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L  *. 24*0 -5  Social Scientists and Legal Occupations ISBN 0-16-043052-6  Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1994-95 Edition  0  U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics  9 7801 60 430527  Bulletin 2450-5   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  *--------  -  illflf  *4*4  - o?f>s i e.s j Social Scientists and Urban Planners (D.O.T. 029.067; 045.061, .067, .107-022, -026, -030, -034, -046; 050.067; 051; 052 except .067-014; 054; 055; 059; 188.167-110; and 199.167-040)  Nature of the Work Social scientists study all aspects of human society—from the distri­ bution of goods and services to the beliefs of newly formed religious groups to modem mass transportation systems. Social science re­ search provides insights that help us understand the different ways in which individuals and groups make decisions, exercise power, or respond to change. Through their studies and analyses, social scien­ tists and urban planners assist educators, government officials, busi­ ness leaders, and others in solving social, economic, and environ­ mental problems. Research is a basic activity for many social scientists. They use es­ tablished or newly discovered methods to assemble facts and theory that contribute to human knowledge. Applied research usually is designed to produce information that will enable people to make better decisions or manage their affairs more effectively. Interviews and surveys are widely used to collect facts, opinions, or other infor­ mation. Data collection takes many other forms, however, including living and working among the people studied; archaeological and other field investigations; the analysis of historical records and doc­ uments; experiments with human subjects or animals in a psycho­ logical laboratory; the administration of standardized tests and questionnaires; and the preparation and interpretation of maps and graphic materials. Social sciences are interdisciplinary in nature. Specialists in one field often find that the research they are performing overlaps work that is being conducted in another social science discipline. Regard­ less of their field of specialization, social scientists are concerned with some aspect of society, culture, or personality. Anthropologists study the origin and the physical, social, and cul­ tural development and behavior of humans. They may study the way of life, remains, language, or physical characteristics of people in various parts of the world; they compare the customs, values, and social patterns of different cultures. Anthropologists generally con­ centrate in sociocultural anthropology, archaeology, linguistics, or biological-physical anthropology. Sociocultural anthropologists study the customs, cultures, and social lives of groups in a wide range of settings from nonindustrialized societies to modem urban cultures. Archaeologists engage in the systematic recovery and ex­ amination of material evidence, such as graves, buildings, tools, and pottery, remaining from past human life and culture, to determine the history, customs, and living habits of earlier civilizations. Lin­ guistic anthropologists study the role of language in various cul­ tures. Biological-physical anthropologists study the evolution of the human body and look for the earliest evidences of human life. Economists study the production, distribution, and consumption of commodities and services. They may conduct surveys and ana­ lyze data to determine public preferences for these goods and ser­ vices. Most economists are concerned with the practical applica­ tions of economic policy in a particular area, such as finance, labor, agriculture, transportation, energy, or health. Others develop theo­ ries to explain economic phenomena such as unemployment or in­ flation. Marketing research analysts research market conditions in localities, regions, the Nation, or the world to determine potential sales of a product or service; they examine and analyze data on past sales and trends to develop forecasts.  2   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Geographers study the distribution of both physical and cultural phenomena on local, regional, continental, and global scales. Geog­ raphers specialize, as a rule. Economic geographers study the re­ gional distribution of resources and economic activities. Political ge­ ographers are concerned with the relationship of geography to political phenomena—local, national, and international. Physical geographers study the distribution of climates, vegetation, soil, and land forms. Urban and transportation geographers study cities and metropolitan areas, while regional geographers study the physical, climatic, economic, political, and cultural characteristics of regions, ranging in size from a congressional district, to a State, country, continent, or the entire world. Medical geographers study health care delivery systems, epidemiology, and the effect of the environ­ ment on health. Geographic Information Systems (GIS)—a relatively new spe­ cialty—combines computer graphics, artificial intelligence, and high-speed communication to store, retrieve, manipulate, analyze, and map geographic data. GIS is widely used in weather forecasting, emergency management, resource analysis and management, and other activities. (Some occupational classification systems include geographers under physical scientists rather than social scientists.) Historians research and analyze the past. They use many sources of information during their research, including government and in­ stitutional records, newspapers and other periodicals, photographs, interviews, films, and unpublished manuscripts such as diaries and letters. Historians usually specialize in a specific country or region; in a particular time period; or in a particular field, such as social, in­ tellectual, political, or diplomatic history. Biographers collect de­ tailed information on individuals. Genealogists trace family histo­ ries. Other historians help study and preserve archival materials, artifacts, and historic buildings and sites. Political scientists study the origin, development, and operation of political systems. They conduct research on a wide range of subjects such as relations between the United States and foreign countries, the beliefs and institutions of foreign nations, for example those in Asia and Africa, the politics of small towns or a major metropolis, or the decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court. Studying topics such as public opinion, political decisionmaking, and ideology, they analyze the structure and operation of governments as well as informal po­ litical entities. Depending on the topic under study, a political scien­ tist might conduct a public opinion survey, analyze election results, or analyze public documents. Psychologists, who constitute over half of all social scientists, study human behavior and use their expertise to counsel or advise individuals or groups. Their research also assists business advertis­ ers, politicians, and others interested in influencing or motivating people. While clinical psychology is the largest specialty, psycholo­ gists specialize in many other fields such as counseling, experimen­ tal, social, or industrial psychology. Sociologists analyze the development, structure, and behavior of groups or social systems such as families, neighborhoods, or clubs. Sociologists may specialize in a particular field such as criminology, rural sociology, or medical sociology. Urban and regional planners develop comprehensive plans and programs for the use of land for industrial and public sites. Planners prepare for situations that are likely to develop as a result of popula­ tion growth or social and economic change. Working Conditions Most social scientists have regular hours. Generally working behind a desk, either alone or in collaboration with other social scientists, they read and write research reports. Many experience the pressures of deadlines and tight schedules, and sometimes they must work overtime, for which they generally are not reimbursed. Social scien­ tists often work as an integral part of a research team. Their routine may be interrupted frequently by telephone calls, letters to answer, special requests for information, meetings, or conferences. Travel  For sale by the U.S. Government Printing Office Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop: SSOP, Washington, DC 20402-9328  ISBN 0-16-043052-6  may be necessary to collect information or attend meetings. Social scientists on foreign assignment must adjust to unfamiliar cultures and climates. Some social scientists do fieldwork. For example, anthropolo­ gists, archaeologists, and geographers often must travel to remote areas, live among the people they study, and stay for long periods at the site of their investigations. They may work under primitive con­ ditions, and their work may involve strenuous physical exertion. Social scientists employed by colleges and universities generally have flexible work schedules, often dividing their time among teach­ ing, research, consulting, or administrative responsibilities. Employment Social scientists held about 258,000 jobs in 1992. Over half of all so­ cial scientists are psychologists. About one-third of all social scien­ tists—overwhelmingly psychologists—are self-employed, involved in counseling, consulting, or research. Salaried social scientists worked for a wide range of employers. Nearly 4 out of 10 worked for Federal, State, and local govern­ ments; 3 out of 10 worked in health, research, and management ser­ vices firms; and 2 out of 10 worked in educational institutions, as re­ searchers, administrators, and counselors. Other employers include social service agencies, international organizations, associations, museums, historical societies, computer and data processing firms, and business firms. In addition, many persons with training in a social science disci­ pline teach in colleges and universities, and in secondary and ele­ mentary schools. (For more information, see the Handbook state­ ments on college and university faculty, and kindergarten, elementary, and secondary school teachers.) The proportion of so­ cial scientists who teach varies by occupation—for example, the ac­ ademic world generally is a more important source of jobs for grad­ uates in sociology than for graduates in psychology. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Educational attainment of social scientists is among the highest of all occupations. The Ph.D. or equivalent degree is a minimum re­ quirement for most positions in colleges and universities and is im­ portant for advancement to many top level nonacademic research and administrative posts. Graduates with master’s degrees generally have better professional opportunities outside of colleges and uni­ versities, although the situation varies by field. For example, job prospects for master’s degree holders in urban or regional planning are brighter than for master’s degree holders in history. Graduates with a master’s degree in a social science discipline qualify for teach­ ing positions in junior colleges. Bachelor’s degree holders have lim­ ited opportunities and in most social science occupations do not qualify for “professional” positions. The bachelor’s degree does, however, provide a suitable background for many different kinds of entry level jobs, such as research assistant, administrative aide, or management trainee. With the addition of sufficient education courses, social science graduates also can qualify for teaching posi­ tions in secondary and elementary schools. Training in statistics and mathematics is essential for many social scientists. Mathematical and other quantitative research methods are increasingly used in economics, geography, political science, ex­ perimental psychology, and other fields. The ability to use com­ puters for research purposes is mandatory in most disciplines. Depending on their jobs, social scientists and urban planners may need a wide range of personal characteristics. Because they con­ stantly seek new information about people, things, and ideas, intel­ lectual curiosity and creativity are fundamental personal traits. The ability to think logically and methodically is important to a political scientist comparing the merits of various forms of government. The ability to analyze data is important to an economist studying pro­ posals to reduce Federal budget deficits. Objectivity, openminded­ ness, and systematic work habits are important in all kinds of social science research. Perseverance is essential for an anthropologist, who might spend years accumulating artifacts from an ancient civi­ lization. Emotional stability and sensitivity are vital to a clinical  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  psychologist working with mental patients. Written and oral com­ munication skills are essential to all these workers. Job Outlook Employment of social scientists is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005, spurred by rising concern over the environment, crime, communicable disease, mental illness, the growing elderly and homeless populations, the in­ creasingly competitive global economy, and a wide range of other is­ sues. Psychologists, the largest social science occupation, is ex­ pected to grow much faster than average. Economists and marketing research analysts, urban and regional planners, and all other social scientists combined, including anthropologists, geogra­ phers, historians, political scientists, and sociologists, should experi­ ence average growth. Most job openings, however, will result from the need to replace social scientists who transfer to other occupa­ tions or stop working altogether. Prospects are best for those with advanced degrees, and generally are better in disciplines such as economics, psychology, and urban and regional planning, which offer many opportunities in nonaca­ demic settings. However, graduates in all social science fields are ex­ pected to find enhanced job opportunities in applied fields due to the excellent research, communication, and quantitative skills they de­ velop in school. Government agencies, health and social service or­ ganizations, marketing, research and consulting firms, and a wide range of businesses seek social science graduates. Social scientists currently face stiff competition for academic po­ sitions. However, competition may ease in the future due to a wave of retirements expected among college and university faculty. The growing importance and popularity of social science subjects in sec­ ondary schools is strengthening the demand for social science teach­ ers at this level as well. Other considerations that affect employment opportunities in these occupations include specific skills and technical expertise, de­ sired work setting, salary requirements, and geographic mobility. In addition, experience acquired through internships can prove invalu­ able later in obtaining a full-time position in a social science field. Earnings Median annual earnings of all social scientists were about $36,700 in 1992. The middle 50 percent earned between $24,700 and $51,300 annually. The lowest 10 percent earned under $17,800, while the highest 10 percent earned over $68,700. According to a 1993 survey by the College Placement Council, people with a bachelor’s degree in a social science field received starting offers averaging about $19,000 a year in 1993, those with a master’s degree in a social science field received starting offers aver­ aging about $28,400 a year in 1993, and the average salary offer for doctoral social scientists was $30,000. In the Federal Government, social scientists with a bachelor’s de­ gree and no experience could start at $18,300 or $22,700 a year in 1993, depending on their college records. Those with a master’s de­ gree could start at $27,800, and those having a Ph.D. degree could begin at $33,600, while some individuals with experience and an ad­ vanced degree could start at $40,300. The average salary of all social scientists working for the Federal Government in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions was about $43,000 in 1993. Social scientists entering careers in higher education may receive benefits such as summer research money, computer access, student research assistants, and secretarial support. Related Occupations A number of fields that require training and personal qualities simi­ lar to those of the various social science fields are covered elsewhere in the Handbook. These include lawyers, statisticians, mathemati­ cians, computer programmers, computer scientists and systems ana­ lysts, reporters and correspondents, social workers, religious work­ ers, college and university faculty, and counselors. 3  Sources of Additional Information More detailed information about economists and marketing re­ search analysts, psychologists, sociologists, and urban and regional planners is presented in the Handbook statements that follow this introductory statement. Anthropology For information about careers, job openings, grants and fellow­ ships, and schools that offer training in anthropology, and for a copy of Getting a Job Outside the Academy (special publication no. 14), contact: Kg’ The  American Anthropological Association, 4350 N. Fairfax Dr., Suite 640, Arlington, VA 22203.  Archaeology For information about careers in archaeology, contact: O’Society for American Archaeology, 900 2nd St. NE., #12, Washington, DC 20002. ©= Archaeological Institute of America, 675 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02215.  Geography Two publications that provide information on careers and job openings for geographers—Geography—Today's Career for To­ morrow, available free of charge, and Careers in Geography, availa­ ble for $3—and the annual publication listing schools offering vari­ ous programs in geography—A Guide to Programs of Geography in the U.S. and Canada—may be obtained from: Kg’ Association  of American Geographers, 1710 16th St. NW., Washington,  DC 20009.  History Information on careers for students of history is available from: *3= American Historical Association, 400 A St. SE., Washington, DC 20003.  General information on careers for historians is available from: ^Organization of American Historians, 112 North Bryan St., Blooming­ ton, IN 47408.  For additional information on careers for historians, send a selfaddressed, stamped envelope to: Kg’ American  Association for State and Local History, 530 Church St., 6th Floor, Nashville, TN 37219.  Political Science Information on careers and job openings, including Careers and the Study of Political Science: A Guide for Undergraduates, available for S3.50 plus SI.00 postage and handling, with bulk rates for multi­ ple copies, may be purchased from: Kg’ American Political Science Association, 1527 New Hampshire Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20036.  Programs in Public Affairs and Administration, a biennial direc­ tory that contains data on the academic content of programs, the student body, the format of instruction, and other information, may be purchased from: Kg’ National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration, 1120 G St. NW., Suite 730, Washington, DC 20005.  Economists and Marketing Research Analysts (D.O.T. 050.067)  Nature of the Work Economists. Economists study the ways a society uses scarce re­ sources such as land, labor, raw materials, and machinery to pro­ duce goods and services. They analyze the costs and benefits of dis­ tributing and consuming these goods and services. Economists conduct research, collect and analyze data, monitor economic trends, and develop forecasts. Their research might focus on topics such as energy costs, inflation, interest rates, farm prices, rents, im­ ports, or employment. Most economists are concerned with practical applications of ec­ onomic policy in a particular area, such as finance, labor, agricul­ ture, transportation, real estate, environment, natural resources, en­ ergy, or health. They use their understanding of economic relationships to advise business firms, insurance companies, banks, 4  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  securities firms, industry and trade associations, labor unions, gov­ ernment agencies, and others. On the other hand, economists who are primarily theoreticians may use mathematical models to develop theories on the causes of business cycles and inflation, or the effects of unemployment and tax legislation. Depending on the topic under study, economists devise methods and procedures for obtaining the data they need. For example, sam­ pling techniques may be used to conduct a survey, and econometric modeling techniques may be used to develop forecasts. Preparing re­ ports usually is an important part of the economist’s job. He or she may be called upon to review and analyze all the relevant data, pre­ pare tables and charts, and write up the results in clear, concise lan­ guage. Being able to present economic and statistical concepts in a meaningful way is particularly important for economists whose re­ search is policy directed. Economists who work for government agencies assess economic conditions in the United States and abroad and estimate the eco­ nomic effects of specific changes in legislation or public policy. For example, they may study how the dollar’s fluctuation against for­ eign currencies affects import and export markets. Most govern­ ment economists are in the fields of agriculture, business, finance, labor, transportation, utilities, urban economics, or international trade. Economists in the U.S. Department of Commerce study do­ mestic production, distribution, and consumption of commodities or services; those in the Federal Trade Commission prepare indus­ try analyses to assist in enforcing Federal statutes designed to elimi­ nate unfair, deceptive, or monopolistic practices in interstate com­ merce; and those in the Bureau of Labor Statistics analyze data on prices, wages, employment, productivity, and safety and health. An economist working for a State or local government might analyze regional or local data on trade and commerce, industrial and com­ mercial growth, and employment and unemployment, and project labor force trends. Marketing Research Analysts. Marketing research analysts are concerned with the design, promotion, price, and distribution of a product or service. They provide information which is used to iden­ tify and define marketing opportunities; generate, refine, and evalu­ ate marketing actions; and monitor marketing performance. Like economists, marketing research analysts devise methods and proce­ dures for obtaining data they need. Marketing research analysts often design surveys and questionnaires; conduct telephone, per­ sonal, or mail interviews; and sometimes offer product samples to assess consumer preferences and indicate current trends. Once the data are compiled, marketing research analysts code, tabulate, and evaluate the data. They then make recommendations to manage­ ment based upon their findings and suggest a course of action. They may provide management with information to make decisions on the promotion, distribution, design, and pricing of company prod­ ucts or services; or to determine the advisability of adding new lines of merchandise, opening new branches, or diversifying the com­ pany’s operations. Analysts also conduct public opinion research to familiarize the media, government, lobbyists, and others with the needs and attitudes of the public. This can help political leaders and others assess public support for new taxes or spending on health, ed­ ucation, welfare, or defense, for example. Marketing research analysts employed by large organizations may have a strong background in statistics or they may work with statisticians to select a group of people to be interviewed who accu­ rately represent prospective customers of a product or service. Under an experienced marketing research analyst’s direction, trained interviewers conduct surveys and office workers tabulate the results. The researchers must maintain confidentiality, accuracy, and good scientific methods in order to obtain useful results. Working Conditions Economists and marketing research analysts working for govern­ ment agencies and private firms have structured work schedules. They may work alone writing reports, preparing statistical charts, and using computers and calculators. Or they may be an integral part of a research team. Most work under pressure of deadlines and tight schedules, and sometimes must work overtime. Their routine may be interrupted by special requests for data, letters, meetings, or  Mm  i n%r>  Economists and marketing research analysts use computers to prepare reports, develop surveys, and analyze data. conferences. Travel may be necessary to collect data or attend con­ ferences. Economics and marketing faculty have flexible work schedules, and may divide their time among teaching, research, consulting, and administration. Employment Economists and marketing research analysts held about 51,000 jobs in 1992. Private industry—particularly economic and marketing re­ search firms, management consulting firms, banks, securities and commodities brokers, and computer and data processing compa­ nies—employed 7 out of 10 salaried workers. The remainder, prima­ rily economists, were employed by a wide range of government agencies, primarily in the Federal Government. The Departments of State, Labor, Agriculture, and Commerce are the largest Federal employers of economists. A number of economists and marketing research analysts combine a full-time job in government or business with part-time or consulting work in academia or another setting. Employment of economists and marketing research analysts is concentrated in large cities—for example, New York City, Wash­ ington, D.C., and Chicago. Some economists work abroad for com­ panies with major international operations; for the Department of State and other U.S. Government agencies; and for international or­ ganizations, including the World Bank and the United Nations. Besides the jobs described above, many economists and market­ ing research analysts held economics and marketing faculty posi­ tions in colleges and universities. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree with a major in economics or marketing is suffi­ cient for many entry-level research, administrative, management trainee, and sales jobs. Economics majors can choose from a variety of courses, ranging from those which are intensly mathematical like microeconomics, macroeconomics, and econometrics, to more phil­ osophical courses like the history of economic thought. In addition to courses in business, marketing, and consumer behavior, market­ ing majors should take courses in related disciplines, including eco­ nomics, political science, psychology, organizational behavior, soci­ ology, finance, business law, and international relations. Because of the importance of quantitative skills to economists and marketing researchers, courses in mathematics, statistics, econometrics, sam­ pling theory and survey design, and computer science are highly recommended. Aspiring economists and marketing research analysts can gain experience gathering and analyzing data, conducting interviews or surveys, and writing reports on their findings while in college. This experience can prove invaluable later in obtaining a full-time posi­ tion in the field, since much of their work in the beginning centers  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  around these duties. Beginning workers also may do considerable clerical work, such as copying data, editing and coding questions, and tabulating survey results. With further experience, economists and marketing research analysts eventually are assigned their own research projects. Graduate training increasingly is required for many economist and marketing research analyst jobs, and for advancement to more responsible positions. Economics includes many specialties at the graduate level, such as advanced economic theory, mathematical ec­ onomics, econometrics, history of economic thought, international economics, and labor economics. Students should select graduate schools strong in specialties in which they are interested. Marketing research analysts may earn a master’s degree in business administra­ tion, marketing, statistics, or some related discipline. Some schools help graduate students find internships or part-time employment in government agencies, economic consulting firms, financial institu­ tions, or marketing research firms. Like undergraduate students, work experience and contacts can be useful in testing career prefer­ ences and learning about the job market for economists and market­ ing research analysts. In the Federal Government, candidates for beginning economist positions generally need a college degree with a minimum of 21 se­ mester hours of economics and 3 hours of statistics, accounting, or calculus. Competition is keen, however, and additional education or experience may be required for some jobs. For a job as a college instructor in many junior colleges and some 4-year schools, a master’s degree is the minimum requirement. In most colleges and universities, however, a Ph.D. is necessary for ap­ pointment as an instructor. Similar to other disciplines, a Ph.D. and extensive publication are required for a professorship and for ten­ ure. In government, industry, research organizations, and consulting firms, economists and marketing research analysts who have a grad­ uate degree usually can qualify for more responsible research and administrative positions. A Ph.D. is necessary for top positions in many organizations. Many corporation and government executives have a strong background in economics or marketing. Persons considering careers as economists or marketing research analysts should be able to work accurately with detail since much time is spent on data analysis. Patience and persistence are neces­ sary qualities since economists and marketing research analysts may spend long hours on independent study and problem solving. At the same time, they must be able to work well with others, especially marketing research analysts, who often interview a wide variety of people. Economists and marketing research analysts must be objec­ tive and systematic in their work and be able to present their find­ ings, both orally and in writing, in a clear, meaningful way. Creativ­ ity and intellectual curiosity are essential for success in these fields, just as they are in other areas of scientific endeavor. Job Outlook Employment of economists and marketing research analysts is ex­ pected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Most job openings, however, are likely to re­ sult from the need to replace experienced workers who transfer to other occupations, or retire or leave the labor force for other rea­ sons. Opportunities for economists should be best in private industry and in research and consulting firms, as some companies contract out for economic research services rather than support a staff of full­ time economists. The growing complexity of the global economy and increased reliance on quantitative methods of analyzing busi­ ness trends, forecasting sales, and planning purchasing and produc­ tion should spur demand for economists. The continued need for ec­ onomic analyses by lawyers, accountants, engineers, health services administrators, education administrators, urban and regional plan­ ners, environmental scientists, and others also should result in addi­ tional jobs for economists. Other organizations, including trade as­ sociations, unions, and nonprofit organizations, may offer job opportunities for economists. Employment of economists in the Federal Government should decline in line with the rate of growth projected for the Federal workforce as a whole. Slower than average 5  employment growth is expected among economists in State and lo­ cal government. A strong background in economic theory, mathematics, statistics, and econometrics provides the tools for acquiring any specialty within the field. Those skilled in quantitative techniques and their application to economic modeling and forecasting and marketing research, including the use of computers, should have the best job opportunities. Persons who graduate with a bachelor’s degree in economics through the year 2005 should face keen competition for the limited number of economist positions for which they qualify. Related work experience—conducting research, developing surveys, or analyzing data, for example—while in school is a major asset in this competi­ tive job market. Many graduates will find employment in govern­ ment, industry, and business as management or sales trainees, or as research or administrative assistants. Economists with good quanti­ tative skills are qualified for research analyst positions in a broad range of fields. Those with strong backgrounds in mathematics, sta­ tistics, survey design, and computer science may be hired by private firms for marketing research work. Those who meet State certifica­ tion requirements may become high school economics teachers. The demand for secondary school economics teachers is expected to grow as economics becomes an increasingly important and popular course. (See the statement on kindergarten, elementary, and secon­ dary school teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Candidates who hold a master’s degree in economics have better employment prospects than bachelor’s degree holders. Some busi­ nesses and research and consulting firms seek master’s degree hold­ ers who have strong computer and quantitative skills and can per­ form complex research, but do not command the high salary of a Ph.D. Master’s degree holders are likely to face competition for teaching positions in colleges and universities; however, some may gain positions in junior and community colleges. Opportunities will be best for Ph.D.’s. Ph.D. graduates should have opportunities to work as economists in private industry, re­ search and consulting firms, and government. In addition, employ­ ment prospects for economists in colleges and universities should improve due to an expected wave of retirements among college faculty. Demand for marketing research analysts should be strong due to an increasingly competitive global economy. Marketing research provides organizations valuable feedback from purchasers, allowing companies to evaluate consumer satisfaction and more effectively plan for the future. As companies seek to expand their market and consumers become better informed, the need for marketing profes­ sionals is increasing. Opportunities for marketing research analysts should be good in a wide range of employment settings, particularly in marketing research firms, as companies find it more profitable to contract out for marketing research services rather than supporting their own marketing department. Other organizations, including fi­ nancial services organizations, health care institutions, advertising firms, manufacturing firms that produce consumer goods, and in­ surance companies may offer job opportunities for marketing re­ search analysts. Like economists, graduates with related work expe­ rience or an advanced degree in marketing or a closely related business field should have the best job opportunities. Earnings According to a 1993 salary survey by the College Placement Coun­ cil, persons with a bachelor’s degree in economics received offers averaging $25,200 a year; in marketing, $24,100. The median base salary of business economists in 1992 was $65,000, according to a survey by the National Association of Busi­ ness Economists. Ninety percent of the respondents held advanced degrees. The highest salaries were reported by those who had a Ph.D., with a median salary of $78,000. Master’s degree holders earned a median salary of $58,000, while bachelor’s degree holders earned $51,000. The highest paid business economists were in the nondurable manufacturing, securities and investment, mining, banking, and real estate industries. The lowest paid were in academia and government. The Federal Government recognizes education and experience in certifying applicants for entry level positions. In general, the en­ trance salary for economists having a bachelor’s degree averaged 6  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  about $18,300 a year in 1993; however, those with superior aca­ demic records could begin at $22,700. Those having a master’s de­ gree could qualify for positions at an annual salary of $27,800. Those with a Ph.D. could begin at $33,600, while some individuals with experience and an advanced degree could start at $40,300. Economists in the Federal Government in nonsupervisory, supervi­ sory, and managerial positions averaged around $53,500 a year in 1993. Like other college faculty, economists and marketing research analysts entering careers in higher education may receive benefits such as summer research money, computer access, money for stu­ dent research assistants, and secretarial support. Related Occupations Economists are concerned with understanding and interpreting fi­ nancial matters, among other subjects. Others with jobs in this area include financial managers, financial analysts, accountants and au­ ditors, underwriters, actuaries, securities and financial services sales workers, credit analysts, loan officers, and budget officers. Marketing research analysts are involved in social research, in­ cluding the planning, implementation, and analysis of surveys to de­ termine people’s needs and preferences. Other jobs using these skills include social welfare research workers, employment research and planning directors, sociologists, and urban and regional planners. Sources of Additional Information For information on careers in economics and business, contact: tw National Association of Business Economists, 28790 Chagrin Blvd., Suite 300, Cleveland, OH 44122. I^-The Margin Magazine, University of Colorado, 1420 Austin Bluffs Pkwy., Colorado Springs, CO 80918.  For information about careers and salaries in marketing research, contact:  BT American Marketing Association, 250 South Wacker Dr., Suite 200, Chicago, IL 60606. ^Marketing Research Association, 2189 Silas Deane Hwy., Suite 5, Rocky Hill, CT 06067. Council of American Survey Research Organizations, 3 Upper Devon, Port Jefferson, NY 11777.  Psychologists (D.O.T. 045.061, .067,. 107-022, -026, -030, -034, and -046)  Nature of the Work Psychologists study human behavior and mental processes to under­ stand, explain, and change people’s behavior. They may study the way a person thinks, feels, or behaves. Research psychologists inves­ tigate the physical, cognitive, emotional, or social aspects of human behavior. Pychologists in applied fields counsel and conduct train­ ing programs; do market research; apply psychological treatments to a variety of medical and surgical conditions; or provide mental health services in hospitals, clinics, or private settings. Like other social scientists, psychologists formulate hypotheses and collect data to test their validity. Research methods depend on the topic under study. Psychologists may gather information through controlled laboratory experiments; personality, perform­ ance, aptitude, and intelligence tests; observation, interviews, and questionnaires; clinical studies; or surveys. Computers are widely used to record and analyze this information. Since psychology deals with human behavior, psychologists apply their knowledge and techniques to a wide range of endeavors includ­ ing human services, management, education, law, and sports. In ad­ dition to the variety of work settings, psychologists specialize in many different areas. Clinical psychologists—who constitute the largest specialty—generally work in independent or group practice or in hospitals or clinics. They may help the mentally or emotionally disturbed adjust to life and are increasingly helping all kinds of med­ ical and surgical patients deal with their illnesses or injuries. They may work in physical medicine and rehabilitation settings, treating  patients with spinal cord injuries, chronic pain or illness, stroke, and arthritis and neurologic conditions, such as multiple sclerosis. Others help people deal with life stresses such as divorce or aging. Clinical psychologists interview patients; give diagnostic tests; pro­ vide individual, family, and group psychotherapy; and design and implement behavior modification programs. They may collaborate with physicians and other specialists in developing treatment pro­ grams and help patients understand and comply with the prescribed treatment. Some clinical psychologists work in universities, where they train graduate students in the delivery of mental health and be­ havioral medicine services. Others administer community mental health programs. Counseling psychologists use several techniques, including interviewing and testing, to advise people on how to deal with problems of everyday living—personal, social, educational, or vocational. (Also see the statements on counselors and social work­ ers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Developmental psychologists study the patterns and causes of be­ havioral change as people progress through life from infancy to adulthood. Some concern themselves with behavior during infancy, childhood, and adolescence, while others study changes that take place during maturity and old age. The study of developmental disa­ bilities and how they affect a person and others is a new area within developmental psychology. Educational psychologists evaluate stu­ dent and teacher needs, and design and develop programs to en­ hance the educational setting. Experimental psychologists study be­ havior processes and work with human beings and animals such as rats, monkeys, and pigeons. Prominent areas of experimental re­ search include motivation, thinking, attention, learning and reten­ tion, sensory and perceptual processes, effects of substance use and abuse, and genetic and neurological factors in behavior. Industrial and organizational psychologists apply psychological techniques to personnel administration, management, and market­ ing problems. They are involved in policy planning, applicant screening, training and development, psychological test research, counseling, and organizational development and analysis. For ex­ ample, an industrial psychologist may work with management to develop better training programs and to reorganize the work setting to improve worker productivity or quality of worklife. School psy­ chologists work with students, teachers, parents, and administrators to resolve students’ learning and behavior problems. Social psychol­ ogists examine people’s interactions with others and with the social environment. Prominent areas of study include group behavior, leadership, attitudes, and interpersonal perception. Some relatively new specialties include cognitive psychology, health psychology, neuropsychology, and geropsychology. Cogni­ tive psychologists deal with the brain’s role in memory, thinking, and perceptions; some are involved with research related to computer programming and artificial intelligence. Health psychologists pro­ mote good health through health maintenance counseling programs that are designed, for example, to help people stop smoking or lose weight. Neuropsychologists study the relation between the brain and behavior. They often work in stroke and head injury programs. Geropsychologists deal with the special problems faced by the elderly. The emergence and growth of these specialties reflects the increas­ ing participation of psychologists in providing direct services to spe­ cial patient populations. Other areas of specialization include psychometrics, psychology and the arts, history of psychology, psychopharmacology, and com­ munity, comparative, consumer, engineering, environmental, fam­ ily, forensic, population, military, and rehabilitation psychology. Working Conditions A psychologist’s specialty and place of employment determine working conditions. For example, clinical, school, and counseling psychologists in private practice have pleasant, comfortable offices and set their own hours. However, they often have evening hours to accommodate their clients. Some employed in hospitals, nursing homes, and other health facilities often work evenings and week­ ends, while others in schools and clinics work regular hours. Psy­ chologists employed by academic institutions divide their time among teaching, research, and administrative responsibilities. Some maintain part-time consulting practices as well. In contrast to the  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Psychologists counsel their clients on how to best deal with a variety of life's problems. many psychologists who have flexible work schedules, most in gov­ ernment and private industry have more structured schedules. Reading and writing research reports, they often work alone. Many experience the pressures of deadlines, tight schedules, and overtime work. Their routine may be interrupted frequently. Travel may be required to attend conferences or conduct research. Employment Psychologists held about 144,000 jobs in 1992. Educational institu­ tions employed nearly 4 out of 10 salaried psychologists in positions involving counseling, testing, special education, research, and ad­ ministration; hospitals, mental health clinics, rehabilitation centers, nursing homes, and other health facilities employed 3 out of 10; and government agencies at the Federal, State, and local levels employed one-sixth. The Department of Veterans Affairs, the Department of Defense, and the Public Health Service employ the overwhelming majority of psychologists working for Federal agencies. Govern­ ments employ psychologists in hospitals, clinics, correctional facili­ ties, and other settings. Psychologists also work in social service or­ ganizations, research organizations, management consulting firms, marketing research firms, and other businesses. After several years of experience, some psychologists—usually those with doctoral degrees—enter private practice or set up their own research or consulting firms. A growing proportion of psychol­ ogists are self-employed. Besides the jobs described above, many persons held positions as psychology faculty at colleges and universities, and as high school psychology teachers. (See the statements on college and university faculty and kindergarten, elementary, and secondary school teach­ ers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A doctoral degree generally is required for employment as a psy­ chologist. Psychologists with a Ph.D qualify for a wide range of teaching, research, clinical, and counseling positions in universities, elementary and secondary schools, private industry, and govern­ ment. Psychologists with a Psy.D.—Doctor of Psychology—qualify mainly for clinical positions. Persons with a master’s degree in psychology can administer tests as psychological assistants. Under the supervision of doctoral level psychologists, they can conduct research in laboratories, conduct psychological evaluations, counsel patients, or perform administra­ tive duties. They may teach in high schools or 2-year colleges or work as school psychologists or counselors. A bachelor’s degree in psychology qualifies a person to assist psy­ chologists and other professionals in community mental health cen­ ters, vocational rehabilitation offices, and correctional programs; to work as research or administrative assistants; and to take jobs as 7  trainees in government or business. However, without additional ac­ ademic training, their advancement opportunities in psychology are severely limited. In the Federal Government, candidates having at least 24 semes­ ter hours in psychology and one course in statistics qualify for entry level positions. Competition for these jobs is keen, however. Clinical psychologists generally must have completed the Ph.D. or Psy.D. requirements and have served an internship; vocational and gui­ dance counselors usually need 2 years of graduate study in counsel­ ing and 1 year of counseling experience. In most cases, 2 years of full-time graduate study are needed to earn a master’s degree in psychology. Requirements usually include practical experience in an applied setting or a master’s thesis based on a research project. A master’s degree in school psychology re­ quires about 2 years of course work and a 1-year internship. Five to 7 years of graduate work usually are required for a doc­ toral degree. The Ph.D. degree culminates in a dissertation based on original research. Courses in quantitative research methods, which include the use of computers, are an integral part of graduate study and usually necessary to complete the dissertation. The Psy.D. usu­ ally is based on practical work and examinations rather than a dis­ sertation. In clinical or counseling psychology, the requirements for the doctoral degree generally include a year or more of internship or supervised experience. Competition for admission into most graduate programs is keen. Some universities require an undergraduate major in psychology. Others prefer only basic psychology with courses in the biological, physical, and social sciences, statistics, and mathematics. Most colleges and universities offer a bachelor’s degree program in psychology; several hundred offer a master’s and/or a Ph.D. pro­ gram. A relatively small number of professional schools of psychol­ ogy—some affiliated with colleges or universities—offer the Psy.D. The American Psychological Association (APA) presently accred­ its doctoral training programs in clinical, counseling, and school psychology. The National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Ed­ ucation, with the assistance of the National Association of School Psychologists, also is involved in the accreditation of advanced de­ gree programs in school psychology. APA also accredits institutions that provide internships for doctoral students in school, clinical, and counseling psychology. Although financial aid is difficult to obtain, some universities award fellowships or scholarships or arrange for part-time employ­ ment. The Veterans Administration (VA) offers predoctoral traineeships to interns in VA hospitals, clinics, and related training agencies. The National Science Foundation, the Department of Health and Human Services, and many other organizations also provide grants to psychology departments to help fund student sti­ pends. Psychologists in independent practice or those who offer any type of patient care, including clinical, counseling, and school psycholo­ gists, must meet certification or licensing requirements. All States and the District of Columbia have such requirements. Licensing laws vary by State, but generally require a doctorate in psychology, completion of an approved internship, and 1 to 2 years of profes­ sional experience. In addition, most States require that applicants pass an examination. Most State boards administer a standardized test and, in many instances, additional oral or essay examinations. Very few States certify those with a master’s degree as psychological assistants or associates. Some States require continuing education for license renewal. Most States require that licensed or certified psychologists limit their practice to those areas in which they have developed profes­ sional competence through training and experience. The American Board of Professional Psychology recognizes pro­ fessional achievement by awarding diplomas primarily in clinical psychology, clinical neuropsychology, and counseling, forensic, in­ dustrial and organizational, and school psychology. Candidates need a doctorate in psychology, 5 years of experience, and profes­ sional endorsements; they also must pass an examination. Even more so than in other occupations, aspiring psychologists who are interested in direct patient care must be emotionally stable, mature, and able to deal effectively with people. Sensitivity, compas­ sion, and the ability to lead and inspire others are particularly im­ portant for clinical work and counseling. Research psychologists 8  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  should be able to do detailed work independently and as part of a team. Verbal and writing skills are necessary to communicate treat­ ment and research findings. Patience and perseverance are vital qualities because results from psychological treatment of patients or research often are long in coming. Job Outlook Employment of psychologists is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Largely be­ cause of the substantial investment in training required to enter this specialized field, psychologists have a strong attachment to their oc­ cupation—only a relatively small proportion leave the profession each year. Nevertheless, replacement needs are expected to account for most job openings, similar to most occupations. Programs to combat the increase in alcohol abuse, drug depen­ dency, marital strife, family violence, crime, and other problems plaguing society should stimulate employment growth. Other fac­ tors spurring demand for psychologists include increased emphasis on mental health maintenance in conjunction with the treatment of physical illness; public concern for the development of human re­ sources, including the growing elderly population; increased testing and counseling of children; and more interest in rehabilitation of prisoners. Changes in the level of government funding for these kinds of services could affect the demand for psychologists. Job opportunities in health care should remain strong—particu­ larly in health care provider networks, such as health maintenance and preferred provider organizations, that specialize in mental health, and in nursing homes and alcohol and drug abuse rehabilita­ tion programs. Job opportunities will arise in businesses, nonprofit organizations, and research and computer firms. Companies will use psychologists’ expertise in survey design, analysis, and research to provide personnel testing, program evaluation, and statistical analysis. The increase in employee assistance programs—in which psychologists help people stop smoking, control weight, or alter other behaviors—also should spur job growth. The expected wave of retirements among college faculty, beginning in the late 1990’s, should result in job openings for psychologists in colleges and uni­ versities. Other openings are likely to occur as psychologists study the ef­ fectiveness of changes in health, education, military, law enforce­ ment, and consumer protection programs. Psychologists also are in­ creasingly studying the effects on people of technological advances in areas such as agriculture, energy, the conservation and use of nat­ ural resources, and industrial and office automation. Opportunities are best for candidates with a doctoral degree. Per­ sons holding doctorates from leading universities in applied areas such as school, clinical, counseling, health, industrial, and educa­ tional psychology should have particularly good prospects. Psychol­ ogists with extensive training in quantitative research methods and computer science may have a competitive edge over applicants with­ out this background. Graduates with a master’s degree in psychology may encounter competition for the limited number of jobs for which they qualify. Graduates of master’s degree programs in school psychology should have the best job prospects, as schools are expected to increase stu­ dent counseling and mental health services. Some master’s degree holders may find jobs as psychological assistants in community mental health centers—these positions often require direct supervi­ sion by a licensed psychologist. Others may find jobs involving re­ search and data collection and analysis in universities, government, or private companies. Bachelor’s degree holders can expect very few opportunities di­ rectly related to psychology. Some may find jobs as assistants in re­ habilitation centers or in other jobs involving data collection and analysis. Those who meet State certification requirements may be­ come high school psychology teachers. Earnings According to a 1991 survey by the American Psychological Associ­ ation, the median annual salary of psychologists with a doctoral de­ gree was $48,000 in counseling psychology; $50,000 in research po­ sitions; $53,000 in clinical psychology; $55,000 in school psychology; and $76,000 in industrial/organizational psychology.  In university psychology departments, median annual salaries ranged from $32,000 for assistant professors to $55,000 for full professors. The median annual salary of master’s degree holders was $35,000 for faculty; $37,000 in counseling psychology; $40,000 in clinical psychology; $48,000 in research positions; $50,000 in indus­ trial/organizational psychology; and $52,000 in school psychology. Some psychologists have much higher earnings, particularly those in private practice. The Federal Government recognizes education and experience in certifying applicants for entry level positions. In general, the aver­ age starting salary for psychologists having a bachelor’s degree was about $18,300 a year in 1993; those with superior academic records could begin at $22,700. Counseling and school psychologists with a master’s degree and 1 year of counseling experience could start at $27,800. Clinical psychologists having a Ph.D. or Psy.D. degree and 1 year of internship could start at $33,600; some individuals could start at $40,300. The average salary for psychologists in the Federal Government in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial posi­ tions was about $54,400 a year in 1993. Related Occupations Psychologists are trained to conduct research and teach, evaluate, counsel, and advise individuals and groups with special needs. Others who do this kind of work include psychiatrists, social work­ ers, sociologists, clergy, special education teachers, and counselors. Sources of Additional Information For information on careers, educational requirements, financial as­ sistance, and licensing in all fields of psychology, contact: XS“ American Psychological Association, Education in Psychology and Ac­ creditation Offices, Education Directorate, 750 1st St. NE., Washington, DC 20002.  For information on careers, educational requirements, and licens­ ing of school psychologists, contact: ts* National Association of School Psychologists, 8455 Colesville Rd., Suite 1000, Silver Spring, MD 20910. Information about State licensing requirements is available from: ^Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards, P.O. Box 4389, Montgomery, AL 36103.  Information on traineeships and fellowships also is available from colleges and universities that have graduate departments of psychol­ ogy.  Sociologists (D.O.T. 054)  Nature of the Work Sociologists study human society and social behavior by examining the groups and social institutions that people form—families, com­ munities, and governments, as well as various social, religious, polit­ ical, and business organizations. They also study the behavior and interaction of groups, trace their origin and growth, and analyze the influence of group activities on individual members. They are con­ cerned with the characteristics of social groups, organizations, and institutions; the ways individuals are affected by each other and by the groups to which they belong, and the impact of social traits such as gender, age, or race on a person’s daily life. As a rule, sociologists work in one or more specialties, such as so­ cial organization, stratification, and mobility; revolution, war, and peace; racial and ethnic relations; education; family; social psychol­ ogy; urban, rural, political, and comparative sociology; gender roles and relations; and sociological practice. Other specialties include medical sociology—the study of social factors that affect mental and public health; gerontology—the study of aging and the special problems of aged persons; environmental sociology—the study of the effects of the physical environment and technology on people; clinical sociology—therapy, analysis, and in­ tervention for individuals, groups, organizations, and communities;  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  demography—the study of the size, characteristics, and movement of populations; criminology—the study of factors producing devi­ ance from accepted legal and cultural norms; and industrial sociol­ ogy—the study of work and organizations. Other sociologists specialize in research design and data analysis. Sociologists usually conduct surveys or engage in direct observation to gather data. For example, after providing for controlled condi­ tions, an organizational sociologist might test the effects of different styles of leadership on individuals in a small work group. A medical sociologist might study the effects of terminal illness on family inter­ action. Sociological researchers also evaluate the efficacy of differ­ ent kinds of social programs. They might examine and evaluate par­ ticular programs of income assistance, job training, health care, or remedial education. Sociologists extensively use statistical and com­ puter techniques in their research, along with qualitative methods such as focus group research and social impact assessment. The results of sociological research aid educators, lawmakers, ad­ ministrators, and others interested in resolving social problems and formulating public policy. For example, sociologists study issues re­ lated to abortion rights, AIDS, high school dropouts, homelessness, and latch-key children. Sociologists often work closely with com­ munity groups and members of other professions, including psy­ chologists, physicians, economists, statisticians, urban and regional planners, political scientists, anthropologists, law enforcement and criminal justice officials, and social workers. Some sociologists are primarily administrators. They apply their professional knowledge in areas as diverse as intergroup relations, family counseling, public opinion analysis, law enforcement, educa­ tion, personnel administration, public relations, regional and com­ munity planning, and health services planning. They may, for exam­ ple, administer social service programs in family and child welfare agencies, or develop social policies and programs for government, community, youth, or religious organizations. A number of sociologists are employed as consultants. Using their expertise and research skills, they advise on such diverse problems as halfway houses and foster care for the mentally ill; counseling prisoners and ex-offenders; mediating labor-manage­ ment disputes; or improving efficiency and flexibility in large corpo­ rations. Sociologists in business may consult with management to solve a wide range of problems and improve productivity and profit­ ability. Sociologists can help companies plan for the future, deal with organizational restructuring and downsizing, and conduct market research for advertisers and manufacturers. Increasingly, sociologists are involved in the evaluation of social and welfare pro­ grams. Sociologists often are confused with social workers, and in fact they do contribute to one another’s discipline. While most sociolo­ gists conduct research on organizations, groups, and individuals, clinical sociologists, like social workers, may directly help people who are unable to cope with their circumstances. (See the statement on social workers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Working Conditions Most sociologists read, conduct research, and write reports, articles, and books. Sociologists working in government organizations, pri­ vate firms, and nonprofit agencies generally have structured work schedules, and many experience the pressures of deadlines, tight schedules, heavy workloads, and overtime. They devote their time to research and the application of sociological knowledge and skills to solve organizational, community, and family problems. They often work as an integral part of a team. Some sociologists create their own private consulting firms and may work evenings or week­ ends to accommodate clients or complete a project. Travel may be required to collect data for research projects or to attend profes­ sional conferences. Sociology faculty have more flexible work schedules, dividing their time between teaching, research, consulting, and administra­ tive responsibilities. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) All sociologists engage in analyzing ideas and data on how society works. Mental efforts can be tiring and stressful. 9  Training in quantitative research methods is important for sociologists. Employment Outside of academia, where most sociologists are employed, sociolo­ gists held several thousand jobs in 1992. Some of these jobs were with government agencies, which employ sociologists to deal with such subjects as poverty, crime, public assistance, population growth, education, social rehabilitation, community development, mental health, racial and ethnic relations, drug abuse, school droputs, and environmental impact studies. Sociologists in the Fed­ eral Government work primarily for the Departments of Health and Human Services, Agriculture, Education, Commerce (Bureau of the Census), Defense, and the General Accounting Office. The also may work in special government agencies such as the Peace Corps, Na­ tional Institute of Health, and the National Institute of Aging. Those specializing in demography, international development, or health may work for international organizations such as the World Bank, the United Nations, and the World Health Organization. Sociologists specializing in criminology work primarily for law en­ forcement agencies in State and local government. Sociologists also hold managerial, research, personnel, and plan­ ning positions in research firms, consulting firms, educational insti­ tutions, corporations, professional and trade associations, hospitals, and welfare or other nonprofit organizations. Some sociologists have private practices in counseling, research, or consulting. Most sociologists hold positions as sociology faculty in colleges and universities, or as high school sociology teachers. (See the state­ ments on college and university faculty and kindergarten, elemen­ tary, and secondary school teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A master’s degree in sociology usually is the minimum requirement for employment in applied research or community college teaching. The Ph.D. degree is essential for most senior level positions in re­ search institutes, consulting firms, corporations, and government agencies, and is required for appointment to permanent teaching and research positions in colleges and universities. Sociologists holding a master’s degree can qualify for administra­ tive and research positions in public agencies and private businesses. Training in research, statistical, and computer methods is an advan­ tage in obtaining such positions. Bachelor’s degree holders in sociology often get jobs in related fields. Their training in research, statistics, and human behavior qualifies them for entry level positions in social services, manage­ ment, sales, personnel, and marketing. Many work in social service agencies as counselors or child-care, juvenile, or recreation workers. Others are employed as interviewers or as administrative or re­ search assistants. Sociology majors with sufficient training in statis­ tical and survey methods may qualify for positions as junior analysts or statisticians in business or research firms or government agencies. 10  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Regardless of a sociologist’s level of educational attainment, com­ pletion of an internship while in school can prove invaluable in find­ ing a position in sociology or a related field. In the Federal Government, candidates generally need a college degree with 24 semester hours in sociology, including course work in theory and methods of social research. However, since competi­ tion for the limited number of positions is keen, advanced study in the field is highly recommended. In 1992 about 190 colleges and universities offered doctoral de­ gree programs in sociology; most of these also offer a master’s de­ gree. The master’s is the highest degree offered in over 150 schools; another approximately 860 schools have bachelor’s degree pro­ grams. Most colleges have core requirements for sociology degrees, in­ cluding courses in statistics, research methodology, and sociological theory. Other courses cover a wide range of topics such as aging (gerontology), criminal justice, delinquency, deviance and social control, family and society, gender roles, social psychology, rural sociology, organizational behavior and analysis, mental health, and science and technology. Some institutions offer courses in peace and war, conflict resolution, or world systems theory. Many offer stud­ ies focused on sociological analysis of such areas of Latin America, Eastern Europe, the Middle East, or Asia. Programs also may in­ clude internships or field experiences. Some departments of sociology have highly structured programs, while others are relatively unstructured and leave most course selec­ tion up to the individual student. Departments have different re­ quirements regarding foreign language skills and completion of a thesis or dissertation for the master’s and doctoral degrees. The choice of a graduate school is important. Students should se­ lect a school that has adequate research facilities and course offer­ ings in their areas of interest. Opportunities to gain practical experi­ ence also may be available, and sociology departments may help place students in teaching or research assistantships, business or re­ search firms, or government agencies. Certification by the Sociological Practice Association (SPA) is re­ quired for some positions in clinical sociology and applied sociol­ ogy, especially at the doctoral level. Candidates for certification must have at least one year of relevant experience, an advanced de­ gree from an accredited school, and demonstrate competence at SPA-sponsored workshops and conferences. Intellectual curiosity is an essential trait for sociologists; research­ ers must have an inquiring mind and a desire to find explanations for the phenomena they observe. They must have an open mind to new ideas and unfamiliar social patterns. Like other social scientists, sociologists must be objective in gathering information about social institutions and behavior and need keen analytical skills in order to organize data effectively and reach valid conclusions. They must get along well with people, especially in research, teaching, or interven­ tion situations, and should have good oral and writing skills. Job Outlook Most job openings in sociology are expected to result from the need to replace sociologists who transfer to other occupations, retire, or leave the labor force for other reasons. Additional positions for soci­ ologists will stem from the increasing demand for research in vari­ ous fields such as demography, criminology, gerontology, and medi­ cal sociology, and the need to evaluate and administer programs designed to cope with social and welfare problems. Growing recog­ nition of the research and statistical skills of sociologists and the role they can play in solving a wide range of problems in business and in­ dustry may spur more job growth. Opportunities in academia should be best for sociologists with a doctoral degree. The expected wave of retirements among college faculty, beginning in the late 1990’s, should result in job openings for sociologists in colleges and universities. Those with master’s de­ grees may find positions in community colleges. Sociologists interested in practice (applied and clinical) settings will find that positions outside of academia are rapidly expanding. Some Ph.D.’s may take research and administrative positions in government, research organizations, and business firms. Those welltrained in quantitative research methods—including survey tech­ niques, advanced statistics, and computer science—will have the  widest choice of jobs. For example, private firms that contract with the government to evaluate social programs and conduct other re­ search increasingly seek sociologists with strong quantitative skills. Demand is expected to be stronger for sociologists with training in practical rather than theoretical sociology. Such practical areas include clinical sociology, criminology, environmental sociology, medical sociology, gerontology, evaluation research, and demogra­ phy. For example, the growing need for family counseling and drug and alcohol abuse prevention and therapy should spur demand for clinical sociologists. Additional demographers may be sought to help businesses plan marketing and advertising programs and to help developing countries analyze censuses, prepare population pro­ jections, and formulate long-range public planning programs. Ger­ ontologists may be needed to help formulate programs for our ex­ panding elderly population. Persons with a master’s degree face keen competition for aca­ demic positions, but the master’s is the most marketable degree for entering sociological practice. Opportunities for employment exist in government agencies, industry or business, and research firms. They may obtain positions doing market research, policy building, administration, or quantitative research. Often the title of “sociolo­ gist” is not used—but program analysts, social science researchers, trainers, and maketing specialists are often titles appropriate for master’s level sociology graduates. Bachelor’s degree holders will find their degree provides a solid basis for further study or for entry level employment in a broad range of fields—media, public relations, corrections, social welfare, community activism, and even business. As in the past, these gradu­ ates will compete with other liberal arts graduates for positions as trainees and assistants in business, industry, and government. Some may find positions in social welfare agencies. For those planning ca­ reers in law, journalism, business, social work, recreation, counsel­ ing, and other related disciplines, sociology provides an excellent background. Those who meet State certification requirements may become high school sociology teachers. Earnings Earnings vary with work settings. Experienced sociologists with a doctoral degree tend to earn the highest salaries in academia. Those employed in business, industry, and private consulting may earn more than those in academia or in government. The master’s degree may be as lucrative as a doctorate in some settings outside of academia. . The Federal Government recognizes education and experience in certifying applicants for entry level positions. In general, the aver­ age entrance salary for sociologists with a bachelor’s degree was about $18,300 or $22,700 a year in 1993, depending upon the appli­ cant’s academic record. The starting salary for those with a master’s degree was $27,800 a year, and for those with a Ph.D., $33,600, while some individuals with experience and an advanced degree could start at $40,300. The average annual salary for all sociologists in the Federal Government in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions was around $53,300 a year in 1993. In general, sociologists with the Ph.D. degree earn substantially higher salaries than those with a lesser degree. Some sociologists supplement their regular salaries with earnings from other sources, such as consulting, counseling, or writing articles and books. Those who create their own consulting practice find that earnings vary ac­ cording to how much time they devote to their practice, the type of clients they serve, and the region of the country. Related Occupations Sociologists are not the only people whose jobs require an under­ standing of social processes and institutions. Others whose work de­ mands such expertise include anthropologists, economists, geogra­ phers, historians, political scientists, psychologists, urban and regional planners, reporters and correspondents, social workers, and intelligence specialists. Sources of Additional Information Additional information on careers, certification, and graduate de­ partments of sociology is available from:  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  rsr American Sociological Association, 1722 N St. NW., Washington, DC 20036-2981.  For information about careers in demography, contact:  \gr Population Association of America, 1722 N St. NW., Washington, DC 20036.  For information about careers and certification in clinical and ap­ plied sociology, contact:  lSr Sociological Practice Association, Department of Pediatrics/Human De­ velopment, B240 Life Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1317.  For information about careers in rural sociology, contact:  O’Rural Sociology Society, Department of Sociology, Montana State Uni­ versity, Bozeman, MT 59715.  Urban and Regional Planners (D.O.T. 188.167-110 and 199.167-014)  Nature of the Work Urban and regional planners, often called community or city plan­ ners, develop programs to provide for growth and revitalization of urban, suburban, and rural communities and their regions. Planners help local officials make decisions on social, economic, and environ­ mental problems. Planners usually devise plans outlining the best use of a com­ munity’s land—where residential, commercial, recreational, and other human services should take place. Planners also are involved in various other planning activities, including social services, trans­ portation, and resource development. They address such issues as central city redevelopment, traffic congestion, air pollution, and the impact of growth and change on an area. They formulate capital im­ provement plans to construct new school buildings, public housing, and sewage systems. Planners are involved in environmental issues including pollution control, wetland preservation, and landfills. Planners also help find solutions to social issues such as the needs of an aging population, sheltering the homeless, and meeting the de­ mand for drug and alcohol treatment centers, correctional facilities, and abortion and AIDS patient clinics. Planners examine community facilities such as health clinics and schools to be sure these facilities can meet the demands placed upon them, and help resolve differences over their location. They keep abreast of the economic and legal issues involved in community de­ velopment or redevelopment and changes in zoning codes, building codes, or environmental regulations. They ensure that builders and developers follow these codes and regulations. Planners also deal with land use and environmental issues created by population move­ ments. For example, as suburban growth has increased the need for traveling between suburbs and the urban center, the planner’s job often includes designing new transportation systems and parking fa­ cilities. In conjunction with these new systems and facilities, plan­ ners also may develop transportation management plans designed to control traffic, not just accommodate it. For example, developers may be required to provide public transportation facilities, or cities may be required to set up van pool transportation systems. Urban and regional planners prepare for situations that are likely to develop as a result of population growth or social and economic change. They estimate, for example, the community’s long-range needs for housing, transportation, and business and industrial sites. Working within a framework set by the community government, they analyze and propose alternative ways to achieve more efficient and attractive urban areas. Before preparing plans for long-range community development, urban and regional planners prepare detailed studies that show the current use of land for residential, business, and community pur­ poses. These reports include such information as the location of streets, highways, water and sewer lines, schools, libraries, and cul­ tural and recreational sites. They also provide information on the types of industries in the community, characteristics of the popula­ tion, and employment and economic trends. With this information, along with input from citizens’ advisory committees, urban and re­ gional planners propose ways of using undeveloped or underutilized 11  land and design the layout of recommended buildings and other fa­ cilities such as subway lines and stations. They also prepare materi­ als that show how their programs can be carried out and what they will cost. As in many other fields, planners increasingly use computers to record and analyze information and to communicate their findings and recommendations to government leaders and others. For exam­ ple, computers are widely used to determine program costs, map land areas, and forecast future trends in employment, housing, transportation, or population. Computerized geographic informa­ tion systems enable planners to overlay maps depicting different ge­ ographic variables, and to combine and manipulate the data to pro­ duce alternative plans for land use or development. Urban and regional planners often confer with land developers, civic leaders, and other public planning officials. They may function as mediators in community disputes by presenting alternatives that are acceptable to opposing parties. Planners may prepare materials for community relations programs, speak at civic meetings, and ap­ pear before legislative committees to explain their proposals. In large organizations, planners usually specialize in areas such as physical design, transportation, housing supply and demand, com­ munity relations, historic preservation, environmental and regula­ tory issues, or economic development. In small organizations, plan­ ners must be generalists, able to do various kinds of planning. Working Conditions Urban and regional planners spend a great deal of their time in of­ fices. To be familiar with areas that they are developing, however, they periodically spend time outdoors examining the features of the land under consideration for development, its current use, and the types of structures on it. Although most planners have a scheduled 40-hour workweek, they frequently attend evening or weekend meetings or public hearings with citizens’ groups. Planners may ex­ perience the pressure of deadlines and tight work schedules, as well as opposition from interest groups affected by their land use propos­ als. Employment Urban and regional planners held about 28,000 jobs in 1992. Local government planning agencies—city, county, or regional—em­ ployed 2 out of 3. An increasing proportion of public agency plan­ ners work in smaller suburban jurisdictions—reflecting population movements in recent years. Others are employed in State agencies that deal with housing, transportation, or environmental protection. Federal employers include the Departments of Defense, Housing and Urban Development, and Transportation. Many planners do consulting work, either part time in addition to a regular job, or full time for a firm that provides services to private  Urban and regional planners deal with land use and environmental issues created by population movements. 12  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  developers or government agencies. Private sector employers in­ clude architectural and surveying firms, management and public re­ lations firms, educational institutions, large land developers, and law firms specializing in land use. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Employers usually prefer workers who have advanced training in urban or regional planning. Most entry level jobs in Federal, State, and local government agencies require 2 years of graduate study in urban or regional planning, or the equivalent in work experience. A bachelor’s degree from an accredited planning program, coupled with a master’s degree in landscape architecture or civil engineering, for example, also is good preparation for entry level planning jobs. A master’s degree from an accredited planning program provides the best training. Although graduates having an accredited bachelor’s degree in planning qualify for many beginning positions, their ad­ vancement opportunities may be limited. Courses in related disci­ plines such as demography, economics, finance, health administra­ tion, and management are highly recommended. In addition, familiarity with computer models and statistical techniques is criti­ cal because of the increasing use of computerized modeling and geo­ graphic information systems in urban and regional planning analy­ ses. In 1992, about 80 colleges and universities offered an accredited master’s and about 10 offered an accredited bachelor’s degree pro­ gram in urban or regional planning. These programs are accredited by the Planning Accreditation Board, which consists of representa­ tives of the American Institute of Certified Planners and the Associ­ ation of Collegiate Schools of Planning. Most graduate programs in planning require 2 years. Graduate students spend considerable time in studios, workshops, or laboratory courses learning to ana­ lyze and solve urban and regional planning problems and often are required to work in a planning office part time or during the sum­ mer. Local government planning offices offer students internships that provide experience that often proves invaluable in obtaining a full-time planning position after graduation. The American Institute of Certified Planners (AICP), a profes­ sional institute within the American Planning Association (APA), grants certification to individuals who have the appropriate combi­ nation of education and professional experience and who pass an ex­ amination. Data on AICP membership indicate that certified plan­ ners tend to hold the more responsible, better paying positions in their field. Planners must be able to think in terms of spatial relationships and visualize the effects of their plans and designs. Planners should be flexible and able to reconcile different viewpoints to make con­ structive policy recommendations. The ability to communicate ef­ fectively, both orally and in writing, also is necessary for anyone in­ terested in this field. After a few years’ experience, urban and regional planners may advance to assignments requiring a high degree of independent judgment such as designing the physical layout of a large develop­ ment or recommending policy, program, and budget options. Some are promoted to jobs as planning directors and spend a great deal of time meeting with officials in other organizations, speaking to civic groups, and supervising other professionals. Further advancement occurs through a transfer to a large city with more complex problems and greater responsibilities, or into related occupations, such as director of community or economic development. Job Outlook A master’s degree from an accredited planning program, or a mas­ ter’s degree in civil engineering or landscape architecture coupled with training in transportation or environmental planning, provide the most marketable background. Certified planners have the best job prospects. Graduates with only an accredited bachelor’s degree in planning may have more difficulty finding a job in this field, but their employment prospects still are relatively good. Employment of urban and regional planners is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Most job openings, however, are likely to arise from the need  to replace experienced planners who transfer to other occupations, or retire or leave the labor force for other reasons. The continuing importance of transportation, environmental, housing, economic, and energy production planning will spur de­ mand for urban and regional planners. Specific factors contributing to job growth include commercial development to support suburban areas with rapidly growing populations; legislation related to the en­ vironment, transportation, housing, and land use and development, such as the Clean Air Act; historic preservation and rehabilitation activities; central city redevelopment; the need to replace the Na­ tion’s infrastructure, including bridges, highways, and sewers; and interest in zoning and land use planning in undeveloped and nonme­ tropolitan areas, including coastal and agricultural areas. Most new jobs for urban and regional planners will arise in rap­ idly expanding communities. Local governments need planners to address an array of problems associated with population growth. For example, new housing developments require roads, sewer sys­ tems, fire stations, schools, libraries, and recreation facilities that must be planned while considering budgetary constraints. Job growth also is expected to occur in smaller cities and towns in estab­ lished areas—for example, in the Northeast—undergoing preserva­ tion and redevelopment, and in tourist resorts. Changes in the level of government funding for planning services could greatly affect de­ mand for these workers. Earnings Salaries of planners vary by educational attainment, type of em­ ployer, experience, size of community in which they work, and geo­ graphic location. According to a 1991 survey by APA, urban and regional planners earned a median annual salary of $42,000. Plan­ ners with a Ph.D. in planning earned a median salary of $57,000; those with a master’s degree earned $43,000; and bachelor’s degree holders earned $39,200. The median annual salary of planners in city governments was $40,100; in county governments, $38,000; in joint city/county gov­ ernments, $36,000; and in State governments, $43,000; Planners in land development firms earned $65,500; in colleges and universities, $51,900; in private consulting firms, $49,000; and in nonprofit foun­ dations, $42,000. For planners with over 10 years’ experience, local government agencies paid $47,700 annually, while private busi­ nesses and consulting firms paid $58,000. Directors of public plan­ ning agencies within local governments earned 13 percent more than staff members at comparable levels of experience, while direc­ tors or chief executive officers of private consulting firms earned only 7 percent more than staff members. Salaries of planners in large jurisdictions may be as much as $6,000 a year higher than their counterparts in small jurisdictions. Planners with a master’s degree were hired by the Federal Gov­ ernment at a starting average salary of $27,800 a year in 1993. In some cases, persons having less than 2 years of graduate work could enter Federal service as interns at yearly salaries of about $18,300 or $22,700. Salaries of urban and regional planners employed by the Federal Government in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and manage­ rial positions averaged about $52,400 a year in 1993. Related Occupations Urban and regional planners develop plans for the orderly growth of urban and rural communities. Others whose work is similar to the work of planners include architects, landscape architects, city man­ agers, civil engineers, environmental engineers, and geographers. Sources of Additional Information Additional information on careers, salaries, and certification in ur­ ban and regional planning, as well as job referrals, are available from:  fg* American Planning Association, 1776 Massachusetts Ave. NW., Wash­ ington, DC 20036.  General information on urban and regional planning, and on schools offering training in urban and regional planning prepared by the Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning is available from:  American Planning Association, Planners’ Bookstore, 1313 East 60th St., Chicago, IL 60637.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Lawyers and Judges (D.O.T. 110; 111; 119.107, .117, .167-010, .267-014; 169.267-010)  Nature of the Work Lawyers. Lawyers, also called attorneys, act as both advocates and advisors in our society. As advocates, they represent one of the op­ posing parties in criminal and civil trials by presenting evidence that support their client in court. As advisors, lawyers counsel their cli­ ents as to their legal rights and obligations and suggest particular courses of action in business and personal matters. Whether acting as advocates or advisors, all attorneys interpret the law and apply it to specific situations. This requires research and communication abilities. Lawyers perform in-depth research into the purposes behind the applicable laws and into judicial decisions that have been applied to those laws under circumstances similar to those currently faced by the client. While all lawyers continue to make use of law libraries to prepare cases, some supplement their search of the conventional printed sources with computer software packages that automati­ cally search the legal literature and identify legal texts that may be relevant to a specific subject. In litigation that involves many sup­ porting documents, lawyers may also use computers to organize and index the material. Tax lawyers are also increasingly using com­ puters to make tax computations and explore alternative tax strate­ gies for clients. Lawyers then communicate to others the information obtained by research. They advise what actions clients may take and draw up le­ gal documents, such as wills and contracts, for clients. Lawyers must deal with people in a courteous, efficient manner and not dis­ close matters discussed in confidence with clients. They hold posi­ tions of great responsibility, and are obligated to adhere to strict rules of ethics. The more detailed aspects of a lawyer’s job depend upon his or her field of specialization and position. Even though all lawyers are allowed to represent parties in court, some appear in court more fre­ quently than others. Some lawyers specialize in trial work. These lawyers need an exceptional ability to think quickly and speak with ease and authority, and must be thoroughly familiar with court­ room rules and strategy. Trial lawyers still spend most of their time outside the courtroom conducting research, interviewing clients and witnesses, and handling other details in preparation for trial. Besides trials, lawyers may specialize in other areas, such as bank­ ruptcy, probate, or international law. Environmental lawyers, for example, may represent public interest groups, waste disposal com­ panies, or construction firms in their dealings with the Environmen­ tal Protection Agency (EPA) and other State and Federal agencies. They help clients prepare and file for licenses and applications for approval before certain activities can occur. They also represent cli­ ents’ interests in administrative adjudications and during drafting of new regulations. Some lawyers concentrate in the emerging field of intellectual property. These lawyers help protect clients’ claims to copyrights, art work under contract, product designs, and computer programs. Still other lawyers advise insurance companies about the legality of insurance transactions. They write insurance policies to conform with the law and to protect companies from unwarranted claims. They review claims filed against insurance companies and represent the companies in court. The majority of lawyers are in private practice where they may concentrate on criminal or civil law. In criminal law, lawyers re­ present persons who have been charged with crimes and argue their cases in courts of law. In civil law, attorneys assist clients with litiga­ tion, wills, trusts, contracts, mortgages, titles, and leases. Some manage a person’s property as trustee or, as executor, see that provi­ sions of a client’s will are carried out. Others handle only public in­ terest cases—civil or criminal—which have a potential impact ex­ tending well beyond the individual client. Lawyers sometimes are employed full time by a single client. If the client is a corporation, the lawyer is known as “house counsel” and usually advises the company about legal questions that arise 13  from its business activities. These questions might involve patents, government regulations, contracts with other companies, property interests, or collective bargaining agreements with unions. Attorneys employed at the various levels of government make up still another category. Lawyers that work for State attorneys gen­ eral, prosecutors, public defenders, and courts play a key role in the criminal justice system. At the Federal level, attorneys investigate cases for the Department of Justice or other agencies. Also, lawyers at every government level help develop programs, draft laws, inter­ pret legislation, establish enforcement procedures, and argue civil and criminal cases on behalf of the government. Other lawyers work for legal aid societies—private, nonprofit or­ ganizations established to serve disadvantaged people. These law­ yers generally handle civil rather than criminal cases. A relatively small number of trained attorneys work in law schools. Most are faculty members who specialize in one or more subjects, and others serve as administrators. Some work full time in nonacademic settings and teach part time. (For additional informa­ tion, see the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Some lawyers become judges, although not all judges have practiced law. Judges. Judges apply the law. They oversee the legal process that in courts of law resolves civil disputes and determines guilt in criminal cases according to Federal and State laws and those of local jurisdic­ tions. They preside over cases touching on virtually every aspect of society, from traffic offenses to disputes over management of profes­ sional sports, from the rights of huge corporations to questions of disconnecting life support equipment for terminally ill persons. They must insure that trials and hearings are conducted fairly and that the court administers justice in a manner that safeguards the le­ gal rights of all parties involved. Judges preside over trials or hearings and listen as attorneys rep­ resenting the parties present and argue their cases. They rule on the admissibility of evidence and methods of conducting testimony, and settle disputes between the opposing attorneys. They insure that rules and procedures are followed, and if unusual circumstances arise for which standard procedures have not been established, judges direct how the trial will proceed based on their knowledge of the law. Judges often hold pretrial hearings for cases. They listen to allega­ tions and, based on the evidence presented, determine whether they have enough merit for a trial to be held. In criminal cases, judges may decide that persons charged with crimes should be held in jail pending their trial, or may set conditions for release through the trial. In civil cases, judges may impose restrictions upon the parties until a trial is held. When trials are held, juries are often selected to decide cases. However, judges decide cases when the law does not require a jury trial, or when the parties waive their right to a jury. Judges instruct juries on applicable laws, direct them to deduce the facts from the evidence presented, and hear their verdict. Judges sentence those convicted in criminal cases in many States. They also award relief to litigants including, where appropriate, compensation for damages in civil cases. Judges also work outside the courtroom “in chambers.” In their private offices, judges read documents on pleadings and motions, re­ search legal issues, hold hearings with lawyers, write opinions, and oversee the court’s operations. Running a court is like running a small business, and judges manage their courts’ administrative and clerical staff, too. Judges’ duties vary according to the extent of their jurisdictions and powers. General trial court judges of the Federal and State court systems have jurisdiction over any case in their system. They gener­ ally try civil cases that transcend the jurisdiction of lower courts, and all cases involving felony offenses. Federal and State appellate court judges, although few in number, have the power to overrule decisions made by trial court or administrative law judges if they de­ termine that legal errors were made in a case, or if legal precedent does not support the judgement of the lower court. They rule on fewer cases and rarely have direct contacts with the people involved. The majority of State court judges preside in courts in which ju­ risdiction is limited by law to certain types of cases. A variety of ti­ tles are assigned to these judges, but among the most common are 14  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  municipal court judge, county court judge, magistrate, or justice of the peace. Traffic violations, misdemeanors, small claims cases, and pretrial hearings constitute the bulk of the work of these judges, but some States allow them to handle cases involving domestic rela­ tions, probate, contracts, and selected other areas of the law. Administrative law judges, formerly called hearing officers, are employed by government agencies to rule on appeals of agency ad­ ministrative decisions. They make decisions on a person’s eligibility for various Social Security benefits or worker’s compensation, pro­ tection of the environment, enforcement of health and safety regula­ tions, employment discrimination, and compliance with economic regulatory requirements. Working Conditions Lawyers and judges do most of their work in offices, law libraries, and courtrooms. Lawyers sometimes meet in clients’ homes or places of business and, when necessary, in hospitals or prisons. They frequently travel to attend meetings; to gather evidence; and to ap­ pear before courts, legislative bodies, and other authorities. Salaried lawyers in government and private corporations gener­ ally have structured work schedules. Lawyers in private practice may work irregular hours while conducting research, conferring with clients, or preparing briefs during nonoffice hours. Lawyers often work long hours, and about half regularly work 50 hours or more per week. They are under particularly heavy pressure, for ex­ ample, when a case is being tried. Preparation for court includes keeping abreast of the latest laws and judicial decisions. Although work generally is not seasonal, the work of tax lawyers and other specialists may be an exception. Because lawyers in pri­ vate practice can often determine their own workload and when they will retire, many stay in practice well beyond the usual retire­ ment age. Many judges work a standard 40-hour week, but a third of all judges work over 50 hours per week. Some judges with limited juris­ diction are employed part time and divide their time between their judicial responsibilities and other careers. Employment Lawyers and judges held about 716,000 jobs in 1992. About fourfifths of the 626,000 lawyers practiced privately, either in law firms or in solo practices. Most of the remaining lawyers held positions in government, the greatest number at the local level. In the Federal Government, lawyers are concentrated in the Departments of Jus­ tice, Treasury, and Defense, but they work for other Federal agen­ cies as well. Other lawyers are employed as house counsel by public utilities, banks, insurance companies, real estate agencies, manufac­ turing firms, welfare and religious organizations, and other business firms and nonprofit organizations. Some salaried lawyers also have  Lawyers and judges do most of their work in offices, law libraries, and courtrooms.  part-time independent practices; others work as lawyers part time while working full time in another occupation. Judges held 90,000 jobs in 1992. All worked for Federal, State, or local governments, with about half holding positions in the Federal Government. The majority of the remainder were employed at the State level. Many people trained as lawyers are not employed as lawyers or judges; they work as law clerks, law school professors, managers and administrators, and in a variety of other occupations. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Lawyers. To practice law in the courts of any State or other jurisdic­ tion, a person must be licensed, or admitted to its bar, under rules established by the jurisdiction’s highest court. Nearly all require that applicants for admission to the bar pass a written bar examina­ tion. Most jurisdictions also require applicants to pass a separate written ethics examination. Lawyers who have been admitted to the bar in one jurisdiction occasionally may be admitted to the bar in another without taking an examination if they meet that jurisdic­ tion’s standards of good moral character and have a specified period of legal experience. Federal courts and agencies set their own quali­ fications for those practicing before them. To qualify for the bar examination in most States, an applicant must complete at least 3 years of college and graduate from a law school approved by the American Bar Association (ABA) or the proper State authorities. (ABA approval signifies that the law school—particularly its library and faculty—meets certain stan­ dards developed by the Association to promote quality legal educa­ tion.) In 1992, the American Bar Association approved 177 law schools. Others were approved by State authorities only. With cer­ tain exceptions, graduates of schools not approved by the ABA are restricted to taking the bar examination and practicing in the State or other jurisdiction in which the school is located; most of these schools are in California. Seven States accept the study of law in a law office or in combination with study in a law school; only Cali­ fornia accepts the study of law by correspondence as qualifying for taking the bar examination. Several States require registration and approval of students by the State Board of Law Examiners, either before they enter law school or during the early years of legal study. Although there is no nationwide bar examination, 46 States, the District of Columbia, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Virgin Islands require the 6-hour Multistate Bar Examination (MBE) as part of the bar examination; the MBE is not required in Indiana, Iowa, Louisiana, Washington, and Puerto Rico. The MBE, covering issues of broad interest, is given in addition to a locally pre­ pared 6-hour State bar examination. The 3-hour Multistate Essay Examination (MEE) is used as part of the State bar examination in a few States. States vary in their use of MBE and MEE scores. The required college and law school education usually takes 7 years of full-time study after high school—4 years of undergraduate study followed by 3 years in law school. Although some law schools accept a very small number of students after 3 years of college, most require applicants to have a bachelor’s degree. To meet the needs of students who can attend only part time, a number of law schools have night or part-time divisions which usually require 4 years of study. In 1991, about one 1 of 6 students in ABA-approved schools were part time. Preparation for a career as a lawyer really begins in college. Al­ though there is no recommended “prelaw” major, the choice of an undergraduate program is important. Certain courses and activities are desirable because they give the student the skills needed to suc­ ceed both in law school and in the profession. Essential skills—pro­ ficiency in writing, reading and analyzing, thinking logically, and communicating verbally—are learned during high school and col­ lege. An undergraduate program that cultivates these skills while broadening the student’s view of the world is desirable. Courses in English, a foreign language, public speaking, government, philoso­ phy, history, economics, mathematics, and computer science, among others, are useful. Whatever the major, students should not specialize too narrowly. Students interested in a particular aspect of law may find related courses helpful; for example, many law schools with patent law  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  tracks require bachelor’s degrees, or at least several courses, in engi­ neering and science. Future tax lawyers should have a strong under­ graduate background in accounting. Acceptance by most law schools depends on the applicant’s abil­ ity to demonstrate an aptitude for the study of law, usually through good undergraduate grades, the Law School Admission Test (LSAT), the quality of the applicant’s undergraduate school, any prior work experience, and sometimes a personal interview. How­ ever, law schools vary in the weight that they place on each of these factors. All law schools approved by the American Bar Association re­ quire that applicants take the LSAT. Nearly all law schools require that applicants have certified transcripts sent to the Law School Data Assembly Service. This service then sends applicants’ LSAT scores and their standardized records of college grades to the law schools of their choice. Both this service and the LSAT are adminis­ tered by the Law School Admission Services. Competition for admission to many law schools is intense. Enroll­ ments rose very rapidly during the 1970’s, with applicants far out­ numbering available seats. Since then, law school enrollments have remained relatively unchanged, and the number of applicants has fluctuated. However, the number of applicants to most law schools still greatly exceeds the number that can be admitted. Enrollments are expected to remain at about their present level through the year 2005, and competition for admission to the more prestigious law schools will remain keen. During the first year or year and a half of law school, students generally study fundamental courses such as constitutional law, contracts, property law, torts, civil procedure, and legal writing. In the remaining time, they may elect specialized courses in fields such as tax, labor, or corporation law. Law students often acquire practi­ cal experience by participation in school sponsored legal aid or legal clinic activities, in the school’s moot court competitions in which students conduct appellate arguments, in practice trials under the supervision of experienced lawyers and judges, and through re­ search and writing on legal issues for the school’s law journal. In 1992, law students in 36 States and 2 other jurisdictions were required to pass the Multistate Professional Responsibility Exami­ nation (MPRE), which tests their knowledge of the ABA codes on professional responsibility and judicial conduct. In some States, the MPRE may be taken during law school, usually after completing a course on legal ethics. A number of law schools have clinical programs where students gain legal experience through practice trials and law school projects under the supervision of practicing lawyers and law school faculty. Law school clinical programs might include work in legal aid clin­ ics, for example, or on the staff of legislative committees. Part-time or summer clerkships in law firms, government agencies, and corpo­ rate legal departments also provide experience that can be extremely valuable later on. Such training can provide references or lead di­ rectly to a job after graduation, and can help students decide what kind of practice best suits them. Clerkships also may be an impor­ tant source of financial aid. Graduates receive the degree of juris doctor (J.D.) or bachelor of law (LL.B.) as the first professional degree. Advanced law degrees may be desirable for those planning to specialize, do research, or teach. Some law students pursue joint degree programs, which gen­ erally require an additional year. Joint degree programs are offered in a number of areas, including law and business administration and law and public administration. After graduation, lawyers must keep informed about legal and nonlegal developments that affect their practice. Thirty-seven States and jurisdictions mandate Continuing Legal Education (CLE). Fur­ thermore, many law schools and State and local bar associations provide continuing education courses that help lawyers stay abreast of recent developments. The practice of law involves a great deal of responsibility. Persons planning careers in law should like to work with people and be able to win the respect and confidence of their clients, associates, and the public. Integrity and honesty are vital personal qualities. Persever­ ance and reasoning ability are essential to analyze complex cases and reach sound conclusions. Lawyers also need creativity when handling new and unique legal problems. 15  Most beginning lawyers start in salaried positions. Newly hired salaried attorneys usually act as research assistants to experienced lawyers or judges. After several years of progressively more respon­ sible salaried employment, some lawyers are admitted to partner­ ship in their firm, or go into practice for themselves. Some lawyers, after years of practice, become full-time law school faculty or ad­ ministrators; a growing number have advanced degrees in other fields as well. Some persons use their legal training in administrative or mana­ gerial positions in various departments of large corporations. A transfer from a corporation’s legal department to another depart­ ment often is viewed as a way to gain administrative experience and rise in the ranks of management. Judges. Most judges, although not all, have been lawyers first. All Federal judges and State trial and appellate court judges are re­ quired to be lawyers or “learned in law.” About 40 States presently allow nonlawyers to hold limited jurisdiction judgeships, but oppor­ tunities are better with law experience. Federal administrative law judges must be lawyers and pass a competitive examination admin­ istered by the U.S. Office of Personnel Management. Many State ad­ ministrative law judges and other hearing officials are not required to be lawyers, but law degrees are preferred for most positions. Federal judges are appointed for life by the President, with the consent of the Senate. Federal administrative law judges are ap­ pointed by the various Federal agencies with virtually lifetime ten­ ure. About half of all State judges are appointed, while the remain­ der are elected in partisan or nonpartisan State elections. Most State and local judges serve fixed terms, which range from 4 or 6 years for most limited jurisdiction judgeships to as long as 14 years for some appellate court judges. Judicial nominating commissions, composed of members of the bar and the public, are used to screen candidates for judgeships in many States, as well as for Federal judgeships. All States have some type of orientation for newly elected or ap­ pointed judges. Thirteen States also require judges to take continu­ ing education courses while serving on the bench. Job Outlook Persons seeking positions as lawyers or judges should encounter keen competition through the year 2005. Law schools still attract large numbers of applicants and are not expected to decrease their enrollments, so the supply of persons trained as lawyers should con­ tinue to exceed job openings. As forjudges, the prestige associated with serving on the bench should insure continued intense competi­ tion for openings. Lawyers. Employment of lawyers has grown very rapidly since the early 1970’s, and is expected to continue to grow faster than the av­ erage for all occupations through the year 2005. New jobs created by growth should exceed job openings that arise from the need to re­ place lawyers who stop working or leave the profession. The strong growth in demand for lawyers will result from growth in the popula­ tion and the general level of business activities. Demand also will be spurred by growth of legal action in such areas as employee benefits, consumer protection, criminal prosecution, the environment, and fi­ nance, and an anticipated increase in the use of legal services by middle-income groups through legal clinics and prepaid legal ser­ vice programs. Even though jobs for lawyers are expected to increase rapidly, competition for job openings should continue to be keen because of the large numbers graduating from law school each year. During the 1970’s, the annual number of law school graduates more than doubled, outpacing the rapid growth of jobs. Growth in the yearly number of law school graduates tapered off during the 1980’s, but again increased in the early 1990’s. The high number of graduates will strain the economy’s capacity to absorb them. Although gradu­ ates with superior academic records from well-regarded law schools will continue to enjoy good opportunities, most graduates will en­ counter competition for jobs. As in the past, some graduates may have to accept positions in areas outside their field of interest or for which they feel they are overqualified. They may have to enter jobs for which legal training is an asset but not normally a requirement. 16  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  For example, banks, insurance firms, real estate companies, govern­ ment agencies, and other organizations seek law graduates to fill many administrative, managerial, and business positions. Due to the competition for jobs, a law graduate’s geographic mo­ bility and work experience assume greater importance. The willing­ ness to relocate may be an advantage in getting a job, but to be li­ censed in a new State, a lawyer may have to take an additional State bar examination. In addition, employers increasingly seek graduates who have advanced law degrees and experience in a particular field such as tax, patent, or admiralty law. Employment growth of lawyers will continue to be concentrated in salaried jobs, as businesses and all levels of government employ a growing number of staff attorneys, and as employment in the legal services industry is increasingly concentrated in larger law firms. The number of self-employed lawyers is expected to continue to in­ crease slowly, reflecting the difficulty of establishing a profitable new practice in the face of competition from larger, established law firms. Also, the growing complexity of law—which encourages spe­ cialization—and the cost of maintaining up-to-date legal research materials both favor larger firms. For lawyers who nevertheless wish to work independently, estab­ lishing a new practice probably will continue to be easiest in small towns and expanding suburban areas, as long as an active market for legal services already exists. In such communities, competition from larger established law firms is likely to be less than in big cities, and new lawyers may find it easier to become known to potential clients; also, rent and other business costs are somewhat lower. Neverthe­ less, starting a new practice will remain an expensive and risky un­ dertaking that should be weighed carefully. Most salaried positions will remain in urban areas where government agencies, law firms, and big corporations are concentrated. Some lawyers are adversely affected by cyclical swings in the economy. During recessions, the demand for some discretionary le­ gal services, such as planning estates, drafting wills, and handling real estate transactions, declines. Also, corporations are less likely to litigate cases when declining sales and profits result in budgetary restrictions. Although few lawyers actually lose their jobs during these times, earnings may decline for many. Some corporations and law firms will not hire new attorneys until business improves. Sev­ eral factors, however, mitigate the overall impact of recessions on lawyers. During recessions, individuals and corporations face other legal problems, such as bankruptcies, foreclosures, and divorces, that require legal action. Furthermore, new laws and legal interpre­ tations will create new opportunities for lawyers. Judges. Employment ofjudges is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations. Contradictory social forces affect the demand for judges. Pushing up demand are public concerns about crime, safety, and efficient administration of justice; on the other hand, tight public funding should slow job growth. Competition for judgeships should remain keen. Most job open­ ings will arise as judges retire. Traditionally, many judges have held their positions until late in life. Now, early retirement is becoming more common, creating more job openings; however, becoming a judge will still be difficult. Besides competing with other qualified people, judicial candidates must gain political support in order to be elected or appointed. Earnings Annual salaries of beginning lawyers in private industry averaged about $36,600 in 1992, but top graduates from the Nation’s best law schools started in some cases at over $80,000 a year. In the Federal Government, annual starting salaries for attorneys in 1993 were about $27,800 or $33,600, depending upon academic and personal qualifications. Factors affecting the salaries offered to new gradu­ ates include: Academic record; type, size, and location of employer; and the specialized educational background desired. The field of law makes a difference, too. Patent lawyers, for example, generally are among the highest paid attorneys. Salaries of experienced attorneys also vary widely according to the type, size, and location of their employer. The average salary of the most experienced lawyers in private industry in 1992 was over  SI34,000, but some senior lawyers who were partners in the Na­ tion’s top law firms earned over $1 million. General attorneys in the Federal Government averaged around $62,200 a year in 1993; the relatively small number of patent attorneys in the Federal Govern­ ment averaged around $71,600. Lawyers on salary receive increases as they assume greater re­ sponsibility. Lawyers starting their own practice may need to work part time in other occupations during the first years to supplement their income. Their incomes usually grow as their practices develop. Lawyers who are partners in law firms generally earn more than those who practice alone. Federal district court judges had salaries of $133,600 in 1993, as did judges in the Court of Federal Claims. Circuit court judges earned $141,700 a year. Federal judges with limited jurisdiction, such as magistrates and bankruptcy court judges, had salaries of $122,900 in 1993. Full-time Federal administrative law judges had average salaries of $94,800 in 1993. The Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court earned $171,500 in 1993, and the Associate Justices earned $164,100. Annual salaries of associate justices of States’ highest courts aver­ aged nearly $89,570 in 1992, according to a survey by the National Center for State Courts, and ranged from about $62,500 to $121,207. Salaries of State intermediate appellate court judges aver­ aged $88,435, but ranged from $79,975 to $113,632. Salaries of State judges with limited jurisdiction varied widely; many salaries are set locally. . Most salaried lawyers and judges were provided health and life insurance, and contributions were made on their behalf to retire­ ment plans. Lawyers who practiced independently were only cov­ ered if they arranged and paid for such benefits themselves. Related Occupations Legal training is useful in many other occupations. Some of these are paralegal, arbitrator, journalist, patent agent, title examiner, leg­ islative assistant, lobbyist, FBI special agent, political office holder, and corporate executive. Sources of Additional Information The American Bar Association annually publishes A Review of Le­ gal Education in the United States, which provides detailed informa­ tion on each of the 177 law schools approved by the ABA, State re­ quirements for admission to legal practice, a directory of State bar examination administrators, and other information on legal educa­ tion. Single copies are free from the ABA, but there is a fee for mul­ tiple copies. Free information on the bar examination, financial aid for law students, and law as a career may also be obtained from: 13° Member  Services, American Bar Association, 541 North Fairbanks Court, Chicago, IL 60611-3314.  Information on the LSAT, the Law School Data Assembly Ser­ vice, applying to law school, and financial aid for law students may be obtained from: 13-Law  School Admission Services, P.O. Box 40, Newtown, PA 18940. Phone:(215)968-1001.  The specific requirements for admission to the bar in a particular State or other jurisdiction may also be obtained at the State capital from the clerk of the Supreme Court or the administrator of the State Board of Bar Examiners.  Paralegals (D.O.T. 119.267-022 and-026)  Nature of the Work Not all legal work requires a law degree. Lawyers are often assisted in their work by paralegals—also called “legal assistants”—who perform many of the same tasks as lawyers, except for those tasks considered to be the practice of law. Paralegals work directly under the supervision of lawyers. Al­ though the lawyers assume responsibility for the legal work, they  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  often delegate to paralegals many of the tasks they perform as law­ yers. Paralegals are prohibited from setting legal fees, giving legal advice, or presenting a case in court. Paralegals generally do background work for lawyers. To help prepare cases for trial, paralegals investigate the facts of cases to make sure that all relevant information is uncovered. Paralegals may conduct legal research to identify the appropriate laws, judicial decisions, legal articles, and other materials that may be relevant to clients’ cases. After organizing and analyzing all the information, paralegals may prepare written reports that attorneys use to decide how cases should be handled. Should attorneys decide to file law­ suits on behalf of clients, paralegals may help prepare the legal argu­ ments, draft pleadings to be filed with the court, obtain affidavits, and assist the attorneys during trials. Paralegals also keep files of all documents and correspondence important to cases. Besides litigation, paralegals may also work in areas such as bank­ ruptcy, corporate law, criminal law, employee benefits, patent and copyright law, and real estate. They help draft documents such as contracts, mortgages, separation agreements, and trust instruments. They may help prepare tax returns and plan estates. Some parale­ gals coordinate the activities of the other law office employees and keep the financial records for the office. Paralegals who work for corporations help attorneys with such matters as employee contracts, shareholder agreements, stock op­ tion plans, and employee benefit plans. They may help prepare and file annual financial reports, maintain corporate minute books and resolutions, and help secure loans for the corporation. Paralegals may also review government regulations to make sure that the cor­ poration operates within the law. The duties of paralegals who work in government vary depending on the type of agency that employs them. Generally, paralegals in government analyze legal material for internal use, maintain refer­ ence files, conduct research for attorneys, collect and analyze evi­ dence for agency hearings, and prepare informative or explanatory material on the law, agency regulations, and agency policy for gen­ eral use by the agency and the public. Paralegals employed in community legal service projects help the poor, the aged, and other persons in need of legal aid. They file forms, conduct research, and prepare documents. When authorized by law, they may represent clients at administrative hearings. Some paralegals, usually those in small and medium-sized law firms, have varied duties. One day the paralegal may do research on judicial decisions on improper police arrests and the next day may help prepare a mortgage contract. This requires a general knowl­ edge of many areas of the law. Some paralegals who work for large law firms, government agen­ cies, and corporations, specialize in one area of the law. Some spe­ cialties are real estate, estate planning, family law, labor law, litiga­ tion, and corporate law. Even within specialties, functions often are broken down further so that paralegals may deal with one narrow area of the specialty. For example, paralegals who specialize in labor law may deal exclusively with employee benefits. A growing number of paralegals are using computers in their work. Computer software packages are increasingly used to search legal literature stored in the computer and identify legal texts rele­ vant to a specific subject. In litigation that involves many supporting documents, paralegals may use computers to organize and index the material. Paralegals may also use computer software packages to perform tax computations and explore the consequences of possible tax strategies for clients. Working Conditions Paralegals do most of their work at desks in offices and law libraries. Occasionally, they travel to gather information and perform other duties. Paralegals employed by corporations and government work a standard 40-hour week. Although most paralegals work year round, some are temporarily employed during busy times of the year then released when work diminishes. Paralegals who work for law firms sometimes work very long hours when they are under pressure to meet deadlines. Some law firms reward such loyalty with bonuses and additional time off. Paralegals handle many routine assignments, particularly when they are inexperienced. Some find that these assignments offer little 17  -a  is Pf  Paralegals may have to consult with clients to gather relevant information for court cases. challenge and become frustrated with their duties. However, parale­ gals usually assume more responsible and varied tasks as they gain experience. Furthermore, as new laws and judicial interpretations emerge, paralegals are exposed to many new legal problems that make their work more interesting and challenging. Employment Paralegals held about 95,000 jobs in 1992. Private law firms em­ ployed the vast majority; most of the remainder worked for various levels of government. Paralegals are found in nearly every Federal Government agency; the Departments of Justice, Treasury, Inte­ rior, and Health and Human Services, and the General Services Ad­ ministration are the largest employers. State and local governments and publicly funded legal service projects employ paralegals as well. Banks, real estate development companies, and insurance compa­ nies also employ small numbers of paralegals. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement There are several ways to enter the paralegal profession. Employers generally require formal paralegal training; several types of training programs are acceptable. However, some employers prefer to train their paralegals on the job, promoting experienced legal secretaries or hiring persons with college education but no legal experience. Other entrants have experience in a technical field that is useful to law firms, such as a background in tax preparation for tax and estate practice or nursing or health administration for personal injury practice. Over 600 formal paralegal training programs are offered by 4year colleges and universities, law schools, community and junior colleges, business schools, and proprietary schools. In 1993, 177 programs had been approved by the American Bar Association (ABA). Although this approval is neither required nor sought by many programs, graduation from an ABA-approved program can enhance one’s employment opportunities. The requirements for ad­ mission to formal training programs vary widely. Some require some college courses or a bachelor’s degree. Others accept high school graduates or persons with legal experience. A few schools re­ quire standardized tests and personal interviews. Most paralegal programs are completed in 2 years, although some take as long as 4 years and award a bachelor’s degree upon comple­ tion. Other programs take only a few months to complete, but re­ quire a bachelor’s degree for admission. Programs typically include a combination of general courses on subjects such as the law and le­ gal research techniques, and courses that cover specialized areas of the law, such as real estate, estate planning and probate, litigation, family law, contracts, and criminal law. Many employers prefer ap­ plicants with training in a specialized area of the law. Programs also increasingly include courses that introduce students to the legal ap­ plications of computers. Many paralegal training programs include 18  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  an internship in which students gain practical experience by work­ ing for several months in a law office, corporate legal department, or government agency. Experience gained in internships is an asset when seeking a job after graduation. Depending on the program, graduates may receive a certificate, an associate degree, or, in some cases, a bachelor’s degree. The quality of paralegal training programs varies; the better pro­ grams generally emphasize job placement. Prospective students should examine the experiences of recent graduates of programs in which they are considering enrolling. Paralegals need not be certified, but the National Association of Legal Assistants has established standards for voluntary certifica­ tion which require various combinations of education and experi­ ence. Paralegals who meet these standards are eligible to take a 2day examination given each year at several regional testing centers by the Certifying Board of Legal Assistants of the National Associa­ tion of Legal Assistants. Persons who pass this examination may use the designation Certified Legal Assistant (CLA). This designation is a sign of competence in the field and may enhance employment and advancement opportunities. Paralegals must be able to handle legal problems logically and ef­ fectively communicate, both orally and in writing, their findings and opinions to their supervising attorney. They must understand legal terminology and have good research and investigative skills. Famili­ arity with the operation and applications of computers in legal re­ search and litigation support is increasingly important. Paralegals must always stay abreast of new developments in the law that affect their area of practice. Because paralegals often deal with the public, they must be cour­ teous and uphold the high ethical standards of the legal profession. A few States have established ethical guidelines that paralegals in the State must follow. Experienced paralegals usually are given progressively more re­ sponsible duties and less supervision. In large law firms, corporate legal departments, and government agencies, experienced paralegals may supervise other paralegals and clerical staff and delegate work assigned by the attorneys. Advancement opportunities include pro­ motion to managerial and other law-related positions within the firm or corporate legal department. However, some paralegals find it easier to move to another law firm when seeking increased respon­ sibility or advancement. Job Outlook Employment of paralegals is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Job opportunities are expected to expand as more employers become aware that paralegals are able to do many legal tasks for lower salaries than lawyers. Both law firms and other employers with legal staffs should continue to emphasize hiring paralegals so that the cost, availability, and efficiency of legal services can be improved. New jobs created by rapid employment growth will create most of the job openings for paralegals in the future. Other job openings will arise as people leave the occupation. Although the number of job openings for paralegals is expected to increase significantly through the year 2005, so will the number of persons pursuing this career. Thus, keen competition for jobs should continue as the growing number of graduates from paralegal training programs keeps pace with employment growth. Still, job prospects are expected to be favorable for graduates of highly regarded formal programs. Private law firms will continue to be the largest employers of paralegals as a growing population needs more legal services. The growth of prepaid legal plans also should contribute to the demand for the services of law firms. A growing array of other organizations, such as corporate legal departments, insurance companies, real es­ tate and title insurance firms, and banks will also hire paralegals. Job opportunities for paralegals will expand even in the public sector. Community legal service programs—which provide assis­ tance to the poor, the aged, minorities, and middle-income fami­ lies—operate on limited budgets and will employ more paralegals to keep expenses down and serve the most people. Federal, State, and local government agencies, consumer organizations, and the courts also should continue to hire paralegals in increasing numbers.  To a limited extent, paralegal jobs are affected by the business cy­ cle. During recessions, demand declines for some discretionary legal services, such as planning estates, drafting wills, and handling real estate transactions. Corporations are less inclined to initiate litiga­ tion when falling sales and profits lead to fiscal belt tightening. As a result, full-time paralegals employed in offices adversely affected by a recession may be laid off or have their work hours reduced. On the other hand, during recessions, corporations and individuals are more likely to face other legal problems, such as bankruptcies, fore­ closures, and divorces, that require legal assistance. Furthermore, the continuous emergence of new laws and judicial interpretations of existing laws creates new business for lawyers and paralegals without regard to the business cycle. Earnings Earnings of paralegals vary greatly. Salaries depend on the educa­ tion, training, and experience the paralegal brings to the job, the type and size of employer, and the geographic location of the job. Generally, paralegals who work for large law firms or in large met­ ropolitan areas earn more than those who work for smaller firms or in less populated regions. Paralegals had an average annual salary of about $28,300 in 1993, according to a utilization and compensation survey by the National Association of Legal Assistants. Starting salaries of paralegals aver­ aged $23,400, while paralegals with from 6 to 10 years of experience averaged $28,200 a year. Salaries of paralegals with from 11 to 15 years of experience averaged $29,800 annually, according to the same survey. In addition to a salary, many paralegals received an annual bonus, which averaged $1,700 in 1993. Employers of the ma­ jority of paralegals provided life and health insurance benefits and contributed to a retirement plan on their behalf.  ☆ U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1994 363-539 2450-5   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Paralegal Specialists hired by the Federal Government in 1993 started at about $ 18,000 or $23,000 a year, depending on their train­ ing and experience. The average annual salary of paralegals who worked for the Federal Government in 1993 was about $37,600. Related Occupations Several other occupations also call for a specialized understanding of the law and the legal system but do not require the extensive training of a lawyer. Some of these are abstractors, claim examiners, compliance and enforcement inspectors, occupational safety and health workers, patent agents, police officers, and title examiners. Sources of Additional Information General information on a career as a paralegal and a list of paralegal training programs approved by the American Bar Association may be purchased for $5 from: (y Standing Committee on Legal Assistants, American Bar Association, 750 North Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, IL 60611.  For information on certification of paralegals, schools that offer training programs in a specific State, and standards and guidelines for paralegals, contact: If National Association of Legal Assistants, Inc., 1601 South Main St., Suite 300, Tulsa, OK 74119.  Information on a career as a paralegal, schools that offer training programs, and local paralegal associations can be obtained from: 13* National Federation of Paralegal Associations, P.O. Box 33108, Kansas City, MO 64114.  Information on paralegal training programs may be obtained from: fW American Association for Paralegal Education, P.O. Box 40244, Over­ land Park, KS 66204.  19  Selected items from The Bureau of Labor Statistics library of  Career and Job Outlook Publications latest editions? 0ccupational0utlookHantlbook-1994-95Edition The original, and still leading source of authoritative, nontechnical career information for about 250 occupations. Each description includes information on nature of the work, training required, earnings, job prospects, and sources of additional information. 473 pp., $26, hard cover; $23, soft cover. OccupationalOutlookHandbookReprinfs Groups of related jobs covered in the 1994-95 Occupational Outlook Handbookm available as individual reprints. These reprints are especially useful for jobseekers who want to know abouta single field and forcounselorswho need to stretch the contents of a single Handbook among many students.  No. 2450 2450-1 2450-2 2450-3 2450-4 2450-5 2450-6 2450-7 2450-8 2450-9 2450-10 2450-11 2450-12 2450-13 2450-14 2450-15 2450-16 2450-17 2450-18 2450-19 2450-20  Price $24.00 Tomorrow’s Jobs; Overview 1.25 Businessand Managerial Occupations 2.75 Engineering, Scientific, and Related Occupations 1.75 Computerand Mathematics-Related Occupations 2.00 Social Science and Legal Occupations 1.50 Education and Social Service Occupations and Clergy 2.00 Health Diagnosing Occupations and Assistants 1.50 Dietetics, Nursing, Pharmacy, and Therapy Occupations 1.50 Health Technologists and Technicians 1.50 Communications, Design, Performing Arts, and Related Occupations 1.50 Technologists and Technicians, Except Health 1.25 Sales Occupations 1.50 Clerical and Other Administrative Support Occupations 1.50 Protective Service Occupationsand Compliance Inspectors 2.00 Service Occupations; Cleaning, Food, Health, and Personal 1.00 Mechanics, Equipment Installers and Repairers 1.50 Construction Trade and Extractive Occupations 1.25 Metalworking, Plastic-working, and Woodworking Occupations 2.00 Production Occupations 1.50 Transportation and Forestry, Fishing, and Related Occupations 2.00 Collated set ofall20 reprints  OccupationalOutlookQuarterly Keeps you informed about new studies by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Articles covera wide range of subjects useful to job counselors, la bor force analysts, and people choosing careers. New andemerging jobs, unusual jobs, employment projectionsand trends, and changing technology are a few of theareas covered by this award-winning magazine. Four issues, 40pageseach, in color, $8.00; single copy $2.75.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis
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