View PDF

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

L <a-3jH0L\ 3400-10/ 992-93  Communications, Design, Performing Arts, and Related Occupations Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1992-93 Edition U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics Bulletin 2400-10   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  AUG | 3 (99J  Actors, Directors, and Producers (D.O.T. 150 except .027-014; 159.067-010, 014, .117-010, .167-014, -018, .267-010, and .647-014; 184.117-010, 167-030, and -074; 187.167-174, -178, -182; 961.364-010, and .667-014)  Nature of the Work  Actors, directors, and producers “make words come alive.” They cre­ ate a visual and aural image based on written words of a script in the­ aters, film, television, and radio. Actors entertain and communicate with people through their inter­ pretation of dramatic roles. Actors read scripts and decide how they want to intrepret their role. Then they discuss their ideas with direc­ tors and voice coaches on how to portray their characters. They rely on facial and verbal expression as well as body motion for creative effect. In some roles, they sing and dance. They also may use props and costumes to help communicate their ideas. Actors memorize lines and stage directions. Most actors also put on their own make up. Only a few actors achieve recognition as stars on the stage, in motion pictures, or on television. A somewhat larger number are well-known, experienced performers, who frequently are cast in sup­ porting roles. Most actors struggle for a toehold in the profession and pick up parts wherever they can. Some actors employed by theater companies teach acting in courses offered to the public. In addition to the actors with speaking parts, “extras,” who have no lines to deliver, are used in almost all motion pictures, in many televi­ sion shows, and in some theater productions. Directors interpret plays or scripts. In addition, they audition and select cast members, conduct rehearsals, and direct the work of the cast and crew. Directors use their knowledge of acting, voice, and movement to achieve the best possible performance and usually approve the scenery, costumes, choreography, and music. Producers are entrepreneurs. They select plays or scripts, arrange financing, and decide on the size of the production and its budget. They hire directors, principal members of the cast, and key produc­ tion staff members, negotiate contracts with artistic personnel, often in accordance with collective bargaining agreements. Producers also coordinate the activities of writers, directors, managers, and other personnel. Working Conditions  Acting demands patience and total commitment, because actors must wait for parts or filming schedules, work long hours, and often travel. Evening work is a regular part of a stage actor’s life. Flawless perfor­ mances require tedious memorizing of lines and repetitive rehearsals. On television, actors must deliver a good performance with very little preparation. An actor needs stamina to withstand the heat of stage or studio lights, the long, irregular hours, and the adverse weather con­ ditions that may exist “on location.” When plays are “on the road,” traveling is necessary. Actors often face the anxiety of intermittent employment and rejections when auditioning for work. Directors and producers often work under stress as they try to meet schedules, stay within budgets, and resolve personnel problems. Employment  In 1990, actors, directors, and producers held an average of about 95,000 jobs in motion pictures, stage plays, television, and radio. Many others were between jobs, so that the total number of people actually employed as actors, directors, and producers over the course of the year was higher. In the winter, most employment opportunities on the stage are in New York and other large cities. In the summer, stock companies in suburban and resort areas provide employment. In addition, many cities have nonprofit professional companies such as “little theaters,” repertory companies, and dinner theaters, which pro­ vide opportunities for local amateur talent as well as for professional entertainers. Normally, casts are selected in New York City for shows that go on the road.  2  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Directors and producers often work under stress as they try to meet schedules, stay within budgets, and resolve personnel problems. Employment in motion pictures and films for television is centered in Hollywood and New York City. However, studios are also located in Florida, Texas, and other parts of the country. In addition, many films are shot on location and employ local professionals and nonpro­ fessionals as day players and extras. In television, opportunities are at the network entertainment centers in New York and Los Angeles and local television stations around the country. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  Aspiring actors and directors should take part in high school and col­ lege plays, or work with little theaters and other acting groups for experience. Formal dramatic training or acting experience is generally neces­ sary, although some people enter the field without it. Many experi­ enced actors get formal training to learn new skills and improve old ones. Training can be obtained at dramatic arts schools in New York and Los Angeles, and at colleges and universities throughout the coun­ try offering bachelor’s or higher degrees in dramatic and theater arts. College drama curriculums usually include courses in liberal arts, stage speech and movement, directing, playwriting, play production, design, and history of the drama, as well as practical courses in acting. The best way to start is to use local opportunities and to build on them. Local and regional theater experience may help in obtaining work in New York or Los Angeles. Modeling experience may also be helpful. Actors need talent, creative ability, and training that will enable them to portray different characters. Training in singing and dancing is especially useful. Actors must have poise, stage presence, and the ability to affect an audience, plus the ability to follow direc­ tions. Physical appearance is often a deciding factor in being selected for particular roles. Many professional actors rely on agents or managers to find them performing engagements, negotiate contracts, and plan their careers. To become a movie extra, one must usually be listed by a casting agency, such as Central Casting, a no-fee agency that supplies all extras to the major movie studios in Hollywood. Applicants are accepted only when the number of persons of a particular type on the list—for example, athletic young women, old men, or small chil­ dren—is below the foreseeable need. In recent years, only a very small proportion of the applicants have succeeded in being listed. There are no specific training requirements for directors and pro­ ducers. Talent, experience, and business acumen are very important. Directors and producers come from different backgrounds. Actors, writers, film editors, and business managers often enter these fields. Formal training in directing and producing is available at some col­ leges and universities. As actors’, directors’, and producers’ reputations grow, they work on larger productions or in more prestigious theaters. Actors also advance to lead roles. Some actors move into acting-related jobs as  For sale by Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office Washington, D.C. 20402  drama coaches or directors of stage, television, radio, or motion pic­ ture productions. A few teach drama in colleges and universities. The length of a performer’s working life depends largely on train­ ing, skill, versatility, and perseverance. Some actors, directors, and producers never retire. Many leave the occupation, however, because they cannot find enough work to make a living. Job Outlook  Employment of actors, directors, and producers is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Rising foreign demand for American productions, combined with a growing domestic market—fueled by the growth of cable tele­ vision, home movie rentals, and television syndications—should stimulate demand for actors and other production personnel. The growth of these recorded media doesn't seem to be drawing any inter­ est away from live productions. People who prefer to see live enter­ tainment are expected to continue to go to theaters for the excitement and aesthetic appreciation. In addition to new jobs, many more will arise as workers leave this high-tumover field. Nevertheless, the large number of people desiring acting careers and the lack of formal entry requirements cause keen competition for acting and directing jobs. Only the most talented find regular employment. This situation should continue through the year 2005. Earnings  Minimum salaries, hours of work, and other conditions of employ­ ment are covered in collective bargaining agreements between pro­ ducers of shows and unions representing workers in this field. The Actors’ Equity Association represents stage actors; the Screen Actors Guild and the Screen Extras Guild cover actors in motion pictures, including televison, commercials, and films; and the American Feder­ ation of Television and Radio Artists (AFTRA) represents televison and radio performers. Most stage directors belong to the Society of Stage Directors and Choreographers, and film and televsion directors belong to the Directors Guild of America. Of course, each actor or director may negotiate for a salary higher than the minimum. The minimum weekly salary for actors in Broadway productions was $850 in 1991. Those in small “off-Broadway” theaters received minimums ranging from $310 to $546 a week, depending on the seat­ ing capacity of the theater. For shows on the road, actors receive an additional $80 per day. Eight performances amount to a week’s work on the stage, and additional performances are paid for as overtime. Actors usually work long hours during rehearsals. Once the show opens, they have more regular hours, working about 24 hours a week. In 1992, motion picture and television actors earned a minimum daily rate of $448, or $1,558 for a 5-day week. Actors also receive additional compensation for reruns. Earnings from acting are low because employment is so irregular. According to data from Actors’ Equity Association, about sixty per­ cent of their members had no earnings from acting in 1990, and only 856 members earned more than $35,000. The median earnings for stage acting in a course of a year is approximately $5,000. The Screen Actors Guild reports the average income their members earn from acting is $12,000 a year. Therefore, many actors must supple­ ment their incomes from acting by holding other jobs. Some well-known actors have salary rates well above the mini­ mums, and the salaries of the few top stars are many times the figures cited, creating a false impression that all actors are highly paid. Many actors who earn more than a set minimum per year are cov­ ered by a union health, welfare, and pension fund, including hospital­ ization insurance, to which employers contribute. Under some employment conditions, Actors’ Equity and AFTRA members have paid vacations and sick leave. Salaries for stage directors vary greatly. The top money is on Broad­ way—$12,400 for a rehearsal period, which usually lasts 5 weeks. Small dinner theaters and summer stock pay much less—$525-$2,315 per week—but offer the most employment opportunities. Producers seldom get a set fee; instead, they get a percentage of a show’s earnings or ticket sales.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Related Occupations  People who work in occupations requiring acting skills include dancers, choreographers, disc jockeys, drama teachers or coaches, and radio and television announcers. Others working in occupations related to acting are playwrights, script writers, stage managers, cos­ tume designers, make-up artists, hair stylists, lighting designers, and set designers. Workers in occupations involved with the business aspects of theater productions include company managers, booking managers, and actors’, directors’, and playwrights’ agents. Sources of Additional Information  For information on relevent associations and recent publications, send a self addressed stamped envelop to; *•“ Associated Actors and Artistes of America, 165th West 46th St., New York, NY 10036.  Information about opportunities in regional theaters may be obtained from: Theatre Communications Group, Inc., 355 Lexington Ave„ New York, NY 10017. A directory of theatrical programs may be purchased for $8 from: *■ National Association of Schools of Theatre, 11250 Roger Bacon Dr., Suite 21, Reston, VA 22090.  Architects (D.O.T. 001.061-010 and .167-010)  Nature of the Work  The design of a building involves far more than its appearance. Buildings must also be functional, safe, and economical and must suit the needs of the people who use them. Architects take all these things into consideration when they design buildings. Architects provide a wide variety of professional services to indi­ viduals and organizations planning a building project. They may be involved in all phases of development, from the initial discussion of general ideas with the client through construction. Their duties require a variety of skills—design, engineering, managerial, and supervisory. The architect and client first discuss the purposes, requirements, and budget of a project. Based on the discussions, the architect pre­ pares a program—a report specifying the requirements the design must meet. The architect then prepares drawings presenting ideas for meeting the client’s needs. After the initial proposals are discussed and accepted, the architect develops final construction documents. These documents show the building’s appearance and details of its construction. Accompanying these are drawings of the structural system; air-conditioning, heating, and ventilating systems; electrical systems; plumbing; and possibly landscape plans. Architects also specify the building materials and, in some cases, the interior furnishings. In developing designs, architects follow building codes, zoning laws, fire regulations, and other ordi­ nances, such as those that require easy access by handicapped persons. Throughout the planning stage, the architect makes necessary changes. The architect may also assist the client in obtaining construction bids, selecting a contractor, and negotiating the construction contract. As construction proceeds, the architect may be employed by the client to visit the building site to ensure that the contractor is follow­ ing the design, using the specified materials, and meeting the speci­ fied standards for the quality of work. The job is not complete until all construction is finished, required tests are made, and construction costs are paid. Architects design a wide variety of buildings, such as office and apartment buildings, schools, churches, factories, hospitals, houses, and airport terminals. They also design multibuilding complexes such as urban centers, college campuses, industrial parks, and entire communities. In addition to designing buildings, architects may advise on the selection of building sites, prepare cost and land-use studies, and do long-range planning for land development. 3  Architects sometimes specialize in one phase of work. Some spe­ cialize in the design of one type of building—for example, hospitals, schools, or housing. Others specialize in construction management or the management of their firm and do little design work. Architects often work with engineers, urban planners, interior designers, land­ scape architects, and others. Working Conditions  Architects generally work in a comfortable environment. Most of their time is spent in offices advising clients, developing reports and drawings, and working with other architects and engineers. However, they also often work at construction sites reviewing the progress of projects. Architects may be under great stress, working nights and weekends to meet deadlines. Employment  Architects held almost 108,000 jobs in 1990. Most jobs were in archi­ tecture firms—the majority of which employ fewer than five workers. Over one-quarter of all architects were self-employed. They practiced as partners in architecture firms or on their own. A few worked for builders, real estate developers, and for government agencies respon­ sible for housing, planning, or community development such as the Departments of Defense, Interior, and Housing and Urban Develop­ ment, and the General Services Administration. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  All States and the District of Columbia require individuals to be licensed (registered) before they may call themselves architects or contract to provide architectural services. Many architecture school graduates work in the field even though they are not licensed. How­ ever, a licensed architect is required to take legal responsibility for all work. Three requirements generally must be met for licensure: A pro­ fessional degree in architecture, a period of practical training or internship (usually for 3 years), and passage of all sections of the Architect Registration Examination. In most States, the professional degree in architecture must be from one of the 96 schools of architecture with programs accredited by the National Architectural Accrediting Board. There are several types of professional degrees in architecture. Over half of all archi­ tecture degrees are from 5-year Bachelor of Architecture programs intended for students entering from high school. A 2-year Master of Architecture program is for students with a preprofessional under­ graduate degree in architecture or a related area, and a 3- or 4-year Master of Architecture program is for students with a degree in another discipline. In addition, there are many combinations and vari­ ations of these degree programs. The choice of degree type depends upon each individual’s prefer­ ence and educational background. Prospective architecture students should carefully consider the available options before committing to a program. For example, although the 5-year Bachelor of Architec-  ture degree offers the fastest route to the professional degree, courses are specialized and, if the student does not complete the program, moving to a nonarchitecture program may be difficult. A typical pro­ gram includes courses in architectural history and theory, building design, including its technical and legal aspects, math, physical sci­ ences, and liberal arts. Many architecture schools also offer graduate education for those who already have a bachelor’s or master’s degree in architecture or other areas. Although graduate education beyond the professional degree is not essential for practicing architects, it is desirable for research, teaching, and certain specialties. Architects must be able to visually communicate their ideas to clients. Artistic and drawing ability is very helpful in doing this, but not essential. More important is a visual orientation and the ability to conceptualize and understand spatial relationships. Good communi­ cation skills (both written and oral), the ability to work independently or as part of a team, and creativity are important qualities for anyone interested in becoming an architect. Computer literacy is also required as most firms use computers for word processing, specifica­ tions writing, two- and three- dimensional drafting, and financial management. A knowledge of computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) is helpful. New graduates usually begin in architecture firms, where they assist in preparing architectural documents or drawings. They also may do research on building codes and materials; or write specifica­ tions for building materials, the method of installation, the quality of finishes, and many other related details. Graduates with degrees in architecture also enter related fields such as graphic, interior, or industrial design; urban planning; real estate development; civil engi­ neering; or construction management. In large firms, architects may advance to supervisory or managerial positions. Some architects become partners in established firms; oth­ ers set up their own firm. Job Outlook  Employment opportunities for architects are expected to be good through the year 2005 because employment is expected to rise as fast as the average for all occupations and the number of degrees granted in architecture is not expected to increase significantly. However, demand for architects is highly dependent upon the local level of con­ struction, particularly of nonresidential structures such as office buildings and shopping centers. Construction is sensitive to cyclical changes in the economy. During recessions or periods of slow growth, architects will face competition for job openings or clients, and layoffs may occur. Even in good times, there may be areas of the countiy with poor opportunities. Architects who are licensed to prac­ tice in one State must meet the licensing requirements of other States before practicing elsewhere. These requirements are becoming more standardized, however, facilitating movement to other States. Regard­ less of economic conditions, there will continue to be competition for jobs in the most prestigious firms, which offer good potential for career advancement. The use of computer-aided design and drafting is becoming more prevalent in architecture firms but is not expected to reduce the need for architects. Rather, CADD allows architects to develop more options, and to make changes in plans and elevations more easily, improving the quality of building designs. Although employment is expected to rise about as fast as the aver­ age for all occupations through the year 2005, most job openings are expected to arise as architects transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Earnings  An architect examines a model of a proposed multibuilding complex. 4  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  The median annual earnings for salaried architects who worked full time were about $36,100 in 1990. The middle 50 percent earned between $27,100 and $52,400. The top 10 percent earned more than $66,300 and the lowest 10 percent, less than $17,900. According to The American Institute of Architects, the median salary for intern-architects in architectural firms was $24,000 in 1990. Licensed architects with more than 8 years’ experience but who were not managers or principals of a firm earned a median salary of $37,000 in 1990; and principals or partners of firms earned a medi­  an salary of $57,700 in 1990. Partners in some large practices earned over $100,000. Architects who are partners in well-established architectural firms or solo practitioners generally earn much more than their salaried employees, but their income may fluctuate due to changing business conditions. Architects may have difficulty getting established in their own practices and may go through a period when their expenses are greater than their income. Related Occupations  Architects are concerned with the design and construction of build­ ings and related structures. Others who engage in similar work are landscape architects, building contractors, civil engineers, urban plan­ ners, interior designers, industrial designers, drafters, and graphic designers. Sources of Additional Information  Information about education and careers in architecture can be obtained from: *" Director, Education Programs, The American Institute of Architects, 1735 New York Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20006.  Dancers and Choreographers (D.O.T. 151.027-010, and .047-010)  Nature of the Work  From ancient times to the present, dancers have expressed ideas, sto­ ries, rhythm, and sound with their bodies. They may perform in clas­ sical ballet, which includes the stylized, traditional repertory, or modem dance, which allows more free movement and self-expres­ sion. Others perform in dance adaptations for musical shows, in folk, ethnic, and jazz dances, and in other popular kinds of dancing. In addition to being an art form for its own sake, dance also comple­ ments opera, musical comedy, and television performances. There­ fore, many dancers sing and act, as well as dance. Dancers most often perform as a group, although a few top artists dance solo. Many dancers combine stage work with teaching. Choreographers create original dances. They may also create new interpretations to traditional dances like the “Nutcracker” since few dances are “written down.” Choreographers instruct per­ formers at rehersals to achieve the desired effect. They also audi­ tion performers.  Training and Other Qualifications  Training depends upon the type of dance. Early ballet training begins at 5 to 8 years of age and is usually given by private teachers and independent ballet schools. Serious training traditionally begins between the ages of 10 and 12. Students who demonstrate potential in the early teens receive more intensive and advanced professional training at regional ballet schools or schools conducted under the aus­ pices of the major ballet companies. Leading dance school companies often have summer training programs from which they select candi­ dates for admission to their regular full-time training program. Most dancers have their professional auditions by age 17 or 18; however, training and practice never end. For example, professional ballet dancers have 1 to 1 1/2 hours of lessons every day, and spend many additional hours practicing and rehearsing. Early and intensive training also is important for the modern dancer, but modem dance generally does not require as many years of training as ballet. Because of the strenuous and time-consuming training required, a dancer’s formal academic instruction may be minimal. However, a broad, general education including music, literature, history, and the visual arts is helpful in the interpretation of dramatic episodes, ideas, and feelings. Many colleges and universities confer bachelor’s or higher degrees in dance, generally through the departments of physical education, music, theater, or fine arts. Most programs concentrate on modem dance but also offer courses in ballet/classical techniques. A college education is not essential to obtaining employment as a professional dancer. In fact, ballet dancers who postpone their first audition until graduation may compete at a disadvantage with younger dancers. On the other hand, a college degree can be helpful for the dancer who retires at an early age, as often happens, and wish­ es to enter another field of work. A college education is also an advantage for college or university teaching. However, it is not necessary for teaching dance or choreog­ raphy in a studio. Studio schools usually require teachers to have experience as performers; colleges and conservatories generally require graduate degrees, but performance experience often may be substituted. The dancer’s life is one of rigorous practice and self-discipline; therefore, patience, perseverance, and a devotion to dance are essen­ tial. Good health and physical stamina are necessary in order to prac­ tice and perform and to follow the rugged schedule often required.  Working Conditions  Dancing is strenuous. Rehearsals require very long hours and usually take place daily, including weekends and holidays. For shows on the road, weekend travel often is required. Most performances take place in the evening, and dancers must become accustomed to working late hours. Due to the physical demands, most dancers stop performing by their late thirties, but they sometimes continue to work in the dance field as a choreographer, a dance teacher/coach, or an artistic director. Some celebrated dancers, however, continue performing beyond the age of 50. Employment  Professional dancers held an average of about 8,600 jobs at any one time in 1990. Many others were between engagements so that the total number of people employed as dancers over the course of the year was greater. In addition, there were many dance instructors in secondary schools, colleges and universities, dance schools, and pri­ vate studios. Many teachers also performed from time to time. New York City is the home of most of the major dance companies. Other cities with full-time professional dance companies are Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Dallas, Houston, Milwau­ kee, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Salt Lake City, San Francisco, and Seattle.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Dancers rehearse daily for long hours. 5  Good feet and normal arches also are required. Above all, one must have flexibility, agility, coordination, grace, a sense of rhythm, and a feeling for music, as well as a creative ability to express oneself through movement. Seldom does a dancer perform unaccompanied. Therefore, ability to function as part of a team is important. Dancers also should be pre­ pared to face the anxiety of intermittent employment and rejections when auditioning for work. For dancers, advancement takes the form of a growing reputation, bigger and better roles, and higher pay.  »■ National Association of Schools of Dance, 11250 Roger Bacon Dr., Reston, VA 22090.  For information on all aspects of dance, including job listings, send a self-addressed stamped envelope to: American Dance Guild, 33 West 21st St., Third Floor, New York, NY 10010.  For information on which associations to contact and references for reading materials, send a self-addressed stamped envelope to: Associated Actors and Artistes of America, 165 West 46th St., New York, NY 10036.  Job Outlook  Dancers face keen competition. The number of applicants will contin­ ue to exceed the number of job openings. Only the most talented will find regular employment. Employment of dancers is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005 due to the public’s continued interest in this form of artistic expression. In addition to jobs arising from increased demand, some job openings will occur as dancers leave the occupation and as dance companies search for and find outstanding talent. The best job opportunities are expected to be with national dance companies because of the demand for performances outside of New York City. Opera companies will also provide some employment opportunities. Dance groups affiliated with colleges and universities and television and motion pictures will also offer some opportunities. In addition, the growing popularity of dance in recent years has resulted in increased employment opportunities in teaching dance. Earnings  Earnings of most professional dancers are governed by union con­ tracts. Dancers in the major opera ballet, classical ballet, and modem dance corps belong to the American Guild of Musical Artists, Inc., AFL-CIO; those on live or videotaped television belong to the Amer­ ican Federation of Television and Radio Artists; those who perform in films and on TV belong to the Screen Actors Guild or the Screen Extras Guild; and those in musical comedies are members of Actors’ Equity Association. The unions and producers sign basic agreements specifying minimum salary rates, hours of work, and other conditions of employment. However, the separate contract signed by each dancer with the producer of the show may be more favorable than the basic agreement. For 1991-92, the minimum weekly salary for dancers in ballet and modem productions was $555. For new first year dancers being paid for single performances, the basic rate was $230 per performance and $60 per rehearsal hour. Dancers on tour received an additional allowance for room and board. The minimum performance rates for dancers on television was $569 for a 1-hour show. The normal work­ week is 30 hours including rehearsals and matinee and evening per­ formances. Extra compensation is paid for additional hours worked. Some new choreographers receive a minimum fee of $400 for a ballet and $30 per performance in royalties. Earnings from dancing are generally low because dancers’ employ­ ment is irregular. They often must supplement their income by taking temporary jobs unrelated to dancing. Dancers covered by union contracts are entitled to some paid sick leave, paid vacations, and various health and pension benefits— extended sick pay, child birth provisions—provided by their unions. Employers contribute toward these benefits. Most other dancers do not receive any fringe benefits. Related Occupations  Other occupations require the dancer’s knowledge of conveying ideas through physical motion. These include ice skater, dance critic, dance instructor, dance notator, and dance therapist. Athletes in most sports also need the same strength, flexibility, agility, and body control. Sources of Additional Information  For information about colleges and universities that teach dance, including details on the types of courses offered, send a stamped, self-addressed envelope to; 6  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Designers (D.O.T. 141.051,.067, .081-014; 142 except .051-010 and .061-030)  Nature of the Work  Designers organize and design articles, products, and materials in such a way that they not only serve the purpose for which they were intended but are visually pleasing as well. Pleasant surroundings, beautiful clothes, and floral arrangements can boost our spirits, and products and packaging that are eye catching are more likely to attract buyers than those that are not. Designers usually specialize in one particular area of design, for example, automobiles, clothing, furniture, home appliances, industri­ al equipment, movie and theater sets, packaging, or floral arrange­ ments. In developing a new design or altering an existing one, they first determine the needs of their clients and potential users. Then they consider the size, shape, weight, color, materials used, and the way the product functions, as well as ease of maintenance, safety, and cost of the design. Designers may compare similar or competitive products. They take into account, and often set, style and fashion trends. Designers usually develop sketches of several designs which they present for final selection to an art or design director; a product development team; a play, film, or television producer; or a client. The designer then makes a model, a sample, or detailed plans drawn to scale. Designers in some specialties are increasingly using comput­ er-aided design (CAD) to create and better visualize a final product. Industrial designers use computer-aided industrial design (CAID) to not only create a design but to communicate the design to automated production tools. Designers may supervise craft workers who carry out their designs. Those who run their own businesses may devote a considerable amount of time to developing business contacts and to administrative tasks such as reviewing catalogs and ordering samples. Design is not one but a number of different fields. Industrial designers develop and design countless manufactured products like cars; home appliances; computers; medical, office, or recreational equipment; and children’s toys. They combine artistic talent with research on product use, marketing, materials, and production meth­ ods to create the most functional and appealing design and to make the product competitive with others in the marketplace. Interior designers both plan the space and furnish the interiors of private homes, public buildings, and commercial establishments such as offices, restaurants, hotels, and theaters. With a client’s tastes and needs in mind, they develop designs and prepare working drawings and specifications for interior construction, furnishings, lighting, and finishes. They design lighting and architectural details such as crown molding, coordinate colors and select furniture, floor coverings, and curtains. They also plan additions and renovations. Interior designers must design the space in accordance with Federal, State, and local building codes. In addition, they plan spaces that meet accessibility standards for the disabled and elderly. Set designers design movie, television, and theater sets. They study scripts, confer with directors, and conduct research to determine appropriate architectural styles. Fashion designers design wearing apparel and accessories. Some high-fashion designers are self-employed and design for individual clients. They make fashion news by establishing the “line,” colors,  and kinds of materials that will be worn each season. Other highfashion designers cater to specialty stores or high-fashion department stores. They design original garments as well as follow the estab­ lished fashion trends. Most fashion designers, however, work for apparel manufacturers, adapting men’s, women’s, and children’s fash­ ions for the mass market. Textile designers design fabrics for garments, upholstery, rugs, and other products, using their knowledge of textile materials and fashion trends. Floral designers cut and arrange fresh, dried, or artificial flowers and foliage into a design to express the sentiments of the sender. They trim flowers and arrange bouquets, sprays, wreaths, dish gar­ dens, and terrariums. They usually work from a written order indicat­ ing the occasion, customer preference for color and type of flower, price, and the date, time, and place the arrangement or plant is to be delivered. The variety of duties performed by a floral designer depends on the size of the shop and the number of designers employed. In a small operation, the floral designer may own the shop and do almost everything from growing flowers to keeping books. Working Conditions  Working conditions and places of employment vary. Designers employed by manufacturing establishments or design firms generally work regular hours in well-lighted and comfortable settings. Selfemployed designers tend to work longer hours—especially at first, when they are trying to establish themselves and cannot afford to hire assistants or clerical help. Designers frequently adjust their workday to suit their clients, meeting with them evenings or on weekends when necessary. They may transact business in clients’ homes or offices, in their own offices, or in other locations such as showrooms. Industrial designers usually work regular hours but occasionally work overtime to meet deadlines. In contrast, set designers, especially those in television broadcasting, often work long and irregular hours. The tempo of television production is very fast, and set designers are often under pressure to make rapid changes in the sets. Fashion designers who work in the apparel industry usually have regular hours. During production deadlines or before fashion shows, howev­ er, they may be required to put in overtime. In addition, fashion designers may be required to travel to production sites overseas and across the United States. Floral designers usually work regular hours in a pleasant work environment, except during the holidays when overtime may be required. All designers face frustration at times when their designs are reject­ ed or when they cannot be as creative as they would like. Independent consultants, who are paid by the assignment, are under pressure to please clients and to find new ones to maintain their incomes. Employment  Designers held about 339,000 jobs in 1990. Nearly one-third were self-employed, a much higher proportion than in most occupations. Salaried designers are found in a number of different industries, depending on their design specialty. Most industrial designers, for example, work for consulting firms or for large manufacturing com­ panies. Interior designers usually work for architectural or design firms; department stores and home furnishing stores; or hotel, restau­ rant, and other hospitality chains. Many do freelance work—full time, part time, or in addition to a salaried job. Set designers work for theater companies, the film industry, and television broadcasting companies. Fashion designers generally work for textile, apparel, and pattern manufacturers, or for fashion salons, high-fashion department stores, and specialty shops. Some work in the entertainment industry, designing costumes for theater, dance, television, and movies. Nearly all floral designers work for retail flower shops. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  Creativity is crucial in all design occupations. People in this field also need a strong color sense, an eye for detail, a sense of balance and proportion, and sensitivity to beauty. Sketching ability is especially important for fashion designers. A good portfolio—a collection of  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  A large number of designers—nearly one-third of total employment—are self-employed. examples of a person’s best work—is often the deciding factor in landing a job. However, some formal preparation in design is impor­ tant in all fields with the exception of floral design. Educational requirements for entry level positions vary. Some design occupations, notably industrial design, require a bachelor’s degree. Interior designers also generally need a college education, preferably a 4-year degree in fine arts. Few clients—especially com­ mercial clients—are willing to entrust responsibility for designing living and working space to a designer with no formal credentials. Interior designers must also be knowledgeable about Federal, State, and local codes, and toxicity and flammability standards for furniture and furnishings. In fashion design, too, some formal career preparation, such as a 2year or 4-year degree, is almost always needed to land a job. Employ­ ers seek individuals who are knowledgeable about textiles, fabrics, and ornamentation as well as about trends in the fashion world. In contrast to the other design occupations, a high school diploma ordinarily suffices for floral design jobs. Most floral designers leam their skills on the job. When they hire trainees, employers generally look for high school graduates who have a flair for color and a desire to leam. Formal training for some design professions is also available in 2and 3-year professional schools which award certificates or associate degrees in design. Graduates of 2-year programs generally qualify as assistants to designers. Four-year colleges and universities grant the Bachelor of Fine Arts degree. The curriculum in these schools includes art and art history, principles of design, designing and sketching, and specialized studies for each of the individual design disciplines such as garment construction, textiles, mechanical and architectural drawing, computerized design, sculpture, architecture, marketing, and basic engineering. A liberal arts education with courses in merchandising and business administration along with training in art is also a good background. Persons with training or experience in architecture also qualify for some design occupations, particularly interior design. Computer-aided design (CAD) courses are very useful. CAD is used in many design areas, particularly in industrial design, and most employers expect new employees to be familiar with the use of the computer as a design tool. Computers are used extensively in the aerospace, automotive, and electronics industries, and are becoming more popular in the other design fields as well. For example, interior designers are using computers to create numerous versions of space designs. Images can be inserted, edited, or replaced—making it possi­ 7  ble for a client to see and choose among several designs. In furniture design, a chair’s basic shape and structure may be duplicated and updated by applying new upholstery styles and fabrics with the use of computers. In 1991, the National Association of Schools of Art and Design accredited 166 postsecondary institutions with programs in art and design. Most of these schools award a degree in art. Some award degrees in industrial design, interior design, textile design, graphic design, or fashion design. Many schools do not allow formal entry into a bachelor’s degree program until a student has successfully fin­ ished a year of basic art and design courses. Applicants may be required to submit sketches and other examples of their artistic ability. The Foundation for Interior Design Education Research accredits interior design programs and schools. Currently, there are 89 accred­ ited programs in the U.S. and Canada located in schools of art, archi­ tecture, and home economics. Some colleges and universities offer degrees in floriculture and floristry and provide training in flower marketing and shop management. Floral design is taught in private trade and technical schools. People in the design field must be creative, imaginative, persis­ tent, and able to communicate their ideas both visually and verbally. Because tastes in style and fashion can change quickly, designers need to be open to new ideas and influences. Problem-solving skills and the ability to work independently are important traits. People in this field need self-discipline to start projects on their own, and to budget their time in order to meet deadlines. Business sense and sales ability are important for those who are freelancers or run their own businesses. Beginning designers usually receive on-the-job training and nor­ mally need 1 to 3 years of training before they advance to higher level positions. Experienced designers in large firms may advance to chief designer, design department head, or other supervisory posi­ tions. Some experienced designers open their own firms. Interior design is the only design field subject to government regu­ lation: The District of Columbia licenses interior designers, and 14 States regulate use of the title. While licensing is the exception rather than the rule, membership in a professional association is universally recognized as a mark of achievement for designers. Professional membership usually requires the completion of 3 or 4 years of post­ secondary education in design, at least 2 years of practical experience in the field, and completion of the National Council for Interior Design Qualification Examination.  earned between $16,700 and $36,900 a year. The bottom 10 percent earned less than $11,800, and the top 10 percent earned more than $50,000. Floral designers earned less than this. According to a survey con­ ducted by Floral Finance Inc., beginning floral designers had average earnings of approximately $10,500 a year in 1991. Designers with 1 to 3 years of experience earned $12,300, while designers with over 3 years of experience averaged $15,000. Managers had average earn­ ings of about $18,600 a year in 1991. According to the Industrial Designers Society of America, the average base salary for an entry-level industrial designer with at least 1 year of experience was about $25,700 in 1990. Staff designers with an average of 5-6 years of experience earned about $35,300, while senior designers with an average of 9 years of experience earned about $45,000. Industrial designers in managerial or executive posi­ tions earned substantially more—up to $86,000. Related Occupations  Workers in other occupations who design or arrange objects, materi­ als, or interiors to improve their appearance and function include visual artists, architects, landscape architects, engineers, photogra­ phers, and merchandise displayers. Sources of Additional Information  For a list of accredited schools of art and design, contact: <*• National Association of Schools of Art and Design, 11250 Roger Bacon Dr., Suite 21, Reston, VA 22090.  A brochure that describes careers in industrial design and lists aca­ demic programs in the field is available from the Industrial Designers Society of America. For price and ordering information, write to: «■ Industrial Designers Society of America, 1142-E Walker Rd., Great Falls, VA 22066.  For information about careers in interior design, contact: American Society for Interior Designers, 608 Massachusetts Ave. NE., Washington, DC 20002.  For a list of accredited programs in interior design, contact: »■ Foundation for Interior Design Education Research, 60 Monroe Center, NW„ Grand Rapids, MI 49503.  For information about careers in floral design, contact: Society of American Florists, 1601 Duke St., Alexandria, VA 22314.  For a list of schools with accredited programs in furniture design, contact: •" American Society of Furniture Designers, P.O. Box 2688, High Point, NC 27261.  Job Outlook  Employment in design occupations is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. In addition, many openings will result from the need to replace those who leave the field. Continued emphasis on product quality and safety; on design of new products for businesses and offices; on high-technology products in medicine, transportation, and other fields; and increasing competi­ tion among businesses should stimulate the demand for industrial designers. Growth in population and in personal incomes is expected to spur demand for interior designers, fashion designers, floral designers, and set designers. Despite faster than average employment growth, designers in most specialties—with the exception of floral design—can expect to face competition throughout their careers. Many talented individuals are attracted to a career as a designer—among them, graduates of presti­ gious design schools. In light of the abundant supply, individuals with no formal preparation in design, and without the necessary personal traits—particularly creativity and perseverance—may find it very dif­ ficult to establish and maintain a career in design. While most areas of design are highly competitive, this is not the case in floral design. Relatively low pay and limited opportunities for advancement restrict the supply of suitable applicants. As a result, finding a job as a floral designer should be relatively easy. Earnings  Median annual earnings of experienced full-time designers in all design specialties were about $26,000 in 1990. The middle 50 percent 8   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Landscape Architects (D.O.T. 001.061-018)  Nature of the Work  Everyone enjoys attractively designed residential areas, public parks, college campuses, shopping centers, golf courses, parkways, and industrial parks. Landscape architects design these areas so that they are not only functional but beautiful and compatible with the natural environment as well. They may plan the location of buildings, roads, and walkways and the arrangement of flowers, shrubs, and trees. They also may redesign streets to limit automobile traffic and to improve pedestrian access and safety. Natural resource conservation and historic preservation are other important objectives to which landscape architects may apply their knowledge of the environment as well as their design and artistic talents. Landscape architects are hired by many types of organizations— from real estate development firms starting new projects to munici­ palities constructing airports or parks. They are often involved with the development of a site from its conception. Working with archi­ tects and engineers, they help determine the best arrangement of roads and buildings. Once these decisions are made, landscape archi­ tects create detailed plans indicating new topography, vegetation, walkways, and landscape amenities.  In planning a site, landscape architects first consider the nature and purpose of the project and the funds available. They analyze the natu­ ral elements of the site, such as the climate, soil, slope of the land, drainage, and vegetation. They observe where sunlight falls on the site at different times of the day and examine the site from various angles. They assess the effect of existing buildings, roads, walkways, and utilities on the project. After studying and analyzing the site, they prepare a preliminary design. To account for the needs of the client as well as the conditions at the site, they may have to make many changes before a final design is approved. An increasing number of landscape architects are using computer-aided design (CAD) systems to assist them in preparing their designs. Many landscape architects are also using video simula­ tion as a tool to help clients envision the landscape architects’ ideas. Throughout all phases of the design, landscape architects consult with other professionals involved in the project. Once the design is complete, they prepare a proposal for the client. They draw up detailed plans of the site which include written reports, sketches, models, photographs, land-use studies, and cost estimates. If the plans are approved, landscape architects prepare working drawings showing all existing and proposed features. They also outline in detail the methods of construction and draw up a list of necessary materials. Although many landscape architects supervise the installation of their design, some are involved in the construction of the site. How­ ever, this usually is done by the developer or contractor. Some landscape architects work on a wide variety of projects. Oth­ ers specialize in a particular area, such as residential development, historic landscape restoration, waterfront improvement projects, parks and playgrounds, or shopping centers. Still others work in regional planning and resource management; feasibility, environmen­ tal impact, and cost studies; or site construction. Some landscape architects teach at the college or university level. Relatively few landscape architects specialize in landscape design for individual homeowners because most residential landscape design projects are too small to provide suitable income compared with larg­ er commercial or multiunit residential projects. Although many land­ scape architects do some residential work, it usually comprises only a small amount of their total workload. Some nurseries offer residential landscape design services, but these services often are performed by lesser qualified landscape designers or others with training and expe­ rience in related areas. Landscape architects who work for government agencies do simi­ lar work at national parks, government buildings, and other govern­ ment-owned facilities. In addition, they may prepare environmental impact statements and studies on environmental issues such as landuse planning. Working Conditions  Landscape architects spend most of their time in offices creating plans and designs, preparing models and cost estimates, doing research, or attending meetings. The remainder of their time is spent at the site. Before the project is actually begun, landscape architects analyze the site. During the design and planning stage, they may visit the site to verify that the design can be incorporated into the land­ scape. After the plans and specifications are completed, they spend time at the site observing or supervising the construction. Those who work in large firms may spend considerably more time out of the office because of travel to sites outside the local area. Salaried employees in both government and landscape architec­ tural firms usually work regular hours, although they may work over­ time to meet a project deadline. Hours of self-employed landscape architects may vary. Employment  Landscape architects held about 20,000 jobs in 1990. Three-fifths worked for firms that provide landscape architecture services. Most of the rest were employed by architectural firms. The Federal Gov­ ernment also employs these workers; most were found in the Depart­ ments of Agriculture, Defense, and Interior. About 1 of every 10 landscape architects was self-employed.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  *  1.1  i. IS.  Landscape architects use their skills in city and regional planning as well as new development and construction. Most employment for landscape architects is concentrated in urban and suburban areas in all parts of the country. Some landscape archi­ tects work in rural areas, particulary those in the Federal Government who plan and design parks and recreation areas. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  A bachelor’s or master’s degree in landscape architecture is usually necessary for entry into the profession. The bachelor’s degree in land­ scape architecture takes 4 or 5 years to complete. There are two types of master’s degree programs. The master’s degree as a first profes­ sional degree is a 3-year program designed for students with an undergraduate degree in another discipline; this is the most common type. The master’s degree as the second professional degree is a 2year program for students who have a bachelor’s degree in landscape architecture and wish to demonstrate mastery in some aspect of land­ scape architecture. In 1990, 51 colleges and universities offered 61 undergraduate and graduate programs in landscape architecture that were accredited by the American Society of Landscape Architects. College courses in this field include technical subjects such as sur­ veying, landscape design and construction, landscape ecology, struc­ tural design, and city and regional planning. Other courses include history of landscape architecture, plant and soil science, geology, design and color theory, and general management. The design studio is an important aspect of many landscape architecture curriculums. Students are assigned real projects to work on, providing them with valuable hands-on experience. In addition, most students at the undergraduate level take a year of prerequisite courses such as English, mathematics, and social science. Forty-four States require landscape architects to be licensed. Licensing is based on the Uniform National Examination, and admis­ sion to the exam usually requires a degree from an accredited school plus 1 to 4 years of work experience, although standards vary from State to State. A few States require additional examinations focusing on laws and/or plant materials indigenous to their State. Because States’ requirements for licensure are not uniform, land­ scape architects may not find it easy to transfer to another State to practice. However, those who meet the national standard of graduating from an accredited program, serving 3 years of internship under the supervision of a registered landscape architect, and passage of the Uni­ form National Examination can satisfy requirements in most States. In the Federal Government, candidates for entry positions should have a bachelor’s or master’s degree in landscape architecture. The Federal Government does not require its landscape architects to be licensed. Persons planning a career in landscape architecture should appreci­ ate nature and enjoy working with their hands. Although creativity and artistic talent are also desireable qualities, they are not absolutely essential to success as a landscape architect. High school courses in mechanical or geometric drawing, art, botany, and mathematics are helpful. Good oral communication skills are important, because these 9  workers must be able to convey their ideas to other professionals and to their clients and make presentations before large groups. Those interested in starting their own firm should be skilled in small busi­ ness management. In States where licensure is required, new hires are technically called intern landscape architects until they become licensed. Intern landscape architects’ duties vary depending on the type and size of employing firm. They may do project research or prepare base maps of the area to be landscaped, while some are allowed to participate in the actual design of a project. However, interns must perform all work under the supervision of a licensed landscape architect. Addi­ tionally, all drawings and specifications must be signed by the licensed landscape architect, who takes legal responsibility for the work. After gaining experience and becoming licensed, landscape architects usually can carry a design through all stages of develop­ ment. After several years, they may become associates, and eventual­ ly they may become partners or open their own offices.  requires similar skills are architects, interior designers, civil engi­ neers, and urban and regional planners. Landscape architects also know how to grow and use plants in the landscape. Botonists, who study plants in general, and horticulturists, who study ornamental plants as well as fruit, vegetable, greenhouse, and nursery crops, do similar work. Sources of Additional Information  Additional information, including a list of colleges and universities offering accredited programs in landscape architecture, is available from: •" American Society of Landscape Architects, 4401 Connecticut Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20008.  General information on registration or licensing requirements is available from: Council of Landscape Architectural Registration Boards, 12700 Fair Lakes Circle, Suite 110, Fairfax, VA 22033.  Job Outlook  Employment of landscape architects is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Despite this growth, most job openings are expected to result from the need to replace experienced landscape architects who transfer to other occu­ pations or leave the labor force. The level of new construction plays an important role in determin­ ing demand for landscape architects. Anticipated growth in construc­ tion is expected to increase demand for landscape architectural services over the long run. An increasing proportion of office and other commercial and industrial development will occur outside cities. These projects typically have a large area of surrounding land which needs to be designed, in contrast to urban development, which often includes little or no surrounding land. Also, as the cost of land increases, the desirability of good landscape design increases. How­ ever, because employment is linked to new construction, landscape architects may face layoffs and competition for jobs when real estate sales and construction slow down, such as during a recession. Increased development of open space into recreation areas, wildlife refuges, and parks will also require the skills of landscape architects. Continued concern for the environment should stimulate employment growth because of the need to design development projects which best fit in with the surrounding environment. In addition to the work related to new development and construc­ tion, landscape architects are expected to be involved in historic preservation, local, city, and regional planning, mined land reclama­ tion, and refurbishment of existing sites. Although landscape architects are increasingly using computeraided design, employment is not expected to be affected because this technology will be used to create more and better designs rather than reduce the demand for landscape architects. Earnings  According to the American Society of Landscape Architects, in 1989, the last year for which data are available, graduates with a bachelor’s degree in landscape architecture usually started at about $18,000; those with a master’s degree started at about $27,000. Although salaries for experienced landscape architects varied by location and experience, the median salary for all landscape architects was about $37,000 in 1989, according to the American Society of Landscape Architects. Those who are partners in well-established firms may earn much more than their salaried employees, but their incomes may fluctuate with changing business conditions. In 1991, the average annual salary for all landscape architects in the Federal Government was about $43,938. Because many landscape architects work for small firms or are selfemployed, benefits tend to be less generous than those of other work­ ers with similar skills who work for large organizations. With the exception of those who are self-employed, however, most landscape architects receive health insurance, paid vacations, and sick leave. Related Occupations  Landscape architects use their knowledge of design theory and landuse planning to develop a landscape project. Others whose work 10  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Musicians (D.O.T. 152 except .021-010)  Nature of the Work  Musicians may play musical instruments, sing, write musical compo­ sitions, or conduct instrumental or vocal performances. Musicians may perform alone or as part of a group before live audiences; on radio; or in recording, TV, or movie productions. Instrumental musicians play a musical instrument in an orchestra, band, rock group, or jazz “combo.” Musicians play string, brass, woodwind, or percussion instruments. For example, they may play the violin, trumpet, trombone, saxophone, clarinet, flute, organ, one of the “rhythm” instruments—the piano, string bass, drums, and guitar—or one of the many electronic synthesizers. Singers interpret music using their knowledge of voice production, melody, and harmony. They sing character parts or perform in their own individual styles. Singers are classified according to their voice range—soprano, contralto, tenor, baritone, or bass—or by the type of music they sing, such as opera, rock, folk, or country and western. Composers create original music such as symphonies, operas, sonatas, or popular songs. They transcribe ideas into musical notation using harmony, rhythm, melody, and tonal structure. Many songwrit­ ers now compose and edit music using computers. Some even have a musical keyboard linked to a computer which compiles the digital information into musical notation while they play. Also, they may program the composition in musical notation into the computer, which will play the song. Orchestra conductors lead orchestras and bands. They audition and select musicians and direct rehearsals and performances. They apply conducting techniques to achieve desired musical effects. Choral directors conduct choirs and glee clubs. They audition and select singers and direct them at rehearsals and performances to achieve harmony, rhythm, tempo, shading, and other desired musical effects. All musicians spend a considerable amount of time practicing. Those who play current music listen to recordings and copy the sound, since sheet music may not be available. Working Conditions  Musicians often perform at night and on weekends, and spend consid­ erable time in practice and rehearsal. Performances frequently require travel. Because many musicians find only part-time work or experi­ ence unemployment between engagements, they often supplement their income with other types of jobs. In fact, many decide they can not support themselves as musicians and take permanent, full-time jobs in other occupations, while working only part time as musicians. Employment  Musicians held about 252,000 jobs in 1990. Many were between engagements, so that the total number of people employed as musi­ cians during the course of the year might have been greater.  Many work in cities in which entertainment and recording activi­ ties are concentrated, such as New York, Los Angeles, and Nashville. Classical musicians may perform with a professional orchestras or in small chamber music groups like quartets or trios. Musicians may work in opera, musical comedy, and ballet productions. Many are organists who play in churches and synagogues; 6 out of 10 musi­ cians work in religious organizations. Musicians also perform in clubs and restaurants, and for weddings and other events. Wellknown musicians and groups give their own concerts, appear on “live” radio and television, make recordings, or go on concert tours. The Armed Forces, too, offer careers in their musical organizations. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  Many people who become professional musicians begin studying an instrument at an early age. They may gain valuable experience play­ ing in a school, community band, orchestra, or in a “combo” with a group of friends. Singers usually start training when their voices mature. Participation in school musicals or in a choir often provides good early training. Musicians need extensive and prolonged training to acquire the necessary skill, knowledge, and ability to interpret music. This training may be obtained through private study with an accomplished musician, in a college or university music program, in a music conservatory, or through practice with a group. For study in an institution, an audition frequently is necessary. Formal courses include musical theory, music interpretation, composition, conduct­ ing, and instrumental and voice instruction. Composers, conductors, and arrangers need advanced training in these subjects, too. Many colleges, universities, and music conservatories grant bache­ lor’s or higher degrees in music. Many also grant degrees in music education to qualify graduates for a State certificate to teach music in an elementary or secondary school. Those who perform popular music must have an understanding of and feeling for that style of music, but classical training expands their employment opportunities, as well as their musical abilities. Although voice training is an asset for singers of popular music, many with untrained voices have successful careers. As a rule, musi­ cians take lessons with private teachers when young, and seize every opportunity to make amateur or professional appearances. Young persons who are considering careers in music should have musical talent, versatility, creative ability, and poise and stage pres­ ence to face large audiences. Since quality performance requires con­ stant study and practice, self-discipline is vital. Moreover, musicians who play concert and nightclub engagements must have physical stamina because frequent travel and night performances are required. They must also be prepared to face the anxiety of intermittent employment and rejections when auditioning for work. Advancement for musicians generally means becoming better known and performing with better known bands and orchestras. Many musicians rely on agents or managers to find them performing engagements, negotiate contracts, and plan their careers.  Job Outlook  It is difficult to make a living solely as a musician. Competition in the field is tough, and talent is no guarantee of success. However, being able to play several types of music enhances the opportunity to find employment. Employment of musicians is expected to grow more slowly than the average through the year 2005. Electronic technology like synthe­ sizers have enabled one or two musicians to sound like large bands or orchestras. Furthermore, organizations such as ballet companies and ice shows are using taped music instead of live bands. In addition, a growing number of small clubs and dining establishments are hiring smaller bands than they have in the past. Little or no growth in employment of musicians is expected in religious organizations. Earnings  Earnings often depend on a performer’s professional reputation as well as on geographic location—and on the number of hours worked. According to the American Federation of Musicians, minimum salaries in major orchestras ranged from $473 to $1,140 per week during the 1990-91 season. The season of these top orchestras ranged from 10 to 52 weeks. In regional orchestras, the minimum salaries were between $212 and $637 per week, and the seasons lasted 8 to 42 weeks. The majority of orchestras, however, offered salaries that were much lower and had seasons of shorter duration than those with high levels of funding. In 1991, musicians employed in motion picture or television recording and those employed by recording companies were paid a minimum of about $185 and $234, respectively, for a 3-hour session. Although a few opera soloists and popular singers earned thou­ sands of dollars per performance, the minimum daily wage rate for a principal singer on network or syndicated television was $448 in 1991. Musicians employed by some symphony orchestras work under master wage agreements, which guarantee a season’s work up to 52 weeks. Many other musicians may face relatively long periods of unemployment between jobs. Even when employed, however, many work part time. Thus, their earnings generally are lower than those in many other occupations. Moreover, since they may not work steadily for one employer, some performers cannot qualify for unemployment compensation, and few have either sick leave or vacations with pay. For these reasons, many musicians give private lessons or take jobs unrelated to music to supplement their earnings as performers. Many musicians belong to a branch of the American Federation of Musicians. Professional singers usually belong to a branch of the Associated Actors and Artistes of America. Related Occupations  There are many music-related occupations. These include librettists, songwriters, arrangers, and music therapists. A large number of music teachers work in elementary and secondary schools, music conservatories, and colleges and universities, or are self-employed. Many who teach music also perform. A technical knowledge of musical instruments is required by instrument repairers, tuners, and copyists. In addition, there are a number of occupations in the business side of music such as booking agents, concert managers, and music store owners and managers; salespersons of records, sheet music, and musical instruments; and music publishers. Others whose work involves music are disc jock­ eys, music critics, sound and audio technicians, music librarians, and radio and TV announcers. Sources of Additional Information  For information on appropiate associations and general information, send a self-addressed stamped envelope to: •• Associated Actors and Artistes of America, 165th West 46th St., New York, NY 10036.  For a directory of accredited programs in music teacher education, contact: Six out of 10 musicians work in religious organizations.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  National Association of Schools of Music, 11250 Roger Bacon Dr., Reston, VA 22091.  11  Photographers and Camera Operators (D.O.T. 143)  Nature of the Work  The job of a photographer or camera operator is to accurately or artis­ tically portray people, places, and events. Skillful photographers cap­ ture the special feeling or mood that sells products, highlights news stories, and brings back memories. Photographers and camera operators all use the same basic equip­ ment, a camera. Camera operators generally use 35- or 16-millimeter cameras or camcorders to film commercial motion pictures and docu­ mentary or industrial films. They also make films for TV news and film private ceremonies and special events. Photographers use a wide variety of cameras that can accept lenses designed for close-up, medium-range, or distance photography. These cameras also offer adjustments that allow the photographer creative and technical control over the picture-taking process. In addition to cameras and film, photographers and camera operators use an array of equipment—from filters, tripods, and flash attachments to special­ ly constructed motorized vehicles and special lighting. Taking quality pictures and movies is both a technical and a cre­ ative process. For example, photographers and camera operators may enhance the subject’s appearance with lighting or by drawing atten­ tion to a particular aspect by blurring out the background. By cre­ atively applying the technical aspects of light, lens, film, filters, and camera settings, photographers and camera operators produce pic­ tures that capture a mood or tell a story. Many photographers develop and print their own photographs. Most, however, send their film to laboratories for processing. This is especial­ ly true for color film, which requires very expensive equipment and exacting conditions for processing and printing. (See the statement on photographic process workers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Most photographers specialize in such areas as commercial, por­ trait, or journalistic photography. Some specialize in weddings or school photographs. Many portrait photographers are small-business owners who also arrange for advertising, schedule appointments, set and adjust equipment, develop and retouch negatives, and mount and frame pictures. They also hire and train employees, purchase sup­ plies, keep records, and bill customers. Some self-employed photographers sign with stock photo agencies. These agencies grant magazines and other customers the rights to an individual’s photographs on a commission basis. Stock photo agen­ cies require an application from photographers and a sizable portfo­ lio. Once accepted, a large number of new submissions are required each year. Commercial, editorial, and industrial photographers take pictures of such subjects as manufactured articles, buildings, livestock, and groups of people. Their work is used in reports, advertisements, and catalogs. Industrial photographers take photographs or videotapes for use in analyzing engineering projects, for publicity, or as records of equipment and processes. Scientific photographers provide illustrations and documentation for scientific publications, research reports, and textbooks. They usu­ ally specialize in fields such as engineering, medicine, biology, or chemistry. Some use photographic or video equipment for use as a research tool. For example, biomedical photographers use photomi­ crography—photographs of small objects magnified many times—to obtain information not visible under normal conditions and timelapse photography where time is stretched or condensed. Biomedical photographers also take photographs of medical procedures such as surgery. Photojournalists photograph newsworthy events, places, people, and things for publications in newspapers, journals, and magazines. Photography is also an art medium. As in other art forms, self­ expression and creativity are central while technical proficiency— essential for producing special effects—provides the vehicle for conveying the artist’s message. 12  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Some camera operators work for television stations covering news events. These camera operators use specialized news gathering cam­ eras to capture events on videotape that can then be transmitted back to the newsroom in time for a telecast. Camera operators employed in the entertainment field use motion picture cameras to film movies or electronically record movies, tele­ vision programs, and commercials. Some camera operators specialize in filming cartoons or other optical effects for television and movies. Working Conditions  Working conditions for photographers and camera operators vary considerably. Photographers in government, commercial studios, and advertising agencies usually work a 5-day, 35- to 40-hour week. Newspaper photographers and camera operators may work long and irregular hours and must be available on short notice. While self-employment allows for a good deal of autonomy, flexi­ ble scheduling, and the possibility of working from one’s own home, it may also cause stress from the need to find new clients. Portrait photographers often work in their own studios but may trav­ el locally to take photographs in churches, synagogues, and homes. Press and commercial photographers and camera operators may fre­ quently travel locally or overnight; some travel to distant places for long periods of time. Their work may put them in uncomfortable or even dangerous surroundings. This is especially true for photojoumalists assigned to cover natural disasters or military conflicts. Photographers and camera operators may work long hours in a cramped and smelly darkroom or stand and walk for long periods while carrying heavy equipment. Also, with deadlines and demanding customers, many work under time constraints. Employment  Photographers and camera operators held about 120,000 jobs in 1990. Nearly half of all photographers are self-employed, a much higher proportion than the average for all occupations. Some contract with advertising agencies, magazines, or others to do individual projects while others operate portrait studios or provide photographs to stock photo agencies. Most salaried photographers work in photographic portrait or com­ mercial photography studios. Others are with newspapers, magazines, advertising agencies, and government agencies. Most camera opera­ tors are employed in television broadcasting or in motion picture stu­ dios; few are self- employed. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  There is no one best way of entering the occupation—there is no easy or systematic path to follow. Determination is often as much the key to success as are creativity, skill, and formal preparation. Students should subscribe to photographic newsletters and magazines, join camera clubs, and find work in camera stores or photo studios. Indi­ viduals should also decide on an area of interest and specialize in it. Many entry level jobs require little formal preparation in photogra­ phy. However, entry level positions in photojournalism and in scien­ tific or technical photography are likely to require a college degree. Employers usually seek applicants with such personal traits as imagination, creativity, reliability, honesty, and preferably some tech­ nical expertise in photography and some business skills. Both techni­ cal expertise and business skills can be obtained through practical experience and education. Learning on the job is a good approach for fashion, commercial, and portrait photography. Camera operators also generally acquire their skills through on-the-job training. Photography and cinematog­ raphy assistants may set up lights and cameras or help a photographer take pictures. They may also receive routine assignments requiring few camera adjustments or decisions on what subject matter to photo­ graph. With experience, they may advance to more demanding assignments. Photography assistants may also learn to mix chemicals, develop film, and print photographs. Assistants can also learn the skills vital to opening their own businesses. Many aspiring photogra­ phers believe that talent alone will insure success. They fail to realize that all professional photographers have talent. Success requires the skills necessary to find and negotiate for business, bill for jobs, and keep good financial records.  Camera operators can become directors of photography for movies and TV programs. Magazine and news photographers may head up graphic arts departments or become photography editors. Job Outlook  Employment of photographers and camera operators is expected to grow as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Many additional job openings will occur as workers transfer to other occupations or stop working. Stimulating demand for photographers will be the growing impor­ tance of visual images in education, communication, entertainment, marketing, and research and development. Therefore, commercial photography is expected to grow rapidly. Average growth is expected in portrait studios, about in line with the growth of the population. Employment in photojournalism is expected to grow slowly. Photography is a competitive field, and commercial photography and photojournalism are particularly competitive. There are more people who want to be photographers than there is work to support them. Only the most skilled and those with the best business ability are able to find salaried positions or attract enough work to support themselves as self-employed photographers. Some become “week­ enders,” individuals with full-time jobs in other fields who take wed­ ding photos and the like on weekends. Employment of camera operators is expected to grow rapidly as businesses make greater use of videos for training films, business meetings, sales campaigns, and public relations work. Expansion of the entertainment industries will create additional openings but competi­ tion will be keen for what is generally regarded as an exciting field. Earnings  Camera operators and photographers generally acquire skills on-the-job.  Approximately 1,000 colleges, universities, community and junior colleges, vocational-technical institutes, and private trade and techni­ cal schools offer courses in photography, often as part of a communi­ cations or journalism program. There are relatively few academic programs in cinematography. Most schools do not offer degrees in photography or cinematography. Basic courses in photography cover equipment, processes, and techniques. Bachelor’s degree programs provide a well-rounded edu­ cation and the opportunity to take business courses. Art schools offer useful training in design and composition, but may be weak in the technical aspects of photography. Photographers and camera operators need good eyesight, artistic ability, and manual dexterity. They should be patient, accurate, and enjoy working with detail. Knowledge of mathematics, physics, and chemistry is helpful for understanding the workings of lenses, films, light sources, and developing processes. Commercial photographers must be imaginative and original. Portrait photographers need the ability to help people relax in front of the camera. Self-employed photographers must know how to operate a busi­ ness. They must also know how to hire and direct models, acquire permission to use photographs of people, price photographs, and keep financial records. Photojoumalists must not only be good with a cam­ era but also understand the story behind an event so that their pictures match the story. This requires journalistic skills and explains why employers increasingly look for individuals with a 4-year degree in photojournalism or journalism with an emphasis on photography. Many newspapers offer internships for photojournalism students. Some self-employed photographers enter the field by submitting unsolicited photographs to magazines and eventually contract with them to shoot photos for articles.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Salaried photographers doing fairly routine work averaged $24,814 a year and those doing difficult and complex work averaged $37,273 in 1991. The Newspaper Guild negotiates photographers’ wages with news­ papers, both starting minimums and top minimums (taking effect after 3 to 6 years on the job). The average photographers’ starting minimum was about $426 a week as of December 1, 1990. Ten per­ cent of photographers’ contract starting minimums were $290 or less and 10 percent were $534 or more. The average photographers’ top minimum was about $659 a week. Ten percent of photographers’ con­ tract top minimums were $448 or less and 10 percent were $812 or more. Some photographers earned more than the minimum. Photographers in the Federal Government earned an average of $29,597 a year in 1991. Some self-employed photographers earn more than salaried work­ ers, but many do not. Their earnings are affected by the number of hours worked, their skills, their marketing ability, and general busi­ ness conditions. Unlike photojoumalists and commercial photographers, very few artistic photographers are successful enough to support themselves solely through this specialty. Related Occupations  Other jobs requiring visual arts talents include illustrators, designers, painters, sculptors, and editors. Sources of Additional Information  Career information on photography is available from: •“ Professional Photographers of America, Inc., 1090 Executive Way, Des Plaines, IL 60018. American Society of Magazine Photographers, 419 Park Ave. South, New York, NY 10016.  For a list of self-help publications on photography and photograph­ ic processing, write: Eastman Kodak, Kodak Information Center, Department 841, 343 State St., Rochester, NY 14650. A newsletter helpful to freelance photographers is available from: »• Associated Photographers International, 5855 Green Valley Circle, Suite 109, Culver City, CA 90230.  For a publication listing places to sell your photographs and instructions on how to do it, write: F&W Publications, 1507 Dana Ave., Cincinnati, OH 45207.  13  Lists of colleges and universities offering courses or a degree in photography may be found in directories of college programs. Guid­ ance offices, libraries, and large bookstores have such directories.  deliver speeches, attend meetings and community activities, and tra­ vel out of town. Occasionally they may have to be at the job or on call around the clock, especially if there is an emergency or crisis. Employment  Public Relations Specialists (D.O.T. 165.017-010, .067-010, and .167-010)  Nature of the Work  An organization’s public reputation, profitability, and even its contin­ ued existence can depend on the degree to which its goals and poli­ cies are supported by its targeted publics. Public relations specialists serve as advocates for businesses, governments, universities, hospi­ tals, schools, and other organizations, and strive to build and maintain positive relationships with the public. Public relations specialists handle such functions as media, com­ munity, consumer, and governmental relations; political campaigns; interest-group representation; conflict mediation; or employee and investor relations. Public relations is not only “telling the organiza­ tion’s story,” however. Understanding the attitudes and concerns of customers, employees, and various other “publics”—and communi­ cating this information to management to help formulate sound poli­ cy—is also an important part of the job. To improve communications, public relations specialists establish and maintain cooperative rela­ tionships with representives of community, consumer, employee, and public interest groups and those in print and broadcast journalism. Public relations specialists put together information that keeps the general public, interest groups, and stockholders aware of an organiza­ tion’s policies, activities, and accomplishments. That, in turn, keeps management aware of public attitudes and concerns of the many groups and organizations with which it must deal. They may prepare press releases and contact people in the media who might print or broadcast their material. Many radio or television special reports, newspaper sto­ ries, and magazine articles start at the desks of public relations special­ ists. Sometimes the subject is an organization and its policies towards its employees or its role in the community. Often the subject is a public issue, such as health, nutrition, energy, or the environment. Public relations specialists also arrange and conduct programs for contact between organization representatives and the public. For example, they set up speaking engagements and often prepare the speeches for company officials. These specialists represent employers at community projects; make film, slide, or other visual presentations at meetings and school assemblies; and plan conventions. In addition, they may be responsible for preparing annual reports and writing pro­ posals for various projects. In government, public relations specialists—sometimes called press secretaries, information officers, public affairs specialists, or communications specialists—keep the public informed about the activities of government agencies and officials. For example, public affairs specialists in the Department of Energy might keep the public informed about the proposed lease of offshore land for oil explo­ ration. A press secretary for a member of Congress may try to keep constituents aware of their elected representative’s accomplishments. In large organizations, the director of public relations, who is often a vice president, may develop overall plans and policies with other executives. In addition, public relations departments employ public relations specialists such as account executives and assistants to write, do research, prepare materials, maintain contacts, and respond to inquiries. People who handle publicity for an individual or who direct public relations for a small organization may deal with all aspects of the job. They contact people, plan and do research, and prepare material for distribution. They may also handle advertising or sales promotion work to support marketing.  Public relations specialists held about 109,000 jobs in 1990. About two-thirds worked in services industries—management and public relations firms, educational institutions, religious organizations, hos­ pitals, and advertising agencies, for example. Others worked for a wide range of employers, including manufacturing firms, financial institutions, department stores, and government agencies. Some were self-employed. Public relations specialists are concentrated in large cities where press services and other communications facilities are readily avail­ able, and where many businesses and trade associations have their headquarters. Many public relations consulting firms, for example, are in New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, and Washington, D.C. There is a trend, however, for public relations jobs to be dispersed through­ out the Nation. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  Although there are no defined standards for entry into a public rela­ tions career, a college education combined with public relations expe­ rience, usually gained through an internship, is considered excellent preparation for public relations work. The ability to write and speak well is essential. Many beginners have a college major in public rela­ tions, journalism, or communications. Some firms seek college grad­ uates who have worked in electronic or print journalism. Other employers seek applicants with demonstrated communications skills and training or experience in a field related to the firm’s business— science, engineering, sales, or finance, for example. In 1991, some 250 colleges and 100 graduate schools offered degree programs or special curriculums in public relations, usually in a journalism or communications department. In addition, many other colleges offered at least one course in this field. A commonly used public relations sequence includes 5 courses: Public relations princi­ ples and techniques; public relations management and administration, including organizational development; writing, emphasizing news releases, proposals, annual reports, scripts, speeches, and related items; visual communications, including desktop publishing and computer graphics; and research, emphasizing social science research and survey design and implementation. Courses in advertising, jour­ nalism, business administration, political science, psychology, sociol­ ogy, and creative writing also are helpful, as is familiarity with word processing and other computer applications. Specialties are offered in business, government, or nonprofit organization public relations. Writing for a school publication or television or radio station pro­ vides valuable experience and material for one’s portfolio. Many col­ leges help students gain part-time or summer internships in public relations that provide valuable experience and training. The Armed Forces also can be an excellent place to gain training and experience.  |p  Working Conditions  Although public relations staffs generally work a standard 35- to 40hour week, schedules often have to be rearranged to meet deadlines, 14   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Public relations specialists attempt to create a favorable public image for their clients.  Membership in local chapters of the Public Relations Student Society of America or International Association of Business Communicators provides an opportunity for students to exchange views with public relations specialists and to make professional contacts that may help them find a job in the field. A portfolio of published articles, televi­ sion or radio programs, slide presentations, and other work is an asset in finding a job. Creativity, initiative, good judgment, and the ability to express one’s thoughts clearly and simply are essential. Decision making, problem solving, and research skills are also important. People who choose public relations as a career need an outgoing personality, self-confidence, an understanding of human psychology, and an enthusiasm for motivating people. They should be competitive and yet flexible and able to function as part of a team. Some organizations—particularly those with large public relations staffs—have formal training programs for new employees. In others, new employees work under the guidance of experienced staff mem­ bers. Beginners often maintain files of material about company activ­ ities, scan newspapers and magazines for appropriate articles to clip, and assemble information for speeches and pamphlets. After gaining experience, they may write news releases, speeches and articles for publication, or design and carry out public relations programs. In some firms, public relations specialists get all-around experience whereas in other firms they specialize. The Public Relations Society of America accredits public relations specialists who have at least 5 years of experience in the field and have passed a comprehensive 6-hour examination (5 hours written, 1 hour oral). Employers consider professional recognition through such accreditation a sign of competence in this field. Promotion to supervisory jobs may come as public relations spe­ cialists show they can handle more demanding managerial assign­ ments. In public relations firms, a beginner may be hired as a research assistant or account assistant and be promoted to account executive, account supervisor, vice president, and eventually senior vice president. A similar career path is followed in corporate public relations. Some experienced public relations specialists start their own consulting firms. (For more information on public relations man­ agers, see the Handbook statement on marketing, advertising, and public relations managers.) Job Outlook  Keen competition for public relations jobs is likely to continue to per­ sist among recent college graduates with communications degrees. People without the appropriate educational background or work expe­ rience will face the toughest obstacles in finding a public relations job. Employment of public relations specialists is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. New jobs will result from growth in demand for these specialists from corporations, associations, consulting firms, health facilities, professional groups, and other organizations of all sizes that recog­ nize the need for good external and internal relations. The vast major­ ity of job opportunities, however, will result from the need to replace public relations specialists who leave the occupation to take another job, retire, or for other reasons. Earnings  Median annual earnings for salaried public relations specialists who usually worked full time were about $30,000 in 1990. The middle 50 percent earned between $21,000 and $41,000 annually; the lowest 10 percent earned less than $15,000; and the top 10 percent earned more than $52,000. According to a 1990 salary survey by the Public Relations Journal, the median annual salary of public relations account executives was $29,500. Median annual salaries also varied widely by type of employer. Manufacturers, utilities, and public relations counseling firms were among the highest paying employers; museums and mis­ cellaneous nonprofit organizations, religious and charitable organiza­ tions, and hotels and resorts were among the lowest paying employers. Nearly 40 percent of the survey's respondents earned cash bonuses. Many received perquisites such as paid vacations, company cars, parking privileges, and stock purchase plans.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  In the Federal Government, persons with a bachelor’s degree gen­ erally started at $21,000 a year in 1991; those with a master’s degree generally started at $25,700 a year. Public affairs specialists in the Federal Government averaged $41,500 a year in 1991. Related Occupations  Public relations specialists create favorable attitudes among various organizations, special interest groups, and the public through effec­ tive communication. Other workers with similar jobs include fundraisers, lobbyists, promotion managers, advertising managers, and police officers involved in community relations. Sources of Additional Information  A comprehensive directory of schools offering degree programs or a sequence of study in public relations, and a brochure on careers in public relations, are available for $10 and $2, respectively, from: Public Relations Society of America, Inc., 33 Irving Place, New York, NY 10003-2376. Current information on the public relations field, salaries, and other items is available from: «■ PR Reporter, P.O. Box 600, Exeter, NH 03833.  Additional information on job opportunities and the public rela­ tions field in general may be obtained for $1 from: *■ Service Department, Public Relations News, 127 East 80th St., New York, NY 10021.  Career information on public relations in hospitals/health care is available from: The American Society for Health Care Marketing and Public Relations, American Hospital Association, 840 North Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, IL 60611.  Radio and Television Announcers and Newscasters (D.O.T 131.067-010, and-018, .267-010; 159.147-010, and-014)  Nature of the Work  Announcers and newscasters are well-known personalities to radio and television audiences. Radio announcers, often called disk jockeys, select and introduce recorded music; present news, sports, weather, and commercials; interview guests; and report on community activities and other matters of interest to their audience. If a written script is required, they may do the research and writing. They often “ad-lib” much of the commentary. They also may operate the control board, sell commercial time to advertisers, and write commercial and news copy. Announcers at large stations usually specialize in sports or weath­ er, or in general news, and may be called newscasters or anchors. Some are news analysts. In small stations, one announcer may do everything. News anchors, or a pair of co-anchors, present news stories and introduce in-depth videotaped news or live transmissions from onthe-scene reporters. (See statement on reporters and correspondents elsewhere in the Handbook.) Weathercasters, also called weather reporters or meteorologists, report and forecast weather conditions. They gather information from national satellite weather services, wire services, and other local and regional weather bureaus. Sportscasters select, write, and deliver the sports news. This may include inter­ views with sports personalities and live coverage of games played. Broadcast news analysts, called commentators, present news sto­ ries and also interpret them and discuss how they may affect the Nation or listeners personally. Announcers frequently participate in community activities. Sports announcers, for example, are masters of ceremonies at touchdown club banquets or are on hand to greet customers at openings of sport­ ing goods stores. Working Conditions  Announcers and newscasters usually work in well-lighted, air-condi­ tioned, soundproof studios. 15  The broadcast day is long for radio and TV stations—some are on the air 24 hours a day—so announcers can expect to work unusual hours. Many announcers present early morning shows, when many people are getting ready for work or commuting, or do late night newscasts. Working within a tight schedule requires split-second timing, and the resulting stress can be physically and mentally tiring. For many announcers, the intangible rewards—creative work, many personal contacts, and the satisfaction of becoming widely known—far out­ weigh the disadvantages of irregular and often unpredictable hours, work pressures, and disrupted personal lives. Employment  Radio and television announcers and newscasters held about 57,000 jobs in 1990. Nearly all were staff announcers, but some were free­ lance announcers who sold their services for individual assignments to networks and stations, or to advertising agencies and other inde­ pendent producers. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  Entry to this occupation is highly competitive. While formal training in broadcast journalism from a college or technical school (private broadcasting school) is valuable, station officials pay particular atten­ tion to taped auditions that show an applicant’s delivery and—in tele­ vision—appearance and style on commercials, news, interviews, and other copy. Those hired by television stations usually start out as pro­ duction secretaries, production assistants, researchers, or reporters and are given a chance to move into announcing if they show an apti­ tude for “on-air” work. Newcomers to TV broadcasting also may begin as news camera operators. (See the statment on photographers and camera operators elsewhere in the Handbook.) A beginner’s  chance of landing an on-air newscasting job is remote, except possi­ bly for a small radio station. In radio, newcomers generally start out taping interviews and operating equipment. Announcers usually begin at a station in a small community and, if qualified, may then move to a better paying job in a large city. Announcers also may advance by hosting a regular program as a disc jockey, sportscaster, or other specialist. In the national networks, competition for jobs is particularly intense, and employers look for college graduates with at least several years of successful announcing experience. Announcers must have a pleasant and well-controlled voice, good timing, excellent pronunciation, and correct English usage. Television announcers need a neat, pleasing appearance as well. Knowledge of theater, sports, music, business, politics, and other subjects likely to be covered in broadcasts improves chances for success. In addition, announcers should be able to “ad-lib” all or part of a show and to work under tight deadlines. The most successful announcers attract a large audience by combining a pleasing personality and voice with an appealing style. High school courses in English, public speaking, drama, foreign languages, and electronics are valuable, and hobbies such as sports and music are additional assets. Students may gain valuable experi­ ence at campus radio or TV facilities and at commercial stations. Some stations and cable systems offer financial assistance and onthe-job training in the form of internships, apprentice programs, co­ op work programs, scholarships, or fellowships. Persons considering enrolling in a broadcasting school should con­ tact personnel managers of radio and television stations as well as broadcasting trade organizations to determine the school’s reputation for producing suitably trained candidates. Announcers in small radio stations usually operate transmitters, so they must obtain a Federal Communications Commission (FCC) restricted radiotelephone operator permit. (For additional information on FCC requirements, see the statement on broadcast technicians elsewhere in the Handbook.) Job Outlook  SPORTS  S;|g ^  -  mJk  Employment of announcers is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005 as new radio and television stations are licensed and the number of cable television systems continues to grow. Although announcers are rather strongly attached to their occupation, most openings in this relatively small field will arise from the need to replace those who transfer to other kinds of work or leave the labor force. Competition for jobs as announcers will be very keen because the broadcasting field typically attracts many more jobseekers than there are jobs. Radio stations are more inclined to hire beginners. Many of these jobs will be in small stations, however, where the pay is low. Because competition for ratings is so intense in major metropolitan areas, large stations will continue to seek highly experienced announcers and newscasters who have proven that they can attract and retain a large audience. Newscasters who are knowledgeable in such areas as business, consumer, and health news may have an advantage over other job applicants. While specialization is more common at larger stations and the networks, many smaller stations encourage it. Employment in this occupation is not significantly affected by downturns in the economy. If recessions cause advertising revenues to fall, stations tend to cut “behind-the-scenes” workers rather than announcers and broadcasters. Earnings  Entry to this occupation is highly competitive.  16   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Salaries in broadcasting vary widely. They are higher in television than in radio, higher in larger markets than in small ones, and higher in commercial than in public broadcasting. According to a survey conducted by the National Association of Broadcasters and the Broadcast Cable Financial Management Associa­ tion, salaries for experienced radio announcers averaged about $22,000 a year in 1990. They ranged from an average of about $13,000 in the smallest markets to $54,000 for on-air personalities, $52,000 for sports reporters, and $41,000 for news announcers in the largest.  Among television announcers, news anchors averaged $52,000, ranging from $27,000 in the smallest to $129,000 in the largest mar­ kets. Weathercasters averaged $43,000, ranging from $25,000 to $98,000. Sportscasters averaged $40,000, ranging from $23,000 to $109,000. Related Occupations  The success of announcers and news broadcasters depends upon how well they speak to their audiences. Others for whom oral communica­ tion skills are vital are interpreters, sales workers, public relations specialists, teachers, and actors. Sources of Additional Information  For a list of schools that offer programs and courses in broadcasting, contact: Broadcast Education Association, 1771 N St. NW., Washington, DC 20036.  For information on FCC licenses, write to: «•“ Federal Communications Commission, 1919 M St. NW., Washington, DC 20552.  General information on the broadcasting industry is available from: National Association of Broadcasters, 1771 N St. NW., Washington, DC 20036.  For information on careers in broadcast news, contact: •" Radio-Television News Directors Association, 1717 K St. NW„ Suite 615, Washington, DC 20006.  Reporters and Correspondents (D.O.T. 131.267-018)  Nature of the Work  Reporters and correspondents play a key role in our society. They gather information and prepare stories that inform us about local, State, national, and international events; present points of view on current issues; and monitor the actions of public officials, corporate executives, special interest groups, and others who exercise power. In covering a story, they investigate leads and news tips, look at docu­ ments, observe on the scene, and interview people. Reporters take notes or use a tape recorder while collecting facts. At their office, they organize the material, determine their focus or emphasis, and write their stories. In order to meet deadlines, however, many use portable computers to enter the story, which is then sent by telephone modem directly to the newspaper’s computer system. Reporters in radio and television broadcasting often compose their story and report “live” from the scene of a newsworthy event. Later, they may do commentary for a taped report in the studio and appear on camera to introduce it. General assignment reporters write up local news as assigned, such as a major disaster, a political rally, the visit of a celebrity, or a local company going out of business. Large newspapers and radio and tele­ vision stations assign reporters to gather news originating in specific locations or “beats,” such as police stations or courts. Many have reporters covering specialized fields such as health, politics, foreign affairs, sports, fashion, art, theater, consumer affairs, social events, science, education, business, and religion. Investigative reporters cover stories that take many days or weeks of information gathering. Many news correspondents are stationed in large U.S. cities as well as in other countries to prepare stories on major news events occur­ ring in these locations. Reporters on small newspapers cover all aspects of local news, and also may take photographs, write head­ lines, lay out pages, edit wire service copy, and write editorials. On some small weeklies, they also may solicit advertisements, sell sub­ scriptions, and perform general office work.  fortable, private offices; others work in noisy rooms filled with the sound of keyboards and computer printers as well as the voices of other reporters tracking down information over the telephone. When reporting from the scene, radio and television reporters may be dis­ tracted by curious onlookers or police or other emergency workers. Assignments covering wars, political uprisings, fires, floods, and other events may be dangerous. Working hours vary. Reporters on morning papers often work from late afternoon until midnight. Those on afternoon or evening papers generally work from early morning until early or midafternoon. Radio and television reporters generally are assigned to a day or evening shift. Magazine reporters generally work during the day. Reporters may have to change their work hours to meet a deadline or to follow late-breaking developments. Their work may demand long hours, irregular schedules, and some travel. Foreign correspondents often work late at night to meet schedules back home. Employment  Reporters and correspondents held about 67,000 jobs in 1990. About 7 of every 10 worked for newspapers, either large city dailies or sub­ urban and small town dailies or weeklies. Almost 2 in 10 worked in radio and television broadcasting, and others worked for magazines and wire services. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  Many employers prefer college graduates who have a degree in jour­ nalism, but some hire graduates with other degrees. They also look for experience on school newspapers or broadcasting stations and internships with news organizations. Some large city newspapers and stations prefer candidates who also have a degree in a subject-matter specialty helpful to specific beats such as economics, political sci­ ence, or business. Bachelor’s degree programs in journalism are available in over 300 colleges. About three-fourths of the courses in a typical undergradu­ ate journalism curriculum are in liberal arts; the remainder are required journalism courses. These journalism courses include intro­ ductory mass media, basic reporting and copy editing, history of jour­ nalism, and press law and ethics. In addition, students planning a career in broadcasting take courses in radio and television newscast­ ing and production. Those planning to work on newspapers or maga­ zines usually specialize in news-editorial journalism. Over 350 community and junior colleges offer journalism courses or programs. Credits earned at these schools may be transferable to 4year journalism programs. A master’s degree in journalism was offered by over 100 schools in 1990; about 20 schools offered a Ph.D. degree. Some graduate pro­ grams are intended primarily as preparation for news careers, while others concentrate on preparing journalism teachers, researchers and theorists, and advertising and public relations workers. High school courses in English, journalism, social studies, and typ­ ing provide a good foundation. Useful college liberal arts courses  Working Conditions  The work of reporters and correspondents is usually hectic. They are under great pressure to meet deadlines. Some reporters work in com­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Radio and television reporters may be distracted by curious onlookers. 17  include English with an emphasis on writing, sociology, political sci­ ence, economics, history, and psychology. Courses in computer sci­ ence, business, and speech are useful as well. Fluency in a foreign language is necessary in some jobs. Reporters need good typing and word processing skills, and short­ hand skills are useful. A knowledge of news photography is valuable, because many entry level positions are combination reporter/camera operator or reporter/photographer jobs. Experience in a part-time or summer job or an internship with a news organization is important. The Dow Jones Newspaper Fund and newspapers, magazines, and broadcast news organizations offer sum­ mer reporting and editing internships. Work on high school and col­ lege newspapers and broadcasting stations, community papers, and Armed Forces publications also provides helpful experience. In addi­ tion, more than 3,000 journalism scholarships, fellowships, and assistantships were awarded to college journalism students by universities, newspapers, foundations, and professional organizations in 1990. Experience as a “stringer”—a part-time reporter who is paid only for stories printed—is also helpful. Reporters should be dedicated to serving the public’s need for accurate and impartial news. Although reporters work as part of a team, they have an opportunity for self-expression. The ability to pre­ sent facts objectively and succinctly is essential. Accuracy is impor­ tant because, among other reasons, untrue or libelous statements can lead to costly lawsuits. Important personal characteristics include a “nose for news,” curiosity, persistence, initiative, poise, resourcefulness, a good mem­ ory, and the physical stamina and emotional stability to deal with pressing deadlines, irregular hours, and sometimes dangerous assign­ ments. Being at ease on camera or in front of a microphone is essen­ tial for broadcast reporters. Those working in unfamiliar places must be adaptable and feel at ease with a variety of people. Most beginners start with small publications or stations as general assignment reporters or copy editors. Large employers generally require several years of reporting experience. Only a few outstanding journalism graduates are hired by large city papers or stations and national magazines. Beginning reporters are assigned routine duties such as reporting on civic and club meetings, summarizing speeches, writing obituar­ ies, and covering court proceedings. As they gain experience, they may report more difficult assignments, cover an assigned “beat,” or specialize in a particular field. Reporters may advance by moving to larger papers or stations. Some experienced reporters become correspondents, writers, announcers, or public relations specialists. Others become editors in print journalism or program managers in broadcast journalism, super­ vising reporters. Some eventually become broadcasting or publica­ tions industry managers. Job Outlook  Employment of reporters and correspondents is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. This growth will come about primarily because of an anticipated increase in the number of small town and suburban daily and weekly newspapers. Little or no increase is expected in the number of big city dailies. Some growth is expected in radio and TV stations. The need to replace reporters and correspondents who leave the occupa­ tion will create most job openings. Turnover is relatively high in this occupation—some find the work stressful and hectic. Some people decide they don’t like the lifestyle and transfer to other occupations where their skills are valuable, especially public relations and adver­ tising work. Competition for reporting jobs on large metropolitan newspapers and broadcast stations and on national magazines will continue to be keen. Most editors prefer to hire the top graduates of accredited pro­ grams. Newspapers in small towns and suburban areas are expected to continue to offer better opportunities for beginning reporters. Many openings arise on small publications as reporters become edi­ tors or transfer to reporting jobs on larger publications. Talented writ­ ers who can handle highly specialized scientific or technical subjects will be at an advantage in the job market. 18   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Journalism graduates have the background for work in such closely related fields as advertising and public relations. Every year, a sub­ stantial number of journalism graduates take jobs in these fields. Other graduates accept sales, managerial, and other nonmedia posi­ tions, in many cases because it is difficult to find media jobs. The newspaper and broadcasting industries are sensitive to eco­ nomic ups and downs. During recessions, some reporters may lose their jobs. Earnings  The Newspaper Guild negotiates reporters’ wages with newspapers, both starting minimums and top minimums (taking effect after 3 to 6 years on the job). The average reporters’ starting minimum was about $426 a week as of December 1, 1990. Ten percent of reporters’ con­ tract starting minimums were $290 or less and 10 percent were $534 or more. The average reporters top minimum was about $659 a week. Ten percent of reporters’ contract top minimums were $448 or less and 10 percent were $812 or more. Some reporters earned more than the minimum. Annual salaries of radio reporters ranged from about $12,000 in the smallest stations to about $36,000 in the largest stations in 1990, according to a survey conducted by the National Association of Broadcasters. For all stations, they averaged about $15,000. Salaries of TV reporters ranged from about $17,000 in the smallest stations to about $67,000 in the largest ones. For all stations, they averaged about $26,000. Most reporters usually work a 5-day, 35- or 40-hour week and may receive extra pay for overtime work. Related Occupations  Reporters and correspondents must write clearly and effectively to succeed in their profession. Others for whom writing ability is essen­ tial include technical writers, advertising copy writers, public rela­ tions workers, educational writers, fiction writers, biographers, screen writers, and editors. Sources of Additional Information  Career information, including pamphlets entitled Newspaper: What’s In It For Me? and Facts about Newspapers, is available from: «• American Newspaper Publishers Association Foundation, The Newspa­ per Center, Box 17407, Dulles International Airport, Washington, DC 20041.  Information on careers in journalism, colleges and universities that offer degree programs in journalism or communications, and journal­ ism scholarships and internships may be obtained without charge from: •" The Dow Jones Newspaper Fund, Inc., P.O. Box 300, Princeton, NJ 08543­ 0300.  For a list of junior and community colleges offering programs in journalism, contact: «•“ Community College Journalism Association, San Antonio College, 1300 San Pedro Ave., San Antonio, TX 78212-4299.  Information on union wage rates for newspaper and magazine reporters is available from: »• The Newspaper Guild, Research and Information Department, 8611 Sec­ ond Ave., Silver Spring, MD 20910.  For a list of schools with accredited programs in their journalism departments, send a stamped, self-addressed envelope to: Accrediting Council on Education in Journalism and Mass Communica­ tions, University of Kansas School of Journalism, Stauffer-Flint Hall, Lawrence, KS 66045.  For general information about careers in journalism, contact: •■ Association For Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, Uni­ versity of South Carolina College of Journalism, 1621 College St., Columbia, SC 29208.  A pamphlet titled A Career in Newspapers, can be obtained from: *•• National Newspaper Association, 1627 K St. NW., Suite 400, Washington, DC 20006.  Names and locations of newspapers and a list of schools and departments of journalism are published in the Editor and Publisher International Year Book, available in most public libraries and news­ paper offices.  Visual Artists (D.O.T. 102.261-014; 141.031-010; .061-010, -014, -018, -022, -026, -030 and -034; .081-010; 142.061-030; 144; 149.041, and .261; and 970.131-014, and .361-018)  Nature of the Work  Visual artists use an almost limitless variety of methods and materials to communicate ideas, thoughts, and feelings. They may use oils, watercolors, acrylics, pastels, magic markers, pencils, pen and ink, silkscreen, plaster, clay, or any of a number of other media, including computers, to create realistic and abstract works or images of objects, people, nature, topography, or events. Visual artists generally fall into one of two categories—“graphic artists” and “fine artists”—depending not so much on the medium, but on the artist’s purpose in creating a work of art. Graphic artists put their artistic skills and vision at the service of commercial clients, such as major corporations, retail stores, and advertising, design, or publishing firms. Fine artists, on the other hand, often create art to satisfy their own need for self-expression, and may display their work in museums, art galleries, and homes. Some of their work may be done on request from clients, but not on the same scale as that of graphic artists. Fine artists usually work independently, choosing the subject mat­ ter and medium they deem fit. Usually, they specialize in one or two forms of art. Painters generally work with two-dimensional art forms. Using techniques of shading, perspective, and color-mixing, painters produce works that depict realistic scenes or may evoke different moods and emotions depending on the artist’s goals. Sculptors design three-dimensional art works—either molding and joining materials such as clay, wire, plastic, or metal, or cutting and carving forms from a block of plaster, wood, or stone. Some sculptors combine various materials such as concrete, metal, wood, plastic, and paper. Printmakers create printed images from designs cut into wood, stone, or metal, or from computer driven data. The designs may be engraved—as in the case of woodblocking; etched—as in the produc­ tion of etchings; or derived from computers in the form of inkjet prints. Painting restorers preserve and restore damaged and faded paint­ ings. They apply solvents and cleaning agents to clean the surfaces, reconstruct or retouch damaged areas, and apply preservatives to pro­ tect the paintings. Fine artists may sell their works to stores, commercial art galleries, and museums, or directly to collectors. Commercial galleries may sell artists’ works on consignment. The gallery and artist predetermine how much each earns from a sale. Only the most successful fine artists are able to support themselves solely through sale of their works, however. Most fine artists hold other jobs as well. Those with teaching certification may teach art in elementary or secondary schools, while those with a master’s or Ph.D. degree may teach in colleges or universities. Some fine artists work in arts administration in city, State, or Federal arts programs. Others may work as art crit­ ics, art consultants, or as directors or representatives in fine art gal­ leries; give private art lessons; or help to set up art exhibits in museums. Sometimes fine artists work in a totally unrelated field in order to support their careers as artists. Graphic artists, whether freelancers or employed by a firm, use a variety of print and film media to create art that meets a client’s needs. Graphic artists are increasingly using computers, instead of the traditional tools such as pens, pencils, scissors, and color strips, to produce their work. Computers enable them to lay out and test vari­ ous designs, formats, and colors before printing a final design. Graphic artists perform different jobs depending on their area of expertise. Graphic designers, who design on a two-dimensional level, may create packaging and promotional displays for a new product, the visual design of an annual report, or a distinctive logo for a prod­ uct or business. They also help with the layout and design of maga­ zines, newspapers, journals, and other publications, and create graphics for television. Illustrators paint or draw pictures for books,  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  magazines, and other publications, films, and paper products, includ­ ing greeting cards, calenders, wrapping paper, and stationary. Many do a variety of illustrations, while others specialize in a particular field. Medical and scientific illustrators combine artistic skills with knowledge of the biological sciences. They draw illustrations of parts of the human body, animals, plants, surgical procedures, and patient care techniques. These illustrations are used in medical textbooks and in slide and video presentations for teaching purposes. Medical illus­ trators also work for doctors and lawyers, producing exhibits for court cases. Fashion artists draw illustrations of women’s, men’s, and children’s clothing and accessories for newspapers, magazines, and other media. Some illustrators draw “story boards” for TV commercials. Story boards present TV commercials in a series of scenes similar to a comic strip, so an advertising agency and client (the company doing the advertising) can evaluate proposed commercials. Story boards may also serve as guides to placement of actors and cameras and to other details during the production of commercials. Cartoonists draw political, advertising, social, and sports cartoons. Some cartoonists work with others who create the idea or story and write the captions. Most cartoonists, however, have humorous, criti­ cal, or dramatic talents in addition to drawing skills. Animators work in the motion picture and television industries. They draw the large series of pictures which, when transferred to film or tape, form the animated cartoons seen in movies and on TV. Art directors, also called visual journalists, read the material to be printed in periodicals, newspapers, and other printed media, and decide how to visually present the information in an eye-catching, yet organized manner. They make decisions about which pho­ tographs or artwork to use, and in general oversee production of the printed material. Working Conditions  Graphic and fine artists generally work in art and design studios located in office buildings or their own homes. While their surround­ ings are usually well lighted and ventilated, odors from glues, paint, ink, or other materials may be present. Graphic artists employed by businesses and art and design studios generally work a standard 40-hour week. During busy periods, they may work overtime to meet deadlines. Self-employed graphic artists can set their own hours, but may spend much time and effort selling  ---------  Visual artists may produce art for either commercial or aesthetic purposes. 19  their services to potential customers or clients and establishing a reputation. Employment  Visual artists held about 230,000 jobs in 1990. About 3 out of 5 were self-employed. Self-employed artists are either graphic artists who freelance, offering their services to advertising agencies, publishing firms, and other businesses, or fine artists who earn income when they sell a painting or other art work. Of the artists who were not self-employed, most were graphic artists who worked for advertising agencies, commercial art and reproduction firms, or publishing firms. Others were employed by manufacturing firms, department stores, the motion picture industry, and government agencies. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  In the fine arts field, formal training requirements do not exist, but it is very difficult to become skilled enough to make a living without some basic training. Bachelor’s and graduate degree programs in fine arts are offered in many colleges and universities. In the graphic arts field, demonstrated ability and appropriate training or other qualifica­ tions are needed for success. Evidence of appropriate talent and skill shown in the “portfolio” is an important factor used by art directors and others in deciding whether to hire or contract out work to an artist. The portfolio is a collection of handmade, computer-generated, or printed examples of the artist’s best work. In theory, a person with a good portfolio but no training or experience could succeed in graphic arts. In reality, assembling a successful portfolio requires skills generally developed in a postsecondary art school program, such as a bachelor’s degree in fine art, graphic design, or visual com­ munications. Most programs in art and design also provide training in computer design techniques. This training is becoming increasingly important as a qualification for many jobs in commercial art. The appropriate training and education for prospective medical illustrators is more specific. Medical illustrators must not only demonstrate artistic ability but also have a detailed knowledge of liv­ ing organisms, surgical and medical procedures, and animal or human anatomy. A 4-year bachelor’s degree combining art and pre-medical courses is usually required, followed by a master’s degree in medical illustration. According to the Association of Medical Illustrators, there are only 6 accredited schools in the U.S. offering the master’s degree in medical illustration. Persons hired in advertising agencies or graphic design studios often start with relatively routine work. While doing this work, how­ ever, they may observe and practice their skills on the side. Many graphic artists work part time as a freelancer while continuing to hold a full-time job until they get established. Others have enough talent and confidence in their ability to start out freelancing full-time imme­ diately after they graduate from art school. Many freelance part time while still in school in order to develop experience and a portfolio of published work. The freelance artist develops a set of clients who regularly contract for work. Some successful freelancers are widely recognized for their skill in specialties such as children’s book illustration or magazine illustration. Some of these artists earn high incomes and can pick and choose the type of work they do. Fine artists and illustrators advance as their work circulates and as they establish a reputation for a particular style. The best artists and illustrators continue to grow in ideas, and their work constantly evolves over time. Graphic artists may advance to assistant art direc­ tor, art director, design director, and in some companies, manager of an art or design department. Some may gain enough skill to succeed as a freelancer or may prefer to specialize in a particular area. Others decide to open their own businesses. Job Outlook  The graphic and fine arts fields have a glamorous and exciting image. Many people with a love for drawing and creative ability qualify for entry to these fields. As a result, there is expected to be keen compe­ tition for both salaried jobs and freelance work. Freelance work may be hard to come by, especially at first, and many freelancers earn very little until they acquire experience and establish a good reputation. 20  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Employment of visual artists, overall, is expected to grow faster than average for all occupations through the year 2005. Demand for the work of graphic artists will be strong as producers of information, goods, and services put even more emphasis on visual appeal in prod­ uct design, advertising, marketing, and television. Employment growth for graphic designers, however, will be limited by increases in productivity due to computers, and because some firms are turning to employees without formal artistic or design training to operate com­ puter-aided design systems. Employment of fine artists is expected to grow because of population growth, rising incomes, and growth in the number of people who appreciate fine arts. Despite expected faster than average employment growth, the sup­ ply of those seeking entry to this field will continue to exceed requirements. Fine artists, in particular, may find it difficult to earn a living solely by selling their artwork. Nonetheless, graphic arts stu­ dios, clients, and galleries alike are always on the lookout for artists who display outstanding talent, creativity, and style. Talented artists who have developed a mastery of artistic techniques and skills should continue to be in great demand. Earnings  Median earnings for salaried visual artists who usually work full time were about $21,400 a year in 1990. The middle 50 percent earned between $15,700 and $29,600 a year. The top 10 percent earned more than $36,600, and the bottom 10 percent earned less than $12,500. Starting salary offers to design/graphic arts majors averaged $20,400 in 1990, according to the College Placement Council. According to the American Institute of Graphic Arts, salaried junior graphic designers earned an average of $21,900 in 1990. Salaries for graphic designers with several years of experience can be much higher. Earnings for self-employed visual artists vary widely. Those strug­ gling to gain experience and a reputation may be forced to charge what amounts to less than the minimum wage for their work. Wellestablished freelancers and fine artists may earn much more than salaried artists. Self-employed artists do not receive benefits such as paid holidays, sick leave, health insurance, or pensions. Related Occupations  Many occupations in the advertising industry, such as account execu­ tive or creative director, are related to commercial and graphic art and design. Workers in other occupations which apply visual art skills are architects, display workers, floral designers, industrial designers, interior designers, landscape architects, and photographers. The vari­ ous printing occupations are also related to graphic art, as is the work of art and design teachers. Sources of Additional Information  Students in high school or college who are interested in careers as illustrators should contact: The Society of Illustrators, 128 East 63rd St„ New York, NY 10021.  For information on careers in medical illustration, contact: »• The Association of Medical Illustrators, 1819 Peachtree St. NE., Atlanta, GA 30309.  For information on careers in graphic arts, contact: •“ The American Institute of Graphic Arts, 1059 3rd Ave., New York, NY 10021  For information on art careers in the publishing industry, contact: The Society of Publication Designers, 60 East 42nd St., Suite 1416, New York, NY 10165.  Writers and Editors (D.O.T. 131 except .267-010 and -018; and 132 except .067-030)  Nature of the Work  Writers and editors communicate through the written word. Writers develop original fiction and nonfiction for books, magazines, trade journals, newspapers, technical studies and reports, company newsletters, radio and television broadcasts, and advertisements. Edi­  tors supervise writers and select and prepare material for publication or broadcasting. Writers start by selecting a topic or being assigned one by an edi­ tor. They then gather information through personal observation, library research, and interviews. Sometimes, the information gathered may cause writers to change the focus to a related topic that is more interesting. They select and organize the material and put it into words that will convey it to the reader with the desired effect. Writers often revise or rewrite sections, searching for the best organization of the material or just the right phrasing. Newswriters write news items for newspapers or news broadcasts, based on information supplied by reporters or wire services. Columnists analyze news and write columns or commentaries, based on personal knowledge and experi­ ence. Editorial writers write comments to stimulate or mold public opinion, in accordance with their publication’s viewpoint. Reporters and correspondents, who may also write articles or copy for broad­ cast, are described elsewhere in this section of the Handbook. Technical writers put scientific and technical information into read­ ily understandable language. They prepare repair manuals, catalogs, parts lists, operating instructions, sales promotion materials, and pro­ ject proposals and edit technical reports. Copy writers write advertising copy for use by publication or broadcast media to promote the sale of goods and services. Established writers may work on a freelance basis; they sell their work to publishers or publication units, manufacturing firms, and public relations and advertising departments or agencies. They some­ times are hired to complete specific assignments such as writing about a new product or technique. Editors frequently do some writing and almost always do much rewriting and editing, but their primary duties are to plan the contents of books, magazines, or newspapers and to supervise their prepara­ tion. They decide what will appeal to readers, assign topics to reporters and writers, and oversee the production of the publications. In small organizations, a single editor may have full responsibility for the entire publication. In larger ones, an executive editor oversees associate or assistant editors who have responsibility for particular subjects, such as fiction, local news, international news, or sports. Editors hire writers, reporters, and other employees, plan budgets, and negotiate contracts with freelance writers. In broadcasting com­ panies, program directors have responsibilities comparable to those of editors. Editors and program directors often are helped by assistants, who may have the title of assistant editor, editorial assistant, copy editor, or production assistant. Many assistants hold entry level jobs. They review copy for errors in grammar, punctuation, and spelling. They check manuscripts for readability, style, and agreement with editorial policy. They add and rearrange sentences to improve clarity or delete incorrect and unnecessary material. Editorial assistants do research for writers and verify facts, dates, and statistics. Assistants also may arrange page layouts of articles, photographs, and advertising or plan the use of tapes. They also may compose headlines, prepare copy for printing, and proofread printer’s galleys. Some editorial assistants read and evaluate manuscripts submitted by freelance writers or answer letters about published or broadcast material. Production assistants on small papers or in radio stations clip stories that come over the wire services’ printers, answer phones, and make photo­ copies. Most writers and editors use personal computers or word pro­ cessors; many use desktop or electronic publishing systems.  tions and broadcasts. Some work overtime to meet deadlines or to cover a late-developing story. The more frequently the publication is issued, the more frequent the deadlines and the pressure to meet them. Employment  Writers and editors held about 232,000 jobs in 1990. Nearly 40 per­ cent of salaried writers and editors work for newspapers, magazines, and book publishers. Substantial numbers also work in advertising agencies, in radio and TV broadcasting, in public relations firms, and on journals and newsletters published by business and nonprofit orga­ nizations, such as professional associations, labor unions, and reli­ gious organizations. Others develop publications for government agencies or write for motion picture companies. Many technical writers work for computer software firms or manu­ facturers of aircraft, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and computers and other electronic equipment. Jobs with major book publishers, magazines, broadcasting compa­ nies, advertising agencies and public relations firms, and the Federal Government are concentrated in New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, Boston, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and Washington, D.C. More widely dispersed throughout the country are those with newspapers; and professional, religious, business, technical, and trade union mag­ azines or journals. Technical writers are employed throughout the country but the largest concentrations are in the Northeast, Texas, and California. Thousands of other persons work as freelancers—earning some income from their articles, books, and, less commonly, television and movie scripts. Most support themselves primarily with income from other sources. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  A college degree generally is required. Although some employers look for a broad liberal arts background, most prefer to hire people with degrees in communications, journalism, or English. Technical writing requires a degree in or some knowledge about a specialized field—engineering, business, or one of the sciences, for example. In many cases, people with good writing skills can pick up specialized knowledge on the job. Some transfer from jobs as techni­ cians, scientists, or engineers. Some begin as research assistants, edi­ torial assistants, or trainees in a company’s technical information or advertising department. In time, these people may assume writing duties and develop technical communication skills. Writers and editors must be able to express ideas clearly and logi­ cally. Creativity, intellectual curiosity, a broad range of knowledge, self-motivation, and perseverance are also valuable. For some jobs, the ability to concentrate amid confusion and to produce under pres­ sure is essential. Word processing skills may be required; familiarity with electronic publishing, graphics, and video production equip­ ment is increasingly needed. Because writing requires research, writ­ ers must be familiar with research techniques. Editors must have good judgment in deciding what material to accept and what to ft  Working Conditions  Working conditions for writers and editors vary with the kind of pub­ lication they work on and the kind of articles they produce. Some work in comfortable, private offices; others work in noisy rooms filled with the sound of keyboards and computer printers as well as the voices of other writers tracking down information over the tele­ phone. The search for information sometimes requires travel and vis­ its to diverse workplaces, such as factories, offices, laboratories, the ballpark, or the theater, but many have to be content with telephone interviews and the library. The workweek usually runs 35 to 40 hours. Night and weekend work is required of those who prepare morning or weekend publica­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  "  'n  Many established writers are freelancers.  21  reject. They need tact and the ability to guide and encourage others in their work. High school and college newspapers, literary magazines, and com­ munity newspapers and radio and television stations all provide valuable—but sometimes unpaid—practical writing experience. Many magazines, newspapers, and broadcast stations have intern­ ships for students. Interns write short pieces, conduct research and interviews, and learn about the publishing or broadcasting business. In small firms, beginning writers and editors may not only work as editorial or production assistants but also write or edit material right away. They often advance by moving to other firms. In larger firms, jobs usually are structured more formally. Beginners generally do research, fact checking, or copy editing. They take on full-scale writing or editing duties less rapidly than do the employees of small compa­ nies. Advancement comes as they are assigned more important articles. Job Outlook  Employment of writers and editors is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Employment of salaried writers and editors by newspapers, periodicals, book pub­ lishers, and nonprofit organizations is expected to increase with growing demand for their publications. Growth of advertising and public relations agencies should also be a source of new jobs. Demand for technical writers is expected to increase because of the continuing expansion of scientific and technical information and the continued need to communicate it. Many job openings will also occur as experienced workers transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Through the year 2005, the outlook for most writing and editing jobs is expected to continue to be keenly competitive primarily because so many people are attracted to the field. However, opportu­ nities will be good for technical writers because of the more limited number of writers who can handle technical material. In addition, opportunities should be better on small dailies and weekly newspa­ pers and in small radio and TV stations, where the pay is low. Per­ sons considering a career in writing and editing should keep their options open. Academic preparation in another field may prove use­  22  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ful, either to qualify them as writers specializing in that field or to qualify them for another occupation in the event that they are unable to get a salaried writing job. Earnings  In 1990, beginning salaries for writers and editorial assistants aver­ aged $20,000 annually, according to the Dow Jones Newspaper Fund. Those who had at least 5 years experience averaged more than $30,000 and senior editors at the largest newspapers earned over $60,000 a year. According to the 1990 Technical Communicator’s Salary Survey, median annual salaries for technical writers were as follows: Entry level............................................................................ $24,000 Mid-level non-management.................................................. 34,000 Mid-level management......................................................... 38,000 Senior management................................................................ 45,000 Technical writers and editors in the Federal government averaged $36,897 in 1991; other writers and editors averaged $35,635. Related Occupations  Writers and editors communicate ideas and information to individuals for their education and entertainment. Other communications occupa­ tions include newspaper reporters and correspondents, radio and tele­ vision announcers, advertising and public relations workers, and teachers of journalism. Sources of Additional Information  For a guide to journalism careers and scholarships, contact: <*- The Dow Jones Newspaper Fund, P.O. Box 300, Princeton, NJ 08540. For information on college internships in magazine editing, contact: <*- American Society of Magazine Editors, 575 Lexington Ave., New York, NY 10022.  For information on careers in technical writing, contact: Society for Technical Communication, Inc., 901 N. Stuart St., Suite 304 Arlington, VA 22203.  New from BLS  cien i  Do you want to know more about work in industries? • Number of jobs • Geographic areas having the most jobs • Size of establishments • Goods and services produced • Kinds of workers employed—what types of work is done • Common working conditions and hazards • Jobs that can be entered from high school; from college • Jobs that do not require specialized education or training • Opportunities for acquiring skills • Prospects for upward mobility • Long-term employment outlook • Reasons for changing staffing patterns of key Digitized• forEarnings FRASER https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  occupations  Then, don’t miss this new publication!  Career Guide to Industries Career Guide to Industries, BLS Bulletin 2403, was produced by the same staff that prepares the Occupational Outlook Handbook—the Federal Goverment’s premier career guidance publication. This new book is a must for guidance counselors, individuals planning their careers, job seekers, and others who want the latest word on career information from an industry perspective. Note: At press time, the price for this publication was not available. Contact any of the Bureau of Labor Statistics Regional Offices listed on the inside front cover, or the Division of Occupational Outlook, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, DC 20212.  Related Publications Occupational Projections and Training Data  1992 Edition  i i i i i  kill*  >11 4 )  ft 4 ft 1 >  BLS Bulletin 2401  BLS Bulletin 2402  Occupational Projections and Training Data, 1992 Edition  Outlook 1990-2005  This supplement to the Occupational Outlook Handbook pro­ vides the statistical and technical data supporting the infor­ mation presented in the Handbook. Education and training planners, career counselors, and jobseekers can find valu­ able information that ranks occupations by employment growth, earnings, susceptibility to unemployment, separation rates, and part-time work.  Every 2 years, the Bureau of Labor Statistics produces detailed projections of the U.S. economy and labor force. This bulletin presents the Bureau’s latest analyses of economic and industrial growth, the labor force, and trends in occupa­ tional employment into the 21st century. An overview article focuses on important issues raised by these projections.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Note: At press time, prices for these publications were not available. For prices and ordering information, contact any of the Bureau of Labor Statistics Regional Offices listed on the inside of the front cover, or the Division of Occupational Outlook, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, DC 20212.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102