made for each individually each year, and
each account being kept separate from all others. The annuity is to
be purchased through some well-established insurance company, and
its cash surrender value naturally increases with each year for which
payments are made. The employer may bear the whole cost, or the
employee may be required to contribute. The plan may be optional
or obligatory for the individual employee, he may have a right to
the cash surrender value of the policy at any time, or may be unable
to realize anything from it until he reaches the age at which the
annuity is to begin, or other variations may be introduced.
The outstanding advantages of the plan are that it puts the whole
matter on a business basis, instead of making it a matter of the
employer’s liberality; that it is fair to the employees as among them­
selves, since each receives his own amount, and one who leaves the
employment before retirement gets back what he has earned by his
period of service instead of having contributed for the benefit of
those who remain; that it gives the worker a contractual instead of
only a moral right, so that he may plan his future with more assur­
ance; that it can not be used, as the pension system may, for dis­
ciplinary purposes; and that since the annuity is written by a strong
insurance company, even the employer’s failure or withdrawal from
business does not affect the worker’s surety. From the employer’s
standpoint, it secures the great advantage of a pension system in that
it enables him to retire employees who are becoming less efficient, with­
out undue hardship to them, while at the same time it enables him to
calculate his costs accurately and it involves him in no future obliga­
tions. The payments of each year are a completed transaction, and
if at any time he should find it necessary to give up the system, each
worker would still receive the full benefit of all payments made on his
account up to that time. In other words, there is no pension fund
which must be maintained unless old employees are to be disappointed
in their legitimate expectations, and which may come to grief if the
employer fails, dies, or retires. Moreover, it meets the complaint
that the pension is really deferred pay, which the man who with­
draws before reaching retiring age never gets, since every worker
under such a plan gets his own deferred pay, his return being greater
or less as his period of service varies.
Several companies have already adopted this general plan, their
systems varying in several points. As an example, one of these may
be given in some detail. The plan first provides that any employee
may notify the company of his intention to apply to a designated
insurance company for an “ independence monthly income bond,”
and may authorize the company to allot from his salary any sum,
not less than $5 a month, toward the purchase of this bond. The
company will thereafter duplicate the amount of the employee’s
allotment, up to 5, 73^, or 10 per cent of his salary, depending upon
his length of service. The plan then continues:
The amount allotted from the salary, together with the company’s addition
thereto, will be handed you monthly on the 15th, in the form of a check to the
order of the insurance company. A t the end of each quarter you will forward
the checks thus received to the insurance company, in payment of the quarterly
installment then due on your bond.




294

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

A t your option, any amount up to one-half of the checks ssued to you may be
applied to the purchase from the insurance company of an) form of endowment
insurance, the dividends on which shall be allowed to accumulate as long as this
company’s contributions continue.
The insurance company will issue to you upon application and without medical
examination (unless disability feature is desired) an independence monthly
income bond, embracing the following features:
(a) Monthly income payable to you, commencing at age 65 (or other age, if
you prefer), and continuing for life.
(b) In the event of your death before the monthly income commences, your
beneficiary will receive in one payment an amount equal to the combined pay­
ments made by you and this company, after deducting the cost of the disability
feature.
(c) In the event of your death after the monthly income has commenced,
but before 120 monthly payments have been made, your beneficiary will receive
the balance of 120 payments. Monthly income is thus payable for 10 years
in any event, and as much longer as you may live.
(d) In the event of permanent total disability (if medical examination has
been submitted to with satisfactory results) all further payments by you will
cease, and your monthly income will commence at once, and continue as long
as you live.
(e) After the contract has been in force one year, it will have cash surrender
or loan values comparable with those shown in the accompanying table.
(/) Upon reaching the age of 65 (or other selected age) you will have the
option of receiving a lump sum instead of the monthly income.
(g) All dividends on the contract shall be allowed to accumulate as long as
this company’s contributions continue.
The bond above described will be issued to you directly by the insurance
company. It becomes your property and all amounts contributed thereto by
this company are irrecoverable.
In the event of the termination of your employment by this company, the
bond may be continued by you at its full amount, or it may be reduced in amount
to offset the loss of this company’s further contributions, or it may be canceled,
and its cash surrender value withdrawn by you: or it m ay be converted into
a paid-up annuity.
At your option, the amount of the bond m ay be increased or reduced at any
time; or the age at which the monthly income payments to you will commence
may be altered if you wish.

Against such a system as this it, is sometimes urged that, as the
years go on, the increasing cash surrender value of the policy becomes
an inducement to the employee to leave his employer’s service in
order to secure the lump sum at once. A second company which
has recently adopted the general principle underlying this plan varies
its operation in such a way as to eliminate this possibility. For each
employee who has been in its service for five years 6r more, the com­
pany purchases annually a bond providing an annuity of $1 a month
commencing at the normal retirement age, which is set at 65 for men
and 60 for women. These bonds remain the property of the com­
pany until the employee either retires or completes 30 years of service,
when they are delivered to him. If he continues in the service after
30 years, the company continues to buy an annual bond on his account
which is delivered to him on purchase. The employee can not at any
time get a cash surrender value on these bonds, and if he leaves the
service before he has either reached the retiring age, or completed
the 30-year period, he receives no benefit whatever from the plan.
The company maintains, in addition, however, a contributory plan,
under which the employee may make monthly deposits to which the
company will add an amount increasing with the employee’s age, for
the purchase of additional retirement bonds. This enables the worker
to secure a more liberal income after retirement, at a very low cost to
himself. Should he withdraw from the service, or cease depositing




CHAPTER X I I I .— B Y PRIVATE EMPLOYERS

295

before reaching the retirement age, he is entitled to the return of his
own contributions, with 4 per cent interest, compounded annually.
This modification of the system does not meet the issue of deferred
pay—i. e., if the worker leaves before the set period he receives
nothing for the time he has served, but it does insure his getting the
pension if he remains to the end, regardless of what may befall his
employer’s business.
It is evident that this use of the annuity principle avoids most of the
objections urged against pension systems, and that it is adaptable to
varying conditions. In theory such plans are highly approved by
many students of the subject, but as yet there is little experience
showing how they stand the test of actual working.2
2 O n Ju ly 1, 1925, the N e w Y o r k Stock E xchange and its affiliated com panies p u t into effect a service
ann uity plan coverin g all em ployees under 60 w h o had com pleted one year o f active service. F o r each
em ployee the com panies purchase ann ually an ann uity, beginning at age 65, v aryin g in am ou n t from $1 to,
$3 a m on th , according to the salary received. T h ese am ounts are d ou b led for em ployees w h o authorize a
d edu ction of not less than 3 per cent from their salaries for the purchase o f add itional annuities. I f an
em ployee leaves the service or wishes to w ith d raw from the plan he m a y ( 1) contin ue on his o w n account
the full paym ents to the insurance com p an y ; (2) cease p aym en t and receive at 65 such a n n u ity as has already
been paid for; (3) w ith draw and receive back all his ow n contribu tions, w ith ou t interest. T h is leaves the
m atter of deferred p a y to the e m p loyee’ s ow n decision. If he prefers to w ith draw his con tribu tion s, he
receives n othing b u t w hat he has him self pu t in; if he chooses to w ait, he receives all that the co m p a n y
has paid for on his accou n t, as w ell as w h at he has purchased him self.




Chapter XIV,—Insurance Annuities as Support for
Old Age

I

known that some persons of forethought, who are financially
able to do so, provide for their own old age b}' the purchase of
annuities from the regular insurance companies. This form of
insurance, being much more costly than ordinary life policies, is not so
popular. Again, there is also the tendency of young persons to dis­
count the future and to delay taking out such insurance. As, of
course, the premiums increase with the age at taking out the policy,
by the time the prospective insured reaches an age at which he begins
to give serious consideration to his old age, he may find the premiums
prohibitive or his family responsibilities too great to permit his pur­
chasing an annuity.
T IS

Insurance Annuities Purchased from Eight Companies

In o r d e r to obtain an indication of the extent to which annuities
are being used as a protective measure, inquiry was made of eight
large insurance companies known to be writing such insurance.
These were the Aetna Life Insurance Co., Equitable Life Assurance
Society of the United States, Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance
Co., Metropolitan Life Insurance Co., New York Life Insurance Co.,
Prudential Insurance Co., Travelers Insurance Co., and Sun Life
Assurance Co. of Canada.
The table following shows, for each of the companies, the number
of individual annuity policies in force, the annual amount of premium
received for these policies, and the year in which the company began
to write such policies:
T

able

7 4 .— N U M B E R O F A N N U I T Y P O L IC IE S IN F O R C E A N D A M O U N T O F P R E M I U M

R E C E IV E D A N N U A L L Y T H E R E F O R , B Y C O M P A N IE S

C om pany

C om pany
C om pany
C om pany
C om pany
C om pany
C om pany
C om pany
C om pany

A__ _________________________________________________ _____ ____
B ____________________________________________________ ______ ___
C ______________________________________ _____________ _____ ___
D__ ________ _____________________________________ __________
E __________ ______________________________ ____________________
F.
_______________________________________________ __________
G _ ___ __________ ______ ______________________________ _____ ___
H ._ ............................ ............................................. . .............................

T o ta l

__ __________________________________________________

N um ber
o f p o lic y ­
holders

Premium

2,483
44,97 L
77 7
1,71)
3, 521
2, 303
2,151
623

$1,612,682
25, 346,931
458, 614
1, 035, 743
1,916, 648
1,093, 573
1,484,730
590,958

58, 562

W ritin g
such
insurance
since—

33,539,879

1905
1867
1918
1899
1860
1895
1888
1911

Each company was asked to state, as a result of its experience in
this line, its opinion as to the popularity of annuity insurance. Com­
panies A and B find that immediate annuities are quite popular
among older people, while younger ones take out deferred annuities.
Company C states that it finds that “ single premium annuities
296




CHAPTER X I V .— INSURANCE AN NU ITIES

297

* * * providing for immediate income have not been very popu­
lar. However, our annual premium annuities providing for a deferred
income commencing at ages 50, 55, 60, or 65 have been popular. We
have at present 10,500 of such policies on the books. The present
value at the due date of the income payments aggregates approxi­
mately $85,000,000.”
Company D finds that “ The individual life annuity is not a popular
form of contract in the United States at the present time because of
the relatively high interest yield on safe investments and because an
endowment at 60 or 65 under which life insurance and old-age income
may be combined is more attractive.”
In the opinion of Companies E and H, annuities have not been
very popular and Company G finds them “ only moderately so.”
Company F states that, “ relatively, the amount of annuity business
transacted in this country is comparatively small.”
Four companies state, nevertheless, that they believe the annuity
insurance business is increasing in importance and scope; one com­
pany says it is keeping pace with other lines of insurance, and another
states that while “ immediate annuities are showing only a normal
growth, deferred annuities are becoming very popular.” One com­
pany relates the development of such insurance to the condition of
the money market, stating that while annuities are increasing in
importance, this increase is not rapid. “ In the past when rates of
interest were higher, annuities were very rarely sought, but with the
fall in the rate of interest there is an increasing tendency among
older people to invest in annuities.”
One company (which also writes group annuity contracts for em­
ployers to cover the employees, having 39 such contracts in force at
present covering 37,384 employees) is somewhat pessimistic as regards
individual deferred annuities, but writes as follows as regards endow­
ment and group policies:
There is a growing tendency to provide for old age by the purchase of endow­
ment insurance which matures at age 60 or 65. The insured has the right to
have the endowment paid in installments or as a life annuity instead of any one
sum at maturity. Where payment is made in installments or as an annuity, it
is practically a deferred annuity with life insurance benefits. As it is not possi­
ble to know which policyholders will elect to have the endowment paid in install­
ments, it is not possible to include such figures in any annuity statistics. The
tendency toward long-term endowments is illustrated by the fact that the [com­
pany] did not commence issuing these contracts regularly until 1922 but in 1927
almost 5 per cent of our total ordinary business was written on this basis.
There has been considerable development in the last few years in the use of
annuity contracts in connection with the industrial retirement plans. American
industry is apparently recognizing that the problem of pensions is a business
problem which must be solved on a sound basis.
The [company] has done a great deal of experimenting in the use of deferred
annuities on a group basis for the operation of these retirement plans. There is
every indication that this business will increase considerably in importance and
scope in the years to come. This is indicated by the fact that the [company] has
already covered almost 40,000 employees under group annuity contracts. W e
believe that the future development of the annuity form of contract will be in
connection with the industrial retirement plans.

Savings Bank Annuities in Massachusetts
M a s s a c h u s e t t s in 1907 passed a law permitting savings banks to
establish an insurance department to write life insurance policies not
exceeding $500 and annuity contracts not exceeding $200 a year. The
act prohibited the use of solicitors or house-to-house collectors.




298

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES

The purpose of the act was “ to offer to thrifty wage earners an
opportunity to obtain life insurance and annuities at rates lower than
those of the existing companies, by lessening the heavy expense
entailed by the system of house-to-house solicitation and collection.”
That this insurance, even at low rates, has not proved especially
popular is shown by the reports of the Massachusetts Commissioner
of Banks. His report for the year ending October 31, 1927, shows
that up to that time 10 savings banks had established insurance
departments, and 45,715 life policies had been issued in an amount
of $49,171,745 (of which 65 policies, for a total of $10,928,350, were
for group insurance). Only 513 persons had availed themselves of
the opportunity to purchase annuities; the annual premiums amounted
to $95,435.
State Insurance in Wisconsin

A l a w p a s s e d in 1911 by the Wisconsin Legislature established a
“ life fund” to be “ administered by the State without liability on the
part of the State, beyond the amount of the fund,” for the purpose of
writing life insurance and annuities for citizens of the State (Wis.
Stats. 1923, sec. 210.05).
The act provided that the premiums for life insurance should be
based upon the American Experience Table, with additions for extrahazardous risks, and those for annuities upon the British annuity
tables of 1893, with interest at 3 per cent. Physical examinations
are required for life insurance but not for annuities.
The rates for a life policy of $1,000 range from $16.69 per year at
age 16 to $65.70 at age 60. It is stated that “ the only difference
between the rates of the State life fund and the regular old line com­
panies is that the amount charged for expenses in the State life fund
is generally less than that charged by participating old line com­
panies.” One of the large items of expense— that of agents soliciting
business— is dispensed with altogether by the State. The State
policies are participating policies, and the insured receives a dividend
at the end of each year.
Data supplied by the Commissioner of Insurance show that on June
30, 1929, there were 946 policies in force, with a total amount of insur­
ance of 11,182,250. The premiums received during the year amounted
to $21,843.
Death claims paid during the year amounted to $3,100 and matured
endowments to $1,000, while cash-surrender values on policies turned
in amounted to $1,277.




Appendix—Menus of Representative Homes
M E N U S O F S IX O LD P E O P L E ’ S H O M E S

Home No. 1 1
Breakfast

D ay

D inn er

Supper

S u n d a y .......................

Sliced oranges.
C orn flakes and m ilk .
B a con and eggs.
B read and butter.
C offee.

P rim e roast beef.
B oiled potatoes.
C elery on stalk.
C ream ed asparagus.
Sliced pineapp le.
B read and bu tter.
T ea .

Sliced lu n ch m eat.
L ettu ce.
Fried potatoes.
String beans.
Stew >d fruit.
Brea< and butter.
T ea .

M o n d a y ____________

O atm eal and m ilk .
B a k e d beans.
B read an d bu tter.
C offee.

C elery sou p.
R oa st p ork loins.
B oiled p otatoes.
Stew ed corn.
Bread p u d d in g .
B read and butter.
Tea.

B eef stew .
B o ile d potatoes.
C ream ed carrots.
Sliced apricots.
Bread and butter.
T ea .

T u e sd a y ____________

Sliced oranges.
O atm eal and m ilk .
Scrapple.
Bread and bu tter.
C offee.

V egetable soup.
R oa st veal shoulder.
B ro w n potatoes.
K id n e y beans.
Fruit jello.
B read and butter.
T ea .

H am bu rg steak.
B o ile d potatoes.
L im a beans.
Stew ed fruit.
B read and butter.
Coffee.

W e d n e s d a y ...............

C orn flakes and m ilk .
B oile d eggs.
B read an d bu tter.
Coffee.

Split pea sou p.
R oast beef.
B oiled potatoes.
C ream ed onions.
R ice p u d d in g .
Bread and b u tte r.
Tea.

Sliced m eats.
L e ttu ce .
H ash b ro w n potatoes.
Succotash.
Fresh apples.
Bread and bu tter.
T ea .

T h u r sd a y __________

Sliced oranges.
O atm eal and m ilk .
H ot cakes.
S yru p .
Bread and butter.
Coffee.

B ean soup.
H a m and cabbage.
B oiled potatoes.
Ice cream .
B read and butter.
Coffee.

B eef croquettes.
Fried p o ta to e s.
String beans.
S tew ed fru it.
Bread and bu tter.
T ea .

F r id a y ______________

C orn flakes and m ilk .
B oile d eggs.
B read and bu tter.
C offee.

B a k ed fresh shad.
M a sh e d potatoes.
Stew ed corn.
B read p u d din g.
B read an d bu tter.
T ea .

Spaghetti.
H ash bro w n potatoes.
B u ttered beets.
S liced pears.
Bread and butter.
T ea .

S atu rd a y___________

O atm eal and m ilk .
Fresh pork sausage.
B read and b u tter.
C offee.

Fresh beef stew .
B oiled potatoes.
M ash ed turnips.
T a p io ca pu d d in g.
B read and bu tter.
T ea .

Frankfurters.
M a sh ed potatoes.
Saur kraut.
A p p le sauce.
B read and butter.
Coffee.

Home N o. 2
S u n d ay..

O ian ge.
Cereal.
B a con .
B read and bu tter.
C offee or m ilk .

C h icken fricassee.
G ra v y .
P arsley new potatoes.
C ream ed carrots.
C o ld slaw .
H om e-m ade cake.
T ea or m ilk .

C o ld m eat.
L ettu ce.
M ayonnaise.
B read and bu tter.
C ook ies.
B artlett pears.
T ea or m ilk .

1 F or m en on special diet, m enu d aily: Eggs in an y style except fried, m ilk, gluten, w heat, bran, and
raisin bread. Fresh fruits and vegetables in season.

35777°— 29-




-20

299

300

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN

UNITED STATES

M E N U S O F S I X O L D P E O P L E ’ S H O M E S — C on tin u ed

Home No. 2— Continued
D ay

Supper

D inner

Breakfast

M o n d a y ____________

A p p le sauce.
Cereal.
French toast.
Bread and butter.
C offee or m ilk .

R oast beef.
G ra v y .
B a ked p otatoes.
C orn.
B read and butter.
B read p u d d in g .
T ea or m ilk .

C ream ed dried beef
to a s t.
B read an d b u tte r.
C ook ies.
R o y a l A n n e cherries.
T ea or m ilk .

T u e sd a y ____________

Stew ed peaches.
Cereal.
H o t cakes.
B read and butter.
C offee or m ilk .

B a k ed h am .
M a sh e d potatoes.
B oiled cabba ge.
B u ttered beets.
B read and butter.
Prune w h ip .
T ea or m ilk .

C h ick en n oodle sou p .
C rackers.
C elery.
Bread and b u tter.
C orn m uffins.
Jam .
T ea or m ilk .

W ed n esd a y ................

Bananas.
Cereal.
L ive r.
B read and bu tter.
Coffee or m ilk .

L a m b stew w ith potatoes.
G reen peas.
B read and bu tter.
Sliced peaches.
| Sweet crackers.
T ea or m ilk .

V egetable salad.
Cheese.
Bread and bu tter.
Cornstarch p u d d in g .
T ea or m ilk .
V egetable fritters.
L ettu ce and m ayonnaise.
B read and butter.
R ice pu d d in g .
T ea or m ilk.

T h u r sd a y .................... Orange.
Cereal.
B acon .
B read and butter.
C offee or m ilk.

Casserole of m eat
vegetables.
L im a beans.
C oldslaw .
Bread and butter.
F ru it cup.
T ea or m ilk.

F r id a y ....... .................. Stew ed apricots.
Cereals.
B o ile d eggs.
Bread and butter.
C offee or m ilk.

B a k e d D e la w a re shad.
M ash ed potatoes.
T om a to e s a n d celery ste w .
B read and butter.
A p p le pie.
T ea or m ilk.

M acaron i au gratin.
B read and butter.
Jello w h ip w ith fruit sauce.
T ea or m ilk.

R oast leg of lam b.
B a k ed potatoes.
G reen beans.
Relish.
B read and butter.
T a p io ca pu d din g.
T ea or m ilk.

V egetable soup.
Saltines.
B read and butter.
B ran m uffins.
Jam.
T ea or m ilk.

S atu rd a y___________

Stew ed prunes.
Cereal.
F ried corn m ush.
B read and butter.
Coffee or m ilk.

and

on

Home No. 8
W ed n esd a y __ ______

B a con and eggs _ . .
. __
B u ck w h e a t
or
w heat
cakes.
C orn flakes or oatm eal.
H o t bread.
Coffee.
Fruit.

R oast beef.
Spinach.
M ash ed potatoes.
Carrots.
B a k ed tom atoes.
Dessert (tw ice a w eek, al­
w ays ice cream on Sun­
d a y ).

Salad— lettu ce and
toes.
C o ld ham .
F ruit, canned.
B iscuits.

S u n d a y_____________

Stew ed p r u n e s ......................
B ran flakes.
F rench toast.
Tea, coffee, m ilk.
Bread, butter, toast.

R oast veal, bread filling.
M ash ed potatoes.
G ra vy.
Asparagus tips.
N u t jello.
B read and butter.
Tea, coffee, m ilk.

C o ld b o ile d ham .
Cheese an d crackers.
Cake and apple sauce.
Bread and butter.
Tea, coffee, m ilk.

M o n d a y ......................

C orn flakes.
Cream of w heat.
Fried eggs.
B read, butter, toast.
Tea, coffee, m ilk.

B a ked m eat pie.
C abbage slaw.
Fruit salad.
B read and butter.
Tea, coffee, m ilk .

C o ld sliced m eat.
B a k ed beans.
P ick le d beets.
H o t biscuits and jelly.
B read and butter.
Tea, coffee, m ilk.




tom a­

APPEN DIX— MENUS OF REPRESENTATIVE HOMES

301

M E N U S O F S I X O L D P E O P L E ’ S H O M E S — C o n tin u e d

Home No. 4— Continued
D ay

Breakfast

D inner

Supper

T u esd a y..

C orn flakes.
B oiled eggs.
Bread, bu tter, toast.
Tea, coffee, m ilk.

N o o d le soup.
B o ile d potatoes.
C ream ed string beans.
B read and butter.
Tea, coffee, m ilk.

B a k e d veal loaf.
R a w fried potatoes.
A p ricots.
Bread and butter.
Tea, coffee, m ilk.

W ed n esd a y..

Stew ed prunes.
B ran flakes.
F ried bacon.
Bread, butter, toast.
Tea, coffee, m ilk.

B a ked ham .
M ash ed potatoes.
Stew ed tom atoes.
Cornstarch p u d din g.
B read and butter.
Tea, coffee, m ilk.

W elsh rarebit.
Stew ed k id n e y beans.
P ick led beets.
Cherries.
B read and butter.
T ea, cocoa, m ilk.

T h u rsd a y .

C orn flakes.
O at meal.
Fried eggs.
B read, butter, toast.
Tea, coffee, m ilk.

Swiss steak.
B oiled potatoes.
Stew ed peas.
B read and butter.
Tea, coffee, m ilk.

F ried sausage and
cakes.
B oiled rice.
P ineapple.
B read and butter.
T ea, coffee, m ilk.

F rid ay _

C orn i
B oile d m ackerel.
B read , butter, toast.
T ea, coffee, m ilk.

F ried oysters.
B row n ed potatoes.
D andelion .
R ice pud din g.
B read and butter.
T ea, coffee, m ilk.

C ream ed asparagus soup.
F ried potatoes.
P ick led beets.
Pears.
B read and butter.
T ea, coffee, m ilk.

S atu rd a y-

B ran flakes.
Oat meal.
F ried bacon.
B read, butter, toast.
Tea, coffee, m ilk.

Escalloped potatoes.
Spinach.
C ream ed carrots.
B read and butter.
T ea, coffee, m ilk.

Sardines.
B a ked potatoes.
Pea salad.
B read and butter.
T ea, coffee, m ilk.

hot

Home No. 5
S u n day..

H ot and cold cereal.
B oiled eggs.
C offee, tea, and m ilk.

T o m a to soup w ith rice.
R oast shoulder o f pork.
B row n gravy.
M ashed potatoes.
B row ned parsnips.
C h o co la te eclairs.
C offee, tea, and m ilk.

C ottage cheese.
B aked apples.
C innam on bun.
C offee, tea, and m ilk.

M o n d a y ..

H o t and cold cereal.
B a ked salt m ackerel.
C offee, tea, and m ilk.

V egetable soup.
R oa st shoulder o f lam b.
B ro w n gravy.
B oiled potatoes.
B oiled cabbage.
Caram el custard , blanc­
m ange.
C offee, tea, and m ilk.

B oiled rice and m ilk.
Stew ed fruit.
C offee, tea, and m ilk.

T u esd a y _

H o t and cold cereal.
C ream ed beef.
C offee, tea, and m ilk.

R ice soup.
L a m b stew w ith vegeta­
bles.
Boiled potatoes.
Bread
p u d d in g
w ith
raisins.
C offee, tea, and m ilk.

B aked beans.
C anned pears.
C offee, tea, and m ilk.

Y /ed n esd a y ..

H o t and co ld cereal.
B oiled eggs.
C offee, tea, and m ilk.

C ream of beef soup.
P o t roast beef w ith brow n
gravy.
B oiled potatoes.
B u ttered carrots.
G inger bread.
C offee, tea, and m ilk.

C orn m eal m ush and m ilk.
Stew ed fruit.
C offee, tea, and m ilk.

T h u r sd a y .

H o t and co ld cereal.
Frankfurters.
C offee, tea, and m ilk.

V egetable soup.
H am bu rg patties.
B ro w n gravy.
B oiled potatoes.
Cream ed parsnips.
C h ocolate blancm ange.
C offee, tea, and m ilk.

C lam chow der.
Stew ed fruit.
C offee, tea, and m ilk.




302

CARE OF AGED PERSONS IN UNITED STATES
M E N U S O F S I X O L D P E O P L E ’ S H O M E S — C o n tin u e d

Home No. 5— Continued
Breakfast

D ay

F rid a y

D in n er

Supper

H o t and co ld cereal.
B oiled eggs.
C offee, tea, and m ilk.

S atu rda y__________

V egetable soup.
B aked fish.
B oiled potatoes.
P ick led beets and onions.
R ice pu d din g .
Coffee, tea, and m ilk.

M acaron i and cheese.
Stew ed fruit.
Coffee, tea, and m ilk.

H o t and co ld cereal.
L yon naise potatoes.
C offee, tea, and m ilk.

________ __

M acaron i soup.
Beefsteak pie.
B oiled potatoes.
L im a beans.
Sago pud din g.
C offee, tea, and m ilk.

B row n beef hash w ith
potatoes and onions.
Stew ed fruit.
C offee, tea, and m ilk.

Home No. 6 2
S u n d a y -------------------

Oatm eal.
Scram bled eggs.
B aked potatoes.
D oughnuts.
C orn bread.

B aked beans.
B row n bread.
T a pioca p u d din g.

M acaron i and cheese.
Cake.

M o n d a y ..................

Oatm eal.
C o ld ham .
B a ked potatoes.
H o t bread.

B eef stew and dum plings.
Sweet corn.
A p p le pie.

W arm ed bak ed beans.
Cake.
A p ric o t sauce.

T u e sd a y ____________

Oatmeal.
B a ked sausage.
B a ked potatoes.
D oughnuts.
H o t bread.

R oast pork.
B oiled onions.
B oiled potatoes.
Squash.
M in ce pie.

Potatoes.
C old m eat.
Cake.
P rune sauce.

W e d n e s d a y ___ __

Oatmeal.
B aked potatoes.
Bacon.
C orn cake.

B oiled dinner.
Squash pie.

Vegetable hash.
Cheese.
Cake.

T h u rsd a y - ............

O atmeal.
B oiled eggs.
Baked potatoes.
D oughnuts.
H o t bread.

B oiled m utton.
Sliced tom atoes.
B ro w n bread.
C ottage pu d din g.

Potatoes.
C old m eat.
Cake.
Peach sauce.

F r id a y ................. ........

Oatmeal.
B aked potatoes.
Cream ed codfish.
H o t biscuit.

F ried fish.
B oiled potatoes.
Sw eet corn.
String beans.
B lu e b e rry pie.

Potatoes.
M ilk toast.
Cake.

S atu rda y.....................

O atmeal.
Fish cakes.
D oughnuts.
H o t bread.

R oast beef.
B oiled potatoes.
Sweet corn.
Cu cu m bers.
Sliced tom atoes.
B oiled rice.

C orn cake d ip.
Cake.

.

2 B read, crackers, butter, tea, m ilk, table relishes served at all meals.
H ospital patients have special diet w hen necessary.




C offee at breakfast and dinner.

IN D E X

A
A d m inistration and control:
Page
A lm sh ou ses_____ ____________________________________________________________________________________

7

H om es for a ged ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------34-42,97,99,100,102,107
Pension plan s------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 114,116,227,234,243,250,255,266,267
A ge o f hom es for a g ed _________________________________________________________ _____ 17,131,162,176,185,193
68
Alaska, pension legislation in ___________________________________________________________________________
A lm shouses:
Care of aged in ______________________________________________________________________________________3, 6-12
R elative cost of, as com pared w ith citizens’ pen sion s______________________________________________
76
------ , as com pared w ith h om es for aged______________ _____________________________________________
15
( See also specific entries.)
A n nuities, insurance__________ _____ ___________ _____________________________________________ _____ __ 3 ,296-298
68
A rizona, pension legislation in _________________________________________________________________ _________
Assistance to aged in their o w n hom es. ( See R elief, ol.d-age.)

B
Basis of retirem ent p l a n s . .. ........................ .
93,94,110-112,114-116,118,119,121-124,126,224,234,235,284,285
B ed room s. ( See Sleeping accom m od ation s.)
B oard ing h om es________________ ________________________ ____ ______________________ 20,22,137,138,185,198-200
B uildings, h o m e __________________ _____ ________ ______ ________________________ _____ _________________ 43,44

C
California, pension legislation in ______ ____________________________________________________________ _____ 69, 73
C olorado, pension legislation in ______________________________________________________________________ 69,71, 72
Com m ittees, duties o f_____________________________________________________________________________ 35,36,41,42
37
C om plaints, handling of, in h o m e s _____________________________________________________________________
C on ditions for receipt o f retirem ent allow an ces____________________ 220, 228, 235, 236, 245, 246, 252, 256,271-273
Cost of care:
A lm shouses______________________________________________________________________________________ 6,7,10-12
A n n u ities__________________________________________________________________________________________ 296,298
H om es for aged__________________________________________________________________________________ 15,32-34,
65,80, 81, 97,100-102,107-109,129,153-156,161,162,169,171,173,175,181,182,184,190-192,214-218
Pensions or retirem ent allow ances___________________________________________________________ ______
63,
64,88-90,92,113-126, 221,222, 233, 242, 264, 270, 283,286,289,290
Coverage o f pension plans...................................................... ..................... ................. 225,242,243,250,264,266,283-285

D
D ep en d en cy , causes of, W isco n sin ------------------ ---------------------------- ------------------------------------- --------------------- 74,75
D ependents, provision for, in retirem ent p la n s------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------------94,
95,112,113,115-124, 221, 226, 230, 232,238-240, 248, 249,254, 255,257-263,276,282
D isciplin e in hom es for a g e d ... --------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------------- 39,40,64
D ism issal, causes for, from hom es for aged--------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------25,26

E
E n trance requirem ents.

(See Requirem ents, entrance, o f hom es for aged.)

F
Farm s ow n ed b y h om es______________________________________ _________________ ______ 108,109,156,157,173,188
Fees charged b y h om es____ _______________________________ _____ - 20-22,136,166,179,180,185,198,199,211,212
F ood served at hom es for a g e d ----------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------- 53,108,299-302
Furnishings of hom es for aged------------------------- ---------- ----------------------------------------------------------- ------------------45-60

G
G rou nds o f hom es for a g e d .................................................................................. - -------------- ---------------- ------------------44,45




303

304

IN D E X

H
H om es for aged:
Page
C h urch h o m e ________ _________ _
- ________________ _______ _____ ________________ 128-157
________________________ _______________________
84
Citizens, aged, h o m e s______________
_______________________ __________________3-5,13-62
C om pa ra tive d a t a .- . __ __________
F irem en’s h om es________________ .
__________________________ ________________ 85,188,190
Fraternal h om e s _____________ ____ ___________________
___________________ ____________________ 160-174
M in isters’ h om es_______________ ____
_______________ ______ __ ____________________ 132-134
N a tion a lity h o m e s ________________________
__________________________ _________ ______ ____ 175-182
Private ben evolen t h om es__________________ ________________ ______________ ________________ _____ 191-218
Sailors’ h om es_______________________ ____________________________________
_______. . . . . 64-67,80-84
Soldiers’ h om es____________________________________________________________
_____________ 64-67,80-84
T rad e-u n ion h o m e s_______________________________________________________
................................. 96-109
Other h om es_______________________________________________________________
.............................- 184-190
( See also specific entries concerning.)
H om es for aged, n u m ber and d istrib u tio n _____________ _______ ______________________________ ______ 3 ,4,1 3,1 4

I
In com e sources of. (See Support, sources of.)
Inm ates, types of, at h om es...................................... ......................................... .

17-19, i?3—
25,39,131-134, 147,163,194

Insurance:
C h urch fraternal organization s____________________________________________________________________ _
127
Fraternal organizations__________________________________________________
_____ _____ _________
158
__________ ________ 297,298
State______________________________________________________________________
.......... ........................ 296-298
Insurance an n u ities__________________________________________________________
Insurance plan of h om e for aged____________________________________________
....................................
212
Interest on residents’ m on ey . ( See M o n e y benefits.)

K
K en tu ck y , pension legislation i n ________________________________ ___________ ____________________________69, 71

L
Location o f hom es for a g e d ................................ .......................................................................... 42,43,83,84,188, 210,211

M
M a ry la n d , pension legislation in -------------- ---------------- ---------------------------------......-------- ------------------- ----------- 69, 72
M assachusetts, pension legislation in ________________________________________________________________ 68, 69, 72
M assachusetts, savings b an k annuities in --------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------ - 297, 298
M atrons at hom es for aged, selection of, qualifications, and d u tie s ..................... ....... ........................... 5,35,37-41
M edica l care p r o v id e d _______________ 28, 29, 60-62, 65, 67,83,84, 96, 97, 99, 102, 10t-I06,147,166,180,188, 202, 204
M ilita ry pensions. ( See “ Soldiers’ pen sion s” under Pensions.)
M in isters’ hom es. ( See under H om es for aged.)
M in isters’ retirem ent. ( See under Pensions.)
M in n esota, pension legislation in _____________________________________________ _________________________ 69,72
M o n e y benefits of hom es for aged---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 29,30,151,180,188, 208,209
M on tan a, pension legislation i n _______________________________________________ __________________ _____ 68-70
N

N evada, pension legislation in _________________________ __________ _______________________________________ 68-70
N u m b er of persons p ro v id e d for:
H om es for a g e d ____________________ _____________________ 2,3,14-16,65,80,81,129,161,162,175,184,191,192
Insurance an n u ities_____________________________________________ ______ ____________________________ 296,298
P en sion s___________________________________ 2,3,63, 64, 74,89,113-126,158,1.59,221,222,233,242,264,283,286
( See also Coverage.)
N ursing care at h om es____ _________________________________________ ___________ ____ 28,29,38,39, 65,67, 202,204

O
O ccupations of inm ates, and services p e r fo rm e d ____________ 27,28,106,142-114,167,181,187-189,201, 202, 210
O peration, cost of. ( See C ost of care.)
O peration, m ethods of, alm shouses................................ ..................................................... ..........................................

7, g

P
P en n sylva n ia , pension legislation in .............................................. ......... ........................................................... ..........68, 69
112,
Pensions, d isability, am ou n t o f----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------- -------114-116,119,120,122,220,221, 226,229,230,237,238,246,247, 253,257,274,275,284
Pensions, superann uation , am ou n t o f ______________________________ _____ _______________ ________________
I ll,
114-116,118-122,125,126, 220, 221, 226, 229, 230, 236, 237,246, 252, 253,256,257,273,274, 283-285
Pen sion or retirem ent plans:
C h u rch fraternal pen sion s-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------127
C itizen s’ p en sion s---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------- 68-80
C riticism s an d ap p ra isal......... ................................................................................. .................................. 75-80,289-292




INDEX

305

Pension or retirem ent plans— C on tin u ed .
Page
D iscon tin u ed p lan s__________________________________________________________________________________
95
Federal em ployees’ retirem ent____________________________________________________________________ 219-222
F irem en ’s pensions____________________________________________________________________________ 249-257,264
Fraternal p en sion s________________________________________________________________________________ 158,159
M in isters’ pensions________________________________________________________________________________ 110-126
M u n icip a l em ployees’ retirem ent_________________________________________________________________ 233-242
P olicem en ’s pensions_______________________________________________ , ________________ 242-249, 255-257, 264
Present status of pensions________________________________________________________________ 68-80,86,87,110
P u b lic em ployees’ retirem ent_____________________________________________________________________ 219-286
Soldiers’ p en sion s____________________________________________________________________________________ 63,64
State em ployees’ retirem ent______________________________________________________________________ 227-233
Teachers’ retirem en t______________________________________________________________________________ 264-286
Trade-un ion pen sion s__________________________________________________________________________ _____ 86-95
W age earners in in d u stry, pension plans fo r _____________________________________________________ 287-295
(See also specific item s.)
Pensions, relative cost of, as com pared w ith alm shouses_______________________________________________
76
Ph ysical conditions:
A lm sh ou ses__________________________________________________________________________________________
6
H om es for a g ed ____________ ________________ 4, 5, 26,42-62, 65, 67,83-85, 96-99,101,102,104,105,188, 210-213
Poorhouses, care of aged in. (See Alm shouses.)
Privileges o f inm ates at hom es for aged______________ 4,28-32, 64,67,99,107,144,166,167,180,188,202,207-209
Probation, period of, for new residents at hom es for a g e d ............... .................................................................. 25,26
P roperty, value of. ( See Real estate and buildin gs.)

R
Rates of interest paid on inm ate’s p ro p e rty _______________________________ _____ ________ 151,167,180, 208,209
R eal estate and buildin gs, value of:
A lm shouses ________ _____________________________________________________________ ____________________
8,9
H om es for a g e d _______________________________________________________________________ 156,157,173,211-213
R ecreation p rov id ed at h om es_________________ 31, 32, 65, 67,83,84,96,97,99,102,107,147-150,166,188,207, 208
R efunds, provision for, u nd er retirem ent p la n s________________________________ 221,230,238,247,254,257,275
R egulations o f h om es _____ _____ ________________________________________________________________ 26,27,140,142
Relief, old-age________________________________________________________ 32,117,119-121,159,182,183,189,209,210
Religious services at hom es for a g e d ____________________________________________________________
28,151,208
R equirem ents, entrance, o f hom es for a g e d _____________________________________________________________
4,
17-23, 64, 83, 96-98,102,105,131-140,163,166,176,179,180,185,187,194,197-201
R etirem ent. ( See P en sion plans.)
S

Services perform ed b y residents. ( See O ccupations o f inmates.)
Size of institutions:
A lm sh ou ses___________________________________________________________________ ______________________
12
H om e for aged_______________________________________________ 14,15,81,96-98,101.130,162,176,184,192,193
Sleeping accom m od ation s at h om es_________________________________________________________ 28,47-51,144-147
Soldiers’ pensions. ( See under Pensions.)
S u p port, sources of:
A lm sh ou ses______________________ _______ _______ ____________________________________________________
11
H om es for a ged_____________________________ 21,22,32-37,97,107,128,151,153,167,168,181,189,190,213,214
Pen sion and retirem ent p la n s________________________________ ________ ____ _____ _____ _______ 69-73,90-93,
114-116,118,120-122,124,125, 219, 220, 228, 229, 234,235, 243-245,250, 251, 255,256, 267-270, 283-286

T h era py, occupational. ( See O ccupations o f inm ates, and services perform ed.)
T rad e-un ion pensions. ( See under Pensions.)
T y p e s of inm ates in h o m e s .................................................. ................... ......... ..
17-19,23-25, 39,131-134,147,163,194

U
U tah, pension legislation i n ..................... ......................... ............. ..................... ......... ........... ......................................69,73

V
V isitors, p rovision for, at hom es for a g e d _________________________________________________ _____ ________
30
V isits b y inm ates o f hom es for a g e d ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ -------------- ----------- 30,31

W
W ashington, pension legislation i n ______________________________________________________________________
69
W id o w s ’ h om es____________________________________________________________________________________ 18,132,200
W isconsin, State insurance for citizens__________________________________________________________________
298
■
------pension legislation i n ________________________________________________________________________________ 69-71
W ith draw als, practice as t o ____________________________________________________________________________
25,26
W y om in g , pension legislation in _______________________________________________________________ ________ 69,73







LIST OF BULLETINS OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
The following is a list of all bulletins of the Bureau of Labor Statistics published since
July, 1912, except that in the case of bulletins giving the results of periodic surveys of the
bureau only the latest bulletin on any one subject is here listed.
A complete list of the reports and bulletins issued prior to July, 1912, as well as the bulletins
published since that date, will be furnished on application. Bulletins marked thus (*)
are out of print .
C o n c ilia t io n a n d A r b it r a t io n (in c lu d in g s t r ik e s a n d lo c k o u t s ) .

*N o. 124. C on cilia tion and arbitration in th e b u ildin g trades o f G reater N e w Y o r k . [1913.]
*N o. 133. R ep ort o f the industrial council o f the B ritish B oard o f T ra d e on its in q u iry into industrial
agreem ents. [1913.]
N o . 139. M ich iga n co p p e r district strike. [1914.]
N o . 144. Industrial court o f the cloak, suit, and skirt in d u stry o f N e w Y o r k C ity . [1914.]
N o . 145. C on ciliation, arbitration, and sanitation in th e dress and w aist in d u s try o f N e w Y o r k C ity .
[1914.]
*N o.
*N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.

191.
198.
233.
255.
283.
287.
303.
341.
402.
468.
481.

C ollective bargaining in the anthracite coal in du stry. [1916.]
C ollective agreem ents in th e m e n ’s clothing in du stry. [1916.]
O peration o f th e industrial disputes investigation act o f Canada. [1918.]
Joint industrial councils in G reat B ritain. [1919.]
H istory o f th e S h ip bu ild in g L a b o r A d ju stm en t B oard , 1917 to 1919.
N ation a l W a r L a b o r B o a rd : H isto ry o f its form ation, activities, etc. [1921.]
U se o f Federal p ow er in settlem ent o f railw ay labor disputes. [1922.]
T ra d e agreem ent in th e silk -ribbon in du stry o f N e w Y o r k C ity. [1923.]
C ollective bargaining b y actors. [1926.]
T ra d e agreem ents, 1927.
Joint industrial control in the b o o k and jo b printing in du stry. [1928.]

C o o p e r a t io n .

N o. 313. C on sum ers’ cooperative societies in th e U nited States in 1920.
N o. 314. C oop era tive credit societies in A m erica and in foreign countries. [1922.]
N o. 437. C oop era tiv e m o v e m e n t in the U n ited States in 1925 (other than agricultural).
E m p lo y m e n t a n d U n e m p lo y m e n t .

*N o.
N o.
*N o.
*N o.
N o.

109.
172.
183.
195.
196.

*N o. 202.
N o. 206.
N o . 227.
N o. 235.
*N o. 241.

Statistics o f u n e m p lo y m e n t and the w ork o f e m p loym en t offices in the U nited States. [1913.]
U n em p loy m e n t in N e w Y o r k C ity , N . Y . [1915.]
R eg u la rity o f e m p lo y m e n t in th e w o m e n ’s ready-to-w ear garm ent industries. [1915.]
U n em p loy m e n t in the U n ited States. [1916.]
Proceedings o f th e E m p lo y m e n t M anagers’ C onference held at M in n eapolis, M in n ., Jan­
u a ry 19 and 20, 1916.
Proceedings o f th e conference o f E m p lo y m e n t M anagers’ A ssociation o f B oston , M ass.,
held M a y 10, 1916.
T h e B ritish system o f labor exchanges. [1916.]
Proceedings o f th e E m p lo y m e n t M anagers’ Conference, P h iladelphia, P a ., A p ril 2 and 3,
1917.
E m p lo y m e n t system o f the L ake Carriers’ A ssociation. [1918.]
P u b lic em p lo y m e n t offices in th e U n ited States. [1918.]

N o . 247. Proceedings o f E m p lo y m e n t M an agers’ Conference, R ochester, N . Y ., M a y 9-11, 1918.
N o . 310. Industrial u n e m p lo y m e n t: A statistical stu d y o f its extent and causes. [1922.]
N o . 409. U n em p loy m e n t in C olu m bu s, O hio, 1921 to 1925.
F o r e ig n L a b o r L a w s .

*N o. 142. A d m in istra tion o f labor law s and factory inspection in certain E u rop ean countries.

[1914.]

H o u s in g .

*N o. 158. G overn m en t aid to h om e ow n in g and housing o f w ork in g people in foreign countries.
N o. 263. H ou sin g b y em ployers in the U nited States. [1920.]
N o . 295. B u ild in g operations in representative cities in 1920.
N o . 469. B u ild in g perm its in th e principal cities o f the U nited States in [1921 to] 1927.




[i]

[1914.]

I n d u s t r ia l A c c id e n t s a n d H y g ie n e .

*N o. 104. L ea d poisoning in potteries, tile w orks, and porcelain enam eled sanitary w are factories.
[1912.]
N o . 120. H ygien e o f th e p ainter’s trade. [1913.]
*N o. 127. D angers t o w orkers from dusts and fum es, and m eth ods o f p rotection . [1913.]
* N o. 141. L ea d poisoning in th e sm elting an d refining o f lead. [1914.]
* N o . 157. Industrial accident statistics. [1915.]
*N o. 165. L ea d poisoning in the m an ufacture o f storage batteries. [1914.]
*N o. 179. Industrial poisons used in th e ru bber in d u stry. [1915.]
N o . 188. R ep ort o f B ritish departm ental com m ittee on th e danger in t h ) use o f lead in the painting
o f buildin gs. [1916.]
* N o . 201. R ep ort of com m ittee on statistics an d com pensation insurance cost o f the Internation al
A ssociation of Industrial A ccid e n t B oard s and C om m issions. [1916.]
* N o . 207. Causes of death, b y occu p ation . [1917.]
*N o . 209. H ygien e o f the printing trades. [1917.]
* N o . 219. Industrial poisons used or pro d u ce d in th e m anufacture o f explcsives. [1917.]
N o . 221. H ours, fatigue, and health in B ritish m u n ition factories. [1917.|
N o . 230. Industrial efficien cy and fatigue in B ritish m u n itio n factories. [1917.]
* N o . 231. M o r ta lity from respiratory diseases in d u sty trades (inorganic c u s ts ). [1918.]
* N o . 234. Safety m ov em en t in the iron an d steel in du stry, 1907 t o 1917.
N o . 236. E ffects of the air ham m er o n th e hands o f stonecutters. [1918.]
N o . 249. Industrial health and e fficie n cy . F in al report o f B ritish H ealth o f M u n itio n W ork e rs’
C om m ittee. [1919.]
* N o . 251. P reventable death in the cotton -m an u factu rin g in d u stry. [1919.]
N o . 256. A cciden ts and accident p reven tion in m achine b u ild in g. [1919.1
N o . 267. A n th ra x as an occupational disease. [1920.]
N o . 276. Standardization of industrial accid ent statistics. [1920.]
N o . 280. Industrial poisoning in m a k in g coal-tar dyes and d y e interm ediates. [1921.]
N o . 291. C a rb on -m on ox ide poisoning. [1921.]
N o . 293. T h e problem of dust phthisis in th e granite-stone in d u stry. [1922.]
N o . 298. Causes and p revention of accidents in th e iron and steel in du stry, 1910-1919.
N o . 306. O ccu p ation hazards and diagnostic signs: A guide to im pairm ents to be lo o k e d for in haz­
ardous occu pation s. [1922.]
N o . 392. S u rvey o f h ygien ic co n d itio n s in th e printing trades. [1925.]
N o . 405. P h osp horus necrosis in th e m anufacture o f firew orks and in th e preparation o f ph osph oru s.
[1926.]
N o . 425i R e c o r d o f industrial accidents in th e U n ite d States to 1925.
N o . 426. D eaths from lead poison in g. [1927.]
N o . 427. H ealth su rve y o f th e prin tin g trades, 1922 t o 1925.
N o . 428. Proceedings of th e Industrial A ccid e n t P reven tion C onference, held at W ash in gton , D . C .,
J u ly 14-16, 1926.
N o . 460. A new test for industrial lead poisoning. [1928.]
N o . 466. Settlem ent for accidents t o A m erican seam en. [1928.]
N o . 488. D eaths from lead poisoning, 1925-1927.
I n d u s t r ia l R e l a t i o n s a n d L a b o r C o n d it io n s .

N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.

237.
340.
349.
361.
380.
383.
384.
399.

Industrial unrest in Great B ritain. [1917.]
C hinese m igrations, w ith special reference t o labor con dition s. [1923.]
Industrial relations in the W est Coast lu m b e r in d u stry . [1923.|
L a bor relations in the F airm ont (W . V a .) b itu m in o u s-co a l field. [1924.]
Postw ar labor con d ition s in G erm an y. [1925.]
W ork s council m ovem en t in G erm an y. [1925.]
L a bor conditions in th e shoe in d u stry in M assachusetts, 1920-1924.
L a bor relations in th e lace and laee-curtain industries in th e U n ited States.

[1925.]

L a b o r L a w s o f t h e U n it e d S t a t e s (i n c lu d in g d e c is io n s o f c o u r t s r e la t in g t o l a b o r ) .

N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.

211.
229.
285.
321.
322.
343.
370.

Labor law s and their adm inistration in the P a cific States. [193 7.]
W age-paym ent legislation in the U nited States. [1917.]
M in im u m -w a g e laws o f th e U nited States: C on stru ction and operation. [1921.]
L abor laws that have been declared uncon stitu tion a l. [1922.]
K ansas C ou rt o f Industrial R elations. [1923.]
L a w s p ro v id in g for bureaus o f labor statistics, etc. [1923.]
L a bor law s o f th e U n ited States, w ith decisions o f courts relating th ereto. [1925.]

N o . 408. L a w s relating t o p a y m en t o f w ages. [1926.]
N o . 444. D ecision s o f courts an d opin ion s affecting labor, 1926.
N o . 486. L a b or legislation o f 1928.




[II]

P r o c e e d in g s o f A n n u a l C o n v e n t i o n s o f t h e A s s o c ia t io n o f G o v e r n m e n t a l L a b o r O ffic ia ls o f t h e U n it e d
S ta te s a n d O an a d a.

(N a m e c h a n g e d in 1928 t o A s s o c ia t io n o f G o v e r n m e n t a l O ffic ia ls in I n d u s t r y o f

th e U n it e d S t a t e s a n d C a n a d a .)

*N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
*N o.
*N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.

266.
307.
323.
352.
389.
411.
429.
455.
480.

Seven th , Seattle, W ash ., J u ly 12-15, 1920.
E igh th , N e w Orleans, L a ., M a y 2-6, 1921.
N in th , H arrisburg, Pa., M a y 22-26, 1922.
T en th , R ich m o n d , V a ., M a y 1-4, 1923.
E leven th , C hicago, 111., M a y 19-23, 1924.
T w elfth , Salt L ake C ity , U tah, A u gu st 13-15, 1925.
T h irteen th , C o lu m b u s, O h io, June 7-10, 1926.
F ou rteen th , Paterson, N . J ., M a y 31 to June 3, 1927.
F ifteen th , N e w Orleans, L a ., M a y 15-24, 1928.

P r o c e e d in g s o f A n n u a l M e e t i n g s o f t h e I n t e r n a t io n a l A s s o c ia t io n o f I n d u s t r ia l A c c id e n t B o a r d s a n d
C o m m is s io n s .

N o.
N o.
N o.
*N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.

210.
248.
264.
273.
281.
304.
333.
359.
385.
395.
406.
432.
456.
485.

T h ir d , C olu m bu s, O hio, A p ril 25-28, 1916.
F o u rth , B oston , M a ss., A u g u st 21-25,1917.
F ifth , M a d is o n , W is., S eptem ber 24-27, 1918.
S ixth , T o r o n to , Canada, Septem ber 23-26, 1919.
Seventh, San Francisco, C alif., Septem ber 20-24,1920.
E igh th , C hicago, 111., Septem ber 19-23, 1921.
N in th , B altim ore, M d ., O ctober 9-13, 1922.
T en th , St. Paul, M in n ., Septem ber 24-26,1923.
E leven th , H alifax, N o v a Scotia, A u g u st 26-28,1924.
Index to proceedings, 1914-1924.
T w elfth , Salt Lake C ity , U tah, A u g u st 17-20,1925.
T h irteen th , H artford, C o n n ., Septem ber 14-17, 1926.
F ou rteenth, A tlanta, G a., S eptem ber 27-29, 1927.
Fifteen th , Paterson, N . J., Septem ber 11-14,1928.

P r o c e e d in g s o f A n n u a l M e e t i n g s o f t h e I n t e r n a t io n a l A s s o c ia t io n o f P u b l i c E m p lo y m e n t S e r v ic e s .

N o . 192. First, Ch icago, D ecem b er 19 an d 20, 1913; second, Indianapolis, Septem ber 24 and 25, 1914;
third , D etroit, Ju ly 1 and 2,1915.
N o . 220. F ou rth , B uffalo, N . Y ., Ju ly 20 and 21, 1916.
N o . 311. N in th , B uffalo, N . Y ., Septem ber 7-9,1921.
N o . 337. T en th , W ash in gton , D . C ., Septem ber 11-13,1922.
N o . 355. E leven th , T o ro n to , C anada, Septem ber 4-7, 1923.
N o . 400. T w elfth , C h icago, 111., M a y 19-23, 1924.
N o . 414. T h irteen th , R och ester, N . Y . , Septem ber 15-17, 1925.
N o . 478. F ifteen th , D e tro it, M ic h ., O ctober 25-28, 1927.
P r o d u c t iv i t y o f L a b o r .

N o . 356. P r o d u ctiv ity costs in the co m m o n -b rick industry. [1924.]
N o . 360. T im e an d la b o r costs in m anufacturin g 100 pairs o f shoes, 1923.
N o . 407. L a b o r co st o f p rod u ction and w ages and hours o f labor in the paper box-board in d u stry.
[1926.]
N o. 412. W ages, hours, and p r o d u ctiv ity in the p o tte ry in du stry, 1925.
N o . 441. P r o d u ctiv ity o f labor in the glass in du stry. [1927.]
N o . 474. P r o d u ctiv ity o f labor in m erch ant blast furnaces. [1928.]
N o . 475. P r o d u ctiv ity o f labor in new spaper printing. [1929.]
R e t a il P r i c e s a n d C o s t o f L iv in g .

*N o.
*N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.

121.
130.
164.
170.
357.
369.

Sugar prices, from refiner to consum er. [1913.]
W h eat and flour prices, from farm er to consum er. [1913.]
B u tter prices, from producer to consum er. [1914.]
Foreign food prices as affected b y the w ar. [1915.]
C ost o f liv in g in the U n ited States. [1924.]
T h e use o f cost-of-livin g figures in w age adjustm ents. [1925.]

N o . 464. R etail prices, 1890 to 1927.
S a fe t y C o d e s .

*N o. 331. C od e o f ligh tin g: F actories, m ills, and other w o rk places.
N o . 336. Safety code for the protection o f industrial w orkers in foundries.
N o . 350. Specifications o f laboratory tests for approval o f electric headlighting d evices for m otor
vehicles.
N o . 351. Safety cod e for the construction, care, and use o f ladders.
N o. 375. Safety cod e for la u n d ry m achinery and operations.
N o . 378. Safety cod e for w o o d w o rk in g plants.
N o. 382. C od e for ligh tin g school buildin gs.
N o . 410. Safety code for paper and p u lp m ills.




[I ll]

S a f e t y C o d e s — C on tin u ed .

N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.

430.
433.
436.
447.
451.
463.

Safety code for pow er presses and foot and han d presses.
Safety codes for the p revention o f dust explosions.
Safety cod e for th e use, care, and p rotection o f abrasive w heels.
Safety co d e for ru b b e r m ills and calenders.
Safety co d e for forging and hot-m etal stam ping.
Safety c o d e for m echanical pow er-transm ission apparatus— first revision.

V o c a t io n a l a n d W o r k e r s * E d u c a t io n .

•N o.
•N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.

159.
162.
199.
271.
459.

Short-unit courses for w age earners, and a factory school experim ent. [1915.]
V ocation al edu cation su rv e y o f R ic h m o n d , V a . [1915.]
V ocation al e d u cation su rv e y o f M in n eapolis, M in n . [1917.]
A d u lt w orking-class e d u cation in G reat B ritain and th e U n ited states. [1920.]
A p p ren ticesh ip in bu ild in g construction. [1928.]

W a ges a n d H ou rs o f L ab or.

•No. 146. W ages and regularity o f e m p lo y m e n t and standardization o f pieco rates in the dress and w aist
in d u stry o f N e w Y o r k C ity . [1914.]
•N o. 147. W ages and regularity o f em p lo y m e n t in th e cloak, suit, and skir1 industry. [1914.]
;
N o . 161. W ages and hours o f labor in th e cloth in g and cigar industries, 19 LI to 1913.
N o . 163. W ages and hours o f la b o r in th e b u ild in g and repairing o f steam railroad cars, 1907 to 1913.
•N o. 190. W ages and hours o f labor in th e co tto n , w oolen , and silk industries, 1907 to 1914.
N o . 204. S treet-railw ay e m p lo y m e n t in th e U n ited States. [1917.]
N o . 225. W ages an d hours o f labor in th e lu m ber, m illw o rk , an d furniture industries, 1915.
N o . 265. Industrial su rv e y in selected industries in th e U n ite d States, 1919.
N o . 297. W ages and hou rs o f la b o r in th e petroleu m in d u stry , 1920.
N o . 356. P r o d u ctiv ity costs in th e c o m m o n -b rick in du stry. [1924.]
N o . 358. W ages an d hours o f labor in th e autom obile-tire in d u stry, 1923.
N o . 360. T im e and labor costs in m anufacturin g 100 pairs o f shoes, 1923.
N o . 365. W ages an d hours o f labor in th e paper and p u lp in d u stry, 1923.
N o . 394. W ages an d hours o f la b o r in m etalliferous m ines, 1924.
N o . 407. L a b or cost o f p ro d u ctio n and wages an d hours o f labor in th e paper box-board in du stry. [1925.]
N o . 412. W ages, hours, and p r o d u c tiv ity in th e p o tte ry in d u stry , 1925.
N o . 413. W ages an d hours o f labor in th e lu m b e r in d u stry in th e U n ited States, 1925.
N o . 416. H ou rs an d earnings in anthracite and bitu m in o u s coal m in in g , l ')22 and 1924.
N o . 435. W ages and hours o f la b o r in foundries and th e m e n ’s clo th in g in d u stry , 1911 t o 1926.
N o . 438. W ages and hours o f labor in th e m o tor-veh icle in d u stry, 1925.
N o . 442. W ages and hours o f labor in th e iron a n d steel in d u stry, 1907 t o ]926.
N o . 446. W ages and hours o f la b o r in cotton -good s m anufacturin g, 1910 to 1926.
N o . 450. W ages and hours o f labor in th e b o o t an d shoe in du stry, 1907 t o 1926.
N o . 452. W ages an d hours o f labor in th e h osiery and underw ear industries, 1907 t o 1926.
■N o . 454. H ou rs and earnings in b itu m in ou s-coal m in in g , 1922,1924, and 1926.
N o . 471. W ages and hours o f la b o r in foundries and m achine shops, 1927.
N o . 472. W ages and hours o f la b o r in th e slaughtering an d m eat packing in d u stry, 1927.
N o . 476. U n ion scales o f w ages and hours o f labor, 1927. [S u pplem en t t o B u i. N o . 457.]
N o . 482. U n ion scales o f w ages and hours o f labor, M a y 15, 1928.
N o . 484. W ages and hours o f labor o f co m m o n street laborers, 1928.
N o . 487. W ages and hours o f labor in w oo le n and w orsted goods m anufacturin g, 1910 to 1928.
W e lfa re W o rk .

•No.
N o.
•No.
N o.

123.
222.
250.
458.

E m p lo y e rs ’ w elfare w ork . [1913.]
W elfare w o rk in B ritish m u n ition s factories. [1917.]
W elfare w o rk for em ployees in industrial establishm ents in the U n ite d States.
H ealth and recreation activ ities in industrial establishm ents, 1925.

[1919. J

W h o l e s a le P r i c e s .

N o . 284. In dex num bers o f w holesale prices in th e U n ite d States and forei gn countries.
N o . 453. R ev ised in dex n um bers o f w holesale prices, 1923 t o J u ly , 1927.

[1921.]

N o . 473. W holesale prices, 1890 to 1927.
W o m e n a n d C h ild r e n in I n d u s t r y .

N o . 116. H ours, earnings, an d du ration o f em p lo y m e n t o f w age-earning w o m e n in selected industries
•No.
N o.
N o.
*N o.
N o.

117.
118.
119.
122.
160.

in the D istrict o f C olu m b ia . [1913.]
P roh ib itio n o f night w o rk o f y o u n g persons. [1913.]
T en -h o u r m axim u m w o rk in g -d a y for w o m e n an d y o u n g persons. [1913.]
W ork in g hours o f w o m e n in th e pea canneries o f W isconsin. [19 L3.]
E m p lo y m e n t o f w o m e n in p ow er laundries in M ilw au k ee. [1913 ]
H ours, earnings, and con dition s o f labor o f w o m e n in Indian a m ercantile establishm ents and

garm ent factories. [1914.]
•No. 167. M in im u m -w ag e legislation in th e U n ited States and foreign countries.




[IV]

[1915.]

W o m e n a n d C h ild r e n In I n d u s t r y — Continued.

*N o. 175. S u m m ary o f the report o n con dition s of w om a n and ch ild w age earners in the U n ited States
[1915.]
*N o.
*N o.
*N o.
N o.
N o.
*N o.

176.
180.
182.
193.
215.
217.

E ffect o f m in im u m -w ag e determ inations in Oregon. [1915.]
T h e b o o t an d shoe in d u stry in M assachusetts as a v o ca tio n for w om en . [1915.]
U n em p loy m e n t am on g w o m e n in departm ent and other retail stores o f B oston , M ass. [1916.]
D ressm aking as a trade for w o m e n in M assachusetts. [1916.]
Industrial experience o f trade-sch ool girls in M assachusetts. [1917.]
E ffect o f w o rk m e n ’s com pen sation law s in dim inishing th e necessity o f industrial e m p lo y ­
m en t o f w o m e n an d children. [1918.]
N o . 223. E m p lo y m e n t o f w o m e n and ju v en iles in G reat Britain during th e war. [1917.]
N o . 253. W om en in th e lead industries. [1919.]

W o r k m e n ’ s I n s u r a n c e a n d C o m p e n s a t io n (i n c l u d i n g la w s r e la t in g t h e r e t o ) .

*N o.
*N o.
N o.
N o.
*N o.
N o.

101.
102.
103.
107.
155.
212.

Care o f tu bercu lou s w age earners in G erm an y. [1912.]
B ritish nation al insurance act, 1911.
Sickness a n d accid en t insurance law in Sw itzerland. [1912.]
L a w relating t o insurance o f salaried em ployees in G erm an y. [1913.]
C om pen sation for accidents t o em ployees o f th e U n ited States. [1914.]
P roceedings o f th e conferen ce on social insurance called b y th e International A ssociation o f
Industrial A c c id e n t B oard s and C om m issions, W ashington, D . C ., D e ce m b e r 5-9,1916.
*N o. 243. W o r k m e n ’s com pen sation legislation in the U n ited States an d foreign countries, 1917 and
1918.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.

301.
312.
379.
423.
477.

C om parison o f w o rk m e n ’s com pen sation insurance and adm inistration. [1922.]
N ation a l health insurance in G reat B ritain, 1911 to 1921.
C om parison o f w o rk m e n ’s com pen sation law s o f th e U n ite d States as o f January 1, 1925.
W o r k m e n ’s com pen sation legislation o f the U n ited States and C anada as o f J u ly 1, 1926.
P u blic-service retirem ent system s, U n ited States and E u rop e. [1929.]

M i s c e ll a n e o u s S e r i e s .

*N o. 174. Su b ject in d ex o f th e pu b lication s o f th e U n ited States B ureau o f L a b o r Statistics u p to

No. 208.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.

242.
254.
268.
282.
299.

N o . 319.
N o . 326.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.
N o.

342.
346.
372.
386.
398.
401.
420.
439.
461.
462.
465.
479.
483.

May 1,1915.
P rofit sharing in th e U n ited States. [1916.]
F o o d situ ation in central E u rop e, 1917.
Internation al la b o r legislation an d th e society o f nations. [1919.]
H istorical s u rv e y o f intern ational action affecting labor. [1920.]
M u tu a l relief associations a m on g G ov ern m en t em ployees in W ash in gton , D . C . [1921.]
P ersonnel research agencies: A gu ide t o organized research in e m p lo y m e n t m anagem ent,
industrial relations, training, and w o rk in g conditions. [1921.]
T h e B u reau o f L a b o r Statistics: Its h istory, activities, and organization. [1922.]
M e th o d s o f p rocu rin g and c o m p u tin g statistical inform ation o f th e B u reau o f L a bor
Statistics. [1923.]
Internation al Seam en’s U n ion o f A m erica: A stu d y o f its h istory and problem s. [1923.]
H u m a n ity in govern m en t. [1923.]
C o n v ic t la b o r in 1923.
C ost o f Am erican alm shouses. [1925.]
G ro w th o f legal-aid w o rk in th e U n ite d States. [1926.]
F a m ily allow ances in foreign countries. [1926.]
H a n d b o o k o f A m erica n trade-unions. [1926.]
H a n d b o o k o f la b o r statistics, 1924 to 1926.
L a b o r organizations in Chile. [1928.]
P a rk recreation areas in the U n ite d States. [1928.]
B eneficial activities o f A m erican trade-unions. [1928.]
A ctiv ities an d fu n ction s o f a State d epa rtm ent o f labor. [1928.]
C on d ition s in th e shoe in d u stry in H averhill, M ass., 1928.




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