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Analysis of
WORK STOPPAGES




1959

Tre nds
Size an d d u r a tio n
Issu e s
In d u s tr ie s a n d localities affected
D e ta ils of m a jo r s to p p a g e s
C h r o n o lo g y o f 1959 stee l strike

Bulletin No. 1278
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S
Ew an C la g u e , C o m m issio n e r




Analysis of
W ORK STOPPAGES
1959

Bulletin No.1278
September I960

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S
E w an C la g u e , C o m m issio n e r

For sale by the Superintendenl of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C.




Price 40 cents







Preface
T h is b u lle tin p r e s e n ts a d eta iled s ta tis tic a l a n a ly s is
o f w o rk stop p a g es in 1959, continuing an annual fea tu re o f the
B u reau o f L a b o r S tatistics* p r o g r a m in the fie ld o f in d u stria l
r e la tio n s . P r e lim in a r y m on th ly e s tim a te s o f the le v e l o f strik e
(o r lo c k o u t) a c tiv ity fo r the United States a s a w hole a r e is su e d
about 30 days a fte r the end o f the m onth o f r e fe r e n c e and a re
a v a ila b le upon r e q u e st.
P r e lim in a r y e s tim a te s fo r the e n tire
y e a r a r e a v a ila b le at the y ea r*s end; s e le c t e d fin a l tabu lation s
a r e is s u e d in A p r il o f the fo llo w in g y e a r .
A c h r o n o lo g y o f the 1959 ste e l s trik e , w h ich w as ended
a fte r 116 days by a co u r t in ju n ction , and ta b le s show ing the in ­
d u stria l and g e o g r a p h ic a l sco p e o f this strik e a re p r e se n te d in
ap pen dix B.
A pp en d ix C con tain s a ch r o n o lo g y o f the A tla n tic and
G ulf C o a st lo n g s h o r e stoppage in w hich the e m e r g e n c y p r o v is io n s
o f the T a ft -H a r tle y A c t w e re a ls o in vok ed by the P r e s id e n t.
The m eth od s u sed in p re p a rin g w ork
t ic s a r e d e s c r ib e d in appendix D.

stoppage s ta tis ­

The B u reau w ish ed to ack n ow led ge the c o o p e r a tio n o f
e m p lo y e r s and e m p lo y e r a s s o c ia t io n s , la b o r unions, the F e d e r a l
M ed ia tion and C o n c ilia tio n S e r v ic e , and v a r io u s State a g e n c ie s
in fu rn ish in g in fo rm a tio n on w o rk stop p a g es.
T h is r e p o r t w as p r e p a r e d in the B u r e a u 's D iv is io n o f
W a ges and In d u stria l R e la tio n s by J oseph W. B lo ch , a s s is te d
by L o r e tto R . N olan. Julian M alnak p r e p a r e d the c h r o n o lo g ie s
w h ich ap p ea r in a p p e n d ice s B and C.

Hi




Contents
P age
S u m m a r y ________________________________________________________________________________________________
T r e n d s in w o r k s to p p a g e s ____________________________________________________________________________
S ize o f s t o p p a g e s ______________________________________________________________________________________
D u r a tio n ________________________________________________________________________________________________
M a jo r i s s u e s ___________________________________________________________________________________________
I n d u s t r ie s a ff e c t e d ____________________________________________________________________________________
S to p p a g e s b y lo c a t io n _________________________________________________________________________________
R e g io n s ______________________________________________________________________________________________
S tate s ________________________________________________________________________________________________
M e t r o p o lit a n a r e a s ________________________________________________________________________________
M on th ly tr e n d s ________________________________________________________________________________________
U n io n s in v o lv e d _______________________________________________________________________________________
M e th o d s o f te r m in a tin g s t o p p a g e s __________________________________________________________________
D i s p o s it io n o f i s s u e s __________________________________________________________________________________
C h a rts:
1. T r e n d s in w o r k s to p p a g e s ___________________________________________________________________
2. W o r k e r s in v o lv e d and id l e n e s s in w o r k s to p p a g e s , e x c lu s i v e o f b a s ic s te e l,
m o t o r v e h i c l e s , and b itu m in o u s c o a l, 1 9 4 5 -5 9 _________________________________________

1
1
2
3
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
6
6
6

7
8

T a b le s :
W o r k s to p p a g e s :
1. In the U n ited S ta te s , 1 9 2 7 -5 9 ____________________________________________________________
2 . In v o lv in g 10, 000 o r m o r e w o r k e r s , s e le c t e d p e r io d s ________________________________
3. B y m o n th , 1 9 5 8 -5 9 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4 . M a jo r i s s u e s _______________________________________________________________________________
5. B y in d u s tr y g r o u p , 1959 __________________________________________________________________
6. B y r e g io n , 1959 and 1958 _________________________________________________________________
7. B y S tate, 1959 _____________________________________________________________________________
8. B y m e t r o p o lit a n a r e a , 1959 _____________________________________________________________
9. B y a ff ilia t io n o f u n ion s in v o lv e d , 1959 ________________________________________________
10. B y s iz e o f s to p p a g e , 1959 ________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________
11. B y n u m b e r o f e s t a b lis h m e n t s in v o lv e d , 1959
12. B e g in n in g in 1959 in v o lv in g 10, 000 o r m o r e w o r k e r s _______________________________
13. D u r a tio n _____________________________________________________________________________________
14. M eth o d o f te r m in a tin g ____________________________________________________________________
15. D is p o s it io n o f is s u e s ______________________________________________________________________
A p p e n d ix
A - 1.
A -2 .
A - 3.

A : T a b le s — W o r k s to p p a g e s
B y i n d u s t r y _________________________________________________________________________________
B y in d u s tr y g r o u p and m a jo r i s s u e s ___________________________________________________
In S ta te s h a v in g 25 o r m o r e s to p p a g e s b y in d u s tr y g ro u p ___________________________

9
10
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
17
18
26
26
27

28
30
32

A p p e n d ix B : T h e 1959 s t e e l s tr ik e _________________________________________________________________
P a r t I. T h e s tr ik e c h r o n o l o g y ___________________________________________________________________
P a r t II. In d u s tr y and g e o g r a p h ic a l s c o p e _______________________________________________________
T a b le s — W o r k e r s in v o lv e d and m a n -d a y s o f id le n e s s
B - l . B y i n d u s t r y _________________________________________________________________*------------B - 2 . B y r e g io n an d State _________________________________________________________________
B - 3 . B y s e le c t e d m e t r o p o lit a n a r e a s _________________________________________________

52
52
52

A p p e n d ix C :

T he A tla n tic and G u lf C o a s t lo n g s h o r e s t r ik e , 1959 ______________________________

53

A p p e n d ix D :

S c o p e , m e t h o d s , and d e f i n i t i o n s ____________________________________________________

59




v

37
37
51




Analysis of W ork Stoppages, 1959

S u m m a ry
T h e 1959 s t e e l
s t r ik e , w h i c h
id le d
5 1 9 ,0 0 0 w o r k e r s f o r 116 d a y s b e f o r e an in ­
ju n c t io n te r m in a te d th e s t r ik e , r a is e d the
y e a r 's to t a l s t r i k e 1 id le n e s s to 69 m i lli o n
m a n -d a y s , s e c o n d o n ly to 1946 in the p o s t w a r
p e r io d . O t h e r w is e , 6 y p o s t w a r s ta n d a r d s , the
v o lu m e o f s t r ik e a c t iv it y d u r in g the y e ^ r , a s
m e a s u r e d in n u m b e r o f s to p p a g e s (3 , 708) and
w o r k e r s in v o lv e d (1 , 880, 0 0 0 ), w a s n ot h ig h .
H o w e v e r , th e r e w a s a s ig n ific a n t in c r e a s e
in the d u r a tio n o f s to p p a g e s w h ich a v e r a g e d
24. 6 d a y s .
T h e 245 s to p p a g e s in v o lv in g 1,000 o r m o r e
w o r k e r s w e r e fe w e r than in 1958 and in m o s t
p o stw a r y e a r s .

C on tin u in g a d if fe r e n t ia l p r e v a ilin g s in c e
1949 (e x c e p t f o r 1954), a l l m e a s u r e s o f s t r ik e
a c t iv it y w e r e h ig h e r f o r m a n u fa c tu r in g than
f o r n o n m a n u fa c tu r in g in d u s t r ie s .

T h e s t e e l s t r ik e in v o lv e d w o r k e r s in
32 S ta tes— in 10 o f th e s e S ta tes m o r e than
1 0 ,0 0 0 w o r k e r s .
A s in th e c a s e o f th e s t e e l
s t r ik e , the e m e r g e n c y p r o v i s i o n s o f th e T a ft H a r t le y A c t w e r e in v o k e d to en d a lo n g s h o r e ­
m e n s s t r ik e at E a s t and G u lf C o a s t p o r t s .

T r e n d s in W o r k S to p p a g e s

A to ta l o f 3, 708 w o r k s to p p a g e s r e s u l t ­
ing f r o m
la b o r - m a n a g e m e n t d is p u t e s ,
in ­
v o lv in g s ix o r m o r e w o r k e r s , and la s t in g
a fu ll d a y o r s h ift o r lo n g e r b e g a n in 1959
(t a b le 1). T h e s e s to p p a g e s d i r e c t l y in v o lv e d
1, 880, 000 w o r k e r s .
A l l s to p p a g e s in e f f e c t
d u rin g the y e a r r e s u lt e d in 6 9 ,0 0 0 , 000 m a n d a y s o f id le n e s s , o r 0. 61 p e r c e n t o f th e e s t i ­
m a te d w o r k in g tim e o f a ll w o r k e r s in n o n a g r ic u lt u r a l e s t a b lis h m e n t s . 2 In th e y e a r f s
to ta l, the 1 1 6 -d a y s t e e l s t r ik e a c c o u n t e d f o r

1 s to p p a g e , 519, 000 w o r k e r s , and 41, 900, 000
m a n -d a y s o f id le n e s s (t a b le B - l ) .

T he n u m b e r o f s to p p a g e s r e c o r d e d d u r ­
ing the y e a r r e m a in e d a t a p p r o x im a t e ly the
s a m e l e v e l a s in 1958 3 and 1957, s u b s ta n ­
t ia lly b e lo w the h ig h p o s tw a r l e v e l r e a c h e d
in 1946 and in a 4 - y e a r p e r io d b e g in n in g in
1950, and l e s s than 10 p e r c e n t a b o v e th e lo w
p o s t w a r m a r k o f 1948 (c h a r t 1).
D e s p ite the
s t e e l s t r ik e , fe w e r w o r k e r s w e r e in v o lv e d in
1959 s to p p a g e s than in an y p o s tw a r y e a r e x ­
c e p t 1954 and 1957.
Y et, to ta l m a n -d a y s o f
id le n e s s , r e fl e c t in g the im p a c t o f the la r g e s t
i d l e n e s s - p r o d u c i n g s t r ik e in the N a tio n 's h i s ­
t o r y , r e a c h e d a le v e l s e c o n d o n ly to 1946 (b u t
o n ly a b o u t t h r e e - f if t h s o f that le v e l ). 4

T h u s, la r g e l y b e c a u s e o f the le n g th o f
th e s t e e l s t r ik e ,
1959 m a y b e c o m e a h i s ­
t o r i c y e a r in the a n n a ls o f la b o r -m a n a g e m e n t
r e la t io n s . O th e r m e a s u r e s o f s tr ik e a c t iv it y
d u rin g the y e a r w e r e n o t h igh , b y p o s tw a r
s ta n d a r d s , bu t th e r e w a s a s ig n ific a n t in ­
c r e a s e in th e d u r a tio n o f s to p p a g e s ( d i s c u s s e d
la t e r in th is r e p o r t ) w h ic h a l s o c o n tr ib u te d to
th e 1959 r i s e in m a n -d a y s o f id le n e s s .

F o r p u r p o s e s o f illu s tr a t in g h ow 1959,
w ith o u t its m a jo r s t r ik e , c o m p a r e s w ith o th e r
y e a r s , w ith o u t th e ir m a jo r s t r ik e s , c h a r t 2
s h o w s w o r k e r s in v o lv e d an d m a n -d a y s o f i d l e ­
n e s s s in c e 1945, l e s s the a m o u n ts c o n tr ib u te d
b y a ll s to p p a g e s in th e b a s ic s te e l, m o t o r

2 In c o m p u tin g p e r c e n t o f e s tim a te d w o r k ­
in g tim e o f a ll w o r k e r s , g o v e r n m e n t e m p l o y ­
m e n t is e x c lu d e d .
(S e e a p p e n d ix D, p . 5 9 .)
F o r th o s e in t e r e s t e d in c o m p a r in g s tr ik e i d l e ­
n e s s in the U n ited S ta tes w ith o th e r c o u n t r ie s ,
th e e s t im a t e o f p e r c e n t o f w o r k in g tim e lo s t ,
in c lu d in g g o v e r n m e n t, a m o u n te d to 0. 52 in
1959.
3 F o r d e t a ile d d a ta on 1958, s e e A n a ly s is o f
W o r k S to p p a g e s, 1958, B L S B u ll. 1258 (1 9 5 9 ).
4 T h e B u r e a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s b e g a n
c o m p u tin g m a n -d a y s o f id le n e s s in 1927.
It
is p r o b a b le that 1919 w a s the o n ly y e a r p r i o r
1
T h e t e r m s H o r k s t o p p a g e 1 and " s t r ik e * 1
w
1
to 1927 w h en m a n -d a y s o f id le n e s s m a y h a v e
a r e u s e d in t e r c h a n g e a b ly in th is b u lle tin .
r e a c h e d a l e v e l in th e r a n g e o f 1946 o r 1959.
S tr ik e s , in th is s p e c ia l u s e , w o u ld thus in ­
In 1919, o v e r 4 m i lli o n w o r k e r s w e r e in v o lv e d
c lu d e lo c k o u t s .
in s to p p a g e s .




2
v e h i c l e s , and b itu m in o u s c o a l in d u s t r ie s . 5
D u rin g th e 1 5 -y e a r p e r io d c o v e r e d b y th is
c h a r t, th e s e th r e e in d u s t r ie s a c c o u n t e d f o r
a p p r o x im a t e ly a th ir d o f to t a l m a n -d a y s o f
id l e n e s s and w o r k e r s in v o lv e d .
T h e n a tio n a l e m e r g e n c y p r o v is i o n s o f the
L a b o r -M a n a g e m e n t R e la tio n s ( T a ft -H a r t le y )
A c t o f 1947 w e r e in v o k e d b y the P r e s id e n t
t w ic e d u rin g 1959, f i r s t in the C a s t and G u lf
C o a s t lo n g s h o r e s t r ik e and s e c o n d in the s t e e l

s t o p p a g e .6 A n 8 0 -d a y in ju n c tio n s e n t th e lo n g ­
s h o r e m e n b a c k t o w o r k on th e 8th d a y o f the
s t r ik e ; s t e e l w o r k e r s w e r e o r d e r e d to r e tu r n
to w o r k on th e 116th d a y o f t h e ir s t r ik e . In
b o th in s t a n c e s , th e d is p u te s w e r e s e tt le d b e ­
f o r e th e e x p ir a t io n o f th e 8 0 -d a y in ju n c tio n s .
(C h r o n o l o g ie s o f im p o r ta n t d e v e lo p m e n t s in
the s t e e l and lo n g s h o r e s to p p a g e s a r e p r e ­
se n te d in a p p e n d ic e s B and C, r e s p e c t i v e l y . )

S iz e o f S to p p a g e s

5
In d iv id u a l la r g e s t r ik e s h a v e s o g r e a t
O f th e 3, 708 s to p p a g e s in 1959, 245 ( i n ­
an im p a c t on w o r k s to p p a g e s t a t is t i c s that it
c lu d in g the s t e e l s t r ik e ), o r 6. 6 p e r c e n t , in ­
is o fte n d if f ic u lt to s e e tr e n d s in a f r a m e ­
v o lv e d 1, 000 o r m o r e w o r k e r s (t a b le 10). In
w o r k a p p lic a b le to la b o r - m a n a g e m e n t r e l a ­
a b s o lu te and r e la t iv e t e r m s , th is r e f l e c t e d a
tio n s in g e n e r a l.
It is ,
h o w e v e r , u n r e a l­
s ig n ific a n t d e c lin e in th e n u m b e r o f la r g e
i s t i c to a tte m p t to r e c r e a t e a p ic t u r e o f 1959
s to p p a g e s c o m p a r e d w ith 1958 (3 3 2 s to p p a g e s ,
s t r ik e a c t iv it y , to c o m p a r e w ith p r i o r y e a r s ,
o r 9. 1 p e r c e n t ).
T h e 245 s to p p a g e s i n v o lv ­
a s s u m in g th e r e had b e e n n o b ig s t e e l s t r ik e .
in g 1, 000 w o r k e r s o r m o r e r e c o r d e d f o r 1959
In th e f i r s t p la c e , the s t e e l s t r ik e b e g a n in
r e p r e s e n t e d the s m a l le s t n u m b e r in th is c a t e ­
m i d - y e a r , and the 116 -d a y s t r ik e and the n e ­
g o r y s in c e 1948 and o n ly s lig h tly m o r e than
g o tia tio n s d u rin g the s u b s e q u e n t p e r io d o f the
h a lf o f the p o s t w a r h ig h r e a c h e d in 1952, a
8 0 -d a y T a ft - H a r t le y in ju n c tio n d o m in a te d the
y e a r n o te d f o r a 5 9 -d a y s t e e l s t r ik e .
la b o r - m a n a g e m e n t s c e n e f o r the r e s t o f the
year.
T h e in flu e n c e o f th is e x te n d e d k e y
T w e n ty s to p p a g e s in v o lv e d 10,000 o r m o r e
d is p u te u p on o th e r b a r g a in in g s itu a tio n s and
u p on o th e r s to p p a g e s ca n n o t b e t r a c e d ; m o r e ­
w o r k e r s in 1959, a s a g a in s t 21 in 1958, and
o v e r , it is r e a s o n a b le to e x p e c t th at a p e a c e ­
13 in 1957 (t a b le s 2 and 12).
L e a d in g the
fu l s e t t le m e n t in s t e e l, on t e r m s s a t i s f a c t o r y
20 in n u m b e r s o f w o r k e r s in v o lv e d w a s the
to b o th p a r t i e s , w o u ld h a v e h ad a s ig n ific a n t
s t e e l s t r ik e (5 1 9 , 0 0 0 ), fo llo w e d b y th e E a st
e f f e c t th ro u g h o u t the e c o n o m y .
S e c o n d ly , the
and G u lf C o a s t lo n g s h o r e s to p p a g e (5 2 , 0 0 0).
a s s u m p t io n " i f th e r e h ad b e e n n o s t e e l s t r ik e
T h e r e m a in in g 18 f e l l w ith in the r a n g e o f
in 1 9 5 9 " is o b v io u s ly o n ly o n e o f an a lm o s t
10, 000 to 25, 000 w o r k e r s .
A lt o g e t h e r , th e s e
in fin ite s e r i e s o f " i f s " b y w h ic h the h is t o r y
20 s to p p a g e s a c c o u n t e d f o r 45 p e r c e n t o f the
o f s t r ik e s in the U n ited S ta tes ca n b e r e ­
to t a l n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s in v o lv e d in 1959
w r itte n .
F o r e x a m p le , h o w w o u ld 1959, if
s to p p a g e s and,
w ith the s t e e l s t r ik e c o n ­
th e r e h ad b e e n n o s t e e l s t r ik e , c o m p a r e w ith
tr ib u tin g the b u lk , a lm o s t t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f
1958, i f t h e r e h ad b e e n n o a u to s t r i k e s ?
s t r ik e id le n e s s .
C h a rt 2 ta k e s a c c o u n t , in p a r t a t le a s t , o f
the s e c o n d p o in t; th e r e is n o w a y o f m e a s ­
u r in g , e v e n r o u g h ly the in flu e n c e o f m a j o r
S to p p a g e s in v o lv in g 6 b u t f e w e r
than
s to p p a g e s on the e n t ir e c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a in ­
20 w o r k e r s co n tin u e d to a c c o u n t f o r a s u b s ta n ­
t ia l p r o p o r t io n o f a ll s to p p a g e s (1 7 . 8 p e r c e n t )
in g s c e n e .
F o r th is c h a r t, the y e a r ly to ta ls o f w o r k ­
b u t l e s s than o n e - h a lf o f 1 p e r c e n t o f to ta l
e r s and m a n -d a y s o f id le n e s s f o r a ll s t o p ­
w o r k e r s in v o lv e d and m a n -d a y s o f id l e n e s s . 7
p a g e s (n o t o n ly the m a jo r o n e s ) f o r 3 s p e c i f i ­
A n o th e r 39 p e r c e n t o f a ll s to p p a g e s in v o lv e d
c a ll y d e fin e d in d u s t r ie s , a s r e c o r d e d e a c h
20 b u t fe w e r than 100 w o r k e r s (ta b le 10).
y e a r b y th e B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s , w e r e
T h e p r e v a le n c e o f s m a ll s to p p a g e s h a s n ot
c o m b in e d .
B a s ic s t e e l is r e p r e s e n t e d b y
ch a n g e d m a t e r ia ll y in r e c e n t y e a r s .
b la s t f u r n a c e s , s t e e l w o r k s , and r o ll in g and
fin is h in g m i l l s ; a u t o m o b ile s b y m o t o r v e h i c l e s
and m o t o r - v e h i c l e e q u ip m e n t; b itu m in o u s c o a l
is s e l f - d e f i n e d .
W o r k e r s and m a n -d a y s o f
6 T h e s t e e l c a s e r e p r e s e n t e d th e 17th tim e
id l e n e s s in o th e r in d u s t r ie s a ff e c t e d b y th e
that the e m e r g e n c y p r o v is i o n s p r o v id e d f o r
s a m e s to p p a g e s a r e n o t a c c o u n t e d f o r , b u t
u n d e r the T a ft - H a r t le y A c t had b e e n in v o k e d .
s in c e the s c o p e o f c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a in in g in
7 It is r e a s o n a b le to a s s u m e , f r o m th e s e
th e 3 in d u s t r ie s h a s n o t b e e n s ig n ific a n t ly
fi g u r e s , th at the o m i s s io n o f s to p p a g e s a f ­
a lt e r e d d u rin g the p e r io d s tu d ie d , th is o m i s ­
fe c t in g fe w e r than 6 w o r k e r s had n o m e a s ­
s io n p r o b a b ly had n o a p p r e c ia b le e f f e c t on
u r a b le e f f e c t on w o r k e r s in v o lv e d and i d l e ­
th e tr e n d s r e f l e c t e d .
n e s s t o t a ls .




3

A p p r o x im a t e ly o n e ou t o f fo u r s to p p a g e s
in v o lv e d tw o o r m o r e e s t a b lis h m e n t s , a p r o ­
p o r t io n that h a s n o t ch a n g e d s ig n ific a n t ly in
m o r e than a d e c a d e (ta b le 11). E le v e n o r m o r e
e s t a b lis h m e n t s w e r e in v o lv e d in 277 s t o p ­
p a g e s , a c c o u n t in g f o r 54 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k ­
e r s in v o lv e d in a ll s to p p a g e s .
C o r r e s p o n d in g
f i g u r e s f o r 1958 w e r e 308 s to p p a g e s a ffe c t in g
49 p e r c e n t o f th e w o r k e r s . R o u g h ly 1 ou t o f
10 m u lt ie s t a b lis h m e n t s to p p a g e s (2 o r m o r e
e s t a b lis h m e n t s ) c r o s s e d State lin e s .

D u ra tio n
T he d u r a tio n o f w o r k s to p p a g e s in c r e a s e d
s ig n ific a n t ly d u r in g 1959.
W h eth er o r n ot the
lo n g s t e e l s tr ik e in flu e n c e d the d u r a tio n o f
o th e r s t o p p a g e s , it w a s , at a n y r a te , s y m p ­
t o m a t ic o f a g e n e r a l le n g th e n in g o f s t r i k e s .
S in ce a s u b s ta n tia l in c r e a s e in s t r ik e d u r a tio n s
m a y r e f l e c t s ig n ific a n t c h a n g e s in the c lim a t e
o r s t r u c t u r e o f la b o r - m a n a g e m e n t r e la t io n s ,
it s e e m s a p p r o p r ia t e to e x a m in e the e v id e n c e
in m o r e than the u s u a l d e ta il.
T h e a v e r a g e d u r a tio n o f s to p p a g e s (in
c a le n d a r d a y s ), in the c o m p u ta tio n o f w h ic h
the s t e e l s t r ik e r e c e i v e d n o m o r e w e ig h t than
an y o th e r s to p p a g e , a m o u n te d to 24. 6 d a y s
in 1959 (ta b le 1).
T h is w a s a p p r o x im a t e ly
5 d a y s lo n g e r than the 1958 and 1957 a v ­
e r a g e s , and the h ig h e s t y e a r ly a v e r a g e s in c e
1947. E lim in a tin g the d a y s w h en w o r k w o u ld
n o r m a lly n ot h a v e b e e n s c h e d u le d , and r e ­
fle c t in g the m a g n itu d e o f th e m a n -d a y s o f
id le n e s s a ttrib u te d to the s t e e l s tr ik e , w o r k ­
e r s in v o lv e d in 1959 s to p p a g e s w e r e id le d
f o r an a v e r a g e o f 36. 7 d a y s , the h ig h e s t a v ­
e r a g e in m o r e than 30 y e a r s .
E v e n i f the
1959 s t e e l s t r ik e w e r e o m itte d , the a v e r a g e
n u m b e r o f d a y s o f id le n e s s p e r w o r k e r in ­
v o lv e d (a p p r o x im a t e ly 20) w o u ld e x c e e d the
l e v e l s o f a ll p o s tw a r y e a r s e x c e p t 1946.
A s sh ow n in ta b le 13,
466 s to p p a g e s
la s t e d f o r 1 m o n th but l e s s than 2 m o n th s ;
211, f o r 2 m o n th s bu t l e s s than 3 m o n th s ;
and 221, f o r 3 m o n th s o r m o r e .
T hese
898 s to p p a g e s a m o u n te d to 24 p e r c e n t o f the
to t a l n u m b e r o f s to p p a g e s .
In a b s o lu te n u m ­
b e r s , th e r e w e r e m o r e lo n g s to p p a g e s in
1946, 1947, 1952, and 1953, and a lm o s t a s
m a n y in 1950, bu t a s a p r o p o r t io n o f a ll
s to p p a g e s , the 1959 fig u r e e x c e e d e d a ll y e a r s
a ft e r 1947, a s sh ow n in the fo llo w in g c o lu m n .
T h e 221 s to p p a g e s in 1959 that la s t e d
3 m o n th s o r lo n g e r n ot o n ly r e p r e s e n t e d a
h ig h p o in t in the y e a r s a ft e r 1946, b u t the
to ta l w a s p a r t i c u l a r ly s ig n ific a n t in c o m ­
p a r is o n , w ith r e c e n t y e a r s .
F o r e x a m p le ,
th e r e w e r e 133 s to p p a g e s o f that d u r a tio n in
1958, 124 in 1957, 132 in 1956, and 137 in 1955.




N um ber o f
stop p a g es
la s t in g
1 month
or m ore

1 9 4 6 --------------------------------1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958

_____________________
----------------------------------------------------------------_____________________
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------_____________________
_____________________
--------------------------------1959 ---------------------------------

P ercen t
o f a ll
stop p a g es

1 ,2 0 9
96 4
111
773
879
735
976
1 ,0 4 5
759
768

698

2 4 .2
2 5 .6
2 2 .9
2 1 .5
1 8 .3
1 5 .4

1 9 .2
2 0 .5

2 1 .6
1 7 .8
1 8 .3
1 9 .7

723
735

2 0 .2

898

2 4 .0

L o n g d u r a tio n s w e r e
m o r e p r e v a le n t
a m o n g l a r g e than a m o n g s m a l l
s tr ik e s .
E ig h ty -o n e , o r a th ir d o f the s to p p a g e s in ­
v o lv in g 1, 000 o r m o r e w o r k e r s , la s t e d f o r
a m o n th o r m o r e .
In c o n t r a s t , in e a c h o f
the s m a l le r s iz e in t e r v a ls sh ow n in ta b le 10,
the p r o p o r t io n o f s t o p p a g e s la s t in g f o r a
m o n th o r m o r e
w a s a p p r o x im a t e ly at o r
s lig h tly b e lo w the p r o p o r t io n f o r a ll s t o p ­
p a g e s (2 4 p e r c e n t ). O f p a r t ic u la r n o te is the
fa c t that m o r e than h a lf o f the 20 m a jo r s t o p ­
p a g e s ( d e s c r i b e d in ta b le 12) la s t e d f o r a
m o n th o r m o r e and 4 la s t e d f o r 3 o r m o r e
m o n th s.
In the la t t e r c a t e g o r y w e r e the s t e e l
s t r ik e , the t h r e e -S t a t e b itu m in o u s c o a l s t o p ­
p a g e , the N ew Y o r k b a k e r y s t r ik e , and the
K e n n e c o tt C o p p e r s t r ik e (th e o n ly on e o f the
n o n fe r r o u s m e t a l m in in g s to p p a g e s to in v o lv e
10, 000 o r m o r e w o r k e r s ) .
A h ig h e r p r o p o r t io n o f the s to p p a g e s in
m a n u fa c tu r in g (31 p e r c e n t ) than in n o n m a n u ­
fa c t u r in g in d u s t r ie s (1 8 p e r c e n t ) la s t e d f o r a
m o n th o r lo n g e r .
O f th e 21 in d u s tr y g r o u p s
in w h ic h 50 o r m o r e s to p p a g e s w e r e r e c o r d e d
in 1959 (t a b le 5), th e fo llo w in g 8 had at le a s t
30 p e r c e n t o f its s to p p a g e s la s t f o r a m o n th
o r m o r e : P r in tin g and p u b lis h in g , m a c h in e r y
(e x c e p t e l e c t r i c a l ) , c h e m ic a l s , lu m b e r , e l e c ­
t r i c a l m a c h in e r y , fa b r i c a t e d m e t a l p r o d u c t s ,
w h o le s a le and r e t a i l tr a d e , and t r a n s p o r t a ­
tio n e q u ip m e n t.
A p p r o x im a t e ly 38 p e r c e n t o f the y e a r * s
s to p p a g e s that la s t e d f o r a fu ll d a y o r s h ift
o r m o r e w e r e s e tt le d w ith in a w e e k . 8 T h e s e
s to p p a g e s a ff e c t e d s lig h t ly m o r e than a fifth
o f the w o r k e r s in v o lv e d in a ll s to p p a g e s , and

8
S to p p a g e s la s t in g f o r l e s s
d a y o r s h ift a r e n o t a c c o u n t e d f o r
s t a t is t i c s .

than a fu ll
in th e s e

4
accounted fo r only 1. 4 percen t of the total
m an-days of idleness.
Both the number of
w ork ers involved and m an-days of idleness
w ere below 1958 levels (table 13).
M ajor Issues
D isagreem ent over econ om ic term s—
wages, hours, and supplem entary benefits—
was the prin cip al issue in half of 1959 stop­
pages, reflectin g no change in relative im ­
portance over 1958 (table 4) and little change
over the preceding 4 y ea rs. About three out
of five stoppages affecting 1, 000 or m ore
w ork ers and m ost of the m a jor stoppages
identified in table 12, including steel, w ere
in this category, although other issu es (as in
the steel stoppage)9 a lso w ere prom inent in
many stoppages.
Union recognition or other matters~~involving the secu rity of the union was a m ajor
issue in 664 stoppages; in over half of these,
econ om ic issu es w ere also important.
A l­
though the union organization stoppage was
m ore frequent in 1959 than in 1958, the level
continued low by postwar experience.
The number of stoppages in which a d is ­
pute over work rules and other working con ­
ditions was the only or m ajor issue declined
fro m 876 in 1958 to 761 in 1959. Of these,
78 involved 1, 000 or m ore w ork ers (about
1 out of 3 stoppages of this magnitude).
In
term s of number of stoppages and w ork ers
involved, the 1959 r e co rd in this issue ca te ­
gory was relatively low by postw ar standards.
However, the prom inence of this type of issue
in other stoppages m u s t also be t a k e n
into account.
Stoppages caused by inter union or intraunion issu es, mainly ju risd iction al disputes,
continued to in crea se in number, w hereas
the number of w ork ers involved declined. The
350 stoppages record ed in this category in
1959 was the highest number reached in the
postwar period.
On the other hand, few er
w ork ers w ere involved (32, 000) than in any
other year, with the exception of 1947.
Stoppages involving union organization
issu es tended to last longer than other types,
follow ed by econom ic issu es, as shown in the
follow ing column.
A pproxim ately 60 percen t of the stop­
pages involving other working conditions, and
53 percen t of the stoppages over interunion




A.U
stopp ages Stoppages lastin g
ending in 1959 1 month or longer
Issue
A ll s t o p p a g e s -------------------------Wages, hours, and su pp le­
mentary ben efits ------------ -----Union organization, w ages,
hours, and supplementary
b e n e f i t s ---------------- — ------------Union o r g a n iz a t io n -----------------Other working c o n d it io n s ---------Interunion or intraunion
matters ----------------------------- —
Not rep orted ------ ------ -----------------

Number

Number P ercent

3,747

898

24

1,888

515

27

368
319
758

141
91
111

38
29
15

353
61

31
9

9
15

m atters, w ere settled within a week. 10 The
ratio for all stoppages was approxim ately
38 percent (table 13).
Industries A ffected
Continuing a differential prevailing since
1949 (except for 1954), all m easu res of strike
activity w ere higher for manufacturing than
for nonmanufacturing industries (table 5). The
number of stoppages in manufacturing was up
slightly over the 1958 level, but the number
of w ork ers involved was down by m ore than
200, 000 despite the steel strike.
However,
m an-days of idleness, at 55. 5 m illion, was
second only to the 1946 peak.
In nonmanu­
facturing, the number of stoppages was at a
postwar low; the number of w ork ers involved
in crea sed slightly over 1958, but was still at
a relatively low postwar level; but m an-days
of idleness, reflectin g a sharp in crea se in
lost time in mining, reached its highest level
since 1952.
In addition to the b asic steel industry,
the steel strike d irectly involved substantial
num bers of w ork ers and m an-days of id le ­
ness in mining (iron and bituminous coal)
and fabricated m etal products (particularly
structural steel), and le s s e r num bers in
transportation (water), n on electrica l m achin­
ery, furniture (m etal), and trade (see ap­
pendix table B - l ) .
Despite the long steel
shutdown, the number of stoppages in p r i­
m ary m etal industries in crea sed by app roxi­
m ately 40 percen t over the 1958 level. Strike
9 See appendix B.
10 Note should be taken, particularly with
regard to these ca teg ories, that stoppages
lasting for le ss than a day or full shift are
omitted from these data.

5
activity in the transportation equipment in­
dustry was substantially below 1958 (m arked
by large autom obile stoppages); the number
of w ork ers involved in 1959 strikes reached
a postw ar low, while the level of strike id le ­
ness was low er than all postw ar yea rs except
1954 and 1957. With m a jor stoppages in three
of the four large tire com panies, the rubber
products industry reco rd e d a new postwar
high fo r m an-days of idlen ess. With a long
stoppage at Swift and Co. , m an-days of id le ­
ness a lso in crea sed substantially in food in­
dustries, reaching the highest level since
1948. The number of w ork ers and m an-days
of idleness in textile stoppages w ere substan­
tially higher than 1958 lev els. On the other
hand, the apparel industry, which e x p eri­
enced a long d re ss strike in 1958, record ed
a m arked decline in number of w ork ers and
m an-days of idleness.
Among nonmanufacturing industries, m andays of idleness in mining, reflectin g the long
stoppages in iron, coal, and copper mining,
reached its highest m ark since 1950.
A ll
m easu res of strike activity in construction
w ere low er than in 1958, but w holesale and
retail trade, with large New York and Los
Angeles strikes, saw an in crea se in w ork ers
involved and m an-days idle over 1958 levels.

these States except New Jersey, m ore than
100,000 w ork ers w e r e involved in stop­
pages.
In addition, Indiana had m ore than
100, 000 w ork ers affected. The highest m anday lo sse s w ere reg istered in Pennsylvania,
Ohio, and Indiana, but in term s of m an-days
as a percentage of all working tim e in nonagricultural employment, Montana (2.47 p e r ­
cent), Utah (2. 37), and Arizona (2. 33) led
all others.
M etropolitan A re a s. — M ore than 100 stop­
pages w ere record ed fo r five m etropolitan
areas— Chicago, Los Angeles—
Long Beach,
New York—
Northeastern New Jersey (high with
460 stoppages), Philadelphia, and Pittsburgh
(table 8). In three of these areas— Chicago,
New York, and Pittsburgh— the number of
w ork ers involved exceeded 100, 000.
In ad­
dition to these m ajor areas, m an-days of
idleness w ere at high levels in areas affected
by the steel stoppage.
M ore than 5,000 w ork ers w ere involved in
the steel stoppage in each of 19 m etropolitan
areas (appendix table B -3). Most strongly a f­
fected w ere Pittsburgh (92,900 w ork ers), Chi­
cago (82, 000), and Youngstown, Ohio (43, 000).

Stoppages by Location
R e g io n s.— M an-days of idleness ro se in
1959 in all regions, particu larly in those a f­
fected by the steel strike (table 6 and ap­
pendix table B -2 ). The Mountain States had
the la rgest relative in crea se (not prim arily
due to the steel strike) w here idleness as a
percentage of estim ated working tim e rose
fro m 0. 19 percen t in 1958 to 1. 32 percent
in 1959.
Other significant regional changes
include a substantial decline in w ork ers in­
volved in the East North Central region
(1958 auto strikes involved m ore w ork ers
than the 1959 steel strike) and a m ore than
50 percen t in crea se in w ork ers involved in
the East South Central region.
S tates.— The steel strike involved w ork ­
ers in 32 States (appendix table B -2 ). M ore
than 10, 000 w ork ers and m o re than a m illion
m an-days of idleness w ere attributed to the
follow ing 10 States: Alabama, C alifornia, Illi­
nois, Indiana, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota,
New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. The latter
two w ere m ost largely affected—161,000 w ork ­
ers in Pennsylvania and 87, 800 in Ohio.
Leading the States in number of stop­
pages w ere New York (470), Pennsylvania
(454), Ohio (391), California (260), New Jersey
(249), and Illinois (231) (table 7).
In all of




Monthly Trends
For each of the fir s t 7 months of 1959,
the number of stoppages was substantially
higher than in the corresponding month of
1958; for the remaining 5 months, the number
was low er (table 3). On the other hand, the
monthly pattern of strike activity for 1959,
m easured in term s of new stoppages, clo se ly
resem bled that for 1957.
Hence, there is
no evidence in these data that the steel stop­
page had an appreciable im pact on the volum e
of strike activity.
There is evidence, however, that stop­
pages tended to be longer in the second half
of 1959 than in the fir s t half (the steel strike
began in m id-July). F or stoppages involving
few er than 1, 000 w ork ers, the number of days
of idleness per w orker was about 50 percent
higher in the second half than in the fir s t half
of the year.
Among larger stoppages (e x ­
cluding steel), a sim ilar, but sm aller, d if­
feren ce was also noted.
The seasonal influences im plicit in the
monthly changes in the number of stoppages
w ere also reflected in the frequency of larger

6
stoppages.
The follow ing tabulation shows
the number of new stoppages affecting m ore
than 1, 000 w ork ers, by month, fo r 1959:
January. . . . . . . . . . . . . ------- ------------------ . . . __—

14

March _______________________________________
April _______________________________________
May ------------------------------------- . . . -------------------June ------------------------------------------------------------July -------------------------------------------------------------

21
21
35
34
34

Septem ber___________

16

November ____ . . . . . -------—------------- ---------- -—
Decem ber------ ———----------------——— -----------

11
6

As previou sly noted, the total number of stop­
pages affecting 1, 000 or m ore w ork ers was
exceptionally low in 1959.

Unions Involved
As in 1958, approxim ately th ree-fou rth s
of the stoppages involved a ffiliates of the
A F L -C IO (table 9). Despite the steel strike,
there was a decline in the number of A F L -C IO
m em b ers on strike; on the other hand, w ork ­
ers involved in stoppages of unaffiliated unions
(e. g. , the United Mine W orkers, the T eam ­
sters, and the Mine, M ill and Sm elter W ork­
ers) was higher in 1959 than in 1958.
A l­
though m an-days of idleness in unaffiliated
union stoppages alm ost doubled, idleness in
A F L -C IO stoppages, accounting fo r 90 p e r ­
cent of the total, was about three tim es higher
than in 1958, the d ifferen ce being attributable
to the steel stoppage.




Methods of Terminating Stoppages
The steel and longshore stoppages, ended
by T aft-H artley injunctions, w ere but 2 of
514 stoppages term inated in 1959 without a
form a l settlem ent (table 14).
In 1, 392, or
alm ost half of the stoppages resulting in a
settlement, the assistan ce of F ederal or State
m ediators was reported by the parties.
Aid
of non-Governm ent m ediator s or agencies was
indicated in 173 stoppages, reflectin g a sm all
but continued growth in private mediation.
D isposition of Issues 1
1
The settlem ents that ended 318 stoppages,
but which did not resolv e all im portant issu es,
included agreem ent between the parties on a
method of disposing of these issu es after the
resum ption of work. D irect negotiation was
the prin cip al method. A rbitration was agreed
upon in 70 situations, reflectin g no app re­
ciable change in the prevalence of this use of
arbitration as com pared with 1958 but s o m e ­
what le ss than in e a rlier y ea rs.
1
1
Since the steel and longshore stoppages
w ere ended without settlem ents, they w ere in­
cluded, for purposes of table 15, in the ca te­
gory of stoppages with "issu e s settled or
disposed of at term ination of stoppage. "
Although the wording of this phrase does not
quite fit stoppages ended by injunction, the
inclusion of steel and longshore stoppages in
this category con form s to previous Bureau
p ra ctice.
The purpose of this table is to
spotlight m ethods by which em ployers and
unions m ay term inate stoppages by a g r e e ­
ment, without n e ce ssa rily settling a ll issu es
in dispute.

Chart I.

TRENDS IN WORK STOPPAGES
THOUSANDS

IDLENESS

MILLIONS

125
100

75

50
25

0
MILLIONS




PERCENT

8

Chart 2.

W O RK ER S IN V O L V E D A N D IDLENESS IN W O R K STOPPAGES,
EXCLUSIVE OF BA SIC STEEL, M O T O R VEHICLES,
A N D BITU M IN O U S CO AL, 1945 59
M ILLIO N S

M ILLIO N S

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




M IL L IO N S

M ILLIO N S

9
TABLE 1. WORK STOPPAGES IN THE UNITED STATES, 1927-591

W o rk sto p p a g e s

W o r k e r s in v o lv e d 2

M a n -d a y s id le d u rin g y e a r
P ercen t o f
e s t im a te d
w o r k in g
tim e o f a ll
w orkers

N u m b er

A vera ge
d u ra tion
(c a le n d a r
d a y s )3

707
604
921
637

2 6 .5
2 7 .6
2 2 .6
2 2 .3

330
314
289
183

1 .4
1 .3
1 .2
.8

2 6 ,2 0 0
1 2 ,6 0 0
5 ,3 5 0
3 ,3 2 0

0 .3 7
. 17
.0 7
.0 5

7 9 .5
4 0 .2
1 8 .5
1 8 .1

1931
1932 ..................
1933
....................
1934 ___________________________________
1935 -----------------------------------------------------

810
841
1 ,6 9 5
1 ,8 5 6
2 ,0 1 4

1 8 .8
1 9 .6
1 6 .9
1 9 .5
2 3 .8

342
324
1 ,1 7 0
1 ,4 7 0
1 ,1 2 0

1 .6
1 .8
6 .3
7 .2
5 .2

6 ,8 9 0
1 0 ,5 0 0
1 6 ,9 0 0
1 9 ,6 0 0
1 5 ,5 0 0

. 11
.2 3
.3 6
.3 8
.2 9

2 0 .2
3 2 .4
1 4 .4
1 3 .4
1 3 .8

1936
1937
1938
1939
1940

_
.
_
____
_
___________________________________
.................................

2 ,1 7 2
4 ,7 4 0
2 ,7 7 2
2 ,6 1 3
2 ,5 0 8

2 3 .3
2 0 .3
2 3 .6
2 3 .4
2 0 .9

789
1 ,8 6 0
688
1 ,1 7 0
577

3. 1
7 .2
2 .8
4 .7
2. 3

1 3 ,9 0 0
2 8 ,4 0 0
9 , 150
1 7 ,8 0 0
6 ,7 0 0

.2 1
.4 3
.1 5
.2 8
. 10

1 7 .6
1 5 .3
1 3 .3
1 5 .2
1 1 .6

1941
1942 ___________________________________
1943 ____ ___
1944
. . .
____
1945 -----------------------------------------------------

4 ,2 8 8
2 ,9 6 8
3 ,7 5 2
4 ,9 5 6
4 ,7 5 0

1 8 .3
1 1 .7
5 ,0
5 .6
9 .9

2 ,3 6 0
840
1 ,9 8 0
2 ,1 2 0
3 ,4 7 0

8 .4
2 .8
6 .9
7 .0
1 2 .2

2 3 ,0 0 0
4 ,1 8 0
1 3 ,5 0 0
8 ,7 2 0
3 8 ,0 0 0

.3 2
.0 5
.1 5
.0 9
.4 7

1946
1947
1948
1949
1950

4 ,9 8 5
3 ,6 9 3
3 ,4 1 9
3 ,6 0 6
4 ,8 4 3

2 4 .2
2 5 .6
2 1 .8
2 2 .5
1 9 .2

4 ,6 0 0
2 , 170
1 ,9 6 0
3 ,0 3 0
2 ,4 1 0

1 4 .5
6 .5
5 .5
9 .0
6 .9

1 1 6 ,0 0 0
3 4 ,6 0 0
3 4 ,1 0 0
5 0 ,5 0 0
3 8 ,8 0 0

1 .4 3
.4 1
.3 7
.5 9
.4 4

2 5 .2
1 5 .9
1 7 .4
1 6 .7
16. 1

4 ,7 3 7
5 , 117
5 ,0 9 1
3 ,4 6 8
4 ,3 2 0

1 7 .4
1 9 .6
2 0 .3
2 2 .5
1 8 .5

2 ,2 2 0
3 ,5 4 0
2 ,4 0 0
1 ,5 3 0
2 ,6 5 0

5 .5
8 .8
5 .6
3 .7
6 .2

2 2 ,9 0 0
5 9 ,1 0 0
2 8 ,3 0 0
2 2 ,6 0 0
2 8 ,2 0 0

.2 3
.5 7
.2 6
.2 1
.2 6

1 0 .3
1 6 .7
1 1 .8
1 4 .7
1 0 .7

3 ,8 2 5
3 ,6 7 3
3 ,6 9 4
3, 708

1 8 .9
1 9 .2
1 9 .7
2 4 .6

1 ,9 0 0
1 ,3 9 0
2 ,0 6 0
1, 880

4 .3
3 .1
4 .8
4 .3

3 3 ,1 0 0
1 6 ,5 0 0
2 3 ,9 0 0
6 9 ,0 0 0

.2 9
. 14
.2 2
. 61

1 7 .4
1 1 .4
1 1 .6
36. 7

Y ear

1927 .................................
1928 _
1929
1930

_
-

_

....................................................
...............................................................
....................................................
.............................................
______________________
_________

1951 _
_____
__
_ __
..................................
1952 .
1953
_ _ _ _ _
_
1954 ..............................
.........
1955 ............................................................

1956 ______________________
1957
"
~~~
____
1958 ...............................................................
1959 _________________________________

N u m b er
(th o u sa n d s)

P ercen t
o f tota l
e m p lo y e d

N u m ber
(th ou sa n d s)

P er
w ork er
in v o lv e d

'

9 .8
5* 0
6 .8
4 .1
1 1 .0

1 T he n u m b e r o f s to p p a g e s and w o r k e r s r e la te to th ose beg in n in g in the y e a r ; a v e r a g e d u r a tio n , to
th ose
en d in g in the y e a r .
M a n -d a y s o f id le n e s s in clu d e a ll sto p p a g e s in e ff e c t .
A v a ila b le in fo r m a t io n fo r e a r l i e r p e r io d s a p p e a r s in the H andbook o f L a b o r S ta tis t ic s (B LS B u ll.
1016),
table E - 2 . F o r a d is c u s s io n o f the p r o c e d u r e s in v o lv e d in the c o lle c t io n and c o m p ila t io n o f w o r k stop p a g e s t a t is t ic s ,
se e T e ch n iq u e s o f P r e p a r in g M a jo r BLS S ta tis t ic a l S e r ie s (BLS B u ll. 1168), c h . 12.
2 W o r k e r s a re c o u n te d m o r e than o n c e if they w e r e in v o lv e d in m o r e than 1 stop p a g e d u rin g the y e a r .
3 F ig u r e s a re sim p le a v e r a g e s ; e a ch sto p p a g e is g iv en equ al w eig h t r e g a r d le s s o f its s i z e .




10
TABLE 2. WORK STOPPAGES INVOLVING 10,000 OR MORE WORKERS, SELECTED PERIODS
S to p p a g e s in v o lv in g 1 0 ,0 0 0 o r m o r e w o r k e r s
W o r k e r s in v o lv e d

M a n -d a y s id le

P e r io d
N u m ber

1 9 3 5 -3 9 a v e r a g e ____________________
1 9 4 7 -4 9 a v e r a g e ____________________
1945 ....................... ................................. .
1946 .................................... .........................
1947 ________________________ _______
1948 ____________________________
1949 ________ _________________________
________________________________
1950
1951 ________________________ _______
1952
____________
1953 __________________________________
1954 ............................ .................................
1955 ______________
1956 ______ __________ _______________
1957 ______ . . ____________ _______
1958 .............................................................
1959 ___________ _______________________

l

N um be r
(th o u sa n d s)

P ercen t of
total f o r
p e r io d

365
1 ,2 7 0
1, 350
2, 920
1 ,0 3 0
870
1, 920
738
457
1, 690
650
43 7
1 ,2 1 0
758
283
823
845

3 2 .4
5 3 .4
38. 9
63. 6
4 7 .5
44. 5
6 3 .2
30. 7
20. 6
4 7 .8
27. 1
28. 5
45. 6
3 9 .9
2 0 .4
4 0 .0
4 5 .0

11
18
42
31
15
20
18
22
19
35
28
18
26
12
13
21
20

N um be r
(th o u sa n d s)1

P ercen t of
tota l f o r
p e r io d

5 ,2 9 0
2 3 ,8 0 0
1 9 ,3 0 0
6 6 ,4 0 0
1 7 ,7 0 0
1 8 ,9 0 0
3 4 ,9 0 0
2 1 ,7 0 0
5, 680
3 6 ,9 0 0
7 ,2 7 0
7 ,5 2 0
1 2 ,3 0 0
1 9 ,6 0 0
3 ,0 5 0
1 0 ,6 0 0
5 0 ,8 0 0

3 1 .2
5 9 .9
5 0 .7
5 7 .2
5 1 .2
5 5 .3
6 9 .0
5 6 .0
2 4 .8
6 2 .6
2 5 .7
3 3 .3
4 3 .4
5 9 .1
1 8 .5
4 4 .2
73. 7

In clu d e s id le n e s s in s to p p a g e s b eg in n in g in e a r l i e r y e a r s .

TABLE 3. WORK STOPPAGES BY MONTH, 1958-59
N u m b er o f sto p p a g e s

W o r k e r s in v o lv e d in sto p p a g e s
In e ff e c t d u rin g m onth

M onth

B eg in n in g
in
m onth

In e ff e c t
d u rin g
m onth

B eg in n in g
in m on th
(th ou sa n d s)

208
159
195
293
360
374
399
403
471
391
305
136

3 07
262
309
411
519
552
596
638
7 12
637
497
357

217
206
3 05
406
442
460
42 0
380
322
277
161
112

378
347
462
593
688
722
681
636
624
548
402
285

M a n -d a y s id le
d u rin g m onth

N um be r
(th ou sa n d s)

P ercen t
o f to ta l
e m p lo y e d

N u m b er
(th ou sa n d s)

P ercen t of
e s t im a te d
total
w o rk in g
tim e

83
36
159
82
156
156
159
162
324
463
224
58

98
52
182
122
200
247
238
288
414
531
296
169

0. 23
. 12
. 43
.2 9
. 48
. 58
. 56
. 67
. 96
1 .2 3
. 68
. 39

595
404
1 ,2 4 0
1, 100
1, 940
1 ,8 5 0
2, 160
2, 160
2 ,4 0 0
5 ,4 2 0
2 ,2 1 0
2 ,4 3 0

0. 06
. 05
. 14
. 12
. 22
.2 1
.2 3
. 24
. 26
. 55
.2 7
. 25

76
74
103
149
167
183
668
161
109
125
41
23

168
130
159
233
294
330
787
757
781
775
652
101

. 39
. 31
. 37
. 54
. 67
. 74
1. 78
1 .7 1
1 .7 6
1. 75
1 .4 7
.2 2

1, 800
1, 360
1, 270
2, 380
3, 010
2, 890
9 ,2 3 0
1 3 ,4 0 0
1 3 ,8 0 0
14, 100
4 ,3 0 0
1 ,4 3 0

. 20
. 16
. 13
.2 5
. 33
.2 9
. 95
1 .4 4
1 .4 8
1. 45
.4 8
. 14

1958
Ja n u a ry _____________________________
F e b r u a r y ____________________________
M a r ch _______________________________
A p r il _________________________________
M a y ----------------------------------------------------J u n e ________ _______________________
July ________ ____ ______ _______________
A u g u s t _______________________________
S e p te m b e r ___________________________
O c t o b e r ______________________________
N o v e m b e r ___________________________
D ecem ber

1959
Ja n u a ry _____________________ ______
F e b r u a r y ____________________________
M a r ch _______________________________
A p r il _________________________________
M a y ___________________________________
June __________________________________
July __________________________________
A u g u s t _______________________________
S e p te m b e r
__
O c to b e r _____________________________
N o v e m b e r ___________________________
D e c e m b e r ___________________________




11
TABLE 4. MAJOR ISSUES INVOLVED IN WORK STOPPAGES, 1959
S top p ag es beg in n in g in 1959
W o r k e r s in v o lv e d
M a jo r is s u e s
Num be r

P ercen t
of
to ta l

P ercen t
of
to ta l

N u m ber

M a n -d a y s id le
d u rin g 1959
(a ll s to p p a g e s )

N u m ber

P ercen t
of
to ta l

A ll is s u e s ____________________________________

3, 708

100. 0

1, 880, 000

100. 0

69, 000, 000

100. 0

W a g e s, h o u r s , and su p p le m e n ta ry
b e n e fit s _____________________________________

1, 872

50. 5

1, 320, 000

70. 5

6 1 ,2 0 0 , 000

88. 6

1 ,2 0 9
14
51
2

3 2 .6
.4
1 .4
.1

924, 000
1, 650
3 3 ,6 0 0
2, 510

4 9 .2
.1
1. 8
. 1

49, 100, 000
8 6 ,1 0 0
6 9 5 ,0 0 0
4 4 ,3 0 0

71. 1
.1
1. 0
.1

280

7 .6

1 6 7 ,0 0 0

8. 9

7, 030, 000

1 0 .2

27
289

.7
7. 8

6 3 ,2 0 0
1 3 4 ,0 0 0

3 .4
7. 1

1, 880, 000
2, 390, 000

2. 7
3. 5

361

9 .7

9 5 ,5 0 0

5. 1

2 ,4 7 0 , 000

3. 6

261

7. 0

17, 900

1. 0

41 1, 000

.6

17

.5

2 ,2 8 0

. 1

3 9 ,0 0 0

. 1

W age i n c r e a s e 1__________________ ________
W age d e c r e a s e ___________________________
Wage i n c r e a s e , h ou r d e c r e a s e ________
W age d e c r e a s e , h ou r in c r e a s e ________
W age i n c r e a s e , p e n s io n , a n d /o r
s o c i a l in s u r a n c e b e n e fits _
P e n s io n a n d /o r s o c ia l in s u r a n c e
b e n e fit s _________________________________
O th er 2 ___________________________________

U nion o r g a n iz a t io n , w a g e s , h o u r s ,
and s u p p le m e n ta ry b e n e fit s _____________
R e c o g n itio n , w a g e s , a n d /o r
h o u r s _____________________________________
S tren gth en in g b a rg a in in g p o s itio n ,
w a g e s , a n d /o r h o u r s ___________________
U nion s e c u r it y , w a g e s , a n d /o r
h o u r s _____________________________________

83

2 .2

7 5 ,3 0 0

4. 0

2, 020, 000

2. 9

U nion o r g a n i z a t i o n ___________________________

3 03

8 .2

5 8 ,4 0 0

3. 1

1 ,7 0 0 , 000

2. 5

R e c o g n itio n _______________________________
S tren gth en in g b a rg a in in g p o s i t i o n ______
U nion s e c u r i t y _____________________________
D i s c r i m i n a t i o n ____________________________
O ther ______________________________________

204
19
55
5
20

5 .5
.5
1 .5
.1
.5

1 4 ,1 0 0
2 5 ,1 0 0
11, 800
2, 560
4, 880

.8
1 .3
.6
.1
.3

2 5 1 , 000
1, 190, 000
2 2 6 ,0 0 0
5, 140
2 7 ,0 0 0

.4
1. 7
.3

(3)
( 3)

O th er w o r k in g c o n d itio n s _________________

761

2 0 .5

3 6 2 ,0 0 0

1 9 .3

3 ,4 0 0 , 000

4. 9

Job s e c u r it y ___________________________
Shop c o n d itio n s and p o l i c i e s ____________
W o rk lo a d ____ _____________________________
O th er ________________________ . . . _________

388
324
38
11

10 .5
8. 7
1. 0
.3

21 2, 000
1 3 4 ,0 0 0
12, 800
2 ,7 9 0

11 .3
7. 1
.7
.1

2 ,2 1 0 , 000
9 0 8 ,0 0 0
2 2 4 ,0 0 0
5 1 ,4 0 0

3 .2
1. 3

___ ______

350

9 ,4

3 2 , 000

i. 7

2 2 2 ,0 0 0

.3

S y m p a t h y __ _________ . . . ___ ____ ___________
U nion r iv a lr y 4 ______ . . . . -------------- ------------- J u risd ictio n * . . . . . ___ ______________________
_
Union a d m in is tr a tio n * . . . ________________

51
18
257
2

1.4

8 ,9 9 0
5 ,5 9 0

. 3

6 .*
. 1

17,400

61

1.6

5 ,7 6 0

Interunion o r intraun ion m a tte r s

Not r e p o r t e d

_________________________________

1. 0

90,

.5

64 ,6 0 0
4 2 ,4 0 0

( 3>

111, 000
210

.3

30, 500

,9

.1
.1

.1
. 1
.2
(3 )
(3)

1 T h is g ro u p in c lu d e s the na tion w ide s te e l sto p p a g e . In a d d itio n to the u n ion s' d em a n d fo r w ag e a n d /o r fr in g e
b e n e fit i n c r e a s e s , the is s u e s in the s t e e l strik e a ls o in c lu d e d co m p a n y p r o p o s a ls f o r ch a n g e s in w o r k in g r u le s .
2 I s s u e s su ch a s r e t r o a c t iv it y , h o lid a y s , v a c a t io n s , jo b c la s s if ic a t io n , p ie c e r a t e s , in c e n tiv e sta n d a rd s, o r
o th e r r e la t e d m a tt e r s u n a c c o m p a n ie d b y p r o p o s a ls to e ff e c t g e n e r a l ch a n g es in w ag e r a t e s a r e in c lu d e d in th is
c * te g b $ y .
l i g h t l y l e s s than a th ird o f the sto p p a g e s in th is g rou p o c c u r r e d o v e r p ie c e r a t e s o r in c e n tiv e s ta n d a r d s.

* Less than, 0. 05 percent.
*

In c lu d e s d is p u te s b e tw e e h u n ion s o f d iffe r e n t a ffilia t io n s u ch a s th o s e b etw een un ions a ffilia t e d w ith the
ahd n o n a ffilia te s .
5 In c lu d e s d is p u te s b e tw e e n u n ion s o f the s a m e a ffilia t io n .
6 in c lu d e s d is p u te s w ith in a union o v e r the a d m in is t r a tio n o f un ion a f fa ir s o r r e g u la t io n s .
NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f rou n d in g,




su m s o f in d iv id u a l it e m s m ay n o t e q u a l to ta ls .

12
TABLE 5. WORK STOPPAGES BY INDUSTRY GROUP, 1959
S top p a g es beginn ing
in 1959

M a n -d a y s id le d u rin g
1959 (a ll s to p p a g e s )

N u m ber

P ercen t of
e s t im a te d
to ta l w o rk in g
tim e 1

In d u stry g r o u p
N u m ber

W ork ers
in v o lv e d

_______________________

______

a 3 ,7 0 8

1 ,8 8 0 ,0 0 0

6 9 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0

0 .6 1

________________________

_ ___

a2 ,0 4 3

1 ,2 8 0 ,0 0 0

5 5 ,5 0 0 ,0 0 0

1 .3 4

P r i m a r y m e ta l in d u s tr ie s ______________________
F a b r ic a t e d m e ta l p r o d u c t s , e x c e p t
o r d n a n c e , m a c h in e r y , and
t r a n s p o r ta t io n eq u ip m e n t ______ __ — ______
O rd n a n ce and a c c e s s o r i e s
_____
________
E l e c t r i c a l m a c h in e r y , e q u ip m e n t,
and su p p lie s _______
______________________
M a c h in e r y , e x c e p t e l e c t r i c a l __________________
T r a n s p o r ta tio n e q u ip m e n t _______________________
L u m b e r and w o o d p r o d u c t s , e x c e p t
fu rn itu re _________________________ _____________
F u r n itu r e and fix t u r e s __________________________
S to n e , c l a y , and g la s s p r o d u c ts _______________
T e x t ile m i ll p r o d u c ts _____________________ ____
A p p a r e l and o th e r fin is h e d p ro d u c ts m ad e
fr o m fa b r ic s and s im ila r m a t e r ia ls _________
L e a th e r and le a th e r p ro d u c ts ___________________
F o o d and k in d re d p ro d u c ts _____________ _______
T o b a c c o m a n u fa c tu r e s
________________________
P a p e r and a llie d p r o d u c ts
___________________
P r in tin g , p u b lish in g , and a llie d i n d u s t r i e s ___
C h e m ic a ls and a llie d p ro d u c ts _________________
P e tr o le u m r e fin in g and r e la t e d i n d u s t r i e s ____
R u b b e r and m is c e lla n e o u s p la s t ic s

236

5 7 5 ,0 0 0

3 9 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0

1 3 .7 7

276
13

1 0 0 ,0 0 0
8 ,2 9 0

3 ,1 5 0 ,0 0 0
1 2 5 ,0 0 0

1. 14
.3 4

96
217
108

4 8 ,1 0 0
8 2 ,7 0 0
7 6 ,5 0 0

8 2 0 ,0 0 0
2 ,8 2 0 ,0 0 0
1 ,3 9 0 ,0 0 0

.2 5
.6 8
.3 2

58
101
165
70

1 4 ,1 0 0
1 6 ,0 0 0
5 0 ,8 0 0
2 3 ,5 0 0

2 1 0 ,0 0 0
4 2 2 ,0 0 0
1 ,2 3 0 ,0 0 0
2 2 9 ,0 0 0

.1 2
.4 3
.8 7
.0 9

122
38
169
1
59
58
97
18

1 9 ,1 0 0
5 ,5 7 0
8 0 ,0 0 0
900
1 8 ,7 0 0
2 4 ,4 0 0
1 9 ,6 0 0
1 8 ,0 0 0

2 5 3 ,0 0 0
5 3 ,3 0 0
1 ,7 2 0 ,0 0 0
6 ,3 0 0
4 4 2 ,0 0 0
3 5 2 ,0 0 0
4 2 2 ,0 0 0
5 5 0 ,0 0 0

.0 8
.0 5
.4 5
.0 2
.3 0
. 15
. 19
.9 2

62

7 6 ,8 0 0

1 ,9 3 0 ,0 0 0

2 .9 0

26
68

8 ,6 8 0
1 1 ,3 0 0

1 5 8 ,0 0 0
1 7 9 ,0 0 0

. 18
. 14

_______ _______________

a 1 .6 7 2

6 0 0 .0 0 0

1 3 .5 0 0 .0 0 0

3 .1 9

A g r ic u lt u r e , f o r e s t r y , and fi s h e r ie s __________
M ining ______ __________ ____________________ ___
C o n t r a c t c o n s t r u c t io n ___________________________
W h o le s a le and r e t a il tra d e _____________ __ „
F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e sta te __________
T r a n s p o r ta tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , e l e c t r i c ,
g a s , and s a n ita ry s e r v i c e s
_________________
S e r v i c e s _____________________________ ___________
G o v e r n m e n t ______________________________________

10
187
771
311
11

2 ,2 3 0
1 2 0 ,0 0 0
2 5 1 ,0 0 0
7 2 ,2 0 0
770

6 5 ,7 0 0
5 ,6 5 0 ,0 0 0
4 ,1 2 0 ,0 0 0
1 ,5 7 0 ,0 0 0
4 ,3 1 0

(* )
3 .2 6
.5 8
.0 5
( 4)

233
128
25

1 4 0 ,0 0 0
1 2 ,7 0 0
2 ,0 5 0

1 ,9 1 0 ,0 0 0
1 9 0 ,0 0 0
1 0 ,5 0 0

.1 9
l 4)
( 4)

A ll in d u s tr ie s ___

M a n u fa ctu rin g

P r o f e s s i o n a l , s c i e n t i f i c , and c o n t r o llin g
in s tr u m e n ts ; p h o to g r a p h ic and o p tic a l
g o o d s ; w a tc h e s and c l o c k s _______ __ ______
M is c e lla n e o u s m a n u fa ctu rin g in d u s tr ie s ___ __
N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g

_

1 M a n -d a y s o f e m p lo y m e n t in the p r im a r y m e ta l in d u s tr ie s g r o u p d u rin g the s t e e l s trik e h ave b een c o m p u te d
on the b a s is o f a v e r a g e e m p lo y m e n t th rou g h ou t the a ffe c te d m o n th s , r a th e r than on the u su al b a s is o f e m p lo y m e n t
in the pay p e r io d ending n e a r e s t the fifte e n th o f e a c h m on th .
In J u ly , e m p lo y m e n t in p r im a r y m e ta ls w a s 1 ,2 6 6 ,0 0 0
in the pay p e r io d ending the fifte e n th , and w a s p r e s u m e d to be 7 7 8 ,0 0 0 d u rin g the s e c o n d h a lf o f the m on th .
In
N o v e m b e r , e m p lo y m e n t w a s 1 ,1 9 6 ,0 0 0 in the pay p e r io d ending n e a r e s t the fifte e n th , and w a s p r e s u m e d to h o ld at
th is le v e l in the la s t 3 w e e k s o f the m on th , bu t w as r e d u c e d b y 4 7 6 ,0 0 0 in the f i r s t w eek o f the m on th ,
d u rin g w h ich tim e the s te e l s trik e w a s in p r o g r e s s .
If the p e r c e n ta g e o f tim e l o s t w e r e c a lc u la t e d on the b a s is o f r a t io o f tim e lo s t to tim e w o r k e d p lus tim e
lo s t , the p e r c e n t a g e s w o u ld have b e e n 1 2 .1 2 in p r im a r y m e ta l in d u s tr ie s and 1 .3 3 in the m a n u fa ctu rin g g r o u p .
a S to p p a g e s ex ten d in g in to 2 o r m o r e in d u s tr y g r o u p s have b een c o u n te d in e a c h in d u s tr y g r o u p a ffe c te d ;
w o r k e r s in v o lv e d and m a n -d a y s id le w e r e a llo c a t e d to the r e s p e c t iv e g r o u p s .
3 E x c lu d e s g o v e r n m e n t.
4 N ot a v a ila b le .
NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f r o u n d in g , su m s o f in d iv id u a l it e m s m a y not eq u a l t o ta ls .




13
TABLE 6. WORK STOPPAGES BY REGION,1 1959 and 1958

R e g io n

S to p p a g e s
b eg in n in g in—
1959

1958

U nited S ta tes ________________

* 3 ,7 0 8

* 3 .6 9 4

New E n glan d _ _____ ______
M id d le A tla n tic ______________
E a st N orth C e n tr a l _________
W e st N orth C e n tr a l ________
South A tla n tic _______________
E a st South C e n tr a l _________

264
1 ,1 7 3
1 ,0 0 8
303
356
228
156
140
369

282
1 ,1 2 7
1 ,0 5 0
322
411
207
197
141
330

W e s t S ou th C e n t r a l

M o u n t a in ____________ ________
P a c ific 3
__ ___ __ ______

W o r k e r s in v o lv e d
in sto p p a g e s
beg in n in g in—
1959

1958

1 ,8 8 0 ,0 0 0 2 ,0 6 0 ,0 0 0
7 3 ,2 0 0
5 8 7 ,0 0 0
5 7 2 ,0 0 0
1 0 5 ,0 0 0
1 3 4 ,0 0 0
1 0 2 ,0 0 0
5 7 ,4 0 0
9 7 ,4 0 0
1 5 0 ,0 0 0

7 8 ,6 0 0
5 1 0 ,0 0 0
9 2 8 ,0 0 0
9 9 ,6 0 0
1 2 8 ,0 0 0
6 6 ,8 0 0
6 6 ,3 0 0
3 6 ,3 0 0
1 4 6 ,0 0 0

M a n -d a y s id le
d u rin g
(a ll s to p p a g e s )

P e r c e n t o f e s tim a te d
tota l w o rk in g
tim e
1959

1958

6 9 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 2 3 ,9 0 0 ,0 0 0

0 .6 1

0 .2 2

1 ,4 6 0 ,0 0 0
2 1 ,3 0 0 ,0 0 0
2 3 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0
3 ,6 1 0 ,0 0 0
4 ,2 0 0 ,0 0 0
4 , 1 8 0 ,0 0 0
1 ,8 6 0 ,0 0 0
4 ,6 4 0 ,0 0 0
4 ,7 4 0 ,0 0 0

0. 18
.8 2
.9 1
.4 2
.2 9
.7 6
.21
1 .3 2
.3 8

0 .1 1
.2 0
.3 9
. 17
.1 1
. 16
. 16
.1 9
.2 1

1959

1958

8 5 6 ,0 0 0
5 ,1 9 0 ,0 0 0
9 ,5 3 0 ,0 0 0
1 ,4 4 0 ,0 0 0
1 ,5 0 0 ,0 0 0
8 3 7 ,0 0 0
1 ,3 7 0 ,0 0 0
6 2 2 ,0 0 0
2 ,5 5 0 ,0 0 0

1 T h e r e g io n s u s e d in th is study in c lu d e :
New E nglan d— C o n n e c tic u t, M a in e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , N ew H a m p s h ir e ,
R h od e Isla n d , an d V e r m o n t; M id d le A t la n t ic — N ew J e r s e y , New Y o r k , an d P e n n s y lv a n ia ; E a st N orth C e n tr a l— I llin o is ,
Ind ian a, M ich ig a n , O h io , an d W is c o n s in ; W e st N orth C e n tr a l— Iow a, K a n s a s , M in n e s o ta , M is s o u r i, N e b r a s k a , N orth
D ak ota, an d South D akota; South A tla n tic -—-D e la w a re , D is t r ic t o f C o lu m b ia , F lo r id a , G e o r g ia , M a r y la n d , N orth
C a r o lin a , South C a r o lin a , .V ir g in ia , an d W e st V ir g in ia ; E a st South C e n tr a l— A la b a m a , K en tu ck y , M is s is s ip p i, and
T e n n e s s e e ; W est South C entral—A r k a n s a s , L o u is ia n a , O klah om a, and T e x a s ; Klountain— r iz o n a , C o lo r a d o , Idaho, M ontana,
-A
N e v a d a , New M e x ic o , U tah, and W y o m in g ; an d P a c if ic — A la s k a , C a lifo r n ia , O r e g o n , and W ash in g ton .
a S top p ag es exten din g a c r o s s State lin e s h ave b een cou n ted in e a c h State a ffe c t e d ; w o r k e r s in v o lv e d an d m a n d ays id le w e r e a llo c a t e d a m o n g the S ta te s.
3 Data p r io r to 1959 e x c lu d e s A la s k a .
NOTE;

B e c a u s e o f r o u n d in g , su m s o f in d iv id u a l it e m s m ay not eq u a l to ta ls .




14
TABLE 7. WORK STOPPAGES BY STATE, 1959
S top p a g es b eg in n in g
in 1959

M a n -d a y s id le d u rin g
1959 (a ll s to p p a g e s )

State
N u m b er

W ork ers
in v o lv e d

N u m b er

P ercen t of
e s tim a te d
tota l w ork in g
tim e

1 3 ,7 0 8

1 ,8 8 0 ,0 0 0

6 9 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0

0. 61

A l a b a m a _____________________________________ _____
A la s k a _____________________________________________
A r i z o n a _____________________________________________
A r k a n s a s ___________________________________________
C a l i f o r n i a ________________________________________

73
10
28
25
260

51, 300
4 ,9 0 0
3 0 ,6 0 0
3, 170
1 0 2 ,0 0 0

2 ,4 8 0 , 000
2 6 2 ,0 0 0
1 ,4 3 0 ,0 0 0
7 1 ,0 0 0
3 ,3 4 0 ,0 0 0

1. 64
( 2)
2. 33
. 09
. 34

C o lo r a d o ___________________________________________
C o n n e c t ic u t ________________________________________
D e l a w a r e ___________________________________________
D i s t r ic t o f C o l u m b i a _____________________________
F lo r id a _____________________________________________

30
68
7
11
99

2 2 ,4 0 0
2 0 ,5 0 0
2 ,5 0 0
5 ,9 0 0
27, 100

7 5 0 ,0 0 0
3 8 4 ,0 0 0
1 5 4 ,0 0 0
5 0 ,3 0 0
2 7 6 ,0 0 0

. 76
. 18
.4 5
. 07
. 10

G e o r g i a _____________________________________ _____
Idaho _______________________________________________
I l l i n o i s _____________________________________________
I n d ia n a _____________________________________________
Iow a _________ _______________ ________ ________

22
17
231
153
63

3, 660
3 ,4 2 0
1 1 2 ,0 0 0
1 1 7 ,0 0 0
2 4 ,6 0 0

1 1 2 ,0 0 0
2 2 ,4 0 0
4 ,3 9 0 ,0 0 0
5 ,6 2 0 ,0 0 0
5 4 1 ,0 0 0

. 05
. 07
.5 7
1 .8 3
.'38

K a n sa s __
_ _
____
_
K en tu ck y ____________________________________ _____
L o u i s i a n a _____
__ _____________________________
M ain e
______ ______________________ ____ ______
M a r y la n d ___________ ____________________________

26
83
36
19
38

6 ,4 4 0
3 0 ,2 0 0
17, 500
1, 280
38, 300

6 4 ,7 0 0
1 ,2 2 0 ,0 0 0
2 8 6 ,0 0 0
1 2 ,5 0 0
2 ,4 4 0 , 000

. 05
.9 1
. 17
. 02
1. 30

M a s s a c h u s e t t s _____________________________________
M i c h i g a n ____ _____ ___________________________
M in n e s o ta ____ _ _______ _ _______
M i s s is s ip p i _ _ _
_____
_ _
_ __
M is s o u r i
___ _ __________
__________

134
172
73
12
105

4 3 ,0 0 0
8 3 ,5 0 0
3 9 ,1 0 0
1 ,9 0 0
2 4 ,6 0 0

909 ,0 00
2 ,6 8 0 ,0 0 0
1 ,8 7 0 ,0 0 0
1 7 ,1 0 0
9 3 5 ,0 0 0

. 21
.5 3
.9 4
. 02
. 32

__________
M ontana ______________________________
N e b r a s k a __ _ _ __ ___ __ ___
N e v a d a ______
__ _ ---------------------_ _
N ew H a m p sh ir e _________ __
_____
_____________
______ __ __ _____
N ew J e r s e y

17
25
16
14
249

1 2 ,4 0 0
8, 710
5, 000
1, 250
97, 200

7 8 0 ,0 0 0
1 7 3 ,0 0 0
2 1 5 ,0 0 0
1 4 ,9 0 0

1 ,9 8 0 ,0 0 0

2 .4 7
. 23
1. 10
. 03
. 44

12

5, 280
1 5 8 ,0 0 0
1 ,4 3 0
1, 200
2 3 8 ,0 0 0

4 ,5 2 0 ,0 0 0
1 0 4 ,0 0 0
8, 720
9, 6 3 0 ,0 0 0

U nited S tates

____________________________________

N ew M e x i c o _____
_______________________ _____
N ew Y o r k _ _____ ________________ __ __ __ _
N o rth C a r o lin a
_________
______________ __
N o rth D akota __
__
______ ___ «.________
O h i o ------------------------------------------------------------------ -----O k lah om a
___ __ __ _____ __ _
___ __
O r e g o n ________________________
______________
P e n n s y lv a n ia „ _
_________
___
R h od e I s l a n d _ __ __
_______ _
South C a r o l i n a _____ ____ _ ______ __ _

470
13

8
391

20
41
454

20
9

212,000

6 ,3 5 0
9, 060
3 3 2 ,0 0 0
5 ,4 3 0
1 ,4 6 0

1 9 5 ,0 0 0
2 3 0 ,0 0 0
1 4 ,8 0 0 ,0 0 0

430
1 8 ,7 0 0
3 0 ,4 0 0
1 4 ,9 0 0
1, 640

1 3 ,2 0 0
4 6 2 ,0 0 0
1 ,3 1 0 ,0 0 0
1, 1 7 0 ,0 0 0
25, 000

911,000

112,000
2 3 ,3 0 0

South D akota ______________ ____
__ _______
T e n n e s s e e __
______ ___________
___ ___
T e x a s _____________________ _____________ _____
U t a h ______
_ __ _
_______________________
V e r m o n t ------------------------------------------------------------------

3
60
75

V ir g in ia __ __
________ _ __ ___ ___
W ashin gton _______
___________________ ___ __
W est V ir g in ia _______ _ ______________________

53
58
104
61

1 5 ,0 0 0
3 3 ,9 0 0
3 8 ,6 0 0

9 2 4 ,0 0 0

20,900

699,000

8

3 ,4 6 0

5 7 ,5 0 0

W is c o n sin

W yom in g

12

9

1 1 3 ,0 0 0

.4 8
. 33
. 04
. 03
1 .4 0
.
.
1.
.
.
.
.
.
2.

17

22
82
18

01
05
24
24
37

. 10
. 05
. 55
.9 1
. 27
. 32

1 S top p ag es ex ten d in g a c r o s s State lin e s have b e e n cou n ted in e a c h State a ffe c te d ; w o r k e r s in v o lv e d and m a n d a y s id le w e r e a llo c a t e d am on g the S ta tes.
2 N ot a v a ila b le .
NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f rou n d in g,




su m s o f in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y n ot eq u a l to ta ls .

15
TABLE 8. WORK STOPPAGES BY METROPOLITAN AREA, 19591
S top p a g es
d a n -d a y s id le
beg in n in g in
d u rin g 1959
1959
W o r k e r s a ll s to p p a g e s)
N u m b er
in v o lv e d

M e tr o p o lita n a r e a

A k ron ,

O h io -

-

-

___

A lb a n y -S c h e n e ctady^T r o y , N. Y ...................................
A lle n to w n — e th leh em —
B
E a sto n , P a . _____________
A tla n ta , G a. ______________

41

37, 000

7 7 9 ,0 0 0

23

6, 070

156, 000

48
17

36, 300
2, 220

1, 920, 000

M ic h .

5
29
15

260
3 4 ,6 0 0
2, 040

2 ,4 2 0
2 ,3 9 0 ,0 0 0
2 4 ,5 0 0

B e a u m o n t-P o r t
A r th u r , T e x . ____________
B ir m in g h a m , A l a . _______

6
30

5, 750
2 7 ,4 0 0

147, 000
1, 5 9 0 ,0 0 0

57
20
49
21
8

1 3 ,8 0 0
8, 250
3 2 ,2 0 0
14^600
5, 090

136, 000
8 3 ,0 0 0
1, 920, 000
* 7 9 1 ,0 0 0
1 3 7 ,0 0 0

A tla n tic C ity , N. J . _____
B a lt im o r e , M d.
____ _
R a y C it y ,

B o s to n , M a s s . _____________
B r id g e p o r t , C onn. _______
B u f f a lo , N- Y . _
C anton, O h i o ______________
C e d a r R a p id s ,

Towa

3 2 ,7 0 0
8 ,4 7 0
1 0 ,3 0 0
7 ,5 2 0 ,0 0 0
3 5 6 ,0 0 0

C le v e la n d , O h i o ___________
C o lu m b u s, O h i o ___________
D a lla s , T e x . ______________
D a v e n p o rt, Iow a— o c k
R
Isla n d — o lin e , 111.
M
____

59
23
13

4 2 ,7 0 0
6 ,9 8 0
1, 680

1 ,9 9 0 ,0 0 0
7 2 ,1 0 0
5 3 ,0 0 0

13

1, 870

8 6 ,7 0 0

D a y to n ,

15
10
16
12
75

2, 680
630
1 3 ,0 0 0
9 ,3 4 0
4 9 ,2 0 0

3 0 ,4 0 0
2, 640
9 8 ,8 0 0
2 2 9 ,0 0 0
1 ,6 8 0 ,0 0 0

6

630

8 ,9 2 0

13
6
13

4, 200
1, 160
5 ,9 5 0

2 6 1 ,0 0 0
3 3 ,2 0 0
6 6 ,0 0 0

Tenn.

C h ic a g o , 111. ______________
C in cin n a ti, O hio
________

O h io

D e c a tu r , 111. _____________
D e n v e r , C o lo . _____________
D e s M o in e s , I o w a ________
D e t r o it , M ich . ____________
D ubuque, I o w a _____________
D uluth, M inn. —
S u p e r io r , W is. __________
E r ie , P a . __________________
E v a n s v ille , Ind.

6
5
5

900
1 ,9 2 0
470

4, 500
5 4 ,3 0 0
1, 070

8

940

4, 300

9

1 2 ,0 0 0

7 7 5 ,0 0 0

106
24
6

52, 700
4, 070
470

1 ,5 3 0 ,0 0 0
1 6 7 ,0 0 0
4 ,5 9 0

15
29
25

4, 890
5 ,3 0 0
12, 900

177, 000
6 6 ,3 0 0
4 9 8 ,0 0 0

M irm .

38

16, 100

3 5 8 ,0 0 0

A la .

11
7

3, 490
560

17, 500
8, 180

6
7

1 ,9 6 0
3, 380

1 3 ,7 0 0
3 0 ,0 0 0

5

1 ,3 0 0

8 4 ,6 0 0

5
6
17

500
2, 060
1 4 ,5 0 0

2 8 ,1 0 0
8 5 ,4 0 0
2 5 0 ,0 0 0

460
13
5
5

1 5 9 ,0 0 0
7, 690
480
980

2 ,5 0 0 ,0 0 0
148, 000
2 ,2 4 0
1 3 ,6 0 0

18
131
13
132
20

4, 590
7 1 ,0 0 0
1 1 ,2 0 0
1 5 1 ,0 0 0
4, 250

1 5 1 ,0 0 0
1 ,6 4 0 ,0 0 0
2 6 4 ,0 0 0
8 ,0 4 0 ,0 0 0
1 2 6 ,0 0 0

15
6
6
7
15

4, 280
8, 120
500
740
1, 860

96, 800
6 0 8 ,0 0 0
1 5 ,8 0 0
6, 390
6, 660

12
11
9

7, 160
980
1, 510

116, 000
9, 810
16, 300

88

26, 400

5 1 9 ,0 0 0

6

7 ,4 3 0

6 5 6 ,0 0 0

14
14

8, 890
2, 820

6 0 9 ,0 0 0
1 9 ,1 0 0

75
8
20
20

3 0 ,4 0 0
1, 110
3, 260
9, 250

9 4 5 ,0 0 0
56, 100
6 2 ,7 0 0
4 6 7 ,0 0 0

9
12
16
6

2 ,9 3 0
10, 600
5 ,3 9 0
710

7 2 ,9 0 0
9 5 ,5 0 0
2 1 8 ,0 0 0
7 7 ,4 0 0

7

2, 500

2 8 ,3 0 0

Law rence,

M ass.

L o r a in — ly r ia , O h i o ____
E
L o s A n g e le s —L on g
B e a c h , C a lif. __________
L o u is v ille ,

K y.

M e m p h is, T enn .
_______
M ia m i, F la . ___________
M ilw a u k ee, W is . __
M in n e a p o lis—
St.
P a u l,
M o K ile ,

M u n cie , Ind. ___________
M u sk eg on — u sk eg on
M
H e ig h ts, M ich .
---------N a s h v ille ,

Tenn.

N ew B e d fo r d , M a s s . ___
N ew B r ita in —
B r is t o l, Conn. ________
N ew H aven, Conn. ______
N ew O r le a n s , L a. _______
N ew Y ork —N o r th ­
e a s t e r n N ew J e r s e y ___
O m aha,

N e.h r.

P a d u ca h , K y. ____________
P en s a m l a,
P e o r ia ,

F la .

111.

P h ila d e lp h ia , P a . _______
P h o e n ix , A r i z . __________
P itts b u rg h , P a . _________
P o r t la n d , O r e g . ________
P r o v id e n c e ,

R .T .

P u e b lo , C o lo .
F a ll R iv e r , M a s s .

_

9
7
7
7
7

1, 860
2, 600
2, 050
820
7, 900

6 0 ,8 0 0
2 1 ,5 0 0
6 3 ,6 0 0
1 1 ,0 0 0
49 7, 000

7
8
7

2, 900
2, 310
1 ,9 0 0

1 7 5 ,0 0 0
3 3 ,3 0 0
1 3 6 ,0 0 0

6

2, 090

1 4 ,7 0 0

H a r r is b u r g , P a . __________
H a rtfo r d , Conn. __________
H ou ston , T e x .
H untington, W. V a .—
A sh la n d , K y. _

7
5
24

7, 560
520
8, 620

4 2 0 ,0 0 0
8, 820
3 8 2 ,0 0 0

15

7, 800

3 5 1 ,0 0 0

In d ia n a p o lis , Ind. ________
J a c k s o n , M ich . ___________
J a c k s o n v ille , F l a . _______
Joh n stow n , P a .
K a la m a z o o , M ich .
______

27
6
13
6
7

6, 690
2, 230
660
1 4 ,6 0 0
1, 880

1 5 9 ,0 0 0
36, 000
8, 850
1 ,1 4 0 ,0 0 0
46 , 300

K an sas C ity , M o.
_ _
K ing s ton— ew bu r gh—
N
P o u g h k e e p s ie , N. Y . ____
K n o x v ille , Tenn.

29

8, 990

4 5 3 ,0 0 0

11
13
5

870
2 ,8 9 0
280

1 8 ,3 0 0
8 ,9 1 0
4, 520

F lin t,

M ir.h .

F o r t W ayne, Ind. _________
F r e s n o , C a lif. __________
G ad sd en , A la . _____________
________
G a lv e sto n , T e x .
G ran d R a p id s , M ich . _____
G reat F a lls ,

M o n t.

H a m ilto n — id d le tow n ,
M
O h io ______________________

...

L im a , O h i o _______________
L in c o ln , N e b r .
_ __
L ittle R o c k — orth
N
L ittle R o c k , A r k . _____

M a d iso n , W is. __________

1, 190
260
460
1 2 1 ,0 0 0
1 5 ,5 0 0

C h a tta n o o g a ,

M e tr o p o lita n a r e a

___________

R e a d in g , P a .
R ic h m o n d , V a .

R o c h e s t e r , N. Y . _______
R o c k fo r d , 111. ___________
S a c r a m e n to , C a lif. _____
S aginaw , M ich .
St. L o u is , M o .—E a st
St. L o u i s , 111.
Salt L ak e C ity , U t a h ____
San B e r n a r d in o —
R i v e r s id e—
Onta r i o ,
C a li f .
San D ie g o ,

C a lif.

San F r a n c i s c o —
O akland, C a l i f . _______
San J o s e , C a lif. ________
S cra n to n , P a .
_________
S e a ttle, W ash. __________

S iou x C ity , Iow a ________

L a n ca ster,

Pa.

S ee fo o tn o te at end o f table,




S top p a g es
M
b eg in n in g in
J an -d a ys id le
d u rin g 1959
1959
W o rk e r s 1 ll s to p p a g e s)
[a
N u m ber
in v o lv e d

8 5 ,6 0 0

8
5
10
104
45

C h a rle s to n , W. V a . ______
C h a rlo tte , N. C. __________

I

So u th R e n d ,

Tnd.

S p r in g fie ld , 1 1 1 .__ _____
S p r in g fie ld , O h io ______
S p r in g fie ld —H o ly o k e ,
M a s s . _______ __________

16
TABLE 8. WORK STOPPAGES BY METROPOLITAN AREA, 19591 Continued
—

M e tr o p o lita n a r e a

S ta m fo rd — o rw a lk ,
N
Conn. _____________________
S to ck to n , C a lif. __________
S y r a c u s e , N. Y . ___________
T a c o m a , W aqh. ___________
Tam paHSt. P e t e r s b u r g ,
F l a _________ _______________
T e r r e H aute, Ind. ________
T o le d o , O h i o ______________
T o p e k a , K a n s. ____________
T re n to n , N. J. _____________
T u c s o n , A r i z . _____________

S to p p a g e s
b eg in n in g in
M a n -d a y s id le
d u rin g 1959
1959
W o r k e r s a ll s to p p a g e s)
N u m b er
in v o lv e d

6
6
10

1 ,3 6 0
450
3 ,4 5 0

1 1 ,9 0 0
1 4 ,3 0 0
207, 000

7

1 ,8 0 0

1 1 8 ,0 0 0

18

5, 600
2 ,9 9 0

4 2 ,4 0 0
98, 600

Q
7

19
7
21
6

5,
2,
7,
4,

070
060
790
280

8 3 ,3 0 0
7, 670
264, 000
1 0 5 ,0 0 0

S top p a g es
b eg in n in g in
M a n -d a y s id le
1<>59
d u rin g 1959
W o r k e r s (a ll sto p p a g e s )
N u m ber
in v o lv e d

M e tr o p o lita n a r e a

T u ls a , O k l a . ____________
U tic a — o m e , N. Y . _____
R
W ash in gton , D . C . ______

8
11
15

3 ,5 1 0
3, 500
1 1 ,3 0 0

6 2 ,4 0 0
4 0 ,6 0 0
9 0 ,6 0 0

W h eelin g , W. V a . S te u b e n v ille , O h i o ____
W ilk es - B a r r e H a z le to n , P a . ________
W ilm in g ton , D e l . _______

33

2 3 ,2 0 0

1, 190, 000

24
9

2, 040
2 ,5 7 0

1 3 ,8 0 0
1 5 6 ,0 0 0

W o r c e s t e r , M a s s . _____
Y o rk , P a .
Y ou n g stow n , O h io ______

14
11
65

3 ,8 4 0
860
6 8 ,5 0 0

216, 000
17. 600
3, 650, 000

1 T he ta b le in c lu d e s data f o r e a c h o f the m e tr o p o lit a n a r e a s that had 5 o r m o r e sto p p a g e s in 1959*
S o m e m e tr o p o lit a n a r e a s in clu d e c o u n tie s in m o r e than 1 S ta te, and h e n c e , an a r e a tota l m a y e q u a l o r
e x c e e d the to ta l f o r the State in w h ich the m a jo r c ity is lo c a t e d .
S to p p a g e s in the m in in g and lo g g in g in d u s tr ie s a r e e x c lu d e d fr o m this ta b le .
I n te r m e tr o p o lita n a r e a s to p p a g e s a r e co u n ted s e p a r a t e ly in e a c h a r e a a ffe c te d ; the w o r k e r s in v o lv e d and
m a n -d a y s id le w e r e a llo c a t e d to the r e s p e c t iv e a r e a s .
In 4 s t r ik e s , the B u re a u c o u ld n o t s e c u r e the in fo r m a t io n n e c e s s a r y to m a k e su ch a llo c a t io n s — 3 sto p p a g e s
in the c o n s t r u c t io n in d u s tr y in v o lv in g a p p r o x im a t e ly 1 5 ,0 0 0 w o r k e r s in w e s t e r n W ash in g ton in M a y , ab ou t 900 w o r k e r s
in e a s t e r n M ich ig a n in Ju ne, and 2 ,5 0 0 w o r k e r s in 4 N ew E n g lan d S ta tes in J u ly , and a stop p a g e o f about
2 ,0 0 0
b a r g e lin e e m p lo y e e s in S ta tes b o r d e r in g the M i s s is s ip p i and O h io r iv e r s in J u ly .

TABLE 9. WORK STOPPAGES BY AFFILIATION OF UNIONS INVOLVED, 19591
S top p ag es b egin n in g in 1959
W o r k e r s in v o lv e d
A ffilia tio n
N um ber

P ercen t
of
total

N um ber

________________________________________

3 ,7 0 8

1 0 0 .0

1 ,8 8 0 ,0 0 0

A F L - C I O ___________________________________
U n a ffilia te d u n ions __________________ ___
S in gle fir m un ions ________________________
D iffe r e n t a ffilia t io n s 2 _ _______
No union in v o lv e d ________________________
Not r e p o r t e d ______________________________

2 ,8 0 3
794
7
73
25
6

7 5 .6
2 1 .4
.2
2 .0
.7
.2

1 ,5 6 0 ,0 0 0
2 6 4 ,0 0 0
3 ,3 5 0
5 4 ,0 0 0
1 ,4 1 0
390

T o ta l

1 L e s s than 0 .0 5 p e r c e n t .
2 In clu d e s w o r k sto p p a g e s in v o lv in g u n ions o f d iffe r e n t a f filia t io n s — e ith e r
and 1 o r m o r e u n a ffilia te d u n io n s, o r 2 o r m o r e u n a ffilia te d u n io n s.
NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f r o u n d in g , su m s o f in d iv id u a l it e m s m a y not equ al t o t a ls .




M a n -d a y s id le
d u rin g 1959
(a ll s t o p p a g e s )

F ercen t
of
tota l

N um ber

P ercen t
of
tota l

1 0 0 .0

6 9 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0

1 0 0 .0

6 2 ,4 0 0 ,0 0 0
4 ,7 6 0 ,0 0 0
2 5 ,9 0 0
1 ,8 1 0 ,0 0 0
7 ,1 8 0
3 ,2 3 0

9 0 .4
6 .9
<*>
2 .6
(* )

8 2 .8
14. 1
.2
2 .9
.1
(M

C )

1 o r m o r e a ffilia t e d w ith A F L - C I O

17
TABLE 10. WORK STOPPAGES BY SIZE OF STOPPAGE, 1959
M a n -d a y s id le
d u rin g 1959
(a ll sto p p a g e s )

S top p a g es b eg in n in g in 1959
W o r k e r s in v o lv e d
S ize o f stopp ag e
(n u m b er o f w o r k e r s in v o lv e d )

______________________________________________

6 an d under 20 ____________________________
20 an d under 100 _________________________
100 an d under 250 ____________ __ . __
250 an d under 500 _______________________
500 an d under 1 ,0 0 0 _____________________
1 ,0 0 0 an d un der 5 ,0 0 0 ______________, ___
_
5 ,0 0 0 an d un der 1 0 ,0 0 0
10,000 an d o v e r

NOTE:

N u m ber

P ercen t
of
total

N um ber

P ercen t
of
total

N um ber

P ercen t
of
tota l

3 ,7 0 8

100.0

1 ,8 8 0 ,0 0 0

100.0

6 9 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0

100.0

660
1 ,4 4 3
728
380
252
207
18
20

1 7 .8
3 8 .9
1 9 .6
10.2
6.8
5 .6
.5
.5

7 ,5 5 0
6 9 ,2 0 0
1 1 5 ,0 0 0
1 3 0 ,0 0 0
1 7 5 ,0 0 0
4 1 8 ,0 0 0
1 1 8 ,0 0 0
8 4 5 ,0 0 0

0 .4
3 .7
6. 1
6 .9
9 .3
2 2 .3
6 .3
4 5 .0

1 3 1 ,0 0 0
1 ,2 9 0 ,0 0 0
1 ,9 7 0 ,0 0 0
1 ,9 3 0 ,0 0 0
2 ,7 9 0 ,0 0 0
8 ,1 4 0 ,0 0 0
1 ,9 1 0 ,0 0 0
5 0 ,8 0 0 ,0 0 0

0.2
1 .9
2 .9
2.8
4 .0
11.8
2.8
7 3 .7

B e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g , su m s o f in d iv id u a l it e m s m a y not equ al t o ta ls .

TABLE 11. WORK STOPPAGES BY NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS INVOLVED, 1959
S top p a g es b eg in n in g in 1959
W o r k e r s in v o lv e d

N u m b er o f
e s ta b lis h m e n ts i n v o l v e d 1

T o ta l

_

N u m ber

r

1 e s t a b l i s h m e n t -----2 to 5 e s ta b lis h m e n ts _____________________
6 to 10 e s ta b lis h m e n ts ___________________
11 e s ta b lis h m e n ts o r m o r e ______________
11 to 49 e s ta b lis h m e n ts ______________
50 to 99 e s ta b lis h m e n ts ______________
100 e s ta b lis h m e n ts o r m o r e _________
E x a ct n u m b e r not know n 2 ___
___
Not r e p o r t e d
__

P ercen t
of
total

N u m ber

M a n -d a y s id le
d u rin g 1959
(a ll s to p p a g e s )

P ercen t
of
tota l

N um ber

P ercen t
of
tota l

3 ,7 0 8

100.0

1 ,8 8 0 ,0 0 0

100.0

6 9 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0

100.0

2 ,8 2 2
457
137
277
155
20
30
72
15

76. 1
1 2 .3
3 .7
7 .5
4 .2
.5

5 5 0 ,0 0 0
1 9 5 ,0 0 0
9 9 ,2 0 0
1,0 2 0 ,0 0 0
1 3 0 ,0 0 0
7 3 ,3 0 0
7 0 9 ,0 0 0
1 0 8 ,0 0 0
1 4 ,6 0 0

2 9 .3
1 0 .4
5. 3
5 4 .3
6 .9
3 .9
3 7 .7
5 .7

7 ,6 8 0 ,0 0 0
4 ,6 3 0 ,0 0 0
3 ,1 7 0 ,0 0 0
5 2 ,4 0 0 ,0 0 0
3 ,1 5 0 ,0 0 0
1 ,7 8 0 ,0 0 0
4 5 ,9 0 0 ,0 0 0
1 ,6 5 0 ,0 0 0
1 ,0 9 0 ,0 0 0

11.1
6. 7
4 .6
7 6 .0
4 .6
2.6
6 6 .5
2 .4
1.6

.8

1 .9
.4

.8

1 An e s ta b lis h m e n t is d e fin e d a s a sin g le p h y s ic a l lo c a t io n w h e re b u s in e s s is c o n d u c te d o r w h e re s e r v ic e s
o r in d u s tr ia l o p e r a tio n s a r e p e r fo r m e d ; fo r e x a m p le , a f a c t o r y , m i ll , s t o r e , m in e , o r fa r m .
A stop p a g e m a y
in v o lv e 1, 2 , o r m o r e e s ta b lis h m e n ts o f a sin g le e m p lo y e r or it m a y in v o lv e d iffe r e n t e m p lo y e r s .
In fo rm a tio n a v a ila b le in d ic a t e s m o r e than 11 e s ta b lis h m e n ts in v o lv e d in e a c h of th e se s to p p a g e s .
NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g , su m s o f in d iv id u a l it e m s m a y not equ al t o ta ls .




18
TABLE 12. WORK STOPPAGES BEGINNING IN 1959 INVOLVING 10,000 OR MORE WORKERS

Beginning
date

A pproxi­
mate
duration
(calendar
d a y s )1

January 1

February 1

28

102

E stab lish m en t s)
and location

Union(s)
involved2

A pproxi­
mate
number of
workers
involved 2

M ajor term s of settlem ent3

Food em ployers council,
Inc. , Los Angeles
County, Calif.

Retail Clerks
International
A ssociation.

2 0 ,0 0 0

5-year agreem ent providing wage
increases of 15 cents an hour effec­
tive January 1, 1959 (in t h e L o s
A n g e l e s area), and A pril 1959 (in
other locations); IIV 2 cents in I960;
7Vz cents in 1961, 1962, and 1963;
revisions in prem ium rates for night
and Sunday work; unemployment and
disability benefits plan established
with company payment of 1 cent an
hour effective January 1, I96 0 , and
1 cent January 1961, to p r o v i d e
65 percent of straight-tim e earn­
ings for eligible la id -o ff employees
and 80 percent for disabled em ploy­
ees (both benefits include State pay­
m ents); additional company payment
of 0. 5 cent an hour to pension fund
e f f e c t i v e January 1, 1961; se m i­
annual adjustment of pensions begin­
ning July 1, 1959, based on percent
of increase in Los A ngeles BLS CPI
above November 1958 index, with no
r e d u c t i o n below current benefit
lev els; effective January I960, addi­
tional V cent an hour company pay­
2
ment to w elfare fund to extend cov­
erage to disabled and retired e m ­
p loyees; 6 d ays1 paid sick leave a
year effective January 1,1960; co m ­
panies to assum e any increase in
costs of m edical benefit; supple­
mental jury-duty pay.

Wholesale and retail
bakeries, New York, City
and W estchester County,
New York.

A m erican
Bakery and
Conf e ctione r y
W ork ers1 In­
ternational
Union; Bakery
and Confec­
tionery
W orkers 1
International
Union of
A m erica ;
Retail Clerks
International
A ssociation.

1 2,0 0 0

Retail bakeries: 3 -y e a r contract
providing wage increase of 50 cents
to $ 1 . 65 a day; m inim um 50 cents
a day increase in Manhattan bakeries
a n d $ 1 in o t h e r s e f f e c t i v e
February 1, 1959; additional 25 cents
to $ 1 a day increase in minimum
rates effective February 1, I960,
and additional increases up to $ 1 .5 0
effective February 1, 1961; uniform
starting rates to be established by
February 1, 1961; escalator clause
providing 2-p ercen t adjustment for
each 2-p ercent change in New York
City CPI effective February 1, 1961;
tim e and one-half after 7 V -hour day
2
extended to all shops; companies pay
$1 a day to pension fund (was 75
cents); 3 d ays1 paid funeral leave;
all shops to supply laundry (previ­
ously in Manhattan shops only).
W holesale bread shops: 3 -y e a r
contract providing wage increases
of 64 cents to $ 3 . 27 a day effective
February 1, 1959; a d d i t i o n a l in­
crea ses to $ 1 .5 6 a day in minim um
r a t e s effective both February 1,
I960, and February 1, 1961; uni­
form starting rates to be established
by February 1, 1961; several c la s ­
sifications established in
lo c a l
wholesale shops; escalator clause
providing 2-p ercen t adjustment for
each 2-p ercent change in New York
City CPI effective February 1, 1961;
time and one-half after 35 hours a
week and 7 hours a day by August 1,

See footnotes at end of table .




19
TABLE 12. WORK STOPPAGES BEGINNING IN 1959 INVOLVING 10,000 OR MORE WORKERS— Continued

Beginning
date

A pproxi­
mate
duration
(calendar
d a y s )1

Establishm ent(s)
and location

Union(s)
involved 2

A pproxi­
mate
number of
workers
involved 2

M ajor term s of settlem en t3

1960, for bakers and by February 1,
1961, for m iscellaneous em ployees
in all shops; 3 w eeks1 vacation after
1 year (was 5) extended to m is c e l­
laneous em ployees in local whole­
sale shops; companies pay $1 a day
to pension fund (was 75 cents); all
shops to supply laundry.

February 1—
Continued

W holesale cake bakeries: 3 -y ea r
contract providing wage increase of
50 cents to $1.80 a day to em ployees
above starting and below m aximum
rate effective February 1, 1959; ad­
ditional increases up to $ 1 .8 0 a day
in m i n i m u m rates effective F e b ­
ruary 1, I960, and to $ 1 .9 5 e ffec­
tive F e b ru a ry l, 1961; uniform sta rt­
ing rates to be established by F eb ­
ruary 1, 1961; packing forem en and
assistants, m echanics, and helpers
receive unspecified increase up to
rate established February 1, 1961;
escalator clause providing 2-percent
adjustment for each 2-percent change
in New York City CPI effective F eb­
ruary 1, 1961; 10 cents night d iffe r­
ential (was 5 cents) effective Octo­
ber 1, 1961; eighth paid holiday,
Columbus Day; companies pay $ 1 a
day to pension fund (was 75 cents);
1 w eek's severance pay, including
unemployment compensation, for
each y e a rrs service (maximum 10)
for employees laid off when plant
location changes; 3 d ays1 paid fu­
neral leave.
February 2

84

A llis -C h a lm e rs Manu­
facturing Company,
7 States: A labam a,
Illinois, Indiana,
Iowa, M issou ri,
Pennsylvania, and
W isconsin.

See footnotes at end of table.




United Auto­
mobile
W o rk e rs;
United S teelworke rs.

1 4,0 0 0

2 l!z -y ea r a g r e e m e n t ,
supple­
mented by local agreem ents, p ro ­
viding w age-rate increases of 2 V
2
percent (minimum 6 cents an hour)
retroactive to September 1, 1958;
additional 2 V percent (minimum
2
6 cents) annual improvement in­
crease September 14, 1959, and
October 3, I960; up to 8 cents an
hour increase to employees in higher
labor grades; 15 cents of current
24 cents c o st-o f-liv in g allowance
incorporated into base rates and
e s c a l a t o r c la u s e c o n tin u e d ;
1 4 -cent night-shift differential (was
12 cents); fourth week vacation a f­
ter 25 y e a rs; unemployment bene­
fits improved to provide 65 percent
of take-hom e pay plus 1 percent for
each dependent up to a m aximum of
70 percent (including State unem ­
ployment compensation) for a m a xi­
mum of 39 weeks (was 65 percent
for 26 weeks); $50 per week m a xi­
mum payment from fund (was $ 25
plus $2 for each dependent up to
4); supplementary benefits for short
workweek a n d separation p a y of
40 hours after 2 years to 1,200 hours
after 30 y e a r s r service for em ploy­
ees laid off at lea st 1 year; pension
benefit increase from $2.25 to $2.50
a month for each yearT service—
s

20
TABLE 12. WCRK STOPPAGES BEGINNING IN 1959 INVOLVING 10,000 OR MORE WORKERS— Continued

Beginning
date

A pproxi­
mate
duration
(calendar
days)1

E s tabli s hment (s )
and location

Union(s)
involved2

A pproxi­
mate
number of
workers
involved2

M ajor term s of settlem ent3

present and future re tire es; contri­
bution to health and w elfare benefits
schedule revised to add 2 new wage
brackets— maxim um $ 7 , 200 life in­
surance (was $ 6 ,0 0 0 ) and maxim um
of $79 a week sick and accident ben­
efits (was $ 65), m aximum of $ 16 a
day hospitalization (was $12)—co m ­
pany to pay any future increase in
insurance co sts; w orkm en^ co m ­
pensation supplemented up to 65 p e r ­
cent of gross earnings.

February 2—
Continued

M arch 9

C
M

Bituminous coal m ines,
3 States: Kentucky,
Tennessee, and
W est V irgin ia.

United Mine
W ork ers.

1 8 ,0 0 0

A greem ents concluded with the
m ajority of companies by m id-July
providing $ 2 daily wage increase
and health and w elfare payments.

A p ril 10

22

United States Rubber Co. ,
11 States: California,
Connecticut, Illinois,
Indiana, M assachusetts,
Michigan, New Jersey,
Ohio, Pennsylvania,
Rhode Island, and
W isconsin.

United Rubber
W ork ers.

2 5 ,0 0 0

2 -y e a r m a ster agreem ent with
60-day wage reopening clause p ro ­
viding continuation of company pay­
ments of 3 cents an hour to unem ­
ployment fund with maximum weekly
benefit increase to $ 30 plus contin­
uation of $ 2 weekly for each d e­
pendent up to 4 for a maxim um of
39 weeks; im provem ent of pensions
and insurance agreem ent effective
July 1, 1959, extended to July 1,
1964— pension plan funded; norm al
retirem ent at age 65 after 10 years
with minim um pension benefits in c r e a s e d f r o m $ 1 . 80 to $ 2 .1 0 a
month for each year*s service up to
30, and to a minimum of $2 a month
for each year for em ployees retired
since J u l y 1, 1950; employee r e ­
tains option of pension computed on
earnings in highest 120 consecutive
months le ss one-half social security
benefit; minimum $ 10 0 per month
disability pension benefit (was $80);
vesting at age 40 after 10 years with
option of service award (severance
pay) or deferred pension with bene­
fits computed on serv ice after age
30; survivor o p t i o n ; w orkm en^
compensation supplemented up to
$ 30 weekly f o r women a n d
$40
weekly for men; other insurance
imp ro vem ents.

A p ril 16

55

The B. F. Goodrich Co. ,
7 States: Alabam a,
California, New Jersey,
Ohio, Oklahoma, Penn­
sylvania, and
Tennessee.

United Rubber
W orkers.

1 3,0 0 0

2 -y e a r m a ster agreem ent p r o ­
viding liberalized incentive system ;
continuation of company payment of
3 cents an hour to unemployment
fund, with optional changes; im ­
provement of pension agreem ent
and extension to J u l y 1, 1964—
$ 2 .4 0 monthly norm al pension ben­
efits (excluding social security) for
each ye arT service p rior to Janu­
s
ary 1, 1959, and $ 2 .5 0 a month
thereafter (form er m inim um , $1.80
a month for each year up to 30 with
benefits other than minimum r e ­
duced by one-half social security
benefit) company to pay difference
if new benefit is le ss than under old
form ula; minimum of $2.25 monthly
for eachyear*s service for em ploy­
ees retired since 1949; early r e tire ­
ment at company option and d isa ­
bility retirem ent at double the new

See footnotes at end of table.




21
TABLE 12. WORK STOPPAGES BEGINNING IN 1959 INVOLVING 10,000 OR MORE WORKERS— Continued

Beginning
date

Approxi­
mate
duration
(calendar
days)1

Establishm ents( s)
and location

Union(s)
involved 2

A pproxi­
mate
number of
w orkers
involved 2

M ajor term s of settlem en t3

norm al benefit reverting to norm al
pension at age 65 (disability r e tire ­
ment was minimum of $80 or onetwelfth of 1 percent of total earn­
ings reduced by one-half social s e ­
curity disability benefits); upward
adjustment for present retirees on
early or disability retirem ent; im ­
proved insurance benefits for e m ­
ployees and those retired at age 65
since 1949.

A p ril 16—
Continued

A p ril 16

60

Firestone Tire and Rubber
Co. , 7 States:
California, Indiana,
Iowa, M assachusetts,
Ohio, Pennsylvania,
and Tennessee.

United Rubber
W orkers.

1 9,0 0 0

2 -y e a r m aster agreem ent p r o ­
viding new method of computing clas sified average earnings; improved
holiday pay computation, vacation
eligibility, supplemental jury-duty
pay and funeral leave; improved un­
employment plan; pension agreement
extended to A pril 30, 1964, with im ­
provement in norm al and disability
pension sim ila r to B. F . Goodrich;
eligibility for norm al pension bene­
fits at age 65 after 10 ye ars, v e s t­
ing and survivor option added; $ 27
a month minimum pension for 10 but
le ss than 15 years* serv ice; company
payment of sick and accident benefit
from fir s t day of occupational injury
and difference between w orkmen's
compensation and insurance benefits
beginning with second week; im ­
proved insurance including lib e ra l­
ized sick and accident benefits for
employees over age 60.

May 11

24

Construction industry,
Seattle and Tacom a,
Washington, and
western Washington.

Operating
E ngineers;
International
Brotherhood
of T eam sters.

1 5,0 0 0

Operating E n g i n e e r s: 2 -y e a r
agreement p r o v i d i n g across-th eboard 3 0 -cent hourly increase retro­
active to June 1, 1959, and addi­
tional 25 c e n t s effective June 1,
I960; modified exclusive hiring hall
clause.
T eam sters: 2 - y e a r agreement
providing 28 cents an hour increase
retroactive to Junel, 1959; 2 V cents
2
additional for the health and w elfare
plan, and an additional 25 cents e f­
fective Junel, I960; hiring hall p ro ­
v i s i o n s s i m i l a r to Ope rating
Engineers.

May 12

9

Construction industry,
Washington, D. C. area.

International Hod
C a rrie r s1, Build­
ing and Common
Laborers* Union;
Operating
Engineers.

1 0 ,OoG

Operating E n g i n e e r s: 2 -y e a r
agreement providing immediate pay
increase of 10 cents an hour; 8 cents
an hour to be paid into a pension
fund beginning November 1, 1959,
7-cent wage increase May 1, I960,
and 10 cents November 1, I960; ad ­
ditional 5 -cent hourly increase for
bulldozer operators on May 1, I960;
hiring hall; joint labor-m anagem ent
committee to administer pension
fund.
L aborers: 2 -y ea r contract p ro viding immediate hourly increase of
I 2 V cents; l llz cents on M a y l, I960;
2
10 cents on November 1, I960.

See footnotes at end of table.




22
TABLE 12. WORK STOPPAGES BEGINNING IN 1959 INVOLVING 10,000 OR MORE WORKERS— Continued

beginning
date

A pproxi­
mate
duration
(calendar
d a y s )1

Establishm ent(s)
and location

1

Union(s)
involved 2

A pproxi­
mate
number of
workers
involved2

M ajor term s of settlem en t3

June 3

54

Construction industry,
Statewide; A rizon a.

Operating
E ngineers.

1 7 ,0 0 0

3 -y e a r contract providing a 7 lh percent wage increase in each year;
7 V
2
cents contribution to health and
welfare funds.

June 15

43

The Great Atlantic, and
P acific Tea Company,
Greater New York City,
Nassau, Suffolk, W est­
chester, and Rockland
Counties, New York.

International
Brotherhood of
T e a m ste r s.

1 4,0 0 0

2 -y ea r contract providing weekly
wage increase of $ 6 for men, $3
for women; additional $2 effective
in I960; double time for work on
Sunday night; severance pay plan
providing 1 weekT p a y f o r each
s
2 y e a r s1 service to a maximum of
12 weeks, if department is e lim i­
nated o r warehouse i s moved o r
closed.

July 1

1

Jones and JLaughlin Steel
Corporation, Aliquippa,
Pennsylvania.

United S teel­
workers.

1 3,0 0 0

W orkers returned to work on or­
der of union officia ls.

July 6

8

Construction industry,
Denver, Colorado.

Brotherhood of
Carpenters and
Joiners.

10, 000

2 -y e a r contract providing im m e­
diate wage increase of 16 cents an
hour; 10 cents, J u ly l, I960; 5 cents,
January 1, 1961; union shop, upon
certification of em ployees; rights
to negotiate separate contracts with
m illwrights (responsible for moving
and installing heavy m achinery); and
agreem ent that union may negotiate
separate contracts with other e m ­
ployers such as hom ebuilders.

Steel industry,
Nationwide.

United S te el­
w orkers.

5 1 9 ,0 0 0

Memorandum of agreem ent (Jan­
uary 5, 1980) with 11 basic steel
companies (production and m ainte­
nance em ployees).
Wage increase
deferred until D ecem ber 1, I960,
to average 9 .4 cents an hour in­
cluding estim ated effect on incen­
tive pay (average 8. 3 cents in hourly
rates—7 cents general increase plus
0. 2 cents increase in increm ents be­
tween 31 job c la sse s, with top job
cla ss receiving 13 cents); effective
October 1, 1961, additional average
8. 6 cents including estim ated effect
on incentive pay (average 7. 6 cents
increase in hourly rates— 7 cents
general increase plus 0. 1 cent in­
crease in increm ents between job
c la s s e s , with top class receiving
10 cents); escalator clause revised
to retain current 17 cents c o s t -o fliving allow ance, provide two c o s tof-liv in g review s and lim it m a x i­
mum additional adjustment to 6 cents
effective October 1, 1961, of which
m aximum 3 cents co st-o f-liv in g ad­
justment effective D ecem ber 1, I960,,
to be reduced by 0* L cent for each
full 48 cents increase in insurance
cost over base average monthly net
insurance co st of $ 2 0 .1 6 p er e m ­
p lo yee; minim um $ 2 * 5 0 a month
pension f o r e a c h y e a rfs se rv ic e
p r io r t o January 1 ^ 1 9 6 0 , and $ 2 .6 0
a month fo r each year thereafter fo r
a maximum of 55 years (was $ 2*4 0
a month fo r se rv ice p rior to-November 1^ 1957, and $ 2 ,5 0 thereafter
for a-m axim um of 30 years) o r ad­
ditional $ 5 a month for future r e ­
t i r e e s w h e n a p p l y i n g alternate

July 15

116

See footnotes at end of table.




23
TABLE 12. WORK STOPPAGES BEGINNING IN 1959 INVOLVING 10,000 OR MORE WORKERS— Continued

Beginning
date

A pproxi­
mate
duration
(calendar
d a y s )1

E stab lish m en t s)
and location

Union(s)
involved2

A pproxi­
mate
number of
workers
involved2

1-percent f o r m u l a in computing
pension benefits; 13 w eeks1 va ca­
tion pay (less vacation pay during
year) on retirem ent with regular
pension beginning f o u r t h month;
early retirem ent (by mutual ag re e ­
ment) at full benefit at age 60 after
15 y e a r s1 service (was at reduced
benefits), or at age 55 after 20 y e a r s1
service if terminated by reason of
permanent s h u t d o w n , layoff, or
sickness resulting in break in serv­
ice provided employee has attained
age 53and 18 y e a r s1 service on date
he ceases work; $100 a month fu­
ture m i n i m u m disability benefit
(was $90); companies also increased
existing pensions by $5 a month;
companies to assum e full cost of
insurance p ro gra m (w a s 5 0 -5 0 con­
tribution) and program improvement
to provide $ 4 , 000 to $ 6 ,5 0 0 life in­
surance (was $ 3 ,5 0 0 to $ 6 ,0 0 0 at
m ost companies), life insurance r e ­
tained during first 2 years of la y ­
off with employee paying 60 cents
p er $ 1 , 000 after fir st 6 months;
$53 to $68 weekly sick and a c c i­
dent benefit (was $ 42 to $ 57 at m ost
companies), and 6-m onth retention
of hospital, surgical, and related
coverages for la id -o ff em ployees
with 2 y e a r s1 se rv ice ; higher e x is t­
ing benefits continued for em p loy­
ees already on payroll at Allegheny
Ludlurn, A rm c o , Inland, and W heel­
ing, and existing hospital and su r­
gical unemployment program at In­
land continued for all em ployees;
previous plan extended with co m ­
panies p a y i n g 3 cents cash and
2 cents contingent liability (the con­
tingent liability which had been can­
celed in accordance w i t h p rior
agreem ent was restored).

July 15—
Continued

August 3

August 10

5 45

(*>

Construction industry,
southern Illinois.

International Hod
C a rriers,
Building and
Common L a ­
borers Union.

2 4 ,0 0 0

2 -y e a r agreem ent with Southern
Illinois C o n t r a c t o r s A ssociation
providing retention of hiring hall
and 15 c e n t s an h o u r increase
August 1, 1959, and August 1, I960.
1 -y e a r agreem ent with the Southern
Illinois Builders A ssociation p r o ­
viding retention of hiring hall.

Kennecott Copper C o r­
poration, 4 States:
A rizon a, Nevada,
New M exico, and
Utah.

International
Union of Mine,
M ill and
Sm elter
W ork ers;
United S teel­
w orkers. 7

1 1 ,0 0 0

18 -month agreem ent reached with
M ine, M ill and Sm elter W orkers
providing 7 cents to 10. 6 cents (av­
erage 8. 5 cents) including 7 cents
general wage increase plus average
1. 5 cents for increase in increments
effective July 1, I960; additional
increase in A rizona and New Mexico
effective 1959 and I960 to reduce
Southwest difference; double time
after 12 hours1 w o r k (w a s after
h o u r s ) seventh p a i d holiday;
double tim e and one-half for holiday
work (was double tim e) $10 0 s e v ­
erance pay for each year’s serv ice
if layoff is due to permanent plant
or department shutdown, automa­
tion, or technological change; $15 a

See footnotes at end of table.




M ajor term s of settlem en t3

24
TABLE 12. WORK STOPPAGES BEGINNING IN 1959 INVOLVING 10,000 OR MORE WORKERS— Continued

Beginning
date

A pproxi­
mate
duration
(calendar
d a y s )1

E stab lish m en t s)
and location

Union(s)
involved 2

A pproxi­
mate
number of
workers
involved2

M ajor term s of settlem en t3

day hospitalization for employees
and dependents (was $ 1 3 ); $300 sup­
plemental accident benefits extended
to dependents; jury-d uty pay; "p a c k ­
a g e " estim ated at 22.3 cents.

August 10—
Continued

2 0 -month agreem ent with United
Steelw orkers p r o v i d i n g average
8 .7 cents anhour, (union estimate)—
includes 7 cents general increase
plus average 1. 7 cents increase in
increments between job c la s s e s ; ad­
ditional average 8. 7 cents effective
August 1, I96 0 ; additional 0. 6 cents
increase in rates at A rizona location
to reduce geographical differen­
tial, effective both Novem ber 1959
and August I960; double time after
12-hour shift; double tim e and onehalf for holiday work extended to
Ray and Hayden, A r iz . (was dou­
ble tim e); seventh paid holiday e f­
fective I96 0 ; establishm ent of s e v ­
erance pay p ro gressio n ; improved
insurance; jury-duty pay extended
to Ray and Hayden, A r i z ., units;
union estim ate 22. 3 cents package.
August 24

September 4

85

9

51

P acific Coast Shipyards,
3 States: California,
Oregon, and
Washington.

International
A ssociation of
M achinists;
United B rother­
hood of Carpen­
ters and Joiners;
P acific Coast
M etal Trades
Council.

1 0 ,0 0 0

3 -y e a r a g r e e m e n t providing
10 cents an hour in crease, includ­
ing 8 cents retroactive to July 1,
1959; additional 8 cents effective
July 1, I96 0 , and 9 cents effective
July 1, 1961; f ir s t -c la s s m echanics1
rate increased to $ 2 . 83; 9 cents an
hour toward pay for holidays (was
7 cents) effective Novem ber 1, 1961;
companies to pay 5 cents to pension
or s e v e r a n c e pay fund effective
A p r i l 1, I96 0 , a n d increase to
10 cents effective A p ril 1, 1961.

Swift and Company,
31 States.

Amalgamated
Meat' Cutters
and Butcher
W orkmen;
United P ack inghous e
W ork ers.

1 8 ,0 0 0

2 -y e a r c o n t r a c t p r o v i d i n g
8 % cents and hour increase e ffe c ­
tive Septem ber 1, 1959, including
2 cents advance c o st-o f-liv in g ad­
justm ent— 14 cents current c o s tof-liv in g allowance incorporated in­
to base rates and escalator clauae
continued with automatic adjust­
ment only if CPI rises enough to o ff­
set the 2 -cen t advance; additional
6Vz c e n t s effective September 1,
I960; 25 p e r c e n t Saturday
and
50 percent Sunday prem ium on con­
tinuous shifts (were 15 percent and
30 percent, respectively); 12 cents
night differential (was 10 cents);
full day's prem ium for Vz dayls
work in fr e e z e r ; revised holiday
provisions including Monday or F r i ­
day observance of Veterans Day or
W ashington's Birthday;
improved
vacation eligibility and 3 weeks* va­
cation after 10 years (was 15) e ffe c ­
tive D ecem ber 31, 1959; improved
hospital and m edical benefits and
severance pay provisions and other
benefits. M aster agreem ent covers
both northern and southern plants;
differences were only i n ’ the wage
increases which reestablished or
raised the North-South differential.

See footnotes at end of table.




25
TABLE 12; WORK STOPPAGES BEGINNING IN 1959 INVOLVING 10,000 OR MORE WORKERS— Continued

Beginning
date

Approxi­
mate
duration
(calendar
days ) 1

E s tabli s hm ent (s )
and location

Union(s)
involved 2

A pproxi­
mate
number of
workers
involved 2

Plants in Georgia, F lorida, A la ­
bama, M ississip p i, and Louisiana
received increase of 5 cents, addi­
tional 3 1 cents effective Septem ­
/*
ber 1, I960; N ashville, T e n n ., plant
received 8 V cents in crease, no in­
2
crease in I 9 6 0 .

September 4—
Continued

October 1

M ajor term s of settlem en t 3

9 8

Longshoring industry,
E ast and Gulf Coast
ports.

Inte rnational
Longshore­
m en^
A ssociation.

5 2 ,0 0 0

Memorandum of settlem ent on a
new 3 -y ea r contract with New York
Shipping A ssociation (D ecem ber 1,
1959) providing 1 2 cents an hour in­
crease retroactive to October 1,
1959, additional 5 cents effective
October 1, I960, and 5 cents e ffec­
tive October 1, 1961; sixth, seventh,
and eighth paid holidays added in
fir s t, second, and third contract
year, respectively; qualifying time
.for 2 and 3 weeks* vacation pay r e ­
duced to 1 , 1 0 0 and 1 ,3 0 0 hours per
year, respectively (were 1 , 2 0 0 and
1 ,5 0 0 hours); 14 cents anhour co m ­
pany payment to pension fund (was
7 cents); 2 1
cents an hour company
p a y m e n t to w e l f a r e fund (was
14 cents), i n c l u d i n g 3 cents for
m edical clinics.
Mechanization issue— em ployers
agreed not to reduce the size of the
standard 2 0 -m an work gang and to
use ILA m em bers to load or reload
containers when work is done at the
p ier. A 3 -m an arbitration board
was named to work out royalties for
port workers displaced by container
shipping.
Settlement reached at other A t­
lantic and Gulf ports during D e ce m ­
ber. Benefits sim ila r to agreem ent
with New York Shipping A ssociation,
except for local work ru les.

October 5

4

Silk and rayon dyeing,
finishing, and print­
ing companies,
3 States: New York,
New Jersey, and
Pennsylvania.

Textile W ork­
ers Union.

1 2 , 0 0 0

2 -y e a r
a g r e e m e n t providing
13 cents an hour effective October
1959; 5 c e n t s an hour, effective
I 9 6 0 ; ninth paid "flo a tin g " holiday;
companies to p a y $ 7 a month to
pension fund (was $ 6 ).

1
Includes nonworkdays, such as Saturdays, Sundays, and established holidays.
2
The unions listed are those d irectly involved in the dispute, but the number of workers involved m ay in­
clude m em bers of other unions or nonunion w orkers idled by disputes in the sam e establishm ents.
W orkers involved in the maxim um number made idle for 1 shift or longer in establishm ents directly in­
volved in a stoppage. This figure does not m easure the indirect or secondary effects on other establishments or
industries whose em ployees are made idle as a result of m aterial or service shortages.
3
Adapted largely from Current Wage Developm ents, published monthly by the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
4
A greem ents reached by m id -J u ly covering m ost w orkers.
5
Some workers returned about August 24 when approximately 100 contractors signed individual contracts.
6
Settlement reached with United Steelworkers Novem ber 22; operations resumed at Utah sm elters and r e ­
fineries Novem ber 23 until Decem ber 1, when 2 railroad unions established picket lines which the Steelworkers
refused to c r o s s ; operations resumed D ecem ber 26, when the railroad unions* differences were settled.
O pera­
tions resumed Decem ber 29 on a lim ited scale in A rizon a, New M exico, and Nevada, following agreem ent with
the M ine, M ill and Sm elter W orkers, Decem ber 16 on a m a ster 18-m onth contract and on local issu es D e ce m ­
ber 23.
In Utah, operations resum ed January 29, I960.
7
M ajor unions; other unions involved:
International A ssociation of M achinists; Brotherhood of Locom otive
F irem en and Enginemen; Brotherhood of Railway Carmen; International Brotherhood of E lectrical W ork ers; Op­
erating Engineers; Office Em ployes; Order of Railway Conductors and Brakemen.
3
M ost companies settled October 14, except in Washington where about 2 ,5 0 0 workers were idle until
October 21.
9
W orkers at all ports returned to their jobs October 9, after a United States D istrict Court issued a
10-day restraining order under provisions of the Labor-M anagem ent Relations (Taft-H artley) A ct.




26
TABLE 13. DURATION OF WORK STOPPAGES ENDING IN 19591

Duration (calendar days)

Stoppages
Percent
Number
of
total

W ork ers involved
Number

P ercent
of
total

M an-days idle
Number

Percent
of
total

____________________________________________

3 ,7 4 7

1 00 .0

1,910,000

1 00 .0

6 7 ,4 0 0 ,0 0 0

1 0 0 .0

! day__________________________________
2 and le s s than 4 days _ _______________ _____ __ __
4 and le s s than 7 days _____________ _________________
7 and le s s than 15 days _______________________________
15 and le s s than 30 days __ ___________________ _____
30 and le s s than 60 days ___________________________ _
60 and le s s than 90 days _____________________________
90 days and over ______________________________________

369
537
514
806
62 3
466
211
221

9 .8
1 4 .3
13. 7
2 1 .5
1 6 .6
1 2 .4
5 .6
5 .9

1 0 9 ,0 0 0
1 3 5 ,0 0 0
1 6 7 ,0 0 0
2 6 2 ,0 0 0
2 5 0 ,0 0 0
2 5 5 ,0 0 0
1 2 4 ,0 0 0
6 0 9 ,0 0 0

5 .7
7. 1
8 .7
1 3 .7
13. 1
13. 3
6 .5
3 1 .9

1 0 9 ,0 0 0
2 7 4 ,0 0 0
5 6 5 ,0 0 0
1 ,6 2 0 ,0 0 0
3 ,4 9 0 ,0 0 0
7 ,2 3 0 ,0 0 0
5 ,8 5 0 ,0 0 0
4 8 ,2 0 0 ,0 0 0

0 .2
.4
.8
2 .4
5 .2
1 0 .7
8 .7
7 1 .6

A ll periods

1
The totals in this table differ from those in the other tables because these relate to stoppages ending during
the year, including any 1958 idleness in these strik es.
NO TE: Because of rounding, sums of individual item s may not equal to ta ls.

TABLE 14. METHOD OF TERMINATING WORK STOPPAGES ENDING fN 19591
Stoppages
Method of termination

A ll methods _____________________________________________
Agreem ent of parties reached:
D irectly ____________________________________ — _____
With assistance of government agencies ______—
With assistance of nongovernment m ediators
or a g e n c i e s ____ ______ ________________ ___________
With combined assistance of government and
nongovernment m ediators or agencies — _____
Term inated without form al settlement
___ _____
E m ployers discontinued business ____________ _____
Not reported _______________ _______________ _______

W ork ers involved

Number

Percent
of
total

Number

P ercent
of
total

3 ,7 4 7

1 00 .0

1,910,000

1,54 1
1 ,39 2

4 1. 1
37. 1

Number

Percent
of
total

1 0 0 .0

6 7 ,4 0 0 ,0 0 0

1 0 0 .0

4 9 3 ,0 0 0
6 8 7 ,0 0 0

2 5 .8
3 6 .0

6 ,5 8 0 ,0 0 0
1 4 ,8 0 0 ,0 0 0

9 .8
2 1 .9

.8

3 4 1 ,0 0 0

.5

173

4 .6

1 5 ,5 0 0

6
514
53
68

.2
1 3 .7
1 .4
1 .8

5 0 ,6 0 0
6 5 8 ,0 0 0
4 ,5 5 0
2 ,7 1 0

1 See footnote 1, table 13.
N O TE:

Because of rounding, sums o f individual item s m ay not equal totals.




M an-days idle

2 .6
3 4 .4
.2
.1

2 ,1 8 0 ,0 0 0
4 3 ,2 0 0 ,0 0 0
2 5 0 ,0 0 0
6 4 ,0 0 0

3 .2
64. 1
.4
. 1

27
TABLE 15. DISPOSITION OF ISSUES IN WORK STOPPAGES ENDING IN 1959 1
Stoppages
Percent
Number
of
total

Disposition of issu es

A ll issu e s _ ________

_ __ ____________

__ ________

Issues settled or disposed of at termination of
stoppage 2 _________ __ _
Some or all issu e s to be adjusted after resu m p ­
tion of work:
By direct negotiation between em ployer(s)
and union __________________________________________
By negotiation with the aid of government
agencies
__
_ __
By arbitration _
By other means 4 ___________________________________
Not reported _____
____

W ork ers involved
Percent
Number
of
total

M an-days idle
Percent
Number
of
total

3 ,7 4 7

100.0

1,9 1 0 ,0 0 0

100.0

6 7 ,4 0 0 ,0 0 0

100.0

3 ,3 6 1

8 9 .7

1,820,000

9 5 .4

6 6 ,6 0 0 ,0 0 0

9 8 .8

153

4. 1

4 6 ,5 0 0

2 .4

4 5 9 ,0 0 0

.7

3
70
92
68

.1
1 .9
2 .5
1.8

145
2 3 ,9 0 0
1 5 ,0 0 0
2 ,7 1 0

( 3)
1.2
.8
.1

1 ,05 0
120,000
139 ,0 00
6 4 ,0 0 0

(3)
.2
.2
.1

1 See footnote 1, table 13.
2 Includes (a) those strikes in which a settlement was reached on the issu e s prior to return to w ork, (b) those
in which the parties agreed to utilize the com pany's grievance procedure, and (c) any strikes in which the w orkers
returned without form al agreement or settlem ent.
3 L e ss than 0 .0 5 percent.
4 Included in this group are the cases referred to the National or State labor relations boards or other agencies
for decisions or election s.
NOTE:

Because of rounding, sums of individual item s may not equal totals.




28
Appendix A:

Tables-W ork Stoppages

TABLE A-l. WORK STOPPAGES BY INDUSTRY, 1959
Stoppages beginning Man-days
idle,
in 1959
1959
(all
Workers
Number
involved stoppages)

Industry

All industries

—

Manufacturing

— — __

-------

____________________

Primary metal in d u str ie s _______________
Blast furnaces, steel works, and
rolling and finishing m ills _________
Primary smelting and refining of
_
_ _ __
nonferrous metals
Secondary smelting and refining of
nonferrous metals and a llo y s ______
Rolling, drawing and extruding of
nonferrous m e t a l s __________________
Nonferrous foundries ________________
Miscellaneous primary metal
industries
____ ___ __ _ _
Fabricated metal products, except
ordnance, machinery, and transportation equipment ____________________
Metal c a n s _______________________ _____
Cutlery, handtools, and general
hardware ...... . , , .
Heating apparatus (except electric)
and plumbing f i x t u r e s ______________
Fabricated structural metal
products _ ___
Screw machine products, and bolts,
nuts, screw s, rivets and
washers _
Metal stam pings______________________
Coating, engraving, and allied
sflrvirftfl
Miscellaneous fabricated wire
products
..... - . .
... .
Miscellaneous fabricated metal
products
Ordnance and accessories ______________
Guns, howitzers, m ortars, and
related equipment
_ _
Ammunition, except for small
a r m s ____ __ _
________ ___ _____
Sighting and fire control
equipment
Small arms
_ ____ _
Ordnance and accessories, not
elsewhere classified
_ __
Electrical machinery, equipment, and
supplies ________________________________
Electric transmission and distri­
bution equipment ____________________
Electrical industrial ap paratu s_____
Household appliances __ _ _________
Electric lighting and wiring
equipment ____ _____ _____________
Radio and television receiving sets,
except communication types _______
Communication equipment _
Electronic components and
accessories _________________________
Miscellaneous electrical machinery,
equipment, and supplies ___________
Machinery, except electrical __ _____
Engines and turbines__________________
Farm machinery and equipment______
Construction, mining, and m ate­
rials handling machinery and
equipment
Metalworking machinery and
equipment____________________________
Special industry machinery, except
metalworking m ach in ery___________
General industrial machinery and
equipm ent__ __ __
_ _
_ _
Office, computing, and accounting
machines ____________________________
Service industry machines __________
Miscellaneous machinery, except
electrical
See footnote at end of table,




13,708
12,0 4 3

1.8 8 0 .0 0 0
1 .2 8 0 .0 0 0

6 9 .0 0 0 ,0 0 0
55,5 0 0 ,0 0 0

*236

575,000

39,0 0 0 ,0 0 0

82
63

514,000
16,100

36,6 0 0 ,0 0 0
590,000

12

18,200

1,170 ,0 0 0

5

1,940

Industry

Stoppages beginning Man-days
in 1959
idle,
1959
Workers
(all
Number
involved stoppages)

M anufactur inK— C ontinue d
Transportation equipment
Motor vehicles and motor vehicle
equipment _
Aircraft and parts
. __
Ship and boat building and
repairing
_____
Railroad equipment
M otorcycles, bicycles, and p a r ts __
Miscellaneous transportation
equipment _
__

1 108

76,500

1,390 ,0 0 0

54
26

31,500
21,700

367,000
312,000

17
6
2

16,000
6 ,390
600

512,000
171,000
3,480

5

320

21,500

58

14,100

210,000

5
16

280
9 ,160

4 ,520
137,000

22
8
7

3.930
410
340

52,800
10,800
4,590

101
76
5

16,000
9,150
2 ,900

422,000
164,000
79,700

137,000

33
19

17,100
2,620

286,000
22,000

28

5,640

180,000

1276
11

100,000
7,310

3 ,1 5 0 ,0 0 0
43,400

26

6,470

17

4,280

107

39,200

11
39

3,740
21,000

17

930

18

4,610

34

12,900

13

8,290

1

20

6

1,920

3
1

2 ,100
460

Lumber and wood products, except
furniture __ _
„
____
_ __
Logging camps and logging
contractors
Sawmills and planing m i l l s ________
Millwork, veneer, plywood, and
prefabricated structural wood
p ro d u c ts ___________________________
__ _
Wooden containers __ __
Miscellaneous wood products __

Furniture and fix tu re s _________________
Household furniture _ ___ ___ __
Office furniture _
___
140,000
Public building and related
furniture __
__________ _____ __
1,65 0 ,0 0 0
Partitions, shelving, lockers,
and office and store fix tu re s _____
Miscellaneous furniture and
fi xt ur e s ____ _____ ____ _______ _
265,000
247,000
Stone, clay, and glass products
Flat glass
..... ~
. . . . ...
21,200
Glass and glassware, pressed or
blown
161,000
Glass products, made of purchased
glass
.
_ ... _
523,000
Cement, hydraulic _ ____ _ __
Structural clay products __________
125,000
Pottery and related p ro d u c ts______
Concrete, gypsum, and plaster
1,710
products____________________________
Cut stone and stone products — __
14,700
Abrasive, asbestos, and m iscel­
laneous nonmetallic mineral
products
52,700
14,700
Textile m ill products
40,800
Broadwoven fabric m ills, cotton ___
Broadwoven fabric m ills, man­
made fiber and silk
Broadwoven fabric m ills, wool:
820,000
Including dyeing and finishing____
Narrow fabrics and other sm all169,000
wares m ills: Cotton, wool,
81,200
silk, and man-made fib e r _________
Knitting m ills _______________________
88,800
Dyeing and finishing textiles, ex­
107,000
cept wool fabrics and knit goods__
Floor covering m ills
_ _ __
44,400
Yarn and thread m i l l s ______________
171,000
Miscellaneous textile g o o d s ________
91,800

2

3,800

96

48,100

18
12
9

20,500
2 ,380
9,930

15

2,090

9
12

1,640
5,650

12

2,240
3, 700

116,000

1217
8
17

82,700
11,400
19,100

2 ,8 2 0 ,0 0 0
146,000
1,0 5 0 ,0 0 0

38

9,070

386,000

530

11,900

2 ,840

162,000

4

580

4 ,670

165
3

50,800
1,900

1,2 3 0 ,0 0 0
353,000

11

13,700

151,000

6
8
41
16

430
2 ,910
10,100
9,520

12,300
74,800
213,000
125,000

56
5

7,360
570

166,000
15,900

j

19

4, 350

120,000

70
1

23,500
40

229.000
120

42,600

9

6
10

29

5,090

245,000

25

3,600

105,000

53

22,100

487,000

4
22

3,300
4,050

114,000
86,900

25

5,060

200,000

Apparel and other finished products
made from fabrics and similar
m aterials
M en’s, youths', and boys' suits,
coats, and overcoats
M en’s, youths', and boys ' furnish­
ings, work clothing, and allied
garments _ __
_
W om en's, m is s e s ', and juniors'
outerwear ---W om en's, m is s e s ', children's,
and infants' under garments
Hats, caps, and millinery _________
G ir ls ’ , children's, and infants '
outerwear
Fur goods _ __ ___ _________ _____
Miscellaneous apparel and
accessories _ _ ____
Miscellaneous fabricated textile
pr oducts

2

730

3,490

7

2 ,820

54,200

1
21

30
1,370

400
21,000

21
3
3
11

15,400
520
650
2,000

53,900
5,620
66,900
23.80U

122

19,100

253,000

2

400

1,540

16

3,570

50,900

58

11,000

147,000

11
4

2,110
230

21,300
850

5
3

310
60

7 650
1 *200

8

660

10,900

15

790

12,100

29
TABLE

A-l.

WORK STOPPAGES BY INDUSTRY, 1959— Continued

Stoppages beginning
in 1959
Industry
Number

Workers
involved

Stoppages beginning Man-days
idle,
in 1959
1959
Workers
(all
Number
involved stoppages)

Man-days
idle,
1959
(all
stoppages)
Manufacturing— Continued

Manufacturing— C ontin ue d
38
6

5,570
420

1

10

2
21
4

80
4,730
170

2

Leather and leather products___________
Leather tanning and finishing______ —
Industrial leather belting and
packing--------------------------------------- ------Boot and shoe cut stock'and
fin d in g s_________________ ____________
Footwear, except r u b b e r ____________
Luggage -------------------------------------------Handbags and other personal leather
g o o d s -------------------------------- -------— ----Leather goods, not elsewhere
c l a s s i f i e d _______________ __ _________

110

2

40

Food and kindred products ________ _____
Meat p r o d u c ts ------------------------------------Dairy products____________ __ _________
Canning and preserving fruits,
vegetables, and sea foods _________
Grain m ill p ro d u c ts__________________
Bakery products__________________ —__
Sugar ---------------------------------------------------Confectionery and related
p ro d u c ts_________________ ___________
Beverage in d u strie s__________________
Miscellaneous food preparations and
kindred p ro d u c ts----------------------------—

169
28
16

80,000
33,000
3' 180

17
13
45
2

6,520
2'7 4 0
24,200
'510

2
30

1,020
7,440

Tobacco manufactures _____________ —___
C i g a r s ________________________________

1
1

16

900
900

59

18,700

17
4

Paper and allied products_______________
Paper m ills, except building paper
m ills ________________________________
Paperboard m ills ____________________
Converted paper and paperboard
products, except containers and

10,200
2,230
2 ,500
2 ,740

4

Printing, publishing, and allied
industries ______________________________
Newspapers: Publishing, publishing
and p r in tin g _____
______ ___
Periodicals: Publishing, publishing
and p r in tin g _________________________
Commercial p r in tin g ____ ___ ___ _____
Manifold business forms
m anu facturing______________________
Bookbinding and related industries
Service industries for the printing
t r a d e _________________________________

158,000

5

400

16,500

7
2

5,540
170

99,600
5,440

7
2

1,470
750

25,700
6,380

3

340

4,4 6 0

68

11,300

179,000

5
6

400
2,010

5,470
56,600

25

5,650

71,900

3

310

2 ,250

9

490

5,050

20

2,400

37,500

1 1,672

600,000 1 3 ,500,000

1,010

2 ,230

65,700

Mining
,
Metal
29,400
Anthracite
__
58,800
Bituminous coal and l ig n it e _________
Mining and quarrying of nonmetallic
6,360
m inerals, except f u e l s ____________

1187
26
1
146

120,000
52,800
400
64,000

5 ,6 5 0 ,0 0 0
3 ,9 5 0 ,0 0 0
1,200
1,5 6 0 ,0 0 0

16

2,570

135,000

771

251,000

4 ,1 2 0 ,0 0 0

l 233

140,000
7,780

1 ,9 1 0 ,0 0 0
69,400

52

8,4 8 0

326,000

82
40
6
6
15

15,500
76,800
5,290
480
11,500

196,000
877,000
115,000
7,770
62,400

58

24,400

352,000

20,200

273,000

2
22

100
3,820

2

50
50

Transportation, communication, elec­
tric, gas, and sanitary services ____
Railroad transportation
Local and suburban transit and
490
interurban passenger trans71,400
3,590
1,040

4

200

2 ,240

97

19,600

422,000

30

6,160

95,000

Motor freight transportation and
warehousing
. _.
Water transportation _______________
Transportation by a i r _______________
Transportation services
Communication _ _
E lectric, gas, and sanitary
services
Wholesale and retail trade
Wholesale trade
Retail trade

18
7

4,400
3, 130

5

1, no

16
2
7
12

2,7 8 0
390
580
1,100

18
13
4

18,000
17,400
190

1

390

*62
22
6

Petroleum refining and related
industries ______________________________
Petroleum r e fin in g ___________________
Paving and roofing m a te r ia ls ________
Miscellaneous products of petroleum
and c o a l ______________________________

76,800
53,700
6 ,590
10

1
_

15
23

14,200
2,240

_ _

44,300
91,100 Finance, insurance, and real e s t a t e ___
Finance
... .... _ ._ .
.
Insurance
... ....
Real estate _ ...
10,000
.... _ _
129,000 Services
2 ,010
Hotels, rooming houses, camps,
and other lodging places
21,700
Personal services
28,800
Miscellaneous business s e r v ic e s ___
Automobile repair, automobile
services, and garages
550,000
543,000
Miscellaneous repair s e r v ic e s _____
Motion pictures
4,410
Amusement and recreation services,
2,330
except motion pictures ____________
Medical and other health se rv ic e s__
Educational services _______________
1,9 3 0 ,0 0 0
Nonprofit membership
1,4 9 0 ,0 0 0
organizations ______________________
94,200
Miscellaneous services
30
Government
321,000
State government
28,200
Local government ___________________

1 Stoppages extending into 2 or more industries or industry groups
workers involved and man-days idle were allocated to the respective industries.
Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.




8 ,680

10

25

Chemicals and allied p ro d u c ts__________
Industrial inorganic and organic
c h e m ic a ls ___________________________
Plastics materials and synthetic
resins, synthetic rubber, syn­
thetic and other man-made fibers,
except g l a s s _________________________
Drugs _________________________________
Soap, detergents and cleaning pre­
parations, perfumes, cosm etics,
and other toilet preparations_______
Paints, varnishes, lacquers,
enamels, and allied p r o d u c ts _____
Gum and wood c h e m ic a ls ____________
Agricultural c h e m ic a ls ______________
Miscellaneous chemical p ro d u c ts___

NOTE:

26

Contract construction __________________

20
14

Paperboard containers and b o x e s ___
Building paper and building board
m ills ________________________________

Rubber and miscellaneous plastics
products ________________________________
Tires and inner tubes _______________
Rubber footwear _____________________
Reclaimed ru b b e r____________________
Fabricated rubber products, not
elsewhere c la s s if ie d _______________
Miscellaneous plastics products____

1,390

53,300 Professional, scientific, and controlling
instruments; photographic and optical
3,490
goods; watches and c lo c k s ------------------Engineering, laboratory, and scien­
130
tific and research instruments
and Associated equipment
1,930
Instruments for measuring, con­
43,900
trolling, and indicating physical
3,240
char acteri Rtics ....
510
Optical instruments and lenses ____
Surgical, medical, and dental
instruments and supplies
no
Ophthalmic goods ___
Photographic equipment and
1,720 ,0 0 0
supplies
994,000
13,500
Miscellaneous manufacturing
industries _
__
______ _____
52,000
Jewelry, silverware, and plated
55,700
ware
450,000
Musical instruments and parts ____
2,050
T oys, amusement, sporting and
athletic, goods
2,780
Pens, pencils, and other office and
139,000
a rtis ts ' m aterials _________________
Costume jewelry, costume novelties,
14,400
buttons, and miscellaneous notions,
except precious metal
6,300
Miscellaneous manufacturing
6 ,300
industries
..
442,000
Nonmanufacturing ____________
241,000
106,000 Agriculture, forestry, and f is h e r ie s ___

10

23

13,900

258,000

311
143

72,200
14,500
57,600

1,570 ,0 0 0
314,000
1 ,2 6 0 ,0 0 0

11
1
2
8

770
50
260
460

4,310
430
1,780
2, 100

128

12,700

190,000

13
26
32

1,900
2,010
3,940

22,200
16,200
41,100

19
7
8

510
220
520

9,810
6,340
4,660

6
9
3

290
2,480
240

7,470
61,600
1,470

4
1

430
130

17,000
1,940

25
4
21

2,050
410
1,640

10,500
1,650
8,860

168

have been counted in each industry or industry group affected;

30
TABLE A-2. WORK STOPPAGES BY INDUSTRY

S. I, c.
code
(group
or
division)

Stoppages
beginning
in 1959

Industry group

. Number

Total

Mfg.

Wages, hours, and
supplementary benefits

Total

All industries

Workers
involved

Stoppages
Man-days
beginning
idle,
in 1959
1959
^
(all
Workers
Number
stoppages)
involved

Man-days
idle,
1959
(all
stoppages)

Union organization,
wages, hours, and
supplementary benefits
Stoppages
beginning
in 1959
Number

Man-days
idle,
1959
Workers
(all
involved stoppages)

1 3, 708

11, 872

1, 320, 000 61, 200, 000

361

95, 500

2, 470, 000

1 2, 043

Manufacturing

1, 880, 000 69, 000, 000

1, 280, 000 55, 500, 000

11, 187

993, 000 51, 100, 000

199

15, 300

369,000

26, 700
1, 540, 000
_
133, 000

1
18
1
3

460
840
900
130

19
20
21
22

Ordnance and accessories
Food and kindred products
_ _
Tobacco manufactures „ _ __
Textile m ill p ro d u c ts____________

13
169
1
70

8, 290
80, 000
900
23, 500

125, 000
1, 720, 000
6, 300
229,000

9
93
36

4, 990
61, 300
_
20, 000

23
24

Apparel, etc. 2 _____
Lumber and wood products,
except furniture _______ _ __
Furniture and fixtures __________
Paper and allied p r o d u c ts _______

122

19, 100

253, 000

54

8, 910

69, 000

25

1, 060

39, 000

58
101
59

14, 100
16, 000
18,700

210, 000
422, 000
442, 000

37
71
31

5, 500
12, 900
8, 210

116, 000
372, 000
209,000

6
13
5

110
1, 230
170

920
30, 200
6, 850

58
97

24, 400
19, 600

352, 000
422, 000

19
59

11, 100
12, 600

215, 000
348, 000

15
6

460
240

24, 700
8,8 9 0

25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32

Printing, publishing, and
allied indu stries____ ________
Chemicals and allied products___
Petroleum refining and
related industries _ __________
Rubber and miscellaneous
plastics products
_________
Leather and leather products _ __
Stone, clay, and glass
____
_____________
products

_

14,
30,
6,
2,

700
900
300
210

18

18,000

550, 000

9

10, 900

218, 000

2

400

2, 360

62
38

76, 800
5, 570

1, 930, 000
53, 300

40
26

71, 600
3, 710

1, 900, 000
35, 700

5
4

100
240

1, 050
4, 240

50, 800

1, 230, 000

98

35, 800

874, 000

14

1, 210

65, 600

575,000 39, 000, 000
100, 000 3, 150, 000
82, 700 2, 82-0, 000

128
182
141

540, 000 38, 700, 000
61, 900 2, 920, 000
43, 500 1, 700, 000

17
19
22

2, 420
1, 210
2, 100

26, 500
37, 000
29/100

165

33
34
35
36

Prim ary metal industries _ __
Fabricated metal products 3 _____
Machinery, except electrical _ _ _
Electrical machinery, equip­
ment, and supplies

236
276
217
96

48, 100

820, 000

54

25, 900

385, 000

9

730

21, 300

37
38
39

Transportation equipm ent_______
Instruments, etc. 4
Miscellaneous manufacturing
__ _
industries

108
26

76, 500
8, 680

1, 390, 000
158,000

55
14

39, 500
6, 420

1, 080, 000
136, 000

9
1

1, 170
10

15, 800
160

68

11, 300

179,000

44

8, 210

144, 000

4

140

1, 680

600, 000 13, 500, 000

*691

330, 000 10, 100, 0Q0

162

80, 200

2, 100, 000

Nonmfg.
A
B
C
E
F
G
H
I

Nonmanufacturing

_ _

11, 672

Agriculture, forestry, and
fisheries ______ ____________ ___
Mining
------------ -—
Contract con stru ction __ _— _____ _

10
187
771

2, 230
120, 000
251, 000

65, 700
5, 650, 000
4, 120, 000

6
37
307

1,020
58,300
157,000

41, 800
4, 710, 000
2, 670, 000

2
13
47

680
20, 500
52, 100

23, 300
803, 000
1, 110, 000

Transportation, communication,
electric, gas, and sanitary
services ____ *
_____ ___ __ _
Wholesale and retail t r a d e ___ ___

233
311

140, 000
72, 200

1,910, 000
1, 570, 000

95
177

41, 400
66, 500

1, 140, 000
1, 450, 000

24
48

1, 270
2, 390

12, 700
73, 100

Finance, insurance, and
real estate ______— _________— _
— ._
Services ------- ----- -----Government — _— _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

11
128
25

770
12, 700
2, 050

4, 310
190, 000
10, 500

3
62

360
6, 230
950

1, 340
79, 400
2, 640

3
23
2

100
3, 140
40

660
72, 100
400

1

1 Sto p pages a ffe c tin g m o re than 1 in d u s t ry g ro u p h av e b e e n counted in e a ch in d u s t ry g ro u p a ffe c te d ; w o r k e r s in v o lv e d and m a n -d a y s id le
w e re a llo c a t e d to the r e s p e c t iv e groups*
1 In c lu d e s o th e r fin is h e d p r o 4 u c t s m ad e fr o m f a b r ic s and s im il a r m a t e ria ls *
* E x c lu d e s ord nan ce* m a c h in e ry , and t ra n s p o rt a tio n equipm ent*
* In c lu d e s p r o fe s s io n a l* s c ie n t if ic , and c o n t r o llin g in s t ru m e n t s ; p h o to g ra p h ic and o p t ic a l goods; w a tch e s a n d clo ck s*
N O T E : B e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g , s u m s o f in d iv id u a l it e m s m a y hot e q u a l totals*




31
GROUP AND MAJOR ISSUES, 1959
Other working
conditions

Union organization
Stoppages
beginning
in 1959
Number

Man-days
idle,

Workers
(all
involved stoppages)

Stoppages
beginning
in 1959
Number

Workers
involved

Interunion or intraunion
matters

Man-days
idle,
1959
(all
stoppages)

Stoppages
beginning
in 1959
Number

Not reported

Workers
involved

Man-days
idle,
1959
(all
stoppages)

S. I. C.
code
Man-days
(group
or
idle,
division)
1959
(all
stoppages)

Stoppages
beginning
in 1959
Number

Workers
involved

303

58, 400

1, 700, 000

*761

362, 000

3, 400, 000

350

32, 000

222, 000

61

5, 760

30, 500

Total

1 136

38, 100

1, 460, 000

444

226, 000

2, 480, 000

42

4, 490

56, 700

35

2, 150

18, 900

Mfg.

11
12

320
1, 270

7, 070
81, 400

3
38
12

2, 840
16, 900
1, 520

83, 300
142, 000
7, 950

4
2

360
_
230

2, 320
2, 030

5
5

260
370

1, 230
2, 870

19
20
21
22

24

6, 950

99,700

10

1, 770

39, 500

4

170

1, 370

5

220

4, 520

23

3
2
2

130
40
630

1, 070
1, 160
42, 200

6
13
20

7, 840
1, 740
9, 510

90, 900
16, 700
171,000

5
2
1

520
100
150

1, 450
1, 270
13, 600

1
_

20
_

110
_

-

-

24
25
26

12
7

5,490
180

17, 500
2 ,840

11
25

7, 250
6, 660

93, 900
62, 300

1
-

90
~

1, 040
“

-

“

1

110

no

-

-

-

_

_

_

i

760

94, 200

5

5 ,850

235, 000

5
"

240
-

4, 170

12
6

4, 840
1, 450

22, 700
11, 800

9

1, 650

79, 500

38

11, 500

210, 000

5
10
11

550
2, 790
13, 100

11, 700
11, 500
821, 000

77
53
43

_

_

_

i

27
28

29

1

90

170

1

80

1, 360

30
31

1

10

60

5

590

1, 750

32

1, 290
500
-

16, 000
6, 440
-

2
5
-

70
220
-

270
4, 860
-

33
34
35

30, 900
33, 900
24, 000

290, 000
171,000
269, 000

7
7

6

1, 300

64, 300

22

20, 000

345, 000

2

70

3, 170

3

170

1, 070

36

6
7

2, 080
480

102, 000
10,900

35
4

33, 000
1, 770

187, 000
11,300

2
-

750
-

5, 050
-

-

20
"

370
-

37
38

5

150

4, 670

11

2, 570

25,800

2

60

2, 530 -

2

130

510

39

167

20, 300

241, 000

318

136, 000

911, 000

1 308

27, 600

165, 000

26

3, 610

11, 500

Nonmfg.

7
64

1, 880
12, 300

2, 920
148, 000

116
77

32, 000
8, 180

115, 000
45, 100

1
9
269

510
4, 640
20, 100

510
12, 700
139,000

1
5
7

20
2, 500
570

100
4, 450
760

A
B
C

32
31

3,860
700

55, 300
15, 700

69
35

91, 200
2, 190

701, 000
23, 800

1, 660
240

4, 010
7, 770

2
8

300
180

1, 540
4, 590

E
F

3
24
6

60
940
590

540
16, 000
3, 230

2
11
8

260
1, 960
430

1, 770
20, 600
4, 060

370
40

1, 430
180

3

40

100

G
H
I




n
12 -

_
5
2

32
TABLE A-3. WORK STOPPAGES IN STATES HAVING 25 OR MORE STOPPAGES BY INDUSTRY GROUP, 19591
Alabama
Stoppages beginning
in 1959
W o rk ers
N um ber
involved

Industry group

A ll in d u stries

_ _______

_

Manufacturing __

__ ____
__

___

__

__

_____

Stoppages beginning
in 1959
W ork ers
N um ber
involved

_

A g ric u ltu re, f o r e s tr y , and f is h e r ie s
„
__ __
Mining _
—
-------C ontract con struction _ __
' __
___ __
W h olesa le and re ta il trade
_
F in ance, in su ran ce, and r e a l estate _
T ransportation, com m unication, e le c tr ic ,
g a s, and san itary s e r v ic e s
— __
----S e r v ic e s
_
_ __
__
G ove rnm ent
__
_
__
__
__ _

__

Manufacturing

___
__ ___

51, 300

2, 480, 000

28

30, 600

1, 4 30, 000

25

3, 170

71, 000

40, 000

2, 160, 000

7

2, 240

1 6 7 ,0 0 0

17

2, 690

65, 800

13

24, 500

1, 740, 000

5

2, 190

165, 000

4
-

1, 970
-

70, 000
.

2
_

40
.

1, 540
-

_
-

_
_

_
_

3
3

410
6, 050

1, 800
159, 000

-

-

_
_

_
_
4

_
470

*1 , 820
_
6, 520

1
7
1

60
_
760
2, 100

1,
2 2,
22,
44,

700
100
600
100

_
_
-

_
_
_

_
_
_
_

1
2
2
„

80
70
450
_

530
3, 490
7, 800
_

2
4
1
3
1
1

300
1, 020
650
820
20
1, 240

24, 400
1 4 ,8 0 0
1, 300
8, 790
1, 470
48, 300

_
.
-

_
-

_
_
_
_
_
-

1
3
_
_
_
2
2

180
360
_
_
_
440
650

540
_
7, 950
_
_
_
35, 700
1, 440

1

70

1, 430

-

32

11, 300

3 1 9 ,0 0 0

_

_

_

10
12
5
-

7, 530
2, 520
580
-

3
1
1

580
20
70

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

24

2 8 ,3 0 0

1, 270, 000

8

480

5, 230

_

_

.

293, 000
11, 800
4, 410
-

5
15
4
-

7, 410
1 9 ,6 0 0
1, 320
_

706, 000
520, 000
30, 8 00
_

1
6
1
_

150
290
40
_

1, 910
2, 860
280
_

5, 220
770
3, 380

-

-

29, 760
_

_
_

_

2 180
_

-

"

-

"

-

-

_

A g ric u ltu re, fo r e s tr y , and f i s h e r i e s __
Mining
— _______ _
___ _
_ __ _
C ontract con struction ____________ _ __ __
W h olesale and r e ta il trade
— — -----------------Finance, insurance, and r e a l estate ___________
Transportation, com m unication, e le c tr ic ,
ga s, and san itary s e r v i c e s _____ ____
_____
S e rv ices _______ :________ _ _
__
_ __________
G overnm ent
____ ___
__ ___ __
___ ______
See footnotes at end of table.




Colorado

Connecticut

260
_ __

P r im a r y m e ta l indu stries _
__ _ ___
__
F a b ricated m e ta l products, except ordnance,
m ach in ery, and transp ortation eq u ip m e n t____
Ordnance and a c c e s s o r ie s _ —
__ __ ----------E le c tr ic a l m ach in ery, equipm ent, and
sup plies _ — ----------------- --------M ach in ery, except e le c tr ic a l _ _
__ _________
T ransportation equipment
__ _
__ ______
L u m ber and wood products,
except furniture _
__ _ _
_____
Fu rniture and fixtu res
____
_ __ _____
Stone, clay, and g la s s products
_____
T e xtile m ill products
__
__ _________ __
A p p are l and other finished products m ade
fr o m fa b r ic s and sim ila r m a te r ia ls _ ________
Leather and leath er products _
_ _
Food and kindred products
____ ___
____
T obacco m anu factures __ __ __ ___
Paper and a llie d products _____ _____ ________
P rinting, publishing, and allie d in d u s t r ie s _____
C h em icals and allie d products
_ ------------------P e trole u m refining and related in d u s t r ie s _____
Rubber and m iscella n eo u s p la stic s p r o d u c ts ___
P r o fe ssio n a l, scien tific , and con trolling
in stru m en ts; photographic and optical
goods; w atches and c l o c k s _________
_____
M iscella n eou s m anufacturing in d u stries _______
N on m an u factu rin g__

Stoppages beginning M an -d a ys
idle during
in 1959
W ork ers
1959 (a ll
N um ber
involved stoppages)

73

California
A ll in d u strie s

Arkansas
M an -d a ys
idle during
1959 (a ll
stoppages)

44

__ _

P r im a r y m e ta l indu stries _
_ _
___
F a b ricated m e ta l products, except ordnance,
m ach in ery, and transp ortation e q u ip m e n t____
Ordnance and a c c e s s o r ie s
_
______
E le c tr ic a l m ach in ery, equipm ent, and
sup plies
_ __
__ __ ___
______
M ach in ery, except e le c tr ic a l
__ _____
T ransportation equipment
_ __ __
Lu m ber and wood products,
except furniture _ __ -----— _ _ ---- -----Fu rniture and f i x t u r e s _____
_ __ __
Stone, clay, and g la s s products
__ „
__ _
T e xtile m ill p r o d u c t s ______________________________
A p p are l and other finished products m ade
fr o m fa b r ic s and s im ila r m a te r ia ls — -----Leather and leath er p r o d u c ts -------------------------------Food and kindred products
___
____
___
T obacco m anu factures
_
---------------------__
P aper and allie d products
--------- „ ----P rinting, publishing, and allie d i n d u s t r ie s -------C h em icals and a llie d products
_________
P e trole u m refining and related in d u s t r ie s _____
Rubber and m isc e lla n e o u s p la s tic s products
P r o fe ssio n a l, scie n tific , and con trolling
in stru m en ts; photographic and optical
goods; w atches and clock s
_______ _ _______
M iscella n eo u s m anufacturing in d u stries .
__
Nonm anufacturing _

Arizona
M an -d a ys
idle during
1959 (a ll
stoppages)

102, 000

3, 340, 000

30

22, 400

750, 000

68

20, 500

384, 000

138

58, 700

2, 560, 000

12

10, 100

660, 000

38

15, 700

3 1 9 ,0 0 0

12

17, 400

1, 310, 000

2

7, 470

612, 000

4

3, 110

88, 500

19
1

5, 900
200

336, 000
200

1
-

70
-

1, 510
_

6
1

2, 150
460

61, 000
14, 700

7
12
10

2, 700
560
8, 460

65, 200
1 6 , 900
2 6 9 ,0 0 0

1
1

650
60

7, 800
10, 200

5
2
1

1, 460
770
1, 280

31, 500
23, 200
1, 280

9
10
7
2

1, 110
1, 770
3, 910
90

4 1 ,6 0 0
25, 700
63, 600
1, 860

1
-

80
_
-

1, 920
_
-

1
2
2
5

10
110
20
760

190
260
390
6, 980

4
1
23
4
4
8
5

140
90
5, 780
_
1, 060
1 ,8 1 0
570
6, 310

12, 900
170
103, 000
_
7, 790
80, 000
25, 100
181, 000

5
_
-

1, 720
_
-

-

-

_
26, 100
_
_
_
-

1
_
3
_
2
1
_
2

60
_
550
_
20
20
_
4, 760

440
14, 300
_
_
580
130
_
74, 900

1
3

20
830

70
20, 800

1

90

_
360

_
1

_
130

_
1, 170

123

43, 600

777, 000

18

12, 200

90, 100

30

4, 860

64, 800

6
1
53
24
1

1, 000
250
9, 020
23, 200
50

4 0 ,9 0 0
320
101, 000
414, 000
430

1
1
13
1

500
90
1 1 ,5 0 0
50

23, 000
940
57, 500
780

-

-

_

16
4

3, 490
50

36, 800
4, 760

-

-

_

_

_

_

22
16
"

9, 360
790
“

201, 000
20, 300

1
1

10
30
“

7, 800
130

7
1
2

800
400
120

4, 950
16, 800
1, 480

”

-

33
TABLE A-3. WORK STOPPAGES IN STATES HAVING 25 OR MORE STOPPAGES BY INDUSTRY GROUP, 1959— Continued
Florida
Industry group

Indiana

Illinois

Stoppages beginning
in 1959
W o rk ers
N um ber
involved

M an -d a ys
Stoppages beginning
idle during
in 1959
W o rk e rs
1959 (a ll
N um ber
involved
stoppages)

M an -d a ys
Stoppages beginning
idle during
in 1959
W o rk e rs
1959 (all
N um ber
involved
stoppages)

M an -d a ys
idle during
1959 (all
stoppages)

A ll indu stries -----------------------------------------------------------

99

2 7 ,1 0 0

2 76, 000

231

112, 000

4 ,3 9 0 ,0 0 0

153

117, 000

5, 6 20, 000

M a n u fa c tu rin g ________________________________

34

1 0 ,9 0 0

1 6 3 ,0 0 0

119

67, 000

3 ,3 1 0 ,0 0 0

94

107, 000

5 ,4 7 0 ,0 0 0

P r im a r y m etal indu stries ________ ____________
F a b rica ted m etal products, except ordnance,
m ach in ery, and transportation equipment ___
Ordnance and a c c e s s o r ie s ________________________
E le c tr ic a l m ach in ery, equipm ent, and
supplies _____________________________________________
M ach in ery, except e le c tr ic a l _____________________
T ransportation equipm ent ________________________
L u m b e r and wood products,
excep t furniture ---------------------------------------------------Fu rniture and fixtu res ______________________ ______
Stone, c la y , and gla ss products _________________
T e xtile m ill products __________ ________________
A p p are l and other finished products made
fr o m fa b ric s and s im ila r m a te ria ls ---------------L e a th e r and leather products _____________________
Food and kindred products _______________________
T o b acco m anufactures _____________________________
P a p er and allie d products ________________________
P rin tin g, publishing, and allie d
indu stries _________________________________ _______
C h e m ic a ls and allie d products ___________________
P e tr o le u m refining and related indu stries _____
R ubber and m iscella n eou s p lastics p r o d u c t s __
P r o fe s s io n a l, sc ie n tific , and con trollin g
in stru m en ts; photographic and optical
goods; w atches and clock s ______________________
M iscella n eou s manufacturing indu stries _______

!

120

240

13

26, 800

2 ,0 4 0 ,0 0 0

20

5 9 ,8 0 0

4 , 5 5 0 ,0 0 0

7
-

3, 270
-

4 4 ,4 0 0
-

21
-

1 1 ,0 0 0
-

3 62, 000
-

16
-

9, 570
-

2 6 7 ,0 0 0
-

2
1

70
70

580
8, 500

5
22
5

2, 130
8, 720
1 ,4 6 0

2 4 ,1 0 0
536, 000
3, 280

3
9
9

4, 490
3, 440
8, 120

5 1 ,7 0 0
1 0 1 ,0 0 0
1 1 8 ,0 0 0

1
5
-

10
170
-

20
8, 700
-

2
9
1

140
2, 840
50

2 20
1, 180
2 9 ,0 0 0
350

2
9
15
-

510
1, 490
4, 270
-

3 ,9 2 0
2 2 ,1 0 0
8 5 ,0 0 0
-

5
3
4

110
1, 200
5, 310

7 , 650
1 7 ,1 0 0
6 9 ,5 0 0

3
2
11
2

90
870
5 ,9 4 0
250

4 , 100
1, 330
1 1 0 ,0 0 0
3 ,4 6 0

2
5
2

790
890
200

6, 610
2 8 ,9 0 0
2 ,2 5 0

2
3
-

60
550
-

2, 340
4 , 120
-

3
7
4
4

no
1 ,9 0 0
3, 360
630

1, 170
1 2 1 ,0 0 0
3 5 ,2 0 0
2 3 ,3 0 0

1
2
3

490
5, 800
7 ,4 8 0

1 ,5 0 0
6 8 ,2 0 0
1 6 1 ,0 0 0

-

-

-

450
200

6, 320
2, 710

-

-

2
4

-

-

-

66

16, 100

1 1 3 ,0 0 0

113

4 5 ,5 0 0

1 ,0 8 0 , 000

60

9 ,4 1 0

1 5 9 ,0 0 0

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

2
43
10
-

800
1 0 ,5 0 0
220
-

3 4 ,3 0 0
5 3 ,0 0 0
3, 770
-

_
7
55
20
-

620
38, 300
1, 280
-

3, 350
9 2 8 , 000
68, 300
-

4
26
10
-

1, 140
4 , 140
360
-

4 , 190
6 4 ,0 0 0
13, 100
' -

8
3
“

4, 300
350

2 0 ,7 0 0
1 ,0 2 0

20
10
2

4 , 200
1, 040
60

68, 100
9, 880
120

11
5
4

3, 390
120
270

7 5 , 100
1 ,4 1 0
690

63

2 4 ,6 0 0

5 4 1 ,0 0 0

26

6, 440

64, 700

83

3 0 ,2 0 0

M a n u fa ctu rin g ________________________________

41

1 8 ,0 0 0

4 1 5 ,0 0 0

15

5, 950

54, 300

23

9, 140

6 1 5 ,0 0 0

P r im a r y m etal industries ________________________
F a b ricated m etal products, except ordnance,
m ach in ery, and transp ortation equipment ___
Ordnance and a c c e s s o r ie s ________________________
E le c tr ic a l m ach in ery, equipm ent, and
supplies _____________________________________________
M ach in ery, except e le c tr ic a l _____________________
T ransportation equipment ________________________
L u m b er and wood prod u cts, except
furniture ____________________________________________
Furniture and fixtu res _____________________________
Stone, c la y , and gla ss products _________________
T e xtile m ill products ______________________________
A p p are l and other finished products made
fr o m fa b rics and sim ila r m a te ria ls ___________
L e a th er and leather products _____________________
Food and kindred products _______________________
To b acco m anufactures _____________________________
P aper and a llie d products ................ ............................
P rin tin g, publishing, and allie d indu stries ____
C h e m ic a ls and allied products ___________________
P e tr o le u m refining and related indu stries _____
Rubber and m iscella n eo u s p la stics products ___
P r o fe ssio n a l, sc ie n tific , and con trollin g
in stru m en ts; photographic and optical
goods; watches and clock s ______________________
M iscella n eou s m anufacturing indu stries _______

2

50

370

.

.

.

2

5, 530

4 2 3 ,0 0 0

3
1

250
1 ,0 7 0

1 ,2 9 0
1 ,0 7 0

3
1

160
20

8, 770
270

3
-

840
-

6 2 ,8 0 0
-

2
7
1

1, 180
3, 020
70

2 4 ,3 0 0
6 4 ,6 0 0
980

1
3
1

30
270
2, 940

60
7, 230
5, 410

2
4
-

400
1. 060
-

6, 720
8 9 ,7 0 0
-

2
5
-

260
370
-

1 0 ,3 0 0
5, 680
-

3
-

210
-

3, 540
-

1
2
3
-

340
160
580
-

1 ,7 0 0
1 ,8 2 0
2 5 ,0 0 0
-

13
1
2

8, 520
150
no
2 ,9 5 0

2 2 2 ,0 0 0
750
380
8 2 ,8 0 0

1
1
-

20
500
-

140
2 3 ,5 0 0
-

3
-

1 ,7 0 0
-

-

5, 400

50
10
170
-

-

N on m an u factu rin g ___________________________
A g r ic u ltu r e , fo r e s tr y , and fish e r ie s ___________
M in in g -------------------------------------------------------------------------C on tract c o n s tr u c tio n ______________________________
W h olesale and retail trade __ _____________________
F in ance, in su ran ce, and rea l estate -----------------Tran sp o rtatio n , com m u nication, e le c tr ic ,
g a s, and san itary s e r v ic e s ______________________
S e r v ic e s -------------------------------------------------------------- -----G overnm ent __________________________________________

_

Iowa
A ll indu stries _____________ _________________________

Nonm anufacturing ___________________________
A g r ic u ltu r e , fo r e s t r y , and fish e r ie s ___________
M in in g ________________________________________________
C on tract c o n s tr u c tio n ___________ _____ ____________
W h o lesa le and retail trade _______________________
F in ance, in su ran ce, and r e a l estate ___________
Tran sp o rtatio n , com m u nication, e le c t r i c ,
gas, and san itary s e r v ic e s ______________________
S e r v ic e s ________ ________ ____________________________
G o v e r n m e n t__________________________________________

See footnotes at end of table.




-

2

Kentucky

Kansas

-

1

1, 800

-

-

1
3
-

1, 2 2 0 ,0 0 0

-

120
1 ,5 8 0
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

22

6, 570

126, 000

11

490

1 0 ,4 0 0

61

21, 100

6 1 0 ,0 0 0

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

6, 170
no

1 0 7 ,0 0 0
3, 390

200
290

1, 120
9, 230

-

-

-

-

-

-

250
40
10

1 0 ,3 0 0
4 , 950
20

-

-

-

4
1
1

_
-

17
2
-

1
1
1

6
5

-

-

-

_
35
16
4

_
19, 300
930
480

_
5 9 3 ,0 0 0
7, 770
3, 890

-

-

330
10
40

4 ,9 8 0
10
180

34
TABLE A-3. WORK STOPPAGES IN STATES HAVING 25 OR MORE STOPPAGES BY INDUSTRY GROUP, 19591 Continued
—
Louisiana
Stoppages beginning
in 1959
W o rk e rs
N um ber
involved

Industry group

Maryland
M an -d a ys
idle during
1959 (a ll
stoppages)

Stoppages beginning
in 1959
W o rk e rs
N um ber
involved

Massachusetts
M an -d a ys
idle during
1959 ( a ll
stopp ages)

Stoppagesi beginning M an -d a ys
idle during
1959
W o rk e rs
1959 (a ll
Num ber
involved stoppages)

36

M anufacturing
P r im a r y m e ta l indu stries
_
F a b ricated m etal products, except ordnance,
m ach in ery, and transportation e q u ip m e n t ___
Ordnance and a c c e s s o r ie s
E le c tr ic a l m ach in ery, equipment, and
supplies
M ach in ery, excep t e le c tr ic a l
Tran sportation equipment
Lum ber and wood products,
except furniture
Fu rniture and fixtu res _
Stone, cla y , and g la s s products __ _
T e xtile m ill products
A p p a re l and other finished products m ade
fr o m fa b r ic s and sim ila r m a te r ia ls
Leather and leather products
Food and kindred products
To b acco m anu factures
Paper and a llie d products
P rinting, publishing, and allie d in d u stries _____
C h e m ica ls and allie d products
P e tr ole u m refining and related in d u strie s _____
Rubber and m isc e lla n e o u s p la stic s p r o d u c ts ___
P r o fe ssio n a l, sc ie n tific , and con trolling
in stru m en ts; photographic and op tical
goods; w atches and clock s
M isc e lla n e o u s m anufacturing in d u stries

17, 500

286, 000

38

38, 300

2, 440, 000

134

43, 000

909, 000

11

A ll in d u stries

3, 250

1 6 8 ,0 0 0

16

31, 8 00

2, 400, 000

91

36, 600

702, 000

«.

_

_

4

29, 100

2, 340, 000

6

4, 470

280, 000

2
-

260
-

19, 600
-

2
-

900
-

5, 160
-

9
-

2, 340
-

42, 000
-

2

1, 340

62, 700

1

450

2, 700

6
6
3

7, 280
1, 650
2, 570

82, 300
27, 400
23, 000

1
2
-

10
630
-

280
76, 000
-

1
2
2
1

40
510
130
90

460
5, 170
23, 400
1, 120

2
5
9

120
580
1, 420

1, 380
12, 100
15, 700

3
1
-

410
600
-

5, 430
4, 060
-

1
1
2
-

20
70
430
-

880
1, 660
19, 300
-

9
14
6
1
4
4
5

420
1, 670
2, 860
40
5, 040
310
4, 980

3, 620
9 .9 8 0
26, 900
_
9. 930
33, 800
4, 140
_
104, 000

-

1
2

370
4 60

5, 180
20, 500

6, 470

207, 000

-

-

-

-

-

-

14, 300

1 1 8 ,0 0 0

24

6, 510

47, 900

45

.
Mining
C ontract con struction
W h o lesa le and r e ta il trade
Fin ance, in su ran ce, and r e a l estate
T ransportation, com m unication, e le c tr ic ,
g a s, and san itary s e r v ic e s — ------------------------------S e rv ic e s _
G overn m ent

-

26

Nonm anufacturing

-

.

_

.

_

.

80
1, 860
110
-

3, 400
1 9 ,3 0 0
7, 960
-

1
6
7
1

50
3, 110
130
10

600
23, 400
2, 9 20
30

21
14
-

3, 350
1, 090
-

31, 200
26. 000
.

10
1
1

12, 200
10
20

87, 200
60
20

6
3
-

3, 040
170

18, 200
2, 710
*

8
2

1, 940
90

148, 000
1, 750
-

Michigan
A ll in d u strie s

—

.. ...... - __ ___ ______ ____ ________ ___

_

1
11
2
-

Missouri

Minnesota

Nonma mi-far'tii-ring

F in ance, in su ran ce, and r e a l estate
.
T ran sportation , com m u nication, e le c tr ic ,
g a s , and san itary s e r v ic e s .
.
.
..... .....
G overn m ent __________________

,

See footnotes at end of table.




........... .........

2, 6 8 0 , 000

73

39, 100

1. 8 7 0 , 000

105

24, 600

9 35. 000

56, 100

1, 940, 000

37

13, 200

541, 000

58

15, 400

6 74, 000

18

21, 400

1, 310, 000

2

2 ,9 4 0

244, 000

2

690

243, 000

16
2

3, 440
2, 620

76, 600
3, 220

4
1

660
1, 150

39, 000
33, 300

8
-

1 ,6 5 0
-

41, 200
-

3
9
16

500
1, 570
9, 520

10, 300
133, 000
132, 000

1
9
-

70
1, 090
-

1, 910
22, 9 00
-

1
7
4

50
9 40
1, 230

450
51, 200
11, 200

1
5
2
-

50
370
120
-

1, 460
9, 580
3, 860
-

4
_
2
-

410
250
-

6, 260
9, 450
-

6
6
1

1, 070
820
230

7, 900
72, 600
460

1
6
8
4
3
1
1

70
670
.
3, 750
6, 410
170
20
3, 780

290
360
000
400
350
100
400

1
_
7
_
1
1
3
1
1

90
6, 010
_
120
10
110
250
30

800
170, 000
1, 240
10
320
10, 8 00
120

1
1
8
_
1
6
2
1

10
40
1, 070
_
30
5, 750
680
760
_

110
1, 890
22, 100
_
410
117, 000
1, 670
94, 200
-

2
2

590
1, 050

11, 700
5, 450

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
3

60
350

5, 460
3, 560

75

----

A g ric u ltu re , f o r e s tr y , and f is h e r ie s
Mining
.... ........ .......................... ........ ..............................-

8 3 ,5 0 0

99
P r im a r y m e ta l indu stries
F a b ricated m e ta l products, except ordnance,
m ach in ery, and transp ortation e q u ip m e n t-----Ordnance and a c c e s s o r ie s
E le c tr ic a l m ach in ery, equipm ent, and
----------------sup plies
M ach in ery, except e le c tr ic a l
T ransportation equipment _
Lu m ber and wood products,
except furn itu re
_
Fu rniture and fix tu re s
Stone, clay, and g la s s products
- — __
T e xtile m ill products
__ _ — «___
A p p are l and other finished products m ade
fr o m fa b r ic s and sim ila r m a te r ia ls
Leather and leather products
Food and kindred products
__
_ _
To b acco m anu factures
Paper and allie d products
P rinting, publishing, and allie d in d u stries _ ___
C h em icals and allie d products _______
P e trole u m refining and related in d u s tr ie s _____
Rubber and m isc e lla n e o u s p la s tic s p r o d u c ts ___
P r o fe ssio n a l, scie n tific , and con trolling
in stru m en ts; photographic and op tical
good s; w atches and clock s
M isc e lla n e o u s m anufacturing in d u stries

172

27, 400

739, 000

37

25, 900

1, 330, 000

48

9. 220

261, 000

2
20
11
.

3, 050
1 ,5 8 0
3, 330
.

7 3 ,9 0 0
4, 130
1 3 9 ,0 0 0
-

9
4
3

910
240

_

4,
146,
20,
9,
60,

_

.

3
48
7
1

6, 530
18, 100
4 10
250

4 9 9 ,0 0 0
201, 000
13, 300
1, 750

3
19
4
.

12
5

1, 740
340

13, 300
10, 200

10
2
-

"

*

1

14, 500
1, 140, 000
64, 800
5, 100
3 ,8 5 0 _
8 2 ,7 8 0
«
2 , 350
100

4 3 ,5 0 0
2, 040

-

-

.

no

.

42, 300
1, 310
310

35
TABLE A-3. WORK STOPPAGES IN STATES HAVING 25 OR MORE STOPPAGES BY INDUSTRY GROUP, 1959i - Continued
Nebraska

New Jersey

Stoppages beginning
M an -d a ys
idle during
in 1959
W o rk ers
1959 (all
Num ber
involved stoppages)

Industry group

Stoppages beginning M an -d a ys
idle during
in 1959
W o rk e rs
1959 (a ll
Number
stoppages)
involved

25

A ll indu stries
M anufacturing

8, 710

173, 000

249

10

7, 220

147, 000

166

New York
Stoppages beginning
in 1959
W ork ers
N um ber
involved

M an -d a ys
idle during
1959 (a ll
stoppages)

1, 980, 000

470

1 5 8 ,0 0 0

4, 520, 000

67, 400

1, 540, 000

304

95, 400

3, 560, 000

97, 200

1
F a b ricated m e ta l prod u cts, except ordnance,
m ach in ery, and transp ortation equ ipm ent----Ordnance and a c c e s s o r ie s
E le c tr ic a l m ach in ery, equipment, and
supplies
M ach in ery, except e le c tr ic a l
Transportation equipment
Lum ber and wood products,
except furniture
Furniture and fixtu res
Stone, clay, and g la s s products
T e xtile m ill products
A p p are l and other finished products m ade
fr o m fa b r ic s and sim ila r m a te r ia ls
Leather and leather products
Food and kindred products
___
T obacco m anufactures
Paper and a llie d products
Printing, publishing, and a llie d indu stries -----C h em icals and a llie d products
P etrole u m refining and related in d u stries ____
Rubber and m isc e lla n e o u s p la stic s p r o d u c ts__
P r o fe ssio n a l, scien tific , and con trolling
in stru m en ts; photographic and optical
goods; w atches and clock s
M iscella n eou s m anufacturing i n d u s t r ie s ______
Nonm anufacturing

_________________________

A g ric u ltu re, fo r e s tr y , and fis h e r ie s
_ —
Mining
------------------------------------ ------------___
_
___
C ontract c o n str u c tio n _____
W h olesa le and r e ta il trade
_
_ _ _ _ _
F in ance, insurance, and r e a l estate
-------T ransportation, com m unication, e le c tr ic ,
g a s, and san itary s e r v i c e s ___
__ __ _____
S e r v ic e s
______ __
_______
_____ ____
G overn m ent
_____ __ ___

200

15, 600

16

7, 910

500, 000

12

30, 000

2, 380, 000

-

-

18

-

_

3, 880
-

193, 000
_

29
-

5, 070
-

88, 800
-

1

30

-

13
15
2

9, 720

120

10, 900

4, 010

1 2 9 ,0 0 0
316, 000
5, 210

17
30
13

1, 580
7, 780
9, 460

3 9 ,1 0 0
12 9, 000
143, 000

1
-

20
_

130
_
-

1
6
12
16

20
300
2, 270
8, 810

200
2, 150
3 9 ,7 0 0
33, 800

6
21
18
15

190
4, 020
4, 040
5, 050

900
130, 000
71, 700
24, 800

7
-

6, 970
-

131, 000
_
_
-

9
1
9
_
8
4
16
2
10

380
10
4, 480
3, 030
310
4, 230
710
4, 240

6, 540
130
76, 500
68, 100
5, 190
82, 700
2, 130
59, 800

39
6
24
12
2
9
2
7

2, 420
290
15, 300
2, 240
20
1, 520
500
470

19, 100
7, 650
320, 000
99, 800
310
35, 000
2, 450
1 2 ,8 0 0

-

-

-

-

"

-

2
7

40
2, 120

3, 660
11, 700

9
33

3, 170
2, 280

36, 200
16, 100

15

1, 490

26, 200

84

29, 800

4 4 6 ,0 0 0

168

62, 900

95 6 , 000

14
1
-

1, 410
80
-

_
_
4, 490
1, 460
-

_
30
26
3

9, 240
4, 880
70

135, 000
95, 300
590

4
43
56
3

2, 400
5, 400
20, 000
340

153,
47,
467,
1,

.

_
_

2 20, 200
-

17
6
2

14, 800
360
400

211, 000
2, 010
1, 490

36
25
2

31, 300
2, 960
550

223, 000
62, 400
1, 810

-

-

-

Ohio
A ll indu stries

_

Oregon

.
000
300
000
050

Pennsylvania

391

238, 000

9, 630, 000

41

9, 060

230, 000

454

332, 000

14, 8 00, 000

266

204, 000

8, 990, 000

20

7, 290

200, 000

286

2 7 7 ,0 0 0

13, 90 0 , 000

51

106, 000

6, 550, 000

!

100

7, 590

47

19 0, 000

12, 000, 000

43
2

22, 200
950

549, 000
19, 400

2
-

380
_

5, 770
_

53
3

17, 300
610

584, 000
14, 900

9
34
15

3, 890
1 1 ,2 0 0
7, 310

161, 000
335, 000
9 1 , 500

1
2

.
130
1, 100

2, 730
41, 100

16
29
7

11, 300
15, 800
5, 030

154, 000
289, 000
33. 8 00

3
4
38
.

210
2, 770
13, 100

2, 8 2 0
149, 000
210, 000

6

3, 490

66, 300

_

.

2

•

270

11, 900

4
18
22
11

1, 230
2, 050
5, 930
1 ,9 6 0

5
1
15

1, 180
180
4, 570

6, 020
180
86, 000

1

50

3, 350

4

490

15, 200

150
1, 050
3, 950
•
22. 700

8 , 360
9* 910
39, 5 00

1, 280

4 5, 900

11, 600
580
3, 120
900
310
700
890

115, 000
8, 750
8 5, 200
6, 300
7. 830
3 .6 8 0
2 5 ,8 0 0

•

1
•
•

29
4
14
1
4
4
to

•

«

6 9 8 ,0 0 0

•

8

4 , 430

147,. 000

6

880
2. 3 9 0

3 ,8 9 0
7 1 ,4 0 0

«

•
*

*
«

3
2

2. 9 8 8
150

75, 500
3, 270

— __

126

34. 100-

633* 000

21

1, 770

3 0 ,2 0 0

169

55, 000

8 7 4 , 000

A g r ic u lt u r e , f o r e s t r y , and f is h e r ie s .......
—
M in in g T T- . r- . , . Ti r..'..-1- - rT- n.., ., ------ - .T.
IT1
T
C o n t ra c t c o n s t ru c tio n _
................— . .
W h o le sa le and r e t a il tra d e
F in a n c e , in s u ra n c e , and r e a l estate
......
T ra n s p o rt a tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , e le c t r ic .
ga», and san itary s e r v ic e s ^ - - ■ -, r ».............

1
5
49
34
*-

510
U
lo o
18. 000
6, 130
.

510
1, 580
240, 000
8 4, 900
.

*
l
12
2
.

40
1 ,0 9 0
70
•

8 80
20, 600
870
.

28
56
42
2

1 4 ,8 0 0
1 1 , too
1 ,8 6 0
50

4 0 7 , 0002 0 6 . 000
4 4 ,6 0 0
470

18
18
2

6 , 040
2, 270
40

291, 000
13, 800
120

5
l

520
50

*-

"

6, 390
1, 450
*

33
8
2

25, 800
1, 210
200

2 0 1 ,0 0 0
15, 100
450

M anufacturing
P r im a r y m e ta l in d u strie s
___
F a b ricated m e ta l p roducts, except ordnance,
m ach in ery, and transp ortation e q u ip m e n t......
Ordnance and a c c e s s o r ie s
E le c tr ic a l m ach in ery, equipm ent, and
s u p p lie s ---- ---- -------------- ---- - .............

M a c h in e r y , ex ce p t e l e c t r ic a l
T ra n s p o rt a tio n eq uip m e n t
L u m b e r and wood p ro d u c ts .
e x ce p t furn itu re — .-. -----------------------

■r

Stone, c la y , and g la s s p ro d u c ts — ..........
T e x t ile m i l l p ro d u c ts - ----- -A p p a re l and o th e r fin is h e d p ro d u c ts m ad e
fr o m f a b r i c s and s im il a r m a t e r ia ls
----- r
L e a t h e r an d le a t h e r p r o d u c t s
Food and kindred products
. . . __ _________ ___ _

T o b a c c o m a n u fa c tu re s
____
___
P a p e r and a llie d p ro d u c ts
-n,....
P r in t in g , p u b lish in g ,a n d a llie d in d u s t r i e s ____ .
C h e m ic a ls and a llie d p ro d u c ts , - T..n-r-rT^-,_--I-T
-,,
P e t r o le u m r e fin in g and re la t e d in d u s t r ie s
R u b b e r and m is c e lla n e o u s p la s t ic s p r o d u c t s ^ .
P r o f e s s io n a l, s c ie n t if ic , and c o n t r o llin g
in s t ru m e n t s ; p h o to g ra p h ic and o p t ic a l
go o d s; w a tch e s and c lo c k s __________ _______ —
M is c e lla n e o u s m a n u fa c tu rin g in d u s t r ie s
N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g

S e rv ic e s T
-, --G o v e r n m e n t______

-rr—
- - ,
_____ _____________________ . .

Sec footnotes at end of table.




•
1
6
U

.

21

4

.

.

.

_
.

•

.

.

_

_
•

«
*
*

.

.

_

.
.

•
*
•

•

4,
34,
276,
14,

160
600
000
700

36
TABLE A-3. WORK STOPPAGES IN STATES HAVING 25 OR MORE STOPPAGES BY INDUSTRY GROUP, 1959!-Con»inued
Tennessee
Industry group

Stoppages beginning
in 1959
W o rk e rs
N um ber
involved

Virginia

Texas
M an -d a ys
idle during
1959 (all
stopp ages)

Stoppages beginning
in 1959
W o rk ers
N um ber
involved

M an -d a ys
idle during
1959 (all
stopp ages)

Stoppages beginning
in 1959
W o rk e rs
N um ber
involved

M a n -d a y s
idle during
1959 (all
stoppages)

A ll indu stries _______________________________________

60

1 8 ,7 0 0

4 6 2 ,0 0 0

75

3 0 ,4 0 0

1 ,3 1 0 ,0 0 0

53

1 5 ,0 0 0

1 1 3 ,0 0 0

M a n u fa c tu r in g ________________________________

30

1 2 ,2 0 0

2 6 6 ,0 0 0

31

1 5 ,1 0 0

9 0 0 ,0 0 0

18

3 ,8 6 0

51, 700

P r im a r y m etal indu stries ------------------------------------F a b rica ted m etal pro d u cts, except ordnance,
m ach in ery, and transp ortation eq u ip m en t____
Ordnance and a c c e s s o r ie s ___________ ___________
E le c tr ic a l m ach in ery, equipm ent, and
supplies -------------------------------------------------------------------M ach in ery, except e le c tr ic a l _______ ___________
Tran sp o rtatio n e q u ip m e n t_____
________________
L u m b er and wood products,
except furniture ___________________________________
Fu rniture and fixtu res ______ __ ________________
Stone, clay, and g la ss products __________________
T e xtile m ill products _______________ ____________
A p p arel and other finished products made
fr o m fa b r ic s and s im ila r m a te r ia ls __________
L eather and leath er products _____________________
Food and kindred products _______________________
T o b acco m anu factures ______ ____________________
P aper and allie d products ________________________
P rin tin g, publishing, and a llie d in d u s t r ie s _____
C h e m ica ls and a llie d products ----------------------------P e tr o le u m refining and related in d u stries _____
Rubber and m isce lla n e o u s p lastics p r o d u c ts ___
P r o fe s s io n a l, scie n tific , and con trolling
in stru m en ts; photographic and optical
goods; watches and clock s ______________________
M iscella n eo u s m anufacturing in d u strie s _______

4

2 , 850

3 4 ,4 0 0

7

4 , 650

3 8 1 ,0 0 0

3

860

4 ,2 2 0

3
_

620
_

2 1 ,0 0 0
_

2
_

660
_

4 2 ,6 0 0
_

3
_

520
_

3 3 ,1 0 0
_

1
4
2

190
280
340

4, 370
1 4 ,5 0 0
2 ,0 3 0

1
8
_

30
1 ,1 9 0
-

590
8 9 ,8 0 0
2 6 ,2 6 0

1
-

550
_

550
_

1
_
5
1

60
_
1, 760
750

1, 760
_
9 ,1 8 0
3 ,0 0 0

_
2
2
_

_
130
240
_

_
7 ,2 1 0
2 , 500
_

_
_
2

_
_
_
130

_
_
3
_
1
2
_
2

_
_
1 ,2 7 0
_
20
710
_
3 ,0 9 0

_
4 1 , 700
_
740
3, 720
_
1 2 9 ,0 0 0

1
1
4
_
2
2
-

160
590
1 ,1 4 0
_
300
6 ,0 0 0
-

3 2 ,3 0 0
1, 180
3 8 ,6 0 0
_
6 ,3 3 0
_
2 9 2 ,0 0 0
_

3
1
1
_
_
3
1
_
_

300
130
120
_
_
50
1 ,2 1 0
_
_

1

-

240

480

1

_
20

_
580

_
-

_
-

-

Nonmanufac tur ing ___________________________

31

6, 570

1 9 6 ,0 0 0

45

1 5 ,3 0 0

4 1 1 ,0 0 0

35

1 1 ,2 0 0

6 1 ,8 0 0

A g r ic u ltu r e , fo r e s t r y , and fish e r ie s ----------------M ining _________________________________ _________ __
C on tract con struction _____________________________
W h olesa le and reta il trade _______________________
F in an ce, in su ran ce, and read estate ___________
T ran sp o rtatio n , com m u nication, e le c t r ic ,
g a s , and san itary s e r v ic e s _______ ____________
S e r v ic e s ------------------------------------------------------------------G overn m ent ____ ___________________________________

_
5
19
3
-

„
5 ,0 3 0
1 ,2 7 0
130
-

_
1 7 8 ,0 0 0
3 ,9 9 0
5, 900
-

_
4
24
11
-

470
9 ,0 0 0
350
_

11, 600
3 2 7 ,0 0 0
1 1 ,9 0 0
_

19
10
2
_

5, 150
3 ,3 5 0
30
_

1 4 ,7 0 0
2 5 , 500
250
_

3
1

120
20
“

8 ,5 6 0
80

6
_

5 ,4 3 0
_

6 0 ,4 0 0
_

4
_

2 ,6 4 0
_

2 1 ,4 0 0
_

-

"

"

-

-

"

“

-

Washington
A ll in d u stries ------------------------------------------------------------

_

_

_

West Virginia

_

_
1 ,3 5 0
1 ,8 5 0
1 ,0 4 0
480
_
_
3 ,0 9 0
6 ,0 5 0
_

_

Wisconsin

58

3 3 ,9 0 0

9 1 1 ,0 0 0

104

3 8 ,6 0 0

9 2 4 ,0 0 0

61

2 0 ,9 0 0

6 9 9 ,0 0 0

-----------------------------------------------

21

1 5 ,8 0 0

6 3 5 ,0 0 0

35

1 7 ,3 0 0

4 9 1 ,0 0 0

37

1 6 ,2 0 0

5 8 5 ,0 0 0

P r im a r y m etal indu stries ------------------------------------F a b ricated m etal products, except ordnance,
m ach in ery, and transp ortation e q u ip m e n t ___
Ordnance and a c c e s s o r ie s ________________________
E le c tr ic a l m ach in ery, equipm ent, and
supplies ________ __________________________________
M ach in ery, except e le c tr ic a l ____________________
T r an sp ortation equipm ent ____ __________________
L u m b er and wood products,
excep t furniture ___________________________________
Furniture and fixtu res __________ ________________
Stone, c la y , and gla ss products -------------------------T extile m ill products ------------------ --------------A p p are l and other finished products made
fr o m fa b r ic s and sim ila r m a te r ia ls ---------------L e ath er and leather products -------------------------------Food and kindred products ____________________ __
T obacco m anu factures _ ____ _____ __ _________
P a p er and allie d products ________________________
P rin tin g, publishing, and a llie d indu stries -----C h em icals and a llie d products ___________________
P e tr o le u m refining and related in d u s t r ie s _____
Rubber and m isc e lla n e o u s p la stics p r o d u c ts __
P r o fe s s io n a l, scie n tific , and con trolling
in stru m en ts; photographic and optical
goods; watches and clo c k s ___________ _______
M iscella n eo u s m anufacturing indu stries _______

5

3 ,0 9 0

2 2 1 ,0 0 0

6

5, 530

2 3 0 ,0 0 0

4

630

7, 730

1
-

960
-

59, 500
-

8
-

2 ,8 1 0
_

77, 800
-

6
_

890
_

2 6, 700
_

2
2

1 ,3 0 0
4 , 830

67, 800
2 3 5 ,0 0 0

1
1

_
50
140

2 ,8 1 0
6 ,2 1 0

1
4
2

60
8 ,1 1 0
120

1 0 ,3 0 0
4 1 9 ,0 0 0
5 ,2 9 0

8
2
-

5, 000
480
-

3 9 ,0 0 0
7 ,6 8 0
-

1
10
-

270
5 , 820
_

_
820
1 1 9 ,0 0 0
-

1
3
1
_

160
150
10
_

650
3 ,4 8 0
500
_
_
1 1 ,8 0 0
3 4 ,8 0 0

3 , 150
9 ,2 3 0
_
_
4 1 ,2 0 0

Manufacturing

-

-

-

_
3
_
1
_

_
120
_
30
_

_
3, 530
_
_
660
_

_
1
1
.
_
6
.
_

370
140
1 ,2 8 0
_
_

_
3, 830
1 ,3 8 0
_
3 1 ,0 0 0
.
_

_
1
5
_
2
2
_
3

_
200
1 ,4 9 0
_
540
910
_
_
2 ,7 5 0

-

-

-

1

860

18, 9 0 0

1
1

120
20

1 0 ,1 0 0
320

Nonm anufacturing -----------------------------------------

37

1 8 ,1 0 0

2 7 6 ,0 0 0

70

2 1 ,3 0 0

4 3 2 ,0 0 0

24

4 , 780

1 1 5 ,0 0 0

A g r ic u ltu r e , fo r e s t r y , and fish e r ie s ___________
M ining -------------------------------------------------------------------------C ontract c o n s t r u c t io n ___________ ________________
W h olesale and retail trade _____ ________________
F in an ce, in su ran ce, and real estate ___________
T ran sp ortation , com m u nication, e le c tr ic ,
g a s, and san itary se r v ic e s _____________________
S e r v ic e s ______________________________________________
G overn m ent ______________________ ________________

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

19
5

16, 800
340

2 5 8 ,0 0 0
1 ,9 6 0

49
14
2

1 5 ,0 0 0
5, 920
60

3 1 8 ,0 0 0
8 9, 500
9 ,2 9 0

1
8
9

840'
3 ,0 6 0
480

6 8 ,8 0 0
3 3 ,1 0 0
1 0 ,2 0 0

1
2
than are
w ork e rs

-

_

_

_

_

_

-

_

_

_

-

_

9
2
2

850
110
40

1 6 ,0 0 0
220
180

4
1

340
20

1 4 ,9 0 0
1, 120

6
1
-

310
90

2 ,3 2 0
310

"

-

No w ork stoppages w ere reco rd ed during 1959 for the industry groups for which no data are p resen ted .
Idleness in 1959 resu lting fro m stoppages that began in 1958 .
In som e other c a s e s , the m a n -d a y s of id len ess m ay r e fe r to m ore stoppages
shown for the State and industry group since the m an -d a y figu res r e fe r to all strik e s in e ffe c t, w hereas the num ber of stoppages and
r e fe r s only to stoppages beginning in the y e a r .

N O T E : Stoppages extending into 2 or m ore industry groups have been counted in each industry group affected ; w orkers involved and m an -d a ys
idle w ere allocated among the resp ective grou p s. B ecau se of rounding, sum s of individual item s m ay not equal to ta ls.




37
A ppendix B
*.

The 1959 Steel Strike,

T h ree-y ea r contracts in the b a sic steel industry, negotiated by the United Steel­
w ork ers of A m erica (A F L -C IO ) in 1956 after a 36-day strike, w ere scheduled to expire on
June 30, 1959. The negotiation of new contracts was accom plished after the largest strike,
m easured in term s of size and duration, in the history of the United States.
The strike
d irectly involved 519, 000 w ork ers and resulted in 41. 9 m illion m an-days of idleness, a
volum e of idleness exceeded by the total for all stoppages in only 3 of the past 30 y ears.
Secondary idleness in industries dependent on steel operations is not accounted for in
these figu res.
The purpose of this appendix is not to present an analysis of the strike but rather
to provide a r e co rd of the strik e ls m ore significant developm ents and its industrial and g e o ­
graphical dim ensions.
The fir s t part, a chronology, was drawn principally from newspaper
accounts and the public rep orts issued by the Board of Inquiry appointed by the President.
The second part, consisting of three tables which have not h eretofore been published, was
constructed from the data co llected by the Bureau of Labor Statistics for this annual report.

Part I.

The Strike Chronology

Prenegotiation sparring
January-F ebruary— arch
M
Indications of an impending dispute over new contract term s becam e evident early
in 1959. P relim in ary tactics w ere confined to general statements, tending to show how far
apart industry and union w ere likely to be in their initial contacts.
Company spokesm en
expressed their opposition to "in flation ary" wage boosts. Steel production ro se as consum ers
built up inventories. F oreign com petition, which was to be cited many tim es in the loom ing
dispute, was introduced by p rod u cers as a factor to be considered in negotiations.
P resident Eisenhow er, in a February p ress con feren ce, stated that "I have always
urged that wage in crea ses should be m easured by in crea se of productivity, and I think there
would be no inflationary effect if they w ere m easured by that criterion . "
A pril 1
K aiser Steel Corp. , replacing Pittsburgh Steel Co. , joined the "big tw elve" co m ­
panies who w ere to participate in negotiations scheduled to begin May 18. 12 Individual c o m ­
pany m eetings with represen tatives of the United Steelw orkers of A m erica w ere scheduled
fo r the week of May 18, after which talks would be re ce sse d until June 1.
At that time,
negotiations w ere to be resum ed, to be handled for the industry by representatives from
three of the com panies----United States Steel, Republic Steel, and Bethlehem Steel— instead of
by the 12 m ajor p rod u cers. R epresentatives from the same three top p rod u cers also handled
the 1956 negotiations.
R. Conrad Cooper, of U. S. Steel, was to lead the industry!s bargaining group, which
also included R. Heath Larry, of U. S. Steel, H. C. Lumb, counsel for Republic Steel, and
John H. M orse, counsel fo r Bethlehem Steel.
David J. McDonald was to head the union
negotiators, a ssisted by Howard R. Hague, union v ice president, I. W. Abel, secretary , and
Arthur J. Goldberg, general counsel.

12
United States Steel Corp. , Bethlehem Steel Corp. , Republic Steel Corp. , Jones and
Laughlin Steel Corp. , Youngstown Sheet and Tube Co. , Inland Steel Co. , A rm co Steel Corp. ,
Great Lakes Steel Corp. , K aiser Steel Corp. , C olorado Fuel and Iron Corp. , Wheeling Steel
Corp. , and Allegheny Ludlum Steel Corp.




38
A p ril 10
A 1-year extension of current wages and other benefits was proposed in a letter sent
by the 12 com panies to the union president. It was also prop osed that c o s t-o f-liv in g escalator
clauses contained in current agreem ents be eliminated.
Mr. McDonald prom ptly rejected
the p rop osa ls.
A p ril 13
In a letter to the steel prod u cers, the union head proposed: ( l ) That negotiations
begin May 4 instead of May 18, (2) no p rice in crea ses during the life of any new agreem ent
reached, and (3) that any settlem ent should protect rea l wages and provide in crea ses in wages
and other benefits ju stified by in crea sed output and industry p rofits.
A p ril 15
In reply to Mr. McDonald, industry spokesm en agreed to ea rlier bargaining session s,
but rejected or refused to d iscu ss the other parts of the union proposal.
A p ril 20
Industry and union agreed to start contract talks in New York on May 5.
A pril 30—
May 1
United Steelw ork ers1 wage p o licy com m ittee drew up a M
com preh en siveM bargaining
p rogra m calling for ' ’ substantial" wage in crea ses, c o s t-o f-liv in g adjustments, im proved in­
surance and pensions, in crea sed weekend pay, shorter workweeks, im proved supplemental
unem ploym ent benefits, additional paid holidays and greater vacation benefits, rev ised g rie v ­
ance p roced u res, and im proved con tract term s covering many other issu es.

Negotiations begin
May 5
A s negotiations got underway, industry reiterated its request for a 1-year con ­
tra ct extension which drew a second re jection from Mr. McDonald.
In the cou rse of a p re s s con feren ce, P resident Eisenhower called on both sides for
a display of "good sense, w isdom , and b u sin ess-la b or statesmanship, " adding that the country
could not, in the long run, stand still and do nothing in the absence of such voluntary r e ­
straint. However, he did em phasize his reluctance to have the governm ent take a d ire ct hand
in co lle ctiv e bargaining, and his opposition to legal ceilin gs on profits, p rice s , and wages.
May 6
Industry spokesm en stated that two proposed m oves w ere under consideration should
the union depart fro m its usual p roced u re of striking the entire industry at the expiration of
con tracts. One was a fo rm of mutual assistance, or strike insurance, where p rofits of the
operating con cern s are used to aid those struck. The second step, a voluntary industrywide
shutdown, was provided for by sending contract term ination notices to the union, a legal
form ality under the T aft-H artley Act, which would allow the plants to clo se after June 30
should the union attempt a divid e-an d-con qu er technique.
This m arked the second tim e in
the post T aft-H artley h istory of steel negotiations (the fir s t tim e was in 1956) that company
term ination n otices on an industrywide m ove, had been sent.
May 11
Since negotiations between executives from the 12 steel com panies and union r e p r e ­
sentatives conducted during the previou s week failed to produce any significant developm ents,
4-m an com m ittees fro m industry and labor began a second phase of contract talks.




39
May 27
L eaders of the steel industry, gathered for the 67th annual m eeting of the A m erican
Iron and Steel Institute, d ecla red their opposition to any wage in crea ses. It was d isclosed
that the union was being asked to allow revision s in "lo c a l p ra ctice " c la u s e s 13 to allow
management m o re con trol over em ployee placem ent.
The elim ination of re strictiv e p r a c ­
tices was a lso m entioned.
June 9
Mr. McDonald notified industry negotiators that the union wished to resum e com panyby-com pan y m eetings the follow ing week (16th). Mr. Cooper made clear that while escalation
clau ses would be elim inated under the industry1s proposal, the steelw ork ers would keep the
17-ce n t
c o s t-o f-liv in g allow ances added to wages over the past 3 y ea rs— but only on an
"add on" b a sis rather than as part of the b a sic wage.
Mr. Cooper indicated that the session s w ere stalled on industry demands for r e ­
v ision of lo ca l p ra ctice clau ses. Negotiations had reached a stalem ate over what both groups
term ed the inflexible position of the opposite party.
However, both Mr. McDonald and
Mr. Cooper, in separate p re s s con feren ces, agreed that the union had not put a sp ecific
dolla rs and cents tag on its demands.

13
The s o -c a lle d section 2-B clauses in the U. S. Steel agreem ent, also found in other,
but not all, m a jor steel agreem ents, and which figured prom inently in later d iscu ssion s
of "lo c a l p r a c tic e s " read as follow s:
L ocal Working Conditions.
The term "lo c a l working conditions" as used herein
means sp e cific p ra ctice s or custom s which re fle ct detailed application of the subject m atter
within the scope of wages, hours of work, or other conditions of em ploym ent and included
loca l agreem ents, written or oral, on such m atters. It is recogn ized that it is im practicable
to set forth in this agreem ent all of these working conditions, which are of a lo ca l nature
only, or to state sp e cifica lly in this agreem ent which of these m atters should be changed or
elim inated. The follow ing p rov ision s provide general p rin cip les and proced u res which explain
the status of these m atters and furnish n ecessa ry guideposts for the parties hereto and the
Board /o f A rb itra tion /.
1. It is recogn ized that an em ployee does not have the right to have a lo ca l working
condition established, in any given situation or plant where such condition has not ex ­
isted, during the term of this agreem ent or to have an existing loca l working condition
changed or elim inated, except to the extent n ecessa ry to require the application of a
sp ecific p rov ision of this agreem ent.
2. In no ca se shall lo ca l working conditions be effective to deprive any em ployee
of rights under this agreem ent. Should any em ployee believe that a lo ca l working con ­
dition is depriving him of the benefits of this agreem ent, he shall have re co u rse to the
grievance p roced u re and arbitration, if n ecessa ry , to require that the lo ca l working
condition be changed or elim inated to provide the benefits established by this agreem ent.
3. Should there be any lo ca l working conditions in effect which provide benefits that
are in e x cess of or in addition to the benefits established by this agreem ent, they shall
rem ain in effect for the term of this agreem ent, except as they are changed or e lim i­
nated by mutual agreem ent or in accordan ce with paragraph 4 below.
4. The company shall have the right to change or eliminate any loca l working con ­
dition if, as the resu lt of action taken by management under Section 3— Management, the
b a sis fo r the existence of the lo ca l working condition is changed or eliminated, thereby
making it u nnecessary to continue such lo ca l working condition; provided, how ever, that
when such a change or elim ination is made by the company any affected em ployee shall
have re co u rse to the grievance p roced ure and arbitration, if n ecessa ry to have the
company ju stify its action.
5. No lo ca l working condition shall hereafter be established or agreed to which
changes or m odifies any of the p rovision s of this agreem ent. In the event such a lo ca l
working condition is established or agreed to, it shall not be enforceable to the extent
that it is inconsistent with or goes beyond the p rovision s of this agreem ent, except as
it is approved by an international o ffice r of the union and the industrial relations execu ­
tive of the company.




40

June 10
A shift in the in dustry's position was indicated in a letter from Mr. Cooper to the
union president containing an eight-point program for broad contract changes which dealt with
lo ca l working conditions; p rov ision s against "w ild cat" strikes, slowdowns, and picketing;
m anagem ent's right to develop incentives and standards; cla rifica tion of com panies' right to
change work schedules; vacation requirem ents; elim ination of overlapping or duplication of
benefits; sim plification of proced u res fo r establishing seniority units; and cla rifica tion of con ­
tract language.
The com panies stated that agreem ent by the union on language changes r e ­
lating to this eight-point program was a prerequ isite to agreem ent by them or a package
com posed of a "m od est" wage in crea se and certain fringe benefit im provem ents.
A lso, the
com panies stated that they would continue to be represented by the fou r-m an team.
The
union re jected the prop osa ls.
June 11
Negotiations reached a deadlock over the question of the form of negotiations, that
is, whether bargaining should be conducted on an industrywide (fou r-m an com m ittee) or on
a com pan y-by-com pan y b a sis (which the union demanded) or a com bination of both. M r. M c­
Donald served notice that the full 435-m em ber union negotiating com m ittee would be on
hand June 16.

June 19
A fter 2 days of m eetings between larger com pany-union com m ittees, industry and
union to p -le v e l team s resum ed talks with the p roced ural dispute apparently settled.

June 22
Industry negotiators maintained that the union had yet to com e up with a reasonable
basis fo r a new contract. This was in response to an undisclosed union prop osa l offered on
June 19 as a substitute fo r its origin al list of 250 individual item s (subm itted during the
early stages of negotiations) on which it wished to bargain. Industry stated, in resp on se to
inform al suggestions for a r ise in pensions and w elfare benefits, that such adjustments would
be just as inflationary as higher w ages.
Mr. Cooper m et in Washington with Joseph F.
Finnegan, d ire cto r of the F ederal Mediation and Conciliation Service.
Mr. McDonald had
m et with Mr. Finnegan during the previous week.

June 24r-25
Indefinite extension of con tracts beyond the expiration date, cancelable on 10 d a y s1
notice, was prop osed by the industry.
The union's counterproposal offered contract ex ­
tension until July 15.
In addition, the union wage p olicy com m ittee, while sanctioning the
15-day extension, stipulated that any settlem ent negotiated should be retroactive to July 1.
This retroactivity, the com panies replied, was unacceptable.

June 27
P residen t Eisenhow er, in a letter to Mr. McDonald, urged both sides to "bargain
without interruption of production until all term s and conditions of a new contract are agreed
upon. " This was in reply to a letter sent to the White House on June 25 by Mr. McDonald,
requesting the establishm ent of a factfinding board to e x e rcise issu es such as wages, profits,and productivity in the steel industry.
The P resident rejected the suggestion, asserting
that Congress had sp e cifica lly lim ited the use of P residential boards of inquiry to na­
tional em ergen cies.




41
Contracts extended until July 15
June 28
Agreem ent was reached on extending contracts for 2 weeks,
ment on retroactivity.

without any com m it­

July_L
Meeting with V ice P residen t Richard M. Nixon in Pittsburgh, Mr. McDonald inform ed
him that the union would not agree to another strike delay. On the following day, the s te e l­
w ork ers rejected a renewed plea by President Eisenhower for an indefinite extension of
the 2-w eek truce.
Mr. McDonald said he was sure the President "does not intend that
we negotiate fo re v e r. " Industry*s negotiators seconded the P r e s id e n ts plea for an in­
definite extension.
July 10
Leaders on both sides exchanged ideas on revised contract clauses governing working
rules and changes in operating p ra ctice s. In a p ress release^the industry indicated its w ill­
ingness to negotiate a 2 -yea r contract with an in crea se in insurance and pension benefits
during the fir s t year and a m odest wage raise during the second year, if the union would
accept contractual changes prop osed by the industry (see June 10).
July 12
Talks broke down over company "lo ca l p ra ctice " demands and p rop osals to tighten
provision s against w ildcat strikes.
The union agreed to continue discussing wage issu es
while referrin g the other points to a joint com m ittee for study during the term of a new
contract. Industry offered either a straight 1-year extension of current contracts or an indefi­
nite extension, cancelable on 5 day*s notice, while talks continued.
The union rejected both.
July 13
A plea fro m P residen t Eisenhower for a revival of talks again brought both sides
together in an attempt to break the stalem ate.
M ills m ade preparations for shutting down
to protect furnaces and equipment for the second time in 2 weeks.
July 14
P resident Eisenhower recom m ended that management and labor representatives call
on F ederal m ediators fo r assistan ce in reaching agreem ent. A last minute exchange of letters
between the parties failed to break the im passe, although the union proposed a con cession
by changing contract language of "lo c a l working p ra ctice cla u ses" in all steel contracts to
read: "The provision s of this section are not intended to prevent the company from con ­
tinuing to make p ro g re ss. " This p rov ision was in the 1956 Bethlehem Steel Corp. contract.
However, industry turned down the offer.
The strike begins
July 15
The steel strike began at 12:01 a. m. , July 15.
Joseph Finnegan, D irector pf the
F ederal Mediation and Conciliation Service, with a staff of three, consisting of R obert H.
M oore, deputy d ire cto r; Walter A. M aggiolo, d irector of Mediation Activity; and R obert W.
Donnahoo, regional d ire cto r, R egion Two, a rrived in New York for con feren ces with each
side.
Following 3 hours of separate talks with industry and union leaders, Mr. Finnegan
reported that the strike was not susceptible to easy or early solution.
E arlier, the union
called fo r the appointment of a th ree-m an factfinding aboard— one from industry, one from
la b or, and a neutral m em ber selected by Supreme Court Chief Justice Earl W arren. The p r o ­
du cers rejected the proposal, assertin g that both sides already knew the facts.
Mr. M c­
Donald urged the top executives of the big steel com panies to participate d irectly in n e­
gotiations; this was re jected by p rod u cers on the ground that the negotiating team had
am ple authority.




42
In his news con feren ce, President Eisenhower said the conditions w ere not yet
presen t to ju stify seeking a T aft-H artley injunction to keep the w ork ers on the job.
He also
re jected the need fo r a factfinding board, and reaffirm ed his b e lie f that co llectiv e bargaining
should continue without governm ent intervention, but aided by the Mediation and C oncilia­
tion se rv ice .
July 20
F ederal m ediators continued their separate talks with the parties.
Mr. Finnegan
rea sserted his previous con clu sion that there would be no easy or early solution to the
stoppage.
Since the 14th there had been no fa c e -to -fa c e session s between industry and
union represen tatives.
July 21
S ecretary of Labor Jam es P. M itchell announced that he was form a lly taking on the
function of governm ent factfinder and would rep ort to the P resident p eriod ica lly .
A s s is t­
ance would be sought from Secretary of C om m erce F red erick H. M ueller; Chairman of the
P r e s id e n ts Council of E conom ic A dvisors Raymond J. Saulnier, and other appropriate
officia ls of the F ederal governm ent.
Both of industry and labor assured the S ecretary
of their cooperation.
July 27
The M ediation S ervice called the fir s t joint m eeting with the parties in New York
City, the fir s t to take place since the strike began.
There was no change in position on
the part of the parties.
July 28
United States Steel reported that its net p rofits in the fir s t half of the year had
set a re co rd .
Mr. McDonald term ed these earnings and those of other m ajor com panies
•'astronomical. "
August 1
Secretary M itchell critic iz e d labor and management for not making a serious effort
to settle the strike and appealed to both sides to hold daily talks.
August 3
A fter separate m eetings with the parties on July 28, 29, 30 and 31, the M ediators
called a joint m eeting in New York City with the full bargaining teams from both sides
present.
It was agreed that technicians be brought in from both sides to work with the
com m ittee and that a general review of the contract clauses in disagreem ent be made.
Follow ing the joint m eetings, an exchange of charges was made, each side blam ing
the other fo r the prolongation of the strike. The eruption indicated that attitudes had hardened
since the strike began and that the parties viewed the governm ent's role in the dispute quite
differently. Several tim es the union had asked for governm ent factfinding. Industry leaders
insisted that the governm ent should stay out of the strike, contending that governm ental in ter­
fere n ce in the past had always resulted in "inflationary** settlem ents.
August 12
In a news con feren ce, the President held to his position of keeping F ederal in ter­
fere n ce to a minimum. The union again called fo r the appointment of a sp ecial factfinding
board to recom m end settlem ent term s.
August 17
Talks proceed ed without Mr. McDonald, who had indicated he would not attend the
talks until industry replaced the fou r-m a n negotiating team with top ranking officia ls. Further
joint session s w ere scheduled to con sider m inor contract changes.




43
August 19
Secretary M itchell relea sed the D epartm ents presentation of background facts on
som e of the econ om ic questions related to the steel strike— wages, productivity, p rice s , and
p rofits. 14 No conclusions w ere drawn. Each side hailed the rep ort as supporting its position.
August 26
3 w eeks.

M r. McDonald returned to the bargaining session s
No headway toward a settlem ent was reported.

after an absence of alm ost

August 29
A survey of 31 industrial areas conducted by the Department of Labor found that,
by August 15, there had been 71, 000 "secon d a ry " layoffs as a result of the strike.
This
was interpreted to mean that, after 1 month, the strike had relatively little im pact on the
31 steel producing and consum ing areas studied.
September 2
Steelw orkers re ce iv e d "a fir s t down paym ent" of $1 m illion in aid from other unions
(later repaid). Plans w ere made fo r raising additional funds at the biennial A F L -C IO con ­
vention beginning on September 17.
September 6
Secretary M itchell announced that if shortages appeared and further unemployment
resulted and the strike took on the aspects of an em ergency affecting the national health and
safety, he would recom m end that the P resident con sider invocation of the em ergency p r o ­
vision s of the T aft-H artley Act.
Septemb e r 17—
18
The A F L -C IO convention, m eeting in San F ra n cisco, devoted considerable attention
to the steel strike. A resolution called upon P resident Eisenhower to convene a White House
m eeting of resp on sible union and industry representatives. If this failed to produce a settle­
ment, the resolution then urged the appointment of a public factfinding board to make r e c o m ­
mendations.
The F ed era tion ^ General Board recom m ended the establishm ent of a Steel­
w ork ers Defense Fund. Secretary M itchell, addressing the convention, restated his position
on Government intervention and on the invocation of Taft-H artley p roced u res should national
health and safety be affected.
September 25
The steelw ork ers ended 3 weeks of negotiations with Mr. McDonald declaring, "W e
are going hom e.
This fa r c ic a l filibu ster that has gone on since May 5 has ended. " He
indicated that the talks should be m oved from New York City to another location, either
Washington or Pittsburgh.
September 30
Representatives of industry and labor m et separately with the President.
At the
conclusion of the talks, the P residen t said he hoped that an agreem ent would be reached
b efore he returned fro m a scheduled trip to California on October 8.
Following this,
Mr. McDonald m et with R oger M. Blough, Chairman of the Board, United States Steel Corp. ,
and four other industry leaders. A joint communique issued at the end of the session said
that talks would be resum ed the follow ing day in Pittsburgh.

14

Labor,

Background Statistics
August 1959.




Bearing on the Steel Disputes,

United States Department of

44
October 4
The ste e lw o rk e rs1 executive board rejected industry1s fir s t econom ic offer 15 in the
82-day old dispute, subject to action by the union1s wage p olicy com m ittee.
Included in the
com pan ies1 offer w ere im provem ents in the pension, insurance, and supplemental unem ­
ploym ent benefit program s in the fir s t year of a 2 -year agreem ent, and in creased wage
rates at the beginning of the second year, the in crea ses ranging from 6 cents for the low est
job cla ss to 12 cents for the highest.
Over the 2-y ear period , the total package would in ­
cre a se "em ploym ent c o s ts " by 15 cents per m an-hour worked, or about 2 percent a year,
accordin g to company estim ates. As a part of this offer, amendments to the ba sic labor a g re e ­
ments with the follow ing stated ob jectives w ere sought: (1) Continue payment of the 17-c e n t'
per-hour c o s t-o f-liv in g allow ance in effect at the expiration of the previous agreem ents, but
elim inate provision s fo r future esca la tor changes in either direction; (2) enable management
to take reasonable steps to elim inate waste and im prove efficien cy, but protect the rights of
em ployees to r e s o r t to grievan ce and arbitration p roced ure; (3) perm it flexibility in scheduling
of work; and (4) deter w ildcat strikes by perm itting the discharge of any em ployee engaging
in such action.
The steelw ork ers re jected the proposal, replying that it would reduce w o rk e rs 1
take home pay during the fir s t year because of an in crea se in insurance costs, and evaluated
the worth of the 2 -yea r package at le ss than the companies* figure. Furtherm ore, the con ­
ditions regarding contract changes attached to the offer w ere unacceptable to the union.
O ctober 6
Top industry executives and union officia ls con ferred in an effort to break the
deadlock but the talks broke off in a fresh stalem ate.
No further talks w ere scheduled.
Company officia ls stood firm ly behind their offer, which the union continued to re je c t as
"totally inadequate. "
O ctober 7
Mr. McDonald stated that the union would fight a T aft-H artley injunction in the
courts but pledged that, failing to upset the injunction, the union would "obey the law of
the land. " He again called fo r a public factfinding board to sift the strike issu es and
recom m end a settlem ent.
O ctober 8
S ecretary M itchell m et with union leaders to ascertain the bargaining situation, after
which he was expected to rep ort to P resident Eisenhower whether there was any hope for
a voluntary a cco rd .

T aft-H artley A ct p rov ision s invoked; board of inquiry established
O ctober 9
Follow ing a statement w herein he concluded that the strike, if perm itted to con ­
tinue, would im p eril the national health and safety, P resident Eisenhower issued an E xecu­
tive order 16 creating a board of inquiry consisting of George W. Taylor of Pennsylvania,
Chairman, John Perkins of Delaware, and Paul N. Lehoczky of Ohio.
The board was to
rep ort to the P resident, in a ccord a n ce with Section 206 of the Taft-H artley Act, on or b e ­
fo re O ctober 16, 1959.

15 Contract p rop osa ls w ere handed to the union on O ctober 1 and w ere restated and
cla rifie d on O ctober 3.
16 Executive O rder 10843.




45

October 12
After meeting on O ctober 11 separately with industry and union officia ls in " e x ­
p lo ra to ry " talks aim ed at defining and narrowing disputed issu es, the board of inquiry began
its public hearings.
Arthur Goldberg told the board that the union1s objective was a "pack age’1 im p rov e­
ment worth 15 cents an hour, in a l-, 2-, or 3-y ea r contract.
October 13
Dr. Taylor declared that the b o a rd 's m ediatory efforts w ere being impeded by d if­
ficulty in defining the issu es, and that he might ask for an extension of the deadline for
the b o a rd 's report.
O ctober 14
P resident Eisenhower, by Executive Order 10848, extended the date for subm ission
of the b o a rd 's report to O ctober 19.
The board had requested an extension of tim e and
Secretary M itchell obtained the P resid en t's assent.
O ctober 15
A sizable cut in its m oney demands in a 2-year contract was proposed by the ste e l­
w ork ers.
This served as a prelude to the resum ption of negotiations scheduled for the
follow ing day.
Included in the "package" offer w ere first year im provem ents confined to in su r­
ance, pensions, and supplemental unemployment benefits valued by the union at about 10 cents
an hour over a 2 -y e a r p e rio d . In the second y ea r, wages would be raised about IOV2 cents
an hour, of which 7 cents would be a general rate in cre a se .
A m aximum c o s t-o f-liv in g
adjustment of 3 cents an hour in the second year was also p rop osed .
It was made known
later that the union prop osed that each steel company provide for the appointment of a
n in e-m em ber com m ittee— three from industry, three from labor, and three experts of high
standing— to recom m end for consideration a long-range form ula for equitable sharing between
the stockh olders, the em ployees, and the public, of the fruits of the com pany's p r o g r e s s .
O ctober 17
Mr. Cooper offered a counterproposal which called for a 3-y ea r contract with im ­
proved benefits the fir s t year, follow ed by wage in crea ses during the next 2 y ears and other
contract im provem ents.
The com panies suggested the establishm ent of a Human Relations
R esearch Com m ittee to plan and ov e rsee studies and recom m end solutions in such areas
as: Guides fo r the determ ination of wages and benefits; employment problem s; job c la s s i­
fication; wage incentives; and seniority.
October 18
Mr. Cooper prop osed that the issue of rev ision of work rules be resolv ed by sub­
mitting to a th ree-m an arbitration board (one company, one union, and one selected by the
two) the follow ing question: "What, if any, changes should be made in the lo ca l working
conditions p rovision s to enable the com panies to take reasonable steps to im prove efficien cy
and elim inate waste with due regard fo r the w elfare of the e m p lo y e e s ? " The union rejected
the m odifications as "rid icu lo u s" and "phony. "
Edgar K aiser, * chairm an of the board of K aiser
■
separate talks with the union.




Steel Corp. , agreed to halt his

46
O ctober 19
In submitting its report to the P resident, the board stated that "the parties have
failed to reach an agreem ent and we see no prospects for an early cessation of the strike.
The board cannot point to a single issue of any consequence whatsoever upon which the parties
are in a g re e m e n t." Although there w ere many issu es in the dispute, the m ajor roadblocks
w ere in the broad areas of "e c o n o m ic s " and "w ork r u l e s ." 1
7 Upon receiving the report, the
President instructed the Attorney General to seek an injunction, as provided for in the TaftHartley A ct.

Legal battle over injunction begins
O ctober 20
The U.So Department of Justice petitioned the Federal D istrict Court in Pittsburgh
for an 8 0 -day injunction under the T aft-H artley A ct, 1 emphasizing the im portance of the
8
industry, levels of steel supplies, defense needs, and unemployment. The governm ent a s ­
serted that, unless the strike was enjoined, the country would suffer im m ediate and irre p a ­
rable injury. The court was asked to find that the strike, if continued, would "im p eril the
national health and s a fe ty ."
M r. G oldberg, union counsel, contested the petition, maintaining that the strike did
not im peril the cou n try!s health or safety in a strict and literal sen se.
The language and
legisla tive h istory of the statute, , he maintained, make clear that the national em ergency
provision s would apply to this strike only if, in som e way, it directly and im m ediately
threatened the physical health or safety of the Nation. M r. Goldberg said the union intended
to show that the strike posed no such threat, in that sufficient quantities of steel w ere being
produced by com panies not on strik e.
It was further stated that the injunction provision s
w ere unconstitutional, as they con ferred on the courts duties which are not judicial and are
not connected with any case or con trov ersy .
O ctober 21
F ederal D istrict Judge H erbert P . Sorg in Pittsburgh ordered the injunction against
the steelw ork ers, upholding the govern m ent^ contention that the prolongation of the dispute
would im peril the national health and safety, causing irrep arable damage to the country.
The court made no decision regarding retroactivity of any subsequent agreem ent.
A lso
left unsettled was the applicability of any co s t-o f-liv in g adjustment required under the term s
of the expired contracts during the injunction p eriod .
M r. Goldberg requested the Judge
to defer his order long enough to perm it an appeal to Judge Austin L . Staley of the U .S .
Court of Appeals fo r the Third C ircu it, which was granted. Judge Staley extended the stay
unti> JO a .m . the follow ing day in o rd e r to p reserv e the status quo until a full court could
pass on Mr* Goldberg*s appeal*
O ctober ZZ
Follow ing a hearing* the tJ*S\ Third C ircuit Court of Appeals put off until the fo l­
lowing week a d ecision on the ste e lw o rk e rs1 appeal, at the same time granting a further stay
of the injunction pending a d ecision on the appeal.

17
Report to the P residen t, The 1959 Labor Dispute in the Steel Industry, submitted
by the Hoard of Inquiry under Executive Orders 10843 and 10S48* Oct* 19* 1959%
** Title II, Section 208. The government and union agreed to proceed directly to the
injunction question which, if granted, would he final for the entire 8 0 -day period, with an
immediate full hearing for the union* Customarily* the government asks for a temporary
restraining order (limited to 10 days) in which only i|$ arguments need be heard%




47
O ctober 26
K aiser Steel C orp. and the union agreed on a new 20-m onth contract providing
package in crea ses evaluated by the com pany at 22Va cents an hour over the 20-m onth p eriod ,
including a p ossib le 3-cen t c o s t-o f-liv in g adjustment,. Work rules issues w ere re fe rre d to
a labor-m anagem ent com m ittee with authority to resolv e problem s by mutual agreem ent. A lso
set up was a tripartite com m ittee to develop a long-range plan for an "equitable sharing
of econ om ic p r o g r e s s ." 19
O ctober 27
By a 2 to 1 vote, the Court of Appeals upheld the petition for an injunction but ordered
that the issuance of the injunction be delayed until at least N ovem ber 2 to perm it the ste e l­
w ork ers to ask for a review by the Supreme Court.
The union counsel announced that he
would not file a petition for c e rtio ra ri— a form al device to obtain review— until N ovem ber 2.
O ctober 28
The Justice Department petitioned the Supreme Court to expedite consideration of the
u n io n s petition, with a proposed filing deadline by noon, October 29.
Should the Court de­
cide to review the Third C ir c u it s decision on Friday, October 30, a hearing could be set
for Monday, N ovem ber 2.
Later in the day, the Supreme Court denied the governm ent
m otion, thus upholding the Third C ircuit Court of A p p eals1 ruling giving the steelw ork ers
until Novem ber 2 to seek a Supreme Court review .
M r. Finnegan sent both parties a telegram inform ing them that if they had not
reached an agreem ent by midnight Sunday, N ovem ber 1, they would be expected to attend a
session with m ediators in Washington on Monday, Novem ber 2.
M r. M cDonald indicated that the union regarded the K aiser agreem entas providing the
groundwork for contracts to be agreed upon by other com panies. Industry leaders declared
the pact would fo rce an inflationary rise in steel p rice s and fail to elim inate wasteful
work p ra c tic e s.
O ctober 30
Following the filing of the union*s petition for ce rtio ra ri and the governm ent^ r e ­
sponse asking the Court to deny review , the United States Supreme Court granted the ste e l­
w ork ers request and assigned oral arguments for Tuesday, N ovem ber 3.
Novem ber 1
Secondary layoffs caused by steel shortages jum ped sharply during the last half of
O ctober, the Department of Labor rep orted .
M ore than 132,000 w ork ers w ere indirectly
involved in 31 m ajor steel producing and consuming a rea s.
Injunction granted; strike ends
N ovem ber 7
By an 8 to 1 m a jority , the Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the TaftHartley em ergency procedure (S ec. 208) and its applicability to the steel strik e. The Court
did not resolv e the dispute over the meaning of the term "national health, " but supported its
judgment on the ground that the strike im periled the national safety. Justice Douglas, d is ­
senting, did not deal with the constitutional questions but disputed the concepts of health and
safety and em phasized the traditional flexibility of equity courts in relation to the particular
situation found in the steel strike concerning national safety. He further stated that he would
rem and the ca se to the D istrict Court for "p a rticu larized findings" as to how the strike im ­
p erils the "national health" and what plants need be reopened to produce the steel needed for
"national safety. "
T elegram s w ere dispatched im m ediately by the union directing its m em bers to " r e ­
sume w ork forth w ith ." Steps w ere taken to get the m ills producing as quickly as p o ssib le .
19

See Monthly Labor R eview , D ecem ber 1959, pp. 1345 and 1378.




48
N ovem ber 8
S ecretary M itchell said P resident Eisenhower would recom m end to Congress ways to
prevent resum ption of the strike if no agreem ent was reached during the injunction p eriod .
N ovem ber 10
P residen t Eisenhower reconvened the steel board of inquiry, headed by D r. T aylor,
which was to report to the P residen t on the efforts toward settlem ent, and on the e m p lo y e rs1
last offer if a settlem ent was not reached at the end of a 60-day p eriod . 20
N ovem ber 12
The steelw orkers* wage p o licy com m ittee voted unanimously to renew the 116-day
strike if agreem ent was not reached b e fore the injunction expired on January 26.
The p r o ­
du cers w ere again urged to follow the K aiser contract as a pattern.
N ovem ber 15
It was announced by the steel industry that a new offer on a 3-y ea r agreem ent had
been made to the union.
The union re jected it as being substantially the same as the one
previou sly o ffered .
N ovem ber 28
Little chance of reaching a settlem ent b efore the expiration of the injunction period
was held out by the union in a letter from M r, Goldberg to S ecretary of C om m erce M ueller.
M r. G oldberg advised the Department to arrange for steel r e s e rv e s that might be required
fo r governm ent con tra cts. O therw ise, the letter stated, the governm ent might have to con ­
tend with the same problem s it faced during the strik e.
D ecem ber 1
The steel industry indicated that the proposal made 2 weeks b efore was its "last
o ffe r " ; that is , should an election be conducted the following month, this would be the offer
em ployees must either accept or re je ct by secret ballot to be conducted by the governm ent. 2
1
D ecem ber 3
P residen t E isenhow er, in a plea addressed to both p a rties, urged arou n d -th e-clock
negotiations.
M r. M cDonald had e a rlie r suggested to the P resident that the board of inquiry
make recom m en dation s.
A fter the P resid en t’ s speech, M r. McDonald again offered his
original suggestion for recom m endations and another calling for a meeting directly with top
steel execu tives.
D ecem ber 8
S ecreta ry M itchell suggested three p ossible ways of settling the dispute: (1) The
parties could agree to ask a board to make recom m endations; (2) they could ask M r. Finnegan
to make a recom m endation; or (3) they could seek voluntary arbitration.
D ecem ber 9
The industry re jected Secretary M itchell*s suggestions for breaking the deadlock in
bargaining by declaring that third party intervention would result in recom m endations that
the union had refu sed to accept or in a m ore costly settlement "which would clea rly be
inflationary. n

20

21

T aft-H artley A ct, Section 209(b).
Ibid.




49
D ecem ber 10
M r. Finnegan suspended negotiations indefinitely, noting both the lack of p ro g re ss
made and that the union was about to devote its attention to aluminum negotiations
Mean­
w hile, the union made three demands upon steel com panies: (l) A return to com pan y-by­
company bargaining; (2) an agreem ent making any new settlem ent retroactive to cov er the
injunction period; and (3) an acknowledgement now that a c o s t-o f-liv in g adjustment would be
due January 1 under term s of the existing agreem ents and an agreem ent to put these adjust­
ments into effect b efore C hristm as.
The union contended that, under the injunction o rd er,
the em ployees w ere working "under all term s and conditions in effect on June 30, 1959, "
and this, to the union, "plainly encom passes the January c o s t-o f-liv in g prov ision which r e ­
qu ires a change to be made each January 1 and each July 1, without referen ce to year . . . "
M r. C ooper, in reply, noted the previou sly stated industry opposition to retroactivity and
the Court*s reservation s on the questions of c o s t-o f-liv in g and retroactivity .
D ecem ber 17
M r. McDonald put forth p rop osals that w ere to be presented to the board of inquiry
on the 28th. He stated that the new demands would be "slightly higher*' in cost to the indus­
try than the K aiser agreem ent.
D ecem ber 22
The 11 m ajor steel com panies agreed, with reserv a tion s, to union demands for
com pan y-by-com pan y se ssio n s. Talks between the four-m an team s as scheduled by Federal
m ediators w ere to be ca rrie d on sim ultaneously.
Since July 15 the Federal m ediators had conducted 47 joint m eetings with the parties
and som e 30 fu ll-s ca le separate talks with the p arties.
D ecem ber 23
Stuart Rothman, General Counsel of the National Labor Relations Board, estim ated
that 600,000 w ork ers would be eligible to vote on m anagem ent's "la st o ffe r , " set for January 11
to 13. The steelw orkers* counsel said he would ask D istrict Judge Sorg to hear the ste e l­
w orkers* plea to ord er the steel com panies to pay w ork ers a 4 - cent c o s t-o f-liv in g in crea se
(under term s o f previous agreem ents) starting in January, and to make any new contract
agreem ent retroactive to N ovem ber 2.
On the following day, the steelw orkers filed their
petition and a hearing b e fo re Judge Sorg was scheduled for January 4.
D ecem ber 28
The board of inquiry reconvened to ca rry out its resp on sibilities under the act which
include a report to the P residen t on the current positions of the p a rties, the efforts which had
been made for settlem ent, and the em ployers* last o ffe r s .
Following 2 days of public h ea r­
in gs, D r. T aylor stated that the d ifferen ces between the union and industry w ere wider than
ev e r.
The board set about to devote its remaining tim e toward com pletion of its report,
due January 6.
January 1,

i960

S ecretary of Labor M itchell met separately with industry and union spokesm en.
V ice P residen t Nixon and S ecretary M itchell, it was reported, had been conducting a se rie s
of se cre t con feren ces aim ed at reaching a voluntary settlem ent b efore the NLRB balloting
on January 11—
13.

Agreem ent reached
January 4
A greem ent between the 11 com panies and the union was reached following all-d ay
and all-night bargaining se s sio n s. .




50
January 5
M em oranda of agreem ent w ere signed between the m ajor steel prod u cers and union
represen tatives following approval by the union wage p olicy com m ittee. T erm s of the a g re e ­
ments included: A wage in cre a se , d eferred until D ecem ber 1, I960, to average 9 .4 cents
an hour including estim ated effect on incentive pay (average 8 .3 cents in hourly rates—
7 cents general in crea se plus 0 .2 cent in crea se in increm ents between 31 job cla s s e s , with
top job cla ss receivin g 13 cents); effective O ctober 1, 1961, additional average 8.6 cents
including estim ated effect on incentive pay (average 7 .6 cents in crea se in hourly rates—
7 cents general in crea se plus 0.1 cent in crea se in increm ents between job cla s s e s , with top
cla ss receivin g 10 cents); escalator clause rev ised to retain current 17 cents c o s t-o f-liv in g
allow ance, provide two c o s t-o f-liv in g review s and lim it maximum additional adjustment to
6 cents effective O ctober 1, 1961, of which maximum 3 cents co s t-o f-liv in g adjustment e f­
fective D ecem ber 1, I960, to be reduced by 0.1 cent for each full 18 cents in crea se in in­
surance cost over base average monthly net insurance cost of $20.16 per em ployee.
A lso , minim um $ 2 .5 0 a month pension for each year*s se rv ice p rior to January 1,
I960, and $ 2 .6 0 a month for each year thereafter for a maximum of 35 years (was $ 2 .4 0 a
month for se rv ice p rio r to N ovem ber 1, 1957, and $ 2 .5 0 a month thereafter for maximum of
30 y ea rs) or additional $ 5 .0 0 a month for future retirees when applying alternate 1 percent
form ula in computing pension benefits; 13 weeks* vacation pay (less vacation pay during year)
in lump sum on retirem ent with regular pension beginning fourth month; early retirem ent
(by mutual agreem ent) at full benefit at age 60 after 15 years* se rv ice (was at reduced ben e­
fits), or at age 55 after 20 years* se rv ice if term inated by reason of permanent shutdown,
la yoff, or sickness resulting in break in se rv ice provided em ployee has attained age 53 and
18 years* se rv ice on date he cea ses w ork; $100 a month future m inimum disability benefit
(was $90); com panies also in crea sed existing pensions by $5 a months
A lso, com panies to assum e full cost of insurance program (was 50-50 contribution)
and program im provem ent to provide:
$ 4 ,0 0 0 to $ 6 ,500 life insurance (was $ 3 ,5 0 0 to
$6 ,0 0 0 at m ost com panies), life insurance retained during first 2 years of la yoff with em ­
ployee paying 60 cents per $ 1 ,0 0 0 after first 6 months; $53 to $68 w eekly sick and a c ­
cident benefit (was $42 to $57 at m ost com panies), and 6-m onth retention of hospital, su r­
g ic a l, and related covera ges for la id -o ff em ployees with 2 years* se rv ice ; higher existing
benefits continued for em ployees already on payroll at Allegheny Ludlum, A rm co, Inland,
and W heeling, and existing hospital and surgical program at Inland continued for ail em ­
p loy ees; previous supplemental unemployment benefits plan extended with com panies paying
3 cents cash and 2 cents contingent liability (the contingent liability which had been canceled
in a ccord a n ce with p rio r agreem ent was restored ).
A lso , agency shop was provided where State laws banned the union shop.
A joint Human Relations R esearch Com m ittee was established to study and r e c o m ­
mend solutions of mutual problem s relating to equitable wage and benefit adjustm ents, job
cla ssifica tio n , incentive pay, protection of lo n g -s e rv ic e em ployees against la y offs, m edical
ca r e , and other p ro b le m s.
Questions of lo ca l working conditions w ere to be re fe rre d to
a joint study com m ittee headed by a neutral chairm an, which was to report by N ovem ­
b er 30, I960.
January 7
The board of inquiry form a lly ended its duties with subm ission of its final report
to the P residen t.
The report d escrib ed both parties* positions just b e fore settlem ent and
the "last o ffe r s " of the p rod u cers at that tim e. **
January 8
Allegheny Ludlum was the first of the 11 m ajor prod u cers to sign a form al con ­
tract with the steelw ork ers union. Inland, Bethlehem , Jones and Laughlin, Youngstown Sheet
and Tube, C olorado Fuel and Iron, and United States Steel a lso signed.
Others w ere ex­
pected to follow .

22 Final report to the P residen t, The 1959 Labor Dispute in the Steel Industry, Sub­
m itted by the Board of Inquiry under Executive O rder 10843, January 6, I960.




51
January 20
Polling of som e 14,000 steelw orkers was conducted by the NLRB on the final con ­
tract o ffe rs of 7 steel com panies which had not as yet signed the ba sic industry agreem ent.
E a rlie r, a group of 31 iron ore mining concerns settled their differen ces with the union.
A pproxim ately 11,000 other steelw orkers faced the p ossibility of resum ing the strike when
the injunction expired. They did not vote because the com panies had withdrawn their "last
o f f e r ," according to the union, thus leaving no basis for balloting. The steelw ork ers asked
the U .S . D istrict Court to dissolve the injunction and to order payment of a 4 - cent co stof-liv in g in crea se retroactive to January 1. A lso, the union sought retroactivity of any
wage in cre a se s won to cov er the p eriod of the injunction. Judge Sorg denied the m otion to
dissolve the injunction while reservin g decision on the other requ ests.
January 24
Pittsburgh Steel C o ., the last unsigned m ajor p rod u cer, agreed to an indefinite
contract extension, cancelable by either side on 5 days* n otice.
Three sm all com panies
still rem ained unsigned.
The NLRB announced that its poll of w ork ers em ployed by four com panies (P itts­
burgh Steel, Joseph T . R yerson and Sons, M oltrop Steel P rodu cts, and Acm e Steel) voted
by a 2 to 1 m argin to r e je ct m anagem ent's "last o ffe r. "
January 26
Judge Sorg d issolved the T aft-H artley injunction, thus making it p ossible for those
w ork ers still working without contracts to renew the strik e.
Judge Sorg*s c o s t-o f-liv in g
d ecision sp ecified that w ork ers still without contracts would be entitled to the 4 - cent in c re ­
ment for w ork p e rform ed under the injunction "unless new agreem ents are entered into p r o ­
viding o th e r w is e ."
January 27
The union decided not to strike, for
houses still unsigned.

the time being, any of the m ills and w a re­

January 28
Pittsburgh Steel C o. and the union reached an agreem ent, affecting som e 7, 300 w ork ­
ers in 6 plants. Incentive pay rates w ere the contentious issu e; how ever, this was to be r e ­
solved by a joint incentive study com m ittee which must hand down a decision by July 15.
I f the co m m itte e ^ report is rejected* the union may call a strike upon 5 d a y s1 notice*, The
r e s t o f the s e ttle m e n t w a s substantially the same a s that between the union and the other
m a jor produ cers*

Part II. Industry and Geographical Scope of 1959 Steel Strike

Consistent with Bureau of Labor Statistics p roced u res in com piling work stoppage
data, all com panies involved in the 1959 steel strike w ere requested to provide the location ,
m ajor product or s e r v ice , number of w ork ers involved, and beginning and ending dates, for
all plants or establishments involved in the stoppage* The information thus received was
aggregated by industry classification (table B-l)> by region and State (table B*2)» and by
metropolitan area (table B-3)* Data for some States were combined in table
to avoid
revealing individual company information.
Table B-3 identifies the metropolitan areas in
which m ore than 5,000 w ork ers were involved, and presents data for those areas in which
1 or m ore com panies w ere located*^
A ltogether, the steel stoppage affected 57 standard
m etropolitan statistical a re a s, as defined by the Bureau of the Budget.




52
TABLE B-l. W R E S INVOLVED AND M
OKR
AN-DAYS OF IDLENESS,
1959 STEEL STOPPAGE, BY INDUSTRY

TABLE B-2. W R ER INVOLVED AND M
OK S
AN-DAYS O IDLENESS,
F
1959 STEEL STOPPAGE, BY R IO AN STATE
EG N D

A ll in d u s t r ie s --- ----------- ------- ----------- --------------------

W o rk e rs
involved

519, 000

W ork ers
involved

M an-days
idle

United S ta t e s .-------- ----------------------------------------------

Industry

519, 000

41, 900, 000

41, 900, 000

New E n g la n d ____________________________________
C on necticut __________________________________
M assach u setts ..... ............. ....... .............................

4, 700
1, 000
3, 700

3 62 ,000
80, 000
2 8 2 ,0 0 0

M iddle A tlantic _________________________________
New J e r s e y ___________________ _______________
New Y o rk ____________________________________
P ennsylvania ________________________________

194,000
4, 450
29, 200
161, 000

15, 350, 000
356 ,000
2 ,3 9 0 ,0 0 0
1 2 ,6 0 0 ,0 0 0

E ast North C en tral _____________________________
I ll i n o i s ________________________________________
Indiana _______________________________________
M ic h ig a n _____________________________________
Ohio ... _
_
W isco n sin ___________________________________

194,300
2 7 ,7 0 0
56, 900
21, 000
87 ,8 0 0
900

16, 010,
2, 340,
4, 710,
1,7 2 0 ,
7, 170,
73,

W est North C e n t r a l ____________________________
M innesota ___________________________________
K ansas and M is s o u r i _______________________

21, 100
17,200
3, 900

1, 720, 000
1,4 0 0 , 000
3 17 ,000

South A tlantic ___________________________________
M aryland ----------------- -------------------------------------W est V irgin ia _____ __________________________
D elaw are, F lo r id a , G e o rg ia , North
C a ro lin a , and V irgin ia ____________________

35 ,3 0 0
27, 700
4, 850

2, 920, 000
2 ,2 7 0 , 000
4 3 4 ,0 0 0

2 ,7 0 0

2 1 6 ,0 0 0

E a st South C e n t r a l ______________________________
A labam a, K entucky, and T e n n e s s e e _______

31, 100
31, 100

2, 540, 000
2, 540, 000

W est South C en tral _____________________________
T e x a s _____ ________ _________________ _____ ___
Oklahom a and Lou isiana ____________________

4, 850
3, 900
950

3 92 ,000
3 1 5 ,0 0 0
7 7 ,0 0 0

M o u n ta in ____ ________________________ ___________
A riz o n a , C o lo r a d o , Utah, and W yom ing . ..

13,300
13, 300

1, 070, 000
1, 070, 000

P a c ific ______________________________ ___________
C a lifo rn ia and W ashington
_ ....

19, 900
19, 900

1, 530, 000
1, 530, 000

M an-days
idle

451, 000

36, 300, 000

448, 000
2 ,7 5 0

36, 100, 000
2 2 5 ,0 0 0

190
300

15, 300
2 4 ,6 0 0

3 4 ,4 0 0
25, 500
8, 070

2, 850, 000
2 ,0 8 0 ,0 0 0
7 0 2 ,0 0 0

830

68, 900

24, 000
15, 500

1, 930, 000
1,230, 000

1 ,250
1, 600
1,480
4, 160

103,000
131.000
132 .000
3 3 6 ,0 0 0

3, 190
580
2, 610

319, 000
4 7 ,6 0 0
271, 000

M achinery, excep t e l e c t r i c a l ------- -------------------En gin es and turbines ________________________
C on stru ction , m ining, and m a te ria ls
handling m a ch in ery and e q u ip m e n t----------G en eral in du stria l m ach in ery and
equ ip m en t__________________________ ________
M is cella n eou s m ach in ery, excep t
e l e c t r i c a l ------------- ------------- -------- ----------------

2, 530
160

195 ,000
11,400

850

68, 300

F u rn iture and fixtu res _______ ___________ _____
P a rtitio n s , shelvin g, lo c k e r s , and
o ffic e and store fix t u r e s ___________________

1, 800

147,000

1, 800

147,000

W holesale and reta il trade ____________________
W holesale trade _____________________________

1, 540
1, 540

126,000
126, 000

O rdnance and a c c e s s o r i e s ______________________
Am m unition, excep t fo r sm all a rm s _______

170
170

11,000
11, 000

Rubber and m is c e lla n e o u s p la s tic s
p r o d u c t s ________________________________ ________
M is ce lla n e o u s p la s tic s p r o d u c t s ------------------

20
20

1, 640
1, 640

R eg ion and State

P r im a r y m etal in d u strie s ............................... .......
B last fu rn a ces , stee l w o rk s, and ro llin g
and finishing m ills _________________________
Iron and steel fou n d ries . . . ................... ..............
R ollin g, draw ing and extruding o f
n on ferrou s m etals _________________________
M is ce lla n e o u s p rim a ry m etal in d u strie s . . .
M in in g _____________________________ _____________
M etal __________________________ ______________
B itum inous c o a l and lig n it e _________________
M ining and qu a rryin g o f non m etallic
m in e ra ls , excep t fu els ____________________
F a b rica te d m etal p rod u cts, e x ce p t ordn an ce,
m ach in ery,an d tran sp ortation e q u ip m e n t-----F a b rica ted stru ctu ra l m etal p r o d u c t s -------S crew m achine p rod u cts, and b o lts , nuts,
s c r e w s , riv e ts and w a s h e r s _______________
M etal s ta m p in g s ........... .............................. ..........
M iscella n eou s fa b rica te d w ire p r o d u c t s ___
M is cella n eou s fa b rica te d m etal p r o d u c t s ...
T ra n sp orta tion , com m u n ication , e le c t r ic ,
gas, and sanitary s e r v ic e s ..................................
R a ilroa d tran sportation ____________________
W ater tran sportation ................. ............. ....... .

NOTE:
equal tota ls.

120

106 ,000

B ecau se o f rounding, sum s o f individual ite m s m ay not




B ecau se o f rounding, sum s o f individual item s m ay not

9, 500

1, 400

NOTE:
equal totals.

000
000
000
000
000
000

TABLE B-3. W R E S INVOLVED AN M
OKR
D AN-DAYS OF IDLENESS,
1959 STEEL STOPPAGE, BY SELECTED M
ETROPOLITAN AREAS
M etrop olitan a rea 1
A llentow n— ethlehem — a ston , Pa. .............. .......
B
E
B a ltim o re , M d. ----------------------------------- ------ --------B u ffalo, N .Y . ___________________________________
Canton, Ohio ____________________________________
C h ica go, 111. ____________ _______ ___________ ____
C levelan d, Ohio ------------------------------------------------D e tro it, M ich. __________________________________
Johnstow n, Pa. _________________________________
L o ra in — ly r ia , Ohio ___________________________
E
L os A n g e le s —
Long B each , C a l i f .______________
P h iladelphia, Pa.
__
.... . _
_
....
P ittsburgh, P a . _______ ________________________
Youngstown, O h i o ______________________________

W ork e rs
involved

M an-days
idle

1 8 ,900
2 7 ,7 0 0
2 2 ,0 0 0
8, 280
8 2 ,0 0 0
19, 400
15,600
14,000
9 ,2 3 0
5, 680
12, 700
9 2 ,9 0 0
43, 000

1, 500, 000
2 ,2 7 0 , 000
1, 800, 000
679 ,0 0 0
6, 830, 000
1, 610, 000
1, 280, 000
1, 140, 000
7 2 3 ,0 0 0
4 3 5 ,0 0 0
975, 000
7, 220, 000
3, 510 ,0 0 0

1 M ore than 5, 000 w o rk e rs w ere in volved in ea ch o f the fo llo w ­
ing additional m e tro p o lita n a r e a s : B irm in gham , A la . ; G adsden, A la. ;
P u eblo, C o lo .; San B ern a rd in o, C a lif.; San F r a n c is c o —
Oakland, Calif.,;
and W heeling, W. Va. -S te u b e n v ille , Ohio.

53

Appendix C:

The Atlantic and Gulf Coast Longshore Strike, 1959

Although the em ergency provision s of the T aft-H artley Act w ere invoked in 1959 for
the first tim e in a m ajor steel strike, their application to an Atlantic and Gulf Coast lon g­
shore dispute represen ted the fourth tim e that an East Coast longshore strike was ended by
a Federal injunction since 1947. 23 The highlights of the 1959 stoppage are outlined below
in ch ron ological o rd e r.
August 10
Joint bargaining session s began between the New York Shipping A ssociation 24 and the
International L on gshorem en’ s A s s o c ia tio n .25 The union presented its demands, which in­
cluded: An extension of the M aster Contract to cov er all ports of the United States from
S earsport, Maine, to B row n sville, T e x ., in which ILA is the bargaining representative;
a 6-hour day (at a rate of $ 2 2 .4 0 per day); a guarantee of a day’ s pay each time a man
is ordered out; in crea sed pension and w elfare benefits; and a fre e ze on the 20-m an w ork gang.
August 17
The New York Shipping A ssociation , in a counterproposal, sought to extend the
present agreem ent for 3 years with changes allowing em ployers the right to im prove the
efficie n cy o f their operations by giving them greater "flexibility o f labor. " Among the other
provision s put forth were a flexible lunch hour, changes in travel pay arrangem ents, and
recognition by the NYSA of the prin ciple that protection be provided against loss of job
opportunities which may result from automation.
Septem ber 17
The New Y ork Shipping A ssociation and the ILA announced they w ere calling on
Federal and city labor m ediators in an attempt to head off a strike at the expiration of the
3 -y e a r agreem ent on Septem ber 30.
Septem ber 18
Management made its first m onetary o ffe r, proposing y early in crea ses of 8, 3, and
4 cents an hour in a 3 -y ea r agreem ent, to be allocated among w ages, pensions, w elfare,
and paid holidays by the union, on the condition that the union agree that em ployers be given
the right to im prove the efficien cy of their operations (by such means as m echanical cargo
handling gea r, con tain ers, and container ships). A lso sought by management w ere changes
in travel pay arrangem ents, a p rovision for tighter quitting time cla u ses, and a m ore flexible
lunch hour.
The proposal contained assurance that adequate safeguards against lo ss of job
opportunities would be provided.
Septem ber 19
A counterproposal was put forth by the ILA eliminating its original demand for a
-hour day. Instead, a straight 40 cents an hour wage in crea se, plus a guarantee of 8 h o u rs ’
w ork per day and in crea sed fringe ben efits, w ere sought in a 2 -y ea r agreem ent.
6

Septem ber 23
The ILA m odified its demands "all along the lin e " with reductions in wage demands
and in the length of a guaranteed working day.

23 See National E m ergency Disputes Under the Labor - Management Relations jT a ft Hartley) A ct, U .S . Department of L abor, Bureau of Labor Statistics."
4 The a ssocia tion bargains for 170 steam ship lines and contracting stev ed ores.
25 The ILA affiliated with the A F L -C IO on Nov. 17, 1959.




54

Septem ber 24
E m ployers countered with an offer of a 3-y ea r agreem ent calling for a m oney package
of 24 cents----12 cents in the first y e a r, 6 in the second, and 6 in the third— that would be
applied to w ages, pensions, w elfa re, and/or other item s chosen by the union. The offer was
contingent upon union acceptance of m odifications in w ork ru les. The offer was term ed as
not ” a fair on e" by the union.
F ederal, State, and city m ediators w ere asked by both sides to take an active part
in negotiations, as a standstill had apparently been reached. Negotiations in southern ports
also w ere stalem ated over issu es of slingload lim its and gang s iz e .
Septem ber 28
The ILA again cut its demands to a package worth approxim ately 50 cents an hour in a
3 -y ea r agreem ent. Later in the day, the shippers rejected the prop osal as "still too high. ”
Septem ber 29
Shippers in crea sed their offer to 30 cents an hour— 20 cents the first year and 5 cents
in each of two following years----in a 3 -y ear contract conditioned on new w ork rule changes.
Septem ber 30
A threatened strike was averted when the New York Shipping A ssociation and the ILA
agreed on a 15-day contract extension, with any subsequent in crea ses retroactive to O ctober 1.
T elegram s from S ecretary M itchell, G overnor Nelson R ock efeller,
Robert F . Wagner urged the parties to negotiate without interrupting w ork.

and Mayor

O ctober 1
Longshorem en in New Orleans struck as contracts expired, following a refusal by
southern shippers to grant retroa ctivity on in crea ses included in a prop osed new agreem ent.
The walkout was joined by m em bers in other southern ports on South Atlantic and Gulf C oasts.
Despite a contract extension in the North, Captain W illiam V . B radley, president
of ILA, pledged support of the striking southern dockw orkers and d eclared that m em bers
would not w ork on ships diverted from the South.
The stoppage spread to the entire east
coast, shutting down ports from Maine to T exas, effecting som e 50, 000 w ork ers and 220 cargo
ships. The New York Shippers A ssocia tion voted not to resum e bargaining until O ctober 15
unless w ork ers returned im m ediately, claim ing that the strike was illeg a l, and further in­
sisted that the union must give assurance that it would ca rry out any agreem ent reached with
northern shippers reg a rd less of developm ents in southern p orts.
By the following day, union leaders claim ed the strike "100 percent effective from
Maine to T e x a s .”
O ctober 5
M ediators w ere unable to arrange a joint m eeting.
A F ederal D istrict Judge in New Orleans issued a tem porary restraining order
against two New Orleans lo c a ls , N os. 1418 and 1419, as requested by the National Labor
Relations Board, acting on a com plaint by New Orleans shippers charging that the two loca ls
failed to serv e a 30-day strike n otice, as required by law, b efore th'e contract e x p ir e d .2*

26

L abor-M anagem ent Relations (Taft-H artley) A ct, Sec. 8 (d) (3).




55
O ctober 6
President Eisenhower appointed a Board of Inquiry to report to him by O ctober 1 0 .27
M em bers of the board w ere Guy F a rm er, form er chairm an of the National Labor Relations
Board; G eorge Frankenthaler, fo rm e r Surrogate Judge and form er m em ber of the New York
State Supreme Court; and John F. Sem bow er, a Chicago law yer active in labor arbitration w ork.
The board began its w ork late in the afternoon with the expectation, ex p ressed by
M r. F a rm er, that the report would be ready b efore the 10th.
O ctober 7
Completing its study of the strike late in the day, the board forw arded it to the
P r e s id e n t.28 E a rlier testim ony indicated an im passe over ju risd iction and automation. The
board noted that the m ajor u nresolved issu es w ere wage rates, certain fringe benefits, p r o ­
cedures for installing m echanical devices and effecting containerization, and gang s iz e . Upon
receip t, the P resident directed the Attorney General to seek an injunction at once.
As a result of union com plaints, the New York—
New Jersey W aterfront C om m ission
obtained a court order calling on three steam ship lines to show cause why they should not be
enjoined from using "u n registered lon gsh orem en" to handle baggage. 29
O ctober 8
A tem porary 10-day restraining ord er was issued by F ederal D istrict Judge Irving R.
Kaufman in New Y ork, acting upon application of the governm ent to seek injunctive re lie f In
the strik e. The Judge found that the strike had affected a substantial part of the m aritim e
co m m erce of the United States, that its continuance would im peril the national health and
safety, and that "im m ediate and irrep a rable damage would resu lt" if the restraining order
was not granted. Hearings on the issuance of a tem porary injunction for the remaining
70-day p eriod w ere scheduled for the 15th.
O ctober 9
W ork was resum ed at all ports with p riority given to about a dozen v e sse ls con ­
taining p erish a b les.
The A m erican A ssociation of Railroads lifted its freight em bargo put
into effect on the first day of the strik e. Bargaining was expected to resum e on October 19,
allowing tim e for the ports to return to norm al operating le v e ls .
O ctober 15
Following an attempt by the governm ent to have the tem porary restraining order r e ­
placed by a prelim in ary injunction (on O ctober 14), Judge Kaufman extended his original
ord er until he ruled on the m otion for a further 70-day injunction. ILA officia ls asked the
court to have an injunction guarantee that an anticipated pay in crea se be made retroactive
to the day m em bers returned to w ork.
Judge Kaufman re se rv e d decision on this point.
October 17
Judge Kaufman issu ed a full injunction assuring continuation of w ork for the statutory
period as provided for in the a ct. At the same tim e, he denied the union*s request for r e tr o ­
activity by asserting he was neither em pow ered nor inclined to use the injunctive p ro ce ss
for "m atters ordinarily left to n eg otia tion ."

27
Executive O rder 10842, Oct. 6, 1959, and Sec. 206, Labor-M anagem ent Relations
(Taft-H artley) A ct, 1947.
28 Report to the President of the Labor Dispute Involving Longshorem en and A ssociated
Occupations in the M aritim e Industry on the Atlantic and Gulf Coast by the Board of Inquiry
created by Executive Order 10842, Oct. 7, 1959.
29
New York—
New J ersey law, under which the com m ission operates, made it manda­
tory for anyone doing pier w ork to be reg istered by the agency— a p rocess that involves
screening to bar crim in als from the p ie r s .




56
O ctober 20
Negotiations resum ed with no significant p ro g re ss reported . A set of "broad p rin ­
c ip le s " and "s p e c ific recom m en dation s" w ere prop osed by em ployers for dealing with the
problem s of automation.
Details w ere not made public.
O ctober 26
The ILA re jected the shipping a s s o cia tio n ^ p rop osals as "not a fair o f f e r ."
N ovem ber 4
E m ployers re jected union p rop osals for royalty payments on each ton of ca rg o handled
in shipping containers unless the union agreed to reductions in the w ork fo r c e .
P rev iou sly ,
shippers had offered to pay into a fund 25 cents a ton on "unitized" or "con ta in erized " cargo
loaded or unloaded on the docks by w ork ers other than longshorem en.
A lso sought was
agreem ent to allow installation of autom atic carg o handling equipment and the right to regu­
late the size of w ork gangs.
N ovem ber 24
As a "b a s is " for settlem ent, the ILA accepted p rop osals of Federal m ediators calling
for a 41 -cen t-a n -h ou r package, with a 12-cen t-an -h ou r raise retroa ctive to O ctober 1, and
5-cen t in crea ses to follow on O ctober 1, I960, and O ctober 1, 1961. In addition, the w elfare
contribution would be in crea sed by 7 cents an hour, of which 3 cents would be earm arked for
clin ic s , and the pension fund contribution would be in crea sed by 7 cents an hour.
Three
new paid holidays would be added to the present 5 at the rate of 1 a y ea r, and vacations
would be lib e ra lize d . E m ployers w ere noncom m ital on the p ro p o sa ls.
N ovem ber 27
The union rejected an em ployer solution to the problem of introduction o f la b o rsaving equipment which ca lled for a 6-m onth period of direct negotiations, after the contract
was signed, on using and manning m echanical d ev ices. If an agreem ent could not be reached
in the 6 months, the issu e would go to arbitration, according to the p rop osa l.
D ecem ber 1
N egotiators reached a b a sic agreem ent including a m aster contract setting term s for
wages and benefits for dock ers from Maine to V irgin ia.
M onetary term s w ere essentially
the same as prop osed ea rlie r in the 41-cen t-a n -h ou r package, consisting of 12 cents r e tr o ­
active to O ctober 1, 1959; an additional 5 cents effective O ctober 1, I960, and 5 cents e f­
fective O ctober 1, 1961; sixth, seventh, and eighth paid holidays added in fir s t, second, and
third contract y e a r, resp ectiv ely; qualifying tim e for 2 and 3 w e e k s1 vacation pay reduced
to 1,100 and 1,300 hours a y e a r, resp ectiv ely (w ere 1,200 and 1,500); 14 cents an hour
com pany payment to pension fund (was 7 cents); 21 cents an hour company payment to w el­
fare fund (was 14 cents), including 3 cents for m edical clin ic s .
M echanization issu e— em ployers agreed not to reduce the size of the standard 20man w ork gang and to use ILA m em bers to load or reload containers when w ork is done
at the p ie r . The question o f a penalty payment to the union for containers loaded off the
pier was left for further negotiation.
If no settlem ent was reached in 2 w eeks, it was
agreed that this issu e would be arbitrated, with a d ecision to be made within 30 days
of su bm ission .
Settlements subsequently reached at other Atlantic and Gulf Coasts ports during
D ecem ber provided benefits sim ila r to the agreem ent with the New Y ork Shipping A s s o c ia ­
tion, except for lo ca l w ork ru les.
Union m em bers w ere to vote on the agreem ent on D ecem ber 10.




57
D ecem ber 3
A "m em orandum of settlem ent” was signed including all but one of the provision s
agreed upon e a r lie r . Contract talks resum ed in New Orleans and G alveston, as well as in
other ports in the South, w here agreem ents are negotiated on a port basis generally patterned
after the New York agreem ent.
D ecem ber 6
Ag reem ents w ere reached on loca l conditions and the 41-cent-an-hour
in Boston, B altim ore, and Philadelphia.

wage package

D ecem ber 7
The P residential Board o f Inquiry reconvened in Washington. Testim ony presented
by representatives of the union and em ployers indicated substantial p ro g re ss toward a settle­
ment.
The board*s second report was transm itted to the P resident.
Agreem ent was reached for Norfolk—
Hampton Roads.
D ecem ber 10
ILA m em bers in ports from Maine to V irginia overw helm ingly ratified the new a g re e ­
m ent.
P ort of Philadelphia w ork ers did not vote, but union and em ployers had agreed upon
a m aster con tract.
The union drew up a separate agreem ent covering working conditions
with the Philadelphia M arine Trade A ssociation . Issues at South Atlantic and Gulf ports still
rem ained unsettled.
D ecem ber 14
The New York wage pattern was offered in M obile, New O rleans, and G alveston.
Other issu es rem ained unsettled.
D ecem ber 17
Philadelphia longshorem en ratified a 3-y ea r contract.
F ederal m ediators in Gal­
veston announced that final offers by em ployers and demands by the union had been rejected .
D ecem ber 23
Longshorem en and em ployers in New Orleans agreed on a 3-y e a r pact averting a
renewed strike on the 28th. Money term s of the contract w ere identical with the agreem ent
reached in New Y ork . On the 21st and 22d, Gulf Coast longshorem en had voted overw helm ­
ingly against the “last o ffe r ” of the sh ippers.
Agreem ent had not been reached in M obile
over the size of w ork cre w s.
Settlement was reached in Galveston on all issu e s.
D ecem ber 26
Shippers and union o fficia ls in M obile, the only remaining unsettled port, agreed
to the 3-y e a r contract. On D ecem ber 27, the injunction was lifted .







59

Appendix D:

Scope, Methods, and Definitions 3
0

W ork Stoppage Statistics
The B ureau's statistics include all work stoppages occu rrin g in the United States
involving as many as six w ork ers and lasting the equivalent of a full day or shift or longer.
Definitions
Strike or Lockout. A strike is defined as a tem porary stoppage of work by a group
of em ployees (not n ecessa rily m em bers of a union) to ex p ress a grievance or en force a de­
mand. A lockout is a tem porary withholding of work from a group of em ployees by an em ­
ployer (or group of em p loy ers) in ord er to induce the em ployees to accept the e m p loy er's
term s. Because of the com plexities involved in m ost labo r - manage m ent disputes, the Bureau
i
m akes no effort to determ ine whether the stoppages are initiated by the w ork ers or the em ­
p lo y e rs. The term s M
strik en and "w ork stoppage" are used interchangeably in this report.
W orkers and Id len ess. F igu res on "w ork ers in volved" and "m an-days id le" include
all w ork ers made idle for one shift or longer in establishm ents directly involved in a stop­
page. They do not m easure secondary id len ess— that is, the effects of a stoppage on other
establishm ents or industries whose em ployees may be made idle as a result of m aterial or
se rv ice shortages.
The total number
counted m ore than once if
(Thus, in 19^9, 365,000 to
prised 1. 15 m illion of the

of w ork ers involved in strikes in a given year includes w ork ers
they w ere involved in m ore than one stoppage during that y ear.
400,000 coal m iners struck on 3 different o cca sion s; they co m ­
y e a r 's total of 3. 03 m illion w ork ers. )

In som e prolonged stoppages, it is n ecessa ry to estim ate in part the tutal m an-days
of idleness if the exact number of w ork ers idle each day is not known. Significant changes
in the number of w ork ers idle are secured from the parties for use in computing m an-days
of idlen ess.
Idleness as P ercen t of Total Working T im e . In computing the number of w ork ers
involved in strikes as a percent of total employm ent and idleness as a percent of total w ork ­
ing tim e, the follow ing figures fo r total employment have been used:
F rom 1927 to 195 0, all em ployees w ere counted, except those in occupations
and p rofession s in which little, if any, union organization existed or in which stop­
pages ra rely, if ev er, o ccu rred .
In m ost industries, all wage and salary w ork ­
e r s w ere included except those in executive, m anagerial, or high supervisory po­
sitions, or those perform in g professiona l work the nature of which made union
organization o r group action unlikely. The figure excluded all self-em p loy ed p erson s;
dom estic w ork ers; w ork ers on farm s em ploying few er than six person s; all F ed­
eral and State governm ent em ployees; and o fficia ls, both elected and appointed, in
lo ca l governm ents.
Beginning in 1951, the B ureau's estim ates of total employment in nonagricultural establishm ents, exclu sive of governm ent, have been used. Idleness computed
on the basis of nonagricultural employment (exclusive of governm ent) usually d iffers
by le s s than one-tenth of a percentage point from that obtained by the form er method,
while the percentage of w ork ers idle (com pared with total em ploym ent) d iffers
by about 0.5 of a point. F o r exam ple, the percentage of w ork ers idle during 1950
com puted on the same base as the figures for e a rlie r y ea rs was 6.9, and the p e r­
cent of idleness was 0.4 4 , com pared with 6 .3 and 0.40, resp ectively, computed
on the new base.
"E stim ated working tim e" is computed by multiplying the average number of
w ork ers em ployed during the year by the number of days typically worked by m ost
em ployees. In the com putations, Saturdays (when custom arily not worked), Sundays,
and established holidays as provided in m ost union contracts are excluded.
30
M ore detailed inform ation is available in Techniques of Preparing M ajor BL.S Statis­
tical S eries (BLS Bull. 1168), D ecem ber 1954, p. 106:




60
D uration. Although only workdays are used in computing m an-days of total idleness,
duration is ex p ressed in term s of calendar days, including nonworkdays.
State Data. Stoppages occu rrin g in m ore than one State are listed separately in
each State affected. The w ork ers and m an-days of idleness are allocated among each of the
affected S ta tes.31 The p roced u res outlined here have a lso been used in preparing estim ates
of idlen ess by State.
M etropolitan A rea Data. Inform ation is tabulated separately for the areas that cu r­
rently com p rise the list of standard m etropolitan areas issued by the Bureau of the Budget
in addition to a few com m unities h istorica lly included in the strike se rie s before the stand­
ard m etropolitan area list was com piled. The areas to which the strike statistics apply are
those established by the Bureau of the Budget. Inform ation is published only for those areas
in which at least five stoppages w ere record ed during the year.
Some m etropolitan areas include counties in m ore than one State, and, hence, sta­
tistics for an area may occa sion a lly equal or exceed the total for the State in which the m ajor
city is located.
Unions Involved. Inform ation includes the union(s) d irectly participating in the d is ­
pute, although the count of w ork ers includes all who are made idle for one shift or longer in
establishm ents directly involved in the dispute, including m em bers of other unions and non­
union w ork ers.
Source of Inform ation
O ccu rren ce o f S trik es. - Inform ation as to actual or probable existence of work stop­
pages is co lle cte d from a number of so u rce s. Clippings on labor disputes are obtained from
a com prehensive covera ge of daily and weekly newspapers throughout the country. Inform a­
tion is receiv ed regularly from the F ederal M ediation and C onciliation S ervice.
Other
sou rces o f inform ation include State boards of m ediation and arbitration; resea rch divisions
o f State labor departm ents; lo ca l o ffice s of State em ploym ent security agen cies, channeled
through the Bureau of Em ploym ent Security of the U. S. Department of Labor; and trade and
union jou rn a ls. Some em ployer a ssocia tion s, com panies, and unions also furnish the Bureau
with work stoppage inform ation on a voluntary cooperative basis either as stoppages occu r
or p eriod ica lly .
Respondents to Q uestionnaire.- A questionnaire is m ailed to the parties reported as
involved in work stoppages to obtain inform ation on the number of w ork ers involved, duration,
m a jor issu es, location , method of settlem ent, and other pertinent inform ation.
Lim itations o f Data. —Although the Bureau seeks to obtain com plete cov era ge, i . e . ,
a "ce n su s’ 1 of all strikes involving six or m ore w ork ers and lasting a full shift or m ore,
inform ation is undoubtedly m issing on some of the sm aller strik es.
P resum ably, a llow ­
ance for these m issin g strikes would not substantially affect the figures for number of w ork ­
e r s and m an-days of idlen ess.
In its effo rts to im prove the com pleteness of the count of stoppages, the Bureau
has sought to develop new so u rces of inform ation as to the probable existence of such
stoppages.
Over the y e a rs, these sou rces have probably in crea sed the number of strikes
record ed , but have had little effect on the number of w ork ers or total idlen ess.
Beginning in m i d - 1950, a new source of strike “ le a d s’* was added through a co o p ­
erative arrangem ent with the Bureau of Employment Security of the U. S. Department of
Labor by which lo c a l o ffice s o f State em ploym ent security agencies supply monthly r e ­
ports on w ork stoppages com ing to their attention.
It is estim ated that this in crea sed the
number of strikes reported in 1950 by about 5 percent, and in 1951 and 1952, by app roxi­
m ately 10 percent. Since m ost of these stoppages w ere sm all, they in crea sed the number
of w ork ers involved and m an-days of idleness by le ss than 2 percent in 1950 and by less
than 3 percent in 1951 and 1952.
T ests of the effect of this added source of inform ation
have not been made since 1952.
A s new lo ca l agencies having knowledge of the existence of work stoppages are e s ­
tablished, or changes are made in their collection m ethods, ev ery effort is made to estab­
lish cooperative arrangem ents with them.
31
The same procedure is follow ed in allocating data on stoppages occu rrin g in m ore
than one industry, industry group, or m etropolitan area.




☆ U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : I960 O - 564471


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102