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L D-3)Ha .'P4 00-3/994-^3  Engineering, Scientific, and Related Occupations Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1992-93 Edition U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics Bulletin 2400-3  ■ .  mm ■■  ■  : i >i  ------------- https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  J  Engineering, Science, and Data Processing Managers (D.O.T. 003.167-034 and -070; 005.167-010 and 022; 007.167-014; 008.167­ 010; 010.161-014 and -018; 011.161-010; 012.167-058 and -062; 018.167­ 022; 019.167-014; 022.161-010; 029.167-014; 162.117-030; 169.167-030; and 189.117-014)  Nature of the Work Engineering, science, and data processing managers plan, coordinate, and direct technical, scientific, and computer related activities. They supervise a staff of engineers, scientists, technicians, computer spe­ cialists, data processing workers, and support personnel. Engineering, science, and data processing managers determine sci­ entific and technical goals within broad outlines provided by top management. These goals may include the redesign of an industrial machine, improvements in manufacturing processes, the development of a large computer program, or advances in basic scientific research. Managers make detailed plans for the accomplishment of these goals—for example, they may develop the overall concepts of new products or identify problems standing in the way of project comple­ tion. They forecast costs and equipment and personnel needs for pro­ jects and programs. They hire and assign scientists, engineers, technicians, computer specialists, data processing workers, and sup­ port personnel to carry out specific parts of the projects, supervise their work, and review their designs, programs, and reports. Managers coordinate the activities of their unit with other units or organizations. They confer with higher levels of management; with financial, industrial production, marketing, and other managers; and with contractors and equipment suppliers. They also establish work­ ing and administrative procedures and policies. Engineering managers direct and coordinate production, opera­ tions, quality assurance, testing, or maintenance in industrial plants; or plan and coordinate the design and development of machinery, products, systems, and processes. Many are plant engineers, directing and coordinating the maintenance, operation, design, and installation of equipment and machinery in industrial plants. Others manage research and development activities that produce new products and processes or improve existing ones. Natural science managers oversee activities in agricultural science, chemistry, biology, geology, meteorology, or physics. They manage research and development projects and direct and coordinate testing, quality control, and production activities in industrial plants. Electronic data processing managers direct, plan, and coordinate data processing activities. Top level managers direct all computerrelated activities in an organization. Others manage computer opera­ tions, software development, or data bases. They analyze the data processing requirements of their organization and assign, schedule, and review the work of systems analysts, computer programmers, and computer operators. Some engineering, science, and data processing managers head a section of perhaps 3 to 10 or more scientists, engineers, or computer professionals. Above them are heads of divisions composed of a number of sections, with as many as 15 to 50 scientists or engineers. A few are directors of large laboratories or directors of research. Working Conditions Engineering, science, and data processing managers spend most of their time in an office. Some managers, however, may also work in laboratories or industrial plants, where they normally are exposed to the same conditions as research scientists and may occasionally be exposed to the same conditions as production workers. Most work at least 40 hours a week and may work much longer on occasion to meet project deadlines. Some may experience considerable pressure to meet technical or scientific goals within a short time or within a tight budget.  2  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Data processing managers review the work of staff members. Employment Engineering, science, and data processing managers held abou 315,000 jobs in 1990. Although these managers are found in almos all industries, almost half are employed in manufacturing, especially in the industrial machinery and equipment, electrical and electronic equipment, transportation equipment, and chemicals industries. They also work for engineering, management, and computer and data pro­ cessing services companies; as well as for government, colleges and universities, and nonprofit research organizations. The majority are engineering managers, often managing industrial research, develop­ ment, and design projects. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Experience as an engineer, mathematician, natural scientist, or com­ puter professional is the usual requirement for becoming an engineer­ ing, science, or data processing manager. Consequently, educational requirements are similar to those for scientists, engineers, and data processing professionals. Engineering managers start as engineers. A bachelor’s degree in engineering from an accredited engineering program is acceptable for beginning engineering jobs, but many engineers increase their chances for promotion to manager by obtaining a master’s degree in engineering or business administration. A degree in business admin­ istration or engineering management is especially useful for becom­ ing a general manager. Natural science managers usually start as a chemist, physicist, biol­ ogist, or other natural scientist. A large proportion of natural scien­ tists have a Ph.D. degree, especially those engaged in basic research, although some in applied research and other activities have lesser degrees. First-level science managers are usually specialists in the work they supervise. For example, the manager of a group of physi­ cists doing optical research is almost always a physicist who is an expert in optics. Most data processing managers have been systems analysts, although some may have experience as programmers or in other com­ puter specialties. There is no universally accepted way of preparing for a job as a systems analyst, but a bachelor’s degree is usually required. A graduate degree often is preferred. Many systems ana­ lysts have degrees in computer or information science, computer information systems, or data processing and have experience as com­ puter programmers. A typical career advancement progression in a large organization would be from programmer to programmer/ana­ lyst, to systems analyst, and then to project leader or senior analyst. The first real managerial position might be as project manager, pro­ gramming supervisor, systems supervisor, or software manager. In addition to educational requirements, scientists, engineers, or computer specialists generally must have demonstrated above-aver­ age technical skills to be considered for promotion to manager. Supe­ riors also look for leadership and communication skills, as well as  For sale by Superintendant of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office Washington, D.C. 20402  managerial attributes such as the ability to make rational decisions, to manage time well, to organize and coordinate work effectively, to establish good working and personal relationships, and to motivate others. Also, a successful manager must have the desire to manage. Many scientists, engineers, and computer specialists want to be pro­ moted but actually prefer doing technical work. Some scientists and engineers become managers in marketing, per­ sonnel, purchasing, or other areas or become general managers. Job Outlook Employment of engineering and science managers is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Employment growth of each type of manager is expected to correspond closely with growth of the occupation they supervise. (See the statements on natural scientists, engineers, computer pro­ grammers, and systems analysts elsewhere in the Handbook.) Underlying much of the growth of managers in science and engi­ neering is the expected continued growth of research and develop­ ment as companies update and improve products more frequently. Increased research and investment in plants to expand output of goods and services and to raise productivity also will add to employ­ ment requirements for science and engineering managers involved in research and development, design, and the operation and maintenance of production facilities. The development of new technologies in new areas such as superconductivity, medical diagnostics, and advanced materials also will help to develop newer, higher quality products. Employment of data processing managers will increase as the econo­ my expands and as advances in technology lead to broader applica­ tions for computers. Despite growth in employment, most job openings will result from the need to replace workers who leave the occupation. Because many engineers, natural scientists, and computer special­ ists are eligible for management and seek promotion, there usually is substantial competition for these jobs. Earnings Earnings for engineering, science, and data processing managers vary by specialty and level of management. Salaries in 1990 ranged from about $40,000 for first level data processing managers to well over $100,000 for the most senior managers in large organizations, accord­ ing to the limited data available. Managers often earn about 15 to 25 percent more than those they directly supervise, although there are cases where some employees are paid more than the manager who supervises them. In addition, engineering, science, and data processing managers, especially those at higher levels, often are provided more fringe bene­ fits than non-managerial workers in their organizations. Higher level managers often are provided with expense accounts, stock option plans, and bonuses.  for efficient and economical performance. They design industrial machinery and equipment for manufacturing goods; design defense and weapons systems for the Armed Forces; and design, plan, and supervise the construction of buildings, highways, and rapid transit systems. They also design and develop consumer products and sys­ tems for control and automation of manufacturing, business, and management processes. Engineers consider many factors in developing a new product. For example, in developing an industrial robot, they determine the general way it needs to work; design and test components; fit them together in an integrated plan; and evaluate the design’s overall effectiveness, cost, reliability, and safety. This process applies to products as different as computers, gas turbines, generators, heli­ copters, and toys. In addition to design and development, many engineers work in testing, production, or maintenance. They supervise production in factories, determine the causes of breakdowns, and test manufactured products to maintain quality. They also estimate the time and cost to complete projects. Some work in engineering management or in sales, where an engineering background enables them to discuss the technical aspects of a product and assist in planning its installation or use. (See the statements on engineering, science, and data processing managers and manufacturers’ and wholesale sales representatives elsewhere in the Handbook.) Most engineers specialize; more than 25 major specialties are rec­ ognized by professional societies. Within the major branches are numerous subdivisions. Structural, environmental, and transportation engineering, for example, are subdivisions of civil engineering. Engi­ neers also may specialize in one industry, such as motor vehicles, or in one field of technology, such as propulsion or guidance systems. This section, which contains an overall discussion of engineering, is followed by separate statements on 10 branches of the profession— aerospace; chemical; civil; electrical and electronics; industrial; mechanical; metallurgical, ceramic, and materials; mining; nuclear; and petroleum engineering. Engineers in each branch have knowledge and training that can be applied to many fields. Electrical and electronics engineers, for example, work in the medical, computer, missile guidance, and power  More than one-fourth of all engineers are electrical engineers. Employment (thousands)  Related Occupations The work of engineering, science, and data processing managers is closely related to that of engineers, natural scientists, computer per­ sonnel, and mathematicians. It is also related to the work of other managers, especially general managers and top executives. Sources of Additional Information Contact the sources of additional information on engineers, natural scientists, and systems analysts that are listed in statements on these occupations elsewhere in the Handbook.  Engineers o®  Nature of the Work Engineers apply the theories and principles of science and mathemat­ ics to the economical solution of practical technical problems. Often their work is the link between a scientific discovery and its applica­ tion. Engineers design machinery, products, systems, and processes  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  & oV  g/ i # J #£ f  &  cs  £ £  #  Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics  3  distribution fields. Because there are many separate problems to solve in a large engineering project, such as a mission to Mars, engineers in one field often work closely with specialists in scientific, other engi­ neering, and business occupations. Engineers often use computers to solve mathematical equations which describe how a machine, structure, or system operates. Many engineers also use computer-aided design systems to produce and analyze designs. They also spend a great deal of time writing reports and consulting with other engineers. Complex projects require many engineers, each working with a small part of the job. Supervisory engineers are responsible for major components or entire projects. Working Conditions Many engineers work in laboratories, industrial plants, or construc­ tion sites, where they inspect, supervise, or solve onsite problems. Others work in an office almost all of the time. Engineers in branches such as civil engineering may work outdoors part of the time. A few engineers travel extensively to plants or construction sites. Many engineers work a standard 40-hour week. At times, dead­ lines or design standards may bring extra pressure to a job. When this happens, engineers may work long hours and experience considerable stress. Employment In 1990, engineers held 1,519,000 jobs. Over one-half of all engineer­ ing jobs were located in manufacturing industries—mostly in electri­ cal and electronic equipment, aircraft and parts, machinery, scientific instruments, chemicals, motor vehicles, fabricated metal products, and primary metals industries. In 1990, 739,000 jobs were in non­ manufacturing industries, primarily in engineering and architectural services and business and management consulting services, where firms designed construction projects or did other engineering work on a contract basis for organizations in other parts of the economy. Engi­ neers also worked in the communications, utilities, and construction industries. Federal, State, and local governments employed about 201,000 engineers. About 60 percent were in the Federal Government, mainly in the Departments of Defense, Transportation, Agriculture, Interior, and Energy, and in the National Aeronautics and Space Administra­  The number of degrees granted In engineering has declined recently. Numbers of degrees (thousands)  Source: Engineering Manpower Commission  4  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  tion. Most engineers in State and local government agencies worked in highway and public works departments. Some engineers are selfemployed consultants. Engineers are employed in every State, in small and large cities, and in rural areas. Some branches of engineering are concentrated in particular industries and geographic areas, as discussed in statements later in this chapter. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree in engineering from an accredited engineering program is usually required for beginning engineering jobs. College graduates with a degree in a physical science or mathematics may occasionally qualify for some engineering jobs, especially in engi­ neering specialties in high demand. Most engineering degrees are granted in branches such as electrical, mechanical, or civil engineer­ ing. However, engineers trained in one branch may work in another. This flexibility allows employers to meet staffing needs in new tech­ nologies and specialties in short supply. It also allows engineers to shift to fields with better employment prospects, or ones that match their interests more closely. In addition to the standard engineering degree, many colleges offer degrees in engineering technology, which are offered as either 2- or 4-year programs. These programs prepare students for practical design and production work rather than for jobs that require more theoretical, scientific and mathematical knowledge. Graduates of 4year technology programs may get jobs similar to those obtained by graduates with a bachelor’s degree in engineering. However, some employers regard them as having skills between those of a technician and an engineer. Graduate training is essential for engineering faculty positions but is not required for the majority of entry level engineering jobs. Many engineers obtain a master’s degree to learn new technology, to broad­ en their education, and to enhance promotion opportunities. Nearly 260 colleges and universities offer a bachelor’s degree in engineering, and nearly 100 colleges offer a bachelor’s degree in engi­ neering technology. Although most institutions offer programs in the larger branches of engineering, only a few offer some of the smaller specialties. Also, programs of the same title may vary in content. For example, some emphasize industrial practices, preparing students for a job in industry, while others are more theoretical and are better for stu­ dents preparing to take graduate work. Therefore, students should investigate curriculums carefully before selecting a college. Admis­ sions requirements for undergraduate engineering schools include courses in advanced high school mathematics and the physical sci­ ences. In a typical 4-year college curriculum, the first 2 years are spent studying basic sciences (mathematics, physics, and chemistry), intro­ ductory engineering, and the humanities, social sciences, and English. In the last 2 years, most courses are in engineering, usually with a concentration in one branch. For example, the last 2 years of an aerospace program might include courses such as fluid mechanics, heat transfer, applied aerodynamics, analytical mechanics, flight vehicle design, trajectory dynamics, and aerospace propulsion sys­ tems. Some programs offer a general engineering curriculum; stu­ dents then specialize in graduate school or on the job. A few engineering schools and 2-year colleges have agreements whereby the 2-year college provides the initial engineering education and the engineering school automatically admits students for their last 2 years. In addition, a few engineering schools have arrange­ ments whereby a student spends 3 years in a liberal arts college studying preengineering subjects and 2 years in the engineering school and receives a bachelor’s degree from each. Some colleges and universities offer 5-year master’s degree programs. Some 5- or even 6-year cooperative plans combine classroom study and practical work, permitting students to gain valuable experi­ ence and finance part of their education. All 50 States and the District of Columbia require registration for engineers whose work may affect life, health, or property, or who offer their services to the public. In 1990, nearly 500,000 engineers were registered. Registration generally requires a degree from an engineering program accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engi-  neering and Technology, 4 years of relevant work experience, and passing a State examination. Some States will not register people with degrees in engineering technology. Beginning engineering graduates usually do routine work under the supervision of experienced engineers and, in larger companies, may also receive formal classroom or seminar-type training. As they gain knowledge and experience, they are assigned more difficult tasks with greater independence to develop designs, solve problems, and make decisions. Engineers may become technical specialists or may supervise a staff or team of engineers and technicians. Some eventu­ ally become engineering managers or enter other managerial, man­ agement support, or sales jobs. (See the statements under executive, administrative, and managerial occupations; under sales occupations; and on computer systems analysts elsewhere in the Handbook.) Some engineers obtain graduate degrees in business administration to improve advancement opportunities; others obtain law degrees and become patent attorneys. Many high level executives in government and industry began their careers as engineers. Engineers should be able to work as part of a team and should have creativity, an analytical mind, and a capacity for detail. In addition, engineers should be able to express themselves well—both orally and in writing. Job Outlook Employment opportunities in engineering have been good for a num­ ber of years. They are expected to continue to be good through the year 2005 because employment is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations while the number of degrees granted in engineering is not likely to increase much beyond present levels. Employers will need more engineers as they increase investment in plant and equipment in order to expand output of goods and services and to further increase productivity. In addition, competitive pres­ sures and advancing technology will force companies to improve and update product designs more frequently. Finally, more engineers will be needed to improve deteriorating roads, bridges, water and pollu­ tion control systems, and other public facilities. Freshman engineering enrollments began declining in 1983, and the number of bachelor’s degrees in engineering began declining in 1987. Although it is difficult to project engineering enrollments, this decline may continue, at least through the early 1990s, because the total college-age population is projected to decline. Furthermore, the proportion of students interested in engineering careers has declined as prospects for college graduates in other fields have improved. One sign that engineering graduates have good prospects is that they have starting salaries substantially higher than those of most other graduates with bachelor’s degrees. Another is that engineering students, who earned less than 9 percent of all bachelor’s degrees in 1990, received more than 40 percent of the job offers to bachelor’s degree graduates, according to the College Placement Council. In addition, most have received at least one job offer before graduation, which has not been the case for many other graduates. Although employers generally prefer engineering graduates, there should continue to be opportunities in engineering for qualified grad­ uates in science and other related fields. Only a relatively small proportion of engineers leave the profes­ sion each year. Despite this, most job openings will arise from replacement needs. A greater proportion of replacement openings is created by engineers who transfer to management, sales, or other pro­ fessional specialty occupations than by those who leave the labor force. Most industries are less likely to lay off engineers than other work­ ers. Many engineers work on long-term research and development projects or in other activities which may continue even during reces­ sions. However, in industries such as electronics and aerospace, large government cutbacks in defense or research and development may result in layoffs for engineers. New computer-aided design systems enable engineers to produce or modify designs much more rapidly than previously. This increased productivity might have resulted in fewer engineering jobs, but this has not happened. Instead, engineers have used these systems to improve the design process. They now produce and analyze many  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  more design variations before selecting a final one. Therefore, this technology is not expected to limit employment opportunities. It is important for engineers to continue their education throughout their careers because much of their value to their employer depends on their knowledge of the latest technology. The pace of technologi­ cal change varies by engineering specialty and industry. Engineers in high-technology areas such as advanced electronics or aerospace may find that their knowledge becomes obsolete rapidly. Even those who continue their education are vulnerable to obsolescence if the particu­ lar technology or product they have specialized in becomes obsolete. Engineers whom employers consider not to have kept up may find themselves passed over for promotions and are particularly vulnera­ ble to layoffs. On the other hand, it is often these high-technology areas that offer the greatest challenges, the most interesting work, and the highest salaries. Therefore, the choice of engineering specialty and employer involves an assessment not only of the potential rewards but also of the risk of technological obsolescence. (The out­ look for 10 branches of engineering is discussed in separate state­ ments.) Earnings Starting salaries for engineers with the bachelor’s degree are signifi­ cantly higher than starting salaries of bachelor’s degree graduates in other fields. According to the College Placement Council, engineer­ ing graduates with a bachelor’s degree averaged about $31,900 a year in private industry in 1990; those with a master’s degree and no expe­ rience, $36,200 a year; and those with a Ph.D., $50,400. Starting salaries for those with the bachelor’s degree vary by branch, as shown in the following tabulation. Petroleum.............................................................................. $35,202 Chemical............................................................................... 35,122 Metallurgical......................................................................... 32,235 Mechanical........................................................................... 32,064 Electrical............................................................................... 31,778 Nuclear................................................................................. 31,750 Industrial............................................................................... 30,525 Aerospace............................................................................. 30,509 Mining.................................................................................. 29,383 Civil...................................................................................... 28,136 As shown in the following tabulation, the average salary for engi­ neers in private industry in 1990 was $31,412 at the most junior level, and $93,514 at senior managerial levels. Experienced midlevel engi­ neers with no supervisory responsibilities averaged $49,195. Average salary Engineers I....................................................................... Engineers II..................................................................... Engineers III ................................................................... Engineers IV................................................................... Engineers V .................................................................... Engineers VI................................................................... Engineers VII.................................................................. Engineers VIII ................................................................  $31,412 35,389 41,157 49,195 59,462 70,646 81,597 93,514  The average salary for engineers in the Federal Government was about $49,367 in 1991. Related Occupations Engineers apply the principles of physical science and mathematics in their work. Other workers who use scientific and mathematical principles include physical scientists, life scientists, computer scien­ tists, mathematicians, engineering and science technicians, and archi­ tects. Sources of Additional Information A number of engineering-related organizations provide information on engineering careers. JETS-Guidance, at 1420 King St., Suite 405, Alexandria, VA 22314, serves as a central distribution point for infor­ 5  mation from most of these organizations. To receive information, write JETS-Guidance for an order form. Enclose a stamped, selfaddressed business-size envelope to obtain the order form. Societies representing many of the individual branches of engi­ neering are listed in this chapter. Each can provide information about careers in the particular branch.  Aerospace Engineers  Since a large proportion of aerospace engineering jobs are defense related, unexpected cancellation of a defense contract can result in layoffs of aerospace engineers. Sources of Additional Information For information on aerospace careers, send $3 to: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., AIAA Student Programs, The Aerospace Center, 370 L’Enfant Promenade SW„ Washington, DC 20024.  (See introductory section of this chapter for information on train­ ing requirements and earnings.)  (D.O.T. 002.061 and .167)  Nature of the Work Aerospace engineers design, develop, test, and help manufacture commercial and military aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft. They develop new technologies in commercial aviation, defense systems, and space exploration, often specializing in areas like structural design, guidance, navigation and control, instrumentation and com­ munication, or production methods. They also may specialize in one type of aerospace product, such as commercial transports, heli­ copters, spacecraft, or rockets. Aerospace engineers may be experts in aerodynamics, propulsion, thermodynamics, structures, celestial mechanics, acoustics, or guidance and control systems. Employment Aerospace engineers held about 73,000 jobs in 1990. Two-thirds were in the aircraft and parts and guided missile and space vehicle manufacturing industries. Federal Government agencies, primarily the Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, provided over 1 out of 10 jobs. Business and engi­ neering consulting firms and communications equipment manufactur­ ing firms accounted for most of the remainder. California, Washington, and Texas, States with large aerospace manufacturers, have the most aerospace engineers. Job Outlook Employment of aerospace engineers is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Although Defense Department expenditures for military aircraft, missiles, and other aerospace systems are expected to decline, faster growth is expected in the civilian sector. Much of the present fleet of airliners will be replaced with quieter and more fuel-efficient aircraft, and there will be increased demand for spacecraft, helicopters, and busi­ ness aircraft. Future growth of aerospace engineer employment could be limited because a higher proportion of engineers in aerospace manufacturing may be materials, mechanical, or electrical engineers. Most job openings will result from the need to replace aerospace engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force.  Chemical Engineers (D.O.T. 008.061 except .030)  Nature of the Work Chemical engineers apply the principles of chemistry and engineer­ ing to solve problems. Many work in the production of chemicals and chemical products. They design equipment and develop process­ es for manufacturing chemicals in chemical plants, plan and test methods of manufacturing the products, and supervise production. Chemical engineers also work in industries other than chemical man­ ufacturing such as electronics or aircraft manufacturing. Because the knowledge and duties of chemical engineers cut across many fields, they apply principles of chemistry, physics, mathematics, and mechanical and electrical engineering in their work. They frequently specialize in a particular operation such as oxidation or polymeriza­ tion. Others specialize in a particular area such as pollution control or the production of a specific product like automotive plastics or chlorine bleach. Employment Chemical engineers held over 48,000 jobs in 1990. Seventy percent were in manufacturing industries, primarily in the chemical, petroleum refining, and related industries. Most of the rest worked for engineering services or consulting firms that design chemical plants or do other work on a contract basis, or worked for government agen­ cies or as independent consultants. Job Outlook Employment of chemical engineers is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. This reflects little, if any, growth in the chemical manufacturing industry, where many chemical engineers are employed. Most openings, how­ ever, will result from the need to replace chemical engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force.  4m,,  Aerospace engineers design, build, and test components for air- and spacecraft. 6  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Chemical engineers monitor control boards at chemical plants,  Areas relating to the production of industrial chemicals, biotech­ nology, and materials science may provide better opportunities than other portions of the chemical industry. However, much of the pro­ jected growth in employment will be in nonmanufacturing industries, especially service industries. Sources of Additional Information American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 345 East 47th St., New York, NY 10017. American Chemical Society, Career Services, 1155 16th St. NW., Washing­ ton, DC 20036.  (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements and earnings.)  Civil Engineers (D.O.T. 005.061, .167-014 and -018; and 019.167-018)  Nature of the Work Civil engineers, who work in the oldest branch of engineering, design and supervise the construction of roads, airports, tunnels, bridges, water supply and sewage systems, and buildings. Major specialties within civil engineering are structural, water resources, environmen­ tal, construction, transportation, and geotechnical engineering. Many civil engineers hold supervisory or administrative positions, ranging from supervisor of a construction site to city engineer. Others may work in design, construction, research, and teaching. Employment Civil engineers held about 198,000 jobs in 1990. Over 40 percent of the jobs were in Federal, State, and local government agencies. Over one-third were in firms that provide engineering consulting services, primarily developing designs for new construction projects. The con­ struction industry, public utilities, transportation, and manufacturing industries accounted for most of the rest. Civil engineers usually are found working near major industrial and commercial centers, often at construction sites. Some projects are situated in remote areas or in foreign countries. In some jobs, civil engineers move from place to place to work on different projects.  Job Outlook Employment of civil engineers is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Most job open­ ings, however, will result from the need to replace civil engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. A growing population and an expanding economy will create opportunities for more civil engineers to design and construct higher capacity transportation, water supply, and pollution control systems, large buildings, and other structures. More civil engineers also will be needed to repair or replace existing roads, bridges, and other public structures. Because construction and related industries—including those pro­ viding design services—employ many civil engineers, employment opportunities will vary by geographic area and may decrease during economic slowdowns, when construction often is curtailed. Sources of Additional Information »■ American Society of Civil Engineers, 345 E. 47th St., New York, NY 10017.  (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements and earnings.)  Electrical and Electronics Engineers (D.O.T. 003.061, .167 except -034, -062, and -070, and .187)  Nature of the Work Electrical and electronics engineers design, develop, test, and super­ vise the manufacture of electrical and electronic equipment. Electri­ cal equipment includes power generating and transmission equipment used by electric utilities, and electric motors, machinery controls, and lighting and wiring in buildings, automobiles, and aircraft. Electronic equipment includes radar, computer hardware, and communications and video equipment. The specialties of electrical and electronics engineers include sev­ eral major areas—such as power generation, transmission, and distri­ bution; communications; computer electronics; and electrical equipment manufacturing—or a subdivision of these areas—industri­ al robot control systems or aviation electronics, for example. Electri­ cal and electronics engineers design new products, write performance requirements, and develop maintenance schedules. They also test equipment, solve operating problems, and estimate the time and cost of engineering projects. Employment Electrical and electronics engineers held about 426,000 jobs in 1990, making it the largest branch of engineering. Most jobs were in firms that manufacture electrical and electronic equipment, business machines, professional and scientific equipment, and aircraft and parts. Computer and data processing services firms, engineering and business consulting firms, public utilities, and government agencies accounted for most of the remaining jobs.  Civil engineers review the progress of construction projects.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Job Outlook Employment opportunities for electrical and electronics engineers are expected to be good through the year 2005 because employment is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations. The majority of job openings will result from the need to replace electri­ cal and electronics engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Increased demand by businesses and government for computers and communications equipment is expected to account for much of the projected employment growth. Consumer demand for electrical and electronic goods and increased research and development on computers, robots, and other types of automation should create addi­ tional jobs. Since many electrical engineering jobs are defense related, expect­ ed cutbacks in defense spending could result in layoffs of electrical 7  openings, however, will result from the need to replace industrial engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Industrial growth, more complex business operations, and the greater use of automation in factories and in offices underlie the pro­ jected employment growth. Jobs also will be created as firms seek to reduce costs and increase productivity through scientific management and safety engineering. Vr*. ■  , /!%  Sources of Additional Information Institute of Industrial Engineers, Inc., 25 Technology Park/Atlanta, Norcross, GA 30092.  (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements and earnings.)  Mechanical Engineers Electrical engineers design circuits. engineers, especially if a defense-related project or contract is unex­ pectedly cancelled. Furthermore, engineers who fail to keep up with the rapid changes in technology in some specialties risk technological obsolescence, which makes them more susceptible to layoffs or, at a minimum, likely to be passed over for advancement. Sources of Additional Information «■ Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers/United States Activities Board, 1828 L St. NW., Suite 1202, Washington, DC 20036-5104.  (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements and earnings.)  Industrial Engineers (D.O.T. 005.167-026; 012.061 -018, .067, .167 except -022, -026, -034, -058, -062, and -066, and .187)  Nature of the Work Industrial engineers determine the most effective ways for an organi­ zation to use the basic factors of production—people, machines, materials, information, and energy. They are the bridge between man­ agement and operations. They are more concerned with increasing productivity through the management of people and methods of busi­ ness organization than are engineers in other specialties, who general­ ly work more with products or processes. To solve organizational, production, and related problems most efficiently, industrial engineers design data processing systems and use mathematical analysis methods such as operations research. They develop management control systems to aid in financial planning and cost analysis, design production planning and control systems to coordinate activities and control product quality, and design or improve systems for the physical distribution of goods and services. Industrial engineers conduct surveys to find plant locations with the best combination of raw materials, transportation, and taxes. They also develop wage and salary administration systems and job evalua­ tion programs. Many industrial engineers move into management positions because the work is closely related.  (D.O.T. 007.061, .161-022, -034, and -038, and .267)  Nature of the Work Mechanical engineers are concerned with the production, transmis­ sion, and use of mechanical power and heat. They design and develop power-producing machines such as internal combustion engines, steam and gas turbines, and jet and rocket engines. They also design and develop power-using machines such as refrigeration and air-con­ ditioning equipment, robots, machine tools, materials handling sys­ tems, and industrial production equipment. The work of mechanical engineers varies by industry and function. Specialties include, among others, applied mechanics, design engi­ neering, heat transfer, powerplant engineering, pressure vessels and piping, and underwater technology. Mechanical engineers design tools needed by other engineers for their work. Mechanical engineering is the broadest engineering discipline, extending across many interdependent specialties. Some mechanical engineers work in production operations, maintenance, and technical sales. Many are administrators or managers. Employment Mechanical engineers held about 233,000 jobs in 1990. Over 3 out of 5 jobs were in manufacturing—of these, most were in the machinery,  Employment Industrial engineers held about 135,000 jobs in 1990; about 75 per­ cent of jobs were in manufacturing industries. Because their skills can be used in almost any type of organization, industrial engineers are more widely distributed among industries than other engineers. For example, some work for insurance companies, banks, hospitals, and retail organizations. Others work for government agencies or are independent consultants. Job Outlook Employment of industrial engineers is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Most job 8  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Industrial engineers monitor work flow to find ways of improving productivity.  Mechanical engineers test machine components for reaction to stress.  Materials engineers search for flaws in newly designed composite materials.  transportation equipment, electrical equipment, instruments, and fab­ ricated metal products industries. Business and engineering consult­ ing services and government agencies provided most of the remaining jobs.  their processing. Ceramic engineers work on products as diverse as glassware, semiconductors, automobile and aircraft engine compo­ nents, fiber-optic phone lines, tile, and electric powerline insulators. Materials engineers evaluate technical requirements and material specifications to develop materials that can be used, for example, to reduce the weight, but not the strength of an object. Materials engi­ neers also test and evaluate materials and develop new materials, such as the composite materials now being used in “stealth” aircraft.  Job Outlook Employment of mechanical engineers is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005 as the demand for machinery and machine tools grows and industrial machinery and processes become increasingly complex. Despite this expected employment growth, however, most job openings will result from the need to replace mechanical engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Since many mechanical engineering jobs are in defense related industries, reductions in defense spending could result in layoffs in these industries. Sources of Additional Information »• The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 345 E. 47th St., New York, NY 10017. »• American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engi­ neers, Inc., 1791 Tullie Circle NE., Atlanta, GA 30329.  (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements and earnings.)  Metallurgical, Ceramic, and Materials Engineers (D.O.T. 006.061; 011.061 and .261-018; and 019.061-014)  Nature of the Work Metallurgical, ceramic, and materials engineers develop new types of metals, ceramics, composites, and other materials which meet special requirements. Examples are graphite golf club shafts that are light but stiff, ceramic tiles on the space shuttle that protect it during reentry, and the alloy turbine blades in a jet. Most metallurgical engineers work in one of the three main branches of metallurgy—extractive or chemical, physical, and mechanical or process. Extractive metallurgists are concerned with removing metals from ores and refining and alloying them to obtain useful metal. Physical metallurgists study the nature, structure, and physical properties of metals and their alloys, and methods of con­ verting refined metals into final products. Mechanical metallurgists develop and improve metalworking processes such as casting, forg­ ing, rolling, and drawing. Ceramic engineers develop new ceramic materials and methods for making ceramic materials into useful products. Ceramics include all nonmetallic, inorganic materials which require high temperatures in  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Employment Metallurgical, ceramic, and materials engineers held over 18,000 jobs in 1990. About one-quarter worked in metal-producing industries. They also worked in industries that manufacture aircraft and parts, machinery, and electrical equipment, and in business and engineering consulting firms and government agencies. Job Outlook Employment of metallurgical, ceramic, and materials engineers is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Most job openings, however, will result from the need to replace engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. More metallurgical, ceramic, and materials engineers will be need­ ed by the metalworking and other industries to develop new metals, alloys, and materials, as well as to develop new applications for exist­ ing materials. As the supply of high-grade ores diminishes, more met­ allurgical engineers will be required to develop new ways of recycling solid waste materials and processing low-grade ores now regarded as unprofitable to mine. More ceramic and materials engineers will be needed to develop improved materials and products, for example, ceramic automobile engines, which are more fuel efficient than metal engines. Sources of Additional Information The Minerals, Metals, & Materials Foundation, 420 Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale, PA 15086. ASM International, Metals Park, OH 44073.  (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements and earnings.)  Mining Engineers (D.O.T. 010.061 except -018)  Nature of the Work Mining engineers find, extract, and prepare minerals for manufactur­ ing industries to use. They design open pit and underground mines, supervise the construction of mine shafts and tunnels in underground 9  Mining engineers examine the quality of coal deposits.  Nuclear engineers review the design of nuclear power plan ts.  operations, and devise methods for transporting minerals to process­ ing plants. Mining engineers are responsible for the safe, economical, and environmentally sound operation of mines. Some mining engi­ neers work with geologists and metallurgical engineers to locate and appraise new ore deposits. Others develop new mining equipment or direct mineral processing operations to separate minerals from the dirt, rock, and other materials they are mixed with. Mining engineers frequently specialize in the mining of one mineral, such as coal or gold. With increased emphasis on protecting the environment, many mining engineers have been working to solve problems related to land reclamation and water and air pollution.  Sources of Additional Information  Employment Mining enginers held about 4,200 jobs in 1990. Over half worked in the mining industry. Other jobs were located in engineering consult­ ing firms, government agencies, or in manufacturing industries. Mining engineers are usually employed at the location of mineral deposits, often near small communities. However, those in research and development, management, consulting, or sales often are located in metropolitan areas. Job Outlook Little change is expected in the employment of mining engineers through the year 2005 due to expected low growth in demand for coal, metals, and other minerals. Most job openings will result from the need to replace the large proportion of mining engineers who transfer to other occupations each year. In the mid-1980’s, mining engineers experienced poor employment opportunities because low prices for oil and metals reduced prof­ itability in coal, metal, and other mining. However, the prices of these commodities, metals in particular, have increased to a level sufficient to increase output and employment opportunities. Increased demand for coal and, consequently, for mining engineers in the coal industry will depend, to a great extent, on the availability and price of other energy sources such as petroleum, natural gas, and nuclear energy as well as the price of coal in other countries. More technologically advanced mining systems and further enforcement of mine health and safety regulations may also increase the need for mining engineers. As easily mined deposits are depleted, engineers must devise more efficient methods for mining and processing low-grade ores. Employ­ ment opportunities also may rise as new alloys and new uses for min­ erals and metals increase the demand for less widely used ores. 10   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  »• The Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc., P.O. Box 625002, Littleton, CO 80162-5002.  (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements and earnings.)  Nuclear Engineers (D.O.T. 008.061-030; 015.061, .067, .137, and .167)  Nature of the Work Nuclear engineers conduct research on nuclear energy and radiation. They design, develop, monitor, and operate nuclear power plants used to generate electricity and power Navy ships. For example, they may work on the nuclear fuel cycle—the production, handling, and use of nuclear fuel and the safe disposal of waste produced by nuclear energy—or on fusion energy. Some specialize in the development of nuclear weapons; others develop industrial and medical uses for radioactive materials such as equipment to help diagnose and treat medical problems. Employment Nuclear engineers held about 18,000 jobs in 1990; one-fifth were in the Federal Government. Nearly half of all federally employed nucle­ ar engineers were civilian employees of the Navy, about one-third worked for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and most of the rest worked for the Department of Energy or the Tennessee Valley Authority. Most nonfederally employed nuclear engineers worked for public utilities or engineering consulting companies. Some worked for defense manufacturers or manufacturers of nuclear power equip­ ment. Job Outlook Employment of nuclear engineers is expected to change little through the year 2005. Almost all job openings will result from the need to replace nuclear engineers who retire or leave the occupation. Despite the expected absence of growth, there are expected to be good oppor­ tunities for nuclear engineers because the number of new graduates with degrees in nuclear engineering is small and has been declining  recently. Some with degrees in physics may also find employment as nuclear engineers. Because of concerns over the safety of nuclear power, few or no nuclear powerplants are likely to be started before the year 2005. However, nuclear engineers will be needed to operate plants present­ ly under construction. In addition, nuclear engineers will be needed to work in defense-related areas and to improve and enforce safety stan­ dards. Sources of Additional Information American Nuclear Society, 555 North Kensington Ave., LaGrange Park, IL 60525.  (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements and earnings.)  Job Outlook Employment of petroleum engineers is expected to change little through the year 2005. Because of low oil prices in the 1980s, domes­ tic petroleum companies sharply curtailed exploration and production activities, resulting in poor employment opportunities for petroleum engineering graduates. In the long run, however, it appears likely that the price of oil will increase to a level sufficient to increase explo­ ration and production, which would imply excellent employment prospects for petroleum engineers since the number of degrees recently granted in petroleum engineering has been very low. Despite this expected employment growth, most job openings will result from the need to replace petroleum engineers who transfer to other occupa­ tions or leave the labor force. Sources of Additional Information *•“ Society of Petroleum Engineers, P.O. Box 853836, Richardson, TX 75083­ 3836.  Petroleum Engineers  (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements and earnings.)  (D.O.T. 010.061 except -014 and -026, .161-010, and .167-010 and -014)  Nature of the Work Petroleum engineers explore for and produce oil and natural gas. If a workable reservoir containing oil or natural gas is discovered, petroleum engineers work to achieve the maximum profitable recov­ ery from the reservoir by determining and developing the most effi­ cient production methods. Since only a small proportion of the oil and gas in a reservoir will flow out under natural forces, petroleum engineers develop and use various enhanced recovery methods. These include injecting water, chemicals, or steam into a reservior to force more of the oil out, and horizontal drilling or fracturing to connect more of a reservior to a well. Since even the best methods in use today recover only about half the oil in a reservoir, petroleum engineers work to find ways to increase this proportion. Employment Petroleum engineers held over 17,000 jobs in 1990, mostly in the petroleum industry and closely allied fields. Employers include major oil companies and hundreds of smaller, independent oil exploration, production, and service companies. Engineering consulting firms, government agencies, oil field services, and equipment suppliers also employ petroleum engineers. Others work as independent consultants. Because petroleum engineers specialize in the discovery and pro­ duction of oil and gas, relatively few are employed in the refining, transportation, and retail sectors of the oil and gas industry. Most petroleum engineers work where oil and gas are found. Large numbers are employed in Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and Califor­ nia, including offshore sites. Also, many American petroleum engi­ neers work overseas in oil-producing countries.  Hm wi- te.'I#'-"-  Petroleum engineers interpret seismic recordings in the search for oil.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Agricultural Scientists (D.O.T. 040.061-010, -014, -018, -038, -042, and -058; 041.061-014, -018, -046, and -082; and 041.081)  Nature of the Work The work done by agricultural scientists has played an important part in the Nation’s sharply rising agricultural productivity. Agricultural scientists study farm crops and animals and develop ways of improv­ ing their quantity and quality. They look for ways to improve crop yield and quality with less labor, control pests and weeds more safely and effectively, and conserve soil and water. They research methods of converting raw agricultural commodities into attractive and healthy food products for consumers. Agricultural science is closely related to biological science, and agricultural scientists use the principles of biology, chemistry, and other sciences to solve problems in agriculture. They often work with biological scientists on basic biological research and in applying to agriculture the advances in knowledge brought about by biotechnology. Many agricultural scientists manage or administer research and development programs or manage marketing or production opera­ tions in companies that produce food products or agricultural chemi­ cals, supplies, and machinery. Many work in basic or applied research and development. Some agricultural scientists are consul­ tants to business firms, private clients, or to government. Depending on the area of specialization in which an agricultural scientist concentrates, the nature of the work performed varies. Food science. Food scientists or technologists are usually employed in the food processing industry and help meet consumer demand for food products that are healthful, safe, palatable, and convenient. To do this, they use their knowledge of chemistry, microbiology, and other sciences to develop new or better ways of preserving, process­ ing, packaging, storing, and delivering foods. Some engage in basic research, discovering new food sources; analyzing food content to determine levels of vitamins, fat, sugar, or protein; or searching for substitutes for harmful or undesirable additives, such as nitrites or sugar. Many food technologists work in product development. Others enforce government regulations, inspecting food processing areas and ensuring that sanitation, safety, quality, and waste management stan­ dards are met. Plant science. Another important area of agricultural science is plant science, which includes the disciplines of agronomy, crop science, and soil science. These scientists study plants and soils, helping pro­ ducers of food, feed, and fiber crops to continue to feed a growing population while conserving natural resources. Agronomists and crop scientists not only help increase productivity, but also study ways to improve the nutritional value of crops and the quality of seed. Some 11  crop scientists study the breeding, physiology, and management of crops and use genetic engineering to develop crops which are resis­ tant to insects and drought. Soil science. Soil scientists study the chemical, physical, biological, and mineralogical composition of soils as they relate to plant or crop growth. They study the responses of various soil types to fertilizers, tillage practices, and crop rotation. Some soil scientists conduct soil surveys, classifying and mapping soils. They provide information and recommendations to farmers and other landowners regarding the best use of land and how to avoid or correct problems such as erosion. Animal science. Animal scientists work to develop better and more efficient ways of producing and processing meat, poultry, eggs, and milk. Dairy scientists, poultry scientists, animal breeders, and other related scientists study the genetics, nutrition, reproduction, growth, and development of domestic farm animals. Some animal scientists inspect and grade livestock food products, purchase livestock, or work in technical sales or marketing. As extension agents or consul­ tants, animal scientists advise agricultural producers on how to prop­ erly upgrade animal housing facilities, lower mortality rates, or increase milk or egg production. Working Conditions Agricultural scientists generally work regular hours in offices and laboratories. Some spend much time outdoors conducting research on farms or agricultural research stations. Employment Agricultural scientists held about 25,000 jobs in 1990. In addition, several thousand persons held agricultural science faculty positions in  IfV AS'*'- * P  1  'K’Vm  i  Agricultural scientists play an important role in increasing the Nation’s agricultural productivity. 12  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  colleges and universities. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Over two-fifths of all nonfaculty agricultural scientists work for Federal, State, or local governments. Over 3 out of 10 worked for the Federal Government in 1990, mostly in the Department of Agricul­ ture. In addition, large numbers worked for State governments at State agricultural colleges or agricultural research stations. Some worked for agricultural service companies; others worked for com­ mercial research and development laboratories, seed companies, pharmaceutical companies, wholesale distributors, and food products companies. About 3,000 agricultural scientists were self-employed in 1990, mainly as consultants. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Training requirements for agricultural scientists depend on the spe­ cialty and the type of work performed. A bachelor’s degree in agri­ cultural science is sufficient for some jobs in applied research or in assisting in basic research, while a master’s or doctoral degree is required for basic research. A Ph.D. degree in agricultural science is usually needed for college teaching and for advancement to adminis­ trative research positions. Degrees in related sciences such as biolo­ gy, chemistry, or physics or in related engineering specialties also may be acceptable for some agricultural science jobs. All States have at least one land-grant college which offers agricul­ tural science degrees. Many other colleges and universities also offer agricultural science degrees or some agricultural science courses. However, not every school offers all specialties. A typical undergrad­ uate agricultural science curriculum includes communications, eco­ nomics, business, and physical and life sciences courses, in addition to technical agricultural science courses. Advanced degree programs include classroom and fieldwork, laboratory research, and a thesis based on independent research. Agricultural scientists should be able to work independently or as part of a team and be able to communicate clearly and concisely, both orally and in writing. Most agricultural scientists also need an under­ standing of basic business principles. Agricultural scientists who have advanced degrees usually begin in research or teaching. With experience, they may advance to jobs such as supervisors of research programs or managers of other agriculturerelated activities. Job Outlook Employment opportunities for agricultural scientists are expected to be good through the year 2005 because enrollments in agricultural science curriculums have dropped considerably over the past few years and because employment is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations. Although jobs should be available in most major subfields of agricultural science, animal and plant scien­ tists with a background in molecular biology, microbiology, genetics, or biotechnology, soil scientists with an interest in the environment, and food technologists may experience the best opportunities. In addition to jobs arising from growth in demand for agricultural scien­ tists, many openings will occur as workers transfer to other occupa­ tions or leave the labor force. Unlike private industry, employment in Federal agencies is not expected to grow much because of budget restraints. Employment opportunities as an agricultural scientist are more limited for those with only a bachelor’s degree. However, a bache­ lor’s degree in agricultural science is useful for managerial jobs in businesses that deal with ranchers and farmers such as feed, fertilizer, seed, and farm equipment manufacturers, retailers or wholesalers, and farm credit institutions or for occupations such as farmer or farm manager, cooperative extension service agent, agricultural products inspector, technician, landscape architect, or purchasing or sales agent for agricultural commodities or farm supplies. Many agricultur­ al scientists with a bachelor’s degree may also find work in applied research and product development. Earnings According to the College Placement Council, beginning salary offers in 1990 for graduates with a bachelor’s degree in animal science  averaged $19,719 a year, and for graduates in plant science, $21,176. Average Federal salaries for employees in certain agricultural sci­ ence specialties in 1991 were as follows: Animal science, $48,827; agronomy, $42,234; soil science, $39,216; horticulture, $40,520; entomology, $49,475. Related Occupations The work of agricultural scientists is closely related to that of biolo­ gists and other natural scientists such as chemists and physicists. It is also related to agricultural production occupations such as farmer and farm manager and cooperative extension service agent as well as to the work of foresters and conservation scientists. Certain specialties of agricultural science are also related to other occupations. For example, the work of animal scientists is related to that of veterinari­ ans; horticulturists, to landscape architects; and soil scientists, to soil conservationists. Source of Additional Information Information on careers in agricultural science is available from: Office of Higher Education Programs, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Room 350A, Administration Bldg., 14th St. and Independence Ave. SW., Washington, DC 20250. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America, 677 S. Segoe Rd., Madison, WI 53711. Food and Agricultural Careers for Tomorrow, Purdue University, 127 Agri­ cultural Administration Bldg., West Lafayette, IN 47907.  For information on careers in food technology, write to: »■ Institute of Food Technologists, Suite 300, 221 N. LaSalle St., Chicago IL 60601.  For information on careers in soil science in the Federal Govern­ ment, write to: Soil Conservation Service, 14th St. and Independence Ave. SW., Washing­ ton, DC 20013.  Information on Federal job opportunities is available from local offices of State employment security agencies or offices of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management, located in major metropolitan areas.  Biological Scientists (D.O.T. 022.081-010; 041.061, except -010, -014, -018, -046, -054, -070, -074, and -082)  Nature of the Work Biological scientists study living organisms and their relationship to their environment. Most specialize in some area of biology such as ornithology (the study of birds) or microbiology (the study of micro­ scopic organisms). About two-fifths of all biological scientists work in research and development. Some conduct basic research to increase knowledge of living organisms. Others, in applied research, use knowledge provided by basic research to develop new medicines, increase crop yields, and improve the environment. Biological scientists may work in laborato­ ries and use laboratory animals or greenhouse plants, electron micro­ scopes, computers, electronic instruments, or a wide variety of other equipment to conduct their research. A good deal of research, howev­ er, is performed outside of laboratories. For example, a botanist may do research in tropical rain forests to see what plants grow there, or an ecologist may study how a forest area recovers after a fire. Other biological scientists work in management or administration. They may plan and administer programs for testing foods and drugs, for example, or direct activities at zoos or botanical gardens. Some work as consultants to business firms or to government, while others test and inspect foods, drugs, and other products or write for technical publications. Some work in sales and service jobs for companies manufacturing chemicals or other technical products. (See the state­ ment on manufacturers’ and wholesale sales representatives else­ where in the Handbook.) Advances in basic biological knowledge, especially at the genetic level, have given rise to the new field of biotechnology. Biologists  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  using this rapidly developing technology recombine the genetic material of animals or plants, making organisms more productive or disease resistant. The first application of this technology has been in the medical and pharmaceutical area. For example, the human gene that codes for the production of insulin has been inserted into bacte­ ria, causing them to produce human insulin. This insulin, used by diabetics, is much purer than insulin from animals, the only previous source. Many other substances not previously available in large quantities are starting to be produced by biotechnological means; some may be useful in treating cancer and other diseases. Advances in biotechnology have opened up research opportunities in almost all areas of biology, including commercial applications in agricul­ ture and the food and chemical industries. Most biological scientists who come under the broad category of biologist are further classified by the type of organism they study or by the specific activity they perform, although recent advances in the understanding of basic life processes at the molecular and cellu­ lar level have blurred some traditional classifications. Aquatic biologists study plants and animals living in water. Marine biologists study salt water organisms and limnologists study fresh water organisms. Marine biologists are sometimes called oceanographers, but oceanography usually refers to the study of the physical characteristics of oceans and the ocean floor. (See the state­ ment on geologists and geophysicists elsewhere in the Handbook.) Biochemists study the chemical composition of living things. They try to understand the complex chemical combinations and reactions involved in metabolism, reproduction, growth, and heredi­ ty. Much of the work in biotechnology is done by biochemists because this technology involves understanding the complex chem­ istry of life. Botanists study plants and their environment. Some study all aspects of plant life; others specialize in areas such as identification and classification of plants, the structure and function of plant parts, the biochemistry of plant processes, or the causes and cures of plant diseases. Microbiologists investigate the growth and characteristics of microscopic organisms such as bacteria, algae, and fungi. Medical microbiologists study the relationship between organisms and dis­ ease or the effect of antibiotics on microorganisms. Other microbiol­ ogists may specialize in environmental, food, agricultural, or industrial microbiology, virology (the study of viruses), or immunol­ ogy (the study of mechanisms that fight infections). Many microbi­ ologists are using biotechnology to advance knowledge of cell reproduction and human disease. Physiologists study life functions of plants and animals, both in the whole organism and at the cellular or molecular level, under normal and abnormal conditions. Physiologists may specialize in functions such as growth, reproduction, photosynthesis, respiration, or move­ ment, or in the physiology of a certain area or system of the body. Zoologists study animals—their origin, behavior, diseases, and life processes. Some experiments are with live animals in controlled or natural surroundings while others involve dissecting dead animals to study their structure. Zoologists are usually identified by the ani­ mal group studied—ornithologists (birds), mammalogists (mam­ mals), herpetologists (reptiles), and ichthyologists (fish). Ecologists study the relationship among organisms and between organisms and their environments and the effects of influences such as population size, pollutants, rainfall, temperature, and altitude on organisms. Agricultural scientists, who may also be classified as biological scientists, are included in a separate statement elsewhere in the Handbook. Working Conditions Biological scientists generally work regular hours in offices, labora­ tories, or classrooms and usually are not exposed to unsafe or unhealthy conditions. However, some work with dangerous organ­ isms or toxic substances in the laboratory. They could be exposed if safety procedures are not followed. Many biological scientists such as botanists, ecologists, and zoologists take field trips which involve strenuous physical activity and primitive living conditions. 13  Employment Biological scientists held about 62,000 jobs in 1990. In addition, about half as many held biology faculty positions in colleges and uni­ versities. (See the statement on college and university faculty else­ where in the Handbook.) About 40 percent of nonfaculty biological scientists were employed by Federal, State, and local governments. Federal biologi­ cal scientists worked mainly in the Departments of Agriculture, Inte­ rior, and Defense, and in the National Institutes of Health. Most of the rest worked in the pharmaceutical industry, hospitals, offices of physicians, or research and testing laboratories. A few were selfemployed. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement The Ph.D. degree generally is required for college teaching, indepen­ dent research, and for advancement to administrative positions. A master’s degree is sufficient for some jobs in applied research and for jobs in management, inspection, sales, and service. The bachelor’s degree is adequate for some nonresearch jobs. Some graduates with a bachelor’s degree start as biological scientists in testing and inspec­ tion, or get jobs related to biological science such as technical sales or service representatives. In some cases, graduates with a bachelor’s degree are able to work in a laboratory environment on their own pro­ jects, but this is unusual. Some may work as research assistants. Oth­ ers become biological technicians, medical laboratory technologists or, with courses in education, high school biology teachers. (See the statements on clinical laboratory technologists and technicians, sci­ ence technicians, and secondary school teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Many with a bachelor’s degree in biology enter medical, dental, veterinary, or other health profession schools. Some enter a wide range of occupations with little or no connection to biology. Most colleges and universities offer bachelor’s degrees in biologi­ cal science and many offer advanced degrees. Curriculums for advanced degrees often emphasize a subfield such as microbiology or botany but not all universities offer all curriculums. Advanced degree programs include classroom and field work, laboratory research, and a thesis or dissertation. Biological scientists who have advanced degrees usually begin in research or teaching. With experience, they may become managers or administrators within biology; others leave biology for nontechnical managerial, administrative, and sales jobs. Biological scientists should be able to work independently or as part of a team and be able to communicate clearly and concisely, both orally and in writing. Those doing field research in remote areas must have physical stamina. Job Outlook Employment of biological scientists is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Most growth will be in private industry. Biological scientists will continue to conduct genetic and biotechnical research and help develop and produce products developed by new biological methods. In addition,  efforts to clean up and preserve the environment will continue to add to growth, especially for those with a bachelor’s or a master’s degree. More biological scientists will be needed to determine the environ­ mental impact of industry and government actions and to correct past environmental problems. Anticipated increases in health-related research should also result in growth. Because of budget cuts, employment of biologists is expected to grow slowly in the Federal Government. In addition to jobs arising from growth in demand for biologists, openings will occur as biological scientists transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Because a large number of biological science college and university faculty are expected to retire in the next 10 years, many more positions will open up in academia. Many persons with a bachelor’s degree in biological science find jobs as science or engineering technicians or health technologists and technicians. Some become high school biology teachers. However, they are usually regarded as teachers rather than biologists. Those with a doctorate in biological science may become college and uni­ versity faculty. (See statements on science and engineering techni­ cians, health technologists and technicians, high school teachers, and college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Biological scientists are less likely to lose their jobs during reces­ sions than those in many other occupations since most are employed on long-term research projects or in agricultural research. However, a recession could influence the amount of money allocated to new research and development efforts, particularly in areas of risky or innovative research. A recession could also limit the possibility of extension or renewal of existing projects. Earnings Median annual earnings for biological and life scientists were about $31,300 in 1990; the middle 50 percent earned between $20,700 and $45,200. Ten percent earned less than $13,100, and 10 percent earned over $55,600. According to the College Placement Council, begin­ ning salary offers in private industry in 1990 averaged $21,800 a year for bachelor’s degree recipients in biological science. In the Federal Government in 1991, general biological scientists earned an average salary of $41,754; microbiologists averaged $44,518; ecologists, $42,795; physiologists, $50,097; and geneticists, $50,949. Related Occupations Many other occupations deal with living organisms and require a level of training similar to that of biological scientists. These include the conservation occupations of forester, range manager, and soil con­ servationist; animal breeders, horticulturists, soil scientists, and most other agricultural scientists; and life science technicians. Many health occupations are also related to those in the biological sciences, such as medical scientists, medical doctors, dentists, and veterinarians. Sources of Additional Information General information on careers in biological science is available from: American Institute of Biological Sciences, Office of Career Service, 730 11th St. NW, Washington, DC 20001-4521.  For information on careers in animal biology, contact: American Society of Zoologists, 104 Sirius Circle, Thousand Oaks, CA 91360.  For information on careers in physiology, contact: w American Physiological Society, Membership Services Dept., 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20814.  For information on careers in biochemistry, contact: 'K  •" American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20814.  For information on careers in botany, contact: Dr. Harry Horner, Secretary, Botanical Society of America, Dept, of Botany, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1020.  For information on careers in microbiology, contact: American Society for Microbiology, Office of Public and Scientific Affairs. 1325 Massachusetts Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20005.  Many biological scientists work in laboratories, conducting basic or applied research. 14  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Information on Federal job opportunities is available from local offices of State employment services or offices of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management, located in major metropolitan areas.  Foresters and Conservation Scientists (D.O.T. 040.061-030, -034, -046, -050, -054, -062; 049.127)  Nature of the Work Forests and rangelands serve a variety of needs: They supply wood products, livestock forage, minerals, and water; serve as sites for recreational activities; and provide habitats for wildlife. Foresters and conservation scientists manage, develop, and help protect these and other natural resources. Foresters manage timberland, which involves a variety of duties. Those working in private industry may be responsible for procuring timber from private landowners. To do this, foresters make contact with local forest owners and gain permission to take inventory of the type, amount, and location of all standing timber on the property, a process known as timber cruising. Foresters then appraise the tim­ ber’s worth, negotiate the purchase of timber, and draw up a contract for procurement. Next, they subcontract with loggers or pulpwood cutters to remove the trees, aid in road layout, and maintain close contact with the subcontractor’s workers and the landowner to ensure that the work is performed to specifications. Forestry consultants often act as agents for the forest owner, performing the above duties and negotiating timber sales with industrial procurement foresters. Throughout the entire process, foresters consider not only the eco­ nomics of the purchase but the environmental impact on natural resources. They determine how best to preserve wildlife habitats, creek beds, water quality, and soil stability. They also comply with environmental regulations. Foresters also supervise the planting and growing of new trees. They choose and prepare the site, using controlled burning, bulldoz­ ers, or herbicides to clear weeds, brush, and logging debris. They advise on the type, number, and placement of trees to be planted. Foresters monitor the trees to ensure healthy growth and to determine the best time for harvesting. If foresters detect signs of disease or harmful insects, they decide on the best course of treatment to pre­ vent contamination or infestation of healthy trees. Foresters who work for State and Federal governments manage public parks and forests. They may also design campgrounds and recreation areas. Foresters use a number of tools to perform their jobs; Clinometers measure the heights, diameter tapes measure the diameter, and incre­ ment borers and bark gauges measure the growth of trees. Photogrammetry and remote sensing (aerial photographs taken from airplanes and satellites) are often used for mapping large forest areas and for detecting widespread trends of forest and land use. Comput­ ers are used extensively, both in the office and in the field, for the storage, retrieval, and analysis of information required to manage the forest land and its resources. Range managers, also called range conservationists, range ecolo­ gists, or range scientists, manage, improve, and protect rangelands to maximize their use without damaging the environment. Rangelands cover about 1 billion acres of the United States, mostly in the Western States and Alaska. They contain many natural resources, including grass and shrubs for animal grazing, wildlife habitats, water from vast watersheds, recreation facilities, and valuable mineral and energy resources. Range managers help ranchers attain optimum livestock production by determining the number and kind of animals to graze, the grazing system to use, and the best season for grazing. At the same time, however, they maintain soil stability and vegetation for other uses such as wildlife habitats and outdoor recreation. Soil conservationists provide technical assistance to farmers, ranchers, and others concerned with the conservation of soil, water, and related natural resources. They develop programs that are designed to get the most productive use of land without damaging it. Soil conservationists do most of their work in the field. Conservation­ ists visit areas with erosion problems, find the source of the problem, and help landowners and managers develop management practices to combat it.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Foresters and conservation scientists often specialize in one area of work, such as forest resource management, urban forestry, wood technology, or forest economics. Working Conditions Working conditions for foresters and conservation scientists vary considerably. Their image as solitary horseback riders singlehandedly protecting large areas of land far from civilization no longer holds true. Modem foresters and conservation scientists spend a great deal of time working with people. They deal regularly with landowners, loggers, forestry technicians and aides, farmers, ranchers, govern­ ment officials, special interest groups, and the public in general. Some work regular hours in offices or labs. The work can still be physically demanding, though. Many foresters and conservation scientists often work outdoors in all kinds of weather, sometimes in isolated areas. To get to these areas, they use airplanes, helicopters, four-wheel drive vehicles, and horses. It may be necessary for some foresters to walk long distances through densely wooded land in order to carry out their work. Foresters and conservation scientists also may work long hours fighting fires or in other emergencies. Employment Foresters and conservation scientists held about 29,000 jobs in 1990. About 44 percent of the salaried workers were in the Federal Govern­ ment, primarily in the Department of Agriculture’s Forest Service and Soil Conservation Service and in the Department of Interior’s Bureau of Land Management. The Forest Service alone employed over 5,000 foresters and 400 range conservationists in 1990. Another 26 percent worked for State governments, and 7 percent worked for local gov­ ernments. The remainder worked in private industry, mainly in the forestry industry. Other significant employers included logging and lumber companies and sawmills. Some were self-employed as con­ sultants, primarily for private landowners, but also for State and Fed­ eral governments and forestry-related businesses. Most soil conservationists work for the Department of Agricul­ ture’s Soil Conservation Service. Others are employed by State and local governments in their soil conservation districts. Although foresters and conservation scientists work in every State, employment is concentrated in the Western and Southeastern States, where many national and private forests and parks are locat-  6, H  Foresters use a variety of instruments to measure the amount of standing timber. 15  ed, and where most of the lumber and pulpwood-producing forests are located. Range managers work almost entirely in the Western States, where most of the rangeland is located. Soil conservationis ts, on the other hand, are employed in almost every county in the country. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree in forestry is the minimum educational require­ ment for professional careers in forestry. In the Federal Govern­ ment, a combination of experience and appropriate education can occasionally be substituted for a 4-year forestry degree, but keen job competition makes this difficult. Some States have licensing or registration requirements which a forester must meet in order to acquire the title “professional forester.” Becoming licensed or registered usually requires a 4-year degree in forestry, a minimum period of training time, and passing a registration exam. Foresters who wish to perform specialized research or teach should have an advanced degree, preferably a Ph.D. In 1991, 55 colleges and universities offered bachelor’s or higher degrees in forestry; 45 of these were accredited by the Society of American Foresters. Curriculums stress science, mathematics, com­ munications skills, and computer science, as well as technical forestry subjects. Courses in forest economics and business admin­ istration supplement the student’s scientific and technical knowl­ edge. Many colleges require students to complete a field session in a camp operated by the college. All schools encourage students to take summer jobs that provide experience in forestry or conserva­ tion work. A bachelor’s degree in range management or range science is the usual minimum educational requirement for range managers, while graduate degrees generally are required for teaching and research positions. In 1990, 35 colleges and universities offered degrees in range management or range science. A number of other schools offered some courses in range management. Specialized range man­ agement courses combine plant, animal, and soil sciences with prin­ ciples of ecology and resource management. Desirable electives include economics, forestry, hydrology, agronomy, wildlife, animal husbandry, computer science, and recreation. Very few colleges and universities offer degrees in soil conserva­ tion. Most soil conservationists have degrees in agronomy, general agriculture, or crop or soil science; a few have degrees in related fields such as wildlife biology, forestry, and range management. Programs of study generally include 30 semester hours in natural resources or agriculture, including at least 3 hours in soil science. In addition to meeting the demands of forestry and conservation research and analysis, foresters and conservation scientists must enjoy working outdoors, be physically hardy, and be willing to move to where the jobs are. They must also be able to work well with people and have good communications skills. Decisiveness, firmness, and tact are important in disputes involving rights and uses of land and other natural resources. Recent forestry and range management graduates usually work under the supervision of experienced foresters or range managers. After gaining experience, they may advance to more responsible positions. In the Federal Government, most entry level foresters work in forest resource management. An experienced Federal forester may supervise a ranger district, and may advance to region­ al forest supervisor or to a top administrative position. In private industry, foresters start by learning the practical and administrative aspects of the business and acquiring comprehensive technical train­ ing. They are then introduced to contract writing, timber harvesting, and decisionmaking. Many foresters work their way up to top man­ agerial positions within their companies. Foresters in management usually leave the fieldwork behind, spending more of their time in an office, doing paperwork and supervising others. Soil conservationists usually begin working within one county or conservation district and with experience may advance to the area, State, regional, or national level. Also, soil conservationists can transfer to related occupations such as farm or ranch management advisor or land appraiser. 16  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Job Outlook Employment of foresters and conservation scientists is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2005 due to budgetary constraints in the Federal Government, where employment is concentrated. However, an expected wave of retirements in the Federal Government should create many job open­ ings for foresters. On the other hand, jobs for soil conservationists should continue to be competitive in the Federal Government. The number of qualified graduates usually exceeds the available positions because the educational requirements for soil conservationists are less specific than those for foresters or range conservationists. More foresters and range managers should be needed in private industry to improve forest, logging, and range management practices and increase output and profitability. Also, State governments and private owners of timberland may employ more foresters due to increased interest in environmental protection and land management. Regardless of the outlook, certain areas of the country offer greater job opportunities for foresters and range conservationists than other regions. Employment for range conservationists is concentrated in the West and Midwest, while most forestry-related employment is in the South and West. Urban forestry is emerging as a fast-growing field, particularly in the Northeast and in major population centers of the country. Because of public interest in environmental issues, foresters are increasingly needed to perform environmental impact studies in urban areas, and to help regional planning commissions make land use decisions. Earnings Most graduates entering the Federal Government as foresters, range managers, or soil conservationists with a bachelor’s degree started at $16,973 or $21,023 a year, in 1991, depending on academic achieve­ ment. Those with a master’s degree could start at $21,023 or $25,717. Holders of doctorates could start at $31,116 or, in research positions, at $37,294. In 1991, the average Federal salary for foresters was $38,617; for range conservationists, $34,082; for soil conservation­ ists, $35,835; and for forest products technologists, $53,090. In private industry, starting salaries for students with a bachelor’s degree were comparable to starting salaries in the Federal Govern­ ment, while starting salaries in State and local governments were generally lower. Most foresters and conservation scientists work for Federal, State, and local governments and large private firms, which generally offer more generous fringe benefits—for example, pension and retirement plans, health and life insurance, and paid vacations—than smaller firms. Related Occupations Foresters and conservation scientists are not the only workers con­ cerned with managing, developing, and protecting natural resources. Other workers with similar responsibilities include agricultural scien­ tists, agricultural engineers, biological scientists, farmers, farm man­ agers, forest fire officers, ranchers, ranch managers, soil scientists and soil conservation technicians, wildlife managers, and environ­ mental scientists. Sources of Additional Information Information about the forestry profession and lists of schools offering education in forestry are available from: *" Society of American Foresters, 5400 Grosvenor Lane, Bethesda, MD 20814. •" American Forestry Association, P.O. Box 2000, Washington, DC 20013.  Information about a career as a range manager as well as a list of schools offering training is available from: •• Society for Range Management, 1839 York St., Denver, CO 80206.  For information about career opportunities in the Federal Govern­ ment, contact; *■ Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Department of the Interior, Room 3619, 1849 C St. NW„ Washington, DC 20240. Chief, U.S. Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 14th St. and Independence Ave. SW., Washington, DC 20250. »■ Soil Conservation Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 14th St. and Independence Ave. SW., Washington, DC 20013.  Chemists (D.O.T. 022.061-010, -014, and .137-010)  Nature of the Work Chemists search for and put to practical use new knowledge about chemicals. Although chemicals are often thought of as artificial or toxic substances, all physical things, both natural and manmade, are composed of chemicals. Chemists have developed a tremendous vari­ ety of new and improved synthetic fibers, paints, adhesives, drugs, electronic components, lubricants, and other products. They also develop processes which save energy and reduce pollution, such as improved oil refining methods. Research on the chemistry of living things provides the basis for advances in medicine, agriculture, and other areas. Many chemists work in research and development. Much research is performed in laboratories, but research chemists also work in offices when they do theoretical research or plan, record, and report on their research. Some chemical research laboratories resemble high school chemical labs, but others are large and may incorporate proto­ type chemical manufacturing facilities as well as advanced equip­ ment. Chemists may also do some of their research in a chemical plant or outdoors—while gathering samples of pollutants, for example. In basic research, chemists investigate the properties, composition, and structure of matter and the laws that govern the combination of elements and reactions of substances. In applied research and devel­ opment, they create new products or improve existing ones, often using knowledge gained from basic research. For example, synthetic rubber and plastics resulted from research on small molecules uniting to form large ones (polymerization). Chemists also work in production and inspection in chemical man­ ufacturing plants. They prepare instructions for plant workers which specify ingredients, mixing times, and temperatures for each stage in the process. They also monitor automated processes to ensure proper product yield, and test samples to ensure they meet industry and gov­ ernment standards. Chemists also record and report on test results. Others are marketing or sales representatives who sell and provide technical information on chemical products. Chemists often specialize in a subfield. Analytical chemists deter­ mine the structure, composition, and nature of substances and devel­ op analytical techniques. They also identify the presence of chemical pollutants in air, water, and soil. Organic chemists study the chem­ istry of the vast number of carbon compounds. Many commercial products, such as drugs, plastics, and fertilizers, have been developed by organic chemists. Inorganic chemists study compounds consisting mainly of elements other than carbon, such as those in electronic components. Physical chemists study the physical characteristics of atoms and molecules and investigate how chemical reactions work. Their research may result in new and better energy sources. Biochemists, whose work encompasses both biology and chemistry, are included under biological scientists elsewhere in the Handbook. Working Conditions Chemists usually work regular hours in offices and laboratories. Some are exposed to health or safety hazards when handling certain chemicals, but there is little risk if proper procedures are followed. Employment Chemists held about 83,000 jobs in 1990. The majority of chemists are employed in manufacturing firms—mostly in the chemical manufac­ turing industry, which includes firms that produce plastics materials and synthetics, drugs, soap and cleaners, paints, industrial organic chemicals, and other miscellaneous chemical products. Chemists also work for State and local governments, primarily in health and agricul­ ture, and for Federal agencies, chiefly in the Departments of Defense, Health and Human Services, and Agriculture. Others work for research and testing services. In addition, thousands of persons held chemistry faculty positions in colleges and universities. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.)  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  The knowledge gainedfrom basic chemical research often leads to the development of new products.  Chemists are employed in all parts of the country, but they are con­ centrated in large industrial areas. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree in chemistry or a related discipline is usually the minimum education necessary to work as a chemist. However, gradu­ ate training is required for most research jobs, and most college teaching jobs require a Ph.D. degree. Many colleges and universities offer a bachelor’s degree program in chemistry, about 590 of which are approved by the American Chemical Society. Several hundred colleges and universities also offer advanced degree programs in chemistry. Students planning careers as chemists should enjoy studying sci­ ence and mathematics, and should like working with their hands building scientific apparatus and performing experiments. Persever­ ance, curiosity, and the ability to concentrate on detail and to work independently are essential. In addition to required courses in analyti­ cal, inorganic, organic, and physical chemistry, undergraduate chem­ istry majors usually study biological sciences, mathematics, and physics. Computer courses are also important, as chemists are increasingly using computers as a tool in their everyday work. Although graduate students typically specialize in a subfield of chemistry, such as analytical chemistry or polymer chemistry, spe­ cialization is usually unnecessary on the undergraduate level. In fact, undergraduates who are broadly trained have more flexibility when jobhunting or changing jobs than if they narrowly define their inter­ ests. Some employers provide new bachelor’s degree chemists with additional training or education, in order to tailor the chemist to a specific job or type of work. > In government or industry, beginning chemists with a bachelor’s degree work in technical sales or services, or assist senior chemists in research and development laboratories. Some may work in research positions, analyzing and testing products, but these are often techni­ cians’ positions, with limited upward mobility. Many employers pre­ fer chemists with a master’s degree or a Ph.D. to work in basic and applied research, and a Ph.D. is generally required for a 4-year col­ lege faculty position and for advancement to many administrative positions. Chemists who work in sales, marketing, or professional research positions often eventually move into management. Many people with a bachelor’s degree in chemistry enter other occupations in which a chemistry background is helpful, such as technical writers and manufacturers’ or wholesale sales representa­ tives in chemical marketing. Some enter medical, dental, veterinary, or other health profession schools. Others enter a wide range of occu­ pations with little or no connection to chemistry. Chemistry graduates may become high school teachers. However, they usually are then regarded as science teachers rather than chemists. Others may qualify as engineers, especially if they have taken some courses in engineering. 17  Job Outlook Chemists are expected to have very good employment opportunities through the year 2005 because employment is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations and the number of degrees granted in chemistry is not expected to increase enough to meet future demand. The chemical industry, which faced many problems in the 1980’s, is now much healthier. However, it is still subject to cyclical fluctuations which affect employment of chemists, particu­ larly those in the industrial chemical and oil industries. Expanded research and development, especially in pharmaceutical firms, biotechnology firms, and firms producing specialty chemicals, are expected to contribute to employment growth. Chemists with special­ ized knowledge in polymers and synthetics, analytical chemistry, and food chemistry should have especially good job opportunities. Ph.D. chemists are, and should continue to be, in strong demand, as employers are increasingly expecting their researchers to have advanced education. Despite the expected growth, most openings will result as chemists retire, transfer to other occupations, or leave the occupation for other reasons. Earnings According to a 1990 survey by the American Chemical Society, the median starting salary for recently graduated chemists with a bache­ lor’s degree was about $23,000 a year; with a master’s degree $30,000; with a Ph.D., $44,000. The American Chemical Society also reports that the median salary of their members (with varying amounts of experience) with a bachelor’s degree was $39,000 a year in 1990; with a master’s degree, $45,000; with a Ph.D., $55,000. In 1991, chemists in the Federal government earned an average salary of $46,847. Related Occupations The work of chemical engineers, occupational safety and health workers, agricultural scientists, biological scientists, and chemical technicians is closely related to the work done by chemists. The work of other physical and life science occupations may also be similar to that of chemists. Sources of Additional Information General information on career opportunities and earnings for chemists is available from: *■ American Chemical Society, Career Services, 1155 16th St NW Washing­ ton, DC 20036.  Information on Federal job opportunities is available from local offices of State employment services or offices of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management, located in major metropolitan areas.  Geologists and Geophysicists (D.O.T. 024.061 except -014, .161, and .167)  Nature of the Work Geologists and geophysicists study the physical aspects and history of the earth. They identify and examine surface rocks and buried rocks recovered by drilling, study information collected by satellites, conduct geological surveys, construct maps, and use instruments to measure the earth’s gravity and magnetic field. They also analyze information collected through seismic prospecting, which involves bouncing sound waves off deeply buried rock layers. Many geolo­ gists and geophysicists search for oil, natural gas, minerals, and underground water. Increasingly, geologists, geophysicists, and other earth scientists are becoming known as geological scientists or geoscientists, terms which better describe these scientists’ role in studying all aspects of the earth. Geoscientists play an increasingly important part in studying, pre­ serving, and cleaning up the environment. Many design and monitor waste disposal sites, preserve water supplies, and reclaim contaminat18  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ed land and water to comply with stricter Federal environmental rules. They also help locate safe sites for hazardous waste facilities, nuclear powerplants, and landfills. Geologists and geophysicists examine chemical and physical prop­ erties of specimens in laboratories, sometimes under controlled tem­ perature and pressure. They may study fossil remains of animal and plant life or experiment with the flow of water and oil through rocks. Some geoscientists use two- or three-dimensional computer modeling to portray water layers and the flow of water or other fluids through rock cracks and porous materials. A large variety of sophisticated lab­ oratory instruments is used, including X-ray diffractometers, which determine the crystal structure of minerals, and petrographic micro­ scopes, for study of rock and sediment samples. Earthquakes are located and their intensities determined using seismographs, instru­ ments which measure energy waves resulting from movements in the earth’s crust. Geologists and geophysicists also apply geological knowledge to engineering problems in constructing large buildings, dams, tunnels, and highways. Some administer and manage research and exploration programs and others become general managers in petroleum and min­ ing companies. Geology and geophysics are closely related fields, but there are some major differences. Geologists study the composition, structure, and history of the earth s crust. They try to find out how rocks were formed and what has happened to them since their formation. Geo­ physicists use the principles of physics and mathematics to study not only the earth’s surface but its internal composition, fresh water, atmosphere, and oceans as well as its magnetic, electrical, and gravi­ tational forces. Both, however, commonly apply their skills to the search for natural resources and solving environmental problems. Geologists and geophysicists usually specialize. Geological oceanographers study the ocean floor. They collect information using remote sensing devices aboard surface ships or underwater research craft. Physical oceanographers study the physical aspects of oceans such as currents and the interaction of the surface of the sea with the atmosphere. Geochemical oceanographers study the chemical composition, dissolved elements, and nutrients of oceans. Although biological scientists who study ocean life are also called oceanographers (as well as marine biologists), the work they do and the training they need are related to biology rather than geology or geophysics. (See the statement on biological scientists elsewhere in the Handbook.) Hydrologists study the distribution, circulation, and physical properties of underground and surface waters. They study the form and intensity of precipitation, its rate of infiltration into the soil, and its return to the ocean and atmosphere. Mineralogists ana­ lyze and classify minerals and precious stones according to composi­ tion and structure. Paleontologists study fossils found in geological formations to trace the evolution of plant and animal life and the geologic history of the earth. Seismologists interpret data from seis­ mographs and other instruments to locate earthquakes and earth­ quake-related faults. Stratigraphers study the distribution and arrangement of sedimentary rock layers by examining their fossil and mineral content. Meteorologists sometimes are classified as geo­ physical scientists. (See the statement on meteorologists elsewhere in the Handbook.) Working Conditions While some geoscientists spend the majority of their time in an office, others divide their time between fieldwork and office or labo­ ratory work. Geologists often travel to remote field sites by helicopter or four-wheel drive vehicles and cover large areas by foot. Explo­ ration geologists and geophysicists often work overseas or in remote areas, and job relocation is not unusual. Geological and physical oceanographers may spend considerable time at sea. Employment Geologists and geophysicists held almost 48,000 jobs in 1990. In addition, thousands of persons held geology, geophysics, and oceanography faculty positions in colleges and universities. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Hand­ book.)  "  ■ ■  ispsl  Geologists determine the composition of rock specimens in laboratories. About 4 in 10 were employed in oil and gas companies or oil and gas field service firms. Many other geologists worked for consulting firms and business services, especially engineering and architectural services, which often provide services to oil and gas companies. About 1 geologist in 7 was self-employed; most of these were consul­ tants to industry or government. The Federal Government employed about 6,000 geologists, geo­ physicists, oceanographers, and hydrologists in 1989. Over one-half worked for the Department of the Interior in the U.S. Geological Sur­ vey, the Bureau of Land Management, the Minerals Management Service, the Bureau of Mines, and the Bureau of Reclamation. Others worked for the Departments of Defense, Agriculture, Commerce, and Energy, and the Environmental Protection Agency. Some worked for State agencies such as State geological surveys and State departments of conservation. Geologists and geophysicists also worked for non­ profit research institutions. Some were employed by American firms overseas for varying periods of time. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree in geology or geophysics is adequate for entry into some lower level geology jobs, but better jobs with good advancement potential usually require at least a master’s degree in geology or geophysics. Persons with strong backgrounds in physics, mathematics, or computer science also may qualify for some geo­ physics jobs. A Ph.D. degree is essential for most research and col­ lege or university teaching positions, and is becoming more important for employment in some Federal agencies. Over 500 colleges and universities offer a bachelor’s degree in geology or geophysics. Other programs offering related training for beginning geological scientists include geophysical technology, geo­ physical engineering, geophysical prospecting, engineering geology,   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  petroleum geology, and geochemistry. In addition, more than 270 uni­ versities award advanced degrees in geology or geophysics. Geologists and geophysicists need to be able to work as part of a team. Computer modeling, data processing, and effective oral and written communication skills are important, as well as the ability to think independently and creatively. Those involved in fieldwork must have physical stamina. Traditional geoscience courses emphasizing classical geologic methods and concepts (such as mineralogy, paleontology, stratigra­ phy, and structural geology) are important for all geoscientists. How­ ever, those students interested in working in the environmental or regulatory fields should take courses in hydrology, hazardous waste management, environmental legislation, chemistry, fluid mechanics, and geologic logging. Geologists and geophysicists often begin their careers in field exploration or as research assistants in laboratories. They are given more difficult assignments as they gain experience. Eventually they may be promoted to project leader, program manager, or other man­ agement and research positions. Job Outlook Employment of geologists and geophysicists is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. In the past, most jobs for geologists and geophysicists were in or related to the petroleum industry, particularly in the exploration for oil and gas. This industry is subject to cyclical fluctuations. Low oil prices usually cause exploration activities to be curtailed—resulting in layoffs of many geologists and geophysicists. As a result of gener­ ally poor job prospects in the past few years, the number of students enrolling in geology and geophysics has dropped considerably. How­ ever, when exploration activities increase, geologists and geophysi­ cists should have excellent employment opportunities because many experienced geologists and geophysicists have left the occupation. Also, the number of degrees granted in geology is likely to be so low that even a small increase in openings in the oil industry will be greater than the number of geologists and geophysicists available to fill them. Environmental protection and regulatory geoscience are becoming important fields of work for geoscientists with the appropriate train­ ing, and are additional sources of employment growth. In particular, jobs requiring training in hydrology and geochemistry should be in demand. Replacement needs in colleges and universities are expected to increase as the rate of retirements increases over the next 15 years. Earnings Surveys by the College Placement Council indicate that graduates with bachelor’s degrees in the geological sciences received an aver­ age starting offer of $23,463 a year in 1990. According to a 1990 American Geological Institute survey, the average starting salaries for inexperienced geoscientists were about $23,900 for those with a bachelor’s degree, $26,500 for those with a master’s degree, and $33,300 for those with a Ph.D. However, the starting salaries can vary widely depending on the employing indus­ try. For example, the oil and gas, and mining and minerals industries offered average starting salaries of $32,500 and $26,700, respective­ ly, for bachelor’s degree holders, while in research institutions, col­ leges, and universities, new hires with a bachelor’s degree averaged about $20,000. Although the petroleum, mineral, and mining industries offer high­ er salaries, the competition in these areas is normally intense, and the job security less than in other areas. In 1991, the Federal Government’s average salary for all geologists in managerial, supervisory, and nonsupervisory positions was $47,669; for all geophysicists, $52,025; for all hydrologists, $43,794; and for all oceanographers, $49,521. Related Occupations Many geologists and geophysicists work in the petroleum and natural gas industry. This industry also employs many other workers in the scientific and technical aspects of petroleum and natural gas explo19  ration and extraction, including drafters, engineering technicians, sci­ ence technicians, petroleum engineers, and surveyors. Also, some physicists, chemists, and meteorologists, as well as mathematicians, computer scientists, soil scientists, and mapping scientists, do related work. Sources of Additional Information Information on training and career opportunities for geologists is available from: *- American Geological Institute, 4220 King St., Alexandria, VA 22302­ 1507. *■ Geological Society of America, P.O. Box 9140, 3300 Penrose PI., Boulder CO 80301.  Information on training and career opportunities for geophysicists is available from: American Geophysical Union, 2000 Florida Ave. NW„ Washington DC 20009. *•" Society of Exploration Geophysicists, P.O. Box 70240, Tulsa, OK 74170.  A directory of college and university curriculums in oceanography is available from: Marine Technology Society, 1825 K St. NW, Suite 218, Washington, DC 20006.  Information on Federal job opportunities is available from local offices of State employment services or offices of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management located in major metropolitan areas.  Meteorologists (D.O.T. 025.062-010)  Nature of the Work Meteorology is the study of the atmosphere, the air that surrounds the earth. Meteorologists study the atmosphere’s physical characteristics, motions, and processes, and the way the atmosphere affects the rest of our environment. The best-known application of this knowledge is in forecasting the weather. However, weather information and meteo­ rological research also are applied in air-pollution control, agricul­ ture, air and sea transportation, and the study of trends in the earth’s climate such as global warming or ozone depletion. Meteorologists who forecast the weather, known professionally as operational meteorologists, are the largest group of specialists. They study information on air pressure, temperature, humidity, and wind velocity, and apply physical and mathematical relationships to make short- and long-range weather forecasts. Their information comes from weather satellites, weather radar, and remote sensors and observers in many parts of the world. Meteorologists use sophisticat­ ed computer models of the world’s atmosphere to help forecast the weather and interpret the results of these models to make long-term, short-term, and local-area forecasts. Some meteorologists engage in research. Physical meteorologists, for example, study the atmosphere’s chemical and physical proper­ ties, the transmission of light, sound, and radio waves, and the trans­ fer of energy in the atmosphere. They also study factors affecting formation of clouds, rain, snow, and other weather phenomena. Cli­ matologists analyze past records of wind, rainfall, sunshine, and tem­ perature in specific areas or regions. Their studies are used to design buildings and to plan heating and cooling systems, effective land use, and agricultural production. Much meteorological research is cen­ tered on improving weather forecasting, mainly through building bet­ ter computer models of the atmosphere, including interactions with land and water surfaces. Working Conditions Jobs in weather stations, most of which operate around the clock 7 days a week, often involve night work and rotating shifts. Weather stations are often at airports, in or near cities, and in isolated and remote areas. Meteorologists in smaller weather offices generally work alone; in larger ones, they work as part of a team. Meteorolo­ gists not doing forecasting work regular hours, usually in offices. 20  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Employment Meteorologists held about 5,500 jobs in 1990. The largest employer of civilian meteorologists is the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), which employs about 1,800 meteorologists. About two-thirds of NOAA’s meteorologists work in the National Weather Service at stations in all parts of the United States. The remainder of NOAA’s meteorologists work mainly in research or in program management. The Department of Defense employs about 280 civilian meteorologists. Others work for private weather consultants, research and testing services, and computer and data processing ser­ vices. Hundreds of people teach meteorology and related courses in col­ lege and university departments of meteorology or atmospheric sci­ ence, physics, earth science, and geophysics. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) In addition to civilian meteorologists, thousands of members of the Armed Forces do forecasting and other meteorological work. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree with a major in meteorology or a closely related field is the usual minimum requirement for a beginning job as a mete­ orologist. The educational requirements for entry level meteorologists in the Federal Government call for a bachelor’s degree—not necessarily in meteorology—with at least 20 semester hours of meteorology cours­ es, including 6 hours in weather analysis and forecasting and 6 hours in dynamic meteorology. In addition to meteorology coursework, 6 hours of differential and integral calculus and 6 hours of calculusbased physics are required. In 1993, these requirements will be upgraded to include 3 hours of computer science and 6 hours of coursework appropriate for a physical science major, such as statis­ tics, chemistry, physical oceanography, or physical climatology. Although positions in operational meteorology are available for those with only a bachelor’s degree, obtaining a graduate degree enhances advancement potential. A master’s degree is usually necessary for con­ ducting research and development, and a Ph.D. is usually required for college teaching. Students who plan a career in teaching or research and development need not necessarily major in meteorology as an under­ graduate. In fact, a bachelor’s degree in mathematics, physics, or engi­ neering is excellent preparation for graduate study in meteorology. Because meteorology is a small field, relatively few colleges and universities offer degrees in meteorology or atmospheric science, although many departments of physics, earth science, geography, and geophysics offer atmospheric science and related courses. Prospec­ tive students should make certain that courses required by the Nation­ al Weather Service and other employers are offered at the college they are considering. Upgraded educational and training require­ ments, such as computer science courses, additional meteorology courses, and a strong background in mathematics and physics, are expected to become more important to prospective employers as  As weather equipment and radar systems become more complex, educational and training requirements for meteorologists will increase.  weather equipment and radar systems become more complex. Many programs combine the study of meteorology with another field, such as agriculture, engineering, or physics. For example, hydrometeorolo­ gy is the blending of hydrology (the science of the earth’s water) and meteorology and is an emerging field concerned with the impact of precipitation on the hydrologic cycle and the environment. Beginning meteorologists often do routine data collection, compu­ tation, or analysis and are given more difficult assignments as they gain experience. Experienced meteorologists may advance to various supervisory or administrative jobs. Increasing numbers of meteorolo­ gists establish their own weather consulting services. Job Outlook Employment of meteorologists is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. The National Weather Service, which employs many meteorologists, is increasing its employment of meteorologists, mainly in its field offices, to improve short-term and local-area weather forecasts. Although some of these additional jobs are being filled internally through the upgrad­ ing of meteorological technicians, there still should be many more openings in the National Weather Service in the next 5 to 10 years than there have been in the past. Employment of meteorologists in other parts of the Federal Government is not expected to increase. Many new jobs, though, will be created in private industry with the increased use of private weather forecasting and meteorological ser­ vices by farmers, commodity investors, utilities, transportation and construction firms, and radio and TV stations. For people in these and other areas, even a slight improvement in the detail and accuracy of weather information and forecasts over the general information pro­ vided by the National Weather Service can be a significant benefit. However, because many customers for private weather services are in industries that are sensitive to fluctuations in the economy, the sales and growth of private weather services are dependent on the health of the economy. Despite the projected faster-than-average growth, most of the job openings in this very small occupation will arise from the need to replace those who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Earnings The average salary for meteorologists employed by the Federal Gov­ ernment was $44,706 in 1991. In 1991, meteorologists in the Federal Government with a bachelor’s degree and no experience received a starting salary of $16,973 or $21,023 a year, depending on their col­ lege grades. Those with a master’s degree could start at $21,023 or $25,717; those with the Ph.D. degree, at $31,116 or $37,294. Related Occupations Workers in other occupations concerned with the physical environ­ ment include oceanographers, geologists and geophysicists, hydrolo­ gists,and civil and environmental engineers. Sources of Additional Information Information on career opportunities in meteorology is available from: American Meteorological Society, 45 Beacon St., Boston, MA 02108.  Physicists and Astronomers (D.O.T. 021.067-010; 023.061-010, -014, .067; 079.021-010 and -014)  Nature of the Work Physicists attempt to discover basic principles governing the structure and behavior of matter, the generation and transfer of energy, and the interaction of matter and energy. Some physicists use these principles in theoretical areas, such as the nature of time and the origin of the universe, while others work in practical areas such as the develop­ ment of advanced materials, electronic devices, and medical equipment. Physicists design and perform experiments with lasers, cyclotrons, telescopes, mass spectrometers, and other equipment. Based on  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  observations and analysis, they formulate theories and laws to describe the forces of nature, such as gravity, electromagnetism, and nuclear interactions. They also find ways to apply physical laws and theories to problems in nuclear energy, electronics, optics, materials, communications, aerospace technology, and medical instrumentation. Astronomy is sometimes considered a subfield of physics. Astronomers use the principles of physics and mathematics to learn about the fundamental nature of the universe and the sun, moon, planets, stars, and galaxies. They apply their knowledge to problems in navigation and space flight. Most physicists work in research and development. Some do basic research to increase scientific knowledge. For example, they investi­ gate the structure of the atom or the nature of gravity. Practical applications of basic research discoveries are made by physicists who conduct applied research and work to develop new devices, products, and processes. For instance, basic research in solid-state physics led to the development of transistors and then to the integrated circuits used in computers. Physicists also design research equipment. This equipment often has additional unanticipated uses. For example, lasers (devices that amplify light and emit it in a highly directional, intense beam) are used in surgery; microwave devices are used for ovens; and measur­ ing instruments can analyze blood or the chemical content of foods. A small number work in inspection, testing, quality control, and other production-related jobs in industry. Some physics research is done in small or medium-size laborato­ ries. However, many experiments in plasma, nuclear, particle, and some other areas of physics require extremely large, expensive equip­ ment such as particle accelerators. Physicists in these subfields often work in large teams. Although physics research may require extensive experimentation in laboratories, research physicists still spend time in offices planning, recording, analyzing, and reporting on research. Almost all astronomers do research. They analyze large quantities of data and write scientific papers on their findings. Most astronomers spend only a few weeks each year making observations with tele­ scopes, radio telescopes, and other instruments. Contrary to the popu­ lar image, astronomers almost never make observations by looking directly through a telescope because enhanced photographic and elec­ tronic detecting equipment is more effective than the human eye. Most physicists specialize in one of many subfields—elementary particle physics; nuclear physics; atomic and molecular physics; physics of condensed matter (solid-state physics); optics; acoustics; health physics; plasma physics; or the physics of fluids. Some spe­ cialize in a subdivision of one of these subfields; for example, within solid-state physics, specialties include superconductivity, crystallog­ raphy, and semiconductors. However, since all physics involves the same fundamental principles, specialties may overlap, and physicists may switch from one subfield to another. Growing numbers of physicists work in combined fields such as biophysics, chemical physics, and geophysics. Furthermore, the prac­ tical applications of physicists’ work increasingly have merged with engineering. Working Conditions Physicists usually work regular hours in laboratories and offices. At times, however, those who are deeply involved in research may work long or irregular hours. Most do not encounter unusual hazards in their work. Some physicists work away from home temporarily at national or international facilities with unique equipment such as par­ ticle accelerators. Astronomers who make observations may travel to observatories, which are usually in remote locations, and frequently work at night. Employment Physicists and astronomers held nearly 20,000 jobs in 1990. About the same number held physics faculty positions in colleges and uni­ versities. (See the statement on college and university faculty else­ where in the Handbook.) About two-fifths of all nonfaculty physicists worked for research, development, and testing laboratories. The Fed­ eral Government employed over one-fifth, mostly in the Departments of Defense and Commerce and in the National Aeronautics and Space 21  Many Ph.D. physics and astronomy graduates choose to take a postdoctoral position, which is helpful for physicists who want to continue research in their specialty and for those who plan a career teaching at the university level. Beginning physicists, especially those without a Ph.D., often do routine work under the close supervision of more senior scientists. After some experience, they are assigned more complex tasks and given more independence. Physicists who develop new products or processes sometimes form their own companies or join new firms to exploit their own ideas.  Physicists usually specialize in a suhfield ofphysics, such as optics, acoustics, or atomic and molecular physics. Administration. Others worked in colleges and universities in nonfac­ ulty positions and for aerospace firms, noncommercial research labo­ ratories, electrical equipment manufacturers, engineering services firms, and the transportation equipment industry. Although physicists are employed in all parts of the country, most are in areas that have heavy industrial concentrations and large research and development laboratories. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A doctoral degree is the usual educational requirement for physicists and astronomers, since most jobs are in research and development or in teaching at large universities or 4-year colleges. Those having bachelor’s or master’s degrees in physics are gener­ ally qualified to work in an engineering-related area or other scientif­ ic fields, to work as technicians, or to assist in setting up laboratories. Some may qualify for applied research jobs in private industry and in the Federal Government, and a master’s degree is often sufficient for teaching jobs in 2-year colleges. Astronomy bachelor’s degree hold­ ers usually enter a field unrelated to astronomy. (See statements on engineers, geologists and geophysicists, computer programmers, and computer systems analysts elsewhere in the Handbook.) About 750 colleges and universities offer a bachelor’s degree in physics. The undergraduate program provides a broad background in the natural sciences and mathematics. Typical physics courses include mechanics, electromagnetism, optics, thermodynamics, and atomic, nuclear, and particle physics. About 170 colleges and universities have physics departments which offer Ph.D. degrees in physics. Graduate students usually con­ centrate in a subfield of physics such as elementary particles or con­ densed matter. Many begin studying for their doctorates immediately after their bachelor’s degree. About 72 universities offer the Ph.D. degree in astronomy, either through an astronomy department, a physics department, or a com­ bined physics/astronomy department. Applicants to astronomy doc­ toral programs face keen competition for available slots. Those planning a career in astronomy should have a very strong physics background—in fact, an undergraduate degree in physics is highly recommended, followed by a Ph.D. in astronomy. Mathematical ability, computer skills, an inquisitive mind, imagi­ nation, and the ability to work independently are important traits for anyone planning a career in physics or astronomy. 22  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Job Outlook The employment of physicists and astronomers is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Because a large proportion of physicists and astronomers are employed on research projects, changes in research and development budgets could have a major impact on the growth of jobs. In poor economic times, industrial and governmental research and develop­ ment budgets may not grow much, causing little employment growth in these occupations. However, employment opportunities are expect­ ed to improve in the late 1990’s, when many physics and astronomy faculty will be eligible for retirement. As is the case in many occupations, employment growth for physi­ cists differs by subfield. The number of positions available for certain specialists rises and falls depending on which research and develop­ ment projects are funded. Persons with only a bachelor’s degree in physics are not qualified to enter most physicist jobs. However, many find jobs as engineers, technicians, computer specialists, or high school physics teachers. (See the statements on these occupations elsewhere in the Hand­ book.) Earnings Starting salaries for physicists averaged about $29,200 a year in 1990 for those with a bachelor’s degree, $31,500 for those with a master’s degree, and $41,500 for those with a doctoral degree, according to the College Placement Council. The American Institute of Physics reported a median salary of $58,000 in 1990 for its members with Ph.D.’s. Average earnings for physicists in the Federal Government in 1991 were $56,642 a year, and for astronomy and space scientists, $60,354. Related Occupations The work of physicists is closely related to that of other scientific occupations such as chemist, geologist, and geophysicist. Engineers and engineering and science technicians also use the principles of physics in their work. Sources of Additional Information General information on career opportunities in physics is available from: American Institute of Physics, 335 East 45th St., New York, NY 10017. *■ American Physical Society, 335 East 45th St., New York, NY 10017.  For a pamphlet containing information on careers in astronomy and on schools offering training in the field, send your request and 35 cents to: *■ Education Officer, American Astronomical Society, University of Texas, Department of Astronomy, Austin, TX 78712-1083.  Drafters (D.O.T. 001.261; 002.261; 003.131, .261 except -010, 281; 005.281; 007.161­ 010, -014, and -018, .261, and .281; 010.281 except -022; 014.281; 017 except .261-010; and 726.364-014)  Nature of the Work Drafters prepare technical drawings used by production workers to build spacecraft, industrial machinery and other manufactured prod­ ucts, office buildings, houses, bridges, and other structures. Their drawings show the technical details of the products and structures  from all sides, with exact dimensions, the specific materials to be used, procedures to be followed, and other information needed to carry out the job. Drafters prepare and fill in technical details, using drawings, rough sketches, specifications, and calculations made by engineers, surveyors, architects, and scientists. For example, working from rough sketches, drafters use knowledge of standardized building techniques to draw the details of a structure, or employ knowledge of engineering theory to arrange the parts of a machine and determine the number and kind of fasteners needed. For this, they may use tech­ nical handbooks, tables, and calculators. There are two methods by which drawings are prepared. In the tra­ ditional method, drafters sit at drawing boards and use compasses, dividers, protractors, triangles, and other drafting devices to prepare the drawing manually. Today, drafters also use computer-aided draft­ ing (CAD) systems. They use computer work stations to create the drawing on a video screen. They may put the drawing on paper or just store it electronically. These systems permit drafters to easily prepare many variations of a design. When CAD systems were first introduced, some thought a new occupation—CAD operator—would result. It is now apparent that a person who produces a technical drawing using CAD is still a drafter, and needs all the knowledge of traditional drafters as well as CAD skills. Despite CAD’s advantages, much drafting is still done manually, partly because of the cost of CAD systems, but also because of prob­ lems in shifting office procedures to the use and storage of CAD-gen­ erated drawings. However, the cost of CAD systems is dropping rapidly, and by the year 2005 it is likely that almost all drafters will use CAD systems regularly, although manual drafting probably will still be used in certain applications. Many drafters specialize. Architectural drafters draw architectural and structural features of buildings and other structures. They may specialize by the type of structure, such as schools or office buildings, or by material, such as reinforced concrete or stone. Aeronautical drafters prepare engineering drawings used for the manufacture of aircraft and missiles. Electrical drafters draw wiring and layout diagrams used by work­ ers who erect, install, and repair electrical equipment and wiring in powerplants, electrical distribution systems, and buildings. Electronic drafters draw wiring diagrams, circuit board diagrams, schematics, and layout drawings used in the manufacture, installa­ tion, and repair of electronic equipment. Civil drafters prepare drawings and topographical and relief maps used in civil engineering projects such as highways, bridges, flood control projects, and water and sewage systems. Mechanical drafters draw detailed working diagrams of machinery and mechanical devices, including dimensions, fastening methods, and other engineering information.  interested in applicants who have well-developed drafting and mechanical drawing skills, a solid background in computer-aided design techniques, and courses in mathematics, science, and engi­ neering technology. Many types of publicly and privately operated schools provide drafting training. The kind and quality of programs can vary consid­ erably. Therefore, prospective students should be careful in selecting a program. They should contact prospective employers regarding their preferences and ask schools to provide information about the kinds of jobs obtained by graduates, instructional facilities and equip­ ment, and faculty qualifications. Technical institutes offer intensive technical training but less theo­ ry and general education than junior and community colleges. Many offer 2-year associate degree programs, which are similar to or part of the programs offered by community colleges or State university sys­ tems. Other technical institutes are run by private, often for-profit, organizations, sometimes called proprietary schools; their programs vary considerably in length and types of courses offered. Some are 2year associate degree programs. Junior and community colleges offer curriculums similar to those in technical institutes but may include more theory and liberal arts. Often there may be little or no difference between technical institute and community college programs. However, courses taken at junior or community colleges are more likely to be accepted for credit at 4year colleges than those at technical institutes. After completing the 2-year program, some graduates qualify for jobs as drafters while others continue their education in a related field at 4-year colleges. Four-year colleges usually do not offer drafting training, but col­ lege courses in engineering, architecture, and mathematics are useful for obtaining a job as a drafter. Area vocational-technical schools are postsecondary public institu­ tions that serve local students and emphasize training needed by local employers. Most require a high school diploma or its equivalent for admission. Other training may be obtained in the Armed Forces in technical areas which can be applied in civilian drafting jobs. Some additional training may be needed, depending on the military skills acquired and the kind of job, but often this is gained on the job. Some correspon­ dence schools also offer training for drafters. Those planning careers in drafting should be able to draw freehand three-dimensional objects and do detailed work accurately and neatly. Artistic ability is helpful in some specialized fields, as is knowledge  Working Conditions Drafters usually work in well-lighted and well-ventilated rooms. They often sit at drawing boards or computer terminals for long peri­ ods of time. Doing detailed work may cause eyestrain and back dis­ comfort. Employment Drafters held about 326,000 jobs in 1990. About one-third of all drafters worked in engineering and architectural services, firms that design construction projects or do other engineering work on a con­ tract basis for organizations in other parts of the economy; about onethird worked in durable goods manufacturing industries, such as machinery, electrical equipment, and fabricated metals; and the remainder were mostly employed in the construction, transportation, communications, and utilities industries. About 14,000 drafters worked in government in 1990, primarily at the State and local level. Most drafters in the Federal Government worked for the Department of Defense. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Employers prefer applicants for drafting positions who have posthigh school training in technical institutes, junior and community col­ leges, or extension divisions of universities. Employers are most  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  fir***  Drafting is often done with computer-aided systems.  of manufacturing and construction methods. In addition, prospective drafters should be able to work closely with engineers, surveyors, architects, and other workers. Entry level drafters usually do routine work under close supervi­ sion. After gaining experience, they do more difficult work with less supervision and may advance to senior drafter, designer, or supervi­ sor. With appropriate college courses, they may become engineers or architects. Job Outlook Employment of drafters is expected to grow more slowly than the aver­ age for all occupations through the year 2005. Industrial growth and the increasingly complex design problems associated with new prod­ ucts and processes will greatly increase the demand for drafting ser­ vices. However, greater use of CAD equipment—which increases drafters’ productivity—is expected to offset some of this growth in demand. Although some in the field had expected that CAD systems would decrease drafters’ employment, this has not occurred in most situations where CAD systems have been installed. In fact, it now appears that productivity gains from CAD have been relatively modest. One reason is that CAD systems make it easier to produce more varia­ tions of a design. As in other areas, the ease of obtaining computer­ generated information stimulates a demand for more information. Also, drawing the initial design on a CAD system is almost as time consuming as when it is done manually. Although growth in employ­ ment will create many job openings, most job openings are expected to arise as drafters transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Drafters are highly concentrated in industries that are sensitive to cyclical swings in the economy, such as engineering and architectural services and durable goods manufacturing. During recessions, when fewer buildings are designed, drafters may be laid off. Earnings Median annual earnings of drafters who worked year round, full time were about $25,900 in 1990; the middle 50 percent earned between $19,300 and $33,500 annually; 10 percent earned more than $41,600; 10 percent earned less than $15,400. Experienced drafters in manufacturing, transportation, and utilities averaged between $18,600 and $31,500 a year in 1990. Senior drafters averaged about $36,200 a year in 1990. Related Occupations Other workers who prepare or analyze detailed drawings and make precise calculations and measurements include architects, landscape architects, engineers, engineering technicians, science technicians, photogrammetrists, and surveyors. Sources of Additional Information General information on career opportunities in drafting is available from: American Design Drafting Association, 5522 Norbeck Road, Suite 391, Rockville, MD 20853.  Information on schools offering programs in drafting and other areas is available from: *■ National Association of Trade and Technical Schools, P.O. Box 2006, Department BL, Annapolis Junction, MD 20701-2006.  Engineering Technicians (D.O.T. 002.280, .281; 003.161, .261, .362; 005.261; 006.261; 007.161-026 and -030, .167-010 and -022, .181; 008.261; 010.261-010 and -026; 011.261­ 010 and -014, .281, .361; 012.261-014, .267; 013.161; 017.261-010; 019.161­ 014, .261-022 and -026, .267, .281, .381; 194.381, .382-010; 199.261-014­ 726.261; .281-010; 761.281-014; 828.261-018; and 962.382)  Nature of the Work Engineering technicians use the principles and theories of science, engineering, and mathematics to solve problems in research and development, manufacturing, sales, construction, and customer ser­ vice. Their jobs are more limited in scope and more practically ori­ 24  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ented than those of scientists and engineers. Many engineering tech­ nicians assist engineers and scientists, especially in research and development. Others work in production or inspection jobs. Engineering technicians who work in research and development build or set up equipment, prepare and conduct experiments, calculate or record the results, and assist engineers in other ways. Some make prototype versions of newly designed equipment. They also assist in routine design work, often using computer-aided design equipment. Engineering technicians who work in manufacturing follow the general directions of engineers. They may prepare specifications for materials, devise and run tests to ensure product quality, or study ways to improve manufacturing efficiency. They may also supervise production workers to make sure they follow prescribed procedures. Engineering technicians also work as field representatives of man­ ufacturers, wholesalers, or retailers. They help customers install, test, operate, and maintain complex technical equipment, and may write repair or operating manuals. Civil engineering technicians help civil engineers plan and build highways, buildings, bridges, dams, wastewater treatment systems, and other structures and do related surveys and studies. Some inspect water and wastewater treatment systems to ensure that pollution con­ trol requirements are met. Others estimate construction costs and specify materials to be used. (See statement on cost estimators else­ where in the Handbook.) Electronics engineering technicians help develop, manufacture, and service electronic equipment such as radios, radar, sonar, televi­ sion, industrial and medical measuring or control devices, navigation­ al equipment, and computers, often using measuring and diagnostic devices to test, adjust, and repair equipment. Workers who only repair electrical and electronic equipment are discussed in several other statements elsewhere in the Handbook. Many of these repairers are often called electronics technicians. Industrial engineering technicians study the efficient use of per­ sonnel, materials, and machines in factories, stores, repair shops, and offices. They prepare layouts of machinery and equipment, plan the flow of work, make statistical studies, and analyze production costs. Mechanical engineering technicians help engineers design and develop machinery and other equipment by making sketches and rough layouts. They also record data, make computations, analyze results, and write reports. When planning production, mechanical engineering technicians prepare layouts and drawings of the assembly process and of parts to be manufactured. They estimate labor costs, equipment life, and plant space. Some test and inspect machines and equipment in manufacturing departments or work with engineers to eliminate production problems. Working Conditions Most engineering technicians work regular hours in laboratories, offices, electronics shops, industrial plants, or construction sites. Ser­ vice representatives usually spend much of their time working in cus­ tomers’ establishments. Some may be exposed to electrical shock and other hazards from equipment. Employment Engineering technicians held about 755,000 jobs in 1990. About twofifths worked in manufacturing, mainly in the electrical and electron­ ic machinery and equipment, transportation equipment, and industrial machinery industries. Over one-fifth worked in service industries, mostly in engineering or business services companies who do engi­ neering work on contract for government, manufacturing, or other organizations. In 1990, the Federal Government employed about 65,000 engineer­ ing technicians. About three-fifths worked for the Department of Defense; others worked for the Departments of Transportation, Agri­ culture, and Interior, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. State governments employed about 37,000 and local governments about 26,000. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Although it is possible to qualify for some engineering technician jobs with no formal training, most employers prefer to hire someone  ed by employers. Some additional training may be needed, depending on the military skills acquired and the kind of job, but often this is gained on the job. Some correspondence schools also offer training for engineering technicians. Prospective engineering technicians should take as many high school science and math courses as possible. Engineering technicians need an aptitude for mathematics and science. For design work, cre­ ativity also is desirable. They should be able to work well with others since they are often part of a team of engineers and other technicians. Those in sales and service should be able to work independently and deal effectively with customers. Engineering technicians usually begin by doing routine work under the close supervision of an experienced technician, engineer, or scien­ tist. As they gain experience, they are given more difficult assign­ ments with only general supervision. Some engineering technicians eventually become supervisors, and a few, engineers.  rnz-'. Engineering technicians use knowledge of scientific and engineering principles to solve problems. who will require less on-the-job training and supervision. Training is available at technical institutes, junior and community colleges, extension divisions of colleges and universities, public and private vocational-technical schools, and through some technical training programs in the Armed Forces. Persons with college courses in sci­ ence, engineering, and mathematics may also qualify for some posi­ tions but may need additional specialized training and experience. In some cases, training can be obtained on the job or through apprenticeship programs or correspondence schools. Many types of publicly and privately operated schools provide technical training. The kind and quality of programs vary consider­ ably. Therefore, prospective students should be careful in selecting a program. They should contact prospective employers regarding their preferences and ask schools to provide information about the kinds of jobs obtained by graduates, instructional facilities and equipment, and faculty qualifications. Technical institutes offer intensive technical training but less theo­ ry and general education than junior and community colleges. Many offer 2-year associate degree programs, and are similar to or are part of a community college or are part of State university systems. Other technical institutes are run by private, often for-profit, organizations, sometimes called proprietary schools; their programs vary consider­ ably in length and types of courses offered. Some are 2-year associate degree programs. Junior and community colleges offer curriculums similar to those in technical institutes but may include more theory and liberal arts. Often there may be little or no difference between technical institute and community college programs. However, courses taken at junior or community colleges are more likely to be accepted for credit at 4year colleges than those at technical institutes. After completing the 2-year program, some graduates get jobs as engineering technicians while others continue their education at 4-year colleges. Four-year colleges usually do not offer engineering technician training, but college courses in science, engineering, and mathematics are useful for obtaining a job as an engineering technician. Area vocational-technical schools include postsecondary public institutions that serve local students and emphasize training needed by local employers. Most require a high school diploma or its equiva­ lent for admission. Other training in technical areas may be obtained in the Armed Forces. Many military technical training programs are highly regard­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Job Outlook Well-qualified engineering technicians should experience good employment opportunities through the year 2005. Employment is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations due to expected continued rapid growth in the output of technical prod­ ucts. Competitive pressures and advancing technology will force companies to improve and update manufacturing facilities and product designs more rapidly than in the past. However, like engi­ neers, employment of engineering technicians is influenced by local and national economic conditions. The employment outlook also varies with the area of specialization and industry. Some types of engineering technicians, such as civil engineering and aeronauti­ cal engineering technicians, experience greater cyclical fluctuations than others. Technicians whose jobs are defense related may be laid off in times of defense cutbacks. Despite the projected faster-than-average growth, most job open­ ings will be to replace technicians who transfer to other occupa­ tions or leave the labor force. Earnings In 1991, engineering technicians in private industry earned an aver­ age annual salary of $20,400 at the most junior level. Engineering technicians with more experience and the ability to work with little supervision averaged $28,300, and those in supervisory or senior level positions averaged $38,800. In the Federal Government, engineering technicians could start at $13,515, $15,171, or $16,973 in 1991, depending on their educa­ tion and experience. In 1991, the average salary for engineering technicians in supervisory, nonsupervisory, and management posi­ tions in the Federal Government was $33,688; for electronics tech­ nicians, $38,516; and for industrial engineering technicians, $34,008. Related Occupations Engineering technicians apply scientific and engineering principles usually acquired in postsecondary programs below the baccalaure­ ate level. Occupations of a similar nature include science techni­ cians, drafters, surveyors, broadcast technicians, and health technologists and technicians. Sources of Additional Information A number of engineering technology-related organizations provide information on engineering technician and technology careers. JETS-Guidance, at 1420 King St., Suite 405, Alexandria, VA 22314, serves as a central distribution point for information from most of these organizations. To receive information, write JETSGuidance for an order form and enclose a stamped, self-addressed business-size envelope. For information on engineering technicians specializing in elec­ tronics, contact: International Society of Certified Electronics Technicians, 2708 W. Berry, Fort Worth, TX 76109.  25  Science Technicians (List of D.O.T. codes available on request from the Chief, Division of Occu­ pational Outlook, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, DC 20212.)  Nature of the Work Science technicians use the principles and theories of science and mathematics to solve problems in research and development and to investigate, invent, and help improve products. Their jobs are more practically oriented than those of scientists. In recent years, laboratory instrumentation and procedures have become more complex, changing the nature of the work of science technicians in research and development. The increasing use of robotics to perform many routine tasks formerly done by technicians has freed technicians to operate other, more sophisticated laboratory equipment. Science technicians make extensive use of computers, computer-interfaced equipment, robotics, and high-technology indus­ trial applications such as biological engineering. Technicians set up, operate, and maintain laboratory instruments, monitor experiments, calculate and record results, and often develop conclusions. Those who work in production test products for proper proportions of ingredients or for strength and durability. Agricultural technicians work with agricultural scientists in food and fiber research, production, and processing. Some conduct tests and experiments to improve the yield and quality of crops or to increase the resistance of plants and animals to disease, insects, or other hazards. Other agricultural technicians do animal breeding and nutrition work. Biological technicians work with biologists, studying living organ­ isms. Many help conduct medical research, helping to find a cure for cancer or AIDS, for example, or they may help conduct pharmaceuti­ cal research. Biological technicians also analyze organic substances such as blood, food, and drugs; some examine evidence in criminal investigations. Biological technicians working in biotechnology labs use the knowledge and techniques gained from basic research by sci­ entists, including gene splicing and recombinant DNA, and apply these techniques in product development. Chemical technicians work with chemists and chemical engineers, developing and using chemicals and related products and equipment. Most do research and development, testing, or other laboratory work. For example, they might test packaging for design, materials, and environmental acceptability; assemble and operate new equipment to develop new products; improve product quality; or develop new pro­ duction techniques. Some chemical technicians collect and analyze samples of air and water to monitor pollution levels. Those who focus on basic research might produce compounds through complex organ­ ic synthesis. Nuclear technicians operate nuclear test and research equipment, monitor radiation, and assist nuclear engineers and physicists in research. Some also operate remote control equipment to manipulate radioactive materials or materials to be exposed to radioactivity. Petroleum technicians measure and record physical and geologic conditions in oil or gas wells using instruments lowered into wells or by analysis of the mud from wells. In oil and gas exploration, they collect and examine geological data or test geological samples to determine petroleum and mineral content. Some petroleum techni­ cians, called scouts, collect information about oil and gas well drilling operations, geological and geophysical prospecting, and land or lease contracts. Other science technicians collect weather information or assist oceanographers. Working Conditions Science technicians work under a wide variety of conditions. Many work indoors, usually in laboratories, and have regular hours. Some occasionally work irregular hours to monitor experiments that can’t be completed during regular working hours. Others, such as agricul­ tural and petroleum technicians, perform much of their work out­ doors, sometimes in remote locations, and some may be exposed to hazardous conditions. Chemical technicians sometimes work with 26  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  toxic chemicals, nuclear technicians may be exposed to radiation, and biological technicians sometimes work with disease-causing organ­ isms or radioactive agents. However, there is little risk if proper safe­ ty procedures are followed. Employment Science technicians held about 246.000 jobs in 1990. Almost 40 per­ cent worked in manufacturing, especially in the chemical, petroleum refining, and food processing industries. Almost 20 percent worked in colleges and universities and another 11 percent worked in research and testing services. In 1990, the Federal Government employed about 20,000 science technicians, mostly in the Departments of Defense, Agriculture, Inte­ rior, and Commerce. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement There are several ways to qualify for a job as a science technician. Most employers prefer applicants who have at least 2 years of spe­ cialized training. Many junior and community colleges offer associate degrees in a specific technology or a more general education in sci­ ence and mathematics. A number of 2-year associate degree pro­ grams are designed to provide easy transfer to a 4-year college or university if desired. Technical institutes generally offer technician training but provide less theory and general education than junior or community colleges. The length of programs at technical institutes varies, although 2-year associate degree programs are common. Some of these schools offer cooperative-education programs, allowing stu­ dents the opportunity to work at a local company while attending classes in alternate terms. Many science technicians have a bachelor’s degree in science or mathematics, or have had science and math courses in 4-year colleges. Some people with bachelor’s degrees in a physical or life science become science technicians because they can’t find or don’t want a job as a scientist or because employers couldn’t find properly trained technicians with less education. In some cases, they may be able to move into jobs as scientists, man­ agers, or technical sales workers. Some companies offer formal or on-the-job training for science technicians. Technicians also may qualify for their jobs with some types of Armed Forces training. Persons interested in careers as science technicians should take as many high school science and math courses as possible. Science courses taken beyond high school, in an associate’s or bachelor’s pro-  eBtaSWI  Science technicians often work independently, setting up and monitoring laboratory experiments.  gram, should be laboratory oriented, with an emphasis on “bench” skills. Communication skills are important, and technicians should be able to work well with others since technicians often are part of a team. Because computers and computer-interfaced equipment are increasingly used in research and development laboratories, computer skills are also valuable. Technicians usually begin work as trainees in routine positions under the direct supervision of a scientist or experienced technician. Job candidates whose training or educational background encompass­ es extensive hands-on experience with a variety of laboratory equip­ ment, including computers and related equipment, usually require a much shorter period of on-the-job training. As they gain experience, they take on more responsibility and carry out assignments under only general supervision. Some eventually become supervisors. Job Outlook Science technicians with good technical and communications skills should experience very good employment opportunities through the year 2005. Employment is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005 due to an expected growth in scientific research and development and production of technical products. Because of the growth of biotechnology, employ­ ment of biological technicians is expected to grow faster than for most other science technicians. Job opportunities for chemical techni­ cians are also expected to be very good. Employment of nuclear and petroleum technicians is expected to grow more slowly. Despite the projected growth, most job openings will arise from the need to replace technicians who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Earnings Median annual earnings of science technicians were about $24,700 in 1990; the middle 50 percent earned between $17,700 and $32,400. Ten percent earned less than $13,700, and 10 percent earned over $42,600. In the Federal Government in 1991, science technicians could start at $13,515, $15,171, or $16,973, depending on their education and experience. The average salary for biological technicians employed by the Federal Government in 1991 was $22,863; for mathematical technicians, $26,211; for physical science technicians, $28,060; for geodetic technicians, $33,096; for hydrologic technicians, $26,928; and for meteorologic technicians, $33,279. Related Occupations Other technicians who apply scientific principles at a level usually taught in 2-year associate degree programs include engineering tech­ nicians, broadcast technicians, drafters, and health technologists and technicians. Some of the work of agricultural and biological techni­ cians is related to that in agriculture and forestry occupations. Sources of Additional Information For information about a career as a chemical technician, contact: m- American Chemical Society, Education Division, Career Publications, 1155 16th St. NW„ Washington, DC 20036.  Surveyors (D.O.T. 018.131, .167 except -022, .261, .262, .281; 024.061-014; and 184.167-026)  Nature of the Work This statement covers three groups of workers who measure and map the earth’s surface. Land Surveyors establish official land, air space, and water boundaries; write descriptions of land for deeds, leases, and other legal documents; define air space for airports; and measure construction and mineral sites. They are assisted by survey techni­ cians, who operate surveying instruments and collect information. Mapping scientists and other surveyors collect geographic informa­ tion and prepare maps and charts.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Land surveyors manage one or more survey parties who measure distances, directions, and angles between points and elevations of points, lines, and contours on the earth’s surface. They plan the field­ work, select known survey reference points, and determine the pre­ cise location of all important features of the survey area. They research legal records and look for evidence of previous boundaries. They record the results of the survey, verify the accuracy of data, and prepare plats, maps, and reports. Surveyors who establish official boundaries must be licensed by the State in which they work. The information needed by the land surveyor is gathered by a sur­ vey party. A typical survey party is made up of a party chief and sev­ eral survey technicians and helpers. The party chief, who may be either a land surveyor or a senior survey technician, leads the day-to­ day work activities. The party chief is assisted by survey technicians, who adjust and operate surveying instruments such as the theodolite (used to measure horizontal and vertical angles) and electronic dis­ tance-measuring equipment. Survey technicians or helpers hold the vertical rods that the theodolite operator sights on to measure angles, distances, or elevations. They may also hold measuring tapes and chains if electronic distance-measuring equipment is not used. Survey technicians also compile notes, make sketches, and enter the data obtained from these instruments into computers. Some survey parties include laborers or helpers to clear brush from sight lines, drive stakes, carry equipment, and perform other less skilled duties. New technology is changing the nature of the work of surveyors and survey technicians. For larger surveying projects, surveyors are increasingly using the Global Positioning System (GPS), a satellite system which precisely locates points on the earth using radio signals transmitted by satellites. The system was designed by the military for the navigation of its planes, tanks, ships, and other equipment. To use it, a surveyor places a satellite receiver, the size of a backpack, on a desired point. The receiver collects information from several satel­ lites at once to triangulate the position precisely. Two receivers are generally used, one at a known point and the other at the unknown point, and are operated simultaneously. The receiver can also be placed in a car to trace out road systems or for other uses. The system is operative yet not totally complete now, but when all the planned satellites are placed in orbit and as the cost of the receivers are reduced, much more surveying work will be done by GPS. Mapping scientists, like land surveyors, measure, map, and chart the earth’s surface but generally cover much larger areas. Unlike land surveyors, however, mapping scientists work mainly in offices and may seldom or never visit the sites they are mapping. Mapping scien­ tists include workers in several occupations. Cartographers prepare maps using information provided by geodetic surveys, aerial pho­ tographs, and satellite data. Photogrammetrists prepare maps and drawings by measuring and interpreting aerial photographs, using analytical processes and mathematical formulas. Photogrammetrists make detailed maps of areas that are inaccessible or difficult to sur­ vey by other methods. Map editors develop and verify map contents from aerial photographs and other reference sources. Some surveyors perform specialized functions which are closer to mapping science than traditional surveying. Geodetic surveyors use high-accuracy techniques, including satellite observations, to measure large areas of the earth’s surface. Geophysical prospecting surveyors mark sites for subsurface exploration, usually petroleum related. Marine surveyors survey harbors, rivers, and other bodies of water to determine shorelines, topography of the bottom, water depth, and other features. The work of mapping scientists is also changing due to new tech­ nologies. The technologies include GPS, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), which are computerized data banks of spatial data, new earth resources data satellites, and improved aerial photography. The older specialties of photogrammetrist or cartographer are becom­ ing a new one, geographic information specialist. Further, many observe that the functions of mapping science and surveying are merging into a broader field, that of the collection and analysis of geographic spatial information. Working Conditions Surveyors usually work an 8-hour day 5 days a week. Sometimes 27  they work longer hours during the summer, when weather and light conditions are most suitable for fieldwork. Land surveyors and technicians do active and sometimes strenuous work. They often stand for long periods, walk long distances, and climb hills with heavy packs of instruments and equipment. They also are exposed to all types of weather. Occasionally, they may com­ mute long distances or temporarily relocate near a survey site. They also spend considerable time in an office, planning surveys, analyzing data, and preparing reports and maps. Most computations and map drafting are done at a computer. Mapping scientists spend almost all their time in offices. Employment Surveyors held about 108,000 jobs in 1990. Engineering, architec­ tural, and surveying firms employ over three-fifths of all surveyors. Federal, State, and local government agencies employ about onefourth. Major Federal Government employers are the U.S. Geological Survey, the Bureau of Land Management, the Army Corps of Engi­ neers, the Forest Service, the National Ocean Survey, and the Defense Mapping Agency. Most surveyors in State and local govern­ ment work for highway departments and urban planning and redevel­ opment agencies. Construction firms, mining and oil and gas extraction companies, and public utilities also employ surveyors. About 6,000 surveyors were self-employed. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Most persons prepare to be a licensed surveyor by combining post­ secondary school courses in surveying with extensive on-the-job training. About 25 universities offer 4-year programs leading to a BS  4r  !4£Ki|i  w «&**•  to  A surveyor ensures that a new roadway is on course. 28  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ’  degree in surveying. Junior and community colleges, technical insti­ tutes, and vocational schools offer 1-, 2-, and 3-year programs in both surveying and surveying technology. High school students interested in surveying should take courses in algebra, geometry, trigonometry, drafting, mechanical drawing, and computer science. All 50 States license land surveyors. In the past, many surveyors started as members of survey crews and worked their way up to licensed surveyor with little formal training in surveying. However, due to advancing technology and an increase in licensing standards, more formal education is now required. Most States at the present time require some formal post-high school education courses and 5 to 12 years of surveying experience to gain licensure. However, require­ ments vary among the States. Generally, the quickest route is a com­ bination of 4 years of college, 2 to 4 years of experience (a few States do not require any), and passing the State licensing examination. An increasing number of States require a bachelor’s degree in surveying or in a closely related field such as civil engineering or forestry with courses in surveying. High school graduates with no formal training in surveying usually start as a helper. Beginners with postsecondary school training in sur­ veying can generally start as technicians. With on-the-job experience and formal training in surveying—either in an institutional program or from a correspondence school—workers may advance to senior survey technician, then to party chief, and finally, in some cases, to licensed surveyor (depending on State licensing requirements). Cartographers and photogrammetrists usually have a bachelor’s degree in engineering or a physical science, although it is possible to enter these jobs through experience as a photogrammetric or carto­ graphic technician. Most cartographic and photogrammetry techni­ cians have had some specialized postsecondary school training. With the development of Geographic Information Systems, cartographers, photogrammetrists, and other mapping scientists now need more edu­ cation and experience in the use of computers than in the past. Surveyors should have the ability to visualize objects, distances, sizes, and other abstract forms and to work precisely and accurately because mistakes can be very costly. Leadership qualities are impor­ tant for party chief and other supervisors. Members of a survey party must be in good physical condition to work outdoors and carry equipment over difficult terrain. They also need good eyesight, coordination, and hearing to communicate by hand or voice signals. Job Outlook Employment of surveyors is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. In addition to openings arising from growth in demand for surveyors, many will result from the need to replace those who transfer to other occupa­ tions or leave the labor force. The anticipated growth in construction through the year 2005 should create jobs for surveyors who lay out streets, shopping cen­ ters, housing developments, factories, office buildings, and recreation areas. Road and highway construction and improvement also should create new surveying positions. However, employment may fluctuate from year to year along with constmction activity. Some growth in employment of mapping scientists and other sur­ veyors may occur in private firms; little or no growth is expected in the Federal Government. Higher levels of technology, a national trend of upgraded licensing requirements, and the increased demand for geographic spatial data (as opposed to traditional surveying services) mean that opportunities will be best for surveyors and mapping scientists who have at least a bachelor’s degree. New technology such as GPS and GIS may increase productivity for larger projects and may enhance employ­ ment opportunities for surveyors and survey technicians who have the educational background to use it while reducing employment opportunities for those who do not. Earnings According to the limited data available, the median annual earnings for surveyors were about $25,600 in 1990.  In 1990, the median annual earnings for survey technicians were about $23,200 a year. The middle 50 percent earned between $17,400 and $32,100 a year; 10 percent earned less than $14,500 a year; 10 percent earned more than $43,700 a year. In 1991, high school graduates with little or no training or experi­ ence earned about $12,385 annually at entry level jobs on survey crews with the Federal Government. Those with 1 year of related postsecondary training earned $13,515. Those with an associate degree that included courses in surveying generally started as instru­ ment assistants with an annual salary of $15,171. In 1991, persons starting as land surveyors or cartographers with the Federal Govern­ ment earned $16,973 or $21,023 a year, depending on their qualifica­ tions. The average annual salary for Federal land surveyors in 1991 was $37,024, for surveying technicians, $21,779, for cartographers, $38,957, for cartographic technicians, $27,146, for geodesists, $43,769, and for geodetic technicians, $33,096.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Related Occupations Surveying is related to the work of civil engineers and architects, since an accurate survey is the first step in a construction project. Mapping science and geodetic surveying are related to the work of geologists and geophysicists, who study the earth's internal composi­ tion, surface, and atmosphere. Mapping science is also related to the work of geographers and urban planners, who study how the earth’s surface is used. Sources of Additional Information Information about career opportunities, licensure requirements, and schools that offer training in surveying is available from: *■ American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, 5410 Grosvenor Lane, Bethesda, MD 20814-2122.  General information on careers in photogrammetry is available from: «■ American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 5410 Grosvenor Lane, Suite 200, Bethesda, MD 20814.  29  Related Publications Occupational Projections and Training Data  U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics  1992 Edition  BLS Bulletin 2402  ' ’;V, ''  A Statistical and Reaaarch Supplement to the 1062-83 OooupaBonalOuSook Hi  3BB5 ■QQC ■ ft i  a a i t i a a a a t  BLS Bulletin 2401  BLS Bulletin 2402  Occupational Projections and Training Data, 1992 Edition  Outlook 1990-2005  This supplement to the Occupational Outlook Handbook pro­ vides the statistical and technical data supporting the infor­ mation presented in the Handbook. Education and training planners, career counselors, and jobseekers can find valu­ able information that ranks occupations by employment growth, earnings, susceptibility to unemployment, separation rates, and part-time work.  Every 2 years, the Bureau of Labor Statistics produces detailed projections of the U.S. economy and labor force. This bulletin presents the Bureau’s latest analyses of economic and industrial growth, the labor force, and trends in occupa­ tional employment into the 21st century. An overview article focuses on important issues raised by these projections.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Note: At press time, prices for these publications were not available. For prices and ordering information, contact any of the Bureau of Labor Statistics Regional Offices listed on the inside of the front cover, or the Division of Occupational Outlook, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, DC 20212.  New from BLS  cien  3 Do you want to know more about work in industries? • Number of jobs • Geographic areas having the most jobs • Size of establishments • Goods and services produced • Kinds of workers employed—what types of work is done • Common working conditions and hazards • Jobs that can be entered from high school; from college • Jobs that do not require specialized education or training • Opportunities for acquiring skills • Prospects for upward mobility • Long-term employment outlook • Reasons for changing staffing patterns Digitized•forEarnings FRASER of key https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  occupations  Then, don’t miss this new publication!  Career Guide to Industries Career Guide to Industries, BLS Bulletin 2403, was produced by the same staff that prepares the Occupational Outlook Handbook—the Federal Goverment’s premier career guidance publication. This new book is a must for guidance counselors, individuals planning their careers, job seekers, and others who want the latest word on career information from an industry perspective. Note: At press time, the price for this publication was not available. Contact any of the Bureau of Labor Statistics Regional Offices listed on the inside front cover, or the Division of Occupational Outlook, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, DC 20212.  Excellence...  The Society for Technical Communication Washington, DC Chapter presents this  AWARD OF EXCELLENCE to  for  Melvin Fountain  Occupational Outlook Quarterly Summer 1987  submitted to the 1987-1988 Technical Communications Competition  Chapter President  "f"r—~~  Graphic Design in the Age of Computers  ■ wY W [;[rpr yM  OUTLOOK; 1990-2005  i  vf«  in Style. . . Excellence. The Occupational Outlook Quarterly has won more than a dozen awards during the past decade because of its excellence in content and style. And it’s a great value to boot!  Subscribe and find out why.  in Content... For only $6.50 you will receive four issues covering such subjects as • emerging occupations • new technology • labor force trends • earnings and benefits.  in Value. Just what you need to help people make a career decision. Each issue is must reading for career guidance counselors, students, and employment specialists who want the latest word on careers from the Bureau of Labor Statistics.  Occupational Outlook Quarterly  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  For sale by the U.S. Government Printing Office Washington, DC 20402. One-year subscription: $6.50; 2-year subscription: $13.00; single issue: $2.50. Make check payable to the Superintendent of Documents, and send to New Orders, Superintendent of Documents, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954.
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