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L <3.3/^:2400-/5/99.3-9.3  Service Occupations: Cleaning, Food, Health, and Personal Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1992-93 Edition U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics Bulletin 2400-15  S.M.C.U. U OR ARY U.S. DEPOSITORY  AUG 1 3 1992  c '  Hi.,  4'  !  ;<>v  mmm  y   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Animal Caretakers, Except Farm  ine the sole. In addition, keepers may put on shows and give lectures to the public. Working Conditions  (D.O.T. 410.674-010, -022; 412.671-010, .674-014; 418.381-010, .674-010, 677-010; and 449.671-010)  Nature of the Work  Most people like animals. But, as pet owners can attest, it is hard work taking care of them. Animal caretakers, sometimes called ani­ mal attendants, feed, water, groom, bathe, and exercise animals and clean and repair their cages. They also play with the animals, provide companionship, and observe behavioral changes that could indicate illness or injury. Kennels, animal shelters, pet stores, stables, veterinary facilities, laboratories, and zoological parks all house animals and employ care­ takers. Job titles and duties vary by employment setting. Kennel staff usually care for small companion animals like dogs and cats. Beginning attendants perform basic tasks, such as cleaning cages and dog runs. Experienced attendants may give basic treatment and first aid, bathe and groom animals and clean their ears and teeth. People who specialize in maintaining dogs’ appearance are called “dog groomers.” Some groomers work in kennels and others operate their own grooming business. Caretakers also sell pet food and sup­ plies, teach obedience classes, help with breeding, or prepare animals for shipping. In addition to providing the basic maintenance of the animals, caretakers in animal shelters screen applicants for animal adoption, vaccinate newly admitted animals, and euthanize (put to death) severely injured or unwanted animals. Pet store caretakers provide basic care, sell pet supplies, and give advice to customers. Stable staff saddle and unsaddle horses, give them rubdowns, and walk them through a cool-off after a ride. They also feed and groom the horses, muck out stalls, polish saddles, clean and organize the tack room, and store supplies and feed. Experienced staff also train horses. Veterinary hospitals employ three types of caretakers; Veterinary technician, veterinary assistant, and animal attendant. Veterinary technicians, also known as animal health technicians, are the most skilled. They do everything that a veterinarian does except diagnose ailments, prescribe medication, or perform surgery. They keep records, take specimens, perform laboratory tests, prepare animals and instruments for surgery, take and develop radiographs, dress wounds, and assist veterinarians with examinations and surgery. Veterinary assistants feed and bathe animals, administer medica­ tion as prescribed by a veterinarian, and help veterinarians and the veterinary technicians treat animals. For example, the assistant may hold the animal while the technician gives it an injection. Animal attendants clean cages, exercise animals, and monitor the animals for symptoms of illnesses. This is the most basic job and is frequently performed by part-time workers. Laboratories also have three levels of animal caretakers: Laborato­ ry animal technologist, laboratory animal technician, and assistant laboratory animal technician. The highest level, laboratory animal technologist, supervises the daily care and maintenance of the ani­ mals by the technician and assistant; they may also assist in surgical care and other laboratory procedures. The laboratory animal techni­ cian provides the daily care of the animals—giving prescribed medi­ cations, taking specimens, performing laboratory tests, and assisting with minor surgery. Technicians also keep daily records of the ani­ mals’ diets, behavior, and health. Assistant laboratory animal techni­ cians clean cages and feed animals. Zookeepers prepare the diets, clean the enclosures, and monitor the behavior of exotic animals. Keepers sometimes assist in research studies on their wards. Depending upon the species, the keepers may also train the animals. An example is the elephant keeper who teaches the pachyderm to hold up its foot so that the veterinarian may exam­  2  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  People who love animals get satisfaction from working with and helping animals. However, some of the work may be physically demanding and unpleasant. Caretakers have to clean animal cages and lift heavy supplies like bales of hay. Also, the work setting is often noisy. Some duties like euthanizing a hopelessly injured or aged animal may be very stressful. Animal caretakers can be exposed to bites, kicks, and disease from the animals they attend. Caretakers may work outdoors in all kinds of weather. Hours are irregular. Animals have to be fed every day, so caretakers rotate week-end shifts. In some animal hospitals and animal shelters an attendant is on duty 24 hours a day, which means night shifts. Caretakers of show and sports animals travel to competitions. Employment  Animal caretakers held about 106,000 jobs in 1990. Most were employed in veterinary facilities and boarding kennels. Other employers were animal shelters, stables, pet stores, zoological parks, and local, State, and Federal agencies. One out of every 5 caretakers is self-employed. More than a third work part time. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  Most animal caretakers working in kennels, pet stores, animal shel­ ters, and stables are trained on the job. There are few formal training programs, but the American Boarding Kennel Association offers a  igil!!  Zookeepers feed animals and clean them and their enclosures.  For sale by Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office Washington, D.C. 20402  home-study program for kennel technicians. Some States require cer­ tification of caretakers who euthanize animals. Training may be through a veterinarian or a State Humane Society. Otherwise, there are no formal training requirements in these settings; nonetheless, many employers look for people with some experience with animals. Caretakers start by cleaning cages and advance to giving medication and grooming. Most dog groomers learn their trade through on-thejob training, but a few grooming schools do exist. Dog groomers may receive professional registration or certification from the National Dog Groomers Association of America. The Amer­ ican Boarding Kennels Association accredits kennels and offers a Certified Kennel Operator program, both of which show professional competency. Thirty-five States require veterinary technicians to be licensed; this is the only animal caretaker position requiring licensure. Licensure requirements in most States include graduation from an accredited animal technology program. In 1990, there were 60 associate pro­ grams and 5 bachelor’s degree programs accredited by the American Veterinary Medicine Association. Courses include animal pharmacol­ ogy, veterinary physiology and anatomy, animal care and manage­ ment, radiography, anesthetic nursing and monitoring, parasitology, animal husbandry, chemistry, biology, applied mathematics, commu­ nications, and the humanities. Veterinary technicians with formal training may also obtain certification through State regulatory agen­ cies. In States without education requirements for veterinary techni­ cians, veterinarians may employ applicants with a strong science background and train them on the job; however, most veterinarians prefer graduates of formal academic programs. There are no formal education requirements for animal attendants and veterinary assistants in veterinary facilities. They are trained on the job. Requirements in laboratories vary with the type of position. The American Association for Laboratory Animal Science (AALS) tests and certifies each level of caretaker. To be eligible to take the certifi­ cation examination, laboratory animal technologists must have 6 years of training, 4 years of which may be college-level courses in the life sciences and at least 2 years of laboratory experience. Labora­ tory animal technicians need 3 years of experience in a laboratory. They may substitute 2 years of education in college-level life sci­ ences for 2 years of experience. Assistant laboratory animal techni­ cians must have 1 year of work experience or 6 months of experience and 6 months of college-level life science education. Large zoological parks may require their keepers to have a bache­ lor’s degree in biology, animal science, or a related field. They also require experience with animals, preferably as a volunteer in a zoo or as a paid keeper in a smaller zoo. Advancement varies with employment setting. Kennel caretakers may be promoted to kennel supervisor, assistant manager, and man­ ager. Caretakers with enough capital may leave to open up their own kennels. Pet store caretakers may become store managers. In labora­ tories, assistant laboratory animal technicians may advance to labora­ tory animal technician, then to technologist; however, the technologist position requires a college-level background in the life sciences. Caretakers in animal shelters may transfer to animal adop­ tion counselor, then to animal control, and finally to shelter director. The Humane Society of the United States offers a 2-week course for animal shelter and control personnel. Job Outlook  Employment of animal caretakers is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005 as the pop­ ulation and economy expand. The number of dogs and cats has increased significantly over the last 10 years, and is expected to con­ tinue to increase. Despite growth in demand for animal caretakers, the overwhelm­ ing majority of jobs will result from the need to replace workers leav­ ing the field. Many animal caretaker jobs that require little or no training have work schedules which tend to be flexible; therefore, it is an ideal first job for people entering the labor force as well as for stu­ dents and others looking for temporary or part-time work. Because these workers have a weak attachment to the occupation, turnover is quite high and the overall availability of jobs should be very good.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Much of the work of these animal caretakers is seasonal, particularly during vacation periods. The best prospects should be for graduates of training programs in veterinary technology. Many employers complain of a shortage of formally trained veterinary technicians. Job opportunities for certi­ fied laboratory animal technicians and technologists are also good. As concern for animal welfare increases, so will the need for certi­ fied personnel in laboratories. The outlook for zookeepers is not so favorable. Jobseekers will face keen competition because of expected slow growth in zoo capacity, low turnover, and the fact that the occu­ pation attracts many candidates. Additional opportunities will occur in kennels as owners increas­ ingly focus on the business aspects of the kennel and hire managers to operate the animal care department. Earnings  In 1990, median earnings for all animal caretakers were $11,900. The middle 50 percent earned between $9,000 and $16,400. The lowest 10 percent of animal caretakers earned less than $7,500, and the top 10 percent earned more than $20,700. Generally, veterinary techni­ cians, laboratory animal technologists, and zookeepers earn more than other animal caretakers. Related Occupation  Animal caretakers like to work with their hands and with animals. Occupations that involve the same aptitudes are gamekeeper, gamefarm help, poultry breeder, and artificial-breeding technician. Sources of Additional Information  For more information on animal caretaking and the animal shelter and control personnel training program, write to: «■ Animal Caretakers Information, The Humane Society of the U.S., Com­ panion Animals Division, Suite 100, 5430 Grosvenor Lane, Bethesda, MD 20814.  To obtain a listing of grooming schools or the name of the nearest certified dog groomer in your area, send a stamped self-addressed envelope to: «• National Dog Groomers Association of America, Box 101, Clark, PA 16113.  For information on training and certification of kennel staff and owners, contact: American Boarding Kennel Association, 4575 Galley Rd., Suite 400-A, Colorado Springs, CO 80915.  For information on certification for laboratory animal personnel, write to: American Association for Laboratory Animal Science (AALAS), 70 Tim­ ber Creek Dr., Suite #5, Cordova, TN 93018.  Barbers and Cosmetologists (D.O.T. 330; 331; 332; 333; 339.361, .371)  Nature of the Work  Hair has been a center of attention since people first began to care about their appearance. Throughout history, a great deal of effort has gone into acquiring a fashionable hairstyle or a perfectly trimmed beard. Over the years, this concern over appearance has grown to include skin, nails, and make-up. Although styles change from year to year, the basic job of barbers and cosmetologists remains the same—to help people look their best. Barbers cut, trim, shampoo, and style hair. Many people still go to a barber for just a haircut, but an increasing number seek more person­ alized hairstyling services. Barbers trained in these areas are called “hairstylists” and work in styling salons; “unisex” salons, shops that have male and female customers; and some barbershops. They cut and style hair to suit each customer and also may fit hairpieces and pro­ vide hair and scalp treatments, shaves, and facial massages. By tradition, most customers are men. However, a growing num­ ber of barbers cut and style women’s hair. They usually work in uni­ 3  sex salons. Some States require a cosmetologist’s license as well as a barber’s license, however, to permanent wave or color women’s hair. In most States, barbers are licensed to perform all the duties of cos­ metologists except skin care and nail treatment. Cosmetologists, also called hairstylists, shampoo, cut, and style hair and advise patrons on how to care for their hair. Frequently, they straighten or permanent wave a patron’s hair to keep the style in shape. Cosmetologists may also lighten or darken the color of the hair. Cosmetologists may give manicures and scalp and facial treat­ ments; provide makeup analysis for women; and clean and style wigs and hairpieces. Related workers include manicurists, who clean, shape, and polish customer’s fingernails and toenails; makeup artists, who apply makeup; electrologists, who remove hair from skin by electrolysis; and estheticians, who cleanse and beautify the skin. Cos­ metologists offer all the services that barbers do except men’s shaves. In addition to their work with customers, barbers and cosmetolo­ gists are expected to keep their work area clean and their hairdressing implements sanitized. They may make appointments and keep records of hair color and permanent wave formulas used by their reg­ ular patrons. Some sell hair products and other cosmetic supplies. Barbers and cosmetologists who operate their own salons also have managerial duties that include hiring, supervising, and firing workers, keeping records, and ordering supplies. Working Conditions  Barbers and cosmetologists generally work in clean, pleasant sur­ roundings, with good lighting and ventilation. Good health and stami­ na are important because these workers must stand a great deal, which can be very tiring. Prolonged exposure to hair and nail chemi­ cals may be hazardous. Many full-time barbers and cosmetologists work more than 40 hours a week, including evenings and weekends, when beauty and barber shops and salons are busiest. Although weekends and lunch periods are generally very busy, barbers and cos­ metologists may have some time off during slack periods. Employment  Barbers and cosmetologists held about 713,000 jobs in 1990; 9 of every 10 were cosmetologists. Most worked in beauty salons, some worked in “unisex” salons, barber shops, or department stores, and a few were employed by hospitals, hotels, and prisons. About 3 out of every 4 barbers and about half of all cosmetologists are self employed. All cities and towns have barbershops and hair salons, but employ­ ment is concentrated in the most populous cities and States. Hairstylists usually work in cities and suburbs, where the greatest demand for their services exists. Stylists who set fashion trends with their hairstyles usually work in New York City, Los Angeles, and other centers of fashion and the performing arts. One of every 3 barbers and cosmetologists works part time. The abundance of part-time jobs attracts many persons who want to com­ bine a job with family, school, or other responsibilities. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  Although all States require barbers and cosmetologists to be licensed, the qualifications necessary to obtain a license vary. Generally, a per­ son must have graduated from a State-licensed barber or cosmetology school, pass a physical examination, and be at least 16 years old. In addition, education requirements vary from State to State—some require graduation from high school while others require as little as an eighth grade education. In a few States, completion of an appren­ ticeship can substitute for graduation from a school, but very few bar­ bers or cosmetologists learn their skills in this way. Applicants for a license usually are required to pass a written test and demonstrate an ability to perform basic barbering or cosmetololgy services. Some States have reciprocity agreements that allow licensed bar­ bers and cosmetologists to practice in a different State without addi­ tional formal training. Other States do not recognize training or licenses obtained in another State; consequently, persons who wish to become a barber or a cosmetologist should review the laws of the State in which they want to work before entering a training program. Barber and cosmetology training is offered in both public and pri­ vate vocational schools, in either daytime or evening classes. These 4  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Barbers and cosmetologists must keep abreast of changing hairstyles.  programs usually last 6 to 12 months. An apprenticeship program usually lasts from 1 to 2 years. Formal training programs include classroom study, demonstrations, and practical work. Students study the basic services—haircutting, shaving, facial massaging, and hair and scalp treatments—and, under supervision, practice on customers in school “clinics.” Most schools also teach unisex hairstyling and chemical styling. Students attend lectures on barber services, the use and care of instruments, sanitation and hygiene, and recognition of certain skin ailments. Instruction also is given in selling and general business practices. There are also advanced courses for experienced barbers in hairstyling, coloring, and the sale and service of hairpieces. Most schools provide students with the necessary hairdressing implements, such as combs, scissors, razors, and hair rollers, and include their cost in the tuition fee. In some schools students must purchase their own. Once they have gained some experience, students practice on patrons in school “clinics.” Most schools teach hairstyling of men’s as well as women’s hair. After graduating from a training program, students can take the State licensing examination. The examination consists of a written test and, usually, a practical test of cosmetology skills. In some States, an oral examination is included, and the applicant is asked to explain the procedures he or she is following while taking the practi­ cal test. In some States, a separate examination is given for persons who want only a manicurist license or a facial care license. Persons who want to become a barber or a cosmetologist must have finger dexterity and a sense of form and artistry. They should enjoy dealing with the public and be willing and able to follow patrons’ instructions. Because hairstyles are constantly changing, bar­ bers and cosmetologists must keep abreast of the latest fashions and  beauty techniques. Business skills are important for those who plan to operate their own salons. Many schools help their graduates find jobs. During their first months on the job, new workers are given relatively simple tasks, such as giving shampoos, or are assigned to perform the simpler hairstyling patterns. Once they have demonstrated their skills, they are gradually permitted to perform the more complicated tasks such as giving shaves, coloring hair, or applying a permanent. Advancement usually is in the form of higher earnings as barbers and cosmetologists gain experience and build a steady clientele, but many manage large salons or open their own after several years of experience. Some teach in barber or cosmetology schools. Others become sales representatives for cosmetics firms, or open businesses as beauty or fashion consultants. Some barbers and cosmetologists work as examiners for State licensing boards. Job Outlook  Overall employment of barbers and cosmetologists is expected to grow about as fast as the average for ail occupations through the year 2005. Population growth, a greater number of women in the labor force, and rising incomes will stimulate demand for these workers. Barbers and cosmetologists have a relatively strong attachment to their occupation—stronger than workers in most occupations that require less than a year of formal training. This undoubtedly reflects the fact that about half of all barbers and cosmetologists operate their own business. Because of the large size of the occupation, however, many job openings will result from the need to replace experienced workers who retire or stop working for other reasons. Due to recent declines in barber and cosmetology school enrollments, opportunities for licensed jobseekers are expected to be quite favorable. Within this occupation, different employment trends are expected. Cosmetologists will account for virtually all of the employment growth; barbers, little or none. This situation reflects the continuing shift in consumer preferences from regular haircuts to more personal­ ized and intensive services. Barbers who specialize in hairstyling have been much more successful than those who offer conventional services. This trend is expected to continue, and employment oppor­ tunities should be better for hairstylists than for other barbers. Hairstyling for men also contributes to the demand for cosmetologists because many men go to full-service shops or cosmetology salons for styling services. Opportunities for those who specialize in nail and skin care will be especially good. Part-time opportunities also should be quite plentiful. Barbers or cosmetologists are rarely laid off solely because of eco­ nomic downturns. Earnings  Barbers and cosmetologists receive income either from commissions or wages and tips. Those working on commission usually receive between 50 and 70 percent of the money they take in. According to limited information, most barbers and cosmetologists earned between $7 and $14 an hour in 1990. Earnings depend on the size and location of the shop, the number of hours worked, customers’ tipping habits, competition from other barbershops and salons, and the barber’s or cosmetologist’s ability to attract and hold regular customers. The principal union that organizes barbers and cosmetologists— both employees and shopowners—is the United Food and Commer­ cial Workers International Union. The principal trade associations that represent and organize shopowners, managers, and employees are the Associated Master Barbers and Beauticians of America and the National Cosmetology Association, Inc. Other organizations include; the National Association of Accredited Cosmetology Schools, Inc. and the National Association of Barber Schools, which represent school owners and teachers; and the National Beauty Culturists’ League, representing black cosmetologists, teachers, man­ agers, and salon owners. Related Occupations  Other workers whose main activity consists of improving a patron’s personal appearance include beauty consultants and health club direc­ tors and specialists.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Sources of Additional Information  For general information about barbers, contact: Hair International, 1318 Starbrook Dr., Charlotte, NC 28210.  Lists of barber schools, by State, are available from: National Association of Barber Schools, Inc., 304 South 11th St., Lincoln, NE 68502.  General information about cosmetology careers and State licensing requirements is available free of charge from: National Cosmetology Association, Inc., 3510 Olive St., St. Louis, MO 63103.  A list of licensed training schools and licensing requirements for cosmetologists can be obtained from: National Accrediting Commission of Cosmetology Arts and Sciences, 1333 H St. NW„ Suite 710, Washington, DC 20005. *• National Association of Accredited Cosmetology Schools, Inc., 5201 Lees­ burg Pike, Falls Church, VA 22041.  For details on State licensing requirements and approved barber or cosmetology schools, contact the State board of barber examiners or the State board of cosmetology in your State capital. Information about barber and cosmetology schools also is available from: Career College Association, One Dupont Circle NW., Suite 350, Washing­ ton, DC 20036.  Chefs, Cooks, and Other Kitchen Workers (D.O.T. 311.674-014; 313.281 through .687; 315.361 through .381; 316.661, .684-010 and -014; 317; 318.687; and 319.464 through .687)  Nature of the Work  A reputation for serving good food is essential to any restaurant, whether it prides itself on hamburgers and French fries or exotic for­ eign cuisine. Chefs, cooks, and other kitchen workers are largely responsible for the reputation a restaurant acquires. Some restaurants offer a varied menu featuring meals that are time consuming and dif­ ficult to prepare, requiring a highly skilled cook or chef. Other restau­ rants emphasize fast service, offering hamburgers and sandwiches that can be prepared in advance or in a few minutes by a fast-food or short-order cook with only limited cooking skills. Chefs and cooks are responsible for preparing meals that are tasty and attractively presented. Chefs are the most highly skilled, trained, and experienced kitchen workers. Although the terms chef and cook are still sometimes used interchangeably, cooks generally have more limited skills. Many chefs have earned fame for both themselves and the restaurants, hotels, and institutions where they work because of their skill in artfully preparing the traditional favorites and in creating new dishes and improving familiar ones. (For information on execu­ tive chefs, see the Handbook statement on restaurant and food service managers.) Institutional chefs and cooks work in the kitchens of schools, industrial cafeterias, hospitals, and other institutions. For each meal, they prepare a small selection of entrees, vegetables, and desserts, but in large quantities. Restaurant chefs and cooks generally prepare a wider selection of dishes for each meal, cooking most individual servings to order. Whether in institutions or restaurants, chefs and cooks measure, mix, and cook ingredients according to recipes. In the course of their work they use a variety of pots, pans, cutlery, and equipment, including ovens, broilers, grills, slicers, grinders, and blenders. They are often responsible for directing the work of other kitchen workers, estimating food requirements, and ordering food supplies. Some chefs and cooks also help plan meals and develop menus. Bread and pastry bakers, called pastry chefs in some kitchens, pro­ duce baked goods for restaurants, institutions, and retail bakery shops. Unlike bakers who work at large, automated industrial bak­ eries, bread and pastry bakers need only supply the customers who visit their establishment. They bake smaller quantities of breads, rolls, pastries, pies, and cakes, doing most of the work by hand. They 5  measure and mix ingredients, shape and bake the dough, and apply fillings and decorations. Short-order cooks prepare foods to order in restaurants and coffee shops that emphasize fast service. They grill and garnish hamburgers, prepare sandwiches, fry eggs, and cook French fried potatoes, often working on several orders at the same time. Prior to busy periods, they may slice meats and cheeses or prepare coleslaw or potato salad. During slow periods, they may clean the grill, food preparation sur­ faces, counters, and floors. Specialty fast-food cooks prepare a limited selection of menu items in fast-food restaurants. They cook and package batches of food such as hamburgers and fried chicken, which are prepared to order or kept warm until sold. Other kitchen workers, under the direction of chefs and cooks, per­ form tasks requiring less skill. They weigh and measure ingredients, fetch pots and pans, and stir and strain soups and sauces. They clean, peel, and slice potatoes, vegetables, and fruits and make salads. They also may cut and grind meats, poultry, and seafood in preparation for cooking. Their responsibilities also include cleaning work areas, equipment and utensils, and dishes and silverware. The number and types of workers employed in kitchens depend partly on the type of restaurant. For example, fast-food outlets offer only a few items, which are prepared by fast-food cooks. Smaller, full-service restaurants that offer casual dining often feature a limited number of easy-to-prepare items, supplemented by short-order spe­ cialties and readymade desserts. Typically, one cook prepares all of the food with the help of a short-order cook and one or two other kitchen workers. Large eating places may have more varied menus and prepare, from start to finish, more of the food they serve. Kitchen staffs often include several chefs and cooks, sometimes called assistant or apprentice chefs or cooks, a bread and pastry baker, and many less skilled kitchen work­ ers. Each chef or cook usually has a special assignment and often a special job title—vegetable, fry, or sauce cook, for example. Executive chefs coordinate the work of the kitchen staff and often direct certain kinds of food preparation. They decide the size of servings, sometimes plan menus, and buy food supplies. Working Conditions  Many restaurant and institutional kitchens have modem equipment, convenient work areas, and air-conditioning; but others, particularly in older and smaller eating places, are frequently not as well equipped. Other variations in working conditions depend on the type and quantity of food being prepared and the local laws governing food service operations. Workers generally must withstand the pres­ sure and strain of working in close quarters during busy periods, stand for hours at a time, lift heavy pots and kettles, and work near hot ovens and grills. Job hazards include slips and falls, cuts, and bums, but injuries are seldom serious. Work hours in restaurants may include late evening, holiday, and weekend work, while hours in cafeterias in factories, schools, or other institutions may be more regular. Kitchen workers employed by public and private schools may work during the school year only, usually for 9 or 10 months. Vacation resorts may offer only seasonal employment. Employment  Chefs, cooks, and other kitchen workers held nearly 3.1 million jobs in 1990. Short-order and fast-food cooks held 743,000 of the jobs; restaurant cooks, 615,000; institutional cooks, 415,000; bread and pastry bakers, 140,000; and other kitchen workers, 1,156,000. About three-fifths of all chefs, cooks, and other kitchen workers worked in restaurants and other retail eating and drinking places. One-fifth worked in institutions such as schools, universities, hospitals, and nursing homes. The remainder were employed by hotels, government and factory cafeterias, grocery stores, private clubs, and many other organizations. More than 40 percent worked part time. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  Most kitchen workers start as fast-food or short-order cooks, or in one of the other less skilled kitchen positions that require little edu6  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  . ■ is'!  Chefs, cooks, and other kitchen workers often prepare salads and other items prior to busy meal periods.  cation or training and that allow them to acquire their skills on the job. After acquiring some basic food handling, preparation, and cooking skills, they may be able to advance to an assistant cook or short-order cook position, but many years of training and experience are necessary to achieve the level of skill required of an executive chef or cook in a fine restaurant. Even though a high school diploma is not required for beginning jobs, it is recommended for those plan­ ning a career as a cook or chef. High school or vocational school courses in business arithmetic and business administration are partic­ ularly helpful. An increasing number of chefs and cooks are obtaining their training through high school or post-high school vocational pro­ grams and 2- or 4-year colleges. Chefs and cooks may also be trained in apprenticeship programs offered by professional culinary institutes, industry associations, and trade unions. An example is the 3-year apprenticeship program administered by local chapters of the American Culinary Federation in cooperation with local employers and junior colleges or vocational education institutions. In addition, some large hotels and restaurants operate their own training pro­ grams for cooks and chefs. Persons who have had courses in commercial food preparation may be able to start in a cook or chef job without having to spend time in a lower skilled kitchen job, and they may have an advantage when looking for jobs in better restaurants and hotels, where hiring standards often are high. Some vocational programs in high schools offer this kind of training. But usually these courses, which range from a few months to 2 years or more and are open in some cases only to high school graduates, are given by trade schools, vocational centers, colleges, professional associations, and trade unions. The Armed Forces also are a good source of training and experience. Although curricula may vary, students usually spend most of their time learning to prepare food through actual practice. They leam to bake, broil, and otherwise prepare food, and to use and care for kitchen equipment. Training programs often include courses in menu planning, determination of portion size and food cost control, pur­ chasing food supplies in quantity, selection and storage of food, and use of leftover food to minimize waste. Students also leam hotel and restaurant sanitation and public health rules for handling food. Train­ ing in supervisory and management skills sometimes is emphasized in courses offered by private vocational schools, professional associa­ tions, and university programs.  Accreditation by the American Culinary Federation is an indication that a culinary program meets recognized standards regarding course content, facilities, and quality of instruction. About 60 programs throughout the Nation had been accredited by 1991, and additional programs were under review for accreditation. The American Culi­ nary Federation has only been accrediting culinary programs for sev­ eral years, however, and many programs have not yet sought accreditation. Many school districts, in cooperation with school food services divisions of State departments of education, provide on-the-job train­ ing and sometimes summer workshops for cafeteria kitchen workers who wish to become cooks. Some junior colleges, State departments of education, and school associations also offer training programs. Cafeteria kitchen employees who have participated in these training programs often are selected for jobs as cooks. Certification provides valuable formal recognition of the skills of a chef or cook. The American Culinary Federation certifies chefs and cooks at the levels of cook, working chef, executive chef, and master chef. It also certifies pastry professionals and culinary educators. Certification standards are based primarily on experience and formal training. The ability to work as part of a team, a keen sense of taste and smell, and personal cleanliness are important qualifications for chefs, cooks, and other kitchen workers. Most States require health certificates indicating that these workers are free from contagious diseases. Advancement opportunities for chefs and cooks are better than for most other food and beverage preparation and service occupa­ tions. Many acquire higher paying positions and new cooking skills by moving from one job to another. Besides culinary skills, advancement also depends on ability to supervise lesser skilled workers and limit food costs by minimizing waste and accurately anticipating the amount of perishable supplies needed. Some cooks and chefs gradually advance to executive chef positions or supervi­ sory or management positions, particularly in hotels, clubs, or larg­ er, more elegant restaurants. Some eventually go into business as caterers or restaurant owners; others may become instructors in vocational programs in high schools, junior and community col­ leges, and other academic institutions. Job Outlook  Job openings for chefs, cooks, and other kitchen workers are expect­ ed to be plentiful through the year 2005. Growth in demand for these workers will create many job openings, but most openings will arise from the need to replace the relatively high proportion of workers who leave this very large occupation each year. There is substantial turnover in many of these jobs because their limited requirements for formal education and training allow easy entry, and the many part­ time positions are attractive to persons seeking a short-term source of income rather than a career. Many of the workers who leave these jobs transfer to other occupations, while others stop working to assume household responsibilities or to attend school full time. Workers under the age of 25 have traditionally filled a significant proportion of the lesser skilled jobs in this occupation. The pool of young workers is expected to continue to shrink through the 1990’s, but then begin to grow. Many employers will be forced to offer high­ er wages, better fringe benefits, and more training to attract and retain workers in these jobs. Employment of chefs, cooks, and other kitchen workers is expect­ ed to increase faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Since a significant proportion of food and beverage sales by eating and drinking establishments is associated with the overall level of economic activity—workers’ lunches and entertainment of clients, for example—sales and employment will increase with the growth of the economy. Other factors contributing to employment growth will be population growth, rising family and personal incomes, and more leisure time that will allow people to dine out and take vacations more often. Also, as more women join the work force, families increasingly may find dining out a welcome convenience. Employment in restaurants is expected to grow rapidly. As the average age of the population increases, demand will grow for restau­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  rants that offer table service and more varied menus—which will require more highly skilled cooks and chefs. The popularity of fresh baked breads and pastries in fine dining establishments should insure continued rapid growth in the employment of bakers. However, employment of short-order and specialty fast-food cooks is expected to increase more slowly than other occupations in this group because most work in fast-food restaurants, which are expected to have slow­ er growth than in the past. Employment of institutional chefs and cooks will increase faster than the average because their employment is concentrated in the educational sector. Employment growth in elementary and sec­ ondary school and college cafeterias is expected to increase as the student population grows. Growth in the number of elderly people is expected to result in a rapid increase in kitchen jobs associated with nursing homes, residential care facilities, and other health care institutions. Earnings  Wages of chefs, cooks, and other kitchen workers vary depending on the part of the country and, especially, the type of establishment in which they work. Wages generally are highest in elegant restaurants and hotels, and many executive chefs earned over $40,000 annually. According to a survey conducted by the National Restaurant Associa­ tion, median hourly earnings of cooks were $6.50, with most earning between $5.50 and $7.50 in 1990. Assistant cooks had median hourly earnings of $5.80, with most earning between $5.00 and $6.50. According to the same survey, short-order cooks had median hourly earnings of $5.75 in 1990; most earned between $5.00 and $6.50. Median hourly earnings of bread and pastry bakers were $6.25; most earned within the range of $5.75 to $7.00. Salad prepara­ tion workers generally earned less, with median hourly earnings of $5.25; most earned between $4.75 and $6.00. Food preparation work­ ers in fast-food restaurants had median hourly earnings of $4.25, with most earning between $3.85 and $5.00 per hour. Some employers provide uniforms and free meals, but Federal law permits employers to deduct from wages the cost, or fair value, of any meals or lodging provided, and some employers exercise this right. Chefs, cooks, and other kitchen workers who work full time often receive paid vacation and sick leave and health insurance, but part-time workers generally do not receive such benefits. In some large hotels and restaurants, kitchen workers belong to unions. The principal unions are the Hotel Employees and Restaurant Employees International Union and the Service Employees Interna­ tional Union. Related Occupations  Workers who perform tasks similar to those of chefs, cooks, and other kitchen workers include butchers and meatcutters, cannery workers, and industrial bakers. Sources of Additional Information  Information about job opportunities may be obtained from local employers and local offices of the State employment service. Career information about chefs, cooks, and other kitchen workers, as well as a directory of 2- and 4-year colleges that offer courses or programs that prepare persons for food service careers, is available from: The Educational Foundation of the National Restaurant Association, 250 South Wacker Dr., Suite 1400, Chicago, IL 60606.  For information on the American Culinary Federation’s apprentice­ ship and certification programs for cooks, as well as a list of accredit­ ed culinary programs, write to: *■ American Culinary Federation, P.O. Box 3466, St. Augustine, FL 32085.  For general information on hospitality careers, write to: Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and Institutional Education, 1200 17th St. NW, Washington, DC 20036-3097.  For general career information and a directory of accredited private trade and technical schools offering programs in the culinary arts, write to: »■ National Association of Trade and Technical Schools, P.O. Box 2006, Department BL, Annapolis Junction, MD 20701-2006.  7  Dental Assistants (D.O.T. 079.371-010)  Nature of the Work  Dental assistants perform a variety of clinical, office, and laboratory duties. In their clinical duties, dental assistants work at chairside as dentists examine and treat patients. They make patients as comfortable as possible in the dental chair, prepare them for treatment, and obtain dental records. Assistants hand the dentist the proper instruments and materials and keep patients’ mouths dry and clear by using suction or other devices. Assistants also sterilize and disinfect instruments and equipment; prepare tray setups for dental procedures; provide postop­ erative instruction; and instruct patients in oral health care. Some den­ tal assistants prepare materials for making impressions and restorations, expose radiographs, and process dental X-ray film as directed by the dentist. State law determines which clinical tasks a den­ tal assistant may perform, but in most States they may remove sutures, apply anesthetic and caries-preventive agents to the teeth and oral tis­ sue, remove excess cement used in the filling process, and place rubber dams on the teeth to isolate them for individual treatment. Those with laboratory duties make casts of the teeth and mouth from impressions taken by dentists, clean and polish removable appli­ ances, and make temporary crowns. Dental assistants with office duties arrange and confirm appointments, receive patients, keep treat­ ment records, send bills, receive payments, and order dental supplies and materials. Dental assistants should not be confused with dental hygienists, who are licensed to perform a wider variety of clinical tasks. (See the statement on dental hygienists elsewhere in the Handbook.)  require typing or a science course for admission. Some private voca­ tional schools offer 4- to 6-month courses in dental assisting, but these are not accredited by the Commission on Dental Accreditation. Certification is available through the Dental Assisting National Board. Certification is an acknowledgment of an assistant’s qualifica­ tions and professional competence, but usually is not required for employment. In several States that have adopted standards for dental assistants who perform radiologic procedures, completion of the cer­ tification examination meets those standards. Candidates may qualify to take the certification examination by graduating from an accredited training program or by having 2 years of full-time experience as a dental assistant. In addition, applicants must have taken a course in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Without further education, advancement opportunities are limited. Some dental assistants working the front office become office man­ agers. Others, working chairside, go back to school to become dental hygienists. Job Outlook  Employment of dental assistants is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Population growth, higher incomes, more dental insurance, and greater retention of natural teeth by middle-aged and older people will fuel demand for dental ser­ vices. Also, in the future, dentists are likely to employ more assistants, for several reasons. Older dentists, who are less likely to employ assis­ tants, will leave and be replaced by recent graduates, who are more likely to use one, or even two. In addition, as the current surplus of dentists abates, dentists’ workloads will increase. As this happens, they are expected to hire more assistants to perform routine tasks, so they may use their own time for more profitable procedures.  Working Conditions  Dental assistants work in a well-lighted, clean environment. Handling radiographic equipment poses dangers, but the hazards can be mini­ mized by proper use of lead shielding and safety procedures. Like­ wise, dental assistants wear gloves and masks to protect themselves from infectious diseases like hepatitis. Dental assistants, like dentists, work either standing or sitting. Their work area is usually near the dental chair, so that they can arrange instruments, materials, and medication, and hand them to the dentist when needed. Most dental assistants have a 32- to 40-hour workweek which may include work on Saturday or evenings. Employment  Dental assistants held about 176,000 jobs in 1990. Almost 1 out of 3 worked part time, sometimes in more than one dentist’s office. Almost all dental assistants work in private dental offices. Some work in dental schools, private and government hospitals, State and local public health departments, or in clinics.  it "'"""""TL'  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  Most assistants learn their skills on the job, though some are trained in dental assisting programs offered by community and junior col­ leges, trade schools, and technical institutes. Some assistants are trained in Armed Forces schools. Assistants must be a dentist’s “third hand;” therefore, dentists look for people who are reliable, can work well with others, and have manual dexterity. High school students interested in careers as dental assistants should take courses in biolo­ gy, chemistry, health, typing, and office practices. The American Dental Association’s Commission on Dental Accreditation approved 246 formal training programs in 1990. Accredited dental assisting programs include classroom, laboratory, and preclinical instruction in dental assisting skills and related theory. In addition, students gain practical experience in dental schools, clin­ ics, or dental offices. Most programs take 1 year or less to complete and lead to a certificate or diploma. Two-year programs offered in community and junior colleges lead to an associate degree. All pro­ grams require a high school diploma or its equivalent, and some 8   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Almost 1 out of 3 dental assistants work part-time.  Opportunities should be good for people entering the occupation. The slow growth in the youth labor force—traditionally the principal source of supply for dental assisting—means that relatively fewei young adults will be available for entry level jobs such as this. Quali­ fied applicants should have little trouble locating a job, while employers may find it necessary to raise wages, offer better benefits, or try to attract older workers. Most job openings for dental assistants will arise from the need to replace assistants who leave the occupation. Each year many assis­ tants leave the job to take on family responsibilities, return to school, or transfer to another occupation. Earnings  In 1990, median weekly earnings for dental assistants working full time were about $300. According to the American Dental Associa­ tion, the average hourly wage in 1989 for all dental assistants was $8.90. For chairside dental assistants without experience, the average was $6.90 an hour. Related Occupations  Dental assistants perform a variety of duties that do not require the dentist’s professional knowledge and skill. Workers in other occupa­ tions supporting health practitioners include medical assistants, chiro­ practor assistants, ophthalmic medical assistants, optometric assistants, podiatric assistants, and veterinary technicians. Sources of Additional Information  Information about career opportunities, scholarships, accredited den­ tal assistant programs, and requirements for certification is available from: *" American Dental Assistants Association, 919 N. Michigan Ave., Suite 3400, Chicago, IL 60611. Commission on Dental Accreditation, American Dental Association, 211 E. Chicago Ave., Suite 1814, Chicago, IL 60611. »• Dental Assisting National Board, Inc., 216 E. Ontario St., Chicago, IL 60611.  Flight Attendants (D.O.T. 352.367-010)  Nature of the Work  Flight attendants are aboard almost all passenger planes to look after the passengers’ flight safety and comfort. At least 1 hour before each flight, attendants are briefed by the captain on such things as expected weather conditions and special passenger problems. The attendants see that the passenger cabin is in order, that supplies of food, beverages, blankets, and reading material are adequate, and that first aid kits and other emergency equipment are aboard and in working order. As passengers board the plane, attendants greet them, check their tickets, and assist them in storing coats and carry-on luggage. Before the plane takes off, attendants instruct passengers in the use of emergency equipment and check to see that all passengers have their seat belts fastened and seat backs forward. In the air, they answer questions about the flight, distribute magazines and pillows, and help care for small children and elderly and handicapped persons. They may administer first aid to passengers who become ill. Atten­ dants also serve cocktails and other refreshments and, on many flights, heat and distribute precooked meals. After the plane has land­ ed, the flight attendants assist passengers as they leave the plane. They then prepare reports on medications given to passengers, lost and found articles, and cabin equipment conditions. Some flight attendants straighten up the plane’s cabin. Assisting passengers in the rare event of an emergency is the most important function of attendants. This may range from reassuring passengers during occasional encounters with strong turbulence to opening emergency exits and inflating evacuation chutes following an emergency landing.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Lead or first flight attendants aboard planes oversee the work of the other attendants while performing most of the same duties. Working Conditions  Since airlines operate around the clock year round, attendants may work at night and on holidays and weekends. They usually fly 75 to 85 hours a month. In addition, they generally spend about 75 to 85 hours a month on the ground preparing planes for flight, writing reports following completed flights, and waiting for planes that arrive late. Because of variations in scheduling and limitations on flying time, many attendants have 11 or more days off each month. Atten­ dants may be away from their home bases at least one-third of the time. During this period, the airlines provide hotel accommodations and an allowance for meal expenses. The combination of free time and discount air fares provides flight attendants the opportunity to travel and see new places. However, the work can be strenuous and trying. Short flights require speedy service if meals are served. A rough flight can make serving drinks and meals difficult. Attendants stand during much of the flight and must remain pleasant and efficient regardless of how tired they are or how demanding passengers may be. Flight attendants are susceptible to injury because of the job demands in a moving aircraft. Employment  Flight attendants held about 101,000 jobs in 1990. Commercial air­ lines employed the vast majority of all flight attendants, most of whom were stationed in major cities at the airlines’ home bases. A small number of flight attendants worked for large companies that operate their own aircraft for business purposes. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  The airlines like to hire poised, tactful, and resourceful people who can deal comfortably with strangers. Applicants usually must be at least 19 to 21 years old, but some airlines have higher minimum age requirements. Flight attendants must have excellent health, good vision, and the ability to speak clearly. Applicants must be high school graduates. Those having several years of college or experience in dealing with the public are pre­ ferred. Flight attendants for international airlines generally must speak an appropriate foreign language fluently. Most large airlines require that newly hired flight attendants com­ plete 4 to 6 weeks of intensive training in their own schools. The air­ lines that do not operate schools generally send new employees to the school of another airline. Transportation to the training centers and an allowance for board, room, and school supplies may be provided. Trainees learn emergency procedures such as evacuating an airplane, operating an oxygen system, and giving first aid. Attendants also are taught flight regulations and duties, and company operations and policies. Trainees receive instruction on personal grooming and weight control. Trainees for the international routes get additional  Flight attendants check passengers tickets. 9  instruction in passport and customs regulations and dealing with ter­ rorism. Towards the end of their training, students go on practice flights. Attendants must receive 12 to 14 hours of training in emer­ gency procedures and passenger relations annually. After completing initial training, flight attendants are assigned to one of their airline’s bases. New attendants are placed in “reserve status” and are called on either to staff extra flights or fill in for attendants who are sick or on vacation. Reserve attendants on duty must be available on short notice. Attendants usually remain on reserve for at least 1 year; at some cities, it may take 5 years or longer to advance from reserve status. Advancement takes longer today than in the past because experienced attendants are remaining in this career for more years than they used to. Attendants who no longer are on reserve bid for regular assignments. Because these assignments are based on seniority, usually only the most experienced attendants get their choice of base and flights. Some attendants transfer to flight service instructor, customer ser­ vice director, recruiting representative, or various other administra­ tive positions. Job Outlook  Employment of flight attendants is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Growth in pop­ ulation and income is expected to increase the number of airline pas­ sengers. Airlines enlarge their capacity by increasing the number and size of planes in operation. Since Federal Aviation Administration safety rules require one attendant for every 50 seats, more flight attendants will be needed. Despite this above average growth, competition for jobs as flight attendants is expected to remain very keen because the number of applicants is expected to greatly exceed the number of job openings. The glamour of the airline industry and the opportunity to travel and meet people attract many applicants. Those with at least 2 years of college and experience in dealing with the public have the best chance of being hired. As more career-minded people enter this occupation, job turnover—which traditionally has been very high—will decline. Nev­ ertheless, most job openings are expected from the need to replace attendants who stop working or transfer to other occupations. Employment of flight attendants is sensitive to cyclical swings in the economy. During recessions, when the demand for air travel declines, many flight attendants are put on part-time status or laid off. Until demand increases, few new attendants are hired. Earnings  Beginning flight attendants had median earnings of about $13,000 a year in 1990, according to data from the Association of Flight Atten­ dants. Flight attendants with 6 years of flying experience had median annual earnings of about $20,000, while some senior flight attendants earned as much as $35,000 a year. Flight attendants receive extra compensation for overtime and for night and international flights. In addition, flight attendants and their immediate families are entitled to reduced fares on their own and most other airlines. Many flight attendants belong to the Association of Flight Atten­ dants. Others are members of the Transport Workers Union of Ameri­ ca or several other unions. Flight attendants are required to buy uniforms and wear them while on duty. Uniform replacement items are usually paid for by the com­ pany. The airlines generally provide a small allowance to cover cleaning and upkeep of the uniforms. Related Occupations  Other jobs that involve helping people and require the ability to be pleasant even under trying circumstances include tour guide, gate agent, host or hostess, waiter or waitress, and camp counselor. Sources of Additional Information  Information about job opportunities in a particular airline and the qualifications required may be obtained by writing to the personnel manager of the company. For addresses of airline companies and information about job opportunities and salaries, contact: 10   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Future Aviation Professionals of America, 4959 Massachusetts Blvd., Atlanta, GA 30337. (This organization may be called toll free at 800-JetJobs.)  Food and Beverage Service Workers (D.O.T. 310.137-010 and .357; 311.472 through .674-010 and .674-018 through .677; 312; 319.474 and .687; 350.677-010, -026, -030; 352.677-018; and 355.677-010)  Nature of the Work  Whether they work in small, informal diners or large, elegant restau­ rants, all food and beverage service workers deal with customers. The quality of service they provide determines in part whether the patron is likely to return. Waiters and waitresses all take customers’ orders, serve food and beverages, prepare itemized checks, and sometimes accept pay­ ments—but the manner in which they perform these tasks varies con­ siderably, depending on where they work. In coffee shops, they are expected to provide fast and efficient, yet courteous, service. In fine restaurants, where gourmet meals are accompanied by attentive for­ mal service, waiters and waitresses serve the meal at a more leisurely pace and offer more personal service to patrons. For example, they may recommend a certain kind of wine as a complement to a particu­ lar entree, explain how various items on the menu are prepared, or prepare some salads and other special dishes at tableside. Depending on the type of restaurant, waiters and waitresses may perform duties associated with other food and beverage service occu­ pations in addition to waiting on tables. These tasks may include escorting guests to tables, serving customers seated at counters, set­ ting up and clearing tables, or cashiering. However, larger or more formal restaurants frequently relieve their waiters and waitresses of these additional duties. Bartenders fill the drink orders that waiters and waitresses take from customers seated in the restaurant or lounge, as well as orders from customers seated at the bar. Because some people like their cocktails made a certain way, bartenders occasionally are asked to mix drinks to suit a customer’s taste. Most bartenders must know dozens of drink recipes and be able to mix drinks accurately, quickly, and without waste, even during the busiest periods. Besides mixing and serving drinks, bartenders collect payment, operate the cash reg­ ister, clean up after customers have left, and may also serve food items to customers seated at the bar. Bartenders who work at service bars have little contact with cus­ tomers. They work at small bars in restaurants, hotels, and clubs where drinks are served only to diners at tables. However, the majori­ ty of bartenders work in eating and drinking establishments where they also directly serve and socialize with patrons. Some establishments, especially larger ones, use automatic equip­ ment to mix drinks of varying complexity at the push of a button. However, bartenders still must be efficient and knowledgeable to pre­ pare drinks not handled by the automatic equipment or mix drinks when it is not functioning. Also, equipment is no substitute for the friendly socializing most customers prefer. Bartenders usually are responsible for ordering and maintaining an inventory of liquor, mixes, and other bar supplies. They also arrange the bottles and glassware into attractive displays and often wash glassware used at the bar. Hosts and hostesses try to evoke a good impression of the restau­ rant by warmly welcoming guests. They courteously direct patrons to where they may leave coats and other personal items and indicate where they may wait until their table is ready. Hosts and hostesses assign guests to tables suitable for the size of their group, escort them to their seats, and provide menus. Hosts and hostesses are restaurants’ personal representatives to patrons. They try to insure that service is prompt and courteous and the meal enjoyable; they may also adjust complaints of dissatisfied diners. Hosts and hostesses schedule dining reservations, arrange par­  ties, and organize any special services that are required. In some restaurants, they also act as cashier. Dining room attendants and bartender helpers assist waiters, wait­ resses, and bartenders by keeping the serving area stocked with sup­ plies, cleaning tables, and removing dirty dishes to the kitchen. They replenish the supply of clean linens, dishes, silverware, and glasses in the restaurant dining room, and keep the bar stocked with glasses, liquor, ice, and drink garnishes. Bartender helpers also keep the bar equipment clean and wash glasses. Dining room attendants set tables with clean tablecloths, napkins, silverware, glasses, and dishes and serve ice water, rolls, and butter to patrons. At the conclusion of the meal, they remove dirty dishes and soiled linens from the tables. Cafeteria attendants stock serving tables with food, trays, dishes, and silverware and may carry trays to dining tables for patrons. Counter attendants take orders and serve food at counters. In cafe­ terias, they serve food displayed on counters and steamtables as requested by patrons, carve meat, dish out vegetables, ladle sauces and soups, and fill cups and glasses. In lunchrooms and coffee shops, counter attendants take orders from customers seated at the counter, transmit the orders to the kitchen, and pick up and serve the food when it is ready. They also fill cups and glasses with coffee, soda, and other beverages and prepare fountain specialties such as milk­ shakes and ice cream sundaes. They often prepare some short-order items, such as sandwiches and salads, and wrap or place orders in con­ tainers to be taken out and consumed elsewhere. Counter attendants also clean counters, write up itemized checks, and accept payment. Fast-food workers take orders from customers standing at counters at fast-food restaurants. They get the ordered beverage and food items, serve them to the customer, and accept payment. Many fastfood workers also cook and package French fries, make coffee, and fill beverage cups using a drink-dispensing machine. Working Conditions  Food and beverage service workers are on their feet most of the time and often have to carry heavy trays of food, dishes, and glassware. During busy dining periods, they are under pressure to serve cus­ tomers quickly and efficiently. The work is relatively safe, but care must be taken to avoid slips, falls, and bums. Although some food and beverage service workers work 40 hours or more a week, the majority are employed part time—a larger pro­ portion than in almost any other occupation. The majority of those working part-time schedules do so on a voluntary basis because the wide range in dining hours creates work opportunities attractive to homemakers, students, and others seeking supplemental income. Many food and beverage service workers are expected to work evenings, weekends, and holidays. Some work split shifts—that is, they work for several hours during the middle of the day, take a few hours off in the afternoon, and then return to their jobs for the evening hours. Employment  Food and beverage service workers held nearly 4.4 million jobs in 1990. Waiters and waitresses held more than 1.7 million of these jobs; counter attendants and fast-food workers, over 1.6 million; din­ ing room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers, 460,000; bartenders, 400,000; and hosts and hostesses, 184,000. Restaurants, coffee shops, bars, and other retail eating and drinking places employed four-fifths of all food and beverage service workers. Of the remainder, nearly half worked in hotels and other lodging places, and others in bowling alleys, casinos, and country clubs and other membership organizations. Jobs are located throughout the country but are most plentiful in large cities and tourist areas. Vaca­ tion resorts offer seasonal employment, and some workers alternate between summer and winter resorts instead of remaining in one area the entire year. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  There are no specific educational requirements for food and beverage service jobs. Although many employers prefer to hire high school graduates for waiter and waitress, bartender, and host and hostess positions, completion of high school is generally not required for  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ‘I  \  -  Bartenders fill orders for beer and mixed drinks. fast-food workers, counter attendants, and dining room attendants and bartender helpers. For many persons, a job as a food and beverage service worker serves as a source of immediate income rather than a career. Many entrants to these jobs are in their late teens or early twenties and have a high school education or less. Usually, they have little or no work experience. Many are full-time students or home­ makers. Food and beverage service jobs are a major source of part­ time employment for high school students. Most employers place an emphasis on personal qualities. Food and beverage service workers should be well spoken and have a neat and clean appearance because they are in close and constant contact with the public. They should enjoy dealing with all kinds of people, and a pleasant disposition and sense of humor are important. State laws often require that food and beverage service workers obtain health certificates showing that they are free of contagious diseases. Waiters and waitresses need a good memory to avoid confusing customers’ orders and to recall the faces, names, and preferences of frequent patrons. They also should be good at arithmetic if they have to total bills without the aid of a calculator or cash register. In restau­ rants specializing in foreign foods, knowledge of a foreign language is helpful. Experience waiting on tables is preferred by restaurants and hotels which have rigid table service standards. Jobs at these establishments often have higher earnings, but may also have higher educational requirements than less formal establishments. Generally, bartenders must be at least 21 years of age, and employ­ ers prefer to hire persons who are 25 or older. They should be famil­ iar with State and local laws concerning the sale of alcoholic beverages. Most food and beverage service workers pick up their skills on the job by observing and working with more experienced workers. Some employers, particularly some fast-food restaurants, use self-instruc­ tion programs to teach new employees food preparation and service skills through audiovisual presentations and instructional booklets. Some public and private vocational schools, restaurant associations, and large restaurant chains also provide classroom training in a gen­ eralized food service curriculum. Some bartenders acquire their skills by attending a bartending school or taking vocational and technical school courses that include instruction on State and local laws and regulations, cocktail recipes, attire and conduct, and stocking a bar. Some of these schools help their graduates find jobs. Due to the relatively small size of most food-serving establish­ ments, opportunities for promotion are limited. After gaining some experience, some dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers are able to advance to waiter, waitress, or bartender jobs. For waiters, waitresses, and bartenders, advancement usually is limited to finding a job in a larger restaurant or bar where prospects for tip earn­ ings are better. Some bartenders open their own businesses. Some hosts and hostesses and waiters and waitresses advance to superviso­ ry jobs, such as maitre d’hotel, dining room supervisor, or restaurant manager. In larger restaurant chains, food and beverage service work­ 11  ers who excel at their work are often invited to enter the company’s formal management training program. (For more information, see the Handbook statement on restaurant and food service managers.) Job Outlook  Job openings for food and beverage service workers are expected to be plentiful through the year 2005. Most openings will arise from the need to replace the high proportion of workers who leave this very large occupation each year. There is substantial movement into and out of the occupation because the limited formal education and train­ ing requirements for these jobs allow easy entry, and the predomi­ nance of part-time jobs is attractive to persons seeking a short-term source of income rather than a career. Many of these workers simply move to other occupations; others stop working to assume household responsibilities or to attend school. Employment of food and beverage service occupations is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Since a significant proportion of food and beverage sales by eating and drinking places is associated with the overall level of eco­ nomic activity—workers’ lunches and entertainment of clients, for example—sales and employment will increase with the growth of the economy. Growth in demand also will stem from population growth, rising personal incomes, and increased leisure time. Also, as more women join the work force, families may increasingly find dining out a welcome convenience. Growth of the various types of food and beverage service jobs is expected to vary greatly. As the composition of the Nation’s popula­ tion becomes older, diners are expected to increasingly patronize fullservice restaurants, spurring growth in demand for waiters and waitresses and dining room attendants. Little change is expected in the employment of bartenders as consumption of alcoholic beverages outside the home—particularly cocktails—continues to decline. Workers under the age of 25 have traditionally fdled a significant proportion of food and beverage service jobs, particularly in fast-food restaurants. The pool of these young workers in the labor force is expected to shrink through the 1990’s, but begin to grow after the year 2000. To attract and retain workers, many employers will be forced to offer higher wages, better fringe benefits, more training, and increased opportunities for advancement and full-time employment. Because potential earnings are greatest in popular restaurants and fine dining establishments, keen competition is expected for the limit­ ed number of jobs in these restaurants. Earnings  Food and beverage service workers derive their earnings from a com­ bination of hourly wages and customer tips. Their wages and the amount of tips they receive vary greatly, depending on the type of job and establishment. For example, fast-food workers and hosts and hostesses generally do not receive tips, so their wage rates may be higher than those of waiters and waitresses, who may earn more from tips than from wages. In some restaurants, waiters and waitresses contribute a portion of their tips to a tip pool, which is distributed among many of the establishment’s other food and beverage service workers and kitchen staff. Tip pools allow workers who normally do not receive tips, such as dining room attendants, to share in the rewards for a meal well served. In 1990, median hourly earnings (including tips) of full-time wait­ ers and waitresses were $4.80. The middle 50 percent earned between $3.80 and $6.90; the top 10 percent earned at least $9.00 an hour. For most waiters and waitresses, higher earnings are primarily the result of receiving more in tips rather than higher hourly wages. Tips gener­ ally average between 10 and 20 percent of guests’ checks, so waiters and waitresses working in busy, expensive restaurants earn the most. Full-time bartenders had median hourly earnings (including tips) of $5.70 in 1990. The middle 50 percent earned from $4.60 to $8.00; the top 10 percent earned at least $10.70. Like waiters and waitresses, bartenders employed in public bars may receive more than half of their earnings as tips. Service bartenders are often paid higher hourly wages to offset their lower tip earnings. Median hourly earnings (including tips) of full-time dining room attendants and bartender helpers were $4.70 in 1990. The middle 50 12   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  percent earned between $3.90 and $6.50; the top 10 percent earned over $8.80. Most received over half of their earnings as wages; the rest was their share of the proceeds from tip pools. Full-time counter attendants and fast-food workers had median hourly earnings (including any tips) of $4.20 in 1990. The middle 50 percent earned between $3.60 and $5.60, while the highest 10 percent earned over $7.40. Although some counter attendants receive part of their earnings as tips, fast-food workers generally do not. In establishments covered by Federal law, workers beginning at the minimum wage earn $4.25 an hour. However, employers can pay workers under age 20 a lower training wage for up to 6 months. Fed­ eral law also permits employers to credit an employee’s tip earnings toward the minimum hourly wage, up to an amount equaling 45 per­ cent of the minimum, and some employers exercise this right. Employers are also permitted to deduct from wages the cost, or fair value, of any meals or lodging provided. However, many employers provide free meals and furnish uniforms. Food and beverage service workers who work full time often receive paid vacation and sick leave and health insurance, but part-time workers generally do not receive such benefits. In some large restaurants and hotels, food and beverage service workers belong to unions. The principal unions are the Hotel Employees and Restaurant Employees International Union and the Service Employees International Union. Related Occupations  Other workers whose jobs involve serving customers and helping them feel at ease and enjoy themselves include flight attendants, but­ lers, and tour busdrivers. Sources of Additional Information  Information about job opportunities may be obtained from local employers and local offices of the State employment service. General information on food and beverage service jobs is available from: The Educational Foundation of the National Restaurant Association, 250 South Wacker Dr., Suite 1400, Chicago, IL 60606.  For general information on hospitality careers, write to: «■ Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and Institutional Education, 1200 17th St. NW., Washington, DC 20036-3097.  For general career information and a directory of accredited private trade and technical schools that offer training for bartender and other food and beverage service jobs, write to: National Association of Trade and Technical Schools, P.O. Box 2006, Department BL, Annapolis Junction, MD 20701-2006.  Homemaker-Home Health Aides (D.O.T. 079.224-010; 309.354-010; and 354.377-014)  Nature of the Work  Homemaker-home health aides help elderly, disabled, and ill persons live in their own homes instead of in a institution. Some homemakerhome health aides work with families in which a parent is incapaci­ tated and small children need care. Others help discharged hospital patients who have relatively short-term needs. Most homemakerhome health aides, however, work with elderly or disabled clients who require more extensive care than spouse, family, or friends can or are willing to provide informally. These workers sometimes are called home care aides and personal care attendants or aides, too. Homemaker-home health aides provide housekeeping services, personal care, and emotional support for their clients. They perform light housekeeping chores: Cleaning a client’s room, kitchen, and bathroom; doing the laundry; and changing bed linens. Aides may also plan meals (including special diets), shop for food, and cook. Home health aides provide personal care services, also known as “hands on” care because they physically touch the patient. These aides may assist clients with bathing, toileting, hair care, and moving from bed to a chair or another room. They may also check pulse, tem­  perature, and respiration; help with simple prescribed exercises; and assist with medication routines. Occasionally, they may change nonsterile dressings, use special equipment such as a hydraulic lift, or assist with braces or artificial limbs. Homemaker-home health aides also provide instruction and psy­ chological support. For example, they may assist in toilet training a severely mentally handicapped child or just listen to clients talk about their problems. In home care agencies, homemaker-home health aides are super­ vised by a registered nurse, a physical therapist, or a social worker, who assigns them specific duties. Aides report changes in the client’s condition to the supervisor or case manager. Homemaker-home health aides also participate in reviews of clients’ cases by the team caring for the client—registered nurses, therapists, and other health professionals. Working Conditions  The homemaker-home health aide’s daily routine may vary. A job can entail going to the same home every day for months or even years. More commonly, however, aides work with a number of different clients, each job lasting from a few hours, days, or weeks. Aides often go to four or five clients on the same day. Surroundings differ from case to case. Some homes are neat and pleasant, while others are untidy or depressing. Some clients are angry, abusive, depressed, or otherwise difficult; others are pleasant and cooperative. Homemaker-home health aides generally work on their own with periodic visits by their supervisor. They have detailed instructions explaining when to visit clients and what services to perform.  Most aides generally travel by public transportation, but some need an automobile. In any event, they are responsible for getting to the client’s home. Aides may spend a good portion of the working day traveling from one client to another. Employment  Homemaker-home health aides held about 391,000 jobs in 1990. Most aides are employed by homemaker-home health agencies, home health agencies, visiting nurse associations, hospitals, public health and welfare departments, and temporary help firms. Self-employed aides have no agency affiliation or supervision, and accordingly accept clients, set fees, and arrange work schedules on their own. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  Training requirements for homemaker-home health aides are chang­ ing. The Federal Goverment has enacted guidelines for home health aides whose employers receive reimbursement from Medicare. The Federal law requires home health aides to pass a competency test covering 12 areas: Communication skills; observation, reporting, and documentation of patient status and the care or services furnished; reading and recording vital signs; basic infection control procedures; basic elements of body function and changes; maintenance of a clean, safe, and healthy environment; recognition of and procedures for emergencies; the physical, emotional, and developmental characteris­ tics of the patients served; personal hygiene and grooming; safe trans­ fer techniques; normal range of motion and positioning; and basic nutrition. A home aide may also take training before taking the com­ petency test. The Federal law requires at least 75 hours of classroom and practical training supervised by a registered nurse. Training and testing programs may be offered by the employing agency, but they must meet the approval of the Health Care Financing Administration. Training programs may vary depending upon State regulations. Thir­ teen States have specific laws on personnel care services. The National HomeCaring Council, part of The Foundation for Hospice and Home Care, offers a National Homemaker-Home Health Aide certification. The certification is a voluntary demonstration that the individual has met industry standards. Successful homemaker-home health aides like to help people and do not mind hard work. They have a sense of responsibility, compas­ sion, emotional stability, and a cheerful disposition. Aides should be tactful, honest, and discreet since they work in private homes. Homemaker-home health aides must be in good health. A physical examination including State regulated tests like for tuberculosis may be required. Advancement is limited. In some agencies, workers start out per­ forming homemaker duties, such as cleaning. With experience and training, they may take on personal care duties. The most experienced aides may assist with medical equipment such as ventilators, which help patients breathe. Job Outlook  Job prospects are excellent for people seeking work as homemaker-home health aides.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Employment of homemaker-home health aides is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Changing demographics will play a major role in this growth. The number of people in their seventies and beyond is projected to rise substantially. This age group is characterized by mounting health problems that require some assistance. Also, there will be an increas­ ing reliance on home care for patients of all ages. This trend reflects several developments: Efforts to contain costs by moving patients out of hospitals as quickly as possible; the realization that treatment can be more effective in familiar surroundings rather than clinical sur­ roundings; and the development of portable medical equipment for in-home treatment. The extent to which these growth factors are translated into jobs for home care workers will depend on the availability of public and private funds for in-home services; willingness of family, friends, and neighbors to provide care; and the role of alternative arrangements, including adult day care and life care communities. Job prospects will be excellent for people seeking work as home­ maker-home health aides. In addition to jobs created by the increase in demand for these workers, replacement needs are expected to pro13  duce numerous openings. Turnover is high, a reflection of the rela­ tively low skill requirements, low pay, and high emotional demands of the work. Persons who are interested in this work and suited for it should have no trouble finding and keeping a job, particularly those with experience or training as homemaker-home health aides or nurs­ ing aides. Although only a small number of men currently are employed in the occupation, more are needed to care for men who prefer a male aide. The demand for male homemaker-home health aides is increasing with the spread of AIDS. Earnings  Earnings for homemaker-home health aides vary considerably. Some earn the Federal minimum wage—$4.25 an hour. However, employ­ ers may pay workers younger than 20 a lower training wage for up to 6 months. Homemaker-home health aides in large cities that have high living costs generally have the highest wages, up to $10 an hour. Most employers give slight pay increases with experience and added responsibility. Aides usually are paid only for the time worked in the home. They normally are not paid for travel time between jobs. Benefits vary even more than wages. Some employers offer a full package of vacation and sick leave, health and life insurance, and a retirement plan. Others hire only “on-call” hourly workers, with no benefits. Related Occupations  Homemaker-home health aide is a service occupation that combines duties of health workers and social service workers. Workers in relat­ ed occupations that involve personal contact to help or instruct others include attendants in children’s institutions, childcare attendants in schools, child monitors, companions, nursing aides, nursery school attendants, occupational therapy aides, nursing aides, physical thera­ py aides, playroom attendants, and psychiatric aides.  phone or visit clients’ homes to make sure services are being received; or help resolve disagreements, such as between tenants and landlords. Human services workers monitor, keep records on, and inform supervisors about clients’ progress. Human services workers play a variety of roles in community set­ tings such as neighborhood clinics, mental health centers, emergency shelters, “drop-in” centers for drug abusers and the mentally ill, and group homes and halfway houses. They may organize and lead group activities, assist clients in need of counseling or crisis intervention, or administer a food bank or emergency fuel program. In mental hospitals and psychiatric clinics, they may help clients master everyday living skills and teach them how to communicate more effectively and get along better with others. They also assist with music, art, and dance therapy and with individual and group counseling and lead recreational activities. In halfway houses and group homes, they oversee adult residents who need some supervision or support on a daily basis, but do not need to live in an institution. They review clients’ records, talk with their families, and confer with medical personnel in order to gain bet­ ter insight into their background and needs. They may teach residents to prepare their own meals and to do other housekeeping activities. They also provide emotional support, lead recreation activities, and make oral and written reports on the condition and progress of residents. Working Conditions  General information about training and referrals to State and local agencies about opportunities for homemaker-home health aides, a list of relevant publications, and information on national certification are available from:  Working conditions vary. Many human services workers generally spend part of the time in an office or residential facility and the rest in the field—visiting clients or taking them on trips, or meeting with people who provide services to their clients. Most work a regular 40hour week, although some work may be in the evening and on week­ ends. Human services workers in residential settings generally work in shifts because residents need supervision around the clock. The work, while satisfying, can be emotionally draining. Under­ staffing and lack of equipment may add to the pressure. Turnover is reported to be high, especially among workers without academic preparation for this field.  *■ Foundation for Hospice and Homecare/National HomeCaring Council, 519 C St. NE., Washington, DC 20002.  Employment  Sources of Additional Information  Human Services Workers (D.O.T. 195.267-014 and .367 except -026 and -030)  Nature of the Work  “Human services worker” is a generic term for people with job titles such as social service technician, case management aide, social work assistant, residential counselor, alcohol or drug abuse counselor, men­ tal health technician, child abuse worker, community outreach work­ er, and gerontology aide. They work in group homes and halfway houses; correctional, mental retardation, and community mental health centers; family, child, and youth service agencies; and pro­ grams concerned with alcoholism, drug abuse, family violence, and aging. Human services workers generally perform under the direction of social workers or, in some cases, psychologists. The amount of responsibility these workers assume and the degree of supervision they receive vary a great deal. Some are on their own most of the time and have little direct supervision; others work under close direc­ tion. Human services workers help clients obtain benefits or services. They assess their needs and establish their eligibility for services. They examine financial documents such as rent receipts and tax returns to determine whether the client is eligible for food stamps, Medicaid, or other welfare programs, for example. They also provide information on how to obtain services; arrange for transportation and escorts, if necessary; and provide emotional support. Human services workers may transport or accompany clients to group meal sites, adult day care programs, or doctors’ offices; tele­ 14  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Human services workers held about 145,000 jobs in 1990. About one-fourth were employed by State and local governments, primarily in hospitals and outpatient mental health centers, facilities for the mentally retarded and developmentally disabled, and public welfare agencies. Another fourth worked in private agencies offering adult day care, group meals, crisis intervention, counseling, and other social services. Some supervised residents of group homes and halfway houses. Human services workers also held jobs in clinics, community mental health centers, and private psychiatric hospitals. TVaining, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  While some employers hire high school graduates, most prefer appli­ cants with some college preparation in human services, social work, or one of the social or behavioral sciences. Some prefer those with a 4-year college degree. The kind of work human service workers do and the amount of responsibility entrusted to them often depend on their level of formal education. Workers with a high school education or less are likely to perform clerical duties. Those with a college degree might be assigned to do direct counseling, coordinate program activities, or manage a group home. Employers may also look for experience in other occupations or leadership experience in school or in a youth group. Some enter the field on the basis of courses in social work, psychology, sociology, rehabilitation, or special educa­ tion. Most employers provide in-service training such as seminars and workshops. A strong desire to help others, patience, and understanding are characteristics highly valued by employers. Other important personal traits include communication skills, a strong sense of responsibility, and the ability to manage time effectively. Hiring requirements in group homes tend to be more stringent than in other settings. In 1990, approximately 000 certificate and associate degree pro­ grams in human services or mental health were offered at community  personal qualifications. Relevant academic preparation is generally required, and volunteer or work experience is preferred. Inasmuch as this is responsible and emotionally draining work which pays rela­ tively poorly, qualified applicants should have little difficulty finding employment. Earnings  According to limited data available, starting salaries for human ser­ vices workers ranged from $12,000 to $20,000 a year in 1990. Expe­ rienced workers generally earned between $15,000 and $25,000 annually, depending on their education, experience, and employer. Related Occupations  Workers in other occupations that require skills similar to those of human services workers include social workers, community outreach workers, religious workers, occupational therapy assistants, physical therapy assistants and aides, psychiatric aides, and activity leaders. Human services workers inform clients how to obtain services. and junior colleges, vocational-technical institutes, and other postsec­ ondary institutions. In addition, about 000 programs offered a bache­ lor’s degree in human services. A small number of programs leading to master’s degrees in human services administration were offered as well. Generally speaking, academic programs in this field educate stu­ dents for specialized roles—work with developmental^ disabled adults, for example. Students are exposed early and often to the kinds of situations they may encounter on the job. Programs typically include courses in psychology, sociology, crisis intervention, social work, family dynamics, therapeutic interviewing, rehabilitation, and gerontology. Through classroom simulation internships, students leam interview, observation, and recordkeeping skills; individual and group counseling techniques; and program planning. Formal education is almost always necessary for advancement. In group homes, completion of a 1-year certificate in human services along with several years of experience may suffice for promotion to supervisor. In general, however, advancement requires a bachelor’s or master’s degree in counseling, rehabilitation, social work, or a related field. Job Outlook  Employment of human services workers is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Opportunities for qualified applicants are expected to be excellent, not only because of projected rapid growth in the occupation, but because of substantial replacement needs. Turnover among coun­ selors in group homes is reported to be especially high. Employment growth will occur as the number of older people, who are more likely to need services, grows rapidly. In addition, there will be a continuing need to provide services to the mentally impaired and developmentally disabled, those with substance abuse problems, and a wide variety of other needs handled by human services workers. Adult day care, a relatively new concept, is expected to expand sig­ nificantly due to very rapid growth in the number of people of advanced age, together with growing awareness of the value of day programs for adults in need of care and supervision. Pressures to respond to the needs of the chronically mentally ill can be expected to persist. For many years, as deinstitutionalization has proceeded, chronic mental patients have been left to their own devices. If the movement to help the homeless and chronically men­ tally ill gains momentum, more community-based programs and group residences will be established, and demand for human services workers will increase accordingly. Employment in State and local governments will grow only as fast as the average for all occupations, but will remain a major employer of human services workers. Replacement needs alone will generate many job openings in the public sector. Because so many human services jobs involve direct contact with people who are vulnerable to exploitation or mistreatment, employers try to be selective in hiring. Applicants are screened for appropriate  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Sources of Additional Information  Information on academic programs in human services may be found in most directories of 2- and 4-year colleges, available at libraries or career counseling centers. For information on programs and careers in human services, contact: m- National Organization for Human Service Education, P.O. Box 6257, Fitchburg State College, Fitchburg, MA 01420. «• Council for Standards in Human Service Education, Montgomery Commu­ nity College, 340 Dekalb Pike, Blue Bell, PA 19422.  Information on job openings may be available from State Employ­ ment Service offices or directly from city, county, or State depart­ ments of health, mental health and mental retardation, and human resources.  Janitors and Cleaners (D.O.T. 323.687; 358.687-010; 381.687 except -010; 382.664-010; 389.667­ 010, .683-010; 739.687-198; 891.687-010 and -018; and 952.687-010)  Nature of the Work  Janitors and cleaners—also called building custodians—keep office buildings, hospitals, stores, apartment houses, hotels, and other types of buildings clean and in good condition. Some only do cleaning; oth­ ers have a wide range of duties. They may fix leaky faucets, empty trash cans, do painting and carpentry, replenish bathroom supplies, mow lawns, and see that heating and air-conditioning equipment works properly. On a typical day, janitors may wet- or dry-mop floors, vacuum carpets, dust furniture, make minor repairs, and exter­ minate insects and rodents. In hospitals, where they are mostly known as maids and housekeepers, they may also wash bed frames, brush mattresses, make beds, and disinfect and sterilize equipment and supplies using germicides and sterilizing equipment. In hotels, aside from cleaning and maintaining the premises, they may deliver ironing boards, cribs, and rollaway beds to guests’ rooms. Janitors and cleaners use different equipment, tools, and cleaning materials. For one job, they may need a mop and bucket; for another, an electric polishing machine and a special cleaning solution. Improved building materials, chemical cleaners, and power equip­ ment have made many tasks easier and less time consuming, but jani­ tors must know how to use equipment and cleaners properly to avoid harming floors, fixtures, and themselves. Working Conditions  Since most office buildings are cleaned while they are empty, many cleaners work evening hours. Some, however, such as school and hospital custodians, work in the daytime. When there is a need for 24-hour maintenance, janitors may be assigned to shifts. Part-time cleaners usually work in the evenings and on weekends. Janitors and cleaners usually work inside heated, well-lighted buildings. However, sometimes they work outdoors sweeping walk­ ways, mowing lawns, or shoveling snow. Working with machines can 15  (Kill  Janitors ana cleaners usually find work by answering newspaper advertisements, applying directly to organizations where they would like to work, or contacting State employment service offices. Advancement opportunities for janitorial workers usually are limit­ ed in buildings where they are the only maintenance worker. Where there is a large maintenance staff, however, janitors can be promoted to supervisor and to area supervisor or manager. A high school diplo­ ma improves the chances for advancement. Some janitors set up their own maintenance business. Job Outlook  Employment of building janitors and cleaners is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005 as the number of office buildings, apartment houses, schools, facto­ ries, hospitals, and other buildings increases. The need to replace workers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force will create most job openings. This large occupation is easy to enter since there are few requirements for formal education and training, turnover is high, and part-time and temporary jobs are plentiful. New technology is expected to have little effect on employment of janitors and cleaners. Robots now under development are limited to performing a single cleaning task and may not be usable in many places, particularly cluttered areas such as hotel and hospital rooms. Earnings  Custodians work in every type of establishment.  be noisy, and some tasks, such as cleaning bathrooms and trash rooms, can be dirty and unpleasant. Janitors may suffer minor cuts, bruises, and bums from machines, handtools, and chemicals. Janitors and cleaners spend most of their time on their feet, some­ times lifting or pushing heavy furniture or equipment. Many tasks, such as dusting or sweeping, require constant bending, stooping, and stretching. Employment  Janitors and cleaners held about 3 million jobs in 1990. One-third worked part time (less than 35 hours a week). Custodians worked in every type of establishment. About 1 in 5 worked in a school, including colleges and universities. One in five worked for a firm supplying building maintenance services on a con­ tract basis. One in eight worked in a hotel. Others were employed by hospitals, restaurants, operators of apartment buildings, office build­ ings, and other types of real estate, churches and other religious orga­ nizations, manufacturing firms, and government agencies. Although cleaning jobs can be found in all cities and towns, most are located in highly populated areas where there are many office buildings, stores, and apartment houses. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  No special education is required for most cleaning jobs, but beginners should know simple arithmetic and be able to follow instructions. High school shop courses are helpful for jobs that involve repair work. Most janitors and cleaners learn their skills on the job. Usually, beginners work with an experienced cleaner, doing routine cleaning. They are given more complicated work as they gain experience. In some cities, programs run by unions, government agencies, or employers teach janitorial skills. Students learn how to clean build­ ings thoroughly and efficiently, how to select and safely use various cleansing agents, and how to operate and maintain machines, such as wet and dry vacuums, buffers, and polishers. Students learn to plan their work, to follow safety and health regulations, to deal with peo­ ple in the buildings they clean, and to work without supervision. Instruction in minor electrical, plumbing, and other repairs may also be given. Those who come in contact with the public should have a pleasant personality and good communication skills. Employers usu­ ally look for dependable, hard-working individuals who are in good health, follow directions well, and get along with other people. 16  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Janitors and cleaners who usually worked full time averaged about $270 a week in 1990; the middle 50 percent earned between $205 and $360. Ten percent earned less than $170; 10 percent earned more than $470. In 1990, average straight-time hourly earnings of janitors and cleaners in metropolitan areas were $6.70, which is less than threefourths as much as the average earnings for all nonsupervisory work­ ers in private industry, except farming. The average for janitors in manufacturing industries was $10.31 an hour and for nonmanufactur­ ing industries, $6.10. Earnings, however, vary by industry and area of the country. Workers in large cities of the Northeast, North Central, and Western regions usually earn the highest wages. Many nonunion, part-time workers earned the minimum wage, $4.25 an hour. Most building service workers receive paid holidays and vacations and health insurance. Related Occupations  Private household workers have job duties similar to janitors and cleaners. Workers who specialize in one of the many job functions of janitors and cleaners include refuse collectors, floor waxers, street sweepers, window cleaners, gardeners, boiler tenders, pest con­ trollers, and general maintenance repairers. Sources of Additional Information  Information about janitorial jobs may be obtained from a local State employment service office or from: Building Service Contractors Association International, 10201 Lee High­ way, Suite 225, Fairfax, VA 22030.  Medical Assistants (D.O.T. 079.364-010, and -014, .367-010, and .374-018, 355.667-010)  Nature of the Work  Medical assistants help physicians examine and treat patients and per­ form routine tasks to keep offices running smoothly. Medical assis­ tants should not be confused with physician assistants, who examine, diagnose, and treat patients, under the direct supervision of a physi­ cian. Physician assistants are discussed elsewhere in the Handbook. The duties of medical assistants vary from office to office, depend­ ing on the location and size of the practice and the physician’s special­ ty. In small practices, medical assistants are usually “generalists,” handling both clerical and clinical duties and reporting directly to the office manager or physician. Those in large practices tend to specialize in a particular area under the supervision of department administrators.  Medical assistants perform many clerical duties. They answer tele­ phones, greet patients, update and file patient medical records, fill out insurance forms, handle correspondence, schedule appointments, arrange for hospital admission and laboratory services, and handle billing and bookkeeping. Clinical duties vary according to State law and include taking and recording vital signs and medical histories; explaining treatment pro­ cedures to patients; preparing patients for examination; and assisting during the examination. Medical assistants collect and prepare labo­ ratory specimens or perform basic laboratory tests on the premises; dispose of contaminated supplies; and sterilize medical instruments. They instruct patients about medication and special diets, prepare and administer medications as directed by a physician, authorize drug refills as directed, telephone prescriptions to a pharmacy, draw blood, prepare patients for X-rays, take EKG’s, remove sutures, and change dressings. Medical assistants may also arrange examining room instruments and equipment, purchase and maintain supplies and equipment, and keep waiting and examining rooms neat and clean. Assistants who specialize have additional duties. Podiatric medical assistants make castings of feet, expose and develop X-rays, and assist podiatrists at surgery. Ophthalmic medical assistants help oph­ thalmologists provide medical eye care. They use precision instru­ ments to administer diagnostic tests, measure and record vision, and test the functioning of eyes and eye muscles. They also show patients how to use eye dressings, protective shields, and safety glasses, and insert, remove, and care for contact lenses. Under the direction of the physician, they may administer medications, including eye drops. They also maintain optical and surgical instruments and assist the ophthalmologist in surgery. Working Conditions  Medical assistants work in a well-lighted, clean environment. They constantly interact with other people, and may have to handle several responsibilites at once. Most full-time medical assistants work a regular 40-hour week. Some work evenings and weekends. Employment  Medical assistants held about 165,000 jobs in 1990. Three out of five were employed in physicians’ offices, and about 1 in 5 worked in offices of other health practitioners such as chiropractors, optometrists, and podiatrists. Others worked in hospitals, nursing homes, and other health care facilities.  (CAHEA) and the Accrediting Bureau of Health Education Schools (ABHES). In 1991, there were 186 medical assisting programs accredited by CAHEA and 127 accredited by ABHES. The Joint Review Committee for Opthalmic Medical Personnel has approved 12 programs in opthalmic medical assisting. Although there is no licensing for medical assistants, some States require a test or a short course before performing procedures such as taking x-rays, drawing blood, or giving injections. Employers prefer to hire experienced workers or certified applicants who have passed a national examination, indicating that certain standards of competence have been met. The American Association of Medical Assistants awards the Certified Medical Assistant credential; the American Medical Technologists awards the Registered Medical Assistant cre­ dential; the American Society of Podiatric Medical Assistants awards the Podiatric Medical Assistant Certified credential; and the Joint Commission on Allied Health Personnel in Ophthalmology awards the Ophthalmic Medical Assistant credential at three levels: Certified Ophthalmic Assistant, Certified Ophthalmic Technician, and Certi­ fied Ophthalmic Medical Technologist. Because medical assistants deal with the public, a neat, wellgroomed appearance and a courteous, pleasant manner are needed. Medical assistants must be good at putting patients at ease, listening to them, and explaining physicians’ instructions. Conscientiousness and respect for the confidential nature of medical information are required. Clinical duties require a reasonable level of manual dexteri­ ty and visual acuity. Medical assistants may be able to advance to office manager or become ward clerks, medical record clerks, phlebotomists, or EKG technicians in hospitals. Medical assistants may qualify for a wide variety of administrative support occupations, or may teach medical assisting. Some, with additional schooling, enter other health occupa­ tions such as nursing and medical technology. Job Outlook  Employment of medical assistants is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005 as the health services industry expands. Employment growth will be driven by the increased medical needs of an aging population, growth in the number of health practitioners, more diagnostic testing, and the increased volume and complexity of paperwork. Most job openings, however, will result from the need to replace experienced assistants who leave the occupation.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  Medical assisting is one of the few health occupations open to indi­ viduals with no formal training. Although education in medical assisting is available at both the secondary and postsecondary levels, such training—while generally preferred—is not always required. It is still sometimes the case that medical assistants are trained on the job. Applicants usually need a high school diploma or the equivalent. High school courses in mathematics, health, biology, typing, book­ keeping, computers, and office skills are helpful. Volunteer experi­ ence in the health care field may also be helpful. Formal programs in medical assisting are offered in vocationaltechnical high schools, postsecondary vocational schools, community and junior colleges, and in colleges and universities. College-level programs usually last 1 to 2 years and lead to an associate degree. Vocational programs can take up to 1 year and lead to a diploma or certificate. Courses cover anatomy, physiology, and medical termi­ nology as well as typing, transcription, recordkeeping, accounting, and insurance processing. Students learn laboratory techniques, clini­ cal and diagnostic procedures, pharmaceutical principles and medica­ tion administration, and first aid. They are also instructed in office practices, patient relations, and medical law and ethics. Accredited programs may include an externship that provides practical experi­ ence in physicians’ offices, hospitals, or other health care facilities. Two agencies recognized by the U.S. Department of Education accredit programs in medical assisting: The American Medical Asso­ ciation’s Committee on Allied Health Education and Accreditation  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Medical assistants is one of the fastest growing occupations. 17  In view of the high turnover as well as the preference of many physicians for trained personnel, job prospects should be excellent for medical assistants with formal training or experience, particularly those with formal certification. Earnings  The earnings of medical assistants vary widely, depending on experi­ ence, skill level, and location. According to a survey conducted by the Committee on Allied Health Education and Accreditation, the average starting salary for graduates of the medical assistant pro­ grams they accredit was about $14,000 a year in 1990. According to limited information, experienced medical assistants averaged several thousand dollars more. Related Occupations  Workers in other medical support occupations include medical secre­ taries, hospital admitting clerks, pharmacy helpers, medical record clerks, dental assistants, occupational therapy aides, and physical therapy aides.  even years, aides are expected to develop ongoing relationships with them and respond to them in a positive, caring way. Psychiatric aides are also known as mental health assistants, psy­ chiatric nursing assistants, or ward attendants. They care for mentally impaired or emotionally disturbed individuals. They work under a team that may include psychiatrists, psychologists, psychiatric nurses, social workers, and therapists. In addition to helping patients dress, bathe, groom, and eat, psychiatric aides socialize with them, and lead them in educational and recreational activities. Psychiatric aides may play games such as cards with the patients, watch television with them, or participate in group activities such as sports or field trips. They observe patients and report any signs which might be important for the professional staff to know. If necessary, they help restrain unruly patients, and accompany patients to and from wards for exam­ ination and treatment. Because they have the closest contact with patients, psychiatric aides have a great deal of influence on patients’ outlook and treatment. Working Conditions  Registered Medical Assistants of American Medical Technologists, 710 Higgins Rd., Park Ridge, IL 60068.  Most full-time aides work about 40 hours a week, but because patients need care 24 hours a day, some aides work evenings, nights, weekends, and holidays. Many work part-time. Aides spend many hours standing. Since they may have to move partially paralyzed patients in and out of bed or help them stand or walk, aides must guard against back injury. Nursing aides often have unpleasant duties; they empty bed pans, change soiled bed linens, and care for disoriented and irritable patients. Psychiatric aides are often confronted with violent patients. While their work can be emotionally draining, many aides gain satis­ faction from assisting those in need.  For a list of ABHES-accredited educational programs in medical assisting, write:  Employment  Sources of Additional Information  Information about career opportunities, CAHEA-accredited educa­ tional programs in medical assisting, and requirements for the Certi­ fied Medical Assistant exam is available from: The American Association of Medical Assistants, 20 North Wacker Dr., Suite 1575, Chicago, IL 60606.  Information about career opportunities and requirements for taking the Registered Medical Assistant certification exam are available from:  •" Accrediting Bureau of Health Education Schools, Oak Manor Office, 29089 U.S. 20 West, Elkhart, IN 46514.  Information about career opportunities, training programs, and requirements to become a Certified Ophthalmic Assistant is available from: *" Joint Commission on Allied Health Personnel in Ophthalmology, 2025 Woodlane Dr., St. Paul, MN 55125-2995.  Information about careers for podiatric assistants is available from: American Society of Podiatric Medical Assistants, 2124 S. Austin Blvd., Cicero, IL 60650.  Nursing aides held about 1,274,000 jobs in 1990, and psychiatric aides held about 100,000 jobs. About one-half of all nursing aides worked in nursing homes, and about one-fourth worked in hospitals. Some worked in residential care facilities or in private households. Most psychiatric aides worked in State and county mental institu­ tions, psychiatric units of general hospitals, private psychiatric facili­ ties, community mental health centers, residential facilities for the developmentally disabled, halfway houses, and drug abuse and alco­ holism treatment programs. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  Nursing Aides and Psychiatric Aides (D.O.T. 354.374-010, .377-010, and .677-010; 355.377-014 and -018, .674­ 014,-018, and-026)  In many cases, neither a high school diploma nor previous work experience is necessary for a job as a nursing or psychiatric aide. A few employers, however, require some training or experience. Hospi­ tals may require experience as a nursing aide or home health aide. Nursing homes often hire inexperienced workers with the understand­ ing that they complete 75 hours of mandatory training and pass a competency evaluation program within 4 months of employment  Nature of the Work  Nursing aides and psychiatric aides help care for physically or men­ tally ill, injured, disabled, or infirm individuals confined to hospitals, nursing or residential care facilities, and mental health settings. (Homemaker-home health aides, whose duties are similar but who work in clients’ homes, are discussed elsewhere in the Handbook.) Nursing aides, also known as nursing assistants or hospital atten­ dants, work under the supervision of nursing and medical staff. They answer patients’ call bells, deliver messages, serve meals, make beds, and feed, dress, and bathe patients. Aides may also give massages, provide skin care to patients who cannot move, take temperatures, pulse, respiration, and blood pressure, and help patients get in and out of bed and walk. They may also escort patients to operating and examining rooms, keep patients’ rooms neat, set up equipment, or store and move supplies. Aides observe patients’ physical, mental, and emotional conditions and report any change to the nursing or medical staff. Nursing aides employed in nursing homes are sometimes called geriatric aides. They are often the principal caregivers in nursing homes, having far more contact with residents than other members of the staff do. Since residents may stay in a nursing home for months or 18  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  fett'  ■/.  OlT  Employment of nursing aides will grow rapidly as more people enter nursing homes.  Aides who complete the program are placed on the State registry of nursing aides. Some States require psychiatric aides to complete a formal training program. These occupations can offer young people an entry into the world of work. The flexibility of night and weekend hours also provides high school and college students a chance to work during the school year. The work is also open to middle-aged and older men and women. Nursing aide training is offered in high schools, vocational-techni­ cal centers, many nursing homes, and community colleges. Courses cover body mechanics, nutrition, anatomy and physiology, infection control, and communications skills. Personal care skills such as the bathing, feeding, and grooming of patients are also taught. Some facilities, other than nursing homes, provide classroom instruction for newly hired aides, while others rely exclusively on informal on-the-job instruction from a licensed nurse or an experi­ enced aide. Such training may last several days to a few months. From time to time, aides may also attend lectures, workshops, and in­ service training. Applicants should be healthy, tactful, patient, understanding, emo­ tionally stable, dependable, and have a desire to help people. They should also be able to work as part of a team, and be willing to per­ form repetitive, routine tasks. Opportunities for advancement within these occupations are limit­ ed. Aides may be able to enter other health occupations, but generally need additional formal training. Some employers and unions provide opportunities by simplifying the educational paths to advancement. Experience as an aide can also help individuals decide whether to pursue a career in the health care field. Job Outlook  Job prospects for nursing aides should be very good through the year 2005. Employment of nursing aides is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations in response to an emphasis on rehabilitation and the long-term care needs of a rapidly growing pop­ ulation of those 75 years old and older. Employment will increase as a result of the expansion of nursing homes and other long-term care facilities for people with chronic illnesses and disabling conditions, many of whom are elderly. Also increasing employment of nursing aides will be modem medical technology which, while saving more lives, increases the need to provide extended care. As a result, nurs­ ing and personal care facilities are expected to grow very rapidly, and to provide most of the new jobs for nursing aides. Employment of psychiatric aides is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations. Employment will rise in response to the sharp increase in the number of older persons—many of whom will require mental health services. Employment of aides in private psychiatric facilities, community mental health centers, and halfway houses is likely to grow because of increasing public acceptance of formal treatment for drug abuse and alcoholism, and a lessening of the stigma attached to those receiving mental health care. While employment in private psychiatric facilities may grow, employment in public mental hospitals is likely to be stagnant due to constraints on public spending. Replacement needs will constitute the major source of openings for aides. Turnover is high, a reflection of modest entry requirements, low pay, and lack of advancement opportunities. Earnings  Median annual earnings of nursing and psychiatric aides who worked full time in 1990 were about $13,100. The middle 50 percent earned between $10,100 and $17,300. The lowest 10 percent earned about $8,100 or less. The top 10 percent earned $22,400 or more. Nursing aides who worked full-time in private hospitals averaged $7.63 per hour, excluding premiums paid for overtime, and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts in January 1991. Among 19 metropolitan areas studied separately, earnings ranged from $6.47 in Dallas to $10.98 in New York. Part-time nursing aides averaged $7.05 per hour. Aides working in nursing homes earned a median annual salary of about $11,500 in 1991, according to a survey by the Hospital Com­ pensation Service, Hawthorne, NJ.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Aides in hospitals generally receive at least 1 week’s paid vacation after 1 year of service. Paid holidays and sick leave, hospital and medical benefits, extra pay for late-shift work, and pension plans also are available to many hospital and some nursing home employees. Related Occupations  Nursing aides and psychiatric aides help people who need routine care or treatment. So do homemaker-home health aides, childcare attendants, companions, occupational therapy aides, and physical therapy aides. Sources of Additional Information  For information on nursing careers in hospitals, contact: American Hospital Association, Division of Nursing, 840 North Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, IL 60611.  For a copy of Health Careers in Long-Term Care, write: American Health Care Association, 1201 L St. NW., Washington, DC 20005.  Information about employment also may be obtained from local hospitals, nursing homes, and psychiatric facilities.  Preschool Workers (D.O.T. 092.227-018; 355.674-010; 359.677-010, -018, -026)  Nature of the Work  Nurturing and teaching preschool children, those who are younger than 5 years old, is the job of preschool workers. Found in daycare centers, preschools, and family daycare homes, preschool workers play an important role in shaping the kind of adolescent a child will become by caring for the child when the parents are at work or away for other reasons. In addition to attending to children’s basic needs, these workers organize activities that stimulate the children’s physi­ cal, emotional, intellectual, and social growth. They help children explore their interests, develop their talents and independence, build self-confidence, and learn how to behave with others. Preschool workers must work in two different worlds—the child’s and the parent’s. At the same time that they create a safe, comfortable environment in which children can grow and learn, they must also keep records of each child’s progress and discuss the children’s progress and needs with the parents. Depending on their experience and educational background, some preschool workers—often called preschool teachers—are responsible only for children’s educational activities. Other workers—sometimes called childcare workers—pro­ vide only basic care to children. The majority of preschool workers, however, perform a combination of basic care and teaching duties. Young children cannot be taught in the same manner as older stu­ dents because they are less physically, emotionally, and mentally developed. What results is a less structured approach to teaching preschool children, including small group lessons, one-on-one instruction, and learning through play. The combination of teaching and basic care duties that preschool workers perform arises from this informal nature of preschool teaching. For example, a worker who shows a child how to tie a shoe teaches the child and also provides for that child’s basic care needs. Preschool workers greet children as they arrive, help them remove outer garments, and teach them how to dress and undress. When car­ ing for infants, they feed and change them. In order to ensure a wellbalanced program, preschool workers prepare daily and long-term schedules of activities. Each day’s activities must balance individual and group play with quiet and active time. Recognizing the impor­ tance of play, preschool workers build their program around it. They capitalize on children’s play to further language development (story­ telling and acting games), improve social skills (working together to build a neighborhood in a sandbox), and introduce scientific and mathematical concepts (balancing and counting blocks when building a bridge or mixing colors when painting). (A statement on teacher aides—who assist classroom teachers—appears elsewhere in the Handbook.) 19  Helping to keep children healthy is an important part of the job. Preschool workers serve nutritious meals and snacks and teach good eating habits and personal hygiene. They see to it that children have proper rest periods. They spot children who may not feel well or show signs of emotional or developmental problems and discuss these matters with their supervisor or the child’s parents. Working Conditions  Preschool care facilities may be in private homes, schools, religious institutions, workplaces where employers provide care for employ­ ees’ children, or private buildings. Individuals who provide care in their own homes are generally called family daycare providers. (Childcare workers who work in the child’s home are covered in the statement on private household workers found elsewhere in the Handbook.) Watching children grow, enjoy learning, and gain new skills can be very rewarding. The work, however, can be physically and emotion­ ally taxing, as workers constantly stand, walk, bend, stoop, and lift to attend to each child’s interests and problems. Preschool workers must be enthusiastic and constantly alert, anticipate and prevent problems, deal with disruptive children, and provide fair but firm discipline. To ensure that children receive proper supervision, State regula­ tions require certain ratios of workers to children. The ratio varies with the age of the children. Child development experts generally recommend that a single caregiver be responsible for no more than three or four infants (less than 1 year old), five or six toddlers (1 to 2 years old), or 10 preschool-age children (between 2 and 5 years old). The working hours of preschool workers vary widely. Daycare centers are generally open year round with long hours so that parents can drop off and pick up their children before and after work. Day­ care centers employ full-time and part-time staff with staggered shifts in order to cover the entire day. Public school preschool programs generally operate during the typical 9- or 10-month school year, employing both full-time and part-time workers. Family daycare providers have flexibile hours and daily routines, but may work long or unusual hours to fit parents’ work schedules. Employment  Preschool workers held about 990,000 jobs in 1990. Many worked part time. About half of all preschool workers are self-employed, most of whom are family daycare providers.  About half of all salaried preschool workers are found in child day­ care centers and preschools, and nearly 1 in 4 works for a religious institution. The rest work in other service organizations and in gov­ ernment. Some employers run for-profit operations; many are affiliat­ ed with a local or national chain. Other employers, such as religious institutions, community agencies, school systems, and State and local governments, are nonprofit. A growing number of business firms operate daycare centers for the children of their employees. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  The training and qualifications required of preschool workers vary widely. Many States have licensing requirements that regulate care­ giver training, which generally range from a high school diploma to college courses or a college degree in child development or early childhood education. Many States require a Child Development Associate (CDA) cre­ dential, which is offered by the Council for Early Childhood Profes­ sional Recognition. The CDA program consists of two parts: CDA training and CDA assessment. The training portion, offered in local schools and colleges, teaches individuals the skills needed by centerbased childcare staff and family daycare providers. Completion of the training program is not a requirement for assessment. However, in order to receive the credential, the applicant must be at least 18 years old and demonstrate the requisite skills and knowledge, whether acquired through formal training or experience, to a team of childcare professionals from the Council for Early Childhood Professional Recognition. Some employers may not require a CDA credential, but may require secondary or postsecondary courses in child development and early childhood education, and possibly work experience in a child­ care setting. Public schools typically require a 4-year degree and State teacher certification. Teacher training programs include a vari­ ety of liberal arts courses, student teaching, and prescribed profes­ sional courses, including instruction in teaching gifted, disadvantaged, and other children with special needs. Preschool workers should be mature, patient, understanding, and articulate, and have energy and physical stamina. Skills in music, art, drama, and storytelling are also important. Those who work for them­ selves must have business sense and management abilities. As preschool workers gain experience, they may advance to super­ visory or administrative positions in large childcare centers or preschools. Often, however, these positions require additional train­ ing, such as a bachelor’s degree. With a bachelor’s degree, preschool workers may become certified to teach in public schools at the kindergarten, elementary, and secondary school levels. Some workers set up their own childcare businesses. Job Outlook  Job openings for preschool workers should be plentiful. 20   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Employment of preschool workers is projected to increase much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. In addition to the expected increase in the number of children under the age of 5 between 1990 and 2005, the proportion of youngsters in day­ care and preschool is expected to increase, reflecting a shift in the type of childcare arrangements parents choose. Many parents turn to formal childcare arrangements for a variety of reasons—they may need two incomes to support a certain standard of living, they may find it too difficult to set up a satisfactory arrangement with a rela­ tive, babysitter, or live-in worker, or they may prefer the formal arrangements for personal reasons, such as a more structured learning environment. Rising labor force participation among women age 16-44, though increasing more slowly than during the 1980’s, will also contribute to the growth of employment for preschool workers. Currently, mothers of very young children are almost as likely to work as other women, and this pattern is not expected to change. Moreover, women are returning to work sooner after childbirth. Job openings will be plentiful through the year 2005. Many preschool workers leave the occupation each year for other, often bet­ ter paying, jobs, family responsibilities, or other reasons. The rela­ tively high turnover, combined with an increased demand for preschool workers, is expected to create many openings. Persons who  are interested in this work and suited for it should have little trouble finding and keeping a job. Earnings  Pay depends on the employer and educational attainment of the work­ er. While the pay is generally low, in some cases, more education means higher earnings. In 1990, median weekly earnings of full-time, salaried childcare workers were $200. The middle 50 percent earned between $160 and $270; the top 10 percent earned at least $330; and the bottom 10 per­ cent earned less than $130. The small number of preschool workers in public schools who have State teacher certification generally have salaries and benefits comparable to kindergarten and elementary school teachers. Accord­ ing to the National Education Association, kindergarten and elemen­ tary school teachers earned an average salary of $32,400 in 1990. (A statement on kindergarten and elementary school teachers is found elsewhere in the Handbook.) Earnings of self-employed childcare workers vary depending on the hours worked, number and ages of the children, and the geo­ graphic area. Benefits for preschool workers also vary. Many employers offer free or discounted childcare to employees. Some offer a full benefits package, including health insurance and paid vacations, while others offer no benefits at all. Some employers offer seminars and work­ shops to help workers improve upon or learn new skills. A few are willing to cover the cost of courses taken at community colleges or technical schools. Related Occupations  Childcare work requires patience; creativity; an ability to nurture, motivate, teach, and influence children; and, in some cases, leader­ ship and organizational and administrative abilities. Others who work with children and require these aptitudes include teacher aides, chil­ dren’s tutors, kindergarten and elementary school teachers, and early childhood program directors. Sources of Additional Information  For information on careers in educating children and issues affecting preschool workers, contact; National Association for the Education of Young Children, 1834 Connecti­ cut Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20009. Association for Childhood Education International, 11141 Georgia Ave., Suite 200, Wheaton, MD 20902.  For information on the federally sponsored Head Start program, contact; Head Start Bureau, Chief, Education Service Branch, P.O. Box 1182, Washington, DC 20013.  For eligibility requirements and a description of the Child Devel­ opment Associate credential, write to: *■ Council for Early Childhood Professional Recognition, 1718 Connecticut Ave. NW., Suite 500, Washington, DC 20009.  For general information about working in childcare, contact: Childcare Employee Project, 6536 Telegraph Ave., A201, Oakland, CA 64601.  and bathrooms. They also wash dishes, polish silver, and change and make beds. Some wash, fold, and iron clothes. A few wash windows. Other duties may include cooking, looking after a child or an elderly person, feeding pets, answering the telephone and doorbell, and call­ ing and waiting for repair workers. General houseworkers may also take clothes and laundry to the cleaners, buy groceries, and do other errands. Household workers whose primary responsibility is taking care of children are called childcare workers. Those employed on an hourly basis are usually called baby-sitters. Childcare workers dress, feed, and bathe children; supervise their play, wash their clothes, and clean their rooms. They may also waken them and put them to sleep, take them for doctors’ visits, and discipline them. Those who are in charge of infants, sometimes called infant nurses or nannies, also prepare bottles and change diapers. Tutors or gov­ ernesses look after older children. They may help them with schoolwork, teach them a foreign language, and guide them in their general upbringing. (Childcare workers who work outside the child’s home are covered in the statement on childcare workers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Those who assist elderly, handicapped, or convalescent people are called companions or personal attendants. Depending on the employ­ er’s needs, a companion or attendant might help with bathing and dressing, prepare and serve meals, and keep the house tidy. They also may read to their employers, write letters for them, play cards or games, and go with them on walks and outings. Companions may also accompany their employers to medical appointments and handle their social and business affairs. Households with a large staff may include a housekeeper or a but­ ler, a cook, a caretaker, and a launderer. Housekeepers and butlers hire, supervise, and coordinate the work of the household staff and keep the household running smoothly. Butlers also receive and announce guests, answer telephones, deliver messages, serve food and drinks, chauffeur, or act as a personal attendant. Cooks plan and prepare meals, clean the kitchen, order groceries and supplies, and may also serve meals. Caretakers do heavy housework and general home maintenance. They wash windows, wax floors, and hang draperies. They maintain heating and other equipment and do light carpentry, painting, and odd jobs. They may also mow the lawn and do some gardening if the household does not have a gardener. Working Conditions  Private household workers usually work in pleasant and comfortable homes or apartments. Most are dayworkers who live in their own homes and travel to work. Some live in the home of their employer, generally with their own room and bath. Live-ins usually work longer hours. However, if they work evenings or weekends, they may get other time off. Living in may isolate them from family and friends. On the other hand, they often become part of their employer’s family and may derive satisfaction from caring for them. Being a general houseworker can also be isolating, since work is usually done alone. Housekeeping is hard work. Both dayworkers and live-ins are on their feet most of the day and do much walking, lifting, bending, stooping, and reaching. In addition, some employers may be very demanding. Employment  Private Household Workers (D.O.T. 301 except 687-018; 302.685.010, .687-010; 305; 309 except .354­ 010 and .677-014)  Private household workers held about 782,000 jobs in 1990. More than half were general houseworkers, mostly dayworkers. About 40 percent were childcare workers, including baby-sitters. About 7 per­ cent were housekeepers, butlers, cooks, and launderers. Most jobs are in big cities and their affluent suburbs. Some are on large estates or in resorts away from cities.  Nature of the Work  Private household workers clean homes, care for children, plan and cook meals, do laundry, administer the household account books, and perform numerous other duties. A number of household workers work for two or more employers. Most household workers are general houseworkers and usually the only worker employed in the home. They dust and polish furniture; sweep, mop, and wax floors; vacuum; and clean ovens, refrigerators,  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  Private household workers generally do not need any special training. Individuals who cannot find other work because of limited language or other skills often turn to this work. Most jobs require the ability to clean well, cook, or take care of children. These skills are generally learned by young people while helping with housework at home. Some training takes place on the job. Employers show the household 21  The supply situation is not likely to improve. Unattractiveness of the work, low status, low pay, lack of fringe benefits, and limited advancement potential deter many prospective household workers. In addition, demographic factors will continue to aggravate the supply situation. Teenagers and young adults, the age group from which many childcare workers and baby-sitters come, will rebound in abso­ lute terms, but continue to slip further as a share of the workforce. Moreover, recent changes in the immigration law may reduce the number of immigrants available for private household work. Due to the limited supply of household workers, many employers have turned to domestic cleaning firms, childcare centers, and tempo­ rary help firms to meet their needs for household help. This trend is expected to continue. (See the statements on janitors and cleaners, childcare workers, and homemaker-home health aides elsewhere in the Handbook.) Although employment of private household workers is not expect­ ed to grow, many jobs will be available because of the need to replace the large number of workers who leave this occupation every year. Persons who are interested in this work and suited for it should have no trouble finding and keeping jobs. Earnings  Many private household workers are primarily childcare workers. workers what they want done and how. For childcare workers and companions, general education, background, and ability to get along with the person they will care for are most important. Home economics courses in high schools and vocational and adult education schools offer training in cooking and childcare. Courses in child development, first aid, and nursing in postsecondary schools are also useful. Special schools for butlers, nannies, and governesses teach house­ hold administration, bookkeeping, early childhood education, nutri­ tion, and child care. Private household workers must be honest, discreet, dependable, courteous, and neat. They need physical stamina. Opportunities for advancement within this occupation are limited. There are very few large households with big staffs where general houseworkers can advance to cook, executive housekeeper, or butler, and these jobs may require specialized training. Advancement usually consists of better pay and working conditions. Workers may move to similar jobs in hotels, hospitals, and restaurants, where the pay and fringe benefits are usually better. Others transfer into better paying unrelated jobs. Job Outlook  Employment of private household workers is expected to decline through the year 2005. Jobs will be readily available, however, and prospects should be excellent for those interested in entering the field. For many years, demand for household help has outstripped the supply of workers willing to take domestic jobs. The imbalance is expected to persist—and possibly worsen—through the year 2005. Demand is expected to grow as more women join the labor force and need help running their households. Demand for companions and per­ sonal attendants is also expected to rise due to projected rapid growth in the elderly population.  22  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Earnings of private household workers depend on the type of work, the number of hours, household and staff size, geographic location, and experience. Nearly 2 out of 3 private household workers work part time, or less than 35 hours a week. Some work only 2 or 3 days a week, while oth­ ers may work half a day 4 or 5 days a week. Earnings vary from about $10 an hour or more in a big city to less than the Federal mini­ mum wage in some rural areas (some domestic workers are not cov­ ered by minimum wage laws). Those covered by the Federal minimum wage receive $4.25 an hour. Employers can pay workers younger than 20 years a lower training wage for up to 6 months. In addition, dayworkers often get carfare and a free meal. Live-in domestics usually earn more than dayworkers and also get free room and board. However, they often work longer hours. Baby-sitters usu­ ally have the lowest earnings. In 1990, median earnings for full-time private household workers were about $172 a week. The middle 50 percent earned from about $110 to $226 a week, while the top 10 percent earned about $290 a week or more. The median for cleaners was about $190 and for child­ care workers, about $132 a week. Some full-time live-in housekeepers or butlers, nannies, and gov­ ernesses earn much higher wages than these. In New York City, for example, an experienced cook may earn up to $900 a week. Trained nannies start at $250-$450 per week, and with experience may earn up to $800 per week. A major domo, or senior butler, who runs a large household and supervises a staff of six people or more may earn up to $1,000 a week. Most private household workers have very limited or no health insurance, retirement plans, or unemployment compensation. Related Occupations  Other workers with similar duties are building custodians, hotel and restaurant cleaners, childcare workers in day care centers, home health aides, cooks, kitchen workers, waiters and waitresses, and bartenders. Sources of Additional Information  Information about job opportunities for private household workers is available from local private employment agencies and State employ­ ment service offices.  New from BLS  cien  3 IHEA few** *  Do you want to know more about work in industries? • Number of jobs • Geographic areas having the most jobs • Size of establishments • Goods and services produced • Kinds of workers employed—what types of work is done • Common working conditions and hazards • Jobs that can be entered from high school; from college • Jobs that do not require specialized education or training • Opportunities for acquiring skills  Then, don’t miss this new publication!  Career Guide to Industries Career Guide to Industries, BLS Bulletin 2403, was produced by the same staff that prepares the Occupational Outlook Handbook—the Federal Goverment’s premier career guidance publication. This new book is a must for guidance counselors, individuals planning their careers, job seekers, and others who want the latest word on career information from an industry perspective.  • Prospects for upward mobility • Long-term employment outlook • Reasons for changing staffing patterns Digitized•for FRASER of key occupations Earnings https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Note: At press time, the price for this publication was not available. Contact any of the Bureau of Labor Statistics Regional Offices listed on the inside front cover, or the Division of Occupational Outlook, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, DC 20212.  Related Publications U S Department of Labor  Occupational Projections and Training Data  1992 Edition  A Statistical and Research Supplement to the 1092-93 Occupational Outlook Handbook U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics April 1992 Bulletin 2401  i k I t 1  k k k k  k k  k  > k i  BLS Bulletin 2401  BLS Bulletin 2402  Occupational Projections and Training Data, 1992 Edition  Outlook 1990-2005  This supplement to the Occupational Outlook Handbook pro­ vides the statistical and technical data supporting the infor­ mation presented in the Handbook. Education and training planners, career counselors, and jobseekers can find valu­ able information that ranks occupations by employment growth, earnings, susceptibility to unemployment, separation rates, and part-time work.  Every 2 years, the Bureau of Labor Statistics produces detailed projections of the U.S. economy and labor force. This bulletin presents the Bureau’s latest analyses of economic and industrial growth, the labor force, and trends in occupa­ tional employment into the 21st century. An overview article focuses on important issues raised by these projections.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Note: At press time, prices for these publications were not available. For prices and ordering information, contact any of the Bureau of Labor Statistics Regional Offices listed on the inside of the front cover, or the Division of Occupational Outlook, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, DC 20212.
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