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L 3'3/qa.: 2400-^/am-9 3  Education and Social Service Occupations and Clergy Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1992-93 Edition U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics Bulletin 2400-6  Us'SnrnL,BRARY u*®* D-POSfTORY  AUG I 3 |992  I  m  Sim   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  n  mm !'*r.......... iLSi'-'-f: ■  00006  at  ■■  mm  SSpss «8SS§18Si*«  Adult Education Teachers (D.O.T. 075.127-010; 090.222-010; 090.227-018; 097.227-010 and -014; 099.223, .227-014, -018, -026, and -030; 149.021; 150.027-014; 151.027-014; 152.021; 153.227-014; 159.227; 166.227; 239.227; 621.221; 683.222; 689.222; 715.221; 740.221; 789.222; 806.227; and 919.223)  Nature of the Work Adult education teachers work in three main areas: adult vocationaltechnical; adult basic; and adult continuing education. Some adult education programs prepare people who have graduated or left school for occupations that do not require a college degree, such as welder, automated systems manager, X-ray technician, and cosmetologist, or help people upgrade current skills. Others offer courses not specifi­ cally intended to prepare for an occupation, such as basic education for school dropouts, cooking, dancing, exercise and physical fitness, photography, and the stock market. Adult education teachers may lecture in classrooms and also give students hands-on experience. Increasingly, adult vocational-techni­ cal education teachers integrate academic and vocational curriculums so that students obtain a variety of skills. For example, an electronics student may be required to take courses in principles of mathematics and science in conjunction with hands-on electronics skills. General­ ly, teachers demonstrate techniques, have students apply them, and critique the students’ work so that they can leam from their mistakes. For example, welding instructors show students various welding techniques, including the use of tools and equipment, watch students use the techniques, and have them repeat procedures if done incor­ rectly. Some adult education teachers instruct in adult basic education programs. Teachers may work with students who do not speak English; teach adults reading, writing, and mathematics up to the eighth grade level; or teach adults through a twelfth grade level in preparation for the General Educational Development Examination (GED). The GED offers the equivalent of a high school diploma. Teachers in this program deal with students at different levels of development who may lack proper study habits and self-confidence, and who may require more attention and patience than other students. These teachers may refer students for counseling or job placement. Because many people who need adult basic education are reluctant to seek it out, teachers may also recruit participants. Adult education teachers also prepare lessons and assignments, grade papers and do related paperwork, attend faculty and profession­ al meetings, and stay abreast of developments in their field. (For information on vocational education teachers in secondary schools, see the Handbook statement on secondary school teachers.) Working Conditions Since adult education teachers work with adult students, they do not encounter some of the behavioral or social problems sometimes found when teaching younger students. The adults are there by choice, and are usually highly motivated—attributes that can make teaching these students rewarding and satisfying. Many adult education teachers work part time. Many courses are offered at night or on weekends and range from 2- to 4-hour work­ shops and 1 -day minisessions to semester-long courses. Employment Adult education teachers held about 517,000 jobs in 1990. Almost half taught part time, a larger proportion than for other teachers, and many taught only intermittently. Flowever, many of them also held other jobs, in many cases doing work related to the subject they taught. Many adult education teachers are self-employed. Adult education teachers are employed by public school systems; community and junior colleges; universities; businesses that provide formal education and training for their employees; automotive repair,  2  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  bartending, business, computer, electronics, medical technology, and similar schools and institutes; dance studios; health clubs; job train­ ing centers; community organizations; labor unions; and religious organizations. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Training requirements vary widely by State and by subject. In gener­ al, teachers need work or other experience in their field, and a license or certificate in fields where these usually are required for full profes­ sional status. In some cases, particularly at educational institutions, a bachelor's, master's, or doctoral degree is required. In other cases, an acceptable portfolio of work is required. For example, to secure a job teaching a flower arranging course, an applicant would need to show examples of previous work. Most States and the District of Columbia require adult basic educa­ tion teachers to have a bachelor’s degree from an approved teacher training program, and some require teacher certification. (For infor­ mation on teacher certification, see the statement on secondary school teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Adult education teachers update their skills through continuing education. Teachers may take part in seminars, conferences, or gradu­ ate courses in adult education, training and development, or human resources development, or may return to work in business or industry for a limited period of time. Adult education teachers should communicate and relate well with students, enjoy working with them, and be able to motivate them. Adult basic education instructors, in particular, must be patient, understanding, and supportive to make students comfortable, develop trust, and help them better understand their needs and aims. Some teachers advance to administrative positions in departments of education, colleges and universities, and corporate training depart­ ments. Such positions may require advanced degrees, such as a doc­ torate in adult and continuing education. (See statement on education administrators elsewhere in the Handbook.) Job Outlook Employment of adult education teachers is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005 as the demand for adult education programs continues to rise. An increasing number of adults are taking courses for career advancement, skills upgrading, and personal enrichment. Enrollments in adult basic edu­ cation programs are increasing because of changes in immigration policy that require basic competency in English and civics, and an increased awareness of the difficulty in finding a good job without basic academic skills. Employment growth of adult vocational-technical education teach­ ers will result from the need to train young adults for entry level jobs, and to upgrade the skills of experienced workers who want to advance or switch fields or whose jobs have been eliminated due to changing technology or business reorganization. In addition, increased cooperation between businesses and educational institu­ tions to insure that students are taught the skills employers desire should result in greater demand for adult education teachers, particu­ larly at community and junior colleges. Many job openings for adult education teachers will stem from the need to replace persons who leave the occupation. Many teach part time and move into and out of the occupation for other jobs, family responsibilities, and to retire, so turnover is higher than that for most other teaching occupations. Opportunities will be best in fields such as computer technology, automotive mechanics, and medical technol­ ogy which offer very attractive, and often higher paying, job opportu­ nities outside of teaching. Earnings In 1990, salaried adult education teachers who usually worked full time had median earnings around $26,100 a year. The middle 50 per­ cent earned between $18,300 and $37,200. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $12,300, while the top 10 percent earned more than  For sale by Superintendant of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office Washington, D.C. 20402  Some adult education teachers prepare people for occupations that do not require a college degree. $45,600. Earnings varied widely by subject, academic credentials, experience, and region of the country. Part-timers are generally paid hourly wages and do not receive benefits or pay for preparation time outside of class. Related Occupations Adult education teaching requires a wide variety of skills and apti­ tudes, including the power to influence, motivate, and train others; organizational, administrative, and communication skills; and creativ­ ity. Workers in other occupations that require these aptitudes include other teachers, counselors, school administrators, public relations specialists, employee development specialists and interviewers, and social workers. Sources of Additional Information Information on adult basic education programs and certification requirements is available from State departments of education and local school districts. For information about adult vocational-technical education teach­ ing positions, contact State departments of vocational-technical edu­ cation. For information on adult education teaching positions, contact departments of local government, State adult education departments, schools, colleges and universities, religious organizations, and a wide range of businesses that provide formal training for their employees. General information on adult education is available from: •" American Association for Adult and Continuing Education, 1112 16th St. NW, Suite 420, Washington, DC 20036. »■ American Vocational Association, 1410 King St., Alexandria, VA 22314. *■ ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education, 1900 Kenny Rd„ Columbus, OH 43210-1090.  Archivists and Curators (D.O.T. 101; 102 except .261-014 and .367-010; 109 except .067-010, .137­ 010, and .367-010)  Nature of the Work Archivists, curators, museum technicians, and conservators search for, acquire, analyze, describe, arrange, catalog, restore, preserve, exhibit, maintain, and store items of lasting value so that they can be used by researchers or for displays, publications, and broadcasting. These may consist of historical documents, audiovisual materials, corporate records, art, coins, stamps, minerals, clothing, maps, live and preserved plants and animals, buildings, computer records, or historic sites. Archivists and curators plan and oversee the work of maintaining collections. They may also, along with technicians and conservators,  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  work directly on collections. Archivists and curators may coordinate educational and public service programs, such as tours, workshops, lectures, and classes, and may work with the boards of institutions to administer plans and policies. They also may conduct research on topics or items relevant to their collections. Archivists determine what portion of the vast amount of informa­ tion produced by government agencies, corporations, educational institutions, other organizations, families, and individuals should be made part of a permanent historical record or put on exhibit. They organize and describe records so they can be located easily, determine whether records should be stored as original documents, on micro­ film, on computers, or in some other format, and assist researchers and others who use the records. Archives may be part of a library, museum, or historical society, or may be a separate unit. Most items in archives are textual documents, but photographs, blueprints, audiovisual materials, computer records, and other items also are stored. Archivists often specialize in an area of history or technology so they can better determine what should become part of the archives. Archivists may also work with special­ ized types of records—for example, manuscripts, machine-readable records, photographs, cartographic records, motion pictures, and sound recordings. Curators, sometimes called collections managers, oversee collec­ tions in museums, zoos, aquariums, botanic gardens, and historic sites. They acquire items through purchases, gifts, field exploration, intermuseum loans, or, in the case of some plants and animals, breed­ ing. Curators also plan and prepare exhibits. Most curators specialize in fields such as botany, art, or history. Those working in large institutions may be highly specialized. A large natural history museum, for example, would have specialists in birds, fishes, insects, and mollusks. Furthermore, in large institutions, most curators specialize in particular functions. Some maintain the collection, while others perform administrative tasks. Registrars, for example, are responsible for keeping track of and moving objects in the collection. In small institutions, with only one or a few curators, they are responsible for almost everything from maintaining collec­ tions to directing the affairs of museums. Conservators coordinate the activities of workers engaged in the examination, repair, and conservation of museum objects. This may require substantial historical and archaeological research. They use X-rays, radiographs, special lights, and other laboratory equipment in examining objects to determine their condition, the need for repair, and the method of preservation. Museum technicians assist curators and conservators by perform­ ing various preparatory and maintenance tasks on museum items. Archivists, curators, and conservators are increasingly using com­ puters to catalog and organize collections, as well as to perform origi­ nal research. Working Conditions The working conditions of archivists and curators vary. Some spend most of their time working with the public, providing reference assis­ tance and educational services. Others perform research or process records, which often means working alone or in offices with only one or two other persons. Those who restore and install exhibits or work with bulky, heavy record containers may climb, stretch, or lift, and those in zoos, botanical gardens, and other outdoor museums or his­ toric sites frequently walk. Curators may travel extensively to evaluate potential additions to the collection, to organize exhibitions, and to conduct research in their area of expertise. Employment Archivists and curators held about 17,000 jobs in 1990. About 3 out of 10 were employed in museums, botanical gardens, and zoos, and approximately 1 in 6 was in public and private education, particularly in college and university libraries. One-third worked in Federal, State, and local government. Most Federal archivists work for the National Archives and Records Administration; others manage mili­ tary archives in the Department of Defense. Most Federal Govern­ ment curators work at the Smithsonian Institution, in the military 3  museums of the Department of Defense, and in archaeological and other museums managed by the Department of Interior. All State governments have archival or historical records sections employing archivists. State and local governments have numerous historical museums, parks, libraries, and zoos employing curators. Some large corporations have archives or records centers, employ­ ing archivists to manage the growing volume of records created or maintained as required by law or necessary to the firms’ operations. Religious and fraternal organizations, professional associations, con­ servation organizations, and research firms also employ archivists and curators. Conservators may work under contract to treat particular items, rather than work as a regular employee of a museum or other institution. TYaining, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Employment as an archivist or curator generally requires graduate training and substantial practical or work experience. Many archivists and curators work in archives or museums while completing their for­ mal education, in order to gain the experience that many employers look for when hiring. Employers generally look for archivists with undergraduate and graduate degrees in history or library science, with courses in archival science. Some positions may require knowledge of the discipline relat­ ed to the collection, such as business or medicine. An increasing num­ ber of archivists have a double master’s degree in history and library science. Approximately 65 colleges and universities offer courses or practical training in archival science; some also offer master’s and doc­ toral degrees. The Academy of Certified Archivists offers voluntary certification for archivists. Certification requires the applicant to pass an examination offered by the Academy. Archivists need analytical ability to understand the content of doc­ uments and the context in which they were created, and to decipher deteriorated or poor quality printed matter, handwritten manuscripts, or photographs and films. Archivists also must be able to organize large amounts of information and write clear instructions for its retrieval and use. Many archives are very small, including one-person shops, with limited promotion opportunities. Advancement generally is through transferring to a larger unit with supervisory positions. A doctorate may be needed for some advanced positions, such as director of a State archives. In most museums, a master’s degree in an appropriate discipline of the museum’s specialty—for example, art, history, or archaeology—  or museum studies is required for employment as a curator. Many employers prefer a doctoral degree, such as for curators in a science discipline. In small museums, curatorial positions may be available to individuals with a bachelor’s degree. For some positions, an intern­ ship of full-time museum work supplemented by courses in museum practices is needed. Museum technicians generally need a bachelor’s degree in an appro­ priate discipline of the museum’s specialty, museum studies training, or previous museum work experience. Technician positions often serve as a stepping stone for individuals interested in curatorial work. With the exception of small museums, a master’s degree is needed for advance­ ment. When hiring conservators, employers look for a master’s degree in conservation, with an undergraduate background in science or art. Individuals may also enter the profession through apprenticeship pro­ grams, available through museums, nonprofit organizations, and pri­ vate practice conservators. Students interested in museum work may take courses or obtain a bachelor’s or master’s degree in museum studies. Colleges and uni­ versities throughout the country offer bachelor’s and master’s degrees in museum studies. However, many employers feel that, while muse­ um studies are helpful, a thorough knowledge of the museum’s spe­ cialty and museum work experience are more important. Curatorial positions often require knowledge in a number of fields. For historic and artistic conservation, courses in chemistry, physics, and art are desirable. Since curators—particularly those in small museums—may have administrative and managerial responsibilities, courses in business administration and public relations also are  recommended. Curators must be flexible because of their wide variety of duties. They need an aesthetic sense to design and present exhibits, and, in small museums, manual dexterity is needed to erect exhibits or restore objects. Leadership ability is important for museum directors, while public relations skills are valuable in increasing museum atten­ dance and fundraising. In large museums, curators may advance through several levels of responsibility, eventually to museum director. Curators in smaller museums often advance to larger ones. Individual research and publi­ cations are important for advancement. Continuing education, which enables archivists, curators, museum technicians, and conservators to keep up with developments in the field, is available through meetings, conferences, and workshops sponsored by archival, historical, and curatorial associations. Job Outlook Employment of archivists and curators is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. In addition, turnover among archivists and curators will create a number of job openings. Federal Government archives are expected to grow slowly, but those in other areas, such as educational services and State and local government, are expected to grow faster. Archival jobs will also become available as institutions put more emphasis on establishing archives and organizing records and information. Museums and botanical and zoological gardens, where curators are concentrated, are expected to grow in response to increased public interest in sci­ ence, art, history, and technology. Despite the anticipated increase in the employment of archivists and curators, competition for jobs is expected to be keen. A job as a curator is attractive to many people, and many have the necessary subject knowledge; yet there are only a few openings. Consequently, candi­ dates may have to work part time, or as an intern, or even as a volun­ teer assistant curator or research associate after completing their formal education, and substantial work experience in collection management, exhibit design, or restoration will be necessary for permanent status. Job opportunities for curators should be best in art and history muse­ ums, since these are the largest employers in the museum industry.  Prospective archivists and curators need graduate training and work experience. 4  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Earnings Earnings of archivists and curators vary considerably by type and size of employer. Average salaries in the Federal Government, for exam-  pie, are much higher than those in religious organizations. Salaries of curators in large, well-funded museums may be several times higher than those in small ones. Salaries in the Federal Government depend upon education and experience. In early 1991, inexperienced archivists and curators with a bachelor’s degree started at about $17,000, while those with some experience started at $21,000. Those with a master’s degree started at $25,700, and with a doctorate, $31,100 or $37,300. In 1991, archivists employed by the Federal Government averaged $42,800 a year, curators averaged $44,800, and museum specialists and techni­ cians averaged $27,400. According to a survey by the Association of Art Museum Direc­ tors, average salaries for workers in large art museums in 1990 were as follows: Chief curator/director........................................................... $48,000 Curator.................................................................................. 44,200 Senior conservator................................................................ 42,500 Curatorial assistants.............................................................. 20,400 Related Occupations Archivists’ and curators’ interests in preservation and display are shared by anthropologists, arborists, archaeologists, artifacts conser­ vators, botanists, ethnologists, folklorists, genealogists, historians, horticulturists, information specialists, librarians, paintings restorers, records managers, and zoologists. Sources of Additional Information For information on archivists and on schools offering courses in archival science, contact: Society of American Archivists, 600 South Federal St., Suite 504. Chicago, IL 60605.  For information about certification for archivists, contact: Academy of Certified Archivists, 600 South Federal St., Suite 504, Chica­ go, IL 60605.  For general information about careers as a curator and schools offering courses in museum studies, contact: »■ American Association of Museums, 1225 I St. NW., Suite 200, Washing­ ton. DC 20005.  For information about curatorial careers and internships in botani­ cal gardens, contact: American Association of Botanical Gardens and Arboreta, 786 Church Rd„ Wayne, PA 19087.  For information about conservation and preservation careers, contact: »■ American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, 1400 16th St. NW., Suite 340, Washington, DC 20036.  For information on curatorial and other positions in natural history museums, contact: »■ Association of Systematics Collections, 730 11th St. NW., Second Floor, Washington, DC 20001.  teach, and supervise graduate student research. They may use closedcircuit and cable television, computers, videotapes, and other teach­ ing aids. Faculty keep up with developments in their field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, and participating in professional conferences. They also do their own research to expand knowledge in their field. They experiment, collect and analyze data, and examine original documents, literature, and other source material. From this, they develop hypotheses, arrive at conclusions, and write about their findings in scholarly journals and books. Most faculty members serve on academic or administrative com­ mittees which deal with the policies of their institution, departmental matters, academic issues, curricula, budgets, equipment purchases, and hiring. Some work with student organizations. Department heads generally have heavier administrative responsibilities. The amount of time spent on each of these activities varies by indi­ vidual circumstance and type of institution. Faculty members at uni­ versities generally spend a significant part of their time doing research; those in 4-year colleges, somewhat less; and those in 2-year colleges, relatively little. However, the teaching load usually is heav­ ier in 2-year colleges. Working Conditions College faculty generally have flexible schedules. They must be pre­ sent for classes, usually 12 to 16 hours a week, and for faculty and committee meetings. Most establish regular office hours for student consultations, usually 3 to 6 hours per week. Otherwise, they are rela­ tively free to decide when and where they will work, and how much time to devote to course preparation, study, research, and other activi­ ties. They may work staggered hours and teach classes at night and on weekends. They have even greater flexibility during the summer and school holidays, when they may teach or do research, travel, or pursue nonacademic interests. Most colleges and universities have funds used to support faculty research or other professional develop­ ment needs, including travel to conferences and research sites. Faculty may experience a conflict between their responsibilities to teach students and the pressure to do research—“publish or perish.” This may be a particular problem for young faculty seeking advance­ ment. However, increasing emphasis on undergraduate teaching abili­ ty in tenure decisions may alleviate some of this pressure. Employment College and university faculty held about 712,000 jobs in 1990, most­ ly in public institutions. About 3 out of 10 college and university faculty members work part time. Some part-timers, known as “adjunct faculty,” have prima­ ry jobs outside of academia—in government, private industry, or in nonprofit research—and teach “on the side.” Others want full-time jobs but can’t find them. Some of them work part time in more than one institution.  College and University Faculty (D.O.T. 090.227-010)  Nature of the Work College and university faculty teach and advise over 13 million full­ time and part-time college students and perform a significant part of our Nation’s research. They also study and meet with colleagues to keep up with developments in their field and consult with govern­ ment, business, nonprofit, and community organizations. Faculty are generally organized into departments, based on subject or field. They usually teach several different courses in their depart­ ment—algebra, calculus, and differential equations, for example. They may instruct undergraduates, graduate students, or both. College and university faculty may give lectures to several hun­ dred students in large halls, lead small seminars, and supervise stu­ dents in laboratories. They also prepare lectures, exercises, and laboratory experiments, grade exams and papers, and advise and work with students individually. In universities, they also counsel,  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  -------—_  *  . S' ■pFfljp 4#  1  College faculty teach and conduct research. 5  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Most college and university faculty are in four academic ranks: Pro­ fessors, associate professors, assistant professors, and instructors. A small number are lecturers. Most faculty members are hired as instructors or assistant profes­ sors. Four-year colleges and universities generally hire doctoral degree holders for full-time, tenure-track positions, but may hire mas­ ter’s degree holders or doctoral candidates for certain disciplines, such as the arts, or for part-time and temporary jobs. In 2-year col­ leges, master’s degree holders often qualify for full-time positions. Doctoral programs usually take 4 to 7 years of full-time study beyond the bachelor’s degree. Candidates usually specialize in a subfield of a discipline, for example, organic chemistry, counseling psychology, or European history, but also take courses covering the whole discipline. Programs include 20 or more increasingly special­ ized courses and seminars plus comprehensive examinations on all major areas of the field. They also include a dissertation. This is a report on original research to answer some significant question in the field; it sets forth an original hypothesis or proposes a model and tests it. Students in the natural sciences and engineering usually do laboratory work; in the humanities, they study original documents and other published material. The dissertation, done under the guid­ ance of one or more faculty advisors, usually takes 1 or 2 years of full-time work. In some fields, particularly the natural sciences, some students spend an additional 2 years on postdoctoral research and study before taking a faculty position. A major step in the traditional academic career is attaining tenure. Newly hired faculty serve a certain period (usually 7 years) under term contracts. Then, their record of teaching, research, and overall contribution to the institution is reviewed; tenure is granted if the review is favorable and positions are available. With tenure, a profes­ sor cannot be fired without just cause and due process. Those denied tenure usually must leave the institution. Tenure protects the faculty’s academic freedom—the ability to teach and conduct research without fear of being fired for advocating unpopular ideas. It also gives both faculty and institutions the stability needed for effective research and teaching, and provides financial stability for faculty members. About two-thirds of full-time faculty are tenured, and many others are in the probationary period. Some faculty—based on teaching experience, research, publica­ tion, and service on campus committees and task forces—move into administrative and managerial positions, such as departmental chair­ person, dean, and president. At 4-year institutions, such advancement requires a doctoral degree. At 2-year colleges, a doctorate is helpful but not generally required, except for advancement to some top administrative postitions. (Deans and departmental chairpersons are covered in the Handbook statement on education administrators, while college presidents are included in the Handbook statement on general managers and top executives.) College faculty need intelligence, inquiring and analytical minds, and a strong desire to pursue and disseminate knowledge. They should be able to communicate clearly and logically, both orally and in writing. They need to be able to establish rapport with students and, as models for them, to be dedicated to the principles of academic integrity and intellectual honesty. Finally, they need to be able to work in an environment where they receive little direct supervision. Job Outlook Employment of college and university faculty is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005 as enrollments in higher education increase. Many additional open­ ings will arise as faculty members retire. Enrollments increased in the early and mid-1980’s despite a decline in the traditional college-age (18-24) population. This result­ ed from a higher proportion of 18- to 24-year-olds attending college, along with a growing number of part-time, female, and nontraditional age students. Enrollments are expected to continue to grow through the year 2005, particularly as the traditional college-age population begins increasing after 1996, when the leading edge of the babyboom “echo” generation (children of the baby boomers) reaches col­ 6   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  lege age. In addition, the number of students age 25 or over may con­ tinue to grow, further increasing enrollments. Faculty retirements should increase significantly from the late 1990’s through 2005. The large number of faculty who entered the profession during the 1950’s and 1960’s will approach retirement age at this time, creating a significant number of job openings. Once enrollments and retirements increase in the late 1990’s, opportunities for faculty should be much improved over those in the 1970’s and 1980’s. In the past two decades, keen competition for fac­ ulty jobs forced some applicants to accept part-time or short-term academic appointments that offered little hope of tenure, and others to seek nonacademic positions. However, as competition for jobs lessens in the late 1990’s, opportunities for tenure should improve, and fewer college and university faculty should have to take part-time or short-term appointments. Job prospects will continue to be better in certain fields—business, engineering, health science, computer science, physical sciences, and mathematics, for example—largely because very attractive nonaca­ demic jobs will be available for many potential faculty. Employment of college faculty is also related to the nonacademic job market through an “echo effect.” Good job prospects in a field—for example, engineering during the late 1970’s and early 1980’s—cause more stu­ dents to enroll, increasing faculty needs in that field. On the other hand, poor job prospects in a field, such as history in recent years, discourages students and reduces demand for faculty. Earnings Earnings vary according to faculty rank and type of institution and, in some cases, by field. Faculty in 4-year institutions earn higher salaries, on the average, than those in 2-year schools. According to a 1990-91 survey by the American Association of University Professors, salaries for full-time faculty on 9-month contracts averaged $43,700. By rank, the average for professors was $56,200; associate professors, $41,800; assistant professors, $34,600; and instructors, $26,100. Those on 11- or 12-month contracts obviously earned more. In fields where there are high-paying nonacademic alternatives—notably medicine and law but also engineering and business—earnings exceed these averages. In oth­ ers—the liberal arts, for example—they are lower.  The traditional college age population will begin to increase in the mid-1990's. Population 18 to 24 years of age (millions) 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23  0 1975  1980  1985  1990  1995  Source: Bureau of Census, Series 18 population projections (high fertility/high immigration assumptions)  2000  2005  Many faculty members have added earnings, both during the aca­ demic year and the summer, from consulting, teaching additional courses, research, writing for publication, or other employment. Most college and university faculty enjoy some unique benefits, including access to campus facilities and tuition waivers for depen­ dents, housing and travel allowances, and paid sabbatical leaves. Related Occupations College and university faculty function both as teachers and researchers. They communicate information and ideas. Related occu­ pations include elementary and secondary school teachers, librarians, writers, consultants, lobbyists, trainers and employee development specialists, and policy analysts. Faculty research activities are often similar to those of scientists, project managers, and administrators in industry, government, and nonprofit research organizations. Sources of Additional Information Professional societies generally provide information on employment opportunities in their fields. Names and addresses of these societies appear in statements elsewhere in the Handbook. Special publications on higher education, available in libraries, list specific employment opportunities for faculty.  Counselors (D.O.T. 045.107-010, -014, -018, -038, -042, .117-010; 090.107-010; and 169.267.026)  Nature of the Work Counselors assist people with personal, family, social, educational, and career decisions, problems, and concerns. Their duties depend on the individuals they serve and the settings in which they work. School and college counselors help students understand their abili­ ties, interests, talents, and personality characteristics so that the stu­ dent can develop realistic academic and career options. They use interviews, counseling sessions, tests, or other tools to assist them in evaluating and advising students. They may operate career informa­ tion centers and career education programs. High school counselors advise on college majors, admission requirements, entrance exams, and financial aid, and on trade, technical school, and apprenticeship programs. They help students develop jobfinding skills such as resume writing and interviewing techniques. Counselors also help students understand and deal with their social, behavioral, and per­ sonal problems. They emphasize preventive and developmental coun­ seling to provide students with the life skills needed to deal with problems before they occur, and to enhance personal, social, and aca­ demic growth. They work with students individually, in small groups, or with entire classes. Counselors consult and work with parents, teachers, school administrators, school psychologists, school nurses, and social workers. Elementary school counselors do more social and personal counseling, and less vocational and academic counseling than secondary school counselors. They observe younger children during classroom and play activities and confer with their teachers and parents to evaluate their strengths, problems, or special needs. College career planning and placement counselors help students and alumni with career development and job hunting. Rehabilitation counselors help persons deal with the personal, social, and vocational impact of their disabilities. They evaluate the strengths and limitations of individuals, provide personal and voca­ tional counseling, and may arrange for medical care, vocational train­ ing, and job placement. Rehabilitation counselors interview individuals with disabilities and their families, evaluate school and medical reports, and confer and plan with physicians, psychologists, occupational therapists, employers, and others. Confering with the client, they develop and implement a rehabilitation program, which may include training to help the person become more independent and employable. They also work toward increasing the client’s capac­ ity to adjust and live independently.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Employment counselors help individuals make wise career deci­ sions. They help clients explore and evaluate their education, train­ ing, work history, interests, skills, personal traits, and physical capacities, and may arrange for aptitude and achievement tests. They also work with individuals in developing jobseeking skills and assist clients in locating and applying for jobs. Mental health counselors work with individuals and groups to pro­ mote optimum mental health. They help individuals deal with such concerns as addictions and substance abuse, family, parenting, and marital problems, suicide, stress management, problems with self­ esteem, issues associated with aging, job and career concerns, educa­ tional decisions, and issues of mental and emotional health. Mental health counselors work closely with other mental health specialists, including psychiatrists, psychologists, clinical social workers, psychi­ atric nurses, and school counselors. (See the statements on psycholo­ gists and social workers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Counselors specialize in many other areas, including marriage and family, multicultural, and gerontological counseling. Working Conditions Most school counselors work the traditional 9- to 10-month school year with a 2- to 3-month vacation, although an increasing number are employed on 10 1/2- or 11-month contracts. They generally have the same hours as teachers. Rehabilitation and employment counselors generally work a stan­ dard 40-hour week. Self-employed counselors and those working in mental health and community agencies often work evenings to coun­ sel clients who work during the day. College career planning and placement counselors may work long and irregular hours during recruiting periods. Since privacy is essential for confidential and frank discussions with clients, counselors usually have private offices. Employment Counselors held about 144,000 jobs in 1990. School counseling was the largest specialty. In addition to elementary and secondary schools and colleges and universities, counselors worked in a wide variety of public and pri­ vate establishments. These include health care facilities; job training and vocational rehabilitation centers; social agencies; correctional institutions; and residential care facilities, such as halfway houses for criminal offenders and group homes for children, the aged, and the disabled. Counselors also worked in organizations engaged in com­ munity improvement and social change, as well as drug and alcohol rehabilitation programs and State and local government agencies. A growing number of counselors are in private practice, health mainte­ nance organizations, and group practice. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Generally, counselors have a master’s degree in college student affairs, elementary or secondary school counseling, gerontological  Counselors generally need a master's degree in their specialty. 7  counseling, marriage and family counseling, substance abuse coun­ seling, rehabilitation counseling, agency or community counseling, mental health counseling, counseling psychology, career counseling, or a related field. Graduate level counselor education programs in colleges and uni­ versities are usually in departments of education or psychology. Courses are grouped into eight core areas: Human growth and devel­ opment; social and cultural foundations; helping relationships; groups; lifestyle and career development; appraisal; research and evaluation; and professional orientation. In an accredited program, 48 to 60 semester hours of graduate study, including a period of super­ vised clinical experience in counseling, are usually required for a master’s degree. The Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP) accredits graduate coun­ seling programs. In 1991, 34 States had some form of counselor credentialing legis­ lation—licensure, certification, or registry—for practice outside schools. Requirements vary from State to State. In some States, cre­ dentialing is mandatory; in others, voluntary. Many counselors elect to be Nationally certified by the National Board for Certified Counselors (NBCC), which grants the credential “National Certified Counselor.” In order to be certified, a counselor must hold a master's degree in counseling, have at least 2 years of professional counseling experience, and pass NBCC’s National Counselor Examination. This national certification is distinct from State certification. All States require school counselors to hold State school counsel­ ing certification. Some States require public school counselors to have both counseling and teaching certificates. Depending on the State, a master’s degree in counseling and 2 to 5 years of teaching experience may be required for a counseling certificate. Vocational and related rehabilitation agencies generally require a master’s degree in rehabilitation counseling, counseling and guid­ ance, or counseling psychology for rehabilitation counselor jobs. Some, however, may accept applicants with a bachelor’s degree in rehabilitation services, counseling, psychology, or related fields. Experience in employment counseling, job development, psychology, education, or social work may be helpful. The Council on Rehabilitation Education (CORE) accredits gradu­ ate programs in rehabilitation counseling. A minimum of 2 years of study—including a period of supervised clinical experience—are required for the master’s degree. Some colleges and universities offer a bachelor’s degree in rehabilitation services education. In most State vocational rehabilitation agencies, applicants must pass a written examination and be evaluated by a board of examiners. Many employers require rehabilitation counselors to be certified. To become certified, counselors must meet educational and experience standards established by the Commission on Rehabilitation Coun­ selor Certification, and pass a written examination. They are then designated as “Certified Rehabilitation Counselors.” Some States require counselors in public employment offices to have a master’s degree; others accept a bachelor’s degree with appro­ priate counseling courses. Mental health counselors generally have a master’s degree in men­ tal health counseling, another area of counseling, or in psychology or social work. They are voluntarily certified by the National Academy of Certified Clinical Mental Health Counselors. Generally, to receive this certification, a counselor must have a master’s degree in counsel­ ing, 2 years of post-master’s experience, a period of supervised clini­ cal experience, a taped sample of clinical work, and a passing grade on a written examination. Some employers provide training for newly hired counselors. Many have work-study programs so that employed counselors can earn graduate degrees. Counselors must participate in graduate stud­ ies, workshops, institutes, and personal studies to maintain their cer­ tificates and licenses. Persons interested in counseling should have a strong interest in helping others and the ability to inspire respect, trust, and confidence. They should be able to work independently or as part of a team. Prospects for advancement vary by counseling field. School coun­ selors may move to a larger school; become directors or supervisors 8  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  of counseling or pupil personnel services; or, usually with further graduate education, become counselor educators, counseling psychol­ ogists, or school administrators. (See the statements on psychologists and education administrators elsewhere in the Handbook.) Rehabilitation, mental health, and employment counselors may become supervisors or administrators in their agencies. Some coun­ selors move into research, consulting, or college teaching, or go into private practice. Job Outlook Overall employment of counselors is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. In addition, replacement needs should increase significantly by the end of the decade as the large number of counselors now in their 40’s and 50’s reach retirement age. Employment of school counselors is expected to grow faster than average because of increasing secondary school enrollments. State legislation requiring counselors in elementary schools, and the expanded responsibilties of counselors. Counselors are increasingly becoming involved in crisis and preventive counseling, helping stu­ dents deal with issues ranging from drug and alcohol abuse to death and suicide. Faster than average growth is also expected for rehabilitation and mental health counselors. Insurance companies are increasingly allowing for reimbursement of counselors, enabling many counselors to move from schools and government agencies to private practice. The number of people who need rehabilitation services will rise as advances in medical technology continue to save lives that only a few years ago would have been lost. In addition, more rehabilitation and mental health counselors will be needed as society focuses on ways of developing mental well-being, such as controlling job and familyrelated stress, with the help of counselors. The number of employment counselors, who work primarily for State and local governments, could be limited by budgetary constraints. Earnings Median earnings for full-time educational and vocational counselors were about $31,000 a year in 1990. The middle 50 percent earned between $24,200 and $40,000 a year. The bottom 10 percent earned less than $17,700 a year, while the top 10 percent earned over $49,300 a year. The average salary of school counselors in the 1990-91 academic year was about $38,000, according to the Educational Research Ser­ vice. Some school counselors earn additional income working sum­ mers in the school system or in other jobs. Self-employed counselors who have well-established practices generally have the highest earnings, as do some counselors working for private companies, such as insurance companies and private reha­ bilitation companies. Related Occupations Counselors help people evaluate their interests, abilities, and disabili­ ties, and deal with personal, social, academic, and career problems. Others who help people in similar ways include college and student personnel workers, teachers, personnel workers and managers, social workers, psychologists, psychiatrists, members of the clergy, occupa­ tional therapists, training and employee development specialists, and equal employment opportunity/affirmative action specialists. Sources of Additional Information For general information about counseling, as well as information on school, college, mental health, rehabilitation, multicultural, career, marriage and family, and gerontological counselors, contact: <•“ American Association for Counseling and Development, 5999 Stevenson Ave., Alexandria, VA 22304.  For information on accredited counseling and related training pro­ grams, contact: »■ Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Pro­ grams, American Association for Counseling and Development, 5999 Steven­ son Ave., Alexandria, VA 22304.  For information on national certification requirements and proce­ dures for counselors, contact:  »• National Board for Certified Counselors, P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, NC 27435.  For information about rehabilitation counseling, contact: National Rehabilitation Counseling Association, 633 So. Washington St., Alexandria, VA 22314. *■ National Council on Rehabilitation Education, 1213 29th St. NW., Wash­ ington, DC 20007.  For information on certification requirements for rehabilitation counselors, contact: Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification, 1835 Rohlwing Rd., Suite E, Rolling Meadows, IL 60008.  For general information about school counselors, contact: American School Counselor Association, 5999 Stevenson Ave., Alexan­ dria, VA 22304.  State departments of education can supply information on colleges and universities that offer approved guidance and counseling training for State certification and licensure requirements. State employment service offices have information about job opportunities and entrance requirements for counselors.  Education Administrators (D.O.T. 075.117-010, -018; 090.117 except -034, .167; 091.107; 092.137; 094.107, .117-010, -014, .167-010, 096.167-010, -014; 097.167; 099.117 except-022; 169.267-022; 239.137-010)  Nature of the Work Smooth operation of an educational institution requires competent administrators. Education administrators provide direction, leader­ ship, and day-to-day management of educational activities in schools, colleges and universities, businesses, correctional institutions, muse­ ums, and job training and community service organizations. (College presidents and school superintendents are covered in the Handbook statement on general managers and top executives.) Education administrators set educational standards and goals and aid in estab­ lishing policies and procedures to carry them out. They develop aca­ demic programs; train and motivate teachers and other staff; manage guidance and other student services; administer recordkeeping; pre­ pare budgets; handle relations with parents, prospective students, employers, or others outside of education; and perform numerous other activities. They supervise subordinate managers, management support staff, teachers, counselors, librarians, coaches, and others. In an organiza­ tion such as a small daycare center, there may be one administrator who handles all functions. In a major university or large school sys­ tem, responsibilities are divided among many administrators, each with a specific function. Principals manage elementary and secondary schools. They set the academic tone—high-quality instruction is their main responsibility. Principals assign teachers and other staff, help them improve their skills, and evaluate them. They confer with them—advising, explain­ ing, or answering procedural questions. They visit classrooms, review instructional objectives, and examine learning materials. They also meet with other administrators, students, parents, and representatives of community organizations. They prepare budgets and reports on various subjects, including finances, health, and attendance, and over­ see the requisitioning and allocation of supplies. Assistant principals aid the principal in the overall administration of the school. Depending on the number of students, a school may have more than one assistant principal, or may not have any. They are responsible for programming student classes and coordinating trans­ portation, custodial, cafeteria, and other support services. They usual­ ly handle discipline, social and recreational programs, and health and safety. They may also counsel students on personal, educational, or vocational matters. Public schools are also managed by administrators in school dis­ trict central offices. This group includes those who direct subject area programs such as English, music, vocational education, special edu­ cation, and mathematics. They plan, evaluate, and improve curricu https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  lums and teaching techniques and help teachers improve their skills and learn about new methods and materials. The central office admin­ istrators also include directors of programs such as guidance, school psychology, athletics, curriculum and instruction, and professional development. In colleges and universities, academic deans, also known as deans of faculty, provosts, or university deans, assist presidents and develop budgets and academic policies and programs. They direct and coordi­ nate activities of deans and chairpersons of individual colleges and academic departments. College or university department heads or chairpersons are in charge of departments such as English, biological science, or mathe­ matics. They coordinate schedules of classes and teaching assign­ ments, propose budgets, recruit, interview, and hire applicants for teaching positions, evaluate faculty members, and perform other administrative duties in addition to teaching. Higher education administrators also provide student services. Deans of students—also known as vice presidents of student affairs or student life, or directors of student services—direct and coordinate admissions, foreign student services, and health and counseling ser­ vices, as well as social, recreation, and related programs. They set and enforce student affairs policies and administer discipline. In a small college, they may counsel students. Registrars are custodians of students’ education records. They register students, prepare student transcripts, evaluate academic records, oversee the preparation of col­ lege catalogs and schedules of classes, and analyze registration statis­ tics. Directors of admissions manage the process of admitting students, recruit students, and work closely with financial aid direc­ tors, who oversee scholarship, fellowship, and loan programs. Direc­ tors of student activities plan and arrange social, cultural, and recreational activities, assist student-run organizations, and orient new students. Athletic directors plan and direct intramural and inter­ collegiate athletic activities, including publicity for athletic events, preparation of budgets, and supervision of coaches. Working Conditions Education administrators hold management positions with significant responsibility. Coordinating and interacting with faculty, parents, and students can be fast-paced and stimulating, but also stressful and demanding. Some jobs include travel. Principals and assistant princi­ pals whose main duty is discipline may find working with difficult students frustrating, but challenging. Most education administrators work more than 40 hours a week, including many nights and weekends when school activities take place. Unlike teachers, they usually work year round. Employment Education administrators held about 348,000 jobs in 1990. Almost 9 out of 10 were in educational services—in elementary, secondary, and technical schools and colleges and universities. The rest worked in child daycare centers, religious organizations, job training centers, State departments of education, and businesses and other organiza­ tions that provide training activities for their employees. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Education administrator is not usually an entry level job. Most educa­ tion administrators begin their careers in related occupations. Because of the diversity of duties and levels of responsibility, their educational backgrounds and experience vary considerably. Princi­ pals, assistant principals, central office administrators, and academic deans usually have taught or held another related job before moving into administration. Some teachers move directly into principalships; others first gain experience as an assistant principal or in a central office administrative job. In some cases, administrators move up from related staff jobs such as recruiter, residence hall director, or financial aid or admissions counselor. To be considered for education adminis­ trator positions, workers must first prove themselves in their current jobs. In evaluating candidates, supervisors look for determination, confidence, innovativeness, motivation, and managerial attributes such as ability to make sound decisions, to organize and coordinate work efficiently, and to establish good personal relationships with 9  --------------------- —  tions comply with government regulations, such as those regarding financial aid. The number of education administrators employed depends largely on State and local expenditures for education. Budgetary constraints could result in fewer administrators than anticipated; pressures to increase spending to improve the quality of education could result in more. Substantial competition is expected for prestigious jobs as educa­ tion administrators. For example, many teachers and other staff meet the education and experience requirements for these jobs and seek promotion. However, the number of openings is relatively small, so generally only the most highly qualified are selected. Earnings Salaries of education administrators vary according to position, level of responsibility and experience, and the size and location of the institution. According to the Educational Research Service, Inc., average salaries for principals and assistant principals in the school year 1990-91 were as follows:  Education administrators set educational goals and evaluate teachers and other staff.  and motivate others. Knowledge of management principles and prac­ tices, gained through work experience and formal education, is important. In public schools, principals, assistant principals, and school admin­ istrators in central offices generally need a master’s degree in educa­ tion administration or educational supervision, and a State teaching certificate. Some principals and central office administrators have a doctorate in education administration. In private schools, they often have a master’s or doctoral degree, but may hold only a bachelor’s degree since they are not subject to State certification requirements. Academic deans usually have a doctorate in their specialty. Admis­ sions, student affairs, and financial aid directors and registrars often start in related staff jobs with bachelor’s degrees—any field is usually acceptable—and get advanced degrees in college student affairs or higher education administration. A Ph.D. or Ed.D. is usually neces­ sary for top student affairs positions. Computer literacy is an asset in admissions, records, and financial work. Advanced degrees in higher education administration, educational supervision, and college student affairs are offered in many colleges and universities. The National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education accredits programs. Education administration degree pro­ grams include courses in school management, school law, school finance and budgeting, curriculum development and evaluation, research design and data analysis, community relations, politics in education, and leadership. Educational supervision degree programs include courses in supervision of instruction and curriculum, human relations, curriculum development, research, and advanced pedagogy courses. Education administrators advance by moving up an administrative ladder or transferring to larger schools or systems. They may also become superintendent of a school system or president of an educa­ tional institution. Job Outlook Employment of education administrators is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Most job openings will result from the need to replace administrators who retire or transfer to other occupations. Employment of education administrators will grow as school enrollments increase; as more services are provided to students; as efforts to improve the quality of education continue; and as institu­ 10  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Principals: Elementary school............................................................ $51,500 Junior high/middle school................................................ 55,100 Senior high school............................................................ 59,100 Assistant principals: Elementary school............................................................ 43,500 Junior high/middle school................................................ 47,000 Senior high school............................................................ 49,000 In 1990-91, according to the College and University Personnel Association, median annual salaries for selected administrators in higher education were as follows: Academic deans: Medicine........................................................................... $ 160,200 Law................................................................................... 120,300 Engineering....................................................................... 88,400 Arts and sciences................................................................ 70,000 Business.............................................................................. 70,000 Education............................................................................ 68,300 Social sciences.................................................................... 53,300 Mathematics....................................................................... 52,200 Student services directors: Admissions and registrar.................................................... 45,900 Student financial aid........................................................... 38,300 Student activities................................................................. 30,600 Related Occupations Education administrators apply organizational and leadership skills to provide services to individuals. Workers in related occupations include health services administrators, social service agency adminis­ trators, recreation and park managers, museum directors, library directors, and professional and membership organization executives. Since principals and assistant principals generally have extensive teaching experience, their backgrounds are similar to those of teach­ ers and many school counselors. Sources of Additional Information For information on elementary and secondary school principals, assistant principals, and central office administrators, contact: American Federation of School Administrators, 853 Broadway, Suite 2109, New York, NY 10003. American Association of School Administrators, 1801 North Moore St., Arlington, VA 22209.  For information on elementary school principals and assistant prin­ cipals, contact: The National Association of Elementary School Principals, 1615 Duke St., Alexandria, VA 22314-3483.  For information on secondary school principals and assitant princi­ pals, contact:  •• The National Association of Secondary School Principals, 1904 Associa­ tion Dr., Reston, VA 22091.  “■Ski**,*  For information on higher education administrators, contact: American Association of University Administrators, George Washington University, 2121 Eye St. NW., Rice Hall, 7th Floor, Washington, DC 20052.  For information on college student affairs administrators, contact: National Association of Student Personnel Administrators, 1875 Connecti­ cut Ave. NW., Suite 418, Washington, DC 20009-5728. m-  For information on collegiate registrars and admissions officers, contact:  «■ American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers, One Dupont Circle NW., Suite 330, Washington, DC 20036-1171.  Human Services Workers (D.O.T. 195.267-014 and .367 except -026 and -030)  Human services workers inform clients how to obtain services. Nature of the Work “Human services worker” is a generic term for people with job titles such as social service technician, case management aide, social work assistant, residential counselor, alcohol or drug abuse counselor, men­ tal health technician, child abuse worker, community outreach worker, and gerontology aide. They work in group homes and halfway houses: correctional, mental retardation, and community mental health centers; family, child, and youth service agencies; and programs concerned with alcoholism, drug abuse, family violence, and aging. Human ser­ vices workers generally perform under the direction of social workers or, in some cases, psychologists. The amount of responsibility these workers assume and the degree of supervision they receive vary a great deal. Some are on their own most of the time and have little direct supervision; others work under close direction. Human services workers help clients obtain benefits or services. They assess their needs and establish their eligibility for services. They examine financial documents such as rent receipts and tax returns to determine whether the client is eligible for food stamps, Medicaid, or other welfare programs, for example. They also provide information on how to obtain services; arrange for transportation and escorts, if necessary; and provide emotional support. Human services workers may transport or accompany clients to group meal sites, adult day care programs, or doctors’ offices; tele­ phone or visit clients’ homes to make sure services are being received; or help resolve disagreements, such as between tenants and landlords. Human services workers monitor, keep records on, and inform supervisors about clients’ progress. Human services workers play a variety of roles in community set­ tings such as neighborhood clinics, mental health centers, emergency shelters, “drop-in” centers for drug abusers and the mentally ill, and group homes and halfway houses. They may organize and lead group activities, assist clients in need of counseling or crisis intervention, or administer a food bank or emergency fuel program. In mental hospitals and psychiatric clinics, they may help clients master everyday living skills and teach them how to communicate more effectively and get along better with others. They also assist with music, art, and dance therapy and with individual and group counseling and lead recreational activities. In halfway houses and group homes, they oversee adult residents who need some supervision or support on a daily basis, but do not need to live in an institution. They review clients’ records, talk with their families, and confer with medical personnel in order to gain bet­ ter insight into their background and needs. They may teach residents to prepare their own meals and to do other housekeeping activities. They also provide emotional support, lead recreation activities, and make oral and written reports on the condition and progress of residents. Working Conditions Working conditions vary. Many human services workers generally spend part of the time in an office or residential facility and the rest in the field—visiting clients or taking them on trips, or meeting with  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  people who provide services to their clients. Most work a regular 40hour week, although some work may be in the evening and on week­ ends. Human services workers in residential settings generally work in shifts because residents need supervision around the clock. The work, while satisfying, can be emotionally draining. Under­ staffing and lack of equipment may add to the pressure. Turnover is reported to be high, especially among workers without academic preparation for this field. Employment Human services workers held about 145,000 jobs in 1990. About one-fourth were employed by State and local governments, primarily in hospitals and outpatient mental health centers, facilities for the mentally retarded and developmentally disabled, and public welfare agencies. Another fourth worked in private agencies offering adult day care, group meals, crisis intervention, counseling, and other social services. Some supervised residents of group homes and halfway houses. Human services workers also held jobs in clinics, community mental health centers, and private psychiatric hospitals. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement While some employers hire high school graduates, most prefer appli­ cants with some college preparation in human services, social work, or one of the social or behavioral sciences. Some prefer those with a 4-year college degree. The kind of work human service workers do and the amount of responsibility entrusted to them often depend on their level of formal education. Workers with a high school education or less are likely to perform clerical duties. Those with a college degree might be assigned to do direct counseling, coordinate program activities, or manage a group home. Employers may also look for experience in other occupations or leadership experience in school or in a youth group. Some enter the field on the basis of courses in social work, psychology, sociology, rehabilitation, or special educa­ tion. Most employers provide in-service training such as seminars and workshops. A strong desire to help others, patience, and understanding are characteristics highly valued by employers. Other important personal traits include communication skills, a strong sense of responsibility, and the ability to manage time effectively. Hiring requirements in group homes tend to be more stringent than in other settings. In 1990, approximately 000 certificate and associate degree pro­ grams in human services or mental health were offered at community and junior colleges, vocational-technical institutes, and other postsec­ ondary institutions. In addition, about 000 programs offered a bache­ lor’s degree in human services. A small number of programs leading to master’s degrees in human services administration were offered as well. Generally speaking, academic programs in this field educate stu­ dents for specialized roles—work with developmentally disabled adults, for example. Students are exposed early and often to the kinds of situations they may encounter on the job. Programs typically 11  include courses in psychology, sociology, crisis intervention, social work, family dynamics, therapeutic interviewing, rehabilitation, and gerontology. Through classroom simulation internships, students learn interview, observation, and recordkeeping skills; individual and group counseling techniques; and program planning. Formal education is almost always necessary for advancement. In group homes, completion of a 1-year certificate in human services along with several years of experience may suffice for promotion to supervi­ sor. In general, however, advancement requires a bachelor’s or master’s degree in counseling, rehabilitation, social work, or a related field. Job Outlook Employment of human services workers is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Opportunities for qualified applicants are expected to be excellent, not only because of projected rapid growth in the occupation, but because of substantial replacement needs. Turnover among coun­ selors in group homes is reported to be especially high. Employment growth will occur as the number of older people, who are more likely to need services, grows rapidly. In addition, there will be a continuing need to provide services to the mentally impaired and developmentally disabled, those with substance abuse problems, and a wide variety of other needs handled by human services workers. Adult day care, a relatively new concept, is expected to expand sig­ nificantly due to very rapid growth in the number of people of advanced age, together with growing awareness of the value of day programs for adults in need of care and supervision. Pressures to respond to the needs of the chronically mentally ill can be expected to persist. For many years, as deinstitutionalization has proceeded, chronic mental patients have been left to their own devices. If the movement to help the homeless and chronically men­ tally ill gains momentum, more community-based programs and group residences will be established, and demand for human services workers will increase accordingly. Employment in State and local governments will grow only as fast as the average for all occupations, but will remain a major employer of human services workers. Replacement needs alone will generate many job openings in the public sector. Because so many human services jobs involve direct contact with people who are vulnerable to exploitation or mistreatment, employers try to be selective in hiring. Applicants are screened for appropriate personal qualifications. Relevant academic preparation is generally required, and volunteer or work experience is preferred. Inasmuch as this is responsible and emotionally draining work which pays rela­ tively poorly, qualified applicants should have little difficulty finding employment. Earnings According to limited data available, starting salaries for human ser­ vices workers ranged from $12,000 to $20,000 a year in 1990. Expe­ rienced workers generally earned between $15,000 and $25,000 annually, depending on their education, experience, and employer.  Kindergarten and Elementary School Teachers (D.O.T. 092.227-010, -014; 094.224-010, .227-010 through -022; 099.224­ 010)  Nature of the Work Kindergarten and elementary school teachers play a vital role in the development of children. What is learned and experienced during the early years can shape children’s views of themselves and the world, and affect later success or failure in school, work, and their personal lives. Kindergarten and elementary school teachers introduce children to numbers, language, science, and social studies. Teachers often work with an entire class, but also provide individual attention as much as possible. Kindergarten and elementary school teachers may use games, music, artwork, films, slides, and the latest technology in teaching, such as computers and video discs, to teach basic skills. Teachers must continually update their skills to use the latest technol­ ogy in the classroom. They assign lessons, give tests, hear oral pre­ sentations, and oversee special projects. Teachers maintain order in the classroom and instill good study habits and an appreciation for learning. In recent years, teachers have become more involved in cur­ riculum design—for example, choosing textbooks and evaluating teaching methods. Teachers observe and evaluate students’ performance and poten­ tial. Teachers increasingly are using new assessment methods, such as examining a portfolio of a student’s artwork or writing, rather than merely testing, to analyze student achievement. Teachers also keep track of students’ social development and health, tutor or counsel pupils with academic or personal problems, and discuss problems or progress with parents. Most elementary school teachers instruct one class of children in several subjects. In some schools, two or more teachers team teach and are jointly responsible for a group of students in at least one sub­ ject. In other schools, a teacher may teach one special subject—usual­ ly music, art, reading, science, arithmetic, or physical education—to a number of classes. A small but growing number of teachers instruct multi-level classrooms—those with students at several different learning levels. Special education teachers instruct students with a variety of dis­ abilities. Other teachers work with students who are very bright or “gifted,” academically or economically disadvantaged, or who have limited English proficiency. In addition to classroom activities, teachers plan lessons, prepare tests, grade papers, prepare report cards, meet with parents, attend  Related Occupations Workers in other occupations that require skills similar to those of human services workers include social workers, community outreach workers, religious workers, occupational therapy assistants, physical therapy assistants and aides, psychiatric aides, and activity leaders. Sources of Additional Information Information on academic programs in human services may be found in most directories of 2- and 4-year colleges, available at libraries or career counseling centers. For information on programs and careers in human services, contact: National Organization for Human Service Education, P.O. Box 6257, Fitchburg State College, Fitchburg, MA 01420. »■ Council for Standards in Human Service Education, Montgomery Commu­ nity College, 340 Dekalb Pike, Blue Bell, PA 19422.  Information on job openings may be available from State Employ­ ment Service offices or directly from city, county, or State depart­ ments of health, mental health and mental retardation, and human resources. 12  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Kindergarten and elementary school teachers play a vital role in the development of children.  faculty meetings and conferences, and supervise extracurricular activ­ ities after school. Working Conditions Kindergarten and elementary school teachers spend most of their time moving about the classroom. Introducing children to the joy of learn­ ing and seeing them gain new skills can be very rewarding. However, teachers may have to deal with disruptive children. Including activities outside the classroom, many teachers work more than 40 hours per week. Most elementary school teachers work a traditional 10-month school year with a 2-month vacation during the summer. Teachers on the 10-month schedule may teach in the summer session or take other jobs. They may enroll in college cours­ es or workshops in order to continue their education. Some teachers in year-round schools work 8-week sessions, are off 1 week between sessions, and have a long midwinter break. Most States have tenure laws that prevent public school teachers from being fired without just cause and due process. Teachers may obtain tenure after they have satisfactorily completed a probationary period of teaching, usually 3 years. Tenure is not a guarantee of a job, but it does provide some security. Employment Kindergarten and elementary school teachers held about 1,520,000 jobs in 1990. More than 8 out of 10 worked in public schools. Most were in schools that have students in kindergarten through grade six; however, some taught in middle schools, where students are between the upper elementary and lower high school grades. In addition, most of the 332,000 special education teachers taught in elementary schools. Kindergarten and elementary school teachers are distributed geographically much the same as the population. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement All States and the District of Columbia require public elementary school teachers to be certified. Usually certification is granted by the State board of education through a certification advisory committee. Teachers may be certified to teach the early childhood grades (usu­ ally nursery school through the third grade); the elementary grades (grades one through six or eight); or a special subject, such as reading or music; or special education. Requirements for regular certification vary by State. Generally, however, they include a bachelor’s degree and completion of an approved teacher training program with a prescribed number of edu­ cation credits. Depending on the State, an individual need not major in education, but in a specific subject area or an interdisciplinary pro­ gram. Some 5-year programs exist, and these generally lead to a mas­ ter’s degree as well as teacher certification. Traditional teacher education programs for kindergarten and elementary school teachers include courses—designed specifically for those preparing to teach— in mathematics, science, social science, music, art, and literature, as well as prescribed professional education courses, such as philosophy of education, psychology of learning, and teaching methods. Future teachers acquire teaching skills through supervised practice teaching in an elementary school for about one semester. Some States require a specific grade point average in the coursework. Under alternative certification programs, college graduates who do not meet certification requirements may become certified by taking only those courses that they lack, such as certain education courses. States also issue emergency certificates to individuals who do not meet all requirements for a regular certificate when schools cannot hire enough teachers with regular certificates. Almost all States require applicants for certification to be tested for competency in basic skills, teaching skills, or subject matter. Almost all require continuing education for renewal of a teacher’s certifi­ cate—some require a master’s degree. Teachers often take these required courses during their summer vacation. Many States have reciprocity agreements that make it easier for teachers who are certified in one State to become certified in another. Kindergarten and elementary school teachers should be organized, cre­ ative, dependable, and patient. They should be able to communicate with students and understand their educational and emotional needs.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  With additional education and certification, teachers may become school librarians, reading specialists, curriculum specialists, or guid­ ance counselors. Teachers may become supervisors or administrators, although the number of these positions is limited. In some school sys­ tems, well-qualified experienced teachers can be appointed senior or mentor teachers, with higher pay and additional responsibilities. They guide and assist less experienced teachers while retaining most of their teaching responsibilities. Job Outlook Employment of kindergarten and elementary school teachers is expect­ ed to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005 as enrollments increase and class size declines. The number of job openings for elementary school teachers should increase sub­ stantially from the mid-1990’s to the year 2005 as the large number of teachers now in their 40’s and 50’s reach retirement age. Employment of special education teachers is expected to increase much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005 due to recent Federal legislation emphasizing training and employment for individuals with disabilities; technological advances resulting in more survivors of accidents and illnesses; and growing public interest in individuals with special needs. The supply of teachers is likely to increase in response to reports of improved job opportunities, more teacher involvement in school poli­ cy, greater public interest in education, and higher salaries. In fact, enrollments in teacher education programs have already increased. In addition, more teachers should be available from alternative certifica­ tion programs. Some central cities and rural areas have difficulty attracting teach­ ers. Job prospects should continue to be better in these areas than in suburban districts. The number of teachers employed depends on State and local expenditures for education. Pressure from taxpayers to limit spending could result in fewer teachers than projected; pressures to increase spending to improve the quality of education could result in more. Earnings According to the National Education Association, public elementary school teachers averaged about $32,400 a year in 1990-91. Earnings in  The elementary school age population will increase throughout most of the 1990-2005 period. Population 5 to 13 years of age (millions)  1975  1980  1985  1990  1995  2000  2005  Source: Bureau of Census, Series 18 population projections (high fertility/high immigration assumptions  13  private schools generally were lower. Some teachers earn extra income during the summer working in the school system or in other jobs. Many public school teachers belong to unions, such as the Ameri­ can Federation of Teachers and the National Education Association, that bargain with school systems over wages, hours, and the terms and conditions of employment. Related Occupations Kindergarten and elementary school teaching requires a wide variety of skills and aptitudes, including organizational and administrative abilities; a talent for working with children; research and communica­ tion skills; the power to influence, motivate, and train others; creativi­ ty; and patience. Workers in other occupations that require some of these aptitudes include preschool workers, trainers and employee development specialists, employment interviewers, education adminis­ trators, college and university faculty, librarians, personnel specialists, public relations specialists, social workers, and counselors. Sources of Additional Information Information on certification requirements is available from local school systems and State departments of education. Information on teachers’ unions and education-related issues can be obtained from: «" American Federation of Teachers, 555 New Jersey Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20001. National Education Association, 1201 16th St. NW., Washington, DC 20036.  A list of institutions with teacher education programs accredited by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education can be obtained from: National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, 2010 Massachusetts Ave. NW., 2nd Floor, Washington, DC 20036.  Librarians (D.O.T. 100 except 100.167-010 and .367-018)  Nature of the Work Librarians make information available to people. They manage staff, oversee the collection and cataloging of library materials, and direct information programs for the public. Library work is divided into three basic functions: User services, technical services, and administrative services. Librarians in user services—for example, reference and children’s librarians—work directly with users to help them find the information they need. This may involve analyzing users’ needs to determine what information is appropriate, and searching for, acquiring, and providing the infor­ mation to users. Librarians in technical services, such as acquisi­ tions librarians and catalogers, acquire and prepare materials for use and may not deal directly with the public. Librarians in administra­ tive services oversee the management of the library, supervising library employees and directing activities to see that all parts of the library function properly. Depending on the employer, librarians may perform a combination of user, technical, and administrative services. In small libraries or information centers, librarians generally han­ dle all aspects of the work. They read book reviews, publishers’ announcements, and catalogs to keep up with current literature and other available resources, and select and purchase materials from publishers, wholesalers, and distributors. Librarians prepare new materials for use by classifying them by subject matter, and describe books and other library materials in a way that users can easily find them. They supervise assistants who prepare cards, computer records, or other access tools that indicate the title, author, subject, publisher, date of publication, and location in the library. Librarians also compile lists of books, periodicals, articles, and audiovisual materials on particular subjects, and recommend materi­ als to be acquired. They may collect and organize books, pamphlets, 14  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  manuscripts, and other materials in a specific field, such as rare books, genealogy, or music. In addition, they publicize services; pro­ vide reference help; supervise staff; prepare the budget; and oversee other administrative matters. In large libraries, librarians often specialize in a single area, such as acquisitions, cataloging, bibliography, reference, special collec­ tions, circulation, or administration. Librarians may be classified according to the type of library in which they work: Public libraries, school library/media centers, aca­ demic libraries, and special libraries. They may work with specific groups, such as children, young adults, adults, or disadvantaged indi­ viduals. In school library/media centers, librarians help teachers develop curricula, acquire materials for classroom instruction, and sometimes team teach.Librarians may also work in information cen­ ters or libraries maintained by government agencies, corporations, law firms, advertising agencies, museums, professional associations, medical centers, and research laboratories. They build and arrange the organization’s information resources, usually limited to subjects of special interest to the organization. Many libraries are tied into remote data bases through their com­ puter terminals and some also maintain their own computerized data bases. The widespread use of automation in libraries makes computer skills important to librarians. Libraries may employ automated sys­ tems librarians who plan and operate computer systems, and informa­ tion scientists who design information storage and retrieval systems and develop procedures for collecting, organizing, interpreting, and classifying information. (See statement on computer systems analysts elsewhere in the Handbook.) Working Conditions Working conditions in user services are different from those in tech­ nical services. Assisting users in obtaining the information for their jobs or for recreational and other needs can be challenging and satis­ fying. When working with users under deadlines, the work may be busy, demanding, and stressful. In technical services, selecting and ordering new materials can be stimulating and rewarding. However, librarians may sit at desks or at computer terminals all day. Extended work at video display terminals may cause eyestrain and headaches. They may also have their performance monitored for errors or for quantity of tasks completed each hour or day. Approximately 1 in 4 librarians works part time. Public and col­ lege librarians often work weekends and evenings. School librarians  W  Librarians need a master’s degree in library science.  %  generally have the same workday schedule as classroom teachers and similar vacation schedules. Special librarians usually work normal business hours. Employment Librarians held about 149,000 jobs in 1990. Most were in school and academic libraries; others were in public libraries and special libraries. A small number of librarians worked for hospitals and reli­ gious organizations. Others worked for governments at all levels. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A master’s degree in library science (M.L.S.) is necessary for librari­ an positions in most public, academic, and special libraries, and in some school libraries. In the Federal Government, an M.L.S. or the equivalent in education and experience is needed. Many colleges and universities offer M.L.S. programs, but many employers prefer grad­ uates of the approximately 60 schools accredited by the American Library Association. Most M.L.S. programs require a bachelor’s degree; any liberal arts major is appropriate. Some programs take 1 year to complete; others take 2. A typical graduate program includes courses in the foundations of library and information science, including the history of books and printing, intellectual freedom and censorship, and the role of libraries and information in society. Other basic courses cover material selection and processing; the organization of information; reference tools and strategies; and user services. Course options include resources for children or young adults; classification, cataloging, indexing, and abstracting; library administration; and library automation. The M.L.S. provides a general, all-round preparation for library work, but some people specialize in a particular area such as archives, media, or library automation. A Ph.D. degree in library and information science is advantageous for college teaching or for a top administrative post, particularly in a college or university library or in a large library system. In special libraries, a knowledge of the subject specialization, or a master’s degree, doctorate, or professional degree in the subject is highly desirable. Subject specializations include medicine, law, busi­ ness, engineering, and the natural and social sciences. For example, a librarian working for a law firm may also be a licensed attorney, holding both library science and law degrees. In some jobs, knowl­ edge of a foreign language is needed. State certification requirements for public school librarians vary widely. Most States require that school librarians—often called library media specialists—be certified as teachers and have courses in library science. In some cases, an M.L.S., perhaps with a library media specialization, or a master’s in education with a specialty in library school media or educational media is needed. Some States require certification of public librarians employed in municipal, county, or regional library systems. Experienced librarians may advance to administrative positions, such as department head or library director. Job Outlook Graduates of M.L.S. programs should have favorable job prospects largely due to the decline in the number of such graduates during the 1980's. Many job openings for librarians will result from the need to replace those who retire, transfer to other occupations, or leave the labor force for other reasons. Employment of librarians is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. The limited growth in employment of librarians during the 1980’s is expected to continue. Budgetary constraints will likely contribute to the slow growth in employment of librarians in school, public, and college and university libraries. However, employment in special libraries is expected to grow faster as the number of managerial and professional specialty workers they serve grows rapidly. Employment of library school graduates outside traditional library settings is expected to grow. Nontraditional library settings include bibliographic cooperatives, regional information networks, and infor­ mation search services. These settings employ systems analysts, data base specialists, managers, and researchers.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Information management, a rapidly developing field, is also expected to offer many employment opportunities for library school graduates with backgrounds in information science and library automation. Employers include private corporations, consulting firms, and information brokers. Earnings Salaries of librarians vary by the individual’s qualifications and the type, size, and location of the library. Based on a survey published in the Library Journal, starting salaries of graduates of library school master’s degree programs accredited by the American Library Association averaged $25,300 in 1990, and ranged from $23,400 in public libraries to $26,200 in school libraries. In college and university libraries, they averaged $24,000, and in special libraries, they averaged $27,100. According to the Educational Research Service, experienced school librarians averaged about $35,400 during the 1990-91 school year. According to the Special Libraries Association, 1990 salaries for special librarians with 1 to 2 years of library experience averaged $30,300, and those with 3 to 5 years of experience average $31,100. Salaries for special library managers averaged $44,500. Librarians in the Federal Government averaged $41,200 in 1991. Related Occupations Librarians play an important role in the transfer of knowledge and ideas by providing people with access to the information they need and want. Jobs requiring similar analytical, organizational, and com­ municative skills include archivists, information scientists, museum curators, publishers’ representatives, research analysts, information brokers, and records managers. The management aspect of librarian work is similar to the work of managers in a variety of business and government settings. School librarians have many duties similar to those of school teachers. Sources of Additional Information Information on librarianship, including a listing of accredited educa­ tion programs and information on scholarships or loans, may be obtained from: <•" American Library Association (ALA), Office for Library Personnel Resources, 50 East Huron St., Chicago, IL 60611.  For information on a career as a special librarian, write to: Special Libraries Association, 1700 18th St. NW., Washington, DC 20009. Material about a career in information science may be obtained from: American Society for Information Science, 8720 Georgia Ave., Suite 501, Silver Spring, MD 20910.  Information on schools receiving Federal financial assistance for library training is available from: »■ Office of Educational Research and Improvement, Library Programs, Library Development Staff, U.S. Department of Education, 555 New Jersey Ave. NW., Room 402, Washington, DC 20208-5571.  Those interested in a position as a librarian in the Federal service should write to: w Office of Personnel Management, 1900 E St. NW., Washington, DC 20415.  Information concerning requirements and application procedures for positions in the Library of Congress may be obtained directly from: »• Personnel Office, Library of Congress, 101 Independence Ave. SE., Wash­ ington, DC 20540.  State library agencies can furnish information on scholarships available through their offices, requirements for certification, and general information about career prospects in the State. Several of these agencies maintain job “hotlines” which report openings for librarians. State departments of education can furnish information on certifi­ cation requirements and job opportunities for school librarians. For information on a career as a law librarian, as well as a list of ALA accredited library schools offering programs in law librarianship, contact: *■ American Association of Law Libraries, 53 West Jackson Blvd., Suite 940, Chicago, IL 60604.  15  libraries may work weekends and evenings. Library technicians in special libraries usually work normal business hours.  Library Technicians (D.O.T. 100.367-018)  Nature of the Work Library technicians help librarians acquire, prepare, and organize material, and help users find materials and information. Technicians in small libraries handle a wide range of duties; those in large libraries usually specialize. Depending on the employer, library technicians may have other titles, such as library technical assistants. Technicians assist in the use of public catalogs, direct library users to standard references, orga­ nize and maintain periodicals, handle interlibrary loan requests, per­ form routine cataloging and coding of library materials, verify information on order requests, retrieve information from computer data bases, and supervise other support staff, such as circulation desk workers. Some library technicians operate and maintain audiovisual equipment such as projectors, tape recorders, and videocassette recorders, and assist library users with microfilm or microfiche read­ ers. Technicians may also design posters, bulletin boards, or displays. Those in school libraries teach students to use the school library/media center and encourage them to do so. They also help teachers get instructional materials and help students with special assignments. Some work in special libraries maintained by govern­ ment agencies, corporations, law firms, advertising agencies, muse­ ums, professional societies, medical centers, and research laboratories, where they conduct literature searches, compile bibli­ ographies, and prepare abstracts, usually on subjects of particular interest to the organization. Working Conditions Technicians who work with users answer questions and provide assis­ tance. Technicians who prepare library materials sit at desks or com­ puter terminals for long periods and may develop headaches or eyestrain from working with video display terminals. Some duties like calculating circulation statistics can be repetitive and boring. Others, such as computer searches using local and regional library networks and cooperatives, can be interesting and challenging. Library technicians in school libraries work regular school hours. Those in public libraries and college and university (academic)  «§®Sfe<f  Employment Library technicians held about 65,000 jobs in 1990. Most worked in school, academic, or public libraries. Some worked in hospitals and religious organizations. The Federal Government, primarily the Department of Defense and the Library of Congress, and State and local governments also employed library technicians. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Training requirements for library technicians vary widely, ranging from a high school diploma to postsecondary training as a library technician. Employers may hire individuals with work experience or other training, or may train inexperienced workers on the job. Given the widespread use of automation in libraries, computer skills are needed for many jobs. Some 2-year colleges offer an associate of arts degree in library technology. Programs include both liberal arts and library-related study. Students learn about library organization and operation and how to order, process, catalog, locate, and circulate library materials and work with library automation. Job Outlook Employment of library technicians is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. However, many library technicians will be needed annually to replace those who transfer to other fields or leave the labor force. Employment of other library workers—librarians and library clerks—grew little during the 1980’s, and future employment growth should be similar. Employment of library technicians is expected to follow the growth pattern of other library workers. Budgetary con­ straints will likely contribute to the slow growth in employment of library technicians in school, public, and college and university libraries. However, rapid growth in the number of professional and managerial workers who use special libraries should result in relative­ ly fast employment growth of library technicians in special libraries. Earnings Salaries for library technicians vary widely, depending on the type of library and geographic location. Salaries of library technicians in the Federal Government averaged $21,700 in 1991. Related Occupations Library technicians perform organizational and administrative duties. Workers in other occupations with similar duties include library clerks, information clerks, record clerks, medical record technicians, and title searchers. Library technicians also assist librarians. Other workers who assist professional workers include museum techni­ cians, teacher aides, legal assistants, and engineering and science technicians. Sources of Additional Information Information about a career as a library technician and a directory of schools offering training programs in this field can be obtained from:  [  *" Council on Library/Media Technicians, Cuyahoga Community College, 2900 Community College Ave., Cleveland, OH 44115.  For information on training programs for library/media technical assistants, write to: American Library Association, Office for Library Personnel Resources, 50 East Huron St., Chicago, IL 60611.  Information on schools receiving Federal financial assistance for library training is available from: Office of Educational Research and Improvement, Library Programs, Library Development Staff, U.S. Department of Education, 555 New Jersey Ave. NW„ Washington, DC 20208-5571.  Those interested in a position as a library technician in the Federal service should write to:  Some library technicians have a high school diploma, while others have a 2-year associate of arts degree. 16   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  •“ Office of Personnel Management, 1900 E St. NW„ Washington DC 20415. Information concerning requirements and application procedures for positions in the Library of Congress may be obtained directly from: Personnel Office, Library of Congress, 101 Independence Ave. SE., Wash­ ington, DC 20540.  im »  Protestant Ministers (D.O.T. 120.007) Nature of the Work Protestant ministers lead their congregations in worship services and administer the various rites of the church, such as baptism, confirma­ tion, and Holy Communion. They prepare and deliver sermons and give religious instruction. They also perform marriages; conduct funerals; counsel individuals who seek guidance; visit the sick, aged, and handicapped at home and in the hospital; comfort the bereaved; and serve church members in other ways. Many Protestant ministers write articles for publication, give speeches, and engage in interfaith, community, civic, educational, and recreational activities sponsored by or related to the interests of the church. Some ministers teach in seminaries, colleges and universities, and church-affiliated preparato­ ry or high schools. The services that ministers conduct differ among Protestant denominations and also among congregations within a denomination. In many denominations, ministers follow a traditional order of wor­ ship; in others, they adapt the services to the needs of youth and other groups within the congregation. Most services include Bible reading, hymn singing, prayers, and a sermon. In some denominations, Bible reading by a member of the congregation and individual testimonials may constitute a large part of the service. Ministers serving small congregations generally work personally with parishioners. Those serving large congregations have greater administrative responsibilities and spend considerable time working with committees, church officers, and staff, besides other duties. They may share specific aspects of the ministry with one or more associates or assistants, such as a minister of education who assists in educational programs for different age groups, or a minister of music. Working Conditions Ministers are “on call” for any serious troubles or emergencies that involve or affect members of their churches. They also may work long and irregular hours in administrative, educational, and commu­ nity service activities. Many of the ministers’ duties are sedentary, such as reading or doing research in a study or a library to prepare sermons or write articles. In some denominations, ministers are reassigned by a central body to a new pastorate every few years. Employment In 1990, there were an estimated 255,000 Protestant ministers who served individual congregations. Thousands of others served without a regular congregation, or worked in closely related fields, such as chaplains in hospitals, the Armed Forces, universities, and correction­ al institutions. While there are numerous denominations, most minis­ ters are employed by the five largest Protestant bodies—Baptist, Episcopalian, Lutheran, Methodist, and Presbyterian. All cities and most towns in the United States have at least one Protestant church with a full-time minister. Although most ministers are located in urban areas, many serve two or more small congrega­ tions in less densely populated areas. Some small churches increas­ ingly are employing part-time ministers who may be seminary students, retired ministers, or holders of secular jobs. Unpaid pastors serve other churches with meager funds. Some churches employ spe­ cially trained members of the laity to conduct nonliturgical functions. Training and Other Qualifications Educational requirements for entry into the Protestant ministry vary greatly. Many denominations require—or at least strongly prefer—a college bachelor’s degree followed by study at a theological school. However, some denominations have no formal educational require­ ments, and others ordain persons having various types of training in Bible colleges, Bible institutes, or liberal arts colleges. Many denomi­ nations now allow women to be ordained, but others do not. Persons considering a career in the ministry should verify the entrance  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Many ministers are active in community social, recreation, and charitable projects.  requirements with their particular denomination before deciding on a career as a minister. In general, each large denomination has its own school or schools of theology that reflect its particular doctrine, interests, and needs. However, many of these schools are open to students from other denominations. Several interdenominational schools associated with universities give both undergraduate and graduate training covering a wide range of theological points of view. In 1990, over 200 American Protestant theological schools were accredited by the Association of Theological Schools in the United States and Canada. These admit only students who have received a bachelor’s degree or its equivalent in liberal arts from an accredited college. Many denominations require a 3-year course of professional study in one of these accredited schools or seminaries after college graduation for the degree of master of divinity. College students considering theological study should prepare by taking courses that will aid them later. At the earliest possible date, they should contact their denominations and the schools to which they intend to apply, to learn how to prepare for the program they hope to enter. Recommended preseminary or undergraduate college courses generally include English, history, philosophy, natural sci­ ences, social sciences, fine arts, music, religion, and foreign lan­ guages. These courses provide a knowledge of modern social, cultural, and scientific institutions and problems. The standard curriculum for accredited theological schools consists of four major categories: Biblical, historical, theological, and practi­ cal. Courses of a practical nature include pastoral care, preaching, religious education, and administration. Many accredited schools require that students work under the supervision of a faculty member or experienced minister. Some institutions offer doctor of ministry degrees to students who have completed additional study, usually 2 or more years, and served at least 2 years as a minister. Scholarships and loans are available for students of theological institutions. Persons who have denominational qualifications for the ministry usu­ ally are ordained after graduation from a seminary or after serving a probationary pastoral period. Denominations that do not require semi­ nary training ordain clergy at various appointed times. Some evangeli­ cal churches may ordain ministers with only a high school education. Men and women entering the clergy often begin their careers as pas­ tors of small congregations or as assistant pastors in large churches. 17  Job Outlook Competitor! is expected to continue for paid Protestant Ministers through the year 2005 due to slow growth of church membership and large number of qualified candidates. However, competition is expect­ ed to ease somewhat as Protestant seminary enrollment stabilizes and as more ministers reach retirement age. Opportunities are expected to be best for graduates of theological schools. The amount of competi­ tion for paid positions will vary among denominations and geographic regions. Competition will still be strong for more responsible positions serving large, urban congregations. Relatively favorable prospects are expected for ministers in evangelical churches. Ministers willing to work part time or for smaller, rural congregations also should have rel­ atively favorable opportunities. Most of the openings for ministers through the year 2005 will arise from the need to replace retirees and, to a lesser extent, those who die or leave the ministry. Employment alternatives for newly ordained Protestant ministers who are unable to find positions in parishes include working in youth counseling, family relations, and welfare organizations; teaching in religious educational institutions; and serving as chaplains in the Armed Forces, hospitals, universities, and correctional institutions. Earnings Salaries of Protestant clergy vary substantially, depending on age, experience, denomination, size and wealth of congregation, and geo­ graphic location. Based on limited information, the estimated average annual income of Protestant ministers was about $27,000 in 1990. The average salary, including fringe benefits such as housing, insur­ ance, and transportation, was an estimated $44,000. In large, wealthi­ er denominations, ministers often earned significantly higher salaries. Increasingly, ministers with modest salaries earn additional income from employment in secular occupations. Related Occupations Protestant ministers advise and counsel individuals and groups regarding their religious as well as personal, social, and vocational development. Other occupations involved in this type of work include social workers, clinical and counseling psychologists, teachers, and counselors. Sources of Additional Information Persons who are interested in entering the Protestant ministry should seek the counsel of a minister or church guidance worker. Theologi­ cal schools can supply information on admission requirements. Prospective ministers also should contact the ordination supervision body of their particular denomination for information on special requirements for ordination. Occupational information about the Protestant ministry can also be obtained from: National Council of Churches, Professional Church Leadership, Rm. 863, 475 Riverside Dr., New York, NY 10115. '*■ Hartford Seminary, 77 Sherman St., Hartford, CT 06105.  view, all Jewish congregations preserve the substance of Jewish reli­ gious worship. Congregations differ in the extent to which they follow the traditional form of worship—for example, in the wearing of head coverings, the use of Hebrew as the language of prayer, or the use of instrumental music or a choir. The format of the worship service and, therefore, the ritual that the rabbi uses may vary even among congre­ gations belonging to the same branch of Judaism. Rabbis also may write for religious and lay publications and teach in theological seminaries, colleges, and universities. Working Conditions Rabbis work long hours and are “on call” to visit the sick, comfort the bereaved, and counsel those who seek it. Community and educa­ tional activities may also require long or irregular hours. Some of their duties are intellectual and sedentary, such as study­ ing religious texts, researching and writing sermons and articles for publication, and preparing lectures for adult education. Rabbis have a good deal of independent authority, since they have no formal hierarchy. They are responsible only to the board of trustees of the congregations they serve. Employment In 1990, there were approximately 1,000 Orthodox, 1,300 Conserva­ tive, 1,550 Reform, and 200 Reconstructionist rabbis. Although the majority served congregations, many rabbis functioned in other set­ tings. Some taught in Jewish Studies programs at colleges and uni­ versities. Others served as chaplains in the military services, in hospitals, in college settings, and other institutions, or in one of the many Jewish community service agencies. Although rabbis serve Jewish communities throughout the Nation, they are concentrated in major metropolitan areas with large Jewish populations. Training and Other Qualifications To become eligible for ordination as a rabbi, a student must complete a course of study in a seminary. Entrance requirements and the cur­ riculum depend upon the branch of Judaism with which the seminary is associated. In general, the curriculums of Jewish theological seminaries pro­ vide students with a comprehensive knowledge of the Bible, Talmud, Rabbinic literature, Jewish history, theology, and courses in educa­ tion, pastoral psychology, and public speaking. Students get extensive practical training in dealing with social problems in the community. Training for alternatives to the pulpit, such as leadership in communi­ ty services and religious education, is increasingly stressed. Some seminaries grant advanced academic degrees in such fields as Bibli­ cal and Talmudic research. All Jewish theological seminaries make scholarships and loans available. About 35 seminaries educate and ordain Orthodox rabbis. The Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary and the Beth Medrash Govoha Seminary are representative of the two basic kinds of Orthodox semi­ naries. The former requires a bachelor’s degree for entry and has a for-  Rabbis (D.O.T. 120.007)  Nature of the Work Rabbis are the spiritual leaders of their congregations, and teachers and interpreters of Jewish law and tradition. They conduct religious services and deliver sermons on the Sabbath and on Jewish holidays. Like other clergy, rabbis conduct weddings and funeral services, visit the sick, help the poor, comfort the bereaved, supervise religious edu­ cation programs, engage in interfaith activities, and involve them­ selves in community affairs. Rabbis serving large congregations may spend considerable time in administrative duties, working with their staffs and committees. Large congregations frequently have an associate or assistant rabbi. Many assistant rabbis serve as educational directors. Rabbis serve either Orthodox, Conservative, Reform, or Recon­ structionist congregations. Regardless of their particular point of 18  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Rabbis organize religious educational programs for their congregations.  mal 3-year ordination program. The latter has no formal admission requirements but may require more years of study for ordination. The training is rigorous. When students have become sufficiently learned in the Talmud, the Bible, and other religious studies, they may be ordained with the approval of an authorized rabbi, acting either inde­ pendently or as a representative of a rabbinical seminary. The Jewish Theological Seminary of America educates rabbis for the Conservative branch. The Hebrew Union College—Jewish Insti­ tute of Religion educates rabbis for the Reform branch. For admis­ sion to their rabbinical programs leading to ordination, both seminaries require the completion of a 4-year college course, as well as earlier preparation in Jewish studies. A student with a strong back­ ground in Jewish studies can complete the course at the Conservative seminary in 4 years; for other enrollees, the course may take as long as 6 years. Normally, 5 years of study are required to complete the rabbinical course at the Reform seminary, including 1 year of preparatory study in Jerusalem. Exceptionally well-prepared students can shorten this 5-year period to a minimum of 3 years. The Reconstructionist Rabbinical College educates rabbis in the newest branch of Judaism. A bachelor’s degree is required for admis­ sion. The rabbinical program is based on a 5-year course of study which emphasizes, in each year, a period in the history of Jewish civ­ ilization. A preliminary preparatory year is required for students without sufficient grounding in Hebrew and Jewish studies. Gradu­ ates are awarded the title “Rabbi” and the Master of Arts in Hebrew Letters and, with special study, can earn the Doctor of Hebrew Let­ ters degree. Newly ordained rabbis usually begin as spiritual leaders of small congregations, assistants to experienced rabbis, directors of Hillel Foundations on college campuses, teachers in educational institu­ tions, or chaplains in the Armed Forces. As a rule, experienced rabbis fill the pulpits of large and well-established Jewish congregations. Job Outlook Job opportunities for rabbis are expected to be generally favorable in the four major branches of Judaism through the year 2005. Present unmet needs for rabbis, together with the many rabbis approaching retirement age, should insure that the relatively constant numbers of persons completing rabbinical training in the years ahead will encounter good job prospects. Since most rabbis prefer to serve in large, urban areas, employment opportunities generally are best in nonmetropolitan areas, particularly in smaller communities in the South, Midwest, and Northwest. Graduates of Orthodox seminaries who seek pulpits should have good opportunities as growth in enrollments slows and as many grad­ uates choose not to seek pulpits. Orthodox rabbis willing to work in small communities should have particularly good prospects. Conservative and Reform rabbis are expected to have good employment opportunities throughout the country. Reconstructionist rabbis are expected to have very good employ­ ment opportunities since membership is expanding rapidly. Earnings Income varies widely, depending on the size and financial status of the congregation, as well as its denominational branch and geographic location. Rabbis may earn additional income from gifts or fees for officiating at ceremonies such as bar mitzvahs and weddings. Based on limited information, annual average earnings of rabbis generally ranged from $38,000 to $90,000 in 1990, including fringe benefits. Fringe benefits may include housing, health insurance, and a retirement plan. Related Occupations Rabbis advise and counsel individuals and groups regarding their religious, personal, social, and vocational development. Others involved in this type of work include social workers, clinical and counseling psychologists, teachers, and counselors. Sources of Additional Information Persons who are interested in becoming rabbis should discuss their plans for a vocation with a practicing rabbi. Information on the work of rabbis and allied occupations can be obtained from:  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  *■ The Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary, 2540 Amsterdam Ave., New York, NY 10033. (Orthodox) <*• The Jewish Theological Seminary of America, 3080 Broadway, New York, NY 10027. (Conservative) Hebrew Union College—Jewish Institute of Religion, Director of Place­ ment, at any one of three campuses: 1 W. 4th St., New York, NY 10012; 3101 Clifton Ave., Cincinnati, OH 45220; 3077 University Mall, Los Angeles, CA 90007. (Reform) Reconstructionist Rabbinical College, Church Rd. and Greenwood Ave., Wyncote, PA 19095.  Recreation Workers (D.O.T. 153.137-010; 159.124-010; 187.137-010; 195.227-010 and -014; and 352.167-010)  Nature of the Work As leisure time in our lives increases, opportunities for organized recreation become more important. Recreation workers plan, orga­ nize, and direct activities that help people enjoy and benefit from leisure hours. They should not be confused with recreational thera­ pists, who help individuals recover or adjust to illness, disability, or specific social problems. (The work of recreational therapists is described elsewhere in the Handbook.) Recreation programs, whether institutionally or community based, are as diverse as the people they serve and the people who run them. Employment settings range from pristine wilderness areas to health clubs in the city center. At local playgrounds and community centers, for example, recreation personnel organize and conduct a variety of leisure activities, including arts, crafts, fitness, and sports. Recreation workers are also employed by theme parks, tourist attractions, and firms that offer “getaway” vacations or adventure trips. Other employment settings include parks, campgrounds, and recre­ ational areas; schools, churches, and synagogues; retirement commu­ nities, senior centers, and adult daycare programs; military bases; correctional institutions; and corporations. Recreation personnel in industry organize and direct leisure activi­ ties and athletic programs for employees and their families such as bowling and softball leagues, social functions, travel programs, dis­ count services, and, to an increasing extent, exercise and fitness pro­ grams. These activities are generally for adults. Camp counselors lead and instruct campers in nature-oriented forms of recreation such as swimming, hiking, and horseback riding as well as outdoor education. In addition, they provide campers with specialized instruction in a particular area such as music, drama, gymnastics, tennis, or computers. In resident camps, the staff also provides guidance and supervision in daily living tasks and general socialization. Recreation workers occupy a variety of positions at different levels of responsibility. Recreation leaders provide direction and are respon­ sible for a recreation program’s daily operation. They may give instruction in dance, drama, crafts, games, and sports; keep records; and maintain recreation facilities. Those who provide instruction in specialties such as art, music, drama, swimming, or tennis may be called activity specialists. They often conduct classes and coach teams in the activity in which they specialize. Recreation leaders and activity specialists usually work under a supervisor. Recreation supervisors plan programs to meet the needs of the pop­ ulation they serve; supervise recreation leaders, sometimes over a large region; and direct specialized activities. In order to accomplish these tasks more efficiently, a growing number of supervisors are using computers in their work. Working Conditions While the average workweek for recreation workers is about 40 hours, people entering this field should expect some night work, weekend work, and irregular hours. The work setting for recreation workers may be anywhere from a vacation cruise ship to a woodland recreational park. Recreation workers often spend much of their time 19  FiIl  Strong interpersonal and leadership skills are desirable traits for recreation workers.  outdoors and may work under a variety of weather conditions. Recre­ ation supervisors may spend most of their time in an office. Since full-time recreation workers spend more time acting as managers than hands-on activities leaders, they engage in less physical activity. However, as is the case for anyone engaged in physical activity, recreation workers risk injuries and the work can be physically tiring. Employment Recreation workers held about 194,000 jobs in 1990. (This estimate does not include many summer workers.) More than half worked in government agencies, primarily in park and recreation departments at the municipal and county levels. About 15 percent worked in mem­ bership organizations with a civic, social, fraternal, or religious orien­ tation—the Boy Scouts, the YWCA, and Red Cross, for example. Approximately 12 percent were in programs run by social service organizations (senior centers and adult daycare programs, for exam­ ple) or in residential care facilities such as halfway houses, group homes, and institutions for delinquent youth. Other employers include commercial recreation establishments, amusement parks, sports and entertainment centers, wilderness and survival enterprises, tourist attractions, vacation excursions, hotels and other resorts, camps, health spas, athletic clubs, apartment com­ plexes, and others. The recreation field is characterized by an unusually large number of part-time, seasonal, and volunteer jobs. The largest number of paid employees in the recreation field are part-time or seasonal workers. Typical jobs include summer camp counselors, lifeguards, craft spe­ cialists, and after-school and weekend recreation program leaders. Many jobs are filled by teachers and college students. The vast majority of volunteers serve as activity leaders at local day-camp pro­ grams, or in youth organizations, camps, nursing homes, hospitals, senior centers, YMCA’s, and other settings. Some volunteers serve on local park and recreation boards and commissions. Part-time work during school and volunteer experience may lead to a full-time job. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Educational requirements for jobs in this field range from a high school diploma or less for many summer jobs to graduate education for administrative positions in large public systems. Most applicants for full-time career positions are college graduates with majors in 20   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  parks and recreation, or leisure studies, but a bachelor's degree in any liberal arts field may be sufficient for some jobs in the private sector. Some jobs also require specialized training in a particular field, such as art, music, drama, or athletics, and some require special certifica­ tion, such as a lifesaving certificate. However, a bachelor’s degree is not always necessary. Some career recreation positions are filled by graduates of associate degree programs in parks and recreation, social work, and other human services disciplines. Occasionally high school graduates are able to fill career positions but this is not common. A number of jobs in this field are held by college students who work part time while earning a degree. Most supervisors have a bachelor’s degree and experience. Persons with academic preparation in parks and recreation, leisure studies, physical education, fitness management, and related fields generally have better prospects for career advancement, although this varies from one employer to another. In some organizations, it is possible to reach the top of the career ladder without a college education, but this is becoming increasingly difficult. A bachelor’s degree and experience are considered minimum requirements for administrators. However, increasing numbers are obtaining master’s degrees in parks and recreation as well as in relat­ ed disciplines. Many persons in other disciplines, including social work, forestry, and resource management, pursue graduate degrees in recreation. In industrial recreation, or “employee services” as this field is more commonly called, companies prefer applicants with a bache­ lor’s degree in recreation or leisure studies and a strong background in business administration. Programs leading to an associate or bachelor’s degree in parks and recreation, leisure studies, or related fields are offered at 340 colleges and universities. Many also offer master’s or Ph.D. degrees in this field. In 1991, 95 parks and recreation curriculums at the bachelor’s degree level were accredited by the Council on Accreditation, spon­ sored by the National Recreation and Park Association (NRPA) in cooperation with the American Association for Leisure and Recre­ ation (AALR). Accredited programs provide broad exposure to the history, theory, and philosophy of park and recreation management. Courses are offered in community organization; supervision and administration; recreational needs of special populations such as older adults or the disabled; and supervised fieldwork. Students have an opportunity to specialize in areas such as therapeutic recreation, park management, outdoor recreation, industrial or commercial recre­ ation, and camp management. The American Camping Association has developed a curriculum for camp director education. Many national youth associations offer training courses for camp directors at the local and regional levels. Persons planning recreation careers should be outgoing, good at motivating people, and sensitive to the needs of others. Good health and physical stamina are required. Activity planning calls for cre­ ativity and resourcefulness. Willingness to accept responsibility and the ability to exercise judgment are important qualities since recre­ ation personnel often work alone. To increase their leadership skills and understanding of people, students should obtain related work experience in high school and college. Such experience may help students decide whether their interests really point to a human ser­ vices career. Individuals contemplating careers in recreation at the supervisory or administrative level should develop managerial skills. College courses in management, business administration, accounting, and per­ sonnel management are likely to be useful. Certification for this field is offered by the NRPA National Certi­ fication Board and the American Camping Association. In 1991,40 States had adopted NRPA standards for leisure technicians and leisure professionals. The American Camping Association offers a certification program for camp directors. To become certified, indi­ viduals must pass an oral and written examination and complete a 5day workshop. Continuing education is necessary to remain certified. Certification is not usually required for employment or advance­ ment in this field, but is becoming a desireable qualification. Employ­  ers faced with an abundance of qualified applicants are likely to give preference to those with professional credentials, experience, or both.  sick leave and hospital insurance. Part-time workers receive few, if any, fringe benefits.  Job Outlook Employment of recreation workers is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005 because of a growing number of people with both leisure time and the money to purchase leisure services; increased interest in fitness and health; and rising demand for recreational opportunities for older adults in senior centers and retirement communities. As is generally the case, howev­ er, most job openings will result from replacement needs. Employment opportunities will be more favorable in some settings than others. Job growth will occur in the commercial recreation industry, composed of amusement parks, athletic clubs, camps, sports clinics, and swimming pools. Hiring practices in commercial recre­ ation vary a great deal, and employer preference for applicants with formal training in recreation, physical education, and related fields has not been clearly established. Demand for recreation workers is also expected in the fast-growing social services industry. Recreation workers will be needed to devel­ op and lead activity programs in such settings as senior centers, halfway houses, children’s homes, and daycare programs for the mentally retarded or developmentally disabled. Hiring practices in social service agencies vary, also. Some jobs require course work or degrees in recreation, rehabilitation, or other human services fields, while others require only suitable personal qualifications and work experience. The number of recreation workers in employee services and recre­ ation is expected to continue to increase, as more business corpora­ tions institute programs to provide recreational and other services, such as daycare and elder care, to their employees. Overall job growth in local government is expected to be slow due to budget constraints, and local park and recreation departments are expected to do less hiring for permanent, full-time positions than in the past. As a result, this sector’s share of recreation worker employ­ ment will shrink by the end of the century. Nonetheless, opportuni­ ties will vary widely by region, since resources as well as priorities for public services differ from one community to another. Thus, hiring prospects for recreation personnel will be much better in some park and recreation departments than overall projections would suggest. Because the field is open to all college graduates regardless of major, and to some high school or junior college graduates, applica­ tions for career positions in recreation greatly exceed the number of job openings. Keen competition for jobs is expected to continue. Indi­ viduals with both experience and formal training in recreation are expected to have the best opportunities for staff positions. Those with graduate degrees should have the best opportunities for supervisory or administrative positions. While the market for full-time career positions is expected to remain competitive, prospects are much better for the very large num­ ber of temporary seasonal jobs. These positions, typically filled by high school or college-age individuals, do not generally require for­ mal education in recreation or leisure studies, although swimming, lifeguarding, skiing, and similar skills may be necessary. Demand for seasonal workers is great, and job opportunities should be plentiful. Employers are competing for their share of the vacationing student labor market, and salaries in recreation are not always competitive with those in other fields.  Related Occupations Recreation workers must exhibit leadership and sensitivity in dealing with people. Other occupations that require similar personal qualities include recreational therapists, social workers, parole officers, human relations counselors, school counselors, clinical and counseling psy­ chologists, and teachers.  Earnings Median annual earnings of all levels of recreation workers who worked full time in 1990 were about $16,000. The middle 50 percent earned between about $11,200 and $21,600. The lowest 10 percent earned about $8,400 or less, while the top 10 percent earned about $27,300 or more. However, earnings potential for recreation directors and others in supervisory or managerial positions can be much higher —anywhere from $22,000 to $95,000, depending on the level of responsibility and the size of the staff. Most public and private recreation agencies provide full-time recreation workers with vacation and other fringe benefits such as  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Sources of Additional Information For information on local government jobs in recreation, contact the nearest department of parks and recreation. Ordering information for materials describing careers and academ­ ic programs in recreation is available from: National Recreation and Park Association, Division of Professional Ser­ vices, 3101 Park Center Dr., Alexandria, VA 22302.  The American Association for Leisure and Recreation publishes information sheets on 25 separate careers in parks and recreation. For price and ordering information, contact: •" AALR, 1900 Association Dr., Reston, VA 22091.  For information on careers in employee services and recreation, contact: National Employee Services and Recreation Association, 2400 South Downing Ave., Westchester, IL 60154.  For information on careers in camping and summer counselor opportunities, contact: <•“ American Camping Association, 5000 State Rd. 67 North, Martinsville, IN 46151.  For information on careers with the YMCA, contact: YMCA of the USA, 101 North Wacker Dr., Chicago, IL 60606.  Roman Catholic Priests (D.O.T. 120.007)  Nature of the Work Roman Catholic priests attend to the spiritual, pastoral, moral, and educational needs of the members of their church. They deliver ser­ mons, administer the sacraments, and preside at liturgical functions such as funeral services. They also comfort the sick, console and counsel those in need of guidance, and assist the poor. In recent years, some priests have paid increasing attention to nonliturgical concerns such as human rights and social welfare. A priest’s day usually begins with morning meditation and mass and may end with an individual counseling session or an evening visit to a hospital or home. Many priests direct and serve on church committees, work in civic and charitable organizations, and assist in community projects. The two main classifications of priests—diocesan (secular) and religious—have the same powers, acquired through ordination by a bishop. The differences lie in their way of life, their type of work, and the church authority to whom they are immediately subject. Diocesan priests generally work in parishes assigned by the bishop of their dio­ cese. Religious priests generally work as part of a religious order, such as the Jesuits, Dominicans, or Franciscans. They may engage in specialized activities, such as teaching or missionary work, assigned by superiors of their order. Both religious and diocesan priests hold teaching and administra­ tive posts in Catholic seminaries, colleges and universities, and high schools. Priests attached to religious orders staff a large proportion of the church's institutions of higher education and many high schools, whereas diocesan priests are usually concerned with the parochial schools attached to parish churches and with diocesan high schools. The members of religious orders do most of the missionary work conducted by the Catholic Church in this country and abroad. Working Conditions Priests spend long and irregular hours working for the church and the community. 21  Religious priests are assigned duties by their superiors in their par­ ticular orders. Some religious priests serve as missionaries in foreign countries, where they may live under difficult and primitive condi­ tions. Some live a communal life in monasteries, where they devote themselves to prayer, study, and assigned work. Diocesan priests are “on call” at all hours to serve their parish­ ioners in emergencies. They also have many intellectual duties, including study of the scriptures and keeping abreast of current reli­ gious and secular events in order to prepare sermons. Diocesan priests are responsible to the bishop of the diocese. Employment There were approximately 53,000 priests in 1990, about two-thirds of them diocesan priests, according to the Official Catholic Directory. There are priests in nearly every city and town and in many rural communities. The majority are in metropolitan areas, where most Catholics reside. Large numbers of priests are located in communities near Catholic educational and other institutions. Training and Other Qualifications Preparation for the priesthood generally requires 8 years of study beyond high school in one of about 230 seminaries. Preparatory study may begin in the first year of high school, at the college level, or in theological seminaries after college graduation. High school seminaries provide a college preparatory program that emphasizes English grammar, speech, literature, and social studies. Latin may be required and modern languages are encouraged. In Hispanic communities, knowledge of Spanish is mandatory. The seminary college offers a liberal arts program stressing philosophy and religion, the study of man through the behavioral sciences and history, and the natural sciences and mathematics. In many college seminaries, a student may concentrate in any one of these fields. The remaining 4 years of preparation include sacred scripture; dog­ matic, moral, and pastoral theology; homiletics (art of preaching); church history; liturgy (mass); and canon law. Fieldwork experience usually is required; in recent years, this aspect of a priest’s training has been emphasized. Diocesan and religious priests attend different major seminaries, where slight variations in the training reflect the differences in their duties. Priests commit themselves to celibacy. Postgraduate work in theology is offered at a number of American Catholic universities or at ecclesiastical universities around the world, particularly in Rome. Also, many priests do graduate work in  fields unrelated to theology. Priests are encouraged by the Catholic Church to continue their studies, at least informally, after ordination. In recent years, continuing education for ordained priests has stressed social sciences, such as sociology and psychology. Young men never are denied entry into seminaries because of lack of funds. In seminaries for secular priests, scholarships or loans are available. Those in religious seminaries are financed by contributions of benefactors. A newly ordained secular priest usually works as an assistant pas­ tor or curate. Newly ordained priests of religious orders are assigned to the specialized duties for which they are trained. Depending on the talents, interests, and experience of the individual, many opportuni­ ties for greater responsibility exist within the church. Job Outlook The job outlook for Roman Catholic priests is expected to be very favorable through the year 2005. More priests will be needed in the years ahead to provide for the spiritual, educational, and social needs of the increasing number of Catholics. In recent years, the number of ordained priests has been insufficient to fill the needs of newly estab­ lished parishes and other Catholic institutions, and to replace priests who retire, die, or leave the priesthood. This situation is likely to intensify if, as expected, seminary enrollments continue to decline and an increasing proportion of priests approach retirement age. In response to the shortage of priests, certain traditional functions increasingly are being performed by lay deacons and by teams of clergy and laity. Presently about 9,500 lay deacons have been ordained to preach and perform liturgical functions such as baptisms, distributing Holy Communion, and reading the gospel at the mass. The only services a deacon cannot perform are saying mass and hear­ ing confessions. Teams of clergy and laity undertake nonliturgical functions such as hospital visits and meetings. Priests will continue to offer mass, administer sacraments, and hear confession, but may be less involved in teaching and administrative work. Earnings Diocesan priests’ salaries vary from diocese to diocese. Based on limited information, salaries averaged about $9,000 in 1990. In addi­ tion to a salary, diocesan priests received a package of benefits that could include a car allowance, free room and board in the parish rec­ tory, health insurance, and a retirement plan. Religious priests take a vow of poverty and are supported by their religious order. Priests who do special work related to the church, such as teaching, usually receive a partial salary which is less than a lay person in the same position would receive. The difference between the usual salary for these jobs and the salary that the priest receives is called “con­ tributed service.” In some of these situations, housing and related expenses may be provided; in other cases, the priest must make his own arrangements. Some priests doing special work receive the same compensation that a lay person would receive. Related Occupations Roman Catholic priests advise and counsel individuals and groups regarding their religious as well as personal, social, and vocational development. Other occupations involved in this type of work include social workers, clinical and counseling psychologists, teachers, and counselors. Sources of Additional Information Young men interested in entering the priesthood should seek the guidance and counsel of their parish priests. For information regard­ ing the different religious orders and the secular priesthood, as well as a list of the seminaries which prepare students for the priesthood, contact the diocesan Director of Vocations through the office of the local pastor or bishop. Occupational information about the Roman Catholic priesthood can also be obtained from:  Priests visit and counsel parishioners. 22   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  National Coalition for Church Vocations, 1603 S. Michigan Ave., Suite 400, Chicago, IL 60616. «■ Hartford Seminary, 77 Sherman St., Hartford, CT 06105.  Secondary School Teachers (D.O.T. 091.221-010, .227-010; 094.224-010, .227-010 through -022; 099.244-010, and .227-022)  Nature of the Work Secondary school teachers help students delve more deeply into sub­ jects introduced in elementary school and learn more about the world and about themselves. They specialize in a specific subject, such as English, Spanish, mathematics, history, or biology, in junior high or high school. They may teach a variety of related courses, for exam­ ple, American history, contemporary American problems, and world geography. Special education teachers instruct students with a variety of dis­ abilities. Other teachers work with students who are very bright or “gifted,” academically or economically disadvantaged, or who have limited English proficiency. Teachers lecture and demonstrate to students, and may use films, slides, overhead projectors, and the latest technology in teaching, such as computers and video discs. Teachers must continually update their skills to utilize the latest technology in the classroom. They design their classroom presentations to meet student needs and abili­ ties. They may also work with students individually. Teachers assign lessons, give tests, and maintain classroom discipline. Teachers increasingly are using new assessment methods, such as examining a portfolio of a student’s artwork or writing, to analyze student achievement. Science teachers supervise laboratory work, and vocational educa­ tion teachers give students “hands-on” experience with instruments, tools, and machinery. In addition to classroom activities, secondary school teachers plan and evaluate lessons, prepare tests, grade papers, prepare report cards, oversee study halls and homerooms, supervise extracurricular activities, and meet with parents and school staff. They also may help students deal with academic or personal problems and in their choice of courses, colleges, and careers. Teachers also participate in educa­ tion conferences and workshops. In recent years, teachers have become more involved in curriculum design, such as choosing text­ books and evaluating teaching methods. Working Conditions Seeing students develop new skills and gain an appreciation of the joy of learning can be very rewarding. However, teaching may be frustrating when dealing with unmotivated and disrespectful students. Including school duties performed outside the classroom, many teachers work more than 40 hours a week. Most teachers work the traditional 10-month school year with a 2-month vacation during the summer. Teachers on the 10-month schedule may teach in summer sessions or take other jobs. Many enroll in college courses or work­ shops in order to continue their education. Teachers in districts with a year-round schedule work 8 weeks, are on vacation for 1 week, and have a 5-week midwinter break. Most States have tenure laws that prevent teachers from being fired without just cause and due process. Teachers may obtain tenure after they have satisfactorily completed a probationary period of teaching, normally 3 years. Tenure is not a guarantee of a job, but it does pro­ vide some security. Employment Secondary school teachers held about 1,280,000 jobs in 1990; more than 9 out of 10 were in public schools. In addition, some of the 332,000 special education teachers worked in secondary schools. Employment is distributed geographically much the same as the population. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement All 50 States and the District of Columbia require public secondary school teachers to be certified. Certification is generally for one or several related subjects. Usually certification is granted by the State  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  mm.m evsss? [)  /<•«*£«* i  i+*.L \  Increasing enrollments will spur rapid employment growth among secondary school teachers. board of education or a certification advisory committee. Requirements for regular certificates vary by State. However, all States require a bachelor’s degree and completion of an approved teacher training program with a prescribed number of subject and education credits and supervised practice teaching in a secondary school. Aspiring teachers either major in the subject they plan to teach while also taking education courses, or major in education and take subject courses. Some States require specific grade point aver­ ages for teacher certification. Many States offer alternative teacher certification programs for people who have college training in the subject they will teach but do not have the necessary education courses required for a regular cer­ tificate. Alternative certification programs were originally designed to ease teacher shortages in certain subjects, such as mathematics and science. The programs have expanded to attract other people into teaching, including recent college graduates and mid-career changers. In some programs, individuals begin teaching immediately under pro­ visional certification. After working under the close supervision of experienced educators for 1 or 2 years while taking education courses outside school hours, they receive regular certification if they have progressed satisfactorily. Under other programs, college graduates who do not meet certification requirements take only those courses that they lack, and then become certified. This may take from 1 to 2 semesters of full-time study. Aspiring teachers who need certification may also enter programs that grant a master’s degree in education, as well as certification. States also issue emergency certificates to indi­ viduals who do not meet all requirements for a regular certificate when schools cannot hire enough teachers with regular certificates. Almost all States require applicants for teacher certification to be tested for competency in basic skills, teaching skills, or subject matter proficiency. Almost all require continuing education for renewal of the teacher’s certificate—some require a master’s degree. Many States have reciprocity agreements that make it easier for teachers certified in one State to become certified in another. Secondary school teachers should be knowledgeable in their sub­ ject and able to communicate with and motivate students. With addi­ tional preparation and certification, teachers may move into positions as school librarians, reading specialists, curriculum specialists, or guidance counselors. Teachers may become administrators or super­ visors, although the number of positions is limited. In some systems, well-qualified experienced teachers can become senior or mentor teachers, with higher pay and additional responsibilities. They guide and assist less experienced teachers while keeping most of their teaching responsibilities. Job Outlook Employment of secondary school teachers is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005 as high school enrollments grow and class size declines. Job openings for secondary school teachers are expected to increase substantially 23  The high school age population will increase throughout the 1990-2005 period. Population 14 to 17 years of age (millions)  abilities; research and communication skills; the power to influence, motivate, and train others; patience; and creativity. Workers in other occupations requiring some of these aptitudes include school admin­ istrators, college and university faculty, counselors, trainers and employee development specialists, employment interviewers, librari­ ans, public relations representatives, sales representatives, and social workers. Sources of Additional Information Information on certification requirements and approved teacher train­ ing institutions is available from local school systems and State departments of education. Information on teachers’ unions and education-related issues may be obtained from: •• American Federation of Teachers, 555 New Jersey Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20001. National Education Association, 1201 16th St. NW., Washington, DC 20036.  A list of institutions with teacher education programs accredited by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education can be obtained from: *■ National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, 2010 Massachusetts Ave. NW., 2nd Floor, Washington, DC 20036.  1975  1980  1985  1990  1995  2000  2005  Source: Bureau of Census, Series 18 population projections (high fertility/high immigration assumptions)  by the end of the decade as the large number of teachers now in their 40’s and 50’s reach retirement age. Employment of special education teachers is expected to increase much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005 due to recent Federal legislation emphasizing training and employment for individuals with disabilities; technological advances resulting in more survivors of accidents and illnesses; and growing public interest in individuals with special needs. The supply of secondary school teachers is also expected to increase in response to reports of job opportunities, more teacher involvement in school policy, greater public interest in education, and higher salaries. In fact, enrollments in teacher training programs have already increased. In addition, more teachers should be available from alternative certification programs. Some central cities and rural areas have difficulty attracting enough teachers, so job prospects should continue to be better in these areas than in suburban districts. The number of teachers employed depends on State and local expenditures for education. Pressures from taxpayers to limit spend­ ing could result in fewer teachers than projected; pressures to spend more to improve the quality of education could mean more. Earnings According to the National Education Association, public secondary school teachers averaged about $33,700 a year in 1990-91. Earnings in private schools generally were lower. Many public school teachers belong to unions, such as the Ameri­ can Federation of Teachers and the National Education Association, that bargain with school systems over wages, hours, and the terms and conditions of employment. In some schools, teachers receive extra pay for coaching sports and working with students in extracurricular activities. Some teachers earn extra income during the summer working in the school system or in other jobs. Related Occupations Secondary school teaching requires a wide variety of skills and apti­ tudes, including organizational, administrative, and recordkeeping 24   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Social Workers (D.O.T. 189.267-010, 195.107-010 through -046, .137-010, .164-010, .167­ 010, -014, -030, and -034, .267-018, and .367-026)  Nature of the Work Social workers help individuals and families cope with problems such as homelessness or inadequate housing, unemployment, lack of job skills, financial mismanagement, serious illness, handicaps, sub­ stance abuse, unwanted pregnancy, or antisocial behavior. They also work with families that have serious conflicts, including those involv­ ing child or spousal abuse or divorce. Through direct counseling, social workers help clients bring their real concerns into the open and help them to consider solutions or find other resources. Often, social workers provide concrete informa­ tion such as: Where to go for debt counseling; how to find childcare or eldercare; how to apply for public assistance or other benefits; or how to get an alcoholic or drug addict admitted to a rehabilitation program. They may also pull together services in consultation with clients and then follow through to assure they are actually provided. They may review eligibility requirements, fill out forms and applications, arrange for services, visit clients on a regular basis, and step in during emergencies. Most social workers specialize in one field such as child welfare and family services, mental health, medical social work, school social work, community organization, or clinical social work. Social workers in child welfare or family services may counsel children and youth who have difficulty adjusting socially, advise par­ ents on how to care for handicapped children, or arrange homemaker services during a parent’s illness. If children have serious problems in school, child welfare workers may consult with parents, teachers, and counselors to identify underlying causes. Some social workers assist single parents, arrange adoptions, and help find foster homes for neglected or abandoned children. Child welfare workers also work in residential institutions for children and adolescents. Social workers in child or adult protective services investigate reports of abuse and neglect and intervene if necessary. They may institute legal action to remove victims from homes and place them temporarily in an emergency shelter or with a foster family. Mental health social workers provide for the mentally disabled— services such as individual and group therapy, outreach, crisis inter­ vention, social rehabilitation, and training in skills of everyday living. They may also help plan for supportive services to ease patients’  return to the community. (Also see the statements on counselors and psychologists elsewhere in the Handbook.) Medical social workers help patients and their families cope with chronic, acute, or terminal illnesses and handle problems that may stand in the way of recovery or rehabilitation. They may organize support groups for families of patients suffering from cancer, AIDS, Alzheimer’s disease, or other illnesses. They also advise family care­ givers, and counsel patients and help plan for their needs after dis­ charge by arranging for at-home services—from meals-on-wheels to oxygen equipment. Some work on interdisciplinary teams that evalu­ ate certain kinds of patients—geriatric or transplant patients, for example. School social workers diagnose students’ problems and arrange needed services, counsel children in trouble, and integrate handi­ capped students into the general school population. School social workers deal with problems such as student pregnancy, misbehavior in class, and excessive absences. They also advise teachers on how to deal with problem students. Social workers in criminal justice make recommendations to courts, do pre-sentencing assessments, and provide services for prison inmates. Probation and parole officers provide similar services to individuals sentenced by a court to probation or those on parole. Industrial or occupational social workers, generally located in an employer’s personnel department or health unit, offer direct counsel­ ing to employees, often those whose performance at work is affected by emotional or family problems or substance abuse. They also develop education programs and provide information about commu­ nity resources. Clinical or psychiatric social workers offer psychotherapy or coun­ seling. Some social workers specialize in gerontological services. They run support groups for family caregivers or for the adult children of aging parents; advise elderly people or family members about the choices in such areas as housing, transportation, and long-term care; and coordinate and monitor services. Working Conditions Most social workers have a standard 40-hour week. However, they may work some evenings and weekends to meet with clients, attend community meetings, and handle emergencies. Some, particularly in voluntary nonprofit agencies, work part time. They may spend most of their time in an office or residential facility, but may also travel locally to visit clients or meet with service providers. The work, while satisfying, can be emotionally draining. Under­ staffing and large caseloads add to the pressure in some agencies. Employment Social workers held about 438,000 jobs in 1990. About 2 out of 5 jobs were in State, county, or municipal government agencies, pri­ marily in departments of human resources, social services, child wel­ fare, mental health, health, housing, education, and corrections. Most in the private sector were in voluntary social service agencies, com­ munity and religious organizations, hospitals, nursing homes, or home health agencies. Although most social workers are employed in cities or suburbs, some work in rural areas. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree is the minimum requirement for most positions. Besides the bachelor’s in social work (BSW), undergraduate majors in psychology, sociology, and related fields satisfy hiring require­ ments in some agencies, especially small community agencies. A master’s degree in social work (MSW) is generally necessary for positions in health and mental health settings. Jobs in public agencies may also require an MSW. Supervisory, administrative, staff training positions usually require at least an MSW. College and University teaching positions and most research appointments normally require a doctorate in social work. In 1990, the Council on Social Work Education accredited 394 BSW programs and 113 MSW programs. There were 45 doctoral pro­ grams for Ph.D. in Social Work and for DSW (Doctor of Social  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  - i  Social workers should be objective, yet sensitive to people and their problems. Work). BSW programs prepare graduates for direct service positions such as caseworker or group worker. They include courses in social work practice, social welfare policies, human behavior and the social environment, and social research methods. Accredited BSW pro­ grams require at least 400 hours of supervised field experience. An MSW degree prepares graduates to perform assessments, to manage cases, and to supervise other workers. Master’s programs usually last 2 years and include 900 hours of supervised field instruc­ tion, or internship. Entry into an MSW program does not require a bachelor’s in social work, but courses in psychology, biology, sociol­ ogy, economics, political science, history, social anthropology, urban studies, and social work are recommended. Some schools offer an accelerated MSW program for those with a BSW. Social workers may advance to supervisor, program manager, assistant director, and finally to executive director of an agency or department. Advancement generally requires an MSW, as well as experience. Other career options for social workers are teaching, research, and consulting. Some help formulate government policies by analyzing and advocating policy positions in government agen­ cies, in research institutions, and on legislators’ staffs. Some social workers go into private practice. Most private practi­ tioners are clinical social workers who provide psychotherapeutic counseling. Private practitioners usually need an MSW and a network of contacts for referrals. In 1990, 48 States and the District of Columbia had licensing, cer­ tification, or registration laws regarding social work practice and the use of professional titles. Voluntary certification is offered by the National Association of Social Workers (NASW), which grants the titled ACSW (Academy of Certified Social Workers) or ACBSW (Academy of Certified Baccalaureate Social Workers) to those who 25  qualify. For clinical social workers, professional credentials include listing in the NASW Register of Clinical Social Workers or in the Directory of American Board of Examiners in Clinical Social Work. These credentials are particularly important for those in private practice: some health insurance providers require them for reimburse­ ment. Social workers should be emotionally mature, objective, and sensi­ tive to people and their problems. They must be able to handle responsibility, work independently, and maintain good working rela­ tionships with clients and coworkers. Volunteer or paid jobs as a social work aide offer ways of testing one’s interest in this field.  tory of Accredited BSW and MSW Programs. Price and ordering information for this and other CSWE publications is available from:  Job Outlook Employment of social workers is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. The number of older people, who are more likely to need services, is growing rapid­ ly. In addition, the need for and concern about services to the mental­ ly ill, the mentally retarded, and individuals and families in crisis are expected to grow. The need to replace social workers who leave the occupation, however, will provide the most openings. Employment in hospitals is projected to grow much faster than the average for the economy as a whole due to greater emphasis on dis­ charge planning, which facilitates early discharge of patients by assuring that the necessary medical services and social supports are in place. Employment in private social service agencies is also projected to grow much faster than average. Employment in government is pro­ jected to grow only about as fast as average. Opportunities for social workers in private practice will expand because of the anticipated availability of funding from health insur­ ance and from public sector contracts. Also, with increasing afflu­ ence, people will be more willing to pay for professional help to deal with personal problems. The growing popularity of employee assis­ tance programs is also expected to spur demand for private practition­ ers, some of whom provide social work services to corporations on a contract basis. Employment in home health care services is growing, not only because hospitals are moving to release patients more quickly, but because a large and growing number of people have impairments or disabilities that make it difficult to live at home without some form of assistance. Employment of school social workers is expected to grow, due to expanded efforts to respond to the adjustment problems of immi­ grants, children from single-parent families, and others in difficult sit­ uations. Moreover, continued emphasis on integrating handicapped children into the general school population—a requirement under the Education for All Handicapped Children Act—will probably lead to more jobs. The availability of State and local funding will dictate the actual increase in jobs in this setting, however. Competition is stronger in cities where training programs for social workers abound; rural areas often find it difficult to attract and retain qualified staff.  (D.O.T. 099.327-010; 219.467-010; 249.367-074, -086)  Earnings In January 1991, medical social workers in private hospitals who worked full-time averaged $14.73 per hour, excluding premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. Social workers employed by the Federal Government averaged $38,195 in 1991. According to limited data, social workers in all types of settings generally earned between $23,000 and $36,000 in 1990.  »• Council on Social Work Education, 1600 Duke St., Alexandria, VA 22314.  For information on doctoral programs in social work, contact: •" Dr. Sheila B. Kamerman, Chair for Group for the Advancement of Doctor­ al Education, c/o Columbia University, School of Social Work, 122 West 113rd St., New York, NY 10025.  Teacher Aides  Nature of the Work Teacher aides, also called paraprofessionals, help classroom teachers in a variety of ways to give them more time for teaching. They help and supervise students in the classroom, cafeteria, schoolyard, or on field trips. They record grades, set up equipment, or help prepare materials for instruction. They also tutor and assist children in learn­ ing class material. Aides’ responsibilities vary greatly. Some teacher aides just handle routine nonteaching and clerical tasks. They grade tests and papers, check homework, keep health and attendance records, type, file, and duplicate materials. They may also stock supplies, operate audiovisu­ al equipment, and keep classroom equipment in order. Other aides instruct children, under the direction and guidance of teachers. They work with students individually or in small groups—listening while students read, reviewing class work, or helping them find information for reports. Many aides have a combination of instructional and cleri­ cal duties, designed to most effectively assist classroom teachers. Sometimes, aides take charge of special projects and prepare equip­ ment or exhibits—for a science demonstration, for example. Working Conditions About half of all teacher aides work part time during the school year. Most work the traditional 9- to 10-month school year, usually in a classroom setting. Aides may also work outdoors supervising recess when weather allows and spend much of their time standing, walking, or kneeling. Seeing students develop and gain appreciation of the joy of learning can be very rewarding. However, working closely with students can be both physically and emotionally tiring.  -  Related Occupations Through direct counseling or referral to other services, social workers help people solve a range of personal problems. Workers in occupa­ tions with similar duties include the clergy, counselors, counseling psychologists, and vocational rehabilitation counselors. Sources of Additional Information For information about career opportunities in social work, contact: •r- National Association of Social Workers, 7981 Eastern Ave., Silver Spring, MD 20910.  The Council on Social Work Education publishes an annual Direc­ 26  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  About half of all teacher aides work part time.  v  Employment Teacher aides held about 808,000 jobs in 1990. About 8 out of 10 worked in elementary and secondary schools, mostly in the lower grades. A significant number assisted special education teachers in working with children who have disabilities. Most of the others worked in child daycare centers and religious organizations. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Educational requirements for teacher aides range from a high school diploma to some college training. Those aides with teaching responsi­ bilities usually require more training than those who don’t have teaching tasks. Increasingly, employers prefer aides who have some college training. A number of 2-year and community colleges offer associate degree programs that prepare graduates to work as teacher aides. However, most teacher aides receive on-the-job training. Aides who tutor and review lessons with students must have a thorough understanding of class materials and instructional methods, and must be familiar with the organization and operation of a school. Aides must also know how to operate audiovisual equipment, keep records, and prepare instructional materials. Teacher aides should enjoy working with children and be able to handle classroom situations with fairness and patience. Preference in hiring may be given to those with previous experience in working with children. Aides also must demonstrate initiative and a willing­ ness to follow a teacher’s directions. They must have good oral and writing skills and be able to communicate effectively with students and teachers. Clerical skills may also be necessary. Some States have established certification and training require­ ments for general teacher aides. To qualify, an individual may need a high school diploma or general equivalency degree (G.E.D.), or even some college training. Advancement for teacher aides, usually in the form of higher earn­ ings or increased responsibility, comes primarily with experience or additional education. Some school districts provide time away from the job so that aides may take college courses. Aides who earn bache­ lor’s degrees may become certified teachers. Job Outlook Employment of teacher aides is expected to grow faster than the aver­ age for all occupations through the year 2005. In addition, many jobs   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  will become available because a relatively high proportion of workers transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force for family responsibilities, to return to school, or for other reasons. In recent years, an increasing number of teacher aides have been hired to assist teachers, and this trend is expected to continue. In addition, many teacher aides work in special education, a field that is expected to grow rapidly through the year 2005, further contribut­ ing to overall employment growth of teacher aides. However, teach­ er aide employment is sensitive to changes in State and local expenditures for education. Pressures on education budgets are greater in some States and localities than in others. A number of teacher aide positions, such as Head Start assistant teachers, are financed through Federal programs, which may also be affected by budget constraints. Earnings According to the Educational Research Service, aides involved in teaching activities earned an average of $7.77 an hour in 1990-91; those performing only nonteaching activities averaged $7.43 an hour. Earnings varied by region and by work experience and academic qualifications. Many aides are covered by collective bargaining agreements and have health and pension benefits similar to those of the teachers in their schools. Related Occupations Teacher aides who instruct children have duties similar to those of preschool, elementary, and secondary school teachers and librarians. However, teacher aides do not have the same level of responsibility or training. The support activities of teacher aides and their educa­ tional backgrounds are similar to those of childcare workers, library technicians, and library assistants. Sources of Additional Information Information on teacher aides as well as on a wide range of educationrelated subjects, including teacher aide unionization, can be obtained from: "" American Federation of Teachers, Organizing Department, 555 New Jersey Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20001.  School superintendents and State departments of education can provide details about employment requirements.  27  New from BLS  cienceocPfiysics Coal, Iro luminttmrPTasiiejm Do you want to know more about work in industries? • Number of jobs • Geographic areas having the most jobs • Size of establishments • Goods and services produced • Kinds of workers employed—what types of work is done • Common working conditions and hazards • Jobs that can be entered from high school; from college • Jobs that do not require specialized education or training • Opportunities for acquiring skills  Then, don’t miss this new publication!  Career Guide to Industries Career Guide to Industries, BLS Bulletin 2403, was produced by the same staff that prepares the Occupational Outlook Handbook—the Federal Goverment’s premier career guidance publication. This new book is a must for guidance counselors, individuals planning their careers, job seekers, and others who want the latest word on career information from an industry perspective.  • Prospects for upward mobility • Long-term employment outlook • Reasons for changing staffing patterns Digitized for •FRASER Earnings of key https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  occupations  Note: At press time, the price for this publication was not available. Contact any of the Bureau of Labor Statistics Regional Offices listed on the inside front cover, or the Division of Occupational Outlook, Bureau of Labor 1 Statistics, Washington, DC 20212.
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