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23W-ZCCC-0I  Occupational Outlook r Handbook  Find on INTERNET at:  I .Q  flona rfmQnt r\-f I  oKak  Bureau of Labor Statistics January 2001 Bulletin  s Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  »»«gr  Occupational Outlook Handbook  2000-01 Edition  U.S. Department of Labor Alexis M. Herman, Secretary Bureau of Labor Statistics Katharine G. Abraham, Commissioner  S-M.S.U. LIBRARY  January 2000 Bulletin 2520 Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  MM o 7 m  U.S ntDAoiT  ISBN 0-16-050250-0  90000  9 780 60 502507  For sale by the U.S. Government Printing Office Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop: SSOP, Washington, DC 20402-9328 ISBN 0-16-050250-0  Suggested citation: Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2000-01 Edition, Bulletin 2520. Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2000.__________________ Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Message from the Secretary  Wt  A  s America enters a new century, workers will need comprehensive, up-to-date, and reliable labor market in­ formation to adapt to rapid changes in the workplace. Pro­ viding this information is one of the Department of Labor’s primary goals. As technology advances, foreign competi­ tion grows, and business practices continue to change, jobseekers will need the skills to find and hold good jobs. To this end, the Occupational Outlook Handbook, the Government’s premier career guidance publication, pro­ vides essential information about job outlook in a wide range of occupations and the qualifications that will be needed by tomorrow’s workers.  ALEXIS M. HERMAN  iii Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Foreword t S&n  For over 50 years, the Bureau’s Occupational Outlook Handbook has been a nationally recognized source of ca­ reer information. Revised every 2 years, the Handbook describes changes in workplace practices, working condi­ tions, training and educational requirements, earnings, and job prospects in a wide range of occupations. Employment covered in over 250 occupations described in the 2000-01 Handbook accounts for about 6 of every 7 jobs in the economy. Combined with the updated special features of the Handbook, the occupational information presented in this new edition provides invaluable assis­ tance to individuals making decisions about their future work lives. KATHARINE G. ABRAHAM Commissioner Bureau of Labor Statistics  v Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Acknowledgments The Bureau of Labor Slatistics produeed the Handbook under the general guidance and direction of Neal H. Rosenthal, Associate Commissioner for Employment Projections, and Mike Pilot, Chief, Division of Occupational Outlook. Chester C. Levine and Jon Q. Sargent, Managers of Occupational Outlook Studies, provided planning and day-to-day direction. Supervisors overseeing the research and preparation of ma­ terial were Theresa Cosca, Mark Mittelhauser, Kristina Shelley, and Carolyn Veneri. Occupational analysts who contributed material were Hall Dillon, Arlene Dohm, Eric B. Figueroa, Chad M. Fleetwood, Jeffrey C. Gruenert, Jonathan Kelinson, R. Sean Kirby, T. Alan Lacey, Kevin M. McCarron, Andrew J. Nelson, Erik A. Savisaar, Terry Schau, Jill Silver, Gary Steinberg, Tiffany T. Stringer, and Patricia A. Tate. Word processing support was provided by Beverly A. Williams. Cover and other art work were designed by Keith Tapscott.  Note Many trade associations, professional societies, unions, industrial organizations, and government agencies provide career information that is valuable to counselors and jobseekers. For the convenience of Handbook users, some of these organizations and, in some cases, their Internet addresses are listed at the end of each occupational statement. Although these references were carefully compiled, the Bureau of Labor Statistics has neither authority nor facilities for in­ vestigating the organizations or the information or publications that may be sent in response to a request and cannot guarantee the accu­ racy of such information. The listing of an organization, therefore, does not constitute in any way an endorsement or recommendation by the Bureau either of the organization and its activities or of the information it may supply. Each organization has sole responsibil­ ity for whatever information it may issue. The Handbook describes the job outlook over a projected 10year period for occupations across the Nation; consequently, short­ term labor market fluctuations and regional differences in job out­ look generally are not discussed. Similarly, the Handbook provides a general, composite description of jobs and cannot be expected to reflect work situations in specific establishments or localities. The Handbook, therefore, is not intended and should not be used as a guide for determining wages, hours, the right of a particular union to represent workers, appropriate bargaining units, or formal job evaluation systems. Nor should earnings data in the Handbook be used to compute future loss of earnings in adjudication proceedings involving work injuries or accidental deaths. Material in this publication is in the public domain and, with appropriate credit, may be reproduced without permission. Com­ ments about the contents of this publication and suggestions for im­ proving it are welcome. Please address them to Chief, Division of Occupational Outlook, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC 20212. Phone:(202) 691-5700. Fax: (202) 691-5745. E-mail: Additional informa­ tion is available on the Internet:  vii Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Photograph Credits The Bureau of Labor Statistics wishes to express its appreciation for the co­ operation and assistance of the many government and private sources—listed below—that either contributed photographs or made their facilities available to photographers working under contract to the U.S. Department of Labor. Photographs may not be free of every possible safety or health hazard. De­ piction of company or trade name in no way constitutes endorsement by the Department of Labor. Adas Israel Congregation, Washington, DC; Air Traffic Controllers, Dulles International Airport; Allen-Mitchell & Company Machine Shop, Washington, DC; Amaco Refinery, Yorktown, VA; American Association of Retired Persons, Legal Counsel for the Elderly, Washington, DC; American University, including Washington College of Law, Washington, DC; Amtrak, Washington, DC; Animal Disease Center of the State of Illinois, Galesburg, IL; Appalachian Spring; Association of Flight Attendants; Audiophone, Washington, DC; Backyard Boat, Alexandria, VA; Baltimore Specialty Steels, Baltimore, MD; Baltimore Homesteading Program; Behnke Nurseries, Inc., Beltsville, MD; Black Magic Film Com­ pany; Brown Honda; Carlotta Joyner and Staff, U.S. General Accounting Office; Children’s Hospital, Washington, DC; City Paper, Washington, DC; Columbia Gardens Memorials, Arlington, VA; Craddock-Terry, Farmville, Virginia Plant; Cultural Affairs Program, Ar­ lington, VA; Cumberland Memorial Hospital, Cumberland, MD; Dance Place, Washington, DC; D.C. Vending Company, Washington, DC; Detective Agency, Washington, DC; Dis­ trict Cable of Washington, DC; Dixon’s Pest Control Service; D.L. Boyd, Hyattsville, MD; Dr. Bruce L. Lazerow, Sears Optical, White Oak, MD; Dr. David Walls-Kaufman, Capitol Hill Chiropractic, Washington, DC; Dr. Gerald Lipps, D.D.S., Rockville, MD; Fannie Mae; Fire Department of District of Columbia; George Meany Labor Studies Center and Ar­ chives, Silver Spring, MD; George Washington University Hospital, Washington, DC; Giant Food Stores, Silver Spring, MD; H. & H. Bindery, Hyattsville, MD; Hospice of Washington, DC; Hurly Company; Industrial Photo, Silver Spring, MD; Iona House for Senior Citizens, Washington, DC; Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD; Jolles Broth­ ers, Inc., Beltsville, MD; Joseph Passonneau, F.A.I.A., A.S.C.E.; Kath Keler; Kevin Hassett, State Farm Insurance, Washington, DC; Knox Veterinary Clinic, Galesburg, IL; Kop-Flex, Inc., Baltimore, MD; La Pierre and Company Design Studio, Alexandria, VA; Legg, Mason, Walker, Wood, Inc.; Litton Systems, Inc., Amecom Division, College Park, MD; Mar, Inc., Naval Engineering Group, Rockville, MD; Marc Rubenstein, Advanced Tool and Machine Service, Washington, DC; Martek Biosciences Corporation, Inc., Columbia, MD; Marriott Corporation; Martha Tabor, Working Images Photographs; Maryann Honakar, D.D.S.; Maryland Semiconductor, Inc., Clarksburg, MD; Maryland State Department of Forestry; Medical Records Corporation, Vienna, VA; Mt. Ranier Police Department, Mt. Ranier, MD; National Weather Service Forecast Office, Washington, DC; National Zoological Park, Washington, DC; Norfolk Naval Base, Norfolk, VA; Northwestern Illinois Research and Demonstration Center, University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana; Pastor Laureen E. Smith, Western Presbyterian Church, Washington, DC; Population Reference Bureau, Inc., Washington, DC; President’s Committee on Employment of People With Disabili­ ties; Providence Opticians, Washington, DC; Rapp Funeral Home, Silver Spring, MD; Red Cross Blood Bank, Baltimore, MD; Riggs National Bank, Dupont Circle Branch, Washing­ ton, DC; Robert Schwartz Associates, Architects; Rock Terrace High School, Montgomery County, MD; Sandy Springs Friends School, Sandy Springs, MD; Seely Pine Furniture, Berkeley Springs, WV; Sheraton Washington Hotel, Washington, DC; Southern States Cooperative, Lothian, MD; State Farm Insurance Company, Frederick, MD; St. Martin’s Catholic Church, Washington, DC; Suburban Dental Laboratories, Rockville, MD; Theodolphus Brooks Upholstery, Washington, DC; Thrifty Rental Cars; TJ’s Auto Body Repair Shop, Washington, DC; Travel Bound, Fairfax, VA; United Airlines, Dulles Interna­ tional Airport Terminal; University of Delaware, Lewes, DE; University of Maryland, Chemical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Materials Engineering, Mathematics, and Nuclear Engineering Departments; U.S. Air Force, Andrews Air Force Base, MD; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Fort Belvoir, VA; U.S. Census Bureau, Suitland, MD; U.S. Coast Guard, Annapolis, MD; U.S. Customs Officers, Dulles International Airport; US Elevator; U.S. Office of Personnel Management; U.S. Post Office, Galesburg, IL; Vandy L. Jamison, Jr., Attorney; Violin House of Weaver, Bethesda, MD; Walter Reed Army Hospital, Washing­ ton, DC; Washington Area Metropolitan Transit Authority; Washington Gas Company, Washington, DC; Washington Home, Washington, DC; Washington Times; Wendy Bayard, M.S.W., National Rehabilitation Hospital, Washington, DC; WETA, Alexandria, VA; Wil­ liam Maquire, USDA Agricultural Research Station, Beltsville, MD; WMATA, Washington, DC; Woodley House, Washington, DC; Wyatt Company, Washington, DC; Zsuzsi Wolf Jewelry, Alexandria, VA.  viii  Contents Engineers and engineering technicians Engineers........................................................................................ Aerospace engineers....................................................................... Chemical engineers.......................................................................... Civil engineers................................................................................. Electrical and electronics engineers.............................................. Industrial engineers, except safety engineers.............................. Materials engineers......................................................................... Mechanical engineers...................................................................... Mining engineers, including mine safety engineers.................... Nuclear engineers............................................................................. Petroleum engineers........................................................................ Engineering technicians..............................................................  Special Features Tomorrow’s Jobs.......................................................... Sources of Career Information................................. Finding a Job and Evaluating a Job Offer........... Occupational Information Included in the Handbook ... Data for Occupations Not Studied in Detail......... Assumptions and Methods Used in Preparing Employment Projections....................................... Standard Occupational Classification and Occupational Information Network Coverage.... Reprints.......................................................................... Index...............................................................................  1 8 13 18 521 528 530 540 543  Occupational Coverage Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Accountants and auditors.............................................................. Administrative services and facility managers............................ Advertising, marketing, and public relations managers............. Budget analysts............................................................................... Construction and building inspectors........................................... Construction managers.................................................................. Cost estimators............................................................................... Education administrators............................................................... Employment interviewers, private or public employment service.................................................................. Engineering, natural science, and computer and information systems managers...................................................................... Farmers and farm managers............................................................ Financial managers.......................................................................... Funeral directors and morticians................................................... General managers and top executives........................................... Government chief executives and legislators.............................. Health services managers............................................................... Hotel managers and assistants...................................................... Human resources, training, and labor relations specialists and managers.......................................................... Industrial production managers..................................................... Inspectors and compliance officers, except construction......... Insurance underwriters.................................................................. Loan officers and counselors......................................................... Management analysts..................................................................... Property, real estate, and community association managers.... Purchasing managers, buyers, and purchasing agents................ Restaurant and food service managers..........................................  20 23 25 27 29 31 34 36 39 41 43 45 48 50 51 53 55 57 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 76  Professional and Technical  85 88 89 90 90 91 92 93 93 94 95 96  Architects, surveyors, and drafters Architects, except landscape and naval....................................... Drafters............................................................................................ Landscape architects....................................................................... Surveyors, cartographers, photogrammetrists, and surveying technicians...............................................................  105  Computer, mathematical, and operations research Actuaries.......................................................................................... Computer systems analysts, engineers, and scientists.............. Computer programmers................................................................. Mathematicians............................................................................... Operations research analysts........................................................ Statisticians.....................................................................................  107 109 113 116 118 120  Scientists and science technicians Life scientists Agricultural and food scientists.................................................... Biological and medical scientists.................................................. Conservation scientists and foresters...........................................  122 124 127  Physical scientists Atmospheric scientists.................................................................. Chemists.......................................................................................... Geologists, geophysicists, and oceanographers.......................... Physicists and astronomers.......................................................... Science technicians ......................................................................  129 131 133 136 139  Legal Lawyers and judicial workers....................................................... Paralegals and legal assistants.......................................................  141 145  Social scientists Economists and marketing research analysts.............................. Psychologists.................................................................................. Urban and regional planners.......................................................... Social scientists, other...................................................................  148 150 153 154  Social and recreation workers Human service workers and assistants........................................ Recreation workers......................................................................... Social workers.................................................................................  157 159 161  Clergy.............................................................................................. Protestant ministers .......................................................................  164 164  98 100 102  Air transportation-related  Aircraft pilots and flight engineers............................................... Air traffic controllers...................................................................... Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  80 83  ix  Rabbis............................................................................................... Roman Catholic priests.................................................................  Demonstrators, product promoters, and models........................ Insurance sales agents.................................................................... Manufacturers’ and wholesale sales representatives................. Real estate agents and brokers...................................................... Retail salespersons......................................................................... Retail sales worker supervisors and managers............................ Securities, commodities, and financial services sales representatives................................................................. Services sales representatives....................................................... Travel agents............................................  166 167  Teachers and instructors, counselors, and library occupations Adult and vocational education teachers..................................... 168 Archivists, curators, museum technicians, and conservators...... 170 College and university faculty...................................................... 173 Counselors.............................................................. 175 Instructors and coaches, sports and physical training............... 178 Librarians......................................................................................... 179 Library technicians......................................................................... 182 School teachers—kindergarten, elementary, and secondary........ 183 Special education teachers.............................................................. 187 Health diagnosticians Chiropractors.................................................................................. Dentists............................................................................................ Optometrists................................................................................... Physicians........................................................................................ Podiatrists........................................................................................ Veterinarians....................................................................................  189 191 192 193 196 197  Health assessment and treating Dietitians and nutritionists............................................................ Occupational therapists................................................................. Pharmacists..................................................................................... Physical therapists......................................................................... Physician assistants....................................................................... Recreational therapists.................................................................. Registered nurses............................................................................ Respiratory therapists................................................................... Speech-language pathologists and audiologists...........................  200 202 203 205 207 209 210 213 214  Health technologists and technicians Cardiovascular technologists and technicians............................. Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians....................... Dental hygienists............................................................................ Electroneurodiagnostic technologists........................................... Emergency medical technicians and paramedics......................... Health information technicians...................................................... Licensed practical nurses............................................................... Nuclear medicine technologists..................................................... Opticians, dispensing..................................................................... Pharmacy technicians and assistants............................................ Radiologic technologists................................................................ Surgical technologists......................................................................  217 218 220 222 223 225 227 228 229 231 233 234  Communications-related Announcers..................................................................................... Broadcast and sound technicians................................................. News analysts, reporters, and correspondents.......................... Public relations specialists............................................................. Writers and editors, including technical writers..........................  236 237 239 241 243  Visual arts and design Designers.......................................................................................... Photographers and camera operators........................................... Visual artists.................................................................................... Performing arts Actors, directors, and producers.................................................. Dancers and choreographers......................................................... Musicians, singers, and related workers...................................... Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  278 280 283  Administrative Support, Including Clerical Adjusters, investigators, and collectors....................................... Bank tellers...................................................................................... Communications equipment operators....................................... Computer operators...................................................................... Court reporters, medical transcriptionists, and stenographers.... Information clerks........................................................................... Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks....................................... Interviewing and new accounts clerks.................................... Receptionists............................................................................. Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks................................................................... Loan clerks and credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks............ Mail clerks and messengers........................................................... Material recording, scheduling, dispatching, and distributing occupations................................................... Dispatchers................................................................................ Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks..................................... Stock clerks............................................................................... Office and administrative support supervisors and managers............................................................................. Office clerks, general...................................................................... Postal clerks and mail carriers....................................................... Records processing occupations.................................................. Billing clerks and billing machine operators.......................... Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks....................... Brokerage clerks and statement clerks.................................... File clerks................................................................................... Human resources clerks, except payroll and timekeeping....... Library assistants and bookmobile drivers............................ Order clerks............................................................................... Payroll and timekeeping clerks............................................... Secretaries ....................................................................................... Teacher assistants........................................................................... Word processors, typists, and data entry keyers.......................  285 289 291 293 295 297 299 300 300 301 302 304 306 307 309 310 310 312 313 315 317 318 319 320 320 321 322 323 324 326 328  Service Cleaning, buildings, and grounds service  Janitors and cleaners and institutional cleaning supervisors..... Landscaping, groundskeeping, nursery, greenhouse, and lawn service occupations.................................................. Pest controllers...............................................................................  246 249 251  330 331 334  Food preparation and beverage service  Chefs, cooks, and other kitchen workers..................................... Food and beverage service occupations.......................................  254 256 258  336 338  Health service  Dental assistants............................................................................. Medical assistants.......................................................................... Nursing and psychiatric aides....................................................... Occupational therapy assistants and aides.................................. Physical therapist assistants and aides.......................................  Marketing and Sales Cashiers............................................................................................ Counter and rental clerks...................... :.......................................  264 267 269 271 274 276  261 262  x  341 342 343 345 346  Personal service  Barbers, cosmetologists, and related workers............................ Flight attendants............................................................................. Home health and personal care aides............................................ Preschool teachers and child-care workers.................................. Private household workers............................................................. Veterinary assistants and nonfarm animal caretakers.................  Production  348 350 351 353 355 357  Protective service  Correctional officers....................................................................... Fire fighting occupations ............................................................... Guards.............................................................................................. Police and detectives....................................................................... Private detectives and investigators.............................................  359 361 364 366 369  Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers Electrical and electronic equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers........ Electronic home entertainment equipment repairers.................. Electronics repairers, commercial and industrial equipment...... Telecommunications equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers............................................................................... Other mechanics, installers, and repairers Aircraft mechanics and service technicians.................................. Automotive body repairers.............................................................. Automotive mechanics and service technicians.......................... Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers............................................................................... Diesel mechanics and service technicians.................................... Farm equipment mechanics............................................................ Heating, air-conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers............................................................................... Home appliance and power tool repairers...................................... Industrial machinery repairers ......................................................... Line installers and repairers........................................................... Maintenance mechanics, general utility....................................... Millwrights......................................................................................... Mobile heavy equipment mechanics............................................... Motorcycle, boat, and small-engine mechanics.......................... Musical instrument repairers and tuners........................................  372 374 375 376  378 380 382 385 387 389 391 394 396 397 399 401 402 405 407  Construction Trades Boilermakers.................................................................................... Bricklayers and stonemasons........................................................ Carpenters........................................................................................ Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers............................. Cement masons, concrete finishers, and terrazzo workers....... Construction equipment operators.............................................. Drywall installers and finishers.................................................... Electricians....................................................................................... Elevator installers and repairers.................................................... Glaziers............................................................................................ Hazardous materials removal workers......................................... Insulation workers.......................................................................... Painters and paperhangers............................................................. Plasterers and stucco masons........................................................ Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters....................................... Roofers............................................................................................. Sheet metal workers and duct installers...................................... Structural and reinforcing metal workers..................................... Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  410 411 413 415 417 419 421 422 424 426 428 430 431 433 435 437 438 440  Assemblers Precision assemblers.......................................................................  443  Blue-collar worker supervisors..................................................  445  Fishers and fishing vessel operators........................................  446  Food processing Butchers and meat, poultry, and fish cutters.............................  448  Forestry, conservation, and logging..........................................  450  Inspectors, testers, and graders................................................  453  Metalworking and plastics-working Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers......................... Machinists and numerical control machine tool programmers............................................................................... Metalworking and plastics-working machine operators........... Tool and die makers........................................................................ Welders, cutters, and welding machine operators.......................  457 459 462 463  Plant and systems operators Electric power generating plant operators and power distributors and dispatchers..................................................... Stationary engineers......................................... Water and wastewater treatment plant operators.......................  465 467 468  Printing Bindery workers.............................................................................. Prepress workers............................................................................ Printing press operators................................................................  470 472 475  Textile, apparel, and furnishings Apparel workers............................................................................. Shoe and leather workers and repairers....................................... Textile machinery operators.......................................................... Upholsterers....................................................................................  477 479 481 482  Woodworking................................................................................  484  Miscellaneous production Dental laboratory technicians...................................... Electronic semiconductor processors........................................... Ophthalmic laboratory technicians.............................................. Painting and coating machine operators...................................... Photographic process workers......................................................  486 488 489 491 493  455  Transportation and Material Moving  xi  Busdrivers........................................................................................ Material moving equipment operators......................................... Rail transportation occupations.................................................... Taxi drivers and chauffeurs............................................................ Truckdrivers.................................................................................... Water transportation occupations................................................  495 498 499 502 505 508  Handlers, Equipment Cleaners, Helpers, and Laborers........................................................................  511  Job Opportunities in the Armed Forces.....................  514 Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Additional Information About the 1998-2008 Projections Readers interested in more information about projec­ tions and details on the labor force, economic growth, industry and occupational employment, or methods and assumptions should consult the November 1999 Monthly Labor Review; Employment Outlook: 1998-2008, BLS Bulletin 2522; or the Winter 1999-2000 Occupational Outlook Quarterly.  For more information about employment change, job openings, earnings, unemployment rates, and training requirements by occupation, consult Occupational Pro­ jections and Training Data, 2000-01 Edition, BLS Bul­ letin 2521. For occupational information from an industry perspec­ tive, including some occupations and career paths that the Occupational Outlook Handbook does not cover, consult the Career Guide to Industries, 2000-01 Edi­ tion, BLS Bulletin 2523.  xii  Tomorrow’s Jobs Making informed career decisions requires reliable informa­ tion about opportunities in the future. Opportunities result from the relationships between the population, labor force, and the demand for goods and services. Population ultimately limits the size of the labor force— individuals working or looking for work—which constrains how much can be produced. Demand for various goods and services determines employment in the industries providing them. Occupational employment opportunities, in turn, re­ sult from skills needed within specific industries. Opportuni­ ties for computer engineers and other computer-related occu­ pations, for example, have surged in response to rapid growth in demand for computer services. Examining the past and projecting changes in these rela­ tionships are the foundation of the Occupational Outlook Pro­ gram. This chapter presents highlights of Bureau of Labor Statistics projections of the labor force and occupational and industry employment that can help guide your career plans. Sources of detailed information about the projections appear on the preceding page.  Population Population trends affect employment opportunities in a num­ ber of ways. Changes in population influence the demand for goods and services. For example, a growing and aging popu­ lation has increased the demand for health services. Equally important, population changes produce corresponding changes in the size and demographic composition of the labor force. The U.S. population is expected to increase 23 million over the 1998-2008 period, at roughly the same rate of growth as during the 1988-98 period but much slower than over the 1978-88 period (chart 1). Continued growth will mean more Chart 1. Population and labor force growth 1978-88,1988-98, and projected 1998-2008 Percent change  Labor Force Population is the single most important factor in determining the size and composition of the labor force—comprised of people who are either working or looking for work. The ci­ vilian labor force is expected to increase by 17 million, or 12 percent, to 154.6 million over the 1998-2008 period. This increase is almost the same as the 13 percent increase during the 1988-98 period but much less than the 19 percent increase during the 1978-88 period. The U.S. workforce will become more diverse by 2008. White, non-Hispanic persons will make up a decreasing share of the labor force, from 73.9 to 70.7 percent. Hispanics, non-Hispanic blacks, and Asians and other racial groups are projected to comprise an increasing share of the labor force Chart 2. Percent of labor force by race and ethnic origin, 1998 and projected 2008 Percent  20 r- Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  consumers of goods and services, spurring demand for work­ ers in a wide range of occupations and industries. The ef­ fects of population growth in various occupations will dif­ fer. The differences are partially accounted for by the age distribution of the future population. The youth population, ages 16 to 24, is expected to increase as a share of the population for the first time since the 1970s. Overall, the 25 to 54 age group is expected to decrease as a share of the population. Within this group, however, the 45 and over age group will grow as a percent of the population. The 55 and over age group will grow the fastest, increasing from 26.6 to 30 percent over the 1998-2008 period. Minorities and immigrants will constitute a larger share of the U.S. population in 2008 than they do today. Substantial increases in the Hispanic, black, and Asian populations are forecasted, reflecting high birth rates as well as a continued flow of immigrants.  80 r  \//\  Labor force  | Civilian noninstitutional population  EZ31998 2008  1988-98  1998-2008  White, non-Hispanic  Hispanic, any race  non-Hispanic  Asian and other races  1  2 Occupational Outlook Handbook  by 2008—10.4 to 12.7 percent, 11.6 to 12.4 percent, and 4.6 to 5.7 percent, respectively (chart 2). However, despite rela­ tively slow growth, white non-Hispanics will have the larg­ est numerical growth in the labor force between 1998 and 2008, reflecting the large size of this group. The number of men and women in the labor force will grow, but the number of men will grow at a slower rate than in the past. Between 1998 and 2008, men’s share of the la­ bor force is expected to decrease from 53.7 to 52.5 percent while women’s share is expected to increase from 46.3 to 47.5 percent. The youth labor force, ages 16 to 24, is expected to slightly increase its share of the labor force to 16 percent in 2008, growing more rapidly than the overall labor force for the first time in 25 years. The large group of workers 25 to 44 years old, who comprised 51 percent of the labor force in 1998, is projected to decline to 44 percent of the labor force by 2008. Workers 45 and older, on the other hand, are projected to in­ crease from 33 to 40 percent of the labor force between 1998 and 2008, due to the aging baby-boom generation (chart 3).  Chart 4. Growth rates by most significant source of education and training, projected 1998-2008  Doctoral degree  Masters degree Work experience plus bachelor's degree or higher First professional degree Postsecondaiy vocational training  Short-term on-the-job training Work experience in a related occupation Long-term on-the-job training  Moderate-term on-the-job training  Education and Training  Percent change  Projected job growth varies widely by education and training requirements. Five out of the six education and training cat­ egories projected to have the highest percent change require at least a bachelor’s degree (chart 4). These five categories will account for one-third of all employment growth over the 1998-2008 period. Employment in occupations that do not require postsecondary education are projected to grow by about 12 percent while occupations that require at least a bachelor’s degree are projected to grow by almost 22 percent, compared to 14 percent for all occupations combined. Education is essential in getting a high paying job. In fact, all but a few of the 50 highest paying occupations re­ quire a college degree. However, a number of occupations— for example, blue-collar worker supervisors, electricians, and police patrol officers—do not require a college degree, yet offer higher than average earnings.  1998 and projected 2008 Percent 30 r  Y7A  1998  Employment Total employment is expected to increase from 141 million in 1998 to 161 million in 2008, or by 14 percent. The 20 million jobs that will be added by 2008 will not be evenly distributed across major industrial and occupational groups. Changes in consumer demands, technology, and many other factors will contribute to the continually changing employment structure in the U.S. economy. The following two sections examine projected employment change from both industrial and occupational perspectives. The industrial profile is discussed in terms of primary wage and salary employment; primary employment excludes sec­ ondary jobs for those who hold multiple jobs. The exception is agriculture, which includes self-employed and unpaid fam­ ily workers in addition to salaried workers. The occupational profile is viewed in terms of total em­ ployment—including primary and secondary jobs for wage and salary, self-employed, and unpaid family workers. Of the nearly 141 million jobs in the U.S. economy in 1998, wage and salary workers accounted for over 128 million; self-employed workers accounted for over 12 million; and unpaid family workers accounted for about 200,000. Of the nearly 141 million total jobs, secondary employment ac­ counted for over 2 million. Self-employed workers held 9 out of 10 secondary jobs; wage and salary workers held most of the remainder.  Industry  16-24  25-34 Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  35-44  45-54  55 and over  The long-term shift from goods-producing to service-pro­ ducing employment is expected to continue (chart 5). Ser­ vice-producing industries—including finance, insurance, and real estate; government; services; transportation and public utilities; and wholesale and retail trade—are ex­ pected to account for approximately 19.1 million of the 19.5 million new wage and salary jobs generated over the 1998­ 2008 period. The services and retail trade industry sectors will account for nearly three-fourths of total wage and sal­ ary job growth, a continuation of the employment growth pattern of the 1988-98 period.  Tomorrow’s Jobs 3  Chart 5. Percent change in wage and salary employment, service-producing industries, 1988-98 and projected 1998-2008 Services  Transportation and public utilities  Finance, insurance, and real estate  Y//X1988-98 ■ 1998-2008  Wholesale and retail trade  Government  I  0  i  5  i  10  i  15  20  25  30  _l____l ___l 45 35 40  Percent change  Services. The largest and fastest growing major industry group—services—is expected to add 11.8 million new jobs by 2008. Nearly three-fourths of this projected job growth is concentrated in three sectors of services—business, health, and professional and miscellaneous services. Business ser­ vices—including personnel supply and computer and data processing services, among other detailed industries—will add 4.6 million jobs. Health services—including home health care services and nursing and personal care facilities, among other detailed industries—will add 2.8 million jobs. Profes­ sional and miscellaneous services—including management and public relations and research and testing services, among other detailed industries—will add 1.1 million jobs. Em­ ployment in computer and data processing services is pro­ jected to grow 117 percent between 1998 and 2008, ranking as the fastest growing industry. Transportation and public utilities. Overall employment is expected to increase by 674,000 jobs, or 14 percent. Em­ ployment in the transportation sector is expected to increase by 16 percent, from 4.3 to 5 million jobs. Air, truck, and local and interurban passenger transportation will account for 32, 30, and 23 percent, respectively, of the job growth in this in­ dustry. Employment in communications is expected to grow about as fast as average through 2008, adding about 300,000 new jobs. Employment in utilities is expected to decline by about 4 percent. However, faster than average growth is ex­ pected in water supply and sanitary services with the creation of about 67,000 jobs. Finance, insurance, and real estate. Employment is ex­ pected to increase by 13 percent—adding 960,000 jobs to the 1998 level of 7.4 million. Demand for financial services is expected to continue. The security and commodity brokers segment of the industry is expected to grow by 40 percent, creating about 255,000 jobs. Nondepository institutions will add 193,000 jobs and have a growth rate of 29 percent, fueled by increased demand for nonbank corporations that offer bank­ like services. Continued demand for real estate will create 179,000 new jobs, at a growth rate of about 12 percent. The Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  insurance carriers segment is expected to grow by nearly 10 percent—adding 154,000 jobs. Wholesale and retail trade. Employment is expected to increase by 7 and 14 percent, respectively, growing from 6.8 to 7.3 million in wholesale trade and from 22.3 to 25.4 million in retail trade. With the addition of 1.3 million jobs, the eating and drinking places segment of the retail indus­ try is projected to have the largest numerical increase in employment. Government. Between 1998 and 2008, government em­ ployment, including public education and public hospitals, is expected to increase by over 9 percent, from 19.8 to 21.7 million jobs. State and local government, particularly edu­ cation, will drive employment growth. Federal Govern­ ment employment is expected to decline by 165,000 jobs. Employment in the goods-producing industries has been relatively stagnant since the early 1980s. Overall, this sec­ tor is expected to grow by 1.6 percent over the 1998-2008 period. Although employment growth is expected to show little change, projected growth within the sector varies con­ siderably (chart 6). Construction. Construction is expected to increase by 9 percent from 5.9 to 6.5 million. Demand for new housing and an increase in road, bridge, and tunnel construction will ac­ count for the bulk of employment growth in this industry. Agriculture, forestry, and fishing. Overall employment in agriculture, forestry, and fishing is expected to increase by nearly 5 percent from 2.2 to 2.3 million. Strong growth in agricultural services will more than offset an expected con­ tinued decline in crops and livestock and livestock products. Manufacturing. Manufacturing employment is expected to decline by less than 1 percent from the 1998 level of 18.8 million. The projected loss of jobs reflects improved produc­ tion methods, advances in technology, and increased trade. Mining. Mining employment is expected to decrease by 19 percent from 590,000 to 475,000. The continued decline is partly due to laborsaving machinery and in­ creased imports.  Chart 6. Percent change in wage and salary employment, goods-producing industries, 1988-98 and projected 1998-2008 Percent change 25 r  X///X 1988-98 1998-2008  -25 L  Construction  Agriculture, forestry, and fishing  Manufacturing  Mining  4 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Occupation Expansion of the service-producing sector is expected to con­ tinue, creating demand for many occupations. However, pro­ jected job growth varies among major occupational groups (chart 7). Professional specialty. Professional specialty occupations comprise the fastest growing group. Over the 1998-2008 pe­ riod, a 27-percent increase in the number of new professional specialty jobs is projected, an increase of 5.3 million. Profes­ sional specialty workers perform a wide variety of duties, and are employed throughout private industry and government. Computer systems analysts, computer engineers and scientists, special education teachers, and social and recreation workers are among the fastest growing occupations in this group. Technicians and related support. Employment of techni­ cians and related support occupations is projected to grow by 22 percent, adding 1.1 million jobs by 2008. Workers in this group provide technical assistance to engineers, scientists, physicians, and other professional specialty workers, and op­ erate and program technical equipment. Over half of the pro­ jected employment growth among technicians—about 616,000 jobs—is among health technicians and technologists. Con­ siderable growth is also expected among computer program­ mers and paralegals and legal assistants. Service. Employment in service occupations is projected to increase by 3.9 million, or 17 percent, by 2008, the second largest numerical gain among the major occupational groups. Over half of the new jobs are in the rapidly growing services industry division, led by business services, health services, and social services. Executive, administrative, and managerial. Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations are projected to increase by 16 percent, or 2.4 million, over the 1998­ 2008 period. Workers in this group establish policies, make plans, determine staffing requirements, and direct the ac­ tivities of businesses, government agencies, and other or­ ganizations. The services industry division is expected to account for half of the job growth, adding 1.2 million jobs. The number of self-employed executive, administrative, and managerial workers is expected to increase by 361,000— Chart 7. Percent change in total employment by major occupational group, projected 1998-2008 Professional specialty  Technicians and related support Service  Executive, administrative, and managerial  Marketing and sales  Operators, fabricators, and laborers Administrative support, including clerical Precision production, craft, and repair Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Percent change  Chart 8. Occupations with fast growth and high pay that have the largest numerical growth, projected 1998-2008 Computer systems analysts Registered nurses Computer support specialists Computer engineers Teachers, secondary school Social workers College and university faculty Computer programmers Engineering, science, and computer systems managers_ Police patrol officers Teachers, special education Securities and financial servicessales agents Physicians Advertising, marketing, and" public relations managers Management analysts Electrical and electronics engineers Paralegals and legal assistants Writers and editors |  Artists and commercial artists Medical and health service managers  100  200  300  400  500  600  Thousands  more than any other major occupational group—to almost 2.5 million by 2008. Marketing and sales. Workers in marketing and sales oc­ cupations sell goods and services, purchase commodities and property for resale, and stimulate consumer interest. Employ­ ment in this group is projected to increase by 15 percent, or 2.3 million, from 1998 to 2008. The services industry divi­ sion is expected to add the most marketing and sales jobs— 719,000—by 2008, followed by an additional 92,000 jobs in the transportation and public utilities industry division. Operators, fabricators, and laborers. Employment of op­ erators, fabricators, and laborers is expected to increase by 1.8 million workers, or 9.4 percent, from 1998 to 2008. Most new jobs in this group are expected among transportation and material moving machine and vehicle operators; helpers, la­ borers, and material movers, hand; and hand workers, includ­ ing assemblers and fabricators, adding 745,000,626,000, and 290,000 jobs, respectively. Administrative support, including clerical. The number of workers in administrative support occupations, including cleri­ cal is projected to increase by 9 percent from 1998 to 2008, adding 2.2 million new jobs. With 24.5 million workers, this is the largest major occupational group. Workers perform a wide variety of administrative tasks necessary to keep organizations functioning efficiently. Due mostly to technological change, several large occupations within this group—for example,  Tomorrow’s Jobs 5  Chart 9. Occupations projected to grow fastest, 1998-2008  Chart 10. Occupations with the largest numercial decrease in employment, projected 1998-2008  Computer  Farmers  Computer support specialists  Sewing machine operators, garment  Computer systems analysts | Child care workers, private household Database administrators Word processors and typists Desktop publishing specialists  Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerics  Paralegals and legal assistants  Cleaners and servants, private -household  Personal and home care aides Farm workers Medical assistants  Computer operators, except peripheral equipment  Social and human service assistants  Textile draw-out and winding machine operators  Physician assistants Bank tellers Data processing equipment repairers | Switchboard operators Residential counselors  Inspectors, testers, and graders, precision  Electronic semiconductor processors Machine tool cutting operators Health information technicians Butchers and meatcutters Physical therapy assistants and aides Payroll and timekeeping clerics  Engineering, science, and computer-^^^^^^^^— system managers  Peripheral equipment operators Respiratory therapists Woodworking machine operators Dental assistants Offset lithographic press operators Surgical technologists Fishers  Securities and financial services~^^^^^^^_ sales agents^^^^^^^*  Procurement clerks 0  20  40  60  80  100  120  Percent change  bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks—are expected to decline. However, other occupations less affected by techno­ logical change are expected to increase. These occupations in­ clude teacher assistants, adding 375,000 jobs; office and ad­ ministrative support supervisors and managers, adding 313,000 jobs; receptionists and information clerks, adding 305,000jobs; and adjusters, investigators, and collectors, adding 302,000jobs. Precision production, craft, and repair. Employment in pre­ cision production, craft, and repair occupations is projected to grow 8 percent, creating almost 1.3 million new jobs, over the 1998-2008 period. Mechanics, installers, and repairers are ex­ pected to add 588,000 new jobs by 2008; construction trades workers are expected to add 390,000 new jobs; and blue-collar worker supervisors are expected to add 196,000 new jobs. Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related. Agriculture, for­ estry, fishing, and related occupations are projected to grow only by only 2 percent, adding 71,000 new jobs. Workers in these occupations cultivate plants, breed and raise livestock, and catch animals. Within this major group, job losses are expected for farmers and farm workers. In contrast, landscap­ ing, groundskeeping, nursery, greenhouse, and lawn service occupations are expected to add 262,000 new jobs by 2008. The 20 occupations listed in chart 8 are among those pro­ jected to grow fast and produce large numbers of new jobs, in addition to having higher than average earnings. Half of these occupations are involved with computer technology, health Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  -180 -160 -140 -120 -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 Thousands  care, and education. Systems analysts top this list, adding over 577,000 jobs between 1998 and 2008, reflecting high demand for computer services. Among other computer-related occu­ pations, computer support specialists and computer engineers are expected to add 439,000 and 323,000 new jobs, respec­ tively. Similarly, strong demand for health care services will fuel growth among registered nurses, creating 451,000 new jobs. Among education-related occupations, secondary school teachers head the list, adding 322,000 jobs. Computer-related jobs are expected to grow the fastest over the projection period (chart 9). In fact, these jobs make up the four fastest growing occupations in the economy. Computer engineers, computer support specialists, computer systems ana­ lysts, and database administrators are expected to increase by 108, 102,94, and 77 percent, respectively. Many other occu­ pations projected to grow the fastest are in health care. Table 1 lists occupations projected to grow the fastest and to generate the largest number of new jobs over the 1998-2008 period, by level of education and training. Declining occupational employment stems from declining industry employment, technological advances, organizational changes, and other factors. For example, increased productiv­ ity and farm consolidations are expected to result in a decline of 173,000 farmers over the 1998-2008 period (chart 10). Of­ fice automation and the increased use of word processing equipment by professionals and managerial employees will  6 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Chart 12. Job openings due to growth and replacement needs by most significant source of education and training, projected 1998-2008  Chart 11. Job openings due to growth and replacement needs by major occupational group, projected 1998-2008  Short-term on-the-job training  Agriculture, forestry,  V////////////////,  fishing, and related  V//A  |  Technicians and related  Bachelor's degree  Growth  '/////////a  Moderate-term on-the-job training  Replacement needs  support Long-term on-the-job training Work experience in a related occupation  Precision production, craft, and repair  j Growth  Work experience plus bachelor's degree or higher Executive, administrative,  | Replacement needs  Associate degree  and managerial Postsecondary vocational training Operators, fabricators,  m  First professional degree 1  and laborers Doctoral degree | Marketing and sales  Master's degree  Administrative support, including clerical  i 0  -  J_________ I-------------- 1-------------- L5  10  15  20  25  Job openings (millions)  —mami —  Professional specialty  Service  ...... HHi  Jiiii----------- 1----------- 1 0  iiii---------- \—  2  4  6  8  10  12  Millions  lead to a decline among word processors and typists. Ex­ amples of occupations projected to lose jobs along with de­ clining employment in the industries in which they are con­ centrated include farm workers; sewing machine operators, garment; and child-care workers, private household.  Total Job Openings Job openings stem from both employment growth and replace­ ment needs (chart 11). Replacement needs arise as workers leave occupations. Some transfer to other occupations while others retire, return to school, or quit to assume household responsibilities. Replacement needs are projected to account for 63 percent of the approximately 55 million job openings between 1998 and 2008. Thus, even occupations with slower than average growth or little or no change in employment may still offer many job openings. Professional specialty occupations are projected to grow faster and add more jobs than any major occupational group, with 5.3 million new jobs by 2008. Two-thirds of this job growth is expected among teachers, librarians, and counse­ lors; computer, mathematical, and operations research occu­ pations; and health assessment and treating occupations. With 3.9 million job openings due to replacement needs, profes­ sional specialty occupations comprise the only major group projected to generate more openings from job growth than from replacement needs. Due to high replacement needs, service occupations are pro­ jected to have the largest number of total job openings, 11.1 million. A large number of replacements are expected to arise Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  as young workers leave food preparation and service occupa­ tions. Replacement needs generally are greatest in the largest occupations and in those with relatively low pay or limited training requirements. Office automation will significantly affect many individual administrative and clerical support occupations. Overall, these occupations are projected to grow more slowly than the aver­ age, while some are projected to decline. Administrative sup­ port, including clerical occupations, are projected to create 7.7 million job openings over the 1998-2008 period, ranking third behind service and professional specialty occupations. Precision production, craft, and repair occupations and op­ erators, fabricators, and laborers are projected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations through 2008, due mostly to advances in technology and changes in production methods. Replacement needs are projected to account for al­ most three-fourths of all the job openings in these groups. Employment in occupations requiring an associate degree is projected to increase 31 percent, faster than any other occu­ pational group categorized by education and training. How­ ever, this category only ranks seventh among the 11 education and training categories in terms of total job openings. The largest number of job openings will be among occupations requiring short-term on-the-job training, a bachelor’s degree, and moderate-term on-the-job training (chart 12). Almost two-thirds of the projected job openings over the 1998-2008 period will be in occupations that require on-thejob training, due mostly to replacement needs. These jobs will account for 34.5 million of the projected 55 million to­ tal job openings through 2008. However, many of these jobs typically offer low pay and benefits; this is particularly true of jobs requiring only short-term on-the-job training, which account for 24 million job openings, far more than any other occupational group. Jobs requiring at least a bachelor’s degree will account for about 12.7 million job openings through 2008. Most of these openings will result from job growth and usually offer higher pay and benefits.  Tomorrow’s Jobs 7 Table 1. Fastest growing occupations projected to have the largest numerical increase in employment between 1998 and 2008 by level of education and training Fastest growing occupations  Education/training category  Occupations having the largest numerical increase in employment  First-professional degree Veterinarians Chiropractors Physicians Lawyers Clergy  Physicians Lawyers Clergy Veterinarians Pharmacists Doctoral degree  Biological scientists Medical scientists College and university faculty Physicists and astronomers  College and university faculty Biological scientists Medical scientists Physicists and astronomers Master’s degree  Speech-language pathologists and audiologists Physical therapists Counselors Urban and regional planners Archivists, curators, and conservators  Counselors Physical therapists Speech-language pathologists and audiologists Psychologists Librarians Work experience plus bachelor’s or higher degree Engineering, science, and computer systems managers General managers and top executives Medical and health services managers Engineering, science, and computer systems managers Management analysts Advertising, marketing, and public relations managers Artists and commercial artists Management analysts Advertising, marketing, and public relations managers Financial managers Bachelor’s degree Computer engineers Computer systems analysts Computer systems analysts Computer engineers Database administrators Teachers, secondary school Physicians assistants Social workers Residential counselors Teachers, elementary school Associate degree Computer support specialists Registered nurses Paralegals and legal assistants Computer support specialists Health information technicians Paralegals and legal assistants Physical therapy assistants and aides Dental hygienists Respiratory therapists Electrical and electronic technicians and technologists Postsecondary vocational training Data processing equipment repairers Licensed practical nurses Surgical technologists Automotive mechanics Central office and PBX installers and repairers Hairstylists and cosmetologists Emergency medical technicians Emergency medical technicians Manicurists Data processing equipment repairers Work experience in a related occupation Private detectives and investigators Office and administrative support supervisors Detectives and criminal investigators Marketing and sales worker supervisors Instructors, adult (nonvocational) education Blue-collar worker supervisors Lawn service managers Food service and lodging managers Office and administrative support supervisors Teachers and instructors, vocational education and training Long-term on-the-job training (more than 12 months) Desktop publishing specialists Correction officers Correctional officers Cooks, restaurant Sheriffs and deputy sheriffs Police patrol officers Police patrol officers Maintenance repairers, general utility Telephone and cable TV line installers Carpenters Moderate-term on-the-job training (1 to 12 months) Medical assistants Medical assistants Social and human services assistants Social and human services assistants Electronic semiconductor processors Instructors and coaches, sports and physical training Dental assistants Dental assistants Models, demonstrators, and product promoters Packaging and filling machine operators Short-term on-the-job training (up to 1 month) Personal care and home health aides Retail salespersons Bill and account collectors Cashiers Ambulance drivers and attendants, except emergency medical technicians Truck drivers, except driver/sales workers Adjustment clerks Office clerks, general Teacher assistants Personal care and home health aides Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Sources of Career Information This section identifies sources of information about career planning, counseling, training, education, and financial aid. Handbook statements also include a section on sources of ad­ ditional information, which lists organizations that can be con­ tacted for more information about particular occupations as well as the required training and education.  Career information Listed below are several places to begin collecting informa­ tion on careers and job opportunities.  Personal contacts. The people close to you—your family and friends—can be extremely helpful in providing career information. They may be able to answer your questions directly or put you in touch with someone else who can. Net­ working can lead to meeting someone who can answer your questions about a specific career or company, and who can provide inside information and other helpful hints. It is an effective way to learn the type of training necessary for a certain position, how someone in that position entered the field, the prospects for advancement, and what they like and dislike about the work.  Public libraries, career centers, and guidance offices. These institutions maintain a great deal of up-to-date material. To begin your library search, look at the computer listings under “vocations” or “careers” and then under specific fields. Check the periodicals section, where trade and professional maga­ zines and journals about specific occupations and industries are located. Become familiar with the concerns and activities of potential employers by skimming their annual reports and other public documents. Occupational information on video cassettes and through computerized information systems or the Internet can be valuable. Don’t forget the librarians; they can be a great source and can save you valuable time by di­ recting you to relevant information. Check your school’s career centers for resources such as individual counseling and testing, guest speakers, field trips, books, career magazines, and career days. Always assess career guidance materials carefully. The in­ formation should be current and objective. Beware of materi­ als that seem to glamourize the occupation, overstate the earn­ ings, or exaggerate the demand for workers.  Counselors. These professionals are trained to help you dis­ cover your strengths and weaknesses, evaluate your goals and values, and help you determine what you would like in a ca­ reer. Counselors will not tell you what to do. However, they may administer interest inventories and aptitude tests, inter­ pret the results, and help you explore various options. Coun­ selors also may discuss local job markets and the entry re­ quirements and costs of schools, colleges, or training programs. Counselors are found in:  8 Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  • • •  High school guidance offices College career planning and placement offices Placement offices in private vocational or technical schools and institutions  • •  Vocational rehabilitation agencies Counseling services offered by community organizations  •  Private counseling agencies and private practices  •  State employment service offices  Before employing the services of a private counselor or agency, you may want to seek recommendations and check their credentials. The International Association of Counsel­ ing Services (IACS) accredits counseling services throughout the country. To receive a listing of accredited services for your region, send a self-addressed, stamped, business-size en­ velope to: »• IACS, 101 South Whiting St., Suite 211, Alexandria, VA 22304. Internet:  The Directory of Counseling Services, an IACS publica­ tion providing employment counseling and other assistance, may be available in your library or school career counseling center. A list of certified career counselors by city or State is available from: <•" The National Board of Certified Counselors, 3 Terrace Way, Suite D, Greensboro, NC 27403-3660. Phone: (334) 547-0607. Internet:  Internet networks and resources. The growth of on-line list­ ings has made countless resources instantly available at any time. Most companies, professional societies, academic in­ stitutions, and government agencies maintain Internet sites that highlight the organization’s latest information and activities. Listings may include information such as government docu­ ments, schedules of events, and job openings. Listings for academic institutions often provide links to career counseling and placement services through career resource centers, as well as information on financing your education. Colleges and uni­ versities also offer on-line guides to campus facilities and ad­ mission requirements and procedures. The variety of career information available through the internet provide much of the same information available through libraries, career centers, and guidance offices. How­ ever, no single network or resource will contain all desired information, so be prepared to search a variety of places. As in a library search, look through various lists by field or disci­ pline, or by using keywords. Career sites can be an excellent place to obtain informa­ tion about job opportunities. They provide a forum for em­ ployers to list job openings and for individuals to post their resumes. Some Internet sites may also provide an opportu­ nity to research a particular industry or company. America’s Job Bank (AJB), administered by the U.S. De­ partment of Labor, lists as many as 1 million job openings on any given day. These job openings are compiled by State  Sources of Career Information 9  employment service offices throughout the Nation. AJB is accessible at:  Professional societies, trade associations, labor unions, business firms, and educational institutions. These orga­ nizations provide a variety of free or inexpensive career material. Many of these are in an additional information section of the Handbook. For information on occupations not covered in the Handbook, consult directories in your library’s reference section for the names of potential sources. You may start with The Guide to American Directories or The Directory of Directories. Another useful resource is The Encyclopedia of Associations, an annual publication listing trade associations, professional societies, labor unions, and fraternal and patriotic organizations. The National Technical Information Service Audiovisual Center, a central source for audiovisual material produced by the U.S. Government, sells material on jobs and careers. For a catalog, contact: NTIS Audiovisual Center, Springfield, VA 22161. Phone: (800) 553­ 6847. Internet:  Federal Government. Information on employment with the Federal Government is available from the Office of Person­ nel Management. Consult your telephone directory under U.S. Government for a local number or call (912) 757-3100; TDD (912) 744-2299. Internet:  Organizations for specific groups. The organizations listed below provide information on career planning, training, or job opportunities prepared for specific groups. Consult directo­ ries in your library’s reference center or a career guidance of­ fice for information on additional organizations associated with specific groups. Disabled workers: Counseling, training, and placement services for those with disabilities is available from: ®" The National Business and Disability Council, 201 I.U. Willets Rd., Albertson, NY 11507. Phone: (516) 465-1515. Internet:  Blind workers: Information on the free national reference and referral service for the blind can be obtained by contacting: *■ National Federation of the Blind, Job Opportunities for the Blind (JOB), 1800 Johnson St., Baltimore, MD 21230. Phone: (410) 659-9314. Internet:  Older workers: *■ National Association of Older Workers Employment Services, c/o Na­ tional Council on the Aging, 409 3rd St. SW., Suite 200, Washington, DC 20024. Phone: (202) 479-1200. *■ National Caucus and Center on Black Aged, Inc., 1424 K St. NW., Suite 500, Washington, DC 20005. Phone: (202) 637-8400. Internet: Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  «■ Asociacion Nacional pro Personas Mayores (National Association for Hispanic Elderly), 234 East Colorado Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91101 Phone: (626) 564-1988.  Veterans: Contact the nearest regional office of the U.S. Department of Labor Veterans’ Employment and Training Service or: •" Veterans’ Employment and Training Service (VETS), 200 Constitution Ave. NW., Room S-1315, Washington, DC 20210. Phone: (202) 219­ 9116. Internet:  Women: «■ Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau Clearinghouse, 200 Constitu­ tion Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20210. Phone: (800) 827-5335. Internet: «■ Wider Opportunities for Women, 815 15th St. NW., Suite 916, Wash­ ington, DC 20005. Phone: (202) 638-3143. Internet:  Federal laws, executive orders, and selected Federal grant programs bar discrimination in employment based on race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, and handicap. Infor­ mation on how to file a charge of discrimination is available from U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission of­ fices around the country. Their addresses and telephone num­ bers are listed in telephone directories under U.S. Govern­ ment, EEOC. *■ Internet:  Education and training information Colleges, schools, and training institutes readily reply to re­ quests for information about their programs. When contact­ ing these institutions, you may want to keep in mind the fol­ lowing items: • • • • • • •  Admission requirements Courses offered Certificates or degrees awarded Cost Available financial aid Location and size of school Placement rate of graduates  Check with professional and trade associations for lists of schools that offer career preparation in a field in which you are interested. High school guidance offices and libraries usu­ ally have copies of the directories listed below, as well as col­ lege catalogs that can provide more information on specific institutions. Helpful resources include the Directory of Pri­ vate Career Schools and Colleges of Technology, put out by the Accrediting Commission of Career Schools and Colleges of Technology. Be sure to use the latest edition because these directories and catalogs are revised periodically. Information about home or correspondence study programs appears in the Directory of Accredited Institutions. Send re­ quests for the Directory and a list of other publications to: » Distance Education and Training Council, 1601 18th St. NW., Washing­ ton, DC 20009. Phone:(202)234-5100. Internet:  10 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Information about apprenticeships is available from local labor unions, school guidance counselors, and State employ­ ment offices or from: «■ Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Ave. NW., Room N-4649, Washington, DC 20210. Phone: (202) 219-5921. Internet: individ/apprent.htm  Completing an internship is an excellent way for students and others to learn about an occupation and to make valuable contacts. Many employers offer internships that provide short­ term or part-time job experience that can lead to a permanent position. Contact your school’s career guidance center or em­ ployers directly regarding internship opportunities.  Financial aid information Information about financial aid is available from a variety of sources. Contact your high school guidance counselor and college financial aid officer for information concerning quali­ fications and applications for scholarships, fellowships, grants, loans, and work-study programs. Every State administers fi­ nancial aid programs; contact State Departments of Educa­ tion for information. Banks and credit unions will provide information about student loans. You also may want to con­ sult the directories and guides available in guidance offices and public libraries for sources of student financial aid. The Federal Government provides grants, loans, workstudy programs, and other benefits to students. Information about programs administered by the U.S. Department of Education is presented in The Student Guide to Federal Fi­ nancial Aid Programs, updated annually. To receive a copy, write to: m- Federal Student Aid Information Center, c/o Federal Student Aid Pro­ grams, P.O. Box 84, Washington, DC 20044-0084. Phone: (800) 433­ 3243. Internet:  The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services of­ fers loan, scholarship, and faculty loan repayment programs. *- Phone: (301) 443-4776. Internet:  Copies of The Student Guide, a guide to financial aid, are available from the U.S. Department of Education, Federal Stu­ dent Aid Information Center. ~~ Phone: (800) 433-3243. Internet:  College is Possible—a resource guide prepared by the  Coalition of America’s Colleges and Universities and the U.S. Department of Education—lists books, pamphlets, and Internet sites to help students prepare for, choose, and pay for college. It includes information on scholarships and is available in English and Spanish. *•- Phone: (800) 433-3243. Internet:  The Armed Forces have several educational assistance programs. These include the Reserve Officers’ Training Corps (ROTC), the new G.I. bill, and tuition assistance. Information can be obtained from military recruiting cen­ ters, located in most cities. Internet: Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  State and local information The Handbook provides information for the Nation as a whole. State or local area information is available from:  State employment security agencies.  These agencies develop detailed information about local labor markets, such as current and projected employment by occupation and in­ dustry, characteristics of the work force, and changes in State and local area economic activity. Listed below are addresses and telephone numbers of the directors of research and analysis in these agencies and, in most cases, Internet addresses of these agencies. Most States have career information delivery systems (CIDS). Look for these systems in secondary schools, postsecondary institutions, libraries, job training sites, voca­ tional rehabilitation centers, and employment service offices. The public can use the systems’ computers, printed material, microfiche, and toll-free hotlines to obtain information on occupations, educational opportunities, student financial aid, apprenticeships, and military careers. Ask counselors for spe­ cific locations. State occupational projections are also available on the Internet: Alabama Chief, Labor Market Information, Alabama Department of Industrial Rela­ tions, 649 Monroe St., Room 422, Montgomery, AL 36130. Phone: (334) 242-8800. Internet: Alaska Chief, Research and Analysis, Alaska Department of Labor, P.O. Box 25501, Juneau, AK 99802-5501. Phone: (907) 465-4500. Internet: http :// Arizona Research Administrator, Arizona Department of Economic Security, P.O. Box 6123, Site Code 733A, Phoenix, AZ 85005. Phone: (602) 542-3871. Internet: Arkansas Labor Market Information Director, Arkansas Employment Security De­ partment, P.O. Box 2981, Little Rock, AR 72203-2981. Phone: (501)6823159. Internet: California Chief, Labor Market Information Division, California Employment Devel­ opment Department, P.O. Box 826880, MIC 57, Sacramento, CA 94280­ 0001. Phone: (916) 262-2160. Internet: Colorado Director, Labor Market Information, Colorado Department of Labor and Employment, 1515 Arapahoe St., Tower 2, Suite 400, Denver, CO 80202­ 2117. Phone:(303)620-4977. Internet: http:/ Connecticut Director, Office of Research and Information, Connecticut Labor Depart­ ment, 200 Folly Brook Blvd., Wethersfield, CT 06109-1114. Phone: (860) 263-6255. Internet: Delaware Labor Market Information Director, Delaware Department of Labor, 4425 N. Market St., Wilmington, DE 19802. Phone: (302) 761-8060. Internet: District of Columbia Chief of Labor Market Information, District of Columbia Department of Employment Services, 500 C St. NW., Room 201, Washington, DC 20001. Phone: (202) 724-7214.  Sources of Career Information 11 Florida Chief, Bureau of Labor Market and Performance Information, Florida Department of Labor and Employment Security, 2012 Capitol Circle SE., Hartman Bldg., Suite 200, Tallahassee, FL 32399-2151. Phone: (850) 488-1048. Internet: Georgia Director, Labor Market Information, Georgia Department of Labor, 148 International Boulevard NE., Atlanta, GA 30303-1751. Phone: (404) 656­ 3177. Internet: Guam Administrator, Department of Labor, Guam Employment Services, P.O. Box 9970, Tamuning, Guam 96931. Phone: (671) 475-0111. Internet: Hawaii Chief, Research and Statistics Office, Hawaii Department of Labor and In­ dustrial Relations, 830 Punchbowl St., Room 304, Honolulu, HI 96813. Phone: (808) 586-8999. Internet:  Michigan Director, Office of Labor Market Information, Michigan Jobs Commission, Employment Service Agency, 7310 Woodward Ave., Room 520, Detroit, MI 48202. Phone: (313) 872-5904. Internet: Minnesota Director, BLS Programs, Research and Statistical Office, Minnesota De­ partment of Economic Security, 390 North Robert St., St. Paul, MN 55104. Phone: (612) 296-4087. Internet: Mississippi Labor Market Information Director, Mississippi Employment Security Com­ mission,P.O. Box 1699, Jackson, MS 39215-1699. Phone: (601)961-7424. Internet: Missouri Chief Administrator, Research and Analysis, Missouri Department of Labor and Industrial Relations, 421 East Dunkin St., P.O. Box 59, Jefferson City, MO 65104-0059. Phone: (573) 751-3637. Internet:  Idaho Bureau Chief, Research and Analysis, Idaho Department of Labor, 317 Main St., Boise, ID 83735-0001. Phone: (208) 334-6170. Internet:  Montana Director, Office of Research and Analysis, Montana Department of Labor and Industry, P.O. Box 1728, Helena, MT 59624-1728. Phone: (406) 444­ 2430; within Montana at (800) 633-0229; outside Montana at (800) 541­ 3904. Internet:  Illinois Economic Information and Analysis Manager, Illinois Department of Employment Security, 401 South State St., Suite 743, Chicago, IL 60605 Phone: (312) 793-2316. Internet:  Nebraska Labor Market Information Administrator, Nebraska Department of Labor, 550 South 16th St., Lincoln, NE 68509-4600. Phone: (402) 471-9964. Internet:  Indiana Director, Labor Market Information, Indiana Department of Workforce De­ velopment, Indiana Government Center, South, E211, 10 North Senate Ave., Indianapolis, IN 46204-2277. Phone: (317) 232-7460. Internet:  Nevada Chief, DETR, Bureau of Research and Analysis, Information Develop­ ment and Processing Division, 500 East Third St., Carson City, NV 89713-0001. Phone: (775) 687-4550, ext. 228. Internet:  Iowa Division Administrator, Research and Information Services, Iowa Workforce Development, 1000 East Grand Ave., Des Moines, IA 50319­ 0209. Phone: (515) 281-6647. Internet:  New Hampshire Director, Economic and Labor Market Information Bureau, New Hampshire Department of Employment Security, 32 South Main St., Concord, NH 03301. Phone: (603) 228-4123. Internet: http ://www.nhworks.state.nh.usAl.MIpage.htm  Kansas Chief, Kansas Department of Human Resources, 401 SW Topeka Blvd., Topeka, KS 66603-3182. Phone: (785) 296-5058. Internet:  New Jersey Assistant Commissioner, Labor Planning and Analysis, New Jersey De­ partment of Labor, P.O. Box 56,5th Floor, Trenton, NJ 08625-0056. Phone: (609) 292-2643. Internet: http://www.state.nj.usAaborAra/  Kentucky Manager, LMI Branch, Division of Administration/Financial Mngt, Kentucky Department of Employment Services, 275 East Main St., Suite 2-C, Frankfort, KY 40621. Phone: (502) 564-7976. Internet:  New Mexico Chief, Economic Research and Analysis Bureau, New Mexico Depart­ ment of Labor, 401 Broadway Blvd. NE, P.O. Box 1928, Albuquerque, NM 87103. Phone: (505) 841-8645. Internet:  Louisiana Director, Research and Statistics Division, Louisiana Department of Labor, P.O. Box 94094, Baton Rouge, LA 70804-9094. Phone: (225) 342-3140. Internet:  New York Director, Division of Research and Statistics, New York Department of Labor, State Office Building Campus, Room 400, Albany, NY 12240. Phone: (518) 457-6369. Internet:  Maine Director, Labor Market Information Services, Maine Department of Labor, 20 Union St., Augusta, ME 04330. Phone: (207) 287-2271. Internet: Maryland Director, Office of Labor Market Analysis and Information, Maryland De­ partment of Labor, Licensing and Regulations, 1100 North Eutaw St., Room 601, Baltimore, MD 21201. Phone: (410) 767-2250. Internet Massachusetts Labor Market Information and Research Director, Massachusetts Division of Employment and Training, 19 Stamford St., S'" Floor, Boston, MA 02114. Phone: (617) 626-6560. Internet: http://www.detma.orgAmiinfo.htmb Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  North Carolina Director, Labor Market Information, North Carolina Employment Secu­ rity Commission, P.O. Box 25903, Raleigh, NC 27611. Phone: (919) 733-2936. Internet: North Dakota Program Support Area Manager, North Dakota Job Service, 1000 East Divide Ave., P.O. Box 5507, Bismarck, ND 58506-5507. Phone: (701) 328-2868. Internet: Ohio Director, Ohio Bureau of Employment Services, Labor Market Information Division, 145 South Front St., P.O. Box 1618, Columbus, OH 43216-1618. Phone: (614) 752-9494. Internet: http:/  12 Occupational Outlook Handbook Oklahoma Director, Labor Market Information, Oklahoma Employment Security Commission, 2401 North Lincoln, Will Rogers Memorial Office Bldg., Oklahoma City, OK 73105. Phone: (405) 525-7265. Internet: http://www.oesc.state.ok.usAmiydefault.htm  Utah Director, Labor Market Information, Utah Department of Workforce Services, 140 East 300 South, P.O. Box 45249, Salt Lake City, UT 84145-0249. Phone: (801) 526-9401. Internet: http://  Oregon Labor Market Information Director, Oregon Employment Department, 875 Union St. NE., Salem, OR 97311. Phone: (503) 947-1212. Internet: http ://  Vermont Chief, Research and Analysis, Vermont Department of Employment and Training, 5 Green Mountain Dr., P.O. Box 488, Montpelier, VT 05601-0488. Phone: (802) 828-4153. Internet:  Pennsylvania Director, Bureau of Research and Statistics, Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry, 7lh and Forester Streets, Room 101, Harrisburg, PA 17120-0001. Phone: (717)787-3266. Internet:  Virgin Islands Chief, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Virgin Islands Department of Labor, 53A and 54B Kronprindsens Gade, Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas, VI 00820. Phone: (340) 776-3700.  Puerto Rico Director, Research and Statistics Division, Puerto Rico Bureau of Employ­ ment Security, 505 Munoz Rivera Ave., 20th Floor, Hato Rey, PR 00918. Phone: (787) 754-5385.  Virginia Director, Economic Information and Services Division, Virginia Employment Commission, 703 East Main St., P.O. Box 1358, Richmond, VA 23218-1358. Phone: (804) 786-7496. Internet:  Rhode Island Director, Labor Market Information, Rhode Island Department of Employment and Training, 101 Friendship St., Providence, RI 02903­ 3740. Phone: (401) 222-3730. Internet:  Washington Director, Labor Market and Economic Analysis, Employment Security Di­ vision, Mail Stop 6000—P.O. Box 9046, Olympia, WA 98507-9046. Phone: (360) 438-4804. Internet:  South Carolina Director, Labor Market Information, South Carolina Employment Security Commission, 610 Hampton St., P.O. Box 995, Columbia, SC 29202. Phone: (803) 737-2660. Internet: http://www.sces.orgAmi/index.htm  West Virginia Director, Research, Information and Analysis, West Virginia Bureau of Employment Programs, 112 California Ave., Charleston, WV 25305­ 0112. Phone: (304)558-2660. Internet:  South Dakota Director, Labor Market Center, South Dakota Department of Labor, P.O. Box 4730, Aberdeen, SD 57402-4730. Phone: (605) 626-2314. Internet: Tennessee Director, Research and Statistics Division, Tennessee Department of Employment Security, 500 James Robertson Pkwy., Davy Crockett Tower, 11th Floor, Nashville, TN 37245-1000. Phone: (615) 741-2284. Internet: http ://  Texas Director of Labor Market Information, Texas Workforce Commission, 9001 North IH-35, Suite 103A, Austin, TX 78778. Phone: (512) 491-4802. Internet: Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Wisconsin Chief, LMI Data Development, Wisconsin Department of Workforce De­ velopment, 201 East Washington Ave., Room 2214, Madison, WI 53702. Phone: (608) 266-2930. Internet: Wyoming Manager, Research and Planning, Division of Administration, Wyoming Department of Employment, P.O. Box 2760, Casper, WY 82602-2760. Phone: (307)473-3801. Internet:  Finding a Job and Evaluating a Job Offer Finding Information on Job Availability It takes some people a great deal of time and effort to find a job they enjoy. Others may walk right into an ideal employ­ ment situation. Do not be discouraged if you have to pursue many leads. Friends, neighbors, teachers, and counselors may know of available jobs in your field of interest. Read the clas­ sified ads. Consult State employment service offices and con­ sider private employment agencies. You may also contact em­ ployers directly.  Where To Learn About Job Openings Personal contacts College career planning and placement offices Classified ads —National and local newspapers —Professional journals —Trade magazines Internet networks and resources State employment service offices Federal Government Professional associations Labor unions Employers Employment agencies and career consultants Community agencies  Job Search Methods Personal contacts. Your family, friends, and acquaintances may offer one of the most effective ways to find a job. They may help you directly or put you in touch with someone else who can. Such networking can lead to information about spe­ cific job openings.  College career planning and placement offices. College placement offices help their students and alumni find jobs. They set up appointments and allow recruiters to use their facilities for interviews. Placement offices usually have a list of part-time, temporary, and summer jobs offered on campus. They may also have lists of jobs for regional, nonprofit, and government organizations. Students can receive career coun­ seling and testing and job search advice. At career resource libraries they may attend workshops on such topics as job search strategy, resume writing, letter writing, and effective interviewing; critique drafts of resumes and watch videotapes of mock interviews; explore files of resumes and references; and attend job fairs conducted by the placement office.  Classified ads. The “Help Wanted” ads in newspapers list numerous jobs. You should realize, however, that many other job openings are not listed, and that the classified ads some­ times do not give all of the important information. They may offer little or no description of the job, working conditions, or pay. Some ads do not identify the employer. They may sim­ ply give a post office box to mail your resume to, making Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  follow-up inquiries very difficult. Some ads offer out-of-town jobs; others advertise employment agencies rather than actual employment opportunities. When using classified ads, keep the following in mind: •  Do not rely solely on the classifieds to find a job; follow other leads as well.  •  Answer ads promptly, because openings may be filled quickly, even before the ad stops appearing in the paper.  •  Read the ads every day, particularly the Sunday edition, which usually includes the most listings.  •  Beware of “no experience necessary” ads. These ads often sig­ nal low wages, poor working conditions, or commission work. Keep a record of all ads to which you have responded, includ­ ing the specific skills, educational background, and personal qualifications required for the position.  •  Internet networks and resources. The Internet, which is avail­ able 7 days a week, 24 hours a day, provides a variety of infor­ mation, including job listings and job search resources and techniques. However, no single network or resource will con­ tain all of the information available on employment or career opportunities, so be prepared to search for what you need. Re­ member that job listings may be posted by field or discipline, so begin your search using keywords. When searching employment databases on the Internet, it is sometimes possible to send your resume to an employer by e-mail or to post it on-line. Some sources allow you to send e-mail free of charge, but be careful that you are not going to incur any additional charges for postings or updates.  State employment service offices. The State employment ser­ vice, sometimes called Job Service, operates in coordination with the U.S. Department of Labor’s Employment Service. Local offices, found nationwide, help jobseekers find jobs and help employers find qualified workers at no cost to either. To find the office nearest you, look in the State government tele­ phone listings under “Job Service” or “Employment.”  Job matching and referral. At the State employment service office, an interviewer will determine if you are “job ready” or if you need help from counseling and testing services to as­ sess your occupational aptitudes and interests and to help you choose and prepare for a career. After you are “job ready,” you may examine available job listings and select openings that interest you. A staff member can then describe the job openings in detail and arrange for interviews with prospec­ tive employers.  America’s Job Bank, run by the U.S. Department of Labor’s Employment and Training Administration, provides: Informa­ tion on preparing your resume and using the Internet for your job search; trends in the U.S. job market; State occupational projections; and a list of approximately 1 million job openings. The list contains a wide range of mostly full-time private sector 13  14 Occupational Outlook Handbook  jobs that are available all over the country. Jobseekers can ac­ cess this list on the Internet at: Computers with access to the Internet are available to the public in any local public employment service office, as well as in schools, libraries, and military installations. Tips for Finding the Right Job, aU.S. Department of Labor pamphlet, offers advice on determining your job skills, or­ ganizing your job search, writing a resume, and making the most of an interview. Job Search Guide: Strategies For Professionals, another U.S. Department of Labor publica­ tion, discusses specific steps that jobseekers can follow to identify employment opportunities. This publication in­ cludes sections on handling job loss, managing personal resources, assessing personal skills and interests, research­ ing the job market, conducting the job search, and network­ ing. Check with your State employment service office, or order a copy of these and other publications from the U.S. Government Printing Office’s Superintendent of Docu­ ments by telephone: (202) 512-1800 or via the Internet at:  Private employment agencies and career consultants. These agencies can be helpful, but they are in business to make money. Most operate on a commission basis, with the fee dependent upon a percentage of the salary paid to a successful applicant. You or the hiring company will pay a fee. Find out the exact cost and who is responsible for paying associated fees before using the service. Although employment agencies can help you save time and contact employers who otherwise might be difficult to locate, the costs may outweigh the benefits if you are responsible for the fee. Consider any guarantees the agency offers when de­ termining if the service is worth the cost.  Community agencies. Many nonprofit organizations, in­ cluding religious institutions and vocational rehabilitation agencies, offer counseling, career development, and job placement services, generally targeted to a particular group, such as women, youth, minorities, ex-offenders, or older workers. or at:  Applying for a Job  Services for special groups. By law, veterans are entitled to priority for job placement at State employment service cen­ ters. If you are a veteran, a veterans’ employment representa­ tive can inform you of available assistance and help you deal with problems. State service centers refer youths between 16 and 21 and economically disadvantaged applicants to opportunities avail­ able under the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) of 1982. They also help prepare individuals facing employment barri­ ers for jobs.  Resumes and application forms. Resumes and application  Federal Government. Information on Federal Government jobs is available from the Office of Personnel Management through a telephone-based system. Consult your telephone directory under U.S. Government for a local number or call (912) 757-3100; TDD (912) 744-2299. Information also is available on the Internet at:  forms are two ways to provide employers with written evi­ dence of your qualifications and skills. Generally, the same information appears on both the resume and the application form, but the way it is presented differs. Some employers prefer a resume and others require an application form. The accompanying box presents the basic information you should include in your resume. There are many ways of organizing a resume. Depending on the job, you should choose the format that best highlights your skills, training, and experience. It may be helpful to look in a variety of books and publications at your local library or bookstore for different examples.  What Usually Goes Into a Resume •  Name, address, and telephone number.  •  Employment objective. State the type of work or specific job you are seeking.  tions that offer employment information, including career planning, educational programs, job listings, and job place­ ment. To use these services, associations usually require that you be a member of their association; information can be obtained directly from an association through the Internet, by telephone, or by mail.  •  Education, including school name and address, dates of attendance, curriculum, and highest grade com­ pleted or degree awarded.  •  Experience, paid and volunteer. Include the follow­ ing for each job: Job title, name and location of employer, and dates of employment. Briefly describe your job duties.  Ijabor unions. Labor unions provide various employment  •  services to members, including apprenticeship programs that teach a specific trade or skill. Contact the appropriate labor union or State apprenticeship council for more information.  Special skills, proficiency in foreign languages, achievements, and membership in organizations.  •  References, when requested.  Professional associations. Many professions have associa­  Employers. It is possible to apply directly to employers with­ out a referral. You may locate a potential employer in the Yellow Pages, in local chambers of commerce directories, and in other directories that provide information about em­ ployers. When you find an employer that interests you, send a cover letter and resume even if you are not certain that an  opening exists. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  When you fill out an application form, make sure you fill it out completely and follow all instructions. Do not omit any requested information and make sure that the information you provide is correct.  Cover letters. A cover letter is sent with a resume or applica­ tion form, as a way of introducing yourself to perspective em­ ployers. It should capture the employer’s attention, follow a  Finding la Job and Evaluating a Job Offer 15  business letter format, and should usually include the follow­ ing information: •  The name and address of the specific person to whom the letter is addressed.  •  The reason for your interest in the company or position.  •  Your main qualifications for the position (in brief).  •  A request for an interview.  •  Your home and work phone numbers.  Interviewing. An interview gives you the opportunity to show­ case your qualifications to an employer, so it pays to be well prepared. The information in the accompanying box provides some helpful hints.  Job Interview Tips Preparation: Leam about the organization. Have a specific job or jobs in mind. Review your qualifications for the job. Prepare answers to broad questions about yourself. Review your resume. Practice an interview with a friend or relative. Arrive before the scheduled time of your interview.  Personal Appearance: Be well groomed. Dress appropriately. Do not chew gum or smoke.  The Interview: Relax and answer each question concisely. Respond promptly. Use good manners. Learn the name of your interviewer and shake hands as you meet. Use proper English—avoid slang. Be cooperative and enthusiastic. Ask questions about the position and the organization. Thank the interviewer when you leave and, as a follow up, in writing.  Test (if employer gives one): Listen closely to instructions. Read each question carefully. Write legibly and clearly. Budget your time wisely and don’t dwell on one question  Information to Bring to an Interview: Social Security number. Driver’s license number. Resume. Although not all employers require applicants to bring a resume, you should be able to furnish the interviewer information about your education, training, and previous employment. References. An employer usually requires three refer­ ences. Get permission before using anyone as a reference. Make sure they will give you a good reference. Try to avoid using relatives.  Evaluating a Job Offer Once you receive a job offer, you are faced with a difficult decision and must evaluate the offer carefully. Fortunately, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  most organizations will not expect you to accept or reject an offer immediately. There are many issues to consider when assessing a job offer. Will the organization be a good place to work? Will the job be interesting? Are there opportunities for advancement? Is the salary fair? Does the employer offer good benefits? If you have not already figured out exactly what you want, the following discussion may help you develop a set of criteria for judging job offers, whether you are starting a career, reen­ tering the labor force after a long absence, or planning a ca­ reer change.  The organization. Background information on an organization can help you decide whether it is a good place for you to work. Factors to consider include the organization’s business or ac­ tivity, financial condition, age, size, and location. You can generally get background information on an orga­ nization, particularly a large organization, by telephoning its public relations office. A public company’s annual report to the stockholders tells about its corporate philosophy, history, products or services, goals, and financial status. Most gov­ ernment agencies can furnish reports that describe their pro­ grams and missions. Press releases, company newsletters or magazines, and recruitment brochures also can be useful. Ask the organization for any other items that might interest a pro­ spective employee. If possible, speak to current or former employees of the organization. Background information on the organization may be available on the Internet or at your public or school library. If you cannot get an annual report, check the library for reference directories that may provide basic facts about the company, such as earnings, products and services, and number of employees. Some directories widely available in libraries include: • • • • •  Dun & Bradstreet’s Million Dollar Directory Standard and Poor’s Register of Corporations Moody’s Industrial Manual Thomas ’ Register ofAmerican Manufacturers Ward’s Business Directory  Stories about an organization in magazines and newspa­ pers can tell a great deal about its successes, failures, and plans for the future. You can identify articles on a company by look­ ing under its name in periodical or computerized indexes in libraries. However, it probably will not be useful to look back more than 2 or 3 years. The library also may have government publications that present projections of growth for the industry in which the or­ ganization is classified. Long-term projections of employment and output for more than 200 industries, covering the entire economy, are developed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and revised every two years—see the November 1999 Monthly La­ bor Review for the most recent projections. The U.S. Industry and Trade Outlook, published annually by the U.S. Department of Commerce, presents detailed analyses of the globalization of U.S. industry and growth prospects for some industrial sec­ tors. Trade magazines also have periodic articles on the trends for specific industries. Career centers at colleges and universities often have in­ formation on employers that is not available in libraries. Ask  16 Occupational Outlook Handbook  a career center representative how to find out about a particu­ lar organization.  Does the organization’s business or activity match your own interests and beliefs? It is easier to apply yourself to the work if you are enthusiastic about what the organization does.  How will the size of the organization affect you? Large firms generally offer a greater variety of training pro­ grams and career paths, more managerial levels for ad­ vancement, and better employee benefits than small firms. Large employers may also have more advanced technologies. How­ ever, jobs in large firms may tend to be highly specialized. Jobs in small firms may offer broader authority and respon­ sibility, a closer working relationship with top management, and a chance to clearly see your contribution to the success of the organization.  Should you work for a relatively new organization or one that is well established? New businesses have a high failure rate, but for many people, the excitement of helping create a company and the potential for sharing in its success more than offset the risk of job loss. However, it may be just as exciting and rewarding to work for a young firm that already has a foothold on success.  Does it make a difference if the company is private or public? An individual or a family may control a privately owned com­ pany and key jobs may be reserved for relatives and friends. A board of directors responsible to the stockholders controls a publicly owned company and key jobs are usually open to anyone.  Is the organization in an industry with favorable long-term prospects? The most successful firms tend to be in industries that are grow­ ing rapidly.  Nature of the job. Even if everything else about the job is attractive, you will be unhappy if you dislike the day-to-day work. Determining in advance whether you will like the work may be difficult. However, the more you find out about the job before accepting or rejecting the offer, the more likely you are to make the right choice. Actually working in the industry and, if possible, for the company would provide con­ siderable insight. You can gain work experience through part­ time, temporary, or summer jobs, or through internship or work-study programs while in school, all of which can lead to permanent job offers.  Does the work match your interests and make good use of your skills? The duties and responsibilities of the job should be explained in enough detail to answer this question.  How important is the job in this company? An explanation of where you fit in the organization and how you are supposed to contribute to its overall objectives should give you an idea of the job’s importance.  Are you comfortable with the hours? Most jobs involve regular hours—for example, 40 hours a week, during the day, Monday through Friday. Other jobs require night, weekend, or holiday work. In addition, some jobs routinely require overtime to meet deadlines or sales or production goals, or to better serve customers. Consider the effect the work hours will have on your personal life.  How long do most people who enter this job stay with the company? High turnover can mean dissatisfaction with the nature of the work or something else about the job.  Opportunities offered by employers. A good job offers you opportunities to learn new skills, increase your earnings, and rise to positions of greater authority, responsibility, and pres­ tige. A lack of opportunities can dampen interest in the work and result in frustration and boredom. The company should have a training plan for you. What valuable new skills does the company plan to teach you? The employer should give you some idea of promotion pos­ sibilities within the organization. What is the next step on the career ladder? If you have to wait for a job to become vacant before you can be promoted, how long does this usually take? When opportunities for advancement do arise, will you com­ pete with applicants from outside the company? Can you ap­ ply for jobs for which you qualify elsewhere within the orga­ nization, or is mobility within the firm limited? Salaries and benefits. Wait for the employer to introduce these subjects. Some companies will not talk about pay until they have decided to hire you. In order to know if their offer is reasonable, you need a rough estimate of what the job should pay. You may have to go to several sources for this information. Try to find family, friends, or acquain­ tances who recently were hired in similar jobs. Ask your teachers and the staff in placement offices about starting pay for graduates with your qualifications. Help-wanted ads in newspapers sometimes give salary ranges for simi­ lar positions. Check the library or your school’s career center for salary surveys such as those conducted by the National Association of Colleges and Employers or vari­ ous professional associations.  Where is the job located? If the job is in another section of the country, you need to consider the cost of living, the availability of housing and transportation, and the quality of educational and recreational facilities in that section of the country. Even if the job loca­ tion is in your area, you should consider the time and ex­ pense of commuting. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  If you are considering the salary and benefits for a job in another geographic area, make allowances for differences in the cost of living, which may be significantly higher in a large metropolitan area than in a smaller city, town, or rural area. You also should learn the organization’s policy regarding overtime. Depending on the job, you may or may not be  Finding a Job and Evaluating a Job Offer 17  exempt from laws requiring the employer to compensate you for overtime. Find out how many hours you will be expected to work each week and whether you receive overtime pay or compensatory time off for working more than the specified number of hours in a week. Also take into account that the starting salary is just that— the start. Your salary should be reviewed on a regular basis; many organizations do it every year. How much can you ex­ pect to earn after 1,2, or 3 or more years? An employer can­ not be specific about the amount of pay if it includes commis­ sions and bonuses. Benefits can also add a lot to your base pay, but they vary widely. Find out exactly what the benefit package includes and how much of the costs you must bear. National, State, and metropolitan area data from the Na­ tional Compensation Survey, which integrates data from three Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  existing Bureau of Labor Statistics programs—the Employ­ ment Cost Index, the Occupational Compensation Survey, and the Employee Benefits Survey—are available from: »■ Bureau of Labor Statistics, Office of Compensation and Working Con­ ditions, 2 Massachusetts Ave. NE., Room 4130, Washington, DC 20212­ 0001. Telephone: (202) 691-6199. Internet:  Data on earnings by detailed occupation from the Occu­ pational Employment Statistics (OES) Survey are available from: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Office of Employment and Unemploy­ ment Statistics, Occupational Employment Statistics, 2 Massachu­ setts Ave. NE„ Room 4840, Washington. DC 20212-0001. Telephone: (202) 691-6569. Internet:  Occupational Information Included in the Handbook The Occupational Outlook Handbook is best used as a refer­ ence; it is not meant to be read from cover to cover. Instead, start by looking at the table of contents, where related occu­ pations are grouped in clusters, or look in the alphabetical in­ dex in the back of the Handbook for specific occupations that interest you. For any occupation that sounds interesting, use the Handbook to learn about the type of work; education and training requirements and advancement possibilities; earnings; job outlook; and related occupations. Each occupational state­ ment, or description, in the Handbook follows a standard for­ mat, making it easier for you to compare occupations. Two previous sections—Tomorrow’s Jobs and Sources of Ca­ reer Information—highlight the forces that are likely to de­ termine employment opportunities in industries and occupa­ tions through the year 2008, and indicate where to obtain ad­ ditional information. This section is an overview of how the occupational statements are organized. It highlights informa­ tion presented in each section of a Handbook statement, gives examples of specific occupations in some cases, and offers some hints on how to interpret the information provided.  Unless otherwise noted, the source of employment and earnings data presented in the Handbook is the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Many Handbook statements cite earnings data from the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) sur­ vey, while other statements include earnings data from out­ side sources. OES data may be used to compare earnings among occupations; however, outside data may not be used in this manner because characteristics of these data vary widely.  About those numbers at the beginning of each statement The numbers in parentheses that appear just below the title of most occupational statements are from the Occupational In­ formation Network (0*NET), which has replaced the Dictio­ nary of Occupational Titles (D.O.T.). Like the D.O.T. in the past, the 0*NET is used by State employment service offices to classify applicants and job openings, and by some career information centers and libraries to file occupational infor­ mation. An index beginning on page 530 cross-references 0*NET codes to occupations covered in the Handbook. The 0*NET is also cross-referenced to the revised 1998 Standard Occu­ pational Classification (SOC). All Federal Government agen­ cies that collect occupational data are expected to adopt the new SOC over the next few years.  Significant Points This section highlights key occupational characteristics.  Nature of the Work This section discusses what workers do. Individual job duties may vary by industry or employer. For instance, workers in Digitized18for FRASER Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  larger firms tend to be more specialized whereas those in smaller firms often have a wider variety of duties. Most oc­ cupations have several levels of skills and responsibilities through which workers may progress. Beginners may start as trainees performing routine tasks under close supervision. Experienced workers usually undertake more difficult tasks and are expected to perform with less supervision. The influence of technological advancements on the way work is done is mentioned. For example, the Internet allows purchasers to acquire supplies with a click of the mouse, sav­ ing time and money. This section of Handbook statements also discusses emerging specialties. For instance, sales engi­ neers—who combine the education of an engineer with the challenge of sales—comprise a specialty within manufactur­ ers’ and wholesale sales representatives.  Working Conditions This section identifies the typical hours worked, the work­ place environment, susceptibility to injury, special equip­ ment, and physical activities and the extent of travel re­ quired. In many occupations people work regular business hours—40 hours a week, Monday through Friday—but many do not. For example, waiters and waitresses often work evenings and weekends. The work setting can range from a hospital, to a mall, to an off-shore oil rig. Truckdrivers might be susceptible to injury, while paramedics have high job-related stress. Electronic semiconductor processors may wear protective clothing or equipment, some construction craft laborers do physically de­ manding work, and top executives may travel frequently.  Employment This section reports the number of jobs the occupation pro­ vided in 1998 and the key industries where these jobs are found. When significant, the geographic distribution of jobs and the proportion of part-time (less than 35 hours a week) and selfemployed workers in the occupation are mentioned. Selfemployed workers accounted for nearly 9 percent of the workforce in 1998; however, they were concentrated in a small number of occupations, such as lawyers, health practitioners, and construction craft workers.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement After knowing what a job is all about, it is important to understand how to train for it. This section describes the most significant sources of training, including the training preferred by employers, the typical length of training, and advancement possibilities. Job skills are sometimes ac­ quired through high school, informal on-the-job training, formal training (including apprenticeships), the Armed Forces, home study, hobbies, or previous work experience. For example, sales experience is particularly important for many sales jobs. Many professional and technical jobs, on the other hand, require formal postsecondary education—  Occupational Information Included in the Handbook 19  Key phrases in the Handbook This box explains how to interpret the key phrases used to describe projected changes in employment. It also explains the terms used to describe the relationship between the num­ ber of job openings and the number of jobseekers. The de­ scriptions of this relationship in a particular occupation re­ flects the knowledge and judgment of economists in the Bureau’s Office of Employment Projections.  Changing employment between 1998 and 2008 If the statement reads: Grow much faster than average Grow faster than average Grow about as fast as average Grow more slowly than average, or little or no change Decline  Employment is projected to: increase 36 percent or more increase 21 to 35 percent increase 10 to 20 percent increase 0 to 9 percent decrease 1 percent or more  Some Handbook statements discuss the relationship be­ tween the number of jobseekers and job openings. In some occupations, there is a rough balance between jobseekers and openings, whereas other occupations are characterized by shortages or surpluses. Limited training facilities, salary regu­ lations, or undesirable aspects of the work—as in the case of private household workers—can cause shortages of entrants. On the other hand, glamorous or potentially high paying oc­ cupations, such as actors or musicians, generally have sur­ pluses of jobseekers. Variation in job opportunities by indus­ try, size of firm, or geographic location also may be discussed. Even in crowded fields, job openings do exist. Good students or well-qualified individuals should not befeterred from un­ dertaking training or seeking entry. Susceptibility to layoffs due to imports, slowdowns in eco­ nomic activity, technological advancements, or budget cuts are also addressed in this section. For example, employment of construction craft workers is sensitive to slowdowns in con­ struction activity, while employment of government workers is sensitive to budget cuts.  Opportunities and competition for jobs If the statement reads: Very good to excellent opportunities Good or favorable opportunities May face keen competition or can expect keen competition  Job openings compared to jobseekers may be: More numerous In rough balance Fewer  postsecondary vocational or technical training, or college, postgraduate, or professional education. In addition to training requirements, the Handbook also mentions desirable skills, aptitudes, and personal character­ istics. For some entry-level jobs, personal characteristics are more important than formal training. Employers gener­ ally seek people who read, write, and speak well; compute accurately; think logically; learn quickly; get along with oth­ ers; and demonstrate dependability. Some occupations require certification or licensing to en­ ter the field, to advance, or to practice independently. Certifi­ cation or licensing generally involves completing courses and passing examinations. Many occupations increasingly have continuing education or skill improvement requirements to keep up with the changing economy or to improve advance­ ment opportunities.  Job Outlook In planning for the future, it is important to consider potential job opportunities. This section describes the factors that will result in growth or decline in the number of jobs. In some cases, the Handbook mentions the relative number of job open­ ings an occupation is likely to provide. Occupations which are large and have high turnover rates, such as food and bev­ erage service occupations, generally provide the most job open­ ings—reflecting the need to replace workers who transfer to other occupations or stop working. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Earnings This section discusses typical earnings and how workers are compensated—annual salaries, hourly wages, commis­ sions, piece rates, tips, or bonuses. Within every occupa­ tion, earnings vary by experience, responsibility, perfor­ mance, tenure, and geographic area. Earnings data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics and, in some cases, from outside sources are included. Data may cover the entire occupation or a specific group within the occupation. Benefits account for more than a quarter of total com­ pensation costs to employers. Benefits such as paid vaca­ tion, health insurance, and sick leave generally are not mentioned because thay are so widespread. Less common benefits include child care, tuition for dependents, housing assistance, summers off, and free or discounted merchan­ dise or services. Though not as common as traditional ben­ efits such as paid vacation, employers increasingly offer flexible hours and profit sharing plans to attract and retain highly qualified workers.  Related Occupations Occupations involving similar aptitudes, interests, education, and training are listed.  Sources of Additional Information No single publication can completely describe all aspects of an occupation. Thus, the Handbook lists mailing addresses for associations, government agencies, unions, and other or­ ganizations that can provide occupational information. In some cases, tollfree phone numbers and Internet addresses also are listed. Free or relatively inexpensive publications offer­ ing more information may be mentioned; some of these may also be available in libraries, school career centers, guidance offices, or on the Internet. For additional sources of information, read the earlier chap­ ter, Sources of Career Information.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations Accountants and Auditors (0*NET 21114A and 21114B)  Significant Points • •  •  Most jobs require at least a bachelor’s degree in accounting or a related field. Jobseekers who obtain professional recognition through certification or licensure, a master’s degree, proficiency in accounting and auditing computer software, or specialized expertise will have an advantage in the job market. Competition will remain keen for the most prestigious jobs in major accounting and business firms.  Nature of the Work  Accountants and auditors help to ensure that the Nation’s firms are run more efficiently, its public records kept more accurately, and its taxes paid properly and on time. They perform these vital functions by offer­ ing an increasingly wide array of business and accounting services to their clients. Broadly, these services include public, management, and government accounting, as well as internal auditing. In each of these major fields, however, accountants and auditors continue to carry out the fundamental tasks of the occupation—prepare, analyze, and verify financial documents in order to provide information to clients. Specific job duties vary widely in the four major fields of account­ ing. Public accountants perform a broad range of accounting, auditing, tax, and consulting activities for their clients, who may be corporations, governments, nonprofit organizations, or individuals. For example, some public accountants concentrate on tax matters, such as advising companies of the tax advantages and disadvantages of certain business decisions and preparing individual income tax returns. Others are con­ sultants who offer advice in areas such as compensation or employee health care benefits; the design of accounting and data processing sys­ tems; and the selection of controls to safeguard assets. Some specialize in forensic accounting—investigating and interpreting bankruptcies and other complex financial transactions. Still others audit a client’s finan­ cial statements and report to investors and authorities that they have been prepared and reported correctly. Public accountants, many of whom are Certified Public Accountants (CPAs), generally have their own businesses or work for public accounting firms. Management accountants—also called industrial, corporate, or pri­ vate accountants—record and analyze the financial information of the companies for which they work. Other responsibilities include bud­ geting, performance evaluation, cost management, and asset manage­ ment. They are usually part of executive teams involved in strategic planning or new product development. Management accountants ana­ lyze and interpret the financial information corporate executives need to make sound business decisions. They also prepare financial reports for non-management groups, including stockholders, creditors, regula­ tory agencies, and tax authorities. Within accounting departments, they may work in areas including financial analysis, planning and bud­ geting, and cost accounting. Many persons with an accounting background work in the public sector. Government accountants and auditors maintain and examine the records of government agencies and audit private businesses and individuals whose activities are subject to government regulations or Digitized20 for FRASER Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  taxation. Accountants employed by Federal, State, and local govern­ ments guarantee that revenues are received and expenditures are made in accordance with laws and regulations. Those who are employed by the Federal Government may work as Internal Revenue Service agents or in financial management, financial institution examination, or budget analysis and administration. An increasingly important area of accounting and auditing is inter­ nal auditing. Internal auditors verify the accuracy of their organization’s records and check for mismanagement, waste, or fraud. Specifically, they examine and evaluate their firms’ financial and information sys­ tems, management procedures, and internal controls to ensure that records are accurate and controls are adequate to protect against fraud and waste. They also review company operations—evaluating their efficiency, effectiveness, and compliance with corporate policies and procedures, laws, and government regulations. There are many types of highly specialized auditors, such as electronic data processing, envi­ ronmental, engineering, legal, insurance premium, bank, and health care auditors. As computer systems make information more timely, inter­ nal auditors help managers to base their decisions on actual data, rather than personal observation. Internal auditors may also recommend controls for their organization’s computer system to ensure the reli­ ability of the system and the integrity of the data. Computers are rapidly changing the nature of the work for most accountants and auditors. With the aid of special software packages, accountants summarize transactions in standard formats for financial records and organize data in special formats for financial analysis. These accounting packages greatly reduce the amount of tedious manual work associated with data and recordkeeping. Personal and laptop computers enable accountants and auditors to be more mobile and to use their clients’ computer systems to extract information from large mainframe computers. As a result of these trends, a growing number of accountants and auditors have extensive computer skills and specialize in correcting problems with software or developing software to meet unique data needs. Working Conditions  Most accountants and auditors work in a typical office setting. Selfemployed accountants may be able to do part of their work at home. Accountants and auditors employed by public accounting firms and  Accountants and auditors prepare, analyze, and verify financial information.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 21 government agencies may travel frequently to perform audits at clients’ places of business, branches of their firm, or government facilities. Most accountants and auditors generally work a standard 40-hour week, but many work longer hours, particularly if they are self-em­ ployed and have numerous clients. Tax specialists often work long hours during the tax season.  Employment Accountants and auditors held over 1,080,000 jobs in 1998. They worked throughout private industry and government, but about 1 out of 4 worked for accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping firms. Approxi­ mately 1 out of 10 accountants or auditors were self-employed. Many accountants and auditors are unlicensed management accoun­ tants, internal auditors, or government accountants and auditors. How­ ever, a large number are licensed Certified Public Accountants, Public Accountants (PAs), Registered Public Accountants (RPAs), and Ac­ counting Practitioners (APs). Most accountants and auditors work in urban areas, where public accounting firms and central or regional of­ fices of businesses are concentrated. Some individuals with backgrounds in accounting and auditing are full-time college and university faculty; others teach part time while working as self-employed accountants, or as salaried accountants for private industry or government. (See the Handbook statement on college and university faculty.)  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Most accountant and internal auditor positions require at least a bachelor’s degree in accounting or a related field. Beginning accounting and auditing positions in the Federal Government, for example, usually require 4 years of college (including 24 semester hours in accounting or auditing) or an equivalent combination of education and experience. Some employers prefer applicants with a master’s degree in accounting or a master’s de­ gree in business administration with a concentration in accounting. Previous experience in accounting or auditing can help an applicant get a job. Many colleges offer students an opportunity to gain experi­ ence through summer or part-time internship programs conducted by public accounting or business firms. In addition, practical knowledge of computers and their applications in accounting and internal auditing is a great asset for jobseekers in the accounting field. Professional recognition through certification or licensure provides a distinct advantage in the job market. All CPAs must have a certificate and the partners in their firm must have licenses issued by a State Board of Accountancy. The vast majority of States require CPA candidates to be college graduates, but a few States substitute a number of years of public accounting experience for the college degree. Based on recom­ mendations made by the American Institute of Certified Public Accoun­ tants, 17 States currently require CPA candidates to complete 150 se­ mester hours of college coursework—an additional 30 hours beyond the usual 4-year bachelor’s degree. Most States have adopted similar legislation that will become effective in the future. Many schools have altered their curricula accordingly, and prospective accounting majors should carefully research accounting curricula and the requirements for any States in which they hope to become licensed. All States use the four-part Uniform CPA Examination prepared by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. The 2-day CPA examination is rigorous, and only about one-quarter of those who take it each year pass every part they attempt. Candidates are not required to pass all four parts at once, but most States require candidates to pass at least two parts for partial credit and all four sections within a certain period of time. Most States also require applicants for a CPA certificate to have some accounting experience. The designations PA or RPA are also recognized by most States, and several States continue to issue these licenses. With the growth in the number of CPA’s, however, the majority of States are phasing out nonCPA designations—PA, RPA, and AP—by not issuing new licenses. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Accountants who hold PA or RPA designations have legal rights, duties, and obligations similar to those of CPAs, but their qualifications for licensure are less stringent. AP designation requires less formal training and covers a more limited scope of practice than the CPA. Nearly all States require CPAs and other public accountants to complete a certain number of hours of continuing professional educa­ tion before their licenses can be renewed. The professional associa­ tions representing accountants sponsor numerous courses, seminars, group study programs, and other forms of continuing education. Professional societies bestow other forms of credentials on a volun­ tary basis. Voluntary certification can attest to professional compe­ tence in a specialized field of accounting and auditing. It can also certify that a recognized level of professional competence has been achieved by accountants and auditors who acquired some skills on the job, without the formal education or public accounting work experience needed to meet the rigorous standards required to take the CPA examination. The Institute of Management Accountants (IMA) confers the Cer­ tified Management Accountant (CMA) designation upon applicants who complete a bachelor’s degree or attain a minimum score on speci­ fied graduate school entrance exams. Applicants must also pass a fourpart examination, agree to meet continuing education requirements, comply with standards of professional conduct, and have worked at least 2 years in management accounting. The CMA program is admin­ istered through the Institute of Certified Management Accountants, an affiliate of the IMA. Graduates from accredited colleges and universities who have worked for 2 years as internal auditors and have passed a four-part examination may earn the designation Certified Internal Auditor (CIA) from the Institute of Internal Auditors. Similarly, the Information Systems Audit and Control Association confers the designation Cer­ tified Information Systems Auditor (CISA) upon candidates who pass an examination and have 5 years of experience in auditing elec­ tronic data processing systems. Auditing or data processing experi­ ence and college education may be substituted for up to 3 years of work experience in this program. The Accreditation Council for Accountancy and Taxation, a satellite organization of the National Society of Public Accountants, confers three designations—Accred­ ited in Accountancy (AA), Accredited Tax Advisor (ATA), and Ac­ credited Tax Preparer (ATP). Candidates for the AA must pass an exam, while candidates for the ATA and ATP must complete the required coursework and pass an exam. Other organizations, such as the National Association of Certified Fraud Examiners and the Bank Administration Institute, confer specialized auditing designations. Often a practitioner will hold multiple licenses and designations. For instance, an internal auditor might be a CPA, CIA, and CISA. Persons planning a career in accounting should have an aptitude for mathematics and be able to analyze, compare, and interpret facts and figures quickly. They must be able to clearly communicate the results of their work to clients and managers. Accountants and auditors must be good at working with people as well as with business systems and com­ puters. Because millions of financial statement users rely on their ser­ vices, accountants and auditors should have high standards of integrity. Capable accountants and auditors may advance rapidly; those hav­ ing inadequate academic preparation may be assigned routine jobs and find promotion difficult. Many graduates of junior colleges and busi­ ness and correspondence schools, as well as bookkeepers and account­ ing clerks who meet the education and experience requirements set by their employers, can obtain junior accounting positions and advance to positions with more responsibilities by demonstrating their account­ ing skills on the job. Beginning public accountants usually start by assisting with work for several clients. They may advance to positions with more responsibility in 1 or 2 years, and to senior positions within an­ other few years. Those who excel may become supervisors, manag­ ers, partners, open their own public accounting firms, or transfer to  22 Occupational Outlook Handbook executive positions in management accounting or internal auditing in private firms. Management accountants often start as cost accountants, junior internal auditors, or as trainees for other accounting positions. As they rise through the organization, they may advance to accounting manager, chief cost accountant, budget director, or manager of inter­ nal auditing. Some become controllers, treasurers, financial vice presi­ dents, chief financial officers, or corporation presidents. Many se­ nior corporation executives have a background in accounting, internal auditing, or finance. In general, there is a large degree of mobility among public accoun­ tants, management accountants, and internal auditors. Practitioners often shift into management accounting or internal auditing from public accounting, or between internal auditing and management ac­ counting. However, it is less common for accountants and auditors to move from either management accounting or internal auditing into public accounting.  Job Outlook Employment of accountants and auditors is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2008. In addition to openings resulting from growth, the need to replace accountants and auditors who retire or transfer to other occupations will produce thou­ sands of job openings annually in this large occupation. As the economy grows, the number of business establishments will increase, requiring more accountants and auditors to set up books, pre­ pare taxes, and provide management advice. As these businesses grow, the volume and complexity of information developed by accountants and auditors regarding costs, expenditures, and taxes will increase as well. More complex requirements for accountants and auditors also arise from changes in legislation related to taxes, financial reporting standards, business investments, mergers, and other financial matters. In addition, businesses will increasingly need quick, accurate, and indi­ vidually tailored financial information due to the demands of growing international competition. These trends will positively affect the em­ ployment of accountants and auditors. The changing role of accountants and auditors also will spur job growth. In response to market demand, these professionals will offer more management and consulting services as they take on a greater advisory role and develop more sophisticated and flexible accounting systems. By focusing more on analyzing operations rather than just providing financial data, accountants will help to increase the demand for their services. Also, internal auditors will increasingly be needed to discover and eliminate waste and fraud. However, this trend will be counteracted somewhat by a de­ crease in the demand for traditional services and growing use of accounting software. Accountants will spend less time performing audits due to potential liability and relatively low profits, and will shift away from tax preparation due to the increasing popularity of tax preparation firms. As computer programs continue simplifying some accounting-related tasks, clerical staff will increasingly handle many routine calculations. Accountants and auditors who have earned professional recognition through certification or licensure should have the best job prospects. For example, CPAs should continue to enjoy a wide range ofjob oppor­ tunities, especially as more States enact the 150-hour requirement, mak­ ing it more difficult to obtain this certification. Similarly, CMAs should be in demand as their management advice is increasingly sought. Appli­ cants with a master’s degree in accounting, or a master’s degree in business administration with a concentration in accounting, will also have an advantage in the job market. Proficiency in accounting and auditing computer software, or ex­ pertise in specialized areas such as international business, specific industries, or current legislation, may also be helpful in landing cer­ tain accounting and auditing jobs. In addition, employers increas­ ingly seek applicants with strong interpersonal and communication skills. Regardless of one’s qualifications, however, competition will Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  remain keen for the most prestigious jobs in major accounting and business firms.  Earnings In 1998, the median annual earnings of accountants and auditors were $37,860. The middle half of the occupation earned between $29,840 and $49,460. The top 10 percent of accountants and auditors earned more than $76,160, and the bottom decile earned less than $23,800. Accountants and auditors earn slightly more in urban areas. In 1997, median annual earnings in the industries employing the largest num­ bers of accountants and auditors were: Accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping..................... :...... .......... $38,100 State government, except education and hospitals ................... 35,900 Federal government........................................................................ 43,100 36,400 Local government, except education and hospitals ................. Commercial banks........................................................................... 35,700  According to a salary survey conducted by the National Associa­ tion of Colleges and Employers, bachelor’s degree candidates in ac­ counting received starting offers averaging $34,500 a year in 1999; master’s degree candidates in accounting, $36,800. According to a salary survey conducted by Robert Half Interna­ tional, a staffing services firm specializing in accounting and finance, accountants and auditors with up to 1 year of experience earned between $26,000-$36,250 in 1999. Those with 1 to 3 years of experience earned between $29,250-$41,250. Senior accountants and auditors earned be­ tween $34,750-$51,000; managers earned between $41,750-$68,500; and directors of accounting and auditing earned between $56,250-$91,000 a year. The variation in salaries reflects differences in size of firm, location, level of education, and professional credentials. In the Federal Government, the starting annual salary for junior accountants and auditors was about $20,600 in 1999. Candidates who had a superior academic record might start at $25,500, while appli­ cants with a master’s degree or 2 years of professional experience usually began at $31,200. Beginning salaries were slightly higher in selected areas where the prevailing local pay level was higher. Accoun­ tants employed by the Federal Government in nonsupervisory, super­ visory, and managerial positions averaged about $58,200 a year in 1999; auditors averaged $62,500.  Related Occupations Accountants and auditors design internal control systems and analyze financial data. Others for whom training in accounting is invaluable include appraisers, budget officers, loan officers, financial analysts and managers, bank officers, actuaries, underwriters, tax collectors and revenue agents, FBI special agents, securities sales representatives, and purchasing agents.  Sources of Additional Information Information about careers in certified public accounting and about CPA standards and examinations may be obtained from: <*■ American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, Harborside Finan­ cial Center, 201 Plaza III, Jersey City, NJ 07311-3881. Internet:  Information on careers in management accounting and the CMA designation may be obtained from: Institute of Management Accountants, 10 Paragon Dr., Montvale, NJ 07645-1760. Internet:  Information on the Accredited in Accountancy/Accredited Business Accountant, Accredited Tax Advisor, or Accredited Tax Preparer des­ ignations may be obtained from: m- National Society of Accountants and the Accreditation Council for Accountancy and Taxation, 1010 North Fairfax St., Alexandria, VA 22314. Internet:  Information on careers in internal auditing and the CIA designation may be obtained from: The Institute of Internal Auditors, 249 Maitland Ave., Altamonte Springs, FL 32701-4201. Internet:  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 23 Information on careers in information systems auditing and the CIS A designation may be obtained from: *■ The Information Systems Audit and Control Association, 3701 Algonquin Rd„ Suite 1010, Rolling Meadows, IL 60008. Internet:  • For information on accredited programs in accounting and business, contact: *" American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business—The Interna­ tional Association for Management Education, 605 Old Balias Rd„ Suite 220, St. Louis, MO 63141. Internet:  Administrative Services and Facility Managers (0*NET 13014B)  Significant Points •  Administrative services and facility managers work in private industry and government and have varied responsibilities, experience, earnings, and education.  •  Despite projected employment growth, especially among facility managers, competition should remain keen due to the substantial supply of competent, experienced workers seeking managerial jobs.  Nature of the Work Administrative services andfacility managers perform a broad range of duties in virtually every sector of the economy. Administrative ser­ vices managers, for example, coordinate and direct support services to organizations as diverse as insurance companies, computer manufac­ turers, and government offices. These workers manage the many ser­ vices that allow organizations to operate efficiently, such as secretarial and reception; administration; payroll; conference planning and travel; information and data processing; mail; materials scheduling and distri­ bution; printing and reproduction; records management; telecommuni­ cations management; personal property procurement, supply, and dis­ posal; security; and parking. Specific duties for these managers vary by degree of responsibility and authority. First-line administrative services managers directly su­ pervise a staff that performs various support services. Mid-level man­ agers, on the other hand, develop departmental plans, set goals and deadlines, implement procedures to improve productivity and customer service, and define the responsibilities of supervisory-level managers. Some mid-level administrative services managers oversee first-line su­ pervisors from various departments, including the clerical staff. Mid­ level managers also may be involved in the hiring and dismissal of em­ ployees, but they generally have no role in the formulation of personnel policy. Some of these managers advance to upper-level positions such as vice president of administrative services, which are discussed in the Handbook statement on general managers and top executives. In small organizations, a single administrative services manager may oversee all support services. In larger ones, however, first-line adminis­ trative services managers often report to mid-level managers who, in turn, report to owners or top-level managers. As the size of the firm increases, administrative services managers are more likely to specialize in specific support activities. For example, some administrative services managers work primarily as office managers, contract administrators, or unclaimed property officers. In many cases, the duties of these administrative ser­ vices managers are similar to those of other managers and supervisors, some of whom are discussed in other Handbook statements. Because of the range of administrative services required by organi­ zations, the nature of many of these managers’ jobs also varies signifi­ cantly. Administrative services managers who work as contract ad­ ministrators, for instance, oversee the preparation, analysis, negotia­ tion, and review of contracts related to the purchase or sale of equip­ ment, materials, supplies, products, or services. In addition, some Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Administrative services andfacility managers must be able to coordinate several activities at once. administrative services managers acquire, distribute, and store sup­ plies; while others dispose of surplus property or oversee the disposal of unclaimed property. Facility managers are assigned a wide range of tasks in planning, designing, and managing facilities. They are responsible for coordi­ nating the physical workplace with the people and work of an organization. This task requires integrating the principles of busi­ ness administration, architecture, as well as the behavioral and en­ gineering sciences. Although the specific tasks assigned to facility managers vary substantially depending on the organization, the duties fall into several categories. They include operations and maintenance, real estate, project planning and management, commu­ nication, finance, quality assessment, facility function, and human and environmental factors. Tasks within these broad categories may in­ clude space and workplace planning, budgeting, the purchase and sale of real estate, lease management, renovations, or architectural planning and design. Facility managers may suggest and oversee renovation projects for a variety of reasons, ranging from improving efficiency to ensuring that facilities meet government regulations and environmen­ tal, health, and security standards. Additionally, facility managers continually monitor the facility to ensure that it remains safe, secure, and well-maintained. Often, the facility manager is responsible for directing staff including maintenance, grounds, and custodial workers.  Working Conditions Administrative services and facility managers generally work in com­ fortable offices. However, managers involved in contract administra­ tion and personal property procurement, use, and disposal may travel extensively between their home office, branch offices, vendors’ offices, and property sales sites. Also, facility managers who are responsible for the design of workspaces may spend time at construction sites and may travel between different facilities while monitoring the work of maintenance, grounds, and custodial staffs. Most administrative services and facility managers work a standard 40-hour week. However, uncompensated overtime is often required to resolve problems and meet deadlines. Facility managers are often on call to address a variety of problems that can arise in a facility during non-work hours. Because of frequent deadlines and the challenges of managing staff and resources, the work of administrative services and facility managers can be stressful.  Employment Administrative services and facility managers held about 364,000 jobs in 1998. Over half worked in service industries, including management, business, social, and health services. The remaining workers were widely dispersed throughout the economy.  24 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Educational requirements for these managers vary widely, depending on the size and complexity of the organization. In small organizations, experience may be the only requirement needed to enter a position as office manager. When an opening in administrative services manage­ ment occurs, the office manager may be promoted to the position based on past performance. In large organizations, however, adminis­ trative services managers are normally hired from outside and each position has formal education and experience requirements. Some administrative services managers have advanced degrees. Specific requirements vary by job responsibility. For first-line administrative services managers of secretarial, mailroom, and related support activities, many employers prefer an associate degree in business or management, although a high school diploma may suffice when combined with appropriate experience. For managers of audio­ visual, graphics, and other technical activities, postsecondary techni­ cal school training is preferred. Managers of highly complex services such as contract administration generally need a bachelor’s degree in business, human resources, or finance. Regardless of major, the cur­ riculum should include courses in office technology, accounting, busi­ ness mathematics, computer applications, human resources, and busi­ ness law. Most facility managers have an undergraduate or graduate degree in engineering, architecture, business administration, or facil­ ity management. Many have a background in real estate, construc­ tion or interior design, in addition to managerial experience. Whatever the manager’s educational background, it must be accompanied by related work experience reflecting demonstrated ability. For this reason, many administrative services managers have advanced through the ranks of their organization, acquiring work experience in various administrative positions before assuming first-line supervisory du­ ties. All managers who oversee departmental supervisors should be familiar with office procedures and equipment. Managers of per­ sonal property acquisition and disposal need experience in purchas­ ing and sales, and knowledge of a variety of supplies, machinery, and equipment. Managers concerned with supply, inventory, and distri­ bution should be experienced in receiving, warehousing, packaging, shipping, transportation, and related operations. Contract adminis­ trators may have worked as contract specialists, cost analysts, or procurement specialists. Managers of unclaimed property often have experience in insurance claims analysis and records management. Persons interested in becoming administrative services or facility managers should have good communication skills and be able to estab­ lish effective working relationships with many different people, rang­ ing from managers, supervisors, and professionals, to clerks and bluecollar workers. They should be analytical, detail oriented, flexible, and decisive. The ability to coordinate several activities at once, quickly analyze and resolve specific problems, and cope with deadlines is also important. Most administrative services managers in small organizations ad­ vance by moving to other management positions or to a larger organi­ zation. Advancement is easier in large firms that employ several levels of administrative services managers. Attainment of the Certified Ad­ ministrative Manager (CAM) designation offered by the Institute of Certified Professional Managers through work experience and suc­ cessful completion of examinations can increase a manager’s advance­ ment potential. In addition, a bachelor’s degree enhances a first-level manager’s opportunities to advance to a mid-level management posi­ tion, such as director of administrative services, and eventually to a top-level management position, such as executive vice president for administrative services. Those with the required capital and experi­ ence can establish their own management consulting firm. Advancement of facility managers is based on the practices and size of individual companies. Some facility managers transfer from other departments within the organization or work their way up from technical positions. Others advance through a progression of facility management positions that offer additional responsibilities. Completion of the competency-based professional certification pro­ gram offered by the International Facility Management Association Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  can give prospective candidates an advantage. In order to qualify for this Certified Facility Manager (CFM) designation, applicants must meet certain educational and experience requirements.  Job Outlook Employment of administrative services and facility managers is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through 2008. Demand should be especially strong for facility managers, and for admin­ istrative services managers in management services and management consulting as public and private organizations continue to contract out and streamline administrative services in an effort to cut costs. Many additional job openings will stem from the need to replace workers who transfer to other jobs, retire, or stop working for other reasons. Nevertheless, competition should remain keen due to the large number of competent, experienced workers seeking managerial jobs. Continuing corporate restructuring and increasing utilization of of­ fice technology should result in a flatter organizational structure with fewer levels of the management, reducing the need for some middle management positions. This should adversely affect administrative services managers who oversee first-line mangers. Because many ad­ ministrative managers have a variety of functions, however, the effects of these changes on employment should be less severe than for other middle managers who specialize in certain functions.  Earnings Earnings of administrative services and facility managers vary greatly depending on their employer, specialty, and geographic area in which they work. In general, however, median annual earnings of administra­ tive services and facility managers in 1998 were $44,370. The middle 50 percent earned between $31,980 and $68,840. The lowest 10 per­ cent earned less than $24,100, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $89,850. Median annual earnings in the industries employing the largest numbers of these workers in 1997 are shown below: Hospitals........................................................................................... $49,000 Commercial banks........................................................................... 47,500 44,500 Colleges and universities................................................................ Local government, except education and hospitals.................. 40,900 Management and public relations.................................................. 36,900  In the Federal Government, contract specialists in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions averaged $55,300 a year in early 1999; facilities managers, $53,100; industrial property managers, $52,100; property disposal specialists, $48,000; administrative offic­ ers, $53,100, and support services administrators, $43,900. According to the International Facility Management Association, facility managers had annual earnings of approximately $66,000 in 1998. Entry level positions in facility management offered salaries ranging from $27,000 to $42,000 a year. However, facility directors can earn more than $80,000 per year, and top facility executives can earn in excess of $160,000. These salaries vary depending on level of education, exact position, company size, and geographic location.  Related Occupations Administrative services and facility managers direct and coordinate sup­ port services and oversee the purchase, use, and disposal of personal property. Occupations with similar functions include appraisers, buy­ ers, office and administrative support supervisors, contract specialists, cost estimators, procurement services managers, property and real es­ tate managers, purchasing managers, and personnel managers.  Sources of Additional Information For information about careers in facility management, facility manage­ ment education and degree programs, as well as the Certified Facility Manager (CFM) designation, contact: International Facility Management Association, I East Greenway Plaza, Suite 1100, Houston, TX 77046-0194. Internet:  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 25 General information regarding facility management and a list of facil­ ity management educational and degree programs may be obtained from: The Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers, 1643 Prince St., Alexandria, VA 22314-2818. Internet:  For information about the Certified Administrative Manager desig­ nation, contact: <*• Institute of Certified Professional Managers, James Madison Uni­ versity, College of Business, Harrisonburg, VA 22807. Internet:  Advertising, Marketing, and Public Relations Managers (0*NET 13011A, 1301 IB, 13011C, 13011D)  Significant Points • •  •  Employment is projected to increase rapidly, but competition for jobs is expected to be intense. Advertising, marketing, and public relations managers have high earnings, but substantial travel and long hours, including evenings and weekends, are common. A college degree with almost any major is suitable for entering this occupation, but most people enter these jobs after acquiring experience in related positions.  they identify potential markets—for example, business firms, wholesal­ ers, retailers, government, or the general public. Marketing managers develop pricing strategy with an eye towards maximizing the firm’s share of the market and its profits while ensuring that the firm’s custom­ ers are satisfied. In collaboration with sales, product development, and other managers, they monitor trends that indicate the need for new products and services and oversee product development. Marketing managers work with advertising and promotion managers to promote the firm’s products and services and to attract potential users. Public relations managers supervise public relations specialists (see the Handbook statement on public relations specialists). These managers direct publicity programs to a targeted public. They often specialize in a specific area, such as crisis management—or in a spe­ cific industry, such as healthcare. They use every available communi­ cation media in their effort to maintain the support of the specific group upon whom their organization’s success depends, such as con­ sumers, stockholders, or the general public. For example, public rela­ tions managers may clarify or justify the firm’s point of view on health or environmental issues to community or special interest groups. Public relations managers also evaluate advertising and promotion programs for compatibility with public relations efforts and serve as the eyes and ears of top management. They observe social, eco­ nomic, and political trends that might ultimately have an effect upon the firm, and make recommendations to enhance the firm’s image based on those trends. Public relations managers may confer with labor relations managers to produce internal company communications—such as news about  Nature of the Work The objective of any firm is to market its products or services profitably. In small firms, the owner or chief executive officer might assume all advertising, promotions, marketing, sales, and public relations respon­ sibilities. In large firms, which may offer numerous products and ser­ vices nationally or even worldwide, an executive vice president directs overall advertising, promotions, marketing, sales, and public relations policies. (Executive vice presidents are included in the Handbook state­ ment on general managers and top executives.) Advertising, marketing, and public relations managers coordinate the market research, market­ ing strategy, sales, advertising, promotion, pricing, product develop­ ment, and public relations activities. Middle and supervisory managers oversee and supervise staffs of professionals and technicians. Advertising and promotion staffs usually are small except in the largest firms. In a small firm, they may serve as a liaison between the firm and the advertising or promotion agency to which many advertising or promotional functions are contracted out. In larger firms, advertising managers oversee in-house account services, creative services, and media services departments. The account executive manages the account ser­ vices department, assesses the need for advertising and, in advertising agencies, maintains the accounts of clients. The creative services depart­ ment develops the subject matter and presentation of advertising. The creative director oversees the copy chief, art director, and their respec­ tive staffs. The media director oversees planning groups that select the communication media—for example, radio, television, newspapers, maga­ zines, Internet, or outdoor signs—to disseminate the advertising. Promotion managers supervise staffs of promotion specialists. They direct promotion programs combining advertising with purchase incentives to increase sales. In an effort to establish closer contact with purchasers—dealers, distributors, or consumers—promotion pro­ grams may involve direct mail, telemarketing, television or radio adver­ tising, catalogs, exhibits, inserts in newspapers, Internet advertise­ ments or websites, in-store displays or product endorsements, and special events. Purchase incentives may include discounts, samples, gifts, rebates, coupons, sweepstakes, and contests. Marketing managers develop the firm’s detailed marketing strategy. With the help of subordinates, including product development managers and market research managers, they determine the demand for prod­ ucts services offered by the firm and its competitors. In addition, Digitized forand FRASER Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  IHKi *!  Working underpressure is unavoidable when schedules change and problems arise, but deadlines and goals must still be met.  26 Occupational Outlook Handbook employee-management relations—and with financial managers to pro­ duce company reports. They assist company executives in drafting speeches, arranging interviews, and other forms of public contact; over­ see company archives; and respond to information requests. In addi­ tion, some handle special events such as sponsorship of races, parties introducing new products, or other activities the firm supports in order to gain public attention through the press without advertising directly. Sales managers direct the firm’s sales program. They assign sales territories, set goals, and establish training programs for the sales rep­ resentatives (see Handbook statements on services sales representa­ tives). Managers advise the sales representatives on ways to improve their sales performance. In large, multiproduct firms, they oversee regional and local sales managers and their staffs. Sales managers maintain contact with dealers and distributors. They analyze sales statistics gathered by their staffs to determine sales potential and inventory requirements and monitor the preferences of customers. Such information is vital to develop products and maximize profits.  Working Conditions Advertising, marketing, and public relations managers are provided with offices close to top managers. Long hours, including evenings and weekends, are common. Almost 40 percent of advertising, marketing, and public relations managers worked 50 hours or more a week, com­ pared to 15 percent for all occupations. Working under pressure is unavoidable when schedules change and problems arise, but deadlines and goals must still be met. Substantial travel may be involved. For example, attendance at meet­ ings sponsored by associations or industries is often mandatory. Sales managers travel to national, regional, and local offices and to various dealers and distributors. Advertising and promotion managers may travel to meet with clients or representatives of communications media. At times, public relations managers travel to meet with special interest groups or government officials. Job transfers between headquarters and regional offices are common, particularly among sales managers.  Employment Advertising, marketing, and public relations managers held about 485,000 jobs in 1998. They are found in virtually every industry. Industries employing them in significant numbers include wholesale trade, manufacturing firms, advertising, computer and data processing services, and management and public relations.  Training, Advancement, and Other Qualifications A wide range of educational backgrounds are suitable for entry into adver­ tising, marketing, and public relations managerial jobs, but many employers prefer a broad liberal arts background. A bachelor’s degree in sociology, psychology, literature, or philosophy, among other subjects, is acceptable. However, requirements vary depending upon the particular job. For marketing, sales, and promotion management positions, some employers prefer a bachelor’s or master’s degree in business adminis­ tration with an emphasis on marketing. Courses in business law, eco­ nomics, accounting, finance, mathematics, and statistics are advanta­ geous. In highly technical industries, such as computer and electronics manufacturing, a bachelor’s degree in engineering or science combined with a master’s degree in business administration is preferred. For advertising management positions, some employers prefer a bachelor’s degree in advertising or journalism. A course of study should include marketing, consumer behavior, market research, sales, commu­ nication methods and technology, and visual arts—for example, art his­ tory and photography. For public relations management positions, some employers pre­ fer a bachelor’s or master’s degree in public relations or journalism. The individual’s curriculum should include courses in advertising, business administration, public affairs, political science, and creative and technical writing. For all these specialties, courses in management and completion of Digitized FRASERwhile in school are highly recommended. Familiarity an for internship Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  with word processing and data base applications also is important for many advertising, marketing, and public relations management posi­ tions. Today, interactive marketing, product promotion, and advertis­ ing are increasingly prevalent, and computer skills are vital. Most advertising, marketing, and public relations management posi­ tions are filled by promoting experienced staff or related professional or technical personnel. For example, many managers are former sales representatives, purchasing agents, buyers, product or brand spe­ cialists, advertising specialists, promotion specialists, and public rela­ tions specialists. In small firms, where the number of positions is limited, advancement to a management position usually comes slowly. In large firms, promotion may occur more quickly. Although experience, ability, and leadership are emphasized for pro­ motion, advancement can be accelerated by participation in management training programs conducted by many large firms. Many firms also provide their employees with continuing education opportunities, either in-house or at local colleges and universities, and encourage employee participation in seminars and conferences, often provided by profes­ sional societies. In collaboration with colleges and universities, numer­ ous marketing and related associations sponsor national or local manage­ ment training programs. Courses include brand and product manage­ ment, international marketing, sales management evaluation, telemarketing and direct sales, promotion, marketing communication, market research, organizational communication, and data processing systems procedures and management. Many firms pay all or part of the cost for those who successfully complete courses. Some associations (listed under sources of additional information) offer certification programs for advertising, marketing, and public rela­ tions managers. Certification is a sign of competence and achievement in this field that is particularly important in a competitive job market. While relatively few advertising, marketing, and public relations man­ agers currently are certified, the number of managers who seek certifica­ tion is expected to grow. For example, Sales and Marketing Executives International offers a management certification program based on edu­ cation and job performance. The Public Relations Society of America offers an accreditation program for public relations practitioners based on years of experience and an examination. Persons interested in becoming advertising, marketing, and public relations managers should be mature, creative, highly motivated, resis­ tant to stress, flexible, and decisive. The ability to communicate persua­ sively, both orally and in writing, with other managers, staff, and the public is vital. Advertising, marketing, and public relations managers also need tact, good judgment, and exceptional ability to establish and maintain effective personal relationships with supervisory and profes­ sional staff members and client firms. Because of the importance and high visibility of their jobs, adver­ tising, marketing, and public relations managers often are prime candi­ dates for advancement to the highest ranks. Well-trained, experienced, successful managers may be promoted to higher positions in their own or other firms. Some become top executives. Managers with extensive experience and sufficient capital may open their own businesses.  Job Outlook Advertising, marketing, and public relations manager jobs are highly coveted and will be sought by other managers or highly experienced professional and technical personnel, resulting in substantial competi­ tion. College graduates with extensive experience, a high level of cre­ ativity, and strong communication skills should have the best job oppor­ tunities. Those who have new media and interactive marketing skills will be particularly sought after. Employment of advertising, marketing, and public relations manag­ ers is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations through 2008. Increasingly intense domestic and global competition in products and services offered to consumers should require greater mar­ keting, promotional, and public relations efforts by managers. Man­ agement and public relations firms may experience particularly rapid growth as businesses increasingly hire contractors for these services rather than support additional full-time staff.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 27 Projected employment growth varies by industry. For example, employment of advertising, marketing, and public relations managers is expected to grow much faster than average in most business services industries, such as computer and data processing, and in management and public relations firms, while little or no change is projected in manufacturing industries. Earnings  Median annual earnings of advertising, marketing, promotions, public relations, and sales managers in 1998 were $57,300. The middle 50 percent earned between $38,230 and $84,950 a year. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $28,190 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $116,160 a year. Median annual earnings in the industries employing the largest number of advertising, marketing, promotions, public relations, and sales managers in 1997 were as follows: Professional and commercial equipment..................................... $69,800 Telephone communications........................................................... 64,100 Computer and data processing services....................................... 60,800 Advertising........................................................................................ 54,300 Management and public relations.................................................. 51,100  According to a National Association of Colleges and Employers survey, starting salaries for marketing majors graduating in 1999 aver­ aged about $31,900; advertising majors, about $26,600. Salary levels vary substantially depending upon the level of mana­ gerial responsibility, length of service, education, firm size, location, and industry. For example, manufacturing firms usually pay advertis­ ing, marketing, and public relations managers higher salaries than nonmanufacturing firms do. For sales managers, the size of their sales territory is another important determinant of salary. Many managers earn bonuses equal to 10 percent or more of their salaries. Related Occupations  Advertising, marketing, and public relations managers direct the sale of products and services offered by their firms and the communication of information about their firms’ activities. Other personnel involved with advertising, marketing, and public relations include art directors, artists and commercial artists, copy chiefs, copywriters, writers and editors, lobbyists, marketing research analysts, public relations spe­ cialists, promotion specialists, and sales representatives. Sources of Additional Information  For information about careers and certification in sales and marketing, contact: *" Sales and Marketing Executives International, 5500 Interstate North Pkwy., No. 545, Atlanta, GA 30328-4662. Internet:  For information about careers in advertising management, contact: American Association of Advertising Agencies, 405 Lexington Ave., New York, NY 10174-1801. Internet: •" American Advertising Federation, Education Services Department, 1101 Vermont Ave. NW., Suite 500, Washington, DC 20005. Internet:  Information about careers and certification in public relations man­ agement is available from: Public Relations Society of America, 33 Irving Place, New York, NY 10003-2376. Internet:  Budget Analysts (0**NET 21117)  Significant Points •  One out of 3 budget analysts work in Federal, State,  local governments. Digitized for and FRASER Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  •  •  A bachelor’s degree generally is the minimum educational requirement; however, some employers require a master’s degree. Competition for jobs should remain keen due to the substantial number of qualified applicants; those with a master’s degree should have the best job prospects.  Nature of the Work  Deciding how to distribute limited financial resources efficiently is an important challenge in all organizations. In most large and com­ plex organizations, this task would be nearly impossible were it not for budget analysts. These professionals play the primary role in the development, analysis, and execution of budgets, which are used to allocate current resources and estimate future requirements. Without effective analysis and feedback about budgetary problems, many private and public organizations could become bankrupt. Budget analysts can be found in private industry, nonprofit organi­ zations, and the public sector. In private sector firms, a budget analyst examines, analyzes, and seeks new ways to improve efficiency and increase profits. Although analysts working in nonprofit and govern­ mental organizations usually are not concerned with profits, they still try to find the most efficient distribution of funds and other resources among various departments and programs. Budget analysts have many responsibilities in these organizations, but their primary task is providing advice and technical assistance in the preparation of annual budgets. At the beginning of each budget cycle, managers and department heads submit proposed operating and financial plans to budget analysts for review. These plans outline expected programs, including proposed program increases and new initiatives; estimated costs and expenses; and capital expenditures needed to finance these programs. Analysts examine the budget estimates or proposals for com­ pleteness, accuracy, and conformance with established procedures, regulations, and organizational objectives. Sometimes, they employ cost-benefit analysis to review financial requests, assess program trade-offs, and explore alternative funding methods. They also ex­ amine past and current budgets and research economic and financial developments that affect the organization’s spending. This process enables analysts to evaluate proposals in terms of the organization’s priorities and financial resources. After this initial review process, budget analysts consolidate the individual departmental budgets into operating and capital bud­ get summaries. These summaries contain comments and support­ ing statements that support or argue against funding requests. Bud­ get summaries are then submitted to senior management, or as is often the case in local and State governments, to appointed or elected officials. Budget analysts then help the chief operating officer, agency head, or other top managers analyze the proposed plan and devise possible alternatives if the projected results are unsatisfac­ tory. The final decision to approve the budget, however, is usually made by the organization head in a private firm or elected officials in government, such as the State legislative body. Throughout the remainder of the year, analysts periodically monitor the budget by reviewing reports and accounting records to determine if allocated funds have been spent as specified. If deviations appear be­ tween the approved budget and actual performance, budget analysts may write a report explaining the causes of the variations along with recommendations for new or revised budget procedures. In order to avoid or alleviate deficits, they may recommend program cuts or reallo­ cation of excess funds. They also inform program managers and others within their organization of the status and availability of funds in differ­ ent budget accounts. Before any changes are made to an existing program or a new one is implemented, a budget analyst assesses its efficiency and effectiveness. Analysts also may also be involved in long-range planning activities such as projecting future budget needs. The budget analyst’s role has broadened as limited funding has led to downsizing and restructuring throughout private industry  28 Occupational Outlook Handbook working for the Federal Government. Other major employers include schools, hospitals, and banks. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  %  Budget analysts examine budget proposalsfor completeness, accuracy, and conformance with established procedures. and government. Not only do they develop guidelines and policies governing the formulation and maintenance of the budget, but they also measure organizational performance, assess the effect of vari­ ous programs and policies on the budget, and help draft budgetrelated legislation. In addition, budget analysts sometimes conduct training sessions for company or government agency personnel regarding new budget procedures. Working Conditions  Budget analysts usually work in a comfortable office setting. Long hours are common among these workers, especially during the initial development and mid-year and final reviews of budgets. The pressure of deadlines and tight work schedules during these periods can be ex­ tremely stressful, and analysts are usually required to work more than the routine 40 hours a week. Budget analysts spend the majority of their time working inde­ pendently, compiling and analyzing data and preparing budget proposals. Nevertheless, their schedule is sometimes interrupted by special budget requests, meetings, and training sessions. Some budget analysts travel to obtain budget details and explanations of various programs from coworkers, or to personally observe fund­ ing allocation. Employment  Budget analysts held about 59,000 jobs throughout private industry and government in 1998. Federal, State, and local governments are major employers, accounting for one-third of all budget analyst jobs. The Digitized forDepartment FRASER of Defense employed 7 of every 10 budget analysts Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Private firms and government agencies generally require candidates for budget analyst positions to have at least a bachelor’s degree. Within the Federal Government, a bachelor’s degree in any field is sufficient for an entry-level budget analyst position. State and local governments have varying requirements, but a bachelor’s degree in one of many areas— accounting, finance, business or public administration, economics, po­ litical science, statistics, or a social science such as sociology—may qualify one for entry into the occupation. Sometimes, a field closely related to the employing industry or organization, such as engineering, may be preferred. An increasing number of States and other employers require a candidate to possess a master’s degree to ensure adequate analytical and communication skills. Some firms prefer candidates with backgrounds in business because business courses emphasize quantita­ tive and analytical skills. Occasionally, budget and financial experience can be substituted for formal education. Because developing a budget involves manipulating numbers and requires strong analytical skills, courses in statistics or accounting are helpful, regardless of the prospective budget analyst’s major field of study. Financial analysis is automated in almost every organization, and therefore familiarity with word processing and the financial software packages used in budget analysis is often required. Software packages commonly used by budget analysts include electronic spreadsheets and database and graphics software. Employers usually prefer job candi­ dates who already possess these computer skills. In addition to analytical and computer skills, those seeking a career as a budget analyst must also be able to work under strict time constraints. Strong oral and written communication skills are essen­ tial for analysts because they must prepare, present, and defend bud­ get proposals to decision makers. Entry-level budget analysts may receive some formal training when they begin their jobs, but most employers feel that the best training is obtained by working through one complete budget cycle. During the cycle, which is typically one year, analysts become familiar with the various steps involved in the budgeting process. The Federal Govern­ ment, on the other hand, offers extensive on-the-job and classroom training for entry-level trainees. In addition to on-the-job training, bud­ get analysts are encouraged to participate in the various classes offered throughout their careers. Budget analysts start their careers with limited responsibilities. In the Federal Government, for example, beginning budget analysts compare projected costs with prior expenditures; consolidate and enter data pre­ pared by others; and assist higher grade analysts by doing research. As analysts progress, they begin to develop and formulate budget estimates and justification statements; perform in-depth analyses of budget requests; write statements supporting funding requests; advise program managers and others on the status and availability of funds in different budget activities; and present and defend budget proposals to senior managers. Beginning analysts usually work under close supervision. Ca­ pable entry-level analysts can be promoted into intermediate level positions within 1 to 2 years, and then into senior positions within a few more years. Progressing to a higher level means added budgetary responsibility and can lead to a supervisory role. Because of the importance and high visibility of their jobs, senior budget analysts are prime candidates for promotion to management positions in vari­ ous parts of the organization. Job Outlook  Employment of budget analysts is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through 2008. Employment growth will be driven by the continuing demand of the Nation’s public and private sector organizations for sound financial analysis. In addi­ tion to employment growth, many job openings will result from the need to replace experienced budget analysts who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 29 Despite the increase in demand for budget analysts, competition for jobs should remain keen due to the substantial number of quali­ fied applicants. Candidates with a master’s degree should have the best job opportunities. Familiarity with computer financial software packages should also enhance a jobseeker’s employment prospects in this field. Expanding automation is playing a complex role in the job outlook for budget analysts. Computers allow budget analysts to process more data in less time, enabling them to be more productive. However, because analysts now have a greater supply of data available to them, their jobs are becoming more complicated. In addition, as businesses become increasingly complex and specialization within organizations becomes more common, planning and financial control increasingly demand attention. These factors should offset any adverse computerinduced effects on employment of budget analysts. In coming years, companies will continue to rely heavily on bud­ get analysts to examine, analyze, and develop budgets. Because the financial analysis performed by budget analysts is an important func­ tion in every large organization, the employment of budget analysts has remained relatively unaffected by downsizing in the Nation’s workplaces. In addition, because financial and budget reports must be completed during periods of economic growth and slowdowns, budget analysts usually are less subject to layoffs during economic downturns than many other workers.  Earnings Salaries of budget analysts vary widely by experience, education, and employer. Median annual earnings of budget analysts in 1998 were $44,950. The m iddle 50 percent earned between $36,190 and $61,410. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $30,000 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $81,160. According to a survey conducted by Robert Half International, a staffing services firm specializing in accounting and finance, starting salaries of budget and other financial analysts in small firms ranged from $27,000 to $30,500 in 1998; in large organizations, from $29,500 to $33,750. In small firms, analysts with 1 to 3 years of experience earned from $30,750 to $36,750; in large companies, from $34,000 to $44,750. Senior analysts in small firms earned from $36,500 to $42,000; in large firms, from $41,750 to $53,750. Earnings of man­ agers in this field ranged from $42,750 to $54,750 a year in small firms, while managers in large organizations earned between $51,750 and $69,500. In the Federal Government, budget analysts usually started as train­ ees earning $20,600 or $25,500 a year in 1999. Candidates with a master’s degree might begin at $31,200. Beginning salaries were slightly higher in selected areas where the prevailing local pay level was higher. The average annual salary in 1999 for budget analysts employed by the Federal Government in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and manage­ rial positions was $52,000.  Related Occupations Budget analysts review, analyze, and interpret financial data; make recommendations for the future; and assist in the implementation of new ideas. Workers who use these skills in other occupations include accountants and auditors, economists, financial analysts, financial man­ agers, and loan officers.  Sources of Additional Information Information about career opportunities as a budget analyst may be available from your State or local employment service. Information on acquiring a job as a budget analyst with the Fed­ eral Government may be obtained from the Office of Personnel Man­ agement through a telephone-based system. Consult your telephone directory under U.S. Government for a local number, or call (912) 757-3000; TDD (912) 744-2299. That number is not tollfree and charges may result. Information also is available from their Internet site: Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Construction and Building Inspectors (0*NET 21908A, 21908B, and 83005B)  Significant Points •  Local governments, primarily municipal or county building departments, employed nearly 60 percent of these workers.  •  Construction and building inspectors tend to be older, more experienced workers who have spent years working in related occupations.  Nature of the Work Construction and building inspectors examine the construction, alter­ ation, or repair of buildings, highways and streets, sewer and water systems, dams, bridges, and other structures to ensure compliance with building codes and ordinances, zoning regulations, and contract specifi­ cations. Building codes and standards are the primary means by which building construction is regulated in the United States to assure the health and safety of the general public. Inspectors make an initial in­ spection during the first phase of construction, and follow-up inspec­ tions throughout the construction project to monitor compliance with regulations. However, no inspection is ever exactly the same. In areas where certain types of severe weather or natural disasters are more common, inspectors monitor compliance with additional safety regula­ tions designed to protect structures and occupants in these events. Building inspectors inspect the structural quality and general safety of buildings. Some specialize—for example, in structural steel or rein­ forced concrete structures. Before construction begins, plan examiners determine whether the plans for the building or other structure comply with building code regulations, and if they are suited to the engineering and environmental demands of the building site. Inspectors visit the work site before the foundation is poured to inspect the soil condition and positioning and depth of the footings. Later, they return to the site to inspect the foundation after it has been completed. The size and type of structure, as well as the rate of completion, determine the number of other site visits they must make. Upon completion of the project, they make a final comprehensive inspection. In addition to structural characteristics, a primary concern of build­ ing inspectors is fire safety. They inspect structures’ fire sprinklers, alarms, and smoke control systems, as well as fire exits. Inspectors assess the type of construction, building contents, adequacy of fire protection equipment, and risks posed by adjoining buildings. There are many types of inspections and inspectors. Electrical in­ spectors examine the installation of electrical systems and equipment to ensure they function properly and comply with electrical codes and standards. They visit work sites to inspect new and existing sound and security systems, wiring, lighting, motors, and generating equipment. They also inspect the installation of the electrical wiring for heating and air-conditioning systems, appliances, and other components. Elevator inspectors examine lifting and conveying devices such as elevators, escalators, moving sidewalks, lifts and hoists, inclined rail­ ways, ski lifts, and amusement rides. Mechanical inspectors inspect the installation of the mechanical com­ ponents of commercial kitchen appliances, heating and air-conditioning equipment, gasoline and butane tanks, gas and oil piping, and gas-fired and oil-fired appliances. Some specialize in boilers or ventilating equip­ ment as well. Plumbing inspectors examine plumbing systems, including private disposal systems, water supply and distribution systems, plumbing fix­ tures and traps, and drain, waste, and vent lines. Public works inspectors ensure that Federal, State, and local government construction of water and sewer systems, highways,  30 Occupational Outlook Handbook streets, bridges, and dams conforms to detailed contract specifica­ tions. They inspect excavation and fill operations, the placement of forms for concrete, concrete mixing and pouring, asphalt paving, and grading operations. They record the work and materials used so that contract payments can be calculated. Public works inspec­ tors may specialize in highways, structural steel, reinforced con­ crete, or ditches. Others specialize in dredging operations required for bridges and dams or for harbors. Home inspectors generally conduct inspections of newly built or previously owned homes. Increasingly, prospective home buyers hire home inspectors to inspect and report the condition of a home’s major systems, components, and structure. They are typically hired either immediately prior to a purchase offer on a home, or as a contingency to a sales contract. In addition to structural quality, home inspectors must be able to inspect all home systems and features, from plumbing, electri­ cal, and heating or cooling systems to roofing. The owner of a building or structure under construction employs specification inspectors to ensure work is done according to design specifications. They represent the owners’ interests, not the general public. Insurance companies and financial institutions also may use specification inspectors. Details concerning construction projects, building and occupancy permits, and other documentation are generally stored on computers so they can easily be retrieved, kept accurate, and updated. For example, inspectors may use laptop computers to record their find­ ings while inspecting a site. Most inspectors use computers to help them monitor the status of construction inspection activities and keep track of issued permits.  Although inspections are primarily visual, most inspectors, except home inspectors, may use tape measures, survey instruments, metering devices, and test equipment such as concrete strength measurers. They keep a log of their work, take photographs, file reports, and, if neces­ sary, act on their findings. For example, construction inspectors notify the construction contractor, superintendent, or supervisor when they discover a code or ordinance violation or something that does not com­ ply with the contract specifications or approved plans. If the problem is not corrected within a reasonable or specified period of time, govern­ ment inspectors have authority to issue a “stop-work” order. Many inspectors also investigate construction or alterations being done without proper permits. Inspectors who are employees of mu­ nicipalities enforce laws pertaining to the proper design, construction, and use of buildings. They direct violators of permit laws to obtain permits and submit to inspection.  Working Conditions Construction and building inspectors usually work alone. However, several may be assigned to large, complex projects, particularly because inspectors tend to specialize in different areas of construction. Though they spend considerable time inspecting construction work sites, inspec­ tors also spend time in a field office reviewing blueprints, answering letters or telephone calls, writing reports, and scheduling inspections. Inspection sites are dirty and may be cluttered with tools, materials, or debris. Inspectors may have to climb ladders or many flights of stairs, or crawl around in tight spaces. Although their work is not generally considered hazardous, inspectors, like other construction workers, wear hard hats and adhere to other safety requirements while at a construction site. Inspectors normally work regular hours. However, they may work additional hours during periods when a lot of construction is taking place. Also, if an accident occurs at a construction site, inspectors must respond immediately and may work additional hours to complete their report.  Employment igfiS  Construction and building inspectors held about 68,000jobs in 1998. Local governments, primarily municipal or county building departments, employed nearly 60 percent. Employment of local government inspec­ tors is concentrated in cities and in suburban areas undergoing rapid growth. Local governments employ large inspection staffs, including many plan examiners or inspectors who specialize in structural steel, reinforced concrete, boiler, electrical, and elevator inspection. Another 17 percent of construction and building inspectors worked for engineering and architectural services firms, conducting inspections for a fee or on a contract basis. Most of the remaining inspectors were employed by the Federal and State governments. Many construction inspectors employed by the Federal Government work for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Other Federal employers include the Ten­ nessee Valley Authority and the Departments of Agriculture, Housing and Urban Development, and Interior.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  Construction inpsector confers with supervisor to ensure that construction conforms to approved plans. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Although requirements vary considerably depending upon where one is employed, individuals who want to become construction and building inspectors should have a thorough knowledge of construction materials and practices in either a general area, such as structural or heavy con­ struction, or in a specialized area, such as electrical or plumbing sys­ tems, reinforced concrete, or structural steel. Construction or building inspectors need several years of experience as a manager, supervisor, or craft worker before becoming inspectors. Many previously worked as carpenters, electricians, plumbers, or pipefitters. Because inspectors need to possess the right mix of technical knowl­ edge, experience and education, employers prefer to hire inspectors who have formal training, as well as experience. Most require at least a high school diploma or equivalent, even for those with considerable experience. More often, employers look for persons who have studied  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 31 engineering or architecture, or who have a degree from a community or junior college, with courses in construction technology, drafting, math­ ematics, and building inspection. Many community colleges offer certificate or associate degree programs in building inspection technol­ ogy. Courses in blueprint reading, algebra, geometry, and English are also useful. Construction and building inspectors must be in good physical con­ dition in order to walk and climb about construction sites. They must also have a driver’s license. In addition, Federal, State, and many local governments may require that inspectors pass a civil service exam. Construction and building inspectors usually receive much of their training on the job, although they must learn building codes and stan­ dards on their own. Working with an experienced inspector, they learn about inspection techniques; codes, ordinances, and regulations; contract specifications; and record-keeping and reporting duties. They may begin by inspecting less complex types of construction, such as residential buildings, and then progress to more difficult assignments. An engineering or architectural degree is often required for advance­ ment to supervisory positions. Because they advise builders and the general public on building codes, construction practices, and technical developments, con­ struction and building inspectors must keep abreast of changes in these areas. Continuing education is imperative in this field. Many employers provide formal training programs to broaden inspec­ tors’ knowledge of construction materials, practices, and techniques. Inspectors who work for small agencies or firms that do not con­ duct training programs can expand their knowledge and upgrade their skills by attending State-sponsored training programs, by taking college or correspondence courses, or by attending semi­ nars sponsored by various related organizations such as model code organizations. Most States and cities require some type of certification for em­ ployment and, even if not required, certification can enhance an inspector’s opportunities for employment and advancement to more responsible positions. To become certified, inspectors with sub­ stantial experience and education must pass stringent examinations on code requirements, construction techniques, and materials. The three major model code organizations offer voluntary certification as do other professional membership associations. In most cases, there are no education or experience prerequisites, and certification con­ sists of passing an examination in a designated field. Many catego­ ries of certification are awarded for inspectors and plan examiners in a variety of disciplines, including the designation “CBO,” Certified Building Official.  and State—to contract out inspection work, as well as expected growth in private inspection services.  Earnings Median annual earnings of construction and building inspectors were $37,540 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned between $29,540 and $47,040. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $22,770 and the highest lOpercent earned more than $61,820. Median annual earnings in the industries employing the largest numbers of construction and building inspectors in 1997 were: Engineering and architectural services ....................................... $36,500 Local government, except education and hospitals.................. 36,300 State government, except education and hospitals................... 32,700  Generally, building inspectors, including plan examiners, earn the highest salaries. Salaries in large metropolitan areas are substantially higher than those in small local jurisdictions.  Related Occupations Construction and building inspectors combine knowledge of construc­ tion principles and law with an ability to coordinate data, diagnose problems, and communicate with people. Workers in other occupations using a similar combination of skills include engineers, drafters, estima­ tors, industrial engineering technicians, surveyors, architects, and con­ struction managers.  Sources of Additional Information Information about certification and a career as a construction or building inspector is available from the following model code organizations; *■ International Conference of Building Officials, 5360 Workman Mill Rd., Whittier, CA 90601-2298. Internet: »■ Building Officials and Code Administrators International, Inc., 4051 West Flossmoor Rd., Country Club Hills, IL 60478. Internet: *• Southern Building Code Congress International, Inc., 900 Montclair Rd., Birmingham, AL 35213.  Information about a career as a home inspector is available from: »■ American Society of Home Inspectors, Inc., 932 Lee St., Suite 101, Des Plaines, IL 60016. Internet:  For information about a career as a State or local government con­ struction or building inspector, contact your State or local employ­ ment service.  Job Outlook Employment of construction and building inspectors is expected to grow as fast as the average for all occupations through 2008. Growing con­ cern for public safety and improvements in the quality of construction should continue to stimulate demand for construction and building in­ spectors. Despite the expected employment growth, most job openings will arise from the need to replace inspectors who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Construction and building inspec­ tors tend to be older, more experienced workers who have spent years working in other occupations. Opportunities should be best for highly experienced supervisors and craft workers who have some college education, engineering or architectural training, or who are certified as inspectors or plan examin­ ers. Thorough knowledge of construction practices and skills in areas such as reading and evaluating blueprints and plans are essential. How­ ever, inspectors are involved in all phases of construction, including maintenance and repair work, and are therefore less likely to lose jobs during recessionary periods when new construction slows. As the population grows and the volume of real estate transactions increases, greater emphasis on home inspections should result in rapid growth in employment of home inspectors. In addition, there should be good opportunities in engineering, architectural, and management services firms due to the tendency of governments—particularly the Federal Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Construction Managers (0*NET 15017B)  Significant Points •  Construction managers must be available, often 24 hours a day, to deal with delays, bad weather, or emergencies at the site.  •  The increasing level and complexity of construction activity should spur demand for managers.  •  Individuals who combine industry work experience with a bachelor’s degree in construction or building science or construction management should have the best job prospects.  Nature of the Work Construction managers plan and direct construction projects. They may have job titles, such as constructor, construction superintendent,  general superintendent, project engineer, project manager, general con­ struction manager, or executive construction manager. Construction  32 Occupational Outlook Handbook managers may be owners or salaried employees of a construction man­ agement or contracting firm, or may work under contract or as a sala­ ried employee of the owner, developer, contractor, or management firm overseeing the construction project. The Handbook uses the term “construction manager” to describe salaried or self-employed manag­ ers who oversee construction supervisors and workers. In contrast with the Handbook definition, “construction manager” is defined more narrowly within the construction industry to denote a management firm, or an individual employed by such a firm, involved in management oversight of a construction project. Under this definition, construction managers usually represent the owner or developer with other participants throughout the project. Although they usually play no direct role in the actual construction of a structure, they typically sched­ ule and coordinate all design and construction processes including the selection, hiring, and oversight of specialty trade contractors. Managers and professionals who work in the construction indus­ try, such as general managers, project engineers, cost estimators, and others, are increasingly called constructors. Through education and past work experience, this broad group of professionals manages, coordinates, and supervises the construction process from the con­ ceptual development stage through final construction on a timely and economical basis. Given designs for buildings, roads, bridges, or other projects, constructors oversee the organization, scheduling, and implementation of the project to execute those designs. They are responsible for coordinating and managing people, materials, and equipment; budgets, schedules, and contracts; and the safety of em­ ployees and the general public. On large projects, construction managers may work for a general contractor—the firm with overall responsibility for all activities. There they oversee the completion of all construction in accordance with the engineer or architect’s drawings and specifications and prevailing build­ ing codes. They arrange for trade contractors to perform specialized craft work or other specified construction work. On small projects, such as remodeling a home, a self-employed construction manager or skilled trades worker who directs and oversees employees is often re­ ferred to as the construction “contractor.” Large construction projects, such as an office building or indus­ trial complex, are too complicated for one person to manage. These projects are divided into many segments: Site preparation, includ­ ing land clearing and earth moving; sewage systems; landscaping and road construction; building construction, including excavation and laying foundations, erection of structural framework, floors, walls, and roofs; and building systems, including fire protection, electrical, plumbing, air-conditioning, and heating. Construction managers may work as part of a team or be in charge of one or more of these activities.  Construction managers evaluate various construction methods and determine the most cost-effective plan and schedule. They determine the appropriate construction methods and schedule all required construction site activities into logical, specific steps, bud­ geting the time required to meet established deadlines. This may require sophisticated estimating and scheduling techniques, and use of computers with specialized software. This also involves the selection and coordination of trade contractors hired to complete specific pieces of the project—which could include everything from structural metalworking and plumbing, to painting and carpet in­ stallation. Construction managers determine the labor requirements and, in some cases, supervise or monitor the hiring and dismissal of workers. They oversee the performance of all trade contractors and are responsible for ensuring all work is completed on schedule. Construction managers direct and monitor the progress of construc­ tion activities, at times through other construction supervisors. This includes the delivery and use of materials, tools, and equipment; the quality of construction, worker productivity, and safety. They are responsible for obtaining all necessary permits and licenses and, de­ pending upon the contractual arrangements, direct or monitor compli­ ance with building and safety codes and other regulations. They may have several subordinates, such as assistant managers or superinten­ dents, field engineers, or crew supervisors, reporting to them. Construction managers regularly review engineering and architec­ tural drawings and specifications to monitor progress and ensure com­ pliance with plans and specifications. They track and control construc­ tion costs to avoid cost overruns. Based upon direct observation and reports by subordinate supervisors, managers may prepare daily reports of progress and requirements for labor, material, and machinery and equipment at the construction site. They meet regularly with owners, trade contractors, architects, and other design professionals to monitor and coordinate all phases of the construction project. Working Conditions  Construction managers work out of a main office from which the overall construction project is monitored, or out of a field office at the construction site. Management decisions regarding daily con­ struction activities are usually made at the job site. Managers usu­ ally travel when the construction site is in another State or when they are responsible for activities at two or more sites. Management of overseas construction projects usually entails temporary residence in another country. Construction managers must be “on call,” often 24 hours a day, to deal with delays, bad weather, or emergencies at the site. Most work more than a standard 40-hour week because construction may proceed around-the-clock. This type of work schedule can go on for days, even weeks, to meet special project deadlines, especially if there are delays. Although the work usually is not considered inherently danger­ ous, construction managers must be careful while touring construc­ tion sites. Managers must establish priorities and assign duties. They need to observe job conditions and to be alert to changes and potential problems, particularly involving safety on the job site and adherence to regulations. Employment  Construction managers held about 270,000jobs in 1998. Around 45,000 were self-employed. About 85 percent of salaried construction manag­ ers were employed in the construction industry, about 36 percent by specialty trade contractors—for example, plumbing, heating and air­ conditioning, and electrical contractors—and about 38 percent by gen­ eral building contractors. Engineering, architectural, and construction management services firms, as well as local governments, educational institutions, and real estate developers employed others.  Construction managers regularly review engineering and architectural drawings to monitor work progress and ensure compliance with specifications. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  Persons interested in becoming a construction manager need a solid background in building science, business, and management, as well as  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 33 related work experience within the construction industry. They need to understand contracts, plans, and specifications, and to be knowl­ edgeable about construction methods, materials, and regulations. Fa­ miliarity with computers and software programs for job costing, sched­ uling, and estimating is increasingly important. Traditionally, persons advance to construction management posi­ tions after having substantial experience as construction craft workers— carpenters, masons, plumbers, or electricians, for example—or after having worked as construction supervisors or as owners of independent specialty contracting firms overseeing workers in one or more construc­ tion trades. However, more and more employers—particularly, large construction firms—hire individuals who combine industry work expe­ rience with a bachelor’s degree in construction or building science or construction management. Practical industry experience is very impor­ tant, whether through internships, cooperative education programs, or tenure in the industry. Construction managers should be flexible and work effectively in a fast-paced environment. They should be decisive and work well under pressure, particularly when faced with unexpected occurrences or de­ lays. The ability to coordinate several major activities at once, while analyzing and resolving specific problems, is essential, as is under­ standing engineering, architectural, and other construction drawings. Good oral and written communication skills are also important, as are leadership skills. Managers must be able to establish a good working relationship with many different people, including owners, other man­ agers, design professionals, supervisors, and craft workers. Advancement opportunities for construction managers vary depend­ ing upon an individual’s performance, and the size and type of company for which they work. Within large firms, managers may eventually become top-level managers or executives. Highly experienced indi­ viduals may become independent consultants; some serve as expert witnesses in court or as arbitrators in disputes. Those with the required capital may establish their own construction management services, spe­ cialty contracting or general contracting firm. In 1998, over 100 colleges and universities offered 4-year degree programs in construction management or construction science. These programs include courses in project control and development, site plan­ ning, design, construction methods, construction materials, value analy­ sis, cost estimating, scheduling, contract administration, accounting, business and financial management, building codes and standards, in­ spection procedures, engineering and architectural sciences, mathemat­ ics, statistics, and information technology. Graduates from 4-year de­ gree programs are usually hired as assistants to project managers, field engineers, schedulers, or cost estimators. An increasing number of graduates in related fields—engineering or architecture, for example— also enter construction management, often after having had substantial experience on construction projects or after completing graduate studies in construction management or building science. Around 30 colleges and universities offer a master’s degree pro­ gram in construction management or construction science, and at least two offer a Ph.D. in the field. Master’s degree recipients, especially those with work experience in construction, typically become construc­ tion managers in very large construction or construction management companies. Often, individuals who hold a bachelor’s degree in an unrelated field seek a master’s degree in order to work in the construc­ tion industry. Doctoral degree recipients usually become college pro­ fessors or conduct research. Many individuals also attend training and educational programs spon­ sored by industry associations, often in collaboration with postsecondary institutions. A number of 2-year colleges throughout the country offer construction management or construction technology programs. Both the American Institute of Constructors (AIC) and the Con­ struction Management Association of America (CMAA) have estab­ lished voluntary certification programs for construction professionals. Requirements combine written examinations with verification of pro­ fessional experience. AIC awards the designations Associate Con­ structor (AC) and Certified Professional Constructor (CPC) to candi­ dates who meet the requirements and pass appropriate construction Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  examinations. CMAA awards the designation Certified Construction Manager (CCM) to practitioners who meet the requirements in a construction management firm, complete a professional construction management “capstone” course, and pass a technical examination. Although certification is not required to work in the construction industry, voluntary certification can be valuable because it provides evidence of competence and experience. Job Outlook  Employment of construction managers is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through 2008, as the level and complexity of construction activity continues to grow. Pros­ pects in construction management, engineering and architectural services, and construction contracting firms should be best for per­ sons who have a bachelor’s or higher degree in construction science, construction management, or construction engineering as well as prac­ tical experience working in construction. Employers prefer applicants with previous constmction work experience who can combine a strong background in building technology with proven supervisory or mana­ gerial skills. In addition to job growth, many openings should result annually from the need to replace workers who transfer to other occu­ pations or leave the labor force. The increasing complexity of construction projects should increase demand for management level personnel within the construction in­ dustry, as sophisticated technology and the proliferation of laws set­ ting standards for buildings and constmction materials, worker safety, energy efficiency, and environmental protection have further compli­ cated the constmction process. Advances in building materials and constmction methods and the growing number of multipurpose build­ ings, electronically operated “smart” buildings, and energy-efficient structures will further add to the demand for more constmction manag­ ers. However, employment of construction managers can be sensitive to the short-term nature of many construction projects and cyclical fluctuations in construction activity. Earnings  Earnings of salaried constmction managers and self-employed inde­ pendent constmction contractors vary depending upon the size and nature of the construction project, its geographic location, and eco­ nomic conditions. In addition to typical benefits, many salaried construction managers receive benefits such as bonuses and use of company motor vehicles. Median annual earnings of construction managers in 1998 were $47,610. The middle 50 percent earned between $36,360 and $70,910. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $28,970, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $89,480. Median annual earnings in the industries employing the largest numbers of managers in 1997 were: Nonresidential building construction............................................ $47,700 Plumbing, heating, and air conditioning...................................... 47,000 Heavy construction, except highway.................................... 45,700 Miscellaneous special trade contractors...................................... 44,200 Residential building construction.................................................. 40,600  According to a 1999 salary survey by the National Association of Colleges and Employers, candidates with a bachelor’s degree in con­ struction management received offers averaging $34,300 a year. Bachelor’s degree candidates with degrees in constmction science re­ ceived offers averaging $36,600. Related Occupations  Constmction managers participate in the conceptual development of a constmction project and oversee its organization, scheduling, and imple­ mentation. Occupations in which similar functions are performed in­ clude architects, civil engineers, construction supervisors, cost engi­ neers, cost estimators, real estate developers, electrical engineers, indus­ trial engineers, landscape architects, and mechanical engineers.  34 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Sources of Information For information about career opportunities in the construction indus­ try, contact: Associated Builders and Contractors, 1300 North 17th St,, Rosslyn, VA 22209. Internet: i*- Associated General Contractors of America, 1957 E St. NW, Washing­ ton, DC 20006-5199. Internet:  For information about constructor certification and professional career opportunities in the construction industry, contact: *■ American Institute of Constructors, 466 94th Ave. North, St. Peters­ burg, FL 33702. Internet:  For information about construction management and construction manager certification, contact: *■ Construction Management Association of America, 7918 Jones Branch Dr., Suite 540, McLean, VA 22102. Internet:  Information on accredited construction science and management programs and accreditation requirements is available from: »■ American Council for Construction Education, 1300 Hudson Lane, Suite 3, Monroe, LA 71201-6054. Internet:  Cost Estimators (0*NET 21902 and 85305D)  Significant Points •  Growth of the construction industry, where about 58 percent of all cost estimators are employed, will be the driving force behind the demand for these workers.  •  Job prospects in construction should be best for those workers with a degree in construction management or construction science, engineering, or architecture, and who have practical experience in various phases of construction or in a specialty craft area.  Nature of the Work Accurately forecasting the cost of future projects is vital to the survival of any business. Cost estimators develop cost information for owners or managers to use in determining resource and material quantities, mak­ ing bids for contracts, determining if a new product will be profitable, or determining which products are making a profit for a firm. Regardless of the industry in which they work, estimators compile and analyze data on all the factors that can influence costs—such as materials, labor, location, and special machinery requirements, includ­ ing computer hardware and software. Job duties vary widely depend­ ing on the type and size of the project. Costs engineers usually have an engineering background and apply scientific principles and methods to undertake feasibility studies, value engineering, and life-cycle costing. The methods of and motivations for estimating costs can vary greatly, depending on the industry. On a construction project, for example, the estimating process begins with the decision to submit a bid. After reviewing various drawings and specifications, the estimator visits the site of the proposed project. The estimator needs to gather information on access to the site and availability of electricity, water, and other services, as well as surface topography and drainage. The information developed during the site visit usually is recorded in a signed report that is made part of the final project estimate. After the site visit is completed, the estimator determines the quantity of materials and labor the firm will have to furnish. This process, called the quantity survey or “takeoff,” involves completing standard estimat­ ing forms, filling in dimensions, number of units, and other informa­ tion. A cost estimator working for a general contractor, for example, will estimate the costs of all items the contractor must provide. Al­ though subcontractors will estimate their costs as part of their own bidding process, the general contractor’s cost estimator often analyzes Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  bids made by subcontractors as well. Also during the takeoff process, the estimator must make decisions concerning equipment needs, se­ quence of operations, and crew size. Allowances for the waste of materials, inclement weather, shipping delays, and other factors that may increase costs must also be incorporated in the estimate. On completion of the quantity surveys, the estimator prepares a total project cost summary, including the costs of labor, equipment, materials, subcontracts, overhead, taxes, insurance, markup, and any other costs that may affect the project. The chief estimator then prepares the bid proposal for submission to the owner. Construction cost estimators may also be employed by the project’s architect or owner to estimate costs or track actual costs relative to bid specifications as the project develops. In large construction companies employing more than one estimator, it is common practice for estimators to specialize. For instance, one may estimate only electrical work and another may concentrate on excavation, concrete, and forms. In manufacturing and other firms, cost estimators usually are as­ signed to the engineering, cost, or pricing departments. The estima­ tors’ goal in manufacturing is to accurately estimate the costs associ­ ated with making products. The job may begin when management requests an estimate of the costs associated with a major redesign of an existing product or the development of a new product or produc­ tion process. When estimating the cost of developing a new product, for example, the estimator works with engineers, first reviewing blue­ prints or conceptual drawings to determine the machining opera­ tions, tools, gauges, and materials that would be required for the job. The estimator then prepares a parts list and determines whether it is more efficient to produce or to purchase the parts. To do this, the estimator must initiate inquiries for price information from potential suppliers. The next step is to determine the cost of manufacturing each component of the product. Some high technology products require a tremendous amount of computer programming during the design phase. The cost of software development is one of the fastest growing and most difficult activities to estimate. Some cost estima­ tors now specialize in only estimating computer software develop­ ment and related costs. The cost estimator then prepares time-phase charts and learning curves. Time-phase charts indicate the time required for tool design and fabrication, tool “debugging”—finding and correcting all problems— manufacturing of parts, assembly, and testing. Learning curves graphi­ cally represent the rate at which performance improves with practice. These curves are commonly called “cost reduction” curves because many problems—such as engineering changes, rework, parts short­ ages, and lack of operator skills—diminish as the number of parts produced increases, resulting in lower unit costs.  // /  Cost estimators compile and analyze data on allfactors that can influence costs, including materials, labor, location, and special machinery requirements.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 35  Cost estimators held about 152,000jobs in 1998, about 58 percent of whom were in the construction industry. Another 26 percent of sala­ ried cost estimators were employed in manufacturing industries. The remainder worked for engineering and architectural services firms, busi­ ness services firms, and throughout a wide range of other industries. Operations research, production control, cost, and price analysts who work for government agencies may also do significant amounts of cost estimating in the course of their regular duties. In addition, the duties of construction managers may also include estimating costs. (For more information, see the statements on operations research analysts and construction managers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Cost estimators work throughout the country, usually in or near major industrial, commercial, and government centers, and in cities and suburban areas undergoing rapid change or development.  Cost estimators should have an aptitude for mathematics, be able to quickly analyze, compare, and interpret detailed and sometimes poorly defined information, and be able to make sound and accurate judgments based on this knowledge. Assertiveness and self-confidence in pre­ senting and supporting their conclusions are important, as are strong communications and interpersonal skills, because estimators may work as part of a project team alongside managers, owners, engineers, and design professionals. Cost estimators also need knowledge of comput­ ers, including word-processing and spreadsheet packages. In some instances, familiarity with special estimation software or programming skills may also be required. Regardless of their background, estimators receive much training on the job; almost every company has its own way of handling estimates. Working with an experienced estimator, they become familiar with each step in the process. Those with no experience reading construction specifications or blueprints first learn that aspect of the work. They then may accompany an experienced estimator to the construction site or shop floor where they observe the work being done, take measurements, or perform other routine tasks. As they become more knowledgeable, estimators learn how to tabulate quantities and dimensions from drawings and how to select the appropriate material prices. For most estimators, advancement takes the form of higher pay and prestige. Some move into management positions, such as project manager for a construction firm or manager of the industrial engineering department for a manufacturer. Others may go into business for themselves as con­ sultants, providing estimating services for a fee to government or con­ struction and manufacturing firms. Many colleges and universities include cost estimating as part of bachelor’s and associate degree curriculums in civil engineering, indus­ trial engineering, and construction management or construction engi­ neering technology. In addition, cost estimating is a significant part of many master’s degree programs in construction science or construc­ tion management. Organizations representing cost estimators, such as American Association of Cost Engineers (AACE) International and the Society of Cost Estimating and Analysis, also sponsor educational and professional development programs. These programs help stu­ dents, estimators-in-training, and experienced estimators stay abreast of changes affecting the profession. Specialized courses and programs in cost estimating techniques and procedures are also offered by many technical schools, community colleges, and universities. Voluntary certification can be valuable to cost estimators, because it provides professional recognition of the estimator’s competence and experience. In some instances, individual employers may even require professional certification for employment. Both AACE International and the Society of Cost Estimating and Analysis administer certifica­ tion programs. To become certified, estimators usually must have between 3 and 7 years of estimating experience and must pass both a written and an oral examination. In addition, certification requirements may include publication of at least one article or paper in the field.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  Job Outlook  Entry requirements for cost estimators vary by industry. In the con­ struction industry, employers increasingly prefer individuals with a degree in building construction, construction management, construc­ tion science, engineering, or architecture. However, most construction estimators also have considerable construction experience, gained through tenure in the industry, internships, or cooperative education programs. Applicants with a thorough knowledge of construction materials, costs, and procedures in areas ranging from heavy construc­ tion to electrical work, plumbing systems, or masonry work have a competitive edge. In manufacturing industries, employers prefer to hire individuals with a degree in engineering, physical science, operations research, mathematics, or statistics, or in accounting, finance, business, eco­ nomics, or a related subject. In most industries, great emphasis is placed on experience involving quantitative techniques.  Overall employment of cost estimators is expected to grow about as fast as average for all occupations through the year 2008. No new projects in construction, manufacturing, or other industries are under­ taken without careful analysis and estimation of the costs involved. In addition to openings created by growth, some job openings will also arise from the need to replace workers who transfer to other occupa­ tions or leave the labor force. Growth of the construction industry, where about 58 percent of all cost estimators are employed, will be the driving force behind the demand for these workers. The fastest growing sectors of the con­ struction industry are expected to be special trade contractors and those associated with heavy construction and spending on the Nation’s infrastructure. Construction and repair of highways and streets, bridges, and construction of more subway systems, airports, water and sewage systems, and electric power plants and transmission  Using all of this information, the estimator then calculates the stan­ dard labor hours necessary to produce a predetermined number of units. Standard labor hours are then converted to dollar values, to which are added factors for waste, overhead, and profit to yield the unit cost in dollars. The estimator then compares the cost of purchas­ ing parts with the firm’s cost of manufacturing them to determine which is cheaper. Computers play an integral role in cost estimating today, because estimating may involve complex mathematical calculations and require advanced mathematical techniques. For example, to undertake a para­ metric analysis, a process used to estimate project costs on a per unit basis subject to the specific requirements of a project, cost estimators use a computer database containing information on costs and condi­ tions of many other similar projects. Although computers cannot be used for the entire estimating process, they can relieve estimators of much of the drudgery associated with routine, repetitive, and time­ consuming calculations. Computers are also used to produce all of the necessary documentation with the help of word-processing and spread­ sheet software. This leaves estimators with more time to study and analyze projects and can lead to more accurate estimates. Working Conditions  Although estimators spend most of their time in an office, construc­ tion estimators must make visits to project work sites that can be dusty, dirty, and occasionally hazardous environments. Likewise, estimators in manufacturing must spend time on the factory floor where it also can be noisy and dirty. In some industries, frequent travel between a firm’s headquarters and its subsidiaries or subcon­ tractors also may be required. Although estimators normally work a 40-hour week, overtime is common. Cost estimators often work under pressure and stress, espe­ cially when facing bid deadlines. Inaccurate estimating can cause a firm to lose out on a bid or lose money on a job that was not accuraately estimated. Employment Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  36 Occupational Outlook Handbook lines will stimulate demand for many more cost estimators. Job pros­ pects in construction should be best for cost estimators with a degree in construction management or construction science, engineering, or architecture, who have practical experience in various phases of con­ struction or in a specialty craft area. Employment of cost estimators in manufacturing should remain relatively stable as firms continue to use their services to identify and control their operating costs. Experienced estimators with degrees in engineering, science, mathematics, business administration, or econom­ ics and who have computer expertise should have the best job pros­ pects in manufacturing.  Earnings Salaries of cost estimators vary widely by experience, education, size of firm, and industry. Median annual earnings of cost estimators in 1998 were $40,590. The middle 50 percent earned between $31,270 and $53,490. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $24,330, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $79,400. Median annual earnings in the industries employing the largest numbers of managers in 1997 were: Nonresidential building construction............................................ $43,400 Electrical work................................................................................. 40,800 Plumbing, heating, and air conditioning...................................... 40,700 39,200 Miscellaneous special trade contractors...................................... Residential building construction................................................... 35,300  College graduates with degrees in fields such as engineering or construction management that provide a strong background in cost estimating could start at a higher level. According to a 1999 salary survey by the National Association of Colleges and Employers, bachelor’s degree candidates with degrees in construction science re­ ceived offers averaging about $36,600 a year. Bachelor’s degree candi­ dates with degrees in construction management received offers averag­ ing $34,300 a year.  Related Occupations Other workers who quantitatively analyze information include apprais­ ers, cost accountants, auditors, budget analysts, cost engineers, econo­ mists, financial analysts, loan officers, operations research analysts, underwriters, and value engineers. In addition, the duties of production managers and construction managers may also involve analyzing costs.  Sources of Additional Information Information about career opportunities, certification, educational pro­ grams, and cost estimating techniques may be obtained from: •" AACE International, 209 Prairie Ave., Suite 100, Morgantown, WV 26505. Internet: Professional Construction Estimators Association of America, P.O. Box 11626, Charlotte, NC 28220-1626. Internet: *• Society of Cost Estimating and Analysis, 101 S. Whiting St., Suite 201, Alexandria, VA 22304. Internet:  Education Administrators (0*NET 15005A and 15005B)  Significant Points •  •  Most jobs require experience in a related occupation, such as teacher or admissions counselor, and a master’s or doctoral degree. Many jobs offer high earnings, considerable commu­ nity prestige, and the satisfaction of working with young people. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  •  Competition will be keen for jobs in higher education, but opportunities should be better at the elementary and secondary school level.  Nature of the Work Smooth operation of an educational institution requires competent administrators. Education administrators provide direction, leader­ ship, and day-to-day management of educational activities in schools, colleges and universities, businesses, correctional institutions, muse­ ums, and job training and community service organizations. (College presidents and school superintendents are covered in the Handbook statement on general managers and top executives.) Education admin­ istrators set educational standards and goals and establish the policies and procedures to carry them out. They develop academic programs; monitor students’ educational progress; train and motivate teachers and other staff; manage guidance and other student services; administer recordkeeping; prepare budgets; handle relations with parents, prospec­ tive and current students, employers, and the community; and perform many other duties. Education administrators also supervise managers, support staff, teachers, counselors, librarians, coaches, and others. In an organiza­ tion such as a small daycare center, one administrator may handle all these functions. In universities or large school systems, responsibili­ ties are divided among many administrators, each with a specific function. Those who manage elementary and secondary schools are called prin­ cipals. They set the academic tone and hire, evaluate, and help improve the skills of teachers and other staff. Principals confer with staff to advise, explain, or answer procedural questions. They visit classrooms, observe teaching methods, review instructional objectives, and examine learning materials. They actively work with teachers to develop and maintain high curriculum standards, develop mission statements, and set performance goals and objectives. Principals must use clear, objective guidelines for teacher appraisals, since pay is often based on performance ratings. Principals also meet and interact with other administrators, students, parents, and representatives of community organizations. Decision­ making authority has increasingly shifted from school district central offices to individual schools. Thus, parents, teachers, and other mem­ bers of the community play an important role in setting school policies and goals. Principals must pay attention to the concerns of these groups when making administrative decisions. Principals prepare budgets and reports on various subjects, in­ cluding finances and attendance, and oversee the requisitioning and allocation of supplies. As school budgets become tighter, many principals are more involved in public relations and fund raising to secure financial support for their schools from local businesses and the community. Principals must take an active role to ensure that students meet na­ tional academic standards. Many principals develop school/business partnerships and school-to-work transition programs for students. In­ creasingly, principals must be sensitive to the needs of the rising num­ ber of non-English speaking and culturally diverse students. Growing enrollments, which are leading to overcrowding at many existing schools, are also a cause for concern. When addressing problems of inadequate resources, administrators serve as advocates to build new schools or repair existing ones. Schools continue to be involved with students’ emotional welfare as well as their academic achievement. As a result, principals face respon­ sibilities outside the academic realm. For example, in response to the growing number of dual-income and single-parent families and teenage parents, schools have established before- and after-school child-care programs or family resource centers, which also may offer parenting classes and social service referrals. With the help of community orga­ nizations, some principals have established programs to combat in­ creases in crime, drug and alcohol abuse, and sexually transmitted dis­ ease among students.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 37  Assistant principals aid the principal in the overall administration of the school. Some assistant principals hold this position for several years to prepare for advancement to principal; others are career assis­ tant principals. They are responsible for scheduling student classes, ordering textbooks and supplies, and coordinating transportation, cus­ todial, cafeteria, and other support services. They usually handle discipline, attendance, social and recreational programs, and health and safety. They also may counsel students on personal, educational, or vocational matters. With site-based management, assistant principals play a greater role in developing curriculum, evaluating teachers, and school-community relations—responsibilities previously assumed solely by the principal. The number of assistant principals a school employs may vary depending on the number of students. Administrators in school district central offices manage public schools under their jurisdiction. This group includes those who direct subject area programs such as English, music, vocational edu­ cation, special education, and mathematics. They plan, evaluate, standardize, and improve curriculums and teaching techniques, and help teachers improve their skills and learn about new methods and materials. They oversee career counseling programs, and testing which measures students’ abilities and helps place them in appropri­ ate classes. Central office administrators also include directors of programs such as guidance, school psychology, athletics, curriculum and instruction, and professional development. With site-based man­ agement, administrators have transferred primary responsibility for many of these programs to the principals, assistant principals, teach­ ers, and other staff. In colleges and universities, academic deans, deans offaculty, provosts, and university deans assist presidents and develop budgets and academic policies and programs. They also direct and coordinate the activities of deans of individual colleges and chairpersons of aca­ demic departments. College or university department heads or chairpersons are in charge of departments such as English, biological science, or mathematics. In addition to teaching, they coordinate schedules of classes and teaching assignments; propose budgets; recruit, interview, and hire applicants for teaching positions; evaluate faculty members; encourage faculty development; and perform other administrative duties. In overseeing  Education administrators provide leadership and day-to-day management of elementary and secondary schools and colleges and universities. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  their departments, chairpersons must consider and balance the concerns of faculty, administrators, and students. Higher education administrators provide student services. Vice presi­  dents ofstudent affairs or student life, deans ofstudents, and directors of student services may direct and coordinate admissions, foreign student services, health and counseling services, career services, financial aid, and housing and residential life, as well as social, recreational, and related programs. In small colleges, they may counsel students. Registrars are custodians of students’ records. They register students, prepare student transcripts, evaluate academic records, assess and collect tuition and fees, plan and implement commencement, oversee the preparation of college catalogs and schedules of classes, and analyze enrollment and demographic statistics. Directors ofadmissions manage the process of recruiting, evaluating, and admitting students, and work closely with financial aid directors, who oversee scholarship, fellowship, and loan programs. Registrars and admissions officers must adapt to technologi­ cal innovations in student information systems. For example, for those whose institutions present information—such as college catalogs and schedules—on the Internet, knowledge of on-line resources, imaging, and other computer skills is important. Directors of student activities plan and arrange social, cultural, and recreational activities, assist stu­ dent-run organizations, and may conduct new student orientation. Ath­ letic directors plan and direct intramural and intercollegiate athletic ac­ tivities, including publicity for athletic events, preparation of budgets, and supervision of coaches.  Working Conditions Education administrators hold management positions with significant responsibility. Coordinating and interacting with faculty, parents, and students can be fast-paced and stimulating, but also stressful and de­ manding. Some jobs include travel. Principals and assistant principals whose main duty often is discipline may find working with difficult students challenging and frustrating. The number of school-age chil­ dren is rising, and some school systems have hired assistant principals because a school’s population increased significantly. However, in other school systems, principals may manage larger student bodies, which can be stressful. Many education administrators work more than 40 hours a week, including some nights and weekends when they oversee school activi­ ties. Most administrators work 10 or 11 months a year, but some work year round.  Employment Education administrators held about 447,000 jobs in 1998. About 9 out of 10 were in educational services, which includes elementary, secondary, and technical schools, and colleges and universities. The rest worked in child day care centers, religious organizations, job train­ ing centers, State departments of education, and businesses and other organizations that provided training for their employees.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Most education administrators begin their careers in related occupa­ tions, and prepare for a job in education administration by completing a master’s or doctoral degree. Because of the diversity of duties and levels of responsibility, their educational backgrounds and experience vary considerably. Principals, assistant principals, central office ad­ ministrators, and academic deans usually have held teaching positions before moving into administration. Some teachers move directly into principal positions; others first become assistant principals, or gain experience in other central office administrative jobs at either the school or district level in positions such as department head, curriculum spe­ cialist, or subject matter advisor. In some cases, administrators move up from related staffjobs such as recruiter, guidance counselor, librar­ ian, residence hall director, or financial aid or admissions counselor. To be considered for education administrator positions, workers must first prove themselves in their current jobs. In evaluating candidates, supervisors look for determination, confidence,  38 Occupational Outlook Handbook innovativeness, motivation, and leadership. The ability to make sound decisions and organize and coordinate work efficiently is essential. Since much of an administrator’s job involves interacting with oth­ ers—such as students, parents, and teachers—they must have strong interpersonal skills and be effective communicators and motivators. Knowledge of management principles and practices, gained through work experience and formal education, is important. A familiarity with computer technology is a plus for principals, who are becoming increasingly involved in gathering information and coordinating tech­ nical resources for their students and classrooms. In most public schools, principals, assistant principals, and school administrators in central offices need a master’s degree in education administration or educational supervision. Some principals and central office administrators have a doctorate or specialized degree in education administration. In private schools, which are not subject to State certifica­ tion requirements, some principals and assistant principals hold only a bachelor’s degree; however, the majority have a master’s or doctoral degree. Most States require principals to be licensed as school adminis­ trators. License requirements vary by State. National standards for school leaders, including principals and supervisors, were recently devel­ oped by the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium. Several States currently use these national standards as guidelines to assess begin­ ning principals for licensure, and many more States are expected to adopt the standards for this purpose. Some States require administrators to take continuing education courses to keep their certification, thus ensuring that administrators have the most up-to-date skills. The number and type of courses required to maintain certification vary by State. Academic deans and chairpersons usually have a doctorate in their specialty. Most have held a professorship in their department before advancing. Admissions, student affairs, and financial aid directors and registrars sometimes start in related staffjobs with bachelor’s degrees— any field usually is acceptable—and obtain advanced degrees in college student affairs or higher education administration. A Ph.D. or Ed.D. usually is necessary for top student affairs positions. Computer literacy and a background in mathematics or statistics may be assets in admis­ sions, records, and financial work. Advanced degrees in higher education administration, educational su­ pervision, and college student affairs are offered in many colleges and universities. The National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Educa­ tion accredits these programs. Education administration degree programs include courses in school management, school law, school finance and budgeting, curriculum development and evaluation, research design and data analysis, community relations, politics in education, counseling, and leadership. Educational supervision degree programs include courses in supervision of instruction and curriculum, human relations, curriculum development, research, and advanced pedagogy courses. Education administrators advance by moving up an administra­ tive ladder or transferring to larger schools or systems. They also may become superintendent of a school system or president of an educational institution. Job Outlook  Expect substantial competition for prestigious jobs as higher education administrators. Many faculty and other staff meet the education and experience requirements for these jobs, and seek promotion. How­ ever, the number of openings is relatively small; only the most highly qualified are selected. Candidates who have the most formal education and who are willing to relocate should have the best job prospects. On the other hand, it is becoming more difficult to attract candidates for some principal, vice principal, and administration jobs at the el­ ementary and secondary school level, particularly in districts where crowded conditions and smal ler budgets make the work more stressful. Many teachers no longer have a strong incentive to move into these positions. The pay is not significantly higher and does not compensate for the added workload, responsibilities, and pressures of the position. Also, site-based management has given teachers more decision-making responsibility in recent years, possibly satisfying their desire to move intofor administration. Digitized FRASER Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Employment of education administrators is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations over the 1998-2008 period. Additional openings will result from the need to replace administrators who retire or transfer to other occupations, School enrollments at the elementary, secondary, and postsecondary level are all expected to grow over the projection period. Rather than opening new schools, many schools will en­ large to accommodate more students, increasing the need for addi­ tional assistant principals to help with the larger workload. Em­ ployment of education administrators will also grow as more ser­ vices are provided to students and as efforts to improve the quality of education continue. However, budget constraints are expected to moderate growth in this profession. At the postsecondary level, some institutions have been reducing administrative staffs to contain costs. Some colleges are consolidating administrative jobs and contracting with other providers for some administrative functions. Earnings  Salaries of education administrators depend on several factors, includ­ ing the location and enrollment size of the school or school district. Median annual earnings of education administrators in 1998 were $60,400 a year. The middle 50 percent earned between $43,870 and $80,030 a year. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $30,480; the highest 10 percent earned more than $92,680. Median annual earnings in the industries employing the largest numbers of education adminis­ trators in 1997 were as follows: Elementary and secondary schools............................................. $61,800 Colleges and universities................................................................ 60,000 Vocational schools........................................................................... 43,700 Miscellaneous schools andeducational services........................... 33,800 Child day care services.................................................................... 25,000  According to a survey of public schools, conducted by the Educa­ tional Research Service, average salaries for principals and assistant principals in the 1997-98 school year were as follows: Directors, managers, coordinators, and supervisors of instructional services......................................... $73,058 Principals: Elementary school.................................................................... $64,653 Junior high/middle school......................................................... 68,740 Senior high school .................................................................... 74,380 Assistant principals: Elementary school.................................................................... $53,206 Junior high/middle school......................................................... 57,768 Senior high school.................................................................... 60,999  In 1997-98, according to the College and University Personnel As­ sociation, median annual salaries for selected administrators in higher education were as follows: Academic deans: Medicine................................................................................... $235,000 Law............................................................................................. 160,400 Engineering.............................................................................. 121,841 Business..................................................................................... 90,745 Arts and sciences.................................................................... 87,293 Education.................................................................................. 85,013 Social sciences.......................................................................... 64,022 Mathematics............................................................................. 60,626 Student services directors: Admissions and registrar........................................................... $52,500 Student financial aid................................................................. 48,448 Student activities....................................................................... 36,050  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 39  Related Occupations Education administrators apply organizational and leadership skills to provide services to individuals. Workers in related occupations in­ clude medical and health services managers, social service agency ad­ ministrators, recreation and park managers, museum directors, library directors, and professional and membership organization executives. Since principals and assistant principals usually have extensive teach­ ing experience, their backgrounds are similar to those of teachers and many school counselors.  Sources of Additional Information For information on elementary and secondary school principals, assis­ tant principals, and central office administrators, contact: American Federation of School Administrators, 1729 21st St. NW„ Washington, DC 20009. *■ American Association of School Administrators, 1801 North Moore St., Arlington, VA 22209.  For information on elementary school principals and assistant prin­ cipals, contact: *■ The National Association of Elementary School Principals, 1615 Duke St., Alexandria, VA 22314-3483.  For information on collegiate registrars and admissions officers, contact: *" American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Offic­ ers, One Dupont Circle NW„ Suite 520, Washington, DC 20036-1171.  For information on college and university personnel, contact: "■ The College and University Personnel Association, 1233 20th St. NW„ Washington, DC 20036-1250.  For information on professional development and graduate programs for college student affairs administrators, visit the National Associa­ tion of Student Personnel Administrators Internet site:  Employment Interviewers, Private or Public Employment Service (0*NET 21508)  Significant Points •  Although employers prefer applicants with a college degree, educational requirements range from a high school diploma to a master’s or doctoral degree.  •  Most new jobs will arise in personnel supply firms, especially those specializing in temporary help.  Some employment interviewers work in temporary help services companies, placing the company’s employees in firms that need tempo­ rary help. Employment interviewers take job orders from client firms and match their requests against a list of available workers. They select the most qualified workers available and assign them to the firms requir­ ing assistance. Regular evaluation of employee job skills is an important part of the job for interviewers working in temporary help services compa­ nies. Initially, interviewers evaluate or test new employees’ skills to determine their abilities and weaknesses. The results are kept on file and referred to when filling job orders. In some cases, the company trains employees to improve their skills, so interviewers periodically reevaluate or retest employees to identify any new skills they may have developed. Traditionally, firms that placed permanent employees dealt with highly skilled applicants, such as lawyers or accountants, and those placing temporary employees dealt with less skilled workers, such as secretaries or data entry operators. However, temporary help services increas­ ingly place workers with a wide range of educational backgrounds and work experience. Businesses are now turning to temporary employ­ ees to fill all types of positions—from clerical to managerial, profes­ sional, and technical—to reduce the wage and benefit costs associated with hiring permanent employees. The duties of employment interviewers in job service centers differ somewhat from those in personnel supply firms because applicants may lack marketable skills. In these centers, jobseekers present resumes and fill out forms regarding education, job history, skills, awards, certificates, and licenses. An employment interviewer reviews these forms and asks the applicant about the type ofjob sought and salary range desired. Because an applicant in these centers may have unrealistic expecta­ tions, employment interviewers must be tactful, but persuasive. Some applicants are high school dropouts or have poor English skills, a history of drug or alcohol dependency, or a prison record. The amount and nature of special help for such applicants vary from State to State. In some States, it is the employment interviewer’s responsibility to counsel hard-to-place applicants and refer them elsewhere for literacy or language instruction, vocational training, transportation assistance, child care, and other services. In other States, specially trained coun­ selors perform this task. Applicants may also need help identifying the kind of work for which they are best suited. The employment interviewer evaluates the applicant’s qualifications and either chooses an appropriate occupation or class of occupations or refers the applicant for vocational testing. After identifying an appropriate job type, the employment interviewer searches the file ofjob orders seeking a possible job match and refers the applicant to the employer if a match is found. If no match is found, the interviewer shows the applicant how to use listings of available jobs.  Nature of the Work Whether you are looking for a job or trying to fill one, you might need the help of an employment interviewer. These workers, sometimes called personnel consultants, human resources coordinators, person­ nel development specialists, or employment brokers, help jobseekers find employment and employers find qualified employees. Employ­ ment interviewers obtain information from employers as well as jobseekers and put together the best combination of applicant and job. The majority of employment interviewers are employed in private personnel supply firms or State employment security offices. Those in personnel supply firms who place permanent employees are usually called counselors. These workers offer tips on personal appearance, suggest ways to present a positive image, provide background informa­ tion on the company with which an interview is scheduled, and recom­ mend interviewing techniques. Employment interviewers in some firms specialize in placing applicants in particular kinds ofjobs—for example, secretarial, word processing, computer programming and computer sys­ tems analysis, engineering, accounting, law, or health. Counselors in such usually have 3 to 5 years of work experience in their field. Digitized for firms FRASER Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Employment interviewers need good interpersonal skills.  40 Occupational Outlook Handbook Besides helping individuals find jobs, employment interviewers help firms fill job openings. The services they provide depend on the company or type of agency they work for and the clientele it serves. In most of these agencies, employers usually pay private agencies to recruit workers. The employer places a “job order” with the agency describing the opening and listing requirements including education, licenses or credentials, and experience. Employment interviewers often contact the employer to determine their exact personnel needs. The employment interviewer then reviews the job requirements and the jobseeker qualifications to determine the best possible match of position and applicant. Although computers are increasingly used to keep records and match employers with jobseekers, personal contact with an employment interviewer remains an essential part of an applicant’s job search. A private industry employment interviewer must also be a salesper­ son. Counselors pool together a group of qualified applicants and try to sell them to many different companies. Often a consultant will call a company that has never been a client with the aim of filling their employ­ ment needs. Maintaining good relations with employers is an important part of the employment interviewer’s job because this helps assure a steady flow ofjob orders. Being prepared to fill an opening quickly with a qualified applicant impresses employers most and keeps them as clients.  Entry-level employment interviewer positions in the public sector are usually filled by college graduates, even though the positions do not always require a bachelor’s degree. Some States allow substitution of suitable work experience for college education. Suitable experience is usually defined as working in close contact with the public or spending time in other jobs, including clerical jobs, in a job service office. In States that permit employment interviewers to engage in counseling, course work in counseling may be required. Most States and many large city and county governments use some form of merit system for hiring interviewers. Applicants may take a written exam, undergo a preliminary interview, or submit records of their education and experience for evaluation. Those who meet the standards are placed on a list from which the top-ranked candidates are selected for later interviews and possible hiring. Advancement as an employment interviewer in the public sector is often based on a system providing regular promotions and salary increases for those meeting established standards. Advancement to supervisory positions is highly competitive. In personnel supply firms, advancement often depends on one’s success in placing workers and usually takes the form of greater responsibility and higher income. Successful individuals occasionally establish their own businesses.  Job Outlook Working Conditions  Employment interviewers usually work in comfortable, well-lit offices, often using a computer to match information about employers and jobseekers. Some interviewers, however, may spend much of their time out of the office conducting interviews. The work can be hectic, espe­ cially in temporary help service companies that supply clients with immediate help for short periods of time. The private placement indus­ try is competitive and, some overtime may be required. Employment  Employment interviewers held about 66,000 jobs in 1998. Over half worked in the private sector for personnel supply services, typically for employment placement firms or temporary help services companies. About 2 out of 10 worked for State or local government. Others were employed by organizations that provide various services, such as job training and vocational rehabilitation. Employees of career consulting or outplacement firms are not in­ cluded in these estimates. Workers in these firms help clients market themselves; they do not act as job brokers, nor do they match individuals with particular vacancies. (Employment counselors, who perform these functions, are discussed in the Handbook statement on counselors.) Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  Although most public and private agencies prefer to hire college gradu­ ates for interviewer jobs, a degree is not always necessary. Hiring requirements in the private sector reflect a firm’s management approach as well as the placements in which its interviewers specialize. Those who place highly-trained individuals such as accountants, lawyers, en­ gineers, physicians, or managers usually have some training or experi­ ence in the field in which they are placing workers. Thus, a bachelor’s, master’s, or even a doctoral degree may be a prerequisite for some interviewers. Even with the right education, however, sales ability is still required to succeed in the private sector. Educational requirements play a lesser role for interviewers placing clerks or laborers—a high school diploma may be sufficient. In these positions, qualities such as energy level, telephone voice, and sales ability take precedence over educational attainment. Other desirable qualifications for employment interviewers include good communica­ tions skills, a desire to help people, office skills, and adaptability. A friendly, confidence-winning manner is an asset because personal inter­ action plays a large role in this occupation. Increasingly, employment interviewers use computers as a tool; thus, basic knowledge of com­ puters is helpful. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Employment in this occupation is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2008. The majority of new jobs will arise in personnel supply firms, especially those specializing in temporary help. Job growth is not anticipated in State job service offices because of budgetary limitations, the growing use of computer­ ized job matching and information systems, and increased contracting out of employment services to private firms. In addition to openings resulting from growth, a small number of openings will stem from the need to replace experienced interviewers who transfer to other occupa­ tions, retire, or stop working for other reasons. Economic expansion and new business formation should mean grow­ ing demand for the services of personnel supply firms and employment interviewers. Firms that lack the time or resources to develop their own screening procedures will continue to turn to personnel firms. Rapid expansion of firms supplying temporary help in particular will be re­ sponsible for much of the growth in this occupation. Businesses of all types are turning to temporary help services companies for additional workers to handle short-term assignments, staff one-time projects, launch new programs, and reduce wage and benefit costs associated with hir­ ing permanent employees. Entry into this occupation is relatively easy for college graduates and for people who have had some college courses, except in those posi­ tions specializing in placement of workers with highly specialized train­ ing, such as lawyers, doctors, and engineers. Employment interviewers who place permanent workers may lose their jobs during recessions because employers reduce or elimi­ nate hiring for permanent positions during downturns in the economy. State job service employment interviewers are less susceptible to layoffs than those who place permanent or temporary personnel in the private sector. Earnings  Median annual earnings of employment interviewers in 1998 were $29,800. The middle 50 percent earned between $23,520 and $39,600. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $18,420 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $73,180. Employment interviewers earn slightly more in urban areas. Earnings in private firms vary, in part, because the basis for com­ pensation varies. Workers in personnel supply firms tend to be paid on a commission basis; those in temporary help service companies receive a salary. When workers are paid on a commission basis, total earnings depend on the type and number of placements. In general, those who place more highly skilled or hard-to-find employees earn more. An interviewer or counselor working strictly on a commission  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 41 basis often makes around 30 percent of what he or she bills the client, although this varies widely from firm to firm. Some employment interviewers work on a salary-plus-commis­ sion basis because they fill difficult or highly specialized positions requiring long periods of search. The salary is usually small by normal standards; however, it guarantees these individuals security through slow times. The commission provides the incentive and opportunity for higher earnings. Some personnel supply firms employ new workers for a 2- to 3month probationary period during which they draw a regular salary. This gives new workers time to develop their skills and acquire clients while simultaneously giving employers an opportunity to evaluate them. If hired, their earnings are then usually based on commission.  Ns  iMt. 1 if  Related Occupations Employment interviewers serve as intermediaries for jobseekers and employers. Workers in several other occupations do similar jobs. Per­ sonnel officers, for example, screen and help hire new employees, but they concern themselves mainly with the hiring needs of the firm; they never represent individual jobseekers. Personnel officers may also have additional duties in areas such as payroll or benefits management. Career counselors help students and alumni find jobs, but they pri­ marily emphasize career counseling and decision making, not place­ ment. Counselors in community organizations and vocational rehabili­ tation facilities help clients find jobs, but they also assist with drug or alcohol dependencies, housing, transportation, child care, and other problems that stand in the way of finding and keeping a job.  Sources of Additional Information For information on a career as an employment interviewer/counselor, contact: National Association of Personnel Services, 3133 Mt. Vernon Ave., Alexandria, VA 22305. Internet: •- American Staffing Association, 277 South Washington St., Suite 200, Alexandria, VA 22314. Internet:  For information on a career as an employment interviewer in State employment security offices, contact: *" Interstate Conference of Employment Security Agencies, 444 North Capitol St. NW., Suite 142, Washington, DC 20001. Internet:  Engineering, Natural Science, and Computer and Information Systems Managers (0*NET 13017A, 13017B, and 13017C)  Significant Points • •  Projected job growth stems primarily from rapid growth among computer-related occupations. Employers prefer managers with advanced technical knowledge and strong communication and administra­ tive skills.  Nature of the Work Engineering, natural science, and computer and information systems managers plan, coordinate, and direct research, design, production, and computer-related activities. They may supervise engineers, scientists, technicians, computer specialists, and information technology workers, along with support personnel. These managers use advanced technical knowledge of engineering, science, and computer and information systems to oversee a variety of activities. They determine scientific and technical goals within broad Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Engineering managers direct the technical work of their staff. outlines provided by top management. These goals may include the redesigning of an aircraft, improvements in manufacturing processes, the development of large computer networks, or advances in scientific research. Managers make detailed plans for the accomplishment of these goals—for example, working with their staff, they may develop the overall concepts of a new product or identify technical problems standing in the way of project completion. To perform effectively, they must also possess knowledge of administrative procedures, such as budgeting, hiring, and supervi­ sion. These managers propose budgets for projects and programs, and make decisions on staff training and equipment purchases. They hire and assign scientists, engineers, computer specialists, informa­ tion technology workers, and support personnel to carry out spe­ cific parts of the projects. They supervise the work of these em­ ployees, review their output, and establish administrative proce­ dures and policies. In addition, these managers use communication skills extensively. They spend a great deal of time coordinating the activities of their unit with other units or organizations. They confer with higher levels of management; with financial, production, marketing, and other managers; and with contractors and equipment and materials suppliers. Engineering managers supervise people who design and develop machinery, products, systems, and processes; or direct and coordinate production, operations, quality assurance, testing, or maintenance in industrial plants. Many are plant engineers, who direct and coordinate the design, installation, operation, and maintenance of equipment and machinery in industrial plants. Others manage research and develop­ ment teams that produce new products and processes or improve existing ones. Natural science managers oversee the work of life and physical scientists, including agricultural scientists, chemists, biologists, ge­ ologists, medical scientists, and physicists. These managers direct research and development projects, and coordinate activities such as testing, quality control, and production. They may work on basic research projects or on commercial activities. Science manag­ ers sometimes conduct their own research in addition to managing the work of others. Computer and information systems managers direct the work of systems analysts, computer programmers, and other computer-related workers. These managers plan and coordinate activities such as the installation and upgrading of hardware and software; programming and systems design; the development of computer networks; and the imple­ mentation of Internet and intranet sites. They analyze the computer and information needs of their organization and determine personnel and equipment requirements. They assign and review the work of their subordinates, and purchase necessary equipment.  42 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Working Conditions Engineering, natural science, and computer and information systems managers spend most of their time in an office. Some managers, how­ ever, may also work in laboratories or industrial plants, where they are normally exposed to the same conditions as research scientists and may occasionally be exposed to the same conditions as production workers. Most managers work at least 40 hours a week and may work much longer on occasion to meet project deadlines. Some may experi­ ence considerable pressure in meeting technical or scientific goals within short timeframes or tight budgets.  Employment Engineering, natural science, and computer and information systems managers held about 326,000 jobs in 1998. About 1 in 3 works in services industries, primarily for firms providing computer and data processing, engineering and architectural, or research and testing ser­ vices. Manufacturing industries employ another third. Manufactur­ ing industries with the largest employment include industrial machin­ ery and equipment, electronic and other electrical equipment, trans­ portation equipment, instruments, and chemicals. Other large em­ ployers include government agencies, communications and utilities companies, and financial and insurance firms.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Strong technical knowledge is essential for engineering, natural science, and computer and information systems managers, who must under­ stand and guide the work of their subordinates and explain the work in non-technical terms to senior management and potential customers. Therefore, these management positions usually require work experi­ ence and formal education similar to that of engineers, mathematicians, scientists, or computer professionals. Most engineering managers begin their careers as engineers, after completing a bachelor’s degree in the field. To advance to higher level positions, engineers generally must assume management re­ sponsibility. To fill management positions, employers seek engi­ neers who possess administrative and communications skills in ad­ dition to technical knowledge in their specialty. Many engineers gain these skills by obtaining master’s degrees in engineering man­ agement or business administration. Employers often pay for such training; in large firms, some courses required in these degree pro­ grams may be offered on-site. Many science managers begin their careers as chemists, biolo­ gists, geologists, or scientists in other disciplines. Most scien­ tists engaged in basic research have a Ph.D.; some in applied re­ search and other activities may have a bachelor’s or master’s de­ gree. Science managers must be specialists in the work they su­ pervise. In addition, employers prefer managers with communi­ cation and administrative skills and, increasingly, familiarity with computers. Graduate programs allow scientists to augment their undergraduate training with instruction in other fields, such as management or computer technology. Given the rapid pace of scientific developments, science managers must continuously up­ grade their knowledge. Many computer and information systems managers have expe­ rience as systems analysts; others may have experience as com­ puter engineers, programmers, or operators, or in other computer occupations. A bachelor’s degree is usually required for manage­ ment positions and a graduate degree is often preferred by employ­ ers. However, a few computer and information systems managers may have only an associate degree. Employers seek managers who have experience with the specific software or technology to be used on the job. In addition to technical skills, employers also seek managers who have business and interpersonal skills. Engineering, natural science, and computer and information sys­ tems managers may advance to progressively higher leadership po­ sitions within their discipline. Some may become managers in non­ technical areas such as marketing, human resources, or sales. In Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  high technology firms, managers in non-technical areas often must possess the same specialized knowledge as managers in technical areas. For example, employers in an engineering firm may prefer to hire experienced engineers as sales people because the complex services offered by the firm can only be marketed by someone with specialized engineering knowledge.  Job Outlook Employment of engineering, natural science, and computer and infor­ mation systems managers is expected to increase much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2008. Technological ad­ vancements will increase the employment of engineers, scientists, and computer-related workers; as a result, the demand for managers to direct these workers will also increase. In addition, job openings will result from the need to replace managers who retire or move into other occupations. Opportunities for obtaining a management position will be best for workers with advanced technical knowledge and strong communication and administrative skills. Underlying the growth of engineering and natural science man­ agers are competitive pressures and advancing technologies which require companies to update and improve products and services more frequently. Investment in facilities and equipment to ex­ pand research and output should increase the need for engineering and science managers. Faster-than-average employment growth among electrical, electronics, and civil engineers will provide strong employment opportunities for engineering managers in these areas. Among scientists, faster-than-average growth in the employment of biologists and medical scientists will provide similar opportunities for natural science managers. Employment of computer and information systems managers is expected to grow rapidly due to the increasing use of information technologies. In order to remain competitive, firms will continue to install sophisticated computer networks, set up Internet and intranet sites, and engage in electronic commerce. The fast-paced expansion of the computer and data processing services industry will contribute strongly to the increased demand for these managers. In addition, employment growth is expected across a variety of industries reflect­ ing the widespread importance of information technology. Opportunities for those who wish to become engineering, natural science, and computer and information systems managers should be closely related to the growth of the occupations they supervise and the industries in which they are found. (See the statements on engi­ neers, life and physical scientists, computer programmers, and com­ puter systems analysts, engineers, and scientists elsewhere in the  Handbook.) Earnings Earnings for engineering, natural science, and computer and informa­ tion systems managers vary by specialty and level of responsibility. Median annual earnings of these managers in 1998 were $75,330. The middle 50 percent earned between $57,610 and $94,450. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $44,580 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $119,900. Median annual earnings in the industries em­ ploying the largest numbers of these managers in 1997 were: Computer and office equipment manufacturing......................... $87,500 Electronic components and accessories manufacturing............ 79,000 Research and testing services........................................................ 77,700 Computer and data processing services....................................... 76,800 Engineering and architectural services........................................ 74,300 Federal Government........................................................................ 73,200 State government, except education and hospitals ................... 63,500  According to RHI Consulting, average starting salaries in 1999 for information technology managers ranged from $50,500 to well over $100,000, depending on the area of specialization. A survey of manu­ facturing firms, conducted by Abbot, Langer & Associates, reported  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 43 that in 1998, the median annual income of engineering department managers and superintendents was $85,600; the corresponding figure for research and development managers was about $75,400. In addition, engineering, natural science, and computer and infor­ mation systems managers, especially those at higher levels, often re­ ceive more benefits—such as expense accounts, stock option plans, and bonuses—than non-managerial workers in their organizations.  Related Occupations The work of engineering, natural science, and computer and informa­ tion systems managers is closely related to that of engineers, life scien­ tists, physical scientists, computer professionals, and mathematicians. It is also related to the work of other managers, especially general managers and top executives.  Sources of Additional Information For information about a career as an engineering, natural science, or computer and information systems manager, contact the sources of ad­ ditional information for engineers, life scientists, physical scientists, and computer occupations that are listed in statements on these occu­ pations elsewhere in the Handbook.  Farmers and Farm Managers (0*NET 79999C, 79999D, 79999G, 79999J, 79999K, 79999L and 79999M)  Significant Points •  • •  Modern farming requires a combination of formal education and work experience, sometimes acquired through growing up on a farm or through internships now becoming available. Overall employment is projected to decline because of increasing productivity and consolidation. New developments in marketing and organic farming are making small-scale farming economically viable again.  Nature of the Work American farmers and farm managers direct the activities of one of the world’s largest and most productive agricultural sectors. They produce enough food and fiber to meet the needs of our Nation and for export. Farmers may be owners or tenants who rent the use of land. The type of farm they operate determines their specific tasks. On crop farms—farms growing grain, cotton, and other fibers, fruit, and vegetables—farmers are responsible for planning, tilling, planting, fertilizing, cultivating, spraying, and harvesting. After the harvest, they make sure the crops are properly packaged, stored, or marketed. Live­ stock, dairy, and poultry farmers must feed, plan, and care for the animals and keep barns, pens, coops, and other farm buildings clean and in good condition. They also oversee breeding and marketing activities. Horticultural specialty farmers oversee the production of ornamental plants, nursery products—such as flowers, bulbs, shrub­ bery, and sod—and fruits and vegetables grown in greenhouses. Aquac­ ulture farmers raise fish and shellfish in marine, brackish, or fresh water, usually in ponds, floating net pens, raceways, or recirculating systems. They stock, feed, protect, and otherwise manage aquatic life sold for consumption or used for recreational fishing. Farmers make many managerial decisions. Their farm output is strongly influenced by the weather, disease, fluctuations in prices of domestic and foreign farm products, and Federal farm programs. In a crop operation, farmers usually determine the best time to plant seed, apply fertilizer and chemicals, harvest, and market. They use different strategies to protect themselves from unpredictable changes in for theFRASER markets for agricultural products. Many farmers carefully Digitized Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Farmer works with technician to test dairy herdfor butterfat content ofmilk. plan the combination of crops they grow so if the price of one crop drops, they will have sufficient income from another to make up for the loss. Others, particularly operators of smaller farms, may choose to sell their goods directly through farmers’ markets, or use coopera­ tives to reduce their financial risk. For example, Community Sup­ ported Agriculture (CSA) is a cooperative where consumers buy shares of a harvest prior to the planting season, thus freeing the farmer from having to bear all the financial risks. Farmers who plan ahead may be able to store their crops or keep their livestock to take advantage of better prices later in the year. Those who participate in the futures market—where contracts and options on futures contracts on commodities are traded through stock brokers—try to anticipate or track changes in the supply of and de­ mand for agricultural commodities, and thus changes in the prices of farm products. By buying or selling futures contracts, or by pricing their products in advance of future sales, they attempt to either limit their risk or reap greater profits than would normally be realized. They may have to secure loans from credit agencies to finance the purchase of machinery, fertilizer, livestock, and feed. Farming opera­ tions have become more complex in recent years, so many farmers use computers to keep financial and inventory records. They also use computer databases and spreadsheets to manage breeding, dairy, and other farm operations. Farmers’ tasks range from caring for livestock, to operating machin­ ery, and to maintaining equipment and facilities. The size of the farm often determines which of these tasks fanners will handle themselves. Opera­ tors of small farms usually perform all tasks, physical and administra­ tive. They keep records for tax purposes, service machinery, maintain buildings, and grow vegetables and raise animals. Operators of large farms have employees who help with the physical work that small-farm operators do themselves. Although employment on most farms is lim­ ited to the farmer and one or two family workers or hired employees, some large farms have 100 or more full-time and seasonal workers. Some of these employees are in nonfann occupations, working as truckdrivers, sales representatives, bookkeepers, and computer specialists. Farm managers guide and assist farmers and ranchers in maximiz­ ing the financial returns to their land by managing the day-to-day activities. Their duties and responsibilities vary widely. For example, the owner of a very large livestock farm may employ a farm manager to oversee a single activity, such as feeding livestock. On the other hand, when managing a small crop farm for an absentee owner, a farm man­ ager may assume responsibility for all functions, from selecting the crops to participating in planting and harvesting. Farm management firms and corporations involved in agriculture employ highly trained professional farm managers who may manage farm operations or over­ see tenant operators of several farms. In these cases, farm managers  44 Occupational Outlook Handbook may establish output goals; determine financial constraints; monitor production and marketing; hire, assign, and supervise workers; deter­ mine crop transportation and storage requirements; and oversee main­ tenance of the property and equipment. Working Conditions  The work of farmers and farm managers is often strenuous, their work hours are frequently long, and their days off during the plant­ ing, growing, and harvesting seasons are rare. Nevertheless, for those who enter farming, these disadvantages are outweighed by the opportunities for living in a rural area, working outdoors, being self-employed, and making a living working the land. Farmers and farm managers on crop farms usually work from sunrise to sunset during the planting and harvesting seasons. During the rest of the year they plan next season’s crops, market their output, and repair machinery; some may earn additional income by working a second job off the farm. On livestock producing farms, work goes on throughout the year. Animals, unless they are grazing, must be fed and watered every day, and dairy cows must be milked two or three times a day. Many livestock and dairy farmers monitor and attend to the health of their herds, which may include assisting birthing animals. Such farmers rarely get the chance to get away unless they hire an assistant or arrange for a temporary substitute. Farmers who grow produce and perishables have different demands on their time. For example, organic farmers must maintain cover crops during the cold months, which keeps them occupied with farming be­ yond the typical growing season. Farm work also can be hazardous. Tractors and other farm machin­ ery can cause serious injury and workers must be constantly alert on the job. The proper operation of equipment and hand! ing of chemicals is necessary to avoid accidents and protect the environment. On very large farms, farmers spend substantial time meeting with farm managers or farm supervisors in charge of various activities. Pro­ fessional farm managers overseeing several farms may divide their time between traveling to meet farmers or landowners and planning the farm operations in their offices. As farming practices and agricultural tech­ nology become more sophisticated, farmers and farm managers are spending more time in offices and at computers, where they electroni­ cally manage many aspects of their businesses. Some farmers also spend time at conferences, particularly during the winter months, trad­ ing information. Employment  Farmers and farm managers held nearly 1.5 million jobs in 1998. About 88 percent were self-employed farmers. Most farmers manage crop production activities while others manage livestock and dairy produc­ tion. A relatively small number were involved in agricultural services, such as contract harvesting and farm labor contracting. The soil, topography of the land, and the climate of an area gener­ ally determine the type of farming done. For example, wheat, corn, and other grains are most efficiently grown on large farms on level land where large, complex machinery can be used. Thus, these crops are prevalent on the prairies and plains of Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Ne­ braska, Ohio, Kansas, and southern Minnesota and Wisconsin. Crops requiring longer growing seasons, such as cotton, tobacco, and pea­ nuts, are grown chiefly in the South. Most of the country’s fruits and vegetables come from California, Texas, and Florida. Many dairy herds are found in the areas with good pasture land, such as Wisconsin, New York, and Minnesota. However, in recent years dairy farming has expanded rapidly in California, Arizona, and Texas.  increasingly complex scientific, business, and financial decisions. Therefore, even people who were raised on farms must acquire the appropriate education. Not all farm managers grew up on farms. For these people, a bachelor’s degree in business with a concentration in agriculture is important. In addition to formal education, they need several years of work experience in the different aspects of farm operations in order to qualify for a farm manager position. Students should select the college most appropriate to their spe­ cific interests and location. In the United States, all State university systems have one land-grant university with a school of agriculture. Common programs of study include agronomy, dairy science, agricul­ tural economics and business, horticulture, crop and fruit science, and animal science. For students interested in aquaculture, formal pro­ grams are available, and include coursework in fisheries biology, fish culture, hatchery management and maintenance, and hydrology. What­ ever one’s interest, the college curriculum should include courses in agricultural production, marketing, and economics. Professional status can be enhanced through voluntary certification as an Accredited Farm Manager (AFM) by the American Society of Farm Managers and Rural Appraisers. Certification requires several years of farm management experience, the appropriate academic back­ ground—a bachelor’s degree or preferably a master’s degree in a field of agricultural science—and passing courses and examinations relating to business, financial, and legal aspects of farm management. Farmers and farm managers need to keep abreast of continuing advances in farming methods both in the United States and abroad. Besides print journals that inform the agricultural community, the spread of the Internet and the World Wide Web allows quick access to the latest developments in areas such as agricultural marketing, legal ar­ rangements, or growing crops, vegetables and livestock. Electronic mail, on-line journals and newsletters from agricultural organizations also speed the exchange of information directly between farming asso­ ciations and individual farmers. Farmers must also have enough technical knowledge of crops, grow­ ing conditions, and plant diseases to make decisions ensuring the suc­ cessful operation of their farms. A rudimentary knowledge of veteri­ nary science, as well as animal husbandry, is important for livestock and dairy farmers. Knowledge of the relationship between farm opera­ tions—for example, the use of pesticides—and environmental condi­ tions is essential. Mechanical aptitude and the ability to work with tools of all kinds are also valuable skills for the operator of a small farm, who often maintains and repairs machinery or farm structures. Farmers and farm managers need the managerial skills necessary to organize and operate a business. A basic knowledge of accounting and bookkeeping is essential in keeping financial records, while a knowl­ edge of credit sources is vital for buying seed, fertilizer, and other inputs necessary for planting. Farmers and farm managers must also be famil­ iar with complex safety regulations and requirements of governmental agricultural support programs. Computer skills are increasingly impor­ tant, especially on large farms, where computers are widely used for recordkeeping and business analysis. For example, some farmers use personal computers to access the Internet to get the latest information on prices of farm products and other agricultural news. High school training should include courses in mathematics and biology and other life sciences. Completion of a 2-year and preferably a 4-year bachelor’s degree program in a college of agriculture is becom­ ing increasingly important. But even after obtaining formal education, novices may need to spend time working under an experienced farmer to learn how to put to practice the skills learned through academic training. A small number of farms offer, on a formal basis, apprentice­ ships to help young people acquire such practical skills.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  Growing up on a family farm and participating in agricultural pro­ grams for young people (sponsored by the National Future Farm­ ers of America Organization or the 4-H youth educational pro­ grams) are important sources of training for those interested in pursuing agriculture as a career. However, modern farming requires Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Job Outlook  The expanding world population is increasing the demand for food and fiber. Demand for U.S. agricultural exports of beef, poultry, and feed grain is expected to grow in the long run as developing nations improve their economies and personal incomes. However, increasing  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 45 productivity in the highly efficient U.S. agricultural production in­ dustry is expected to meet domestic consumption needs and export requirements with fewer workers. Employment of farmers and farm managers is expected to continue to decline through the year 2008. The overwhelming majority of job openings will result from the need to replace farmers who retire or leave the occupation for economic or other reasons. Market pressures will continue the long-term trend toward consoli­ dation into fewer and larger farms over the 1998-2008 period, further reducing the number of jobs for farmers and farm managers. Some farmers acquire farms by inheritance; however, purchasing a farm or additional land is expensive and requires substantial capital. In addition, sufficient funds are required to withstand the adverse effects of climate and price fluctuations upon farm output and income and to cover oper­ ating costs—livestock, feed, seed, and fuel. Also, the complexity of modem farming and keen competition among farmers leaves little room for the marginally successful farmer. Despite the expected continued consolidation of farm land and the projected decline in overall employment of farmers and farm managers, an increasing number of small-scale farmers have developed successful market niches that involve personalized, direct contact with their cus­ tomers. Many are finding opportunities in organic food production, as more consumers demand food grown without pesticides or chemicals. Others use farmers’ markets that cater directly to urban and suburban consumers, allowing the farmers to capture a greater share of consumers’ food dollar. Some small-scale farmers, such as some dairy farmers, belong to collectively owned marketing cooperatives that process and sell their product. Other farmers participate in Community Supported Agriculture cooperatives that allow consumers to directly buy a share of the farmer’s harvest. Aquaculture should also continue to provide some new employ­ ment opportunities over the 1998-2008 period. Overfishing has re­ sulted in declining ocean catches, and the growing demand for certain seafood items—such as shrimp, salmon, and catfish—has spurred the growth of aquaculture farms. Aquaculture output increased strongly between 1983 and the mid-1990s. Efforts to produce more farmraised fish and shellfish should continue to increase in response to demand growth.  Earnings Farmers’ incomes vary greatly from year to year because prices of farm products fluctuate depending upon weather conditions and other factors that influence the amount and quality of farm output and the demand for those products. A farm that shows a large profit in one year may show a loss in the following year. Under the 1996 Farm Act, Federal Govern­ ment subsidy payments, which have traditionally shielded some grain producers from the ups and downs of the market, were set at fixed levels regardless of yields or prices. Consequently, these farmers may expe­ rience more income variability from year to year than in the past. The Act also phases out price supports for dairy farmers, and may result in lower incomes for dairy producers. Many farmers—primarily opera­ tors of small farms—have income from off-farm business activities, often greater than that of their farm income. Full-time, salaried farm managers, with the exception of horticul­ tural managers, had median weekly earnings of $447 in 1998. The middle half earned between $302 and $619. The highest paid 10 percent earned more than $852 and the lowest paid 10 percent earned less than $220. Horticultural specialty farm managers generally earn considerably more. Farmers and self-employed farm managers make their own provi­ sions for benefits. As members of farm organizations, they may derive benefits such as group discounts on health and life insurance premiums.  Related Occupations Farmers and farm managers strive to improve the quality of agricul­ tural products and the efficiency of farms. Workers with similar functions include agricultural engineers, animal breeders, animal sci­ entists, county agricultural agents, dairy scientists, extension service Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  specialists, feed and farm management advisors, horticulturists, plant breeders, and poultry scientists.  Sources of Additional Information For general information about farming and agricultural occupations, contact; Center for Rural Affairs, P.O. Box 46, Walthill, NE 68067.  For information about certification as an accredited farm manager, contact: American Society of Farm Managers and Rural Appraisers, 950 Cherry St., Suite 508, Denver, CO 80222. Internet:  For information on aquaculture, education, training, or Community Supported Agriculture, contact: *■ Alternative Farming System Information Center (AFSIC), National Agricultural Library USDA, 10301 Baltimore Ave., Room 304, Beltsville, MD 20705-2351. Internet: «■ Appropriate Technology Transfer for Rural Areas, P.O. Box 3657, Fayetteville, AR 72702. Internet: http://www.attra.Org/attra-pub/atmatlst.html#resource  For general information about farm occupations, opportunities, and 4-H activities, contact your local county extension service office.  Financial Managers (0*NET 13002A and 13002B)  Significant Points •  A bachelor’s degree in finance, accounting, or related field is the minimum academic preparation, but many employers increasingly seek graduates with a master’s degree and a strong analytical background.  •  The continuing need for skilled financial managers will spur average employment growth.  Nature of the Work  Almost every firm, government agency, and organization has one or more financial managers who oversee the preparation of financial re­ ports, direct investment activities, and implement cash management strat­ egies. As computers are increasingly used to record and organize data, many financial managers are spending more time developing strategies and implementing the long-term goals of their organization. The duties of financial managers vary with their specific titles, which include chief financial officer, vice president of finance, control­ ler, treasurer, credit manager, and cash manager. Chieffinancial officers (CFOs), for example, are the top financial executives of an organiza­ tion. They oversee all financial and accounting functions and formu­ late and administer the organization’s overall financial plans and poli­ cies. In small firms, CFOs usually handle all financial management functions. In large firms, they direct these activities through other financial managers who head each financial department. Controllers direct the preparation of financial reports that summarize and forecast the organization’s financial position, such as income state­ ments, balance sheets, and analysis of future earnings or expenses. Controllers are also in charge of preparing special reports required by regulatory authorities. Often, controllers oversee the accounting, au­ dit, and budget departments. Treasurers andfinance officers direct the organization’s financial goals, objectives, and budgets. They oversee the investment of funds and manage associated risks, supervise cash management activities, execute capital-raising strategies to support a firm’s expansion, and deal with mergers and acquisitions. Cash managers monitor and control the flow of cash receipts and disbursements to meet the business and investment needs of the firm. For example, cash flow projections are needed to determine whether loans must be obtained to meet cash requirements or whether surplus cash should be invested in interest-bearing instruments. Risk  46 Occupational Outlook Handbook the amount of time it takes to produce financial reports. Financial managers now perform more data analysis and use it to offer ideas to senior managers on how to maximize profits. They often work on teams acting as business advisors to top management. Financial man­ agers need to keep abreast of the latest computer technology in order to increase the efficiency of their firm’s financial operations. Working Conditions  Financial managers work in comfortable offices, often close to top managers and to departments that develop the financial data these managers need. They typically have direct access to state-of-the-art computer systems and information services. Financial managers com­ monly work long hours, often up to 50 or 60 per week. They are generally required to attend meetings of financial and economic asso­ ciations and may travel to visit subsidiary firms or meet customers. Employment  Financial managers held about 693,000 jobs in 1998. Although these managers are found in virtually every industry, more than a third were employed by services industries, including business, health, social, and management services. Nearly 3 out of 10 were employed by financial institutions, such as banks, savings institutions, finance com­ panies, credit unions, insurance companies, securities dealers, and real estate firms.  Financial managers must befamiliar with the latestfinancial software. and insurance managers oversee programs to minimize risks and losses that may arise from financial transactions and business opera­ tions undertaken by the institution. They also manage the organization’s insurance budget. Credit managers oversee the firm’s issuance of credit. They establish credit rating criteria, determine credit ceilings, and monitor the collections of past due accounts. Managers specializing in international finance develop financial and accounting systems for the banking transactions of multinational organizations. Financial institutions, such as commercial banks, savings and loan associations, credit unions, and mortgage and finance companies, em­ ploy additional financial managers, often with the title Vice President. These executives oversee various functions, such as lending, trusts, mortgages, and investments, or programs, including sales, operations, or electronic financial services. They may be required to solicit busi­ ness, authorize loans, and direct the investment of funds, always ad­ hering to Federal and State laws and regulations. Branch managers of financial institutions administer and manage all the functions of a branch office, which may include hiring person­ nel, approving loans and lines of credit, establishing a rapport with the community to attract business, and assisting customers with account problems. Financial managers who work for financial insti­ tutions must keep abreast of the rapidly growing array of financial services and products. In addition to the general duties described above, all financial man­ agers perform tasks unique to their organization or industry. For example, government financial managers must be experts on the gov­ ernment appropriations and budgeting processes, whereas health care financial managers must be knowledgeable about issues surrounding health care financing. Moreover, financial managers must be aware of special tax laws and regulations that affect their industry. Areas in which financial managers are playing an increasingly im­ portant role involve mergers and consolidations and global expansion and financing. These developments require extensive specialized knowl­ edge on the part of the financial manager to reduce risks and maximize profit. Financial managers are increasingly hired on a temporary basis to advise senior managers on these and other matters. In fact, some firms contract out all accounting and financial functions to companies that provide these services. The role of financial manager, particularly in business, is changing in response to technological advances that have significantly reduced Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  A bachelor’s degree in finance, accounting, economics, or business administration is the minimum academic preparation for financial man­ agers. Flowever, many employers increasingly seek graduates with a master’s degree, preferably in business administration, economics, fi­ nance, or risk management. These academic programs develop analyti­ cal skills and provide knowledge of the latest financial analysis methods and technology. Experience may be more important than formal education for some financial manager positions—notably branch managers in banks. Banks typically fill branch manager positions by promoting experienced loan officers and other professionals who excel at their jobs. Other financial managers may enter the profession through formal management trainee programs offered by the company. Continuing education is vital for financial managers, reflecting the growing complexity of global trade, shifting Federal and State laws and regulations, and a proliferation of new, complex financial instruments. Firms often provide opportunities for workers to broaden their knowl­ edge and skills by encouraging employees to take graduate courses at colleges and universities or attending conferences related to their specialty. Financial management, banking, and credit union associa­ tions, often in cooperation with colleges and universities, sponsor numerous national and local training programs. Persons enrolled prepare extensively at home, then attend sessions on subjects such as accounting management, budget management, corporate cash management, financial analysis, international banking, and informa­ tion systems. Many firms pay all or part of the costs for those who successfully complete courses. Although experience, ability, and leadership are emphasized for promotion, advancement may be accelerated by this type of special study. In some cases, financial managers may also broaden their skills and exhibit their competency in specialized fields by attaining pro­ fessional certification. For example, the Association for Investment Management and Research confers the Chartered Financial Analyst designation on investment professionals who have a bachelor’s de­ gree, pass three test levels, and meet work experience requirements. The National Association of Credit Management administers a threepart certification program for business credit professionals. Through a combination of experience and examinations, these financial manag­ ers pass through the level of Credit Business Associate, to Credit Business Fellow, and finally to Certified Credit Executive. The Trea­ sury Management Association confers the Certified Cash Manager  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 47 credential on those who have 2 years of relevant experience and pass an exam, and the Certified Treasury Executive designation on those who meet more extensive experience and continuing education re­ quirements. More recently, the Association of Government Accoun­ tants has begun to offer the Certified Government Financial Manager certification to those who have the appropriate education and expe­ rience and who pass three examinations. Financial managers who specialize in accounting may earn the Certified Public Accountant (CPA) or Certified Management Accountant (CMA) designations. (See the Handbook statement on accountants and auditors.) Candidates for financial management positions need a broad range of skills. Interpersonal skills are increasingly important because these jobs involve managing people and working as part of a team to solve problems. Financial managers must have excellent communication skills to explain complex financial data. Because financial managers work extensively with various departments in their firm, a broad overview of the business is essential. Financial managers should be creative thinkers and problem solv­ ers, applying their analytical skills to business. They must be com­ fortable with computer technology. As financial operations are in­ creasingly affected by the global economy, they must have knowledge of international finance; even a foreign language may be important. Because financial management is critical for efficient business op­ erations, well-trained, experienced financial managers who display a strong grasp of the operations of various departments within their organization are prime candidates for promotion to top management positions. Some financial managers transfer to closely related posi­ tions in other industries. Those with extensive experience and access to sufficient capital may start their own consulting firms.  Job Outlook The outlook for financial managers is good for those with the right skills. Expertise in accounting and finance is fundamental, and a master’s degree enhances one’s job prospects. Strong computer skills and knowledge of international finance are important, as are excellent communication skills as the job increasingly involves working on strategic planning teams. Mergers, acquisitions, and corporate downsizing will continue to ad­ versely affect employment of financial managers, but growth of the economy and the need for financial expertise will keep the profession growing about as fast as the average for all occupations through 2008. The banking industry, which employs the most financial managers, is expected to continue to consolidate and reduce the number of financial managers. Employment of bank branch managers, in particular, will grow very little or not at all as banks open fewer branches and promote electronic and Internet banking to cut costs. In contrast, the securities and commodities industry will hire more financial managers to handle increasingly complex financial transactions and manage investments. Financial managers are being hired throughout industry to manage as­ sets and investments, handle mergers and acquisitions, raise capital, and assess global financial transactions. Risk managers, who assess risks for insurance and investment purposes, are in especially great demand. Some financial managers may be hired on a temporary basis to see a company through a short-term crisis or to offer suggestions for boost­ ing profits. Other companies may contract out all accounting and financial operations. Even in these cases, however, financial managers may be needed to oversee the contracts. Computer technology has reduced the time and staff required to produce financial reports. As a result, forecasting earnings, profits, and costs, and generating ideas and creative ways to increase profitability will become the major role of corporate financial managers over the next decade. Financial managers who are familiar with computer software and applications that can assist them in this role will be needed.  Earnings Median annual earnings of financial managers were $55,070 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned between $38,240 and $83,800. The lowest 10 percent had earnings of less than $27,680, while the top 10 Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  percent earned over $ 118,950. Median annual earnings in the indus­ tries employing the largest number of financial managers in 1997 are shown below. Security brokers and dealers........................................................ $95,100 Computer and data processing...................................................... 63.200 Management and public relations................................................. 62,800 Local government, excluding education and hospitals............. 48,700 Commercial banks.......................................................................... 45 goo Savings institutions......................................................................... 41 goo  According to a 1999 survey by Robert Half International, a staffing services firm specializing in accounting and finance, salaries of assistant controllers and treasurers varied from $42,700 in the smallest firms to $84,000 in the largest firms; corporate controllers earned between $47,500 and $ 141,000; and chief financial officers and treasurers earned from $65,000 to $319,200. Salaries are generally 10 percent higher for those with a graduate degree or Certified Public Accountant or Certi­ fied Management Accountant designation. The results of the Treasury Management Association’s 1999 com­ pensation survey are presented in table 1. The earnings listed in the table represent total compensation, including bonuses and deferred compensation. Table 1. Average earnings for selected financial managers, 1999 Vice president of finance.............................................................. $165,400 Chief financial officer.................................................................. 150,100 Treasurer........................................................................................ 129*800 Controller............ ........................,,,,,.................... .... [Q9 ^qq Assistant treasurer........................................................................ 95 500 Director treasury/finance............................................................. 93 200 Assistant controller...................................................................... 75 gQQ Senior analyst................................................................................ 63^000 Cash manager................................................................................. 56^600 Ana]yst........................................................................................... 45^500 SOURCE: Treasury Management Association  Large organizations often pay more than small ones, and salary levels can also vary by the type of industry and location. Many financial manag­ ers in private industry receive additional compensation in the form of bonuses, which also vary substantially by size of firm. Deferred compen­ sation in the form of stock options is also becoming more common.  Related Occupations Financial managers combine formal education with experience in one or more areas of finance, such as asset management, lending, credit opera­ tions, securities investment, or insurance risk and loss control. Work­ ers in other occupations requiring similar training and skills include accountants and auditors, budget officers, credit analysts, loan offic­ ers, insurance consultants, portfolio managers, pension consultants, real estate advisors, securities analysts, and underwriters.  Sources of Additional Information For information about financial management careers, contact: *“ American Bankers Association, 1120 Connecticut Ave. NW„ Wash­ ington, DC 20036. Internet: *■ Financial Management Association International, College of Business Administration, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620-5500. Internet: Financial Executives Institute, 10 Madison Ave., P.O. Box 1938, Morristown, NJ 07962-1938. Internet:  For information about financial careers in business credit manage­ ment; the Credit Business Associate, Credit Business Fellow, and Cer­ tified Credit Executive programs; and institutions offering graduate courses in credit and financial management, contact: National Association of Credit Management, Credit Research Founda­ tion, 8840 Columbia 100 Parkway, Columbia, MD 21045-2158. Internet:  48 Occupational Outlook Handbook For information about careers in treasury and financial management and the Certified Cash Manager and Certified Treasury Executive pro­ grams, contact: m- Treasury Management Association, 7315 Wisconsin Ave., Suite 600 West, Bethesda, MD 20814. Internet:  For information about the Chartered Financial Analyst program, contact:  Association for Investment Management and Research, P.O. Box 3668, Charlottesville, VA 22903. Internet:  For information about the Certified Government Financial Man­ ager designation, contact: *- Association for Government Accountants, 2208 Mount Vernon Ave., Alexandria, VA 22301-1314. Internet:  Funeral Directors and Morticians (0*NET 39011 and 39014)  Significant Points •  •  Job opportunities should be good, but mortuary science graduates may have to relocate to find jobs as funeral directors. Funeral directors must be licensed by their State.  Nature of the Work Funeral practices and rites vary greatly among various cultures and religions. Among the many diverse groups in the United States, funeral practices usually share some common elements: Removal of the de­ ceased to a mortuary, preparation of the remains, performance of a ceremony that honors the deceased and addresses the spiritual needs of the family, and the burial or destruction of the remains. Funeral direc­ tors arrange and direct these tasks for grieving families. Funeral directors also are called morticians or undertakers. This career may not appeal to everyone, but those who work as funeral directors take great pride in their ability to provide efficient and appropriate services. They also comfort the family and friends of the deceased. Funeral directors arrange the details and handle the logistics of funerals. They interview the family to learn what they desire with regard to the nature of the funeral, the clergy members or other persons who will officiate, and the final disposition of the remains. Sometimes the deceased leaves detailed instructions for their own funerals. To­ gether with the family, funeral directors establish the location, dates, and times of wakes, memorial services, and burials. They arrange for a hearse to carry the body to the funeral home or mortuary. Funeral directors also prepare obituary notices and have them placed in newspapers, arrange for pallbearers and clergy, schedule the opening and closing of a grave with the cemetery, decorate and prepare the sites of all services, and provide transportation for the remains, mourners, and flowers between sites. They also direct preparation and shipment of remains for out-of-State burial. Most funeral directors also are trained, licensed, and practicing embalmers. Embalming is a sanitary, cosmetic, and preservative pro­ cess through which the body is prepared for interment. If more than 24 hours elapses between death and interment, State laws usually require that the remains be refrigerated or embalmed. The embalmer washes the body with germicidal soap and replaces the blood with embalming fluid to preserve the body. Embalmers may reshape and reconstruct disfigured or maimed bodies using materials, such as clay, cotton, plaster of Paris, and wax. They also may apply cosmetics to provide a natural appearance, and then dress the body and place it in a casket. Embalmers maintain records such as embalm­ ing reports, and itemized lists of clothing or valuables delivered with the body. In large funeral homes, an embalming staff of two or more embalmers, plus several apprentices, may be employed. Funeral services may take place in a home, house of worship, funeral or at the gravesite or crematory. Services may be nonreligious, but Digitizedhome for FRASER Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Funeral directors explain burial options and arrange the details of funerals with clients. often they reflect the religion of the family, so funeral directors must be familiar with the funeral and burial customs of many faiths, ethnic groups, and fraternal organizations. For example, members of some religions seldom have the bodies of the deceased embalmed or cremated. Burial in a casket is the most common method of disposing of remains in this country, although entombment also occurs. Cremation, which is the burning of the body in a special furnace, is increasingly selected be­ cause it can be more convenient and less costly. Cremations are appealing because the remains can be shipped easily, kept at home, buried, or scat­ tered. Memorial services can be held anywhere, and at any time, some­ times months later when all relatives and friends can get together. Even when the remains are cremated, many people still want a funeral service. A funeral service followed by cremation need not be any differ­ ent from a funeral service followed by a burial. Usually cremated remains are placed in some type of permanent receptacle, or urn, before being committed to a final resting place. The urn may be buried, placed in an indoor or outdoor mausoleum or columbarium, or interred in a special urn garden that many cemeteries provide for cremated remains. Funeral directors handle the paper work involved with the person’s death, such as submitting papers to State authorities so that a formal certificate of death may be issued and copies distrib­ uted to the heirs. They may help family members apply for veterans’ burial benefits, and notify the Social Security Adminis­ tration of the death. Also, funeral directors may apply for the trans­ fer of any pensions, insurance policies, or annuities on behalf of survivors. Funeral directors also prearrange funerals. Increasingly, they ar­ range funerals in advance of need to provide peace of mind by ensuring that the client’s wishes will be taken care of in a way that is satisfying to the person and to those who will survive. Most funeral homes are small, family-run businesses, and the fu­ neral directors either are owner-operators or employees of the opera­ tion. Funeral directors, therefore, are responsible for the success and the profitability of their businesses. Directors keep records of ex­ penses, purchases, and services rendered; prepare and send invoices for services; prepare and submit reports for unemployment insurance; prepare Federal, State, and local tax forms; and prepare itemized bills for customers. Funeral directors increasingly are using computers for billing, bookkeeping and marketing. Some are beginning to use the Internet to communicate with clients who are pre-planning their funer­ als, or to assist clients by developing electronic obituaries and guest books.Directors strive to foster a cooperative spirit and friendly atti­ tude among employees and a compassionate demeanor towards the families. A growing number of funeral directors also are involved in helping individuals adapt to changes in their lives following a death through post-death support group activities.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 49 Most funeral homes have a chapel, one or more viewing rooms, a casket-selection room, and a preparation room. An increasing num­ ber also have a crematory on the premises. Equipment may include a hearse, a flower car, limousines, and sometimes an ambulance. They usually stock a selection of caskets and urns for families to purchase or rent.  Working Conditions Funeral directors often work long, irregular hours. Many work on an on-call basis, because they may be needed to remove remains in the middle of the night. Shift work sometimes is necessary because funeral home hours include evenings and weekends. In smaller funeral homes, working hours vary, but in larger homes employees usually work 8 hours a day, 5 or 6 days a week. Funeral directors occasionally come into contact with the remains of persons who had contagious diseases, but the possibility of infection is remote if strict health regulations are followed. To show proper respect and consideration for the families and the dead, funeral directors must dress appropriately. The profession usu­ ally requires short, neat haircuts and trim beards, if any, for men. Suits, ties, and dresses are customary for a conservative look.  Employment Funeral directors held about 28,000 jobs in 1998. Almost 1 in 10 were self-employed. Nearly all worked in the funeral service and crematory industry.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Funeral directors must be licensed in all but one State, Colorado. Li­ censing laws vary from State to State, but most require applicants to be 21 years old, have 2 years of formal education that includes studies in mortuary science, serve a 1 -year apprenticeship, and pass a qualifying examination. After becoming licensed, new funeral directors may join the staff of a funeral home. Embalmers must be licensed in all States, and some States issue a single license for both funeral directors and embalmers. In States that have separate licensing requirements for the two positions, most people in the field obtain both licenses. Persons interested in a career as a funeral director should contact their State licensing board for specific requirements. College programs in mortuary science usually last from 2 to 4 years; the American Board of Funeral Service Education accredits 49 mortuary science programs. Two-year programs are offered by a small number of community and junior colleges, and a few colleges and universities offer both 2- and 4-year programs. Mortuary sci­ ence programs include courses in anatomy, physiology, pathology, embalming techniques, restorative art, business management, account­ ing and use of computers in funeral home management, and client services. They also include courses in the social sciences and legal, ethical, and regulatory subjects, such as psychology, grief counsel­ ing, oral and written communication, funeral service law, business law, and ethics. The Funeral Service Educational Foundation and many State asso­ ciations offer continuing education programs designed for licensed fu­ neral directors. These programs address issues in communications, counseling, and management. Thirty-two States have requirements that funeral directors receive continuing education credits in order to maintain their licenses. Apprenticeships must be completed under an experienced and licensed funeral director or embalmer. Depending on State regula­ tions, apprenticeships last from 1 to 3 years and may be served before, during, or after mortuary school. Apprenticeships provide practical experience in all facets of the funeral service from embalm­ ing to transporting remains. State board licensing examinations vary, but they usually consist of written and oral parts and include a demonstration of practical skills. Persons who want to work in another State may have to pass the examination for that State; however, some States have reciprocity Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  arrangements and will grant licenses to funeral directors from another State without further examination. High school students can start preparing for a career as a funeral director by taking courses in biology and chemistry and participating in public speaking or debate clubs. Part-time or summer jobs in funeral homes consist mostly of maintenance and clean-up tasks, such as wash­ ing and polishing limousines and hearses, but these tasks can help students become familiar with the operation of funeral homes. Important personal traits for funeral directors are composure, tact, and the ability to communicate easily with the public. They also should have the desire and ability to comfort people in their time of sorrow. Advancement opportunities are best in larger funeral homes— funeral directors may earn promotions to higher paying positions such as branch manager or general manager. Some directors eventu­ ally acquire enough money and experience to establish their own funeral home businesses.  Job Outlook Employment of funeral directors is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through 2008. Not only is the population expanding, but also the proportion of people over the age of 55 is projected to grow during the coming decade. Consequently, the num­ ber of deaths is expected to increase, spurring demand for funeral services. The need to replace funeral directors and morticians who retire or leave the occupation for other reasons will account for even more job openings than employment growth. Typically, a number of mortu­ ary science graduates leave the profession shortly after becoming licensed funeral directors to pursue other career interests, and this trend is expected to continue. Also, more funeral directors are 55 years old and over compared to workers in other occupations, and will be retiring in greater numbers between 1998 and 2008. Although employment opportunities for funeral directors are expected to be good, mortuary science graduates may have to relocate to find jobs in funeral service. Earnings  Median annual earnings for funeral directors were $35,040 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned between $25,510 and $48,260. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $17,040 and the top 10 percent more than $78,550. Salaries of funeral directors depend on the number of years of expe­ rience in funeral service, the number of services performed, the number of facilities operated, the area of the country, the size of the community, and the level of formal education. Funeral directors in large cities earned more than their counterparts in small towns and rural areas.  Related Occupations The job of a funeral director requires tact, discretion, and compassion when dealing with grieving people. Others who need these qualities include members of the clergy, social workers, psychologists, psychia­ trists, and other health care professionals.  Sources of Additional Information For a list of accredited mortuary science programs and information on the funeral service profession, write to: *■ The National Funeral Directors Association, 13625 Bishop’s Drive Brookfield, WI 53005.  For information about college programs in mortuary science, schol­ arships, and funeral service as a career, contact: *■ The American Board of Funeral Service Education, 38 Florida Avenue Portland, ME 04103.  For information on continuing education programs in funeral ser­ vice, contact: *■ Ttle Funeral Service Educational Foundation, 13625 Bishop’s Drive Brookfield, WI 53005.  50 Occupational Outlook Handbook ing, finance, personnel, training, administrative services, electronic data processing, property management, transportation, or the legal services department. (Some of these and other managerial occupa­ tions are discussed elsewhere in this section of the Handbook.) In smaller organizations, such as independent retail stores or small manufacturers, a partner, owner, or general manager is often also respon­ sible for purchasing, hiring, training, quality control, and day-to-day supervisory duties. (See the Handbook statement on retail managers.)  General Managers and Top Executives (0*NET 19005B)  Significant Points •  •  General managers and top executives are among the highest paid workers; however, long hours and considerable travel are often required. Competition for top managerial jobs should remain intense due to the large number of qualified applicants and relatively low turnover.  Nature of the Work  All organizations have specific goals and objectives that they strive to meet. General managers and top executives devise strategies and formulate policies to ensure that these objectives are met. Although they have a wide range of titles—such as chief executive officer, presi­ dent, executive vice president, owner, partner, brokerage office man­ ager, school superintendent, and police chief—all formulate policies and direct the operations of businesses and corporations, nonprofit institutions, and other organizations. (Chief executives who formu­ late policy in government are discussed in detail in the Handbook statement on government chief executives and legislators.) A corporation’s goals and policies are established by the chief executive officer in collaboration with other top executives, who are overseen by a board of directors. In a large corporation, the chief executive officer meets frequently with subordinate executives to ensure that operations are implemented in accordance with these policies. The chief executive officer of a corporation retains overall accountability; however, a chief operating officer may be delegated several responsibilities, including the authority to oversee executives who direct the activities of various departments and implement the organization’s policies on a day-to-day basis. In publicly-held and nonprofit corporations, the board of directors is ultimately account­ able for the success or failure of the enterprise, and the chief execu­ tive officer reports to the board. The nature of other high level executives’ responsibilities depends upon the size of the organization. In large organizations, their duties are highly specialized. Managers of cost and profit centers, for instance, are responsible for the overall performance of one aspect of the organization, such as manufacturing, marketing, sales, purchas-  mm.  ■HI  General managers and top executives must communicate clearly and persuasively. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Working Conditions  Top executives are usually provided with spacious offices and support staff. General managers in large firms or nonprofit organizations usu­ ally have comfortable offices close to the top executives to whom they report. Long hours, including evenings and weekends, are standard for most top executives and general managers, though their schedules may be flexible. Substantial travel between international, national, regional, and local offices to monitor operations and meet with customers, staff, and other executives often is required of managers and executives. Many manag­ ers and executives also attend meetings and conferences sponsored by various associations. The conferences provide an opportunity to meet with prospective donors, customers, contractors, or government offi­ cials and allow managers and executives to keep abreast of technologi­ cal and managerial innovations. In large organizations, frequent job transfers between local offices or subsidiaries are common. General managers and top executives are under intense pressure to earn higher profits, provide better service, or attain fundraising and charitable goals. Executives in charge of poorly perform­ ing organizations or departments usually find their jobs in jeopardy. Employment  General managers and top executives held over 3.3 million jobs in 1998. They are found in every industry, but wholesale, retail, and services industries employ over 6 out of 10. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  The educational background of managers and top executives varies as widely as the nature of their responsibilities. Many general managers and top executives have a bachelor’s degree or higher in liberal arts or busi­ ness administration. Their major often is related to the departments they direct—for example, a manager of finance may have a degree in account­ ing and a manager of information systems might have a degree in com­ puter science. Graduate and professional degrees are common. Many managers in administrative, marketing, financial, and manufacturing ac­ tivities have a master’s degree in business administration. Managers in highly technical manufacturing and research activities often have a master’s degree in engineering or a doctoral degree in a scientific discipline. A law degree is mandatory for managers of legal departments; hospital adminis­ trators generally have a master’s degree in health services administration or business administration. (For additional information, see the Hand­ book statement on health services managers.) In the public sector, many managers have liberal arts degrees in public administration or one of the social sciences. Park superinten­ dents, for example, often have liberal arts degrees, whereas police chiefs are usually graduates of law enforcement academies and hold degrees in criminal justice or a related field. College presidents typi­ cally have a doctorate in the field they originally taught, and school superintendents often have a masters degree in education administra­ tion. (See the Handbook statement on education administrators.) Since many general manager and top executive positions are filled by promoting experienced, lower level managers when an opening oc­ curs, many are promoted from within the organization. In industries such as retail trade or transportation, for instance, it is possible for individuals without a college degree to work their way up within the company and become managers. Many companies prefer, however, that their top executives have specialized backgrounds and hire indi­ viduals who are managers in other organizations.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 51 General managers and top executives must have highly developed personal skills. An analytical mind able to quickly assess large amounts of information and data is very important, as is the ability to consider and evaluate the interrelationships of numerous factors. General man­ agers and top executives must also be able to communicate clearly and persuasively. Other qualities critical for managerial success include leadership, self-confidence, motivation, decisiveness, flexibility, sound business judgment, and determination. Advancement may be accelerated by participation in company train­ ing programs that impart a broader knowledge of company policy and operations. Managers can also help their careers by becoming familiar with the latest developments in management techniques at national or local training programs sponsored by various industry and trade asso­ ciations. Senior managers who often have experience in a particular field, such as accounting or engineering, also attend executive develop­ ment programs to facilitate their promotion to general managers. Par­ ticipation in conferences and seminars can expand knowledge of na­ tional and international issues influencing the organization and can help develop a network of useful contacts. General managers may advance to top executive positions, such as executive vice president, in their own firm or they may take a corresponding position in another firm. They may even advance to peak corporate positions such as chief operating officer or chief executive officer. Chief executive officers often become members of the board of directors of one or more firms, typically as a director of their own firm and often as chair of its board of directors. Some general managers and top executives establish their own firms or become independent consultants.  Job Outlook Employment of general managers and top executives is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through 2008. These high level managers are essential employees because they plan, organize, direct, control, and coordinate the operations of an organiza­ tion and its major departments or programs. Therefore, top managers should be more immune to automation and corporate restructuring— factors which are expected to adversely affect employment of lower level managers. Because this is a large occupation, many openings will occur each year as executives transfer to other positions, start their own businesses, or retire. Because many executives who leave their jobs transfer to other executive or managerial positions, however, openings for new entrants are limited and intense competition is expected for top managerial jobs. Projected employment growth of general managers and top execu­ tives varies widely among industries, largely reflecting overall industry growth. Overall employment growth is expected to be faster than aver­ age in services industries, but only about as fast as average in finance, insurance, and real estate industries. Employment of general managers and top executives is projected to decline along with overall employ­ ment in most manufacturing industries. Experienced managers whose accomplishments reflect strong lead­ ership qualities and the ability to improve the efficiency or competi­ tive position of an organization will have the best opportunities. In an increasingly global economy, experience in international economics, marketing, information systems, and knowledge of several languages may also be beneficial.  Earnings General managers and top executives are among the highest paid work­ ers. However, salary levels vary substantially depending upon the level of managerial responsibility, length of service, and type, size, and location of the firm. For example, a top manager in a veiy large corpo­ ration can earn significantly more than a counterpart in a small firm. Median annual earnings of general managers and top executives in 1998 were $55,890. The middle 50 percent earned between $34,970 and $94,650. Because the specific responsibilities of general managers vary significantly within industries, earnings also tend to vary consid­ Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  erably. Median annual earnings in the industries employing the largest numbers of general managers and top executives in 1997 were: Management and public relations................................................. $91,400 Computer and data processing services....................................... 90,600 Wholesale trade machinery, equipment, and supplies................ 65,900 Gasoline service stations................................................................ 36,800 Eating and drinking places............................................................. 33,000  Salaries vary substantially by type and level of responsibilities and by industry. According to a salary survey done by Executive Compen­ sation Reports, a division of Harcourt Brace & Company, the median salary for CEOs of public companies from the fiscal year 1998 For­ tune 500 list was approximately $800,000. Three quarters of CEOs in the nonprofit sector made under $100,000 in 1998, according to a survey by Abbott, Langer, & Associates. In addition to salaries, total compensation often includes stock options, dividends, and other performance bonuses. The use of ex­ ecutive dining rooms and company cars, expense allowances, and company-paid insurance premiums and physical examinations also are among benefits commonly enjoyed by general managers and top executives in private industry. A number of CEOs also are provided with company-paid club memberships, a limousine with driver, and other amenities.  Related Occupations General managers and top executives plan, organize, direct, control, and coordinate the operations of an organization and its major departments or programs. The members of the board of directors and lower level managers are also involved in these activities. Other managerial occupa­ tions have similar responsibilities; however, they are concentrated in specific industries or are responsible for a specific department within an organization. They include administrative services managers, education administrators, financial managers, and restaurant and food service man­ agers. Government occupations with similar functions are President, governor, mayor, commissioner, and legislator.  Sources of Additional Information For a variety of information on general managers and top executives, including educational programs and job listings, contact: *■ American Management Association, 1601 Broadway, New York, NY 10019-7420. Internet: *' National Management Association, 2210 Arbor Blvd., Dayton, OH 45439. Internet:  Government Chief Executives and Legislators (0*NETet 19005A)  Significant Points •  Over 9 out of 10 government chief executives and legislators work in local government.  •  Most government chief executives and legislators are elected; local government managers are appointed.  •  Few long-term career opportunities are available.  •  There is less competition for executive and legislative jobs in small communities that offer part-time posi­ tions with little or no compensation or staff support.  Nature of the Work Chief executives and legislators at the Federal, State, and local levels direct government activities and pass laws that affect us daily. These  52 Occupational Outlook Handbook - *■ !  ranges from a few hours a week for some local leaders to stressful weeks of 60 or more hours for members of the U.S. Congress. Simi­ larly, some jobs require only occasional out-of-town travel, while others involve long periods away from home, such as when attending sessions of the legislature. U.S. Senators and Representatives, governors and lieutenant gover­ nors, and chief executives and legislators in municipalities work full time, year-round, as do most county and city managers. Many State legislators work full time on government business while the legislature is in session (usually for 2 to 6 months a year or every other year) and work only part time when the legislature is not in session. Some local elected officials work a schedule that is officially designated as part time, but actually is the equivalent of a full-time schedule when unpaid duties are taken into account. In addition to their regular schedules, most chief executives are on call to handle emergencies.  Employment Government chiefexecutives and legislators oversee budgets and ensure that resources are properly used. officials consist of the President and Vice President of the United States, members of Congress, State governors and lieutenant gover­ nors, members of the State legislators, county chief executives and commissioners, city, town and township council members, mayors, and city, county, town, and township managers. (Many small commu­ nities have top government officials who are volunteers and receive no salary. These individuals are not included in the employment or salary numbers provided in this Handbook statement.) Most chief executives are elected by their constituents, but many managers are hired by a local government executive, council, or com­ mission, to whom they are directly responsible. These officials formu­ late and establish government policy and develop Federal, State, or local laws and regulations. (General administrators who do not have overall responsibility for the government entity are discussed in the Handbook statement on general managers and top executives.) Government chief executives, like their counterparts in the private sector, have overall responsibility for the performance of their organi­ zations. Working with legislators, they set goals and organize pro­ grams to attain them. These executives also appoint department heads, who oversee the civil servants who carry out programs enacted by legislative bodies. As in the private sector, government chief execu­ tives oversee budgets and insure that resources are used properly and programs are carried out as planned. Chief executives carry out a number of other important functions, such as meeting with legislators and constituents to determine the level of support for proposed programs. In addition, they often nominate citizens to boards and commissions, encourage business investment, and promote economic development in their communities. To do all of these varied tasks effectively, chief executives of large governments rely on a staff of highly skilled aides and assistants to research issues that concern the public. Executives that control small governmental bodies, however, often do this work by themselves. Legislators are elected officials who enact or amend laws. They include U.S. Senators and Representatives, State senators and repre­ sentatives, and county, city, and town commissioners and council mem­ bers. Legislators introduce, examine, and vote on bills to pass official legislation. In preparing such legislation, they study staff reports and hear testimony from constituents, representatives of interest groups, board and commission members, and others with an interest in the issue under consideration. They usually must approve budgets and the appointments of nominees for leadership posts who are submitted by the chief executive. In some bodies, the legislative council appoints the city, town, or county manager.  Working Conditions The working conditions of chief executives and legislators vary with and budget of the governmental unit. Time spent at work Digitizedthe forsize FRASER Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Chief executives and legislators held about 80,000jobs in 1998. About 9 out of 10 worked in local government. Chief executives and legisla­ tors in the Federal Government consist of the 100 Senators, 435 Repre­ sentatives, and the President and Vice President. State governors, lieu­ tenant governors, legislators, chief executives, professional managers, and council and commission members of local governments make up the remainder. Government chief executives and legislators who do not hold full­ time, year-round positions often continue to work in the occupation they held before being elected.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Apart from meeting minimum age, residency, and citizenship require­ ments, candidates for public office have no established training or quali­ fications. Candidates come from a wide variety of occupations, but many do have some political experience as staffers or members of gov­ ernment bureaus, boards, or commissions. Successful candidates usu­ ally become well-known through their political campaigns and some have built voter name recognition through their work with community religious, fraternal, or social organizations. Increasingly, candidates target information to voters through ad­ vertising paid for by their respective campaigns, so fund raising skills are essential for candidates. Management-level work experience and public service help develop the fund raising, budgeting, public speak­ ing, and problem solving skills that are needed to run an effective political campaign. Candidates must make decisions quickly, some­ times on the basis of limited or contradictory information. They should also be able to inspire and motivate their constituents and staff. Additionally, they must know how to reach compromises and satisfy conflicting demands of constituents. National, State, and some local campaigns require massive amounts of energy and stamina, traits vital to successful candidates. Virtually all town, city, and county managers have at least a bachelor’s degree, and the majority hold a master’s degree. A master’s degree in public administration is recommended, including courses in public financial management and legal issues in public administration. Working in management support positions in government is a prime source of the experience and personal contacts required to eventually secure a manager position. For example, applicants often gain experi­ ence as management analysts or assistants in government departments working for committees, councils, or chief executives. In this capacity, they leam about planning, budgeting, civil engineering, and other as­ pects of running a government. With sufficient experience, they may be hired to manage a small government. Generally, a town, city, or county manager is first hired by a smaller community. Advancement often takes the form of securing positions with progressively larger towns, cities, or counties. A broad knowledge of local issues, combined with communication skills and the ability to compromise, are essential for advancement in this field.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 53 Advancement opportunities for elected officials are not clearly defined. Because elected positions normally require a period of residency and local public support is critical, officials usually ad­ vance to other offices only in the jurisdictions where they live. For example, council members may run for mayor or for a position in the State government, and State legislators may run for governor or for Congress. Many officials are not politically ambitious, how­ ever, and do not seek advancement. Others lose their bids for reelection or voluntarily leave the occupation. A lifetime career as a government chief executive or legislator is rare.  Job Outlook Overall, little or no change in employment is expected among govern­ ment chief executives and legislators through 2008. Few new govern­ ments at any level are likely to form, and the number of chief executives and legislators in existing governments rarely changes. However, some increase will occur at the local level as counties, cities, and towns take on professional managers or move from volunteer to paid, career execu­ tives to deal with population growth. Federal regulations, and longrange planning. Elections give newcomers the chance to unseat incumbents or to fill vacated positions. The level of competition in elections varies from place to place. There tends to be less competition in small communi­ ties that offer part-time positions with low or no salaries and little or no staff compared to large municipalities with prestigious full-time positions offering high salaries, staff, and greater exposure.  Earnings Median annual earnings of government chief executives and legislators were $ 19,130 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned between $ 12,090 and $47,470. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $11,460, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $81,230. Earnings of public administrators vary widely, depending on the size of the governmental unit and on whether the job is part time, full time and year round, or full time for only a few months a year. Salaries range from little or nothing for a small town council member to $200,000 a year for the President of the United States. The International City/County Management Association reports the average annual salary of chief elected city officials was about $12,900, and the average salary for city managers was $70,500 in 1997. According to the International Personnel Management asso­ ciation, city managers earned an average of $101,800 and county managers $95,500 in 1999. Also, the National Conference of State Legislatures reports that the salary for legislators in the 40 States that paid an annual salary and the District of Columbia ranged from $3,700 in South Dakota on even years to $75,600 in California and $80,600 in the District of Columbia. In 8 States, legislators received a daily salary plus an additional allowance for living expenses while legislatures were in session. New Hampshire paid no expenses and $200 per 2-year term, while New Mexico paid no salary at all but did pay a daily expense allowance. The Council of State Governments reports in their Book of the States, 1998-99 that gubernatorial annual salaries ranged from a low of $60,000 in Arkansas to a high of $ 130,000 in New York. In addition to a salary, most governors received benefits such as transportation and an official residence. The governor of Florida has the largest staff with 264 while the governor of Wyoming has the smallest with 14. In 1999, U.S. Senators and Representatives earned $136,700, the Senate and House Majority and Minority leaders earned $151,800, and the Vice President was paid $175,400.  Sources of Additional Information Information on appointed officials in local government can be obtained from: The Council of State Governments, P.O. Box 11910, Iron Works Pike, Lexington, KY 40578-1910. Internet: *■ International City Management Association (ICMA), 111 North Capi­ tal NE., Suite 500, Washington, DC 20002. Internet: *- National Association of Counties, 440 First St. NW„ Suite 800, Wash­ ington, DC 20001. Internet: *■ National League of Cities, 1301 Pennsylvania Ave. NW„ Washington, DC 20004. Internet:  Health Services Managers (0*NET 15008A and 15008B)  Significant Points •  Earnings of health services managers are high, but long work hours are common.  •  Employment will grow fastest in home health agen­ cies, residential care facilities, and practitioners’ offices and clinics.  Nature of the Work Health care is a business and like every other business, it needs good management to keep it running smoothly, especially during times of change. The term “health services manager” encompasses individuals who plan, direct, coordinate, and supervise the delivery of health care. Health services managers include generalists and specialists. General­ ists manage or help to manage an entire facility or system, while spe­ cialists are in charge of specific clinical departments or services. The stmcture and financing of health care is changing rapidly. Fu­ ture health services managers must be prepared to deal with evolving integrated health care delivery systems, restructuring of work, techno­ logical innovations, and an increased focus on preventive care. They will be called upon to improve efficiency in health care facilities and the quality of the health care provided. Increasingly, health services manag­ ers work in organizations in which they must optimize efficiency of a variety of interrelated services, ranging from inpatient care to outpa­ tient follow-up care, for example. Large facilities usually have several assistant administrators to aid the top administrator and to handle daily decisions. They may direct  Related Occupations Related occupations include managerial positions that require a broad range of skills and administrative expertise, such as corporate chief executives and board members, as well as high ranking officers in the military. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Health services managers must deal with evolving health care delivery systems.  54 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Health services managers held about 222,000 jobs in 1998. Almost one-half of all jobs were in hospitals. About 1 in 4 were in nursing and personal care facilities or offices and clinics of physicians. The remain­ der worked mostly in home health agencies, ambulatory facilities run by state and local governments, offices of dentists and other health practitioners, medical and dental laboratories, residential care facilities, and other social service agencies.  degree in health services administration or a related field may be required to advance. For example, nursing service administrators are usually chosen from among supervisory registered nurses with administrative abilities and a graduate degree in nursing or health services administration. Bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degree programs in health adminis­ tration are offered by colleges, universities, and schools of public health, medicine, allied health, public administration, and business administra­ tion. In 1999,67 schools had accredited programs leading to the master’s degree in health services administration, according to the Accrediting Commission on Education for Health Services Administration. Some graduate programs seek students with undergraduate degrees in business or health administration; however, many graduate programs prefer students with a liberal arts or health profession background. Candidates with previous work experience in health care may also have an advantage. Competition for entry to these programs is keen, and applicants need above-average grades to gain admission. These programs usually last between 2 and 3 years. They may include up to 1 year of supervised administrative experience, and course work in areas such as hospital organization and management, marketing, accounting and budgeting, human resources administra­ tion, strategic planning, health economics, and health information systems. Some programs allow students to specialize in one type of facility—hospitals; nursing homes; mental health facilities; HMOs; or medical groups. Other programs encourage a generalist approach to health administration education. New graduates with master’s degrees in health services administra­ tion may start as department managers or in staff positions. The level of the starting position varies with the experience of the applicant and size of the organization. Hospitals and other health facilities offer postgraduate residencies and fellowships, which usually are staff positions. Gradu­ ates from master’s degree programs also take jobs in HMOs, large group medical practices, clinics, mental health facilities, multifacility nursing home corporations, and consulting firms. Graduates with bachelor’s degrees in health administration usually begin as administrative assistants or assistant department heads in larger hospitals, or as department heads or assistant administrators in small hospitals or nursing homes. All States and the District of Columbia require nursing home admin­ istrators to have a bachelor’s degree, pass a licensing examination, complete a State-approved training program, and pursue continuing education. A license is not required in other areas of health services management. Health services managers are often responsible for millions of dollars of facilities and equipment and hundreds of employees. To make effective decisions, they need to be open to different opinions and good at analyz­ ing contradictory information. They must understand finance and infor­ mation systems, and be able to interpret data. Motivating others to imple­ ment their decisions requires strong leadership abilities. Tact, diplomacy, flexibility, and communication skills are essential because health services managers spend most of their time interacting with others. Health services managers advance by moving into more responsible and higher paying positions, such as assistant or associate administra­ tor, or by moving to larger facilities.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  Job Outlook  Health services managers must be familiar with management principles and practices. A master’s degree in health services administration, long-term care administration, health sciences, public health, public ad­ ministration, or business administration is the standard credential for most generalist positions in this field. However, a bachelor’s degree is adequate for some entry-level positions in smaller facilities and for some entry-level positions at the departmental level within health care organizations. Physicians’ offices and some other facilities may sub­ stitute on-the-job experience for formal education. For clinical department heads, a degree in the appropriate field and work experience may be sufficient for entry, but a master’s  Employment of health services managers is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through 2008 as health services continue to expand and diversify. Opportunities for health services managers should be closely related to growth in the industry in which they are employed. Opportunities will be especially good in home health care, long-term care, and nontraditional health organizations, such as man­ aged care operations and consulting firms—particularly for health ser­ vices managers with work experience in the health care field and strong business and management skills. Hospitals will continue to employ the most managers, although the number of jobs will grow slowly compared to other areas. As  activities in clinical areas such as nursing, surgery, therapy, medical records or health information; or in nonhealth areas such as finance, housekeeping, human resources, and information management. (Be­ cause the nonhealth departments are not directly related to health care, these managers are not included in this statement. For information about them, see the statements on managerial occupations elsewhere in the Handbook). In smaller facilities, top administrators handle more of the details of daily operations. For example, many nursing home administrators man­ age personnel, finance, facility operations, and admissions, and have a larger role in resident care. Clinical managers have more specific responsibilities than generalists, and have training and/or experience in a specific clinical area. For ex­ ample, directors of physical therapy are experienced physical therapists, and most health information and medical record administrators have a bachelor’s degree in health information or medical record administration. These managers establish and implement policies, objectives, and proce­ dures for their departments; evaluate personnel and work; develop reports and budgets; and coordinate activities with other managers. In group practices, managers work closely with physicians. Whereas an office manager may handle business affairs in small medical groups, leaving policy decisions to the physicians themselves, larger groups usually employ a full-time administrator to advise on business strategies and coordinate day-to-day business. A small group of 10 or 15 physicians might employ one administra­ tor to oversee personnel matters, billing and collection, budgeting, plan­ ning, equipment outlays, and patient flow. A large practice of 40 or 50 physicians may have a chief administrator and several assistants, each responsible for different areas. Health services managers in health maintenance organizations (FIMOs) and other managed care settings perform functions similar to those in large group practices, except their staffs may be larger. In addition, they may do more work in the areas of community outreach and preventive care than managers of a group practice. The size of the administrative staff in HMOs varies according to the size and type of HMO. Some health services managers oversee the activities of a number of facilities in health systems. Such systems may contain both inpatient and outpatient facilities and offer a wide range of patient services.  Working Conditions Most health services managers work long hours. Facilities such as nursing homes and hospitals operate around the clock, and administra­ tors and managers may be called at all hours to deal with problems. They may also travel to attend meetings or inspect satellite facilities.  Employment Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 55 hospitals continue to consolidate, centralize, and diversify functions, competition will increase at all job levels. Employment will grow the fastest in home health agencies, resi­ dential care facilities, and practitioners’ offices and clinics. Many services previously provided in hospitals will be shifted to these sectors, especially as medical technologies improve. Demand in medi­ cal group practice management will grow as medical group practices become larger and more complex. Health services managers will need to deal with the pressures of cost containment and financial account­ ability, as well as the increased focus on preventive care. They will also become more involved in trying to improve the health of their communities. Health services managers will also be employed by health care management companies who provide management services to hospi­ tals and other organizations, as well as specific departments such as emergency, information management systems, managed care contract negotiations, and physician recruiting.  Earnings Median annual earnmgs of medical and health service managers were $48,870 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned between $37,900 and $71,580 a year. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $28,600 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $88,730 a year. Median annual earnings in the industries employing the largest number of medi­ cal and health service managers in 1997 were as follows: Hospitals........................................................................................... $52,600 Home health care services............................................................. 45,800 Health and allied services, not elsewhere classified................... 44,700 43,600 Nursing and personal care facilities.............................................. Offices and clinics of medical doctors......................................... 39,600  Earnings of health services managers vary by type and size of the facility, as well as by level of responsibility. For example, the Medi­ cal Group Management Association reported that the median salary in 1998 for administrators by group practice size was: fewer than 7 physicians, $60,000; 7 to 25 physicians, $76,700; and more than 26 physicians, $124,500. According to a survey by Modern Healthcare magazine, median annual compensation in 1998 for managers of the following clinical departments was: Respiratory therapy, $57,700; home health care, $62,400; ambulatory and outpatient services, $66,200, radiology, $66,800; clinical laboratory, $66,900; physical therapy, $68,100; reha­ bilitation services, $73,400; and nursing services, $100,200. Salaries also varied according to size of facility and geographic region. According to the Buck Survey conducted by the American Health Care Association in 1997, nursing home administrators’ median annual earnings were $52,800. The middle 50 percent earned between $44,300 and $60,300 a year. Assistant administrators had median annual earn­ ings of about $35,000, with the middle 50 percent earning between $28,700 and $41,200.  Related Occupations Health services managers have training or experience in both health and management. Other occupations requiring knowledge of both fields are public health directors, social welfare administrators, directors of voluntary health agencies and health professional associations, and underwriters in health insurance companies.  Sources of Additional Information General information about health administration is available from: *" American College of Healthcare Executives, One North Franklin St., Suite 1700, Chicago, IL 60606. Internet:  Information about undergraduate and graduate academic programs in this field is available from: *" Association of University Programs in Health Administration, 730 ll,h St., NW„ Washington, DC 20001-4510. Internet: Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  For a list of accredited graduate programs in health services admin­ istration, contact: Accrediting Commission on Education for Health Services Adminis­ tration, 730 11th St., NW., Washington, DC 20001-4510.  For information about career opportunities in long-term care ad­ ministration, contact: «- American College of Health Care Administrators, 325 S. Patrick St., Alexandria, VA 22314.  For information about career opportunities in medical group prac­ tices and ambulatory care management, contact: "■ Medical Group Management Association, 104 Inverness Terrace East, Englewood, CO 80112.  For information about health care office managers, contact: *- Professional Association of Health Care Office Managers, 461 East Ten Mile Rd„ Pensacola, FL 32534-9712. Internet:  Hotel Managers and Assistants (0*NET 15026A)  Significant Points • •  Long hours and the stress of dealing with hotel patrons result in high turnover among hotel managers. College graduates with degrees in hotel or restaurant management should have good job opportunities.  Nature of the Work A comfortable room, good food, and a helpful hotel staff can make being away from home an enjoyable experience for both vacationing families and business travelers. Hotel managers and assistant managers help their guests have a pleasant stay by providing many of the comforts of home, including cable television, fitness equipment, and voice mail. Additionally, some hotels have health spas and other specialized services that the hotel manager and assistant help keep running smoothly. For business travelers, hotel managers often schedule available meeting rooms and electronic equipment, including slide projectors and fax machines. Hotel managers are responsible for keeping the operation of their establishments efficient and profitable. In a small hotel, motel, or inn with a limited staff, the manager may oversee all aspects of operations. However, large hotels may employ hundreds of workers, and the gen­ eral manager is usually aided by a number of assistant managers as­ signed to the various departments of the operation. In hotels of every size, managerial duties vary significantly by job title. The general manager, for example, has overall responsibility for the operation of the hotel. Within guidelines established by the owners of the hotel or executives of the hotel chain, the general manager sets room rates, allocates funds to departments, approves expenditures, and estab­ lishes standards for service to guests, decor, housekeeping, food qual­ ity, and banquet operations. Managers who work for chains may also organize and staff a newly built hotel, refurbish an older hotel, or reor­ ganize a hotel or motel that is not operating successfully. In order to fill some low-paying service and clerical jobs in hotels, some general managers attend career fairs. (For more information, see the statement on general managers and top executives elsewhere in the Handbook.) Resident managers live in hotels and are on call 24 hours a day to resolve problems or emergencies. In general, though, they typically work an 8-hour day and oversee the day-to-day operations of the hotel. In many hotels, the general manager is also the resident manager. Executive housekeepers ensure guest rooms, meeting and banquet rooms, and public areas are clean, orderly, and well maintained. They also train, schedule, and supervise the work of housekeepers, inspect rooms, and order cleaning supplies. Front office managers coordinate reservations and room assignments as well as train and direct the hotel’s front desk staff. They ensure that guests are treated courteously, complaints and problems are resolved,  56 Occupational Outlook Handbook work with computer specialists to ensure that the hotel’s computer system functions properly. Should the hotel’s computer system fail, managers must continue to meet guests’ needs.  Working Conditions Because hotels are open around the clock, night and weekend work is common. Many hotel managers work more than 40 hours per week. Managers who live in the hotel usually have regular work schedules, but they may be called to work at any time. Some employees of resort hotels are managers during the busy season and have other duties dur­ ing the rest of the year. Hotel managers sometimes experience the pressures of coordinat­ ing a wide range of functions. Conventions and large groups of tourists may present unusual problems. Moreover, dealing with irate guests can be stressful. The job can be particularly hectic for front office managers during check-in and check-out time. Computer failures can further complicate an already busy time.  Employment Hotel managers and assistant managers held about 76,000jobs in 1998. Self-employed managers—primarily owners of small hotels and mo­ tels—held a significant number of these jobs. Companies that manage hotels and motels under contract employed some managers.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  Because hotels are open around the clock, night and weekend work is common. and requests for special services are carried out. Front office managers often have authorization to adjust charges posted on a customer’s bill. Food and beverage managers direct the food service operations of hotels. They oversee the hotels’ restaurants, cocktail lounges, and banquet facilities. These managers also supervise food and beverage preparation and service workers, plan menus, set schedules, estimate costs, and deal with food suppliers. (For more information on similar workers in other industries, see the statement on restaurant and food service managers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Convention services managers coordinate the activities of large hotels’ various departments for meetings, conventions, and special events. They meet with representatives of groups or organizations to plan the number of rooms to reserve, the desired configuration of hotel meeting space, and the banquet services. During the meeting or event, they resolve unexpected problems and monitor activities to ensure that hotel operations conform to the expectations of the group. Assistant managers help run the day-to-day operations of the ho­ tel. In large hotels they may be responsible for activities such as personnel, accounting, office administration, marketing and sales, pur­ chasing, security, maintenance, and pool, spa, or recreational facilities. In smaller hotels, these duties may be combined into one position. Some hotels allow an assistant manager to make decisions regarding hotel guest charges when a manager is unavailable. Computers are used extensively by hotel managers and their assistants to keep track of the guest’s bill, reservations, room as­ signments, meetings, and special events. In addition, computers are used to order food, beverages, and supplies, as well as to pre­ pare reports for hotel owners and top-level managers. Managers Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Hotels increasingly emphasize specialized training. Postsecondary training in hotel or restaurant management is preferred for most hotel management positions, although a college liberal arts degree may be sufficient when coupled with related hotel experience. Internships or part-time or summer work is an asset to students seeking a career in hotel management. The experience gained and the contacts made with employers can greatly benefit them after graduation. Most bachelor’s degree programs include work-study opportunities. In the past, many managers were promoted from the ranks of front desk clerks, housekeepers, waiters and chefs, and hotel sales workers. Although some employees still advance to hotel management positions without education beyond high school, postsecondary education is pre­ ferred. Restaurant management training or experience is also a good background for entering hotel management because the success of a hotel’s food service and beverage operations is often of great impor­ tance to the profitability of the entire establishment. In 1998, nearly 200 community and junior colleges and some uni­ versities offered associate, bachelor’s, and graduate degree programs in hotel or restaurant management. When combined with technical insti­ tutes, vocational and trade schools, and other academic institutions, over 800 educational facilities have programs leading to formal recognition in hotel or restaurant management. Hotel management programs in­ clude instruction in hotel administration, accounting, economics, mar­ keting, housekeeping, food service management and catering, and hotel maintenance engineering. Computer training is also an integral part of hotel management training due to the widespread use of computers in reservations, billing, and housekeeping management. Hotel managers must be able to get along with many different people, even in stressful situations. They must be able to solve problems and concentrate on details. Initiative, self-discipline, effective communica­ tion skills, and the ability to organize and direct the work of others are also essential for managers at all levels. Most hotels promote employees who have proven their ability and completed formal education in hotel management. Graduates of hotel or restaurant management programs usually start as trainee assistant man­ agers. Some large hotels sponsor specialized on-the-job management training programs allowing trainees to rotate among various departments and gain a thorough knowledge of the hotel’s operation. Other hotels may help finance formal training in hotel management for outstanding employees. Newly built hotels, particularly those without well-estab­ lished on-the-job training programs, often prefer experienced personnel for managerial positions.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 57 Large hotel and motel chains may offer better opportunities for advancement than small, independently owned establishments, but relocation every several years often is necessary for advancement. The large chains have more extensive career ladder programs and offer managers the opportunity to transfer to another hotel or motel in the chain or to the central office. Career advancement can be accelerated by completion of certification programs offered by the associations listed below. These programs usually require a combination of course work, examinations, and experience.  Information on careers in the lodging industry and professional development and training programs may be obtained from: *• The Educational Institute of the American Hotel and Motel Associa­ tion, P.O. Box 531126 Orlando, FL 32853-1126. Internet:  For information on educational programs, including correspondence courses, in hotel and restaurant management, write to: m' Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and Institutional Education, 1200 17th St. NW„ Washington, DC 20036-3097.  Information on careers in housekeeping management may be ob­ tained from:  Job Outlook Employment of hotel managers and assistants is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations through 2008. Long hours and stressful working conditions result in high turnover in this field, so additional job openings are expected to occur as experienced managers transfer to other occupations, retire, or stop working for other reasons. Job opportunities in hotel management are expected to be especially good for persons with college degrees in hotel or restaurant management. Increasing business travel and domestic and foreign tourism will drive employment growth of hotel managers and assistants. Managerial jobs are not expected to grow as rapidly as the hotel industry overall, however. As the industry consolidates, many chains and franchises will acquire independently owned establishments and increase the num­ ber of economy-class rooms to accommodate bargain-conscious guests. Economy hotels offer clean, comfortable rooms and front desk services without costly extras like restaurants and room service. Because there are not as many departments in these hotels, fewer managers will be needed. In addition, front desk clerks are increasingly assuming some responsibilities previously reserved for managers, further limiting the growth of managers and their assistants. Additional demand for managers, however, is expected in suite hotels as some guests, especially business customers, are willing to pay higher prices for rooms with kitchens and suites that provide the space needed to conduct meetings. In addition to job growth in suite hotels and economy-class hotels, large full-service hotels—offering restaurants, fitness centers, large meeting rooms, and play areas for children, among other amenities—will continue to offer many trainee and managerial opportunities.  Earnings Median annual earnings of hotel managers and assistants were $26,700 in 1998. The middle 50 percent of these workers earned between $ 19,820 and $34,690. The lowest 10 percent had earnings of less than $14,430, while the top 10 percent earned over $45,520. In 1997, median annual earnings in the hotel and other lodging places industry, where nearly all of these workers are employed, were $28,600. Salaries of hotel managers and assistants vary greatly according to their responsibilities and the segment of the hotel industry in which they are employed. Managers may earn bonuses up to 25 percent of their basic salary in some hotels and may also be furnished with lodg­ ing, meals, parking, laundry, and other services. In addition to typical benefits, some hotels offer profit-sharing plans and educational assis­ tance to their employees.  Related Occupations Other occupations concerned with organizing and directing a business where customer service is the cornerstone of their success include restaurant managers, apartment building managers, retail store manag­ ers, and office managers.  Sources of Additional Information For information on careers and scholarships in hotel management, contact: *" The American Hotel and Motel Association (AH&MA), Information Center, 1201 New York Ave. NW„ Washington, DC 20005-3931. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  "■ National Executive Housekeepers Association, Inc., 1001 Eastwind Dr., Suite 301, Westerville, OH 43081. Phone: (800) 200-6342.  Human Resources, Training, and Labor Relations Specialists and Managers (0*NET 13005A, 13005B, 13005C, 13005E, 21511A, 2151 IB, 21511C, 2151 ID, 2151 IE, and 2151 IF)  Significant Points • •  •  Employers usually seek college graduates for entrylevel jobs. Depending on the job duties, a strong background in human resources, business, technical, or liberal arts subjects may be preferred. The job market is likely to remain competitive because of the abundant supply of qualified college graduates and experienced workers.  Nature of the Work Attracting the most qualified employees and matching them to the jobs for which they are best suited is important for the success of any organization. However, many enterprises are too large to permit close contact between top management and employees. Human re­ sources, training, and labor relations specialists and managers pro­ vide this link. These individuals recruit and interview employees, and advise on hiring decisions in accordance with policies and re­ quirements that have been established in conjunction with top man­ agement. In an effort to improve morale and productivity and limit job turnover, they also help their firms effectively use employee skills, provide training opportunities to enhance those skills, and boost employee satisfaction with their jobs and working conditions. Although some jobs in the human resources field require only limited contact with people outside the office, dealing with people is an essential part of the job. In a small organization, a human resources generalist may handle all aspects of human resources work, requiring a broad range of knowl­ edge. The responsibilities of human resources generalists can vary widely, depending on their employer’s needs. In a large corporation, the top human resources executive usually develops and coordinates personnel programs and policies. (Executives are included in the Hand­ book statement on general managers and top executives.) These poli­ cies are usually implemented by a director or manager of human re­ sources and, in some cases, a director of industrial relations. The director ofhuman resources may oversee several departments, each headed by an experienced manager, who most likely specializes in one personnel activity such as employment, compensation, benefits, training and development, or employee relations. Employment and placement managers oversee the hiring and sepa­ ration of employees and supervise various workers, including equal employment opportunity specialists and recruitment specialists.  58 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Recruiters maintain contacts within the community and may travel extensively, often to college campuses, to search for promising job appli­ cants. Recruiters screen, interview, and in some cases, test applicants. They may also check references and extend job offers. These workers must be thoroughly familiar with the organization and its personnel policies to discuss wages, working conditions, and promotional oppor­ tunities with prospective employees. They must also keep informed about equal employment opportunity (EEO) and affirmative action guide­ lines and laws, such as the Americans With Disabilities Act. EEO officers, representatives or affirmative action coordinators handle this area in large organizations. They investigate and resolve EEO grievances, examine corporate practices for possible violations, and compile and submit EEO statistical reports. Employer relations representatives, who usually work in govern­ ment agencies, maintain working relationships with local employers and promote the use of public employment programs and services. Similarly, employment interviewers—whose many job titles include personnel consultants, personnel development specialists, and human resources coordinators—help match job seekers with employers. (For more information on this occupation, see the statement on employ­ ment interviewers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Job analysts, sometimes called position classifiers, perform very exacting work. They collect and examine detailed information about job duties to prepare job descriptions. These descriptions explain the duties, training, and skills each job requires. Whenever a large organi­ zation introduces a new job or reviews existing jobs, it calls upon the expert knowledge of the job analyst. Occupational analysts conduct research, usually in large firms. They are concerned with occupational classification systems and study the effects of industry and occupational trends upon worker relation­ ships. They may serve as technical liaison between the firm and industry, government, and labor unions. Establishing and maintaining a firm’s pay system is the principal job of the compensation manager. Assisted by staff specialists, compensation managers devise ways to ensure fair and equitable pay rates. They may conduct surveys to see how their rates compare with others and to see that the firm’s pay scale complies with chang­ ing laws and regulations. In addition, compensation managers often oversee their firm’s performance evaluation system, and they may design reward systems such as pay-for-performance plans. Employee benefits managers handle the company’s employee ben­ efits program, notably its health insurance and pension plans. Ex­ pertise in designing arid administering benefits programs continues to gain importance as employer-provided benefits account for a grow­ ing proportion of overall compensation costs, and as benefit plans increase in number and complexity. For example, pension benefits might include savings and thrift, profit sharing, and stock ownership plans; health benefits may include long-term catastrophic illness in­ surance and dental insurance. Familiarity with health benefits is a top priority, as more firms struggle to cope with the rising cost of health care for employees and retirees. In addition to health insur­ ance and pension coverage, some firms offer employees life and acci­ dental death and dismemberment insurance, disability insurance, and relatively new benefits designed to meet the needs of a changing work force, such as parental leave, child and elder care, long-term nursing home care insurance, employee assistance and wellness programs, and flexible benefits plans. Benefits managers must keep abreast of changing Federal and State regulations and legislation that may affect employee benefits. Employee assistance plan managers, also called employee welfare managers, are responsible for a wide array of programs covering occu­ pational safety and health standards and practices; health promotion and physical fitness, medical examinations, and minor health treat­ ment, such as first aid; plant security; publications; food service and recreation activities; car pooling and transportation programs, such as transit subsidies; employee suggestion systems; child and elder care; and counseling services. Child care and elder care are increasingly important due to growth in the number of dual-income households and Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  the elderly population. Counseling may help employees deal with emotional disorders, alcoholism, or marital, family, consumer, legal, and financial problems. Some employers offer career counseling as well. In large firms, certain programs, such as security and safety, may be in separate departments headed by other managers. Training and development managers supervise training. Increas­ ingly, management recognizes that training offers a way of developing skills, enhancing productivity and quality of work, and building loy­ alty to the firm. Training is widely accepted as a method of improving employee morale, but this is only one of the reasons for its growing importance. Other factors include the complexity of the work envi­ ronment, the rapid pace of organizational and technological change, and the growing number of jobs in fields that constantly generate new knowledge. In addition, advances in learning theory have provided insights into how adults learn, and how training can be organized most effectively for them. Training specialists plan, organize, and direct a wide range of training activities. Trainers conduct orientation sessions and arrange on-the-job training for new employees. They help rank-and-file workers maintain and improve their job skills, and possibly prepare for jobs requiring greater skill. They help supervisors improve their interpersonal skills in order to deal effectively with employees. They may set up individualized training plans to strengthen an employee’s existing skills or teach new ones. Training specialists in some com­ panies set up programs to develop executive potential among em­ ployees in lower-level positions. In government-supported training programs, training specialists function as case managers. They first assess the training needs of clients, then guide them through the most appropriate training method. After training, clients may either be referred to employer relations representatives or receive job place­ ment assistance. Planning and program development is an important part of the training specialist’s job. In order to identify and assess training needs within the firm, trainers may confer with managers and super­ visors or conduct surveys. They also periodically evaluate training effectiveness. Depending on the size, goals, and nature of the organization, train­ ers may differ considerably in their responsibilities and in the methods they use. Training methods include on-the-job training; schools in  In addition to recruiting and interviewing, human resources, training, and labor relations specialists and managers provide training to enhance workers ’ skills andjob satisfaction.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 59 which shop conditions are duplicated for trainees prior to putting them on the shop floor; apprenticeship training; classroom training; programmed instruction, which may involve interactive videos and other computer-aided instructional technologies; simulators; confer­ ences; and workshops. The director of industrial relations forms labor policy, oversees industrial labor relations, negotiates collective bargaining agreements, and coordinates grievance procedures to handle complaints resulting from disputes with unionized employees. The director of industrial relations also advises and collaborates with the director of human re­ sources, other managers, and members of their staff, because all as­ pects of personnel policy—such as wages, benefits, pensions, and work practices—may be involved in drawing up a new or revised contract. Labor relations managers and their staff implement industrial labor relations programs. When a collective bargaining agreement is up for negotiation, labor relations specialists prepare information for management to use during negotiation, which requires familiarity with economic and wage data as well as extensive knowledge of labor law and collective bargaining trends. The labor relations staff inter­ prets and administers the contract with respect to grievances, wages and salaries, employee welfare, health care, pensions, union and man­ agement practices, and other contractual stipulations. As union mem­ bership is continuing to decline in most industries, industrial rela­ tions personnel are working more with employees who are not mem­ bers of a labor union. Dispute resolution—attaining tacit or contractual agreements—has become increasingly important as parties to a dispute attempt to avoid costly litigation, strikes, or other disruptions. Dispute resolution also has become more complex, involving employees, management, unions, other firms, and government agencies. Specialists involved in dispute resolution must be highly knowledgeable and experienced, and often report to the director of industrial relations. Conciliators, or media­ tors, advise and counsel labor and management to prevent and, when necessary, resolve disputes over labor agreements or other labor relation’s issues. Arbitrators, sometimes called umpires or referees, decide dis­ putes that bind both labor and management to specific terms and con­ ditions of labor contracts. Labor relations specialists who work for unions perform many of the same functions on behalf of the union and its members. Other emerging specialists include international human resources managers, who handle human resources issues related to a company’s foreign operations, and human resources information system special­ ists, who develop and apply computer programs to process personnel information, match job seekers with job openings and handle other personnel matters.  Working Conditions Personnel work usually takes place in clean, pleasant, and comfortable office settings. Arbitrators and mediators may work out of their homes. Many human resources, training, and labor relations specialists and managers work a standard 35- to 40-hour week. However, longer hours might be necessary for some workers—for example, labor rela­ tions specialists and managers, arbitrators, and mediators—when con­ tract agreements are being prepared and negotiated. Although most human resources, training, and labor relations spe­ cialists and managers work in the office, some travel extensively. For example, recruiters regularly attend professional meetings and visit college campuses to interview prospective employees; arbitrators and mediators often must travel to the site chosen for negotiations.  Employment Human resources, training, and labor relations specialists and manag­ ers held about 597,000jobs in 1998. They were employed in virtually every industry. Specialists accounted for 3 out of 5 positions; manag­ ers, 2 out of 5. About 14,000 specialists were self-employed, working as consultants to public and private employers. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  The private sector accounted for about 80 percent of salaried jobs. Among these salaried jobs, services industries—including business, health, social, management, and educational services—accounted for about 40 percent of jobs; labor organizations, the largest employer among specific services industries, accounted for over 20 percent of those. Manufacturing industries accounted for 17 percent of salaried jobs; while finance, insurance, and real estate firms accounted for about 11 percent of jobs. Federal, State, and local governments employed about 14 percent of human resources specialists and managers. They handled the re­ cruitment, interviewing, job classification, training, salary administra­ tion, benefits, employee relations, and related matters of the Nation’s public employees.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Because of the diversity of duties and level of responsibility, the educa­ tional backgrounds of human resources, training, and labor relations specialists and managers vary considerably. In filling entry-level jobs, employers usually seek college graduates. Many employers prefer ap­ plicants who have majored in human resources, personnel administra­ tion, or industrial and labor relations. Others look for college graduates with a technical or business background or a well-rounded liberal arts education. Many colleges and universities have programs leading to a degree in personnel, human resources, or labor relations. Some offer degree programs in personnel administration or human resources management, training and development, or compensation and benefits. Depending on the school, courses leading to a career in human resources management may be found in departments of business administration, education, instructional technology, organizational development, human services, communication, or public administration, or within a separate human resources institution or department. Because an interdisciplinary background is appropriate in this field, a combination of courses in the social sciences, business, and behav­ ioral sciences is useful. Some jobs may require a more technical or specialized background in engineering, science, finance, or law, for example. Most prospective human resources specialists should take courses in compensation, recruitment, training and development, and performance appraisal, as well as courses in principles of management, organizational structure, and industrial psychology. Other relevant courses include business administration, public administration, psy­ chology, sociology, political science, economics, and statistics. Courses in labor law, collective bargaining, labor economics, labor history, and industrial psychology also provide a valuable background for the pro­ spective labor relations specialist. As in many other fields, knowledge of computers and information systems is also useful. An advanced degree is increasingly important for some jobs. Many labor relations jobs require graduate study in industrial or labor relations. A strong background in industrial relations and law is highly desirable for contract negotiators, mediators, and arbitrators; in fact, many people in these specialties are lawyers. A background in law is also desirable for employee benefits managers and others who must interpret the growing number of laws and regulations. A master’s degree in human resources, labor relations, or in business administration with a concentration in human resources management is highly recommended for those seeking general and top management positions. For many specialized jobs in the human resources field, previ­ ous experience is an asset; for more advanced positions, including managers as well as arbitrators and mediators, it is essential. Many employers prefer entry-level workers who have gained some expe­ rience through an internship or work-study program while in school. Personnel administration and human resources development require the ability to work with individuals as well as a commitment to organizational goals. This field also demands other skills people may develop elsewhere—using computers, selling, teaching, super­ vising, and volunteering, among others. This field offers clerical workers opportunities for advancement to professional positions.  60 Occupational Outlook Handbook Responsible positions are sometimes filled by experienced indi­ viduals from other fields, including business, government, educa­ tion., social services administration, and the military. The human resources field demands a range of personal qualities and skills. Human resources, training, and labor relations specialists and managers must speak and write effectively. The growing diversity of the workforce requires that they work with or supervise people with various cultural backgrounds, levels of education, and experience. They must be able to cope with conflicting points of view, function under pressure, and demonstrate discretion, integrity, fair-mindedness, and a persuasive, congenial personality. The duties given to entry-level workers will vary depending on whether they have a degree in human resource management, have completed an internship, or have some other type of human resourcesrelated experience. Entry-level employees commonly learn the pro­ fession by performing administrative duties—helping to enter data into computer systems, compiling employee handbooks, researching information for a supervisor, or answering the phone and handling routine questions. Entry-level workers often enter formal or on-thejob training programs in which they learn how to classify jobs, inter­ view applicants, or administer employee benefits. They then are assigned to specific areas in the personnel department to gain experi­ ence. Later, they may advance to a managerial position, overseeing a major element of the personnel program—compensation or training, for example. Exceptional human resources workers may be promoted to director of personnel or industrial relations, which can eventually lead to a top managerial or executive position. Others may join a consulting firm or open their own business. A Ph.D. is an asset for teaching, writing, or consulting work. Most organizations specializing in human resources offer classes intended to enhance the marketable skills of their members. Some organizations offer certification programs, which are signs of compe­ tence andean enhance one’s advancement opportunities. For example, the International Foundation of Employee Benefit Plans confers the Certified Employee Benefit Specialist designation to persons who com­ plete a series of college-level courses and pass exams covering em­ ployee benefit plans. The Society for Human Resources Management has two levels of certification—Professional in Human Resources, and Senior Professional in Human Resources; both require experience and a comprehensive exam.  to resolve potentially costly labor-management disputes out of court. Additional job growth may stem from increasing demand for specialists in international human resources management and hu­ man resources information systems. Employment demand should be strong among firms involved in management, consulting, and personnel supply, as businesses increas­ ingly contract out personnel functions or hire personnel specialists on a temporary basis to meet the increasing cost and complexity of train­ ing and development programs. Demand should also increase in firms that develop and administer complex employee benefits and compen­ sation packages for other organizations. Demand for human resources, training, and labor relations spe­ cialists and managers is also governed by the staffing needs of the firms for which they work. A rapidly expanding business is likely to hire additional human resources workers—either as permanent em­ ployees or consultants—while a business that has experienced a merger or a reduction in its work force will require fewer human resources workers. Also, as human resources management becomes increas­ ingly important to the success of an organization, some small and medium-size businesses that do not have a human resources depart­ ment may assign employees various human resources duties together with other unrelated responsibilities. In any particular firm, the size and the job duties of the human resources staff are determined by the firm’s organizational philosophy and goals, skills of its work force, pace of technological change, government regulations, collective bar­ gaining agreements, standards of professional practice, and labor market conditions. Job growth could be limited by the widespread use of computer­ ized human resources information systems that make workers more productive. Similar to other workers, employment of human re­ sources, training, and labor relations specialists and managers, par­ ticularly in larger firms, may be adversely affected by corporate downsizing and restructuring.  Job Outlook  Local government, except education and hospitals.................. $50,800 Hospitals........................................................................................... 48,200 Management and public relations.................................................. 44,800 Labor organizations ........................................................................ 36,700 Personnel supply services.............................................................. 35,900  The job market for human resources, training, and labor relations spe­ cialists and managers is likely to remain competitive given the abundant supply of qualified college graduates and experienced workers. In addition to openings due to growth, many job openings will result from the need to replace workers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Employment of human resources, training, and labor relations specialists and managers is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through 2008. New jobs will stem from increasing efforts throughout industry to recruit and retain quality employees. Employers are expected to devote greater resources to job-specific training programs in response to the increasing com­ plexity of many jobs, the aging of the work force, and technological advances that can leave employees with obsolete skills. In addi­ tion, legislation and court rulings setting standards in various ar­ eas—occupational safety and health, equal employment opportu­ nity, wages, health, pension, and family leave, among others—will increase demand for human resources, training, and labor relations experts. Rising health care costs, in particular, should spur demand for specialists to develop creative compensation and benefits pack­ ages that firms can offer prospective employees. Employment of labor relations staff, including arbitrators and mediators, should grow as firms become more involved in labor relations, and attempt Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Earnings Median annual earnings of human resources managers were $49,010 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned between $35,400 and $73,830. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $25,750 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $91,040. Median annual earnings in the industries employing the largest numbers of human resources manag­ ers in 1997 were:  Median annual earnings of human resources, training, and labor relations specialists were $37,710 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned between $28,200 and $50,160. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $20,310 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $75,440. Median annual earnings in the industries employing the largest num­ bers of human resources, training, and labor relations specialists in 1997 were: Federal Government........................................................................ $51,800 Local government, except educationand hospitals.................... 39,900 Hospitals........................................................................................... 35,000 State government, excepteducation and hospitals ..................... 34,100 Labor organizations........................................................................ 29,700  According to a 1999 salary survey conducted by the National As­ sociation of Colleges and Employers, bachelor’s degree candidates ma­ joring in human resources, including labor relations, received starting offers averaging $29,800 a year.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 61 According to a November 1998 survey of compensation in the human resources field, conducted by Abbott, Langer, and Associates of Crete, Illinois, the median total cash compensation for selected personnel and labor relations occupations were: Industrial and labor relations directors ...................................... $183,900 Compensation and benefits directors......................................... 88,000 Divisional human resources directors......................................... 84,100 Training directors.......................................................................... 79,400 Recruitment and interviewing managers.................................... 75,100 Employee and community relations directors......................... 73,500 Plant/location human resources managers................................ 62,000 Compensation supervisors........................................................... 53,300 Human resources information systems specialists................... 49,300 Employee assistance and employee counseling specialists............................................... 47,500 Employee services and employee recreation specialists........ 47,300 Employee and industrial plant nurses......................................... 46,000 44,800 EEO and affirmative action specialists..................................... Safety specialists........................................................................... 43,700 Training material development specialists................................ 43,500 Benefits specialists (managerial and professional jobs)........... 41,500 Training generalists (computer).................................................. 39,600 Classroom instructors.................................................................... 35,300 Employment interviewing specialists........................................ 35,100 Job evaluation specialists............................................................. 34,100 Human resources records specialists........................................... 32,400  In the Federal Government, persons with a bachelor’s degree or 3 years’ general experience in the personnel field generally started at $23,300 a year in 1999. Those with a superior academic record or an additional year of specialized experience started at $28,000 a year. Those with a master’s degree may start at $33,400, and those with a doctorate in a personnel field may start at $44,500. Beginning sala­ ries were slightly higher in areas where the prevailing local pay level was higher. There are no formal entry-level requirements for manage­ rial positions. Applicants must possess a suitable combination of educational attainment, experience, and record of accomplishment.  Industrial production managers plan the production schedule within budgetary limitations and time constraints.  Industrial Production Managers (0*NET 15014)  Significant Points •  The projected decline in employment reflects increas­ ing productivity and organizational restructuring.  •  Applicants with college degrees in industrial engineer­ ing, management, or business administration, and particularly those with an undergraduate engineering degree and a master’s degree in business administra­ tion, enjoy the best job prospects.  Related Occupations All human resources occupations are closely related. Other workers with skills and expertise in interpersonal relations include counselors, lawyers, psychologists, sociologists, social workers, public relations specialists, and teachers. These occupations are described elsewhere in the Handbook.  Sources of Additional Information For information about careers in employee training and development, contact: <*" American Society for Training and Development, 1640 King St., Box 1443, Alexandria, VA 22313. Internet:  For information about careers and certification in employee com­ pensation and benefits, contact: «■ American Compensation Association, 14040 Northsight Blvd., Scottsdale, AZ 85260. Internet:  Information about careers and certification in employee benefits is available from: *■ International Foundation of Employee Benefit Plans, 18700 W. Bluemound Rd„ P.O. Box 69, Brookfield, WI 53008-0069. Internet:  For information about academic programs in industrial relations, write to: '*■ Industrial Relations Research Association, University of Wisconsin, 7226 Social Science Bldg., 1180 Observatory Dr., Madison, WI 53706. Internet:  Information about personnel careers in the health care industry is available from: American Society for Healthcare Human Resources Administration, One North Franklin, 31st Floor, Chicago, IL 60606. Internet: Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Nature of the Work Industrial production managers coordinate the resources and activities required to produce millions of goods every year in the United States. Although their duties vary from plant to plant, industrial production managers share many of the same major responsibilities. These in­ clude production scheduling, staffing, equipment, quality control, in­ ventory control, and the coordination of production activities with those of other departments. The primary mission of industrial production managers is planning the production schedule within budgetary limitations and time con­ straints. This entails analyzing the plant’s personnel and capital re­ sources to select the best way of meeting the production quota. Indus­ trial production managers determine which machines will be used, whether overtime or extra shifts are necessary, and the sequence of production. They also monitor the production ran to make sure that it stays on schedule and correct any problems that may arise. Industrial production managers must also monitor product stan­ dards. When quality drops below the established standard, they must determine why standards are not being maintained and how to improve the product. If the problem is poor work, the manager may imple­ ment better training programs, reorganize the manufacturing process, or institute employee suggestion or involvement programs. If the  62 Occupational Outlook Handbook cause is substandard materials, the manager works with the purchasing department to improve the quality of the product’s components. Because the work of many departments is interrelated, managers work closely with heads of other departments such as sales, purchasing, and traffic to plan and implement company goals, policies, and proce­ dures. For example, the production manager works with the purchas­ ing department to ensure that plant inventories are maintained at their optimal level. This is vital to a firm’s operation because maintaining the inventory of materials necessary for production ties up the firm’s financial resources, yet insufficient quantities cause delays in produc­ tion. A breakdown in communications between the production man­ ager and the purchasing department can cause slowdowns and a failure to meet production schedules. Computers are important in this coor­ dination, and also in providing up-to-date information on inventory, work-in-progress, and quality standards. Production managers usually report to the plant manager or the vice president for manufacturing, and may act as liaison between ex­ ecutives and first-line supervisors. (Information about these workers can be found in the statements on general managers and top executives, and blue-collar worker supervisors, elsewhere in the Handbook). In many plants, one production manager is responsible for all aspects of production. In large plants with several operations—aircraft assem­ bly, for example—there are managers in charge of each operation, such as machining, assembly, or finishing.  Working Conditions Most industrial production managers divide their time between the shop floor and their offices. While on the floor, they must follow established health and safety practices and wear the required protec­ tive clothing and equipment. The time in the office, which is often located on or near the production floor, is usually spent meeting with subordinates or other department managers, analyzing production data, and writing and reviewing reports. Most industrial production managers work more than 40 hours a week, especially when production deadlines must be met. In facilities that operate around the clock, managers often work late shifts and may be called at any hour to deal with emergencies. This could mean going to the plant to resolve the problem, regardless of the hour, and staying until the situation is under control. Dealing with production workers as well as superiors when working under the pressure of production deadlines or emergency situations can be stressful. Restructuring has eliminated levels of management and support staff, which shifts more responsibilities to production managers and compounds this stress.  Employment Industrial production managers held about 208,000jobs in 1998. Al­ though employed throughout the manufacturing sector, about one half are employed in firms that produce industrial machinery and equip­ ment, transportation equipment, electronic and electrical equipment, fabricated metal products, instruments and related products, and food products. Production managers work in all parts of the country, but jobs are most plentiful in areas where manufacturing is concentrated.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Because of the diversity of manufacturing operations and job require­ ments, there is no standard preparation for this occupation. Many in­ dustrial production managers have a college degree in business admin­ istration, management, or industrial engineering. Others have a master’s degree in business administration (MBA). Some are former production line supervisors who have been promoted. Although many employers prefer candidates with a business or engineering background, some companies hire well-rounded liberal arts graduates. As production operations become more sophisticated, an increas­ ing number of employers are looking for candidates with MBAs. Com­ bined with an undergraduate degree in engineering, this is considered particularly good preparation. Companies also are placing greater importance on a candidate’s personality. Because the job requires the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ability to compromise, persuade, and negotiate, successful production managers must be well-rounded and have excellent communication skills. Those who enter the field directly from college or graduate school often are unfamiliar with the firm’s production process. As a result, they may spend their first few months on the job in the company’s training program. These programs familiarize trainees with the production line, company policies, and the requirements of the job. In larger companies, they may also include assignments to other departments, such as pur­ chasing and accounting. A number of companies hire college graduates as blue-collar worker supervisors and later promote them. Some industrial production managers have worked their way up the ranks, perhaps after having worked as blue-collar worker super­ visors. These workers already have an intimate knowledge of the production process and the firm’s organization. To be selected for promotion, they must have demonstrated leadership qualities and usually have taken company-sponsored courses in management skills and communication techniques. In addition to formal training, industrial production managers must keep informed of new production technologies and management prac­ tices. Many belong to professional organizations and attend trade shows where new equipment is displayed; they also attend industry confer­ ences and conventions where changes in production methods and tech­ nological advances are discussed. Industrial production managers with a proven record of superior performance may advance to plant manager or vice president for manu­ facturing. Others transfer to jobs at larger firms with more responsibili­ ties. Opportunities also exist as consultants. (For more information, see the statement on management analysts elsewhere in the Handbook.)  Job Outlook Employment of industrial production managers is expected to decline slightly through 2008. However, a number ofjob openings will stem from the need to replace workers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Applicants with a college degree in industrial engineering, management, or business administration, and particularly those with an undergraduate engineering degree and a master’s degree in business administration, enjoy the best job prospects. Employers also are likely to seek candidates who have excellent communication skills, and who are personable, flexible, and eager to enhance their knowledge and skills through ongoing training. Although manufacturing output is projected to rise, growing pro­ ductivity among production managers and organizational restructuring will limit the demand for these workers. Productivity gains will result from the increasing use of computers for scheduling, planning, and coordination. Scheduling or planning has become less important as manufacturers have become more responsive to changing demand. In addition, a growing emphasis on quality in the production process has redistributed some of the production manager’s oversight responsibili­ ties to supervisors and workers on the production line. Because pro­ duction managers are so essential to the efficient operation of a plant, they have not been greatly affected by recent efforts to flatten manage­ ment structures. Nevertheless, this trend has led production managers to assume more responsibilities and has discouraged the creation of more employment opportunities.  Earnings Median annual earnings for industrial production managers in 1998 were $56,320. The middle 50 percent earned between $41,300 and $79,830. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $31,790 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $97,310. Median annual earnings in the manufacturing industries employing the largest numbers of in­ dustrial production managers in 1997 were Motor vehicles................................................................................. $68,700 Electronic components and accessories...................................... 59,700 Miscellaneous plastics products, not elsewhere classified........ 48,500 Fabricated structural metal products............................................. 46,400 Commercial printing....................................................................... 45,800  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 63 Salaries of industrial production managers vary significantly by industry and plant size. According to Abbott, Langer, and Associates, the average salary for all production managers was $50,400 in 1998. In addition to salary, industrial production managers may receive bo­ nuses based on job performance.  Related Occupations Industrial production managers oversee production staff and equip­ ment, insure that production goals and quality standards are being met, and implement company policies. Individuals with similar functions include materials, operations, purchasing, and transportation managers. Other occupations requiring similar training and skills are sales engi­ neer, manufacturer’s sales representative, materials engineer, and in­ dustrial engineer.  Sources of Additional Information Information on industrial production management can be obtained from: National Management Association, 2210 Arbor Blvd., Dayton, OH 45439. Internet: <*" American Management Association, 1601 Broadway, 10"' Floor, New York, NY 10019. Internet:  Inspectors and Compliance Officers, Except Construction (0*NET 21911 A, 2191 IB. 21911D, 2191 IE, 2191 IF, 21911H, 21911J, 21911L, 2191 IP, 21911R, and 2191 IT)  Significant Points •  About 4 out of 5 inspection and compliance jobs are in Federal, State, and local government agencies that enforce rules on health, safety, food quality, licensing, and finance.  •  Because of the diversity of functions they perform, job qualifications vary widely.  Nature of the Work Inspectors and compliance officers help to keep workplaces safe, food healthy, and the environment clean. They also ensure that workers’ rights are recognized in a variety of settings. These workers enforce rales on matters as diverse as health, safety, food quality, licensing, and finance. As the following occupations demonstrate, their duties vary widely, de­ pending on their area of responsibility and level of experience. Aviation safety inspectors work for the Federal Aviation Adminis­ tration (FAA) and oversee the avionics, maintenance, and operations of air carriers and similar establishments. They evaluate technicians, pilots, and other personnel; assess facilities and training programs; inspect aircraft and related equipment for airworthiness, and investi­ gate and report on accidents and violations. Bank examiners investigate financial institutions concerning com­ pliance with Federal or State charters and regulations governing the institution’s operations and solvency. Examiners schedule audits to protect the institution’s shareholders and the interests of depositors. They recommend acceptance or rejection of applications for mergers and acquisitions, and testify as to the viability of chartering new institu­ tions. They interview officials in the firm or other persons with knowl­ edge of the bank’s operations, review financial reports, and identify deficiencies and deviations from Federal and State laws. Consumer safety inspectors and officers inspect food, feeds, pesticides, weights and measures, biological products, cosmetics, drugs, medical equipment, and radiation emitting products. Work­ ing individually or in teams under a senior inspector, they check on firms that use, produce, handle, store, or market products they regulate. They ensure that standards are maintained and respond to Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  consumer complaints by questioning employees, vendors, and oth­ ers to obtain evidence. Inspectors look for inaccurate product la­ beling, inaccurate scales, and for decomposition or chemical or bac­ teriological contamination that could result in a product becoming harmful to health. After completing their inspection, inspectors discuss their observations with plant managers or business owners to point out areas where corrective measures are needed. They write reports of their findings and compile evidence for use in court if legal action must be taken. Environmental health inspectors work primarily for governments. They analyze substances in order to determine contamination or the presence of disease and investigate sources of contamination to try to ensure that food, water, and air meet government standards. They certify the purity of food and beverages produced in dairies and pro­ cessing plants or served in restaurants, hospitals, and other institu­ tions. Inspectors may find pollution sources through collection and analysis of air, water, or waste samples. When they determine the nature and cause of pollution, they initiate action to stop it and force the firm or individual who caused the pollutants to pay to clean it up. Equal opportunity specialists enforce laws and regulations which prohibit discrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, religion, sex, disability, and age in employment and the provision of services. They conduct on-site compliance reviews in accordance with agency and Department of Justice policy and regulations, gather facts related to allegations of discrimination, and make recommenda­ tions for resolving complaints. They then prepare statistical analy­ sis and reports relative to implementation of civil rights and equal opportunity programs and refer cases to the legal system for adjudi­ cation when necessary. Food Inspectors ensure that the product is fit for human consump­ tion in compliance with Federal laws governing the wholesomeness and purity of meat and poultry products. This is accomplished through inspection involving a visual examination of the live animal or poultry prior to slaughter, and post-mortem inspection to determine that the product is not contaminated and that sanitation procedures are main­ tained. Processing food inspectors specialize in processed meat and poultry products, and all other ingredients contained in the final product, including frozen dinners, canned goods, and cured and smoked prod­ ucts. They have the authority to shut the plant down if there is a problem that they are unable to resolve. Mine safety and health inspectors carry out the major operational mission of the Department of Labor’s Mine Safety and Health Adminis­ tration (MSHA). They primarily conduct on-site inspections or inves­ tigations of underground and surface mines, mills and quarries in search of conditions that are potentially hazardous to the safety and health of workers. They inspect to insure that equipment is properly maintained and used, and that mining practices are carried out in accordance with  Qualificationsfor inspectors and compliance officers vary widely.  64 Occupational Outlook Handbook safety and health laws and regulations. They also investigate accidents and disasters, and may help direct rescue and fire fighting operations when fires or explosions occur. MSHA’s Inspectors work to identify the causes of accidents to determine how they might be prevented in the future, and they investigate complaints to determine whether laws and regulations have been violated. Inspectors discuss findings directly with mine management and issue citations describing violations and hazards that must be corrected. They have the authority to close a mining operation if they encounter a work situation that presents an imminent danger to workers. They may also be called upon by mine personnel to provide technical advice and assistance.  Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) inspectors serve the Department of Labor as expert consultants on the applica­ tion of safety principles, practices, and techniques in the workplace. They conduct fact-finding investigations of workplaces to determine the existence of specific safety hazards. They may be assigned to conduct safety inspections and investigations and use technical equip­ ment and sampling and measuring devices and supplies required in the field. These inspectors attempt to prevent accidents by using their knowledge of engineering safety codes and standards, and they may order suspension of activities that pose threats to workers. Park rangers enforce laws and regulations in State and national parks. They protect natural, cultural, and human resources, and enforce crimi­ nal laws of the United States including the apprehension of violators. Rangers also implement wilderness and backcountry management plans; monitor grazing, mining, and concessions activities; and work closely with resource management specialists and employees to identify and communicate resource threats, perform resource inventories, implement resource projects, and monitor researchers. Other rangers give natural resources talks, lead guided walks, and conduct community outreach and environmental education programs. Securities compliance examiners implement regulations concerning securities and real estate transactions. They investigate applications for registration of securities sales and complaints of irregular securities transactions and recommend legal action when necessary. Other inspectors and compliance officers include attendance offic­ ers, logging operations inspectors, travel accommodations raters, coro­ ners, code inspectors, mortician investigators, and dealer-compliance representatives. (Construction and building inspectors, who perform closely related work, are discussed elsewhere in the Handbook.)  Working Conditions Inspectors and compliance officers work with many different people and in a variety of environments. Theirjobs often involve considerable field work, and some inspectors travel frequently. When traveling, they are generally furnished with an automobile or are reimbursed for travel expenses. Inspectors may experience unpleasant, stressful, and dangerous working conditions. For example, mine safety and health inspectors are exposed to many of the same physically strenuous conditions and hazards as miners, and the work may be performed in unpleasant, stressful, and dangerous working conditions. Federal food inspectors work in highly mechanized plant environments near operating machin­ ery with moving parts or with poultry or livestock in confined areas in extreme temperatures and on slippery floors. The duties often require working with sharp knives, moderate lifting, and walking or standing for long periods of time. Park rangers often work outdoors in rugged terrain and in very hot or bitterly cold weather for extended periods. Many inspectors work long and often irregular hours. Inspectors may find themselves in adversarial roles when the organization or individual being inspected objects to the process or its consequences.  Employment Inspectors and compliance officers held about 176,000 jobs in 1998. State governments employed 30 percent, the Federal Government— chiefly the Departments of Defense, Labor, Treasury, and Agriculture— employed 31 percent, and local governments employed 19 percent. The remaining 20 percent were employed throughout the private sector in education, hospitals, insurance companies, and manufacturing firms. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Inspectors and compliance officers who work for the Federal Gov­ ernment are employed by a wide range of agencies. Some consumer safety inspectors, for example, work for the U.S. Food and Drug Admin­ istration, but the majority of these inspectors work for State govern­ ments. Most food inspectors and agricultural commodity graders are employed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Many health inspec­ tors work for State and local governments. Compliance inspectors are employed primarily by the Departments of Treasury and Labor on the Federal level, as well as by State and local governments. The Depart­ ment of Defense employs the most quality assurance inspectors. Avia­ tion safety inspectors work for the Federal Aviation Administration. The Environmental Protection Agency employs inspectors to verify compliance with pollution control and other laws. The U.S. Depart­ ment of Labor and many State governments employ safety and health inspectors, equal opportunity officers, and mine safety and health in­ spectors. The U.S. Department of Interior employs park rangers.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Because of the diversity of the functions they perform, qualifications for inspector and compliance officer jobs vary widely. Requirements in­ clude a combination of education, experience, and passing scores on written examinations. Many employers, including the Federal Gov­ ernment, require college degrees for some positions. Experience in the area being investigated is also a prerequisite for many positions. Al­ though not exhaustive, the following examples illustrate the range of qualifications for various inspector jobs. Air carrier avionics inspector positions must possess aircraft elec­ tronics work experience involving the maintenance and repair of avion­ ics systems in large aircraft, aircraft avionics experience in a repair station, air carrier repair facility, or military repair facility; 3 years of supervisory experience in aircraft avionics as a lead mechanic or re­ pairer who supervises others; and aircraft avionics work experience within the last 3 years. Air carrier maintenance inspectors must possess an FAA mechanic certificate with airframe and power plant ratings; aviation maintenance work experience involving the maintenance and repair of airframes, power plants, and systems of large aircraft under an airworthiness main­ tenance and inspection program; aircraft maintenance experience in a repair station, air carrier repair facility, or military repair facility; 3 years of supervisory experience in aviation maintenance as a lead mechanic or repairer who supervises others; and some aviation maintenance work experience within the last 3 years. Air carrier operations inspectors must possess an airline transport pilot certificate or commercial pilot certificate with instrument airplane rating; pilot experience in large multiengine aircraft with a minimum of 1,500 total flight hours as a pilot or copilot; pilot-in-command experi­ ence in large aircraft within the last 3 years; a minimum of 100 flight hours within the last 3 years; 1,000 flight hours within the last 5 years; the successful completion of turbojet evaluation; and no more than 2 flying accidents in the last 5 years. Applicants for positions as mine safety and health inspectors gener­ ally must have experience in mine safety, management, or supervision. Some may possess a skill such as that of an electrician (for mine electri­ cal inspectors). Applicants must meet strict medical requirements and be physically able to perform arduous duties efficiently. Many mine safety inspectors are former miners. Bank examiners need 5 or more years of experience in examining or auditing (internal or external) financial institutions. Candidates should have demonstrated a thorough understanding of a broad range of busi­ ness risks as well as safety and soundness issues. Successful candi­ dates typically have experience in evaluating computer risk management in financial institutions, including recovery planning, information se­ curity, and data integrity. Environmental health inspectors, also called sanitarians in many States, may have completed a full 4-year course of study that meets all the requirements for a bachelor’s degree, and that included or was supple­ mented by at least 30 semester hours in a science or any combination of sciences directly related to environmental health—for example, sanitary  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 65 science, public health, chemistry, microbiology, or any appropriate agri­ cultural, biological, or physical science. Alternately, they may have 4 years of specialized experience in inspectional, investigational, technical support, or other work that provided a fundamental understanding of environmental health principles, methods, and techniques equivalent to that which would have been gained through a 4-year college curriculum or some combination of education and experience as described above. In most States, they are licensed by examining boards. All inspectors and compliance officers are trained in the applicable laws or inspection procedures through some combination of classroom and on-the-job training. In general, people who want to enter this occupation should be responsible and like detailed work. Inspectors and compliance officers should be able to communicate well. Federal Government inspectors and compliance officers whose job performance is satisfactory advance through their career ladder to a specified full-performance level. For positions above this level, usu­ ally supervisory positions, advancement is competitive and based on agency needs and individual merit. Advancement opportunities in State and local governments and the private sector are often similar to those in the Federal Government.  Job Outlook Average growth in employment of inspectors and compliance officers is expected through 2008, reflecting a balance of continuing public demand for a safe environment and quality products against the desire for smaller government and fewer regulations. Additional job openings will arise from the need to replace those who transfer to other occupa­ tions, retire, or leave the labor force for other reasons. In private indus­ try, employment growth will reflect industry growth and the continuing self-enforcement of government and company regulations and policies, particularly among franchise operations in various industries. Employment of inspectors and compliance officers is seldom af­ fected by general economic fluctuations. Federal, State, and local gov­ ernments, which employ four-fifths of all inspectors, provide consid­ erable job security.  Earnings The median annual salary of inspectors and compliance officers, except construction, was $36,820 in 1998. The middle half earned between $28,540 and $48,670. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $22,750, while the highest 10 percent earned over $72,280. Inspectors and compliance officers employed by local governments had earnings of $31,800 in 1997; those who worked for State governments earned a median annual salary of $33,700; and those in the Federal Government earned $39,900. In the Federal Government, the annual starting salaries for inspec­ tors varied from $25,500 to $31,200 in 1999, depending on the nature of the inspection or compliance activity. Beginning salaries were slightly higher in selected areas where the prevailing local pay level was higher. The following presents average salaries for selected inspectors and compliance officers in the Federal Government in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions in early 1999. Air safety investigators.................................................................. $68,900 Highway safety inspectors............................................................. 68,100 Aviation safety inspectors............................................................. 65,100 Railroad safety inspectors.............................................................. 60,500 Mine safety and health inspectors............................................... 58,000 Environmental protection specialists.......................................... 58,000 Equal employment opportunity officials.................................... 57,900 Safety and occupational health managers................................... 54,000 52,500 Public health quarantine inspectors ............................................. Quality assurance inspectors.......................................................... 50,600 Securities compliance examiners................................................... 43,300 Park ranger....................................................................................... 42,100 Agricultural commodity graders.................................................... 41,600 Consumer safety inspectors........................................................... 37,300 Food inspectors................................................................................ 35,200 Environmental protection assistants........................................... 31,600 Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Most inspectors and compliance officers work for Federal, State, and local governments or in large private firms, most of which gener­ ally offer more generous benefits than do smaller firms.  Related Occupations Inspectors and compliance officers ensure that laws and regulations are obeyed. Others who enforce laws and regulations include con­ struction and building inspectors; fire marshals; Federal, State, and local law enforcement professionals; correctional officers; and fish and game wardens.  Sources of Additional Information Information on obtaining a job with the Federal Government is avail­ able from the Office of Personnel Management through a telephonebased system. Consult a telephone directory under U.S. Government foralocal number or call (912) 757-3000; TDD (912) 744-2299. The number is not tollfree and charges may result. Information also is available from their Internet site: Information about jobs in Federal, State, and local government as well as in private industry is available from the State Employment Service.  Insurance Underwriters (Q*NET 21102)  Significant Points •  •  Employment is projected to grow more slowly than average as insurance companies increasingly use “smart” underwriting software systems that automati­ cally analyze and rate insurance applications. Most large insurance companies prefer college graduates who have a degree in business administra­ tion, finance, or related fields and possess excellent communications and problem-solving skills.  Nature of the Work Insurance companies protect individuals and organizations from finan­ cial loss by assuming billions of dollars in risks each year. Underwriters are needed to identify and calculate the risk of loss from policyholders, establish appropriate premium rates, and write policies that cover these risks. An insurance company may lose business to competitors if the underwriter appraises risks too conservatively, or it may have to pay more claims if the underwriting actions are too liberal.  Underwriters determine premium rates for insurance policies.  66 Occupational Outlook Handbook With the aid of computers, underwriters analyze information in insurance applications to determine if a risk is acceptable and will not result in a loss. Applications are often supplemented with reports from loss-control consultants, medical reports, and actuarial studies. Underwriters then must decide whether to issue the policy and the appropriate premium to charge. In making this determination, under­ writers serve as the main link between the insurance carrier and the insurance agent. On occasion, they accompany sales agents to make presentations to prospective clients. Technology plays an important role in an underwriter’s job. Un­ derwriters use computer applications called “smart systems” to man­ age risks more efficiently and accurately. These systems automati­ cally analyze and rate insurance applications, recommending accep­ tance or denial of the risk, and adjusting the premium rate in accordance with the risk. With these systems, underwriters are better equipped to make sound decisions and avoid excessive losses. Most underwriters specialize in one of three major categories of insurance—life, health, or property and casualty. Life and health in­ surance underwriters may further specialize in group or individual policies. The increased complexity of insurance plans and attention to the “bottom line” is changing the nature of underwriting. In the past, insurance agents acting as underwriters, particularly in the life and health fields, could accept or reject applications. Now this underwrit­ ing role is done mostly by full-time underwriters in the home or field office of the insurance company. Property and casualty underwriters usually specialize in commercial or personal lines and then often by type of risk insured, such as fire, homeowners, automobile, marine, liability, or workers’ compensation. In cases where casualty companies provide insurance through a single “package’ ’ policy, covering various types of risks, the underwriter must be familiar with different lines of insurance. For business insurance, the underwriter often must be able to evaluate the firm’s entire operation in appraising its application for insurance. An increasing proportion of insurance sales, particularly in life and health insurance, is being made through group contracts. A standard group policy insures everyone in a specified group through a single contract at a standard premium rate. The group underwriter analyzes the overall composition of the group to assure that the total risk is not excessive. Another type of group policy provides members of a group— a labor union, for example—with individual policies reflecting their needs. These usually are casualty policies, such as those covering automobiles. The casualty underwriter analyzes the application of each group member and makes individual appraisals. Some group underwriters meet with union or employer representatives to discuss the types of policies available to their group.  Working Conditions Underwriters have desk jobs that require no unusual physical activity. Their offices usually are comfortable and pleasant. Although underwrit­ ers typically work a standard 40-hour week, more are working longer hours due to the downsizing of many insurance companies. Most un­ derwriters are based in a home office, but they occasionally attend meet­ ings away from home for several days. Construction and marine under­ writers frequently travel to inspect work sites and assess risks.  Employment Insurance underwriters held about 97,000jobs in 1998. The following tabulation shows the percent distribution of employment by industry: Property and casualty insurance carriers............................................... 34 Insurance agents, brokers, andservices................................................... 31 Life insurance carriers............................................................................... 16 Medical service and healthinsurancecarriers.......................................... 6 Pension funds and miscellaneous insurance carriers ............................ 5 Other industries.......................................................................................... 8  The majority of underwriters work for insurance companies called “carriers.” Of these underwriters, most work for property and casualty Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  insurance carriers, and secondly for life insurance carriers. Most of the remaining underwriters work in insurance agencies or for organizations that offer insurance services to insurance companies and policyholders. A small number of underwriters work in agencies owned and operated by banks, mortgage companies, and real estate firms. Most underwriters are based in the insurance company’s home office, but some, mostly in the property and casualty area, work out of regional branch offices of the insurance company. These underwriters usually have the authority to underwrite risks and determine an appro­ priate rating without consulting the home office.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement For entry level underwriting jobs, most large insurance companies pre­ fer college graduates who have a degree in business administration or finance, with courses or experience in accounting. However, a bachelor’s degree in almost any field—plus courses in business law and account­ ing—provides a good general background and may be sufficient to qualify. Computer knowledge is essential. New employees usually start as underwriter trainees or assistant underwriters. They may help collect information on applicants and evaluate routine applications under the supervision of an experienced risk analyst. Property and casualty trainees study claim files to become familiar with factors associated with certain types of losses. Many larger insurers offer work-study training programs, lasting from a few months to a year. As trainees gain experience, they are assigned policy applications that are more complex and cover greater risks. These re­ quire the use of computers for more efficient analysis and processing. Continuing education is necessary for advancement. Insurance com­ panies usually pay tuition for underwriting courses that their trainees successfully complete; some also offer salary incentives. Independent study programs for experienced property and casualty underwriters are also available. The Insurance Institute of America offers a program called “Introduction to Underwriting” for beginning underwriters, and the specialty designation, AU, or Associate in Underwriting, the second formal step in developing a career in underwriting. To earn the AU designation, underwriters complete a series of courses and examina­ tions that generally last 2 years. The American Institute for Chartered Property Casualty Underwrit­ ers awards the designation, CPCU, or Chartered Property and Casualty Underwriter, the third and final stage of development for an under­ writer. Earning the more advanced CPCU designation takes about 5 years, and requires passing 10 examinations covering personal and commercial insurance, risk management, business and insurance law, accounting, finance, management, economics, and ethics. Although CPCU’s may be underwriters, the CPCU is intended for everyone working in all aspects of property and casualty insurance. The Ameri­ can College offers the Chartered Life Underwriter (CLU) designation and the Registered Health Underwriter (RHU) designation for al I pro­ fessionals working in the fields of life and health insurance. Underwriting can be a satisfying career for people who enjoy ana­ lyzing information and paying attention to detail. In addition, under­ writers must possess good judgment in order to make sound decisions. Excellent communication and interpersonal skills are also essential, as much of their work involves dealing with agents and other insurance professionals. Experienced underwriters who complete courses of study may ad­ vance to senior underwriter or underwriting manager positions. Some underwriting managers are promoted to senior managerial jobs. At some carriers, a master’s degree is needed to achieve this level. Other underwrit­ ers are attracted to the earnings potential of sales and therefore obtain State licenses to sell insurance and insurance products as agents or brokers.  Job Outlook Employment of underwriters is expected to increase more slowly than the average for all occupations through 2008. Computer-assisted soft­ ware that helps underwriters analyze policy applications more quickly and accurately has made underwriters more productive and capable of  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 67 taking on a greater workload. Mergers and acquisitions of insurance companies are also expected to continue to result in more downsizing of insurance carriers. Most job openings will result from the need to replace underwriters who transfer or leave the occupation, although several new job openings are being created for underwriters in the area of product development. These underwriters help set the premiums for new insurance products, such as in the growing field of long-term care insurance. The best job prospects will be for underwriters with the right skills and credentials, such as excellent computer and communication skills, coupled with a background in finance. Job prospects may be better in health insurance than in property and casualty and life insurance. As Federal and State laws require health insurers to accept more appli­ cants for insurance, the number of policies sold will increase. Also, as the population ages, there will be a greater need for health and long­ term care insurance. Because insurance is considered a necessity for people and busi­ nesses, there will always be a need for underwriters. It is a profession that is less subject to recession and layoffs than other fields. Under­ writers who specialize, though, may have difficulty transferring to another underwriting specialty if downsizing were to occur.  Loan officers obtain financial informationfrom clients. •  Earnings Median annual earnings of insurance underwriters were $38,710 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned between $29,790 and $51,460 a year. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $23,750; while the top 10 percent earned over $77,430. Median annual earnings in the industries employing the largest number of insurance underwriters in 1997 were: Medical service and health insurance........................................... $40,000 Life insurance .................................................................................. 39,800 Fire, marine, and casualty insurance............................................ 39,100 Insurance agents, brokers, and service......................................... 32,200  Insurance companies usually provide better than average benefits, including employer-financed group life, health, and retirement plans.  Related Occupations Underwriters make decisions on the basis of financial data. Other workers with the same type of responsibility include auditors, budget analysts, financial advisers, loan officers, credit managers, real estate appraisers, and risk managers.  Sources of Additional Information Information about a career as an insurance underwriter is available from the home offices of many life insurance and property-liability insurance companies. Information about careers in the property-casualty insur­ ance field can be obtained by contacting: <•" The Insurance Information Institute, 110 William St., New York, NY 10038. Internet:  Information on the underwriting function, in particular, and the CPCU and AU designation can be obtained from: «■ The American Institute for Chartered Property and Casualty Under­ writers, and the Insurance Institute of America, 720 Providence Rd., P.O. Box 3016, Malvern, PA 19355-0716. Internet:  Loan Officers and Counselors (0*NET 21108)  Significant Points •  Loan officer positions generally require a bachelor’s degree in finance, economics, or a related field; training or experience in banking, lending, or sales is advantageous. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Low interest rates will keep demand for loans high, causing employment of loan officers to grow about as fast as average; growth will be tempered by technol­ ogy that makes these employees more productive.  Nature of the Work For many individuals, taking out a loan may be the only way to afford a house, car, or college education. Likewise for businesses, loans are essential to start many companies, purchase inventory, or invest in capital equipment. Loan officers facilitate this lending by seeking potential clients and assisting them in applying for loans. Loan offic­ ers also gather information about clients and businesses to ensure that an informed decision is made regarding the quality of the loan and the probability of repayment. Loan officers usually specialize in commercial, consumer, or mort­ gage loans. Commercial or business loans help companies pay for new equipment or expand operations; consumer loans include home equity, automobile, and personal loans; and mortgage loans are made to pur­ chase real estate or to refinance an existing mortgage. In addition, banks and other lenders are offering a growing variety of loans. Loan officers must keep abreast of new types of loans and other financial products and services, so they can meet their customers’ needs. In many instances, loan officers act as salespeople. Commercial loan officers, for example, contact firms to determine the firms’ demand for loans. If the firm is seeking new funds, the loan officer will try to persuade the company to obtain the loan from their institution. Simi­ larly, mortgage loan officers develop relationships with commercial and residential real estate agencies, so when an individual or firm buys a property, the real estate agent might recommend contacting that loan officer for financing. Once this initial contact has been made, loan officers guide clients through the process of applying for a loan. This process begins with a formal meeting or telephone call with a prospective client, during which the loan officer obtains basic information about the purpose of the loan and explains the different types of loans and credit terms that are available to the applicant. Sometimes, the loan officer assists the client in filling out the application and answers questions about the process. After completing the forms, the loan officer begins the process of analyzing and verifying the application to determine the client’s credit­ worthiness. The loan officer may request a copy of the client’s credit history from one of the major credit reporting agencies, or in the case of commercial loans, she or he may request copies of the company’s financial statements. Loan officers include this information and their written comments in a loan file, used to analyze the viability of the loan vis-a-vis the lending institution’s requirements. At this point, the loan officer, in consultation with her or his manager, decides whether  68 Occupational Outlook Handbook to grant the loan. If approved, a repayment schedule is then arranged with the client. A loan that would otherwise be denied may be approved, if the customer can provide the lender with appropriate collateral—prop­ erty pledged as security for the payment of a loan. For example, when lending money for a college education, the bank may insist that the borrower offer her or his home as collateral. If the borrower were ever unable to repay the loan, the borrower would have to sell the home to raise the necessary money. Once the loan has been granted, loan counselors, also called loan collection officers, may need to contact borrowers with delinquent accounts to help them find a method of repayment to avoid default on the loan. If a repayment plan cannot be developed, the loan counselor initiates collateral liquidation, in which case the collateral used to secure the loan—a home or car, for example—is seized by the lender and sold to repay the loan. A loan officer can also perform this function.  Working Conditions Working as a loan officer usually involves considerable travel. For example, commercial and mortgage loan officers frequently work away from their offices and rely on laptop computers, cellular phones, and pagers to keep in contact with their offices and clients. Mortgage loan officers often work out of their home or car, visiting offices or homes of clients while completing loan applications. Commercial loan officers sometimes travel to other cities to prepare complex loan agreements. Consumer loan officers and loan counselors, however, are likely to spend most of their time in an office. Most loan officers and counselors work a standard 40-hour week, but many work longer, depending on the number of clients and the demand for loans. Mortgage loan officers can work especially long hours, because they are free to take on as many customers as they choose. Loan officers usually carry a heavy caseload and sometimes cannot accept new clients until they complete current cases. They are especially busy when interest rates are low, triggering a surge in loan applications.  Employment Loan officers and counselors held about 227,000 jobs in 1998. Ap­ proximately half were employed by commercial banks, savings institu­ tions, and credit unions. Others were employed by nonbank financial institutions, such as mortgage banking and brokerage firms and per­ sonal credit firms. Loan officers are employed throughout the Nation, but most work in urban and suburban areas. In rural areas, the branch or assistant manager often handles the loan application process.  purposes, loan officers must be willing to attend community events as a representative of their employer. Capable loan officers and counselors may advance to larger branches of the firm or to managerial positions, while less capable workers— and those having inadequate academic preparation—could be assigned to smaller branches and might find promotion difficult. Advancement beyond a loan officer position usually includes supervising other loan officers and clerical staff.  Job Outlook Employment of loan officers and counselors is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through 2008. Job growth will be driven by an increasing population, expanding economy, and low inter­ est rates, which will lead to more applications for commercial, con­ sumer, and mortgage loans. Growth in the variety and complexity of loans, coupled with the importance of loan officers to the success of banks and other lending institutions, should also assure employment growth. Although increased demand will generate many new jobs, most openings will result from the need to replace workers who leave the occupation or retire. Employment growth will be tempered by several factors. First, refinancing of mortgages, a major contributor to the recent growth in the number of loan officers, is expected to diminish, because people who needed to refinance have already done so. Also, computers, underwrit­ ing software, and communication technologies are making loan officers more productive. They can now spend more time in the field with prospective clients, while still keeping in touch with the office. Also, qualifying applicants for loans is being made easier with computers performing much of the analysis. The Internet is also expected to slightly dampen the demand for loan officers, as a growing number of people apply for loans online. Employment of loan officers is subject to the upturns and downturns of the economy. When interest rates decline dramatically, there is a surge in real estate buying and refinancing that requires additional loan officers specializing in mortgage financing. When the real estate market returns to normal, loan officers can be subject to layoffs. The same applies to commercial loan officers whose workloads increase during good economic times, as companies seek to invest more in their busi­ nesses. In difficult economic conditions, loan counselors are likely to see an increase in the number of delinquent loans. Even in economic downturns, however, loans remain the major source of revenue for banks, so the fundamental role of loan officers will contribute to job stability. Moreover, because loan officers are often paid by commission, the bank may retain them simply by paying less compensation. As in the past, college graduates and those with banking, lending, or sales experience should have the best job prospects.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Loan officer positions generally require a bachelor’s degree in fi­ nance, economics, or a related field. Most employers prefer appli­ cants who are familiar with computers and their applications in bank­ ing. For commercial or mortgage loan officer jobs, training or experi­ ence in sales is highly valued by potential employers. Loan officers without college degrees usually have reached their positions by ad­ vancing through the ranks of an organization and acquiring several years of work experience in various other occupations, such as teller or customer service representative. The American Institute of Banking, which is affiliated with the American Bankers Association, offers correspondence courses and college and university classes for students interested in lending as well as for experienced loan officers who want to keep their skills current. The Mortgage Bankers Association’s School of Mortgage Banking also offers classes, both classroom and Internet-based, for people involved in real estate lending. Completion of these courses and programs enhances one’s employment and advancement opportunities. Persons planning a career as a loan officer or counselor should be capable of developing effective working relationships with others, con­ fident in their abilities, and highly motivated. For public relations Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Earnings Median annual earnings of loan officers and counselors were $35,340 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned between $26,380 and $50,240. The lowest 10 percent had earnings of less than $20,990, while the top 10 percent earned over $82,270. Median annual earnings in the industries employing the largest number of loan officers and counse­ lors in 1997 were: Commercial banks........................................................................... $36,400 Mortgage bankers and brokers....................................................... 34,700 Savings institutions.......................................................................... 34,700 Personal credit institutions............................................................ 26,800 Credit unions.................................................................................... 25,300  The form of compensation for loan officers varies. Most loan officers are paid a commission that is based on the number of loans they originate. In this way, commissions are used to motivate loan officers to bring in more loans. Some institutions pay only salaries, while others pay their loan officers a salary plus a commission or bonus, based on the number of loans originated. Banks and other  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 69 lenders sometimes offer their loan officers free checking privileges and somewhat lower interest rates on personal loans. According to a salary survey conducted by Robert Half Interna­ tional, a staffing services firm specializing in accounting and finance, residential real estate mortgage loan officers earned between $31,600 and $47,000 in 1998; commercial real estate mortgage loan officers, between $46,000 and $74,000; consumer loan officers, between $30,000 and $49,000; and commercial loan officers, between $38,400 and $85,000. Smaller banks ordinarily paid 15 percent less than larger banks. Loan officers who are paid on a commission basis usually earn more than those on salary only.  ■s  **  Related Occupations Loan officers help the public manage financial assets and secure loans. Occupations that involve similar functions include securities and fi­ nancial services sales representatives, financial aid officers, real estate agents and brokers, and insurance agents and brokers.  Sources of Additional Information Information about a career as a loan officer or counselor can be ob­ tained from: <*■ American Bankers Association, 1120 Connecticut Ave. NW., Wash­ ington, DC 20036. Internet: *■ Mortgage Bankers Association of America, 1125 15lh St. NW., Wash­ ington, DC 20005. Internet:  State bankers’ associations can furnish specific information about job opportunities in their State. Also, individual banks can supply information about job openings and the activities, responsibilities, and preferred qualifications of their loan officers.  Management Analysts (0*NET 21905)  Significant Points •  • •  Almost 55 percent are self-employed, about four times the average for other executive, administrative, and managerial occupations. Most positions in the private sector require a master’s degree and at least five years of specialized experience. Despite projected faster than average employment growth, intense competition is expected for jobs.  Nature of the Work As the business environment becomes more complex, the Nation’s firms are continually faced with new challenges. Firms increasingly rely on management analysts help them remain competitive amidst these changes. Management analysts, often referred to as management con­ sultants in the private sector, analyze and propose ways to improve an organization’s structure, efficiency, or profits. For example, a small but rapidly growing company that needs help improving the system of control over inventories and expenses may decide to employ a consult­ ant who is an expert in just-in-time inventory management. In another case, a large company that has recently acquired a new division may hire management analysts to help reorganize their corporate structure and eliminate duplicate or non-essential jobs. Firms providing management analysis range in size from a single practitioner to large international organizations employing thousands of consultants. Some analysts and consultants specialize in a specific industry while others specialize by type of business function, such as human resources or information systems. In government, management analysts tend to specialize by type of agency. The work of manage­ ment analysts and consultants varies with each client or employer, and from project to project. Some projects require a team of consultants, each specializing in one area. In other projects, consultants work Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Management analysts and consultants propose ways to improve organizations. independently with the organization’s managers. In all cases, analysts and consultants collect, review, and analyze information, in order to make recommendations to management. Both public and private organizations use consultants for a variety of reasons. Some lack the internal resources needed to handle a project, while others need a consultant’s expertise to determine what resources will be required and what problems may be encountered, if they pursue a particular opportunity. To retain a consultant, a company first solicits proposals from a number of consulting firms specializing in the area in which it needs assistance. These proposals include the estimated cost and scope of the project, staffing requirements, references from a num­ ber of previous clients, and a completion deadline. The company then selects the proposal that best suits its needs. After obtaining an assignment or contract, management analysts first define the nature and extent of the problem. During this phase, they analyze relevant data, which may include annual revenues, em­ ployment, or expenditures, and interview managers and employees while observing their operations. The analyst or consultant then develops solutions to the problem. In the course of preparing their recommendations, they take into account the nature of the organiza­ tion, the relationship it has with others in that industry, and its internal organization and culture. Insight into the problem is often gained by building and solving mathematical models. Once they have decided on a course of action, consultants report their findings and recommendations to the client. These suggestions are usually submitted in writing, but oral presentations regarding findings are also common. For some projects, management analysts are retained to help implement their suggestions. Management analysts in government agencies use the same skills as their private-sector colleagues to advise managers on many types of issues, most of which are similar to the problems faced by private firms. For example, if an agency is planning to purchase personal computers, it must first determine which type to buy, given its budget and data processing needs. In this case, management analysts would assess the prices and characteristics of various machines and determine which best meets their department’s needs.  Working Conditions Management analysts usually divide their time between their offices and the client’s site. In either situation, much of an analyst’s time is spent indoors in clean, well-lit offices. Since they must spend a signifi­ cant portion of their time with clients, analysts travel frequently. Analysts and consultants generally work at least 40 hours a week. Uncompensated overtime is common, especially when approaching project deadlines. Analysts may experience a great deal of stress as a result of trying to meet a client's demands, often on a tight schedule.  70 Occupational Outlook Handbook Self-employed consultants can set their workload and hours and work at home. On the other hand, their livelihood depends on their ability to maintain and expand their client base. Salaried consultants also must impress potential clients to get and keep clients for their company.  Employment Management analysts held about 344,000 jobs in 1998. They are found throughout the country, but employment is concentrated in large metropolitan areas. Almost 55 percent of these workers were self-employed. Most of the remainder worked in financial and man­ agement consulting firms and for Federal, State, and local govern­ ments. The majority of those working for the Federal Government are in the Department of Defense.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Educational requirements for entry-level jobs in this field vary widely between private industry and government. Employers in private indus­ try generally seek individuals with a master’s degree in business ad­ ministration or a related discipline and at least 5 years of experience in the field in which they plan to consult. Most government agencies hire people with a bachelor’s degree and no pertinent work experience for entry-level management analyst positions. Many fields of study provide a suitable educational background for this occupation because of the wide range of areas addressed by man­ agement analysts. These include most academic programs in business and management, as well as computer and information sciences and engineering. In addition to the appropriate formal education, most en­ trants to this occupation have years of experience in management, hu­ man resources, inventory control, or other specialties. Analysts also routinely attend conferences to keep abreast of current developments in their field. Management analysts often work with minimal supervision, so they should be self-motivated and disciplined. Analytical skills, the ability to get along with a wide range of people, strong oral and written com­ munication skills, good judgment, time management skills, and creativ­ ity are other desirable qualities. The ability to work in teams is also becoming a more important attribute in the field as consulting teams become more common. As consultants gain experience, they often become solely respon­ sible for a specific project full time, taking on more responsibility and managing their own hours. At the senior level, consultants may super­ vise lower-level workers and become more involved in seeking out new business. Those with exceptional skills may eventually become a part­ ner or principal in the firm. Others with entrepreneurial ambition may open their own firm. A high percentage of management consultants are self-employed, partly because business start-up costs are low. Self-employed con­ sultants also can share office space, administrative help, and other resources with other self-employed consultants or small consulting firms—thus reducing overhead costs. Because many small consulting firms fail each year for lack of managerial expertise and clients, those interested in opening their own firm must have good organizational and marketing skills and several years of consulting experience. The Institute of Management Consultants, a division of the Coun­ cil of Consulting Organizations, Inc., offers the Certified Management Consultant (CMC) designation to those who pass an examination and meet minimum levels of education and experience. Certification is not mandatory for management consultants, but it may give a job seeker a competitive advantage.  expected to be best for those with a graduate degree, industry expertise, and a talent for salesmanship and public relations. Employment of management analysts is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through 2008, as industry and government increasingly rely on outside expertise to improve the per­ formance of their organizations. Job growth is projected in very large consulting firms with international expertise and in smaller niche con­ sulting firms that specialize in specific areas, such as biotechnology, health care, human resources, engineering, and telecommunications. Growth in the number of individual practitioners may be hindered, however, by clients’ increasing demand for a team approach, which enables examination of a variety of different issues and problems within an organization. Employment growth of management analysts and consultants has been driven by a number a changes in the business environment that have forced American firms to take a closer look at their operations. As international and domestic markets have become more competitive, firms have needed to use resources more efficiently. Management analysts are increasingly sought to help reduce costs, streamline op­ erations, and develop marketing strategies. As this process continues and businesses downsize, even more opportunities will be created for analysts to perform duties that were previously handled internally. In addition, many companies will rely on analysts to organize and evaluate their restructuring efforts. Businesses attempting to expand internationally will need the skills of management analysts to help with organizational, administrative, and other issues. Further, as busi­ nesses increasingly rely on technology, there will be more demand for analysts with a technical background, such as engineering or biotech­ nology, particularly when combined with a master’s degree in business administration. Finally, management analysts will also be in greater demand in the public sector, as Federal, State, and local agencies are expected to seek ways to become more efficient.  Earnings Salaries for management analysts vary widely by experience, educa­ tion, and employer. Median annual earnings of management analysts in 1998 were $49,470. The middle 50 percent earned between $39,420 and $72,690. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $31,800, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $88,470. Median annual earnings in the industries employing the largest numbers of manage­ ment analysts and consultants in 1997 were: Management and public relations.................................................. $57,200 Federal government........................................................................ 56,400 Local government, except education and hospitals.................. 47,500 Computer and data processing services....................................... 47,500 State government, except education and hospitals.................. 39,600  According to a 1998 survey by the Association of Management Consulting Firms, earnings—including bonuses and/or profit sharing— for research associates in member firms averaged $38,900; for entry level consultants, $50,500; for management consultants, $69,700; for senior consultants, $96,800; for junior partners, $ 151,100; and for se­ nior partners, $266,700. Salaried management analysts usually receive common benefits such as health and life insurance, a retirement plan, vacation and sick leave, as well as less common benefits such as profit sharing and bonuses for outstanding work. In addition, all travel expenses usually are reim­ bursed by the employer. Self-employed consultants have to maintain their own office and provide their own benefits.  Job Outlook Despite projected rapid employment growth, keen competition is ex­ pected for jobs as management analysts. Because analysts can come from such diverse educational backgrounds, the pool of applicants from which employers can draw is quite large. Furthermore, the independent and challenging nature of the work, combined with high earnings poten­ tial, make this occupation attractive to many. Job opportunities are Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Related Occupations Management analysts collect, review, and analyze data; make recom­ mendations; and implement their ideas. Others who use similar skills include managers, computer systems analysts, operations research analysts, economists, and financial analysts. Researchers prepare data and reports for analysts to use in their recommendations.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 71  Sources of Additional Information Information about career opportunities in management consulting is available from: »• The Association of Management Consulting Firms, 3580 Lexington Ave., Suite 1700, New York, NY 10168. Internet:  Information about the Certified Management Consultant designation can be obtained from: «• The Institute of Management Consultants, 1200 19,h St. NW„ Suite 300, Washington DC 20036. Internet:  For information about a career as a State or local government management analyst, contact your State or local employment ser­ vice. Information on obtaining a management analyst position with the Federal Government may be obtained from the Office of Person­ nel Management through a telephone based system. Consult your telephone directory under U.S. Government for a local number or call (912) 757-3000; TDD (912) 744-2299. That number is not tollfree and charges may result. Information also is available from their Internet site:  Property, Real Estate, and Community Association Managers (0*NET 1501 IB)  Significant Points •  • •  Most enter the occupation as on-site managers of apartment complexes, condominiums, or community associations, or as assistant managers at large prop­ erty management firms. Opportunities should be best for those with college degrees in business administration or related fields. Almost one half were self-employed, three times the average for all executive, administrative, and manage­ rial occupations.  Property managers coordinate with maintenance staffto inspect the grounds, facilities, and equipment to determine if repairs or maintenance are needed.  Nature of the Work Many people own some type of real estate, such as a house. To busi­ nesses and investors, however, properly managed real estate is a potential source of income and profits rather than a place of shelter. Property, real estate, and community association managers maintain and increase the value of real estate investments for investors. Property and real estate managers oversee the performance of income-producing commercial or residential properties; community association managers manage the com­ munal property and services of condominium or community associations. When owners of apartments, office buildings, retail, or industrial properties lack the time or expertise needed for day-to-day management of their real estate investments, they often hire a property or real estate manager. The manager is either directly employed by the owner or indirectly employed through a contract with a property management firm. Property managers handle the financial operations of the property, insuring that mortgages, taxes, insurance premiums, payroll, and main­ tenance bills are paid on time. Some property managers, called asset property managers, supervise the preparation of financial statements and periodically report to the owners on the status of the property, occupancy rates, dates of lease expirations, and other matters. If necessary, property managers negotiate contracts for janitorial, security, groundskeeping, trash removal, and other services. When contracts are awarded competitively, managers solicit bids from sev­ eral contractors and recommend to the owners which bid to accept. They monitor the performance of contractors, and investigate and resolve complaints from residents and tenants when services are not properly provided. Managers also purchase supplies and equipment Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  for the property, and make arrangements with specialists for repairs that cannot be handled by regular property maintenance staff. In addition to these duties, property managers must understand and comply with provisions of legislation, such as the Americans with Disabilities Act and the Federal Fair Housing Amendment Act, as well as local fair housing laws. They must insure that their renting and advertising practices are not discriminatory and that the property it­ self complies with State and Federal regulations. On-site property managers are responsible for day-to-day opera­ tions for one piece of property, such as an office building, shopping center, or apartment complex. To insure the property is safe and being maintained properly, on-site managers routinely inspect the grounds, facilities, and equipment to determine if repairs or maintenance are needed. They meet not only with current residents when handling requests for repairs or trying to resolve complaints, but also with prospective residents or tenants to show vacant apartments or office space. On­ site managers are also responsible for enforcing the terms of rental or lease agreements, such as rent collection, parking and pet restrictions, and termination-of-lease procedures. Other important duties of on­ site managers include keeping accurate, up-to-date records of income and expenditures from property operations and the submission of regular expense reports to the asset property manager or owners. Property managers who do not work on-site act as a liaison be­ tween the on-site manager and the owner. They also market vacant space to prospective tenants through the use of a leasing agent, adver­ tising, or by other means, and establish rental rates in accordance with prevailing local conditions.  72 Occupational Outlook Handbook Some property managers, often called real estate asset managers, act as the property owners’ agent and adviser for the property. They plan and direct the purchase, development, and disposition of real estate on behalf of the business and investors. These managers focus on long-term strategic financial planning rather than day-to-day opera­ tions of the property. When deciding to acquire property, real estate asset managers take several factors into consideration, such as property values, taxes, zon­ ing, population growth, and traffic volume and patterns. Once a site is selected, they negotiate contracts for the purchase or lease of the property, securing the most beneficial terms. Real estate asset manag­ ers periodically review their company’s real estate holdings and iden­ tify properties that are no longer financially attractive. They then negotiate the sale or termination of the lease of properties selected for disposal. For more information, see the statement on real estate agents and brokers, located elsewhere in the Handbook. The work of community association managers differs from that of other residential property managers. Instead of renters, they interact on a daily basis with homeowners—members of the community as­ sociation employing the manager. Hired by the volunteer board of directors of the association, the community association manager ad­ ministers the daily affairs and oversees the maintenance of property and facilities that the homeowners own and use jointly through the association. Smaller community associations usually cannot afford professional management, but managers of larger condominiums or homeowner associations have many of the same responsibilities as the managers of large apartment complexes. Some homeowner asso­ ciations encompass thousands of homes, and, in addition to adminis­ tering the associations’ financial records and budget, their managers are responsible for the operation of community pools, golf courses, community centers, and the maintenance of landscaping and parking areas. Community association managers may also meet with the elected boards of directors to discuss and resolve legal and environ­ mental issues or disputes between neighbors. Property managers who work for land development companies acquire land and plan construction of shopping centers, houses, apart­ ments, office buildings, or industrial parks. They negotiate with rep­ resentatives of local governments, other businesses, community and public interest groups, and public utilities to eliminate obstacles to the development of land and gain support for a planned project. It some­ times takes years to win approval for a project, and in the process managers may have to modify plans for the project many times. Once they are free to proceed with a project, managers negotiate short-term loans to finance the construction of the project, and later negotiate long-term permanent mortgage loans. They then contract with archi­ tectural firms to draw up detailed plans, and with construction compa­ nies to build the project.  Working Conditions Offices of most property managers are clean, modem, and well-lighted. However, many spend a major portion of their time away from their desks. On-site managers in particular may spend a large portion of their workday away from their office visiting the building engineer, showing apartments, checking on the janitorial and maintenance staff, or investigating problems reported by tenants. Property managers frequently visit the properties they oversee, sometimes on a daily basis when contractors are doing major repair or renovation work. Real estate asset managers may spend time away from home while traveling to company real estate holdings or searching for properties that might be acquired. Property managers often must attend meetings in the evening with residents, property owners, community association boards of direc­ tors, or civic groups. Not surprisingly, many property managers put in long work weeks, especially before financial and tax reports are due. Some apartment managers are required to live in apartment complexes where they work so they are available to handle any emergency that occurs when they are off duty. They usually receive compensatory time for working nights or weekends. Many apartment managers Digitized foroff FRASER Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  receive time off during the week so that they are available on weekends to show apartments to prospective residents.  Employment Property managers held about 315,000jobs in 1998. Most worked for real estate operators and lessors or for property management firms. Others worked for real estate development companies, government agencies that manage public buildings, and corporations with extensive holdings of commercial properties. Almost one half of property man­ agers were self-employed.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Most employers prefer to hire college graduates for property manage­ ment positions. Entrants with degrees in business administration, ac­ counting, finance, real estate, public administration, or related fields are preferred, but those with degrees in the liberal arts may also qualify. Good speaking, writing, computer, and financial skills, as well as an ability to deal tactfully with people, are essential in all areas of prop­ erty management. Most people enter property management as an on-site manager of an apartment complex, condominium, or community association, or as an assistant manager at a large property management firm. As they acquire experience working under the direction of a property manager, they may advance to positions with greater responsibility at larger properties. Those who excel as on-site managers often transfer to assistant property manager positions where they can acquire experience handling a broad range of property management responsibilities. Previous employment as a real estate agent may be an asset to on-site managers because it provides experience useful in showing apartments or office space. In the past, those with backgrounds in building mainte­ nance have advanced to on-site manager positions on the strength of their knowledge of building mechanical systems, but this is becoming less common as employers are placing greater emphasis on administra­ tive, financial, and communication abilities for managerial jobs. Although most people entering jobs such as assistant property manager do so on the strength of on-site management experience, em­ ployers are increasingly hiring inexperienced college graduates with bachelor’s or master’s degrees in business administration, accounting, finance, or real estate for these positions. Assistants work closely with a property manager and learn how to prepare budgets, analyze insurance coverage and risk options, market property to prospective tenants, and collect overdue rent payments. In time, many assistants advance to property manager positions. The responsibilities and compensation of property managers in­ crease as they manage more and larger properties. Most property managers are responsible for several properties at a time, and as their careers advance they are gradually entrusted with larger properties whose management is more complex. Many specialize in the man­ agement of one type of property, such as apartments, office build­ ings, condominiums, cooperatives, homeowner associations, or retail properties. Managers who excel at marketing properties to tenants may specialize in managing new properties, while those who are particularly knowledgeable about buildings and their mechanical sys­ tems might specialize in the management of older properties requir­ ing renovation or more frequent repairs. Some experienced property managers open their own property management firms. Persons most commonly enter real estate asset manager jobs by transferring from positions as property managers or real estate brokers. Real estate asset managers must be good negotiators, adept at persuad­ ing and handling people, and good at analyzing data to assess the fair market value of property or its development potential. Resourceful­ ness and creativity in arranging financing are essential for managers who specialize in land development. Many employers encourage attendance at short-term formal train­ ing programs conducted by various professional and trade associa­ tions active in the real estate field. Employers send managers to these programs to improve their management skills and expand their  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 73 knowledge of specialized subjects, such as the operation and mainte­ nance of building mechanical systems, enhancing property values, insurance and risk management, personnel management, business and real estate law, tenant relations, communications, and accounting and financial concepts. Managers also participate in these programs to prepare themselves for positions of greater responsibility in prop­ erty management. Completion of these programs, together with re­ lated job experience and a satisfactory score on a written examina­ tion, leads to certification, or the formal award of a professional designation, by the sponsoring association. In addition to these qualifications, some associations require their members to adhere to a specific code of ethics. Some of the organizations offering such programs are listed at the end of this statement. Managers of public housing subsidized by the Federal Government are required to be certified, but many property managers, who work with all types of property, choose to earn a professional designation voluntarily because it represents formal industry recognition of their achievements and status in the occupation. Real estate asset managers who buy or sell property are required to be licensed by the State in which they practice.  Job Outlook Employment of property, real estate, and community association man­ agers is projected to increase as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2008. Many job openings are expected to occur as property managers transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Opportunities should be best for those with a college degree in business administration, real estate, or a related field; as well as those who attain a professional designation. Growth in the demand for on-site property managers will be greatest in several areas. In commercial real estate, the demand for managers is expected to accompany the projected expansion in whole­ sale and retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. Some additional employment growth will come from expansion of existing buildings. An increase in the Nation’s stock of apartments and houses also should require more property managers. Developments of new homes are increasingly being organized with community or homeowner asso­ ciations that provide community services and oversee jointly owned common areas, requiring professional management. To help properties become more profitable, more commercial and multi-unit residential property owners are expected to place their investments in the hands of professional managers. Growth in demand should also arise as a result of the changing demographic composition of the population. The number of older people will increase during the projection period, creating a need for various types of suitable housing, such as assisted living arrangements and retirement communities. Accordingly, there will be a need for property managers to operate these facilities, especially those who have a background in the operation and administrative aspects of run­ ning a health unit.  Earnings Median annual earnings of salaried property, real estate, and community association managers were $29,930 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned between $21,020 and $43,080 a year. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $ 14,570 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $74,500 a year. Median annual earnings of salaried property, real estate, and community association managers in 1997 were $29,700 in the real estate agents and managers industry and $26,900 in the real estate operators and lessors industry. Many resident apartment managers receive the use of an apartment as part of their compensation package. Property managers often are given the use of a company automobile, and managers employed in land development often receive a small percentage of ownership in projects they develop. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Related Occupations Property managers plan, organize, staff, and manage the real estate operations of businesses. Workers who perform similar functions in other fields include city managers, education administrators, facilities managers, health services managers, hotel managers and assistants, real estate agents and brokers, and restaurant and food service managers.  Sources of Additional Information General information about education and careers in property manage­ ment is available from: Institute of Real Estate Management, 430 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60611. Internet: *" International Council of Shopping Centers, 665 5,h Ave., New York, NY 10022. Internet:  For information on careers and certification programs in commercial property management, contact: *■ Building Owners and Managers Association International, 1201 New York Ave. NW., Suite 300, Washington, DC 20005. Internet: Building Owners and Managers Institute, 1521 Ritchie Hwy., Arnold, MD 21012. Internet:  For information on careers and certification programs in residential property management, contact: *' Community Associations Institute, 1630 Duke St„ Alexandria, VA 22314. Internet: *■ National Apartment Association, 201 N. Union St., Suite 200, Alexan­ dria, VA 22314. Internet: "■ National Association of Residential Property Managers, 6300 Dutchmans Pkwy., Louisville, KY 40205. Internet:  Purchasing Managers, Buyers, and Purchasing Agents (0*NET 13008, 21302, 21305A, 21308A)  Significant Points • •  Computerization has reduced the demand for lowerlevel buyers. About one-half were employed in wholesale trade or manufacturing establishments.  Nature of the Work Purchasing managers, buyers, and purchasing agents seek to obtain the highest quality merchandise at the lowest possible purchase cost for their employers. In general, purchasers buy goods and services for their company or organization, whereas some buyers buy items for resale. They determine which commodities or services are best, choose the suppliers of the product or service, negotiate the lowest price, and award contracts that ensure the correct amount of the product or ser­ vice is received at the appropriate time. In order to accomplish these tasks successfully, purchasing managers, buyers, and purchasing agents study sales records and inventory levels of current stock, identify foreign and domestic suppliers, and keep abreast of changes affecting both the supply of and demand for products and materials for which they are responsible. Purchasing managers, buyers, and purchasing agents evaluate sup­ pliers based upon price, quality, service support, availability, reli­ ability, and selection. To assist them in their search, they review catalogs, industry periodicals, directories, trade journals, and Internet sites. They research the reputation and history of the suppliers and may advertise anticipated purchase actions in order to solicit bids. At meetings, trade shows, conferences, and visits to suppliers’ plants and distribution centers, they examine products and services, assess a supplier’s production and distribution capabilities, and discuss  74 Occupational Outlook Handbook other technical and business considerations that influence the pur­ chasing decision. Once all the necessary information on suppliers is gathered, orders are placed and contracts are awarded to those sup­ pliers who meet the purchasers’ needs. Other specific job duties and responsibilities vary by employer and by the type of commodities or services to be purchased. Purchasing professionals employed by government agencies or manu­ facturing firms are usually called purchasing directors, managers, or agents; buyers or industrial buyers; or contract specialists. These workers acquire product materials, intermediate goods, machines, sup­ plies, services, and other materials used in the production of a final product. Some purchasing managers specialize in negotiating and su­ pervising supply contracts and are called contract or supply managers. Purchasing agents and managers obtain items ranging from raw materi­ als, fabricated parts, machinery, and office supplies to construction services and airline tickets. The flow of work—or even the entire production process—can be slowed or halted if the right materials, supplies, or equipment are not on hand when needed. To be effective, purchasing professionals must have a working technical knowledge of the goods or services to be purchased. In large industrial organizations, a distinction often is drawn be­ tween the work of a buyer or purchasing agent and that of a purchasing manager. Purchasing agents and buyers commonly focus on routine purchasing tasks, often specializing in a commodity or group of related commodities—for example, steel, lumber, cotton, grains, fabricated metal products, or petroleum products. The purchaser usually tracks things such as market conditions, price trends, or futures markets. Purchasing managers usually handle the more complex or critical purchases and may supervise a group of purchasing agents handling other goods and services. Whether a person is titled purchasing manager, buyer, or purchasing agent depends more on specific industry and employer prac­ tices than on specific job duties. Changing business practices have altered the traditional roles of purchasing professionals in many industries. For example, manufac­ turing companies increasingly involve purchasing professionals at most stages of product development because of their ability to forecast a part’s or material’s cost, availability, and suitability for its intended purpose. Furthermore, potential problems with the supply of materials may be avoided by consulting the purchasing department in the early stages of product design. Businesses might also enter into integrated supply contracts. These contracts increase the importance of supplier selection be­ cause agreements are larger in scope and longer in duration. Inte­ grated supply incorporates all members of the supply chain includ­ ing the supplier, transportation companies, and the retailer. A major responsibility of most purchasers is to work out problems that may occur with a supplier because the success of the relationship affects the buying firm’s performance. Purchasing professionals often work closely with other employees in their own organization when deciding on purchases, an arrangement sometimes called team buying. For example, they may discuss the design of custom-made products with company design engineers, qual­ ity problems in purchased goods with quality assurance engineers and production supervisors, or shipment problems with managers in the receiving department before submitting an order. Contract specialists and managers in various levels of government award contracts for an array of items, including office and building supplies, services for the public, and construction projects. They may use sealed bids, but usually use negotiated agreements for complex items. Increasingly, purchasing professionals in government are plac­ ing solicitations for and accepting bids and offers through the Internet. Government purchasing agents and managers must follow strict laws and regulations in their work. These legal requirements occasionally are changed, so agents and contract specialists must stay informed about the latest regulations. Other professionals, who buy finished goods for resale, are em­ ployed by wholesale and retail establishments where they commonly Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Wmm/  , */.  Purchasing managers study variousfinancial reports to determine the best price. are referred to as “buyers” or “merchandise managers.” Wholesale and retail buyers are an integral part of a complex system of distribution and merchandising that caters to the vast array of consumer needs and desires. Wholesale buyers purchase goods directly from manufactur­ ers or from other wholesale firms for resale to retail firms, commercial establishments, institutions, and other organizations. In retail firms, buyers purchase goods from wholesale firms or directly from manu­ facturers for resale to the public. Buyers largely determine which products their establishment will sell. Therefore, it is essential that they have the ability to accurately predict what will appeal to consum­ ers. They must constantly stay informed of the latest trends because failure to do so could jeopardize profits and the reputation of their company. Buyers also follow ads in newspapers and other media to check competitors’ sales activities and watch general economic condi­ tions to anticipate consumer buying patterns. Buyers working for large and medium-sized firms usually specialize in acquiring one or two lines of merchandise, whereas buyers working for small stores may purchase their complete inventory. The use of private-label merchandise and the consolidation of buying departments have increased the responsibilities of retail buy­ ers. Private-label merchandise, produced for a particular retailer, requires buyers to work closely with vendors to develop and obtain the desired product. The downsizing and consolidation of buying departments is also increasing the demands placed on buyers be­ cause, although the amount of work remains unchanged, there are fewer people to accomplish it. The result is an increase in the workloads and levels of responsibility.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 75 Many merchandise managers assist in the planning and implementa­ tion of sales promotion programs. Working with merchandising execu­ tives, they determine the nature of the sale and purchase accordingly. They also work with advertising personnel to create the ad campaign. For example, they may determine the media in which the advertisement will be placed—newspapers, direct mail, television, or some combina­ tion of these. In addition, merchandising managers often visit the selling floor to ensure that the goods are properly displayed. Often, assistant buyers are responsible for placing orders and checking shipments. Computers are having a major effect on the jobs of purchasing managers, buyers and purchasing agents. In manufacturing and service industries, computers handle most of the more routine tasks—en­ abling purchasing professionals to concentrate mainly on the analyti­ cal aspects of the job. Computers are used to obtain instant and accurate product and price listings, to track inventory levels, process routine orders, and help determine when to make purchases. Comput­ ers also maintain lists of bidders and offers, record the history of supplier performance, and issue purchase orders. Computerized systems have dramatically simplified many of the routine acquisition functions and improved the efficiency of determin­ ing which products are selling. For example, cash registers connected to computers, known as point-of-sale terminals, allow organizations to maintain centralized, up-to-date sales and inventory records. This information can then be used to produce weekly sales reports that reflect the types of products in demand. Buyers also use computers to gain instant access to the specifications for thousands of commodities, inventory records, and their customers’ purchase records. Some firms are linked with manufacturers or wholesalers by electronic purchasing systems, the Internet, or extranets. These systems improve the speed for selection and ordering and provide information on availability and shipment, allowing buyers to better concentrate on the selection of goods and suppliers.  Working Conditions Most purchasing managers, buyers, and purchasing agents work in comtortable, well-lighted offices. They frequently work more than the standard 40-hour week because of special sales, conferences, or pro­ duction deadlines. Evening and weekend work is also common. For those working in retail trade, this is especially true prior to holiday seasons. Consequently, many retail firms discourage the use of vaca­ tion time from late November until early January. Buyers and merchandise managers often work under great pressure because wholesale and retail stores are so competitive; buyers need physical stamina to keep up with the fast-paced nature of their work. Many purchasing managers, buyers, and purchasing agents travel at least several days a month. Purchasers for worldwide manufacturing companies and large retailers, and buyers of high fashion, may travel outside the United States.  Employment Purchasing managers, buyers, and purchasing agents held about 547,000 jobs in 1998. About one-half worked in wholesale trade or manufactur­ ing establishments such as distribution centers or factories, and another one-fifth worked in retail trade establishments such as grocery or depart­ ment stores. The remainder worked mostly in service establishments or different levels of government. A small number were self-employed.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Qualified persons usually begin as trainees, purchasing clerks, expedit­ ers, junior buyers, or assistant buyers. Retail and wholesale firms prefer to hire applicants who are familiar with the merchandise they sell as well as with wholesaling and retailing practices. Some retail firms promote qualified employees to assistant buyer positions; oth­ ers recruit and train college graduates as assistant buyers. Most em­ ployers use a combination of methods. Educational requirements tend to vary with the size of the organi­ zation. Large stores and distributors, especially those in wholesale Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  and retail trade, prefer applicants who have completed a bachelor’s degree program with a business emphasis. Many manufacturing firms tend to put a greater emphasis on formal training. They prefer appli­ cants with a bachelor’s or master’s degree in business, economics, or technical training such as engineering or one of the applied sciences. Regardless of academic preparation, new employees must learn the specifics of their employers’ business. Training periods vary in length, with most lasting 1 to 5 years. In wholesale and retail establishments, most trainees begin by selling merchandise, supervising sales workers, checking invoices on material received, and keeping track of stock on hand, although widespread use of computers has simplified many of these tasks. As they progress, retail trainees are given increased buy­ ing-related responsibilities. In manufacturing, new purchasing employees often are enrolled in company training programs and spend a considerable amount of time learning about company operations and purchasing practices. They work with experienced purchasers to learn about commodities, prices, suppliers, and markets. In addition, they may be assigned to the production planning department to learn about the material require­ ments system and the inventory system the company uses to keep production and replenishment functions working smoothly. Purchasing managers, buyers, and purchasing agents must be com­ puter literate, including knowing how to use word processing and spread­ sheet software. Other important qualities include the ability to analyze technical data in suppliers’ proposals; good communication, negotia­ tion, and math skills; knowledge of supply chain management; and the ability to perform financial analyses. Persons who wish to become wholesale or retail buyers should be good at planning and decision making and have an interest in mer­ chandising. Anticipating consumer preferences and ensuring that goods are in stock when they are needed require resourcefulness, good judgment, and self-confidence. Buyers must be able to make decisions quickly and take risks. Marketing skills and the ability to identify products that will sell are also very important. Employers often look for leadership ability because buyers spend a large portion of their time supervising assistant buyers and dealing with manufac­ turers’ representatives and store executives. Experienced buyers may advance by moving to a department that manages a larger volume or by becoming a merchandise manager. Oth­ ers may go to work in sales for a manufacturer or wholesaler. An experienced purchasing agent or buyer may become an assistant purchasing manager in charge of a group of purchasing professionals before advancing to purchasing manager, supply manager, or director of materials management. At the top levels, duties may overlap with other management functions such as production, planning, or marketing. Regardless of industry, continuing education is essential for ad­ vancement. Many purchasers participate in seminars offered by profes­ sional societies and take college courses in purchasing. Although no national standard exists, professional certification is becoming increas­ ingly important. In private industry, recognized marks of experience and profes­ sional competence are the designations Accredited Purchasing Practi­ tioner (A.P.P.) and Certified Purchasing Manager (C.P.M.), conferred by the National Association of Purchasing Management, and Certified Purchasing Professional (C.P.P.), conferred by the American Purchas­ ing Society. In Federal, State, and local government, the indications of professional competence are Certified Professional Public Buyer (C.P.P.B.) and Certified Public Purchasing Officer (C.P.P.O.), con­ ferred by the National Institute of Governmental Purchasing. Most of these are awarded only after work-related experience and education requirements are met, and written or oral exams are com­ pleted successfully.  Job Outlook Employment of purchasing managers, buyers, and purchasing agents is expected to grow more slowly than average through the year 2008. Demand for these workers will not keep up with the rising level of economic activity because the increasing use of computers has allowed  76 Occupational Outlook Handbook much of the paperwork typically involved in ordering and procuring supplies to be eliminated, reducing the demand for lower-level buyers who perform these duties. Also, limited sourcing and long-term con­ tracting have allowed companies to negotiate with fewer suppliers less frequently. Consequently, most job openings will result from the need to replace workers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. In retail trade, mergers and acquisitions have forced the consolida­ tion of buying departments, eliminating jobs. In addition, larger retail stores are removing their buying departments from geographic markets and centralizing them at their headquarters, eliminating more jobs. The increased use of credit cards by some employees to purchase supplies without using the services of the procurement or purchasing office, combined with the growing number of buys being made elec­ tronically, will restrict demand for purchasing agents within govern­ ments and many manufacturing firms. Persons who have a bachelor’s degree in business should have the best chance of obtaining a buyer job in wholesale or retail trade or within government. A bachelor’s degree, combined with industry ex­ perience and knowledge of a technical field, will be an advantage for those interested in working for a manufacturing or industrial company. Government agencies and larger companies usually require a master’s degree in business or public administration for top-level purchasing positions.  Earnings Median annual earnings of purchasing managers were $41,830 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned between $29,930 and $63,520 a year. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $22,290 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $86,740 a year. Median annual earnings in the industries employing the largest number of purchasing managers in 1997 were as follows: Electrical goods................................................................................ $39,300 Professional and commercialequipment....................................... 37,700 Machinery, equipment, andsupplies.............................................. 36,400 Department stores........................................................................... 35,500 Grocery stores.................................................................................. 25,900  Median annual earnings for purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products were $38,040 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned between $29,660 and $49,660 a year. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $23,960 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $74,050 a year. Median annual earnings in the industries employing the largest number of purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and farm products in 1997 were as follows: Federal government........................................................................ $47,200 Aircraft and parts............................................................................ 41,100 Electronic components andaccessories........................................ 36,600 Local government, excepteducationand hospitals ...................... 35,300 Hospitals.......................................................................................... 29,300  Median annual earnings for wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products were $31,560 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned between $23,490 and $42,920 a year. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $17,730 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $66,480 a year. Median annual earnings in the industries employing the largest number of wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products in 1997 were as follows: Groceries and related products....................................................... $36,200 Machinery, equipment, and supplies............................................ 29,300 28,800 Professional and commercial equipment..................................... Grocery stores.................................................................................. 25,100 24,700 Miscellaneous shopping goods stores...........................................  Purchasing managers, buyers, and purchasing agents receive the same benefits package as their coworkers, including vacations, sick leave, life and health insurance, and pension plans. In addition to standard benefits, retail buyers often earn cash bonuses based on their Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  performance and may receive discounts on merchandise bought from the employer.  Related Occupations Workers in other occupations who need a knowledge of marketing and the ability to assess demand are advertising, marketing, and public relations managers; insurance sales agents; manufacturers’ and whole­ sale sales representatives; material recording, scheduling, dispatching, and distributing occupations; retail salespersons; sales engineers; and sales managers.  Sources of Additional Information Further information about education, training, and/or certification for purchasing careers is available from: American Purchasing Society, 430 W. Downer PL, Aurora, IL 60506. Internet: •• National Association of Purchasing Management, P.O. Box 22160, Tempe, AZ 85285-2169. Internet: <•" National Institute of Governmental Purchasing, Inc., 151 Spring St., Herndon, VA 20170. Internet: •w Federal Acquisition Institute (MVI), Office of Acquisition Policy, General Services Administration, 1800 F St. NW„ Room 4017, Washing­ ton, DC 20405. Internet: http://www.gsa.gOv/statf/v/training.htm  Restaurant and Food Service Managers (0**NET 15026B)  Significant Points •  Although many experienced food and beverage preparation and service workers are promoted to fill jobs, job opportunities are expected to be best for those with bachelor’s or associate degrees in restau­ rant and institutional food service management.  •  Job opportunities should be better for salaried manag­ ers than for self-employed managers, as restaurants increasingly affiliate with national chains rather than being independently owned.  Nature of the Work The daily responsibilities of many restaurant and food service managers can be as complicated as some meals prepared by a fine chef. In addition to the traditional duties of selecting and pricing menu items, using food and other supplies efficiently, and achieving quality in food prepara­ tion and service, managers are now responsible for a growing number of administrative and human resource tasks. For example, managers must carefully find and evaluate new ways of recruiting new employ­ ees in a tight job market. Once hired, managers must also find creative ways to retain experienced workers. In most restaurants and institutional food service facilities, the manager is assisted in these duties by one or more assistant manag­ ers, depending on the size and operating hours of the establishment. In most large establishments, as well as in many smaller ones, the management team consists of a general manager, one or more assis­ tant managers, and an executive chef. The executive chef is respon­ sible for the operation of the kitchen, while the assistant managers oversee service in the dining room and other areas. In smaller restau­ rants, the executive chef also may be the general manager, and some­ times an owner. In fast-food restaurants and other food service facilities open for long hours, often 7 days a week, the manager is aided by several assistant managers, each of whom supervises a shift of workers. (For additional information on these other workers, see the Handbook statements on general managers and top executives and chefs, cooks, and other kitchen workers.)  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 77 One of the most important tasks of restaurant and food service managers is selecting successful menu items. This task varies by es­ tablishment because although many restaurants rarely change their menu, others make frequent alterations. Managers or executive chefs select menu items, taking into account the likely number of customers and the past popularity of dishes. Other issues taken into consider­ ation when planning a menu include unserved food left over from prior meals that should not be wasted, the need for variety, and the availabil­ ity of foods due to changing seasons. Managers or executive chefs analyze the recipes of the dishes to determine food, labor, overhead costs and to assign prices to various dishes. Menus must be developed far enough in advance that supplies can be ordered and received in time. On a daily basis, managers estimate food consumption, place orders with suppliers, and schedule the delivery of fresh food and beverages. They receive and check the content of deliveries, evaluat­ ing the quality of meats, poultry, fish, fruits, vegetables, and baked goods. To ensure good service, managers meet with sales representa­ tives from restaurant suppliers to place orders replenishing stocks of tableware, linens, paper, cleaning supplies, cooking utensils, and fur­ niture and fixtures. They also arrange for equipment maintenance and repairs and coordinate a variety of services such as waste re­ moval and pest control. The quality of food and services in restaurants depends largely on a manager’s ability to interview, hire, and, when necessary, fire em­ ployees. This is especially true in tight labor markets, when many managers report difficulty in hiring experienced food and beverage preparation and service workers. Managers may attend career fairs or arrange for newspaper advertising to expand their pool of applicants.  V-'  Once a new employee is hired, managers explain the establishment’s policies and practices and oversee any necessary training. Managers also schedule the work hours of employees, making sure there are enough workers present to cover peak dining periods. If employees are unable to work, managers may have to fill in for them. Some managers regularly help with cooking, clearing of tables, or other tasks. Another fundamental responsibility of restaurant and food service managers is supervising the kitchen and dining room. For example, managers often oversee all food preparation and cooking, examining the quality and portion sizes to ensure that dishes are prepared and gar­ nished correctly and in a timely manner. They also investigate and resolve customers’ complaints about food quality or service. To main­ tain company and government sanitation standards, they direct the clean­ ing of the kitchen and dining areas and washing of tableware, kitchen utensils, and equipment. Managers also monitor the actions of their employees and patrons on a continual basis to ensure that health and safety standards and local liquor regulations are obeyed. In addition to their regular duties, restaurant and food service managers have a variety of administrative responsibilities. Although much of this work is delegated to a bookkeeper in a larger establish­ ment, managers in most smaller establishments, such as fast-food restaurants, must keep records of the hours and wages of employees, prepare the payroll, and fill out paperwork in compliance with li­ censing laws and reporting requirements of tax, wage and hour, un­ employment compensation, and Social Security laws. Managers also maintain records of supply and equipment purchases and ensure that accounts with suppliers are paid on a regular basis. In addition, managers in full-service restaurants record the number, type, and cost of items sold to evaluate and discontinue dishes that may be unpopular or less profitable. Many managers are able to ease the burden of recordkeeping and paperwork through the use of computers. Point-of-service (POS) systems are used in many restaurants to increase employee productiv­ ity and allow managers to track the sales of specific menu items. Using a POS system, a server keys in the customer’s order and the computer immediately sends the order to the kitchen so preparation can begin. The same system totals checks, acts as a cash register and credit card authorizer, and tracks daily sales. To minimize food costs and spoil­ age, many managers use inventory tracking software to compare the record of daily sales from the POS with a record of present inventory. In some establishments, when supplies needed for the preparation of popular menu items run low, additional inventory can be ordered di­ rectly from the supplier using the computer. Computers also allow restaurant and food service managers to more efficiently keep track of employee schedules and pay. Managers are among the first to arrive in the morning, and the last to leave. At the conclusion of each day, or sometimes each shift, managers tally the cash and charge receipts received and balance them against the record of sales. In most cases, they are responsible for depositing the day’s receipts at the bank or securing them in a safe place. Finally, managers are responsible for locking up, checking that ovens, grills, and lights are off, and switching on alarm systems.  Working Conditions  iBiliSpl SiRffli Restaurant andfood service managers checkfor consistent quality in foodpreparation and service. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Evenings and weekends are popular dining periods, making night and weekend work common among managers. Many managers of institu­ tional food service facilities work more conventional hours because factory and office cafeterias are usually open only on weekdays for breakfast and lunch. Hours for many managers are unpredictable, how­ ever, as managers may have to fill in for absent workers on short notice. It is common for restaurant and food service managers to work 50 to 60 hours or more per week. Managers often experience the pressure of simultaneously coordi­ nating a wide range of activities. When problems occur, it is the re­ sponsibility of the manager to resolve them with minimal disruption to customers. The job can be hectic during peak dining hours, and dealing with irate customers or uncooperative employees can be stressful.  78 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Employment Restaurant and food service managers held about 518,000jobs in 1998. Most managers are salaried, but about 1 in 6 is self-employed. Most work in restaurants or for contract institutional food service compa­ nies, while a smaller number are employed by educational institutions, hospitals, nursing and personal care facilities, and civic, social, and fraternal organizations. Jobs are located throughout the country, with large cities and tourist areas providing more opportunities for fullservice dining positions.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Most food service management companies and national or regional restaurant chains recruit management trainees from 2- and 4-year college hospitality management programs. Food service and res­ taurant chains prefer to hire people with degrees in restaurant and institutional food service management, but they often hire gradu­ ates with degrees in other fields who have demonstrated interest and aptitude. Some restaurant and food service manager positions, particularly self-service and fast-food, are filled by promoting ex­ perienced food and beverage preparation and service workers. Wait­ ers, waitresses, chefs, and fast-food workers demonstrating poten­ tial for handling increased responsibility sometimes advance to as­ sistant manager or management trainee jobs. Executive chefs need extensive experience working as chefs, and general managers need experience as assistant managers. A bachelor’s degree in restaurant and food service management provides a particularly strong preparation for a career in this occupa­ tion. In 1998, more than 150 colleges and universities offered 4-year programs in restaurant and hotel management or institutional food service management. For those not interested in pursuing a 4-year degree, more than 800 community and junior colleges, technical insti­ tutes, and other institutions offer programs in these fields leading to an associate degree or other formal certification. Both 2- and 4-year programs provide instruction in subjects such as nutrition and food planning and preparation, as well as accounting, business law and management, and computer science. Some programs combine class­ room and laboratory study with internships that provide on-the-job experience. In addition, many educational institutions offer culinary programs that provide food preparation training. This training can lead to a career as a cook or chef and provide a foundation for ad­ vancement to an executive chef position. Most employers emphasize personal qualities when hiring man­ agers. For example, self-discipline, initiative, and leadership abil­ ity are essential. Managers must be able to solve problems and concentrate on details. They need good communication skills to deal with customers and suppliers, as well as to motivate and direct their staff. A neat and clean appearance is a must because they often are in close personal contact with the public. Restaurant and food service management can be demanding, so good health and stamina also are important. Most restaurant chains and food service management companies have rigorous training programs for management positions. Through a combination of classroom and on-the-job training, trainees receive instruction and gain work experience in all aspects of the opera­ tions of a restaurant or institutional food service facility. Topics include food preparation, nutrition, sanitation, security, company policies and procedures, personnel management, recordkeeping, and preparation of reports. Training on use of the restaurant’s com­ puter system is increasingly important as well. Usually after 6 months or a year, trainees receive their first permanent assignment as an assistant manager. A measure of professional achievement for restaurant and food service managers is the designation of certified Foodservice Manage­ ment Professional (FMP). Although not a requirement for employ­ ment or advancement in the occupation, voluntary certification pro­ vides recognition of professional competence, particularly for man­ agers who acquired their skills largely on the job. The Educational Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Foundation of the National Restaurant Association awards the FMP designation to managers who achieve a qualifying score on a written examination, complete a series of courses that cover a range of food service management topics, and meet standards of work experience in the field. Willingness to relocate often is essential for advancement to posi­ tions with greater responsibility. Managers typically advance to larger establishments or regional management positions within restaurant chains. Some eventually open their own eating and drinking establish­ ments. Others transfer to hotel management positions because their restaurant management experience provides a good background for food and beverage manager jobs in hotels and resorts.  Job Outlook Employment of restaurant and food service managers is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through 2008. In addition to employment growth, the need to replace managers who transfer to other occupations or stop working will create many job openings. Opportunities to fill these openings are expected to be best for those with a bachelor’s or associate degree in restaurant and institu­ tional food service management. Projected employment growth varies by industry. Eating and drink­ ing places will provide the most new jobs as the number of eating and drinking establishments increases along with the population, personal incomes, and leisure time. In addition, manager jobs will increase in eating and drinking places as schools, hospitals, and other businesses contract out more of their food services to institutional food service companies within the eating and drinking industry. Food service manager jobs still are expected to increase in many of these other industries, but growth will be slowed as contracting out becomes more common. Growth in the elderly population should result in more food service manager jobs in nursing homes and other health-care institutions, and residential-care and assistedliving facilities. Job opportunities should be better for salaried managers than for self-employed managers. New restaurants are increasingly affiliated with national chains rather than being independently owned and oper­ ated. As this trend continues, fewer owners will manage restaurants themselves, and more restaurant managers will be employed by larger companies to run establishments. Employment in eating and drinking establishments is not very sensitive to changes in economic conditions, so restaurant and food service managers are rarely laid off during hard times. However, competition among restaurants is always intense, and many restau­ rants do not survive.  Earnings Median earnings of food service and lodging managers were $26,700 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned between $19,820 and $34,690. The lowest paid 10 percent earned $ 14,430 or less, while the highest paid 10 percent earned over $45,520. Median annual earnings in the industries employing the largest number of food service and lodging managers in 1997 are shown below. Hotels and motels............................................................................ $28,600 Eating and drinking places............................................................. 25,000 Elementary and secondary schools............................................... 21,300  In addition to typical benefits, most salaried restaurant and food service managers receive free meals and the opportunity for additional training depending on their length of service.  Related Occupations Restaurant and food service managers direct the activities of busi­ nesses, which provide a service to customers. Other managers in service-oriented businesses include hotel managers and assistants, health services admiistrators, retail store managers, and bank managers.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations 79  Sources of Additional Information Information about a career as a restaurant and food service manager, 2- and 4-year college programs in restaurant and food service management and certification as a Foodservice Management Professional is available from: "" The Educational Foundation of the National Restaurant Association, Suite 1400, 250 South Wacker Dr., Chicago, IL 60606. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  General information on hospitality careers may be obtained from: *■ Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and Institutional Education, 1200 17th St. NW., Washington, DC 20036-3097.  Additional information about job opportunities in the field may be obtained from local employers and local offices of the State employment service.  Professional and Technical Occupations Air Transportation-Related Occupations Aircraft Pilots and Flight Engineers (0*NET 97702B, 97702C, 97702D, 97702E, 97702H, and 97702J)  Significant Points •  Competition is expected for jobs because aircraft pilots have very high earnings, especially those employed by national airlines.  •  Pilots usually start with smaller commuter and regional airlines to acquire the experience needed to qualify for higher paying jobs with national airlines.  •  Most pilots have traditionally learned to fly in the military, but growing numbers are entering from civilian FAA certified pilot training schools.  Nature of the Work Pilots are highly trained professionals who fly airplanes and heli­ copters to carry out a wide variety of tasks. Although most pilots transport passengers and cargo, others are involved in more unusual tasks, such as dusting crops, spreading seed for reforestation, test­ ing aircraft, directing fire fighting efforts, tracking criminals, moni­ toring traffic, and rescuing and evacuating injured persons. Except on small aircraft, two pilots usually make up the cockpit crew. Usually, the most experienced pilot, the captain, is in com­ mand and supervises all other crew members. The pilot and copilot share flying and other duties, such as communicating with air traf­ fic controllers and monitoring the instruments. Some large aircraft have a third pilot—the flight engineer—who assists the other pilots by monitoring and operating many of the instruments and systems, making minor inflight repairs, and watching for other aircraft. New technology can perform many flight tasks, however, and virtually all new aircraft now fly with only two pilots, who rely more heavily on computerized controls. As older, less technologically sophisti­ cated aircraft continue to retire from airline fleets, flight engineer jobs will diminish. Before departure, pilots plan their flights carefully. They thor­ oughly check their aircraft to make sure that the engines, controls, instruments, and other systems are functioning properly. They also make sure that baggage or cargo has been loaded correctly. They confer with flight dispatchers and aviation weather forecasters to find out about weather conditions enroute and at their destination. Based on this information, they choose a route, altitude, and speed that will provide the fastest, safest, and smoothest flight. When flying under instrument flight rules—procedures governing the op­ eration of the aircraft when there is poor visibility—the pilot in command, or the company dispatcher, normally files an instrument flight plan with air traffic control so that the flight can be coordi­ nated with other air traffic. Takeoff and landing are the most difficult parts of the flight and require close coordination between the pilot and first officer. For example, as the plane accelerates for takeoff, the pilot con­ centrates on the runway while the first officer scans the instru­ ment panel. To calculate the speed they must attain to become airborne, pilots consider the altitude of the airport, outside tem­ perature, weight of the plane, and the speed and direction of the Digitized 80 for FRASER Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  wind. The moment the plane reaches takeoff speed, the first of­ ficer informs the pilot, who then pulls back on the controls to raise the nose of the plane. Unless the weather is bad, the actual flight is relatively easy. Airplane pilots, with the assistance of autopilot and the flight man­ agement computer, steer the plane along their planned route and are monitored by the air traffic control stations they pass along the way. They regularly scan the instrument panel to check their fuel supply, the condition of their engines, and the air-conditioning, hydraulic, and other systems. Pilots may request a change in altitude or route if circumstances dictate. For example, if the ride is rougher than expected, they may ask air traffic control if pilots flying at other altitudes have reported better conditions. If so, they may request a change. This procedure also may be used to find a stronger tailwind or a weaker headwind to save fuel and increase speed. In contrast, helicopters are used for short trips at relatively low altitude, so pilots must be constantly on the lookout for trees, bridges, power lines, transmission towers, and other dangerous obstacles. Regardless of the type of aircraft, all pilots must monitor warning devices designed to help detect sudden shifts in wind conditions that can cause crashes. Pilots must rely completely on their instruments when visibility is poor. Using the altimeter readings, they know how high above ground they are and whether or not they can fly safely over moun­ tains and other obstacles. Special navigation radios give pilots pre­ cise information which, with the help of special maps, tell them their exact position. Other very sophisticated equipment provides directions to a point just above the end of a runway and enables pilots to land completely “blind.” Once on the ground, pilots must complete records on their flight for their organization and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The number of nonflying duties that pilots have depends on the employment setting. Airline pilots have the services of large sup­ port staffs, and consequently, perform few nonflying duties. Pilots employed by other organizations such as charter operators or busi­ nesses have many other duties. They may load the aircraft, handle all passenger luggage to ensure a balanced load, and supervise refu­ eling; other nonflying responsibilities include keeping records, scheduling flights, arranging for major maintenance, and perform­ ing minor aircraft maintenance and repair work. Some pilots are instructors. They teach their students the prin­ ciples of flight in ground-school classes and demonstrate how to operate aircraft in dual-controlled planes and helicopters. A few specially trained pilots are “examiners” or “check pilots.” They periodically fly with other pilots or pilot’s license applicants to make sure that they are proficient.  Working Conditions By law, airline pilots cannot fly more than 100 hours a month or more than 1,000 hours a year. Most airline pilots fly an average of 75 hours a month and work an additional 75 hours a month per­ forming nonflying duties. About one-fifth of all pilots work more than 40 hours a week. Most spend a considerable amount of time away from home because the majority of flights involve overnight layovers. When pilots are away from home, the airlines provide hotel accommodations, transportation between the hotel and air­ port, and an allowance for meals and other expenses. Airlines oper­ ate flights at all hours of the day and night, so work schedules often are irregular. Flight assignments are based on seniority.  Professional and Technical Occupations 81 of businesses performing tasks such as crop dusting, inspecting pipe­ lines, or conducting sightseeing trips. Federal, State, and local gov­ ernments also employed pilots. A few pilots were self-employed. The employment of airplane pilots is not distributed like the population. Pilots are more concentrated in California, Texas, Geor­ gia, Washington, Nevada, Hawaii, and Alaska, which have a high amount of flying activity relative to their population.  FLIGHT SAf mmm®  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  mm  His!  mm llllii.ll!  L—......  imimi mm  ■  ■■■■  ::  Before departure, pilots plan their flights carefully. Those pilots not employed by the airlines often have irregular schedules as well; they may fly 30 hours one month and 90 hours the next. Because these pilots frequently have many nonflying re­ sponsibilities, they have much less free time than airline pilots. Except for business pilots, most do not remain away from home overnight. They may work odd hours. Flight instructors may have irregular and seasonal work schedules depending on their students’ available time and the weather. Instructors frequently work at night or on weekends. Airline pilots, especially those on international routes, often suffer jet lag—fatigue caused by many hours of flying through different time zones. The work of test pilots, who check the flight perfor­ mance of new and experimental planes, may be dangerous. Pilots who are crop dusters may be exposed to toxic chemicals and sel­ dom have the benefit of a regular landing strip. Helicopter pilots involved in police work may be subject to personal injury. Although flying does not involve much physical effort, the mental stress of being responsible for a safe flight, no matter what the weather, can be tiring. Pilots must be alert and quick to react if something goes wrong, particularly during takeoff and landing.  Employment Civilian pilots held about 94,000 jobs in 1998. About 84 percent worked for airlines. Others worked as flight instructors at local airports or for large businesses that fly company cargo and execu­ tives in their own airplanes or helicopters. Some pilots flew small planes for air taxi companies, usually to or from lightly traveled airports not served by major airlines. Others worked for a variety Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  All pilots who are paid to transport passengers or cargo must have a commercial pilot’s license with an instrument rating issued by the FAA. Helicopter pilots must hold a commercial pilot’s certificate with a helicopter rating. To qualify for these licenses, applicants must be at least 18 years old and have at least 250 hours of flight experience. The time can be reduced through participation in cer­ tain flight school curricula approved by the FAA. They also must pass a strict physical examination to make sure that they are in good health and have 20/20 vision with or without glasses, good hearing, and no physical handicaps that could impair their performance. Applicants must pass a written test that includes questions on the principles of safe flight, navigation techniques, and FAA regula­ tions. They also must demonstrate their flying ability to FAA or designated examiners. To fly in periods of low visibility, pilots must be rated by the FAA to fly by instruments. Pilots may qualify for this rating by having 105 hours of flight experience, including 40 hours of ex­ perience in flying by instruments; they also must pass a written examination on procedures and FAA regulations covering instru­ ment flying and demonstrate to an examiner their ability to fly by instruments. Airline pilots must fulfill additional requirements. Pilots must have an airline transport pilot’s license. Applicants for this license must be at least 23 years old and have a minimum of 1,500 hours of flying experience, including night and instrument flying, and pass FAA written and flight examinations. Usually they also have one or more advanced ratings, such as multi-engine aircraft or aircraft type ratings dependent upon the requirements of their particular fly­ ing jobs. Because pilots must be able to make quick decisions and accurate judgments under pressure, many airline companies reject applicants who do not pass required psychological and aptitude tests. All licenses are valid as long as a pilot can pass the periodic physical examinations and tests of flying skills required by Federal Government and company regulations. The Armed Forces have always been an important source of trained pilots for civilian jobs. Military pilots gain valuable experi­ ence on jet aircraft and helicopters, and persons with this experi­ ence are usually preferred for civilian pilot jobs. This primarily reflects the extensive flying time military pilots receive. Persons without armed forces training also become pilots by attending flight schools. The FAA has certified about 600 civilian flying schools, including some colleges and universities that offer degree credit for pilot training. Over the projection period, Federal budget reduc­ tions are expected to reduce military pilot training. As a result, FAA certified schools will train a larger share of pilots than in the past. Prospective pilots may also learn to fly by taking lessons from individual FAA-certified flight instructors. Although some small airlines will hire high school graduates, most airlines require at least 2 years of college and prefer to hire college graduates; about 90 percent of all pilots have completed some col­ lege. In fact, most entrants to this occupation have a college degree. If the number of college educated applicants continues to increase, employers may make a college degree an educational requirement. Depending on the type of aircraft, new airline pilots start as first officers or flight engineers. Although some airlines favor applicants who already have a flight engineer’s license, they may provide flight engineer training for those who have only the commercial license. Many pilots begin with smaller regional or commuter airlines where  82 Occupational Outlook Handbook they obtain experience flying passengers on scheduled flights into busy airports in all weather conditions. These jobs often lead to higher paying jobs with bigger, national airlines. Initial training for airline pilots includes a week of company in­ doctrination, 3 to 6 weeks of ground school and simulator training, and 25 hours of initial operating experience, including a check-ride with an FAA aviation safety inspector. Once trained and “on the line,” pilots are required to attend recurrent training and simulator checks twice a year throughout their career. Organizations other than airlines usually require less flying ex­ perience. However, a commercial pilot’s license is a minimum re­ quirement, and employers prefer applicants who have experience in the type of craft they will be flying. New employees usually start as first officers, or fly less sophisticated equipment. Test pilots often are required to have an engineering degree. Advancement for all pilots usually is limited to other flying jobs. Many pilots start as flight instructors, building up their flying hours while they earn money teaching. As they become more experienced, these pilots occasionally fly charter planes or perhaps get jobs with small air transportation firms, such as air taxi companies. Some advance to business flying jobs. A small number get flight engineer jobs with the airlines. In the airlines, advancement usually depends on seniority provi­ sions of union contracts. After 1 to 5 years, flight engineers ad­ vance according to seniority to first officer and, after 5 to 15 years, to captain. Seniority also determines which pilots get the more de­ sirable routes. In a nonairline job, a first officer may advance to pilot and, in large companies, to chief pilot or director of aviation in charge of aircraft scheduling, maintenance, and flight procedures.  Job Outlook Pilots are expected to face considerable competition for jobs through the year 2008 because the number of applicants for new positions is expected to exceed the number of job openings. Competition will be especially keen early in the projection period due to a temporary increase in the pool of qualified pilots seeking jobs. Mergers and bankruptcies during the recent restructuring of the industry caused a large number of airline pilots to lose their jobs. Also, Federal budget reductions resulted in many pilots leaving the Armed Forces. These and other qualified pilots seek jobs in this occupation be­ cause it offers very high earnings, glamour, prestige, and free or low cost travel benefits. As time passes, some pilots will fail to maintain their qualifications and the number of applicants compet­ ing for each opening should decline. Factors affecting demand, however, are not expected to ease that competition. Relatively few jobs will be created from rising demand for pi­ lots as employment is expected to increase more slowly than the average for all occupations through 2008. The expected growth in airline passenger and cargo traffic will create a need for more air­ liners, pilots, and flight instructors. However, computerized flight management systems on new aircraft will eliminate the need for flight engineers on those planes, thus restricting the growth of pilot employment. In addition, the trend toward using larger planes in the airline industry will increase pilot productivity. Future busi­ ness travel could also be adversely affected by the growing use of teleconferencing; facsimile mail; and electronic communications, such as e-mail; as well as the elimination of many middle manage­ ment positions in corporate downsizing. Employment of business pilots is expected to grow slower than in the past as more busi­ nesses opt to fly with regional and smaller airlines serving their area rather than buy and operate their own aircraft. On the other hand, the number of helicopter pilots is expected to increase more rapidly as the demand expands for the type of services that helicop­ ters can offer, such as police and rescue operations. Job openings resulting from the need to replace pilots who retire or leave the occupation traditionally have been very low. Aircraft pilots usually have a strong attachment to their occupation because Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  it requires a substantial investment in specialized training that is not transferable to other fields, and it commonly offers very high earnings. However, many of the pilots who were hired in the late 1960’s are approaching the age for mandatory retirement, so retire­ ments of pilots are expected to increase and generate several thou­ sand job openings each year. Pilots who have logged the greatest number of flying hours in the more sophisticated equipment typically have the best prospects. This is the reason military pilots usually have an advantage over other applicants. Job seekers with the most FAA licenses will also have a competitive advantage. Opportunities for pilots in the re­ gional commuter airlines and international service are expected to be more favorable as these segments are expected to grow faster than other segments of the industry. Employment of pilots is sensitive to cyclical swings in the economy. During recessions, when a decline in the demand for air travel forces airlines to curtail the number of flights, airlines may temporarily furlough some pilots. Commercial and corporate fly­ ing, flight instruction, and testing of new aircraft also decline dur­ ing recessions, adversely affecting pilots in those areas.  Earnings Earnings of airline pilots are among the highest in the Nation, and depend on factors such as the type, size, and maximum speed of the plane, and the number of hours and miles flown. For example, pi­ lots who fly jet aircraft usually earn higher salaries than turbo-prop pilots do. In 1998, median annual earnings of aircraft pilots and flight engineers were $91,750. Pilots and flight engineers may earn extra pay for night and international flights. Airline pilots usually are eligible for life and health insurance plans financed by the airlines. They also receive retirement ben­ efits and if they fail the FAA physical examination at some point in their careers, they get disability payments. In addition, pilots re­ ceive an expense allowance, or “per diem,” for every hour they are away from home. Per diem can represent up to $500 each month in addition to their salary. Some airlines also provide allowances to pilots for purchasing and cleaning their uniforms. As an additional benefit, pilots and their immediate families usually are entitled to free or reduced fare transportation on their own and other airlines. More than one-half of all aircraft pilots are members of unions. Most of the pilots who fly for the major airlines are members of the Airline Pilots Association, International, but those employed by one major airline are members of the Allied Pilots Association. Some flight engineers are members of the Flight Engineers’ International Association.  Related Occupations Although they are not in the cockpit, air traffic controllers and flight dispatchers also play an important role in making sure flights are safe and on schedule, and participate in many of the decisions pilots must make.  Sources of Additional Information Information about job opportunities, salaries for a particular airline and the qualifications required may be obtained by writing to the personnel manager of the airline. For information on airline pilots, contact: Airline Pilots Association, 1625 Massachusetts Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20036. Air Transport Association of America, 1301 Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Suite 1110, Washington, DC 20006.  For information on helicopter pilots, contact: <*• Helicopter Association International, 1619 Duke St., Alexandria, VA 22314.  For a copy of List of Certificated Pilot Schools, write to: •• Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Wash­ ington, DC 20402. There is a $2.75 charge for this publication.  Professional and Technical Occupations 83 For information about job opportunities in companies other than airlines, consult the classified section of aviation trade magazines and apply to companies that operate aircraft at local airports.  Air Traffic Controllers (0*NET 39002)  Significant Points •  Nearly all air traffic controllers are employed and trained by the Federal Government.  •  Keen competition is expected in this occupation.  •  Aircraft controllers earn relatively high pay and have good benefits.  Nature of the Work The air traffic control system is a vast network of people and equip­ ment that ensures the safe operation of commercial and private air­ craft. Air traffic controllers coordinate the movement of air traffic to make certain that planes stay a safe distance apart. Their imme­ diate concern is safety, but controllers also must direct planes effi­ ciently to minimize delays. Some regulate airport traffic; others regulate flights between airports. Although airport tower or terminal controllers watch over all planes traveling through the airport’s airspace, their main responsi­ bility is to organize the flow of aircraft in and out of the airport. Relying on radar and visual observation, they closely monitor each plane to ensure a safe distance between all aircraft and to guide pilots between the hangar or ramp and the end of the airport’s air­ space. In addition, controllers keep pilots informed about changes in weather conditions such as wind shear—a sudden change in the velocity or direction of the wind that can cause the pilot to lose control of the aircraft. During arrival or departure, several controllers direct each plane. As a plane approaches an airport, the pilot radios ahead to inform the terminal of its presence. The controller in the radar room, just beneath the control tower, has a copy of the plane’s flight plan and already has observed the plane on radar. If the path is clear, the controller directs the pilot to a runway; if the airport is busy, the plane is fitted into a traffic pattern with other aircraft waiting to land. As the plane nears the runway, the pilot is asked to contact the tower. There, another controller, who also is watching the plane on radar, monitors the aircraft the last mile or so to the mnway, delay­ ing any departures that would interfere with the plane’s landing. Once the plane has landed, a ground controller in the tower directs it along the taxiways to its assigned gate. The ground controller usually works entirely by sight, but may use radar if visibility is very poor. The procedure is reversed for departures. The ground controller directs the plane to the proper runway. The local controller then informs the pilot about conditions at the airport, such as weather, speed and direction of wind, and visibility. The local controller also issues runway clearance for the pilot to take off. Once in the air, the plane is guided out of the airport’s airspace by the departure controller.  After each plane departs, airport tower controllers notify enroute controllers who will next take charge. There are 21 enroute control centers located around the country, each employing 300 to 700 con­ trollers, with more than 150 on duty during peak hours at the busier facilities. Airplanes usually fly along designated routes; each cen­ ter is assigned a certain airspace containing many different routes. Enroute controllers work in teams of up to three members, depend­ ing on how heavy traffic is; each team is responsible for a section of Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  the center’s airspace. A team, for example, might be responsible for all planes that are between 30 to 100 miles north of an airport and flying at an altitude between 6,000 and 18,000 feet. To prepare for planes about to enter the team’s airspace, the ra­ dar associate controller organizes flight plans coming off a printer. If two planes are scheduled to enter the team’s airspace at nearly the same time, location, and altitude, this controller may arrange with the preceding control unit for one plane to change its flight path. The previous unit may have been another team at the same or an adjacent center, or a departure controller at a neighboring terminal. As a plane approaches a team’s airspace, the radar controller ac­ cepts responsibility for the plane from the previous controlling unit. The controller also delegates responsibility for the plane to the next controlling unit when the plane leaves the team’s airspace. The radar controller, who is the senior team member, observes the planes in the team’s airspace on radar and communicates with the pilots when necessary. Radar controllers warn pilots about nearby planes, bad weather conditions, and other potential haz­ ards. Two planes on a collision course will be directed around each other. If a pilot wants to change altitude in search of better flying conditions, the controller will check to determine that no other planes will be along the proposed path. As the flight progresses, the team responsible for the aircraft notifies the next team in charge. Through team coordination, the plane arrives safely at its destination. Both airport tower and enroute controllers usually control sev­ eral planes at a time; often, they have to make quick decisions about completely different activities. For example, a controller might di­ rect a plane on its landing approach and at the same time provide pilots entering the airport’s airspace with information about condi­ tions at the airport. While instructing these pilots, the controller also would observe other planes in the vicinity, such as those in a holding pattern waiting for permission to land, to ensure that they remain well separated. In addition to airport towers and enroute centers, air traffic con­ trollers also work in flight service stations operated at over 100 lo­ cations. These flight service specialists provide pilots with infor­ mation on the station’s particular area, including terrain, preflight and inflight weather information, suggested routes, and other infor­ mation important to the safety of a flight. Flight service station specialists help pilots in emergency situations and initiate and coor­ dinate searches for missing or overdue aircraft. However, they are not involved in actively managing air traffic. Some air traffic controllers work at the Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA) Air Traffic Control Systems Command Center in Herndon, Virginia, where they oversee the entire system. They look for situations that will create bottlenecks or other prob­ lems in the system, then respond with a management plan for traffic into and out of the troubled sector. The objective is to keep traffic levels in the trouble spots manageable for the controllers working at enroute centers. Currently, the FAA is in the midst of developing and imple­ menting a new automated air traffic control system. As a result, more powerful computers will help controllers deal with the de­ mands of increased air traffic. Some traditional air traffic control­ ler tasks—like determining how far apart planes should be keptwill be done by computer. Present separation standards call for a 2,000-foot vertical spacing between two aircraft operating above 29,000 feet and flying the same ground track. With the aid of new technologies, the FAA will be able to reduce this vertical separa­ tion standard to 1,000 feet. Improved communication between computers on airplanes and those on the ground also is making the controller’s job a little easier. At present controllers sit at consoles with green-glowing screens that display radar images generated by a computer. In the future, controllers will work at a modern workstation computer that de­ picts air routes in full-color on a 20- by 20-inch screen. The con­ trollers will select radio channels simply by touching on-screen  84 Occupational Outlook Handbook buttons instead of turning dials or switching switches. The new technology will also enable controllers to zoom in on selected cor­ ners of the air space that is their responsibility and get better images of moving traffic than is possible with today’s machines. However, the new automated air traffic control system will not be fully opera­ tional until at least 2003. The FAA is also considering implementing a system called “free flight” which would give pilots much more freedom in operating their aircraft. The change will require new concepts of shared re­ sponsibility between controllers and pilots. Air traffic controllers will still be central to the safe operation of the system, but their responsibilities will eventually shift from controlling to monitor­ ing flights. At present, controllers assign routes, altitudes, and speeds. Under the new system, airlines and pilots would choose them. Controllers would intervene only to ensure that aircraft re­ mained at safe distances from one another, to prevent congestion in terminal areas and entry into closed airspace, or to otherwise ensure safety. Today’s practices often result in planes zigzagging from point to point along corridors rather than flying from city to city in a straight line. This results in lost time and fuel. However, it may be several years before a free flight system is implemented, despite its potential advantages. For the system to work, new equipment must be added for pilots and controllers, and new procedures developed to accommodate both the tightly controlled and flexible aspects of free flight. Budget constraints within the Federal Government may delay or slow implementation.  Working Conditions Controllers work a basic 40-hour week; however, they may work additional hours for which they receive overtime pay or equal time off. Because most control towers and centers operate 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, controllers rotate night and weekend shifts. During busy times, controllers must work rapidly and effi­ ciently. This requires total concentration to keep track of several planes at the same time and make certain all pilots receive correct instructions. The mental stress of being responsible for the safety of several aircraft and their passengers can be exhausting for some persons.  Employment Air traffic controllers held about 30,000 jobs in 1998. They were employed by the Federal Government at airports—in towers and flight service stations—and in enroute traffic control centers. The overwhelming majority worked for the FAA.. Some professional controllers conduct research at the FAA’s national experimental cen­ ter near Atlantic City, New Jersey. Others serve as instructors at the FAA Academy in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. A small number of  fefj  Controllers are usually responsible for several planes at one time. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  civilian controllers worked for the Department of Defense. In addi­ tion to controllers employed by the Federal Government, some worked for private air traffic control companies providing service to non-FAA towers.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Air traffic controller trainees are selected through the competitive Federal Civil Service system. Applicants must pass a written test that measures their ability to learn the controller’s duties. Appli­ cants with experience as a pilot, navigator, or military controller can improve their rating by scoring well on the occupational knowl­ edge portion of the examination. Abstract reasoning and three-di­ mensional spatial visualization are among the aptitudes the exam measures. In addition, applicants usually must have 3 years of gen­ eral work experience or 4 years of college, or a combination of both. Applicants also must survive a week of screening at the FAA Acad­ emy in Oklahoma City, which includes aptitude tests using com­ puter simulators and physical and psychological examinations. Successful applicants receive drug screening tests. For airport tower and enroute center positions, applicants must be less than 31 years old. Those 31 years old and over are eligible for positions at flight service stations. Controllers must be articulate, because pilots must be given directions quickly and clearly. Intelligence and a good memory also are important because controllers constantly receive infor­ mation that they must immediately grasp, interpret, and remem­ ber. Decisiveness is also required because controllers often have to make quick decisions. The ability to concentrate is crucial be­ cause controllers must make these decisions in the midst of noise and other distractions. Trainees learn their jobs through a combination of formal and on-the-job training. They receive 7 months of intensive training at the FAA academy, where they learn the fundamentals of the airway system, FAA regulations, controller equipment, aircraft performance characteristics, as well as more specialized tasks. To receive a job offer, trainees must successfully complete the training and pass a series of examinations, including a controller skills test that mea­ sures speed and accuracy in recognizing and correctly solving air traffic control problems. The test requires judgments on spatial re­ lationships and requires application of the rules and procedures con­ tained in the Air Traffic Control Handbook. Based on aptitude and test scores, trainees are selected to work at either an enroute center or a tower. After graduation, it takes several years of progressively more responsible work experience, interspersed with considerable class­ room instruction and independent study, to become a fully quali­ fied controller. This training includes instruction in the operation of the new, more automated air traffic control system—including the automated Microwave Landing System that enables pilots to receive instructions over automated data links—that is being in­ stalled in control sites across the country. Controllers who fail to complete either the academy or the onthe-job portion of the training are usually dismissed. Controllers must pass a physical examination each year and a job performance examination twice each year. Failure to become certified in any position at a facility within a specified time may also result in dis­ missal. Controllers also are subject to drug screening as a condition of continuing employment. At airports, new controllers begin by supplying pilots with basic flight data and airport information. They then advance to ground controller, then local controller, departure controller, and finally, arrival controller. At an enroute traffic control center, new control­ lers first deliver printed flight plans to teams, gradually advancing to radar associate controller and then radar controller. Controllers can transfer to jobs at different locations or advance to supervisory positions, including management or staff jobs in air traffic control and top administrative jobs in the FAA. However,  Professional and Technical Occupations 85 there are only limited opportunities for a controller to switch from a position in an enroute center to a tower.  Job Outlook Extremely keen competition is expected for air traffic controller jobs because the occupation attracts many more qualified appli­ cants than the small number of job openings that result from re­ placement needs. Turnover is very low because of the relatively high pay and liberal retirement benefits, and controllers have a very strong attachment to the occupation. Most of the current work force was hired as a result of the controller’s strike during the 1980’s, so the average age of current controllers is fairly young. Relatively few controllers will be eligible to retire over the 1998­ 2008 period. Employment of air traffic controllers is expected to show little or no change through the year 2008. Employment growth is not expected to keep pace with growth in the number of aircraft flying because of the implementation of a new air traffic control system over the next 10 years. This computerized system will assist the controller by automatically making many of the routine decisions. Automation will allow controllers to handle more traffic, thus in­ creasing their productivity. Air traffic controllers who continue to meet the proficiency and medical requirements enjoy more job security than most workers. The demand for air travel and the workloads of air traffic control­ lers decline during recessions, but controllers seldom are laid off.  Earnings Median annual earnings of air traffic controllers in 1998 were $64,880. The middle 50 percent earned between $50,980 and  $78,840. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $36,640 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $87,210. The average annual salary for air traffic controllers in the Fed­ eral Government—which employs 86 percent of the total—in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions was $48,300 in 1999. Both the worker’s job responsibilities and the complexity of the particular facility determine a controller’s pay. For example, controllers who work at the FAA’s busiest air traffic control facili­ ties earn higher pay. Depending on length of service, air traffic controllers receive 13 to 26 days of paid vacation and 13 days of paid sick leave each year, life insurance, and health benefits. In addition, controllers can re­ tire at an earlier age and with fewer years of service than other Fed­ eral employees. Air traffic controllers are eligible to retire at age 50 with 20 years of service as an active air traffic controller or after 25 years of active service at any age. There is a mandatory retirement age of 56 for controllers who manage air traffic.  Related Occupations Other occupations that involve the direction and control of traffic in air transportation are airline-radio operator and airplane dispatcher.  Sources of Additional Information Information on acquiring a job as an air traffic controller with the Federal Government may be obtained from the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) through a telephone-based system. Consult your telephone directory under U.S. Government for a local num­ ber or call (912) 757-3000; TDD (912) 744-2299. That number is not toll free and charges may result. Information also is available from their Internet site:  Engineers Significant Points •  A bachelor’s degree is required for entry-level jobs.  •  Starting salaries are significantly higher than those of college graduates in other fields.  •  Continuing education is critical to keep abreast of the lat­ est technology.  Nature of the Work Engineers apply the theories and principles of science and math­ ematics to research and develop economical solutions to technical problems. Their work is the link between scientific discoveries and commercial applications. Engineers design products, machinery to build those products, factories in which those products are made, and the systems that ensure the quality of the product and efficiency of the workforce and manufacturing process. Engineers design, plan, and supervise the construction of buildings, highways, and transit systems. They develop and implement improved ways to extract, process, and use raw materials, such as petroleum and natural gas. They develop new materials that both improve the performance of products and help implement advances in technology. They har­ ness the power of the sun, the Earth, atoms, and electricity for use in supplying the Nation’s power needs, and create millions of prod­ ucts using power. Engineering knowledge is applied to improving many things, including the quality of health care, the safety of food products, and the efficient operation of financial systems. Engineers consider many factors when developing a new prod­ uct. For example, in developing an industrial robot, engineers de­ termine precisely what function the robot needs to perform; design and test the robot’s components; fit the components together in an integrated plan; and evaluate the design’s overall effectiveness, cost, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  reliability, and safety. This process applies to many different prod­ ucts, such as chemicals, computers, gas turbines, helicopters, and toys. In addition to design and development, many engineers work in testing, production, or maintenance. These engineers supervise pro­ duction in factories, determine the causes of breakdowns, and test manufactured products to maintain quality. They also estimate the time and cost to complete projects. Some work in engineering man­ agement or in sales, where an engineering background enables them to discuss technical aspects and assist in product planning, installa­ tion, and use. (See the statements on engineering, natural science, and computer and information systems managers, and manufactur­ ers’ and wholesale sales representatives, elsewhere in the Handbook.) Most engineers specialize. More than 25 major specialties are recognized by professional societies, and the major branches have numerous subdivisions. Some examples include structural, envi­ ronmental, and transportation engineering, which are subdivisions of civil engineering; and ceramic, metallurgical, and polymer engi­ neering, which are subdivisions of materials engineering. Engi­ neers may also specialize in one industry such as motor vehicles or in one field of technology, such as jet engines or semiconductor materials. This section, which contains an overall discussion of engineer­ ing, is followed by separate sections on 10 engineering branches: Aerospace, chemical, civil, electrical and electronics, industrial, materials, mechanical, mining, nuclear, and petroleum engineering. (Computer engineers are discussed in the statement on computer systems analysts, engineers, and scientists elsewhere in the Hand­ book.) Some branches of engineering not covered in detail here, but for which there are established college programs, include archi­ tectural engineering—the design of a building’s internal support structure; biomedical engineering—the application of engineering  86 Occupational Outlook Handbook to medical and physiological problems; environmental engineer­ ing—a growing discipline involved with identifying, solving, and alleviating environmental problems; and marine engineering—the design and installation of ship machinery and propulsion systems. Engineers in each branch have a base of knowledge and training that can be applied in many fields. Electrical and electronics engi­ neers, for example, work in the medical, computer, missile guid­ ance, and power distribution fields. Because there are many sepa­ rate problems to solve in a large engineering project, engineers in one field often work closely with specialists in other scientific, en­ gineering, and business occupations. Engineers use computers to produce and analyze designs; to simu­ late and test how a machine, structure, or system operates; and to generate specifications for parts. Many engineers also use comput­ ers to monitor product quality and control process efficiency. They spend a great deal of time writing reports and consulting with other engineers, as complex projects often require an interdisciplinary team of engineers. Supervisory engineers are responsible for major com­ ponents or entire projects.  Working Conditions Most engineers work in office buildings, laboratories, or industrial plants. Others may spend time outdoors at construction sites, mines, and oil and gas exploration sites, where they monitor or direct op­ erations or solve onsite problems. Some engineers travel exten­ sively to plants or work sites. Many engineers work a standard 40-hour week. At times, dead­ lines or design standards may bring extra pressure to a job. When this happens, engineers may work longer hours and experience con­ siderable stress.  Employment In 1998, engineers held 1.5 million jobs. The following tabulation shows the distribution of employment by engineering specialty. Specialty  Employment  Percent  ............... 1,462,000  100.0  Electrical and electronics ......... ............... .............. Civil ........................................... .............. Industrial................................... .............. Aerospace.................................. .............. .............. Materials................................... .............. Petroleum................................. .............. Nuclear...................................... .............. Mining....................................... .............. All other engineers.................. ..............  357,000 220,000 195,000 126,000 53,000 48,000 20,000 12,000 12,000 4,000 415,000  24 15  13 9 4  3 1 <1 <1 <1 28  Almost half of all wage and salary engineering jobs were found in manufacturing industries, such as transportation equipment, elec­ trical and electronic equipment, industrial machinery, and instru­ ments and related products. In 1998, about 390,000 wage and sal­ ary jobs were in services industries, primarily in engineering and architectural services, research and testing services, and business services, where firms designed construction projects or did other engineering work on a contractual basis. Engineers also worked in the communications, utilities, and construction industries. Federal, State and local governments employed about 166,000 wage and salary engineers in 1998. Over half of these were in the Federal Government, mainly in the Departments of Defense, Transpor­ tation, Agriculture, Interior, and Energy, and in the National Aeronau­ tics and Space Administration. Most engineers in State and local gov­ ernment agencies worked in highway and public works departments. In 1998, about 50,000 engineers were self-employed, many as consult­ ants. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Engineers are employed in every State, in small and large cities, and in rural areas. Some branches of engineering are concentrated in par­ ticular industries and geographic areas, as discussed in statements later in this chapter.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree in engineering is generally required for en­ try-level engineering jobs. College graduates with a degree in a physical science or mathematics may occasionally qualify for some engineering jobs, especially in specialties in high demand. Most engineering degrees are granted in electrical, mechanical, or civil engineering. However, engineers trained in one branch may work in related branches. For example, many aerospace engineers have training in mechanical engineering. This flexibility allows em­ ployers to meet staffing needs in new technologies and specialties in which engineers are in short supply. It also allows engineers to shift to fields with better employment prospects or to ones that match their interests more closely. In addition to the standard engineering degree, many colleges offer degrees in engineering technology, which are offered as either 2- or 4-year programs. These programs prepare students for practi­ cal design and production work, rather than for jobs that require more theoretical and scientific knowledge. Graduates of 4-year tech­ nology programs may get jobs similar to those obtained by gradu­ ates with a bachelor’s degree in engineering. Some employers re­ gard technology program graduates as having skills between those of a technician and an engineer. Graduate training is essential for engineering faculty posi­ tions, but is not required for the majority of entry-level engi­ neering jobs. Many engineers obtain graduate degrees in engi­ neering or business administration to learn new technology, broaden their education, and enhance their promotion opportu­ nities. Many high-level executives in government and industry began their careers as engineers. About 320 colleges and universities offer bachelor’s degree pro­ grams in engineering that are accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET), and about 250 colleges offer accredited bachelor’s degree programs in engineering tech­ nology. ABET accreditation is based on an examination of an engi­ neering program’s student achievement, program improvement, fac­ ulty, curricular content, facilities, and institutional commitment. Although most institutions offer programs in the major branches of engineering, only a few offer some of the smaller specialties. Also, programs of the same title may vary in content. For example, some programs emphasize industrial practices, preparing students for a job in industry, whereas others are more theoretical and are better for students preparing to take graduate work. Therefore, students should investigate curricula and check accreditations carefully be­ fore selecting a college. Admissions requirements for undergradu­ ate engineering schools include a solid background in mathematics (algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and calculus), sciences (biology, chemistry, and physics), and courses in English, social studies, hu­ manities, and computers. Bachelor’s degree programs in engineering are typically designed to last 4 years, but many students find that it takes between 4 and 5 years to complete their studies. In a typical 4-year college curricu­ lum, the first 2 years are spent studying mathematics, basic sciences, introductory engineering, humanities, and social sciences. In the last 2 years, most courses are in engineering, usually with a concen­ tration in one branch. For example, the last 2 years of an aerospace program might include courses such as fluid mechanics, heat trans­ fer, applied aerodynamics, analytical mechanics, flight vehicle de­ sign, trajectory dynamics, and aerospace propulsion systems. Some programs offer a general engineering curriculum; students then spe­ cialize in graduate school or on the job* Some engineering schools and 2-year colleges have agreements whereby the 2-year college provides the initial engineering educa-  Professional and Technical Occupations 87 tion; and the engineering school automatically admits students for their last 2 years. In addition, a few engineering schools have arrangements, whereby a student spends 3 years in a liberal arts college studying pre­ engineering subjects and 2 years in an engineering school studying core subjects, and then receives a bachelor’s degree from each school. Some colleges and universities offer 5-year master’s degree programs. Some 5or even 6-year cooperative plans combine classroom study and practical work, permitting students to gain valuable experience and finance part of their education. All 50 States and the District of Columbia require licensure for engineers whose work may affect life, health, or property, or who offer their services to the public. Engineers who are licensed are called Professional Engineers (PE). This licensure generally re­ quires a degree from an ABET-accredited engineering program, 4 years of relevant work experience, and successful completion of a State examination. Recent graduates can start the licensing process by taking the examination in two stages. The initial examination can be taken upon graduation. Engineers who pass this examina­ tion are commonly called Engineers in Training (EIT). The EIT certification is usually valid for 10 years. After acquiring suitable work experience, EITs can take the second examination, the Prin­ ciples and Practice of Engineering Exam. While Professional Engi­ neers must be licensed in each State in which they practice, most states recognize licensure from other states. Many civil, electrical, mechanical, and chemical engineers are certified as PEs. Engineers should be creative, inquisitive, analytical, and detailoriented. They should be able to work as part of a team and beable to communicate well, both orally and in writing. Beginning engineering graduates usually work under the su­ pervision of experienced engineers and, in large companies, may also receive formal classroom or seminar-type training. As new engineers gain knowledge and experience, they are assigned more difficult projects with greater independence to develop designs, solve problems, and make decisions. Engineers may advance to become technical specialists or to supervise a staff or team of en­ gineers and technicians. Some eventually become engineering managers or enter other managerial or sales jobs. (See the state­ ments under executive, administrative, and managerial occupa­ tions, and under marketing and sales occupations, elsewhere in the Handbook.)  Job Outlook Employment opportunities in engineering are expected to be good through 2008. Overall engineering employment is expected to in­ crease about as fast as the average for all occupations, while the number of engineering degrees granted has remained fairly con­ stant over the past several years. Projected growth varies by spe­ cialty, ranging from a decline among mining engineers to fasterthan-average growth among electrical and electronics engineers. Competitive pressures and advancing technology will force com­ panies to improve and update product designs increasingly more frequently, and to optimize their manufacturing processes. Employ­ ers will rely on engineers to further increase productivity, as invest­ ment in plant and equipment increases to expand output of goods and services. New computer systems have improved the design process, enabling engineers to produce and analyze various product designs much more rapidly than in the past. Despite these wide­ spread applications, computer technology is not expected to limit employment opportunities. Finally, additional engineers will be needed to improve or build new roads, bridges, water and pollution control systems, and other public facilities. Many engineering jobs are related to developing technologies used in national defense. Because defense expenditures—particu­ larly expenditures for aircraft, missiles, and other weapons sys­ tems—are not expected to return to previously high levels, job outlook may not be as favorable for engineers working in defenserelated fields. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  The number of bachelor's degrees awarded in engineering has declined since 1986. Number of degrees (thousands) 80 p  70­ 60 50­ 40 30 20  -  10­  19861987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998  Source: Engineering Workforce Commission  The number of bachelor’s degrees awarded in engineering be­ gan declining in 1987, as shown in the accompanying chart, and has continued to stay at about the same level through much of the 1990s. Although it is difficult to project engineering enrollments, the total number of graduates from engineering programs is not expected to increase significantly over the projection period. Some engineering schools have restricted enrollments, especially in de­ fense-related fields, such as aerospace engineering, to accommo­ date reduced job opportunities. Although only a relatively small proportion of engineers leaves the profession each year, many job openings will arise from re­ placement needs. A greater proportion of replacement openings is created by engineers who transfer to management, sales, or other professional specialty occupations than by those who leave the labor force. Most industries are less likely to lay off engineers than other work­ ers. Many engineers work on long-term research and development projects or in other activities that .continue even during economic slow­ downs. In industries such as electronics and aerospace, however, large cutbacks in defense expenditures and government research and devel­ opment funds, as well as the trend toward contracting out engineering work to engineering services firms, have resulted in significant layoffs for engineers. It is important for engineers, like those working in other tech­ nical occupations, to continue their education throughout their ca­ reers, because much of their value to their employer depends on their knowledge of the latest technology. Although the pace of technological change varies by engineering specialty and indus­ try, advances in technology have affected every engineering dis­ cipline significantly. Engineers in high-technology areas, such as advanced electronics, may find that technical knowledge can be­ come obsolete rapidly. Even those who continue their education are vulnerable if the particular technology or product in which they have specialized becomes obsolete. By keeping current in their field, engineers are able to deliver the best solutions and great­ est value to their employers. Engineers who have not kept current in their field may find themselves passed over for promotions or vulnerable to layoffs, should they occur. On the other hand, it is often these high-technology areas that offer the greatest challenges, the most interesting work, and the highest salaries. Therefore, the  88 Occupational Outlook Handbook choice of engineering specialty and employer involves an assessment not only of the potential rewards but also of the risk of technological obsolescence.  Related Occupations Engineers apply the principles of physical science and mathematics in their work. Other workers who use scientific and mathematical principles include engineering, natural science, and computer and information systems managers; physical and life scientists; math­ ematicians; computer systems analysts, engineers, and scientists; engineering and science technicians; and architects.  Sources of Additional Information High school students interested in obtaining general information on a variety of engineering disciplines should contact the Junior Engineering Technical Society, by sending a self-addressed busi­ ness-size envelope with six first-class stamps affixed to: w JETS-Guidance, at 1420 King St., Suite 405, Alexandria, VA 22314­ 2794. Internet:  *■ ASM International Foundation, Materials Park, OH 44073-0002. Internet:  Mechanical Engineering m- The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Three Park Ave., New York, NY 10016. Internet: »■ American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning En­ gineers, Inc., 1791 Tullie Circle NE, Atlanta, GA 30329. Internet:  Mining Engineering m- The Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc., P.O. Box 625002, Littleton, CO 80162-5002. Internet:  Nuclear Engineering m- American Nuclear Society, 555 North Kensington Ave., LaGrange Park, IL 60525. Internet:  Petroleum Engineering m- Society of Petroleum Engineers, P.O. Box 833836, Richardson, TX 75083-3836. Internet:  High school students interested in obtaining information on ABET-accredited engineering programs should contact: m- The Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology, Inc., 111 Market Place, Suite 1050, Baltimore, MD 21202-4012. Internet:  Aerospace Engineers  College students interested in obtaining information on Profes­ sional Engineer licensure should contact:  (0*NET 22102)  •- The National Society of Professional Engineers, 1420 King St.. Alexan­ dria, VA 22314-2794. Internet:  Information on obtaining an engineering position with the Fed­ eral Government is available from the Office of Personnel Manage­ ment through a telephone-based system. Consult your telephone directory under U.S. Government for a local number or call (912) 757-3000; TDD (912) 744-2299. That number is not toll free, and charges may result. Information is also available from the Internet site: Non-high school students and those wanting more detailed informa­ tion should contact societies representing the individual branches of engineering. Each can provide information about careers in the particu­ lar branch.  Aerospace Engineering <m- Aerospace Industries Association, 1250 Eye St., NW„ Washington, DC 20005. Internet: m- American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., Suite 500, 1801 Alexander Bell Dr., Reston, VA 20191-4344. Enclose $2 to receive guidance materials and information. Internet:  Chemical Engineering m- American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Three Park Ave., New York, NY 10016-5901. Internet: m- American Chemical Society, Department of Career Services, 1155 16th St. NW„ Washington, DC 20036. Internet:  Civil Engineering m- American Society of Civil Engineers, 1801 Alexander Bell Dr., Reston, VA 20191-4400. Internet:  Electrical and Electronics Engineering m- Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers—United States of America, 1828 L St. NW., Suite 1202, Washington, DC 20036. Internet:  Industrial Engineering m- Institute of Industrial Engineers, Inc., 25 Technology Park/Atlanta, Norcross, GA 30092. Internet:  Materials Engineering <r The Minerals, Metals, & Materials Society, 184 Thorn Hill Rd., Warrendale, PA 15086. Internet: Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Nature of the Work Aerospace engineers are responsible for developing extraordi­ nary machines, from airplanes that weigh over a half a million pounds to spacecraft that travel over 17,000 miles an hour. They design, develop, and test aircraft, spacecraft, and missiles and supervise manufacturing of these products. Aerospace engineers who work with aircraft are considered aeronautical engineers, and those working specifically with spacecraft are considered  astronautical engineers. Aerospace engineers develop new technologies for use in avia­ tion, defense systems, and space exploration, often specializing in areas like structural design, guidance, navigation and control, in­ strumentation and communication, or production methods. They also may specialize in a particular type of aerospace product, such as commercial transports, military fighter jets, helicopters, space­ craft, or missiles and rockets. Aerospace engineers may be experts in aerodynamics, thermodynamics, celestial mechanics, propulsion, acoustics, or guidance and control systems.  Employment Aerospace engineers held about 53,000 jobs in 1998. Almost onehalf worked in the aircraft and parts and guided missile and space vehicle manufacturing industries. Federal Government agencies, primarily the Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, provided about 1 out of 7 jobs. Business services, engineering and architectural services, research and test­ ing services, and electrical and electronics manufacturing firms ac­ counted for most of the remaining jobs. California, Washington, Texas, and Florida—States with large aerospace manufacturers—employ the most aerospace engineers.  Job Outlook Those seeking employment as aerospace engineers are likely to face keen competition because the supply of graduates is expected to ex­ ceed the number ofjob openings. Employment of aerospace engineers is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations through 2008. The decline in Defense Department expenditures for military aircraft, missiles, and other aerospace systems has caused mergers and acquisitions among defense contractors. In addition,  Professional and Technical Occupations 89  Chemical Engineers (0*NET 22114)  Nature of the Work Chemical engineers apply the principles of chemistry and engineer­ ing to solve problems involving the production or use of chemicals. They design equipment and develop processes for large scale chemi­ cal manufacturing, plan and test methods of manufacturing the prod­ ucts and treating the by-products, and supervise production. Chemi­ cal engineers also work in a variety of maufacturing industries other than chemical manufacturing such as electronics, photographic equipment, and pulp and paper mills. Because the knowledge and duties of chemical engineers cut across many fields, they apply principles of chemistry, physics, mathemat­ ics, and mechanical and electrical engineering. They frequently spe­ cialize in a particular operation such as oxidation or polymerization. Others specialize in a particular area such as pollution control or the production of specific products such as automotive plastics or chlo­ rine bleach. Chemical engineers are increasingly using computer tech­ nology to optimize all phases of research and production; therefore they need to understand how to apply computer skills to process analy­ sis, automated control systems, and statistical quality control.  Employment Chemical engineers held about 48,000 jobs in 1998. Manufacturing industries employed over 70 percent of all employees, primarily in the  An aerospace engineer tests avionics equipment. Federal Government funding for research and development of new systems has also declined. Offsetting these declines, however, is the projected growth in the civilian sector due to orders from domestic and foreign airlines that need to accommodate increasing passenger traffic and to replace the present fleet of airliners with quieter and more fuelefficient aircraft. Most job openings will result from the need to replace aerospace engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force.  mm --  ft  Earnings Median annual earnings of aerospace engineers were $66,950 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned between $51,170 and $82,620. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $42,650 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $93,880. Median annual earnings in the industries employing the largest numbers of aerospace engineers in 1997 were: Aircraft and parts............................................................................ $72,200 Federal Government....................................................................... 70,000 Guided missiles, space vehicles, and parts.................................. 58,200  According to a 1999 salary survey by the National Association of Colleges and Employers, bachelor’s degree candidates in aerospace engineering received starting offers averaging about $40,700 a year; master’s degree candidates, $54,200; and Ph.D. candidates, $64,400. (See introduction to the section on engineers for information on working conditions, training requirements, and sources of additional information.) Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Although many chemical engineers are employed by manufacturers, much of the job growth is expected to occur in services industries.  90 Occupational Outlook Handbook electronics, petroleum refining, paper, chemical, and related industries. Most others worked for engineering services, research and testing ser­ vices, or consulting firms that design chemical plants. Some also worked on a contract basis for government agencies or as independent consult­ ants.  Job Outlook Chemical engineering graduates may face keen competition for jobs as the number of openings is projected to be substantially lower than the number of graduates. Employment of chemical engineers is pro­ jected to grow as fast as the average for all occupations though 2008. Although overall employment in the chemical manufacturing indus­ try is expected to decline, chemical companies will continue to re­ search and develop new chemicals and more efficient processes to increase output of existing chemicals. Among manufacturing indus­ tries, specialty chemicals, plastics materials, pharmaceuticals, and electronics may provide the best opportunities. Much of the pro­ jected growth in employment of chemical engineers, however, will be in nonmanufacturing industries, especially services industries.  Earnings Median annual earnings of chemical engineers were $64,760 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned between $49,360 and $81,520. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $41,380 and the highest 10 per­ cent earned more than $92,240. According to a 1999 salary survey by the National Association of Colleges and Employers, bachelor’s degree candidates in chemi­ cal engineering received starting offers averaging about $46,900 a year; master’s degree candidates in chemical engineering, $52,100; and Ph.D. candidates in chemical engineering, $67,300. (See introduction to the section on engineers for information on working conditions, training requirements, and sources of additional information.)  I j|jj JjJ  ^ - - 'hm  !:'»  i! l'i  Civil engineers take safety and environmental concerns into account when designing construction projects. population growth and an expanding economy, more civil engineers will be needed to design and construct higher capacity transporta­ tion, water supply, and pollution control systems; large buildings and building complexes; and to repair or replace existing roads, bridges, and other public structures. In addition to job growth, open­ ings will result from the need to replace civil engineers who trans­ fer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Because construction and related industries—including those providing design services—employ many civil engineers, employ­ ment opportunities will vary by geographic area and may decrease during economic slowdowns, when construction is often curtailed.  Earnings  Civil Engineers (0*NET 22121)  Median annual earnings of civil engineers were $53,450 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned between $41,800 and $74,550. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $34,270 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $87,350. Median annual earnings in the industries em­ ploying the largest numbers of civil engineers in 1997 were:  Nature of the Work Civil engineers design and supervise the construction of roads, build­ ings, airports, tunnels, dams, bridges, and water supply and sewage systems. Major specialties within civil engineering are structural, water resources, environmental, construction, transportation, and geotechnical engineering. Many civil engineers hold supervisory or administrative posi­ tions, from supervisor of a construction site to city engineer. Oth­ ers may work in design, construction, research, and teaching.  Employment Civil engineers held about 195,000 jobs in 1998. Almost half were employed by firms providing engineering consulting services, pri­ marily developing designs for new construction projects. Another one third of the jobs were in Federal, State, and local government agencies. The construction industry, public utilities, transportation, and manufacturing industries accounted for most of the remaining employment. About 12,000 civil engineers were self-employed, many as consultants. Civil engineers usually work near major industrial and commer­ cial centers, often at construction sites. Some projects are situated in remote areas or in foreign countries. In some jobs, civil engi­ neers move from place to place to work on different projects.  Job Outlook Employment of civil engineers is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations through 2008. Spurred by general Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Federal government........................................................................... $64,000 Heavy construction, except highway............................................... 61,300 Local government, except education and hospitals....................... 52,100 Engineering and architectural services........................................... 49,300 State government, except education and hospitals........................ 48,900  According to a 1999 salary survey by the National Association of Colleges and Employers, bachelor’s degree candidates in civil engineering received starting offers averaging about $36,100 a year; master’s degree candidates in civil engineering, $42,300; and Ph.D. candidates in civil engineering, $58,600. (See introduction to the section on engineers for information on working conditions, training requirements, and sources of additional information.)  Electrical and Electronics Engineers (0*NET 22126A and 22126B)  Nature of the Work From computer chips that process millions of instructions every second to radar systems that detect weather patterns days in ad­ vance, electrical and electronics engineers are responsible for a wide range of technologies. Electrical and electronics engineers design, develop, test, and supervise the manufacture of electrical  Professional and Technical Occupations 91  .  :  ance, and targeting systems. However, job growth is expected to be fastest in services industries—particularly consulting firms that provide electronic engineering expertise. Continuing education is important for electrical and electronics engineers. Engineers who fail to keep up with the rapid changes in technology risk technological obsolescence, which makes them more susceptible to layoffs or, at a minimum, more likely to be passed over for advancement.  Earnings m'  u  IPH \ «■  Electrical and electronics engineers design and test equipment used by other scientists. and electronic equipment. Some of this equipment includes power generating, controlling, and transmission devices used by electric utilities; electric motors, machinery controls, lighting, and wiring in buildings, automobiles, and aircraft; and in radar and naviga­ tion systems, computer and office equipment, and broadcast and communications systems. Electrical and electronics engineers specialize in different areas such as power generation, transmission, and distribution; commu­ nications; computer electronics; and electrical equipment manufac­ turing—or a subdivision of these areas—industrial robot control systems or aviation electronics, for example. Electrical and elec­ tronics engineers design new products, write performance require­ ments, and develop maintenance schedules. They also test equip­ ment, solve operating problems, and estimate the time and cost of engineering projects. (See the statement on computer systems ana­ lysts, engineers, and scientists elsewhere in the Handbook.)  Employment Electrical and electronics engineers held about 357,000jobs in 1998, making it the largest branch of engineering. Most jobs were in en­ gineering and business consulting firms, government agencies, and manufacturers of electrical and electronic equipment, industrial machinery, and professional and scientific instruments. Communi­ cations and utilities firms, manufacturers of aircraft and guided missiles, and computer and data processing services firms accounted for most of the remaining jobs. California, Texas, New York, and New Jersey—states with many large electronics firms—employ over one-third of all electrical and electronics engineers.  Job Outlook Electrical and electronics engineering graduates should have favor­ able job opportunities. The number of job openings resulting from employment growth and the need to replace electrical engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force is expected to be in rough balance with the supply of graduates. Employment of electrical and electronics engineers is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through 2008. Projected job growth stems largely from increased demand for electrical and electronic goods, including computers and communi­ cations equipment. The need for electronics manufacturers to in­ vest heavily in research and development to remain competitive and have a scientific edge will provide openings for graduates who have learned the latest technologies. Opportunities for electronics engi­ neers in defense-related firms should improve as aircraft and weap­ ons systems are upgraded with improved navigation, control, guid­ Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Median annual earnings of electrical and electronics engineers were $62,660 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned between $47,080 and $80,160. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $38,470 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $91,490. Median annual earnings in the industries employing the largest numbers of electri­ cal and electronics engineers in 1997 were: Federal government.......................................................................... $68,000 Computer and office equipment....................................................... 67,100 Electronic components and accessories............................................ 59,900 Communications equipment.............................................................. 59,400 Engineering and architectural services............................................. 58,900  According to a 1999 salary survey by the National Association of Colleges and Employers, bachelor’s degree candidates in electri­ cal and electronics engineering received starting offers averaging about $45,200 a year; master’s degree candidates, $57,200; and Ph.D. candidates, $70,800. (See introduction to the section on engineers for information on working conditions, training requirements, and sources of additional information.)  Industrial Engineers, Except Safety Engineers (0*NET 22128)  Nature of the Work Industrial engineers determine the most effective ways for an orga­ nization to use the basic factors of production—people, machines, materials, information, and energy—to make a product or provide a service. They are the bridge between management goals and opera­ tional performance. They are more concerned with increasing pro­ ductivity through the management of people, methods of business organization, and technology than are engineers in other special­ ties, who generally work more with products or processes. To solve organizational, production, and related problems most efficiently, industrial engineers carefully study the product and its requirements, use mathematical methods such as operations re­ search to meet those requirements, and design manufacturing and information systems. They develop management control systems to aid in financial planning and cost analysis, design production planning and control systems to coordinate activities and control product quality, and design or improve systems for the physical distribution of goods and services. Industrial engineers determine which plant location has the best combination of raw materials availability, transportation, and costs. They also develop wage and salary administration systems and job evaluation programs. Many industrial engineers move into management positions be­ cause the work is closely related.  Employment Industrial engineers held about 126,000 jobs in 1998. Over 70 percent of these jobs were in manufacturing industries. Because their skills can be used in almost any type of organization, indus­ trial engineers are more widely distributed among manufacturing industries than other engineers.  92 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Industrial engineers often use computers to improve products and services. Their skills can be readily applied outside manufacturing as well. Some work in engineering and management services, utilities, and business services; others work for government agencies or as inde­ pendent consultants.  Job Outlook Employment of industrial engineers is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through 2008, reflect­ ing industrial growth, more complex business operations, and greater use of automation in factories and offices. Because the main function of an industrial engineer is to make a higher qual­ ity product as efficiently as possible, their services should be in demand in the manufacturing sector as firms seek to reduce costs and increase productivity through scientific management. In addition to job growth, openings will result from the need to replace industrial engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force.  Earnings Median annual earnings of industrial engineers were $52,610 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned between $42,690 and $73,870. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $35,250 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $87,010. Median annual earnings in the manufacturing industries employing the largest numbers of indus­ trial engineers in 1997 were:  metals, ceramics, plastics, semiconductors, and combinations of materials called composites to create new materials that meet cer­ tain mechanical, electrical, and chemical requirements. They also test and evaluate existing materials for new applications. Materi­ als engineers specializing in metals can be considered metallurgi­ cal engineers, while those specializing in ceramics can be consid­ ered ceramic engineers. Most metallurgical engineers work in one of the three main branches of metallurgy—extractive or chemical, physical, and me­ chanical or process. Extractive metallurgists are concerned with removing metals from ores and refining and alloying them to obtain useful metal. Physical metallurgists study the nature, structure, and physical properties of metals and their alloys, and methods of pro­ cessing them into final products. Mechanical metallurgists develop and improve metalworking processes such as casting, forging, roll­ ing, and drawing. Ceramic engineers develop new ceramic materials and meth­ ods for making ceramic materials into useful products. Ceramics include all nonmetallic, inorganic materials that generally require high temperatures in their processing. Ceramic engineers work on products as diverse as glassware, automobile and aircraft en­ gine components, fiber-optic communication lines, tile, and elec­ tric insulators.  Employment Materials engineers held about 20,000 jobs in 1998. Because mate­ rials are building blocks for other goods, materials engineers are widely distributed among manufacturing industries. In fact, over half of materials engineers worked in metal-producing and process­ ing; electronic and other electrical equipment; transportation equip­ ment; industrial machinery and equipment; and stone, clay, and glass products manufacturing. They also worked in services industries such as engineering and management, business, and health services. Most remaining materials engineers worked for Federal and State governments.  Job Outlook Employment of materials engineers is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations through 2008. Many of the manufacturing industries in which materials engineers are concen­ trated—such as primary metals; industrial machinery and equip­ ment; and stone, clay, and glass products—are expected to experi­ ence declines in employment. As firms outsource their materials engineering needs, however, employment growth is expected in many services industries including research and testing, personnel  Motor vehicles and equipment......................................................... $58,900 Electronic components and accessories.......................................... 48,800 Aircraft and parts .............................................................................. 44,100  According to a 1999 salary survey by the National Association of Colleges and Employers, bachelor’s degree candidates in indus­ trial engineering received starting offers averaging about $43,100 a year; master’s degree candidates, $49,900. (See introduction to the section on engineers for information on working conditions, training requirements, and sources of additional information.)  »::T§tL  Materials Engineers (0*NET 22105A, 22105B, 22105C, and 22105D)  Nature of the Work Materials engineers manipulate the atomic and molecular struc­ ture of substances to create products such as computer chips and television screens to golf clubs and snow skis. They work with Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Materials engineers analyze the physical and chemical characteristics of substances.  Professional and Technical Occupations 93 supply, health, and engineering and architectural services. In addition to growth, job openings will result from the need to replace materials engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force.  Earnings Median annual earnings of materials engineers were $57,970 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned between $43,890 and $77,730. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $34,890 and the highest 10 per­ cent earned more than $89,600. In the Federal Government, mate­ rials engineers in supervisory, nonsupervisory, and management positions averaged $68,000 a year in early 1999. According to a 1999 salary survey by the National Association of Colleges and Employers, bachelor’s degree candidates in materials engineering received starting offers averaging about $43,400 a year. (See introduction to the section on engineers for information on working conditions, training requirements, and sources of additional information.)  Mechanical Engineers  Employment Mechanical engineers held about 220,000 jobs in 1998. Almost 3 out of 5 jobs were in manufacturing—mostly in machinery, trans­ portation equipment, electrical equipment, instruments, and fabri­ cated metal products industries. Engineering and management ser­ vices, business services, and the Federal Government provided most of the remaining jobs.  Job Outlook Employment of mechanical engineers is projected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations though 2008. Although overall manufacturing employment is expected to decline, em­ ployment of mechanical engineers in manufacturing should in­ crease as the demand for improved machinery and machine tools grows and industrial machinery and processes become increas­ ingly complex. Employment of mechanical engineers in busi­ ness and engineering services firms is expected to grow faster than average as other industries in the economy increasingly contract out to these firms to solve engineering problems. In addition to job openings from growth, many openings should result from the need to replace workers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force.  (0*NET 22135)  Earnings Nature of the Work Mechanical engineers research, develop, design, manufacture and test tools, engines, machines, and other mechanical devices. They work on power-producing machines such as electricity-produc­ ing generators, internal combustion engines, steam and gas tur­ bines, and jet and rocket engines. They also develop power-us­ ing machines such as refrigeration and air-conditioning equip­ ment, robots used in manufacturing, machine tools, materials handling systems, and industrial production equipment. Me­ chanical engineers also design tools needed by other engineers for their work. Mechanical engineers work in many industries and their work varies by industry and function. Some specialties include ap­ plied mechanics; computer-aided design and manufacturing; en­ ergy systems; pressure vessels and piping; and heating, refrig­ eration, and air-conditioning systems. Mechanical engineering is the broadest engineering discipline, extending across many interdependent specialties. Mechanical engineers may work in production operations, maintenance, or technical sales; many are administrators or managers.  Median annual earnings of mechanical engineers were $53,290 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned between $42,680 and $74,220. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $35,290 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $87,000. Median annual earnings in the industries employing the largest numbers of mechanical engineers in 1997 were: Federal government.......................................................................... $66,800 Engineering and architectural services........................................... 55,800 Electronic components and accessories.......................................... 52,900 Aircraft and parts....................................................................... ’..... 51,800 Motor vehicles and equipment........................................................ 48,500  According to a 1999 salary survey by the National Association of Colleges and Employers, bachelor’s degree candidates in me­ chanical engineering received starting offers averaging about $43,300 a year; master’s degree candidates, $51,900; and Ph.D. can­ didates, $64,300. (See introduction to the section on engineers for information on working conditions, training requirements, and sources of additional information.)  Mining Engineers, Including Mine Safety Engineers (Q*NET 22108)  Nature of the Work  Mechanical engineers increasingly use computers to perform modeling and simulation. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Mining engineers find, extract, and prepare coal, metals, and min­ erals for use by manufacturing industries and utilities. They design open pit and underground mines, supervise the construction of mine shafts and tunnels in underground operations, and devise methods for transporting minerals to processing plants. Mining engineers are responsible for the safe, economical, and environmentally sound operation of mines. Some mining engineers work with geologists and metallurgical engineers to locate and appraise new ore depos­ its. Others develop new mining equipment or direct mineral pro­ cessing operations to separate minerals from the dirt, rock, and other materials with which they are mixed. Mining engineers frequently specialize in the mining of one mineral or metal, such as coal or gold. With increased emphasis on protecting the environment, many mining engineers work to solve problems related to land reclama­ tion and water and air pollution.  94 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Nuclear Engineers (Q*NET 22117)  Nature of the Work  Mining engineers often spend time outdoors at work sites. Employment Mining engineers held about 4,400 jobs in 1998. While one-half worked in the mining industry, other mining engineers worked in government agencies, manufacturing industries, or engineering consulting firms. Mining engineers are usually employed at the location of natu­ ral deposits, often near small communities, and sometimes outside the United States. About one-third of mining engineers employed in the U.S. work in Nevada, Colorado, Arizona, West Virginia, and Wyoming. Those in research and development, management, con­ sulting, or sales, however, are often located in metropolitan areas.  Nuclear engineers research and develop the processes, instruments, and systems used to derive benefits from nuclear energy and ra­ diation. They design, develop, monitor, and operate nuclear plants used to generate power. They may work on the nuclear fuel cycle— the production, handling, and use of nuclear fuel and the safe dis­ posal of waste produced by nuclear energy—or on fusion energy. Some specialize in the development of nuclear power sources for spacecraft; others develop industrial and medical uses for radio­ active materials, such as equipment to diagnose and treat medical problems.  Employment Nuclear engineers held about 12,000 jobs in 1998. About 60 per­ cent were in utilities, the Federal Government, and engineering consulting firms. More than half of all federally employed nuclear engineers were civilian employees of the Navy, and most of the rest worked for the Department of Energy or the Tennessee Valley Authority. Most nonfederally employed nuclear engineers worked for public utilities or engineering consulting companies. Some worked for defense manufacturers or manufacturers of nuclear power equipment.  Job Outlook Employment of mining engineers is expected to decline through 2008. Most of the industries in which mining engineers are con­ centrated—such as coal, metal, and mineral mining, as well as stone, clay, and glass products manufacturing—are expected to experience declines in employment. Although there are no job openings expected to result from employment growth, there should be openings resulting from the need to replace mining engineers who transfer to other occupa­ tions or leave the labor force. A large number of mining engineers currently employed are approaching retirement age. In addition, there are a relatively small number of schools offering mining en­ gineering programs, and the small number of graduates is not ex­ pected to increase. Mining operations around the world recruit graduates of U.S. mining engineering programs. Consequently, job opportunities may be better worldwide than within the United States. As a result, gradu­ ates should be prepared for the possibility of frequent travel or even living abroad.  SltlSl  Earnings Median annual earnings of mining engineers were $56,090 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned between $43,350 and $75,650. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $34,930 and the highest 10 per­ cent earned more than $87,380. In the Federal Government, min­ ing engineers in supervisory, nonsupervisory, and management po­ sitions averaged $62,300 a year in early 1999. According to a 1999 salary survey by the National Association of Colleges and Employers, bachelor’s degree candidates in min­ ing engineering received starting offers averaging about $39,600 a year. (See introduction to the section on engineers for information on working conditions, training requirements, and sources of additional information.) Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Many nuclear engineers work for public utilities.  Professional and Technical Occupations 95  Job Outlook Good opportunities should exist for nuclear engineers because the small number of nuclear engineering graduates is likely to be in rough balance with the number of job openings. Because this is a small occupation, projected job growth will generate few openings; consequently, most openings will result from the need to replace nuclear engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Employment of nuclear engineers is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations through 2008. Due to public concerns over the cost and safety of nuclear power, there are no com­ mercial nuclear power plants under construction in the United States. Nevertheless, nuclear engineers will be needed to operate existing plants. In addition, nuclear engineers will be needed to work in de­ fense-related areas, to develop nuclear medical technology, and to improve and enforce waste management and safety standards.  Earnings Median annual earnings of nuclear engineers were $71,310 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned between $57,160 and $85,460. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $48,830 and the highest 10 per­ cent earned more than $ 106,400. In the Federal Government, nuclear engineers in supervisory, nonsupervisory, and management posi­ tions averaged $67,100 a year in early 1999. (See introduction to the section on engineers for information on working conditions, training requirements, and sources of additional information.)  Petroleum engineers are involved in many aspects of oil and gas extraction. California, and Colorado, including offshore sites. Many American petroleum engineers also work overseas in oil-producing coun­ tries. Because petroleum engineers specialize in the discovery and production of oil and gas, relatively few are employed in the trans­ portation and retail sectors of the oil and gas industry.  Job Outlook  Petroleum Engineers (0*NET22111)  Nature of the Work Petroleum engineers search the world for reservoirs containing oil or natural gas. Once discovered, petroleum engineers work with geologists and other specialists to understand the geologic forma­ tion and properties of the rock containing the reservoir, determine the drilling methods to be used, and monitor drilling and produc­ tion operations. They design equipment and processes to achieve the maximum profitable recovery of oil and gas, often using com­ puter models to simulate reservoir performance using different re­ covery techniques. Because only a small proportion of oil and gas in a reservoir will flow out under natural forces, petroleum engineers develop and use various enhanced recovery methods. These include injecting wa­ ter, chemicals, gases, or steam into an oil reservoir to force more of the oil out, and computer-controlled drilling or fracturing to con­ nect a larger area of a reservoir to a single well. Since even the best techniques in use today recover only a portion of the oil and gas in a reservoir, petroleum engineers research and develop technology and methods to increase this proportion and lower the cost of drill­ ing and production operations.  Employment Petroleum engineers held about 12,000 jobs in 1998, mostly in the oil and gas extraction, petroleum refining, and related indus­ tries. Employers include major oil companies and hundreds of smaller, independent oil exploration, production, and service com­ panies. Engineering consulting firms and government agencies also employ petroleum engineers. Others work as independent consultants. Most petroleum engineers work where oil and gas are found. Large numbers are employed in Texas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Despite a projected decline in employment, opportunities for petro­ leum engineers should be favorable because the relatively small number of graduates is expected to be in rough balance with the number of job openings. Most opportunities will result from the need to replace petroleum engineers who transfer to other occupa­ tions or leave the labor force. Also, petroleum engineers work around the world, and many employers seek U.S.-trained petroleum engi­ neers for jobs in other countries. Employment of petroleum engineers is expected to decline through 2008 unless oil and gas prices unexpectedly rise enough to encourage increased exploration for oil in the United States. A high price of oil and gas makes it profitable for oil exploration and production firms to seek oil and gas reservoirs, and they will hire petroleum engineers to do so. Low oil prices, however, make it cheaper to purchase needed oil from other countries, such as Saudi Arabia, which have vast oil reserves. Also, the best explo­ ration opportunities are in other countries because many of the most likely petroleum-producing areas in the United States have already been explored. However, the implementation of new tech­ nologies that expand drilling possibilities and improve the perfor­ mance of reservoirs in the U.S. and the Gulf of Mexico may create new opportunities.  Earnings Median annual earnings of petroleum engineers were $74,260 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned between $56,020 and $93,280. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $42,870 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $115,820. According to a 1999 salary survey by the National Association of Colleges and Employers, bachelor’s degree candidates in pe­ troleum engineering received starting offers averaging about $50,400. (See introduction to the section on engineers for information on working conditions, training requirements, and sources of additional information.)  96 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Engineering Technicians (0*NET 22502, 22505A, 22505B, 22505C, 22508, 22511, 22599B, 22599C, 22599D, 22599E, 22599G, and 9311 IB)  Significant Points •  •  •  Electrical and electronic engineering technicians comprise about 43 percent of all engineering techni­ cians. The type and quality of training programs vary considerably; prospective students should carefully select a program. Most employers prefer applicants with an associate degree in engineering technology.  Nature of the Work Engineering technicians use the principles and theories of science, engineering, and mathematics to solve technical problems in research and development, manufacturing, sales, construction, inspection, and maintenance. Their work is more limited in scope and more practically oriented than that of scientists and engineers. Many engineering technicians assist engineers and scientists, especially in research and development. Others work in quality control—in­ specting products and processes, conducting tests, or collecting data. In manufacturing, they may assist in product design, development, or production. Engineering technicians, who work in research and develop­ ment, build or set up equipment, prepare and conduct experiments, calculate or record the results, as well as help engineers in other ways. Some make prototype versions of newly designed equip­ ment. They also assist in design work, often using computer-aided design equipment. Engineering technicians, who work in manufacturing, support the work of engineers. They may prepare specifications for materi­ als, devise and run tests to ensure product quality, or study ways to improve manufacturing efficiency. They may also supervise pro­ duction workers to make sure they follow prescribed procedures. Most engineering technicians specialize in certain areas, learn­ ing skills and working in the same disciplines as engineers. Occu­ pational titles, therefore, tend to follow the same structure as engi­ neers. Chemical engineering technicians are usually employed in industries producing pharmaceuticals, chemicals, and petroleum products, among others. They work in laboratories as well as pro­ cessing plants. They help develop new chemical products and pro­ cesses, test processing equipment and instrumentation, monitor qual­ ity, and operate chemical manufacturing facilities. Civil engineering technicians help civil engineers plan and build highways, buildings, bridges, dams, wastewater treatment systems, and other structures, and perform related surveys and studies. Some in­ spect water and wastewater treatment systems to ensure pollution con­ trol requirements are met. Others estimate construction costs and specify materials to be used. Some may even prepare drawings or perform land-surveying duties. (Separate statements on cost estimators, draft­ ers, and surveyors can be found elsewhere in the Handbook.) Electrical and electronics engineering technicians help design, de­ velop, test, and manufacture electrical and electronic equipment such as radios, radar, sonar, television, industrial and medical measuring or con­ trol devices, navigational equipment, and computers. They may work in product evaluation and testing, using measuring and diagnostic devices to adjust, test, and repair equipment. Workers who only repair electrical and electronic equipment are discussed in several other statements on me­ chanics, installers, and repairers found elsewhere in the Handbook. Many of these repairers are often referred to as electronics technicians. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Electrical and electronic engineering technology is also applied to a wide variety of systems such as communications and process controls. Electromechanical engineering technicians combine fun­ damental principles of mechanical engineering technology with knowledge of electrical and electronic circuits to design, develop, test, and manufacture electrical and computer controlled mechani­ cal systems. Industrial engineering technicians study the efficient use of per­ sonnel, materials, and machines in factories, stores, repair shops, and offices. They prepare layouts of machinery and equipment, plan the flow of work, make statistical studies, and analyze production costs. Mechanical engineering technicians help engineers design, de­ velop, test, and manufacture industrial machinery, mechanical parts, and other equipment. They may assist in testing a guided missile or planning and designing an electric power generation plant. They make sketches and rough layouts, record data, make computations, analyze results, and write reports. When planning production, mechanical engineering technicians prepare layouts and drawings of the assembly process and of parts to be manufactured. They estimate labor costs, equipment life, and plant space. Some test and inspect machines and equipment in manufacturing departments or work with engineers to eliminate production problems.  Working Conditions Most engineering technicians work at least 40 hours a week in labo­ ratories, offices, manufacturing or industrial plants, or on construc­ tion sites. Some may be exposed to hazards from equipment, chemi­ cals, or toxic materials.  Employment Engineering technicians held about 771,000 jobs in 1998. About 335,000 of these were electrical and electronics engineering tech­ nicians. About 30 percent of all engineering technicians worked in durable goods manufacturing, mainly in the electrical and elec­ tronic machinery and equipment, industrial machinery and equip­ ment, instruments and related products, and transportation equip­ ment industries. Another 30 percent worked in service industries, mostly in engineering or business services companies that do en­ gineering work on contract for government, manufacturing, or other organizations.  ____________  Engineering technicians use computer-aided equipment to devise and run tests to ensure product quality.  Professional and Technical Occupations 97 In 1998, the Federal Government employed about 39,000 engineer­ ing technicians. The major employer was the Department of Defense, followed by the Departments of Transportation, Agriculture, and Inte­ rior, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. State governments employed about 30,000, and local governments about 26,000.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Although it may be possible to qualify for a few engineering technician jobs without formal training, most employers prefer to hire someone with at least a 2-year associate degree in engineering technology. Train­ ing is available at technical institutes, community colleges, extension divisions of colleges and universities, public and private vocationaltechnical schools, and through some technical training programs in the Armed Forces. Persons with college courses in science, engineering, and mathematics may qualify for some positions but may need addi­ tional specialized training and experience. Although engineering tech­ nicians usually are not required to be certified by employers, such certi­ fication may provide jobseekers a competitive advantage. Prospective engineering technicians should take as many high school science and math courses as possible to prepare for postsecondary pro­ grams in engineering technology. Most 2-year associate degree pro­ grams accredited by the Technology Accreditation Commission of the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (TAC/ABET) require, at a minimum, college algebra and trigonometry, and one or two basic science courses. Depending on the specialty, more math or sci­ ence may be required. The type of technical courses required also depends on the spe­ cialty. For example, prospective mechanical engineering techni­ cians may take courses in fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, and mechanical design; electrical engineering technicians may take classes in electric circuits, microprocessors, and digital electronics; and those preparing to work in environmental engineering technol­ ogy need courses in environmental regulations and safe handling of hazardous materials. Because many engineering technicians may assist in design work, creativity is desirable. Good communication skills and the ability to work well with others is also important since they are often part of a team of engineers and other technicians. Engineering technicians usually begin by performing routine duties under the close supervision of an experienced technician, tech­ nologist, engineer, or scientist. As they gain experience, they are given more difficult assignments with only general supervision. Some engineering technicians eventually become supervisors. Many publicly and privately operated schools provide technical training; the type and quality of programs vary considerably. There­ fore, prospective students should be careful in selecting a program. They should contact prospective employers regarding their prefer­ ences and ask schools to provide information about the kinds of jobs obtained by graduates, instructional facilities and equipment, and faculty qualifications. Graduates of ABET-accredited programs are usually recognized to have achieved an acceptable level of com­ petence in the mathematics, science, and technical courses required for this occupation. Technical institutes offer intensive technical training, but less theory and general education than community colleges. Many of­ fer 2-year associate degree programs, and are similar to or part of a community college or State university system. Other technical in­ stitutes are run by private, often for-profit, organizations, sometimes called proprietary schools. Their programs vary considerably in length and types of courses offered, although some are 2-year asso­ ciate degree programs. Community colleges offer curriculums similar to those in techni­ cal institutes but may include more theory and liberal arts. Often there may be little or no difference between technical institute and community college programs, as both offer associate degrees. After Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  completing the 2-year program, some graduates get jobs as engineering technicians, while others continue their education at 4-year colleges. However, there is a difference between an associate degree in pre-engi­ neering and one in engineering technology. Students who enroll in a 2year pre-engineering program may find it very difficult to find work as an engineering technician should they decide not to enter a 4-year engineer­ ing program, because pre-engineering programs usually focus less on hands-on applications and more on academic preparatory work. Con­ versely, graduates of 2-year engineering technology programs may not receive credit for many of the courses they have taken if they choose to transfer to a 4-year engineering program. Colleges with these 4-year programs usually do not offer engineering technician training, but college courses in science, engineering, and mathematics are useful for obtaining ajob as an engineering technician. Many 4-year colleges offer bachelor’s degrees in engineering technology, but graduates of these programs are often hired to work as technologists or applied engineers, not technicians. Area vocational-technical schools include postsecondary public in­ stitutions that serve local students and emphasize training needed by local employers. Most require a high school diploma or its equiva­ lent for admission. Other training in technical areas may be obtained in the Armed Forces. Many military technical training programs are highly re­ garded by employers. However, skills acquired in military programs often are narrowly focused, so they may not be useful in civilian industry, which often requires broader training. Therefore, some additional training may be needed, depending on the acquired skills and the kind of job. The National Institute for Certification in Engineering Technolo­ gies (NICET) has established a voluntary certification program for engineering technicians. Certification is available at various lev­ els, each level combining a written examination in one of over 30 specialties with a certain amount of job-related experience.  Job Outlook Opportunities will be best for individuals with an associate degree in engineering technology. As technology becomes more sophisti­ cated, employers continue to look for technicians who are skilled in new technology and require a minimum of additional job training. Overall employment of engineering technicians is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through 2008. As production of technical products continues to grow, com­ petitive pressures will force companies to improve and update manu­ facturing facilities and product designs more rapidly than in the past. However, the growing availability and use of advanced tech­ nologies, such as computer-aided design and drafting and computer simulation, will continue to increase productivity and limit job growth. In addition to growth, many job openings will be created to replace technicians who retire or leave the labor force. Like engineers, employment of engineering technicians is influ­ enced by local and national economic conditions. As a result, the employment outlook varies with industry and specialization. Em­ ployment of some types of engineering technicians, such as civil engineering and aeronautical engineering technicians, experience greater cyclical fluctuations than others. Increasing demand for more sophisticated electrical and electronic products, as well as the ex­ pansion of these products and systems into all areas of industry and manufacturing processes, will contribute to average growth in the largest specialty—electrical and electronics engineering technicians. At the same time, new specializations will contribute to growth among all other engineering technicians. Fire protection engineer­ ing technology, for example, is one of many new specialties for which demand is increasing.  Earnings Median annual earnings of electrical and electronics engineering technicians were $35,970 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned  98 Occupational Outlook Handbook between $27,680 and $45,750. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $21,710 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $62,540. Median annual earnings in the industries employing the largest numbers of engineering technicians in 1997 are shown below:  In the Federal Government, engineering technicians started at about $18,600, $21,200, or $25,000 in early 1999, depending on their educa­ tion and experience. Beginning salaries were slightly higher in selected areas of the country where the prevailing local pay level was higher.  Engineering and architectural services........................................ $36,600 Computer and data processing services....................................... 33,600 Computer and office equipment................................................... 33,000 Electrical components and accessories........................................ 32,100 Personnel supply services.............................................................. 25,400  Related Occupations  Median annual earnings of all other engineering technicians and technologists in 1998 were $37,310. The middle 50 percent earned between $28,510 and $47,610. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $22,230 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $68,720. Me­ dian annual earnings in the industries employing the largest numbers of other engineering technicians and technologists in 1997 are shown below: Federal Government....................................................................... $42,700 Electrical components andaccessories.......................................... 33,500 Engineering and architectural services......................................... 32,600 Local government........................................................................... 32,200 State government............................................................................. 27,500  Engineering technicians apply scientific and engineering principles usu­ ally acquired in postsecondary programs below the baccalaureate level. Similar occupations include science technicians, drafters, surveyors, broadcast and sound technicians, and health technologists and techni­ cians.  Sources of Additional Information For a small fee, information on a variety of engineering technician and technology careers is available from: «- The Junior Engineering Technical Society (JETS), at 1420 King St., Suite 405, Alexandria, VA 22314-2794. Enclose $3.50 to obtain a full pack­ age of guidance materials and information. Brochures are available free on JETS Internet site:  Information on ABET-accredited engineering technology pro­ grams is available from: ■m- Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology, Inc. 111 Market Place, Suite 1050, Baltimore, MD 21202. Internet: http://www.abet. org  Architects, Surveyors, and Drafters Architects, Except Landscape and Naval ______ (0*NET 22302)  Significant Points • •  •  About 30 percent were self-employed—over three times the proportion for all professionals. Licensing requirements include a professional degree in architecture, a period of practical training or internship, and passing all divisions of the Architect Registration Examination. Beginners may face competition, especially for jobs in the most prestigious firms; summer internship experi­ ence and knowledge of computer-aided design and drafting technology are advantages.  Nature of the Work Architects design buildings and other structures. The design of a building involves far more than its appearance. Buildings must also be functional, safe, and economical, and must suit the needs of the people who use them. Architects take all these things into consider­ ation when they design buildings and other structures. Architects provide professional services to individuals and or­ ganizations planning a construction project. They may be involved in all phases of development, from the initial discussion with the client through the entire construction process. Their duties require specific skills—designing, engineering, managing, supervising, and communicating with clients and builders. The architect and client discuss the objectives, requirements, and budget of a project. In some cases, architects provide vari­ ous predesign services—conducting feasibility and environmen­ tal impact studies, selecting a site, or specifying the requirements the design must meet. For example, they may determine space Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  requirements by researching the number and type of potential users of a building. The architect then prepares drawings and a report presenting ideas for the client to review. After the initial proposals are discussed and accepted, architects develop final construction plans. These plans show the building’s appearance and details for its construction. Accompanying these are drawings of the structural system; air-conditioning, heating, and ventilating systems; electrical systems; plumbing; and possibly site and landscape plans. They also specify the building materials and, in some cases, the interior furnishings. In developing designs, ar­ chitects follow building codes, zoning laws, fire regulations, and other ordinances, such as those requiring easy access by disabled persons. Throughout the planning stage, they make necessary changes. Although they have traditionally used pencil and paper to produce design and construction drawings, architects are increas­ ingly turning to computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) tech­ nology for these important tasks. Architects may also assist the client in obtaining construction bids, selecting a contractor, and negotiating the construction con­ tract. As construction proceeds, they may visit the building site to ensure the contractor is following the design, adhering to the sched­ ule, using the specified materials, and meeting quality work stan­ dards. The job is not complete until all construction is finished, required tests are made, and construction costs are paid. Some­ times, architects also provide postconstruction services, such as fa­ cilities management. They advise on energy efficiency measures, evaluate how well the building design adapts to the needs of occu­ pants, and make necessary improvements. Architects design a wide variety of buildings, such as office and apartment buildings, schools, churches, factories, hospitals, houses, and airport terminals. They also design complexes such as urban centers, college campuses, industrial parks, and entire communi­ ties. They may also advise on the selection of building sites, pre­ pare cost analysis and land-use studies, and do long-range planning for land development. Architects sometimes specialize in one phase of work. Some specialize in the design of one type of building—for example, hos­ pitals, schools, or housing. Others focus on planning and predesign  Professional and Technical Occupations 99  Si  Architects spend much of their time updating plans after receiving feedback from other design professionals. services or construction management, and do little design work. They often work with engineers, urban planners, interior designers, landscape architects, and others. In fact, architects spend a great deal of their time in coordinating information from, and the work of, other professionals engaged in the same project. Consequently, architects are now using the Internet to update designs and commu­ nicate changes for the sake of speed and cost savings. During a training period leading up to licensing as architects, en­ try-level workers are called intern-architects. This training period, which generally lasts three years, gives them practical work experi­ ence while they prepare for the Architect Registration Examination (ARE). Typical duties may include preparing construction drawings on CADD, or assisting in the design of one part of a project.  Working Conditions Architects usually work in a comfortable environment. Most of their time is spent in offices consulting with clients, developing re­ ports and drawings, and working with other architects and engi­ neers. However, they often visit construction sites to review the progress of projects. Architects may occasionally be under stress, working nights and weekends to meet deadlines. In 1998, almost 2 out of 5 architects worked more than 40 hours a week, in contrast to 1 in 4 workers in all occupations combined.  Employment Architects held about 99,000 jobs in 1998. The majority of jobs were in architectural firms—most of which employ fewer than 5 workers. A few worked for general building contractors, and for government agencies responsible for housing, planning, or com­ munity development, such as the U.S. Departments of Defense and Interior, and the General Services Administration. About 3 in 10 architects were self-employed.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement All States and the District of Columbia require individuals to be licensed (registered) before they may call themselves architects or contract to provide architectural services. Many architecture school graduates work in the field even though they are not licensed. How­ ever, a licensed architect is required to take legal responsibility for all work. Licensing requirements include a professional degree in architecture, a period of practical training or internship, and pas­ sage of all sections of the ARE. In many States, the professional degree in architecture must be from one of the 105 schools of architecture with programs Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  accredited by the National Architectural Accrediting Board (NAAB). However, State architectural registration boards set their own standards, so graduation from a non NAAB-accredited program may meet the educational requirement for licensing in some States. Several types of professional degrees in architec­ ture are available through colleges and universities. The majority of all architectural degrees are from 5-year Bachelor of Architec­ ture programs, intended for students entering from high school or with no previous architectural training. Some schools offer a 2year Master of Architecture program for students with a preprofessional undergraduate degree in architecture or a related area, or a 3- or 4-year Master of Architecture program for stu­ dents with a degree in another discipline. In addition, there are many combinations and variations of these programs. The choice of degree type depends upon each individual’s prefer­ ence and educational background. Prospective architecture students should consider the available options before committing to a program. For example, although the 5-year Bachelor of Architecture program offers the fastest route to the professional degree, courses are special­ ized and, if the student does not complete the program, moving to a nonarchitectural program may be difficult. A typical program includes courses in architectural history and theory, building design, profes­ sional practice, math, physical sciences, and liberal arts. Central to most architectural programs is the design studio, where students put into practice the skills and concepts learned in the classroom. During the final semester of many programs, students devote their studio time to creating an architectural project from beginning to end, culminating in a 3-dimensional model of their design. Many schools of architecture also offer graduate education for those who already have a bachelor’s or master’s degree in architec­ ture or other areas. Although graduate education beyond the pro­ fessional degree is not required for practicing architects, it is for research, teaching, and certain specialties. Architects must be able to visually communicate their ideas to clients. Artistic and drawing ability is very helpful in doing this, but not essential. More important are a visual orientation and the ability to conceptualize and understand spatial relationships. Good communication skills, the ability to work independently or as part of a team, and creativity are important qualities for anyone inter­ ested in becoming an architect. Computer literacy is also required as most firms use computers for writing specifications, 2- and 3­ dimensional drafting, and financial management. A knowledge of computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) is helpful and will become essential as architectural firms continue to adopt this tech­ nology. Recently, the profession recognized National CAD Stan­ dards (NCS); architecture students who master NCS will have an advantage in the job market. All State architectural registration boards require a training pe­ riod before candidates may sit for the ARE and become licensed. Many States have adopted the training standards established by the Intern Development Program, a branch of the American Institute of Archi­ tects and the National Council of Architectural Registration Boards. These standards stipulate broad and diversified training under the supervision of a licensed architect over a 3-year period. New gradu­ ates usually begin as intern-architects in architectural firms, where they assist in preparing architectural documents or drawings. They may also do research on building codes and materials, or write speci­ fications for building materials, installation criteria, the quality of finishes, and other related details. Graduates with degrees in archi­ tecture also enter related fields such as graphic, interior, or industrial design; urban planning; real estate development; civil engineering; or construction management. In such cases, an architectural license (and thus the internship period) is not required. After completing the internship period, intern-architects are eli­ gible to sit for the ARE. The examination tests candidates on archi­ tectural knowledge, and is given in sections throughout the year. Candidates who pass the ARE and meet all standards established by their State board are licensed to practice in that State.  100 Occupational Outlook Handbook After becoming licensed and gaining experience, architects take on increasingly responsible duties, eventually managing entire projects. In large firms, architects may advance to supervisory or managerial posi­ tions. Some architects become partners in established firms; others set up their own practice. Several States require continuing education to maintain a license, and many more States are expected to adopt mandatory continuing education. Requirements vary by State, but usually involve the completion of a certain number of credits every year or two through seminars, workshops, formal university classes, conferences, self­ study courses, or other sources.  Job Outlook Prospective architects may face competition for entry-level jobs, especially if the number of architectural degrees awarded remain at current levels or increases. Employment of architects is projected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through 2008 and additional job openings will stem from the need to re­ place architects who retire or leave the labor force for other rea­ sons. However, many individuals are attracted to this occupation, and the number of applicants often exceeds the number of available jobs, especially in the most prestigious firms. Prospective archi­ tects who complete at least one summer internship—either paid or unpaid—while in school and who know CADD technology (espe­ cially that which conforms to the new national standards) will have a distinct advantage in obtaining an intern-architect position after graduation. Employment of architects is strongly tied to the level of local construction, particularly nonresidential structures such as office buildings, shopping centers, schools, and healthcare facilities. Af­ ter a boom in non-residential construction during the 1980s, build­ ing slowed significantly during the first half of the 1990s. Despite slower labor force growth and increases in telecommuting and flexiplace work, however, non-residential construction is expected to grow more quickly between 1998 and 2008 than during the pre­ vious decade, driving demand for more architects. As the stock of buildings ages, demand for remodeling and re­ pair work should grow considerably. The needed renovation and rehabilitation of old buildings, particularly in urban areas where space for new buildings is becoming limited, is expected to provide many job opportunities for architects. In addition, demographic trends and changes in health care delivery are influencing the de­ mand for certain institutional structures, and should also provide more jobs for architects in the future. For example, increases in the school-age population have resulted in new school construction. Additions to existing schools (especially colleges and universities), as well as overall modernization, will continue to add to demand for architects through 2008. Growth is expected in the number of adult care centers, assisted-living facilities, and community health clinics, all of which are preferable, less costly alternatives to hospi­ tals and nursing homes. Because construction—particularly office and retail—is sensi­ tive to cyclical changes in the economy, architects will face particu­ larly strong competition for jobs or clients during recessions, and layoffs may occur. Those involved in the design of institutional buildings such as schools, hospitals, nursing homes, and correc­ tional facilities, will be less affected by fluctuations in the economy. Even in times of overall good job opportunities, however, there may be areas of the country with poor opportunities. Architects who are licensed to practice in one State must meet the licensing requirements of other States before practicing elsewhere. These requirements are becoming more standardized, however, facilitat­ ing movement to other States.  Earnings Median annual earnings of architects were $47,710 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned between $37,380 and $68,920. The lowest Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  10 percent earned less than $30,030 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $87,460. According to the American Institute of Architects, the median com­ pensation, including bonuses, for intern-architects in architectural firms was $35,200 in 1999. Licensed architects with 3 to 5 of years experi­ ence had median earnings of $41,100; licensed architects with 8 to 10 years of experience, but who were not managers or principals of a firm, earned $54,700. Principals or partners of firms had median earnings of $132,500 in 1999, although partners in some large practices earned considerably more. Similar to other industries, small architectural firms (fewer than 5 employees) are less likely than larger firms to provide employee benefits. Earnings of partners in established architectural firms may fluc­ tuate because of changing business conditions. Some architects may have difficulty establishing their own practices, and may go through a period when their expenses are greater than their income, requir­ ing substantial financial resources.  Related Occupations Architects design and construct buildings and related structures. Others who engage in similar work are landscape architects, build­ ing contractors, civil engineers, urban planners, interior designers, industrial designers, and graphic designers.  Sources of Additional Information Information about education and careers in architecture can be ob­ tained from: «- Careers in Architecture Program, The American Institute of Architects, 1735 New York Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20006. Internet:  Drafters (0*NET 22514A, 22514B, 225I4C, 22514D, and 22517)  Significant Points •  •  •  The type and quality of postsecondary drafting pro­ grams varies considerably; prospective students should be careful in selecting a program. Opportunities should be best for individuals who have at least 2 years of postsecondary training in drafting and considerable skill and experience using computer-aided drafting (CAD) systems. Demand for particular drafting specializations varies geographically, depending on the needs of local industry.  Nature of the Work Drafters prepare technical drawings and plans used by production and construction workers to build everything from manufactured products such as spacecraft or industrial machinery to structures such as office buildings or oil and gas pipelines. Their drawings provide visual guidelines, showing the technical details of the prod­ ucts and structures, specifying dimensions, materials to be used, and procedures and processes to be followed. Drafters fill in tech­ nical details, using drawings, rough sketches, specifications, codes, and calculations previously made by engineers, surveyors, archi­ tects, or scientists. For example, they use their knowledge of stan­ dardized building techniques to draw in the details of a structure. Some drafters use their knowledge of engineering and manufactur­ ing theory and standards to draw the parts of a machine in order to determine design elements such as the number and kind of fasteners needed to assemble it. They use technical handbooks, tables, calcu­ lators, and computers to do this.  Professional and Technical Occupations 101 Traditionally, drafters sat at drawing boards and used compasses, dividers, protractors, triangles, and other drafting devices to pre­ pare a drawing manually. Most drafters now use computer-aided drafting (CAD) systems to prepare drawings. These systems em­ ploy computer work stations which create a drawing on a video screen. The drawings are stored electronically so that revisions or duplications can be made easily. These systems also permit drafters to easily and quickly prepare variations of a design. Although this equipment has become easier to operate, CAD is only a tool. Per­ sons who produce technical drawings using CAD still function as a drafter, and need most of the knowledge of traditional drafters— relating to drafting skills and standards—as well as CAD skills. As CAD technology advances and the cost of the systems con­ tinues to fall, it is likely that almost all drafters will use CAD sys­ tems regularly in the future. However, manual drafting may still be used in certain applications, especially in specialty firms that pro­ duce many one-of-a-kind drawings with little repetition. Drafting work has many specializations and titles may denote a particular discipline of design or drafting. Architectural drafters draw architectural and structural features of buildings and other struc­ tures. They may specialize by the type of structure, such as residen­ tial or commercial, or by material used, such as reinforced concrete, masonry, steel, or timber. Aeronautical drafters prepare engineering drawings detailing plans and specifications used for the manufacture of aircraft, mis­ siles, and parts. Electrical drafters prepare wiring and layout diagrams used by workers who erect, install, and repair electrical equipment and wir-  ing in communication centers, powerplants, electrical distribution systems, and buildings. Electronic drafters draw wiring diagrams, circuit board assembly diagrams, schematics, and layout drawings used in the manufacture, installation, and repair of electronic devices and components. Civil drafters prepare drawings and topographical and relief maps used in major construction or civil engineering projects such as high­ ways, bridges, pipelines, flood control projects, and water and sew­ age systems. Mechanical drafters prepare detail and assembly drawings of a wide variety of machinery and mechanical devices, indicating di­ mensions, fastening methods, and other requirements. Process piping or pipeline drafters prepare drawings used for layout, construction, and operation of oil and gas fields, refineries, chemical plants, and process piping systems.  Working Conditions Drafters usually work in comfortable offices furnished to accom­ modate their tasks. They may sit at adjustable drawing boards or drafting tables when doing manual drawings, although most draft­ ers work at computer terminals much of the time. Because they spend long periods of time in front of computer terminals doing detailed work, drafters may be susceptible to eyestrain, back dis­ comfort, and hand and wrist problems.  Employment Drafters held about 283,000 jobs in 1998. Over 35 percent of all drafters worked in engineering and architectural services firms that design construction projects or do other engineering work on a con­ tract basis for organizations in other industries. Another 29 percent worked in durable goods manufacturing industries, such as machin­ ery, electrical equipment, and fabricated metals. The remainder were mostly employed in the construction, communications, utilities, and personnel supply services industries. About 17,600 were self-em­ ployed in 1998.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  las*  Drafters use their knowledge of standardized building techniques to draw the details of a structure. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Employers prefer applicants for drafting positions who have com­ pleted postsecondary school training in drafting, which is offered by technical institutes, community colleges, and some 4-year col­ leges and universities. Employers are most interested in applicants who have well-developed drafting and mechanical drawing skills; a knowledge of drafting standards, mathematics, science, and engi­ neering technology; and a solid background in computer-aided draft­ ing and design techniques. In addition, communication and prob­ lem-solving skills are important. Individuals planning careers in drafting should take courses in math, science, computer technology, design or computer graphics, and any high school drafting courses available. Mechanical and visual aptitude are also important. Prospective drafters should be able to draw freehand, three-dimensional objects and do detailed work accurately and neatly. Artistic ability is helpful in some spe­ cialized fields, as is knowledge of manufacturing and construction methods. In addition, prospective drafters should have good inter­ personal skills because they work closely with engineers, survey­ ors, architects, and other professionals. Entry level or junior drafters usually do routine work under close supervision. After gaining experience, intermediate level drafters progress to more difficult work with less supervision. They may be required to exercise more judgment and perform calculations when preparing and modifying drawings. Drafters may eventually ad­ vance to senior drafter, designer, or supervisor. Many employers pay for continuing education, and with appropriate college degrees, drafters may go on to become engineering technicians, engineers, or architects. Many types of publicly and privately operated schools provide some form of drafting training. The kind and quality of programs  102 Occupational Outlook Handbook vary considerably. Therefore, prospective students should be careful in selecting a program. They should contact prospective employers regard­ ing their preferences and ask schools to provide information about the kinds ofjobs obtained by graduates, type and condition of instructional facilities and equipment, and faculty qualifications. Technical institutes offer intensive technical training but less of the general education than do junior and community colleges. Cer­ tificates or diplomas based on completion of a certain number of course hours may be rewarded. Many offer 2-year associate degree programs, which are similar to or part of the programs offered by community colleges or State university systems. Other technical institutes are run by private, often for-profit, organizations, some­ times called proprietary schools. Their programs vary considerably in both length and type of courses offered. Community colleges offer curriculums similar to those in tech­ nical institutes but include more courses on theory and liberal arts. Often there is little or no difference between technical institute and community college programs. However, courses taken at commu­ nity colleges are more likely to be accepted for credit at 4-year col­ leges than those at technical institutes. After completing a 2-year associate degree program, graduates may obtain jobs as drafters or continue their education in a related field at 4-year colleges. Fouryear colleges usually do not offer drafting training, but college courses in engineering, architecture, and mathematics are useful for obtaining a job as a drafter. Area vocational-technical schools are postsecondary public in­ stitutions that serve local students and emphasize training needed by local employers. Many offer introductory drafting instruction. Most require a high school diploma or its equivalent for admission. Technical training obtained in the Armed Forces can also be ap­ plied in civilian drafting jobs. Some additional training may be necessary, depending on the technical area or military specialty. The American Design Drafting Association (ADDA) has estab­ lished a certification program for drafters. Although drafters are not usually required to be certified by employers, certification dem­ onstrates that nationally recognized standards have been met. Indi­ viduals who wish to become certified must pass the Drafter Certifi­ cation Test, which is administered periodically at ADDA-authorized test sites. Applicants are tested on their knowledge and understand­ ing of basic drafting concepts such as geometric construction, work­ ing drawings, and architectural terms and standards.  Job Outlook Employment of drafters is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations through 2008. Although industrial growth and increasingly complex design problems associated with new products and manufacturing will increase the demand for draft­ ing services, greater use of CAD equipment by architects and engi­ neers, as well as drafters, should offset this growth in demand. Many job openings, however, are expected to arise as drafters move to other occupations or leave the labor force. Opportunities should be best for individuals who have at least 2 years of postsecondary training in a drafting program that provides strong technical skills, and who have considerable skill and experi­ ence using CAD systems. CAD has increased the complexity of drafting applications while enhancing the productivity of drafters. It has also enhanced the nature of drafting by creating more possi­ bilities for design and drafting. As technology continues to advance, employers will look for drafters having a strong background in fun­ damental drafting principles with a higher level of technical so­ phistication and an ability to apply this knowledge to a broader range of responsibilities. Demand for particular drafting specializations varies through­ out the country because employment is usually contingent upon the needs of local industry. Employment of drafters remains highly concentrated in industries that are sensitive to cyclical changes in the economy, such as engineering and architectural services and Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  durable goods manufacturing. During recessions, drafters may be laid off. However, a growing number of drafters should continue to be employed on a temporary or contract basis, as more companies turn to the personnel supply services industry to meet their chang­ ing needs.  Earnings Median hourly earnings of drafters were $15.56 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned between $12.29 and $19.73. The lowest 10 per­ cent earned less than $ 10.19 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $24.84. Median hourly earnings in the industries employing the largest numbers of drafters in 1997 are shown below: Motor vehicles and equipment........................................................... $21.50 Personnel supply services.................................................................. 16.20 Miscellaneous business services........................................................ 15.60 Fabricated structural metal products.................................................. 14.30  Related Occupations Other workers who prepare or analyze detailed drawings and make precise calculations and measurements include architects, landscape architects, designers, engineers, engineering technicians, science technicians, cartographers, and surveyors.  Sources of Additional Information Information on schools offering programs in drafting and related fields is available from: m- Accrediting Commission of Career Schools and Colleges of Technol­ ogy, 2101 Wilson Blvd., Suite 302, Arlington, VA 22201. Information about certification is available from: m- American Design Drafting Association, P.O. Box 11937, Columbia, SC 29211. Internet:  Landscape Architects (0*NET 22308)  Significant Points • •  •  Over 40 percent are self-employed—four times the proportion for all professionals. A bachelor’s degree in landscape architecture is the minimum requirement for entry-level jobs; many employers prefer to hire landscape architects who have completed at least one internship. Because many landscape architects work for small firms or are self-employed, benefits tend to be less generous than those provided to workers in large organizations.  Nature of the Work Everyone enjoys attractively designed residential areas, public parks and playgrounds, college campuses, shopping centers, golf courses, parkways, and industrial parks. Landscape architects design these areas so that they are not only functional but beautiful and compat­ ible with the natural environment as well. They plan the location of buildings, roads, and walkways and the arrangement of flowers, shrubs, and trees. Historic preservation and natural resource con­ servation and reclamation are other important objectives to which landscape architects may apply their knowledge of the environment as well as their design and artistic talents. Many types of organizations—from real estate development firms starting new projects to municipalities constructing airports or parks—hire landscape architects, who are often involved with the  Professional and Technical Occupations 103 development of a site from its conception. Working with architects, surveyors, and engineers, landscape architects help determine the best arrangement of roads and buildings. They also collaborate with envi­ ronmental scientists, foresters, and other professionals to find the best way to conserve or restore natural resources. Once these decisions are made, landscape architects create detailed plans indicating new topogra­ phy, vegetation, walkways, and other landscaping details, such as foun­ tains and decorative features. In planning a site, landscape architects first consider the nature and purpose of the project and the funds available. They analyze the natural elements of the site, such as the climate, soil, slope of the land, drainage, and vegetation; observe where sunlight falls on the site at different times of the day and examine the site from vari­ ous angles; and assess the effect of existing buildings, roads, walk­ ways, and utilities on the project. After studying and analyzing the site, they prepare a preliminary design. To account for the needs of the client as well as the condi­ tions at the site, they frequently make changes before a final design is approved. They also take into account any local, State, or Fed­ eral regulations such as those protecting wetlands or historic re­ sources. Computer-aided design (CAD) has become an essential tool for most landscape architects in preparing designs. Many land­ scape architects also use video simulation to help clients envision the proposed ideas and plans. For larger scale site planning, land­ scape architects also use geographic information systems technol­ ogy, a computer mapping system. Throughout all phases of the planning and design, landscape ar­ chitects consult with other professionals involved in the project. Once the design is complete, they prepare a proposal for the client. They produce detailed plans of the site, including written reports, sketches, models, photographs, land-use studies, and cost estimates, and submit them for approval by the client and by regulatory agen­ cies. When the plans are approved, landscape architects prepare working drawings showing all existing and proposed features. They also outline in detail the methods of construction and draw up a list of necessary materials. Although many landscape architects supervise the installation of their design, some are involved in the construction of the site. However, the developer or landscape contractor usually does this. Some landscape architects work on a variety of projects. Others specialize in a particular area, such as residential development, his­ toric landscape restoration, waterfront improvement projects, parks and playgrounds, or shopping centers. Still others work in regional planning and resource management; feasibility, environmental im­ pact, and cost studies; or site construction. Most landscape architects do at least some residential work, but relatively few limit their practice to individual homeowners. Resi­ dential landscape design projects usually are too small to provide  IWv  ppp*  jmb  A landscape architect reviews plans for a project. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  suitable income compared with larger commercial or multiunit resi­ dential projects. Some nurseries offer residential landscape design services, but these services often are performed by lesser qualified landscape designers or others with training and experience in re­ lated areas. Landscape architects who work for government agencies do site and landscape design for government buildings, parks, and other public lands, as well as park and recreation planning in national parks and forests. In addition, they prepare environmental impact statements and studies on environmental issues such as public land-use planning. Some restore degraded land, such as mines or landfills.  Working Conditions Landscape architects spend most of their time in offices creating plans and designs, preparing models and cost estimates, doing re­ search, or attending meetings with clients and other professionals involved in a design or planning project. The remainder of their time is spent at the site. During the design and planning stage, land­ scape architects visit and analyze the site to verify that the design can be incorporated into the landscape. After the plans and specifi­ cations are completed, they may spend additional time at the site observing or supervising the construction. Those who work in large firms may spend considerably more time out of the office because of travel to sites outside the local area. Salaried employees in both government and landscape architec­ tural firms usually work regular hours; however, they may work overtime to meet a project deadline. Hours of self-employed land­ scape architects vary.  Employment Landscape architects held about 22,000 jobs in 1998. About lout of 2 salaried workers were employed in firms that provide land­ scape architecture services. Architectural and engineering firms employed most of the rest. The Federal Government also employs these workers, primarily in the U.S. Departments of Agriculture, Defense, and Interior. About 2 of every 5 landscape architects were self-employed. Employment of landscape architects is concentrated in urban and suburban areas throughout the country. Some landscape architects work in rural areas, particularly those in the Federal Government who plan and design parks and recreation areas.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s or master’s degree in landscape architecture is usually necessary for entry into the profession. The bachelor’s degree in landscape architecture takes 4 or 5 years to complete. There are two types of accredited master’s degree programs. The master’s degree as a first professional degree is a 3-year program designed for students with an undergraduate degree in another discipline; this is the most common type. The master’s degree as the second pro­ fessional degree is a 2-year program for students who have a bachelor’s degree in landscape architecture and wish to teach or specialize in some aspect of landscape architecture, such as regional planning or golf course design. In 1999, 58 colleges and universities offered 75 undergraduate and graduate programs in landscape architecture that were accred­ ited by the Landscape Architecture Accreditation Board of the Ameri­ can Society of Landscape Architects. College courses required in this field usually include technical subjects such as surveying, landscape design and construction, landscape ecology, site design, and urban and regional planning. Other courses include history of landscape architecture, plant and soil science, geology, professional practice, and general manage­ ment. Many landscape architecture programs are adding courses that address environmental issues. In addition, most students at the undergraduate level take a year of prerequisite courses such as English, mathematics, and social and physical science. The de­ sign studio is an important aspect of many landscape architecture  104 Occupational Outlook Handbook curriculums. Whenever possible, students are assigned real projects, providing them with valuable hands-on experience. While working on these projects, students become more proficient in the use of computer-aided design, geographic information systems, and video simulation. In 1999,46 States required landscape architects to be licensed or registered. Licensing is based on the Landscape Architect Registration Examination (L.A.R.E.), sponsored by the Council of Landscape Ar­ chitectural Registration Boards and administered over a 3-day period. Admission to the exam usually requires a degree from an accredited school plus 1 to 4 years of work experience, although standards vary from State to State. Currently, 17 States require the passage of a State examination in addition to the L.A.R.E. to satisfy registration require­ ments. State examinations, which are usually 1 hour in length and completed at the end of the L.A.R.E., focus on laws, environmental regulations, plants, soils, climate, and any other characteristics unique to the State. Because State requirements for licensure are not uniform, land­ scape architects may not find it easy to transfer their registration from one State to another. However, those who meet the national standards of graduating from an accredited program, serving 3 years of internship under the supervision of a registered landscape archi­ tect, and passing the L.A.R.E. can satisfy requirements in most States. Through this means, a landscape architect can obtain certification from the Council of Landscape Architectural Registration Boards, and so gain reciprocity (the right to work) in other States. In the Federal Government, candidates for entry positions should have a bachelor’s or master’s degree in landscape architecture. The Federal Government does not require its landscape architects to be licensed. Persons planning a career in landscape architecture should appre­ ciate nature, enjoy working with their hands, and possess strong ana­ lytical skills. Creative vision and artistic talent are also desirable qualities. Good oral communication skills are essential; landscape architects must be able to convey their ideas to other professionals and clients and to make presentations before large groups. Strong writing skills are also valuable, as is knowledge of computer applica­ tions of all kinds, including word processing, desktop publishing, and spreadsheets. Landscape architects use these tools to develop presentations, proposals, reports, and land impact studies for clients, colleagues, and superiors. The ability to draft and design using CAD software is essential. Many employers recommend that prospective landscape architects complete at least one summer internship with a landscape architecture firm in order to gain an understanding of the day-to-day operations of a small business, including how to win cli­ ents, generate fees, and work within a budget. In States where licensure is required, new hires may be called “apprentices” or “intern landscape architects” until they become li­ censed. Their duties vary depending on the type and size of em­ ploying firm. They may do project research or prepare working drawings, construction documents, or base maps of the area to be landscaped. Some are allowed to participate in the actual design of a project. However, interns must perform all work under the super­ vision of a licensed landscape architect. Additionally, all drawings and specifications must be signed and sealed by the licensed land­ scape architect, who takes legal responsibility for the work. After gaining experience and becoming licensed, landscape architects usually can carry a design through all stages of development. After several years, they may become project managers, taking on the responsibility for meeting schedules and budgets, in addition to overseeing the project design; and later, associates or partners, with a proprietary interest in the business. Many landscape architects are self-employed because start-up costs, after an initial investment in CAD software, are relatively low. Self-discipline, business acumen, and good marketing skills are important qualities for those who choose to open their own busi­ ness. Even with these qualities, however, some may struggle while building a client base. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Those with landscape architecture training also qualify for jobs closely related to landscape architecture, and may, after gaining some experience, become construction supervisors, land or environmen­ tal planners, or landscape consultants.  Job Outlook Employment of landscape architects is expected to increase as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2008. The level of new construction plays an important role in determining demand for landscape architects. Overall, anticipated growth in construc­ tion is expected to increase demand for landscape architectural ser­ vices over the long run. Increased development of open space into recreation areas, wild­ life refuges, and parks will also require the skills of landscape ar­ chitects. The recent passage of the Transportation Equity Act for the Twenty-First Century is expected to spur employment for land­ scape architects, particularly in State and local governments. This Act, known as TEA-21, provides funds for surface transportation and transit programs, such as interstate highway maintenance and environment-friendly pedestrian and bicycle trails. However, op­ portunities will vary from year to year and by geographic region, depending on local economic conditions. During a recession, when real estate sales and construction slow down, landscape architects may face layoffs and greater competition for jobs. The need to re­ place landscape architects who retire or leave the labor force for other reasons is expected to produce nearly as many job openings as employment growth. An increasing proportion of office and other commercial and industrial development will occur outside cities. These projects are typically located on larger sites with more surrounding land which needs to be designed by a landscape architect, in contrast to urban development, which often includes little or no surrounding land. Also, as the cost of land rises, the importance of good site planning and landscape design grows. Increasingly, new development is con­ tingent upon compliance with environmental regulations and land use zoning, spurring demand for landscape architects to help plan sites and integrate man-made structures with the natural environ­ ment in the least disruptive way. Budget tightening in the Federal Government might restrict hir­ ing in the Forest Service and the National Park Service, agencies that traditionally employ the most landscape architects in the Fed­ eral government. Instead, such agencies may increasingly contract out for landscape architecture services, providing additional em­ ployment opportunities in private landscape architecture firms. In addition to the work related to new development and construc­ tion, landscape architects are expected to be involved in historic pres­ ervation, land reclamation, and refurbishment of existing sites. Be­ cause landscape architects can work on many different types of projects, they may have an easier time than other design profession­ als finding employment when traditional construction slows down. New graduates can expect to face competition for jobs in the largest and most prestigious landscape architecture firms. The num­ ber of professional degrees awarded in landscape architecture has remained steady over the years, even during times of fluctuating demand due to economic conditions. Opportunities will be best for landscape architects who develop strong technical and communica­ tion skills and a knowledge of environmental codes and regulations. Those with additional training or experience in urban planning in­ crease their opportunities for employment in landscape architecture firms that specialize in site planning as well as landscape design. Many employers prefer to hire entry-level landscape architects who have internship experience, which significantly reduces the amount of on-the-job training required.  Earnings In 1998, median annual earnings for landscape architects were $37,930. The middle 50 percent earned between $28,820 and  Professional and Technical Occupations 105 $50,550. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $22,800 and the highest 10 percent earned over $78,920. Most landscape architects worked in the landscape and horticultural services industry, where their median annual earnings were $33,600 in 1997. In 1999, the average annual salary for all landscape architects in the Federal Government in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions was about $57,500. Because many landscape architects work for small firms or are selfemployed, benefits tend to be less generous than those provided to workers in large organizations.  Related Occupations Landscape architects use their knowledge of design, construction, land-use planning, and environmental issues to develop a landscape project. Others whose work requires similar skills are architects, surveyors, civil engineers, soil conservationists, and urban and re­ gional planners. Landscape architects also know how to grow and use plants in the landscape. Botanists, who study plants in general, and horticulturists, who study ornamental plants as well as fruit, vegetable, greenhouse, and nursery crops, do similar work.  Sources of Additional Information Additional information, including a list of colleges and universities offering accredited programs in landscape architecture, is available from: *■ American Society of Landscape Architects, Career Information, 636 Eye Street, NW., Washington, DC 20001. Internet:  General information on registration or licensing requirements is available from: *■ Council of Landscape Architectural Registration Boards, 12700 Fair Lakes Circle, Suite 110, Fairfax, VA 22033.  Surveyors, Cartographers, Photogrammetrists, and Surveying Technicians (0*NET 22311 A, 2231 IB, 22521 A, 22521B, and 25103B)  Significant Points • •  Over 8 out of 10 are employed in engineering services and government. Computer skills enhance employment opportunities.  Nature of the Work Measuring and mapping the earth’s surface is the responsibility of several different types of workers. Traditional land surveyors estab­ lish official land, air space, and water boundaries. They write de­ scriptions of land for deeds, leases, and other legal documents; define air space for airports; and measure construction and mineral sites. Other surveyors provide data relevant to the shape, contour, location, elevation, or dimension of land or land features. Surveying techni­ cians assist land surveyors by operating survey instruments and col­ lecting information. Cartographers compile geographic, political, and cultural information and prepare maps of large areas. Land surveyors manage survey parties that measure distances, directions, and angles between points and elevations of points, lines, and contours on the earth’s surface. They plan the fieldwork, select known survey reference points, and determine the precise location of important features in the survey area. Surveyors research legal records and look for evidence of previous boundaries. They record the results of the survey, verify the accuracy of data, and prepare plots, maps, and reports. Surveyors who establish boundaries must be licensed by the State in which they work. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  A survey party gathers the information needed by the land sur­ veyor. A typical survey party consists of a party chief and several surveying technicians and helpers. The party chief, who may be either a land surveyor or a senior surveying technician, leads day-to-day work activities. Surveying technicians assist the party chief by ad­ justing and operating surveying instruments, such as the theodolite (used to measure horizontal and vertical angles) and electronic dis­ tance-measuring equipment. Surveying technicians or assistants posi­ tion and hold the vertical rods, or targets, that the theodolite operator sights on to measure angles, distances, or elevations. They may also hold measuring tapes, if electronic distance-measuring equipment is not used. Surveying technicians compile notes, make sketches, and enter the data obtained from these instruments into computers. Sur­ vey parties may include laborers or helpers who perform less skilled duties, such as clearing brush from sight lines, driving stakes, or carry­ ing equipment. New technology is changing the nature of the work of surveyors and surveying technicians. For larger projects, surveyors are in­ creasingly using the Global Positioning System (GPS), a satellite system that precisely locates points on the earth by using radio sig­ nals transmitted via satellites. To use this system, a surveyor places a satellite signal receiver—a small instrument mounted on a tri­ pod—on a desired point. The receiver simultaneously collects in­ formation from several satellites to locate a precise position. The receiver can also be placed in a vehicle for tracing out road systems. Since receivers now come in different sizes and shapes and the cost of the receivers has fallen, much more surveying work is being done using GPS. Surveyors then must interpret and check the results produced by the new technology. Cartographers measure, map, and chart the earth’s surface, which involves everything from geographical research and data compila­ tion to actual map production. They collect, analyze, and interpret both spatial data—such as latitude, longitude, elevation, and dis­ tance—and nonspatial data—such as population density, land use patterns, annual precipitation levels, and demographic characteris­ tics. Cartographers prepare maps in either digital or graphic form, using information provided by geodetic surveys, aerial photographs, and satellite data. Photogrammetrists prepare detailed maps and drawings from aerial photographs, usually of areas that are inacces­ sible or difficult to survey by other methods. Map editors develop and verify map contents from aerial photographs and other refer­ ence sources. Some surveyors perform specialized functions that are closer to those of a cartographer than to those of a traditional surveyor. For example, geodetic surveyors use high-accuracy techniques, including satellite observations, to measure large areas of the earth s surface. Geophysical prospecting surveyors mark sites for subsurface exploration, usually petroleum related. Marine sur­ veyors survey harbors, rivers, and other bodies of water to deter­ mine shorelines, topography of the bottom, water depth, and other features. The work of surveyors and cartographers is changing because of advancements in technology. These advancements include not only the GPS, but also new earth resources data satellites, improved aerial photography, and geographic information systems (GIS)—which are computerized data banks of spatial data. From the older spe­ cialties of photogrammetrist and cartographer, a new type of map­ ping scientist is emerging. The geographic information specialist combines the functions of mapping science and surveying into a broader field concerned with the collection and analysis of geo­ graphic information.  Working Conditions Surveyors usually work an 8-hour day, 5 days a week, and may spend a lot of time outdoors. Sometimes they work longer hours during the summer, when weather and light conditions are most suitable for fieldwork.  106 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  HE 1 : HI  iilll :  ' . .:':T  . !:! .  A surveyor sets up equipment to measure and record recent changes to the topography. Land surveyors and technicians engage in active, and sometimes strenuous, work. They often stand for long periods, walk consider­ able distances, and climb hills with heavy packs of instruments and other equipment. They can also be exposed to all types of weather. Traveling is often part of the job; they may commute long distances, stay overnight, or temporarily relocate near a survey site. While surveyors can spend considerable time inside planning surveys, analyzing data, and preparing reports and maps, cartogra­ phers spend virtually all their time in offices and seldom visit the sites they are mapping.  Employment Surveyors, cartographers, photogrammetrists, and surveying tech­ nicians held about 110,000 jobs in 1998. Engineering and architec­ tural services firms employed about 64 percent of these workers. Federal, State, and local governmental agencies employed an addi­ tional 17 percent. Major Federal Governmental employers are the U.S. Geological Survey, the Bureau of Land Management, the Army Corps of Engineers, the Forest Service, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the National Imagery and Map­ ping Agency (NIMA). Most surveyors in State and local govern­ ment work for highway departments and urban planning and rede­ velopment agencies. Construction firms, mining and oil and gas extraction companies, and public utilities also employ surveyors, cartographers, photogrammetrists, and surveying technicians. About 6,800 were self-employed in 1998. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Most people prepare for a career as a licensed surveyor by combin­ ing postsecondary school courses in surveying with extensive onthe-job training. However, as technology advances, a 4-year degree is becoming more of a prerequisite. About 25 universities now offer 4year programs leading to aB.S. degree in surveying. Junior and com­ munity colleges, technical institutes, and vocational schools offer 1-, 2-, and 3-year programs in both surveying and surveying technology. All 50 States license land surveyors. For licensure, most State licensing boards require that individuals pass two written examina­ tions, one prepared by the State and one given by the National Coun­ cil of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying. In addition, they must meet varying standards of formal education and work experi­ ence in the field. In the past, many individuals started as members of survey crews and worked their way up to become licensed sur­ veyors with little formal training in surveying. However, because of advancing technology and an increase in licensing standards, formal education requirements are increasing. At present, most States require some formal post-high school education coursework and 10 to 12 years of surveying experience to gain licensure. How­ ever, requirements vary among States. Generally, the quickest route to licensure is a combination of 4 years of college, 2 to 4 years of experience (a few States do not require any), and passing the licens­ ing examinations. An increasing number of States require a bachelor’s degree in surveying or in a closely related field, such as civil engineering or forestry (with courses in surveying), regardless of the number of years of experience. High school students interested in surveying should take courses in algebra, geometry, trigonometry, drafting, mechanical drawing, and computer science. High school graduates with no formal train­ ing in surveying usually start as an apprentice. Beginners with postsecondary school training in surveying can usually start as technicians or assistants. With on-the-job experience and formal training in surveying—either in an institutional program or from a correspondence school—workers may advance to senior survey technician, then to party chief, and in some cases, to licensed sur­ veyor (depending on State licensing requirements). The American Congress on Surveying and Mapping has a vol­ untary certification program for surveying technicians. Technicians are certified at four levels requiring progressive amounts of experi­ ence, in addition to passing written examinations. Although not required for State licensure, many employers require certification for promotion to positions with greater responsibilities. Surveyors should have the ability to visualize objects, distances, sizes, and abstract forms. They must work with precision and accu­ racy because mistakes can be costly. Members of a survey party must be in good physical condition, because they work outdoors and often carry equipment over difficult terrain. They need good eyesight, coordination, and hearing to communicate verbally and manually (using hand signals). Surveying is a cooperative process, so good interpersonal skills and the ability to work as part of a teqm are important. Leadership qualities are important for party chief and other supervisory positions. Cartographers and photogrammetrists usually have a bachelor’s degree in a field such as engineering, forestry, geography, or a physical science. Although it is possible to enter these positions through previous experience as a photogrammetric or cartographic technician, most cartographic and photogrammetric technicians now have had some specialized postsecondary school training. With the development of Geographic Information Systems, car­ tographers and photogrammetrists need additional education and stronger technical skills—including more experience with com­ puters—than in the past. The American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing has a voluntary certification program for photogrammetrists. To qualify for this professional distinction, individuals must meet work experience standards and pass an oral or written examination.  Professional and Technical Occupations 107  Job Outlook Overall employment of surveyors, cartographers, photogrammetrists, and surveying technicians is expected to grow about as fast as the average through the year 2008. The widespread availability and use of advanced technologies, such as the Global Positioning System, Geographic Information Systems, and remote sensing, are increasing both the accuracy and productivity of survey and mapping work. Job openings, however, will continue to result from the need to replace workers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force altogether. Prospects will be best for surveying technicians, whose growth is expected to be slightly faster than the average for all occupa­ tions through 2008. The short training period needed to learn to operate the equipment, the current lack of any formal testing or licensing, and the relatively lower wages all make for a healthy demand for these technicians, as well as for a readily available supply. As technologies become more complex, opportunities will be best for surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists who have at least a bachelor’s degree and strong technical skills. In­ creasing demand for geographic data, as opposed to traditional surveying services, will mean better opportunities for cartogra­ phers and photogrammetrists involved in the development and use of geographic and land information systems. New technolo­ gies, such as GPS and GIS may also enhance employment oppor­ tunities for surveyors and surveying technicians who have the educational background enabling them to use these systems, but upgraded licensing requirements will continue to limit opportuni­ ties for those with less education. Even as demand increases in nontraditional areas such as urban planning and natural resource exploration and mapping, opportuni­ ties for surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists should remain concentrated in engineering, architectural, and surveying ser­ vices firms. Growth in construction through 2008 should require surveyors to lay out streets, shopping centers, housing develop­ ments, factories, office buildings, and recreation areas. However, employment may fluctuate from year to year along with construc­ tion activity.  Earnings Median annual earnings of surveyors, cartographers, and photogram­ metrists were $37,640 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned between $27,580 and $50,380. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $21,510 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $76,880. Median hourly earnings of surveying technicians were $ 11.20 in 1997 for those employed in engineering and architectural services, while those employed by local governments received median hourly earnings of $13.50. The middle 50 percent of all surveying technicians earned between $9.86 and $16.54 in 1998. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $7.61 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $21.14. In 1999, land surveyors in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions in the Federal Government earned an average salary of $52,400; cartographers earned an average salary of $56,300. The average Federal salary for geodetic technicians is $48,800; for surveying technicians, about $31,300; and for cartographic techni­ cians, about $37,200.  Related Occupations Surveying is related to the work of civil engineers and architects, since an accurate survey is the first step in land development and construction projects. Cartography and geodetic surveying are re­ lated to the work of geologists and geophysicists, who study the earth’s internal composition, surface, and atmosphere. Cartogra­ phy is also related to the work of geographers and urban planners, who study and decide how the earth’s surface is used.  Sources of Additional Information Information about career opportunities, licensure requirements, and the surveying technician certification program is available from: "" American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, 5410 Grosvenor Lane Suite 100, Bethesda, MD 20814-2122.  General information on careers in photogrammetry is available from: *■ ASPRS: The Imaging and Geospacial Information Society, 5410 Grosvenor Lane, Suite 210, Bethesda, MD 20814.  General information on careers in cartography is available from: *" North American Cartographic Information Society, P.0 Box 399 Milwaukee, WI 53201-0399.  Computer, Mathematical, and Operations Research Occupations Actuaries (0*NET 25313)  Significant Points • • •  A strong background in mathematics is essential for an actuary. About 2 out of 3 actuaries are employed in the insurance industry. Employment opportunities will be good despite the limited number of openings in this small occupation as stringent qualifying requirements induced by the examination system limit the number of new entrants.  Nature of the Work Actuaries are essential employees because they determine future risk, make price decisions, and formulate investment strategies. Some actuaries also design insurance, financial, and pension plans and ensure that these plans are maintained on a sound financial Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  basis. Most actuaries specialize in life and health or property and casualty insurance; others work primarily in finance or employee benefits. Some use a broad knowledge of business and mathemat­ ics in investment, risk classification, or pension planning. Regardless of specialty, actuaries assemble and analyze data to estimate probabilities of an event taking place, such as death, sick­ ness, injury, disability, or property loss. They also address financial questions, including the level of pension contributions required to produce a certain retirement income level or the projected future return on investments. Moreover, actuaries may help determine company policy and sometimes explain complex technical matters to company executives, government officials, shareholders, policy­ holders, or the public in general. They may testify before public agencies on proposed legislation affecting their businesses or ex­ plain changes in contract provisions to customers. They also may help companies develop plans to enter new lines of business. Most actuaries are employed in the insurance industry, in which they estimate the amount a company will pay in claims. For ex­ ample, property/casualty actuaries calculate the expected amount of claims resulting from automobile accidents, which varies de­ pending on the insured person’s age, sex, driving history, type of car, and other factors. Actuaries ensure that the price, or premium,  108 Occupational Outlook Handbook charged for such insurance will enable the company to cover claims and other expenses. This premium must be profitable and yet competitive with other insurance companies. Actuaries employed in other industries perform several different functions. The small but growing group of actuaries in the finan­ cial services industry, for example, manages credit and helps price corporate security offerings. Because banks now offer their cus­ tomers investment products such as annuities and asset manage­ ment services, actuaries increasingly help financial institutions manage the substantial risks associated with these products. Actu­ aries employed as pension actuaries enrolled under the provisions of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA) evaluate pension plans covered by that act and report on their finan­ cial soundness to plan members, sponsors, and Federal regulators. In addition to salaried actuaries, numerous consulting actuaries provide advice to clients on a contract basis. Their clients include insurance companies, corporations, health maintenance organiza­ tions, health care providers, government agencies, and attorneys. The duties of most consulting actuaries are similar to those of other actuaries. For example, some design pension plans through calcu­ lating the future value of current deductions from earnings and de­ termining the amount of employer contributions. Others provide advice to health care plans or financial services firms. Consultants sometimes testify in court regarding the value of potential lifetime earnings of a person who is disabled or killed in an accident, the current value of future pension benefits in divorce cases, or other complex calculations. Many consulting actuaries work in reinsur­ ance, where one insurance company arranges to share a large pro­ spective liability policy with another insurance company in exchange for a percentage of the premium.  Working Conditions Actuaries have desk jobs, and their offices are usually comfortable and pleasant. They often work at least 40 hours a week. Some actuaries, particularly consulting actuaries, may travel to meet with clients. Consulting actuaries may also experience more erratic em­ ployment and be expected to work more than 40 hours per week.  Employment Actuaries held about 16,000 jobs in 1998. Almost one-half of the actuaries who were wage and salary workers were employed in the insurance industry. Some had jobs in life and health insurance com­ panies, while property and casualty insurance companies, pension funds, or insurance agents and brokers employed others. Most of the remaining actuaries worked for firms providing services, espe-  -Wmm  Using their broad knowledge of business and mathematics, actuar­ ies work in investment, risk classification, and employee benefits. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  dally management and public relations, or for actuarial consulting services. A relatively small number of actuaries were employed by security and commodity brokers or government agencies. Some developed computer software for actuarial calculations. In 1998, 2,300 actuaries were self-employed.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Applicants for beginning actuarial jobs usually have a bachelor’s degree in mathematics, actuarial science, statistics, or a businessrelated discipline, such as economics, finance, or accounting. About 55 colleges and universities offer an actuarial science pro­ gram, and most colleges and universities offer a degree in math­ ematics or statistics. Some companies hire applicants without specifying a major, provided that the applicant has a working knowledge of mathematics, including calculus, probability, and statistics, and has demonstrated this ability by passing at least the beginning few actuarial exams required for professional designa­ tion. Courses in economics, accounting, computer science, finance, and insurance are also useful. Companies increasingly prefer wellrounded individuals who, in addition to a strong technical back­ ground, have some training in liberal arts and business. Two professional societies sponsor programs leading to full pro­ fessional status in their specialty. The first, the Society of Actuaries (SOA), administers a series of actuarial examinations for the life and health insurance, pension, and finance and investment fields. The Casualty Actuarial Society (CAS), on the other hand, gives a series of examinations for the property and casualty field, which includes fire, accident, medical malpractice, workers compensation, and personal injury liability. The first parts of the SOA and CAS examination series are jointly sponsored by the two societies and cover the same mate­ rial. For this reason, students do not need to commit themselves to a specialty until they have taken the initial examinations. These examinations test an individual’s competence in probability, calcu­ lus, statistics, and other branches of mathematics. The first few ex­ aminations help students evaluate their potential as actuaries. Those who pass one or more examinations have better opportunities for em­ ployment at higher starting salaries than those who do not. Actuaries are encouraged to complete the entire series of exami­ nations as soon as possible, advancing first to the Associate level, and then to the Fellowship level. Advanced casualty topics include investment and assets, dynamic financial analysis, and valuation of insurance topics. Completion of the examination process usually takes from 5 to 10 years. Examinations are given twice a year, in May and November. Although many companies allot time to their employees for study, extensive home study is required to pass the examinations, and many actuaries study for months to prepare for each examination. It is likewise common for employers to pay the hundreds of dollars for fees and study materials. Most reach the Associate level within 4 to 6 years and the Fellowship level a few years later. Specific requirements apply for pension actuaries, who verify the financial status of defined benefit pension plans to the Federal Government. These actuaries must be enrolled by the Joint Board for the Enrollment of Actuaries. To qualify for enrollment, appli­ cants must meet certain experience and examination requirements, as stipulated by the Joint Board. To perform their duties effectively, actuaries must keep up with current economic and social trends and legislation, as well as de­ velopments in health, business, finance, and economics that could affect insurance or investment practices. Good communication and interpersonal skills are also important, particularly for prospective consulting actuaries. Beginning actuaries often rotate among different jobs in an or­ ganization to learn various actuarial operations and phases of in­ surance work, such as marketing, underwriting, and product de­ velopment. At first, they prepare data for actuarial projects or perform other simple tasks. As they gain experience, actuaries  Professional and Technical Occupations 109 may supervise clerks, prepare correspondence, draft reports, and conduct research. They may move from one company to another early in their careers as they move up to higher positions. Advancement depends largely on job performance and the num­ ber of actuarial examinations passed. Actuaries with a broad knowledge of the insurance, pension, investment, or employee ben­ efits fields can advance to administrative and executive positions in their companies. Actuaries with supervisory ability may ad­ vance to management positions in other areas, such as underwrit­ ing, accounting, data processing, marketing, or advertising. Some actuaries assume faculty positions in the Nation’s colleges and universities. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.)  Job Outlook Employment of actuaries is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations through 2008. Although expected growth in managed health plans in the health services industry should pro­ vide good prospects for actuaries, anticipated downsizing and merger activity in the insurance agent and broker industry will adversely affect the outlook for these workers. Prospective actuaries who pass several beginning actuarial exams will find relatively few job open­ ings. The number of openings to replace those who leave the occu­ pation each year is limited and new openings are restricted by the relatively small size of the occupation. Actuarial employment is projected to grow in property and casualty insurance as this sector experiences growth in terms of employment and billing. Actuaries will continue to be involved in the development of product liability insurance, medical mal­ practice, and workers compensation coverage. The development of new financial tools such as dynamic financial analysis has increased the demand for property and casualty actuaries. The growing need to evaluate catastrophic risks such as earthquakes and calculate prices for insuring facilities against such risks is another source of increasing demand for property and casualty actuaries. Planning for the systematic financing of environmen­ tal risks, such as toxic waste clean-up, will further lift demand for actuaries in this specialty. Employment of consulting actuaries is expected to grow faster than employment of actuaries among life insurance carriers—tradi­ tionally the leading employer of actuaries. As many life insurance carriers seek to boost profitability by streamlining operations, actu­ arial employment may be cut back. Investment firms and large cor­ porations may increasingly turn to consultants to provide actuarial services formerly performed in-house.  Earnings Median annual earnings of actuaries were $65,560 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned between $45,560 and $89,860. The low­ est 10 percent had earnings of less than $36,000, while the top 10 percent earned over $123,810. The average salary for actuaries employed by the Federal government was $72,800 in early 1999. According to the National Association of Colleges and Employers, annual starting salaries for bachelor’s degree graduates in math­ ematics/actuarial science averaged about $37,300 in 1999. Insurance companies and consulting firms give merit increases to actuaries as they gain experience and pass examinations. Some com­ panies also offer cash bonuses for each professional designation achieved. A 1998 salary survey of insurance and financial services companies, conducted by the Life Office Management Association, Inc., indicated that the average base salary for an entry-level actu­ ary with the largest U. S. companies was about $41,500. Associate Actuaries with the largest U. S. companies, who direct and provide leadership in the design, pricing, and implementation of insurance products, received an average salary of $88,000. Actuaries at the highest technical level without managerial responsibilities in the same size companies earned an average of $101,600. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Related Occupations Actuaries determine the probability of income or loss from various risk factors. Other workers whose jobs involve related skills in­ clude accountants, economists, financial analysts, mathematicians, and statisticians.  Sources of Additional Information For facts about actuarial careers, contact: «- American Academy of Actuaries, 1100 17th St. NW„ 7th Floor, Wash­ ington, DC 20036. Internet:  For information about actuarial careers in life and health insur­ ance, employee benefits and pensions, and finance and investments, contact: Society of Actuaries, 475 N. Martingale Rd., Suite 800, Schaumburg, IL 60173-2226. Internet:  For information about actuarial careers in property and casualty insurance, contact: "■ Casualty Actuarial Society, 1100 N. Glebe Rd., Suite 600, Arlington, VA 22201. Internet:  Career information on actuaries specializing in pensions is avail­ able from: *■ American Society of Pension Actuaries, 4350 N. Fairfax Dr., Suite 820, Arlington, VA 22203. Internet:  Computer Systems Analysts, Engineers, and Scientists (Q*NET 21114C, 22127, 25102, 25103A, 25104. and 25199A)  Significant Points •  •  As computer applications continue to expand, these occupations are projected to be the fastest growing and rank among the top 20 in the number of new jobs created over the 1998-2008 period. Relevant work experience and a bachelor’s degree are prerequisites for many jobs; for more complex jobs, a graduate degree is preferred.  Nature of the Work The rapid spread of computers and information technology has gen­ erated a need for highly trained workers to design and develop new hardware and software systems and to incorporate new technolo­ gies. These workers—computer systems analysts, engineers, and scientists—include a wide range of computer-related occupations. Job tasks and occupational titles used to describe this broad cat­ egory of workers evolve rapidly, reflecting new areas of specializa­ tion or changes in technology, as well as the preferences and prac­ tices of employers. Systems analysts solve computer problems and enable computer technology to meet individual needs of an organization. They help an organization realize the maximum benefit from its investment in equipment, personnel, and business processes. This process may include planning and developing new computer systems or devis­ ing ways to apply existing systems’ resources to additional opera­ tions. Systems analysts may design new systems, including both hardware and software, or add a new software application to har­ ness more of the computer’s power. Most systems analysts work with a specific type of system that varies with the type of organiza­ tion they work for—for example, business, accounting or financial systems, or scientific and engineering systems. Systems develop­ ment workers are also referred to as a systems developer and sys­  tems architect. Analysts begin an assignment by discussing the systems prob­ lem with managers and users to determine its exact nature. They  110 Occupational Outlook Handbook define the goals of the system and divide the solutions into individual steps and separate procedures. Analysts use techniques such as struc­ tured analysis, data modeling, information engineering, mathematical model building, sampling, and cost accounting to plan the system. They specify the inputs to be accessed by the system, design the processing steps, and format the output to meet the users’ needs. They also may prepare cost-benefit and retum-on-investment analyses to help manage­ ment decide whether implementing the proposed system will be finan­ cially feasible. When a system is accepted, analysts determine what computer hardware and software will be needed to set it up. They coordinate tests and observe initial use of the system to ensure it performs as planned. They prepare specifications, work diagrams, and struc­ ture charts for computer programmers to follow and then work with them to “debug,” or eliminate errors from the system. Analysts, who do more in-depth testing of products, may be referred to as software quality assurance analysts. In addition to running tests, these individuals diagnose problems, recommend solutions, and determine if program requirements have been met. In some organizations, programmer-analysts design and update the software that runs a computer. Because they are responsible for both programming and systems analysis, these workers must be pro­ ficient in both areas. (A separate statement on computer program­ mers appears elsewhere in the Handbook.) As this becomes more commonplace, these analysts increasingly work with object-oriented programming languages, as well as client/server applications de­ velopment, and multimedia and Internet technology. One obstacle associated with expanding computer use is the need for different computer systems to communicate with each other. Because of the importance of maintaining up-to-date information— accounting records, sales figures, or budget projections, for ex­ ample-systems analysts work on making the computer systems within an organization compatible so that information can be shared. Many systems analysts are involved with “networking,” connect­ ing all the computers internally—in an individual office, depart­ ment, or establishment—or externally, since many organizations now rely on e-mail or the World Wide Web. A primary goal of network­ ing is to allow users to retrieve data and information from a main­ frame computer or a server and use it on their machine. Analysts must design the hardware and software to allow free exchange of data, custom applications, and the computer power to process it all. Networks come in many variations and network systems and data communications analysts design, test, and evaluate systems such as Local Area Networks (LAN), Wide Area Networks (WAN), Internet, Intranet, and other data communications systems. These analysts perform network modeling, analysis and planning; they may also research related products and make necessary hardware and soft­ ware recommendations. Telecommunications specialists focus on the interaction between computer and communications equipment. Computer engineers also work with the hardware and software aspects of systems design and development. They usually apply the theories and principles of science and mathematics to design hardware, software, networks, and processes and to solve technical problems. Whereas their work emphasizes the application of theory, computer engineers are also involved in building prototypes. They often work as part of a team that designs new computing devices or computer-related equipment, systems, or software. Computer hard­ ware engineers usually design, develop, test, and supervise the manufacture of computer hardware—such as chips or device con­ trollers. Software engineers, on the other hand, can be involved in the design and development of software systems for control and automation of manufacturing, business, and management processes. They may research, design, and test operating system software, com­ pilers—software that converts programs for faster processing—and network distribution software. Software engineers or software devel­ opers working in applications development analyze users’ needs and design, create, and modify general computer applications software or specialized utility programs. These professionals also possess strong Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  programming skills, but they are more concerned with analyzing and solving programming problems than with writing code for pro­ grams. Some software engineers develop both packaged and sys­ tems software or create customized software applications for clients. The title computer scientist can be applied to a wide range of computer professionals who usually design computers and the soft­ ware that runs them, develop information technologies, and develop and adapt principles for applying computers to new uses. Com­ puter scientists perform many of the same duties as other computer professionals, but their jobs are distinguished by the higher level of theoretical expertise and innovation they apply to complex prob­ lems and the creation or application of new technology. Computer scientists can work as theorists, researchers, or inven­ tors. Those employed by academic institutions work in areas rang­ ing from complexity theory, to hardware, to programming language design. Some work on multi-disciplinary projects, such as devel­ oping and advancing uses of virtual reality in robotics. Their coun­ terparts in private industry work in areas such as applying theory, developing specialized languages or information technologies, or designing programming tools, knowledge-based systems, or even computer games.  Database administrators work with database management sys­ tems software and determine ways to organize and store data. They set up computer databases and test and coordinate changes to them. Since they also may design implementation and system security, database administrators often plan and coordinate security measures. Computer support specialists provide technical assistance, sup­ port, and advice to customers and users. This group includes tech­ nical support specialists, help-desk technicians, and customer ser­ vice representatives. These troubleshooters interpret problems and provide technical support for hardware, software, and systems. They answer phone calls, use automated diagnostic programs, and resolve recurrent problems. Support specialists may work within an orga­ nization or directly for a computer or software vendor. Increas­ ingly, these technical professionals work for help-desk or support services firms, where they provide customer support on a contract basis to clients as more of this type of work is outsourced. Other computer scientists include workers who are involved in analysis, application, or design of a particular system or piece of the system. Network or computer systems administrators, for example, design, install, and support an organization’s LAN, WAN, network segment, Internet or Intranet system. They maintain network hard­ ware and software, analyze problems, and monitor the network to ensure availability to system users. Administrators also may plan, coordinate, and implement network security measures. In some or­ ganizations, computer security specialists may plan, coordinate, and implement the organization’s information security. These and other  :sl.Wv  Computer support specialists answer phone calls, use automated diagnostic programs, and resolve problems.  Professional and Technical Occupations 111 growing specialty occupations reflect the increasing emphasis on client-server applications, the growth of the Internet, the expansion of World Wide Web applications and Intranets, and the demand for more end-user support. In addition, growth of the Internet and expansion of the World Wide Web, the graphical portion of the Internet, have generated a variety of occupations relating to design, development, and maintenance of websites and their servers. For example, webmasters are responsible for all technical aspects of a website, including performance issues such as speed of access, and for approving site content. Internet or web developers, also called web designers, are responsible for day-to-day site design and creation.  Working Conditions Computer systems analysts, engineers and other computer scien­ tists normally work in offices or laboratories in comfortable sur­ roundings. They usually work about 40 hours a week—the same as many other professional or office workers. However, evening or weekend work may be necessary to meet deadlines or solve specific problems. Given the technology available today, telecommuting is common for computer professionals. As networks expand, more work, including technical support, can be done from remote loca­ tions using modems, laptops, electronic mail, and the Internet. For example, it is possible for technical personnel, such as computer support specialists, to connect to a customer’s computer remotely to identify and fix problems. Like other workers who spend long periods of time in front of a computer terminal typing on a keyboard, they are susceptible to eye strain, back discomfort, and hand and wrist problems such as carpal tunnel syndrome or cumulative trauma disorder.  Employment Computer systems analysts, engineers, and scientists held about 1.5 million jobs in 1998, including about 114,000 who were self-em­ ployed. Their employment was distributed among the following detailed occupations: Computer systems analysts ... Computer support specialists Computer engineers.............. Database administrators....... All other computer scientists  617.000 429.000 299.000 87.000 97.000  Although they are increasingly employed in every sector of the economy, the greatest concentration of these workers is in the com­ puter and data processing services industry. Firms in this industry provide nearly every service related to commercial computer use on a contract basis. Services include customized computer pro­ gramming services and applications and systems software design; the design, development, and production of prepackaged computer software, systems integration, networking, and reengineering ser­ vices; data processing and preparation services; information retrieval services including on-line databases and Internet services; on-site computer facilities management; the development and management of databases; and a variety of specialized consulting services. Many work in other areas, such as for government agencies, manufactur­ ers of computer and related electronic equipment, insurance com­ panies, financial institutions, and universities. A growing number of computer professionals are employed on a temporary or contract basis—many of whom are self-employed, working independently as contractors or self-employed consultants! For example, a company installing a new computer system may need the services of several systems analysts just to get the system run­ ning. Because not all of them would be needed once the system is functioning, the company might contract with systems analysts or a temporary help agency or consulting firm. Such jobs may last from several months up to 2 years or more. This growing practice enables Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  companies to bring in people with the exact skills they need to com­ plete a particular project, rather than having to spend time or money training or retraining existing workers. Often, experienced consult­ ants then train a company’s in-house staff as a project develops.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Due to the wide range of skills required, there are many ways work­ ers enter computer-related occupations. Someone staffing a help­ desk, for example, needs skills and training that differ from those of a computer engineer designing chips or a Webmaster responsible for creating and maintaining a web page. While there is no univer­ sally accepted way to prepare for a job as a computer professional, most employers place a premium on some formal college educa­ tion. A bachelor’s degree is a prerequisite for many jobs; however, some jobs may require only a 2-year degree. Relevant work experi­ ence also is very important. For more complex jobs, persons with graduate degrees are preferred. Computer hardware engineers usually need a bachelor’s degree in computer engineering or electrical engineering, whereas software engineers are more likely to hold a degree in computer science or in software engineering. Computer engineering programs emphasize hardware and may be offered as a degree option or in conjunction with electrical and electronics engineering. As a result, graduates of a computer engineering program from a school or college of en­ gineering often find jobs designing and developing computer hard­ ware or related equipment, even though they also have the skills required for developing systems or software. For computer sci­ ence, however, there is more variation in where the department falls within an institution. Some may be part of a school or college of liberal arts while others may be within colleges of natural or ap­ plied sciences. Unless the program is part of the engineering de­ partment, the focus is on software, and graduates may work in areas of software engineering. A Ph.D„ or at least a master’s degree, in computer science or engineering is usually required for jobs in re­ search laboratories or academic institutions. For systems analyst, programmer-analyst, or even database ad­ ministrator positions, many employers seek applicants who have a bachelor’s degree in computer science, information science, or man­ agement information systems (MIS). Management information sys­ tems programs are usually part of the business school or college. These programs differ considerably from computer science pro­ grams, emphasizing business and management oriented coursework and business computing courses. Despite the preference towards technical degrees, persons with degrees in a variety of majors find employment in computer-related occupations. The level of education and type of training employers require depend on employers’ needs. One factor affecting these needs is changes in technology. As demonstrated by the current demand for workers with skills related to the Internet or World Wide Web, employers often scramble to find workers capable of imple­ menting “hot” new technologies. Another factor driving employ­ ers needs is the time frame in which a project must be completed. Most community colleges and many independent technical insti­ tutes and proprietary schools offer an associate degree in computer science or a related information technology field. Many of these pro­ grams may be more geared toward meeting the needs of local busi­ nesses and more occupation specific than those designed for a 4-year degree. Some jobs may be better suited to the level of training these programs offer. Computer support specialists, for example, usually need only an associate’s degree in a computer-related field, as well as significant hands on experience with computers. Employers usually look for people who have broad knowledge of and experience with computer systems and technologies, strong problem solving and analysis skills, and good interpersonal skills. Courses in computer programming or systems design offer good preparation for a job in this field. For jobs in a business environ­ ment, employers usually want systems analysts to have business management or closely related skills, while a background in the  112 Occupational Outlook Handbook physical sciences, applied mathematics, or engineering is preferred for work in scientifically oriented organizations. Art or graphic design skills may be desirable for webmasters or web developers. Jobseekers can enhance their employment opportunities by par­ ticipating in internship or co-op programs offered through their schools. Because many people develop advanced computer skills in one occupation and then transfer those skills into a computer occupation, a related background in the industry in which the job is located, such as financial services, banking, or accounting, can be important. Others have taken computer programming courses to supplement their study in fields such as accounting, inventory con­ trol, or other business areas. For example, a financial analyst profi­ cient in computers might become a systems analyst or computer support specialist in financial systems development, while a com­ puter programmer might move into a systems analyst job. Computer systems analysts, engineers, and scientists must be able to think logically and have good communication skills. They often deal with a number of tasks simultaneously; the ability to con­ centrate and pay close attention to detail is important. Although computer specialists sometimes work independently, they often work in teams on large projects. They must be able to communicate ef­ fectively with computer personnel, such as programmers and man­ agers, as well as with users or other staff who may have no techni­ cal computer background. Computer engineers and scientists employed in industry may advance into managerial or project leadership positions. Those employed in academic institutions can become heads of research departments or published authorities in their field. Systems ana­ lysts may be promoted to senior or lead systems analyst. Those who show leadership ability also can become project managers or advance into management positions such as manager of informa­ tion systems or chief information officer. Technical support spe­ cialists may also advance by developing expertise in an area that leads to other opportunities. For example, those responsible for network support may advance into network administration or net­ work security. Computer professionals with work experience and considerable expertise in a particular subject area or application may find lucrative opportunities as independent consultants or choose to start their own computer consulting firms. Technological advances come so rapidly in the computer field that continuous study is necessary to keep skills up to date. Em­ ployers, hardware and software vendors, colleges and universities, and private training institutions offer continuing education. Addi­ tional training may come from professional development seminars offered by professional computing societies. Technical or professional certification is a way to demonstrate a level of competency or quality in a particular field. Product ven­ dors or software firms also offer certification and may require pro­ fessionals who work with their products to be certified. Many are widely sought and considered industry standards. Voluntary certi­ fication is also available through other organizations. Professional certification may provide a job seeker a competitive advantage.  Job Outlook  Computer systems analysts, engineers, and scientists are expected to be the fastest growing occupations through 2008. Employment of computing professionals is expected to increase much faster than average as technology becomes more sophisticated and orga­ nizations continue to adopt and integrate these technologies. Growth will be driven by very rapid growth in computer and data processing services, which is projected to be the fastest growing industry in the U.S. economy. In addition, thousands of job open­ ings will arise annually from the need to replace workers who move into managerial positions or other occupations or who leave the labor force. The demand for networking to facilitate the sharing of informa­ tion, the expansion of client/server environments, and the need for Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  specialists to use their knowledge and skills in a problem solving ca­ pacity will be major factors in the rising demand for computer systems analysts, engineers, and scientists. Moreover, falling prices of com­ puter hardware and software should continue to induce more busi­ nesses to expand computerized operations and integrate new technolo­ gies. In order to maintain a competitive edge and operate more cost effectively, firms will continue to demand computer professionals who are knowledgeable about the latest technologies and able to apply them to meet the needs of businesses. Increasingly, more sophisticated and complex technology is be­ ing made available to individual users who can design and imple­ ment more of their own applications and programs. The result is a growing demand for computer support specialists, help-desk person­ nel, and technical consultants. Likewise, the explosive growth in electronic commerce—doing business on the World Wide Web—and the continuing need to build and maintain databases that store critical information on customers, inventory, and projects is fueling demand for database administrators current on the latest technology. New growth areas usually arise from the development of new technologies. The expanding integration of Internet technologies by businesses, for example, has resulted in a rising demand for a variety of skilled professionals who can develop and support Internet, Intranet, and web applications. The growth of electronic commerce means more establishments use the Internet to conduct their business on line. This translates into a need for information technology professionals who can help organizations use technol­ ogy to communicate with employees, clients, and consumers. Explosive growth in these areas is also expected to fuel demand for specialists knowledgeable about network, data, and communi­ cations security. As technology becomes more sophisticated and complex, em­ ployers in all areas demand a higher level of skill and expertise. Individuals with an advanced degree in computer science, com­ puter engineering, or an MBA with a concentration in informa­ tion systems should enjoy very favorable employment prospects. College graduates with a bachelor’s degree in computer science, computer engineering, information science, or management in­ formation systems should also enjoy favorable prospects for em­ ployment, particularly if they have supplemented their formal education with practical experience. Because employers con­ tinue to seek computer professionals who can combine strong technical skills with good interpersonal and business skills, graduates with non-computer science degrees, who have had courses in computer programming, systems analysis, and other information technology areas, should also continue to find jobs as computer professionals. In fact, individuals with the right ex­ perience and training can work in a computer-related occupation regardless of their major or level of formal education.  Earnings  Median annual earnings of computer systems analysts were $52,180 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned between $40,570 and $74,180 a year. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $32,470 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $87,810. Median annual earn­ ings in the industries employing the largest numbers of computer systems analysts in 1997 were: Telephone communications .................................... Federal Government................................................ Computer and data processing services................. State government, except education and hospitals Colleges and universities........................................  $63,300 56,900 51,000 43,500 38,400  Median annual earnings of computer engineers were $61,910 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned between $46,240 and $80,500. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $37,150 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $92,850. Median annual earnings in the  Professional and Technical Occupations 113 industries employing the largest numbers of computer engineers in 1997 were: Computer and office equipment................ Measuring and controlling devices........... Management and public relations............. Computer and data processing services.... Guided missiles, space vehicles, and parts  $63,700 62,000 59,000 56,700 49,500  Median annual earnings of computer support specialists were $37,120  in 1998. The middle 50percent earned between $28,880 and$48,810. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $22,930 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $73,790. Median annual earnings in the industries employing the largest numbers of computer support special­ ists in 1997 were: Management and public relations........... Computer and data processing services.. Computer and office equipment............. Professional and commercial equipment Personnel supply services........................  $37,900 36,300 36,300 35,700 35,200  Median annual earnings of database administrators were $47,980 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned between $36,440 and $69,920. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $28,320 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $86,200. Median annual earnings of database administrators employed in computer and data processing services in 1997 were $49,000. Median annual earnings of all other computer scientists were $46,670 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned between $34,290 and $70,250. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $26,690 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $87,730. Median annual earnings of all other computer scientists employed in computer and data processing services were $46,500 and in personnel supply ser­ vices, $33,600 in 1997. Starting salaries for computer scientists or computer engineers with a bachelor’s degree can be significantly higher than starting salaries of bachelor’s degree graduates in many other fields. Ac­ cording to the National Association of Colleges and Employers, start­ ing salary offers for graduates with a bachelor’s degree in computer engineering averaged about $45,700 in 1999; those with a master’s degree, $58,700. Starting offers for graduates with a bachelor’s degree in computer science averaged about $44,600; in computer programming, about $40,800; in information sciences, about $38,900; and in management information systems, $41,800 in 1999. Offers for those with the bachelor’s degree vary by functional area for all types of employers, as shown in the following tabulation. Hardware design and development Software design and development. Information systems....................... Systems analysis and design..........  $45,900 45.600 41.600 41,100  Offers for graduates with a master’s degree in computer science in 1999 averaged $51,400. According to Robert Half International, starting salaries in 1999 ranged from $61,300 to $88,000 for database administrators, from $42,800 to $59,800 for network administrators, and from $27,000 to $46,000 for help-desk support staff. Starting salaries in software development ranged from $55,000 to $80,000 for software engi­ neers and from $50,000 to $65,000 for software installer/develop­ ers. Salaries for Internet-related occupations ranged from $50,000 to $73,800 for security administrators, $51,500 to $73,000 for webmasters, and from $47,000 to $65,500 for web developers.  Related Occupations Other workers who use research, logic, and creativity to solve busi­ ness Digitized forproblems FRASERare computer programmers, financial analysts, urban Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  planners, engineers, mathematicians, statisticians, operations research analysts, management analysts, and actuaries.  Sources of Additional Information Further information about computer careers is available from: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 1515 Broadway New York, NY 10036. Internet: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers—United States of America, 1828 L Street, NW., Suite 1202, Washington, DC 20036. Internet  Information about becoming a Certified Computing Professional is available from: *’ Institute for Certification of Computing Professionals (ICCP) 2200 East Devon Ave., Suite 268, Des Plaines, IL 60018. Internet:  Information about becoming a Certified Quality Analyst is avail­ able from: *- Quality Assurance Institute, 7575 Dr. Phillips Blvd., Suite 350. Orlando, FL 32819. Internet:  Computer Programmers (0*NET 25105)  Significant Points •  • •  The level of education and experience required by employers has been rising, due to the increasing complexity of programming. A growing number of computer programmers are employed on a temporary or contract basis. Job prospects should be best for college graduates who are up to date with the latest skills and technologies.  Nature of the Work Computer programmers write, test, and maintain the detailed in­ structions, called programs or software, that computers must follow to perform their functions. They also conceive, design, and test logical structures for solving problems by computer. Many techni­ cal innovations in programming—advanced computing technolo­ gies and sophisticated new languages and programming tools—have redefined the role of a programmer and elevated much of the pro­ gramming work done today. As a result, it is becoming more diffi­ cult to distinguish different computer specialists—including pro­ grammers since job titles shift so rapidly, reflecting new areas of specialization or changes in technology. Job titles and descriptions also may vary, depending on the organization. In this occupational statement, computer programmer refers to individuals whose main job function is programming; this group has a wide range of re­ sponsibilities and educational backgrounds. Computer programs tell the computer what to do, such as which information to identify and access, how to process it, and what equip­ ment to use. Programs vary widely depending upon the type of information to be accessed or generated. For example, the instruc­ tions involved in updating financial records are very different from those required to duplicate conditions on board an aircraft for pilots training in a flight simulator. Although simple programs can be written in a few hours, programs that use complex mathematical formulas, whose solutions can only be approximated, or that draw data from many existing systems, may require more than a year of work. In most cases, several programmers work together as a team under a senior programmer’s supervision. Programmers write specific programs by breaking down each step into a logical series of instructions the computer can follow. They then code these instructions in a conventional programming language, such as COBOL; an artificial intelligence language, such as  114 Occupational Outlook Handbook Prolog; or one of the most advanced function-oriented or objectoriented languages, such as Java, C++, or Visual Basic. Program­ mers usually know more than one programming language; and since many languages are similar, they can often learn new languages relatively easily. In practice, programmers are often referred to by the language they know, such as Java programmers, or the type of function they perform or environment in which they work, such as database programmers, mainframe programmers, or Internet pro­ grammers. In many large organizations, programmers follow de­ scriptions that have been prepared by software engineers or systems analysts. These descriptions list the input required, the steps the computer must follow to process data, and the desired arrangement of the output. Many programmers are involved in updating, repairing, modifying and expanding existing programs. When making changes to a section of code, called a routine, programmers need to make other users aware of the task the routine is to perform. They do this by inserting com­ ments in the coded instructions, so others can understand the program. Innovations such as computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools enable a programmer to concentrate on writing the unique parts of the program, because the tools automate various pieces of the pro­ gram being built. CASE tools generate whole sections of code auto­ matically, rather than line by line. This also yields more reliable and consistent programs and increases programmers’ productivity by elimi­ nating some routine steps. Programmers test a program by running it, to ensure the instruc­ tions are correct and it produces the desired information. If errors do occur, the programmer must make the appropriate change and recheck the program until it produces the correct results, a process called debugging. Programmers working in a mainframe environ­ ment may prepare instructions for a computer operator who will run the program. (A separate statement on computer operators ap­ pears elsewhere in the Handbook.) They may also contribute to a manual for users. Programmers often are grouped into two broad types: applica­ tions programmers and systems programmers. Applications pro­ grammers usually focus on business, engineering, or science. They write software to handle a specific job, such as a program to track inventory, within an organization. They may also revise existing packaged software. Systems programmers, on the other hand, main­ tain and control computer systems software, such as operating sys­ tems, networked systems and database systems. These workers make changes in the sets of instructions that determine how the network, workstations, and central processing unit of the system handle the various jobs they have been given and how they communicate with peripheral equipment, such as terminals, printers, and disk drives. Because of their knowledge of the entire computer system, systems programmers often help applications programmers determine the source of problems that may occur with their programs. Programmers in software development companies may work di­ rectly with experts from various fields to create software—either programs designed for specific clients or packaged software for general use—ranging from games and educational software to pro­ grams for desktop publishing, financial planning, and spreadsheets. Much of this type of programming is in the preparation of packaged software, which comprises one of the most rapidly growing seg­ ments of the computer services industry. In some organizations, particularly small ones, workers com­ monly referred to as programmer-analysts are responsible for both the systems analysis and the actual programming work. (A more detailed description of the work of programmer-analysts is presented in the statement on computer systems analysts, engineers, and sci­ entists elsewhere in the Handbook.) Advanced programming lan­ guages and new object-oriented programming capabilities are in­ creasing the efficiency and productivity of both programmers and users. The transition from a mainframe environment to one that is primarily personal computer (PC) based has blurred the once rigid distinction between the programmer and the user. Increasingly, adept Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  piil, +  «L  '  . .I .  '  N.v  ..  I  ■  ■  I... l-i. .m iPf  jPj  r :• ■  Programmers must ensure that the program produces the correct results. end-users are taking over many of the tasks previously performed by programmers. For example, the growing use of packaged soft­ ware, like spreadsheet and database management software packages, allows users to write simple programs to access data and perform calculations.  Working Conditions  Programmers generally work in offices in comfortable surround­ ings. Many programmers may work long hours or weekends, to meet deadlines or fix critical problems that occur during off hours. Given the technology available, telecommuting is becoming com­ mon for a wide range of computer professionals—including com­ puter programmers. Programmers can access a system from remote locations, to make corrections or fix problems. Like other workers who spend long periods of time in front of a computer terminal typing at a keyboard, programmers are suscep­ tible to eyestrain, back discomfort, and hand and wrist problems, such as carpal tunnel syndrome.  Employment  Computer programmers held about 648,000 jobs in 1998. Program­ mers are employed in almost every industry, but the largest concen­ tration is in the computer and data processing services industry, which includes firms that write and sell software. Large numbers of programmers can also be found working for firms that provide engineering and management services, telecommunications com­ panies, manufacturers of computer and office equipment, financial  Professional and Technical Occupations 115 institutions, insurance carriers, educational institutions, and gov­ ernment agencies. A growing number of computer programmers are employed on a temporary or contract basis or work as independent consultants, as companies demand expertise with new programming languages or specialized areas of application. Rather than hiring program­ mers as permanent employees and then laying them off after a job is completed, employers can contract with temporary help agen­ cies, consulting firms, or directly with programmers themselves. A marketing firm, for example, may only require the services of several programmers to write and debug the software necessary to get a new data base-management system running. This practice also enables companies to bring in people with a specific set of skills—usually in one of the latest technologies—as it applies to their business needs. Bringing in an independent contractor or consultant with a certain level of experience in a new or advanced programming language, for example, enables an establishment to complete a particular job without having to retrain existing work­ ers. Such jobs may last anywhere from several weeks to a year or longer. There were 31,000 self-employed computer programmers in 1998, and this number is expected to increase.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement While there are many training paths available for programmers, mainly because employers’ needs are so varied, the level of educa­ tion and experience employers seek has been rising, due to the grow­ ing number of qualified applicants and the increasing complexity of some programming tasks. Bachelor’s degrees are now commonly required, although some programmers may qualify for certain jobs with 2-year degrees or certificates. College graduates who are in­ terested in changing careers or developing an area of expertise also may return to a 2-year community college or technical school for additional training. In the absence of a degree, substantial special­ ized experience or expertise may be needed. Even with a degree, employers appear to be placing more emphasis on previous experi­ ence, for all types of programmers.  Table 1. Highest level of school completed or degree received, computer programmers, 1998 High school graduate or equivalent or less Some college, no degree............................. Associate degree ......................................... Bachelor’s degree....................................... Graduate degree..........................................  Percent .... 10.6 .... 20.5 .... 10.2 .... 45.3 .... 13.4  About 3 out of 5 computer programmers had a bachelor’s degree or higher in 1998 (see table 1). Of these, some hold a degree in computer science, mathematics, or information systems, whereas others have taken special courses in computer programming, to supplement their study in fields such as accounting, inventory con­ trol, or other areas of business. As the level of education and train­ ing required by employers continues to rise, this percentage should increase in the future. Required skills vary from job to job, but the demand for various skills is generally driven by changes in technology. Employers us­ ing computers for scientific or engineering applications usually pre­ fer college graduates who have degrees in computer or information science, mathematics, engineering, or the physical sciences. Gradu­ ate degrees in related fields are required for some jobs. Employers who use computers for business applications prefer to hire people who have had college courses in information systems (MIS) and business and who possess strong programming skills. Although knowledge of traditional languages is still important, increasing empha­ Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  sis is placed on newer, object-oriented programming languages and tools, such as C++, Visual Basic, and Java. Additionally, employers are seeking persons familiar with fourth and fifth gen­ eration languages that involve graphic user interface (GUI) and systems programming. Employers also prefer applicants who have general business skills and experience related to the operations of the firm. Students can improve their employment prospects by participating in a college work-study program or by undertaking an internship. Most systems programmers hold a 4-year degree in computer sci­ ence. Extensive knowledge of a variety of operating systems is essen­ tial. This includes being able to configure an operating system to work with different types of hardware and adapting the operating system to best meet the needs of a particular organization. Programmers must also be able to work with database systems, such as DB2, Oracle, or Sybase, for example. ’ When hiring programmers, employers look for people with the necessary programming skills who can think logically and pay close attention to detail. The job calls for patience, persistence, and the ability to work on exacting analytical work, especially under pres­ sure. Ingenuity and imagination are also particularly important, when programmers design solutions and test their work for poten­ tial failures. The ability to work with abstract concepts and to do technical analysis is especially important for systems programmers, because they work with the software that controls the computer’s operation. Since programmers are expected to work in teams and interact directly with users, employers want programmers who are able to communicate with nontechnical personnel. Entry-level or junior programmers may work alone on simple as­ signments after some initial instruction or on a team with more expe­ rienced programmers. Either way, beginning programmers generally must work under close supervision. Because technology changes so rapidly, programmers must continuously update their training, by tak­ ing courses sponsored by their employer or software vendors. For skilled workers who keep up to date with the latest technol­ ogy, the prospects for advancement are good. In large organiza­ tions, programmers may be promoted to lead programmer and be given supervisory responsibilities. Some applications programmers may move into systems programming after they gain experience and take courses in systems software. With general business expe­ rience, programmers may become programmer analysts or systems analysts or be promoted to a managerial position. Other program­ mers, with specialized knowledge and experience with a language or operating system, may work in research and development areas, such as multimedia or Internet technology. As employers increas­ ingly contract out programming jobs, more opportunities should arise for experienced programmers with expertise in a specific area to work as consultants. Technical or professional certification is a way to demonstrate a level of competency or quality. Product vendors or software firms also offer certification and may require professionals who work with their products to be certified. Many are widely sought and consid­ ered industry standards. Voluntary certification is also available through other organizations. Professional certification may pro­ vide a job seeker a competitive advantage.  Job Outlook Employment of programmers is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through 2008. Jobs for both systems and applications programmers should be plentiful in data process­ ing service firms, software houses, and computer consulting busi­ nesses. These types of establishments are part of computer and data processing services, which is projected to be the fastest growing industry in the economy. As organizations attempt to control costs and keep up with changing technology, they will maintain a need for programmers to assist in conversions to new computer languages and systems. In addition, numerous job openings will result from  116 Occupational Outlook Handbook the need to replace programmers who leave the labor force or transfer to other occupations such as manager or systems analyst. Despite numerous openings, a number of factors will continue to moderate employment growth. The consolidation and centralization of systems and applications, developments in packaged software, advanced programming languages and tools, and the growing ability of users to design, write, and implement more of their own programs means more of the programming functions can be transferred to other types of workers. Furthermore, completion of Year 2000 work will mean that many pro­ grammers will need to be retrained and redeployed in other areas. And, as the level of technological innovation and sophistication increases, pro­ grammers should continue to face increasing competition from program­ ming businesses overseas where much routine work can be outsourced at  Related Occupations  a lower cost. Nevertheless, employers will continue to need programmers with strong technical skills who understand an employer’s business and its programming needs. Given the importance of networking and the expansion of client/server environments, organizations will look for programmers who can support data communications and help implement electronic commerce and intranet strategies. Demand for programmers with strong object-oriented programming capa­ bilities and technical specialization in areas such as client/server programming, multimedia technology, and graphic user interface (GUI), should arise from the expansion of intranets, extranets, and World Wide Web applications. Programmers will also be needed to create and maintain expert systems and embed these technologies in more and more products. As programming tasks become increasingly sophisticated and an additional level of skill and experience is demanded by employ­ ers, graduates of 2-year programs and people with less than a 2-year degree or its equivalent in work experience should face strong com­ petition for programming jobs. Competition for entry-level posi­ tions, however, can also affect applicants with a bachelor’s degree. Prospects should be best for college graduates with knowledge of, and experience working with, a variety of programming languages and tools—including C++ and other object-oriented languages like Visual Basic and Java, as well as newer, domain-specific languages that apply to computer networking, data base management, and Internet application development. Because demand fluctuates with employers’ needs, job seekers should keep up to date with the latest skills and technologies. Individuals who want to become program­ mers can enhance their prospects by combining the appropriate for­ mal training with practical work experience.  «- Institute for Certification of Computing Professionals (ICCP), 2200 East Devon Ave., Suite 268, Des Plaines, IL 60018. Internet:  Earnings  Median annual earnings of computer programmers were $47,550 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned between $36,020 and $70,610 a year. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $27,670; the highest 10 percent earned more than $88,730. Median annual earnings in the industries employing the largest numbers of computer program­ mers in 1997 were; Personnel supply services....................... Computer and data processing services.. Telephone communications .................... Professional and commercial equipment Management and public relations...........  $53,700 48,900 48,800 47,700 46,400  According to the National Association of Colleges and Employ­ ers, starting salary offers for graduates with a bachelor’s degree in computer programming averaged about $40,800 a year in 1999. Programmers working in the West or Northeast earned somewhat more than those working in the South or Midwest. On average, sys­ tems programmers earn more than applications programmers. According to Robert Half International, average annual starting salaries in 1999 ranged from $38,000 to $50,500 for applications development programmers and from $49,000 to $63,000 for sys­ tems programmers. Average starting salaries for Internet program­ mers ranged from $48,800 to $68,300. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Other professional workers who must be detail-oriented include com­ puter scientists, computer engineers, systems analysts, database admin­ istrators, statisticians, mathematicians, engineers, financial analysts, ac­ countants, actuaries, and operations research analysts.  Sources of Additional Information State employment service offices can provide information about job openings for computer programmers. Also check with your city’s chamber of commerce for information on the area’s larg­ est employers. For information about certification as a computing professional, contact:  Further information about computer careers is available from; *■ The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 1515 Broadway, New York, NY 10036. Internet: m- Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers—United States of America, 1828 L St. NW„ Suite 1202, Washington, DC 20036. Internet:  Mathematicians  _____ _______  (0*NET 25319A, 25319B, and 25319C)  ____________________  Significant Points •  •  Employment is expected to decline because few mathematics graduates get jobs that have the title mathematician. Bachelor’s and master’s degree holders with extensive training in mathematics and a related discipline, such as computer science, economics, engineering, or opera­ tions research, should have good employment opportu­ nities in related occupations.  Nature of the Work Mathematics is one of the oldest and most fundamental sciences. Mathematicians use mathematical theory, computational techniques, algorithms, and the latest computer technology to solve economic, scientific, engineering, physics, and business problems. The work of mathematicians falls into two broad classes—theoretical (pure) mathematics and applied mathematics. These classes, however, are not sharply defined and often overlap. Theoretical mathematicians advance mathematical knowledge by developing new principles and recognizing previously unknown relationships between existing principles of mathematics. Although they seek to increase basic knowledge without necessarily consid­ ering its practical use, such pure and abstract knowledge has been instrumental in producing or furthering many scientific and engi­ neering achievements.  Applied mathematicians, on the other hand, use theories and tech­ niques, such as mathematical modeling and computational meth­ ods, to formulate and solve practical problems in business, govern­ ment, engineering, and the physical, life, and social sciences. For example, they may analyze the most efficient way to schedule air­ line routes between cities, the effect and safety of new drugs, the aerodynamic characteristics of an experimental automobile, or the cost effectiveness of alternate manufacturing processes for a busi­ nesses. Applied mathematicians working in industrial research and development may develop or enhance mathematical methods when solving a difficult problem. Some mathematicians, called cryptanalysts, analyze and decipher encryption systems designed to transmit military, political, financial, or law enforcement-related information in code.  Professional and Technical Occupations 117  Employment Mathematicians held about 14,000 jobs in 1998. In addition, about 20,000 persons held mathematics faculty positions in colleges and uni­ versities in 1998, according to the American Mathematical Society. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the  Handbook.) Many nonfaculty mathematicians work for Federal or State gov­ ernments. The Department of Defense is the primary Federal em­ ployer of mathematicians, accounting for almost three-fourths of the mathematicians employed by the Federal Government. In the private sector, major employers include research and testing ser­ vices, educational services, security and commodity exchanges, and management and public relations services. Within manufacturing, the drug industry is the key employer. Some mathematicians also work for banks, insurance companies, and public utilities.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  Mathematicians use computers extensively to analyze data and develop models. Applied mathematicians start with a practical problem, envi­ sion the separate elements of the process under consideration, and then reduce the elements into mathematical variables. They often use computers to analyze relationships among the variables and solve complex problems through developing models with alternate solutions. Much of the work in applied mathematics is done by individu­ als with titles other than mathematician. In fact, because math­ ematics is the foundation upon which so many other academic disciplines are built, the number of workers using mathematical techniques is much greater than the number formally designated as mathematicians. For example, engineers, computer scientists, physicists, and economists are among those who use mathematics extensively. Some professionals, including statisticians, actuar­ ies, and operations research analysts, actually are specialists in a particular branch of mathematics. (For more information, see statements on actuaries, operations research analysts, and statis­ ticians elsewhere in the Handbook.)  Working Conditions Mathematicians usually work in comfortable offices. They are of­ ten part of an interdisciplinary team that may include economists, engineers, computer scientists, physicists, technicians, and others. Deadlines, overtime work, special requests for information or analy­ sis, and prolonged travel to attend seminars or conferences may be part of their jobs. Mathematicians who work in academia usually have a mix of teaching and research responsibilities. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  A doctoral degree in mathematics is usually the minimum educa­ tion needed for prospective mathematicians, with the exception of the Federal Government. In the Federal Government, entry-level job candidates usually must have a 4-year degree with a major in mathematics or a 4-year degree with the equivalent of a mathemat­ ics major—24 semester hours of mathematics courses. In private industry, job candidates typically need a Ph.D. de­ gree to obtain jobs as mathematicians. Most of the positions designated for mathematicians are in research and development laboratories as part of technical teams. These research scientists engage in either basic research on pure mathematical principles or in applied research on developing or improving specific prod­ ucts or processes. The majority of those with a bachelor’s or master’s degree in mathematics who work in private industry do so not as mathematicians, but in related fields such as computer science, where they have titles such as computer programmer, systems analyst, or systems engineer. A bachelor’s degree in mathematics is offered by most colleges and universities. Mathematics courses usually required for this degree are calculus, differential equations, and linear and abstract algebra. Additional courses might include probability theory and statistics, mathematical analysis, numerical analysis, topology, dis­ crete mathematics, and mathematical logic. Many colleges and universities urge or require students majoring in mathematics to take courses in a field that is closely related to mathematics, such as computer science, engineering, life science, physical science, or economics. A double major in mathematics and another disci­ pline such as computer science, economics, or one of the sciences is particularly desirable to many employers. A prospective col­ lege mathematics major should take as many mathematics courses as possible while in high school. In 1998, about 240 colleges and universities offered a master’s degree as the highest degree in either pure or applied mathematics; and about 200 offered a Ph.D. in pure or applied mathematics. In graduate school, students conduct research and take advanced courses, usually specializing in a subfield of mathematics. For work in applied mathematics, training in the field in which the mathematics will be used is very important. Mathematics is used extensively in the fields of physics, actuarial science, statistics, engi­ neering, and operations research. Computer science, business and industrial management, economics, chemistry, geology, life sciences, and behavioral sciences are likewise dependent on applied mathemat­ ics. Mathematicians also should have substantial knowledge of com­ puter programming because most complex mathematical computa­ tion and much mathematical modeling is done on a computer. Mathematicians need good reasoning ability and persistence in order to identify, analyze, and apply basic principles to technical problems. Communication skills are also important, as mathemati­ cians must be able to interact and discuss proposed solutions with people who may not have an extensive knowledge of mathematics.  118 Occupational Outlook Handbook For specific information on careers in applied mathematics, con­  Job Outlook Employment of mathematicians is expected to decrease through 2008. The number of jobs available for workers whose educa­ tional background is solely in mathematics is not expected to increase significantly. Those whose educational background in­ cludes the study of a related discipline such as statistics or com­ puter science will have better job opportunities. Advancements in technology usually lead to expanding applications of math­ ematics, and more workers with knowledge of mathematics will be required in the future. Many of these workers have job titles that reflect their occupation rather than the discipline of math­ ematics used in their work. Bachelor’s degree holders in mathematics are usually not quali­ fied for most jobs as mathematicians. However, those with a strong background in computer science, electrical or mechanical engineering, or operations research should have good opportuni­ ties. In addition, bachelor’s degree holders who meet State certi­ fication requirements may become high school mathematics teach­ ers. (For additional information, see the statement on kindergar­ ten, elementary, and secondary school teachers elsewhere in the  tact:  Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 3600 University City Science Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104-2688. Internet:  Information on obtaining a job as a mathematician with the Fed­ eral Government may be obtained from the Office of Personnel Management through a telephone-based system. Consult your tele­ phone directory under U.S. Government for a local number or call (912) 757-3000; TDD (912) 744-2299. This number is not toll free and charges may result. Information may also be obtained through their Internet site: http://  Operations Research Analysts (0*NET 25302)  Significant Points •  Handbook.) Holders of a master’s degree in mathematics will face very strong competition for jobs in theoretical research. Similar to bachelor’s degree holders, however, job opportunities in applied mathematics and related areas, such as computer programming, operations re­ search, and engineering design will be more numerous. Academia continues to produce more Ph.D.s than the number of university positions available, so many of these mathematicians will need to find employment in industry and government.  Earnings Median annual earnings of mathematicians were $49,120 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned between $33,420 and $77,300. The lowest 10 percent had earnings of less than $25,150, while the top 10 percent earned over $101,990. According to a 1999 survey by the National Association of Col­ leges and Employers, starting salary offers for mathematics gradu­ ates with a bachelor’s degree averaged about $37,300 a year and for those with a master’s degree, $42,000. Doctoral degree candidates averaged $58,900. The average annual salary for mathematicians employed by the Federal Government in supervisory, nonsupervisory, and managerial positions was $69,000; for mathematical statisticians, $69,000; and for cryptanalysts, $61,100 in early 1999.  Related Occupations Other occupations that require extensive knowledge of mathemat­ ics or, in some cases, a degree in mathematics include actuary, statistician, computer programmer, systems analyst, systems en­ gineer, and operations research analyst. A strong background in mathematics also facilitates employment in engineering, econom ics, finance, and physics.  Sources of Additional Information For more information about careers and training in mathematics, especially for doctoral level employment, contact: American Mathematical Society, Department of Professional Programs and Services, P.O. Box 6248, Providence, RI02940-6248. Internet:  For more information about careers and training in mathemat­ ics, contact: m- Mathematical Association of America, 1529 18th St. NW., Washington, DC 20036. Internet:  For a 1998 resource guide on careers in mathematical sciences, contact:  m- Conference Board of the Mathematical Sciences, 1529 18th St. NW., Washington, DC 20036. Internet: Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  •  Individuals with a master’s or Ph.D. degree in manage­ ment science, operations research, or a closely related field should have good job prospects. Employment growth is projected to be slower than average.  Nature of the Work Operations research (OR) and management science are terms that are used interchangeably to describe the discipline of applying quan­ titative techniques to make decisions and solve problems. Many methods used in operations research were developed during World War II to help take the guesswork out of missions such as deploying radar, searching for enemy submarines, and getting supplies where they were most needed. Following the war, numerous peacetime applications emerged, leading to the use of OR and management science in many industries and occupations. The prevalence of operations research in the Nation’s economy reflects the growing complexity of managing large organizations that require the efficient use of materials, equipment, and people. OR analysts determine the optimal means of coordinating these el­ ements to achieve specified goals by applying mathematical prin­ ciples to organizational problems. They solve problems in differ­ ent ways and propose alternative solutions to management, which then chooses the course of action that best meets their goals. In general, OR analysts are concerned with issues such as strategy, forecasting, resource allocation, facilities layout, inventory control, personnel schedules, and distribution systems. The duties of the operations research analyst vary according to the structure and management philosophy of the employer or client. Some firms centralize operations research in one department; oth­ ers use operations research in each division. Some organizations contract operations research services with a consulting firm. Econo­ mists, systems analysts, mathematicians, industrial engineers, and others may apply operations research techniques to address prob­ lems in their respective fields. Operations research analysts may also work closely with senior managers to identify and solve a vari­ ety of problems. Regardless of the type or structure of the client organization, operations research in its classical role of carrying out analysis to support management’s quest for performance improvement entails a similar set of procedures. Managers begin the process by describ­ ing the symptoms of a problem to the analyst, who then formally defines the problem. For example, an operations research analyst for an auto manufacturer may be asked to determine the best inven­ tory level for each of the parts needed on a production line and to determine the number of windshields to be kept in inventory. Too  Professional and Technical Occupations 119 many windshields would be wasteful and expensive, while too few could result in an unintended halt in production. Operations research analysts study such problems, then break them into their component parts. Analysts then gather information about each of these parts from a variety of sources. To determine the most efficient amount of inventory to be kept on hand, for example, OR analysts might talk with engineers about production levels, discuss purchasing arrange­ ments with buyers, and examine data on storage costs provided by the accounting department. With this information in hand, the analyst is ready to select the most appropriate analytical technique. Analysts could use several techniques—including simulation, linear and non-linear optimization, networks, waiting lines, discrete and random variables methods, dy­ namic programming, queuing ihodels and other stochastic-process models, Markov decision processes, econometric methods, data en­ velopment analysis, neural networks, genetic algorithms, decision analysis, and the analytic hierarchy process. All of these techniques, however, involve the construction of a mathematical model that at­ tempts to describe the system in use. The use of models enables the analyst to assign values to the different components, and determine the relationships between them. These values can be altered to exam­ ine what wilfhappen to the system under different circumstances. In most cases, the computer program used to solve the model must be modified repeatedly to reflect these different solutions. A model for airline flight scheduling, for example, might include vari­ ables for the cities to be connected, amount of fuel required to fly the routes, projected levels of passenger demand, varying ticket and fuel prices, pilot scheduling, and maintenance costs. By choosing different variables for the model, the analyst is able to produce the best flight schedule consistent with various sets of assumptions. Upon concluding the analysis, the operations research analyst presents management with recommendations based on the results of the analysis. Additional computer programming based on dif­ ferent assumptions may be needed to help select the best recom­ mendation offered by the OR analyst. Once management reaches a decision, the analyst may work with others in the organization to ensure the plan’s successful implementation.  and data processing services, financial institutions, insurance carriers, engineering and management services firms, and the Federal Govern­ ment. Most operations research analysts in the Federal Government work for the Armed Forces, and many OR analysts in private industry work directly or indirectly on national defense. About 1 out of 5 ana­ lysts work for management, research, public relations, and testing agen­ cies that do operations research consulting.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Employers generally prefer applicants with at least a master’s de­ gree in operations research, engineering, business, mathematics, in­ formation systems, or management science, coupled with a bachelor’s degree in computer science or a quantitative discipline such as economics, mathematics, or statistics. Dual graduate de­ grees in operations research and computer science are especially attractive to employers. Operations research analysts also must be able to think logically and work well with people, and employers prefer workers with good oral and written communication skills. In addition to formal education, employers often sponsor train­ ing for experienced workers, helping them keep up with new devel­ opments in OR techniques and computer science. Some analysts attend advanced university classes on these subjects at their employer’s expense. Because computers are the most important tools for quantitative analysis, training and experience in programming are required. Operations research analysts typically need to be proficient in data­ base collection and management, programming, and in the devel­ opment and use of sophisticated software programs. Beginning analysts usually perform routine work under the su­ pervision of more experienced analysts. As they gain knowledge and experience, they are assigned more complex tasks and given greater autonomy to design models and solve problems. Opera­ tions research analysts advance by assuming positions as technical specialists or supervisors. The skills acquired by operations research analysts are useful for higher-level management jobs, and experi­ enced analysts may leave the field to assume nontechnical manage­ rial or administrative positions.  Working Conditions Operations research analysts generally work regular hours in an office environment. Because they work on projects that are of im­ mediate interest to top management, OR analysts often are under pressure to meet deadlines and work more than a 40-hour week.  Employment Operations research analysts held about 76,000 jobs in 1998. Major employers include telecommunication companies, air carriers, computer  hr  Job Outlook Individuals who hold a master’s or Ph.D. degree in operations re­ search, management science, or a closely related field should find good job opportunities through 2008, as the number of openings generated by employment growth and the need to replace those leav­ ing the occupation is expected to exceed the number of persons graduating with these credentials. In addition, graduates with bachelor’s degrees in operations research or management science from the limited number of schools offering these degree programs should find opportunities in a variety of related fields that allow them to use their quantitative abilities. The slower than average employment growth expected for OR analysts will be driven by the continuing use of operations research and management science techniques to improve productivity, en­ sure quality, and reduce costs in private industry and government. This should result in a steady demand for workers knowledgeable in operations research techniques in the years ahead. Nevertheless, this growth will be relatively slow because few job openings in this field are expected to have the title operations research analyst.  Earnings >  Operations research analysts use mathematical models to break down problems into their components before finding a solution. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Median annual earnings of OR analysts were $49,070 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned between $36,890 and $72,090. The lowest 10 percent had earnings of less than $29,780, while the top 10 percent earned over $87,720. Median annual earnings in the industries em­ ploying the largest number of OR analysts in 1997 are shown below. Research and testing services......................................................... $64,000 Computer and data processing services.......................................... 45,400 Commercial banks.................................... t7 sno  120 Occupational Outlook Handbook The average annual salary for operations research analysts in the Federal Government in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions was $72,000 in early 1999.  Sp; ji Related Occupations Operations research analysts apply mathematical principles to large, complicated problems. Workers in other occupations that stress quantitative analysis include computer scientists, systems analysts, modeling specialists, logistics consultants, engineers, mathemati­ cians, statisticians, and economists. Because its goal is improved organizational effectiveness, operations research also is closely al­ lied to managerial occupations.  Sources of Additional Information Information on career opportunities for operations research analysts is available from: The Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences, 901 Elkridge Landing Rd„ Suite 400, Linthicum, MD 21090. Internet:  For information on OR careers in the Armed Forces and Depart­ ment of Defense, contact: iw Military Operations Research Society, 101 South Whiting St., Suite 202, Alexandria, VA 22304. Internet:  Statisticians (0*NET 25312)  Statisticians need good communication skills to convey complex ideas to a nontechnical audience. the engines, and the results enable the company to identify changes that can improve engine performance. Because statistical specialists are used in so many work areas, spe­ cialists who use statistics often have different professional designa­ tions. For example, a person using statistical methods on economic data may have the title econometrician, while statisticians in public health and medicine may hold titles of biostatistician, biometrician, or epidemiolo­ gist. (See the statement on economists and marketing research analysts elsewhere in the Handbook).  Significant Points • •  Many individuals with degrees in statistics enter jobs that do not have the title statistician. Job prospects as a statistician in private industry and academia will be best for those with a graduate degree and some work experience in statistics.  Nature of the Work Statistics is the scientific application of mathematical principles to the collection, analysis and presentation of numerical data. Stat­ isticians contribute to scientific inquiry by applying their math­ ematical knowledge to the design of surveys and experiments; col­ lection, processing, and analysis of data; and interpretation of the results. Statisticians often apply their knowledge of statistical methods to a variety of subject areas, such as biology, economics, engineering, medicine, public health, psychology, marketing, and education. Many applications cannot occur without use of statis­ tical techniques, such as designing experiments to gain Federal approval of a newly manufactured drug. One especially useful technique used by statisticians is sam­ pling—obtaining information about a population of people or group of things by surveying a small portion of the total. For example, to determine the size of the audience for particular pro­ grams, television-rating services survey only a few thousand fami­ lies, rather than all viewers. Statisticians decide where and how to gather the data, determine the type and size of the sample group, and develop the survey questionnaire or reporting form. They also prepare instructions for workers who will collect and tabu­ late the data. Finally, statisticians analyze, interpret, and summa­ rize the data using computer software. In manufacturing industries, statisticians play an important role in quality control and product improvement. In an automobile com­ pany, for example, statisticians might design experiments to deter­ mine the failure time of engines exposed to extreme weather condi­ tions by running individual engines until failure and breakdown. Such destructive tests are conducted on a representative sample of Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Working Conditions Statisticians usually work regular hours in comfortable offices. Some statisticians travel to provide advice on research projects, supervise and set up surveys, or gather statistical data. Some may have duties that vary widely, such as designing experiments or performing field­ work in various communities. Statisticians who work in academia generally have a mix of teaching and research responsibilities.  Employment  Persons holding the title of statistician held about 17,000 jobs in 1998. Over one-fourth of these jobs were in the Federal Govern­ ment, where statisticians were concentrated in the Departments of Commerce, Agriculture, and Health and Human Services. Most of the remaining jobs were in private industry, especially in the biopharmaceutical industry. In addition, many professionals with a background in statistics were among the 20,000 mathematics fac­ ulty in colleges and universities in 1998, according to the American Mathematical Society. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.)  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Although more employment opportunities are becoming available to well qualified statisticians with bachelor’s degrees, a master’s degree in statistics or mathematics is the minimum educational re­ quirement for most jobs with job title statistician. Research posi­ tions in institutions of higher education, for example, require a gradu­ ate degree, usually a doctorate, in statistics. Beginning positions in industrial research often require a master’s degree combined with several years of experience. The training required for employment as an entry level statisti­ cian in the Federal Government, however, is a bachelor’s degree, including at least 15 semester hours of statistics or a combination of 15 hours of mathematics and statistics, if at least 6 semester hours are in statistics. Qualifying as a mathematical statistician in the Federal Government requires 24 semester hours of mathemat­ ics and statistics with a minimum of 6 semester hours in statistics  Professional and Technical Occupations 121 and 12 semester hours in an area of advanced mathematics, such as calculus, differential equations, or vector analysis. About 80 colleges and universities offered bachelor’s degrees in statistics in 1998. Many other schools also offered degrees in math­ ematics, operations research, and other fields, which included a suf­ ficient number of courses in statistics to qualify graduates for some beginning positions in the Federal Government. Required subjects for statistics majors include differential and integral calculus, sta­ tistical methods, mathematical modeling, and probability theory. Additional courses that undergraduates should take include linear algebra, design and analysis of experiments, applied multivariate analysis, and mathematical statistics. In 1998, approximately 110 universities offered a master’s de­ gree program in statistics, and about 60 offered a doctoral degree program. Many other schools also offered graduate-level courses in applied statistics for students majoring in biology, business, economics, education, engineering, psychology, and other fields. Acceptance into graduate statistics programs does not require an undergraduate degree in statistics, although good training in math­ ematics is essential. Because computers are used extensively for statistical applications, a strong background in computer science is highly recommended. For positions involving quality and productivity improvement, train­ ing in engineering or physical science is useful. A background in biological, chemical, or health science is important for positions in­ volving the preparation and testing of pharmaceutical or agricultural products. Courses in economics and business administration are help­ ful for many jobs in market research, business analysis, and forecast­ ing. Good communications skills are important for prospective stat­ isticians, in order to qualify for many positions in industry, where the need to explain technical matters to laymen is common. A solid understanding of business and the economy is important for those who plan to work in private industry. Beginning statisticians are assigned work supervised by an ex­ perienced statistician. With experience, they may advance to posi­ tions with ample technical and supervisory responsibility. How­ ever, opportunities for promotion increase with advanced degrees. Master’s and Ph.D. degree holders usually enjoy independence in their work and become qualified to engage in research, develop sta­ tistical methods, or, after a number of years of experience in a par­ ticular area, become statistical consultants.  Job Outlook Job opportunities should remain favorable for individuals with sta­ tistical degrees, although many of these positions will not carry an explicit job title of statistician. Employment of those with the title statistician is expected to grow little through the year 2008. Many individuals will find positions in which they do not have the title statistician. This is especially true for those involved in analyzing and interpreting data from other disciplines such as economics, bio­ logical science, psychology, or engineering. In addition to the lim­ ited number of jobs resulting from growth, a number of openings will become available as statisticians retire, transfer to other occu­ pations, or leave the work force for other reasons. Among graduates with a bachelor’s degree in statistics, those with a strong background in an allied field, such as finance, engi­ neering, or computer science, should have the best prospects of finding jobs related to their field of study. Federal agencies will hire statisticians in many fields, including demography, agricul­ ture, consumer and producer surveys. Social Security, health care, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  and environmental quality. Competition for entry level positions in the Federal Government is expected to be strong for those just meeting the minimum qualification standards for statisticians, since this is one of the few employers that considers a bachelor’s degree to be an adequate entry level qualification. Those who meet State certification requirements may become high school statistics teach­ ers. (For additional information, see the statement on kindergar­ ten, elementary, and secondary school teachers elsewhere in the  Handbook.) Manufacturing firms will hire statisticians at the master’s and doc­ toral degree levels for quality control of various products, including pharmaceuticals, motor vehicles, chemicals, and food. For example, pharmaceutical firms employ statisticians to assess the safety and ef­ fectiveness of new drugs. To address global product competition, motor vehicle manufacturers will need statisticians to improve the quality of automobiles, trucks, and their components by developing and testing new designs. Statisticians with knowledge of engineer­ ing and the physical sciences will find jobs in research and develop­ ment, working with teams of scientists and engineers to help improve design and production processes to ensure consistent quality of newly developed products. Business firms will rely heavily on workers with a background in statistics, to forecast sales, analyze business condi­ tions, and help solve management problems in order to maximize profits. In addition, sophisticated statistical services will increasingly be offered to other businesses by consulting firms.  Earnings Median annual earnings of statisticians were $48,540 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned between $35,800 and $71,030. The low­ est 10 percent had earnings of less than $28,240, while the top 10 percent earned over $87,180. The average annual salary for statis­ ticians in the Federal Government in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions was $62,800 in early 1999, while math­ ematical statisticians averaged $69,000. According to a 1999 sur­ vey by the National Association of Colleges and Employers, start­ ing salary offers for mathematics/statistics graduates with a bachelor’s degree averaged about $37,300 a year.  Related Occupations People in numerous occupations work with statistics. Among these are actuaries; mathematicians; operations research analysts; computer systems analysts and programmers; engineers; economists; financial analysts; and information, life, physical, and social scientists.  Sources of Additional Information For information about career opportunities in statistics, contact; » American Statistical Association, 1429 Duke St., Alexandria, VA 22314. Internet:  For more information on careers and training in mathematics (a field closely related to statistics), especially for doctoral level em­ ployment, contact: *- American Mathematical Society, Department of Professional Programs and Services, P.O. Box 6248, Providence, RI 02940-6248. Internet:  Information on obtaining a job as a statistician with the Federal Government may be obtained from the Office of Personnel Man­ agement through a telephone-based system. Consult your telephone directory under U.S. Government for a local number, or call (912) 757-3000; TDD (912) 744-2299. This number is not toll free, and charges may result. Information may also be obtained through the Internet site: http://  Life Scientists Plant science. Agronomy, crop science, entomology, and plant  Agricultural and Food Scientists (0*NET 24305A, 24305B, 24305C, and 24305D)  Significant Points •  •  •  A large proportion, about 40 percent, of salaried agricultural and food scientists works for Federal, State, and local governments. A bachelor’s degree in agricultural science is sufficient for some jobs in applied research; a master’s or doctoral degree is required for basic research. Those with advanced degrees have the best prospects; however, competition may be keen for some basic research jobs if Federal and State funding for these positions is cut.  Nature of the Work The work of agricultural and food scientists plays an important part in maintaining the Nation’s food supply through ensuring agricul­ tural productivity and the safety of the food supply. Agricultural scientists study farm crops and animals and develop ways of im­ proving their quantity and quality. They look for ways to improve crop yield and quality with less labor, control pests and weeds more safely and effectively, and conserve soil and water. They research methods of converting raw agricultural commodities into attractive and healthy food products for consumers. Agricultural science is closely related to biological science, and agricultural scientists use the principles of biology, chemistry, phys­ ics, mathematics, and other sciences to solve problems in agricul­ ture. They often work with biological scientists on basic biological research and in applying to agriculture the advances in knowledge brought about by biotechnology. Many agricultural scientists work in basic or applied research and development. Others manage or administer research and de­ velopment programs or manage marketing or production operations in companies that produce food products or agricultural chemicals, supplies, and machinery. Some agricultural scientists are consult­ ants to business firms, private clients, or to government. Depending on the agricultural or food scientist’s area of special­ ization, the nature of the work performed varies.  breeding are included in plant science. Scientists in these disci­ plines study plants and their growth in soils, helping producers of food, feed, and fiber crops to continue to feed a growing population while conserving natural resources and maintaining the environ­ ment. Agronomists and crop scientists not only help increase pro­ ductivity, but also study ways to improve the nutritional value of crops and the quality of seed. Some crop scientists study the breed­ ing, physiology, and management of crops and use genetic engi­ neering to develop crops resistant to pests and drought. Entomolo­ gists conduct research to develop new technologies to control or eliminate pests in infested areas and prevent the spread of harmful pests to new areas, as well as technologies that are compatible with the environment. They also conduct research or engage in over­ sight activities aimed at halting the spread of insect-borne disease.  Soil science. Soil scientists study the chemical, physical, biological, and mineralogical composition of soils as they relate to plant or crop growth. They also study the responses of various soil types to fertil­ izers, tillage practices, and crop rotation. Many soil scientists who work for the Federal Government conduct soil surveys, classifying and mapping soils. They provide information and recommendations to farmers and other landowners regarding the best use of land and plant growth, and how to avoid or correct problems such as erosion. They may also consult with engineers and other technical personnel working on construction projects about the effects of, and solutions to, soil problems. Since soil science is closely related to environmen­ tal science, persons trained in soil science also apply their knowledge to ensure environmental quality and effective land use.  Animal science. Animal scientists work to develop better, more efficient ways of producing and processing meat, poultry, eggs, and milk. Dairy scientists, poultry scientists, animal breeders, and other related scientists study the genetics, nutrition, reproduction, growth, and development of domestic farm animals. Some animal scien­ tists inspect and grade livestock food products, purchase livestock, or work in technical sales or marketing. As extension agents or consultants, animal scientists advise agricultural producers on how to upgrade animal housing facilities properly, lower mortality rates, handle waste matter, or increase production of animal products, such as milk or eggs.  Food science. Food scientists and technologists usually work in the food processing industry, universities, or the Federal Govern­ ment, and help meet consumer demand for food products that are healthful, safe, palatable, and convenient. To do this, they use their knowledge of chemistry, microbiology, and other sciences to de­ velop new or better ways of preserving, processing, packaging, stor­ ing, and delivering foods. Some food scientists engage in basic research, discovering new food sources; analyzing food content to determine levels of vitamins, fat, sugar, or protein; or searching for substitutes for harmful or undesirable additives, such as nitrites. They also develop ways to process, preserve, package, or store food according to industry and government regulations. Others enforce government regulations, inspecting food processing areas and en­ suring that sanitation, safety, quality, and waste management stan­ dards are met. Food technologists generally work in product devel­ opment, applying the findings from food science research to the selection, preservation, processing, packaging, distribution, and use of safe, nutritious, and wholesome food. 122 Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Agricultural scientists gather data and inpsect results of their work in the field.  Professional and Technical Occupations 123  Working Conditions Agricultural scientists involved in management or basic research tend to work regular hours in offices and laboratories. The working environment for those engaged in applied research or product de­ velopment varies, depending on the discipline of agricultural sci­ ence and the type of employer. For example, food scientists in pri­ vate industry may work in test kitchens while investigating new processing techniques. Animal scientists working for Federal, State, or university research stations may spend part of their time at dair­ ies, farrowing houses, feedlots, farm animal facilities, or outdoors conducting research associated with livestock. Soil and crop scien­ tists also spend time outdoors conducting research on farms and agricultural research stations. Entomologists work in laboratories, insectories, or agricultural research stations, and may also spend time outdoors studying or collecting insects in their natural habitat.  Employment Agricultural scientists held about 21,000 jobs in 1998. In addition, several thousand persons held agricultural science faculty positions in colleges and universities. (See the statement on college and uni­ versity faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) About 40 percent of all nonfaculty salaried agricultural and food scientists work for Federal, State, or local governments. Nearly 1 out of 4 worked for the Federal Government in 1998, mostly in the Department of Agriculture. In addition, large numbers worked for State governments at State agricultural colleges or agricultural re­ search stations. Some worked for agricultural service companies; others worked for commercial research and development laborato­ ries, seed companies, pharmaceutical companies, wholesale distribu­ tors, and food products companies. About 3,700 agricultural scien­ tists were self-employed in 1998, mainly as consultants.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Training requirements for agricultural scientists depend on their specialty and on the type of work they perform. A bachelor’s de­ gree in agricultural science is sufficient for working some jobs in applied research or for assisting in basic research, but a master’s or doctoral degree is required for basic research. A Ph.D. in agri­ cultural science is usually needed for college teaching and for ad­ vancement to administrative research positions. Degrees in re­ lated sciences such as biology, chemistry, or physics or in related engineering specialties also may qualify persons for some agri­ cultural science jobs. All States have a land-grant college that offers agricultural sci­ ence degrees. Many other colleges and universities also offer ag­ ricultural science degrees or some agricultural science courses. However, not every school offers all specialties. A typical under­ graduate agricultural science curriculum includes communications, economics, business, and physical and life sciences courses, in addition to a wide variety of technical agricultural science courses. For prospective animal scientists, these technical agricultural sci­ ence courses might include animal breeding, reproductive physi­ ology, nutrition, and meats and muscle biology. Students preparing as food scientists take courses such as food chemistry, food analysis, food microbiology, and food processing operations. Those preparing as crop or soil scientists take courses in plant pathology, soil chemistry, entomology, plant physiology, and biochemistry, among others. Advanced degree programs in­ clude classroom and fieldwork, laboratory research, and a thesis or dissertation based on independent research. Agricultural and food scientists should be able to work indepen­ dently or as part of a team and be able to communicate clearly and concisely, both in speaking and in writing. Most agricultural scien­ tists also need an understanding of basic business principles. The American Society of Agronomy offers certification programs in crops, agronomy, crop advising, soils, horticulture, plant pathol­ ogy, and weed science. To become certified, applicants must meet Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  certain standards for examination, education, and professional work experience. Agricultural scientists who have advanced degrees usually be­ gin in research or teaching. With experience, they may advance to jobs such as supervisors of research programs or managers of other agriculture-related activities.  Job Outlook Employment of agricultural scientists is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through 2008. Additionally, the need to replace agricultural and food scientists who retire or otherwise leave the occupation permanently will account for many more job openings than projected growth. Past agricultural research has resulted in the development of higher-yielding crops, crops with better resistance to pests and plant pathogens, and chemically-based fertilizers and pesticides. Further research is necessary as insects and diseases continue to adapt to pesticides, and as soil fertility and water quality deteriorate. Agri­ cultural scientists are using new avenues of research in biotechnol­ ogy to develop plants and food crops that require less fertilizer, fewer pesticides and herbicides, and even less rain. Agricultural scientists will be needed to balance increased agri­ cultural output with protection and preservation of soil, water, and ecosystems. They will increasingly encourage the practice “sus­ tainable agriculture” by developing and implementing plans to man­ age pests, crops, soil fertility and erosion, and animal waste in ways that reduce the use of harmful chemicals and do little damage to the natural environment. Also, an expanding population and an increas­ ing public focus on diet, health, and food safety, will result in job opportunities for food scientists and technologists. Graduates with advanced degrees will be in the best position to enter jobs as agricultural scientists. However, competition may be keen for teaching positions in colleges or universities and for some basic research jobs, even for doctoral holders. Federal and State budget cuts may limit funding for these positions through 2008. Bachelor’s degree holders can work in some applied research and product development positions, but usually only in certain sub­ fields, such as food science and technology. Also, the Federal Gov­ ernment hires bachelor’s degree holders to work as soil scientists. Despite the more limited opportunities for those with only a bachelor’s degree to obtain jobs as agricultural scientists, a bachelor’s degree in agricultural science is useful for managerial jobs in busi­ nesses that deal with ranchers and farmers, such as feed, fertilizer, seed, and farm equipment manufacturers; retailers or wholesalers; and farm credit institutions. Four-year degrees may also help per­ sons enter occupations such as farmer or farm or ranch manager, cooperative extension service agent, agricultural products inspec­ tor, or purchasing or sales agent for agricultural commodity or farm supply companies.  Earnings Median annual earnings of agricultural and food scientists were $42,340 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned between $32,370 and $59,240. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $24,200 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $79,820. Average Federal salaries for employees in nonsupervisory, su­ pervisory, and managerial positions in certain agricultural science specialties in 1999 were as follows: Animal science, $69,400; agronomy, $57,200; soil science, $53,600; horticulture, $53,800; and entomology, $65,600. According to the National Association of Colleges and Employ­ ers, beginning salary offers in 1999 for graduates with a bachelor’s degree in animal science averaged about $27,600 a year.  Related Occupations The work of agricultural scientists is closely related to that of bi­ ologists and other natural scientists such as chemists, foresters, and  124 Occupational Outlook Handbook conservation scientists. It is also related to agricultural production occupations such as farmer and farm manager and cooperative ex­ tension service agent. Certain specialties of agricultural science are also related to other occupations. For example, the work of animal scientists is related to that of veterinarians; horticulturists, to land­ scape architects; and soil scientists, to soil conservationists.  Sources of Additional Information Information on careers in agricultural science is available from: m- American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America, 677 S. Segoe Rd., Madison, WI 53711-1086. m- Food and Agricultural Careers for Tomorrow, Purdue University, 1140 Agricultural Administration Bldg., West Lafayette, IN 47907-1140.  For information on careers in food technology, write to: Institute of Food Technologists, Suite 300, 221 N. LaSalle St., Chicago IL 60601-1291.  For information on education in food safety, contact: m- National Alliance for Food Safety, Office of the Secretariat, 205 Agri­ culture Building, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701.  For information on careers in entomology, contact: m- Entomological Society of America, 9301 Annapolis Rd., Lanham, MD 20706, Attn: Public Relations Coordinator.  Information on acquiring a job as an agricultural scientist with the Federal Government may be obtained from the Office of Per­ sonnel Management through a telephone-based system. Consult your telephone directory under U.S. Government for a local num­ ber, or call (912) 757-3000 (TDD 912-744-2299). That number is not toll-free and charges may result. Information also is available from their Internet site:  Biological and Medical Scientists (0*NET 24308A, 24308B, 24308C, 24308D, 24308E, 24308F, 24308G, 24308H, 24308J, and 24311)  Significant Points •  •  •  Biological scientists usually require a Ph.D. degree for independent research but a master’s degree is sufficient for some jobs in applied research or product develop­ ment; a bachelor’s degree is adequate for some non­ research jobs. Medical scientist jobs require a Ph.D. degree in a biological science, but some jobs need a medical degree. Doctoral degree holders face considerable competition for independent research positions; holders of bachelor’s or master’s degrees in biological science can expect better opportunities in non-research positions.  Nature of the Work Biological and medical scientists study living organisms and their relationship to their environment. Most specialize in some area of biology such as zoology (the study of animals) or microbiology (the study of microscopic organisms). Many biological scientists and virtually all medical scientists work in research and development. Some conduct basic research to advance knowledge of living organisms, including viruses, bacte­ ria, and other infectious agents. Past research has resulted in the development of vaccines, medicines, and treatments for cancer and other diseases. Basic biological and medical research continues to provide the building blocks necessary to develop solutions to hu­ man health problems and to preserve and repair the natural environ­ ment. Many biological and medical scientists work independently in private industry, university, or government laboratories, often Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  exploring new areas of research or expanding on specialized re­ search started in graduate school. Those who are not wage and sal­ ary workers in private industry typically submit grant proposals to obtain funding for their projects. Colleges and universities, private industry, and Federal Government agencies, such as the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation, contrib­ ute to the support of scientists whose research proposals are deter­ mined to be financially feasible and have the potential to advance new ideas or processes. Biological and medical scientists who work in applied research or product development use knowledge provided by basic research to develop new drugs and medical treatments, increase crop yields, and protect and clean up the environment. They usually have less autonomy than basic researchers to choose the emphasis of their research, relying instead on market-driven directions based on the firm’s products and goals. Biological and medical scientists doing applied research and product development in private industry may be required to express their research plans or results to nonscien­ tists who are in a position to veto or approve their ideas, and they must understand the business impact of their work. Scientists are increasingly working as part of teams, interacting with engineers, scientists of other disciplines, business managers, and technicians. Some biological and medical scientists also work with customers or suppliers, and manage budgets. Biological and medical scientists who conduct research usually work in laboratories and use electron microscopes, computers, ther­ mal cyclers, or a wide variety of other equipment. Some conduct experiments using laboratory animals or greenhouse plants. For some biological scientists, a good deal of research is performed outside of laboratories. For example, a botanist may do research in tropical rain forests to see what plants grow there, or an ecologist may study how a forest area recovers after a fire. Some biological and medical scientists work in managerial or administrative positions, usually after spending some time doing research and learning about the firm, agency, or project. They may plan and administer programs for testing foods and drugs, for example, or direct activities at zoos or botanical gar­ dens. Some biological scientists work as consultants to business firms or to government, while others test and inspect foods, drugs, and other products. In the 1980s, swift advances in basic biological knowledge re­ lated to genetics and molecules spurred growth in the field of bio­ technology. Biological and medical scientists using this technology manipulate the genetic material of animals or plants, attempting to make organisms more productive or resistant to disease. Research using biotechnology techniques, such as recombining DNA, has led to the discovery of important drugs, including human insulin and growth hormone. Many other substances not previously available in large quantities are starting to be produced by biotechnological means; some may be useful in treating cancer and other diseases. Today, many biological and medical scientists are involved in biotechnol­ ogy, including those who work on the Human Genome project, iso­ lating, identifying, and sequencing human genes. This work contin­ ues to lead to the discovery of the genes associated with specific dis­ eases and inherited traits, such as certain types of cancer or obesity. These advances in biotechnology have opened up research opportu­ nities in almost all areas of biology, including commercial applica­ tions in agriculture, environmental remediation, and the food and chemical industries. Most biological scientists who come under the category of bi­ ologist are further classified by the type of organism they study or by the specific activity they perform, although recent advances in the understanding of basic life processes at the molecular and cellu­ lar levels have blurred some traditional classifications. Aquatic biologists study plants and animals living in water. Marine biologists study salt water organisms and limnologists study fresh water organisms. Marine biologists are sometimes mistak­ enly called oceanographers, but oceanography is the study of the  Professional and Technical Occupations 125 physical characteristics of oceans and the ocean floor. (See the state­ ment on geologists, geophysicists, and oceanographers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Biochemists study the chemical composition of living things. They analyze the complex chemical combinations and reactions involved in metabolism, reproduction, growth, and heredity. Bio­ chemists and molecular biologists do most of their work in biotech­ nology, which involves understanding the complex chemistry of life. Botanists study plants and their environment. Some study all aspects of plant life; others specialize in areas such as identification and classification of plants, the structure and function of plant parts, the biochemistry of plant processes, the causes and cures of plant diseases, and the geological record of plants. Microbiologists investigate the growth and characteristics of microscopic organisms such as bacteria, algae, or fungi. Medical microbiologists study the relationship between organisms and dis­ ease or the effect of antibiotics on microorganisms. Other microbi­ ologists specialize in environmental, food, agricultural, or indus­ trial microbiology, virology (the study of viruses), or immunology (the study of mechanisms that fight infections). Many microbiolo­ gists use biotechnology to advance knowledge of cell reproduction and human disease. Physiologists study life functions of plants and animals, both in the whole organism and at the cellular or molecular level, under normal and abnormal conditions. Physiologists often specialize in functions such as growth, reproduction, photosynthesis, respiration, or movement, or in the physiology of a certain area or system of the organism. Zoologists study animals—their origin, behavior, diseases, and life processes. Some experiment with live animals in controlled or natural surroundings while others dissect dead animals to study their structure. Zoologists are usually identified by the animal group studied—ornithologists (birds), mammalogists (mammals), herpe­ tologists (reptiles), and ichthyologists (fish). Ecologists study the relationship among organisms and between organisms and their environments and the effects of influences such as population size, pollutants, rainfall, temperature, and altitude. Agricultural and food scientists, who are sometimes referred to as biological scientists, are included in a separate statement else­ where in the Handbook. Biological scientists who do biomedical research are usually called medical scientists. Medical scientists work on basic research into normal biological systems to understand the causes of and to discover treatment for disease and other health problems. Medical scientists try to identify changes in a cell, chromosome, or even gene that signal the development of medical problems, such as dif­ ferent types of cancer. After identifying structures of or changes in  organisms that provide clues to health problems, medical scientists work on the treatment of problems. For example, a medical scien­ tist involved in cancer research may formulate a combination of drugs that will lessen the effects of the disease. Medical scientists with a medical degree can administer these drugs to patients in clini­ cal trials, monitor their reactions, and observe the results. (Medical scientists without a medical degree normally collaborate with a medical doctor who deals directly with patients.) The medical sci­ entist will return to the laboratory to examine the results and, if necessary, adjust the dosage levels to reduce negative side effects or to try to induce even better results. In addition to using basic research to develop treatments for health problems, medical scien­ tists attempt to discover ways to prevent health problems from de­ veloping, such as affirming the link between smoking and increased risk of lung cancer, or between alcoholism and liver disease.  Working Conditions Biological and medical scientists usually work regular hours in of­ fices or laboratories and usually are not exposed to unsafe or un­ healthy conditions. Those who work with dangerous organisms or toxic substances in the laboratory must follow strict safety proce­ dures to avoid contamination. Medical scientists also spend time working in clinics and hospitals administering drugs and treatments to patients in clinical trials. Many biological scientists such as bota­ nists, ecologists, and zoologists take field trips that involve strenu­ ous physical activity and primitive living conditions. Some biological and medical scientists depend on grant money to support their research. They may be under pressure to meet dead­ lines and conform to rigid grant-writing specifications when pre­ paring proposals to seek new or extended funding.  Employment Biological and medical scientists held about 112,000 jobs in 1998. Almost 4 in 10 biological scientists were employed by Federal, State, and local governments. Federal biological scientists worked mainly in the U.S. Departments of Agriculture, the Interior, and Defense, and in the National Institutes of Health. Most of the rest worked in the drug industry, which includes pharmaceutical and biotechnol­ ogy establishments; hospitals; or research and testing laboratories. About 2 in 10 medical scientists worked in State government, with most of the remainder found in research and testing laboratories, educational institutions, the drug industry, and hospitals. In addition, many biological and medical scientists held biology faculty positions in colleges and universities. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.)  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement «■***,»»  m '*  1  Biological and medical scientists who conduct research usually work in laboratories and use microscopes, computers, and other equipment. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  For biological scientists, the Ph.D. degree usually is necessary for independent research and for advancement to administrative posi­ tions. A master’s degree is sufficient for some jobs in applied re­ search or product development and for jobs in management, inspec­ tion, sales, and service. The bachelor’s degree is adequate for some non-research jobs. Some graduates with a bachelor’s degree start as biological scientists in testing and inspection, or get jobs related to biological science such as technical sales or service representatives. In some cases, graduates with a bachelor’s degree are able to work in a laboratory environment on their own projects, but this is unusual. Some may work as research assistants. Others become biological technicians, medical laboratory technologists or, with courses in edu­ cation, high school biology teachers. (See the statements on clinical laboratory technologists and technicians; science technicians; and kindergarten, elementary, and secondary school teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Many with a bachelor’s degree in biology enter medical, dental, veterinary, or other health profession schools. Most colleges and universities offer bachelor’s degrees in bio­ logical science and many offer advanced degrees. Curriculums for advanced degrees often emphasize a subfield such as microbiology  126 Occupational Outlook Handbook or botany, but not all universities offer all curriculums. Advanced degree programs include classroom and field work, laboratory re­ search, and a thesis or dissertation. Biological scientists who have advanced degrees often take temporary postdoctoral research posi­ tions that provide specialized research experience. In private in­ dustry, some may become managers or administrators within biol­ ogy; others leave biology for nontechnical managerial, administra­ tive, or sales jobs. Biological scientists should be able to work independently or as part of a team and be able to communicate clearly and concisely, both orally and in writing. Those in private industry, especially those who aspire to management or administrative positions, should possess strong business and communication skills and be familiar with regu­ latory issues and marketing and management techniques. Those do­ ing field research in remote areas must have physical stamina. The Ph.D. degree in a biological science is the minimum educa­ tion required for prospective medical scientists because the work of medical scientists is almost entirely research oriented. A Ph.D. de­ gree qualifies one to do research on basic life processes or on par­ ticular medical problems or diseases, and to analyze and interpret the results of experiments on patients. Medical scientists who ad­ minister drug or gene therapy to human patients, or who otherwise interact medically with patients—such as drawing blood, excising tissue, or performing other invasive procedures—must have a medi­ cal degree. It is particularly helpful for medical scientists to earn both Ph.D. and medical degrees. In addition to formal education, medical scientists usually spend several years in a postdoctoral position before they apply for per­ manent jobs. Postdoctoral work provides valuable laboratory ex­ perience, including experience in specific processes and techniques, such as gene splicing, which are transferable to other research projects. In some institutions, the postdoctoral position can lead to a permanent position.  Employment growth should slow somewhat as increases in the num­ ber of new biotechnology firms slows and existing firms merge or are absorbed into larger ones. However, much of the basic biological research done in recent years has resulted in new knowledge, includ­ ing the isolation and identification of new genes. Biological and medical scientists will be needed to take this knowledge to the next stage, which is the understanding of how certain genes function within an entire organism so that gene therapies can be developed to treat diseases. Even pharmaceutical and other firms not solely engaged in biotechnology are expected to increasingly use biotechnology tech­ niques, spurring employment increases for biological and medical scientists. In addition, efforts to discover new and improved ways to clean up and preserve the environment will continue to add to growth. More biological scientists will be needed to determine the environ­ mental impact of industry and government actions and to prevent or correct environmental problems. Expected expansion in research re­ lated to health issues, such as AIDS, cancer, and Alzheimer’s disease, should also result in employment growth. Biological and medical scientists are less likely to lose their jobs during recessions than those in many other occupations because many are employed on long-term research projects. However, a recession could further influence the amount of money allocated to new research and development efforts, particularly in areas of risky or innovative research. A recession could also limit the possibility of extension or renewal of existing projects.  Job Outlook  Federal Government.......................................................................... $48,600 Drugs.................................................................................................. 46,300 Research and testing services .......................................................... 40,800 State Government, except education and hospitals....................... 38,000  Despite prospects of faster-than-average job growth over the 1998-2008 period, biological and medical scientists can expect to face considerable competition for basic research positions. The Federal Government funds much basic research and development, including many areas of medical research. Recent budget tight­ ening has led to smaller increases in Federal basic research and development expenditures, further limiting the dollar amount of each grant and slowing the growth of the number of grants awarded to researchers. At the same time, the number of newly trained scientists has continued to increase at a steady rate, so both new and established scientists have experienced greater difficulty win­ ning and renewing research grants. If the number of advanced degrees awarded continues to grow unabated, this competitive scenario is likely to persist. Additionally, applied research posi­ tions in private industry may become more difficult to obtain if more scientists seek jobs in private industry than in the past due to the competitive job market for college and university faculty. Opportunities for those with a bachelor’s or master’s degree in biological science are expected to be better. The number of sci­ ence-related jobs in sales, marketing, and research management, for which non-Ph.D.’s usually qualify, are expected to be more plenti­ ful than independent research positions. Non-Ph.D’s may also fill positions as science or engineering technicians or health technolo­ gists and technicians. Some become high school biology teachers, while those with a doctorate in biological science may become col­ lege and university faculty. (See statements on science technicians, engineering technicians, health technologists and technicians, sec­ ondary school teachers, and college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Biological and medical scientists enjoyed very rapid gains in em­ ployment between the mid-1980s and mid-1990s, in part reflecting increased staffing requirements in new biotechnology companies. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Earnings Median annual earnings of biological scientists were $46,140 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned between $35,200 and $67,850. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $27,930 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $86,020. Median annual earnings in the industries employing the largest numbers of biological scientists in 1997 were:  Median annual earnings of medical scientists were $50,410 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned between $37,740 and $79,370. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $29,550 and the highest 10 per­ cent earned more than $109,050. Median annual earnings of medical scientists in 1997 were $52,200 in research and testing services. According to the National Association of Colleges and Employ­ ers, beginning salary offers in 1999 averaged $29,000 a year for bachelor’s degree recipients in biological science; about $34,450 for master’s degree recipients; and about $45,700 for doctoral de­ gree recipients. In the Federal Government in 1999, general biological scientists in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions earned an average salary of $56,000; microbiologists, $62,600; ecologists, $57,100; physiologists, $71,300; and geneticists, $68,200.  Related Occupations Many other occupations deal with living organisms and require a level of training similar to that of biological and medical scientists. These include agricultural scientists, such as animal breeders, hor­ ticulturists, and entomologists, and the conservation occupations of forester, range manager, and soil conservationist. Many health oc­ cupations, such as medical doctors, dentists, and veterinarians, are also related to those in the biological sciences.  Sources of Additional Information For information on careers in the biological sciences, contact: <*- American Institute of Biological Sciences, Suite 200, 1444 I St. NW., Washington, DC 20005. Internet:  Professional and Technical Occupations 127 For information on careers in physiology, contact: American Physiological Society, Education Office, 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20814. Internet:  For information on careers in biotechnology, contact: Biotechnology Industry Organization, 1625 K St. NW., Suite 1100, Wash­ ington, DC 20006. Internet:  For information on careers in biochemistry, contact: •" American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20814. Internet:  For a brochure titled, Is a Career in the Pharmaceutical Sci­ ences Right for Me?, contact: »• American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists, 1650 King Street, Suite 200, Alexandria, VA 22314. Internet:  For information on careers in botany, contact: Botanical Society of America, Business Office, 1735 Neil Ave., Colum­ bus, OH 43210-1293. Internet:  For information on careers in microbiology, contact: American Society for Microbiology, Office of Education and Train­ ing—Career Information, 1325 Massachusetts Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20005. Internet:  For a free copy of “Sources of Career Information on Careers in Biology, Conservation, and Oceanography,” visit the Smithsonian Institute website at or call (202) 782-4612. That number is not toll-free and charges may result. Information on acquiring a job as a biological or medical scien­ tist with the Federal government may be obtained from the Office of Personnel Management through a telephone-based system. Con­ sult your telephone directory under U.S. Government for a local number or call (912) 757-3000; TDD (912) 744-2299. That num­ ber is not toll-free and charges may result. Information also is avail­ able from their Internet site:  Conservation Scientists and Foresters (0*NET 24302A, 24302B, 24302C, 24302D, and 24302E)  Significant Points •  About 2 out of 3 work for Federal, State, or local governments.  •  A bachelor’s degree in forestry, range management, or a related field is usually the minimum educational requirement.  •  Projected average employment growth will stem from continuing emphasis on environmental protection and responsible land management.  local environmental specifications. Forestry consultants often act as agents for the forest owner, performing these duties and negoti­ ating timber sales with industrial procurement foresters. Throughout the process, foresters consider the economics of the purchase as well as the environmental impact on natural resources. To do this, they determine how best to conserve wildlife habitats, creek beds, water quality, and soil stability and how best to comply with environmental regulations. Foresters must balance the desire to conserve forested ecosystems for future generations with the need to use forest resources for recreational or economic purposes. Through a process called regeneration, foresters also supervise the planting and growing of new trees. They choose and prepare the site, using controlled burning, bulldozers, or herbicides to clear weeds, brush, and logging debris. They advise on the type, number, and placement of trees to be planted. Foresters then monitor the seedlings to ensure healthy growth and to determine the best time for harvesting. If they detect signs of disease or harmful insects, they decide on the best course of treatment to prevent contamina­ tion or infestation of healthy trees. Foresters who work for State and Federal governments manage public forests and parks and also work with private landowners to protect and manage forest land outside of the public domain. They may also design campgrounds and recreation areas. Foresters use a number of tools to perform their jobs. Clinom­ eters measure the heights, diameter tapes measure the diameter, and increment borers and bark gauges measure the growth of trees so that timber volumes can be computed and future growth estimated. Photogrammetry and remote sensing (aerial photographs and other imagery taken from airplanes and satellites) often are used for map­ ping large forest areas and for detecting widespread trends of forest and land use. Computers are used extensively, both in the office and in the field, for the storage, retrieval, and analysis of informa­ tion required to manage the forest land and its resources. Range managers, also called range conservationists, range ecologists, or range scientists, manage, improve, and protect range­ lands to maximize their use without damaging the environment. Rangelands cover about 1 billion acres of the United States, mostly in the western States and Alaska. They contain many natural re­ sources, including grass and shrubs for animal grazing, wildlife habitats, water from vast watersheds, recreation facilities, and valu­ able mineral and energy resources. Range managers help ranch­ ers attain optimum livestock production by determining the num­ ber and kind of animals to graze, the grazing system to use, and the best season for grazing. At the same time, however, they main­ tain soil stability and vegetation for other uses such as wildlife habitats and outdoor recreation. They also plan and implement revegetation of disturbed sites.  Nature of the Work Forests and rangelands supply wood products, livestock forage, min­ erals, and water; serve as sites for recreational activities; and provide habitats for wildlife. Conservation scientists and foresters manage, develop, use, and help protect these and other natural resources. Foresters manage forested lands for a variety of purposes. Those working in private industry may procure timber from private land­ owners. To do this, foresters contact local forest owners and gain permission to take inventory of the type, amount, and location of all standing timber on the property, a process known as timber cruis­ ing. Foresters then appraise the timber’s worth, negotiate the pur­ chase of timber, and draw up a contract for procurement. Next, they subcontract with loggers or pulpwood cutters for tree removal, aid in road layout, and maintain close contact with the subcontractor’s workers and the landowner to ensure that the work meets the landowner’s requirements, as well as Federal, State, and Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Conservation scientists and foresters often use aerial photographs to map large forest areas.  128 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Soil conservationists provide technical assistance to farmers, ranchers, State and local governments, and others concerned with the conservation of soil, water, and related natural resources. They develop programs designed to get the most productive use of land without damaging it. Conservationists visit areas with erosion prob­ lems, find the source of the problem, and help landowners and man­ agers develop management practices to combat it. Foresters and conservation scientists often specialize in one area such as forest resource management, urban forestry, wood technol­ ogy, or forest economics. Working Conditions Working conditions vary considerably. Although some of the work is solitary, foresters and conservation scientists also deal regularly with landowners, loggers, forestry technicians and aides, farmers, ranchers, government officials, special interest groups, and the public in general. Some work regular hours in offices or labs. Others may split their time between field work and office work, while some— especially independent consultants or less experienced workers— spend the majority of their time outdoors overseeing or participat­ ing in hands-on work. The work can be physically demanding. Some foresters and conservation scientists work outdoors in all types of weather, some­ times in isolated areas. Other foresters may need to walk long dis­ tances through densely wooded land to carry out their work. For­ esters also may work long hours fighting fires. Conservation scien­ tists often are called in to prevent erosion after a forest fire, and they provide emergency help after floods, mudslides, and tropical storms.  Employment Conservation scientists and foresters held about 39,000jobs in 1998. Nearly 3 out of 10 workers were in the Federal Government, mostly in the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Foresters were con­ centrated in the USDA’s Forest Service; soil conservationists in the USDA’s Natural Resource Conservation Service. Most range man­ agers worked in the Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Land Management or in the USDA’s Natural Resource Conservation Ser­ vice. Nearly another 3 out of 10 conservation scientists and forest­ ers worked for State governments, and nearly 1 out of 10 worked for local governments. The remainder worked in private industry, mainly in research and testing services, the forestry industry, and logging and lumber companies and sawmills. Some were self-em­ ployed as consultants for private landowners, State and Federal governments, and forestry-related businesses. Although conservation scientists and foresters work in every State, employment of foresters is concentrated in the western and southeastern States, where many national and private forests and parks, and most of the lumber and pulpwood-producing forests, are located. Range managers work almost entirely in the western States, where most of the rangeland is located. Soil conservationists, on the other hand, are employed in almost every county in the country.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree in forestry is the minimum educational re­ quirement for professional careers in forestry. In the Federal Gov­ ernment, a combination of experience and appropriate education occasionally may substitute for a 4-year forestry degree, but job competition makes this difficult. Fifteen States have mandatory licensing or voluntary registra­ tion requirements that a forester must meet in order to acquire the title “professional forester” and practice forestry in the State. Li­ censing or registration requirements vary by State, but usually en­ tail completing a 4-year degree in forestry, a minimum period of training time, and passing an exam. Foresters who wish to perform specialized research or teach should have an advanced degree, preferably a Ph.D. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Most land-grant colleges and universities offer bachelor’s or higher degrees in forestry; 48 of these programs are accredited by the Soci­ ety of American Foresters. Curriculums stress science, mathematics, communications skills, and computer science, as well as technical forestry subjects. Courses in forest economics and business adminis­ tration supplement the student’s scientific and technical knowledge. Forestry curricula increasingly include courses on best management practices, wetlands analysis, water and soil quality, and wildlife con­ servation, in response to the growing focus on protecting forested lands during timber harvesting operations. Prospective foresters should have a strong grasp on policy issues and on increasingly nu­ merous and complex environmental regulations, which affect many forestry-related activities. Many colleges require students to com­ plete a field session either in a camp operated by the college or in a cooperative work-study program with a Federal or State agency or private industry. All schools encourage students to take summer jobs that provide experience in forestry or conservation work. A bachelor’s degree in range management or range science is the usual minimum educational requirement for range managers; gradu­ ate degrees usually are required for teaching and research positions. In 1998, about 35 colleges and universities offered degrees in range management or range science or in a closely related discipline with a range management or range science option. A number of other schools offered some courses in range management or range science. Spe­ cialized range management courses combine plant, animal, and soil sciences with principles of ecology and resource management. De­ sirable electives include economics, forestry, hydrology, agronomy, wildlife, animal husbandry, computer science, and recreation. Very few colleges and universities offer degrees in soil conser­ vation. Most soil conservationists have degrees in environmental studies, agronomy, general agriculture, hydrology, or crop or soil science; a few have degrees in related fields such as wildlife biol­ ogy, forestry, and range management. Programs of study usually include 30 semester hours in natural resources or agriculture, in­ cluding at least 3 hours in soil science. In addition to meeting the demands of forestry and conservation research and analysis, foresters and conservation scientists gener­ ally must enjoy working outdoors, be physically hardy, and be will­ ing to move to where the jobs are. They must also work well with people and have good communications skills. Recent forestry and range management graduates usually work under the supervision of experienced foresters or range managers. After gaining experience, they may advance to more responsible positions. In the Federal Government, most entry-level foresters work in forest resource management. An experienced Federal for­ ester may supervise a ranger district, and may advance to forest supervisor, regional forester, or to a top administrative position in the national headquarters. In private industry, foresters start by learn­ ing the practical and administrative aspects of the business and ac­ quiring comprehensive technical training. They are then introduced to contract writing, timber harvesting, and decision making. Some foresters work their way up to top managerial positions within their companies. Foresters in management usually leave the fieldwork behind, spending more of their time in an office, working with teams to develop management plans and supervising others. After gain­ ing several years of experience, some foresters may become con­ sulting foresters, working alone or with one or several partners. They contract with State or local governments, private landowners, pri­ vate industry, or other forestry consulting groups. Soil conservationists usually begin working within one county or conservation district and with experience may advance to the area, State, regional, or national level. Also, soil conservationists can transfer to related occupations such as farm or ranch manage­ ment advisor or land appraiser.  Job Outlook Employment of conservation scientists and foresters is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through  Professional and Technical Occupations 129 2008. Growth should be strongest in State and local governments and in research and testing services, where demand will be spurred by a continuing emphasis on environmental protection and respon­ sible land management. Job opportunities are expected to be best for soil conservationists and other conservation scientists as gov­ ernment regulations, such as those regarding the management of stormwater and coastlines, has created demand for persons knowl­ edgeable about erosion on farms and in cities and suburbs. Soil and water quality experts will also be needed as States attempt to improve water quality by preventing pollution by agricultural pro­ ducers and industrial plants. Fewer opportunities for conservation scientists and foresters are expected in the Federal Government, partly due to budgetary con­ straints. Also, Federal land management agencies, such as the For­ est Service, have de-emphasized their timber programs and increas­ ingly focused on wildlife, recreation, and sustaining ecosystems, thereby increasing demand for other life and social scientists rela­ tive to foresters. However, a large number of foresters are expected to retire or leave the Government for other reasons, resulting in some job openings between 1998 and 2008. In addition, a small number of new jobs will result from the need for range and soil conserva­ tionists to provide technical assistance to owners of grazing land through the Natural Resource Conservation Service. The recent reductions in timber harvesting on public lands, most of which are located in the Northwest and California, also will dampen job growth for private industry foresters in these regions. Opportunities will be better for foresters in the Southeast, where much forested land is privately owned. Rising demand for timber on private lands will increase the need for forest management plans that maximize production while sustaining the environment for fu­ ture growth. Salaried foresters working for private industry—such as paper companies, sawmills, and pulp wood mills—and consult­ ing foresters will be needed to provide technical assistance and management plans to landowners. Research and testing firms have increased their hiring of conser­ vation scientists and foresters in recent years in response to demand for professionals to prepare environmental impact statements and erosion and sediment control plans, monitor water quality near log­ ging sites, and advise on tree harvesting practices required by Fed­ eral, State, or local regulations. Hiring in these firms should con­ tinue during the 1998-2008 period, though at a slower rate than over the last ten years.  Earnings Median annual earnings of conservation scientists and foresters in 1998 were $42,750. The middle 50 percent earned between $34,150 and $51,550. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $26,330 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $75,330. Median annual  earnings of conservation scientists and foresters employed in State governments in 1997 were $37,400. In 1999, most bachelor’s degree graduates entering the Federal Government as foresters, range managers, or soil conservationists started at $20,600 or $25,500, depending on academic achievement. Those with a master’s degree could start at $25,500 or $31,200. Holders of doctorates could start at $37,700 or, in research posi­ tions, at $45,200. Beginning salaries were slightly higher in se­ lected areas where the prevailing local pay level was higher. In 1999, the average Federal salary for foresters in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions was $51,000; for soil conser­ vationists, $48,900; for rangeland managers, $46,300, and for for­ est products technologists, $68,300. According to the National Association of Colleges and Employ­ ers, graduates with a bachelor’s degree in natural resources received an average starting salary offer of $26,100 in 1999. In private industry, starting salaries for students with a bachelor’s degree were comparable to starting salaries in the Fed­ eral Government, but starting salaries in State and local govern­ ments were usually lower. Conservation scientists and foresters who work for Federal, State, and local governments and large private firms generally receive more generous benefits than those working for smaller firms.  Related Occupations Conservation scientists and foresters manage, develop, and protect natural resources. Other workers with similar responsibilities in­ clude agricultural scientists, agricultural engineers, biological sci­ entists, environmental scientists and engineers, farm and ranch man­ agers, and wildlife managers.  Sources of Additional Information For information about the forestry profession and lists of schools offering education in forestry, send a self-addressed, stamped busi­ ness envelope to: *■ Society of American Foresters, 5400 Grosvenor Ln., Bethesda, MD 20814. Internet:  For information about career opportunities in forestry in the Fed­ eral Government, contact: •" Chief> U.S. Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, P.O. Box 96090, SW., Washington, DC 20090-6090.  For information about a career in State forestry organizations, contact: «■ National Association of State Foresters, 444 N. Capitol St. NW., Suite 540, Washington, DC 20001.  Information about a career as a range manager as well as a list of schools offering training is available from: *■ Society for Range Management, 445 Union Blvd., Suite 230, Lake­ wood, CO 80228-1259. Internet:  Physical Scientists Atmospheric Scientists (0*NET 24108)  Significant Points •  The Federal Government employs more than 1 out of 3 meteorologists and is their largest employer. • A bachelor’s degree in meteorology, or in a closely related field with courses in meteorology, is the mini­ mum educational requirement; a master’s degree is necessary for some positions, and a Ph.D. is required most research positions. Digitized for for FRASER Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  •  Applicants may face competition if the number of degrees awarded in atmospheric science and meteorol­ ogy remain near current levels.  Nature of the Work Atmospheric science is the study of the atmosphere—the blanket of air covering the Earth. Atmospheric scientists, commonly called meteorologists, study the atmosphere’s physical characteristics, mo­ tions, and processes, and the way it affects the rest of our environ­ ment. The best known application of this knowledge is in forecasting the weather. However, weather information and meteorological re­ search are also applied in air-pollution control, agriculture, air and sea transportation, defense, and the study of trends in Earth’s climate such as global warming, droughts, or ozone depletion.  130 Occupational Outlook Handbook Atmospheric scientists who forecast the weather, known profes­ sionally as operational meteorologists, is the largest group of spe­ cialists. They study information on air pressure, temperature, hu­ midity, and wind velocity; and apply physical and mathematical relationships to make short- and long-range weather forecasts. Their data come from weather satellites, weather radars, and sensors and observers in many parts of the world. Meteorologists use sophisti­ cated computer models of the world’s atmosphere to make long­ term, short-term, and local-area forecasts. These forecasts inform not only the general public, but also those who need accurate weather information for both economic and safety reasons, as in the ship­ ping, air transportation, agriculture, fishing, and utilities industries. The use of weather balloons, launched a few times a day to mea­ sure wind, temperature, and humidity in the upper atmosphere, is currently supplemented by sophisticated atmospheric monitoring equipment that transmits data as frequently as every few minutes. Doppler radar, for example, can detect airflow patterns in violent storm systems—allowing forecasters to better predict tornadoes and other hazardous winds, as well as to monitor the storm’s direction and intensity. Combined radar and satellite observations allow meteorologists to predict flash floods. Some atmospheric scientists work in research. Physical meteo­ rologists, for example, study the atmosphere’s chemical and physi­ cal properties; the transmission of light, sound, and radio waves; and the transfer of energy in the atmosphere. They also study fac­ tors affecting the formation of clouds, rain, snow, and other weather phenomena, such as severe storms. Synoptic meteorologists develop new tools for weather forecasting using computers and sophisti­ cated mathematical models. Climatologists collect, analyze, and interpret past records of wind, rainfall, sunshine, and temperature in specific areas or regions. Their studies are used to design build­ ings, plan heating and cooling systems, and aid in effective land use and agricultural production. Other research meteorologists exam­ ine the most effective ways to control or diminish air pollution.  Working Conditions Most weather stations operate around the clock 7 days a week. Jobs in such facilities usually involve night, weekend, and holi­ day work, often with rotating shifts. During weather emergen­ cies, such as hurricanes, operational meteorologists may work overtime. Operational meteorologists are also often under pres­ sure to meet forecast deadlines. Weather stations are found all over—at airports, in or near cities, and in isolated and remote ar­ eas. Some atmospheric scientists also spend time observing weather conditions and collecting data from aircraft. Weather fore­ casters who work for radio or television stations broadcast their  Atmospheric scientists who forecast the weather are known as operational meteorologists. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  reports from station studios, and may work evenings and week­ ends. Meteorologists in smaller weather offices often work alone; in larger ones, they work as part of a team. Meteorologists not involved in forecasting tasks work regular hours, usually in of­ fices. Those who work for private consulting firms or for compa­ nies analyzing and monitoring emissions to improve air quality usually work with other scientists or engineers.  Employment Atmospheric scientists held about 8,400 jobs in 1998. The Federal Government is the largest single employer of civilian meteorolo­ gists. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) employed about 2,600 meteorologists; nearly 90 percent worked in the National Weather Service at stations throughout the Nation. The remainder of NOAA’s meteorologists worked mainly in research and development or management. The Department of Defense employed about 280 civilian meteorologists. Others worked for research and testing services, private weather consulting ser­ vices, and computer and data processing services. Although several hundred people teach atmospheric science and related courses in college and university departments of meteorol­ ogy or atmospheric science, physics, earth science, and geophysics, these individuals are classified as college or university faculty, rather than atmospheric scientists. (See the statement on college and uni­ versity faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) In addition to civilian meteorologists, hundreds of Armed Forces members are involved in forecasting and other meteorological work. (See the statement on job opportunities in the Armed Forces else­ where in the Handbook.)  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree in meteorology or atmospheric science, or in a closely related field with courses in meteorology, is usually the minimum educational requirement for an entry-level position as an atmospheric scientist. The preferred educational requirement for entry-level meteorolo­ gists in the Federal Government is a bachelor’s degree—not neces­ sarily in meteorology—but with at least 24 semester hours of me­ teorology courses, including 6 hours in the analysis and prediction of weather systems and 2 hours of remote sensing of the atmosphere or instrumentation. Other required courses include differential and integral calculus, differential equations, 6 hours of college physics, and at least 9 hours of courses appropriate for a physical science major—such as statistics, computer science, chemistry, physical oceanography, or physical climatology. Sometimes, a combination of experience and education may be substituted for a degree. Although positions in operational meteorology are available for those with only a bachelor’s degree, obtaining a master’s degree enhances employment opportunities and advancement potential. A master’s degree is usually necessary for conducting applied research and development, and a Ph.D. is required for most basic research positions. Students planning on a career in research and develop­ ment need not necessarily major in atmospheric science or meteo­ rology as an undergraduate. In fact, a bachelor’s degree in math­ ematics, physics, or engineering provides excellent preparation for graduate study in atmospheric science. Because atmospheric science is a small field, relatively few colleges and universities offer degrees in meteorology or atmo­ spheric science, although many departments of physics, earth sci­ ence, geography, and geophysics offer atmospheric science and related courses. Prospective students should make certain that courses required by the National Weather Service and other em­ ployers are offered at the college they are considering. Computer science courses, additional meteorology courses, a strong back­ ground in mathematics and physics, and good communication skills are important to prospective employers. Many programs combine the study of meteorology with another field, such as agriculture,  Professional and Technical Occupations 131 oceanography, engineering, or physics. For example, hydrometeo­ rology is the blending of hydrology (the science of Earth’s water) and meteorology, and is the field concerned with the effect of pre­ cipitation on the hydrologic cycle and the environment. Students who wish to become broadcast meteorologists for radio or televi­ sion stations should develop excellent communication skills through courses in speech, journalism, and related fields. Those interested in air quality work should take courses in chemistry and supplement their technical training with coursework in policy or government affairs. Beginning atmospheric scientists often do routine data collec­ tion, computation, or analysis, and some basic forecasting. En­ try-level operational meteorologists in the Federal Government are usually placed in intern positions for training and experience. During this period, they learn about the Weather Service’s fore­ casting equipment and procedures, and rotate to different offices to learn about various weather systems. After completing the train­ ing period, they are assigned a permanent duty station. Experi­ enced meteorologists may advance to supervisory or administra­ tive jobs, or may handle more complex forecasting jobs. After several years of experience, some meteorologists establish their own weather consulting services. The American Meteorological Society offers professional certi­ fication of consulting meteorologists, administered by a Board of Certified Consulting Meteorologists. Applicants must meet formal education requirements (though not necessarily have a college de­ gree), pass an examination to demonstrate thorough meteorological knowledge, have a minimum of 5 years of experience or a combina­ tion of experience plus an advanced degree, and provide character references from fellow professionals.  Job Outlook Employment of atmospheric scientists is projected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through 2008, and pro­ spective atmospheric scientists may face competition if the number of degrees awarded in atmospheric science and meteorology remain near current levels. The National Weather Service (NWS) has com­ pleted an extensive modernization of its weather forecasting equip­ ment and finished all hiring of meteorologists needed to staff the upgraded stations. The NWS has no plans to increase the number of weather stations or the number of meteorologists in existing sta­ tions for many years. Employment of meteorologists in other Fed­ eral agencies is expected to decline slightly as the Federal Govern­ ment attempts to balance its budget. On the other hand, job opportunities for atmospheric scientists in private industry are expected to be better than in the Federal Government over the 1998-2008 period. As research leads to con­ tinuing improvements in weather forecasting, demand should grow for private weather consulting firms to provide more detailed in­ formation than has formerly been available, especially to weathersensitive industries. Farmers, commodity investors, radio and tele­ vision stations, and utilities, transportation, and construction firms can greatly benefit from additional weather information more closely targeted to their needs than the general information pro­ vided by the National Weather Service. Additionally, research on seasonal and other long-range forecasting is yielding positive re­ sults, which should spur demand for more atmospheric scientists to interpret these forecasts and advise weather-sensitive industries. Flowever, because many customers for private weather services are in industries sensitive to fluctuations in the economy, the sales and growth of private weather services depend on the health of the economy. There will continue to be demand for atmospheric scientists to analyze and monitor the dispersion of pollutants into the air to en­ sure compliance with Federal environmental regulations outlined in the Clean Air Act of 1990, but employment increases are ex­ pected to be small. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Earnings Median annual earnings of atmospheric scientists in 1998 were $54,430. The middle 50 percent earned between $38,570 and $75,260. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $27,250 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $87,760. The average salary for meteorologists in nonsupervisory, super­ visory, and managerial positions employed by the Federal Govern­ ment was about $62,500 in 1999. Meteorologists in the Federal Government with a bachelor’s degree and no experience received a starting salary of $20,600 or $25,500, depending on their college grades. Those with a master’s degree could start at $25,500 or $31,200; those with the Ph.D., at $37,700 or $45,200. Beginning salaries for all degree levels are slightly higher in selected areas of the country where the prevailing local pay level is higher.  Related Occupations Workers in other occupations concerned with the physical environ­ ment include oceanographers, geologists and geophysicists, hydrolo­ gists, physicists, mathematicians, and civil, chemical, and environ­ mental engineers.  Sources of Additional Information Information about careers in meteorology is available from: American Meteorological Society, 45 Beacon St., Boston, MA 02108. Internet:  Information on acquiring a job as a meteorologist with the Fed­ eral Government may be obtained from the Office of Personnel Management through a telephone-based system. Consult your tele­ phone directory under U.S. Government for a local number or call (912) 757-3000 (TDD 912 744-2299). That number is not toll-free and charges may result. Information also is available from their Internet site:  Chemists (Q*NET 24105)  Significant Points •  A bachelor’s degree in chemistry or a related discipline is usually the minimum educational requirement; however, many research jobs require a Ph.D.  •  Job growth will be concentrated in drug manufacturing and research and testing services firms.  Nature of the Work Everything in the environment, whether naturally occurring or of human design, is composed of chemicals. Chemists search for and put to use new knowledge about chemicals. Chemical research has led to the discovery and development of new and improved syn­ thetic fibers, paints, adhesives, drugs, cosmetics, electronic compo­ nents, lubricants, and thousands of other products. Chemists also develop processes that save energy and reduce pollution, such as improved oil refining and petrochemical processing methods. Re­ search on the chemistry of living things spurs advances in medi­ cine, agriculture, food processing, and other fields. Chemists apply their knowledge of chemistry in various ways. Many work in research and development (R&D). In basic research, chemists investigate properties, composition, and structure of mat­ ter and the laws that govern the combination of elements and re­ actions of substances. In applied research and development, they create new products and processes or improve existing ones, often using knowledge gained from basic research. For example, syn­ thetic rubber and plastics resulted from research on small molecules  132 Occupational Outlook Handbook uniting to form large ones, a process called polymerization. R&D chemists use computers and a wide variety of sophisticated labo­ ratory instrumentation. The use of computers to analyze complex data allows chemists to practice combinatorial chemistry. This technique makes and tests large quantities of chemical compounds simultaneously in order to find compounds with desired proper­ ties. Combinatorial chemistry makes chemists more productive by saving time and materials and could result in more products being developed in the future. They also spend time documenting and analyzing the results of their work and writing formal reports. Chemists also work in production and quality control in chemi­ cal manufacturing plants. They prepare instructions for plant work­ ers that specify ingredients, mixing times, and temperatures for each stage in the process. They also monitor automated processes to ensure proper product yield, and they test samples of raw materials or finished products to ensure they meet industry and government standards, including the regulations governing pollution. Chemists record and report on test results, and improve existing or develop new test methods. Chemists often specialize in a subfield. Analytical chemists de­ termine the structure, composition, and nature of substances by ex­ amining and identifying the various elements or compounds that make up a substance. They study the relations and interactions of the parts and develop analytical techniques. They also identify the presence and concentration of chemical pollutants in air, water, and soil. Organic chemists study the chemistry of the vast number of carbon compounds that make up all living things. Organic chem­ ists who synthesize elements or simple compounds to create new  —  compounds or substances that have different properties and appli­ cations have developed many commercial products, such as drugs, plastics, and elastomers (elastic substances similar to rubber). In­ organic chemists study compounds consisting mainly of elements other than carbon, such as those in electronic components. Physi­ cal chemists study the physical characteristics of atoms and mol­ ecules and investigate how chemical reactions work. Their research may result in new and better energy sources. Biochemists, whose work encompasses both biology and chem­ istry, are included in the statement on biological scientists elsewhere in the Handbook.  Working Conditions Chemists usually work regular hours in offices and laboratories. Research chemists spend much time in laboratories, but also work in offices when they do theoretical research or plan, record, and report on their lab research. Although some laboratories are small, others are large enough to incorporate prototype chemical manu­ facturing facilities as well as advanced equipment. Chemists do some of their work in a chemical plant or outdoors—while gath­ ering water samples to test for pollutants, for example. Some chemists are exposed to health or safety hazards when handling certain chemicals, but there is little risk if proper procedures are followed.  Employment Chemists held about 96,000 jobs in 1998. Nearly half of chemists are employed in manufacturing firms—mostly in the chemical manu­ facturing industry, which includes firms that produce plastics and synthetic materials, drugs, soaps and cleaners, paints, industrial or­ ganic chemicals, and other miscellaneous chemical products. Chem­ ists also work for State and local governments, and for Federal agen­ cies. Health and Human Services, which includes the Food and Drug Administration, the National Institutes of Health, and the Cen­ ter for Disease Control, is the major Federal employer of chemists. The Departments of Defense and Agriculture, and the Environmen­ tal Protection Agency, also employ chemists. Other chemists work for research, development, and testing services. In addition, thou­ sands of persons held chemistry faculty positions in colleges and universities. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Chemists are employed in all parts of the country, but they are mainly concentrated in large industrial areas.  T„ Sa 1  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement  Chemists hold bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degrees. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  A bachelor’s degree in chemistry or a related discipline is usually the minimum educational requirement for entry-level chemist jobs. However, many research jobs require a Ph.D. Many colleges and universities offer a bachelor’s degree pro­ gram in chemistry, about 620 of which are approved by the Ameri­ can Chemical Society (ACS). Several hundred colleges and uni­ versities also offer advanced degree programs in chemistry; around 320 master’s programs, and about 190 doctoral programs are ACSapproved. Students planning careers as chemists should take courses in sci­ ence and mathematics, and should like working with their hands building scientific apparatus and performing experiments. Perse­ verance, curiosity, and the ability to concentrate on detail and to work independently are essential. In addition to required courses in analytical, inorganic, organic, and physical chemistry, undergradu­ ate chemistry majors usually study biological sciences, mathemat­ ics, and physics. Those interested in the environmental field should also take courses in environmental studies and become familiar with current legislation and regulations. Computer courses are essen­ tial, as employers increasingly prefer job applicants who are able to apply computer skills to modeling and simulation tasks and operate computerized laboratory equipment.  Professional and Technical Occupations 133 Because research and development chemists are increasingly expected to work on interdisciplinary teams, some understanding of other disciplines, including business and marketing or econom­ ics, is desirable, along with leadership ability and good oral and written communication skills. Experience, either in academic labo­ ratories or through internships or co-op programs in industry, also is useful. Some employers of research chemists, particularly in the pharmaceutical industry, prefer to hire individuals with several years of postdoctoral experience. Graduate students typically specialize in a subfield of chemis­ try, such as analytical chemistry or polymer chemistry, depending on their interests and the kind of work they wish to do. For ex­ ample, those interested in doing drug research in the pharmaceuti­ cal industry usually develop a strong background in synthetic or­ ganic chemistry. However, students normally need not specialize at the undergraduate level. In fact, undergraduates who are broadly trained have more flexibility when job hunting or changing jobs than if they narrowly define their interests. Most employers pro­ vide new graduates additional training or education. In government or industry, beginning chemists with a bachelor’s degree work in quality control, analytical testing, or assist senior chemists in research and development laboratories. Many employ­ ers prefer chemists with a Ph.D. or at least a master’s degree to lead basic and applied research. A Ph.D. is also often preferred for ad­ vancement to many administrative positions.  Job Outlook Employment of chemists is expected to grow about as fast as the av­ erage for all occupations through 2008. Job growth will be concen­ trated in drug manufacturing and research, development, and testing services firms. The chemical industry, the major employer of chem­ ists, should face continued demand for goods such as new and better pharmaceuticals and personal care products, as well as more specialty chemicals designed to address specific problems or applications. To meet these demands, chemical firms will continue to devote money to research and development—through in-house teams or outside contractors—spurring employment growth of chemists. Within the chemical industry, job opportunities are expected to be most plentiful in pharmaceutical and biotechnology firms. Stron­ ger competition among drug companies and an aging population are contributing to the need for innovative and improved drugs dis­ covered through scientific research. Chemical firms that develop and manufacture personal products such as toiletries and cosmetics must continually innovate and develop new and better products to remain competitive. Additionally, as the population grows and be­ comes better informed, the demand for different or improved groom­ ing products—including vegetable-based products, products with milder formulas, treatments for aging skin, and products that have been developed using more benign chemical processes than in the past—will remain strong, spurring the need for chemists. In most of the remaining segments of the chemical industry, em­ ployment growth is expected to decline as companies downsize and turn to outside contractors to provide specialized services. Neverthe­ less, some job openings will result from the need to replace chemists who retire or otherwise leave the labor force. Quality control will continue to be an important issue in the chemical and other industries that use chemicals in their manufacturing processes. Chemists will also be needed to develop and improve the technologies and pro­ cesses used to produce chemicals for all purposes, and to monitor and measure air and water pollutants to ensure compliance with local, State, and Federal environmental regulations. Outside the chemical industry, firms that provide research, devel­ opment, and testing services are expected to be the source of numerous job opportunities between 1998 and 2008. Chemical companies, in­ cluding drug manufacturers, are increasingly turning to these services to perform specialized research and other work formerly done by in­ house chemists. Chemists will also be needed to work in research and testing firms that focus on environmental testing and cleanup. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  During periods of economic recession, layoffs of chemists may occur—especially in the industrial chemicals industry. This indus­ try provides many of the raw materials to the auto manufacturing and construction industries, both of which are vulnerable to tempo­ rary slowdowns during recessions.  Earnings Median annual earnings of chemists in 1998 were $46,220. The middle 50 percent earned between $34,580 and $68,360. The low­ est 10 percent earned less than $27,240 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $86,260. Median annual earnings in the indus­ tries employing the largest numbers of chemists in 1997 were: Federal Government......................................................................... $62,800 Drugs.................................................................................................... 43300 Research and testing services............................................................ 34,500  A survey by the American Chemical Society reports that the median salary of all their members with a bachelor’s degree was $50,100 a year in 1999; with a master’s degree, $61,000; and with a Ph.D., $76,000. Median salaries were highest for those working in private industry; those in academia earned the least. According to an ACS survey of recent graduates, inexperienced chemistry gradu­ ates with a bachelor’s degree earned a median starting salary of $29,500 in 1998; with a master’s degree, $38,500; and with a Ph.D., $59,300. Among bachelor’s degree graduates, those who had com­ pleted internships or had other work experience while in school commanded the highest starting salaries. In 1999, chemists in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and manage­ rial positions in the Federal Government earned an average salary of $64,200.  Related Occupations The work of chemical engineers, agricultural scientists, biological scientists, and chemical technicians is closely related to the work done by chemists. The work of other physical and life science oc­ cupations, such as physicists and medical scientists, may also be similar to that of chemists.  Sources of Additional Information General information on career opportunities and earnings for chem­ ists is available from: '*■ American Chemical Society, Education Division, 1155 16th St. NW„ Washington, DC 20036. Internet:  Information on acquiring a job as a chemist with the Federal Government may be obtained from the Office of Personnel Man­ agement through a telephone-based system. Consult your telephone directory under U.S. Government for a local number or call (912) 757-3000; TDD (912) 744-2299. That number is not toll free and charges may result. Information also is available from their Internet site:  Geologists, Geophysicists, and Oceanographers (Q*NET 24111A and 24111B)  Significant Points • •  Work at remote field sites is common. A bachelor’s degree in geology or geophysics is adequate for entry-level jobs; better jobs with good advancement potential usually require at least a master’s degree. A Ph.D. degree is required for most research positions in colleges and universities and in government.  134 Occupational Outlook Handbook  Nature of the Work Geologists, geophysicists, and oceanographers use their knowledge of the physical makeup and history of the Earth to locate water, mineral, and energy resources; protect the environment; predict fu­ ture geologic hazards; and offer advice on construction and land use projects. By using sophisticated instruments and analyses of the Earth and water, geological scientists, also known as geoscien­ tists, study the Earth’s geologic past and present in order to make predictions about its future. For example, they may study the Earth’s movements to try to predict when and where the next earthquake or volcano will occur and the probable impact on surrounding areas to minimize the damage. Geology, geophysics, and oceanography are closely related fields; but there are major differences. Geologists study the composition, processes, and history of the Earth. They try to find out how rocks were formed and what has happened to them since formation. They also study the evolution of life by analyzing plant and animal fos­ sils. Geophysicists use the principles of physics, mathematics, and chemistry to study not only the Earth’s surface, but also its internal composition; ground and surface waters; atmosphere; oceans; and its magnetic, electrical, and gravitational forces. Oceanographers use their knowledge of geology and geophysics, in addition to biol­ ogy and chemistry, to study the world’s oceans and coastal waters. They study the motion and circulation of the ocean waters and their physical and chemical properties, and how these properties affect coastal areas, climate, and weather. Many geologists, geophysicists and oceanographers are involved in the search for oil and gas, but other geological scientists play an important role in preserving and cleaning up the environment. Ac­ tivities include designing and monitoring waste disposal sites, pre­ serving water supplies, and reclaiming contaminated land and wa­ ter to comply with Federal environmental regulations. Geoscientists can spend a large part of their time in the field identifying and examining rocks, studying information collected by remote sensing instruments in satellites, conducting geologi­ cal surveys, constructing field maps, and using instruments to measure the Earth’s gravity and magnetic field. For example, they often perform seismic studies, which involve bouncing energy waves off buried rock layers, to search for oil and gas or under­ stand the structure of subsurface rock layers. Seismic signals gen­ erated by earthquakes are used to determine the earthquake’s lo­ cation and intensity. In laboratories, geologists and geophysicists examine the chemi­ cal and physical properties of specimens. They study fossil remains of animal and plant life or experiment with the flow of water and oil through rocks. Some geoscientists use two- or three-dimensional computer modeling to portray water layers and the flow of water or other fluids through rock cracks and porous materials. They use a variety of sophisticated laboratory instruments, including x-ray diffractometers, which determine the crystal structure of minerals, and petrographic microscopes, for the study of rock and sediment samples. Geoscientists working in mining or the oil and gas industry some­ times process and interpret data produced by remote sensing satel­ lites to help identify potential new mineral, oil, or gas deposits. Seismic technology is also an important exploration tool. Seismic waves are used to develop a three-dimensional picture of under­ ground or underwater rock formations. Seismic reflection technol­ ogy may also reveal unusual underground features that sometimes indicate accumulations of natural gas or petroleum, facilitating ex­ ploration and reducing the risks associated with drilling in previ­ ously unexplored areas. Numerous subdisciplines or specialties fall under the two ma­ jor disciplines of geology and geophysics that further differenti­ ate the type of work geoscientists do. For example, petroleum geologists explore for oil and gas deposits by studying and map­ ping the subsurface of the ocean or land. They use sophisticated geophysical instrumentation, well log data, and computers to in­ Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  terpret geological information. Engineering geologists apply geo­ logic principles to the fields of civil and environmental engineer­ ing, offering advice on major construction projects and assisting in environmental remediation and natural hazard reduction projects. Mineralogists analyze and classify minerals and pre­ cious stones according to composition and structure and study their environment in order to find new mineral resources. Paleontolo­ gists study fossils found in geological formations to trace the evo­ lution of plant and animal life and the geologic history of the Earth. Stratigraphers study the formation and layering of rocks to un­ derstand the environment in which they were formed. Volcanolo­ gists investigate volcanoes and volcanic phenomena to try to pre­ dict the potential for future eruptions and possible hazards to hu­ man health and welfare. Geophysicists may specialize in areas such as geodesy, seis­ mology, or magnetic geophysics. Geodesists study the size and shape of the Earth, its gravitational field, tides, polar motion, and rotation. Seismologists interpret data from seismographs and other geophysical instruments to detect earthquakes and locate earth­ quake-related faults. Geochemists study the nature and distribu­ tion of chemical elements in ground water and Earth materials. Geomagnetists measure the Earth’s magnetic field and use mea­ surements taken over the past few centuries to devise theoretical models to explain the Earth’s origin. Paleomagnetists interpret fossil magnetization in rocks and sediments from the continents and oceans, to record the spreading of the sea floor, the wandering of the continents, and the many reversals of polarity that the Earth’s magnetic field has undergone through time. Other geophysicists study atmospheric sciences and space physics. (See the statements  Sill  Geoscientists use a variety of sophisticated equipment.  Professional and Technical Occupations 135 on atmospheric scientists and physicists and astronomers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Hydrology is closely related to the disciplines of geology and geophysics. Hydrologists study the quantity, distribution, circu­ lation, and physical properties of underground and surface wa­ ters. They study the form and intensity of precipitation, its rate of infiltration into the soil, its movement through the Earth, and its return to the ocean and atmosphere. The work they do is particu­ larly important in environmental preservation, remediation, and flood control. Oceanography also has several subdisciplines. Physical ocean­ ographers study the ocean tides, waves, currents, temperatures, den­ sity, and salinity. They study the interaction of various forms of energy, such as light, radar, sound, heat, and wind with the sea, in addition to investigating the relationship between the sea, weather, and climate. Their studies provide the Maritime Fleet with up-todate oceanic conditions. Chemical oceanographers study the dis­ tribution of chemical compounds and chemical interactions that occur in the ocean and sea floor. They may investigate how pollu­ tion affects the chemistry of the ocean. Geological and geophysi­ cal oceanographers study the topographic features and the physi­ cal makeup of the ocean floor. Their knowledge can help oil and gas producers find these minerals on the bottom of the ocean. Bio­ logical oceanographers, often called marine biologists, study the distribution and migration patterns of the many diverse forms of sea life in the ocean. (See the statement on biological and medical scientists elsewhere in the Handbook.)  Working Conditions Some geoscientists spend the majority of their time in an office, but many others divide their time between fieldwork and office or labo­ ratory work. Geologists often travel to remote field sites by heli­ copter or four-wheel drive vehicles and cover large areas on foot. An increasing number of exploration geologists and geophysicists work in foreign countries, sometimes in remote areas and under difficult conditions. Oceanographers may spend considerable time at sea on academic research ships. Fieldwork often requires work­ ing long hours, but workers are usually rewarded by longer than normal vacations. Geoscientists in research positions with the Fed­ eral Government or in colleges and universities often are required to design programs and write grant proposals in order to continue their data collection and research. Geoscientists in consulting jobs face similar pressures to market their skills and write proposals to maintain steady work. Travel is often required to meet with pro­ spective clients or investors.  Employment Geologists, geophysicists, and oceanographers held about 44,000 jobs in 1998. Many more individuals held geology, geophysics, and oceanography faculty positions in colleges and universities, but they are considered college and university faculty. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the  Handbook.) Among salaried geologists and geophysicists, nearly 1 in 3 were employed in engineering and management services, and 1 in 6 worked for oil and gas extraction companies or metal mining com­ panies. About 1 geoscientist in 8 was self-employed; most were consultants to industry or government. The Federal Government employed about 5,800 geologists, geophysicists, oceanographers, and hydrologists in 1998. Over half worked for the Department of the Interior, mostly within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Others worked for the De­ partments of Defense, Agriculture, Commerce, and Energy, and the Environmental Protection Agency. Over 3,000 worked for State agencies, such as State geological surveys and State de­ partments of conservation. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree in geology or geophysics is adequate for some entry-level jobs, but more job opportunities and better jobs with good advancement potential usually require at least a master’s degree in geology or geophysics. Persons with degrees in physics, chemistry, mathematics, or computer science may also qualify for some geo­ physics or geology jobs, if their coursework included study in geol­ ogy. A Ph.D. degree is required for most research positions in col­ leges and universities, Federal agencies, and State geological surveys. Hundreds of colleges and universities offer a bachelor’s de­ gree in geology; fewer schools offer programs in geophysics, oceanography, or other geosciences. Other programs offering re­ lated training for beginning geological scientists include geophysi­ cal technology, geophysical engineering, geophysical prospecting, engineering geology, petroleum geology, hydrology, and geochem­ istry. In addition, several hundred universities award advanced degrees in geology or geophysics. Traditional geoscience courses emphasizing classical geologic methods and topics (such as mineralogy, paleontology, stratigra­ phy, and structural geology) are important for all geoscientists. Those students interested in working in the environmental or regulatory fields, either in environmental consulting firms or for Federal or State governments, should take courses in hydrology, hazardous waste management, environmental legislation, chemistry, fluid me­ chanics, and geologic logging. An understanding of environmental regulations and government permit issues is also valuable for those planning to work in mining and oil and gas extraction. Computer skills are essential for prospective geoscientists; students who have some experience with computer modeling, data analysis and inte­ gration, digital mapping, remote sensing, and geographic infor­ mation systems (GIS) will be the most prepared entering the job market. A knowledge of the Global Positioning System (GPS)— a locator system that uses satellites—is also very helpful. Some employers seek applicants with field experience, so a summer in­ ternship may be beneficial to prospective geoscientists. Geologists, geophysicists, and oceanographers must have good interpersonal skills, because they usually work as part of a team with other scientists, engineers, and technicians. Strong oral and written communication skills are also important, because writing technical reports and research proposals, as well as communicating research results to others, are important aspects of the work. Be­ cause many jobs require foreign travel, knowledge of a second lan­ guage is becoming an important attribute to employers. Geoscien­ tists must be inquisitive and able to think logically and have an open mind. Those involved in fieldwork must have physical stamina. Geologists and geophysicists often begin their careers in field exploration or as research assistants or technicians in laboratories or offices. They are given more difficult assignments as they gain experience. Eventually, they may be promoted to project leader, program manager, or another management and research position.  Job Outlook Employment of geologists, geophysicists, and oceanographers is ex­ pected to grow about as fast as the average through 2008. The need to replace geologists, geophysicists, and oceanographers who retire will result in many additional job openings over die next decade. Driving the growth will be the need for organizations to comply with an increasing number of environmental laws and regulations, par­ ticularly those regarding groundwater contamination and flood con­ trol. Increased construction and exploration for oil and natural gas abroad will require geoscientists to work overseas. In the short-run, however, low energy prices, oil company mergers, and stagnant or declining government funding for research may affect the hiring of petroleum geologists and geoscientists involved in research. In the past, employment of geologists and some other geoscien­ tists has been cyclical and largely affected by the price of oil and gas.  136 Occupational Outlook Handbook When prices were low, oil and gas producers curtailed exploration activities and laid off geologists. When prices were up, companies had the funds and incentive to renew exploration efforts and hire geo­ scientists in large numbers. In recent years, a growing worldwide demand for oil and gas and new exploration and recovery techniques— particularly in deep water and previously inaccessible sites—have returned some stability to the petroleum industry, with a few compa­ nies increasing their hiring of geoscientists. Growth in this area, though, will be limited due to increasing efficiencies in finding oil and gas. Geoscientists who speak a foreign language and who are willing to work abroad should enjoy the best opportunities. In the environmental field, the need for companies to comply with an increasing number of laws and regulations will contribute to the demand for geoscientists, especially hydrologists and engi­ neering geologists. As the population increases and moves to more environmentally sensitive locations, geoscientists will be needed to assess building sites for potential geologic hazards and to address issues of pollution control and waste disposal. An expected increase in highway building and other infrastructure projects will be an additional source of jobs for engineering geologists. Jobs with the Federal and State governments and with organiza­ tions dependent on Federal funds for support will experience little growth over the next decade, unless budgets increase significantly. This lack of funding will affect mostly oceanographers and those geoscientists performing basic research.  «■ Geological Society of America, P.O. Box 9140, Boulder, CO 80301­ 9140. Internet: m- American Association of Petroleum Geologists, P.O. Box 979, Tulsa, OK 74101. Internet:  Information on training and career opportunities for geophysi­ cists is available from: m- American Geophysical Union, 2000 Florida Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20009. Internet: m- Society of Exploration Geophysicists, 8801 South Yale, Tulsa, OK 74137. Internet:  A list of education and training programs in oceanography and related fields is available from: «■ Marine Technology Society, 1828 L St. NW, Suite 906, Washington, DC 20036. Internet:  Information on acquiring a job as a geologist, geophysicist, hydrologist, or oceanographer with the Federal Government may be obtained through a telephone-based system from the Office of Personnel Management. Consult your telephone directory under U.S. Government for a local number, or call (912) 757­ 3000 (TDD 912 744-2299). This number is not toll-free, and charges may result. Information also is available from the Internet site:  Physicists and Astronomers (0*NET 24102A and 24102B)  Earnings Median annual earnings of geologists, geophysicists, and oceanog­ raphers were $53,890 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned be­ tween $39,830 and $79,630 a year. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $30,950 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $101,390. Median annual earnings in the industries employing the largest number of geoscientists in 1997 were as follows. Crude petroleum and natural gas..................................................... $81,900 Management and public relations.................................................... 44,900 Engineering and architectural services........................................... 44,700  According to the National Association of Colleges and Employ­ ers, beginning salary offers in 1999 for graduates with bachelor’s degrees in geology and the geological sciences averaged about $34,900 a year; graduates with a master’s degree averaged $44,700. In 1999, the Federal Government’s average salary for geologists in managerial, supervisory, and nonsupervisory positions was $64,400; for geophysicists, $72,500; for hydrologists, $58,900; and for oceanographers, $66,000. The petroleum, mineral, and mining industries offer higher sala­ ries, but less job security, than other industries. These industries are vulnerable to recessions and changes in oil and gas prices, among other factors, and usually release workers when exploration and drilling slow down.  Related Occupations Many geologists and geophysicists work in the petroleum and natu­ ral gas industry. This industry also employs many other workers in the scientific and technical aspects of petroleum and natural gas ex­ ploration and extraction, including engineering technicians, science technicians, petroleum engineers, and surveyors. Also, some life sci­ entists, physicists, chemists, and atmospheric scientists—as well as mathematicians, computer scientists, soil scientists, and cartogra­ phers—perform related work in both petroleum and natural gas ex­ ploration and extraction and in environment-related activities.  Sources of Additional Information Information on training and career opportunities for geologists is available from: »■ American Geological Institute, 4220 King St., Alexandria, VA 22302­ 1502. Internet: Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Significant Points •  •  A doctoral degree is the usual educational requirement because most jobs are in basic research and develop­ ment; a bachelor’s or master’s degree is sufficient for some jobs in applied research and development. As funding for research grows slowly or not at all, new Ph.D. graduates will face competition for basic research jobs.  Nature of the Work Physicists explore and identify basic principles governing the struc­ ture and behavior of matter, the generation and transfer of energy, and the interaction of matter and energy. Some physicists use these principles in theoretical areas, such as the nature of time and the origin of the universe; others apply their physics knowledge to prac­ tical areas, such as the development of advanced materials, elec­ tronic and optical devices, and medical equipment. Physicists design and perform experiments with lasers, cyclo­ trons, telescopes, mass spectrometers, and other equipment. Based on observations and analysis, they attempt to discover and explain laws describing the forces of nature, such as gravity, electromagne­ tism, and nuclear interactions. Physicists also find ways to apply physical laws and theories to problems in nuclear energy, electron­ ics, optics, materials, communications, aerospace technology, navi­ gation equipment, and medical instrumentation. Astronomy is sometimes considered a subfield of physics. As­ tronomers use the principles of physics and mathematics to learn about the fundamental nature of the universe, including the sun, moon, planets, stars, and galaxies. They also apply their knowl­ edge to solve problems in navigation, space flight, and satellite com­ munications and to develop the instrumentation and techniques used to observe and collect astronomical data. Most physicists work in research and development. Some do basic research to increase scientific knowledge. Physicists who con­ duct applied research build upon the discoveries made through ba­ sic research and work to develop new devices, products, and pro­ cesses. For instance, basic research in solid-state physics led to the development of transistors and then to the integrated circuits used in computers.  Professional and Technical Occupations 137 Physicists also design research equipment. This equipment of­ ten has additional unanticipated uses. For example, lasers are used in surgery; microwave devices are used for ovens; and measuring instruments can analyze blood or the chemical content of foods. A small number of physicists work in inspection, testing, quality con­ trol, and other production-related jobs in industry. Much physics research is done in small or medium-size laborato­ ries. However, experiments in plasma, nuclear, high energy, and some other areas of physics require extremely large, expensive equipment, such as particle accelerators. Physicists in these subfields often work in large teams. Although physics research may require extensive ex­ perimentation in laboratories, research physicists still spend time in offices planning, recording, analyzing, and reporting on research. Almost all astronomers do research. Some are theoreticians, working on the laws governing the structure and evolution of astro­ nomical objects. Others analyze large quantities of data gathered by observatories and satellites and write scientific papers or reports on their findings. Some astronomers actually operate, usually as part of a team, large space- or ground-based telescopes. However, astronomers may spend only a few weeks each year making obser­ vations with optical telescopes, radio telescopes, and other instru­ ments. For many years, satellites and other space-based instruments have provided tremendous amounts of astronomical data. New tech­ nology resulting in improvements in analytical techniques and in­ struments, such as computers and optical telescopes and mounts, is leading to a resurgence in ground-based research. A small number of astronomers work in museums housing planetariums. These as­ tronomers develop and revise programs presented to the public and may direct planetarium operations. Physicists generally specialize in one of many subfields—el­ ementary particle physics, nuclear physics, atomic and molecular physics, physics of condensed matter (solid-state physics), optics, acoustics, space physics, plasma physics, or the physics of fluids. Some specialize in a subdivision of one of these subfields. For example, within condensed matter physics, specialties include su­ perconductivity, crystallography, and semiconductors. However, all physics involves the same fundamental principles, so specialties may overlap, and physicists may switch from one subfield to an­ other. Also, growing numbers of physicists work in combined fields, such as biophysics, chemical physics, and geophysics.  Working Conditions Physicists often work regular hours in laboratories and offices. At times, however, those who are deeply involved in research may work long or irregular hours. Most do not encounter unusual hazards in their work. Some physicists temporarily work away from home at national or international facilities with unique equipment, such as particle accelerators. Astronomers who make observations using  ft  Physicists and astronomers need mathematical and computer skills. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ground-based telescopes may spend long periods of time in obser­ vatories; this work usually involves travel to remote locations. Long hours, including routine night work, may create temporarily stress­ ful conditions. Physicists and astronomers whose work is dependent on grant money are often under pressure to write grant proposals to keep their work funded.  Employment Physicists and astronomers held nearly 18,000 jobs in 1998. About 2 in 10 nonfaculty physicists and astronomers worked for commer­ cial or noncommercial research, development, and testing laborato­ ries. The Federal Government employed almost 2 in 10, mostly in the Department of Defense, but also in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the Departments of Com­ merce, Health and Human Services, and Energy. Other physicists and astronomers worked in colleges and universities in nonfaculty positions, or for State governments, drug companies, and electronic equipment manufacturers. Besides the jobs described above, many physicists and astrono­ mers held faculty positions in colleges and universities. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Hand­  book.) Although physicists and astronomers are employed in all parts of the country, most work in areas in which universities, large re­ search and development laboratories, or observatories are located.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A doctoral degree is the usual educational requirement for physi­ cists and astronomers, because most jobs are in basic research and development. Additional experience and training in a postdoctoral research appointment, although not required, is important for physi­ cists and astronomers aspiring to permanent positions in basic re­ search in universities and government laboratories. Many physics and astronomy Ph.D. holders ultimately teach at the college or uni­ versity level. Master s degree holders usually do not qualify for basic research positions but do qualify for many kinds of jobs requiring a physics background, including positions in manufacturing and applied re­ search and development. Physics departments in some colleges and universities are creating professional master’s degree programs to specifically prepare students for physics-related research and de­ velopment in private industry that does not require a Ph.D. degree. A master’s degree may suffice for teaching jobs in 2-year colleges. Those with bachelor’s degrees in physics are rarely qualified to fill positions as research or teaching physicists. They are, however, usually qualified to work in an engineering-related area, software development and other scientific fields, to work as technicians, or to assist in setting up computer networks and sophisticated labora­ tory equipment. Some may qualify for applied research jobs in pri­ vate industry or nonresearch positions in the Federal Government. Some become science teachers in secondary schools. Astronomy bachelor’s or master’s degree holders often enter a field unrelated to astronomy, and they are qualified to work in planetariums run­ ning science shows, to assist astronomers doing research, and to operate space- and ground-based telescopes and other astronomical instrumentation. (See the statements on engineers; geologists, geo­ physicists, and oceanographers; computer programmers; and com­ puter systems analysts, engineers, and scientists elsewhere in the  Handbook.) About 760 colleges and universities offer a bachelor’s degree in physics. Undergraduate programs provide a broad background in the natural sciences and mathematics. Typical physics courses in­ clude electromagnetism, optics, thermodynamics, atomic physics, and quantum mechanics. In 1998, 183 colleges and universities had departments offering Ph.D. degrees in physics. Another 72 departments offered a master’s  138 Occupational Outlook Handbook as their highest degree. Graduate students usually concentrate in a subfield of physics, such as elementary particles or condensed mat­ ter. Many begin studying for their doctorate immediately after re­ ceiving their bachelor’s degree. About 70 universities grant degrees in astronomy, either through an astronomy, physics, or a combined physics/astronomy depart­ ment. Applicants to astronomy doctoral programs face competition for available slots. Those planning a career in astronomy should have a very strong physics background. In fact, an undergraduate degree in either physics or astronomy is excellent preparation, fol­ lowed by a Ph.D. in astronomy. Mathematical ability, problem solving and analytical skills, an inquisitive mind, imagination, and initiative are important traits for anyone planning a career in physics or astronomy. Prospective physi­ cists who hope to work in industrial laboratories applying physics knowledge to practical problems should broaden their educational background to include courses outside of physics, such as econom­ ics, computer technology, and business management. Good oral and written communication skills are also important because many physicists work as part of a team, write research papers or propos­ als, or have contact with clients or customers with non-physics back­ grounds. Many physics and astronomy Ph.D.’s begin their careers in a postdoctoral research position, where they may work with experi­ enced physicists as they continue to learn about their specialty and develop ideas and results to be used in later work. Initial work may be under the close supervision of senior scientists. After some ex­ perience, physicists perform increasingly complex tasks and work more independently. Those who develop new products or processes sometimes form their own companies or join new firms to exploit their own ideas.  Job Outlook  Historically, many physicists and astronomers have been employed on research projects—often defense-related. Small or no increases in defense-related research and a continued slowdown in the growth of civilian physics-related basic research will result in little change in employment of physicists and astronomers through the year 2008. The need to replace physicists and astronomers who retire will ac­ count for almost all expected job openings. Budget tightening in the Federal Government may also affect employment of physicists, especially those dependent on Federal research grants. The Federal Government funds numerous noncommercial research facilities. The Federally Funded Research and Development Centers (FFRDCs) whose missions include a significant physics component are largely funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) or the Department of Defense (DOD), and their R&D budgets have not kept pace with inflation in recent years. Continuing budget tightening may limit funding and, consequently, the scope of physics-related research in these facilities. In recent years, many persons with a physics background have found employment in private industry in the areas of information technology, semiconductor technology, and other applied sciences. This trend is expected to continue; however, many of these posi­ tions will be under job titles such as computer software engineer, computer programmer, engineer, and systems developer, rather than physicist. For several years, the number of doctorates granted in physics has been much greater than the number of openings for physicists, resulting in keen competition, particularly for research positions in colleges and universities and research and development centers. Competitive conditions are beginning to ease, because the number of doctorate degrees awarded has begun dropping, following recent declines in enrollment in graduate physics programs. However, new doctoral graduates should still expect to face competition for re­ Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  search jobs, not only from fellow graduates, but also from an exist­ ing supply of postdoctoral workers seeking to leave low-paying, temporary positions and non-U.S. citizen applicants. Also, the com­ petition for grant money for physics-related research projects is likely to remain intense during the projection period. Although research and development budgets in private indus­ try will continue to grow, many research laboratories in private industry are expected to reduce basic research, which includes much physics research, in favor of applied or manufacturing research and product and software development. Although many physicists and astronomers will be eligible for retirement over the next decade, it is probable not all of them will be replaced when they retire. Opportunities may be more numerous for those with a master’s degree, particularly graduates from programs preparing students for applied research and development, product design, and manu­ facturing positions in industry. Many of these positions, how­ ever, will have titles other than physicist, such as engineer or com­ puter scientist. Persons with only a bachelor’s degree in physics or astronomy are not qualified to enter most physicist or astronomer research jobs but may qualify for a wide range of positions in engineering, tech­ nician, mathematics, and computer- and environment-related occu­ pations. Those who meet State certification requirements can be­ come high school physics teachers, an occupation reportedly in strong demand in many school districts. (See the statements on these occupations elsewhere in the Handbook.) Despite competi­ tion for traditional physics and astronomy research jobs, individu­ als with a physics degree at any level will find their skills useful for entry to many other occupations.  Earnings  Median annual earnings of physicists and astronomers in 1998 were $73,240. The middle 50 percent earned between $56,230 and $90,440. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $41,830 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $113,800. According to a 1999 National Association of Colleges and Em­ ployers survey, the average annual starting salary offer to physics doctoral degree candidates was $60,300. The American Institute of Physics reported a median annual salary of $70,000 in 1998 for its members with Ph.D.’s; with master’s degrees, $57,000; and with bachelor’s degrees, $54,000. Those working in temporary postdoctoral positions earned sig­ nificantly less. The average annual salary for physicists employed by the Fed­ eral Government was $79,400 in early 1999 and for astronomy and space scientists, $81,300.  Related Occupations The work of physicists and astronomers relates closely to that of engineers, chemists, atmospheric scientists, geophysicists, computer scientists, computer programmers, and mathematicians.  Sources of Additional Information General information on career opportunities in physics is available from; m- American Institute of Physics, Career Services Division and Education and Employment Division, One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740­ 3843. Internet: w The American Physical Society, One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740-3844. Internet:  For a brochure containing information on careers in astronomy, send your request to: m- American Astronomical Society, Education Office, University of Chi­ cago, 5640 South Ellis Ave., Chicago IL 60637. Internet:  Professional and Technical Occupations 139  Science Technicians (0*NET 22599F, 24502A, 24502B, 24502C, 24502D, 24505A, 24505B 24505C, 24505D, 24505E, 24508A, 24508B, 2451 IB, 2451 IE 24599a’ 24599B, 24599C, and 25323)  Significant Points •  Science technicians in production jobs often work in 8hour shifts around the clock.  •  Job opportunities are expected to be very good for qualified graduates of science technician training programs or applied science technology programs who are well trained on equipment used in laboratories and production facilities.  Nature of the Work Science technicians use the principles and theories of science and mathematics to solve problems in research and development and to help invent and improve products and processes. However, their jobs are more practically oriented than those of scientists. Techni­ cians set up, operate, and maintain laboratory instruments, monitor experiments, make observations, calculate and record results, and often develop conclusions. They must keep detailed logs of all their work-related activities. Those who work in production monitor manufacturing processes and may be involved in ensuring quality by testing products for proper proportions of ingredients, purity, or for strength and durability. As laboratory instrumentation and procedures have become more complex in recent years, the role of science technicians in research and development has expanded. In addition to perform­ ing routine tasks, many technicians also develop and adapt labo­ ratory procedures to achieve the best results, interpret data, and devise solutions to problems, under the direction of scientists. Moreover, technicians must master the laboratory equipment, so they can adjust settings when necessary, and recognize when equip­ ment is malfunctioning. The increasing use of robotics to perform many routine tasks has freed technicians to operate more sophisticated laboratory equip­ ment. Science technicians make extensive use of computers, com­ puter-interfaced equipment, robotics, and high-technology indus­ trial applications, such as biological engineering. Most science technicians specialize, learning skills and working in the same disciplines as scientists. Occupational titles, therefore, tend to follow the same structure as scientists. Agricultural techni­ cians work with agricultural scientists in food, fiber, and animal research, production, and processing. Some conduct tests and ex­ periments to improve the yield and quality of crops or to increase the resistance of plants and animals to disease, insects, or other haz­ ards. Other agricultural technicians do animal breeding and nutri­ tion work. Biological technicians work with biologists studying living or­ ganisms. Many assist scientists who conduct medical research— helping to find a cure for cancer or AIDS, for example. Those who work in pharmaceutical companies help develop and manu­ facture medicinal and pharmaceutical preparations. Those work­ ing in the field of microbiology generally work as lab assistants, studying living organisms and infectious agents. Biological tech­ nicians also analyze organic substances, such as blood, food, and drugs, and some examine evidence in criminal investigations. Biological technicians working in biotechnology labs use the knowledge and techniques gained from basic research by scien­ tists, including gene splicing and recombinant DNA, and apply these techniques in product development. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Chemical technicians work with chemists and chemical engi­ neers, developing and using chemicals and related products and equipment. Most do research and development, testing, or other laboratory work. For example, they might test packaging for de­ sign, integrity of materials, and environmental acceptability; as­ semble and operate new equipment to develop new products; moni­ tor product quality; or develop new production techniques. Some chemical technicians collect and analyze samples of air and water to monitor pollution levels. Those who focus on basic research might produce compounds through complex organic synthesis. Chemical technicians within chemical plants are also referred to as process technicians. They may operate equipment, monitor plant processes and analyze plant materials. Environmental technicians perform laboratory and field tests to monitor environmental resources and determine the contami­ nants and sources o( pollution. They may collect samples for testing or be involved in abating, controlling, or remediating sources of environmental pollutants. Some are responsible for waste management operations, control and management of haz­ ardous materials inventory, or general activities involving regu­ latory compliance. There is a growing emphasis on pollution prevention activities. Nuclear technicians operate nuclear test and research equipment, monitor radiation, and assist nuclear engineers and physicists in re­ search. Some also operate remote control equipment to manipulate radioactive materials or materials to be exposed to radioactivity. Petroleum technicians measure and record physical and geologic conditions in oil or gas wells, using instruments lowered into wells or by analysis of the mud from wells. In oil and gas exploration, these technicians collect and examine geological data or test geo­ logical samples to determine petroleum and mineral content. Some petroleum technicians, called scouts, collect information about oil and gas well drilling operations, geological and geophysical pros­ pecting, and land or lease contracts. Other science technicians collect weather information or assist oceanographers. Working Conditions Science technicians work under a wide variety of conditions. Most work indoors, usually in laboratories, and have regular hours. Some occasionally work irregular hours to monitor experiments that can’t be completed during regular working hours. Produc­ tion technicians often work in 8-hour shifts around the clock.  ■Kit liali Science technicians put theory into practice.  140 Occupational Outlook Handbook Others, such as agricultural, petroleum, and environmental tech­ nicians, perform much of their work outdoors, sometimes in re­ mote locations. Some science technicians may be exposed to hazards from equip­ ment, chemicals, or toxic materials. Chemical technicians some­ times work with toxic chemicals or radioactive isotopes, nuclear technicians may be exposed to radiation, and biological technicians sometimes work with disease-causing organisms or radioactive agents. However, these working conditions pose little risk, if proper safety procedures are followed.  Employment  Science technicians held about 227,000 jobs in 1998. Over 37 per­ cent worked in manufacturing—mostly in the chemical industry— but also in the food processing industry. About 12 percent worked in education services, and another 15 percent worked in research and testing services. In 1998, the Federal Government employed about 14,000 science technicians, mostly in the Departments of Defense, Agriculture, and Interior.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement There are several ways to qualify for a job as a science technician. Many employers prefer applicants who have at least 2 years of specialized training or an associate degree in applied science or science-related technology. Because employers’ preferences vary, however, some science technicians have a bachelor’s degree in chemistry or biology or have taken several science and math courses at 4-year colleges. Many technical and community colleges offer associate degrees in a specific technology or a more general education in science and mathematics. A number of 2-year associate degree programs are designed to provide easy transfer to a 4-year college or university, if desired. Technical institutes usually offer technician training, but provide less theory and general education than technical or com­ munity colleges. The length of programs at technical institutes var­ ies, although 1-year certificate programs and 2-year associate de­ gree programs are common. Some schools offer cooperative-edu­ cation or internship programs, allowing students the opportunity to work at a local company or other workplace, while attending classes in alternate terms. Participation in such programs can significantly enhance a student’s employment prospects. Persons interested in careers as science technicians should take as many high school science and math courses as possible. Science courses taken beyond high school, in an associate’s or bachelor’s program, should be laboratory oriented, with an emphasis on bench skills. Because computers and computer-interfaced equipment are often used in research and development laboratories, technicians should have strong computer skills. Communication skills are also important; technicians are often required to report their find­ ings both through speaking and in writing. Additionally, techni­ cians should be able to work well with others, because teamwork is common. Prospective science technicians can acquire good career prepa­ ration through 2-year formal training programs that combine the teaching of scientific principles and theory with practical handson application in a laboratory setting with up-to-date equipment. Graduates of 4-year bachelor’s degree programs in science who have considerable experience in laboratory-based courses, have completed internships, or held summer jobs in laboratories, are also well-qualified for science technician positions and are pre­ ferred by some employers. However, those with a bachelor’s de­ gree who accept technician jobs generally cannot find employ­ ment that uses their advanced academic education. Technicians usually begin work as trainees in routine posi­ tions, under the direct supervision of a scientist or a more expe­ rienced technician. Job candidates whose training or educational background encompasses extensive hands-on experience with a Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  variety of laboratory equipment, including computers and related equipment, usually require a short period of on-the-job training. As they gain experience, technicians take on more responsibility and carry out assignments under only general supervision, and some eventually become supervisors. However, technicians em­ ployed at universities often have their fortunes tied to particular professors; when professors retire or leave, these technicians face uncertain employment prospects.  Job Outlook Employment of science technicians is expected to increase more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2008. Continued growth of scientific and medical research, as well as the development and production of technical products, should stimulate demand for science technicians in all areas. In particular, the grow­ ing number of agricultural and medicinal products developed from using biotechnology techniques will increase the need for biological technicians. Employment growth will also be fueled by demand for technicians to help regulate waste products; to collect air, water, and soil samples for measuring levels of pollutants; to monitor compli­ ance with environmental regulations; and to clean up contaminated sites. However, growth will be moderated somewhat by an expected slowdown in overall employment in the chemical industry. Job opportunities are expected to be very good for qualified graduates of science technician training programs or applied sci­ ence technology programs, who are well trained on equipment used in industrial and government laboratories and production facilities. As the instrumentation and techniques used in industrial research, development, and production become increasingly more complex, employers are seeking well trained individuals with highly devel­ oped technical and communication skills. In addition to opportuni­ ties created by growth, many job openings should arise from the need to replace technicians who retire or leave the labor force for other reasons.  Earnings Median hourly earnings of science technicians were $14.92 in 1998. The middle 50 percent earned between $11.48 and $19.38. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $9.28 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $24.20. Median hourly earnings were $11.20 for chemical technicians and $ 11.80 for biological and agricultural tech­ nicians working in research and testing services in 1997. Chemical technicians working in drug manufacturing earned an hourly me­ dian of $15.30 in 1997. Median hourly earnings in the industries employing the largest number of all other science technicians in 1997 were as follows: Federal Government............................................................................ $16.50 State government, except education and hospitals.......................... 14.80 Local government, except education and hospitals......................... 14.50 Research and testing services............................................................ 14-40 Personnel supply services.................................................................. 11.30  In the Federal Government in 1999, science technicians started at $16,400, $18,400, or $20,600, depending on education and expe­ rience. Beginning salaries were slightly higher in selected areas of the country where the prevailing local pay level was higher. The average annual salary for biological science technicians in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions employed by the Federal Government in early 1999 was $30,300; for mathemati­ cal technicians, $41,000; for physical science technicians, $38,200; for geodetic technicians, $48,800; for hydrologic technicians, $36,000; and for meteorologic technicians, $45,200.  Related Occupations Other technicians who apply scientific principles at a level usually taught in 2-year associate degree programs include engineering technicians,  Professional and Technical Occupations 141 broadcast technicians, drafters, and health technologists and techni­ cians. Some of the work of agricultural and biological technicians is related to that in agriculture and forestry occupations.  Sources of Additional Information For information about a career as a chemical technician, contact: "■ American Chemical Society, Education Division, Career Publications, 1155 16th St. NW„ Washington, DC 20036. Internet:  Legal Occupations Lawyers and Judicial Workers (0*NET 28102, 28105, and 28108)  Significant Points •  • •  Formal educational requirements for lawyers include a 4-year college degree, 3 years in law school, and successful completion of a written bar examination. Competition for admission to most law schools is intense. Aspiring lawyers and judges should encounter signifi­ cant competition for jobs.  Nature of the Work The legal system affects nearly every aspect of our society, from buying a home to crossing the street. Lawyers and judicial workers form the backbone of this vital system, linking the legal system and society in myriad ways. For this reason, they hold positions of great responsibility and are obligated to adhere to a strict code of ethics. Lawyers, also called attorneys, act both as advocates and advi­ sors in our society. As advocates, they represent one of the parties in criminal and civil trials by presenting evidence and arguing in court to support their client. As advisors, lawyers counsel their cli­ ents concerning their legal rights and obligations and suggest par­ ticular courses of action in business and personal matters. Whether acting as advocate or advisor, all attorneys research the intent of laws and judicial decisions and apply the law to the specific cir­ cumstances faced by their client. The more detailed aspects of a lawyer’s job depend upon his or her field of specialization and position. While all lawyers are licensed to represent parties in court, some appear in court more frequently than others. Trial lawyers, who specialize in trial work, must be able to think quickly and speak with ease and authority. In addition, fa­ miliarity with courtroom rales and strategy are particularly important in trial work. Still, trial lawyers spend the majority of their time out­ side the courtroom conducting research, interviewing clients and wit­ nesses, and handling other details in preparation for trial. Lawyers may specialize in a number of different areas, such as bankruptcy, probate, international, or elder law. Those specializing in environmental law, for example, may represent public interest groups, waste disposal companies, or construction firms in their deal­ ings with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other State and Federal agencies. They help clients prepare and file for licenses and applications for approval before certain activities may occur. In addition, they represent clients’ interests in administra­ tive adjudications. Some lawyers concentrate in the growing field of intellectual property. These lawyers help protect clients’ claims to copyrights, art work under contract, product designs, and computer programs. Still other lawyers advise insurance companies about the legality of insurance transactions. They write insurance policies to conform with the law and to protect companies from unwarranted claims. When claims are filed against insurance companies, they review the claims and represent the companies in court. The majority of lawyers are found in private practice, where they Digitized forconcentrate FRASER on criminal or civil law. In criminal law, lawyers Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  represent individuals who have been charged with crimes and ar­ gue their cases in courts of law. Attorneys dealing with civil law assist clients with litigation, wills, trusts, contracts, mortgages, titles, and leases. Other lawyers handle only public interest cases— civil or criminal—which may have an impact extending well be­ yond the individual client. Lawyers are sometimes employed full time by a single client. If the client is a corporation, the lawyer is known as “house counsel,” and usually advises the company concerning legal issues related to its business activities. These issues might involve patents, govern­ ment regulations, contracts with other companies, property inter­ ests, or collective bargaining agreements with unions. A significant number of attorneys are employed at the various levels of government. Lawyers who work for State attorneys gen­ eral, prosecutors, public defenders, and courts play a key role in the criminal justice system. At the Federal level, attorneys investigate cases for the Department of Justice and other agencies. Govern­ ment lawyers also help develop programs, draft and interpret laws and legislation, establish enforcement procedures, and argue civil and criminal cases on behalf of the government. Other lawyers work for legal aid societies—private, nonprofit organizations established to serve disadvantaged people. These law­ yers generally handle civil, rather than criminal cases. A relatively small number of trained attorneys work in law schools. Most are faculty members who specialize in one or more subjects; however, some serve as administrators. Others work full time in nonacademic settings and teach part time. (For additional information, see the Handbook section on college and university faculty.) To perform the varied tasks described above more efficiently, lawyers increasingly utilize various forms of technology. While all lawyers continue to use law libraries to prepare cases, some supple­ ment their search of conventional printed sources with computer sources, such as the Internet and legal databases. Software is used to search this legal literature automatically and to identify legal texts relevant to a specific case. In litigation involving many supporting documents, lawyers may use computers to organize and index ma­ terial. Lawyers also use electronic filing, videoconferencing, and voice-recognition technology to more effectively share information with other parties involved in a case. Many attorneys advance to become judges and other judicial workers. Judges apply the law and oversee the legal process in courts according to local, State, and Federal statutes. They preside over cases concerning every aspect of society, from traffic offenses to disputes over management of professional sports, or from the rights of huge corporations to questions of disconnecting life sup­ port equipment for terminally ill persons. They must ensure that trials and hearings are conducted fairly and that the court adminis­ ters justice in a manner which safeguards the legal rights of all par­ ties involved. The most visible responsibility of judges is presiding over trials or hearings and listening as attorneys represent the parties present. Judges rule on the admissibility of evidence and the methods of conducting testimony, and they may be called upon to settle dis­ putes between opposing attorneys. They ensure that rales and pro­ cedures are followed, ana if unusual circumstances arise for which standard procedures have not been established, judges determine the manner in which the trial will proceed based on their interpreta­ tion of the law.  142 Occupational Outlook Handbook Judges often hold pretrial hearings for cases. They listen to alle­ gations and determine whether the evidence presented merits a trial. In criminal cases, judges may decide that persons charged with crimes should be held in jail pending their trial, or they may set conditions for release. In civil cases, judges occasionally impose restrictions upon the parties until a trial is held. In many trials, juries are selected to decide guilt or innocence in criminal cases or liability and compensation in civil cases. Judges instruct juries on applicable laws, direct them to deduce the facts from the evidence presented, and hear their verdict. When the law does not require a jury trial or when the parties waive their right to a jury, judges decide the cases. In such cases, the judge determines guilt and imposes sentences in a criminal case; in civil cases, the judge rewards relief—such as compensation for damages—to the parties in the lawsuit (also called litigants). Judges also work outside the courtroom “in chambers.” In their private offices, judges read documents on pleadings and motions, research legal issues, write opinions, and oversee the court’s opera­ tions. In some jurisdictions, judges also manage the courts’ admin­ istrative and clerical staff. Judges’ duties vary according to the extent of their jurisdic­ tions and powers. General trial court judges of the Federal and State court systems have jurisdiction over any case in their sys­ tem. They usually try civil cases transcending the jurisdiction of lower courts and all cases involving felony offenses. Federal and State appellate court judges, although few in number, have the power to overrule decisions made by trial court or administrative law judges if they determine that legal errors were made in a case  msmi  or if legal precedent does not support the judgment of the lower court. They rule on a small number of cases and rarely have direct contacts with litigants. Instead, they usually base their decisions on lower court records and lawyers’ written and oral arguments. Many State court judges preside in courts in which jurisdiction is limited by law to certain types of cases. A variety of titles are assigned to these judges, but among the most common are munici­ pal court judge, county court judge, magistrate, or justice of the peace. Traffic violations, misdemeanors, small claims cases, and pretrial hearings constitute the bulk of the work of these judges, but some States allow them to handle cases involving domestic rela­ tions, probate, contracts, and other selected areas of the law. Administrative law judges, sometimes called hearing officers or adjudicators, are employed by government agencies to make deter­ minations for administrative agencies. They make decisions on a person’s eligibility for various Social Security benefits or worker’s compensation, protection of the environment, enforcement of health and safety regulations, employment discrimination, and compliance with economic regulatory requirements.  Working Conditions Lawyers and judicial workers do most of their work in offices, law libraries, and courtrooms. Lawyers sometimes meet in clients’ homes or places of business and, when necessary, in hospitals or prisons. They may travel to attend meetings, gather evidence, and appear before courts, legislative bodies, and other authorities. Salaried lawyers usually have structured work schedules. Law­ yers in private practice may work irregular hours while conducting research, conferring with clients, or preparing briefs during nonoffice hours. Lawyers often work long hours, and about half regularly work 50 hours or more per week. They may face particularly heavy pressure, especially when a case is being tried. Preparation for court includes keeping abreast of the latest laws and judicial decisions. Although work is not generally seasonal, the work of tax law­ yers and other specialists may be an exception. Because lawyers in private practice can often determine their own workload and when they will retire, many stay in practice well beyond the usual retire­ ment age. Many judges work a standard 40-hour week, but a third of all judges work over 50 hours per week. Some judges with limited jurisdiction are employed part time and divide their time between their judicial responsibilities and other careers.  Employment  ssis  All lawyers use law libraries to prepare cases, and some supplement research using computers. Digitized their for FRASER Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Lawyers held about 681,000 jobs in 1998; judges, magistrates and other judicial workers about 71,000. About 7 out of 10 lawyers practiced privately, either in law firms or in solo practices. Most of the remaining lawyers held positions in government, the greatest number at the local level. In the Federal Government, lawyers work for many different agencies but are concentrated in the Departments of Justice, Treasury, and Defense. A small number of lawyers are employed as house counsel by public utilities, banks, insurance com­ panies, real estate agencies, manufacturing firms, welfare and reli­ gious organizations, and other business firms and nonprofit organi­ zations. Some salaried lawyers also have part-time independent practices; others work as lawyers part time while working full time in another occupation. All judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers were employed by Federal, State, or local governments, with about 4 out of 10 hold­ ing positions in the Federal Government.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement To practice law in the courts of any State or other jurisdiction, a person must be licensed, or admitted to its bar, under rules estab­ lished by the jurisdiction’s highest court. All States require that applicants for admission to the bar pass a written bar examination; most jurisdictions also require applicants to pass a separate written  Professional and Technical Occupations 143 ethics examination. Lawyers who have been admitted to the bar in one jurisdiction may occasionally be admitted to the bar in another without taking an examination, if they meet that jurisdiction’s stan­ dards of good moral character and have a specified period of legal experience. Federal courts and agencies set their own qualifica­ tions for those practicing before them. To qualify for the bar examination in most States, an applicant must usually obtain a college degree and graduate from a law school accredited by the American Bar Association (ABA) or the proper State authorities. ABA accreditation signifies that the law school— particularly its library and faculty—meets certain standards devel­ oped to promote quality legal education. ABA currently accredits 183 law schools; others are approved by State authorities only. With certain exceptions, graduates of schools not approved by the ABA are restricted to taking the bar examination and practicing in the State or other jurisdiction in which the school is located; most of these schools are in California. In 1997, seven States accepted the study of law in a law office or in combination with study in a law school, only California accepts the study of law by correspondence as qualifying for taking the bar examination. Several States require registration and approval of students by the State Board of Law Examiners, either before they enter law school or during the early years of legal study. Although there is no nationwide bar examination, 47 States, the District of Columbia, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands require the 6-hour Multistate Bar Ex­ amination (MBE) as part of the bar examination; the MBE is not required in Indiana, Louisiana, and Washington. The MBE covers issues of broad interest and is sometimes given in addition to a lo­ cally prepared State bar examination. The 3-hour Multistate Essay Examination (MEE) is used as part of the State bar examination in several States. States vary in their use of MBE and MEE scores. Many states have begun to require Multistate Performance Test­ ing (MPT) to test the practical skills of beginning lawyers. This program has been well received and many more States afe expected to require performance testing in the future. Requirements vary by State, although the test usually is taken at the same time as the bar exam and is a one-time requirement. The required college and law school education usually takes 7 years of full-time study after high school—4 years of undergradu­ ate study followed by 3 years in law school. Although some law schools accept a very small number of students after 3 years of col­ lege, most require applicants to have a bachelor’s degree. To meet the needs of students who can attend only part time, a number of law schools have night or part-time divisions which usually require 4 years of study; about 1 in 10 graduates from ABA approved schools attends part time. Although there is no recommended “prelaw” major, prospec­ tive lawyers should develop proficiency in writing and speaking, reading, researching, analyzing, and thinking logically—skills needed to succeed both in law school and in the profession. Re­ gardless of major, a multidisciplinary background is recommended. Courses in English, foreign languages, public speaking, govern­ ment, philosophy, history, economics, mathematics, and computer science, among others, are useful. Students interested in a par­ ticular aspect of law may find related courses helpful. For ex­ ample, prospective patent lawyers need a strong background in engineering or science, and future tax lawyers must have exten­ sive knowledge of accounting. Acceptance by most law schools depends on the applicant’s abil­ ity to demonstrate an aptitude for the study of law, usually through good undergraduate grades, the Law School Admission Test (LSAT), the quality of the applicant’s undergraduate school, any prior work experience, and sometimes a personal interview. However, law schools vary in the weight they place on each of these and other factors. All law schools approved by the ABA, except for those in Puerto Rico, require applicants to take the LSAT. Nearly all law schools require applicants to have certified transcripts sent to the Law School Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Data Assembly Service, which then sends applicants’ LSAT scores and their standardized records of college grades to the law schools of their choice. Both this service and the LSAT are administered by the Law School Admission Council. Competition for admission to many law schools is intense, espe­ cially for the most prestigious schools. Enrollments in these schools rose very rapidly during the 1970s, as applicants far outnumbered available seats. Although the number of applicants decreased mark­ edly in the 1990s, the number of applicants to most law schools still greatly exceeds the number that can be admitted. During the first year or year and a half of law school, students usually study core courses such as constitutional law, contracts, prop­ erty law, torts, civil procedure, and legal writing. In the remaining time, they may elect specialized courses in fields such as tax, labor, or corporate law. Law students often acquire practical experience by participation in school sponsored legal clinic activities, in the school s moot court competitions in which students conduct appel­ late arguments, in practice trials under the supervision of experi­ enced lawyers and judges, and through research and writing on le­ gal issues for the school’s law journal. A number of law schools have clinical programs in which stu­ dents gain legal experience through practice trials and law school projects under the supervision of practicing lawyers and law school faculty. Law school clinical programs might include work in legal aid clinics, for example, or on the staff of legislative committees. Part-time or summer clerkships in law firms, government agencies, and corporate legal departments also provide valuable experience. Such training can lead directly to a job after graduation and help students decide what kind of practice best suits them. Clerkships may also be an important source of financial aid. In 1997, law students in 52 jurisdictions were required to pass the Multistate Professional Responsibility Examination (MPRE), which tests their knowledge of the ABA codes on professional re­ sponsibility and judicial conduct. In some States, the MPRE may be taken during law school, usually after completing a course on legal ethics. Law school graduates receive the degree ofjuris doctor (J.D.) as the first professional degree. Advanced law degrees may be desir­ able for those planning to specialize, research, or teach. Some law students pursue joint degree programs, which usually require an additional semester or year. Joint degree programs are offered in a number of areas, including law and business administration or pub­ lic administration. After graduation, lawyers must keep informed about legal and nonlegal developments that affect their practice. Currently, 39 States and jurisdictions mandate Continuing Legal Education (CLE). Many law schools and State and local bar associations provide continuing education courses that help lawyers stay abreast of recent develop­ ments. Some States allow CLE credits to be obtained through par­ ticipation in seminars on the Internet. The practice of law involves a great deal of responsibility. Indi­ viduals planning careers in law should like to work with people and be able to win the respect and confidence of their clients, associ­ ates, and the public. Perseverance, creativity, and reasoning ability are also essential to lawyers, who often analyze complex cases and handle new and unique legal problems. Most beginning lawyers start in salaried positions. Newly-hired, salaried attorneys usually start as associates and work with more experienced lawyers or judges. After several years of gaining more responsibilities, some lawyers are admitted to partnership in their firm or go into practice for themselves. Others become full-time law school faculty or administrators; a growing number of these lawyers have advanced degrees in other fields as well. Some attorneys use their legal training in administrative or mana­ gerial positions in various departments of large corporations. A transfer from a corporation’s legal department to another depart­ ment often is viewed as a way to gain administrative experience and rise in the ranks of management.  144 Occupational Outlook Handbook A number of lawyers become judges, and most judges have first been lawyers. In fact, Federal and State judges are usually required to be lawyers. About 40 States allow nonlawyers to hold limited jurisdiction judgeships, but opportunities are better for those with law experience. Federal administrative law judges must be lawyers and pass a competitive examination administered by the U.S. Of­ fice of Personnel Management. Some State administrative law judges and other hearing officials are not required to be lawyers, but law degrees are preferred for most positions. Federal judges are appointed for life by the President and are con­ firmed by the Senate. Federal administrative law judges are appointed by the various Federal agencies with virtually lifetime tenure. Some State judges are appointed, and the remainder are elected in partisan or nonpartisan State elections. Many State and local judges serve fixed renewable terms, which range from 4 or 6 years for some trial court judgeships to as long as 14 years or life for other trial or appel­ late court judges. Judicial nominating commissions, composed of members of the bar and the public, are used to screen candidates for judgeships in many States and for some Federal judgeships. All States have some type of orientation for newly elected or appointed judges. The Federal Judicial Center, ABA, National Ju­ dicial College, and National Center for State Courts provide judi­ cial education and training forjudges and other judicial branch per­ sonnel. General and continuing education courses usually last from a couple of days to 3 weeks in length. Over half of all States and Puerto Rico require judges to enroll in continuing education courses while serving on the bench.  Job Outlook  Individuals interested in pursuing careers as lawyers or judicial workers should encounter stiff competition through 2008. The num­ ber of law school graduates is expected to continue to strain the economy’s capacity to absorb them. As forjudges, the prestige as­ sociated with serving on the bench should insure continued, intense competition for openings. Employment of lawyers grew very rapidly from the early 1970s through the early 1990s, but has started to level off recently. Through 2008, employment is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations. Continuing demand for lawyers will result pri­ marily from growth in the population and the general level of busi­ ness activities. Demand will also be spurred by growth of legal action in such areas as health care, intellectual property, interna­ tional law, elder law, environmental law, and sexual harassment. In addition, the wider availability and affordability of legal clinics and prepaid legal service programs should result in increased use of legal services by middle-income people. Flowever, employment growth is expected to be slower than in the past. In an effort to reduce the money spent on legal fees, many businesses are increasingly utilizing large accounting firms and paralegals to perform some of the same functions similar as law­ yers. For example, accounting firms may provide employee benefit counseling, process documents, or handle various other services previously performed by the law firm. Also, mediation and dispute resolution are increasingly used as alternatives to litigation. Competition for job openings should continue to be keen be­ cause of the large numbers graduating from law school each year. During the 1970s, the annual number of law school graduates more than doubled, outpacing the rapid growth of jobs. Growth in the yearly number of law school graduates slowed during the early to mid-1980s, but increased again to current levels in the late 1980s to early 1990s. Although graduates with superior academic records from well-regarded law schools will have more job opportunities, most graduates should encounter stiff competition for jobs. Perhaps as a result of this fierce competition, lawyers are in­ creasingly finding work in nontraditional areas for which legal training is an asset, but not normally a requirement—for example, administrative, managerial, and business positions in banks, in­ surance firms, real estate companies, government agencies, and Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  other organizations. Employment opportunities are expected to continue to arise in these organizations at a growing rate. As in the past, some graduates may have to accept positions in areas outside their field of interest or for which they feel overquali­ fied. Some recent law school graduates who are unable to find per­ manent positions are turning to the growing number of temporary staffing firms that place attorneys in short-term jobs until they are able to secure full-time positions. This service allows companies to hire lawyers on an “as needed” basis and allows beginning lawyers to develop practical skills while looking for permanent positions. Due to the competition for jobs, a law graduate’s geographic mobility and work experience assume greater importance. The will­ ingness to relocate may be an advantage in getting a job, but to be licensed in another State, a lawyer may have to take an additional State bar examination. In addition, employers increasingly seek graduates who have advanced law degrees and experience in a spe­ cialty such as tax, patent, or admiralty law. Employment growth for lawyers will continue to be concentrated in salaried jobs, as businesses and all levels of government employ a growing number of staff attorneys, and as employment in the legal services industry grows in larger law firms. Most salaried positions are in urban areas where government agencies, law firms, and big corporations are concentrated. The number of self-employed law­ yers is expected to increase slowly, reflecting the difficulty of estab­ lishing a profitable new practice in the face of competition from larger, established law firms. Moreover, the growing complexity of law, which encourages specialization, along with the cost of maintaining up-to-date legal research materials, favors larger firms. For lawyers who wish to work independently, establishing a new practice will probably be easiest in small towns and expanding sub­ urban areas. In such communities, competition from larger estab­ lished law firms is likely to be less than in big cities, and new law­ yers may find it easier to become known to potential clients. Some lawyers are adversely affected by cyclical swings in the economy. During recessions, the demand declines for some discre­ tionary legal services, such as planning estates, drafting wills, and handling real estate transactions. Also, corporations are less likely to litigate cases when declining sales and profits result in budgetary restrictions. Some corporations and law firms will not hire new attorneys until business improves or may cut staff to contain costs. Several factors, however, mitigate the overall impact of recessions on lawyers. During recessions, for example, individuals and corpo­ rations face other legal problems, such as bankruptcies, foreclosures, and divorces requiring legal action. Employment of judges is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations. Contradictory social forces affect the demand forjudges. Growing public concerns about crime, safety, and efficient administration of justice should spur demand, while public budgetary pressures will limit job growth. Competition for judgeships should remain intense. As in the past, most job openings will arise as judges retire. Although judges tradi­ tionally have held their positions until late in life, early retirement is becoming more common, a factor which should increase job openings. Nevertheless, becoming a judge will still be difficult; not only must judicial candidates compete with other qualified people, they often must also gain political support in order to be elected or appointed.  Earnings  In 1998, the median annual earnings of all lawyers was $78,170. The middle half of the occupation earned between $51,450 and $114,520. The bottom decile earned less than $37,310. Median annual earnings in the industries employing the largest numbers of lawyers in 1997 are shown below. Legal services.................................... Federal government.......................... Fire, marine, and casualty insurance State government.............................. Local government............................  $78,700 78.200 74.400 59.400 49.200  Professional and Technical Occupations 145 Median salaries of lawyers 6 months after graduation from law school in 1998 varied by type of work, as indicated by table 1. Table I. Median salaries of lawyers 6 months after graduation, 1998 All graduates......................... ...........  «a« nnn  Type of work Private practice................ Business/industry.............. Academe.................. Judicial clerkship................. Government................. Public interest................  The requirements for admission to the bar in a particular State or other jurisdiction may also be obtained at the State capital from the clerk of the Supreme Court or the administrator of the State Board of Bar Examiners.  Paralegals (0*NET 28305)  Significant Points •  SOURCE: National Association for Law Placement  • Salaries of experienced attorneys vary widely according to the type, size, and location of their employer. Lawyers who own their own practices usually earn less than those who are partners in law firms. Lawyers starting their own practice may need to work part time in other occupations to supplement their income until their practice is well established. Earnings among judicial workers also vary significantly. Ac­ cording to the Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts, the Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court earned $175,400, and the Associate Justices earned $167,900. Federal district court judges had salaries of $136,700 in 1998, as did judges in the Court of Federal Claims and the Court of International Trade; circuit court judges earned $145,000 a year. Federal judges with limited jurisdiction, such as magistrates and bankruptcy court judges, had salaries of $125,800. According to a survey by the National Center for State Courts, annual salaries of associate justices of States’ highest courts aver­ aged $ 105,100 in 1997, and ranged from about $77,100 to $ 137,300. Salaries of State intermediate appellate court judges averaged $103,700, and ranged from $79,400 to $124,200. Salaries of State judges of general jurisdiction trial courts averaged $94,000, and ranged from $72,000 to $115,300. Most salaried lawyers and judges are provided health and life insurance, and contributions are made on their behalf to retirement plans. Lawyers who practice independently are only covered if they arrange and pay for such benefits themselves.  Related Occupations Legal training is useful in many other occupations. Some of these are arbitrator, mediator, journalist, patent agent, title examiner, leg­ islative assistant, lobbyist, FBI special agent, political office holder, and corporate executive.  Sources of Additional Information Information on law schools and a career in law may be obtained from: *- American Bar Association, 750 North Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, IL 60611. Internet:  Information on the LSAT, the Law School Data Assembly Ser­ vice, applying to law school, and financial aid for law students may be obtained from: Law School Admission Council, P.O. Box 40, Newtown, PA 18940. Internet:  Information on acquiring a job as a lawyer with the Federal Government may be obtained from the Office of Personnel Man­ agement through a telephone-based system. Consult your tele­ phone directory under U.S. Government for a local number or call (912) 757-3000; TDD (912) 744-2299. This number is not tollfree and charges may result. Information also is available from their Internet site: Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  •  While some paralegals train on the job, employers increasingly prefer graduates of postsecondary parale­ gal training programs. Paralegals are projected to rank among the fastest growing occupations in the economy as they increas­ ingly perform many legal tasks formerly carried out by lawyers. Stiff competition is expected as the number of gradu­ ates of paralegal training programs and others seeking to enter the profession outpaces job growth.  Nature of the Work While lawyers assume ultimate responsibility for legal work, they often delegate many of their tasks to paralegals. In fact, paralegals continue to assume a growing range of tasks in the Nation’s legal offices and perform many of the same tasks as lawyers. Neverthe­ less, they are still explicitly prohibited from carrying out duties which are considered to be the practice of law, such as setting legal fees, giving legal advice, and presenting cases in court. One of a paralegal’s most important tasks is helping lawyers pre­ pare for closings, hearings, trials, and corporate meetings. Parale­ gals investigate the facts of cases and ensure all relevant informa­ tion is considered. They also identify appropriate laws, judicial decisions, legal articles, and other materials that are relevant to as­ signed cases. After they analyze and organize the information, para­ legals may prepare written reports that attorneys use in determining how cases should be handled. Should attorneys decide to file law­ suits on behalf of clients, paralegals may help prepare the legal ar­ guments, draft pleadings and motions to be filed with the court, obtain affidavits, and assist attorneys during trials. Paralegals also organize and track files of all important case documents and make them available and easily accessible to attorneys. In addition to this preparatory work, paralegals also perform a number of other vital functions. For example, they help draft con­ tracts, mortgages, separation agreements, and trust instruments. They may also assist in preparing tax returns and planning estates. Some paralegals coordinate the activities of other law office employees and maintain financial records for the office. Various additional tasks may differ, depending on the employer. Paralegals are found in all types of organizations, but most are employed by law firms, corporate legal departments, and various levels of government. In these organizations, they may work in all areas of the law, including litigation, personal injury, corporate law, criminal law, employee benefits, intellectual property, labor law’ and real estate. Within specialties, functions often are broken down further so paralegals may deal with a specific area. For example, paralegals specializing in labor law may deal exclusively with em­ ployee benefits. The duties of paralegals also differ widely based on the type of organization in which they are employed. Paralegals who work for corporations often assist attorneys with employee contracts, share­ holder agreements, stock option plans, and employee benefit plans. They may also help prepare and file annual financial reports, main­ tain corporate minute books and resolutions, and secure loans for  146 Occupational Outlook Handbook the corporation. Paralegals also occasionally review government regulations to ensure the corporation operates within the law. The duties of paralegals who work in the public sector usually vary in each agency. In general, they analyze legal material for inter­ nal use, maintain reference files, conduct research for attorneys, and collect and analyze evidence for agency hearings. They may then prepare informative or explanatory material on laws, agency regula­ tions, and agency policy for general use by the agency and the public. Paralegals employed in community legal service projects help the poor, the aged, and others in need of legal assistance. They file forms, conduct research, prepare documents, and when authorized by law, may represent clients at administrative hearings. Paralegals in small and medium-sized law firms usually perform a variety of duties that require a general knowledge of the law. For example, they may research judicial decisions on improper police arrests or help prepare a mortgage contract. Paralegals employed by large law firms, government agencies, and corporations, how­ ever, are more likely to specialize in one aspect of the law. A growing number of paralegals use computers in their work. Computer software packages and the Internet are increasingly used to search legal literature stored in computer databases and on CDROM. In litigation involving many supporting documents, parale­ gals may use computer databases to retrieve, organize, and index various materials. Imaging software allows paralegals to scan docu­ ments directly into a database, while billing programs help them to track hours billed to clients. Computer software packages may also be used to perform tax computations and explore the consequences of possible tax strategies for clients.  Working Conditions  Paralegals employed by corporations and government usually work a standard 40-hour week. Although most paralegals work year round, some are temporarily employed during busy times of the year, then released when the workload diminishes. Paralegals who work for law firms sometimes work ve