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Work Stoppages
Caused by
Labor-Management Disputes in 1948




Bulletin No. 963
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Maurice J. Tobin, Secretary
BUREAU OF LAB O R S T A T IS T IC S
Ewan Clague,

Commissioner

Work Stoppages
Caused by
Labor-Management Disputes in 1948

Bulletin No. 963
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Maurice J. Tobin, Secretary
BUREAU OF LAB O R STA T IST IC S
Ewan Clague,

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D . C.




Commissioner
Price 20 cents

Letter of Transmittal
U nited States D epartment of L abor,
B ureau of L abor Statistics,

Washington, D. C., April SO, 1949.
The Secretary of L abor :
I have the honor to transmit herewith a report on work stoppages caused
by labor-management disputes in 1948 a portion of which was printed in the
M onthly Labor Review, M ay 1949.
This report was prepared in the Bureau’s Division of Industrial Relations,
by D on Q. Crowther, Ann J. Herlihy, and Loretto R. Nolan, under the
general supervision of Nelson M . Bortz.
The Bureau wishes to acknowledge the widespread cooperation given by
employers, unions, the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service, and
various State agencies in furnishing information on which the statistical data
in this report are based.
E wan C lague, Commissioner.
Hon. M aurice J. T obin,
Secretary of Labor.




(H )

Contents
Page
Summary__________________________________________________________________________
Trend comparisons_________________________________________________________________
Review of the year---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------National emergency disputes_____________________________________________________
Monthly trends— Significant stoppages----------------------------------------------------------------Industries affected------------States affected-------- -----------Cities affected___________________________________________________________________
Major issues involved______________________________________________________________
Contract status at time of stoppage------------------------------------------------------------------------Pre-stoppage mediation------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Length of disputes before stoppages------------------------------------------------------------------------Unions involved_______________________________________
Establishments involved___________________________________________________________
Size of stoppages___________________________________________________________________
Duration of stoppages___________________________________________________________
Methods of terminating stoppages_______________________________________________
Disposition of issues_____________________________________________________________
A

p p e n d ix

p p e n d ix

2
3
4
8
8
9
10
10
10
11

1
11
12
13
13
14

A

Table A.— Work stoppages in 1948, by specific industry_____________________________
Table B.— Work stoppages in 1948, by industry group and major issues__________
Table C.— Work stoppages in 1948 in States which had 25 or more stoppages during
the year, by industry group---------------------------------------------------------------------------A

1
1

15
17
18

B

Work of emergency boards of inquiry in 1948_______________________________________
A

p p e n d ix

C

Methods of collecting strike statistics------------------------------------------------------------------




(in)

23

26

Work Stoppages Caused by Labor-Management Disputes in 19481
Summary

similar tendencies—first a marked rise, followed
by sharp declines as pent-up wartime tensions and
emotions subsided. B y the end of 1948, labor and
management had had more than 3 years in which
to readjust to peacetime conditions o f production
and industrial relations. As in the period follow -

N o significant change occurred in the general
level of strike activity in 1948. As compared
with the preceding year, the number of work
stoppages (3,419) declined about 7 percent.
Approximately 1,960,000 workers were involved in
stoppages, with a recorded idleness o f 34,100,000
man-days. These totals were slightly less than
the corresponding totals for 1947.
As in other recent years, wages and related
fringe benefits were a major controversial issue
and accounted for more than half of the stoppages.
Union representation rights, the union shop and
hiring hall, and allied issues, some stemming
directly or indirectly from application of various
provisions o f the Labor Management Relations
Act, featured other controversies.
Average duration of stoppages declined to 21.8
calendar days in 1948, from 25.6 calendar days in
1947.

T a b l e 1 .—

Work stoppages
Year

Workers in­
volved

Average Num­ Percent
Num­ duration ber (in of total
(in cal­ thou­
em­
ber
endar sands) 1 ployed 2
*
days)

Man-days idle

Num­
ber (in
thou­
sands)

Percent
Per
of esti­ worker
mated
in­
working volved
tim e2

19161..........
1917............
1918............
1919............
1920............

(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)
(4
)

1,600
1,230
1,240
4,160
1,460

8.4
6.3
6.2
20.8
7.2

(4
)
(4
)
(4
)
(4
)
(4
)

(4
)
(4
)
(4
)
(4
)
(4
)

(4
)
(4
)
(4
)
(4
)
(4
)

2,385
1,112
1,553
1,249
1,301

(4
)
(4
)
(4
)
(4
)
(4
)

1,100
1,610
757
655
428

6.4
8.7
3.5
3.1
2.0

(4
)
(4
)
(4
)
(4
)
(4
)

(4
)
(4
)
(4
)
(4
)
(4
)

(4
)
8
(4
)
(4
)

1926............
1927............
1928............
1929............
1930............

1,035
707
604
921
637

(4
)
26.5
27.6
22.6
22.3

330
330
314
289
183

1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
.8

(4
)
26,200
12,600
5,350
3,320

(4
)
0.37
.17
.07
.05

(4
)
79.5
40.2
18.5
18.1

1931............
1932............
1933............
1934............
1935............

810
841
1,695
1,856
2,014

18.8
19.6
16.9
19.5
23.8

342
324
1,170
1,470
1,120

1.6
1.8
6.3
7.2
5.2

6,890
10,500
16,900
19,600
15,500

.11
.23
.36
.38
.29

20.2
32.4
14.4
13.4
13.8

1936............
1937............
1938............
1939............
1940............

2,172
4,740
2,772
2,613
2,508

23.3
20.3
23.6
23.4
20.9

789
1,860
688
1,170
577

3.1
7.2
2.8
4.7
2.3

13,900
28,400
9,150
17,800
6,700

.21
.43
.15
.28
.10

17.6
15.3
13.3
15.2
11.6

1941............
1942............
1943............
1944............
1945............

4,288
2,968
3,752
4,956
4,750

18.3
11.7
5.0
5.6
9.9

2,360
840
1,980
2,120
3,470

8.4
2.8
6.9
7.0
12.2

23,000
4,180
13,500
8,720
38,000

.32
.05
.15
.09
.47

9.8
5.0
6.8
4.1
11.0

1946............
1947............
1948............

Trend comparisons in strike statistics are diffi­
cult: no two periods are strictly comparable,
because of the complex and changing factors that
shape the course o f labor-management relations.
A host of economic forces—production trends,
profits, prices, and worker purchasing power, to
cite but a few— are at work upon an even more
unpredictable human element. Strong convic­
tions, bitter prejudices, and sudden bursts of
temper occasionally outweigh economic realities.
Also present are the influences of Federal and
State governmental policies as interpreted by
administrative agencies and by courts.
Comparison of trends following W orld War II
with those after W orld War I showed generally

3,789
4,450
3,353
3,630
3,411

1921............
1922............
1923............
1924............
1926............

Trend Comparisons

4,985
3,693
3,419

24.2
25.6
21.8

4,600
2,170
1,960

14.5
6.5
5.5

116,000
34,600
34,100

1.43
.41
.37

25.2
15.9
17.4

1 The exact number of workers involved in some strikes which occurred
during the period 1916 to 1926 is not known. The missing information is
for the smaller disputes, however, and it is believed that the totals here given
are approximate.
2 “ Total employed workers” as used here refers to all workers except those
in occupations and professions in which there is little if any union organiza­
tion or in which strikes rarely, if ever, occur. In most industries it includes
all wage and salary workers except those in executive, managerial, or high
supervisory positions or those performing professional work the nature of
which makes union organization or group action impracticable. It excludes
all self-employed, domestic workers, agricultural wage workers on farms
employing less than 6, all Federal and State government employees, and
officials (both elected and appointed) in local governments.
3 Estimated working time was computed for purposes of this table by
multiplying the average number of employed workers each year by the
prevailing number of days worked per employee in that year.
* Not available.

1 All known work stoppages arising out of labor-management disputes,
involving six or more workers, and continuing as long as a full day or shift,
are included in reports of the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Figures on “ workers
involved” and “ man-days idle” cover all workers made idle for as long as one
shift in establishments directly involved in a stoppage. They do not measure
the indirect or secondary effects on other establishments or industries whose
employees are made idle as a result of material or service shortages.




Work stoppages in the United States, 1916-48

(i)

2
ing W orld War I, the number of strikes in the
third postwar year (1948) was about a third
below the immediate postwar peak. The num­
ber of workers involved and the time lost, as in
the former period, had declined still further.
Over the 18-month period— July 1947 to Decem­
ber 1948— during which the Labor Management
Relations (Taft-Hartley) A ct had been in effect,
strike activity averaged substantially less than in
the period immediately following VJ-day. It av­
eraged higher than in the more normal prewar
period of 1935-39, however, in terms of number
of strikes, number of workers involved, and time
lost. (See chart 1.)

their jobs after a strike of over 2 months, accept­
ing a wage increase no greater than the amount
offered before the walk-out began.
Chart 1. W ork Stoppages:
M onthly Averages for Selected Periods

New Stoppages Per Month

Review of the Year
Employment reached record levels in 1948.
Workers’ money wages were high, as were em­
ployers’ profits. Under these circumstances some
employers quickly reached agreement with their
workers’ representatives rather than risk inter­
ruptions of output during a seller’s market. Others
advocated a withholding of wage increases accom­
panied by modest price reductions as a means of
checking inflation. Among the unions, long-term
contractual commitments, no-strike clauses, and
apprehension over incurring financial suits or
strains on the union treasury served as strike
deterrents.
N o statistical process can fully and accurately
interpret or record these involved motives— some
simple in character, others intricate. The play of
forces at times brought the parties together, and
at other times put them at loggerheads. For
example, the General M otors Corp. and the
United Automobile, Aircraft and Agricultural
Workers (CIO) on the brink of a strike reached
a settlement; concurrently, the same union and
the Chrysler Corp. failed to agree, causing the
plants to be idle for over 2 weeks. A dispute over
administration of a pension fund in the bitumi­
nous-coal industry caused a 40-day stoppage; 2
months later the commercial operators and the
United Mine Workers (Ind.) reached an agree­
ment on a new contract without any suspension
of work. But the management of the so-called
“ captive” mines would not accept the same terms
with regard to the union shop, and a strike ensued.
Thousands of packinghouse workers returned to




THOUSANDS
351

Aug. 1945

June 1947

Dec. 1948

UNITEO STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

Injunctions and cooling-off periods, prescribed
by the Labor Management Relations Act, failed
to stem stoppages in maritime and longshore
services, but helped to avert an interruption of

3
work in the atomic energy dispute, which was
finally settled through negotiation.2 Some strikes
arose because of management’s alleged refusal to
bargain with union officials who did not sign the
non-Communist affidavits required by law. At
various plants such as the Univis Lens Co. in
Dayton, Ohio, violence flared as the workers,
members of a noncomplying union— the United
Electrical, Badio, and Machine Workers (CIO )—
sought to negotiate. But in other situations, the
union rank and file shifted their affiliation when
negotiations were stalemated by refusal of their
leaders to sign the affidavits.
Still other stoppages— as in the printing in­
dustry—revolved about the preservation of union
shop conditions built up over a long period of years.
In a relatively few instances, as in other recent
years, competition between unions for jurisdiction
over a job to be done, or for the right to represent
a group of workers, found the employer in the
position of affected bystander.
M ost labor-management negotiations in 1948,
as in preceding years, were concluded without work
stoppages. Although complete statistics are not
available, it is currently estimated that over
100,000 collective agreements are in effect. M ost
of these are renegotiated, or reopened, annually.
M any large groups of workers and their em­
ployers came to peaceful settlements during 1948.
Steel workers, observing their contractual no­
strike pledge, first reluctantly accepted a con­
tinuance of their existing wage scales, but later
obtained, by negotiation, an increase averaging
about 13 cents an hour. Several hundred thou­
sand railroad workers, without the almost cus­
tomary intervention of Government mediation or
fact-finding processes, bargained with representa­
tives of the Nation’s carriers and secured an up­
ward adjustment of 10 cents an hour. The same
process of bargaining and compromise was success­
fully followed by countless other employers and
unions—large and small— throughout the country.
In many other instances, State and Federal
conciliation services aided in adjusting contro­
versies. For example, the Federal Mediation and
Conciliation Service handled and helped to resolve
6,832 disputes in 1948. Of this number, 1,077
cases involved work stoppages and 5,755 were

One of the developments during the postwar
period of industrial unrest was the appointment of
“ fact-finding” boards to investigate important dis­
putes and suggest a basis of settlement. These
boards— designated either by the President or the
Secretary of Labor—had no statutory authority.
W ith the enactment of the Labor Management
Kelations Act the President was authorized to
appoint boards of inquiry in so-called national
emergency disputes. Such boards, however,
were limited to reporting the facts of the contro­
versy, without recommendations for settlement.
Appointment of these boards was, in a large sense,
a necessary preliminary step to obtaining a court
injunction to forestall a stoppage or to order the
return of striking workers.

8 See Appendix B, p. 23. for detailed statement on the “ national emer­
gency disputes” of 1948.

8 See Appendix B, p. 23, for details on boards of inquiry appointed
chronology of developments.




controversies or threatened strikes which were
settled before actual stoppages developed.
Direct idleness at sites of the plants or estab­
lishments involved in strikes amounted to less
than 0.4 percent of total working time in American
industry during 1948.
A total of 20 stoppages began in 1948, in which
10,000 or more workers were involved. By con­
trast, a total of 15 such stoppages were recorded
in 1947. Approximately 870,000 workers were
directly affected in the 20 large stoppages and
accounted for 44.5 percent of all workers involved
in stoppages during 1948. Idleness resulting from
the large stoppages aggregated 18,900,000 mandays in 1948, as compared with about 17,700,000
man-days in 1947.
T able 2.— Work stoppages involving 10,000 or more
workers, in selected periods
Stoppages involving 10,000 or more workers
Workers involved
Period

1935-39 average1941....................
1946....................
1947....................
1948....................

Percent
Num­ of total
for
ber
period

11
29
31
15
20

0.4
.7
.6
.4
.6

Number

365,000
1,070,000
2,920,000
1,030,000
870,000

Percent
of total
for
period
32.4
45.3
63.6
47.5
44.5

Man-days idle

Number

Percent
of total
for
period

5,290,000
9,340,000
66,400,000
17,700,000
18,900,000

31.2
40.5
57.2
51.2
55.3

“National Emergency” D isputes3

4
Chart 2. Idleness Due to W ork Stoppages

The “ national emergency” machinery was
invoked seven times in 1948. W ork stoppages
occurred in connection with four of these disputes.
In the bituminous-coal pension dispute the board
of inquiry was created about a week after the
stoppage commenced and in the meat-packing
wage controversy the strike began the day after
the designation o f the board. The West Coast
maritime and longshore controversy and the East
Coast dock dispute were investigated by separate
boards of inquiry. In each o f these two cases the
report of the board was followed by a temporary
injunction restraining the workers from striking
and, after the expiration of the 80-day waiting
period, a strike ensued. Three other labormanagement disputes referred to boards of inquiry
were settled without any interruption o f work.
These controversies included the atomic energy
dispute at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the




telephone industry wage controversy, and the
June dispute between the United M ine Workers
and bituminous-coal operators over the negotiation
of the new contract.

Monthly Trends—Significant Stoppages
The occurrence o f strikes during 1948 conformed
more closely than that o f 1947 to the m onth-bymonth trends noted in other recent years. In the
early months, stoppages increased in number and
continued upward until late summer, when they
tapered off to the customary low point of the year
in December.
The most important o f the 85 stoppages which
continued from 1947 into 1948 was the strike in­
volving about 1,600 typographical workers on 6
Chicago newspapers, over union-security issues in
establishments where the closed shop had been

5
accepted for years. This strike continued through­
out 1948.
M ore than 300 stoppages began in each month
from April through August. W ith the large bitu­
minous-coal and meat-packing strikes in effect,
March and April were the months with the
greatest number of workers involved and the great­
est time loss.
T able 3.— Work stoppages in 1947 and 1948, by month
Number of
stoppages

Month

Workers involved in
stoppages

Man-days idle
during month

In effect
during month
BeginBe­
In
gin­ effect ning
in
ning during month
in
month (thou­
month
sands)

Percent
Num­ of esti­
ber
mated
Num­ Percent (thou­ work­
of
ing
ber
sands)
(thou­ total
tim e1
em­
sands) ployed *

1947
January...............
February_______
March.................
April....................
M ay.....................
June.....................
July.....................
August................
September...........
October...............
November...........
December............

321
296
361
479
471
379
315
336
219
219
178
119

482
498
572
706
781
701
581
583
435
393
328
236

105.0
74.9
95.7
624.0
230.0
448.0
242.0
113.0
79.2
64.3
57.2
32.3

165.0
154.0
168.0
675.0
696.0
597.0
615.0
259.0
187.0
171.0
139.0
56.9

0.50
.47
.51
2.07
2.11
1.79
1.85
.77
.55
.50
.40
.16

1,340
1,230
1,100
8,540
6,730
3,960
3,970
2,520
1,970
1,780
829
590

0.19
.19
.16
1.19
.97
.57
.54
.35
.28
.23
.13
.08

221
256
271
319
339
349
394
355
299
256
216
144

306
367
426
496
553
565
614
603
553
468
388
283

77.5
93.2
494.0
174.0
168.0
169.0
218.0
143.0
158.0
110.0
111.0
40.5

102.0
132.0
552.0
621.0
344.0
243.0
307.0
232.0
267.0
194.0
189.0
93.1

.29
.38
1.58
1.79
.98
.69
.86
.64
.74
.53
.52
.26

1,050
913
6,440
7,410
4,080
2,220
2,670
2,100
2,540
2,060
1,910
713

.14
.13
.80
.97
.57
.28
.36
.26
.33
.27
.26
.09

1948
January...............
February.............
March.................
April....................
May.....................
June.....................
July.....................
August................
September...........
October...............
November...........
December............

1See footnotes 2 and 3, table 1.

During January, approximately 12,000 timber
and sawmill workers, members of the United Con­
struction Workers, affiliated with District 50,
United Mine Workers of America (Ind.), stopped
work for a wage increase, in the tri-State area of
Maryland, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia.
Work was resumed in late January, after the oper­
ators granted a substantial wage increase and
adjusted their cost-price relationships with the
coal-mining and steel companies, the purchasers
of the timber products.
About 10,000 garment workers, members of the
International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union
(AFL), stopped work in Los Angeles in February,
840010—49---- 2




in connection with a drive to organize all nonunion
shops in the area. M ost o f the workers were idle
only a few days, although picketing and individual
stoppages continued over a considerable period
before many o f the shops were brought under
signed contracts.
A demand for increased wages by 1,100 teachers
in Minneapolis closed the city’s public schools on
February 24. This stoppage lasted for almost a
month.
The two largest strikes of the year began in
March when about 83,000 employees of major
meat-packiug companies, and 320,000 bituminous-

6
coal miners became idle. The meat-packing em­
ployees, members of the United Packinghouse
Workers of America (CIO) left their work in about
100 plants on March 16, when employers refused
to offer more than a 9-cent hourly wage increase—
the amount accepted previously by the Amalga­
mated M eat Cutters & Butcher Workmen of
North America (AFL).
Acting under the national-emergency provisions
of the Labor Management Relations Act, the
President appointed a 3-man board of inquiry on
March 15 to investigate the issues and report its
findings. The B oards report was submitted
April 8, and the Federal Mediation and Concilia­
tion Service continued in its attempts to bring
about a settlement. No injunction was sought to
get the workers to return to their jobs. The
strike continued officially until M ay 21, when it
was terminated at the Swift, Armour, Morrell, and
Cudahy plants, following a vote of the employees
to accept the employers’ offer of a 9-cent hourly
wage increase. The settlement also provided for
arbitration of disputes over reinstatement of
strikers charged with unlawful acts during the
stoppages. The fifth large packer— Wilson and
Co.—was unable to reach agreement with the
union on the latter provision, and the strike
continued in its plants until June 5.
M ost of the Nation’s bituminous-coal miners
stopped work on March 15, following a long dis­
pute over the establishment of a pension system
for miners in accordance with the 1947 contract.
The welfare fund provided for in that contract
was to be administered by a board of trustees
composed of an industry representative, a union
representative, and a third or neutral member.
After several months of disagreement the neutral
trustee resigned. The deadlock continued, and
on March 12 the president of the United Mine
Workers advised the miners that the bituminouscoal operators had “ dishonored” their 1947 wage
agreement and had “ defaulted under its provisions
affecting the welfare fund.” The union further
charged that “ no payments of any character have
been made to any beneficiary or to anyone else
from the welfare fund set up under the 1947
agreement.”
A board of inquiry was appointed March 23.
Following its report, a temporary restraining order
was issued on April 3 instructing the union to
order the soft-coal miners back to work and direct­




ing the parties to resume collective bargaining on
the pension plan. No immediate response to the
order was forthcoming, and on April 7, the Govern­
ment filed a request for contempt action against
the union and its president, John L. Lewis.
Three days later (April 10), Joseph W . Martin,
Speaker of the House of Representatives, proposed
that Senator Styles Bridges of New Hampshire be
considered for the post of neutral trustee. The
union and the operators both accepted this sugges­
tion. Two days later, M r. Bridges proposed that
the parties agree to grant pensions of $100 per
month to members of the union who, on and after
M ay 29, 1946, had completed 20 years of service
in the mines and had reached 62 years of age.
This proposal was adopted, with the operators’
representative dissenting.
On April 19, Mr. Lewis and the union were
found guilty of civil and criminal contempt of
court for having failed to instruct the miners to
return to work. The union was fined $1,400,000,
and its president $20,000, on the criminal con­
tempt count. B y April 26, most miners had re­
turned to work; but Mr. Lewis and the union were
still subject to civil penalties if further stoppages
occurred.
Four stoppages, involving 10,000 or more work­
ers each, occurred in April. Of these, the 5-month
strike of about 18,000 workers employed at the
Seattle plant of the Boeing Airplane Co. attracted
widespread attention. The company claimed
that the strike was in violation of the Labor
Management Relations Act, alleging that the local
union, an affiliate of the International Association
of Machinists (Ind.) had broken its no-strike
clause and had failed to give the required 60-day
notice. The striking workers, according to the
company, lost their status as employees and were
not entitled to reinstatement. The National
Labor Relations Board ruled, however, that nego­
tiations had begun in March 1947, prior to the
enactment of the law, and ordered the company
to bargain with the union and reinstate the
striking workers.4
Also in April, a strike of slightly more than 100
members of the United Retail, Wholesale and
Department Store Union (CIO) in New York
4On May 31, 1949, the U. S. Court of Appeals at Washington, D . C., up­
held the company’s position that the strike was illegal since the union
failed to give the required notice of contract termination and consequently
lost its status as bargaining agent.

7
City, against the Times Square Corp., gave rise
to another significant NLRB decision. The
Board ruled that in strike situations not caused by
unfair labor practices, striking employees who have
been replaced are not eligible to vote in collective­
bargaining elections.6
The largest stoppage in M ay was that of
75,000 employees of the Chrysler Corp., which
involved members of the United Automobile
Workers (CIO) working in 16 plants in Indiana,
Michigan, and California. The union originally
demanded an hourly wage increase of 30 cents
and fringe adjustments, but scaled its demands
down to 17 cents an hour just prior to the stoppage,
which began M ay 12. A company offer of 6
cents an hour was withdrawn after its rejection
by the union. The strike was settled on M ay 28,
the workers receiving a flat 13-cent hourly wage
increase under a contract effective until August
1950, with provision for a wage reopening by
either party after June 15, 1949. Several days
earlier, the General M otors Corp. and the UAW CIO had reached an agreement providing for an
11-cent increase with provision for quarterly
adjustments in wages based upon changes in the
Bureau of Labor Statistics consumers7 price
index.
Early in July, about 42,000 workers in “ captive”
coal mines were idle for a short period when
representatives of the large steel companies,
operating the mines, refused to accept the unionshop provision in the 1948 contract previously
agreed upon with the commercial operators.
The captive mine operators filed an unfair labor
practice charge against the union with the N LRB
contending that the provision violated the Labor
Management Relations Act. The General Coun* The occasion for the ruling arose out of an N LR B election conducted on
July 2, in which the employees voted whether or not they wished to be
represented by the Retail Clerks International Association (AFL). Local
830, United Retail, Wholesale and Department Store Union (CIO), which
had represented the employees in the past, was ineligible to appear on the
ballot because it had not complied with the registration and non-Communist
affidavit requirements of the law.
At the election, the employer and the A F L challenged the voting eligibility
of the 109 strikers on the ground that they were not entitled to reinstatement
because they were economic strikers who had been permanently replaced.
Board agents challenged 121 ballots cast by replacements pursuant to the
CIO union's notice that the strike was caused by unfair labor practices of
the employer, that the strikers consequently were entitled to reinstatement,
and that their replacements, therefore, were temporary.
The two sets of challenges, the Board pointed out, brought into issue the
nature of the strike. If the strike was caused by unfair labor practices, then
the strikers would be entitled to \ote. In considering the charge of unfair
labor practices, the Board stated that it was bound by the determination of
the office of the General Counsel and could not review his dismissal of charges
that the employer had committed unfair labor practices.




sel of the NLRB issued a formal complaint on
July 9 against the union and sought to enjoin
the strike in a Federal court in Washington. The
union was given until July 13 to answer the
charges. On that date an agreement was reached
informally— the companies accepting the unionshop provision with the stipulation that it would
be modified if subsequent court rulings required
it.6 The miners were instructed to return to
work the next day, and on July 17 the injunction
petition was dismissed. This controversy evoked
a sympathy stoppage of about 40,000 workers in
commercial mines.
During the latter part of August some 23,000
members of the United Automobile Workers,
employees of the International Harvester Co.,
were idle for about 2 weeks. In this dispute, the
union accused the company of following speed-up
and time-study methods which reduced take-home
pay. Early in September, disputes brought
idleness to 16,000 truck drivers in New York and
Northern New Jersey, 28,000 members of 5 West
Coast maritime and longshore unions, 17,000
employees of a group of oil companies in Cali­
fornia, and 25,000 employees of the Briggs Manu­
facturing Co. in Detroit.
The West Coast maritime strike, involving
28,000 workers, began September 2 after expira­
tion of an 80-day injunction obtained under the
national emergency provisions of the Labor
Management Relations Act. * It continued until
early December. Higher wages and the retention
of the union hiring halls were the principal issues
in dispute. Negotiations were suspended when
the Waterfront Employers Association and the
Pacific-American Shipowners7 Association with­
drew all previous offers, demanding that union
leaders sign non-Communist affidavits before re­
newal of bargaining discussions. Shipping opera­
tions to and from West Coast ports were virtually
halted, although United States Army authorities
made arrangements to move military cargo to the
Orient and Pacific outposts.
Negotiations were resumed on November 10,
and 15 days later agreement was reached with the
International Longshoremen^ and Warehouse­
men^ Union (CIO) providing for a 3-year con• On January 20, 1949, a N LRB trial examiner ruled that the union-shop
provision of the contract between the United Mine Workers and the “ cap­
tive” mine operators was in violation of the Labor Management Relations
Act since no union-shop election had been held as required by the act.

8

Industries Affected
The mining industry (primarily coal) was af­
fected by work stoppages to a greater extent than
any other industry during 1948. Approximately
10,400,000 man-days of idleness occurred in that
industry— more than 30 percent of the total mandays lost. Excepting the record years of 1943 and
1946, this was the largest figure for mining since
1927. The meat-packing strike accounted for the
bulk of the approximately 5 million man-days of
idleness in the food and kindred products group.
Maritime strikes caused the transportation, com ­




munication, and other public utilities groups to
rank third in the amount of time lost, with over
3 million man-days. In fourth place was the
transportation-equipment manufacturing group,
which also had over 3 million man-days of idleness.
T able 4.— Work stoppages beginning in 1948, by industry
group
Stoppages be­ Man-days idle
ginning in 1948
during 1948
Industry group

All industries.
Manufacturing.

Work­ Num­ Percent
of esti­
ers in­
Num­ volved
ber
mated
ber (thous- (thou­ work­
ing
sands)
sands)
tim e3
3,419 1,960.0 34,100.0

0.37
.46

11,675

959.0 17,600.0

Primary metal industries...........................
Fabricated metal products (except ord­
nance, machinery, and transportation
equipment)..............................................
Ordnance and accessories...........................
Electrical machinery, equipment, and
supplies.......... ............... .........................
Machinery (except electrical).....................
Transportation equipment.........................
Lumber and wood products (except furni­
ture).............................. ...........................
Furniture and fixtures................................
Stone, clay, and glass products
Textile mill products...............
Apparel and other finished products made
from fabrics and similar materials ..........
Leather and leather products.....................
Food and kindred products........................
Tobacco manufactures................................
Paper and allied products...........................
Printing, publishing, and allied industries.
Chemicals and allied products...................
Products of petroleum and coal..................
Rubber products.........................................
Professional, scientific, and controlling in­
struments; photographic and optical
goods; watches and clocks......................
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries__

168

56.7 1,450.0

151
1

37.0
.1

Nonmanufacturing................................

1JU

996.0 16,500.0

.81

23
614
380
241
18

23.1
531.0
651.0 10,400.0
108.0 1,430.0
30.2
557.0
1.9
46.3

00
4.51
.29
.03
<>
*

293
150

160.0 3,290.0
20.7
306.0

.34
<>
*

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing...............
Mining..................... ............... ..................
Construction............................ ...................
Trade........................................... ..............
Finance, insurance, and real estate............
Transportation, communication, and
other public utilities....... ......................
Services—personal, business, and other___
Government—administration, protection,
and sanitation4.........................................

64
189
107
100
63
90
82
131
45
162
3
40
43
73
13
48
31
72

25

496.0
.2

31.0
402.0
152.0 2,090.0
278.0 3,170.0
24.6
12.1
22.3
21.2

493.0 }
156.0
365.0
719.0

23.8
267.0
9.8
215.0
133.0 4,720.0
.6
4.3
9.7
142.0
10.9
587.0
21.4
538.0
21.3
752.0
72.3
524.0
5.7
15.3

1.4

.33

.25
59
.89
.18
.27
.19
.08
.19
1.27
.02
.12
.46
.31
1.54
.90

146.0
339.0

8.8

C
O

tract, with average hourly wage increases of 15
cents, additional vacation benefits, and retention
of the union hiring halls pending a court decision
on their legality. Earlier, a tentative agreement
had been reached with the National Marine
Engineers Beneficial Association (CIO ), and the
agreement reached by the longshoremen, paved
the way for quick settlements with the 3 unions
remaining on strike.
No large strikes began in October, but in Novem­
ber Atlantic Coast shipping was disrupted when
about 45,000 members of the International Long­
shoremen’s Association (AFL) stopped work in a
dispute over increased wages and application of
overtime rates of pay. The strike began as
spasmodic stoppages on November 10, but became
a union-authorized coast-wide strike 2 days later.
Shipping from Portland, Maine, to Hampton
Roads, Va., was affected.
As in the case of the Pacific Coast maritime
stoppage, the East Coast longshoremen struck
after the national emergency machinery of the
Labor Management Relations A ct had been used,
and after the 80-day injunction was dissolved as
of midnight, November 9. Union and employer
negotiators reached an agreement on November 9;
but a m ajority of local unions voted against its
acceptance, whereupon the union officially author­
ized the strike.
On November 25, settlement was reached with
the aid of the Federal Mediation and Conciliation
Service, providing for wage increases of 13 cents
in straight-time rates and 19% cents for night,
holiday, and overtime rates, a welfare plan, and
improved vacation benefits. Work was resumed
on November 28 after ratification by union
members.

<»

i This figure is less than the sum of the figures below because two stoppages
which extended into two or more industry groups have been counted in this
table as separate stoppages in each industry group affected; workers involved
and man-days idle were allocated to the respective groups.
3 See footnotes 2 and 3, table 1
* Not available.
4 Stoppages involving municipally operated utilities are included under
“ transportation, communication, and other public utilities.*1

States Affected
New York and Pennsylvania each experienced
about 450 stoppages in 1948. Ohio ranked next
with 256 stoppages, Illinois had 237, and West
Virginia 211.
Less than 10 stoppages were

9
recorded in each of 9 States— Arizona, Delaware,
Idaho, Mississippi, Nevada, North Dakota, South
Dakota, Vermont, and Wyoming.
Idleness exceeded 2 million man-days in 6
States— California, Illinois, Michigan, New York,
Pennsylvania, and West Virginia.
T able 5.— Work stoppages in 1948, by State
Work stoppages begin*
ning m 1948

Man-days idle
during 1948
(all stoppages)

1,960.0

100.0

34,100.0

100.0

Alabama.............. ........................
Arizona.........................................
ArVansas
California.....................................
Colorado.......................................
Connecticut............. - ..................
Delaware.......... ...........................

124
7
12
178
19
42
8

69.8
2.7
4.1
106.0
9.5
18.0
1.7

3.6
.1
.2
5.4
.5
.9
.1

981.0
149.0
87.6
2,790.0
273.0
427.0
26.5

2.9
.4
.3
8.2
.8
1.3
.1

District of Columbia__________
Florida..........................................
Georgia.........................................
Idaho.............. ........................... .
Illinois __
_ _
_
Indiana................... .....................
Iowa................... .........................

10
40
27
6
237
119
28

1.9
9.6
7.4
.4
154.0
76.1
23.6

.1
.5
.4
(>)
7.9
3.9
1.2

35.6
189.0
303.0
4.2
3,540.0
1,070.0
862.0

.1
.6
.9
(2
)
10.4
3.1
2.5

Kansas..........................................
Kentucky__________ __________
Louisiana......... ............................
Maine...........................................
Maryland-....................................
Massachusetts............. ...............
Michigan. ------------ . . . . __ ____

13
117
22
18
26
130
196

10.4
82.1
12.7
3.5
11.7
29.8
262.0

.5
42
.7
.2
.6
1.5
13.4

410.0
1,350.0
152.0
27.7
242.0
815.0
2,450.0

1.2
4.0
.4
.1
.7
2.4
7.2

Minnesota....................................
Mississippi...................................
Missouri.......................................
Montana.......................................
Nebraska................................. ....
Nevada______________________
New Hampshire............. .............

37
8
65
16
14
7
18

16.9
1.4
15.6
2.1
10.9
2.8
2.1

.9
.1
.8
.1
.6
.1
.1

529.0
54.3
371.0
22.8
417.0
38.4
31.4

1.6
.2
1.1
.1
1.2
.1
.1

New Jersey.............................. .
New Mexico.................................
New Y ork .................. ............ .
North Carolina............................
North Dakota..............................
Ohio..............................................
Oklahoma....................................

161
18
450
22
7
266
17

37.8
7.7
155.0
2.6
.6
122.0
3.3

1.9
.4
7.9
.1
(*)
6.2
.2

772.0
82.4
2,380.0
59.4
21.6
1,480.0
76.0

2.3
.2
7.0
.2
.1
4.3
.2

Oregon.... .....................................
Pennsylvania..............................
Rhode Island...............................
South Carolina______________ _
South Dakota..............................
Tennessee.....................................
Texas............................................

60
449
26
10
3
70
68

10.3
309.0
5.1
3.6
.2
27.2
25.1

.5
16.0
.3
.2
(2
)
1.4
1.3

360.0
4,170.0
114.0
24.2
3.1
441.0
280.0

1.1
12.0
.3
.1
(a
)
1.3
.8

Utah.............................................
Vermont.......................................
Virginia........................................
Washington................................
West Virginia...............................
Wisconsin.....................................
Wyoming........................... .........

21
7
85
74
211
71
4

11.5
.6
35.0
37.3
180.0
25.8
4.2

.6
(*)
L8
1.9
9.2
1.3
.2

366.0
14.2
431.0
1,650.0
3,150.0
469.0
109.0

11
(*)
1.3
4.8
92
1.4
.3

. i The sum of this column is more than 3,419 because the stoppages extending
across State lines have been counted in this table as separate stoppages in
each State affected, with the proper allocation of workers involved and man*
days idle.
* Less than a tenth of 1 percent.




T able 6.— Work stoppages in 1948 in selected cities1

City

Number Per­
Num­
(thou­ cent of
ber Number Per­
sands)
total
(thou­ cent of
sands) total
All States..................................... 13,419

Except for New York City, with 295 stoppages,
no city had as many as 100 strikes in the year
There were 96 in Detroit, 66 in Chicago, 57 in
Los Angeles, and 53 in Philadelphia. Over a
million man-days of idleness during work stop­
pages were recorded for four cities: Detroit

Work stoppages be­
ginning m 1948

Workers
involved

State

Cities Affected

Number2

Workers
involved

Man-days
idle during
1948 (all
stoppages"

Akron, Ohio..........................................
Baltimore, M d ......................................
Boston, Mass...................... ..................
Buffalo, N. Y .................. .......... ..........
Chicago, 111............... .........................
Cincinnati, Ohio........ . . ......................

23
10
31
29
66
26

33,500
5,700
11,100
11,300
57,500
6,700

89,700
121.000
235,000
247,000
1,640,000
45,200

Cleveland, Ohio....................................
Dallas, Tex............................................
Detroit, M ich.......................................
East St. Louis, 111.................................
Erie, Pa................... ..............................
Evansville, Ind.......... .......................—

45
10
96
30
10
13

12,100
4,700
193,000
2,620
3,480
32,300

170,000
13,100
1,760,000
88,200
61,000
175,000

Fall River, M ass.—........................... Houston, Tex......................................
Indianapolis, Ind.................... ........... .
Jersey City, N . J.................................
Kansas City, M o .................................
Los Angeles, Calif_____ _____ - ...........

10
18
13
13
10
57

800
4,850
10,700
2,730
2,270
37,900

10,800
38,600
137,000
68,100
12,900
802,000

Lynn, Mass............................. ............
Memphis, Tenn— ...............................
Miami, Fla............................................
Milwaukee, Wis...................................
Minneapolis, Minn.............................
Newark, N . J........................................

10
10
17
18
18
37

950
11,000
2,090
12,400
6,120
9,980

10,000
98,600
90,900
211,000
142,000
138,000

New Bedford, Mass.............................
New Orleans, La..................................
New York. N. Y ..................................
Oakland-East Bay area, Calif.............
Paterson, N . J.......................................
Philadelphia, Pa.................................

13
12
295
20
16
53

3,310
3,000
112,000
17,100
1,120
33,800

83,400
55,800
1,570,000
597,000
22,100
679,000

Pittsburgh. Pa......................................
Portland, Oreg_____________________
Providence. R . I—................................
Rochester, N. Y ....................................
St. Louis, M o.......................................
San Francisco, Calif..........................

40
17
15
13
29
21

10,200
3,990
2,100
1,670
4,050
16,800

140,000
173,000
30,400
26,500
73,300
509,000

Scranton, Pa.........................................
Seattle, Wash.......................................
Springfield, M a ss......................... .
Toledo, Ohio.........................................
Trenton, N . J........... ......... ..................
Washington, D . C..... ................ .........

14
20
11
15
11
10

1,360
25,700
1,740
11,700
630
1,930

19.000
1,300,000
70,300
85,400
7,400
35,600

Wilkes-Barre, Pa— ................. .........
Worcester, Mass....................... ..........
Youngstown, Ohio......... .....................

11
11
11

730
1,590
2,450

10,600
61,200
11,500

1 Data are compiled separately for 160 cities, including all those with a
population of 100,000 and over in 1943 as well as a number of smaller cities in
order to obtain a representative regional distribution. This table includes
data for the cities in this group which had 10 or more stoppages in 1948.
2 Intercity stoppages, except those noted below, are counted in this table
as separate stoppages in each city affected, with the workers involved and
man-days idle allocated to the respective cities. In a few instances it was
impossible to secure the detailed data necessary to make such allocations.
Therefore, the following stoppages are not included in the figures for any
cities affected: (1.) A strike of sardine fishermen in the Los Angeles-Long
Beach harbor area, involving 4,000 workers in October; and (2) scattered
brief stoppages in plants of the Western Electric Co. during July, August,
and September, in which approximately 2,000 employees were involved.

10
(1.760.000) , C h i c a g o (1,640,000), N ew Y o r k
(1.570.000) , and Seattle (1,300,000). See table 6.
The number of cities in which 10 or more
stoppages occurred has dropped steadily from
104 in 1946 to 61 in 1947 and 45 in 1948.

Major Issues Involved
Wage increases and fringe benefits continued to
be important issues in 1948 disputes. About 51
percent of the strikes, 62 percent of the workers
involved, and nearly 74 percent of the total idle­
ness dealt principally with demands for higher
pay. Included in this category was the largest
strike of the year, the prolonged bituminous-coal
stoppage over the activation of the miners’ pension
and welfare fund. In the later and smaller coal
T able 7 .—Major issues involved in work stoppages in 1948
Work stoppages beginning
in 1948

Major issues

All issues................................

Man-days idle
during 1948
(all stoppages)

Workers
involved
PerPer­
cent
Num­ cent
Per­ Number
of
of
ber
total
total Number cent
of
total
3,419 100.0 1,960,000 100.0 34,100,000 100.0

Wages and hours................... 1,737 50.8 1, 210,000
Wage increase.................. 1,310 38.3 657,000
13,000
18
.5
Wage decrease.................
Wage increase, hour de­
4,970
.9
31
crease............................
Other1 .............................
378 11.1 533,000
Union organization, wages
9.4 128,000
322
and hours............................
Recognition, wages and/
37,800
5.6
192
or hours........................
Strengthening bargain­
ing position, wages
5,860
and/or hours.................
25
.7
Closed or union shop,
83,800
wages and/or hours___
96
2.8
Discrimination, wages
290
.2
and/or hours.................
7
380
2
.1
Other...............................
99,800
458 13.4
Union organization................
34,500
9.2
Recognition.....................
313
Strengthening bargain­
4,060
14
.4
ing position..................
50,800
1.8
63
Closed or union shop—
6,060
45
Discrimination................
1.3
4,390
.7
23
Other...............................
736 21.5 383.000
Other working conditions___
341 10.0 134.000
Job security.....................
Shop conditions and pol­
9.7 213,000
331
icies...............................
21,600
46
1.3
Work load.......................
14,400
.5
18
Other...............................
130
3.8 128,000
Inter- or intra-union matters.
89,000
1.3
43
Sympathy.......................
Union rivalry or faction33,400
1.4
49
alism.............................
4,250
35
1.0
Jurisdiction-....................
1,220
.1
3
Union regulations...........
36
6,430
1.1
Not reported..........................

61.9 25,200,000
33.7 14,600,000
.7
533,000

73.9
42.6
1.6

111,000
.3
27.2 10, 000,000

.3
29.4

6.5 4,390,000

12.9

1.9

772,000

2.3

.3

229,000

.7

4.3 3,390,000

9.9

2,100
<>
2
710
(2
)
5.1 1,590,000
729,000
1.8

(2
)
(2
)
4.7
2.1

108,000
.2
632,000
2.6
62,900
.3
58,100
.2
19.6 1,740,000
656,000
6.9

.3
1.9
.2
.2
5.1
1.9

10.9
973,000
78,800
1.1
28,900
.7
6.6 1,080,000
477,000
4.6

2.9
.2
.1
3.2
1.4

566,000
27,200
14,000
69,900

1.7
.1
(2
)
.2

1.7
.2
.1
.3

1 This category includes the bituminous-coal pension dispute involving
320,000 workers,
2 Less than a tenth of 1 percent.




strike of 42,000 “ captive” coal miners, as well as
in stoppages in the maritime and printing indus­
tries, the retention of well-established unionsecurity provisions was an important factor.
Roughly, about a fifth of the 1948 strike activity
centered on questions of union recognition and
union-security provisions. Prominent also in
some of these disputes were wage issues. A
number of stoppages—for instance, those at the
National Carbon Co. in Cleveland, the H oover
Co. in North Canton, and the Univis Lens Co.
in Dayton, Ohio, the Bucyrus Erie Co. in Evans­
ville, Ind., and Government Services, Inc., in
Washington, D . C.— centered on the alleged re­
fusal oi emplovers to recognize or negotiate with
unions not certified as bargaining agents by the
N LRB. In most cases these unions were ineligible
for certification because o f their refusal to file nonCommunist affidavits.
Jurisdictional, union rivalry, and sympathy
strikes accounted for about 1 out of every 25
stoppages. These controversies affected less than
7 percent o f the total workers involved and ac­
counted for 3.2 percent of all idleness.

Contract Status at Time of Stoppage
Slightly more than a third of the stoppages in
1948 occurred while union-management contracts
were in effect. M any of these were over griev­
ances which were not settled successfully. Others
resulted from disputes over the renewal of the
contract which was soon to expire. In still other
cases the stoppages resulted from alleged attempts
to change the terms of the contract while in force.
Approximately half of the year’s stoppages
occurred when no governing contract was in effect.
M ost of these disputes were over terms of new
contracts to replace those recently expired.
Many, of course, resulted from attempts to obtain
union recognition or an initial contract.
In nearly 200 cases the union and company
reported disagreement as to whether contracts
actually were in effect when the stoppages occurred.

Pre-stoppage Mediation
Sixty-nine percent of the stoppages in 1948 took
place without the utilization of a mediation agency
or neutral third party to help settle the disputes.

11
M any of these open breaks could undoubtedly
have been avoided if the parties had called in
experienced mediators from Federal, State, or local
agencies. The experience of these agencies has
been that a large m ajority of the disputes referred
to them, before a strike or lock-out begins, can be
settled without a work stoppage.
In 1,066 or 31 percent of the total stoppages,
however, third-party mediators participated in
negotiations before the stoppages began.

Length of Disputes Before Stoppages
For 2,423 or over two-thirds of the stoppages
beginning in 1948, some information was obtained
to show how long the disputes had existed before
an interruption of work occurred. In nearly a
fourth of these cases companies and unions dis­
agreed as to how long the disputes had been in
effect. Among the cases in which there was
agreement on the point, 14 percent of the stop­
pages were essentially spontaneous, arising from
disputes at the moment or within a day while 27
percent resulted from disputes that had existed
for 2 months or more. About 13 percent of the
disputes reportedly had been in effect for 60 days
before stoppages took place.
Length of dispute
before stoppage

1 day or less________
1 day and less than
month____________
yLmonth and less than
<
2 months. _____ ___
2 months (60 days) _ _
Over 2 months______
Total________

Stoppages
Number Percent

Workers involved
Number
Percent

267

14.4

81, 000

6 .4

419

22.6

11 0, 0 0 0

8 .6

435
237
497

23.5
12.7
26.8

220, 000
160, 000
702, 000

17.3
12.6
55. 1

1, 855

100.0

1, 273, 000

100.0

Unions Involved
Unions affiliated with the AFL were involved in
more stoppages than were CIO affiliates. However,
both the CIO and unaffiliated-union groups each
had a greater number of workers involved in stop­
pages than did the AFL; they also accounted for
the bulk o f the year's total idleness.




T a b l e 8 .— W ork stoppages in 1 9 4 8 , by affiliation o f unions
involved
Stoppages beginning in 1948

Affiliation of union

PerNum­ cent
ber
of
total

Man-days idle
during 1948
(all stoppages)

Workers
involved

Num­
ber

Per­
Per­
cent Number cent
of
of
total
total

Total....................................... 3,419 100.0 1,960,000 100.0 34,100,000 100.0
American Federation of
Labor.................................. 1,446
Congress of Industrial Or­
ganizations..........................
966
Unaffiliated unions................
867
Rival unions (different affil­
iations)................................
47
Single firm unions.................
10
Cooperating unions (differ­
ent affiliations)...................
20
No unions involved...............
65
Not reported.............. ...........
8

42.2

426,000

21.8 6, 000,000

17.6

28.3
25.1

692,000
749,000

35.4 12,400,000
38.4 12,900,000

36.3
37.8

1.4
.3

32,200
6,440

.6
1.9
.2

44,700
4,120
540

1.6
.3

561,000
59,800

L6
.2

2.3 2,130,000
.2
61,000
4,810
0)

6.3
.2
<>
*

1 Less than a tenth of 1 percent.

Establishments Involved
About 73 percent of all stoppages in 1948 oc­
curred in a single plant or establishment— approxi­
mately the same proportion as in 1947. The
proportion of workers involved in single-establish­
ment disputes (32.7 percent of the total) was a
little greater than the 27.3 percent in 1947. Less
than 10 percent of the stoppages extended into
more than 10 establishments, but these stoppages
T able 9.— Work stoppages in 1948, by number of estab­
lishments involved
Stoppages beginning in 1948
Workers in­
volved

Number of establishments
Per­
involved1
Num­ cent
ber
of
total Number

Per­
cent
of
total

Man-days idle
during 1948
(all stoppages)

Number

Per­
cent
of
total

All establishments............... 3,419 100.0 1,960,000 100.0 34,100,000 100.0
1 establishment.................... 2,494
2 to 5 establishments............
457
141
6 to 10 establishments..........
11 establishments and over..
311
Not reported........................
16

72.9
13.4
4.1
9.1
.5

640.000
236.000
139.000
933.000
9,220

32.7 7.990.000 23.4
12.1 3.860.000 11.3
7.1 1.810.000 5.3
47.6 20,300,000 59.5
.5
162,000
.5

12
T a b l e 10 .— W ork stoppages in 1948, classified by number
o f workers involved
Stoppages beginning in 1948
Workers in­
volved
Number of workers

PerNum­ cent
ber
of
total Number

All vrm'kfirs

T

Jan.

able

128

(2
)

Mar. 15.

40

Mar. 16.

*67
2

Mar. 22.
Apr. 6..

*8

Apr. 7..

4

Apr. 8. .

35

Apr. 22..

5 142

May 12—

17

June 29 ®
.

2

July 6—

9

Do

9

Aug. 17-

16

Sept. 1—
Sept. 2__

1 1 .—

14.5
35.2
22.0
13.6
7.5
6.0
.6
.6

5,930
59,300
121,000
160,000
176.000
434.000
131.000
870.000

.3
97,400
.3
3.0 1.030.000 3.0
6.2 1.820.000 5.3
8.2 1.960.000 5.8
9.0 3.120.000 9.1
22.2 6.250.000 18.3
6.7
977,000 2.9
44.4 18,900,000 55.3

O
93




Size of Stoppages
As in the preceding year, approximately half
of the stoppages in 1948 involved fewer than 100
workers. A t the other end of the scale were 20
stoppages which involved 5,000 to 10,000 workers
each and another 20 which involved 10,000 or
more workers each. The first group were short
stoppages and accounted for only 2.9 percent of
the total idleness. The 20 largest stoppages, on
the other hand, accounted for 44 percent of the
total workers involved in stoppages and 55 percent

Work stoppages beginning in 1948 in which 10,000 or more workers were involved

Approxi­
mate
duration Establishment(s) and location
(calendar
days)

3.

Feb. 17.

Number

Per­
cent
of
total

3,419 100.0 1,960,000 100.0 34,100,000 100.0

496
6 and under 20____________
20 and under 100................... 1,204
751
100 and under 250_________
466
250 and under 500_________
257
500 and under 1,000________
205
1,000 and under 5,000______
20
5,000 and under 10,000_____
20
10,000 and over____________

Beginning
date

Per­
cent
of
total

Man-days idle
during 1948
(all stoppages)

were responsible for 48 percent of the total workers
involved and 60 percent of the idleness.

Timbermen
and sawmill
workers, western Pennsylvania and Maryland, and
northern West Virginia.
Women’s garment manufac­
turers, Los Angeles, Calif.
Bituminous-coal strike, Na­
tion-wide.

Union(s) involved

United Construction Workers,
affiliated with District 50
U M W A (independent).
International Ladies Garment
Workers (AFL).
United Mine Workers (inde­
pendent).

Meat-packing plants 20 States. United Packinghouse Workers
(CIO).
United Automobile Workers
(CIO).
United Mine Workers (inde­
pendent).
United Rubber, Cork, Lino­
leum, & Plastic Workers
(CIO).
United Farm Equipment &
Metal Workers (CIO); United
Automobile Workers (CIO);
United Automobile Workers
(AFL).
Boeing Airplane Co., Seattle, Aero Mechanics, affiliated with
International Association of
Wash.
Machinists (independent).
Chrysler
Corp.,
Detroit, United Automobile Workers
Mich., Evansville, Ind.,
(CIO).
and Maywood, Calif.
International Harvester Co., United Farm Equipment and
Metal Workers (CIO).
10 plants in New York,
Indiana, Illinois, and Ken­
tucky.
“ Captive” coal mines, 5 United Mine Workers (inde­
pendent).
States.
D o___
Bituminous-coal mines, scat­
tered locations.
International Harvester Co., United Automobile Workers
(CIO).
Indiana, Illinois, Ohio, and
Tennessee.
Hudson Motor Car Co., De­
troit, Mich.
Anthracite mines, Pennsyl­
vania.
Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.
(Plants 1 and 2), Akron,
Ohio.
Caterpillar Tractor Co.,
Peoria, 111.

Truckers’ strike, New York
and northern New Jersey.
Maritime industry, West
Coast.

International Brotherhood of
Teamsters (AFL).
International Longshoremen’s
and Warehousemen’s Union
(CIO); Marine Cooks & Stew­
ards (CIO); Marine Engineers
Beneficial Association (CIO);
Marine Firemen, Oilers, Watertenders & Wipers Associa­
tion (Independent); Radio Of­
ficers’ Union (Independent).

Approxi­
mate
number
of
workers
involved

Major terms of settlement

11,000

Wage increase averaging about 28H percent, contingent
upon acceptance of an agreement by buyers of timber
to pay increased prices.

10,000

Brief stoppage in connection with a local organizing
campaign.
Dispute over miners’ pensions terminated with selec­
tion of a neutral trustee and subsequent adoption of a
plan calling for pensions of $100 per month to qualified
members of U M W A who were 62 years old and who
had completed 20 years of service in the mines on or
after May 29,1946.
Acceptance of prestrike offer of a 9-cent hourly wage
increase.
Strike terminated when management agreed to recon­
sider the cases of discharged workers.
Work resumed following clarification of bituminouscoal pension controversy. (See above.)
Agreement to arbitrate dispute over suspension of
worker.

320,000

83,000
13,000
30,000
10,000
20,000

Employer questioned U FEM W ’s right to bargain on
renewed contract; stoppage terminated following
NLR B representation election.

18,000

Acceptance of company’s prestrike offer of a 15-cent
hourly increase.

75,000

2-year contract providing for a wage increase of 13
cents per hour and a wage reopening provision.

34,000

Wage increase of 11 cents hourly made retroactive to
June 28, and retention of provisions in old contract.

42,000

Retention of union shop clause with proviso for revision
if required by court rulings.
Miners returned to work when the agreement was
signed in the captive mine strike.
Agreement providing for automatic progression from
minimum to maximum wage scale, policies for arbi­
tration and overtime pay for holidays falling on offduty days.
Wage increases of 15 cents per hour and upward, based
on local union settlements.
Separate agreements with different unions provided for
wage increases varying in amounts. Longshoremen
received increase of 15 cents per hour, additional vaca­
tion benefits, and retention of union hiring halls
pending court decision on their legality.

40,000
23,000

16,000
28,000

13
T a b l e 11 .— W ork stoppages beginning in 1 9 4 8 in which lOfiOO or more workers were involved— Continued

Beginning
date

Sept. 4..........

Approxi­
mate
duration Establishment^) and location
(calendar
days)
(8
)

Sept. 8..........

16

Nov. 9..........

4

Nov. 10........

18

Union(s) involved

Oil companies, California........ Oil W orkersIntemationalUnion
(CIO).
United Plant Guard Workers
(Independent).

Briggs Manufacturing Co.,
Detroit, Mich.
Chrysler
Mich.
Shipping
Coast.

Corp.,

Detroit,

operators,

East

United Automobile Workers
(CIO).
International Longshoremen’s
Association (AFL).

i By late January approximately 8,000 workers had returned; others re-

f i l m e d o K n n t O urnolrQ 1otni*

iM ost workers idle 2 days; 3,000 workers for 5 days; 500 idle for approxi­
mately 2 months.
* Settlements reached with Swift, Armour, and Cudahy plants on M ay 21.
Stoppage continued at Wilson plants until June 5.
* Some workers out only 2 or 3 days.
« Total length of stoppage; some workers returned to their jobs during strike
and company also hired replacements.

of the idleness. The 20 stoppages involving
10,000 or more workers are listed separately in
table 11.

Duration of Stoppages :
About a fourth of the stoppages ending in 1948
lasted from 1 to 3 days, approximately half of them
lasted from 4 days to 1 month and the remaining
quarter lasted for 1 month or longer. Over
three-fourths of the total time lost during strikes
in 1948 was in connection with stoppages which
lasted for a month or more. (See table 12.) On
the average, stoppages lasted 21.8 calendar days
T able

12.— Duration of work stoppages ending in 1948
Stoppages
Duration

Workers
involved

Man-days idle

Per­
Per­
Num­ cent Number cent
of
ber
of
total
total

Number

Per­
cent
of
total

All periods........................... 3,396 100.0 1,940,000 100.0 33,200,000 100.0
1 day.....................................
2 to 3 days............................
4 days and less than 1 w eek1 week and less than H
month................................
H month and less than 1
month................................
1 month and less than 2
months..............................
2 months and less than 3
months..............................
3 months and over...............




127,000
196,000
183,000

127,000
368,000
602,000

.4
1.1
1.8

17.4

2, 200,000

6.6

19.5

4,570,000 13.7

335
531
455

9.9
15.6
13.4

6.5
10.1
9.4

708

20.8

338,000

590

17.4

379,000

468

13.8

505,000

26.1 12,800,000 38.6

165
144

4.9
4.2

127,000
87,700

6.5
4.5

5,930,000 17.8
6,650,000 20.0

Approxi­
mate
number
of
workers
involved
17,000
25,000
13,000
45,000

Major terms of settlement

Wage increase of 12M cents per hour in most settlements
with individual companies.
A 2-year contract retaining a disputed 5-minute pre­
paratory time arrangement and providing a main*
tenance of membership clause.
Dispute over production standards to be handled
through grievance procedure.
Wage increase of 13 cents in straight-time rates, 19J4
cents in overtime rates, a welfare plan and improved
vacation benefits.

6 Approximately 2,000 workers at Auburn, N. Y., went out on June 15
and remained out until June 30.
7 Approximately 10,000 New York truck drivers and helpers idled Sept. 1,
with the New Jersey workers going out on Sept. 7. On Sept. 18, individual
companies began to sign separate agreements with the union.
8 First settlements with individual companies were reached about Nov. 4;
other settlements later in November. About 1,600 employees of one com­
pany still on strike at the end of December.

in 1948. This compares with 25.6 calendar days
in 1947, and 24.2 in 1946. During the war years
(1942-45) the average was 7.8 calendar days; in
the prewar period of 1935-39 it was 22.5.

Methods of Terminating Stoppages
Approximately 44 percent of the stoppages in
1948 were terminated by agreement between the
employers and unions (or workers) involved with­
out the help of any outside agency. This repre­
sents a slight increase over 1947 when about 40
percent of all stoppages were settled directly.
About one-fifth of all stoppages were terminated
without formal settlement as contrasted with 14
percent in 1947 and about 12 percent in 1946.
This group includes “ lost” strikes in which
workers returned to their jobs without settlement
or sought other employment because their cause
appeared hopeless. About 13 percent of all
workers involved were in this group.
Government mediation and conciliation agencies
(local, State, and/or Federal) assisted in termi­
nating approximately 31 percent of all stoppages
as compared with almost 43 percent in 1947 and
53 percent in 1946. During the war years (194245) considerably more than half of the stoppages
were terminated with the assistance of Govern­
ment agencies.

14
T a b l e 1 3 .— M ethod o f terminating work stoppages ending
in 1 9 4 8

Stoppages
Method of termination

Per­
Num­ cent
of
ber
total

Workers
involved

Num­
ber

Per­
cent
of
total

Man-days
idle

Num­
ber

Per­
cent
of
total

All methods.......................... 3,396 100.0 1,940,000 100.0 33,200,000 100.0
A greem ent o f p arties
reached—
Directly.......................... 1,476
With assistance of non­
government media­
tors or agencies...........
25
With assistance of Gov­
ernment agencies........ 1,037
Terminated without formal
settlement.......................... 681
Employers discontinued
business............................
43
Not reported......................... 134

43.5

607,000

31.1

6,630,000

335,000

17.3

8,370,000

25.2

30.5

715,000

36.9 15,400,000

46.3

20.1

258,000

13.3

2,570,000

7.7

1.3
3.9

3,610
23,700

.2
1.2

158,000
117,000

.5
.4

Stoppages

Disposition of Issues
In almost 72 percent of the stoppages ending in
1948 the major issues were settled or disposed of
at the termination of the stoppage. This group
involved the largest percentage of workers (74.4)
and man-days lost (85.2).
In 16 percent of the stoppages the parties agreed
to resume work and then settle the issues directly




T able 14.— Disposition of issues in work stoppages ending
in 1948

19.9

.7

by further negotiations. Nearly 4 percent of the
disputes went to arbitration after work was re­
sumed. Government agencies were to assist with
negotiations in 2 percent and many other disputes
were referred to the National Labor Relations
Board for action.

Disposition of issues

Workers
involved

Per­
Per­
Num­ cent
Number cent
ber
of
of
total
total

Man-days idle

Number

Per­
cent
of
total

Total..................................... 3,396 100.0 1,940,000 100.0 33,200,000 100.0
Issues settled or disposed of
Some or all issues to ^ a d ­
justed after resumption of
work—
B y direct negotiation
between employer (s)
and union...................
B y negotiation with the
aid of Government
agencies.......................
By arbitration...............
By other means1...........
Not reported........................

2,432

71.6 1,440,000

74.4 28,300,000

527

15.5

260,000

13.4

2,370,000

7.1

68
132
109
128

2.0
3.9
3.2
3.8

114,000
70,300
23,200
29,700

5.9
3.6
1.2
1.5

1,060,000
618,000
713,000
156,000

3.2
1.9
2.1
.5

85.2

i Included in this group are the cases which were referred to the National or
State labor relations boards or other agencies for decisions or elections.

Appendix A
turing and nonmanufacturing industry groups.
The principal developments in connection with
the boards of inquiry are shown in chronological
order on page 23. These boards were appointed
in 1948 under the national emergency provisions
of the Labor Management Relations Act.

Tables A and B which follow present data for
work stoppages in specific industries and within
each industry group by major issues involved.
In each of 26 States there were 25 or more stop­
pages in 1948. In table C the stoppages in each
of these States are classified according to manufac­
T able

Industry

A .— Work stoppages in 1948, by specific industry

Stoppages begin­ Man-days
ning in 1948
idle dur­
ing 1948
Num­ Workers (all stop­
pages)
ber
Involved
13,419 1,960,000 34,100,000

All industries.

M anufacturing
Primary metal industries....................................
Blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling
mills............................................................
Iron and steel foundries................................
Primary smelting and refining of nonferrous metals.............................................
Secondary smelting and refining of nonferrous metals and alloys...........................
Rolling, drawing, and alloying of nonferrous metals. . . .......................................
Nonferrous foundries. ..................................
Miscellaneous primary metal industries—
Fabricated metal products (except ordnance,
machinery, and transportation equipment)..
Tin cans and other tinware..........................
Cutlery, hand tools, and general hardware.
Heating apparatus (except electric) and
plumbers’ supplies.....................................
Fabricated structural metal products.........
Metal stamping, coating, and engraving. _.
Lighting fixtures............................................
Fabricated wire products.............................
Miscellaneous fabricated metal products. —

168

56,700

1,450,000

52
54

18,700
22,100

430,000
598,000

5

1,520

114,000

3
12

480
4,380

14,700
72,800

23
19

6,260
3,230

137,000
82,300

151
5
16

37,000
1,090
12,600

496,000
28,400
182,000

28
32
28
8
H
23

5,530
7,020
4,160
1,000
2,400
3,190

64,900
80,200
31,800
18,000
28,100
63,200

Ordnance and accessories....................................
Small arms.....................................................

1
1

130
130

230
230

Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies.
Electrical generating, transmission, dis­
tribution, and industrial apparatus.........
Electrical appliances.....................................
Insulated wire and cable..............................
Electrical equipment for motor vehicles,
aircraft, and railway locomotives and cars.
Electric lamps...............................................
Communication equipment and related
products......................................................
Miscellaneous electrical products................
Machinery (except electrical).............................
Engines and turbines....................................
Agricultural machinery and tractors...........
Construction and mining machinery and
equipment..................................................
Metalworking machinery................. ...........
Special-industry machinery (except metal­
working machinery)..................................
General industrial machinery and equip­
ment- ........................—.............................
Office and store machines and devices........
Service-industry and household machines..
Miscellaneous machinery parts....................

64

31,000

402,000

25
6
3

17,500
2,990
1,610

181,000
36,400
2,390

8
5

3,100
910

60,600
10,200

12
5
1189
6
23

3,470
1,390
152,000
8,840
74,900

63,400
48,000
2,090,000
38,600
846,000

20
30

8,560
10,500

111,000
279,000




5,410

134,000

5,980
9,900
17,200
10,500

131,000
156,000
249,000
147,000

107
ment...........................................................
Aircraft and parts.. .....................................
Ship and boat building and repairing.........
Railroad equipment.................................... .
Transportation equipment, not elsewhere
classified.....................................................
See footnote at end of table.

23
23
12
21
32

278,000

3,170,000

78
8
11
9

248,000
21,400
4,720
4,440

1,920,000
1, 110,000
41,900
92,900

1

40

2,490

Industry

Lumber and wood products (except furniture).
Logging camps and logging contractors___
Sawmills and planing mills..........................
Millwork, plywood, and prefabricated
structural wood products..........................
Wooden containers.......................................
Miscellaneous wood products......................

Stoppages begin­ Man-days
ning in 1948
idle dur­
ing 1948
Num- Workers (all stop­
ber
Involved pages)

100
19
32

24,600
14,800
4,620

493.000
264.000
136.000

14
18
17

1,400
2,120
1,690

35.200
31,600
27.200

Furniture Mid fixtures........................................
Household furniture.....................................
Office furniture..............................................
Public-building and professional furniture.
Partitions, shelving, lockers, and office and
store fixtures...............................................
Window and door screens, shades, and
Venetian blinds..........................................

63
49
4
1

12,100
10,400
800
60

156,000
90,800
44,600
2,780

2

460

13,700

Stone, clay, and glass products...........................
Flat glass.......................................................
Glass and glassware, pressed or blown........
Glass products made of purchased glass___
Cement, hydraulic........................................
Structural clay products..............................
Pottery and related products.......................
Concrete, gypsum, and plaster products...
Cut-stone and stone products.....................
Abrasive, asbestos, and miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral products.........................

90

22,300
360
1,500
700
1,430
6,850
3,100
620
1,360

365.000
1,180
8,810
5,210
36,900
114.000
62,000
10,600
17,700

Textile mill products...........................................
Yam and thread mills (cotton, wool, silk,
and synthetic fiber)...................................
Broad-woven fabric mills (cotton, wool,
silk, and synthetic fiber)...........................
Narrow fabrics and other smallwares mills
(cotton, wool, silk, and synthetic fiber)..
Knitting mills....... .......................................
Dyeing and finishing textiles (except knit
goods).........................................................
Carpets, mgs, and other floor coverings___
Hats (except cloth and millinery)...............
Miscellaneous textile goods..........................
Apparel and other finished products made from
fabrics M id similar materials.......... ..............
Men’s, youths’, and boys’ suits, coats, and
overcoats....................................................
Men’s, youths’ and boys’ furnishings, work
clothing, and allied garments...................
Women’s and misses’ outerwear..................
Women’s, misses’, children’s and infants’
under garments..........................................
Millinery.......................................................
Children’s and infants’ outerwear...............
Fur goods.......................................................
Miscellaneous apparel and accessories.........
Miscellaneous fabricated textile products. .
Leather and leather products.............................
Leather—tanned, curried, and finished____
Industrial leather belting and packing........
Boot and shoe cut stock and findings..........
Footwear (except rubber).............................
Luggage.........................................................
Handbags and small leather goods..............

(15)

7

2

5
9
4
23
9
13
8

4,130

17

6,400

108.000

82

21,200

719.000

7

4,820

164.000

17

5,540

297.000

200

1,900

30,200
68.500

6
3
11

4,100
3,090
160
1,440

39,000
81,400
1,700
37.500

131

23,800

267.000

2

30

230

15
71

3,940
13,300

72,700
113.000

9

3,080
110
200

10

2,200

11

160
760

27,200
1,830
1,350
38,700
2,370
9,860

45
8

9,770
940
880
150
7,390
320
90

215.000
24,500
58,300
680
129.000
2,510
540

2

13
4
5

2
2

28
4
1

16
T a b l e A .— W ork stoppages in 1 9 4 8 , by specific industry — Continued

Industry

Stoppages begin­ Man-days
ning in 1948
idle dur­
ing 1948
Num­ Workers (all stop­
pages)
ber
Involved

Food and kindred products................................
Meat products................................- ............
Dairy products.............................................
Canning and preserving fruits, vegetables,
and sea foods ..........................................
Grain-mill products......................................
Bakery products...........................................
Sugar..............................................................
Confectionery and related products............
Beverage industries......................................
Miscellaneous food preparations and kin­
dred products.............................................

162
28
7
22

133,000
90,400
660
3,880

4,720,000
3,780,000
15,600
78,300

16
29
2
6
40

4,400
12,300
2,710
1,450
15,200

57,500
190,000
215,000
18,400
279,000

12

2,030

81,100

Tobacco manufactures........................................
Cigars............................................................

3
3

550
550

4,290
4,290

Paper and allied products...................................
Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills.............
Envelopes......................................................
Paper bags.....................................................
Paperboard containers and boxes...............
Pulp goods and miscellaneous converted
paper products...........................................

40
14
1
1
9

9,720
3,580
80
40
1,520

142,000
51,400
3,200
270
19,400

15

4,500

67,800

Printing, publishing, and allied industries____
Newspapers. ................. - ........... - ...............
Periodicals.....................................................
Commercial printing....................................
Lithographing...............................................
Greeting cards............................................. .
Bookbinding and related industries............
Service industries for the printing trade—

43
15
1
15
4
1
3
4

10,900
720
20
9,190
440
60
320
180

587,000
264,000
220
300,000
10,100
220
8,510
3,820

Chemicals and allied products...........................
Industrial inorganic chemicals................... .
Industrial organic chemicals........................
Drugs and medicines................................. .
Soap and glycerin, cleaning and polishing
preparations, and sulfonated oils and

73
15
15
7

21,400
6,100
9,890
730

538,000
189,000
251,000
14,600

3

40

530

7
1
6
6

2,030
250
750
290

27,600
5,020
18,500
7,500

13

1,320

24,500

13
6
3
4
48
31
1
2
14

21,300
20,100
570
560
72,300
62,000
1,070
180
9,100

752,000
728,000
11,100
12,400
524,000
303,000
1,070
3,230
217,000

Paints, varnishes, lacquers, japans, and
enamels; inorganic color pigments, whit­
ing, and wood fillers..................................
Gum and wood chemicals............................
Fertilizers....................................................
Vegetable and animal oils and fats............ .
Miscellaneous chemicals, including indusProducts of petroleum and coal.........................
Petroleum refining........................................
Coke and byproducts...................................
Paving and roofing materials.......................
Rubber products................................................
Tires and inner tubes...................................
Rubber footwear...........................................
Reclaimed rubber.........................................
Rubber industries, not elsewhere classified.
Professional, scientific, and controlling instru­
ments; photographic and optical goods;
watches and clocks...........................................
Laboratory, scientific, and engineering in­
struments (except surgical, medical, and
dental) .................................................. .
Mechanical measuring and controlling
instruments.............................................. .
Optical instruments and lenses.................. .
Surgical, medical, and dental instruments
and supplies............................................. .
Ophthalmic goods....................................... .
Photographic equipment and supplies------

31

5,720

146,000

4

610

36,700

2
7

650
1,810

16,300
15,400

5
7
5

750
880
980

18,200
50,000
8,820

i This figure is less than the sum of the group totals below. This is because
a few strikes each affecting more than 1 industry, have been counted as separate strikes in each industryaffected, with the proper allocation of workers
and man-days idle to each industry.




Industry

Stoppages begin­ Man-days
ning in 1948
idle dur­
ing 1948
Num­ Workers (all stopInvolved
ber

Professional, scientific, and controlling instru­
ments; photographic and optical goods;
watches and clocks—Continued
Watches, clocks, clockwork-operated de­
vices, and parts..........................................

40

80

15,300
400
300
5,540

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries...........
Jewelry, silverware, and plated ware..........
Musical instruments and parts. .................
Toys and sporting and athletic goods.........
Pens, pencils, and other office and artists’
materials-..................................................
Costume jewelry, costume novelties, but­
tons, and miscellaneous notions (except
precious metal)..........................................
Fabricated plastics products, not elsewhere
classified.....................................................
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries...

339.000
14,700
1,800

101.000

24,000
2,820

2,200

92,700

3,260

39.400
65.400

23,100
11,200
11,900

531.000
270.000
260.000

Nonm anufacturing
Agiiculture, forestry, and fishing.......................
Agriculture....................................................
Fishing..........................................................

23
10
13

Mining......................................................
Metal mining.....................................
Coal mining, anthracite....................
Coal mining, bituminous..................
Nonmetallic mining and quarrying.

614
651.000 10,400,000
8,860
11
473.000
54,500
26
274.000
561 2 582,000 9.560.000
5,400
16
56,500

Construction. .................... .........................
Building construction...........................
Highways, streets, bridges, docks, etc..
Miscellaneous- ..................................... .

380
345
31
4

108.000
103,000
280

1.430.000
1.340.000
80,600
5,960

Trade.............
Wholesale.
Retail____

241
78
163

30,200
10,800
19,500

557.000
102.000
456,000

18

1,890

46,300

Finance, insurance, and real estate....................
Finance-banks, credit agencies, investment
trusts, etc...................................................
Insurance......................................................
Real estate..................................................
Transportation, communication, and other
public utilities..................................................
Railroads...................... .............................. .
Streetcar and local bus transportation........
Intercity motorbus transportation..............
Motortruck transportation......................... .
Taxicabs........................................................
Water transportation.................................. .
Air transportation....................................... .
Communication............................................
Heat, light, and power.................................
Miscellaneous. .............................................
Services—personal, business, and other____
Hotels.......................................................
Laundries.................................................
Cleaning, dyeing, and pressing...............
Barber and beauty shops........................
Business services. ....................................
Automobile repair services and garages .
Amusement and recreation....................
Medical and other health services..........
Educational services................................
Miscellaneous-.......................... ...................j
Government—administration, protection, and
sanitation..........................................................|

1
1
16

1,200

40

29,000
700
16,600

160,000
3,670
13,300
1,270
30,100
6,630
83,800
1,760
5,160
2,530

3.290.000

12,200

39,300
309.000
106.000
2.270.000
114.000
174.000
13,600
73,800

6
17
17

20,700
1.720
7.720
1,700
200
2,370
600
550
810
4,280
780

306.000
19,100
103.000
19.700
1,140
26,000
25,000
6,270
13,500
61.700
31,200

25

1,440

8,830

293
12

45
21

55
52
40
3
12

18
35
150
16
25
15
6
18
20

10

108,000

86,000

2 These are more workers than are employed in the industry. Many workers
were involved in more than ones toppage and were counted separately each
time,

17
T a b l e B .— W ork stoppages in 1 9 4 8 , by industry group and major issues
Stoppages begin­
ning in 1948
Industry group and major issues
Num­
ber
All industries.................................................
Wages and hours....................................
Union organization, wages, and hours..
Union organization................................
Other working conditions......................
Interunion or intraunion matters.........
Not reported...........................................
IP
All manufacturing industries.......................
Wages and hours....................................
Union organization, wages, and hours..
Union organization................................
Other working conditions— .................
Interunion or intraunion matters.........
Not reported..........................................

Workers
involved

Mandays idle
during
1948 (all
stop­
pages)

3,419 1,960,000 34,100,000
1,737 1, 210,000 25,200,000
322
128,000 4,390,000
99,800 1,590,000
458
383,000 1,740,000
736
128,000 1,080,000
130
69,900
6,430
36
11,675
927
219
254
219
46
11

959,000 17,600,000
595,000 13,000,000
80,100 2,150,000
34,900
888,000
915,000
213,000
583,000
34,000
52,500
1,860

168
97
10
17
41
1
2

56,700
37,800
3,530
3,750
9,860
1,000
770

1,450,000
1,080,000
107,000
151,000
99,700
13,600
1,370

Union organization, wages, and hours..
Union organization................................
Other working conditions.................... .
Interunion or intraunion matters........ .

151
88
18
23
20
2

37,000
22,700
3,640
6,580
3,910
150

496,000
295,000
85,700
91,300
20,900
3,000

Ordnance and accessories.............................
Union organization, wages, and hours.

1
1

130
130

230
230

64
43
7
6
6
2
189
116
29
19
20
4
1
107
56
10
5
34
2

31,000
20,400
7,360
450
2,500
230
152,000
80,400
15,600
3,550
28,200
23,900
30
278,000
151,000
14,400
1,760
111, 000
840

402,000
286,000
102,000
4,980
8,070
1,800
2,090,000
1, 010,000
434,000
29,500
159,000
464,000
1,040
3,170,000
2,660,000
147,000
6,530
337,000
21,000

100
56
13
18
10
3
63
39
6
14
3
1
90
52
8
16
10
4
82
35
17
19
8
1
2

24,600
19,100
1,010
1,320
2,050
1,130
12,100
10,400
400
790
190
270
22,300
15,300
1,040
1,240
3,640
1,100
21,200
8,380
2,700
5,000
4,970
90
100

493,000
339,000
31,100
50,900
36,300
35,800
156,000
99,600
33,300
17,000
5,560
530
365,000
296,000
33,400
16,400
17,300
2,000
719,000
313,000
187,000
205,000
12,700
810
110

Primary metal industries...........................
Wages and hours..................................
Union organization, wages, and hours.
Union organization...............................
Other working conditions....................
Interunion or intraunion matters____
Not reported................................. ........
Fabricated metal products (except ord­
nance, machinery, and transportation
equipment)................................................

Wages and hours..................................... .

Electrical machinery, equipment, and
Vages and hours..........................
Union organization, wages and hours..
Union organization.......................
Other working conditions............
Interunion or intraunion matters.
Machinery (except electrical).....................
Wages and hours............................... —
Union organization, wages, and hours.
Union organization...............................
Other working conditions....................
Interunion or intraunion matters____
Not reported.........................................
Transportation equipment.........................
Wages and hours..................................
Union organization, wages, and hours.
Union organization.................. ..........
Other working conditions....................
Interunion or intraunion matters........
Lumber and wood products (except furni­
ture)..........................................................
Wages and hours..................................
Union organization, wages, and hours.
Union organization...............................
Other working conditions....................
Interunion or intraunion matters........
Furniture and fixtures................................
Wages and hours..................................
Union organization, wages, and hours.
Union organization...............................
Other working conditions------ ---------Interunion or intraunion matters.----Stone, clay, and glass products..................

Wages and hours.....................................

Union organization, wages, and hours.
Union organization...............................
Other working conditions...................
Interunion or intraunion matters-----Textile mill products..................................
Wages and hours..................................
Union organization, wages, and hours
Union organization..............................
Other working conditions....... ............
Interunion or intraunion matters-----Not reported.........................................
See footnote at end of table.




Industry group and major issues

ManStoppages begin­
days id
ning in 1948
during
1948 (all
Num­ Workers
stop­
involved pages)
ber

All manufacturing industries—Continued
Apparel and other finished products made
from fabrics and similar materials............
Wages and hours....................................
Union organization, wages, and hours..
Union organization................................
Other working conditions.....................
Interunion or intraunion matters.........
Not reported..........................................

131
36
32
46
7
6
4

23,800
5,440
12,500
2,690
1,980
340
910

267,000
89,800
72,000
45,100
5,770
6,750
47,300

Leather and leather products.....................
Wages and hours..................................
Union organization, wages, and hours.
Union organization...............................
Other working conditions....................
Interunion or intraunion matters........

45
24
5
8
6
2

9,770
6,400
300
460
2,060
540

215,000
128,000
73,700
4,730
8,300
700

Food and kindred products....................
Wages and hours...............................
Union organization, wages, and hours..
Union organization...........................
Other working conditions.................
Interunion or intraunion matters...

162
91
15
29
20
7

133,000
117,000
1,040
1,770
10,300
2,530

4,720,000
4,500,000
26,300
52,700
124,000
13,400

3
1
1
1

550
20
500
30

4,290
20
4,240
30

Paper and allied products............................
Wages and hours...................................
Union organization, wages, and hours..
Union organization................................
Other working conditions.................... .
Interunion or intraunion matters.........
Not reported......................................... .

40
27
6
2
l
3
1

9,720
7,300
660
80
280
1,380
20

142,000
103,000
20,100
3,390
280
13,000
2,660

Printing, publishing, and allied industries.
Wages and hours.................................. .
Union organization, wages, and hours.
Union organization................................
Other working conditions.................... .
Interunion or intraunion matters.........

43
22
12
4
3
2

10,900
1,460
9,070
150
120
120

587,000
26,600
556,000
1,780
130
2,650

Chemicals and allied products................... .
Wages and hours.................................. .
Union organization, wages, and hours..
Union organization................................
Other working conditions.................... .
Interunion or intraunion matters.........

73
46
8
11
6
2

21,400
16,200
460
2,720
1,810
190

538,000
423,000
19,100
73,000
19,600
3,300

Products of petroleum and coal...................
Wages and hours.................................. .
Union organization, wages, and hours.
Other working conditions.................... .

13
8
4
1

21,300
20,800
380
50

752,000
739,000
12,400
140

Rubber products.........................................
Wages and hours..................................
Union organization, wages, and hours.
Union organization...............................
Other working conditions....................

48
27
1
2
18

72,300
40,900
500
1,260
29,700

524,000
337,000
28,700
101,000
67,600

Professional, scientific, and controlling in­
struments; photographic and optical
goods; watches and clocks.......................
Wages and hours...................................
Union organization, wages, and hours..
Union organization................................
Interunion or intraunion matters.........
Not reported..........................................

31
19
6
4
1
1

5,720
4,350
970
340
10
40

146,000
85,500
49,500
10,400
40
80

72
44
11
10
4
3

15,300
9,900
4,380
490
460
120

339,000
184,000
131,000
19,400
3,670
740

Tobacco manufactures.............
Wages and hours................
Union organization............
Other working conditions..

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries— .

Wages and hours.......................................

Union organization, wages, and hours..
Union organization................................
Other working conditions.................... .
Interunion or intraunion matters.........
All nonmanufacturing industries.................
Wages and hours....................................
Union organization, wages, and hours..
Union organization................................
Other working conditions......................
Interunion or intraunion matters.........
Not reported...........................................

1,744
810
103
204
518
84
25

996,000 16,500,000
614,000 12,300,000
48,000 2,240,000
701,000
64,900
821,000
171,000
502,000
93,900
17,400
4,570

18
T a ble B.— W ork stoppages in 1 9 4 8 , by industry group and major issues— Continued
Mandays idle
during
1948 (all
Workers
stop­
involved
pages)

Stoppages begin­
ning in 1948
Industry group and major issues
Num­
ber
All nonmanufacturing industries—
-Continued
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing................
Wages and hours........................................
Union organization, wages, and hours—
Union organization....................................
Interunion or intraunion matters.............

23
18

23,100
17,700

3
2

4,910
530

531,000
388,000
2 79,900
59,500
3,170

Mining...........................................................
Wages and hours........................................
Union organization, wages, and hours___
Union organization....................................
Other working conditions..........................
Interunion or intraunion matters.............
Not reported...............................................

614
106
5
43
415
24
21

651,000 10,400,000
355,000 8,580,000
185,000
4,060
454,000
51,500
713,000152,000
83,900
419,000
16,500
4,440

Construction..................................................
Wages and hours........................................
Union organization, wages, and hours___
Union organization................ ...................
Other working conditions..........................
Interunion or intraunion matters.............
Not reported...............................................

380
287
20
28
11
31
3

108,000
93,000
7,790
1,810
1,120
4,090
110

1,430,000
1,310,000
70,800
13,800
4,750
32,900
420

Trade..............................................................
Wages and hours........................................
Union organization, wages, and hours—
Union organization....................................
Other working conditions..........................
Interunion or intraunion matters.............

241
146
27
42
18
8

30,200
24,800
1,980
900
1,440
1,090

557.000
458.000
46,300
22,900
17,000
12,900

i This figure is less than the sum of the figures below because a few stoppages, each affecting more than one industry group, have been counted as
separate stoppages in each industry group affected; workers involved and
man-days idle were allocated to the respective groups.
T

able

Industry group and major issues

ManStoppages begin­
days idle
ning in 1948
during
1948 (all
stopNum­ Workers
ber
involved

All nonmanufacturing industries—Continued
Finance, insurance, and real estate..............
Wages and hours........................................
Union organization, wages, and hours—
Union organization....................................
Transportation, communication, and other
public utilities.........................................
Wages and hours........................................
Union organization, wages, and hours___
Union organization....................................
Other working conditions..........................
Interunion or intraunion matters.............
Not reported...............................................
Services—personal, business, and other----Wages and hours........................................
Union organization, wages, and hours—
Union organization..................... ..............
Other working conditions.........................
Interunion or intraunion matters.............
Not reported-.............................................
Government—administration, protection,
and sanitation........................................
Wages and hours........................................
Union organization, wages, and hours—
Union organization....................................
Other working conditions..........................
Interunion or intraunion matters.............

18
11
3
4

1,890
530
1,250
120

46.300
12,800
30.300
3,280

293
158
21
41
59
14

160,000
105,000
31,400
3,760
16,000
4,030

3.290.000
1.280.000
1,790,000
116,000
77,900
30,600
2 180

150
65
26
40
14
4
1

20,700
16,500
1,570
1,860
490
250
20

306.000
224.000
41.400
28.400
8,450
3,550
280

25
19
1
3
1
1

1,440
1,310
20
80
30
10

4,720
340
3,690
60

20

2 Idleness in 1948 resulting from a stoppage which began in the preceding
year,

C.— Work stoppages in 1948 in States which had 25 or more stoppages during the year, by industry group
Stoppages
beginning in
1948

State and industry group
Num­ Work­
ers in­
ber volved

Alabama
Primary metal industries..........................................
Fabricated metal products (except ordnance, ma­
chinery, and transportation equipment)..............
Machinery (except electrical)...................................
Lumber and wood products (except furniture).......
Stone, clay, and glass products.................................
Textile mill products. ...............................................
Food and kindred products......................................
Chemicals and allied products.................................
Products of petroleum and coal................................
Rubber products..................................................... .
Mining.......................................................................
Construction.............................................................
Trade............ ............................................................ .
Transportation, communication, and other public
utilities....................................................................
Services—personal, business, and other...................

California
Primary metal industries.........................................
Fabricated metal products (except ordnance, ma­
chinery, and transportation equipment) ............ .
Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies___
Machinery (except electrical).................................. .
Transportation equipment.......................................
Lumber and wood products (except furniture)___
Furniture and fixtures............................................. .
Stone, clay, and glass products.................................
Textile mill products .................................................
Apparel and other finished products made from
fabrics and similar materials................................ .
Leather and leather products.................................. .
Food and kindred products..................................... .
Paper and allied products........................................ .
Printing, publishing, and allied industries..............
See footnote at end of table.




Mandays
idle dur­
ing 1948
(all stop­
pages)

Stoppages
beginning in
1948

State and industry group

124

69,800

981,000

California —Continued

7

3,550

26,100

2
1
3
3
4
3
1
1
1
83
5
4

360
300
80
160
3,320
230
70
300
1,000
54,900
4,230
140

2,440
12,600
2,890
10,900
99,600
12,500
1,300
300
1,770
647,000
124,000
1,970

Chemicals and allied products..................................
Products of petroleum and coal................................
Rubber products. .....................................................
Professional, scientific, and controlling instru­
ments; photographic and optical goods; watches
and clocks...............................................................
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries .................
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing..............................
Construction..............................................................
Trade..........................................................................
Finance, insurance, and real estate..........................
Transportation, communication, and other public
utilities....................................................................
Services—personal, business, and other...................

5
1

1,200
10

37,100
260

Mandays
idle dur­
ing 1948
Num­ Work­ (all stop­
ers in­
ber volved pages)

178 106,000

2,790,000

8

5,450

151,000

6
3
3
7
6
3
4
2

830
700
250
4,140
670
180
90
1,290

10,300
13,800
740
54,100
8,500
980
380
10,300

13
3
15

11,300
300
4,780

3

166

51,900
2,430
153,000
190
2,460

Connecticut
Primary metal industries...........................................
Fabricated metal products (except ordnance, ma­
chinery, and transportation equipment)...............
Ordnance and accessories...........................................
Machinery (except electrical)....................................
Textile mill products..................................................
Apparel and other finished products made from
fabrics and similar materials..................................
Food and kindred products.......................................
Paper and allied products..........................................
Printing, publishing, and allied industries...............
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries..................
Construction...............................................................
Trade...........................................................................
Transportation, communication, and other public
utilities.....................................................................
Services—personal, business, and other....................
Government—administration, protection, and
sanitation................................................................

6
1
1

290
17,200
1,990

5,520
622,000
1,990

180
15,800
7,110
5,720
200

15.100
11,700
362,000
72,300
97.100
2,600

26,100
760

1,140,000
8,440

42

18,000

427,000

5

550

13.000

1
1
2
4

2,950
130
7,250
1,330

39,100
230
128,000
31.000

1
1
1
1
2
10
4

30
340
480
10
2,520
1,600
390

1,490
16,700
1,920
30
90.500
23.500
47,600

6
2

390
20

4,230
180

1

30

130

19
T a b l e C .— W ork stoppages in 1 9 4 8 in States which had 2 5 or more stoppages during the year , by industry group — Continued
Stoppages
beginning in
1948
State and industry group
Num­ Work­
ers in­
ber volved

Mandays
idle dur­
ing 1948
(all stop­
pages)

Florida

40

9,550

189,009

Transportation equipment........................................
Stone, clay, and glass products..................................
Apparel and other finished products made from
fabrics and similar materials....... ...........................
Food and kindred products.......................................
Printing, publishing, and alKed industries...............
Chemjicals and allied products..................................
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing..............................
Mining........................................................................
Construction...............................................................
Trade...........................................................................
Transportation, communication, and other public
utilities.....................................................................
Services—personal, business, and other....................

1
1

90
10

630
100

1
5
3

130
810
250

4
1
8
7

4,580
750
1,240
190

3,250
9,050
2,380
1730
40,900
750
12,900
7,490

6
3

1,340
160

107,000
4,700

Georgia

27

7,430

303,000

Primary metal industries..........................................
Lumber and wood products (except furniture).......
Stone, clay, and glass products.................................
Textile mill products. ...............................................
Apparel and other finished products made from
fabrics and similar materials..................................
Food and kindred products.......................................
Paper and allied products..........................................
Printing, publishing, and allied industries..............
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing..............................
Construction..............................................................
Trade..........................................................................
Transportation, communication, and other public
utilities....................................................................
Services—personal, business, and other...................

1
3
3
3

190
380
790
2,250

1,150
17,300
7,940
172,000

2
3
1
1
1
2
1

140
1,950
650
50
80
330
120

630
80,300
6,500
1,020
80
12,400
120

5
1

500
10

3,130
80

237 154,000

3,540,000

Illinois
Primary metal industries..*.....................................
Fabricated metal products (except ordnance, ma­
chinery, and transportation equipment)..............
Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies___
Machinery (except electrical)....................................
Transportation equipment........................................
Lumber and wood products (except furniture).......
Furniture and fixtures...............................................
Stone, clay, and glass products.................................
Apparel and other finished products made from
fabrics and similar materials....... .........................
Leather and leather products....................................
Food and kindred products...................... ................
Paper and allied products..........................................
Printing, publishing, and allied industries..............
Chemicals and allied products..................................
Products of petroleum and coal__________________
Rubber products................... ...................................
Professional, scientific, and controlling instruments;
photographic and optical goods; watches and
clocks......... ..............................................................
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries..................
Mining............................................. ..........................
Construction. .............................. ........... ..................
Trade......................................... ...............................
Transportation, communication, and other public
utilities.....................................................................
Services— personal, business, and other...................
Government— administration, protection, and
sanitation...................................... ..........................

Indiana
Primary metal industries..........................................
Fabricated metal products (except ordnance, ma­
chinery, and transportation equipment)..............
Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies___
Machinery (except electrical)....................................
Transportation equipment........................................
Lumber and wood products (except furniture).......
Furniture and fixtures...............................................
Stone, clay, and glass products.................................
Apparel and other finished products made from
fabrics and similar materials..................................
Food and kindred products......................................
Paper and allied products.........................................
Printing, publishmg, and allied industries...............
Chemicals and allied products..................................
Rubber products.......................................................

Mining_____________________________________
See footnote at end of table.




18

223,000

13
5
25
10
1
7
3

2,970
760
62,700
3,920
180
850
190

37,500
23,400
803,000
101,000
1,980
8,900
520

6
4
11
3
3
9
2
1

320
1,560
23,200
950
1,770
2,880
370
1,070

1,960
13,500
975,000
15,400
372,000
68,500
8,460
1,070

4
6
24
36
16

550
2,220
31,300
5,730
770

9,910
24,200
689,000
45,600
8,980

18
11

3,000
260

99,000
8,210

1
2

6,520

50

110

119

76,100

1,070,060

12

2,390

47,300

4
1
14
9
1
2
4

1,650
1,190
14,200
23,700
70
390
530

18,700
9,450
247,000
214,000
460
21,100
14,600

2
11
2
1

50
6,160
480
80

2
38

1,120
22,000

8,250
158,000
6,830
21,500
1170
3,290
283,000

Stoppages
beginning in
1948
State and industry group
Num­ Work­
ers in­
ber volved

Mandays
idle during 1948
(all stop­
pages)

Indiana —Continued
Construction..............................................................
Trade..........................................................................
Transportation, communication, and other public
utilities....................................................................
Services—personal, business, and other...................
Government—administration, protection, and sani­
tation.......................................................................

5
3

820
230

5,180
3,140

5
3

460
340

5,160
5,130

1

150

|400

Iowa

38

23,600

862,000

2

270

14,600

2
2
3
6
1
1
4
3

180
980
280
19,700
20
390
1,470
50

2
2

250
30

4,960
16,700
7,250
790,000
50
6,680
14,500
250
?
6,650
260

117

82,100

1,350,000

2

150

890

2
2
3
1
6

370
6,430
330
60
990

12,300
15,900
17,100
2,780
7,960

Food and kindred products......................................
Tobacco manufactures...............................................
Printing, publishing, and allied industries..............
Chemicals and allied products..................................
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries..................
Mining.......................................................................
Construction..............................................................

2
2
1
1
2
1
72
7
5

160
110
20
30
330
80
70,400
2,100
250

660
540
20
460
4,310
3,280
1,250,000
27,500
1,120

Transportation, communication, and other public
utilities....................................................................
Services—personal, business, and other....................

7
1

270
30

5,470
280

25

11,700

242,000

2
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
6

1,500
3,000
140
30
50
1,220
10
990
500

31,600
56,500
1,260
50
1,310
80,100
1,660
17,000
2,860

7
1

4,250
10

49,200
30

130

29,800

815,000

3

1,250

17,500

3
6
6
2
1
7
2
6

200
2,210
1,620
880
10
240
40
1,390

2,710
56,700
68,000
38,300
80
6,690
630
93,200

9
11
7
1
3
1
5

450
2,000
4,000
170
130
10
2,050

2,300
125,000
156,000
2,330
4,710
30
19,200

3

840

5,720

Primary metal industries..........................................
Fabricated metal products (except ordnance, ma­
chinery, and transportation equipment) _ ............
Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies----Machinery (except electrical).................................. .
Food and kindred products......................................
Printing, publishing, and allied industries..............
Mining...................................................................... .
Construction............................... ..............................
Transportation, communication, and other public
utilities......................... ............... —............... —
Services—personal, business, and other.................. .

Kentucky
Primary metal industries...........................................
Fabricated metal products (except ordnance, ma­
chinery, and transportation equipment)..............
Machinery (except electrical)...................................
Lumber and wood products (except furniture).......
Furniture and fixtures...............................................
Stone, clay, and glass products.................................
Apparel and other finished products made from

fabrics and similar materials.....................................

Maryland
Machinery (except electrical)....................................
Lumber and wood products (except furniture).......
Furniture and fixtures__________________________
Stone, clay, and glass products.................................
Leather and leather products....................................
Food and kindred products.......................................
Printing, publishing, and allied industries..............
M ining............................................... - .....................
Construction..............................................................
Transportation, communication, and other public
utilities....................................................................
Services—personal, business, and other....................

M assachusetts
Primary metal industries..........................................
Fabricated metal products (except ordnance, ma­
chinery, and transportation equipment)..............
Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies___
Machinery (except electrical)....................................
Transportation equipment........................................
Lumber and wood products (except furniture).......
Furniture and fixtures...............................................
Stone, clay, and glass products.................................
Textile mill products..................................................
Apparel and other finished products made from
fabrics and similar materials..................................
Leather and leather products....................................
Food and kindred products.......................................
Paper and allied products................................. ........
Printing, publishing, and allied industries..............
Chemicals and allied products..................................
Rubber products........................................................
Professional, scientific, and controlling instruments;
photographic and optical goods; watches and
clocks.......................................................................

20
T a b l e C .— W ork stoppages in 1 9 4 8 in States which had 2 5 or more stoppages during the year, by industry group — Continued
Stoppages
beginning in
1948
State and industry group
Num­ Work­
ers in­
ber volved

Mandays
idle dur­
ing 1948
(all stop­
pages)

M ichigan
Primary metal industries..................—.....................
Fabricated metal products (except ordnance, ma­
chinery, and transportation equipment)............
Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies___
Machinery (except electrical)............................
Transportation equipment................................
Lumber and wood products (except furniture)
Furniture and fixtures.......................................
Stone, clay, and glass products.........................
Food and kindred products...............................
Tobacco manufactures.......................................
Paper and allied products.................................
Printing, publishing, and allied industries----Chemicals and allied products..........................
Rubber products................................................
Professional, scientific, and controlling instruments;
photographic and optical goods; watches and
clocks.......................................................................
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries..................
Mining........................................................................
Construction..............................................................
Trade......................................................................... .
Finance, insurance, and real estate...........................
Transportation, communication, and other public
utilities................................................................... .
Services—personal, business, and other... ................

M innesota
Primary metal industries..........................................
Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies___
Machinery (except electrical)...................................
Transportation equipment......................................
Lumber and wood products (except furniture).......
Furniture and fixtures............................................. .
Textile mill products. ............................................. .
Leather and leather products.................................. .
Food and kindred products..................................... .
Printing, publishing, and allied industries............ .
Construction............................................................ .
Trade..... ............................................ ...................... .
Transportation, communication, and other public
utilities................ - ---------------- ------ - ...................
Services—personal, business, and other.................. .

Missouri
Primary metal industries..........................................
Fabricated metal products (except ordnance, ma­
chinery, and transportation equipment)..............
Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies......
Machinery (except electrical)...................................
Lumber and wood products (except furniture).......
Furniture and fixtures.
Stone, clay, and glass products..
Textile mill products.
Leather and leather products..............................
Food and kindred products.................................
Paper and allied products....................................
Printing, publishing, and allied industries..............
Chemicals and allied products.................................
Products of petroleum and coal................................
Rubber products........... ........... ................................
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries..................
M ining.....................................................................
Construction............................................................
Trade.........................................................................
Transportation, communication, and other public
utilities................. - .................................................
Services—personal, business, and other...................




State and industry group
Work­
Num­ ers in­
ber volved
New Jersey

M assachusetts—Continued
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries..................
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing.............................
Construction--..........................................................
Trade..........................................................................
Finance, insurance, and real estate..........................
Transportation, communication, and other public
utilities.—...............................................................
Services—personal, business, and other...................
Government—administration, protection, and
sanitation.................................................................

Stoppages
beginning in
1948

1
2
18
8
1

650
860
2,870
180
10

6,520
8,280
56,300
1,690
40

15
7

7,480
260

137,000
6,260

2

60

60

196 262,000

2,450,000

6,980

232,000

4,780
22
4,840
9
28 15,500
42 201,000
510
5
880
4
1,970
4
1,700
11
30
1
960
2
20
1
6,260
5
8,000
2

39,800
78,100
238,000
1,510,000
4,370
15,900
43,400
20,600
30
14,600
60
121,000
14,200

1
2
3
4
10
2

100
810
560
550
1,370
70

3,600
32,700
24,900
3,470
3,670
2,100

17
5

3,870
930

39,300
10,200

37

16,900

529,000

3
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
4
1
5
5

680
80
20
20
40
50
190
330
9,650
120
1,780
390

26,400
2,110
1,570
1,510
1,340
250
6,920
10,400
381,000
300
21,700
5,080

2
9

210
3,350

1,300
69,600

65

15,600

371,000

1

60

290

3

480

4
1
2
1
1
5
8
1
2
1
1
1
3
4
14
4

1,240
20
60
50
370
1,720
2,800
70
410
20
50
20
380
4,790
1,550
150

13,000
i 190
13,600
480
1,320
460
14,800
7,440
57,200
1,680
5,300
890
50
340
9,180
216,000
18,300
900

6
2

1,270
70

6,320
3,350

16

Primary metal industries..........................................
Fabricated metal products (except ordnance, ma­
chinery, and transportation equipment)..............
Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies......
Machinery (except electrical)....................................
Transportation equipment........................................
Lumber and wood products (except furniture).......
Furniture and fixtures...............................................
Stone, clay, and glass products.................................
Textile mill products.................................................
Apparel and other finished products made from
fabrics and similar materials..................................
Leather and leather products....................................
Food and kindred products......................................
Paper and allied products—......................................
Chemicals and allied products..................................
Rubber products.................................—........- .........
Professional, scientific, and controlling instru­
ments; photographic and optical goods; watches
and clocks......... ......................... ...... .....................
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries..................
Mining........................................................................
Construction..............................................................
Trade..................................................................... —
Transportation, communication, and other public
utilities....................................................................
Services—personal, business, and other— ...............
Government—administration, protection, and
sanitation................................................................

New York
Primary metal industries..........................................
Fabricated metal products (except ordnance, ma­
chinery, and transportation equipment)...............
Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies___
Machinery (except electrical)....................................
Transportation equipment........................................
Lumber and wood products (except furniture).......
Furniture and fixtures...............................................
Stone, clay, and glass products.................................
Textile mill products................................................
Apparel and other finished products made from
fabrics and similar materials..................................
Leather and leather products....................................
Food and kindred products.......................................
Paper and allied products........................................
Printing, publishing, and allied industries..............
Chemicals and allied products..................................
Rubber products........................................................
Professional, scientific, and controlling instru­
ments; photographic and optical goods; watches
and clocks
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries..................
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing.............................
Construction..............................................................
Trade...... ..................................................................
Finance, insurance, mid real estate— ......................
Transportation, communication, and other public
utilities....... ......................... ................................
Services—personal, business, and other...................
Government—administration, protection, and
sanitation............................................................... .

Ohio
Primary metal industries..........................................
Fabricated metal products (except ordnance, ma­
chinery, and transportation equipment)...............
Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies......
Machinery (except electrical)...................................
Transportation equipment.......................................
Lumber and wood products (except furniture).......
Furniture and fixtures............................................. .
Stone, clay, and glass products............................... .
Textile mill products................................................
Food and kindred products..................................... .
Paper and allied products........................................
Printing, publishing, and allied industries..............
Chemicals and allied products................................ .
Products of petroleum and coal...............................
Rubber products......................................................

Mandays
idle dur­
ing 1948
(all stop­
pages)

151

37,800

5

2,180

772,000
65,700

8
12
15
6
3
1
5
6

1,680
3,730
1,890
1,020
150
80
490
1,580

32,200
31,800
48,400
36,700
830
800
20,500
17,900

3
5
12
3
6
2

180
370
3,650
1,010
2,150
3,140

5,330
3,210
117,000
12,700
72,300
19,000

2
6
1
18
9

260,
2,320
170,
1,630
390

9,020
31,400
4,410
140,000
8,630

15
7

9,380
330

83,500
11,100

1

fO

20

450 155,000

2,380,000

14

2,660

41,900

27
4
21
3
1
16
6
23

3,080
150
7,960
440
80
6,190
5,620
2,170

83,900
6,030
91,200
3,740
1,350
25,500
101,000
82,900

55
5
27
12
5
10
2

4,540
2,340
18,300
1,180
6,290
1,460
1,020

71,100
30,500
440,000
16,700
48,500
48,000
46,300

13
24
1
30
68
8

2,280
1,240
40
15,500
9,950
1,480

52,700
23,700
440
234,000
152,000
39,800

39
34

57,500
3,460

686,000
50,200

2

410

1,220

256 122,000

1,480,000

30

6,880

66,700

21
8
28
12
2
2
11
2
12
1
3
7
1
21

3,530
4,500
9,700
17,000
550
210
3,210
440
890
120
110
3,180
1,400
36,400

40,500
15,700
129,000
118,000
5,420
7,600
37,200
20,200
6,620
690
1,580
130,000
92,500
270,000

21
T a ble C .— W ork stoppages in 1 9 4 8 in States which had 2 5 or more stoppages during the year , by industry group — Continued
Stoppages
beginning in
1948
State and industry group
Num­ Work­
ers in­
ber volved

Mandays
idle dur­
ing 1948
(all stop­
pages)

3
5
31
14
16
2

700
1,160
23,100
4,060
1,060
30

42,500
25,400
399,000
29,600
10,100
150

19
4

3,220
140

34,100
1,200

1

30

60

Oregon

50

10,300

360,600

Primary metal industries..........................................
Lumber and wood products (except furniture).......
Food and kindred products.......................................
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries..................
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing..............................
Construction..............................................................
Trade..........................................................................
Transportation, communication, and other public
utilities....................................................................
Services—personal, business, and other..................

1
15
2
1
1
12
8

80
3,060
160
80
200
2,470
610

2,190
68,900
7,370
380
2,000
56,800
8,990

8
2

3,580
60

213,000
320

440 309,000

4,170,000

Pennsylvania
Primary metal industries..........................................
Fabricated metal products (except ordnance,
machinery, and transportation equipment).........
Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies—
Machinery (except electrical)...................................
Lumber and wood products (except furniture).......
Furniture and fixtures...............................................
Stone, clay, and glass products.................................
Textile mill products.................................................
Apparel and other finished products made from
fabrics and similar materials................................ .
Leather and leather products.................................. .
Food and kindred products......................................
Paper and allied produets.........................................
Printing, publishing, and allied industries..............
Chemicals and allied products...........- ................... .
Products of petroleum and coal................................
Rubber products.................................... - ................ Professional, scientific, and controlling instru­
ments; photographic and optical goods; watches
and clocks.............................................................. .
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries--------------Mining........................................................................
Construction....................................... . ................... .
Trade..........................................................................
Finance, insurance, and real estate......................... .
Transportation, communication, and other public
utilities................................................................... .
Services—personal, business, and other.................. .
Government—administration, protection, and
sanitation............................................................... .

26

11,100

399,000

18
11
21
6
12
6
16
12

7,660
9,380
11,900
2,270
5,430
1,000
4,730
1,740

72,600
128,000
82,100
10,500
105,000
33,700
60,100
88,100

28
3
12
10
5
7
2
6

3,740
510
1,950
2,840
1,110
1,260
270
6,660

53,100
3,650
45,700
46,800
116,000
22,600
11,700
16,500

2
340
10
2,390
124 207,000
28
5,310
22
2,740
1
40

6,920
58,600
2,520,000
62,000
43,200
400

42
16

10,450
6,930

91,400
90,900

3

70

100

R hod e Island
Fabricated metal products (except ordnance,
machinery, and transportation equipment)........
Machinery (except electrical)...................................
Stone, clay, and glass products.................................
Textile mill products.................................................
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries................ Construction............................................................. .
Trade..........................................................................
Finance, insurance, and real estate......................... .
Transportation, communication, and other public
utilities................................................................... .
Services—personal, business, and other.................. .

26

5,050

114,000

1
4
1
2
1
7
2
1

40
2,630
80
50
100
790
30
30

4,990
75,900
1,360
330
8,970
14,800
50
90

3
4

260
1,040

5,550
2,340

Tennessee

70

27,200

441,000

Primary metal industries..........................................
Fabricated metal products (except ordnance, ma­
chinery, and transportation equipment)..............
Machinery (except electrical)....................................
Lumber and wood products (except furniture).......
Furniture and fixtures...............................................
Stone, clay, and glass products.................................
See footnote at end of table.

2

470

5,330

1
1
4
2
2

100
1,320
850
70
400

1,100
15,800
30,900
440
14,100




State and industry group

Mandays
idle dur­
ing 1948
Num­ Work­ (all stopers in­
0
ber volved

Tennessee—Continued

O hio—Continued
Professional, scientific, and controlling instruments;
photographic and optical goods; watches and
clocks.......................................................................
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries..................
Mining.......................................................................
Construction..............................................................
Trade............................................... ...................—
Finance, insurance, and real estate.........................
Transportation, communication, and other public
utilities....................................................................
Services—personal, business, and other....................
Government—administration, protection, and sani­
tation.......................................................................

Stoppages
beginning in
1948

Textile mill products.................................................
Apparel and other finished products made from
fabrics and similar materials..............- ........ _.......
Food and kindred products......................................
Paper and allied products.........................................
Printing, publishing, and allied industries..............
Rubber products........................................................
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries..................
Mining........................................................................
Construction..............................................................
Trade.........................................................................
Transportation, communication and other public
utilities.....................................................................
Services—personal, business, and other...................
Government—administration, protection, and sani­
tation.......................................................................

Texas
Fabricated metal products (except ordnance, ma­
chinery, and transportation
Machinery (except electrical)
Transportation equipment........................................
Stone, clay, and glass products.................................
Textile mill products................................................
Apparel and other finished products made from
fabrics and similar materials.................................
Leather and leather products................... - ..............
Food and kindred products.......................................
Printing, publishing, and allied industries..............
Chemicals and allied products..................................
Products of petroleum and coal................................
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries— ............
Construction..............................................................
Trade...................................... ...................................
Transportation, communication, and other public
utilities....................................................................
Services—personal, business, and other.................. .

Virginia
Transportation equipment........................................
Lumber and wood products (except furniture).........
Furniture and fixtures...............................................
Stone, day, and glass products.................................
Textile mill products.................................................
Leather and leather products..................................
Paper and allied products.........................................
Chemicals and allied products..................................
Mining.......................................................................
Construction.............................................................
Finance, insurance, and real estate..........................
Transportation, communication, and other public
utilities....................................................................
Services—personal, business, and other...................

W ashington
Fabricated metal products (except ordnance,
machinery, and transportation equipment).........
Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies.......
Transportation equipment........................................
Lumber and wood products (except furniture).......
Furniture and fixtures...............................................
Stone, clay, and glass products.................................
Food and kindred products.......................................
Printing, publishing, and allied industries..............
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing..............................
Mining.......................................................................
Construction..............................................................
Trade..........................................................................
Transportation, communication, and other public
utilities....................................................................
Services—personal, business, and other....................
Government—administration, protection, and sani­
tation...................................................................... .

West Virginia
Primary metal industries....................................
Lumber and wood products ^except furniture).
Furniture and fixtures........................... - ...........
Stone, clay, and glass products..........................
Textile mill products.......................................... .

2

320

1,170

4
2
1
1
3
1
24
3
1

2,400
160
140
30
9,150
30
10,100
130
10

44,000
2,770
1,280
2,990
89,200
700
217.000

12
2

1,370
50

12,400
270

1,100

40

2

20

80

68

25,100

280.000

4
1
1
6
1

130
140
1,020
470
30

4,400
2,520
3,050
13,300

1
5
4
5
2
1
12
4

120
1,910
120
1,140
1,360
40
10,900
330

114,800
1,750
94.900
1,730
32.200
8,710
160
55.900
1,060

17
4

7,320
110

43,000
1,860

85

65,000

431.000

1
1
1
3
2
1
2
1
62
4

10
40
130
200
70
230
550
30
32,400
140

190
500
1,250
1,570
1,560
15,300
3,040
80
387.000

5
2

1,160
100

17.200
2,310

74

67,600

1,650,000

1,020

1420

2

130

2
15
1
2
1

18,500
3,260
80
240
80

2
2
11
12

250
1,210
2,180
1,990

770
1100
1.050.000
41,800
1,460
4.680
3.680
12,120
2,170
48,600
34.200
99,300

18
5

8,980
350

355,000
9,200

1

10

30

211 180,000

3.150.000

2
1
6
3
7
1

880
260
4,250
1,010
1,680
400

3,510
1,060
78.200
13.200
10,500
14,700

22
T a b l e C .— W ork stoppages in 1 9 4 8 in States which had 2 5 or more stoppages during the year , by industry group — Continued
Stoppages
beginning in
1948
State and industry group
Num­ Work­
ers in­
ber volved

Mandays
idle during 1948
(all stop­
pages)

Stoppages
beginning in
1948
State and industry group
Num­ Work­
ers in­
ber volved

W est Virginia —Continued

W isconsin—Continued

Apparel and other finished products made from
fabrics and similar materials..................................
Food and kindred products.......................................
Tobacco manufactures...............................................
Printing, publishing, and allied industries..............
Chemicals and allied products..................................
Products of petroleum and coal................................
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries..................
Mining......... - .............................................................
Construction. . ...........................................................
Trade...........................................................................
Transportation, communication, and other public
utilities.....................................................................
Services— personal, business, and other...................
Government—administration, protection, and san­
itation......................................................................

Machinery (except electrical)....................................
Transportation equipment........................................
Lumber and wood products (except furniture)____
Furniture and fixtures...............................................
Stone, clay, and glass products.................................
Textile mill products.................................................
Food and kindred products.......................................
Paper and allied products.........................................
Chemicals and allied products..................................
Professional, scientific, and controlling instruments;
photographic and optical goods; watches and
clocks.......................................................................
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries..................
Mining........................................................................
Construction.............................................................
Trade...........................................................................
Finance, insurance, and real estate...........................
Transportation, communication, and other public
utflities.....................................................................
Services—personal, business, and other....................
Government—administration, protection, and
sanitation................................................................

Mandays
idle during 1948
(all stop­
pages)

W isconsin
Primary metal industries.........................................
Fabricated metal products (except ordnance, ma­
chinery, and transportation equipment).............
Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies—

2
120
3
270
1
500
2
50
5
1,480
1
150
1
40
138 160,000
13
6,660
5
270
12
4

1,010
910

1,830
3,980
4,240
510
17,000
3,750
80
2,860,000
111,000
6,330
7,510
5,960

4

110

4,120

71

25,800

400,000

5

2,060

60,200

7
3

4,450
2,440

50,200
20,400

9
2
1
1
1
1
5
1
1

3,610
1,310
60
70
70
60
7,580
10
30

70,800
21,000
680
690
3,800
120
179,000
40
980

1
1
1
15
6
1

10
250
20
1,860
290
30

40
750
320
16,600
7,240
420

3
2

510
620

29,800
3,290

4

480

1,930

i Idleness in 1848 resulting from stoppages which began in the preceding
extended into 2 or more industry groups have been counted in this table as
year.
separate stoppages in each industry group affected; workers involved and
* The sum of this column is more than 119 because a few stoppages which
man-days idle were allocated to the respective groups.




Appendix B
Work of Emergency
Boards of Inquiry in 1948
Boards of Inquiry established by the President
under the national emergency provisions of the
Labor-Management Relations (Taft-Hartley) A ct
o f 1947, investigated seven disputes in 1948.
In each instance, operations are traced chrono­
logically in the following record from the date
that the President named the members of the
board through final settlement of the individual
dispute. These summaries afford an opportunity
to review the interplay of the work done by the
boards of inquiry, by labor and management, and
by public agencies in settling the major grievances
which threatened national health or safety.
Atomic Energy Dispute: Atomic Trades and Labor Council
(AFL), and Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp.
M arch 5: Board of inquiry appointed by the President to
investigate and report on the labor dispute at Oak
Bidge National Laboratory over wage adjustments and
retention of sick-leave benefits. Members— John Lord
O’ Brian, New York and Washington attorney, chair­
man; C. Canby Balderston, dean of Wharton School of
Finance and Commerce, University of Pennsylvania;
and Stanley F. Teele, assistant dean of Harvard Gradu­
ate School of Business Administration.
M arch 15: Board’s first report submitted to the President;
it found that the issues in dispute remained unsettled
and the threat of strike unaltered.
M arch 19: Department of Justice requested and obtained
injunction from the United States District Court
of East Tennessee.
M arch 24: Board of inquiry reconvened by the President.
M ay 18: Board’s second report submitted to the President,
containing a statement of employer’s last offer and
stating that positions of the parties remained unaltered
and dispute unsettled.
J une 1-2: National Labor Kelations Board conducted a
secret ballot to ascertain whether workers wished to
accept final offer of the employer. By a vote of 771
to 26 the employer’s last offer was rejected.
'
J une 11: Injunction dissolved by court upon motion of
Attorney General.
J une 15: Agreement by parties reached on the terms of a
new contract, which granted workers hourly wage
increases from 6% to 40% cents retroactive to Decem­
ber 18,1947, and sick-leave benefits, varying in amounts
according to years of service.




(2 3 )

J une 18: The President reported to Congress on the
dispute and recommended that special study be given
to the problem of peaceful and orderly settlement of
labor disputes in Government-owned, privately operated
atomic energy installations. He proposed establish­
ment of a commission to study possible need of special
legislation to avert labor shut-downs in atomic energy
plants. Members were to be appointed with the advice
of the Atomic Energy Commission and the Joint Com­
mittee on Atomic Energy.
Meat-Packing Dispute: United Packinghouse Workers of
America (CIO), and Five Major Meat-Packing Firms.
M arch 15: Board of inquiry appointed by the President to
investigate the dispute in the meat-packing industry
over the union’s demand for increased wages. Mem­
bers— Nathan P. Feinsinger, professor of law, University
of Wisconsin, chairman; Pearce Davis, Department of
Business and Economics, Illinois Institute of Technology;
and Walter V. Schaefer, professor of law, Northwestern
University Law School.
M arch 16: Strike began in plants of the five companies
in 20 States. Approximately 83,000 workers involved.
A pril 8: Keport of board submitted to the President
setting forth and analyzing the position of the parties.
M ay 21: Strike terminated at plants of four o f the larger
companies following the union’s acceptance of a 9-cent
hourly wage increase.
J une 5: Strike was ended at Wilson & Co. under approxi­
mately the same terms.
Bituminous-Coal Miners’ Pension Dispute: United Mine
Workers of America (Ind.), and Bituminous-Coal Mine
Operators.
M arch 15: Work stoppage began. Within a few days
approximately 320,000 workers were involved.
M arch 23: Board of inquiry appointed by the President.
Members— Federal Judge Sherman Minton, chairman;
George W. Taylor, Wharton School of Finance and
Commerce, University of Pennsylvania; Mark Ethridge,
publisher of the Louisville Courier-Journal. Principal
issue was the union’s charge that employers had failed
to set up a pension plan, as provided for in the contract
of July 1947.
M arch 31: Board report submitted to the President, find­
ing that action of union president by communications
to UM W A officers and members induced miners to stop
work in a concerted fashion and that stoppage was not
independent action by miners acting individually and
separately.
A pril 3: A 10-day restraining order issued by United
States District Court for District of Columbia.

24
A pril 10: The Speaker of the House of Representatives
suggested Senator Styles Bridges of New Hampshire as
the neutral member of the board of trustees. This was
acceptable to the union and industry representatives of
the board of trustees.
A pril 12: Senator Bridges proposed a plan whereby
pensions of $100 a month were to be paid to members of
the U M W A, who, on and after May 29, 1946, had
completed 20 years1service in the mines and had reached
62 years of age. This plan was accepted and declared
adopted, the operators’ trustee dissenting.
A pril 19: The court found the UM W A president and the
union guilty of both criminal and civil contempt of court,
resulting in fines, on the criminal charges, of $20,000
against John L. Lewis, president, and $1,400,000 against
the union.
April 21: An 80-day injunction issued by the court,
forbidding continuance or resumption of a Nation-wide
coal strike.
A pril 24-26: Most miners returned to work.
J u n e 23: The court dissolved the injunction which had
been in effect since April 21.

and retention of union hiring halls.8 Board hearings held
concurrently in New York and San Francisco.
J une 11: Board report submitted to the President.
June 14: Temporary restraining orders issued by Federal
District courts in New York, San Francisco, and
Cleveland.
June 22: Federal District courts in San Francisco and
Cleveland issued second 10-day restraining orders.
June 23: The Federal District Court in New York issued
an 80-day injunction barring strikes of maritime workers
on Atlantic and Gulf coasts.
J une 30: The court in Cleveland issued an 80-day injunc­
tion covering Great Lakes area.
J uly 2: The court in San Francisco issued an 80-day in­
junction covering Pacific Coast area.
A ugust 10: Board reconvened, with some members sitting
in San Francisco.
A ugust 11: Board reconvened, with some members
sitting in New York.
A ugust 14: Board’s final report submitted to President,
including statement of employers’ last offer of settle­
ment.
A ugust 18: National Maritime Union reached an agree­
ment with Atlantic and Gulf Coast shipping operators
Telephone Dispute: American Union of Telephone Workers
providing for wage increases and retention of union
{CIO), and American Telephone & Telegraph Co. {Long
hiring halls pending court rulings on their legality.
Lines Division).
A ugust 25: National Marine Engineers’ Beneficial Asso­
M ay 18: Board of inquiry appointed by the President.
ciation reached an agreement with Atlantic and Gulf
Members— Sumner H. Schlichter of Harvard Univer­
Coast operators providing for wage increases; union
sity, chairman; Charles A. Horsky, attorney of Wash­
hiring halls to be continued until their legal status
ington, D. C.; and Aaron Horwitz, industrial relations
determined by court action.
expert of New York City. The Board to report by
A ugust 27: American Radio Association signed new con­
June 8. Principal issues: Demands for increased wages
tract providing for wage increases, and renewal of hiring
and changes in working rules.
hall provisions of old contract pending court rulings on
M ay 25: Formal hearings scheduled to begin were post­
their legality.
poned until June 8.
A ugust 30-31: National Labor Relations Board con­
J u n e 4: The company and union signed a 21-month
ducted secret ballot of West Coast employees on question
agreement, which did not provide for general wage
of accepting employers’ last offer. International Long­
increase but provided for improvements in working
shoremen’s and Warehousemen’s Union boycotted
conditions and for reopening of wage question at any
balloting and did not appear to vote; other West Coast
time.
unions received ballots by mail.
September 1: The 80-day injunction covering Atlantic
Maritime Industry Dispute— Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf
and Gulf Coasts dissolved by court action.
Coasts, and Great Lakes: Maritime Unions,7 and Shipping
September 2: The 80-day injunction covering West Coast
Companies.
dissolved.
September 2: National Maritime Union reached an agree­
J u n e 3: Board of inquiry appointed by the President.
ment with Great Lakes operators, retaining hiring hall
Members— Harry Shulman of Yale University Law
clauses pending final court decision on the issue.
School, chairman; Andrew Jackson, attorney, New
September 3: Stoppage began at Pacific Coast ports over
York City; Arthur P. Allen, University of California,
wage and hiring hall issues. Approximately 28,000 long­
Institute of Industrial Relations; Jesse Freidin, attorney,
shoremen and ship-crew members directly involved.
New York City; George Cheney, San Diego labor
N ovember 25: Settlement between employers and ILW U
relations consultant. Principal issues were higher wages
(CIO), providing for hourly wage increases of 15 cents,
not retroactive, and retention of union hiring halls pend­
7
International Longshoremen’s and Warehousemen’s Union (CIO),
ing court rulings on their legality. Other striking unions
National Maritime Union (CIO), National Union of Marine Cooks and
secured settlements within the next few days.
Stewards (CIO), National Marine Engineer’s Beneficial Association (CIO),
Pacific Coast Marine Firemen, Oilers, Watertenders and Wipers’ Association
(Ind.), and American Radio Association (CIO). The International Brother­
hood of Electrical Workers (AFL) through one of its locals, representing
marine radio operators, was also involved.




8 The basic dispute—the question of retaining hiring halls—arose from the
amendment of National Labor Relations Act by Labor Management Re­
lations (Taft-Hartley) Act of 1047.

25
Bituminous-Coal Miners' Contract Dispute: United Mine
Workers of America (Ind.), and Bituminous-Coal Mine
Operators
June 19: Board of inquiry appointed by the President to
report on coal contract dispute over wages and other
conditions of employment. Members— David L. Cole,
attorney, of Paterson, N. J., chairman; E. Wight Bakke,
Yale University; Waldo E. Fisher, University of Penn­
sylvania.
June 24: Agreement covering commercial mines reached
on a 1-year contract, which provided for a wage increase
of $1 per day and for doubling the operators' payment
into the welfare and retirement fund to 20 cents per
ton of coal mined.
J une 26: Board reported to the President that threat of
a coal strike affecting the public interest had been
averted.®
Dock Workers' Dispute on the Atlantic Coast: International
Longshoremen’s Association (AFL), and shipping com­
panies.

A ugust 21: The Federal District Court in New York
issued 10-day restraining order prohibiting strikes and
lock-outs by longshoremen and employers at Atlantic
Coast ports.
A ugust 24: An 80-day injunction issued by the court.
The effect of this was to prohibit strikes or lock-outs
until November 9.
A ugust 26: Board reconvened by the President.
October 21: Board's final report submitted to the Presi­
dent, including a statement of employers’ last offer of
settlement.
N ovember 4 -5 : National Labor Relations Board con­
ducted poll of union members on question of accepting
employers' last offer. Employees rejected terms by
large majority.
N ovember 9: Agreement concluded between union officers
and shipping representatives, providing for hourly wage
increases of 10 cents in straight-time rates and 15 cents
in overtime rates.

A ugust 17: Board of inquiry appointed by the President.
Members— Saul Wallen, labor attorney, Boston, Mass.,
chairman; Joseph L. Miller, labor consultant, Washing­
ton, D. C.; Julius Kass, attorney, New York City.
Principal issues: Wage increases and application of
overtime rates.

N ovember 9: Anti-strike injunction dissolved by court
action.

A ugust 20: Board's report submitted to the President
stating that dispute over overtime payments had blocked
negotiations and that agreement on other terms might be
reached quickly if overtime question could be resolved.9

N ovember 12: Majority of union locals rejected tentative
agreement and an official strike sanctioned by union.
Approximately 45,000 dock workers, from Maine to
Virginia, involved.

9 The agreement negotiated with the commercial bituminous-coal mine
operators was not accepted by operators of “ captive” mines. The unionshop clause was the issue in dispute. About 42,000 employees of “ captive”
mines were on strike for about 9 days in July. Operators then accepted the
union-shop clause with proviso that it would be modified if court rulings
required.

N ovember 25: Agreement reached providing for a 13-cent
hourly increase in straight-time rates, 19}4-cent increase
in overtime rates, a welfare plan, and improved vacation
benefits. Agreement ratified by membership, and dock
workers returned to work on November 28.




N ovember 10: Sporadic stoppages developed along
Atlantic Coast as longshoremen voted to reject agree­
ment.

Appendix C
Methods of Collecting Strike Statistics

pathy or protest strikes may also be intended to
record the workers’ feelings against actions (or
absence of action) by local, State, or Federal
Government agencies on matters of general worker
concern.

Coverage.— The Bureau’s statistics on work stop­
pages include all known strikes and lock-outs in
the continental United States involving as many
as six workers and lasting a full shift or longer.
Stoppages which affect fewer than six workers, or
last less than a full workday or shift are not in­
cluded because it is virtually impossible to secure
an adequate coverage of these minor disputes.

Quantitative measures.— Statistically, work stop­
pages are measured in terms of the number of
stoppages, the number of workers involved, and
the number of man-days of idleness. Figures on
“ workers involved” and “ man-days idle” cover all
workers made idle in establishments directly in­
volved in a stoppage. They do not measure the
indirect or secondary effects on other establish­
ments or industries whose employees may be made
idle as a result of material or service shortages.

Definitions.— For statistical purposes the follow­
ing definitions are used:
A strike is a temporary stoppage of work by a group
of employees to express a grievance or to enforce a
demand. A lock-out is a temporary withholding of
work from a group of employees by an employer (or
a group of employers) in order to coerce them into
accepting the employer’s terms.

Collection of data.— Notices of the existence of
work stoppages are obtained from various sources.
Press clippings on labor disputes are received from
daily and weekly newspapers throughout the
country. Notices are also received directly from
the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service,
as well as from agencies concerned with labormanagement disputes in over 30 States. Various
employer associations, corporations, and unions
which collect data for their own use also furnish
the Bureau with work stoppage information.
Upon receipt of a work stoppage notice a ques­
tionnaire is sent to each party involved to secure
first-hand information from the employer and the
union as to the number of workers involved, dura­
tion, major issues, method of settlement, etc. In
some instances, field agents of the Bureau secure
the necessary data by personal visit.

These definitions point out certain character­
istics inherent in each strike or lock-out: (1) The
stoppage is temporary rather than permanent;
(2) the action is by or against a group rather than
an individual; (3) an employer-employee relation­
ship exists; and (4) the objective is to express a
grievance or enforce a demand.
A t times, the grievance may or may not be
against the employer of the striking group. In
jurisdictional, as well as rival union or representa­
tion strikes, the major elements of dispute may be
between two unions rather than directly with the
employer. In a sympathy strike there is usually
no dispute between the striking workers and their
immediate employer but the purpose is to give
union support or broaden group pressure for the
benefit of some other grdifp of workers. Sym­




(2 6 )

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