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Ut.?’, 145© - 10  Transportation and Forestry, Fishing, and Related Occupations ISBN 0-16-043067-4  Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1994-95 Edition U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics  9 780160 430671  Bulletin 2450-20   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  — :} PO  * 4 4 *j  mew a  ax -  : e. s  Busdrivers ft i  (D.O.T. 913.363, .463-010, and .663-014, and -018)  Nature of the Work Busdrivers provide transportation for millions of Americans every day. Intercity busdrivers transport people between regions of a State or of the country; local transit busdrivers, within a metropolitan area or county; and school busdrivers, to and from schools and re­ lated events. They follow time schedules and routes over highways and city and suburban streets to provide passengers with an alterna­ tive to the automobile and other forms of transportation. Intercity busdrivers and local transit busdrivers report to their as­ signed terminal or garage, where they receive tickets and transfers and prepare trip report forms. School busdrivers do not always have to report to an assigned terminal or garage. Instead, school busdrivers often have the choice to take their bus home, or to park it in another more convenient area. Before beginning their routes, driv­ ers check their vehicle’s tires, brakes, windshield wipers, lights, oil, fuel, water, and safety equipment, such as fire extinguishers, first aid kits, and emergency reflectors. Drivers pick up and discharge passengers at bus stops or stations, or, in the case of students, at comers or in front of houses. Intercity and local transit busdrivers collect fares; answer questions about schedules, routes, and transfer points; and sometimes announce stops. School busdrivers do not collect fares. Instead, they prepare weekly reports with the number of students, trips or runs, work hours, and miles and the amount of fuel consumption. Time sched­ ules and routes are set by their supervisors. Busdrivers’ days are run by the clock, as they must adhere to schedules. Drivers must try to keep up when traffic is heavier than normal, yet operate safely. However, they cannot let light traffic put them ahead of schedule so that they miss passengers. Busdrivers must be alert to prevent accidents, especially in heavy traffic or in bad weather, and to avoid sudden stops or swerves which jar passengers. School busdrivers must exercise particular caution when children are getting on or off the bus. They must know and reinforce the same set of rules used elsewhere in the school sys­ tem. Bus routes vary. Local transit busdrivers may make several trips each day over the same city and suburban streets, stopping as fre­ quently as every few blocks. School busdrivers also drive the same routes each day, stopping frequently to pick up pupils in the morn­ ing and return them to their homes in the afternoon. School busdrivers may also transport students and teachers on field trips or to Sporting events. Intercity busdrivers may make only a single one­ way trip to a distant city or a round trip each day, stopping at towns just a few miles apart or only at large cities hundreds of miles apart. Drivers who operate chartered buses pick up groups, take them to their destination, and generally remain with them until they return. Trips frequently last more than 1 day, and if they are assigned to a tour, they may be away for a week or more. Local transit busdrivers submit daily trip reports with a record of tickets and fares received, trips made, and significant delays in schedule, and report mechanical problems. All busdrivers must be able to fill out accident reports when necessary. Intercity drivers who drive across State or national boundaries must comply with U.S. Department of Transportation requirements. These include completing vehicle inspection reports and recording distances trav­ eled and the periods of time they spend driving, performing other duties, and off duty.  2  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  PLEASE Pt EXACT FAi Operator Ot»s Wak# Changi  Drivers who operate vehicles designed to transport 16 or more passengers are required to obtain a commercial driver’s license. Working Conditions Driving a bus through heavy traffic while dealing with passengers is not physically strenuous, but it can be stressful and fatiguing. On the other hand, many drivers enjoy the opportunity to work without direct supervision, with full responsibility for the bus and passen­ gers. Intercity busdrivers may work nights, weekends, and holidays and often spend nights away from home, where they stay at hotels at company expense. Senior drivers with regular routes have regular weekly work schedules, but others do not have regular schedules and must be prepared to report for work on short notice. They re­ port for work only when called for a charter assignment or to drive extra buses on a regular route. Intercity bus travel and charter work tendio be seasonal. From May through August, drivers may work the maximum number of hours per week that regulations allow. During winter, junior drivers may work infrequently, except for busy holiday travel periods, and may be furloughed for periods of time. School busdrivers work only when school is in session. Most work 20 hours a week or less, driving one or two routes in the morning and afternoon. Drivers taking field or athletic trips or who also have midday kindergarten routes may work more hours a week. Regular local transit busdrivers usually have a 5-day workweek; Saturdays and Sundays are considered regular workdays. Some drivers work evenings and after midnight. To accommodate com­ muters, many work “split shifts,” for example, 6 a.m. to 10 a.m. and 3 p.m. to 7 p.m., with time off in between. Employment Busdrivers held about 562,000 jobs in 1992. Most worked part time. Nearly 3 out of 4 drivers worked for school systems or companies that provide school bus services under contract, as shown in the ac­ companying chart. Most of the remainder worked for private and local government transit systems; some also worked for intercity and charter buslines.  For sale by Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office Washington, D.C. 20402  -j  Most busdrivers operate school buses. Distribution of wage and salary employment, 1992  Intercity busdrivers  Other busdrivers 4%  Local transit busdrivers ,  18% A  School busdrivers  Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Busdriver qualifications and standards are established by State and Federal regulations. Federal regulations require drivers who oper­ ate vehicles designed to transport 16 or more passengers to obtain a commercial driver’s license from the State in which they live. In order to be licensed, applicants for a commercial driver’s li­ cense must take and pass a knowledge test and demonstrate that they have the skills necessary to operate a commercial motor vehicle safely. Applicants are also required to pass a behind-the-wheel road test in the type of vehicle that they will be operating. Trainees must be accompanied by another driver who has a commercial driver’s li­ cense until they are issued their own commercial license. In addi­ tion, interstate busdrivers must meet additional qualifications. For example, they must be at least 21 years old and pass a physical ex­ amination. State agencies and municipalities may also have addi­ tional requirements for drivers who operate within their jurisdic­ tions. Drivers should be in good health and have at least 20/40 vision with or without glasses, good hearing, and normal use of their arms and legs. Many employers prefer high school graduates and require a physical examination and a written test of ability to follow com­ plex bus schedules. Many intercity and public transit bus companies prefer applicants who are at least 24 years of age; some require sev­ eral years of bus or truck driving experience. Public transit and in­ terstate busdrivers are also required to submit to drug screening as a condition of employment. In some States, school busdrivers must pass a background investigation to uncover any criminal record or history of mental problems. Because busdrivers deal with passengers, they must be courteous. They need an even temperament and emotional stability because driving in heavy, fast-moving, or stop-and-go traffic and dealing with passengers can be stressful. Most intercity bus companies and local transit systems give driver trainees 2 to 8 weeks of classroom and “behind-the-wheel” instruc­ tion. In the classroom, trainees learn U.S. Department of Transpor­ tation and company work rules, safety regulations, State and munic­ ipal driving regulations, and safe driving practices. They also learn  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  to read schedules, determine fares, keep records, and deal courte­ ously with passengers. School busdrivers are also required to obtain a commercial driv­ er’s license from the State in which they live. Many persons who enter school busdriving have never driven any vehicle larger than an automobile. They receive between 1 and 4 weeks of driving instruc­ tion plus classroom training on State and local laws, regulations, and policies of operating school buses; safe driving practices; driverpupil relations; first aid; disabled student special needs; and emer­ gency evacuation procedures. During training, busdrivers practice driving on set courses. They practice turns and zigzag maneuvers, back up, and drive in narrow lanes. Then they drive in light traffic and, eventually, on congested highways and city streets. They also make trial runs, without pas­ sengers, to improve their driving skills and learn the routes. Local transit trainees memorize and drive each of the runs operating out of their assigned garage. New drivers begin with a “break-in” period. They make regularly scheduled trips with passengers, accompanied by an experienced driver who gives helpful tips, answers questions, and evaluates the new driver’s performance. New intercity and local transit drivers usually are placed on an “extra” list to drive charter runs, extra buses on regular runs, and special runs (for example, during morning and evening rush hours and to sports events). They also substitute for regular drivers who are ill or on vacation. New drivers remain on the extra list, and may work only part time, perhaps for several years, until they have enough seniority to get a regular run. Senior drivers may bid for runs they prefer, such as those with more work hours, lighter traffic, weekends off, or, in the case of in­ tercity busdrivers, higher earnings or fewer workdays per week. Opportunities for promotion generally are limited. However, ex­ perienced drivers may become supervisors or dispatchers, who as­ sign buses to drivers, check whether drivers are on schedule, reroute buses to avoid blocked streets or other problems, and dispatch extra vehicles and service crews to scenes of accidents and breakdowns. In transit agencies with rail systems, drivers may become train opera­ tors or station attendants. A few drivers become managers. Promo­ tion in publicly owned bus systems is often by competitive civil ser­ vice examination. Job Outlook Persons seeking jobs as busdrivers over the 1992-2005 period should encounter good opportunities. Opportunities should be best for per­ sons with good driving records who are able to qualify for a com­ mercial driver’s license. Opportunities should also be best in metro­ politan areas that are growing rapidly. Thousands of job openings are expected to occur each year because of the need to replace work­ ers who retire or leave the occupation for other reasons. Employment of busdrivers is expected to increase about as fast as average for all occupations through the year 2005. The number of job openings for school busdrivers will be greater because of the growing need for pupil transportation. There will be more competi­ tion for higher paying intercity and public transit busdriver posi­ tions. School busdriving jobs should be easiest to get because most of these positions are part time and often have high turnover. The number of school busdrivers is expected to increase as a result of growth in elementary and secondary school enrollments. In addi­ tion, as more of the Nation’s population is concentrated in suburban areas—where students generally ride school buses—and less in the central cities—where transportation is not provided for most pupils—more school busdrivers will be needed. Employment of local transit and intercity drivers will grow as bus ridership increases. Local and intercity travel is expected to in­ crease, as the population and labor force grow and incomes rise, but most growth will probably be in more expensive air and automobile transportation rather than in bus travel. There may continue to be 3  competition for local transit and intercity busdriver jobs in some ar­ eas since many of these positions offer relatively high wages and at­ tractive benefits. The most competitive positions will be those that offer regular hours and steady driving routes. Full-time busdrivers are rarely laid off during recessions. How­ ever, part-time local transit and intercity busdrivers may be if bus ridership decreases, because fewer extra buses would be needed. Sea­ sonal layoffs are common. Many intercity busdrivers with little se­ niority, for example, are furloughed during the winter when regular schedule and charter business falls off; school busdrivers seldom work during the summer or school holidays. Earnings Median weekly earnings of busdrivers who worked full time were $400 in 1992. The middle 50 percent earned between about $288 and $580 a week. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $206 a week, while the highest tenth earned more than $721 a week. In 1993, according to the American Public Transit Association, local transit busdrivers in metropolitan areas with more than 2 mil­ lion inhabitants were paid a median top hourly wage rate of $16.41 by companies with over 1,000 employees, and $14.08 by those with fewer than 1,000 employees. In smaller metropolitan areas, they had a median top hourly wage rate of $12.13 in areas with between 250,000 and one-half million residents, and $10.64 in areas with populations below 50,000. Generally, drivers could reach the top rate in 3 or 4 years. Earnings of intercity busdrivers depend primarily on the number of miles they drive. According to limited information, in 1992 begin­ ning intercity drivers worked about 6 months out of the year and earned about $22,000 while many senior drivers who worked year round earned more than $48,000. According to a survey by the Educational Research Service, the average rate for school busdrivers employed by public school sys­ tems was $10.04 an hour during the 1991-92 school year. Lowest hourly rates averaged $8.74 while highest hourly rate averaged $11.43. The fringe benefits that busdrivers receive from their employers vary greatly. Most intercity and local transit busdrivers receive paid health and life insurance, sick leave, and free bus rides on any of the regular routes of their line or system. Drivers who work full time also get as much as 4 weeks of vacation annually. Most local transit busdrivers are also covered by dental insurance and pension plans. School busdrivers get sick leave, and most are covered by health and life insurance and pension plans, but because they do not work when school is not in session, they do not get vacation leave. In a number of States, local transit and school busdrivers who are employed by local governments are covered by a State-wide public employee pen­ sion system. Most intercity and many local transit busdrivers are members of the Amalgamated Transit Union. Local transit busdrivers in New York and several other large cities belong to the Transport Workers Union of America. Some drivers belong to the United Transporta­ tion Union and the International Brotherhood of Teamsters. Related Occupations Other workers who drive vehicles on highways and city streets are taxidrivers, truckdrivers, and chauffeurs. Sources of Additional Information For further information on employment opportunities, contact local transit systems, intercity buslines, school systems, or the local of­ fices of the State employment service. Information on school busdriving is available from: O’ National School Transportation Association, P.O. Box 2639, Springfield, VA 22152.  General information on local transit busdriving is available from: O’American Public Transit Association, 1201 New York Ave. NW., Suite 400, Washington, DC 20005.  4  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Fishers, Hunters, and Trappers (D.O.T. 197.133-010, -018; 441; 442; 443; 446 except .133 and .134; 447; 449 except .674; and 461)  Nature of the Work Fishers, hunters, and trappers gather aquatic and animal species for human consumption, animal feed, bait, and other uses, and manage animals for research and control purposes. The range of occupa­ tional functions reflects the wide variety of aquatic and animal life and their environments. Gathering fish hundreds of miles from shore with commercial fishing vessels—large boats capable of hauling a catch of tens of thousands of pounds of fish—requires a crew including a captain, or skipper, a first mate and sometimes a second mate, boatswain, and deckhands. The captain plans and oversees the fishing operation—the fish to be sought, the location of the best fishing grounds, the method of capture, the duration of the trip, and the sale of the catch. The cap­ tain ensures that the fishing vessel is in suitable condition; oversees the purchase of supplies, gear, and equipment such as fuel, netting, and cables; and hires qualified crew members and assigns their du­ ties. The vessel’s course is plotted with navigation aids such as com­ passes, sextants, and charts; it is navigated using electronic equip­ ment such as autopilots, a loran system, and satellites to ascertain position. The ships also use radar to avoid obstacles and depth sounders to indicate the water depth and the existence of marine life between the vessel and sea bottom. The captain directs the fishing operation through his mates and other officers, and records daily ac­ tivities in the ship’s log. Upon returning to port, the captain ar­ ranges for the sale of the catch directly to buyers or through a fish auction and ensures that each crew member receives the prear­ ranged portion of the adjusted net proceeds from the sale of the catch. The first mate—the captain’s assistant, who must be familiar with navigation requirements and the operation of all electronic equip­ ment—assumes control of the vessel when the captain is off duty. These duty shifts, called watches, usually last 6 hours. The mate’s regular duty, with the help of the boatswain and under the captain’s oversight, is to direct the fishing operations and sailing responsibili­ ties of the deckhands. These include the operation, maintenance, and repair of the vessel and the gathering, preservation, stowing, and unloading of the catch. The boatswain, a highly experienced deckhand with supervisory responsibilities, directs the deckhands as they carry out the sailing and fishing operations. Prior to departure, the boatswain directs the deckhands to load equipment and supplies, either manually or with hoisting equipment, and untie lines from other boats and the dock. When necessary, they repair fishing gear, equipment, nets, and ac­ cessories. They operate the fishing gear, letting out and pulling in nets and lines. They extract the catch—such as pollock, flounder, menhaden, and tuna—from the nets or lines’ hooks. Deckhands use dip nets to prevent the escape of small fish and gaffs to facilitate the landing of large fish. The catch is then washed, salted, iced, and stowed away. Additionally, deckhands must ensure that the decks are clear and clean at all times and that the vessel’s engines and equipment are kept in good working order. Upon return to port, they secure the vessel’s lines to and from the docks and other vessels. Unless lumpers, or laborers, are hired, the deckhands unload the catch. The number of large fishing vessels that operate in deep water is increasing. These vessels generally have more technologically ad­ vanced equipment, and some may have facilities on board where the fish are processed and prepared for sale. They are equipped for longer stays at sea and can perform the work of several smaller boats. (For information about merchant marine occupations, see the statement on water transportation occupations elsewhere in the Handbook.) Some full-time and many part-time fishers work on small boats in relatively shallow waters and often in sight of land. Navigation and communication needs are modest, and there is little need for much  electronic equipment or provisions for long stays at sea. Crews are small—usually only one or two people collaborate on all aspects of the fishing operation. This may include placing gill nets across the mouths of rivers or inlets, entrapment nets in bays and lakes, or pots and traps for shellfish such as lobsters and crabs. Dredges and scrapes are sometimes used to gather shellfish such as oysters and scallops. A very small proportion of commercial fishing is con­ ducted as diving operations. Depending upon the water’s depth, di­ vers—wearing a regulation diving suit with an umbilical (air line) or a scuba outfit and equipment—may use spears to catch fish and nets and other equipment to gather shellfish, coral, sea urchins, abalone, and sponges. In very shallow waters, fish are caught from small boats having an outboard motor, or from rowboats, or by wading. Fishers use a wide variety of hand-operated equipment—for exam­ ple, nets, tongs, rakes, hoes, hooks, and shovels—to gather fish and shellfish, catch amphibians and reptiles such as frogs and turtles, and harvest marine vegitation such as Irish moss and kelp. Although most fishers are involved with commercial fishing, some captains and deckhands are primarily employed in sport or recreational fishing. Typically a group of people charter a fishing vessel—for periods ranging from several hours to a number of days—for sport fishing, socializing, and relaxation, and employ a captain and possibly several deckhands. Hunters track, stalk, and kill their quarry, either for a govern­ ment agency or for bounty. They may hunt alone or with others and may use dogs to locate and comer the quarry. They use guns or poi­ sons to kill predatory animals such as coyotes. Alligator hunters may shoot their quarry after snaring it with baited hooks. A few hunters collect animals for museums. All legal hunting activities are approved and monitored by the appropriate Federal, State, or local government agencies. Exceptions are made for Native Americans on their own reservations and Alaska Natives. Trappers catch animals or birds using baited, scented, or camou­ flaged traps, snares, cages, or nets. Many hunters and trappers skin animals and prepare and sell the pelts and skins. Trappers also may be involved with animal damage control, wildlife management, dis­ ease control, and research activities. Animal damage control in­ volves the disposition or relocation of animals that are a nuisance or pose a potential danger—for example, bears. Wildlife management involves the relocation of animals—for example, muskrats and bea­ vers—to deal with environmental disruption or animal population imbalance. Disease control involves the capture and destruction of rabid animals that threaten public or animal health. Research activ­ ities include blood sampling for health determination and the band­ ing of wildfowl to ascertain migratory movements. Working Conditions Fishing, hunting, and trapping operations are conducted under vari­ ous environmental conditions, depending on the region of the coun­ try and the kind of species being sought. Fishing vessels may be hampered or imperiled by storms, fog, or wind. Divers are affected by murky water and unexpected shifts in underwater currents. Hunters and trappers are hampered or disrupted by storms and rough terrain. Fishers, hunters, and trappers work under hazardous conditions, and often help is not readily available. Malfunctioning navigation or communication equipment may lead to collisions or even ship­ wrecks. Malfunctioning fishing gear poses the danger of injury to the crew, who also must guard against entanglement in fishing nets and gear, slippery decks resulting from fish processsing operations, ice formation in the winter, or being swept overboard—a fearsome situation. Treatment for serious injuries may have to await transfer to a hospital. Divers must guard against entanglement of air lines, malfunction of scuba equipment, decompression problems, or at­ tacks by predatory fish. Hunters and trappers face numerous hazards such as assault by predators, falling branches and trees, slippery ground, danger of drowning by falling through ice on ponds, accidental self-inflicted gunshot, and snake and insect bites. Danger from incapacitating injuries is especially high, because these individuals often work alone in isolated areas. A disabled individual may die of injuries that could be routinely treated in an urban area.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  XltT?  Commercial fishing is hard, physical work. This occupation entails strenuous outdoor work and long hours. Fishing trips may require a stay of several weeks or months hun­ dreds of miles away from home port. The pace of work varies—in­ tense while netting and hauling the catch aboard and relatively re­ laxed while traveling between home port and the fishing grounds. However, lookout watches—usually 6 hours long—are a regular re­ sponsibility and crew members must be prepared to stand watch at prearranged times of the day or night. Although fishing gear has im­ proved and operations have become more mechanized, netting and processing fish are strenuous activities. Even though newer vessels have improved living quarters and amenities such as television and shower stalls, crews still experience the aggravations of confined conditions, continuous close personal contact, and the absence of family. Hunters and trappers generally must travel many miles by car or truck and then carry equipment and supplies on foot through swamps or forests, over rugged terrain. Long hours—dawn to dusk—often are the rule, and many spend lonely nights camped out in sparsely populated, forested, or mountainous areas. Employment Fishers, hunters, and trappers held an estimated 60,000 jobs in 1992. Over half were self-employed. About 1 in 5 of them worked part time, particularly in the summer, when demand for these work­ ers peaks. Captains, mates, and deckhands on fishing vessels accounted for the majority of these jobs. Trappers, and to a lesser extent hunters, accounted for the remaining jobs. Outside of the fishing, hunting, and trapping industry, some peo­ ple employed in this occupation are involved in sport fishing activi­ ties, while small numbers are employed in museums. Others work for government or buy and sell fur. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Fishers generally acquire their occupational skills on the job, many as members of families involved in fishing activities. No formal aca­ demic requirements exist. Under a Coast Guard legislative propo­ sal, operators of federally documented commercial fishing vessels will be required to complete a Coast Guard-approved training course. Young people can expedite their entrance into these occupa­ tions by enrolling in 2-year vocational-technical programs offered by secondary schools, primarily in coastal areas. In addition, the University of Rhode Island offers a bachelor’s degree program in 5  fishery technology that includes courses in seamanship, vessel oper­ ations, marine safety, navigation, vessel repair and maintenance, health emergencies, and fishing gear technology, and is accompa­ nied by hands-on experience. Experienced fishers may find short-term workshops offered through various postsecondary institutions especially useful. These programs provide a good working knowledge of electronic equip­ ment used in navigation and communication and the latest improve­ ments in fishing gear. Captains and mates on larger fishing vessels of at least 200 gross tons must be licensed. Captains of sport fishing boats used for char­ ter, regardless of size, also must be licensed. Crew members on cer­ tain fish processing vessels may need a merchant mariner’s docu­ ment. These documents and licenses are issued by the U.S. Coast Guard to individuals who meet the stipulated health, physical, and academic requirements. Fishers must be in good health and possess physical strength. Co­ ordination and mechanical aptitude are necessary to operate, main­ tain, and repair equipment and fishing gear. They need perseverance to work long hours on the sea, often under difficult conditions. On larger vessels, they must be able to work as members of a team. They must be patient, yet always alert, to overcome the boredom of long watches when not engaged in fishing operations. The ability to as­ sume any deckhand’s functions, on short notice, is important. Mates must have supervisory ability and be able to assume any deckhand’s and the captain’s duties, when necessary. The captain must be highly experienced, mature, decisive, and possess the necessary bus­ iness skills. Captains with initiative and the required capital often become boat owners. On fishing vessels, most fishers begin as deckhands. Deckhands whose experience and interests are in ship engineering—mainte­ nance and repair of ship engines and equipment—can eventually be­ come licensed chief engineers on large commercial vessels after meeting the U.S. Coast Guard’s experience, physical, and academic requirements. Divers in fishing operations can enter commercial diving activity—for example, ship repair and pier and marina main­ tenance—usually after completion of a certified training program sponsored by an educational institution or industry association. Ex­ perienced, reliable deckhands who display supervisory qualities may become boatswains. Boatswains may, in turn, become second mates, first mates, and finally captains. Almost all captains become selfemployed, and the overwhelming majority eventually own or have an interest in one or more fishing ships. Some may choose to run a sport or recreational fishing operation. When their seagoing days are over, experienced individuals may work in or, with the necessary capital, own stores selling fishing and marine equipment and sup­ plies. Some captains may assume advisory or administrative posi­ tions in industry trade associations or government offices such as harbor development commissions, or teaching positions in industrysponsored workshops or in educational institutions. Hunters and trappers generally acquire their knowledge of wild­ life and hunting and trapping equipment and supplies gradually, through experience. Some are members of rural families for whom hunting and trapping have been a way of life for generations. For­ mal training for hunters consists of a federally mandated and State sponsored hunter safety class, covering safety and ethics, which must be passed prior to being issued a hunting license in almost every State. Inexperienced individuals may join an established sports association to observe professional demonstrations and gain knowledge of hunting weapons and related equipment and tracking and survival techniques. After acquiring the mandatory State hunt­ ing license, they should hunt with an experienced hunter as an ap­ prentice. Government hunters who hunt rabid or nuisance animals may be trained in the use of airplanes or helicopters. Trappers may undergo various forms of training. For those inter­ ested in the sale of animals and their skins, pelts, or furs, experience is fundamental. Inexperienced trappers may serve an internship under the supervision of a professional trapper and take trapper ed­ ucation programs. Trapper education programs are offered by State wildlife departments or State trappers associations; in some States, these programs are mandatory. A trapper’s license permits the trap­ ping of animals forbidden to unlicensed trappers. Trappers inter­ ested in research asssociated with control and management of wild­ life populations and disease may take courses, or even complete a 6  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  degree program, in wildlife biology, wildlife management, or related fields. Hunters and trappers must be in good health, possess physical strength and stamina, and have the desire, patience, and ability to work outdoors, sometimes for long periods, under difficult condi­ tions. Maturity and judgment are important to deal with hazards. Good physical coordination and mechanical aptitude are necessary to safely and skillfully use hunting weapons and trapping equipment and to maintain camping and other gear. Some hunters are employed by the Federal or State governments to work in such areas as predator control. Other hunters who have extensive experience may work as guides for hunting parties. Those with initiative, business skills, and the required capital may become self-employed outfitters, some of whom own sites in the wilds. Out­ fitters organize hunting parties, select hunting areas, and assume re­ sponsibility for the hunting expedition—providing for equipment and supplies, instructing the party members in hunting techniques and safety measures, and overseeing leisure activities during the ex­ pedition. Most States require a hunter to obtain a license in order to work as a hunting guide. Experienced trappers with the appropriate academic background  may enter other occupations, such as wildlife technician, or wildlife refuge manager. Professional trappers with business skills and initi­ ative may become self-employed fur traders. Job Outlook Overall, employment of fishers, hunters, and trappers is expected to increase much more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Hunting, fishing, and trapping occupations depend on the natural ability of stock to replenish itself through growth and reproduction. Many operations are currently at or be­ yond maximum sustainable yield, limiting potential for occupa­ tional growth. Most job openings will arise from the need to replace workers who retire or leave the occupation for other reasons. Some fishers, hunters, and trappers leave the occupation because of the strenuous and hazardous nature of the job, and the lack of steady, year-round income. Different factors will affect employment among these occupa­ tions. In many areas, particularly the North Atlantic, overfishing and pollution have adversely affected the stock of fish and, conse­ quently, the demand for fishers. However, this also has helped spur the growth of a closely related field, aquaculture—the raising and harvesting of fish and other aquatic life in ponds or artificial bodies of water for commercial purposes. Aquaculture should be most prominent in the South, where the climate is best suited for the growth of most freshwater fish, except perhaps salmon and trout. Employment growth of fishers also may be somewhat restrained by the growing number of large fishing vessels; the use of sophisti­ cated electronic equipment for navigation, communication, and fish location; and improvements in fishing gear, which have greatly in­ creased the efficiency of fishing operations and have limited the ex­ pansion in crew size. Likewise, the use of highly automated “float­ ing processors,” where the catch is processed aboard the vessel, may limit employment opportunities. Sport fishing boats will continue to provide some job opportunities. Limited growth is expected in the employment of hunters and trappers. The U.S. Forest Service and State fish and wildlife agen­ cies may provide some jobs. Some qualified hunters should be able to obtain positions as hunting guides or outfitters, although the work generally is seasonal. Trapping activities increasingly are be­ coming ancillary duties of wildlife scientists and technicians and re­ lated workers. Opportunities should be best for trappers in pest con­ trol activities. Earnings Earnings of fishers, hunters, and trappers generally are highest in the summer and fall—when demand for their services peaks and en­ vironmental conditions are favorable—and lowest during the win­ ter. Many full-time and most part-time workers supplement their in­ come by working in other activities during the off-season. For example, fishers may work in seafood processing plants, establish­ ments selling fishing and marine equipment, or in construction. Hunters may work as self-employed guides, for an outfitter, or in  stores selling guns or hunting and related equipment. Trappers may work in stores selling trapping and related equipment. Earnings of fishers vary widely depending upon the specific occu­ pational function, the size of the ship, and the amount and value of the catch. The costs of the fishing operation—operating the ship, re­ pair and maintenance of gear and equipment, and the crew’s sup­ plies—are deducted from the sale of the catch. The net proceeds are distributed among the crew members in accordance with a prear­ ranged percentage. Generally, the ship’s owner—usually its cap­ tain—receives half of the net proceeds, which covers any profit as well as the depreciation, maintenance, and replacement costs of the ship. Related Occupations Numerous occupations involve outdoor activities similar to those of fishers, hunters, and trappers. Among these are zoo keepers, log­ gers, animal control officers, forest rangers, fishing guides, fish hatchery and aquaculture workers, game wardens, harbor pilots, merchant marine officers and seamen, and wildlife management specialists. Sources of Additional Information For general information about fishing occupations, contact: S’ National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Office of Fisheries Conservation and Management, 1335 East-West Hwy., Silver Spring, MD 20910.  Information about sport or recreational fishing occupations is available from: S’ Sport Fishing Institute, 1010 Massachusetts Ave. NW., Washington, DC  20001.  Names of postsecondary schools offering fishing and related marine educational programs are available from: S’ Marine Technology Society, 1828 L St. NW., Suite 906, Washington, DC  20036-5104.  Information on licensing of captains and mates and requirements for merchant mariner documentation is available from the U.S. Coast Guard Marine Inspection Office or Marine Safety Office in your State, or: S’ Licensing and Evaluation Branch (G-MPV-2), U.S. Coast Guard, 2100  Second St. SW., Washington, DC 20593.  For information about certified training programs for diving (um­ bilical) careers, contact: S’ College of Oceaneering, International Diving School, 272 S. Fries Ave.,  Wilmington, CA 90744.  Information on licensing of hunting guides is available from the department of fish and game in your State.  Forestry and Logging Occupations (D.O.T. 451.687; 452.364-010, .687-010, -018; 453; 454 except .134; 455 except .134; 459.387, .687; 669.485-010, .687-022; 921.364, .664-014, .667-014, .687-014, -030; 922.687-082; 929.663-010)  Nature of the Work The Nation’s forests are a rich natural resource, providing beauty and tranquility, varied recreational areas, and wood for commercial use. Managing forests and woodlands requires many different kinds of workers. Forestry and conservation workers help develop, main­ tain, and protect these forests by growing and planting new tree seedlings, fighting insects and diseases that attack trees, and helping to control soil erosion. Timber cutting and logging workers harvest thousands of acres of forests each year for the timber that provides the raw material for countless consumer and industrial products. Generally working under the direction of a professional forester, forestry technicians compile data on the characterisics of forest land tracts such as size, content, and condition. These workers travel through sections of forest to gather basic information such as species and population of trees, disease and insect damage, tree seedling mortality, and conditions that may cause fire danger. One of the main jobs of the forestry technician is to determine which timber in  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  a particuliar tract of forest is ready to be harvested. They also train and lead conservation workers in seasonal activities such as planting tree seedlings, putting out forest fires, and maintaining recreational facilities. Forest workers are less skilled workers who perform a variety of different tasks to reforest and conserve timberlands and maintain forest facilities such as roads and campsites. Some forest workers called tree planters plant new tree seedlings to reforest timberland areas, using a mattock and planting hoe. They also remove diseased or undesirable trees with a powersaw or handsaw and spray trees with herbicides to kill insects and to protect against disease. Forest workers also clear away brush and debris from camp trails, road­ sides, and camping areas. Some clean kitchens and rest rooms at rec­ reational facilities and campgrounds. Other forestry and conservation workers work in forest nurseries sorting out tree seedlings, discarding those that do not meet predescribed standards of root formation, stem development, and foilage condition. Some forestry workers work on tree farms, where they plant, cul­ tivate, and harvest many different kinds of trees. Their duties also include shearing the tops and limbs to control growth, increase limb density, and improve the shape. Others classify trees into specified categories by examining the tree’s limbs and foilage for color and growth pattern. Other forest workers gather products from the woodlands such as decorative greens, tree cones and barks, moss, or other wild plant life from the forest by hand or using handtools, and others tap trees for sap to make syrup or to produce chemicals. The timber cutting and logging process is carried out by a variety of workers. Fallers cut down trees with chain saws or mechanical felling equipment. Buckers trim off the tops and branches and buck (cut) the resulting logs into specified lengths. These workers usually use gas-powered chain saws. Choker setters fasten chokers (steel cables or chains) around logs to be skidded (dragged) by tractors or forwarded by the cable yard­ ing system to the landing. Riggers set up and dismantle the cables and guy wires of the cable yarding system. Logging tractor operators drive crawler or wheeled tractors to skid logs from the felling site to the landing, and log handling equip­ ment operators operate tracked or wheeled equipment to load or un­ load logs and pulpwood onto or off trucks or gondola railroad cars. Log graders and scalers inspect logs for defects, measure logs to determine their volume, and estimate the marketable content or value of logs or pulpwood. Other timber cutting and logging workers have a variety of re­ sponsibilities. Some workers hike through forests to assess logging conditions and estimate the volume of marketable timber. Laborers clear areas of brush and other growth to prepare for logging activi­ ties and to promote growth of desirable species of trees. Other work­ ers use sledge hammers, mallets, wedges, and froes (cleaving tools) to split logs to form posts, pickets, stakes, and other objects. The timber cutting and logging industry is characterized by a large number of small crews of four or fewer workers—primarily fallers, buckers, choker setters, and others whose jobs are labor in­ tensive. Most of these crews work for self-employed logging con­ tractors who possess substantial logging experience, the capital to purchase equipment, and the skills needed to run a small business successfully. Most contractors work alongside their crews as work­ ing supervisors. Many manage more than one crew and function as owner-supervisors. Although timber cutting and logging equipment has greatly im­ proved and operations are becoming increasingly mechanized, many logging jobs are still labor intensive. These jobs require vari­ ous levels of skill, ranging from manually moving logs, branches, and equipment to skillfully using chain saws, peavies (hooked poles), and log jacks to cut and position logs for further processing or loading. Skillful operation of vehicles and equipment is necessary to avoid accidents and to minimize damage to the equipment and environment. The ability to maintain and repair equipment is in­ creasingly necessary to reduce costs and increase productivity. A skillful, experienced logger is expected to handle a variety of logging operations. 7  Most forestry and conservation workers work for government at some level. One-half of these workers are employed by the U.S. De­ partment of Agriculture’s Forestry Service. Although forestry workers and conservation workers are located in every State, em­ ployment is concentrated in the Western and Southeastern States where many national and private forests and parks are located. While seasonal demand for forestry and logging workers will vary slightly by region, employment generally is highest in the summer and lowest in the winter. :  Increased mechanization of logging operations will reduce demand for timber cutting and logging workers. Working Conditions Forestry and logging occupations are physically demanding. Most forestry and logging workers often work outdoors in all kinds of weather sometimes in isolated areas. To get to these areas, they may use airplanes, helicopters, four wheel drive vehicles, and horses. A few lumber camps in Alaska house workers in bunkhouses or com­ pany towns. Workers in sparsely populated Western States daily commute long distances between their homes and logging sites. In the densely populated Eastern States, commuting distances are much shorter. Most logging occupations involve lifting, climbing, and other strenuous activities. Logging workers work under unusually haz­ ardous conditions. Falling trees and branches are a constant men­ ace, as are the dangers associated with log handling operations and use of sawing equipment, especially delimbing devices. Strong winds require special care and can even halt operations. Slippery or muddy ground and hidden roots or vines not only reduce efficiency but pre­ sent a constant danger, especially in the presence of moving vehicles and machinery. Poisonous plants and brambles are minor annoy­ ances. Over long periods of time, if safety precautions are not taken, hearing may be impaired by the high noise level of sawing and skid­ ding operations. Experience, exercise of caution, and use of proper safety measures and equipment—such as hardhats, eye and hearing protection, and safety clothing and boots—are extremely important to avoid injury. The jobs of forestry and conservation workers are generally much less hazarduous although it may be necessary for some forestry aides or forest workers to walk long distances through densely wooded areas to carry out their work. Employment Forestry and logging workers held about 131,000 jobs in 1992, dis­ tributed among the following occupations: Forest and conservation workers................................................... Fallers and buckers ........................................................................ Logging tractor operators............................................................... Log handling equipment operators................................................ All other cutting and related logging occupations.........................  35,000 33,000 26,000 15,000 22,000  Most salaried logging workers are employed in the logging camps and logging contractors industry. Others work in the sawmills and planing mills and arborist services industries. Although logging op­ erations are found in most States, Oregon and Washington account for about 1 out of every 4 logging workers. Self-employed logging contractors account for 1 of every 4 log­ ging workers—a much higher proportion of self-employment than for most occupations. 8  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Most forestry and logging workers develop their skills through onthe-job training. Instruction comes primarily from experienced workers. Logging workers must familiarize themselves with the character and potential dangers of the forest environment and the operation of logging machinery and equipment. However, larger logging companies and trade associations such as the Northeastern Loggers Association and the American Pulpwood Association may offer special programs, particularly for workers training to operate large, expensive machinery and equipment. Often, a representative of the manufacturer or company may spend several days in the field explaining and overseeing the operation of newly purchased ma­ chinery. Safety training is a vital part of instruction for all logging workers. Log graders and scalers make up the only logging occupation that requires certification on a nationwide basis. However, in recent years, several States in the Northeast have established certification training programs for logging. To be certified individuals have to meet certain training requirements and pass an on site field inspec­ tion that tests their skills. Experience in other occupations can expedite entry into various logging occupations. For example, woodworkers such as carpenters and sawyers can become buckers. Equipment operators such as truckdrivers and bulldozer and crane operators can assume skid­ ding and yarding functions. Some loggers have worked in sawmills or on family farms with extensive wooded areas. Some logging con­ tractors were formerly crew members of family-owned businesses operated over several generations. Generally, little formal education is required for most forestry and logging occupations. The minimum requirement for a forestry aide is a high school education. Many secondary schools, including vocational and technical schools, and a few community colleges of­ fer courses in general forestry, wildlife, conservation, and forest har­ vesting which could be helpful in obtaining a job. A curriculum that includes field trips to observe or participate in forestry or logging ac­ tivities provides a particularly good background. There are no edu­ cational requirements for forest worker jobs Many of these workers may be high school or college students who are hired on a part-time or seasonal basis. Forestry and logging workers must be in good health and be able to work outdoors every day and to work as part of a team. Many logging occupations require physical strength and stamina. Matur­ ity and good judgment are important in making quick, intelligent decisions in dealing with hazards as they arise. Mechanical aptitude and coordination are necessary qualities for operators of machinery and equipment, who often are responsible for repair and mainte­ nance as well. Initiative and managerial and business skills are nec­ essary for success as a self-employed logging contractor. Experience working at a nursery or as a laborer can be useful in obtaining a job as a forest worker. Logging workers generally ad­ vance from occupations involving primarily manual labor to those involving the operation of expensive, sometimes complicated ma­ chinery and equipment. Inexperienced entrants generally begin as laborers, carrying tools and equipment, clearing brush, and loading and unloading logs and brush. For some, familiarization with log­ ging operations may lead to jobs such as choker setter and log han­ dling equipment operator. Further experience may lead to jobs in­ volving the operation of more complicated machinery and yarding towers to transport, load, and unload logs. Those who have the mo­ tor skills required for the efficient use of power saws and other equipment may become fallers and buckers. Some logging workers who can readily assess the marketable volume of timber or identify defects in logs may become cruisers and graders.  Job Outlook Little change in the overall employment of forestry and logging workers is expected through the year 2005. Most job openings for forestry and logging workers will result from replacement needs. Many logging workers transfer to other jobs that are less physically demanding and dangerous. In addition, many forestry workers are younger workers who are not committed to the occupation on a long term basis. Some take jobs to earn money for school, others only take these jobs until they find a better paying job. Employment in timber cutting and logging occupations is ex­ pected to decline. Despite an increase in demand for lumber and wood products, increased mechanization of logging operations and improvements in logging equipment will depress the demand for workers. In addition, forest conservation efforts may restrict the volume of public timber available for harvesting, further dampening demand for timber cutting and logging workers. Employment of forestry and conservation workers is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations as environ­ mental concerns help spur the demand for workers who maintain and conserve our woodlands. However, applicants for forestry and conservation worker positions are expected to face competition be­ cause many young people seek these jobs as an opportunity to work outdoors and enjoy nature without being exposed to hazardous con­ ditions and or extremely hard physical labor. Increasing mechanization will have differing effects on timber cutting and logging workers. Employment of fallers, buckers, choke setters, and other workers whose jobs are labor intensive should de­ cline as safer, laborsaving machinery and equipment are increas­ ingly used. Employment of machinery and equipment operators, such as logging tractor and log handling equipment operators, should be less adversely affected. Weather can force curtailment of logging operations during the muddy spring season, dry summer periods, and cold winter months. Changes in the level of construction, particularly residential, also af­ fect logging activities. In addition, logging operations must be relo­ cated when timber harvesting in a particular area has been com­ pleted. During prolonged periods of inactivity, some workers may stay on the job to maintain or repair logging machinery and equip­ ment; others are forced to find jobs in other occupations or be with­ out work. Earnings Median weekly earnings for all full-time forestry and logging techni­ cians who were not self-employed were $296 in 1992. The middle 50 percent earned between $210 and $408 weekly. The lowest 10 per­ cent earned less than $159, while the highest 10 percent earned more than $556. Generally, earnings of more skilled workers, such as fall­ ers and yarder operators, are substantially higher than those of less skilled workers, such as laborers and choker setters. Earnings of logging workers vary widely by size of establishment and geographic area. Earnings of workers in the largest establish­ ments are much higher than those in the smallest establishments. Workers in Alaska and the Northwest earn substantially more than those in the South. In 1993, forestry aides who worked for the Federal Government averaged about $26,600. Most forestry and conservation workers work for Federal, State, and local governments and large private firms, which generally offer more generous benefits—for example, pension and retirement plans, health and life insurance, and paid vacations—than smaller firms. Small logging contractors generally offer timber cutting and logging workers few benefits. However, some employers offer full-time workers basic benefits such as medical coverage and provide safety apparel and equipment. Many logging workers in the Northwest, where the larger estab­ lishments are concentrated, are members of either one of two un­ ions—the International Woodworkers of America or the Western Council of Industrial Workers. Related Occupations Other occupations concerned with the care of trees and their envi­ ronment include arborist, gardener, groundskeeper, landscaper, nursery worker, range aide and soil conservation technician.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Sources of Additional Information For information about forestry and conservation occupations con­ tact: W American Forestry Association, 1516 P St. NW., Washington, DC  20015.  For information about forestry jobs with the Federal Govern­ ment contact: IdT Chief, U.S. Forest Service, U.S Department of Agriculture, 14th St. and  Independence Ave. SW., Washington DC 20013.  For information about timber cutting and logging careers and secondary and postsecondary programs offering training for logging occupations, contact: jsr Northeastern Loggers Association, P.O. Box 69, Old Forge, NY 13420.  Timber Producers Association of Michigan and Wisconsin, P.O. Box 39, Tomahawk, WI 54487.  The school of forestry at your State land-grant college or univer­ sity should also be able to provide useful information. A list of State forestry associations and other forestry-related State associations is available at most public libraries and the Amer­ ican Forest & Paper Association, 1250 Connecticut Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20036.  Gardeners and Groundskeepers (D.O.T. 182.167-014; 406.381-010, .683-010, .684-010, -014,-018, .687-010; 408.161-010, .662-010, .684-010, -014, -018, and .687-014)  Nature of the Work Attractively designed, healthy, and well-maintained lawns, gardens, trees, and shrubbery create a positive first impression, establish a peaceful mood, and increase property values. A growing number of individuals and organizations rely on gardeners and groundskeepers to care for them. Some landscape gardeners work on large construction projects, such as office buildings and shopping malls. Following the plans drawn up by the landscape architect, gardeners plant trees, hedges, and flowering plants and apply mulch for protection. For residential customers, these workers terrace hillsides, build retaining walls, and install patios, as well as plant flowers, trees and shrubs. Gardeners working for homeowners, estates, and public gardens feed, water, and prune the flowering plants and trees and mow and water the lawn. Some landscape gardeners, called lawn service workers, specialize in maintaining lawns and shrubs for a fee. A growing number of residential and commercial clients, such as man­ agers of office buildings, shopping malls, multiunit residential build­ ings, and hotels and motels favor this full-service landscape mainte­ nance. These workers perform a full range of duties, including mowing, edging, trimming, fertilizing, dethatching, and mulching. Those working for chemical lawn service firms are more specialized. They inspect lawns for problems and apply fertilizers, weed killers, and other chemicals. Groundskeepers, often classified as either grounds managers or grounds maintenance personnel, maintain a variety of facilities in­ cluding, athletic fields, golf courses, cemeteries, and parks. Grounds managers usually participate in many of the same tasks as mainte­ nance personnel but typically have more extensive knowledge on pest, disease, and erosion control. Managers also may have supervi­ sory responsibilities. Groundskeepers who care for athletic fields keep natural and arti­ ficial turf fields in top condition and mark out boundaries and paint turf with team logos and names before events. Groundskeepers must make sure the underlying soil on natural turf fields has the proper consistency to sustain new sod. They regularly mow, water, fertilize, and aerate the fields. In addition, groundskeepers apply chemicals and fungicides to control weeds, crabgrass, and prevent diseases. Groundskeepers also vacuum and disinfect synthetic turf after use in order to prevent growth of harmful bacteria. They periodically re­ move the turf and replace the cushioning pad. Those who maintain golf courses are called greenskeepers. They do many of the same things athletic turf groundskeepers do. In addi­ tion, greenskeepers periodically relocate the holes on putting greens 9  to eliminate uneven wear of the turf and add interest and challenge to the game. Greenskeepers also keep canopies, benches, ball wash­ ers, and tee markers repaired and freshly painted. Cemetery workers prepare graves and maintain cemetery grounds. They dig graves to specified depth, generally using a backhoe. They may place concrete slabs on the bottom and around the sides of the grave to line it for greater support. When readying a site for the burial ceremony, they position the casket-lowering device over the grave, cover the immediate area with an artificial grass car­ pet, erect a canopy, and arrange folding chairs to accommodate mourners. They regularly mow grass, prune shrubs, plant flowers, and remove debris from graves. They also must periodically build the ground up around new gravesites to compensate for settling. Groundskeepers in parks and recreation facilities care for lawns, trees, and shrubs, maintain athletic fields and playgrounds, clean buildings, and keep parking lots, picnic areas, and other public spaces free of litter. They may also remove snow and ice from roads and walkways, erect and dismantle snow fences, and maintain swimming pools. These workers inspect buildings and equipment, make needed repairs, and keep everything freshly painted. Gardeners and groundskeepers use handtools such as shovels, rakes, pruning saws, saws, hedge and brush trimmers, and axes, as well as power lawnmowers, chain saws, snow blowers, and electric clippers. Some use equipment such as tractors and twin-axle vehi­ cles. Park, school, cemetery, and golf course groundskeepers may use sod cutters to harvest sod that will be replanted elsewhere. Ath­ letic turf groundskeepers use magnetic sweepers and vacuums and other devices to remove water from athletic fields. In addition, some workers in large operations use spraying and dusting equipment. Working Conditions Many of the jobs for gardeners and groundskeepers are seasonal, mainly in the spring and summer, when cleanup, planting, and mowing and trimming take place. Gardeners and groundskeepers work outdoors in all kinds of weather. They frequently are under pressure to get the job completed, especially when they are prepar­ ing for scheduled events, such as athletic competitions or burials. They may work with pesticides, fertilizers, and other chemicals and must exercise safety precautions to prevent exposure. They also work with dangerous equipment and tools such as power lawnmowers, chain saws, and electric clippers. Employment Gardeners and groundskeepers held about 884,000 jobs in 1992. Four of every 10 worked for lawn and garden service companies. One of every 10 worked for private households and estates. Many worked for firms that operate real estate and for local government, including parks departments, and recreational facilities such as golf courses, race tracks, and amusement parks. Others were employed  ■ ".Vy*  iSpr i  Many jobs for gardeners and groundskeepers are seasonal, mainly in the spring and summer. 10  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  by schools, hospitals, cemeteries, hotels, retail nurseries, and garden stores. One of every 5 gardeners and groundskeepers was self-employed, providing landscape maintenance directly to customers on a con­ tract basis. One of every 4 worked part time, most likely students working their way through school. Others working part time were older workers who might have been cutting back their hours as they approached retirement. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Entrance requirements for gardeners and groundskeepers are mod­ est. Most workers are high school graduates, although a high school diploma is not necessary for some jobs. Experience can be attained through home gardening or working in a nursery, a sod production operation, or a tree service. High school students may gain experi­ ence in the Future Farmers of America and other associations. There are no national standards for gardeners and ground­ skeepers, but most States require certification for workers who ap­ ply pesticides. Certification requirements vary, but usually include passing a test on the safe use and disposal of insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides. Employers prefer applicants with a good driving record and some experience driving a truck. Workers who deal directly with custom­ ers must get along well with people. Employers also look for respon­ sible, self-motivated individuals, since many gardeners and ground­ skeepers work with little supervision. Courses in agronomy, horticulture, and botany are helpful for ad­ vancement. There are many 2- and 4-year programs in landscape management, turfgrass management, interiorscape, and ornamental horticulture. Courses include equipment use and care, landscape de­ sign, plant biology, and irrigation. There are cooperative education programs in which students work alternate semesters or quarters for a lawn care or landscape contractor. Generally, a gardener or groundskeeper can advance to supervisor after several years of pro­ gressively responsible experience, including the demonstrated abil­ ity to deal effectively with both coworkers and customers. Supervi­ sors can advance to grounds manager or superintendent for a golf course or other athletic facility, a cemetery, a campus, a school sys­ tem, or manager of a lawn maintenance firm. Many gardeners and groundskeepers become landscape contractors. The Professional Grounds Management Society offers certifica­ tion to those managers who have a combination of 8 years of experi­ ence and formal education beyond high school. Job Outlook Employment of gardeners and groundskeepers is expected to in­ crease faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005 in response to increasing demand for gardening and landscap­ ing services. Furthermore, a large number of job openings are ex­ pected to result from the need to replace workers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Expected growth in the construction of commercial and indus­ trial buildings, shopping malls, homes, highways, and parks and recreational facilities should stimulate demand for these workers. Developers are increasingly using landscaping services, both inte­ rior and exterior, to attract prospective buyers and tenants. In addi­ tion, owners of many existing buildings and facilities are upgrading their landscaping. Also, a growing number of homeowners are using lawn maintenance and landscaping services to enhance the beauty and value of their property as well as to conserve their leisure time. Growth in the number of parks, athletic fields, golf courses, ceme­ teries, and similar facilities also can be expected to add to the de­ mand for these workers. Job openings should be plentiful because the occupation is large and turnover is high. This occupation attracts many young people who are not committed to the occupation. Some take gardening or groundskeeping jobs to earn money for school, others only take these jobs until a better paying job is found. Because wages for be­ ginners are low and the work is physically demanding, many em­ ployers have difficulty attracting enough workers to fill all openings. Employment opportunities in landscaping are tied to local eco­ nomic conditions. During economic downturns, many individuals turn to landscaping as a second source of income or a new career. At  the same time, demand for landscaping services often slows as cor­ porations, governments, and homeowners reduce spending on all nonessential expenditures, increasing noticeably the level of compe­ tition for available jobs. Earnings Median weekly earnings of gardeners and groundskeepers were about $275 in 1992; the middle 50 percent earned between $210 and $365. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $175, and the top 10 percent earned more than $475 a week. Related Occupations Gardeners and groundskeepers perform most of their work out­ doors. Others whose jobs may be performed outdoors or are other­ wise related are construction workers, landscape architects, nursery workers, farmers, horticultural workers, tree surgeon helpers, tree trimmers and pruners, and forest conservation workers. Sources of Additional Information For career information, contact: ^Associated Landscape Contractors of America, Inc., 12200 Sunrise Val­ ley Dr., Suite 150, Reston, VA 22091. tw National Landscape Association, 12501 St. NW., Suite 500, Washington, DC 20005.  For career and certification information, contact: XST Professional Grounds Management Society, 12 Galloway Ave., Suite IE,  Cockeysville, MD 21030.  Material Moving Equipment Operators (List of D.O.T. codes available on request from the Chief, Division of Occupational Outlook, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, DC 20212.)  Nature of the Work Material moving equipment operators use machinery to move con­ struction materials and other manufactured goods, earth, logs, pe­ troleum products, grain, coal, and other heavy materials. Generally they move materials over short distances—around a construction site, factory, warehouse, or on or off trucks and ships. Operators control equipment by moving levers or foot pedals, operating switches, or turning dials. They may also set up and inspect equip­ ment and make adjustments and minor repairs. Material moving equipment operators usually are classified by the type of machines they operate. Those who operate bulldozers, cranes, loaders, and similar equipment are often called construction equipment operators even though they work in the mining, logging, utilities, and other industries as well as the construction industry. Others operate industrial trucks and tractors and similar equipment in manufacturing plants and warehouses. Some operate many kinds of equipment; others only one. Crane and tower operators lift and move materials, machinery, or other heavy objects using mechanical or hydraulic booms and tower and cable equipment. Although some cranes are used on construc­ tion sites, most are used in manufacturing and other industries. Excavation and loading machine operators run and tend machin­ ery equipped with scoops, shovels, or buckets to excavate earth at construction sites and to load and move loose materials, mainly in the construction and mining industries. Grader, dozer, and scraper operators remove, distribute, level, and grade earth with vehicles equipped with blades. In addition to the familiar bulldozers, they operate trench excavators, road grad­ ers, and similar equipment. Although many work in the construc­ tion industry, grader, dozer, and scraper operators also work for State and local governments, mainly in maintenance and repair work. Hoist and winch operators lift and pull loads by using power-op­ erated equipment. Most work in loading operations in construction, manufacturing, logging, transportation and public utilities, and mining.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Operating engineers are qualified to operate more than one type of the construction equipment discussed above. Although the term operating engineer often is applied to many construction machine operators, many work for State and local governments. Industrial truck and tractor operators drive and control indus­ trial trucks or tractors. A typical industrial truck, often called a forklift or lift truck, has a hydraulic lifting mechanism and forks. In­ dustrial truck operators use these to carry loads on a skid or pallet around a factory or warehouse. Industrial tractor operators pull trailers loaded with materials, goods, or equipment within factories and warehouses, or around outdoor storage areas. Other material moving equipment operators tend air compressors or pumps at construction sites. Some operate oil or natural gas pumps and compressors at oil and gas wells and on oil and gas pipe­ lines, and others operate ship loading and unloading equipment, conveyors, hoists, and other kinds of specialized material handling equipment such as mine or railroad tank car unloading equipment. Material moving equipment operators may keep records of materials moved, and do some manual loading and unloading. They also may clean, fuel, and service their equipment. Working Conditions Many material moving equipment operators work outdoors, in hot and cold weather, and sometimes in rain or snow. Industrial truck and tractor operators work mainly indoors, in warehouses or manu­ facturing plants. Some machines, particularly bulldozers and scrap­ ers, are noisy and shake or jolt the operator. To avoid injury while operating an industrial truck, operators must take care to avoid roll­ overs, collisions, and other accidents as well as protect materials and equipment from damage. While operating a bulldozer, care must be taken to keep it from overturning on a steep slope. However, these jobs have become much safer with the adoption of overhead guards on forklift trucks and roll bars on construction machinery. As with most machinery, most accidents can be avoided when proper oper­ ating procedures and safety practices are observed. Employment Material moving equipment operators held nearly 983,000 jobs in 1992. The following tabulation shows the makeup of this occupa­ tional group. Industrial truck and tractor operators........................................... Operating engineers........................................................................ Grader, dozer, and scraper operators............................................. Excavation and loading machine operators................................... Crane and tower operators.............................................................. Hoist and winch operators.............................................................. All other material moving equipment operators............................  413,000 136,000 102,000 72,000 46,000 12,000 201,000  An excavation machine operator at work in a strip mine. 11  The largest proportion—one-third—of material moving equip­ ment operators worked in manufacturing; most of these were indus­ trial truck and tractor operators. More than one-fifth worked in the construction industry. Significant numbers worked in State and lo­ cal governments and in the trucking and warehousing, wholesale trade, and mining industries. A few material moving equipment op­ erators were self-employed. Material moving equipment operators work in every section of the country. Some work in remote locations on large construction projects, such as highways and dams, or in factory or mining opera­ tions. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Operation of material moving equipment is usually learned on the job. Operators need a good sense of balance, the ability to judge dis­ tance, and good eye-hand-foot coordination. Employers of material moving equipment operators prefer to hire high school graduates, although, for some equipment, persons with less education may oc­ casionally be accepted. Mechanical aptitude and high school train­ ing in automobile mechanics are helpful because workers may per­ form some maintenance on their machines. Experience operating mobile equipment, such as farm tractors or heavy equipment in the Armed Forces, is an asset. Beginning material moving equipment operators handle light equipment under the guidance of an experienced operator. Later, they may operate heavier equipment such as bulldozers and cranes. Some construction equipment operators, however, are trained in a 3-year apprenticeship program administered by union-management committees of the International Union of Operating Engineers and the Associated General Contractors of America. Because appren­ tices learn to operate a wider variety of machines than other begin­ ners, they usually have better job opportunities. Apprenticeship programs consist of at least 3 years or 6,000 hours of on-the-job training and 144 hours a year of related classroom instruction. Private vocational schools offer instruction in the operation of \ certain types of construction equipment. Completion of such a pro­ gram may help a person get a job as a trainee or apprentice. How­ ever, persons considering such training should check the reputation of the school among employers in the area.  occupation in this group—will grow slowly as a result of the im­ proved maneuverability and efficiency of industrial trucks and trac­ tors. Although the volume of goods to be moved will increase as the economy grows, fewer operator jobs will result as material handling systems in large factories and warehouses will continue to become more automated. Some systems use computerized dispatching or onboard data communication devices to enable industrial truck and tractor operators to move goods more efficiently. In other systems, industrial trucks and tractors may be replaced by computer-con­ trolled conveyor systems, overhead handling systems, and auto­ mated vehicles that don’t require operators. Earnings Earnings for material moving equipment operators vary considera­ bly. In 1992, median earnings of all material moving equipment op­ erators were $432 a week; the middle 50 percent earned between $317 and $590. Ten percent earned less than $253 and 10 percent more than $765. Median weekly earnings of crane and tower opera­ tors were $570 in 1992; excavation and loading machine operators, $441; grader, dozer, and scraper operators, $444; industrial truck and tractor operators, $375; operating engineers, $514; and other material moving equipment operators, $379. Pay scales generally are higher in metropolitan areas. Annual earnings of some workers may be lower than weekly rates would indicate because the amount of time they work can be limited by bad weather. Related Occupations Other workers who operate mechanical equipment include truck and bus drivers, manufacturing equipment operators, and farmers. Sources of Additional Information For further information about apprenticeships or work opportuni­ ties for construction equipment operators, contact a local of the In­ ternational Union of Operating Engineers; a local apprenticeship committee; or the nearest office of the State apprenticeship agency. In addition, the local office of the State employment service may provide information about apprenticeship and other training pro­ grams. For general information about the work of construction equip­ ment operators, contact: W Associated Builders and Contractors, 729 15th St. NW., Washington,  Job Outlook Opportunities for those who wish to become material moving equip­ ment operators are related to the outlook of the industries in which they are employed. The construction and manufacturing industries, where the majority of these workers are employed, are very sensitive to changes in economic conditions, so the number of job openings for material moving equipment operators in these industries may fluctuate widely from year to year. Overall employment of material moving equipment operators is expected to increase more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Equip­ ment improvements, including the growing automation of material handling in factories and warehouses, are expected to restrain growth of these occupations. Despite the projected slower than average growth, material mov­ ing equipment operators is a large occupation with many opportuni­ ties arising from the need to replace experienced workers who trans­ fer to other occupations or leave the labor force. All of the material moving equipment operating occupations are projected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations ex­ cept hoist and winch operators and industrial truck and tractor op­ erators. Underlying the average growth is increased spending on the Nation’s infrastructure. About 3 of every 4 work in construction and local government, industries that are associated with the con­ struction, repair, and maintenance of highways, bridges, dams, harbors, airports, subways, water and sewage systems, and electric power plant and transmission lines. For hoist and winch operators and industrial truck and tractor operators, however, slower than average growth is expected. This reflects rising productivity stemming from automation and growth of the industries where these occupations are concentrated. Employ­ ment of industrial truck and tractor operators—by far the largest 12  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  DC 20005. XS" Associated General Contractors of America, Inc., 1957 E St. NW., Washington, DC 20006. O’ International Union of Operating Engineers, 1125 17th St. NW., Wash­ ington, DC 20036.  Information on industrial truck and tractor operators is available from: er Industrial Truck Association, 1750 K St. NW., Suite 210, Washington, DC 20006.  Rail Transportation Workers (D.O.T. 198; 850.663-018; 910.362, .363, .364, .367-010, -022, .382, .583, .664, .667-026, .683-010, -014, -022; 913.463-014; 919.663-014, .683-018, -026; 932.664-010)  Nature of the Work Rail transportation workers facilitate the movement of passengers and cargo by our Nation’s trains, subways, and streetcars. Railroad transportation workers. Locomotive engineers and rail yard engineers are among the most highly skilled workers on the railroad. They operate locomotives in yards, stations, and over the track between distant stations and yards. Locomotive engineers op­ erate trains carrying cargo and passengers between stations, while rail yard engineers move cars within yards to assemble or disassem­ ble trains. In addition to those engineers who work for railroads, some engineers called dinkey operators work at industrial plants or  mines operating smaller engines that pull cars loaded with coal, rock, or supplies around the site. Engineers operate the throttle to start and accelerate the train and use airbrakes or dynamic brakes to slow and stop it. They monitor gauges and meters that measure speed, fuel, temperature, battery charge, and air pressure in the brake lines. Both on the road and in the yard, they watch for signals that indicate track obstructions, other train movements, and speed limits. They must have a thor­ ough knowledge of the signal systems, yards, and terminals along their routes and be constantly aware of the condition and makeup of their train. This is extremely important because trains react differ­ ently to acceleration, braking, and curves, depending on the number of cars, the ratio of empty to loaded cars, and the amount of slack in the train. Most engineers run diesel locomotives; a few run electric locomo­ tives. Before and after each run, engineers check locomotives for mechanical problems. Minor adjustments are made on the spot, but major problems are reported to the engine shop supervisor. In an ef­ fort to reduce costs, most railroads are phasing out assistant engi­ neers, also known as firers, who monitor locomotive instruments and signals and observe the track for obstructions. Most of these du­ ties are now performed by brake operators. Road conductors and yard conductors are in charge of the train and yard crews. Conductors assigned to freight trains keep records of each car’s contents and destination and make sure that cars are added and removed at the proper points along the route. Conduc­ tors assigned to passenger trains collect tickets and fares and assist passengers. At stops, they signal engineers when to pull out of the station. Before a train leaves the terminal, the road conductor and engi­ neer discuss instructions received from the dispatcher concerning the train’s route, timetable, and cargo. While underway, conductors receive additional information by radio. This may include informa­ tion about track conditions ahead or instructions to pull off at the next available stop to let another train pass. During the run, conduc­ tors use two-way radios to contact engineers. They pass on instruc­ tions received from dispatchers and remind engineers of stops, re­ ported track conditions, and the presence of other trains. While underway, conductors receive information from brake op­ erators regarding any equipment problems, and they may arrange for defective cars to be removed from the train for repairs at the nearest station or stop. They inform dispatchers of any problems us­ ing a radio or wayside telephone. Yard conductors supervise the crews that assemble and disassem­ ble trains. Some cars are sent to special tracks for unloading, while the rest are moved to other tracks to await being made into trains destined for different cities. Conductors tell engineers where to move cars. They tell brake operators which cars to couple and un­ couple and which switches to throw to divert the locomotive or cars to the proper track. In yards that have automatic classification sys­ tems, conductors use electrical remote controls to operate the track switches that route cars to the correct track. Brake operators play a pivotal role in making locomotives and cars into trains. Working under the direction of conductors, they do the physical work involved in adding and removing cars at railroad stations and assembling and disassembling trains in railroad yards. Freight train crews include either one or two brake, signal, and switch operators—one in the locomotive with the engineer and an­ other in the rear car. As new visual instrumentation and monitoring devices have eliminated the need for rear brake operators, many freight trains use only one locomotive operator. Before departure, brake operators inspect the train to make sure that all couplers and airhoses are fastened, that handbrakes on all the cars are released, and that the airbrakes are functioning properly. While underway, they regularly look for smoke, sparks, and other signs of sticking brakes, overheated axle bearings, and other potentially faulty equip­ ment. They may make minor repairs to airhoses and couplers. In case of unexpected stops, brake operators set up signals to protect both ends of the train. When freight trains approach an industrial site, the brake opera­ tor in the locomotive gets off the train and runs ahead to switch the train to the proper track. They uncouple the cars and throw track switches to route them to certain tracks if they are to be unloaded,  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  or to an outgoing train if their final destination is further down the line. They also set hand brakes to secure cars. Many smaller railroads operate with only two crew members—an engineer and a conductor. Most passenger trains no longer employ brake operators but employ assistant conductors to help conductors collect tickets and assist passengers. Subway and streetcar operators. Subway operators control subway trains, observing the signal system. They start, slow, or stop the sub­ way train on signal. Subway operators make announcements to rid­ ers, open and close the doors, and ensure that passengers get on and off the subway safely. Operators should have a basic understanding of the operating system and be able to recognize common equipment problems. When breakdowns or emergencies occur, operators con­ tact their dispatcher or supervisor and may have to evacuate subway cars. To meet predetermined schedules, operators must control the amount of time spent at each at each station. Streetcar operators drive electric-powered streetcars that trans­ port passengers. They collect fares from passengers, and issue change and transfers. They also answer questions from passengers concerning fares, schedules, and routes. Working Conditions Because trains operate 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, many rail transportation employees often work nights, weekends, and holi­ days. Some subway operators work multiple shifts some days. Un­ desirable shifts are assigned to persons who have the least seniority. Most freight trains are unscheduled, and few workers on these trains have scheduled assignments. Instead, their names are placed on a list, and when their turn comes they are assigned to the next train, usually on short notice and often at odd hours. Because road service personnel often work on trains that operate between stations that are hundreds of miles apart, they may spend several nights a week away from home. Freight and yard conductors and brake operators spend most of their time outdoors in all kinds of weather. The work of brake oper­ ators on local runs—where trains frequently stop at stations to pick up and deliver cars—is physically demanding. Climbing up and down and getting off moving cars is strenuous and can be danger­ ous.  Brake operators throw track switches to route freight trains to certain tracks. 13  Employment Rail transportation workers held about 116,000 jobs in 1992—in­ cluding 35,000 brake operators, 29,000 conductors, 19,000 locomo­ tive engineers, and 8,900 rail yard engineers and dinkey operators. Subway and streetcar operators accounted for over 22,000 jobs; other rail vehicle workers, the remaining 1,700 jobs. Railroads em­ ploy about 78 percent of all rail transportation workers. The rest work for state and local governments and mining and manufactur­ ing establishments that operate their own railroad cars to carry freight. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Most railroad transportation workers begin as trainees for either en­ gineer or brake operator jobs. Railroads prefer that applicants have a high school education. Applicants must have good hearing, eye­ sight, and color vision, as well as good hand-eye coordination, man­ ual dexterity, and mechanical aptitude. Physical stamina is required for brake operator jobs. Most employers require that applicants for railroad transportation jobs pass a physical examination and tests that screen for drug use. Railroads prefer that applicants for locomotive engineer jobs be at least 21 years old. Engineer jobs are frequently filled by workers with experience in other railroad operating occupations, such as brake operators or conductors. Most beginning engineers undergo a 6-month training program, which includes classroom and hands-on instruction in locomotive operation. At the end of the training pe­ riod, aspiring engineers must pass qualifying tests covering locomo­ tive equipment, airbrake systems, fuel economy, train handling techniques, and operating rules and regulations. On most railroads, brake operators begin by making several trips with conductors and experienced operators to become familiar with the job. On some railroads, however, new brake operators undergo extensive training, including instruction in signaling, coupling and uncoupling cars, throwing switches, and boarding moving trains. As railroads need new engineers and brake operators, newly trained workers who have the most seniority are placed on the “ex­ tra board.” Extra board engineers and brake operators work only when the railroad needs substitutes for regular workers who are ab­ sent because of vacation, illness, or other personal reasons. Extra board engineers and brake operators frequently must wait years un­ til they accumulate enough seniority to get a regular assignment. Se­ niority rules also may allow workers with greater seniority to select their type of assignment. For example, an engineer may move from an initial regular assignment in yard service to road service. Engineers undergo periodic evaluations, including physical ex­ aminations to determine their fitness to operate locomotives, and safety and efficiency tests to judge their overall conduct of opera­ tions. In some cases, engineers who fail to meet these physical and conduct standards are restricted to yard service; in other instances, they may be disciplined, trained to perform other work, or dis­ charged. Conductor jobs generally are filled from the ranks of experienced brake operators who have passed tests covering signals, timetables, operating rules, and related subjects. Some companies require that these tests be passed within the first few years of employment. Until permanent positions become available, new conductors are put on the extra board, where they substitute for experienced conductors who are absent. On most railroads, conductors on the extra board may work as brake operators if there are not enough conductor runs available for them that month. Seniority usually is the main factor in determining promotion from brake operator to conductor and from the extra board to a permanent position. Advancement to conductor jobs is limited because there are many more brake operators than conductors. Most railroads maintain separate seniority lists for road service and yard service conductors. Conductors usually remain in one type of service for their entire career. On some railroads, however, con­ ductors start in the yards, then move to freight service, and finally to passenger service. Some conductors advance to managerial or ad­ ministrative positions. For subway operator jobs, subway transit systems prefer appli­ cants to have a high school education. Some systems require subway 14  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  operators to work as busdrivers for a specified period of time. Appli­ cants must be in good health, articulate, and able to make quick, re­ sponsible judgments. New operators generally are placed in training programs that last from a few weeks to 6 months. At the end of the period of classroom and on-the-job training, operators usually must pass qualifying ex­ aminations covering the operating system, troubleshooting, and evacuation and emergency procedures. Some operators with suffi­ cient seniority can advance to station managers. Job Outlook Overall employment of rail transportation workers is expected to in­ crease about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005, ending a long-term decline in employment in railroad op­ erating occupations. Besides growth, many additional job openings for rail transportation workers will arise as workers retire or leave jobs for other reasons. Employment of subway operators is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations as more cities build new subway systems and add new lines to existing systems. Because sub­ way operator jobs offer relatively high earnings and do not require education beyond high school, applicants can expect to face consid­ erable competition for available positions. Excluding subway operators, rail transportation worker jobs are expected to grow slower than the average for all occupations. De­ mand for railroad freight service will grow as the economy expands, but opportunities for railroad transportation workers will be limited because of ongoing reductions in the size of operating crews and im­ provements in the efficiency of railroad operations. Railroad freight service is expected to increase as the population and economy grow in size, and as intermodal freight transportation continues to be­ come more efficient. Intermodal systems use trucks to pick-up and deliver the shippers’ sealed trailers or containers, and trains to trans­ port them long distance. Productivity and efficiency improvements cutting the time railroads need to deliver cargos are also increasing shippers’ use of railroads. In order to compete with other modes of transportation such as trucks, ships and barges, and aircraft, rail­ roads should continue to improve delivery times and on-time service while reducing shipping rates. As a result, businesses are expected to increasingly use railroads to carry their goods. However, growth in the number of railroad transportation work­ ers will be affected by innovations such as larger, faster, more fuelefficient trains and computerized classification yards that make it possible to move passengers and freight more economically. Com­ puters are used to keep track of freight cars, match empty cars with the closest loads, and dispatch trains. Computer-assisted devices alert engineers to train malfunctions, eliminating the need for brake operators in the rear car. Also, new work rules that allow trains to operate with two- or three-person crews instead of the traditional five-person crews are now becoming widespread. Many positions will not be filled as people leave the occupations, or the work will be restructured so that it can be done by other railroad employees. Em­ ployment opportunities for locomotive and yard engineers should be slightly better than other rail occupations because they should be less affected by technological changes and reductions in crew size. On the other hand, employment of brake operators should be the most adversely affected as visual instrumentation and monitoring devices eliminate the need for rear brake operators. Earnings Earnings of railroad transportation workers depend on the size of the train and type of service. According to the Brotherhood of Loco­ motive Engineers, in 1991, through-freight engineers averaged about $59,600 a year, passenger engineers about $57,900, way freight engineers about $54,100, and yard engineers about $43,300 a year. According to the Association of American Railroads, in 1991, an­ nual earnings of conductors averaged $40,400 for through-freight and $35,200 for local and way freight. Brake operators averaged about $33,600 for through-freight and $27,300 for local and way freight. Yard brake operators averaged about $25,600 in 1991, while passenger brake operators averaged $21,700.  According to the American Public Transportation Association, in 1992, hourly earnings of operators of commuter rail averaged $18.46; operators for heavy rail averaged $16.25; operators for light rail, $15.74. Most rail transportation employees in yards work 40 hours a week and receive extra pay for overtime. Most railroad workers in road service are paid according to miles traveled or hours worked, whichever leads to higher earnings. Full-time employees have stead­ ier work, more regular hours, and higher earnings than those as­ signed to the extra board. Most railroad transportation workers are members of unions. Many different railroad unions represent various crafts on the rail­ roads, but most railroad engineers are members of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers, while most other railroad transportation workers are members of the United Transportation Union. Many subway operators are members of the Amalgamated Transit Union, while others belong to the Transport Workers Union of North America. Sources of Additional Information Information on employment opportunities for railroad transporta­ tion workers may be obtained from the employment offices of the various railroads and rail transit systems, or State employment ser­ vice offices. For general information about career opportunities in passenger transportation, contact: American Public Transit Association, 1201 New York Ave. NW., Suite 400, Washington, DC 20005.  Taxi Drivers and Chauffeurs (D.O.T. 359.673-010 and -014; 913.463-018, .663-010; 919.663-010, and .683-014)  Nature of the Work Taxi drivers and chauffeurs pick up and drive people to their desti­ nation in cars, limousines, or vans. Except for a small number of chauffeurs employed in private service, most charge passengers a fee. Taxi drivers, also known as cab drivers, drive taxicabs, which are custom automobiles modified for transporting passengers. Taxi drivers take passengers to such places as airports, convention cen­ ters and hotels, or places of entertainment. Drivers collect fees from passengers based on the number of miles that are travelled or the amount of time spent reaching the destination. They record on a log, or trip sheet, the length of each trip, the point of pick-up, and the destination. At the start of their driving shift, cab drivers may report to a cab service or garage, where they are assigned a cab. They are given a trip sheet, where they record their name, date of work, and cab iden­ tification number. They check the cab’s fuel and oil levels, and make sure the lights, brakes, and windshield wipers are in good working order. Any equipment or parts not in good working order are re­ ported to the dispatcher or company mechanic. They adjust rear and side mirrors and their seat for comfort. Taxi drivers pick up their passengers in one of three ways. Cus­ tomers requesting transportation may call the cab company and give a place and an approximate time they wish to be picked up, and their destination. The cab company dispatcher then relays the infor­ mation to a driver by two-way radio. In urban areas, drivers may cruise streets and pick up passengers who hail them, or “wave them down.” Drivers also may get passengers by waiting at cab stands or in taxi lines at airports, train stations, hotels, and other places where people frequently seek taxis. Drivers should be familiar with streets in the areas they service so they can use the most efficient route to destinations. They also should know frequently requested destinations, such as airports, bus  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  and railroad terminals, convention centers, hotels, popular restau­ rants, sport facilities, museums, art galleries and other points of in­ terest. Locations of the fire and police departments as well as hospi­ tals should also be known in case of emergency. Upon reaching the destination, drivers determine the fare and an­ nounce it to the rider. Fares often consist of many parts. One part is called a “drop charge,” which is a flat fee just for using the cab. An­ other part of the fare is based on the length of the trip and the amount of time it took. In many taxicabs this is measured by a taxi­ meter, a machine that displays the fare as it accrues, which drivers turn on as soon as passengers enter the cab and turn off when the destination is reached. The fare may also include a surcharge for ad­ ditional passengers or for handling luggage. In addition to paying the fare, most passengers will give the driver a tip. The amount of the gratuity depends on the passengers’ satisfaction with the quality and efficiency of the ride and courtesy of the driver. When passen­ gers request, a driver issues a receipt. Drivers enter onto the trip sheet all information regarding the trip, such as place and time of pick-up and drop-off and total fee. They also must fill out accident reports when necessary. Chauffeurs drive passengers in private automobiles, limousines, or vans owned by limousine companies. Chauffeurs drive many types of passengers. Many transport travellers and other persons be­ tween hotels and airports or bus and train terminals in large vans. Others are hired to drive luxury automobiles such as limousines to popular entertainment and social events. Still others are employed full time by wealthy families and private companies to provide per­ sonal transportation. At the start of the work day, chauffeurs make sure their automo­ bile is ready for use. They inspect it for cleanliness and, when needed, vacuum the interior and wash windows, the exterior car body, and mirrors. They check fuel and oil levels and make sure the lights, tires, brakes, and windshield wipers are in good working or­ der. Chauffeurs may perform routine maintenance and make minor repairs, such as changing tires or adding oil and other fluids when needed. If more serious repairs are needed, the chauffeur takes the vehicle to a professional mechanic. Chauffeurs often strive to pamper their passengers with attentive service. They assist riders into the car, usually holding the door, holding umbrellas when raining, and loading packages and luggage into the trunk of the car. They may perform errands for their em­ ployers, such as delivering packages or picking up items. They also may meet persons arriving at airports. Many chauffeurs offer con­ veniences and luxuries in their limousines to insure a pleasurable ride, such as newspapers, music, drinks, televisions, and telephones. Working Conditions Taxi drivers and chauffeurs may occasionally have to load and un­ load heavy luggage and packages. Driving for long periods of time 10*118, i J i m  »  zm -  ; Taxi drivers and chauffeurs must be able to deal courteously with the public. .  15  can be tiring, especially in densely populated urban areas, and driv­ ing in bad weather, heavy traffic, or mountainous and hilly areas can be nerve racking. Sitting for long periods of time can be uncom­ fortable. Drivers must be alert to conditions on the road, especially in heavy and congested traffic or in bad weather, to prevent acci­ dents and to avoid sudden stops, turns, and other driving maneuvers that would jar the passenger. Work hours of taxi drivers and chauffeurs vary greatly. Some jobs offer full-time or part-time employment; in others hours are very flexible. Hours can change from day to day or be the same every day. Drivers sometimes may have to report to work on short notice. Chauffeurs who work for a single employer may be on call much of the time. For those who work for a limosine service, evening and weekend work is common. The work schedule of chauffeurs is usually dictated by the needs of their client or employer. The work of taxi drivers is much less structured. Working free from supervision, they may break for a meal or a rest whenever their vehicle is unoccupied. However, taxi drivers risk robbery because they work alone and often carry a lot of cash. Full-time taxi drivers usually work one shift a day, which may last from 8 to 12 hours. Part-time drivers may work half a shift each day, or work a full shift once or twice a week. Because most taxi companies offer services 24 hours a day, drivers must be on duty at all times of the day and night. Early morning and late night shifts are not uncommon. Drivers may also have to work long hours dur­ ing holidays, weekends, and other special events. Independent driv­ ers, however, can often set their own hours and schedules. Taxi drivers and chauffeurs meet many different types of people. Patience is required when waiting for passengers or when dealing with rude customers. Many municipalities and taxicab and chauf­ feur companies require dress codes. In many cities, taxicab drivers are required to wear clothes that are clean and neat. Many chauf­ feurs wear more formal attire, such as a coat and tie or a dress, or sometimes a uniform and cap or a tuxedo. Employment Taxi drivers and chauffeurs held about 120,000 jobs in 1992. About 6 out of 10 were wage and salary workers employed by a company or business. Of these, about 27 percent worked for local and subur­ ban transportation companies and about 20 percent worked for taxi­ cab companies. Others worked for automotive rental dealerships, private households, and funeral homes. About 4 out of 10 were selfemployed. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Local governments regulate taxicabs and set standards and tests re­ quired to be licensed as a taxi driver or chauffeur. Although require­ ments vary, most municipalities have minimum qualifications for age and driving experience. Many taxi and limousine companies have higher standards than the ones required by law: They may ask to see a driving record and check credit and criminal records. In ad­ dition, many companies require a higher minimum age and prefer that drivers be high school graduates. Persons interested in driving a limousine or taxicab must first have a regular automobile drivers license. They also must acquire a chauffeur or taxi driver’s license, commonly called a “hacker’s” li­ cense. Local authorities generally require applicants for a hacker’s license to pass a written exam or complete a training program. To qualify either through an exam or a training program, applicants must know local geography, motor vehicle laws, safe driving prac­ tices, regulations governing taxicabs, and display some aptitude for being able to deal courteously with the public. In many municipali­ ties, applicants sponsored by taxicab or limousine companies may be given a temporary permit that allows them to drive, even though they may not yet have finished the training program or taken the test. Many localities are adding a test on English usage, usually in the form of listening comprehension. Applicants who do not pass the English exam must take an English course sponsored by the mu­ nicipality. Many local authorities require that applicants pass a physical exam and many take applicants’ fingerprints to check for a criminal record. 16  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  The majority of taxi drivers and chauffeurs are called “lease driv­ ers.” Lease drivers pay a monthly or weekly fee to the company that allows them to lease their vehicle and have access to the company dispatch system. The fee may also include a charge for vehicle main­ tenance and a deposit. Lease drivers may take their cars home with them when they are not on duty. Some taxi and limousine companies give new drivers on the job training. They may show drivers how to operate the taximeter and two-way radio, and how to complete paperwork. Other topics cov­ ered may include driver safety and popular sightseeing and en­ tertainment destinations. Many companies have contracts with so­ cial service agencies and transportation services to transport elderly and disabled citizens, so new drivers may get special training on how to properly handle wheelchair lifts and other mechanical de­ vices. Taxi drivers and chauffeurs should be able to get along with many different types of people. They must be patient when waiting for pas­ sengers or when dealing with rude customers, and driving in heavy and congested traffic requires tolerance and a mild temperment. Drivers should also be dependable because passengers rely on them to be picked up at prearranged times and taken to the correct desti­ nation. Because drivers work with little supervision, they must be responsible and self-motivated if they are to be successful. Opportunities for advancement are limited for taxi drivers and chauffeurs. Experienced drivers may obtain preferred routes or shifts. Some advance to dispatcher or to manager jobs. On the other hand, many drivers like the independent, unsupervised work of driving their own automobile. In many small and medium size communities, drivers are able to purchase their own taxi, limousine, or other type of automobile and go into business for themselves. These independent owner-drivers are usually required to get an additional permit that allows them to operate their vehicle as a company. In some big cities, however, the number of operating permits is limited and may only be obtained by purchasing one from an owner-driver who is leaving the business. Although many independent owner-drivers are successful, some fail to cover expenses and eventually lose their permit and their automo­ bile. Independent owner-drivers should have good business sense and courses in accounting, business, and business arithmetic are helpful. Knowledge of mechanics can enable independent owneroperators to cut expenses and perform their own routine mainte­ nance and minor repairs. Job Outlook Persons seeking jobs as taxi drivers and chauffeurs should encounter good opportunities. Thousands of job openings will occur each year as drivers transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. However, driving jobs vary greatly in terms of earnings, work hours, and working conditions. Because driving does not require education beyond high school, competition is expected for jobs that offer regu­ lar hours and attractive earnings and working conditions. Opportu­ nities should be best for persons with good driving records who are able to be flexible in their work schedules. Employment of taxi drivers and chauffeurs is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005 as local and intercity travel increases with population growth. Opportunities should be best in metropolitan areas that are growing rapidly. Job opportunites may fluctuate from season to season and from month to month. Extra drivers may be hired during holiday seasons and peak travel and tourist times. During economic slowdowns, drivers are seldom laid off but they may have to increase their work­ ing hours and their earnings may decline somewhat. Independent owner-operators are particularly vulnerable to economic slow­ downs. Earnings Earnings of taxi drivers and chauffeurs vary greatly, depending on the number of hours worked, customers’ tips factors, and other fac­ tors. Those who usually worked full time had median weekly earn­ ings of $313.00 in 1992. The middle 50 percent earned between $228.00 and $481.00 a week. The lowest 10 percent earned less than  $187.00, while the highest 10 percent earned more than $604.00 a week. Earnings were generally higher in more urban areas. According to limited information available, the majority of inde­ pendent taxi owner-drivers earned from about $20,000 to $30,000, including tips. However, professional drivers with a regular clientele often earn more. Many chauffeurs who worked full time earned from about $30,000 to $50,000 including tips. Related Occupations Other workers who drive vehicles on highways and city streets are ambulance drivers, busdrivers, and truckdrivers. Sources of Additional Information Information on licensing and registration of taxi drivers and chauf­ feurs is available from offices of local governments that regulate taxicabs. For information about work opportunities as a taxi driver or chauffeur, contact local taxi or limousine services or State em­ ployment service offices. For general information about the work of chauffeurs, contact: XW Executive Chauffeuring School, 1198 Pacific Coast Hwy., Suite D-232,  Seal Beach, CA 90740.  Truckdrivers (D.O.T. 292.353, .363, .463, .483, and .667; 900 through 905.683; 906; 909.663; 919.663-018, -022, -026; and 953.583)  Nature of the Work Nearly all goods are transported by truck during some of their jour­ ney from producers to consumers. Goods may also be shipped be­ tween terminals or warehouses in different cities by train, ship, or plane. But truckdrivers usually make the initial pickup from facto­ ries, consolidate cargo at terminals for intercity shipment, and de­ liver goods from terminals to stores and homes. Before leaving the terminal or warehouse, truckdrivers check their trucks for fuel and oil. They also inspect the trucks they will drive to make sure the brakes, windshield wipers, and lights are working and see that a fire extinguisher, flares, and other safety equipment are aboard and in working order. Drivers adjust mirrors so that both sides of the truck are visible from the driver’s seat, and make sure the cargo has been loaded properly so it will not shift dur­ ing the trip. Drivers report to the dispatcher any equipment that does not work or is missing, or cargo that is not loaded properly. Once underway, drivers must be alert to prevent accidents and to drive their trucks efficiently. Because drivers of large tractor-trailers sit higher than cars, pickups, and vans, they can see farther down the road. They seek traffic lanes that allow them to move at a steady speed, and, when going downhill, they may increase speed slightly to gain momentum for a hill ahead. Long-distance runs vary widely. On short “turnarounds,” truckdrivers deliver a load to a nearby city, pick up another loaded trailer, and drive it back to their home base the same day. Other runs take an entire day, and drivers remain away from home over­ night. On longer runs, drivers may haul loads from city to city for a week or more before returning home. Some companies use two driv­ ers on very long runs. One drives while the other sleeps in a berth be­ hind the cab. “Sleeper” runs may last for days, or even weeks, usu­ ally with the truck stopping only for fuel, food, loading, and unloading. Some long-distance drivers who have regular runs transport freight to the same city on a regular basis. Because shippers request varying amounts of service to different cities every day, many driv­ ers have unscheduled runs. Dispatchers tell these drivers when to report for work and where to haul the freight. After long-distance truckdrivers reach their destination or com­ plete their operating shift, they are required by the U.S. Department of Transportation to complete reports about the trip and the condi­ tion of the truck and to give a detailed report of any accident. In ad­ dition, on duty drivers are subject to periodic alcohol and drug tests.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Long-distance truckdrivers spend most of their working time be­ hind the wheel but may be required to unload their cargo. Drivers hauling specialty cargo often load or unload their trucks, since they may be the only one at the destination familiar with this procedure. Auto-transport drivers, for example, drive and position the cars on the trailers and head ramps and remove them at the final destina­ tion. When picking up or delivering furniture, drivers of long-dis­ tance moving vans hire local workers to help them load or unload. When local truckdrivers receive assignments from the dispatcher to make deliveries, pickups, or both, they also get delivery forms. Before the drivers arrive for work, material handlers generally have loaded the trucks and arranged the items in order of delivery to min­ imize handling of the merchandise. At the customer’s place of business, local truckdrivers generally load or unload the merchandise. If there are heavy loads or many deliveries to make during the day, drivers may have helpers. Cus­ tomers must sign receipts for goods and drivers may receive money for material delivered. At the end of the day, they turn in receipts, money, and records of deliveries made and report any mechanical problems their trucks may have. The work of local truckdrivers varies, depending on the product they transport. Produce truckers usually pick up a loaded truck in the early morning and spend the rest of the day delivering produce to many different grocery stores. Lumber truckdrivers, on the other hand, make several trips from the lumber yard to one or more con­ struction sites. Gasoline tank truckdrivers attach the hoses and op­ erate the pumps on their trucks to transfer the gasoline to gas sta­ tions’ storage tanks. Some local truckdrivers have sales and customer relations respon­ sibilities. These drivers—called “driver-sales workers” or “route drivers”—are primarily responsible for delivering their firm’s prod­ ucts, but they also represent the company. Their reaction to cus­ tomer complaints and requests for special services can make the dif­ ference between a large order and losing a customer. Route drivers also may use their selling ability to increase sales and to gain addi­ tional customers. The duties of driver-sales workers vary according to the industry in which they are employed, the policies of their particular com­ pany, and how strongly their sales responsibilities are emphasized. Most have wholesale routes—that is, they deliver to businesses and stores rather than homes. A few distribute various foods, or pick up and deliver drycleaning to households, but these retail routes are now rare. Wholesale bakery driver-sales workers, for example, deliver and arrange bread, cakes, rolls, and other baked goods on display racks in grocery stores. Paying close attention to the items that are selling well and those just sitting on the shelves, they estimate the amount and variety of baked goods that will be sold. They may recommend changes in a store’s order or may encourage the manager to stock new bakery products. From time to time, they try to get the business of new stores along their route. Driver-sales workers employed by laundries that rent linens, tow­ els, work clothes, and other items visit businesses regularly to re­ place soiled laundry. Vending machine driver-sales workers service machines in facto­ ries, schools, and other buildings. They check items remaining in the machines, replace stock, and remove money deposited in the cash boxes. They also examine each vending machine to see that merchandise and change are dispensed properly, make minor re­ pairs, and clean machines. After completing their route, driver-sales workers order items for the next day which they think customers are likely to buy, based pri­ marily on what products have been selling well, the weather, time of year, and any customer feedback. Working Conditions Truckdriving has become less physically demanding because most trucks now have more comfortable seats, better ventilation, and im­ proved cab designs. However, driving for many hours at a stretch, unloading cargo, and making many deliveries can be tiring, and driving in bad weather, heavy traffic, or mountains can be nerve racking. Local truckdrivers, unlike long-distance drivers, usually can return home in the evening. Some self-employed long distance 17  Trucking companies employed nearly one-third of all truckdrivers. truckdrivers who own as well as operate their trucks spend over 240 days a year away from home. Local truckdrivers frequently work 48 hours or more a week. Many who handle food for chain grocery stores, produce markets, or bakeries drive at night or early in the morning. Although most drivers have a regular route, some have different routes each day. Many local truckdrivers—particularly driver-sales workers—load and unload their own trucks, which require considerable lifting, car­ rying, and walking. The U.S. Department of Transportation governs work hours and other matters of trucking companies engaged in interstate com­ merce. For example, a long-distance driver cannot be on duty for more than 60 hours in any 7-day period and cannot drive more than 10 hours following at least 8 consecutive hours off duty. Many driv’ ers, particularly on long runs, work close to the maximum hours permitted. Drivers on long runs may face boredom, loneliness, and fatigue. Although many drivers work during the day, travel at night and on holidays and weekends is frequently necessary in order to avoid traffic delays and deliver cargo on time. Employment Truckdrivers held 2,720,000 jobs in 1992. Jobs are concentrated in and around large cities. Some drivers are employed in almost all communities, however. Trucking companies employed nearly one-third of all truckdrivers, and another one-third worked for companies engaged in wholesale or retail trade, such as auto parts stores, oil companies, lumber yards, or distributors of food and grocery products. The rest were scattered throughout the economy, including government agencies. Fewer than 1 out of 10 truckdrivers are self-employed; of these, a significant number are owner-operators, who either operate inde­ pendently, serving a variety of businesses, or lease their services and their trucks to a trucking company. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Qualifications and standards for truckdrivers are established by State and Federal regulations. States must meet Federal standards, and some States have more stringent regulations. All truckdrivers must have a driver’s license issued by the State in which they live, and most employers strongly prefer a good driving record. All driv­ ers of trucks designed to carry at least 26,000 pounds—which in­ cludes most tractor-trailers as well as bigger straight trucks—are re­ quired to obtain a special commercial driver’s license (CDL) from the State in which they live; in many States a regular driver’s license is sufficient for driving light trucks and vans. All truckdrivers who operate trucks that carry hazardous materials also must obtain a CDL. 18  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  To qualify for a commercial driver’s license, applicants must pass a knowledge test and demonstrate that they can operate a commer­ cial truck safely. A national data bank permanently records all driv­ ing violations incurred by persons who hold commercial licenses, so drivers whose commercial license is suspended or revoked in one State may not be issued a new one in another State. Trainees must be accompanied by a driver with a CDL until they get their own CDL. Information on how to apply for a commercial driver’s license may be obtained from State motor vehicle administrations. The U.S. Department of Transportation establishes minimum qualifications for truckdrivers who are engaged in interstate com­ merce. A driver must be at least 21 years old and pass a physical ex­ amination, which the employer usually pays for. Good hearing, 20/ 40 vision with or without glasses or corrective lenses, normal use of arms and legs (unless a waiver is obtained), and normal blood pres­ sure are the main physical requirements. Persons with epilepsy or diabetes controlled by insulin are not permitted to be interstate truckdrivers, and drivers may not use any controlled substances un­ less prescribed by a licensed physician. In addition, drivers must take a written examination on the Motor Carrier Safety Regulations of the U.S. Department of Transportation. Many trucking operations have higher standards than those de­ scribed. Many firms require that drivers be at least 25 years old, be able to lift heavy objects, and have driven trucks for 3 to 5 years. Many prefer to hire high school graduates and require annual physi­ cal examinations. Federal regulations require employers to test their drivers for alcohol and drug use as a condition of employment, and require periodic random tests while on duty. Since drivers often deal directly with the company’s customers, they must get along well with people. For jobs as driver-sales work­ ers, an ability to speak well and a neat appearance are particularly important, as are self-confidence, initiative, and tact. For all truckdriver jobs, employers also look for responsible, self-motivated indi­ viduals, since drivers work with little supervision. Driver-training courses are a desirable method of preparing for truckdriving jobs and for obtaining a commercial driver’s license. High school driver-training courses are an asset, and courses in au­ tomotive mechanics may help drivers make minor roadside repairs. Many private and public technical-vocational schools offer tractortrailer driver training programs. Students learn to inspect the trucks and freight, to maneuver large vehicles on crowded streets and in highway traffic, and to comply with Federal, State, and local regula­ tions. Some programs provide only a limited amount of actual driv­ ing experience, and completion of a program does not assure a job. Persons interested in attending one of these schools should check with local trucking companies to make sure the school’s training is acceptable or should seek a school certified by the Professional Truck Driver Institute of America as providing training that meets Federal Highway Administration guidelines for training tractortrailer drivers. Training given to new drivers by employers usually is informal and may consist only of a few hours of instruction from an exper­ ienced driver, sometimes on the new employee’s own time. New drivers also may ride with and observe experienced drivers before being assigned their own runs. Additional training may be given if they are to drive a special type of truck or if they are handling haz­ ardous materials. Some companies give 1 to 2 days of classroom in­ struction which covers general duties, the operation and loading of a truck, company policies, and the preparation of delivery forms and company records. Driver-sales workers also receive training on the various types of products they carry so they will be more effective sales workers and better able to handle customer requests. Very few people enter truckdriving directly from school; most truckdrivers previously held jobs in other occupations. Considera­ tion is given to driving experience in the Armed Forces. In some in­ stances, a person also may start as a truckdriver’s helper, driving part of the day and helping to unload and load freight. When driving vacancies occur, senior helpers usually are promoted. New drivers sometimes start on panel or other small “straight” trucks. As they gain experience and show good driving skills, they may advance to larger and heavier trucks, and finally to tractortrailers.  Although most new truckdrivers are assigned immediately to reg­ ular driving jobs, some start as extra drivers, who substitute for reg­ ular drivers who are ill or on vacation. They receive a regular assign­ ment when an opening occurs. Advancement of truckdrivers is generally limited to driving runs that provide increased earnings or preferred schedules and working conditions. For the most part, a local truckdriver may advance to driving heavy or special types of trucks, or transfer to long-distance truckdriving. Working for companies that also employ long-dis­ tance drivers is the best way to advance to these positions. A few truckdrivers may advance to dispatcher, to manager, or to traffic work—for example, planning delivery schedules. Some long-distance truckers purchase a truck and go into busi­ ness for themselves. Although many of these owner-operators are successful, others fail to cover expenses and eventually lose their trucks. Owner-operators should have good business sense as well as truckdriving experience. Courses in accounting, business, and busi­ ness arithmetic are helpful, and knowledge of truck mechanics can enable owner-operators to perform their own routine maintenance and minor repairs. Job Outlook Opportunities should be favorable for persons who are interested in truckdriving. This occupation has among the largest number of job openings each year. Although thousands of openings will be created by growth in demand for drivers, the majority will occur as exper­ ienced drivers transfer to other fields of work or retire or leave the labor force for other reasons. In addition, truckdriver jobs vary greatly in terms of earnings, weekly work hours, number of nights that must be spent “on the road,” and in the quality of equipment operated. Because truckdriving does not require education beyond high school, competition is expected for jobs with the most attrac­ tive earnings and working conditions. Employment of truckdrivers is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005 as the econ­ omy grows and the amount of freight carried by trucks increases. However, increased integration of truck and railroad long-distance freight transportation should continue to slow somewhat the growth of truckdriver jobs. Trailers are expected increasingly to be carried between distant regions on trains, and delivered and picked up by trucks. Perishable goods should continue to be shipped long distance by truck. Average growth of local and long-distance truckdriver employ­ ment should outweigh the slow growth in driver-sales worker jobs. The number of truckdrivers with sales responsibilities is expected to increase slowly because companies are increasingly splitting their responsibilities among other workers, shifting sales, ordering, and customer service tasks to sales and office staffs, and using regular truckdrivers to make deliveries to customers. Job opportunities may vary from year to year because the amount of freight moved by trucks fluctuates with the economy. Many new truckdrivers are hired when the economy and the volume of freight are expanding, but fewer when these decline. During economic slowdowns, some truckdrivers are laid off and others have de­ creased earnings because of reduced hours or miles driven. Inde­ pendent owner-operators are particularly vulnerable to slowdowns. Truckdrivers employed in industries such as wholesale food distri­ bution, which is usually not affected much by recessions, are less likely to be laid off. Earnings As a rule, local truckdrivers are paid by the hour and receive extra pay for working overtime, usually after 40 hours. Long-distance drivers are generally paid primarily by the mile, and their rate per mile can vary greatly from employer to employer; their earnings in­ crease with mileage driven, seniority, and the size and type of truck. Most driver-sales workers receive a commission based on their sales in addition to an hourly wage.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  In 1992, truckdrivers had average straight-time hourly earnings of $12.92. Depending on the size of the truck, average hourly earn­ ings were as follows: Medium trucks................................................................................... Tractor-trailers................................................................................... Heavy straight trucks........................................................................ Light trucks........................................................................................  $13.50 12.94 11.91 8.51  Drivers employed by trucking companies had the highest earn­ ings, averaging about $14.55 an hour in 1992. Truckdrivers in the Northeast and West had the highest earnings; those in the South had the lowest. Most long-distance truckdrivers operate tractor-trailers, and their earnings vary widely, from as little as $20,000 to over $40,000 annually. Most self-employed truckdrivers are primarily engaged in long-distance hauling. After deducting their living expenses and the costs associated with operating their trucks, earnings of $20,000 to $25,000 a year are common. Many truckdrivers are members of the International Brother­ hood of Teamsters. Some truckdrivers employed by companies outside the trucking industry are members of unions that represent the plant workers of the companies for which they work. Related Occupations Other driving occupations include ambulance driver, busdriver, chauffeur, and taxi driver. Sources of Additional Information Information on truckdriver employment opportunities is available from local trucking companies and local offices of the State employ­ ment service. Information on career opportunities in truckdriving may be ob­ tained from: ts- American Trucking Associations, Inc., 2200 Mill Rd., Alexandria, VA 22314.  The Professional Truck Driver Institute of America, a nonprofit organization established by the trucking industry, manufacturers, and others, certifies truckdriver training programs that meet indus­ try standards. The Institute has available for $4 A Checklist For Quality Programs in Tractor Trailer Driver Training, a do-it-your­ self guide for evaluating the quality of a truckdriver training pro­ gram. This publication, as well as a free list of certified tractortrailer driver training programs, may be obtained from: vs' Professional Truck Driver Institute of America, 8788 Elk Grove Blvd.,  Suite 20, Elk Grove, CA 95624.  Water Transportation Occupations (D.O.T 197.130-010, .133 except -010 and -018, .137-010, .161-010, .163-010,-014,-018, .167except-014;911.131-010,.133-010, .137-010,-014, .263-010, .363-010, -014, .364-010, .584-010, .664-010, -014, .687-022 and -030)  Nature of the Work Workers in water transportation occupations operate and maintain deep sea merchant ships, tugboats, towboats, ferries, dredges, re­ search vessels, and other waterborne craft on the oceans and the Great Lakes, in harbors, on rivers and canals, and on other water­ ways. (Workers who operate water craft used in commercial fishing are described elsewhere in the Handbook, in the section on fishers, hunters, and trappers.) Captains or masters are in pverall command of the operation of a vessel and they supervise the work of the other officers and the crew. They set course and speed, maneuver the vessel to avoid hazards and other ships, and periodically determine its position using navi­ gation aids, celestial observations, and charts. They direct crew members who steer the vessel, operate engines, signal to other ves­ sels, perform maintenance and handle lines, or operate towing or dredging gear. Captains insure that proper procedures and safety 19  practices are followed, check that machinery and equipment are in good working order, and oversee the loading and unloading of cargo or passengers. They also maintain logs and other records of ships’ movements and cargo carried. On large vessels, captains are assisted by deck officers or mates. Merchant marine vessels—those carrying cargo overseas—have a chief or first mate, a second mate, and a third mate. Mates oversee the operation of the vessel, or “stand watch” for specified periods, usually 4 hours on and 8 off. On smaller vessels, there may be only one mate (called a pilot on some inland vessels) who alternates watches with the captain. Engineers or marine engineers operate, maintain, and repair pro­ pulsion engines, boilers, generators, pumps, and other machinery. Merchant marine vessels usually have four engineering officers: A chief engineer and a first, second, and third assistant engineer. As­ sistant engineers stand periodic watches, overseeing the operation of engines and machinery. Seamen, also called deckhands, particularly on inland waters, op­ erate the vessel and its deck equipment under the direction of the ship’s officers, and keep the nonengineering areas in good condition. They stand watch, looking out for other vessels, obstructions in the ship’s path, and aids to navigation. They also steer the ship, measure water depth in shallow water, and maintain and operate deck equip­ ment such as life boats, anchors, and cargohandling gear. When docking or departing, they handle lines. They also perform mainte­ nance chores such as repairing lines, chipping rust, and painting and cleaning decks and other areas. Seamen may also load and unload cargo. On vessels handling liquid cargo, they hook up hoses, operate pumps, and clean tanks. Deckhands on tugboats or tow vessels tie barges together into tow units, inspect them periodically, and break them apart when the destination is reached. Larger vessels have a boatswain or head seaman. Marine oilers work below decks under the direction of the ship’s engineers. They lubricate gears, shafts, bearings, and other moving parts of engines and motors, read pressure and temperature gauges and record data, and may repair and adjust machinery. A typical deep sea merchant ship has a captain, three deck of­ ficers or mates, a chief engineer and three assistant engineers, plus six or more seamen and oilers. Depending on their size, vessels oper­ ating in harbors, rivers, or along the coast may have a crew compris­ ing only of a captain and one deckhand, or as many as a captain, a mate or pilot, an engineer, and seven or eight seamen. Large vessels also have a full-time cook and helper, while on small ones, a seaman does the cooking. Merchant mariners also have an electrician, ma­ chinery mechanics, and a radio officer. Pilots guide ships in and out of harbors, through straits, and on rivers and other confined waterways where a familiarity with local water depths, winds, tides, currents, and hazards such as reefs and shoals is of prime importance. Pilots on river and canal vessels usu­ ally are regular crew members, like mates. Harbor pilots are gener­ ally independent contractors, who accompany vessels while they enter or leave port. They may pilot many ships in a single day. Working Conditions Merchant mariners are away from home for extended periods, but earn long leaves. Most are hired for one voyage, with no job security after that. At sea, they usually stand watch for 4 hours and are off for 8 hours, 7 days a week. Those employed on Great Lakes ships work 60 days and have 30 days off, but do not work in the winter when the lakes are frozen over. Workers on rivers and canals and in harbors are more likely to have year-round work. Some work 8- or 12-hour shifts and go home every day. Others work steadily for a week or month and then have an extended period off. When work­ ing, they are usually on duty for 6 or 12 hours and are off for 6 or 12 hours. People in water transportation occupations work in all weather conditions and although merchant mariners try to avoid severe storms while at sea, working in damp and cold conditions can be un­ pleasant. It is uncommon for vessels to sink, but workers neverthe­ less face the possibility that they may have to abandon their craft on short notice if it collides with other vessels or runs aground. They 20  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Deckhands on tow vessels break apart tow units once the destination is reached. also risk injury or death from falling overboard and hazards associ­ ated with working with machinery, heavy loads, and dangerous cargo. Some newer vessels are air-conditioned, soundproofed from noisy machinery, and have comfortable living quarters. Nevertheless, some workers do not like the long periods away from home and the confinement aboard ship. Employment Water transportation workers held about 54,000 jobs in 1992. Many merchant marine officers and seamen worked only part of the year, so the total number who worked some time during the year was somewhat greater. The following tabulation shows employment in the occupations that make up this group: Seamen and marine oilers................................................................... 22,000 Captains and pilots............................................................................. 16,000 Engineers................................................................................................ 8,800 Mates...................................................................................................... 7,200  A few of the captains and pilots were self-employed, operating their own vessel, or were pilots who were independent contractors. About 40 percent of all water transportation workers were em­ ployed on board merchant marine ships or U.S. Navy Military Sealift ships operating on the oceans or Great Lakes. Another 40 percent were employed in transportation services, working on tugs, towboats, ferries, dredges, and other watercraft in harbors, on rivers and canals, and other waterways. Others worked in water transpor­ tation services such as piloting vessels in and out of harbors, operat­ ing lighters and chartered boats, and in marine construction, salvag­ ing, and surveying. The remaining water transportation workers were employed on vessels that carry passengers, such as cruise ships, sightseeing and excursion boats, and ferries. Training and Other Qualifications Entry, training, and educational requirements for most water trans­ portation occupations are established and regulated by the U.S. Coast Guard. All officers and operators of watercraft must be li­ censed by the U.S. Coast Guard, which offers nearly 60 different li­ censes, depending on the position and type of craft. Licensing differs somewhat between the merchant marine and others. Deck and engineering officers in the merchant marine must be li­ censed. To qualify for a license, applicants must have graduated from the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy, or one of the six State academies, and pass a written examination. Persons with at least 3 years of appropriate sea experience also can be licensed if they pass the exam, but it is difficult to pass without substantial formal schooling or independent study. Also, because seamen may work 6  months a year or less, it can take 5 to 8 years to accumulate the nec­ essary experience. The academies offer 4-year bachelor’s degree pro­ grams (one offers a 3-year associate program) in nautical science or marine engineering to prepare students to be third mates or third as­ sistant engineers. With experience and passing of additional exams, third officers may qualify for higher rank. Because of keen competi­ tion, however, officers may have to take jobs below the grade they are qualified for. For employment in the merchant marine as an unlicensed sea­ man, a merchant mariner’s document is needed. Applicants must be U.S. citizens, have a medical certificate of excellent health, and a U.S. Public Health Service certificate attesting to vision, color per­ ception, and general physical condition. While no experience or for­ mal schooling is required, training at a union-operated school is helpful. Beginners are classified as ordinary seaman and may be as­ signed to the deck or engineering department. With experience at sea, and perhaps union-sponsored training, an ordinary seaman can pass the able seaman exam. Merchant marine officers and seamen (experienced and begin­ ners) are hired for voyages through union hiring halls or directly by shipping companies. Harbor pilot training is usually an apprenticeship with a shipping company or a pilot employees’ association. Entrants may be able seamen or licensed officers. No training or experience is needed to become a seaman or deckhand on vessels operating in harbors or on rivers or other wa­ terways. Newly hired workers generally learn skills on the job. With experience, they are eligible to take a Coast Guard exam to qualify as a mate, pilot, or captain. Substantial knowledge gained through experience, courses in seamanship schools, and independent study are needed to pass the exam. Job Outlook Keen competition is expected to continue for jobs in water transpor­ tation occupations. Overall, employment in these jobs is projected to decline through the year 2005, but opportunities will vary by sector. Employment in deep sea shipping is expected to continue its long­ term sharp decline as U.S.-manned ships carry an even smaller pro­ portion of international cargo. (In 1991, only 4 percent of our im­ ports and exports were carried on U.S.-manned ships.) Stringent Federal regulations that require larger crews allow unregulated ves­ sels that fly foreign flags to charge lower shipping rates. A fleet of deep sea U.S.-manned ships is considered to be vital to the Nation’s defense, so they receive Federal support through operating subsidies and provisions in laws that limit certain Federal cargoes to ships that fly the U.S. flag. Newer ships are designed to be operated safely by much smaller crews. Innovations include automated controls and computerized monitoring systems in navigation, engine control, watchkeeping, ship management, and cargo handling. As older vessels are re­ placed, crew sizes will shrink, and employed seamen will need greater skills. Vessels on rivers and canals and on the Great Lakes mostly carry bulk products such as coal, iron ore, petroleum, sand and gravel,  ☆ U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1994 363-539 2450-20   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  grain, and chemicals. Shipments of these products are expected to grow through the year 2005, but productivity increases should cause employment to decline. Employment in water transportation ser­ vices is likely to show little or no change. The decline in jobs has created competition for jobs, with many experienced merchant mariners going for long periods without work. As a result, unions generally accept few new members. Also, many merchant marine academy graduates have not found licensed shipboard jobs in the U.S. merchant marine, although most do find related jobs. All are commissioned as ensigns in the U.S. Naval Re­ serve, and many go on active duty in the Navy. Some find jobs on tugboats or other watercraft or on foreign-flag vessels, or take jobs as seamen on U.S. flag ships. Some take land-based jobs with ship­ ping companies, marine insurance companies, manufacturers of boilers or related machinery, civilian jobs with the U.S. Navy, or other related jobs. Unless the number of people seeking merchant marine jobs declines sharply, the present keen competition is likely to continue.  Earnings Water transportation workers who usually worked full time had median weekly earnings of $611 in 1992. The middle 50 percent earned between $463 and $900 a week. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $350, while the highest 10 percent earned more than $1,050 a week. Captains and mates had median weekly earnings of $871 a week in 1992. The middle 50 percent earned between $650 and $1,150 a week. The lowest paid 10 percent earned less than $500, while the highest more than $1,500 a week. Seamen had median weekly earnings of $512 a week in 1992. The middle 50 percent earned between $350 and $600 a week. The low­ est 10 percent earned less than $175 a week, while the highest 10 percent earned more than $833 a week.  Related Occupations Workers in occupations having duties and responsibilities similar to these occupations include fishing vessel captains, ferryboat opera­ tors, and hatchtenders.  Sources of Additional Information Information on merchant marine careers, training, and licensing re­ quirements is available from: ©“Maritime Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, 400 7th St. SW., Washington, DC 20590. ©“ U.S. Coast Guard, Licensing and Evaluation Branch, Merchant Vessel and Personnel Division, 2100 2nd St. SW., Washington, DC 20593.  Individuals interested in attending a merchant marine academy should contact: ©” Admissions Office, U.S. Merchant Marine Academy, Kings Point, NY 11024. ©■Admissions Office, California Maritime Academy, P.O. Box 1392, Val­ lejo, CA 94590.  21  Selected items from The Bureau of Labor Statistics library of  Career and Job Outlook Publications latest editions?  Occupational OutlookHandbook-1994-95Edition The original, and still leading source of authoritative, nontechnical career information for about 250 occupations. Each description includes information on nature of the work, training required, earnings, job prospects, and sources of additional information. 473 pp„ $26, hard cover; $23, soft cover. OccupationalOutfookHandbookReprints Groups of related jobs covered inthe 1994-95 Occupational Outlook Handbookatem\\ab\e as individual reprints. These reprints are especially useful forjobseekerswhowantto know about a single field and for counselors who need to stretch the contents of a single Handbook among many students. No.  2450 2450-1 2450-2 2450-3 2450-4 2450-5 2450-6 2450-7 2450-8 2450-9 2450-10 2450-11 2450-12 2450-13 2450-14 2450-15 2450-16 2450-17 2450-18 2450-19 2450-20  Collated set ofall 20 reprints  Tomorrow's Jobs: Overview Business and Managerial Occupations Engineering, Scientific, and Related Occupations Computerand Mathematics-Related Occupations Social Science and Legal Occupations Education and Social Service Occupations and Clergy Health Diagnosing Occupations and Assistants Dietetics, Nursing, Pharmacy, and Therapy Occupations Health Technologists and Technicians Communications, Design, Performing Arts, and Related Occupations Technologists and Technicians, Except Health Sales Occupations Clerical and Other Administrative Support Occupations Protective Service Occupations and Compliance Inspectors Service Occupations: Cleaning, Food, Health, and Personal Mechanics, Equipment Installers and Repairers Construction Trade and Extractive Occupations Metalworking, Plastic-working, and Woodworking Occupations Production Occupations Transportation and Forestry, Fishing, and Related Occupations  Occupational OutiookQuarterly Keeps you informed about new studies by the Bureau of LaborStatistics. Articles covera wide range of subjects useful to job counselors, labor force analysts, and people choosing careers. Newand emerging jobs, unusual jobs, employment projectionsand trends, and changing technologyare a few of theareas covered by this award-winning magazine. Four issues, 40pages each, in color, $8.00; single copy $2.75.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  °Uth0k Q 1^1 '*"■' abor0u*'?erA.  Related Publications 1994  Occupational Projections and Training Data  The American Work Force: 1992-2005  Edition  U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics  A Statistical and Research Supplement to the 1994-95 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Bulletin 2452 April 1994  U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics May 1994 Bulletin 2451  ■r  I * *  iiwffm eFeat w;th »- 1 to 10  set r,,l;g"l of btr. i to false erd repeat set r.il;g*t cf t*-ic8tn to true repeat v*;Lh x ] to *,C i t hi light of btn X : true then '•21 visible of fid X to tr„*  y/JuL  BLS Bulletin 2451  BLS Bulletin 2452  Occupational Projections and Training Data, 1994 Edition  The American Work Force: 1992-2005  This supplement to the Occupational Outlook Handbook provides the statistical and technical data supporting the information presented in the Handbook. Education and training planners, career counselors, and jobseekers can find valuable information that ranks occupations by employment growth, earnings, susceptibility to unemployment, separation rates, and part-time work.  Every 2 years, the Bureau of Labor Statistics producers de­ tailed projections of the U.S. economy and labor force. This bulletin presents the Bureau’s latest analyses of economic and industrial growth, the labor force, and trends in occupa­ tional employment into the21 st century. An overview article fo­ cuses on important issues raised by these projections.  Not*:  At press time, prices for these publications were not available. For prices and ordering information, contact any of the Bureau of Labor Statistics Regional Offices.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Bureau of Labor Statistics Regional Offices Boston  1 Congress St., 10th Floor Boston, MA 02114-2023  Phone (617) 565-2327  New York  Room 808, 201 Varick St. New York, NY 10014-4811  Phone (212)337-2400  Philadelphia  P.O. Box 13309 Philadelphia, PA 19101-3309  Phone (215) 596-1154  Atlanta  1371 Peachtree St. NE. Atlanta, GA 30367-2302  Phone (404) 347-4416  Chicago  9th Floor, Federal Office Bldg. 230 South Dearborn St. Chicago, IL 60604-1595  Phone (312) 353-1880  Dallas  Federal Bldg. 525 Griffin St., Room 221 Dallas, TX 75202-5028  Phone (214) 767-6970  Kansas City  911 Walnut St. Kansas City, MO 64106-2009  Phone (816) 426-2481  San Francisco  71 Stevenson St. P.O. Box 193766 San Francisco, CA 94119-3766  Phone (415) 744-6600  CAREER INFORMATION FROM AN INDUSTRY PERSPECTIVE  INDUSTRIES   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  career  U S Duparlmunl ol Labor Bureau ol Labor Statistics July IS»  The 1992 Career Guide to Industries is a unique, new source of job information. It contains authoritative up-to-date reviews of 40 industries—from agriculture of aerospace. You can find out which industries are growing, where the jobs are, and which pay well. Other information includes: O Description of the industry and its workplaces O Principal occupations and their growth rates O Working conditions and hazards O Opportunities for training and advancement O Jobs that do not require training beyond high school O Jobs that require additional specialized education or training If you need career information, you need industry information: That's why Career Guide to Industries can be a useful addition to your library. Price $12.00. 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