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L2- 3/4  Occupational Outlook Handbook  v U.S,; Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics May, 1994 Bulletin 2450   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  £wsooe  3I£Sni  1994-95  Edition   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Things Worth Noting • Pointers on interpreting the information presented in the Handbook are found in Keys To Understanding What’s in the Handbook, page 1. • Additional career-oriented materials, available from private and public organizations, are described in Sources of Information on Career Preparation and Training, page 5. • An overview of the job outlook for the year 2005 is given in Tomorrow’s Jobs, page 11. • For 77 occupations not covered in detail in the Handbook, brief descriptions of the nature of the work, number of jobs in 1992, and the projected 1992-2005 change in employment are presented in a section beginning on page 458. • The assumptions and methods used in preparing BLS employment projections are described briefly on page 464. • Occupational Projections and Training Data and the Occupational Outlook Quarterly are publications that  supplement or complement material presented in the Handbook. See page 498 and the inside back cover for information about these publications. • Sources of State and local job outlook information can be found on page 465. Information also can be obtained from any of the following Bureau of Labor Statistics Regional Offices: Atlanta—Suite 540, Peachtree St. NE., Atlanta, GA 30367. Phone (404) 347-4416. Boston—10th Floor, 1 Congress St., Boston, MA 02114. Phone (617) 565-2327. Chicago—9th Floor, Federal Office Bldg., 230 South Dearborn St., Chicago, IL 60604. Phone (312) 353-1880. Dallas—Room 221, Federal Bldg., 525 Griffin St., Dallas TX 75202. Phone (214) 767-6970. Kansas City—15th Floor, 911 Walnut St., Kansas City, MO 64106. Phone (816) 426-2481. New York—Room 808, 201 VarickSt., New York, NY 10014. Phone (212) 337-2400. Philadelphia—3535 Market St., P.O. Box 13309, Philadelphia, PA 19101. Phone (215) 596-1154. San Francisco—71 Stevenson St., P.O. Box 193766, San Francisco, CA 94119. Phone (415) 744-6600.  l a .3/4  Occupational Outlook Handbook  1994-95 Edition  U.S. Department of Labor Robert B. Reich, Secretary Bureau of Labor Statistics Katharine G. Abraham, Commissioner April 1994 Bulletin 2450 5.M •  029-00/- 03/58-/   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  S.M.S.U. LIBRARY JUN 2 2 1994 U.S. DEPOSITORY   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  BmBJ   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Message from the Secretary  p> « JP*”*%, IT. 0m" 1!  ^Z'hanges in markets and technologies have dramati­ cally altered the rules for competing in the global work­ place. Preparation for tomorrow’s jobs and the chal­ lenges posed by the new world economy will require an American work force that can adapt to changing work­ place requirements. The Occupational Outlook Handbook, the Govern­ ment’s premier publication on career guidance, pro­ vides essential information about prospective changes in the world of work and the qualifications that will be needed by tomorrow’s workers.  ROBERTB. REICH   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Foreword  (jlobal competition, changing technology and busi­ ness practices, and shifts in the demand for goods and services are reshaping the American job market—mak­ ing the need for comprehensive, up-to-date, and reliable career information more important than ever before. The Bureau’s Occupational Outlook Handbook has been a nationally recognized source of career informa­ tion for more than four and a half decades. Revised every 2 years, the Handbook describes what workers do on the job, the training and education needed, earnings, working conditions, and expected job prospects in a wide range of occupations covering over 100 million jobs. The 1994-95 edition of the Handbook provides valuable assistance to individuals making career deci­ sions about their future work lives.  KATHARINE G. ABRAHAM Commissioner Bureau of Labor Statistics   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Acknowledgments The Handbook was produced in the Bureau of Labor Statis­ tics under the general guidance and direction of Ronald E. Kutscher, Associate Commissioner for Employment Projec­ tions and Neal H. Rosenthal, Chief, Division of Occupa­ tional Outlook. Mike Pilot, Manager, Occupational Outlook Program, was responsible for planning and day-to-day direc­ tion. Project leaders supervising the research and preparation of material were Douglas J. Braddock, Daniel E. Hecker, Chester C. Levine, Jon Q. Sargent, and Darrel Patrick Wash. Occupational analysts who contributed material were Thomas A. Amirault, Megan Barkume, Verada P. Bluford, Anne W. Clymer, Theresa Cosca, Geoffrey Gradler, Jeffrey Charles Gruenert, Conley Hall Dillon, Jr., Shelley Davis Franklin, Ari Karen, Colleen Keefe, Christopher Martin, Elizabeth McGregor, Mark Mittelhauser, Rachel Moskowitz, Ludmilla K. Murphy, Matthew Rosenbaum, Kurt E. Schrammel, Douglas S. Shapiro, Kristina Shelley, and Gary Steinberg. Word processing support was handled by Beverly A. Wil­ liams.  Note A great many trade associations, professional societies, unions, industrial organizations, and government agencies provide ca­ reer information that is valuable to counselors and jobseekers. For the convenience of Handbook users, some of these organi­ zations are listed at the end of each occupational statement. Although these references were carefully compiled, the Bu­ reau of Labor Statistics has neither authority nor facilities for investigating the organizations or the information or publica­ tions that may be sent in response to a request and cannot guarantee the accuracy of such information. The listing of an organization, therefore, does not constitute in any way an en­ dorsement or recommendation by the Bureau either of the or­ ganization and its activities or of the information it may sup­ ply. Each organization has sole responsibility for whatever information it may issue. The occupational information contained in the Handbook presents a general, composite description ofjobs and cannot be expected to reflect work situations in specific establishments or localities. The Handbook, therefore, is not intended and should not be used as a guide for determining wages, hours, the right of a particular union to represent workers, appropriate bargaining units, or formal job evaluation systems. Nor should earnings data in the Handbook be used to compute future loss of earnings in adjudication proceedings involving work inju­ ries or accidental deaths. Material in this publication is in the public domain and, with appropriate credit, may be reproduced without permis­ sion. Comments about the contents of this publication and suggestions for improving it are welcome. Please address them to Chief, Division of Occupational Outlook, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC 20212­ 0001.  VII   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Photograph Credits The Bureau of Labor Statistics wishes to express its appreciation for the cooperation and assistance of the many government and private sources—listed below—that either contributed photographs or made their facilities available to photographers working under con­ tract to the U.S. Department of Labor. Photographs may not be free of every possible safety or health hazard. Depiction of company or trade name in no way constitutes endorsement by the Department of Labor. A & B Shellfish Co., Inc.; Abbey Home Services; Ace—Federal Reporters; Air Control Services, Inc.; Allied Elevator, Inc.; The American Film Institute—The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts; Amtrak, Galesburg, 111.; Arlington County, Va.—Office of the Sheriff; Arlington Funeral Home: Artech Construction Co.; A & R Tool Equipment; Steve Barrett; Robin Michelle Barrett; Hugh Belton Fine Woodworking; Bethesda Elementary School; Charles M. Beverly Co.; Bill’s Carpet Warehouse; Blakeslee-Lane; Borders Bookstore; Elizabeth Brikowski; Burlington Northern Railroad; Butler Aviation; C & P Telephone; Walter E. Campbell Co., Inc.; United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners Local Union 1831; Central Delivery Services; Crane Rental Co., Inc.; Pastor Louisa Davis— Grace Christ Church; District of Columbia Department of Corrections; District of Columbia Police Department; D.C. Vending Co.; D.C. Village; Deep Run Park; Janet Dinsmore—American Prosecutors Research Institute; Electric Shaver Shops VA Inc.; Ellis Upholstery; Environmental Protection Agency; Equitable Trust Co., Baltimore, Md.; Fairfax County, Va. Fire and Rescue Department; Family Dentistry; Family Eyecare; Federal Aviation Administration; Feline Veterinary Clinic; Ferris, Baker, Watts, Inc.; First Virginia Bank; Fontana Affiliated Lithograph; Galesburg Cottage Hospital; Galesburg Sanitary District; George Washington University; George Washington University Hospital; James W. Grimm— Mid-State Coal Co.; Kevin Hassett—State Farm Insurance; Hechinger Corp.; George Hyman Construction Co.; Information Technology Association of America; Frank lx & Sons, Inc.; Jane Jabbour; Jack’s Auto Body; James River Corp.; Joe’s Pizza; Steve Jones; Joy of Motion; Jump Studio; Knox Veterinary Clinic; Koon’s Ford, Falls Church, Va.; Life Chiropractic Center; June Linowitz; M & M Welding Co.; Maryland National Capital Park and Planning Commission; Jocelyn McClure— Coldwell Banker; George Meany Labor Studies Center; Memorial Hospital and Medical Care Center, Cumberland, Md.; Metropolitan Area Transit Authority, Washington, D.C.; Midway Marine; Midwest Photo and Video; Minneapolis American Indian Center; Montgomery County Library— Silver Spring Branch; Montgomery County Schools; NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center; National Association of Elementary School Principals; National Institute of Standards and Technology; National Park Service; National Weather Service Forecast Office; New England Bell Telephone; Northern Virginia Community College; Northern Virginia Roofing; Oehme, van Sweden, and Associates, Inc.; Pioneer Technologies; Dr. Janice Postal; Potomac Electric Power Co.; President’s Committee on Employment of People With Disabilities; Protech; Quad Cities Nuclear Power Plant; Radisson Mark Plaza Hotel; Red Top Cab Co.; Reinforcing Ironworkers Local Union #201; Bill Rice; St. Mark’s Catholic Church, Hyattsville, Md.; Susan Sanders—Fine Art Jewelry; Sandy Spring Friends School; Shively Shoe Repair and Leather Goods; Senator Paul Simon; Singletary Auto Body; Stephenson Printing; Strauss Photo-Technical Services, Inc; Teamsters Local 639; Dr. Mai Ting; Dr. John S. Toman; Top Japanese Auto; Urban Institute; USAir; U.S. Army Corp of Engineers; U.S. Assist Travel; U.S. Department of Agriculture; U.S. Department of Defense Manpower Data Center; U.S. Department of Energy; U.S. Department of Transportation; U.S. Geological Survey; U.S. News and World Report; U.S. Postal Service; Wagoner Printing Co.; WDCU-FM Washington, D.C.; Westbriar Condominium; White Earth Health Clinic; T.C. Williams High School, Alexandria, Va.; Roger Winter Masonry; Working Images Photographs—Martha Tabor; Frank L. Wright & Co.  viii  Contents Special Features Keys To Understanding What’s in the Handbook........  1  Sources of Information on Career Preparation and Training...........................................................................  5  Tomorrow’s Jobs............................................................... Summary Data for Occupations Not Studied in Detail Assumptions and Methods Used in Preparing Employment Projections.............................................. Sources of State and Local Job Outlook Information.. Dictionary of Occupational Titles Coverage................. Reprints.............................................................................. Index..................................................  Occupational Coverage Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations Accountants and auditors ....................................................... Administrative services managers ......................................... Budget analysts ....................................................................... Construction and building inspectors..................................... Construction contractors and managers................................ Cost estimators......................................................................... Education administrators ....................................................... Emploment interviewers ........................................................ Engineering, science, and data processing managers ............ Financial managers ................................................................. Funeral directors...................................................................... General managers and top executives ................................... Government chief executives and legislators ......................... Health services managers........................................................ Hotel managers and assistants .............................................. Industrial production managers ............................................ Inspectors and compliance officers, except construction ...... Loan officers and counselors .................................................. Management analysts and consultants .................................. Marketing, advertising, and public relations managers ......... Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers ...................................................................... Property and real estate managers ......................................... Purchasers and buyers............................................................. Restaurant and food service managers .................................. Retail managers....................................................................... Underwriters ................... ........................................................  Professional Specialty Occupations Engineers.................................................................................. Aerospace engineers ................................................................ Chemical engineers ................................................................. Civil engineers .........................................................................  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Electrical and electronics engineers........................................ Industrial engineers......................................................... Mechanical engineers.............................................................. Metallurgical, ceramic, and materials engineers ................... Mining engineers..................................................................... Nuclear engineers.................................................................... Petroleum engineers ...............................................................  Architects and surveyors Architects ................................................................................ 12 Landscape architects .............................................................. Surveyors................................................................................. 458 Computer, mathematical, and operations research occupations vk Actuaries ............................................................................... 464 Computer scientists and systems analysts ............................. Mathematicians....................................................................... 465 Operations research analysts .................................................. Statisticians ............................................................................. 468 Life scientists Agricultural scientists ............................................................. 484 Biological scientists ................. Foresters and conservation scientists ..................................... 487 Physical scientists Chemists................................................................................... Geologists and geophysicists .................................................. ^Meteorologists ........................................................................ Physicists and astronomers..................................................... Lawyers and judges................................................................. 17 Social scientists and urban planners...................................... 20 Economists and marketing research analysts ........................ 22 Psychologists........................................................................... 24 [Sociologists.............................................................................. 26 Urban and regional planners .................................................. 28 Social and recreation workers 30 Human services workers ........................................................ 32 Recreation workers ................................................................. 34 Social workers.......................................................................... 36 Religious workers 38 Protestant ministers ............................................................... 40 Rabbis ...................................................................................... 42 Roman Catholic priests........................................................... 44 46 Teachers, librarians, and counselors 48 Adult education teachers ........................................................ 49 Archivists and curators........................................................... 53 College and university faculty................................................. 54 Counselors .............................................................................. 56 Librarians ................................................................................ >* School teachers—Kindergarten, elementary, 59 andsecondary..................................................................... 62 Health diagnosing practitioners 65 Chiropractors .......................................................................... 68 Dentists.................................................................................... 70 Optometrists ........................................................................... 73fc/ Physicians ............................................... Podiatrists................................................................................ Veterinarians........................................................................... 75 Health assessment and treating occupations 77 Dietitians and nutritionists ..................................................... 78 ^Occupational therapists .......................................................... 79 Pharmacists ...............................................................  79 80 80 81 82 82 83 84 85 87  90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 107 108 110 Ill 114 119 121 124 126 129 132 133 136 138 139 140 143 144 147 149 151 153 157 158 160 161 163 165 167 168 169 IX  Physical therapists ................................................................... Physician assistants .......................................... Recreational therapists ........................................................... Registered nurses .................................................................... Respirator therapists .............................................................. Speech-language pathologists and audiologists .....................  171 173 174 175 178 179  Communications occupations Public relations specialists....................................................... Radio and television announcers and newscasters ................ Reporters and correspondents ............................................... Writers and editors .................................................................  182 184 185 187  Visual arts occupations Designers................................................................................. Photographers and camera operators..................................... Visual artists ...........................................................................  189 191 194  Performing arts occupations Actors, directors, and producers............................................. Dancers and choreographers................................................... Musicians ................................................................................  197 198 200  Technicians and Related Support Occupations Health technologists and technicians Cardiovascular technologists and technicians........................ Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians.................. Dental hygienists .................................................................... Dispensing opticians................................................................ EEG technologists ................................................................... Emergency medical technicians.............................................. Licensed practical nurses........................................................ Medical record technicians..................................................... Nuclear medicine technologists .............................................. Radiologic technologists ........................................................ Surgical technicians.................................................................  202 203 205 206 208 209 211 212 213 214 216  Technologists, except health Aircraft pilots .......................................................................... Air traffic controllers .............................................................. Broadcast technicians ............................................................. Computer programmers.......................................................... Drafters ................................................................................... Engineering technicians .......................................................... Library technicians ................................................................. Paralegals ................................................................................ Science technicians .................................................................  218 220 222 224 226 228 230 231 233  Marketing and Sales Occupations Cashiers ................................................................................... 235 Counter and rental clerks ....................................................... 236 ^Insurance agents and brokers ................................................. >237 Manufacturers’ and wholesale sales representatives ............. 239 Real estate agents, brokers, and appraisers ............................ 241 Retail sales workers................................................................. 244 Securities and financial services sales representatives............ 246 Services sales representatives................................................... 248 Travel agents ........................................................................... 250  Administrative Support Occupations, Including Clerical Adjusters, investigators, and collectors.................................. Bank tellers.............................................................................. Clerical supervisors and managers .......................................... Computer and peripheral equipment operators ..................... Credit clerks and authorizers ................................................. General office clerks ................................................................ Information clerks .................................................................. Hotel and motel clerks ........................................................ Interviewing and new accounts clerks ............................... Receptionists ....................................................................... x  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  253 257 259 260 262 263 264 266 266 267  Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks.............................................................. Mail clerks and messengers .................................................... Material recording, scheduling, dispatching, and distributing occupations .......................................... Dispatchers............................. Stock clerks.......................................................................... Traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks ............................... Postal clerks and mail carriers ................................................ Record clerks .......................................................................... Billing clerks ....................................................................... Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks .................. Brokerage clerks and statement clerks ............................... File clerks............................................................................. Library assistants and bookmobile drivers......................... Order clerks ......................................................................... Payroll and timekeeping clerks........................................... Personnel clerks ................................................................... Secretaries ................................................................................ Stenographers and court reporters.......................................... Teacher aides............................................................................ Telephone operators ................................................................ Typists, word processors, and data entry keyers ...................  268 269 270 272 273 274 275 277 279 280 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 289 290 292  Service Occupations Protective service occupations Correction officers ................... Firefighting occupations ......................................................... Guards ..................................................................................... Police, detectives, and special agents .....................................  295 297 299 301  Food and beverage preparation and service occupations Chefs, cooks, and other kitchen workers ............................... Food and beverage service occupations..................................  304 306  Health service occupations Dental assistants ...................................................................... Medical assistants.................................................................... Nursing aides and psychiatric aides........................................  309 310 311  Personal service and building and grounds service occupations Animal caretakers, except farm .............................................. Barbers and cosmetologists .................................................... Preschool workers ................................................................... Flight attendants...................................................................... Gardeners and groundskeepers .............................................. Homemaker-home health aides .............................................. Janitors and cleaners................................................................ Private household workers ......................................................  314 315 317 319 321 322 324 325  Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, and Related Occupations Farm operators and managers ................................................ Fishers, hunters, and trappers................................................. Forestry and logging occupations...........................................  327 329 332  Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers Aircraft mechanics and engine specialists .............................. Automotive body repairers ...................................................... Automotive mechanics ........................................................... Diesel mechanics...................................................................... Electronic equipment repairers .............................................. Commercial and industrial electronic equipment repairers .......................................................................... Communications equipment mechanics ............................ Computer and office machine repairers.............................. Electronic home entertainment equipment repairers ........ Telephone installers and repairers ..................................... Elevator installers and repairers ............................................. Farm equipment mechanics ....................................................  335 337 338 341 343 345 345 346 347 347 348 349  T  General maintenance mechanics............................................ Heating, air-conditioning, and refrigeration technicians ...... Home appliance and power tool repairers ............................. Industrial machinery repairers............................................... Line installers and cable splicers ............................................ Millwrights.............................................................................. Mobile heavy equipment mechanics ...................................... Motorcycle, boat, and small-engine mechanics ..................... Musical instrument repairers and tuners ............................... Vending machine servicers and repairers ...............................  351 352 354 356 357 359 360 362 364 366  Construction Trades and Extractive Occupations Bricklayers and stonemasons ................................................. Carpenters................................................................................ Carpet installers....................................................................... Concrete masons and terrazzo workers.................................. Drywall workers and lathers .................................................. Electricians.............................................................................. Glaziers.................................................................................... Insulation workers .................................................................. Painters and paperhangers ..................................................... Plasterers .................................................................................. Plumbers and pipefitters.......................................................... Roofers .................................................................................... Roustabouts............................................................................. Sheetmetal workers ................................................................. Structural and reinforcing ironworkers.................................. Tilesetters ................................................................................  368 369 371 372 374 375 377 379 380 382 383 385 386 388 389 391  Production Occupations   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  400 402 404 406 408  Plant and systems operators Electric power generating plant operators and power distributors and dispatchers ............................................... Stationary engineers ............................................................... Water and wastewater treatment plant operators ..................  410 411 413  Printing occupations Prepress workers..................................................................... Printing press operators ......................................................... Bindery workers .....................................................................  415 417 419  Textile, apparel, and furnishings occupations Apparel workers ..................................................................... Shoe and leather workers and repairers ................................ Textile machinery operators .................................................. Upholsterers ...........................................................................  421 423 424 426  Woodworking occupations .....................................................  427  Miscellaneous production occupations Dental laboratory technicians................................................ Ophthalmic laboratory technicians ........................................ Painting and coating machine operators ............................... Photographic process workers ...............................................  429 431 432 434  Transportation and Material Moving Occupations Busdrivers ................................................................................ Material moving equipment operators................................... Rail transportation occupation ............................................. Taxi drivers and chauffeurs ................................................... Truckdrivers ........................................................................... Water transportation occupations .........................................  436 438 440 442 444 447  396 397  Handlers, Equipment Cleaners, Helpers, and Laborers  450  399  Job Opportunities in the Armed Forces.........................  452  Assemblers Precision assemblers ................................................................ Blue-collar worker supervisors .............................................. Food processing occupations Butchers and meat, poultry, and fish cutters ......................... Inspectors, testers, and graders .............................................. Metalworking and plastics-working occupations Boilermakers ............................................................................  Jewelers.................................................................................... Machinists and tool programmers ......................................... Metalworking and plastics-working machine operators ....... Tool and die makers ............................................................... Welders, cutters, and welding machine operators..................  393 394  XI  Keys To Understanding What’s in the Handbook The Occupational Outlook Handbook describes about 250 occupa­ tions in detail—covering about 104 million jobs, or 85 percent of all jobs in the Nation. Occupations that require lengthy education or training are given more attention. In addition, summary informa­ tion on 77 occupations—accounting for another 6 percent of all jobs—is presented in the chapter beginning on page 458. The re­ maining 9 percent of all jobs are mainly residual categories—such as all other management support workers—for which little meaningful information could be developed. The Handbook is best used as a reference; it is not meant to be read from cover to cover. Instead, start by exploring the table of contents, where related occupations are grouped in clusters, or look in the alphabetical index at the end of the Handbook for specific oc­ cupations that interest you. This introductory chapter explains how the occupational descriptions, or statements, are organized. The next two chapters, Sources of Information on Career Preparation and Training, and Tomorrow’s Jobs, tell you where to obtain addi­ tional information and discuss the forces that are likely to determine employment opportunities in industries and occupations through the year 2005. For any occupation that sounds interesting to you, use the Hand­ book to find out what the work entails; what education and training you need; what the advancement possibilities, earnings, and job out­ look are; and what related occupations you might consider. Each occupational statement in the Handbook follows a standard format, making it easier for you to compare occupations. The following de­ scribes each section of a Handbook statement, and gives some hints on how to interpret the information provided.  About Those Numbers at the Beginning of Each Statement The numbers in parentheses that appear just below the title of most occupational statements are from the Dictionary of Oc­ cupational Titles (D.O.T.), Fourth Edition, Revised 1991, a U.S. Department of Labor publication. Each number classi­ fies the occupation by the type of work, required training, physical demands, and working conditions. D.O.T. numbers are used primarily by State employment service offices to classify applicants and job openings. They are included in the Handbook because some career information centers and li­ braries use them for filing occupational information. An index at the back of this book beginning on page 468 cross-references the Revised Fourth Edition D.O.T. numbers to occupations covered in the Handbook.  Nature of the Work This section explains what workers typically do on the job, what equipment they use, how closely they are supervised, the end prod­ uct of their efforts, and how much variety there is in their daily rou­ tine. Technological innovations that are changing what workers do or how they do it, as well as emerging specialties, also are described here. Responsibilities of workers in the same occupation usually vary by employer, industry, and size of firm. In small organizations, for example, workers generally perform a wider range of duties because the resources for specialization simply do not exist. In addition, most occupations have several levels of skill and responsibility.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Trainees or those with little experience may start by performing rou­ tine tasks under close supervision. Experienced workers perform more difficult duties, with greater independence, while the most skilled and senior workers perform the most difficult and responsi­ ble jobs. Working Conditions This section describes work hours, the physical environment, work­ ers’ susceptibility to injury and illness, and protective clothing and safety equipment that commonly are worn. In many occupations, people usually work regular business hours—40 hours a week, mornings and afternoons, Monday through Friday. Others may work nights or weekends, or more than 40 hours—periodically or on a regular basis. Some workers have a degree of freedom in deter­ mining their hours—in occupations that lend themselves to tempo­ rary work or self-employment, for example. Some jobs are per­ formed in pleasant surroundings, while others are in dirty, noisy, dangerous, or stressful ones. Workers may move around a lot or work in a confined space, with varying degrees of physical exertion. Some jobs require outdoor work or extensive travel. A growing number of employers require drug testing. Employment This section reports how many jobs this occupation provided in 1992, and in what industries they were found. Where significant, it also discusses the geographic distribution of jobs, the proportion of workers in the occupation who worked part time (fewer than 35 hours a week), and the proportion who were self-employed. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement You can be trained for jobs in high schools, colleges, postsecondary vocational schools, home study courses, government training pro­ grams, the Armed Forces, apprenticeships and other formal train­ ing programs offered by employers, or informally on the job. In most occupations, there are various ways to get training. This sec­ tion identifies the different ways, and indicates the most common or the type generally preferred by employers. It lists high school and college courses considered useful preparation for a job, discusses the nature and length of the training or education program, and reveals if continuing education is required to maintain the position. Re­ member, the amount of training you have often determines the level at which you enter an occupation and how quickly you may ad­ vance. For entry level jobs in many occupations covered in the Hand­ book, employers do not require specific formal training but instead look for other qualifications. They hire people with good general skills and the proven ability to learn, then give them the specific training needed to do the job. Employers want people who get along with others; have good work habits; read, write, and speak well; and have basic mathematical and, increasingly, basic computer skills. They may require a high school diploma or college degree as evi­ dence of good general skills. Handbook statements also list other de­ sirable aptitudes and personal characteristics—such as mechanical aptitude, manual dexterity, patience, accuracy, and ability to work as part of a team or without close supervision. This section also indicates whether a certificate, examination, or license is required for entry into the field or for independent prac­ tice, and if it is helpful for advancement. It also describes typical paths of advancement within the occupation, whether continuing education is required, and patterns of movement or advancement to other occupations. 1  2  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Job Outlook This section identifies the factors that will influence employment in the occupation through the year 2005. How will government spending, technological advances, changing business practices, or shifting population patterns affect the demand for workers? The projections of job outlook presented in the Handbook are based on a set of assumptions about how the economy is likely to change between 1992 and 2005. After studying economic trends, how industries currently operate, and the directions in which they are moving, the number, distribution, and composition of jobs in 2005 were projected. Of course, no one can predict with certainty all the economic, political, social, and technological forces that will ul­ timately influence employment growth and job prospects in the fu­ ture. A summary of the assumptions and methods used by the Bu­ reau of Labor Statistics in making employment projections is presented on page 464. A detailed description is presented in The American Work Force: 1992-2005, BLS Bulletin 2452. If an occupation grows rapidly, it obviously will provide more openings than if it grows slowly. Moreover, the strong demand for talent in a rapidly growing occupation generally improves chances for advancement and mobility. Keep in mind that slow-growing oc­ cupations, if large, also provide many job openings. The need to re­ place workers who transfer occupations or leave the labor force cre­ ates the majority of job openings in most occupations, regardless of the rate of growth. Large occupations generally have more replace­ ment openings than small ones. Those with low pay and status, few training requirements, and a high proportion of young, old, or part­ time workers generally have more turnover than those with high pay and status, lengthy training requirements, and many prime­ working-age, full-time workers.  Key Phrases in the Handbook Changing employment between 1992 and 2005 If the statement reads...  Employment is projected to...  Grow much faster than the average Grow faster than the average Grow about as fast as the average Little change or grow more slowly than the average Decline  Increase 41 percent or more Increase 27 to 40 percent Increase 14 to 26 percent  job openings and the number of jobseekers. The descriptions of the relationship between the supply of and demand for workers in a par­ ticular occupation reflects the knowledge and judgment of econo­ mists in the Bureau’s Office of Employment Projections. Individuals might want to enter an occupation or specialty or lo­ cate in a geographic area that has fewer qualified workers than jobs. This is understandable because, under these shortage conditions, jobseekers generally can choose from more job offers, expect higher salaries, and advance faster. Keep in mind, however, that even in oc­ cupations with a rough balance of jobseekers and openings, almost all qualified applicants can usually find jobs, although perhaps not their first choice. When there are surpluses of workers, on the other hand, applicants may have to search for a longer time, accept a less desirable offer, find a job in another occupation, or face extended unemployment. But since job openings do exist even in overcrowded fields, good students or well-qualified individuals should not be de­ terred from undertaking training or seeking entry. Some statements discuss job security—workers in some occupa­ tions are more likely than workers in other occupations to keep or lose their jobs during recessions or government budget cuts, or when new technologies are introduced. Finally, it is possible that opportunities in your community or State are better or worse than those described in the Handbook, which discusses opportunities in the Nation as a whole. Therefore, it is important to check with local sources. (See the chapter on Sources of Information on Career Preparation and Training, beginning on page 5, and the list of State and local agencies, beginning on page 465.) Earnings This section indicates how much workers in the occupation gener­ ally earn. Earnings are based on several types of pay plans. Workers may be paid a straight annual salary, an hourly wage, commissions based on a percentage of what they sell, or a piece rate for each item they produce. Others receive tips for services to customers. Workers  Employer costs for employee benefits have grown as a percent of compensation. Percent of compensation  Increase 0 to 13 percent  30-1  Decrease 1 percent or more  Opportunities and competition for jobs If the statement reads...  Job openings compared to job­ seekers may be...  Excellent opportunities Very good opportunities Good or favorable opportunities May face competition May face keen competition  Much more numerous More numerous About the same Fewer Much fewer  Besides describing projected employment change, this section also may discuss the degree of competition for jobs that applicants are likely to encounter. How easy or hard will it be to get a job in this field? Does the occupation attract many more jobseekers than there are openings to be filled? Do opportunities vary by industry, size of firm, or geographic location? The accompanying box explains how to interpret the key phrases used to describe projected changes in employment. It also explains the terms used to describe the relationship between the number of  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Source: Department of Commerce, Chamber of Commerce, and Bureau of Labor Statistics  Keys To Understanding What’s in the Handbook  Jobs within occupations differ in complexity and pay varies accordingly.  Half of all physical therapists earned between $26,600 and $43,600 in 1992.  Range of annual salaries for middle 50 percent of employees in each level, June 1992  Percent distribution of full-time salaried physical therapists, 1992  3  Median $35,500  $120,000 3rd quartile  $110,000 Median  $100,000  1st quartile  $90,000 $80,000 $70,000  3rd quartile i $43,600  $60,000 1st quartile $26,600V  $50,000  9th decile $52,500  $40,000 1st decile $17,800.  $30,000  $20,000 $10 000 -J—1—lllii I  L_  II III IV V VI VIIVIII  Engineers  J__IIIIl_ _JII__L. I II III IV V VI I II III IV Engineering technicians  Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics  also may be paid a combination of a salary plus commission, or a salary or hourly wage plus bonus, piecework, or tips. Nearly all workers receive employer-paid benefits in addition to wages and salaries. Standard employee benefits such as health, pen­ sion, and vacation and sick leave generally are not mentioned in the detailed occupational statements. Instead, the statements focus on unique benefits, if any. Teachers, for example, get summers off; col­ lege faculty get sabbatical leave and tuition for dependents; pilots, flight attendants, and aircraft mechanics working for airlines get free or discounted air travel for themselves and their families; and retail sales workers get discounted merchandise. In 1991, benefits comprised about 28 percent of total compensa­ tion costs, reflecting increases in social security and medical care benefits, as well as growth in benefits designed to meet the needs of a changing labor force—parental leave, child care, and employee as­ sistance programs, for example (chart 1). In addition to medical care, most employees also receive pensions, paid vacations and holi­ days, and life insurance. Some also receive stock options, profit sharing plans, savings plans, tuition assistance, discounts on mer­ chandise, and expense accounts. Benefits vary depending on where an employee works and whether they work full time or part time. State and local govern­ ment employees, for example, generally have a higher incidence of medical and dental care, life insurance, retirement plans, and differ­ ent types of leave than workers in the private sector. Private sector employees, on the other hand, tend to have a higher incidence of holidays, vacations, and sickness and accident insurance. Workers employed in medium and large firms with 100 or more employees enjoy better benefits than workers in small firms with fewer than 100 workers. Medium and large firms generally provided more medical and dental, life insurance, and retirement benefits, as well as more unpaid maternity leave and long term disability insur­ ance. Paid vacations and holidays, and medical care and life insur­ ance were the only benefits available to the majority of workers in small firms.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ■?' 4?' o9>' <&'  $>'  4?' <Z>  Drafters Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics  Similarly, full-time workers almost always receive more benefits than part-time employees. For example, one third of part-time em­ ployees received paid vacations and holidays in 1991, compared to over four-fifths of full-time workers. Employee benefits also are dis­ cussed in the section on evaluating a job offer in the following chap­ ter, Sources of Information on Career Preparation and Training, be­ ginning on page 5. About 8 percent of all workers were self-employed in 1992. Their earnings vary more than those of workers on wages or salaries and, unlike most wage and salary workers, they pay for their own bene­ fits. Within every occupation, earnings of workers vary depending on experience, level of responsibility, performance, industry, amount of unionization, and geographic area. Earnings generally are higher in cities than in rural areas, and vary by geographic region. Keep in mind that the geographic areas where earnings are higher often have higher costs of living as well. The level of responsibility that goes with a job affects earnings, too. Annual salaries for eight levels of engineers, five levels of engi­ neering technicians, and five levels of drafters are illustrated in chart 2. These reflect different work levels, starting with entry level jobs and continuing up the career ladder to more complex and responsi­ ble supervisory positions. Therefore, it is rarely accurate to say that all people in one occupation earn more than those in another. We can say that the average is higher or that the middle range of earn­ ings is higher, but there usually is some overlap. Many Handbook statements cite Current Population Survey (CPS) data. They show the median earnings of full-time salaried (but not selfemployed) workers in 1992. (The median is the midpoint—half earned more than this and half earned less.) They generally also give the range of earnings of the middle 50 percent of workers, and earnings of the low­ est and highest 10 percent. The earnings distribution of physical ther­ apists in 1992, based on CPS data, is illustrated in chart 3. The shaded area under the curve indicates that the median was $35,500, with onehalf earning between $26,600 and $43,600. The lowest 10 percent earned under $17,800, while the highest 10 percent earned more than  4  Occupational Outlook Handbook  $52,500. You can compare CPS earnings data between occupations or to the average for all occupations. The median for all full-time wage and salary workers in 1992 was $23,100; the middle 50 percent earned be­ tween $15,500 and $34,400; the highest 10 percent earned $48,500 or more, and the lowest 10 percent, $11,300 or less. Some statements include earnings data from sources other than the CPS. The characteristics of these data vary, making it difficult to compare earnings precisely among occupations. Related Occupations When you find an occupation that appeals to you, also explore the jobs listed in this section. These occupations usually involve similar aptitudes, interests, education, and training.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Sources of Additional Information This section lists names and addresses of associations, government agencies, unions, and other organizations that can provide useful in­ formation. For some occupations, this section also refers you to free or relatively inexpensive publications that offer more information. These publications also may be available in libraries, school career centers, or guidance offices. (For additional sources of information, read the next chapter, Sources of Information on Career Preparation and Training.)  Sources of Information on Career Preparation and Training This chapter identifies selected sources of information about occu­ pations, counseling, training and education, financial aid, and find­ ing and evaluating potential jobs. Also, read the occupational state­ ments in the Handbook, including the section on sources of additional information, which lists organizations you can contact for more information about particular occupations. Career Information A good place to start collecting information you need is from the people closest to you, your family and friends. These personal con­ tacts are often overlooked, but can be extremely helpful. They may be able to answer your questions directly or, more importantly, put you in touch with someone else who can. This “networking” can lead to an “informational interview,” where you can meet with someone who is willing to answer your questions about a career or a company, and who can provide inside information on related fields and other helpful hints. This is a highly effective way to learn the recommended type of training for certain positions, how someone in that position entered and advanced, and what he or she likes and dislikes about the work. While developing your network of contacts, you may want to begin exploring other avenues. Public libraries, career centers, and guidance offices have a great deal of career material. To begin your library search, look in the card catalog or at the computer listings under “vocations” or “ca­ reers” and then under specific fields. Also, leaf through the file of pamphlets that describe employment in different organizations. Check the periodicals section, where you will find trade and profes­ sional magazines and journals about specific occupations and indus­ tries. Familiarize yourself with the concerns and activities of poten­ tial employers by skimming their annual reports and other information they distribute to the public. You can also find occupational information on video cassettes, in kits, and through computerized information systems. Check career centers for programs such as individual counseling, group discus­ sions, guest speakers, field trips, and career days. Always assess career guidance materials carefully. Information should be current. Beware of materials produced by schools for re­ cruitment purposes that seem to glamorize the occupation, over­ state the earnings, or exaggerate the demand for workers. You may wish to seek help from a counselor. Counselors are trained to help you discover your strengths and weaknesses, guide you through an evaluation of your goals and values, and help you determine what you want in a career. The counselor will not tell you what to do, but will administer interest inventories and aptitude tests, interpret the results, and help you explore your options. Coun­ selors also may be able to discuss local job markets, and the entry re­ quirements and costs of the schools, colleges, or training programs offering preparation for the kind of work that interests you. You can find counselors in: • high school guidance offices, • college career planning and placement offices, • placement offices in private vocational/technical schools and in­ stitutions, • vocational rehabilitation agencies, • counseling services offered by community organizations, • private counseling agencies and private practices, • State employment service offices affiliated with the U.S. Employ­ ment Service.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Before employing the services of a private counselor or agency, seek recommendations and check their credentials. The Interna­ tional Association of Counseling Services (IACS) accredits counsel­ ing services throughout the country. To receive the listing of accred­ ited services for your region, send a self-addressed, stamped, business-size envelope to IACS, 101 South Whiting St., Suite 211, Alexandria, VA 22304. The Directory of Counseling Services, an IACS publication providing employment counseling and other as­ sistance, may be available in your library or school career counsel­ ing center. For a list of certified career counselors by State, contact the National Board of Certified Counselors, 3-D Terrace Way, Greensboro, NC 27403. Phone: (919) 547-0607. Professional societies, trade associations, labor unions, business firms, and educational institutions provide a variety of free or inex­ pensive career material. Many of these are identified in the Sources of Additional Information section of each Handbook statement. For information on occupations not covered in the Handbook, consult directories in your library’s reference section for the names of poten­ tial sources. You may need to start with The Guide to American Di­ rectories or The Directory of Directories. Another useful resource is The Encyclopedia of Associations, an annual multivolume publica­ tion listing trade associations, professional societies, labor unions, and fraternal and patriotic organizations. The National Audiovisual Center, a central source for all audiovi­ sual material produced by the U.S. Government, rents and sells ma­ terial on jobs and careers. For a catalog, contact the National Au­ diovisual Center, 8700 Edgeworth Dr., Capitol Heights, MD 20743. Phone: 1-800-788-6282. For first-hand experience in an occupation, you may wish to in­ tern, or take a summer or part-time job. Some internships offer aca­ demic credit or pay a stipend. Check with guidance offices, college career resource centers, or directly with employers. State and Local Information The Handbook provides information for the Nation as a whole. For help in locating State or local area information, contact your State occupational information coordinating committee (SOICC). These committees may provide the information directly, or refer you to other sources. Refer to the chapter beginning on page 465 for ad­ dresses and telephone numbers of the SOICC’s. Most States have career information delivery systems (CIDS). Look for these systems in secondary schools, postsecondary institu­ tions, libraries, job training sites, vocational rehabilitation centers, and employment service offices. Jobseekers can use the systems’ computers, printed material, microfiche, and toll-free hotlines to ob­ tain information on occupations, educational opportunities, student financial aid, apprenticeships, and military careers. Ask counselors and SOICC’s for specific locations. State employment security agencies develop detailed information about local labor markets, such as current and projected employ­ ment by occupation and industry, characteristics of the work force, and changes in State and local area economic activity. Addresses and telephone numbers of the directors of research and analysis in these agencies are listed in the chapter beginning on page 465. Education and Training Information Colleges, schools, and training institutes normally readily reply to requests for information. When contacting these institutions, you may want to keep in mind the following items: 5  6  Occupational Outlook Handbook  • • • • • •  admission requirements courses offered certificates or degrees awarded cost available financial aid location and size of school Check with professional and trade associations for lists of schools that offer career preparation in a field you’re interested in. Guidance offices and libraries usually have copies of the kinds of directories listed below, as well as college catalogs that can provide more infor­ mation on specific institutions. Be sure to use the latest edition be­ cause these directories and catalogs are often revised annually. Information about home study programs appears in the Directory ofAccredited Home Study Schools, published by the National Home Study Council. Send requests for the Directory and a list of other publications to the National Home Study Council, 1601 18th St. NW„ Washington, DC 20009. Phone: (202) 234-5100. Local labor unions, school guidance counselors, and State em­ ployment offices provide information about apprenticeships. Copies of The National Apprenticeship Program and Apprenticeship Infor­ mation are available from the Bureau of Apprenticeship and Train­ ing, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Ave. NW., Wash­ ington, DC 20210. Phone: (202) 219-5921. Financial Aid Information Information about financial aid is available from a variety of sources. Contact your high school guidance counselor and college financial aid officer for information concerning scholarships, fellow­ ships, grants, loans, and work-study programs. In addition, every State administers financial aid programs; contact State Depart­ ments of Education for information. Banks and credit unions can provide information about student loans. You also may want to con­ sult the directories and guides to sources of student financial aid available in guidance offices and public libraries. The Federal Government provides grants, loans, work-study pro­ grams, and other benefits to students. Information about programs administered by the U.S. Department of Education is presented in The Student Guide to Federal Financial Aid Programs, updated an­ nually. To get a copy, write to the Federal Student Aid Information Center, c/o Federal Student Aid Programs, P.O. Box 84, Washing­ ton, DC 20044, or phone, toll-free, 1-800-433-3243. The National and Community Service Trust Act of 1993 allows individuals aged 17 and over, to serve in approved local programs before, during, or after postsecondary education, to earn money for education. A participant must complete at least 1 year of full-time or 2 years of part-time service to qualify. Awards may be used for past, present, or future expenses, including 2- and 4-year colleges, training programs, and graduate or professional programs. Infor­ mation about service appointments may be found in high schools, colleges, and other placement offices, or can be obtained by contact­ ing the commission on national service in your State, or by calling 1800-94-ACORPS. Meeting College Costs, an annual publication of the College Board, explains how student financial aid works and how to apply for it. The current edition is available to high school students through guidance counselors. Need a Lift?, an annual publication of the American Legion, con­ tains career and scholarship information. Copies cost $2 each, pre­ paid (including postage), and can be obtained from the American Legion, Attn: Emblem Sales, P.O. Box 1050, Indianapolis, IN 46206. Phone: (317) 635-8411. Some student aid programs are designed to assist specific groups—Hispanics, blacks, native Americans, or women, for exam­ ple. Higher Education Opportunities for Minorities and Women, published in 1991 by the U.S. Department of Education, is a guide to organizations offering assistance. This publication can be found in libraries and guidance offices, or copies may be obtained from the  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  U.S. Department of Education, 400 Maryland Ave. SW., Washing­ ton, DC 20202. Phone: (202) 401-3550. The Armed Forces have several educational assistance programs. These include the Reserve Officers’ Training Corps (ROTC), the New G.I. bill, and tuition assistance. Information can be obtained from military recruiting centers, located in most cities. Information on Finding a Job It takes some people a great deal of time and effort to find a job they enjoy. Others may walk right into an ideal employment situation. Don’t be discouraged if you have to pursue many leads. Friends, neighbors, teachers, and counselors may know of available jobs in your field of interest. Read the want ads. Consult State employment service offices and private or nonprofit employment agencies or con­ tact employers directly.  Where To Learn About Job Openings • Parents, friends, and neighbors • School or college placement services • Classified ads —Local and out-of-town newspapers —Professional journals —Trade magazines • Employment agencies and career consultants • State employment service offices • Civil service announcements (Federal, State, local) • Labor unions • Professional associations (State and local chapters) • Libraries and community centers • Women’s counseling and employment programs • Youth programs • Employers  Informal job search methods. It is possible to apply directly to employers without a referral. You may locate a potential employer in the Yellow Pages, in directories of local chambers of commerce, and in other directories that provide information about employers. When you find an employer you are interested in, you can file an ap­ plication even if you don’t know for certain that an opening exists. Want ads. The “Help Wanted” ads in newspapers list hundreds of jobs. Realize, however, that many job openings are not listed there. Also, be aware that the classified ads sometimes do not give some important information. Many offer little or no description of the job, working conditions, or pay. Some ads do not identify the employer. They may simply give a post office box for sending your resume. This makes follow-up inquiries very difficult. Furthermore, some ads offer out-of-town jobs; others advertise employment agencies rather than employment. Keep the following in mind if you are using want ads: • Do not rely solely on the classifieds to find a job; follow other leads as well. • Answer ads promptly, since openings may be filled quickly, even before the ad stops appearing in the paper. • Follow the ads diligently. Check them every day, as early as pos­ sible, to give yourself an advantage. • Beware of “no experience necessary” ads. These ads often signal low wages, poor working conditions, or straight commission work. • Keep a record of all ads to which you have responded, including the specific skills, educational background, and personal qualifications required for the position.  Sources of Information on Career Preparation and Training  What Goes Into a Resume A resume summarizes your qualifications and employment his­ tory. It usually is required when applying for managerial, admin­ istrative, professional, or technical positions. Although there is no set format, it should contain the following information: • Name, address, and telephone number. • Employment objective. State the type of work or specific job you are seeking. • Education, including school name and address, dates of at­ tendance, curriculum, and highest grade completed or de­ gree awarded. • Experience, paid or volunteer. Include the following for each job: Job title, name and address of employer, and dates of employment. Describe your job duties. • Special skills, knowledge of machinery, proficiency in foreign languages, honors received, awards, or membership in or­ ganizations. • Note on your resume that “references are available upon re­ quest.” On a separate sheet, list the name, address, tele­ phone number, and job title of three references.  Public employment service. The State employment service, some­ times called the Job Service, operates in coordination with the La­ bor Department’s U.S. Employment Service. About 1,700 local of­ fices, also known as employment service centers, help jobseekers locate employment and help employers find qualified workers at no cost to themselves. To find the office nearest you, look in the State government telephone listings under “Job Service” or “Employ­ ment.” A computerized job network system—America’s Job Bank—run by the U.S. Department of Labor, lists 50,000 or so job openings each week, with plans to list 75,000 or more in the future. Jobseekers can access these listings through the use of a personal computer in any local public employment service office, as well as in several hun­ dred military installations. In addition, some State employment ageencies have set up America’s Job Bank in other settings, includ­ ing libraries, schools, shopping malls, and correctional facilities. A wide range ofjobs are listed. Tips for Finding the Right Job, a U.S. Department of Labor pam­ phlet, offers advice on determining your job skills, organizing your job search, writing a resume, and making the most of an interview. Job Search Guide: Strategies For Professionals, another U.S. Depart­ ment of Labor publication, also descusses specific steps that job­ seekers can follow to identify employment opportunities. This publi­ cation includes sections on handling your job loss, managing your personal resources, assessing your skills and interests, researching the job market, conducting the job search and networking, writing resumes and cover letters, employment interviewing and testing, and sources of additional information. Check with your State em­ ployment service office, or order a copy of these publications from the U.S. Government Printing Office. Phone: (202) 783-3238 for price and ordering information. Job matching and referral. At a State employment service office, an interviewer will determine if you are “job ready” or if counseling and testing services would be helpful before you begin your job search. After you are “job ready,” you may examine America’s Job Bank, a computerized listing of public- and private-sector job open­ ings that is updated daily. Select openings that interest you, then get more details from a staff member who can describe the job openings in detail and arrange for interviews with prospective employers. Counseling and testing. Centers can test for occupational apti­ tudes and interests and then help you choose and prepare for a ca­ reer.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  7  Services for special groups. By law, veterans are entitled to priority at State employment service centers. Veterans’ employment repre­ sentatives can inform you of available assistance and help you deal with any problems. Summer Youth Programs provide summer jobs in city, county, and State government agencies for low-income youth. Students, school dropouts, or graduates entering the labor market who are be­ tween 16 and 21 years of age are eligible. In addition, the Job Corps, with more than 100 centers throughout the United States, helps young people learn skills or obtain education. Service centers also refer applicants to opportunities available under the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) of 1982. JTPA prepares economically disadvantaged persons and those facing bar­ riers to employment for jobs. Federal job information. For information about employment with the U.S. Government, call the Federal Job Information Center, operated by the Office of Personnel Management. The phone num­ ber is (202) 606-2700, or write to Federal Job Information Center, 1900 E St. NW„ Room 1416, Washington, DC 20415. Private employment agencies. These agencies can be very helpful, but don’t forget that they are in business to make money. Most agencies operate on a commission basis, with the fee dependent upon a successful match. You or the hiring company will have to pay a fee for the matching service. Find out the exact cost and who is responsible for paying it before using the service. While employment agencies can help you save time and contact employers who otherwise may be difficult to locate, in some cases, your costs may outweigh the benefits. Consider any guarantee they offer when figuring the cost. College career planning and placement offices. College placement offices facilitate matching job openings with suitable jobseekers. You can set up schedules and use available facilities for interviews with recruiters or scan lists of part-time, temporary, and summer jobs maintained in many of these offices. You also can get counsel­ ing, testing, and job search advice and take advantage of their career resource library. Here you also will be able to identify and evaluate your interests, work values, and skills; attend workshops on such topics as job search strategy, resume writing, letter writing, and ef­ fective interviewing; critique drafts of resumes and videotapes of mock interviews; explore files of resumes and references; and attend job fairs conducted by the office. Community agencies. Many nonprofit organizations offer coun­ seling, career development, and job placement services, generally targeted to a particular group, such as women, youth, minorities, ex-offenders, or older workers. Many communities have career counseling, training, placement, and support services for employment. These programs are spon­ sored by a variety of organizations, including churches and syna­ gogues, nonprofit organizations, social service agencies, the State employment service, and vocational rehabilitation agencies. Many cities have commissions that provide services for these special groups. Evaluating a Job Offer Once you receive a job offer, you are faced with a difficult decision. Fortunately, most organizations will not expect you to accept or re­ ject an offer on the spot. You probably will be given at least a week to make up your mind. Although there is no way to remove all risks from this career decision, you will increase your chances of making the right choice by thoroughly evaluating each offer—weighing all the advantages against all the disadvantages of taking the job. There are many issues to consider when assessing a job offer. Will the organization be a good place to work? Will the job be interest­ ing? How are opportunities for advancement? Is the salary fair? Does the employer offer good benefits? If you have not already fig­ ured out exactly what you want, the following discussion may help you develop a set of criteria for judging job offers, whether you are  8  Occupational Outlook Handbook Job Interview Tips Preparation: • Learn about the organization. • Have a specific job or jobs in mind. • Review your qualifications for the job. • Prepare answers to broad questions about yourself. • Review your resume. • Practice an interview with a friend or relative. • Arrive before the scheduled time of your interview. Personal Appearance: • Be well groomed. • Dress appropriately. • Do not chew gum or smoke. The Interview: • Answer each question concisely. • Respond promptly. • Use good manners. Learn the name of your interviewer and shake hands as you meet. • Use proper English and avoid slang. • Be cooperative and enthusiastic. • Ask questions about the position and the organization. • Thank the interviewer, and follow up with a letter.  Test (if employer gives one): • Listen closely to instructions. • Read each question carefully. • Write legibly and clearly. • Budget your time wisely and don’t dwell on one question. Information To Bring to an Interview: • Social Security number. • Driver’s license number. • Resume. Although not all employers require applicants to bring a resume, you should be able to furnish the inter­ viewer with information about your education, training, and previous employment. • Usually an employer requires three references. Get permission from people before using their names, and make sure they will give you a good reference. Try to avoid using rela­ tives. For each reference, provide the following informa­ tion: Name, address, telephone number, and job title.  starting a career, reentering the labor force after a long absence, or planning a career change. The Organization. Background information on the organiza­ tion—be it a company, government agency, or nonprofit concern— can help you decide whether it is a good place for you to work. Fac­ tors to consider include the organization’s business or activity, fi­ nancial condition, age, size, and location. Information on growth prospects for the industry or industries that the company represents also is important. Here are some questions to ask. Is the organization’s business or activity in keeping with your own interests and beliefs? It will be easier to apply yourself to the work if you are enthusiastic about what the organization does. How will the size of the organization affect you? Large firms gener­ ally offer a greater variety of training programs and career paths, more managerial levels for advancement, and better employee bene­ fits than small firms. Large employers also have more advanced technologies in their laboratories, offices, and factories. However, jobs in large firms tend to be highly specialized—workers are as­ signed relatively narrow responsibilities. On the other hand, jobs in small firms may offer broader authority and responsibility, a closer  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  working relationship with top management, and a chance to clearly see your contribution to the success of the organization. Should you work for a fledgling organization or one that is well es­ tablished? New businesses have a high failure rate, but for many people, the excitement of helping create a company and the poten­ tial for sharing in its success more than offset the risk of job loss. It may be almost as exciting and rewarding, however, to work for a young firm which already has a foothold on success. Does it make any difference to you whether the company is private or public? A private company may be controlled by an individual or a family, which can mean that key jobs are reserved for relatives and friends. A public company is controlled by a board of directors re­ sponsible to the stockholders. Key jobs are open to anyone with tal­ ent. Is the organization in an industry with favorable long-term pros­ pects? The most successful firms tend to be in industries that are growing rapidly. Where is the job located? If it is in another city, you need to con­ sider the cost of living, the availability of housing and transporta­ tion, and the quality of educational and recreational facilities in the new location. Even if the place of work is in your area, consider the time and expense of commuting and whether it can be done by pub­ lic transportation. Where are the firm’s headquarters and branches located? Al­ though a move may not be required now, future opportunities could depend on your willingness to move to these places. It frequently is easy to get background information on an organi­ zation simply by telephoning its public relations office. A public company’s annual report to the stockholders tells about its corpo­ rate philosophy, history, products or services, goals, and financial status. Most government agencies can furnish reports that describe their programs and missions. Press releases, company newsletters or magazines, and recruitment brochures also can be useful. Ask the organization for any other items that might interest a prospective employee. Background information on the organization also may be availa­ ble at your public or school library. If you cannot get an annual re­ port, check the library for reference directories that provide basic facts about the company, such as earnings, products and services, and number of employees. Some directories widely available in li­ braries include the following: Dun & Bradstreet's Million Dollar Di­ rectory; Standard and Poor’s Register of Corporations, Directors and Executives; Moody’s Industrial Manual; Thomas’ Register ofAmeri­ can Manufacturers; and Ward’s Business Directory. If you plan to continue your job search, these directories also will list the names and addresses of other firms that might hire you. Stories about an organization in magazines and newspapers can tell a great deal about its successes, failures, and plans for the future. You can identify articles on a company by looking under its name in periodical or computerized indexes—such as the Business Periodi­ cals Index, Reader’s Guide to Periodical Literature, Newspaper In­ dex, Wall Street Journal Index, and New York Times Index. It prob­ ably will not be useful to look back more than 2 or 3 years. The library also may have government publications that present projections of growth for the industry in which the organization is classified. Long-term projections of employment and output for more than 200 industries, covering the entire economy, are devel­ oped by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and revised every other year—see the November 1993 Monthly Labor Review for the most recent projections. The U.S. Industrial Outlook, published annually by the U.S. Department of Commerce, presents detailed analyses of growth prospects for a large number of industries. Trade magazines also have frequent articles on the trends for specific industries. Career centers at colleges and universities often have information on employers that is not available in libraries. Ask the career center librarian how to find out about a particular organization. The career center may have an entire file of information on the company.  Sources of Information on Career Preparation and Training The Nature of the Work. Even if everything else about the job is good, you will be unhappy if you dislike the day-to-day work. Deter­ mining in advance whether you will like the work may be difficult. However, the more you find out about it before accepting or re­ jecting the job offer, the more likely you are to make the right choice. Ask yourself questions like the following. Does the work match your interests and make good use of your skills? The duties and responsibilities of the job should be explained in enough detail to answer this question. How important is the job in this company? An explanation of where you fit in the organization and how you are supposed to con­ tribute to its overall objectives should give an idea of the job’s im­ portance. Are you comfortable with the supervisor? Do the other employees seem friendly and cooperative? Does the work require travel? Does the job call for irregular hours? How long do most people who enter this job stay with the company? High turnover can mean dissatisfaction with the nature of the work or something else about the job. The Opportunities. A good job offers you opportunities to grow and move up. It gives you chances to learn new skills, increase your earnings, and rise to positions of greater authority, responsibility, and prestige. A lack of opportunities can dampen interest in the work and result in frustration and boredom. The company should have a training plan for you. You know what your abilities are now. What valuable new skills does the com­ pany plan to teach you? The employer should give you some idea of promotion possibili­ ties within the organization. What is the next step on the career lad­ der? If you have to wait for a job to become vacant before you can be promoted, how long does this usually take? Employers differ on their policies regarding promotion from within the organization. When opportunities for advancement do arise, will you compete with applicants from outside the company? Can you apply for jobs for which you qualify elsewhere within the organization or is mobil­ ity within the firm limited? The Salary and Benefits. Wait for the employer to introduce these subjects. Most companies will not talk about pay until they have decided to hire you. In order to know if their offer is reasona­ ble, you need a rough estimate of what the job should pay. You may have to go to several sources for this information. Talk to friends who recently were hired in similar jobs. Ask your teachers and the staff in the college placement office about starting pay for graduates with your qualifications. Scan the help-wanted ads in newspapers. Check the library or your school’s career center for salary surveys, such as the College Placement Council Salary Survey and Bureau of Labor Statistics occupational wage surveys. If you are considering the salary and benefits for a job in another geographic area, make al­ lowances for differences in the cost of living, which may be signifi­ cantly higher in a large metropolitan area than in a smaller city, town, or rural area. Use the research to come up with a base salary range for yourself, the top being the best you can hope to get and the bottom being the least you will take. An employer cannot be specific about the amount of pay if it includes commissions and bonuses. The way the plan works, however, should be explained. The em­ ployer also should be able to tell you what most people in the job earn. You also should learn the organization’s policy regarding over­ time. Depending on the job, you may or may not be exempt from laws requiring the employer to compensate you for overtime. Find out how many hours you will be expected to work each week and whether you receive overtime pay or compensatory time off for working more than the specified number of hours in a week. Also take into account that the starting salary is just that, the start. Your salary should be reviewed on a regular basis—many or­ ganizations do it every 12 months. If the employer is pleased with  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  9  your performance, how much can you expect to earn after 1, 2, or 3 or more years? Don’t think of your salary as the only compensation you will re­ ceive—consider benefits. Benefits can add a lot to your base pay. Health insurance and pension plans are among the most important benefits. Other common benefits include life insurance, paid vaca­ tions and holidays, and sick leave. Benefits vary widely among smaller and larger firms, among full-time and part-time workers, and between the public and private sectors. Find out exactly what the benefit package includes and how much of the costs you must bear. When you evaluate a job offer, you have many things to consider. Only you will be able to weigh the advantages of a job that is more compatible with your interests and skills against a job that offers a higher salary and more promising advancement opportunities, or weigh the advantages of a job that offers better benefits against a job that is much closer to your home. Asking yourself these kinds of questions won’t guarantee that you make the best career decision— only hindsight could do that—but you probably will make a better choice than if you act on impulse. Detailed data on wages and benefits is available from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Office of Compensation and Working Condi­ tions, Division of Occupational Pay and Employee Benefit Levels, 2 Massachusetts Ave. NE., Room 4160, Washington, DC 20212­ 0001. Phone: (202) 606-6225. Data on weekly earnings, based on the Current Population Survey, is available from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Office of Employment and Unemployment Statistics, 2 Massachusetts Ave. NE., Room 4945, Washington, DC 20212­ 0001. Phone: (202) 606-6400. Organizations for Specific Groups The organizations listed below provide information on career plan­ ning, training, or public policy support for specific groups. Disabled: President’s Committee on Employment of People with Disabilities, 1331 F St. NW., 3rd Floor, Washington, DC 20004. Phone: (202) 376-6200. The blind: Information on the free national reference and referral service provided by the Federation of the Blind can be obtained by contacting lob Opportunities for the Blind (JOB), National Federa­ tion of the Blind, 1800 Johnson St., Baltimore, MD 21230. Phone: toll-free, 1-800-638-7518, or locally (410) 659-9314. Minorities: National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), 4805 Mount Hope Dr., Baltimore, MD 21215A3297. Phone: (410) 358-8900. The National Urban League is a nonprofit community-based so­ cial service and civil rights organization that assists African-Ameri­ cans in the achievement of social and economic equality. There are 113 local affiliates throughout the country that provide services re­ lated to employment and job training, and education and career de­ velopment. Contact the affiliate nearest you for information. Older workers: National Association of Older Workers Employ­ ment Services, c/o National Council on the Aging, 409 3rd St. SW., Suite 200, Washington, DC 20024. Phone: (202) 479-1200. For publications on job opportunities, contact the American As­ sociation of Retired Persons, Workforce Program Department, 601 E St. NW., Floor A5, Washington, DC 20049. Phone: (202) 434­ 2040. Asociacion Nacional Por Personas Mayores (National Associa­ tion for Hispanic Elderly), 2727 W. 6th St., Suite 270, Los Angeles, CA 90057. Phone: (213) 487-1922. This organization specifically serves low-income, minority persons who are 55 years of age and older. National Caucus/Center on Black Aged, Inc., 1424 K St. NW., Suite 500, Washington, DC 20005. Phone: (202) 637-8400. Veterans: Contact the nearest regional office of the Department of Veterans Affairs.  10  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Veterans’ Employment and Training Service (VETS), 200 Consti­ tution Ave. NW., Room S-1313, Washington, DC 20210. Phone: (202)219-9116. Women: U.S. Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau, 200 Con­ stitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20210. Phone: (202) 219­ 6652. Catalyst, 250 Park Ave. South, 5th floor, New York, NY 10003. Phone:(212)777-8900. Wider Opportunities for Women, 1325 G St. NW., Lower Level, Washington, DC 20005. Phone: (202) 638-3143. Federal laws, executive orders, and selected Federal grant pro­ grams bar discrimination in employment based on race, color, relig­ ion, sex, national origin, age, and handicap. Information on how to   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  file a charge of discrimination is available from U.S. Equal Employ­ ment Opportunity Commission offices around the country. Their addresses and telephone numbers are listed in telephone directories under U.S. Government, EEOC, or are available from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 1801 L St. NW., Washing­ ton, DC 20507. Phone: (202) 663-4264. Information on Federal laws concerning fair labor standards such as the minimum wage and equal employment opportunity can be obtained from the Office of Information and Consumer Affairs, Em­ ployment Standards Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, Room C-4331, 200 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20210. Phone: (202) 523-8743.  Tomorrow’s Jobs Every 2 years, the Bureau of Labor Statistics develops projections of the labor force, economic growth, industry output and employment, and occupational employment under three sets of alternative as­ sumptions—low, moderate, and high. These projections cover a 10to 15-year period and provide a framework for the discussion of job outlook in each occupational statement in the Handbook. All of the approximately 250 statements in this edition of the Handbook iden­ tify the principal factors affecting job prospects, then discuss how these factors are expected to affect the occupation. This chapter uses the moderate alternative of each projection to provide a framework for the individual job outlook discussions. For more information on the alternative assumptions, see page 464. Population Trends Employment opportunities are affected by population trends in sev­ eral ways. Changes in the size and composition of the population be­ tween 1992 and 2005 will influence the demand for goods and ser­ vices. For example, the population aged 85 and over will grow about four times as fast as the total population, increasing the demand for health services. Population changes also produce corresponding changes in the size and characteristics of the labor force. The U.S. civilian noninstitutional population, aged 16 and over, is expected to increase from about 192 to 219 million over the 1992­ 2005 period—growing more slowly than it did during the previous 13-year period, 1979-92. However, even slower population growth will increase the demand for goods and services, as well as the de­ mand for workers in many occupations and industries. The age distribution will shift toward relatively fewer children and teenagers and a growing proportion of middle-aged and older people into the 21st century. The decline in the proportion of teen­ agers reflects the lower birth rates that prevailed during the 1980’s; the impending large increase in the middle-aged population reflects the aging of the “baby boom” generation born between 1946 and 1964; and the very rapid growth in the number of old people is at­ tributable to high birth rates prior to the 1930’s, together with im­ provements in medical technology that have allowed most Ameri­ cans to live longer. Minorities and immigrants will constitute a larger share of the U.S. population in 2005 than they do today. Substantial increases in the number of Hispanics, Asians, and Blacks are anticipated, re­ flecting immigration, and higher birth rates among Blacks and His­ panics. Substantial inflows of immigrants will continue to have sig­ nificant implications for the labor force. Immigrants tend to be of working age but of different educational and occupational back­ grounds than the U.S. population as a whole. Population growth varies greatly among geographic regions, af­ fecting the demand for goods and services and, in turn, workers in various occupations and industries. Between 1979 and 1992, the population of the Midwest and the Northeast grew by only 3 percent and 4 percent, respectively, compared with 19 percent in the South and 30 percent in the West. These differences reflect the movement of people seeking new jobs or retiring, as well as higher birth rates in some areas than in others. Projections by the Bureau of the Census indicate that the West and South will continue to be the fastest growing regions, increasing 24 percent and 16 percent, respectively, between 1992 and 2005. The Midwest population is expected to grow by 7 percent, while the number of people in the Northeast is projected to increase by only 3 percent. Geographic shifts in the population alter the demand for and the supply of workers in local job markets. Moreover, in areas domi­ nated by one or two industries, local job markets may be extremely sensitive to the economic conditions of those industries. For these  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  The West and South will continue to be the fastest growing regions of the country.  El 1979-1992 EZ21992-2005  Cv Cv ►>> w; »!♦ ►» Northeast  Cv ►%v »>!* ►».  K*Z* South Source: Bureau of the Census  and other reasons, local employment opportunities may differ sub­ stantially from the projections for the Nation as a whole presented in the Handbook. Sources of information on State and local employ­ ment prospects are identified on page 465. Labor Force Trends Population is the single most important factor governing the size and composition of the labor force, which includes people who are working, or looking for work. The civilian labor force, 127 million in 1992, is expected to reach 151 million by 2005. This projected 19percent increase represents a slight slowdown in the rate of labor force growth, largely due to slower population growth (chart 2). America’s workers will be an increasingly diverse group as we move toward 2005. White non-Hispanic men will make up a slightly smaller proportion of the labor force, and women and minority group members will comprise a larger share than in 1992. White non-Hispanics have historically been the largest component of the labor force, but their share has been dropping, and is expected to fall from 78 percent in 1992 to 73 percent by 2005. Whites are projected to grow more slowly than Blacks, Asians, and others, but because of their size, whites will experience the largest numerical increase. His­ panics will add about 6.5 million workers to the labor force from 1992 to 2005, increasing by 64 percent. Despite this dramatic growth, Hispanics’ share of the labor force will only increase from 8 percent to 11 percent, as shown in chart 3. Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians and other racial groups will account for roughly 35 percent of all labor force entrants between 1992 and 2005. Women will continue to join the labor force in growing numbers. The percentage increase of women in the labor force between 1992 and 2005 will be larger than the percentage increase in the total la­ bor force, but smaller than the percentage increase for women in the 11  12  Occupational Outlook Handbook  The labor force will grow more slowly due to slower population growth. E23 Numerical change (in millions) ^3 Percent change  2o  Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics  previous 13-year period. In the late 1980’s, the labor force participa­ tion of women under age 40 began to increase more slowly than in the past. Women were only 42 percent of the labor force in 1979; by 2005, they are expected to constitute 48 percent. The changing age structure of the population will directly affect tomorrow’s labor force. Compared to young workers, the pool of ex­ perienced workers will increase. In 1992, the median age of the labor force was 37.2 years; by 2005, it will be 40.5 years. Between 1979 and 1992, the youth labor force (16 to 24 years of age) dropped by 5 million, a 20-percent decline. In contrast, the number of youths in the labor force will increase by 3.7 million over the 1992-2005 period, reflecting an increase of 18 percent, compared to 19 percent growth for the total labor force. As a result, young people are expected to comprise roughly the same percentage of the labor force in 2005 as in 1992. Among youths, the teenage labor force (16 to 19 years of age) will increase by 31 percent over the 1992-2005 period, a numerical increase of 2.1 million. The labor force 20 to 24 years of age is projected to increase by 12 percent, a numerical increase of 1.6 million. The total youth labor force ac­ counted for 24 percent of the entire labor force in 1979, fell to 16 percent in 1992, and should stay about the same through 2005. The scenario should be somewhat different for prime-age workers (25 to 54 years of age). The baby boom generation will continue to add members to the labor force, but their share of the labor force peaked in 1985. These workers accounted for 62 percent of the labor force in 1979, and rose significantly to 72 percent in 1992, but should decline slightly to 70 percent by 2005. The proportion of workers in the 25-34 age range will decline dramatically, from 28 percent to 21 percent in 2005. On the other hand, the growing pro­ portion of workers between the ages of 45 and 54 is equally striking. These workers should account for 24 percent of the labor force by the year 2005, up from 18 percent in 1992. Because workers in their mid-forties to mid-fifties usually have substantial work experience and tend to be more stable than younger workers, this could result in improved productivity and a larger pool of experienced appli­ cants from which employers may choose.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  The number of older workers, aged 55 and above, is projected to grow about twice as fast as the total labor force between 1992 and 2005, and about 15 times as fast as the number of workers aged 55 and above grew between 1979 and 1992. As the baby boomers grow older, the number of workers aged 55 to 64 will increase; they ex­ hibit higher labor force participation than their older counterparts. By 2005, workers aged 55 and over will comprise 14 percent of the labor force, up from 12 percent in 1992. In recent years, the level of educational attainment of the labor force has risen dramatically. In 1992, 27 percent of all workers aged 25 and over had a bachelor’s degree or higher, while only 12 percent did not possess a high school diploma. The trend toward higher edu­ cational attainment is expected to continue. Projected rates of em­ ployment growth are faster for occupations requiring higher levels of education or training than for those requiring less. Three out of the 4 fastest growing occupational groups will be ex­ ecutive, administrative, and managerial; professional specialty; and technicians and related support occupations. These occupations generally require the highest levels of education and skill, and will make up an increasing proportion of new jobs. Office and factory automation, changes in consumer demand, and movement of pro­ duction facilities to offshore locations are expected to cause employ­ ment to stagnate or decline in many occupations that require little formal education—apparel workers and textile machinery opera­ tors, for example. Opportunities for those who do not finish high school will be increasingly limited, and workers who are not literate may not even be considered for most jobs. Those who do not complete high school and are employed are more likely to have low paying jobs with little advancement poten­ tial, while workers in occupations requiring higher levels of educa­ tion have higher incomes. In addition, many of the occupations pro­ jected to grow most rapidly between 1992 and 2005 are among those with higher earnings. Nevertheless, even slower growing occupations that have a large number of workers will provide many job openings, because the  The racial composition of the labor force will continue to shift. Percent distribution  White, non-Hispanic  Black  Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics  Hispanic  Asian, and other  Tomorrow’s Jobs  The age distribution of the labor force will continue to shift. Percent distribution by age of the civilian labor force Age  ______  55 years and over 45 to 54 years  35 to 44 years  25 to 34 years  16 to 24 years  Source: Bureau of Labor Sfatistics  need to replace workers who leave the labor force or transfer to other occupations account for most job openings. Consequently, workers with all levels of education and training will continue to be in demand, although advancement opportunities generally will be best for those with the most education and training. Employment Change Total employment is expected to increase from 121.1 million in 1992 to 147.5 million in 2005, or by 22 percent. The 26.4 million jobs that will be added to the U.S. economy by 2005 will not be evenly distrib­ uted across major industrial and occupational groups, causing some restructuring of employment. Continued faster than average em­ ployment growth among occupations that require relatively high levels of eduction or training is expected. The following two sections examine projected employment change from both industrial and oc­ cupational perspectives. The industrial profile is discussed in terms of wage and salary employment, except for agriculture, forestry, and fishing, which includes self-employed and unpaid family workers. The occupational profile is viewed in terms of total employment (wage and salary, self-employed, and unpaid family workers). Industrial Profile The long-term shift from goods-producing to service-producing em­ ployment is expected to continue (chart 5). For example, serviceproducing industries, including transportation, communications, and utilities; retail and wholesale trade; services; government; and finance, insurance, and real estate are expected to account for ap­ proximately 24.5 million of the 26.4 million job growth over the 1992-2005 period. In addition, the services division within this sec­ tor—which includes health, business, and educational services— contains 15 of the 20 fastest growing industries. Expansion of ser­ vice sector employment is linked to a number of factors, including changes in consumer tastes and preferences, legal and regulatory changes, advances in science and technology, and changes in the  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  13  way businesses are organized and managed. Specific factors respon­ sible for varying growth prospects in major industry divisions are discussed below. Service-Producing Industries Services. Services is both the largest and the fastest growing division within the service-producing sector (chart 6). This division provided 38.6 million jobs in 1992; employment is expected to rise 40 percent to 54.2 million by 2005, accounting for almost two-thirds of all new jobs. Jobs will be found in small firms and in large corporations, and in industries as diverse as hospitals, data processing, and manage­ ment consulting. Health services and business services are projected to continue to grow very fast. In addition, social, legal, and engi­ neering and management services industries further illustrate this division’s strong growth. Health services will continue to be one of the fastest growing in­ dustries in the economy with employment increasing from 9.6 to 13.8 million. Improvements in medical technology, and a growing and aging population will increase the demand for health services. Employment in home health care services—the second fastest grow­ ing industry in the economy—nursing homes, and offices and clinics of physicians and other health practitioners is projected to increase rapidly. However, not all health industries will grow at the same rate. Despite being the largest health care industry, hospitals will grow more slowly than most other health services industries. Business services industries also will generate many jobs. Em­ ployment is expected to grow from 5.3 million in 1992 to 8.3 million in 2005. Personnel supply services, made up primarily of temporary help agencies, is the largest sector in this group and will increase by 57 percent, from 1.6 to 2.6 million jobs. However, due to the slow­ down in labor force participation by young women, and the prolifer­ ation of personnel supply firms in recent years, this industry will grow more slowly than during the 1979-92 period. Business services also includes one of the fastest growing industries in the economy, computer and data processing services. This industry’s rapid growth  Service-producing industries will continue to account for virtually all job growth.  Service-producing  Goods-producinq 1979 Non-farm wage and salary employment Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics  14  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Services will remain the fastest growing major industry division. Services Construction Retail trade  >23  Total, all industries Finance, insurance, and real estate Wholesale trade Transportation and public utilities Agriculture, forestry, and fishing Government Manufacturing Mining  I__ T—TT------1-------- 1---- 1-------1  I I Service-producing X//A Goods-producing  -20  -10 0 10 20 30 40 Percent change in employment, 1992-20051  1AII figures are for wage and salary employment only, except for agriculture, forestry, and fishing, which includes self-employed and unpaid family workers. Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics  stems from advances in technology, world wide trends toward office and factory automation, and increases in demand from business firms, government agencies, and individuals. Education is expected to add 2.8 million jobs to the 9.7 million in 1992. This increase reflects population growth and, in turn, rising enrollments projected for elementary, secondary, and postsecon­ dary schools. The elementary school age population (ages 5-13) will rise by 2.8 million between 1992 and 2005, the secondary school age (14-17) by 3.4 million, and the traditional postsecondary school age (18-24) by 2.2 million. In addition, continued rising enrollments of older, foreign, and part-time students are expected to enhance em­ ployment in postsecondary education. Not all of the increase in em­ ployment in education, however, will be for teachers; teacher aides, counselors, and administrative staff also are projected to increase. Employment in social services is expected to increase by 1.7 mil­ lion, bringing the total to 3.7 million by 2005, reflecting the growing elderly population. For example, residential care institutions, which provide around-the-clock assistance to older persons and others who have limited ability for self-care, is projected to be the fastest growing industry in the U.S. economy. Other social services indus­ tries that are projected to grow rapidly include child daycare ser­ vices and individual and miscellaneous social services, which in­ cludes elderly daycare and family social services. Wholesale and retail trade. Employment in wholesale and retail trade is expected to rise by 19 and 23 percent, respectively; from 6 to 7.2 million in wholesale trade and from 19.3 to 23.8 million in retail trade. Spurred by higher levels of personal income, the fastest pro­ jected job growth in retail trade is in apparel and accessory stores, and appliance, radio, television, and music stores. Substantial nu­ merical increases in retail employment are anticipated in large in­ dustries, including eating and drinking places, food stores, automo­ tive dealers and service stations, and general merchandise stores. Finance, insurance, and real estate. Employment is expected to in­ crease by 21 percent—adding 1.4 million jobs to the 1992 level of 6.6 million. The strong demand for financial services is expected to con­ tinue. Bank mergers, consolidations, and closings—resulting from  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  overexpansion and competition from nonbank corporations that of­ fer bank-like services—are expected to limit job growth among com­ mercial banks and savings and loan associations. The fastest grow­ ing industries within this sector are expected to be holding and investment offices and mortgage bankers and brokers. Insurance agents, brokers, and services is expected to register the largest nu­ merical increase in jobs. Transportation, communications, and public utilities. Overall em­ ployment will increase by 14 percent. Employment in the transpor­ tation sector is expected to increase by 24 percent, from 3.5 to 4.3 million jobs. Truck transportation will account for 50 percent of all new jobs; air transportation will account for 29 percent. The pro­ jected gains in transportation jobs reflect the continued shift from rail to road freight transportation, rising personal incomes, and growth in foreign trade. In addition, deregulation in the transporta­ tion industry has increased personal and business travel options, spurring strong job growth in the passenger transportation arrange­ ment industry, which includes travel agencies. Reflecting laborsav­ ing technology and industry competition, employment in communi­ cations is projected to decline by 12 percent. Employment in utilities, however, is expected to grow, adding 117,000 new jobs, highlighted by strong growth in water supply and sanitary services. Government. Between 1992 and 2005, government employment, excluding public education and public hospitals, is expected to in­ crease 10 percent, from 9.5 million to 10.5 million jobs. Growth will be driven by State and local government. Employment in the Fed­ eral Government and U.S. Postal Service is expected to decline by 113,000 and 41,000 jobs, respectively. Goods-Producing Industries Employment in this sector has not recovered from the recessionary period of the early 1980’s and the trade imbalances that began in the mid-1980’s. Although overall employment in goods-producing in­ dustries is expected to show little change, growth prospects within the sector vary considerably. Construction. Construction is expected to increase by 26 percent from 4.5 to 5.6 million. The need to improve the Nation’s infrastruc­ ture, resulting in increases in road, bridge, and tunnel construction, will offset the slowdown in demand for new housing, reflecting the slowdown in population growth and the overexpansion of office building construction in recent years. Agriculture, forestry, and fishing. After declining for many de­ cades, overall employment in agriculture, forestry, and fishing is projected to grow by 14 percent, from 1.7 million to 2 million jobs. Strong growth in agricultural services will more than offset an ex­ pected continued decline in crops, livestock and livestock products. Manufacturing. Manufacturing employment is expected to de­ cline by 3 percent from the 1992 level of 18 million. The projected loss of manufacturing jobs reflects productivity gains achieved from increased investment in manufacturing technologies. The composition of manufacturing employment is expected to shift since most of the jobs that will disappear are production jobs. On the other hand, the number of professional positions in manufac­ turing firms will increase. Mining. Mining employment is expected to decline 11 percent from 631,000 to 562,000. Underlying this projection is the assump­ tion that domestic oil production will drop and oil imports will rise, reducing employment in the crude petroleum industry. In addition, employment in coal mining should continue to decline sharply due to the expanded use of laborsaving machinery. Occupational Profile Continued expansion of the service-producing sector conjures up an image of a work force dominated by cashiers, retail sales workers, and waiters. Although service sector growth will generate millions of these jobs, it also will create jobs for financial managers, engi­ neers, nurses, electrical and electronics technicians, and many other managerial, professional, and technical workers. As indicated ear­ lier, the fastest growing occupations will be those that require the most formal education and training.  Tomorrow’s Jobs This section furnishes an overview of projected employment in 12 categories or “clusters” of occupations based on the Standard Occu­ pational Classification (SOC). The SOC is used by all Federal agen­ cies that collect occupational employment data, and is the organiza­ tional framework for grouping statements in the Handbook. In the discussion that follows, projected employment change is described as growing faster, slower, or the same as the average for all occupations. (These phrases are explained on page 2.) While oc­ cupations that are growing fast generally offer good opportunities, the numerical change in employment also is important because large occupations, such as retail sales workers, may offer many more new jobs than a small, fast-growing occupation, such as paralegals (chart 7). For a more detailed discussion of occupational growth, see the discussion ofjob outlook in an earlier chapter, Keys to Understand­ ing What’s in the Handbook. Professional specialty occupations. Workers in these occupations perform a wide variety of duties, and are employed in almost every industry. Employment in this cluster is expected to grow by 37 per­ cent, from 16.6 to 22.8 million jobs, making it the fastest growing occupational cluster in the economy (chart 8). Human services workers, computer scientists and systems analysts, physical ther­ apists, special education teachers, and operations research analysts are among the fastest growing professional specialty occupations. Service occupations. This group includes a wide range of workers in protective services, food and beverage preparation, health ser­ vices, and cleaning and personal services. Employment in these oc­ cupations is expected to grow by 33 percent, faster than average, from 19.4 to 25.8 million. Service occupations that are expected to experience both fast growth and large job growth include home­ maker-home health aides, nursing aides, child care workers, guards, and correction officers. Technicians and related support occupations. Workers in this group provide technical assistance to engineers, scientists, physi­ cians, and other professional workers, as well as operate and pro­ gram technical equipment. Employment in this cluster is expected to increase 32 percent, faster than average, from 4.3 to 5.7 million. Employment of paralegals is expected to increase much faster than  Even though an occupation is expected to grow rapidly, it may provide fewer openings than a slower growing, larger occupation. 786,000  86 percent  workers  :*V*V*VA  ♦VAVtVi *»♦♦»»« ►VAVWV mmm ♦%♦%%%%* vIwIvK *♦%%%%%%% vIwKv! VAVAVi •»»»>♦ rVmviV *♦%%%%%%% WAViVi Wiwvvi *»»»>♦ rVAWA* *>»»». >V*VAV« AVAViV VAVAVi VAVAV* A’AVAV A’AVAV. AVAV4V 'AVAVA AVAVA* VtVAVA AVAVA*  ;♦>»»»: »♦»»»>  percent» AVAViV VAVAVi rAVAVA ATAVAV  81,000  workers  Paralegals  rATATATA  VA*AVA .AVAVA  VWWW**  Retail sales workers  Percent and numerical change in employment, 1992-2005 Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  15  Employment change will vary widely by broad occupational group. Professional specialty Sen/ice Technicians and related support Executive, administrative, and managerial Transportation and material moving  mm/////////;/**  Total, all occupations  22  Construction trades and extractive  y////////////ZKi2i  Marketing and sales Helpers, laborers, and material movers Mechanics, installers, and repairers Administrative support, including clerical Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related Production  w<mm* I3  ft1  .  .  0 10 20 30 40 Percent change in employment, 1992-2005 Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics  average as use of these workers in the rapidly expanding legal ser­ vices industry increases. Health technicians and technologists, such as licensed practical nurses and radiological technologists, will add large numbers of jobs. Growth in other occupations, such as broad­ cast technicians, will be limited by laborsaving technological ad­ vances. Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations. Workers in this cluster establish policies, make plans, determine staffing re­ quirements, and direct the activities of businesses, government agencies, and other organizations. Employment in this cluster is ex­ pected to increase by 26 percent, from 12.1 to 15.2 million, reflect­ ing average growth. Growth will be spurred by the increasing num­ ber and complexity of business operations and result in large employment gains, especially in the services industry division. How­ ever, many businesses will streamline operations by employing fewer managers, thus offsetting increases in employment. Like other occupations, changes in managerial and administra­ tive employment reflect industry growth, and utilization of manag­ ers and administrators. For example, employment of health services managers will grow much faster than average, while wholesale and retail buyers are expected to grow more slowly than average. Hiring requirements in many managerial and administrative jobs are becoming more stringent. Work experience, specialized training, or graduate study will be increasingly necessary. Familiarity with computers will continue to be important as a growing number of firms rely on computerized management information systems. Transportation and material moving occupations. Workers in this cluster operate the equipment used to move people and equipment. Employment in this group is expected to increase by 22 percent, from 4.7 to 5.7 million jobs. Average growth is expected for bus drivers, reflecting rising school enrollments. Similar growth is ex­ pected for truck drivers and railroad transportation workers due to growing demand for transportation services. Technological im­ provements and automation should result in material moving equip­ ment operators increasing more slowly than the average. Water transportation workers are projected to show little change in em­ ployment as technological advances increase productivity.  16  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Construction trades and extractive occupations. Workers in this group construct, alter, and maintain buildings and other structures, and operate drilling and mining equipment. Overall employment in this group is expected to increase 21 percent, about as fast as aver­ age, from 3.7 to 4.5 million. Virtually all of the new jobs will be in construction. Spurred by new projects and alterations to existing structures, average employment growth is expected in construction. On the other hand, increased automation, continued stagnation in the oil and gas industries, and slow growth in demand for coal, metal, and other materials will result a decline in employment of ex­ tractive workers. Marketing and sales occupations. Workers in this cluster sell goods and services, purchase commodities and property for resale, and stimulate consumer interest. Employment in this cluster is pro­ jected to increase by 21 percent, from 13 to 15.7 million jobs, about as fast as average. Demand for travel agents is expected to grow much faster than average. Due to strong growth in the industries that employ them, services sales representatives, securities and fi­ nancial services sales workers, and real estate appraisers will experi­ ence faster than average growth. Many part- and full-time job open­ ings are expected for retail sales workers and cashiers due to the large size and high turnover associated with these occupations. Op­ portunities for higher paying sales jobs, however, will tend to be more competitive. Helpers, laborers, and material movers. Workers in this group as­ sist skilled workers and perform routine, unskilled tasks. Overall employment is expected to increase by 17 percent, about as fast as average, from 4.5 to 5.2 million jobs. Some routine tasks will become increasingly automated, limiting employment growth among ma­ chine feeders and offbearers. Employment of service station attend­ ants will decline, reflecting the trend toward self-service gas sta­ tions. Employment of construction laborers, however, is expected to increase about as fast as average, reflecting growth in the construc­ tion industry. Mechanics, installers, and repairers. These workers adjust, main­ tain, and repair automobiles, industrial equipment, computers, and many other types of equipment. Overall employment in these occu­ pations is expected to grow by 16 percent, from 4.8 to 5.6 million, due to increased use of mechanical and electronic equipment. The fastest growing occupation in this group is expected to be data processing equipment repairers, reflecting the increased use of these types of machines. Communications equipment mechanics, install­ ers, and repairers, and telephone and cable television line installers and repairers, in sharp contrast, are expected to record a decline in employment due to laborsaving advances. Administrative support occupations, including clerical. Workers in this largest major occupational group perform a wide variety of ad­ ministrative tasks necessary to keep organizations functioning smoothly. The group as a whole is expected to grow by 14 percent, from 22.3 to 25.4 million jobs, about as fast as the average. Techno­ logical advances are projected to slow employment growth for ste­ nographers and typists and word processors. Receptionists and in­ formation clerks will grow faster than average, spurred by rapidly expanding industries such as business services. Because of their large size and substantial turnover, clerical occupations will offer abundant opportunities for qualified jobseekers in the years ahead. Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related occupations. Workers in these occupations cultivate plants, breed and raise livestock, and catch animals. Although demand for food, fiber, and wood is ex­ pected to increase as the world’s population grows, the use of more productive farming and forestry methods and the consolidation of smaller farms are expected to result in only a 3-percent increase in employment, from 3.5 to 3.6 million jobs. Employment of farm op­ erators and farm workers is expected to rapidly decline, reflecting greater productivity; the need for skilled farm managers, on the other hand, should result in average employment growth in that oc­ cupation. Production occupations. Workers in these occupations set up, in­ stall, adjust, operate, and tend machinery and equipment and use hand tools to fabricate and assemble products. Little change in the 1992 employment level of 12.2 million is expected due to increases in imports, overseas production, and automation. Relative to other  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  occupations, employment in many production occupations is more sensitive to the business cycle and competition from imports. Replacement Needs Most jobs through the year 2005 will become available as a result of replacement needs. Thus, even occupations with little or no employ­ ment growth or slower than average employment growth still may offer many job openings. Replacement openings occur as people leave occupations. Some transfer to other occupations as a step up the career ladder or change careers. Others stop working in order to return to school, as­ sume household responsibilities, or retire. The number of replacement openings and the proportion of job openings made up by replacement needs varies by occupation. Oc­ cupations with the most replacement openings generally are large, with low pay and status, low training requirements, and a high pro­ portion of young and part-time workers. Occupations with rela­ tively few replacement openings tend to be associated with high pay and status, lengthy training requirements, and a high proportion of prime working age, full-time workers. Workers in these occupations generally acquire education or training that often is not applicable to other occupations. For example, among professional specialty oc­ cupations, only 38 percent of total job opportunities result from re­ placement needs, as opposed to 78 percent among production occu­ pations (chart 9). Interested in More Detail? Readers interested in more information about projections and detail on the labor force, economic growth, industry and occupational em­ ployment, or methods and assumptions should consult the Novem­ ber 1993 Monthly Labor Review or The American Work Force: 1992­ 2005, BLS Bulletin 2452. Information on the limitations inherent in economic projections also can be found in either of these two publi­ cations. For additional occupational data, as well as statistics on ed­ ucational and training completions, see the 1994 edition of Occupa­ tional Projections and Training Data, BLS Bulletin 2451.  Job openings arise from both occupational replacement needs and occupational growth. Percent distribution of job openings, 1992-2005  E  ] Growth Replacements  22 percent:  62 percent:-:  percent  38 percent  Production occupations Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics  Professional specialty occupations  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations Accountants and auditors also work for Federal, State, and local governments. Government accountants see that revenues are re­ ceived and expenditures are made in accordance with laws and regu­ lations. Many persons with an accounting background work for the Federal Government as Internal Revenue Service agents or in finan­ cial management, financial institution examination, and budget analysis and administration. In addition, a small number of persons trained as accountants teach and conduct research at business and professional schools. Some work part time as accountants or consultants. Computers are widely used in accounting and auditing. With the aid of special computer software packages, accountants summarize transactions in standard formats for financial records or organize data in special formats for financial analysis. These accounting packages are easily learned and require few specialized computer skills, and greatly reduce the amount of tedious manual work associ­ ated with figures and records. Personal and laptop computers en­ able accountants and auditors in all fields—even those who work in­ dependently—to use their clients’ computer system and to extract information from large mainframe computers. Internal auditors may recommend controls for their organization’s computer system to ensure the reliability of the system and the integrity of the data. A growing number of accountants and auditors have extensive com­ puter skills and specialize in correcting problems with software or developing software to meet unique data needs.  Accountants and Auditors (D.O.T. 160 through .167-042, -054, and .267-014)  Nature of the Work Managers must have up-to-date financial information in order to make important decisions. Accountants and auditors prepare, ana­ lyze, and verify financial reports and taxes, and monitor informa­ tion systems that furnish this information to managers in all busi­ ness, industrial, and government organizations. Four major fields of accounting are public, management, and government accounting, and internal auditing. Public accountants have their own businesses or work for public accounting firms. They perform a broad range of accounting, auditing, tax, and consulting activities for their clients, who may be corporations, governments, nonprofit organizations, or individuals. Management accountants, also called industrial, corporate, or private accountants, record and analyze the financial information of the companies for which they work. Internal auditors verify the accuracy of their organization’s records and check for mismanagement, waste, or fraud. Govern­ ment accountants and auditors maintain and examine the records of government agencies and audit private businesses and individuals whose activities are subject to government regulations or taxation. Within each field, accountants often concentrate on one phase of accounting. For example, many public accountants concentrate on tax matters, such as preparing an individual’s income tax returns and advising companies of the tax advantages and disadvantages of certain business decisions. Others concentrate on consulting and of­ fer advice on matters such as employee health care benefits, and compensation; the design of companies’ accounting and data processing systems; and controls to safeguard assets. Some special­ ize in forensic accounting—investigating and interpreting bankrupt­ cies and other complex financial transactions. Still others work pri­ marily in auditing—examining a client’s financial statements and reporting to investors and authorities that they have been prepared and reported correctly. However, fewer accounting firms are per­ forming this type of work because of potential liability. Management accountants analyze and interpret the financial in­ formation corporate executives need to make sound business deci­ sions. They also prepare financial reports for nonmanagement groups, including stock holders, creditors, regulatory agencies, and tax authorities. Within accounting departments, they may work in financial analysis, planning and budgeting, cost accounting, and other areas. Internal auditing is rapidly growing in importance. As computer systems make information more timely and available, top manage­ ment can base its decisions on actual data rather than personal ob­ servation. Internal auditors examine and evaluate their firms’ finan­ cial and information systems, management procedures, and internal controls to ensure that records are accurate and controls are ade­ quate to protect against fraud and waste. They also review company operations—evaluating their efficiency, effectiveness, and compli­ ance with corporate policies and procedures, laws, and government regulations. There are many types of highly specialized auditors, such as electronic data processing auditors, environmental auditors, engineering auditors, legal auditors, insurance premium auditors, bank auditors, and health care auditors.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Working Conditions Accountants and auditors work in offices, but public accountants may frequently visit the offices of clients while conducting audits. Self-employed accountants may be able to do part of their work at  I  CPA's have the widest range ofjob opportunities. 17  18  Occupational Outlook Handbook  home. Accountants and auditors employed by large firms and gov­ ernment agencies may travel frequently to perform audits at clients’ places of business, branches of their firm, or government facilities. The majority of accountants and auditors generally work a stan­ dard 40-hour week, but many work longer, particularly if they are self-employed and free to take on the work of as many clients as they choose. For example, about 4 out of 10 self-employed accountants and auditors work more than 50 hours per week, compared to 1 out of 4 wage and salary accountants and auditors. Tax specialists often work long hours during the tax season. Employment Accountants and auditors held about 939,000 jobs in 1992. They worked throughout all types of firms and industries, but nearly onethird worked for accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping firms, or were self-employed. The majority of accountants and auditors were unlicensed man­ agement accountants, internal auditors, or government accountants and auditors. However, in 1992 there were on record over 475,000 State-licensed Certified Public Accountants (CPA’s), Public Ac­ countants (PA’s), Registered Public Accountants (RPA’s), and Ac­ counting Practitioners (AP’s). The vast majority of these—over 400,000—were CPA’s, but there may have been far fewer practicing CPA’s in the country; many CPA’s hold licenses in several States at once. Most accountants and auditors work in urban areas where public accounting firms and central or regional offices of businesses are concentrated. Roughly 10 percent of all accountants were self-em­ ployed, and less than 10 percent worked part time. Some accountants and auditors teach full time in junior colleges and colleges and universities; others teach part time while working for private industry or government or as self-employed accountants. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Most public accounting and business firms require applicants for ac­ countant and internal auditor positions to have at least a bachelor’s degree in accounting or a related field. Those wishing to pursue a bachelor’s degree in accounting should carefully research account­ ing curricula before enrolling. Many States will soon require CPA candidates to complete 150 semester hours of coursework prior to taking the CPA exam, and many schools have altered their curric­ ula accordingly. Some employers prefer those with a master’s degree in accounting or a master’s degree in business administration with a concentration in accounting. Most employers also prefer applicants who are familiar with computers and their applications in account­ ing and internal auditing. For beginning accounting and auditing positions in the Federal Government, 4 years of college (including 24 semester hours in ac­ counting or auditing) or an equivalent combination of education and experience is required. Previous experience in accounting or auditing can help an appli­ cant get a job. Many colleges offer students an opportunity to gain experience through summer or part-time internship programs con­ ducted by public accounting or business firms. Such training is in­ valuable in gaining permanent employment in the field. Professional recognition through certification or licensure also is helpful. In the majority of States, CPA’s are the only accountants who are licensed and regulated. Anyone working as a CPA must have a certificate and a license issued by a State board of account­ ancy. The vast majority of States require CPA candidates to be col­ lege graduates, but a few States substitute a certain number of years of public accounting experience for the educational requirement. Based on recommendations made by the American Institute of Cer­ tified Public Accountants and the National Association of State Boards of Accountancy, some States currently require that CPA candidates complete 150 semester hours of college coursework, and many other States are working toward adopting this law. This 150 https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  The number of accounting graduates remained stable between 1986 and 1991, but more women than men obtained bachelor's degrees in accounting. Degrees awarded (thousands)  Women  s<$>' ^  Source: National Center for Education Statistics  hour rule requires an additional 30 hours of coursework beyond the usual 4-year bachelor’s degree in accounting. All States use the four-part Uniform CPA Examination prepared by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. The 2day CPA examination is rigorous, and only about one-quarter of those who take it each year pass each part they attempt. Candidates are not required to pass all four parts at once, although most States require candidates to pass at least two parts for partial credit. Many States require all sections of the test to be passed within a certain pe­ riod of time. Most States also require applicants for a CPA certifi­ cate to have some accounting experience. The designations PA or RPA are also recognized by most States, and several States continue to issue these licenses. With the growth in the number of CPA’s, however, the majority of States are phasing out the PA, RPA, and other non-CPA designations by not issuing any more new licenses. Accountants who hold PA or RPA designa­ tions have similar legal rights, duties, and obligations as CPA’s, but their qualifications for licensure are less stringent. The designation Accounting Practitioner is also awarded by several States. It re­ quires less formal training than a CPA license and covers a more limited scope of practice. Nearly all States require both CPA’s and PA’s to complete a cer­ tain number of hours of continuing professional education before their licenses can be renewed. The professional associations repre­ senting accountants sponsor numerous courses, seminars, group study programs, and other forms of continuing education. Professional societies bestow other forms of credentials on a vol­ untary basis. Voluntary certification can attest to professional com­ petence in a specialized field of accounting and auditing. It also can certify that a recognized level of professional competence has been achieved by accountants and auditors who acquired some skills on the job, without the amount of formal education or public account­ ing work experience needed to meet the rigorous standards required to take the CPA examination. Increasingly, employers seek appli­ cants with these credentials.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations The Institute of Internal Auditors confers the designation Certi­ fied Internal Auditor (CIA) upon graduates from accredited col­ leges and universities who have completed 2 years’ work in internal auditing and who have passed a four-part examination. The EDP Auditors Association confers the designation Certified Information Systems Auditor (CISA) upon candidates who pass an examination and who have 5 years of experience in auditing electronic data processing systems. However, auditing or data processing experi­ ence and college education may be substituted for up to 3 years. Other organizations, such as the National Association of Certified Fraud Examiners and the Bank Administration Institute, confer other specialized auditing designations. The Institute of Management Accountants (IMA), formerly the National Association of Accountants, confers the Certified Man­ agement Accountant (CMA) designation upon college graduates who pass a four-part examination, agree to meet continuing educa­ tion requirements, comply with standards of professional conduct, and have at least 2 years’ work in management accounting. The CMA program is administered through an affiliate of the IMA, the Institute of Certified Management Accountants. The Accreditation Council for Accountancy and Taxation, a satellite organization of the National Society of Public Accountants, awards a Certificate of Accreditation in Accountancy to those who pass a comprehensive examination, and a Certificate of Accreditation in Taxation to those with appropriate experience and education. It is not uncommon for a practitioner to hold multiple licenses and designations. For in­ stance, one internal auditor might be a CPA, CIA, and CISA. Persons planning a career in accounting should have an aptitude for mathematics, be able to analyze, compare, and interpret facts and figures quickly, and make sound judgments based on this knowledge. They must be able to clearly communicate the results of their work, orally and in writing, to clients and management. Accountants and auditors must be good at working with people as well as with business systems and computers. Accuracy and the ability to handle responsibility with limited supervision are impor­ tant. Perhaps most important, because millions of financial state­ ment users rely on their services, accountants and auditors should have high standards of integrity. Capable accountants and auditors should advance rapidly; those having inadequate academic preparation may be assigned routine jobs and find promotion difficult. Many graduates ofjunior colleges and business and correspondence schools, as well as bookkeepers and accounting clerks who meet the education and experience re­ quirements set by their employers, can obtain junior accounting po­ sitions and advance to more responsible positions by demonstrating their accounting skills on the job. Beginning public accountants usually start by assisting with work for several clients. They may advance to positions with more re­ sponsibility in 1 or 2 years and to senior positions within another few years. Those who excel may become supervisors, managers, or partners, open their own public accounting firms, or transfer to ex­ ecutive positions in management accounting or internal auditing in private firms. Beginning management accountants often start as cost account­ ants, junior internal auditors, or as trainees for other accounting po­ sitions. As they rise through the organization, they may advance to accounting manager, chief cost accountant, budget director, or manager of internal auditing. Some become controllers, treasurers, financial vice presidents, chief financial officers, or corporation presidents. Many senior corporation executives have a background in accounting, internal auditing, or finance. There is a large degree of mobility among public accountants, management accountants, and internal auditors. Practitioners often shift into management accounting or internal auditing from public accounting, or between internal auditing and management account­ ing. However, it is less common for accountants and auditors to move from either management accounting or internal auditing into public accounting.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  19  Job Outlook Employment of accountants and auditors is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Quali­ fied accountants and auditors should have good job opportunities. Although the profession is characterized by a relatively low rate of turnover, because the occupation is so large many openings also will arise as accountants and auditors retire, die, or move into other oc­ cupations. CPA’s should have the widest range of opportunities, es­ pecially as more States enact the 150-hour rule and it becomes more difficult to become a CPA. As the economy grows, the number of business establishments in­ creases, requiring more accountants and auditors to set up their books, prepare their taxes, and provide management advice. As these businesses grow, the volume and complexity of information developed by accountants and auditors on costs, expenditures, and taxes will increase as well. More complex requirements for account­ ants and auditors also arise from changes in legislation related to taxes, financial reporting standards, business investments, mergers, and other financial matters. In addition, businesses will increasingly need quick, accurate, and individually tailored financial informa­ tion due to the demands of growing international competition. The changing role of public accountants, management account­ ants, and internal auditors also will spur job growth. Public ac­ countants will perform less auditing work due to potential liability, and less tax work due to growing competition from tax preparation firms, but they will assume an even greater management advisory role and expand their consulting services. These rapidly growing services will lead to increased demand for public accountants in the coming years. Management accountants also will take on a greater advisory role as they develop more sophisticated and flexible ac­ counting systems, and focus more on analyzing operations rather than just providing financial data. Similarly, management will in­ creasingly need internal auditors to develop new ways to discover and eliminate waste and fraud. Despite growing opportunities for qualified accountants and au­ ditors, competition for the most prestigious jobs—such as those with major accounting and business firms—will remain keen. Ap­ plicants with a master’s degree in accounting, a master’s degree in business administration with a concentration in accounting, or a broad base of computer experience will have an advantage. Moreo­ ver, computers now perform many simple accounting functions, al­ lowing accountants and auditors to incorporate and analyze more information. This increasingly complex work requires greater knowledge of more specialized areas such as international business and current legislation, and expertise in specific industries. Earnings According to a College Placement Council Salary Survey in 1993, bachelor’s degree candidates in accounting received starting salary offers averaging nearly $28,000 a year; master’s degree candidates in accounting, over $30,000. According to a survey of workplaces in 160 metropolitan areas, accountants with limited experience had median earnings of $24,700 in 1992, with the middle half earning between $22,200 and $27,500. The most experienced accountants had median earnings of $76,000, with the middle half earning between $68,500 and $84,600. Public accountants—employed by public accounting firms—with limited experience had median earnings of $28,000 in 1992, with the middle half earning between $26,500 and $29,400. The most exper­ ienced public accountants had median earnings of $42,400, with the middle half earning between $36,900 and $50,400. Many owners and partners of firms earned considerably more. Based on a survey by the Institute of Management Accountants, the average salary of IMA members was about $55,100 a year in 1992. IMA members who were certified public accountants aver­ aged $61,900, while members who were certified management ac­ countants averaged $58,700.  20  Occupational Outlook Handbook  (D.O.T. 162.117-014; 163.167-026; 169.167-034; 188.117-122,. 167-106)  top-level managers. These managers—such as the vice president or director of administration—are included in the Handbook state­ ment on general managers and top executives. Supervisory-level administrative services managers directly over­ see supervisors or staffs involved in supportive services. Mid-level managers develop overall plans, set goals and deadlines, develop procedures to direct and improve supportive services, define the re­ sponsibilities of supervisory-level managers, and delegate authority. They often are involved in the hiring and dismissal of employees but generally have no role in the formulation of personnel policy. As the size of the firm increases, administrative services managers increasingly specialize in one or more supportive services activities. For example, administrative services managers may work primarily as facilities managers, office managers, contract administrators, property managers, or unclaimed property officers. In some cases, the duties of these administrative services managers are quite simi­ lar to those of other managers and supervisors, some of whom are discussed in other Handbook statements. Administrative services managers who specialize in facilities management engage in facilities planning, including buying, selling, or leasing facilities; redesign work areas to be more efficient and “ergonomic” (user-friendly); ensure that facilities comply with gov­ ernment regulations; and supervise maintenance, grounds, and cus­ todial staffs. In some firms, these workers are called facilities man­ agers, and may work in facilities management departments. Administrative services managers who work as office managers oversee supervisors of large clerical staffs. In small firms, however, clerical supervisors—who are discussed in the Handbook statement on clerical supervisors and managers—perform this function. Ad­ ministrative services managers who work as contract administrators direct the preparation, analysis, negotiation, and review of contracts related to the purchase or sale of equipment, materials, supplies, products, or services. However, procurement functions are gener­ ally directed by purchasing agents and managers, also discussed in a separate Handbook statement. Property management is divided into the management and use of personal property such as office supplies, an administrative services management function, and real property management, a function of property and real estate managers—who are discussed elsewhere in the Handbook. Personal property managers acquire, distribute, and store supplies, and sometimes sell or dispose of surplus property. Some property managers are engaged solely in surplus property dis­ posal, the resale of scraps, rejects, and other unneeded supplies and machinery, which is an increasingly important source of revenue for many organizations. In government, surplus property officers may acquire and then sell or dispose of government property. Other administrative services managers oversee unclaimed prop­ erty disposal. In government, this activity includes locating owners of unclaimed liquid assets—such as stocks, bonds, savings accounts, and the contents of safe deposit boxes—and locating owners of, or auctioning off, unclaimed personal property—such as motor vehi­ cles.  Nature of the Work Administrative services managers work throughout private indus­ try and government, and their range of duties is broad. They coordi­ nate and direct supportive services, which may include secretarial and correspondence; administration; preparation of payrolls; con­ ference planning and travel; information processing; mail; facilities management; materials scheduling and distribution; printing and reproduction; records management; telecommunications manage­ ment; personal property procurement, supply, and disposal; data processing; library; food; security; and parking. In small firms, one administrative services manager may oversee all supportive services. In larger firms, however, administrative ser­ vices managers work within the same managerial hierarchy as other managers. Supervisory-level, or “first-line,” managers report to their mid-level counterparts who, in turn, report to proprietors or  Working Conditions Administrative services managers generally work in comfortable of­ fices. However, since their duties involve a wide range of activities, they must maintain regular contact with personnel in other depart­ ments, and working conditions may vary. In small firms, for in­ stance, they may work alongside the supervisors and staffs they oversee, and the office area may be crowded and noisy. Their work can be stressful, as they attempt to schedule work to meet deadlines. Although the 40-hour week is standard, uncompen­ sated overtime is often required to resolve problems. Managers in­ volved in contract administration and personal property procure­ ment, use, and disposal may travel extensively between home offices, branch offices, vendors’ offices, and property sales sites. Fa­ cilities managers who are responsible for the design of work spaces may spend time at construction sites. Facilities managers also may  According to a survey by the Institute of Internal Auditors, sala­ ries of internal auditors in 1992 ranged from $26,500 for those with less than 2 years of experience to $60,700 for those with over 10 years of experience. In the Federal Government, the starting annual salary for junior accountants and auditors was about $18,300 in 1993. Candidates who had a superior academic record could begin at about $22,700. Applicants with a master’s degree or 2 years’ professional experi­ ence began at $27,800. Accountants employed by the Federal Gov­ ernment in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions averaged $46,300 a year in 1993; auditors, $48,200. Related Occupations Accountants and auditors design internal control systems and ana­ lyze financial data. Others for whom training in accounting is inval­ uable include appraisers, budget officers, loan officers, financial analysts and managers, bank officers, actuaries, underwriters, tax collectors and revenue agents, FBI special agents, securities sales workers, and purchasing agents. Sources of Additional Information Information about different accounting licenses and the standards for licensure in your State may be obtained from your State board of accountancy. A list of the addresses and chief executives of all State boards of accountancy is available from: tw National Association of State Boards of Accountancy, 380 Lexington Ave., Suite 200, New York, NY 10168-0002.  Information about careers in certified public accounting and about CPA standards and examinations may be obtained from: 13= American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, 1211 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10036-8775, or call 1-800-862-4272.  Information on management and other specialized fields of ac­ counting and auditing and on the Certified Management Account­ ant program is available from: \S> Institute of Management Accountants, 10 Paragon Dr., Montvale, NJ 07645-1760. National Society of Public Accountants and the Accreditation Council for Accountancy and Taxation, 1010 North Fairfax St., Alexandria, VA 22314. XW The Institute of Internal Auditors, 249 Maitland Ave., Altamonte Springs, FL 32701-4201. t3"The EDP Auditors Association, 455 Kehoe Blvd., Suite 106, Carol Stream, IL 60188-0180.  For information on accredited accounting programs and educa­ tional institutions offering a specialization in accounting or business management, contact: 13= American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business, 605 Old Balias  Rd., Suite 220, St. Louis, MO 63141.  Administrative Services Managers   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations  Some administrative services managers run their own management consulting firms. monitor the work of maintenance, grounds, or custodial staffs, and often travel between different facilities. Employment Administrative services managers held about 226,000 jobs in 1992. Over two-fifths worked in services industries, including manage­ ment, business, social, and health services organizations. Others were found in virtually every other industry. A few run their own management services, management consulting, or facilities support services firms. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Many administrative services managers advance through the ranks in an organization, acquiring several years’ work experience in vari­ ous administrative services before assuming supervisory duties. For example, managers who oversee clerical supervisors should be fa­ miliar with office procedures and equipment and have a working knowledge of word processing, communications, data processing, and recordkeeping. Facilities managers often have a background in architecture, engineering, construction, interior design, or real es­ tate, in addition to managerial or other administrative experience. Managers of personal property acquisition and disposal need experi­ ence in purchasing and sales and knowledge of a wide variety of sup­ plies, machinery, and equipment. Managers concerned with supply, inventory, and distribution must be experienced in receiving, ware­ housing, packaging, shipping, transportation, and related opera­ tions. Contract administrators may have worked as contract special­ ists, cost analysts, or procurement specialists. Managers of unclaimed property often have experience in claims analysis and records management. Educational requirements vary widely. For supervisory-level ad­ ministrative services managers of secretarial, mail room, and related administrative support activities, many employers prefer an associ­ ate of arts degree in business or management, although a high school diploma may suffice. For managers of audiovisual, graphics, and other more technical activities, postsecondary technical school training is preferred. For managers of highly complex services such as contract administration, a bachelor’s degree, preferably in busi­ ness administration or finance, is usually required. The curriculum  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  21  should include courses in office technology, accounting, business mathematics, computer applications, and business law. Similarly, facilities managers often need a bachelor’s degree in engineering, in­ terior design, or business administration. Some administrative ser­ vices managers have advanced degrees. Whatever the manager’s du­ ties, his or her educational background must be accompanied by work experience reflecting demonstrated ability. Persons interested in becoming administrative services managers should be able to communicate and establish effective working rela­ tionships with many different people—managers, supervisors, pro­ fessionals, clerks, and blue-collar workers. They should be analyti­ cal, detail-oriented, flexible, and decisive. The ability to coordinate several activities and to quickly analyze and resolve specific problems is important. Ability to work under stress and cope with deadlines is also important. Advancement is easier in large firms that employ several levels of administrative services managers. Attainment of the “Certified Ad­ ministrative Manager” (CAM) designation, through work experi­ ence and successful completion of examinations offered by the Academy of Administrative Management, can increase one’s ad­ vancement opportunities. A bachelor’s degree enhances a supervi­ sory-level manager’s opportunities to advance to a mid-level man­ agement position, such as director of administrative services, and eventually to a top-level management position, such as executive vice president for administrative services, in one’s own or a larger firm. Those with the required capital and experience can establish their own management consulting, management services, or facili­ ties support services firm. Job Outlook Employment of administrative services managers is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Moreover, the occupation is characterized by relatively low turnover—similar to other managerial occupations—and rela­ tively few of the administrative services managers who leave their jobs leave the profession permanently. These factors, coupled with the ample supply of competent, experienced workers seeking mana­ gerial jobs, should result in keen competition for administrative ser­ vices management positions in the coming years. Although administrative services are becoming more complex, many firms are increasingly contracting out administrative services and otherwise streamlining these functions in an effort to cut costs. Corporate restructuring has tempered growth of administrative ser­ vices managers in recent years, and this trend is expected to con­ tinue. As it becomes more common for firms to contract out administra­ tive services, however, demand for administrative services managers will increase in management services, management consulting, and facilities support services firms to which these services are con­ tracted out. In addition, some types of administrative services man­ agers may grow more quickly than others. Facilities managers, a rel­ atively young and quickly growing occupation, may not be subject to the same cost-cutting pressures as other administrative services managers. Also, the extent to which governments at all levels, par­ ticularly Federal, contract out for goods and services could affect demand for contract administrators and personal property manag­ ers. Earnings According to a salary survey by the A.M.S. Foundation (Adminis­ trative Management Society), building services/facilities managers averaged about $48,000 a year in 1993; office/administrative ser­ vices managers, over $40,000; and records managers, about $35,000. Average salaries ranged from $28,000 for the lowest paid records managers to $58,000 for the highest paid building services/facilities managers. In the Federal Government, contract specialists in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions averaged $43,800 a year  22  Occupational Outlook Handbook  in 1993; facilities managers, $42,600; administrative officers, $42,100; industrial property managers, $41,300; property disposal specialists, $38,300; and support services administrators, $32,900. Related Occupations Administrative services managers direct and coordinate supportive services and oversee the purchase, use, and disposal of personal property. Occupations with similar functions include administrative assistants, appraisers, buyers, clerical supervisors, contract special­ ists, cost estimators, procurement services managers, property and real estate managers, purchasing managers, marketing and sales managers, and personnel managers. Sources of Additional Information Information about careers and certification in administrative ser­ vices management is available from: 0* Academy of Administrative Management, 550 W. Jackson Blvd., Suite  360, Chicago IL 60661.  Detailed data on salaries of administrative services managers is available from: 0= A.M.S. Foundation, 550 W. Jackson Blvd., Suite 360, Chicago, IL 60661.  For information about careers in the management of personal property, contact:  W National Property Management Association, 380 Main St., Suite 290, Dunedin, FL 34698. For information about careers in facilities management, contact: tw International Facility Management Association, 1 East Greenway Plaza, 11th Floor, Houston, TX 77046-0194.  For information on careers in records and information manage­ ment, contact:  Association of Records Managers and Administrators, 4200 Somerset Dr., Suite 215, Prairie Village, KS 66208.  Budget Analysts (D.O.T. 161.117-010 and 161.267-030)  Nature of the Work Budget analysts play a primary role in the development, analysis, and execution of budgets. Budgets are financial plans used to esti­ mate future requirements and organize and allocate expenditures and capital resources effectively. The analysis of spending behavior and the planning of future operations are an integral part of the deci­ sion-making process in most corporations and government agencies. Budget analysts work in both private industry and the public sec­ tor. In private industry, a budget analyst examines, analyzes, and seeks new ways to improve efficiency and increase profits. Although analysts working in government generally are not concerned with profits, they too are interested in finding the most efficient distribu­ tion of funds and resources among various departments and pro­ grams. A major responsibility of budget analysts is to provide advice and technical assistance in the preparation of annual budgets. At the be­ ginning of the budget cycle, managers and department heads submit proposed operating and financial plans to budget analysts for re­ view. These plans outline expected programs—including proposed program increases or new initiatives, estimated costs and expenses, and capital expenditures needed to finance these programs. Analysts begin by examining the budget estimates or proposals for completeness, accuracy, and conformance with established pro­ cedures, regulations, and organizational objectives. They review fi­ nancial requests by employing cost-benefit analysis, assessing pro­ gram trade-offs, and exploring alternative funding methods. They also examine past and current budgets, and research economic and financial developments that affect the organization’s spending. This process allows analysts to evaluate program proposals in terms of the organization’s priorities and financial resources.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  After this review process, budget analysts consolidate the individ­ ual department budgets into operating and financial budget summa­ ries. The analyst submits preliminary budgets to senior manage­ ment, or sometimes, as is often the case in local and State governments, to appointed or elected officials, with comments and supporting statements to justify or deny funding requests. By re­ viewing different departments’ operating plans, analysts gain insight into an organization’s overall operations. This generally proves very useful when they interpret and offer technical assistance to officials approving the budget. At this point in the budget process, budget analysts help the chief operating officer, agency head, or other top managers analyze the proposed plan and devise possible alternatives if the projected results are unsatisfactory. The final decision to ap­ prove the budget, however, is usually made by the organization head or elected officials. Throughout the rest of the year, analysts periodically monitor the operating budget by reviewing reports and accounting records to de­ termine if allocated funds have been spent as specified. If deviations appear between the approved budget and actual performance, budget analysts may write a report explaining the causes of the vari­ ations along with recommendations for new or revised budget pro­ cedures. They suggest reallocation of excess funds or recommend program cuts to avoid or alleviate deficits. They also inform pro­ gram managers and others within their organization of the status and availability of funds in different budget accounts. Before any changes are made to an existing program or a new one is started, a budget analyst assesses its efficiency and effectiveness. Analysts also may project budget needs for long-range planning. Analysts also assist in developing procedural guidelines and poli­ cies governing the development, formulation, and maintenance of the budget. If necessary, they conduct training sessions for agency or company personnel on new budget procedures. Budget analysts who work for local or State governments may also spend time answering inquiries from constituents. Working Conditions Budget analysts work in a normal office setting and generally work 40 hours per week. However, during the initial development and  Budget analysts assure that actual expenditures comply with the approved budget plan.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations mid-year and final reviews of budgets, they often experience the pressure of deadlines and tight work schedules. The work during these periods can be extremely stressful, and analysts are usually re­ quired to work more than the routine 40 hours a week. Budget analysts spend the majority of their time working inde­ pendently, compiling and analyzing data and preparing budget pro­ posals. Nevertheless, their routine schedule can be interrupted by special budget requests, meetings, and training sessions. Others may travel to obtain budget details and explanations of variances from coworkers, and to personally observe what funding is being used for in the field. Employment Budget analysts held about 67,000 jobs throughout private industry and government in 1992. Federal, State, and local governments are major employers, accounting for 1 of every 3 budget analyst jobs. The Department of Defense employed 7 of every 10 budget analysts working for the Federal Government. Schools, hospitals, banks, and manufacturers of transportation equipment, chemicals and allied products, electrical and electronic machinery, and industrial ma­ chines are other major employers of budget analysts. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Most private firms and government agencies require candidates for budget analyst positions to have at least a bachelor’s degree. Within the Federal Government, a bachelor’s degree in any field is suffi­ cient background for an entry-level budget analyst trainee position. State and local governments have varying requirements, but a bach­ elor’s degree in one of the following areas usually qualifies one for entry into the occupation: Accounting, finance, business or public administration, economics, political science, planning, statistics, or a social science such as sociology. Sometimes, a field closely related to the employing industry or organization within an industry, such as engineering, may be preferred. Some employers prefer that candi­ dates possess a master’s degree to ensure adequate analytical and communication skills. Financial experience can occasionally be sub­ stituted for an advanced degree when applying for a budget analyst position. Some companies prefer to promote from within; therefore, competent accounting or payroll clerks and other clerical staff who have worked closely with the budget process are sometimes given the opportunity to advance to entry level budget analyst positions even if they do not meet the educational requirements. Because developing a budget involves manipulating numbers and requires strong analytical skills, courses in mathematics, statistics, or accounting are helpful, regardless of the prospective budget ana­ lyst’s major field of study. Because most financial analysis per­ formed by organizations is automated, a familiarity with the finan­ cial software packages used by most organizations in budget analysis, as well as word processing, is generally required by em­ ployers. Software packages commonly used by budget analysts in­ clude electronic spreadsheets and database and graphics software. Job candidates who already possess these computer skills may be preferred over those who need to be trained. In addition to analytical and computer skills, those seeking a ca­ reer as a budget analyst must also be able to work under strict time constraints. Strong oral and written communication skills are essen­ tial for analysts to prepare, present and defend budget proposals to decision makers. Entry level budget analysts may receive some formal training when they begin their jobs. However, most employers feel that the best training is obtained by working through one complete budget cycle. During the cycle, analysts become familiar with all the steps involved in the budgeting process. The Federal Government, on the other hand, offers extensive onthe-job and classroom training for entry level analysts, who are ini­ tially called trainees. Analysts are encouraged to participate in the various classes offered throughout their careers.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  23  Beginning analysts usually work under close supervision. Capable entry level analysts can be promoted into intermediate level posi­ tions within 1 to 2 years, and then into senior positions within a few more years. Progressing to a higher level means added budgetary re­ sponsibility and can lead to a supervisory role. In the Federal Government, for example, beginning budget ana­ lysts compare projected costs with prior expenditures; consolidate and enter data prepared by others; and assist higher grade analysts by doing research. As analysts progress, they begin to develop and formulate budget estimates and justification statements; perform in­ depth analyses of budget requests; write statements supporting funding requests; advise program managers and others on the status and availability of funds in different budget activities; and present and defend budget proposals to senior managers. Because financial and analytical skills are vital in any organiza­ tion, budget analysts often are able to transfer to a related field in other organizations. Job Outlook Employment of budget analysts is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. In addition to employment growth, many job openings will result from the need to replace experienced budget analysts who transfer to other occupa­ tions or leave the labor force. Expanding use of automation may make analysts more produc­ tive, allowing them to process more data in less time. Also, com­ puters are increasingly used to organize, summarize, and dissemi­ nate automated data to the top levels in organizations, thereby centralizing decision-making and reducing the need for middle managers. Any computer-induced effects on employment may be offset, however, by a greater demand for information and analysis. Easier manipulation of and accessibility to data provide manage­ ment more considerations on which to base decisions. Also, because of the growing complexity of business and the increasing specializa­ tion of functions within organizations, more attention is being given to planning and financial control. Many companies will continue to rely heavily on budget analysts to examine, analyze, and develop budgets to determine capital requirements and to allocate labor and other resources efficiently among all parts of the organization. Man­ agers will continue to use budgets as a vehicle to plan, coordinate, control, and evaluate activities within their organizations more ef­ fectively. Despite the increase in demand for budget analysts, competition for jobs should remain keen because of the substantial number of qualified applicants. Job opportunities are usually best for candi­ dates with a college degree, particularly a master’s. In some cases, experience is more beneficial than a degree and can be used to offset a lack of education. A working knowledge of computer financial software packages can also enhance one’s employment prospects in this field. The financial work performed by budget analysts is an important function in every organization. Financial and budget reports must be completed even during periods of economic slowdowns. There­ fore, employment of budget analysts generally is not as adversely af­ fected as other workers during economic slumps. Earnings Salaries of budget analysts vary widely by experience, education, and employer. According to a 1993 survey of financial, accounting, banking, and information systems professions conducted by Robert Half International Incorporated, average annual starting salaries of budget and other financial analysts ranged from $23,500 to $28,000 for those working in medium-size firms, and from $24,000 to $29,000 for those employed by larger organizations. Analysts with 1 to 3 years of experience earned from $27,000 to $35,000 a year in medium-size firms and from $28,500 to $37,500 in larger compa­ nies. Senior analysts earned from $34,500 to $41,200 in medium-size  24  Occupational Outlook Handbook  firms and from $36,000 to $44,000 in larger firms. Earnings of man­ agers in this field ranged from $41,000 to $51,000 in medium-size firms to $45,000 to $62,000 in large organizations. A survey of workplaces in 160 metropolitan areas reported that experienced budget analysts had median annual earnings of about $39,700 in 1992, with the middle half earning between about $35,700 and $44,300 a year. In the Federal Government, budget analysts generally started as trainees earning about $18,300 a year in 1993. Candidates with a master’s degree began at $27,800. The average annual salary for budget analysts employed by the Federal Government in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions was $42,033 in 1993. Related Occupations Budget analysts review, analyze, and interpret financial data; make recommendations for the future; and assist in the implementation of new ideas. Workers who use these skills in other occupations in­ clude accountants and auditors, economists, financial analysts, fi­ nancial managers, and loan officers. Sources of Additional Information Information about career opportunities as a budget analyst may be available from your State or local employment service. Persons interested in working as a budget analyst in the Federal Government can obtain information from: IS" U.S. Office of Personnel Management, 1900 E St. NW., Washington, DC 20415.  Construction and Building Inspectors (D.O.T. 168.167-030, -034, -038, -046, -050, .267-010, -102; 182.267; 850.387, .467)  Nature of the Work Construction and building inspectors examine the construction, al­ teration, or repair of buildings, highways and streets, sewer and water systems, dams, bridges, and other structures to ensure com­ pliance with building codes and ordinances, zoning regulations, and contract specifications. They make the initial inspections during the first phase of construction, and make followup inspections through­ out the construction period to monitor continuing compliance with regulations. In areas with severe natural hazards—such as earth­ quakes or hurricanes—inspectors monitor compliance with addi­ tional regulations. Inspectors generally specialize in one particular type of construction work. Building inspectors inspect the structural quality and general safety of buildings. Some may specialize—for example, in structural steel or reinforced concrete buildings. Before construction, plan ex­ aminers determine whether the plans for the building or other struc­ ture comply with building code regulations and are suited to the en­ gineering and environmental demands of the building site. They visit the worksite before the foundation is poured to inspect the soil condition and positioning and depth of the footings. Then they in­ spect the foundation after it has been completed. The size and type of structure and the rate of completion determine the number of other visits they must make. Upon completion of the project, they make a final comprehensive inspection. In addition, inspectors may calculate fire insurance rates by assessing the type of construction, building contents, availability of fire protection equipment, and risks posed by adjoining buildings. Electrical inspectors inspect the installation of electrical systems and equipment to ensure that they function properly and comply with electrical codes and standards. They visit worksites to inspect new and existing wiring, lighting, sound and security systems, mo­ tors, and generating equipment. They also inspect the installation of  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  the electrical wiring for heating and air-conditioning systems, appli­ ances, and other components. Elevator inspectors examine lifting and conveying devices such as elevators, escalators, moving sidewalks, lifts and hoists, inclined railways, ski lifts, and amusement rides. Mechanical inspectors inspect the installation of the mechanical components of commercial kitchen appliances, heating and air-con­ ditioning equipment, gasoline and butane tanks, gas and oil piping, and gas-fired and oil-fired appliances. Some specialize in inspecting boilers or ventilating equipment. Plumbing inspectors examine plumbing systems, including pri­ vate disposal systems, water supply and distribution systems, plumbing fixtures and traps, and drain, waste, and vent lines. Public works inspectors ensure that Federal, State, and local gov­ ernment construction of water and sewer systems, highways, streets, bridges, and dams conforms to detailed contract specifications. They inspect excavation and fill operations, the placement of forms for concrete, concrete mixing and pouring, asphalt paving, and grading operations. They record the work and materials used so that contract payments can be calculated. Public works inspectors may specialize in highways, reinforced concrete, or ditches. Others spe­ cialize in dredging operations required for bridges and dams or for harbors. Home inspectors conduct inspections of newly built homes to as­ certain adherence to regulatory requirements. Some home inspec­ tors are hired by prospective home buyers to inspect and report on the condition of the home’s major systems and components. Home inspectors typically are hired either immediately prior to a purchase offer or as a contingency to a sales contract. Construction and building inspectors increasingly use computers to help them monitor the status of construction inspection activities and the issuance of permits. Details about construction projects, building and occupancy permits, and other information can thus be stored and easily retrieved. Although inspections are primarily visual, inspectors often use tape measures, survey instruments, metering devices, and test equip­ ment such as concrete strength measurers. They often keep a daily log of their work, take photographs, file reports, and, if necessary, act on their findings. For example, construction inspectors notify the construction contractor, superintendent, or supervisor when they discover something that does not comply with the appropriate codes, ordinances, contract specifications, or approved plans. If the deficiency is not corrected within a reasonable or specified period of time, government inspectors have authority to issue a “stop-work” order. Many inspectors also investigate construction or alterations being done without proper permits. Violators of permit laws are directed to obtain permits and submit to inspection. Working Conditions Construction and building inspectors usually work alone. However, several may be assigned to a large, complex project. They may spend much of their time in a field office reviewing blueprints, answering letters or telephone calls, writing reports, and scheduling inspec­ tions. The rest of their time is spent inspecting construction sites. Inspection sites may be dirty and cluttered with tools, materials, or debris. Inspectors may have to climb ladders or many flights of stairs, or may have to crawl in tight places. Although the work is not considered hazardous, inspectors often wear “hard hats” for safety. Inspectors normally work regular hours. However, if an accident occurs at a construction site, inspectors must respond immediately and may work irregular hours to complete their report. Employment Construction and building inspectors held about 66,000 jobs in 1992. Nearly 6 of every 10 worked for local governments, primarily municipal or county building departments. Employment of local  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations  /C  V'-mm  Construction inspectors ensure compliance with building codes, zoning regulations, and contract specifications. government inspectors is concentrated in cities and in suburban ar­ eas undergoing rapid growth. Local governments employ large in­ spection staffs, including many inspectors who specialize in struc­ tural steel, reinforced concrete, boiler, electrical, and elevator inspection. About 15 percent of all construction and building inspectors worked for engineering and architectural services firms, doing in­ spections for a fee. Most of the remaining inspectors were employed at the Federal and State levels. Many construction inspectors em­ ployed by the Federal Government worked for the Department of Defense, primarily for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Other im­ portant Federal employers include the Departments of Agriculture, Housing and Urban Development, and Interior, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Construction or building inspectors need several years of experience as a construction contractor, supervisor, or craft worker before be­ coming inspectors. Most employers also require an applicant to have a high school diploma or the equivalent. High school courses in drafting, algebra, geometry, and English are also useful. Workers who want to become inspectors should have a thorough knowledge of construction materials and practices in either a gen­ eral area like structural or heavy construction, or in a specialized area such as electrical or plumbing systems, reinforced concrete, or structural steel. Many construction and building inspectors have re­ cent experience as carpenters, electricians, plumbers, or pipefitters. Employers prefer inspectors who have graduated from an appren­ ticeship program, have studied engineering or architecture for at least 2 years, or have a degree from a community or junior college, with courses in construction technology, blueprint reading, mathe­ matics, and building inspection. Construction and building inspectors must be in good physical condition in order to walk and climb about construction sites. They also must have a driver’s license. In addition, Federal, State, and many local governments usually require that inspectors pass a civil service examination. Construction and building inspectors usually receive most of their training on the job. At first, working with an experienced inspector,  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  25  they learn about inspection techniques; codes, ordinances, and regu­ lations; contract specifications; and recordkeeping and reporting duties. They begin by inspecting less complex types of construction such as residential buildings. They then progress to more complex assignments. An engineering degree is frequently required to ad­ vance to supervisory inspector. Since they advise builders and the general public on building codes, construction practices, and technical developments, con­ struction and building inspectors must keep abreast of new building code developments. Many employers provide formal training pro­ grams to broaden inspectors’ knowledge of construction materials, practices, and inspection techniques. Inspectors who work for small agencies or firms that do not conduct training programs can broaden their knowledge and upgrade their skills by attending State-conducted training programs, by taking college or correspon­ dence courses, or by attending seminars sponsored by the organiza­ tions listed below under Sources of Additional Information . Certification enhances construction inspectors’ chances for higher paying, more responsible positions. Some States and cities re­ quire certification for employment. Inspectors with substantial ex­ perience and education can attain certification by passing stringent examinations on construction techniques, materials, and code re­ quirements. The organizations listed below offer many categories of certification for inspectors and plan examiners, including the desig­ nation “CBO,” Certified Building Official. Job Outlook Employment of construction and building inspectors is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Increases in the level of construction activity and a rising con­ cern for public safety and for improvements in the quality of con­ struction should spur demand for construction and building inspec­ tors. The trend of government—particularly Federal and State—to contract out construction inspection functions to engineering, archi­ tectural and management services firms is expected to continue. In addition, a growing volume of real estate transactions and a greater awareness and emphasis on home inspections will add to employ­ ment requirements for home inspectors. Despite the expected rapid growth in demand for inspection ser­ vices, most job openings will arise from the need to replace inspec­ tors who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Be­ cause of the trend toward the establishment of professional standards for inspectors, job prospects should be best for highly ex­ perienced craft workers who have some college education or who are certified as inspectors. Employment of construction and building inspectors is not al­ ways directly affected by changes in the level of building activity. Unlike most construction occupations, inspectors—particularly those in government—seldom experience layoffs when construction activity declines. During these periods, maintenance and renova­ tion—which usually require more frequent inspection than new construction—generally continue, enabling inspectors to continue working full time year round. In an upturn, new jobs for inspectors increase but not to the same degree as construction activity. Earnings The median annual salary of construction and building inspectors was $31,200 in 1992. The middle 50 percent earned between $25,000 and $40,900. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $21,700 and the highest 10 percent earned more than $51,100 a year. Generally, building inspectors, including plan examiners, earn the highest sala­ ries. Salaries in large metropolitan areas are substantially higher than those in small local jurisdictions. Related Occupations Construction and building inspectors combine a knowledge of con­ struction principles and law with the ability to coordinate data, di­ agnose problems, and communicate with people. Workers in other  26  Occupational Outlook Handbook  occupations with a similar combination of skills are drafters, estima­ tors, industrial engineering technicians, and surveyors. Sources of Additional Information Information about a career and certification as a construction or building inspector is available from the following model code orga­ nizations: CS-* International Conference of Building Officials, 5360 South Workman Mill Rd., Whittier, CA 90601. O’Building Officials and Code Administrators International, Inc., 4051 West Flossmoor Rd., Country Club Hills, IL 60478. O’Southern Building Code Congress International, Inc., 900 Montclair Rd., Birmingham, AL 35213.  Information on careers and certification as a home inspector is available from: O’American Society of Home Inspectors, Inc., 1735 North Lynn St., Suite 950, Arlington, VA 22209.  For information about a career as a State or local government construction or building inspector, contact your State or local em­ ployment service. Persons interested in a career as a construction and building in­ spector with the Federal Government can obtain information from: IW U.S. Office of Personnel Management, 1900 E St. NW, Washington, DC 20415.  Construction Contractors and Managers (D.O.T. 182.167 except -022)  Nature of the Work Construction contractors and managers assume various levels of re­ sponsibility and are known by a wide range of job titles that are often used interchangeably—for example, constructor, construction superintendent, general superintendent, production manager, pro­ ject manager, general construction manager, executive construction manager, general contractor, contractor, and subcontractor. Con­ struction contractors and managers may be owners or salaried em­ ployees of a construction contracting firm or individuals under con­ tract with the owner, developer, contractor, or management firm overseeing the construction project. This Handbook statement uses the term “construction manager” broadly to encompass all supervisory-level salaried and self-em­ ployed construction managers who oversee construction supervisors and workers. Supervisory level managers report to mid-level and top-level construction managers, who are included in the Handbook statement on general managers and top executives. Within the construction industry, the term “construction man­ ager” is used more narrowly to denote the firm or individual in­ volved in a special form of control to perform a construction man­ agement function. A construction manager frequently acts as the owner’s or developer’s consultant regarding the scheduling and co­ ordination of all design and construction processes over the life of the project. On small construction projects such as remodeling a home, con­ struction managers are usually self-employed construction contrac­ tors who directly oversee their employees. However, large construc­ tion projects like an industrial complex are too complicated for one person to supervise. These projects are divided into many segments: Site preparation, including land clearing and earth moving; sewage systems; landscaping and road construction; building construction, including excavation and laying foundations, erection of frame­ work, floors, walls, and roofs; or building services, including car­ pentry, electrical, plumbing, air-conditioning, and heating. Con­ struction managers may be in charge of one or more of these activities, and may have several subordinates, such as crew supervi­ sors, reporting to them.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Construction contractors and managers plan, budget, and direct the construction project. The planning, often in collaboration with design professionals, requires sophisticated scheduling techniques with flow charts, bar charts, and other graphic presentations. They often use computers to evaluate various construction methods and to determine the most cost-effective plan. They determine the ap­ propriate construction methods and schedule all required construc­ tion site activities into logical, specific steps, leading to an interme­ diate or final objective. They budget the time required to complete each step in an effort to meet established deadlines for a particular task. Construction managers determine the labor requirements and supervise or monitor the hiring and dismissal of workers. On the job, construction contractors and managers direct con­ struction supervisors and monitor the progress of construction ac­ tivities including the delivery and use of materials, supplies, tools, machinery, equipment, and vehicles. They are responsible for all necessary permits and licenses and, depending upon the contractual arrangements, direct or monitor compliance with building and safety codes and other regulations. They regularly review engineering and architectural drawings and specifications and confer with design professionals to monitor progress and ensure compliance with plans and specifications. They meet with cost estimators in order to keep track of construction costs and to avoid cost overruns. Based upon direct observation and reports by subordinate supervisors, these managers may prepare daily reports of progress and requirements for labor, material, and machinery and equipment at the construction site. Construction managers meet regularly with owners, other contractors and man­ agers, and design professionals to monitor and coordinate all phases of the construction project. Working Conditions Construction contractors and managers work out of a main office from which the overall construction project is monitored or out of a field office at the construction site. Management decisions regarding daily construction activities are usually made at the job site. Manag­ ers may have to travel when the construction site is in another State or when the manager is responsible for activities at two or more sites. Overseas projects usually entail temporary residence in an­ other country. Construction contractors and managers are “on call” to deal with accidents, delays, or bad weather at the site. The standard 40-hour week is rare. Indeed, construction may proceed round-the-clock for days, even weeks to meet special project deadlines. Although the work generally is not considered dangerous, con­ struction contractors and managers must be careful while touring  Construction contractors review engineering and architectural drawings and specifications with clients.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations construction sites, especially when machinery, equipment, and vehi­ cles are being operated. Because of the rapid pace of construction activities, they must always be prepared to quickly answer ques­ tions, establish priorities, and assign duties. This requires the con­ tractor and or manager to observe job conditions and to be alert to potential problems and to ways to make the work go faster, easier, and safer. Due to the inherent dangers involved in construction, the manager in the field must be alert to and actively manage the safety aspects ofjobsite operations. Employment Construction contractors and managers held about 180,000 jobs in 1992. About 85 percent were employed in the construction industry, primarily by special trade contractors—for example, plumbing, heating and air-conditioning, and electrical—and general building contractors. Many worked as self-employed independent contrac­ tors in the specialty trades. Others were employed by local govern­ ments, educational institutions, real estate developers, and engineer­ ing, architectural, surveying, and construction management services firms. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A growing number of entrants into this occupation have a strong ac­ ademic background. Completion of a bachelor’s degree program in construction science with emphasis on construction management can greatly enhance one’s opportunities. In 1992, about 130 colleges and universities offered 4-year degree programs in construction sci­ ence. These programs include courses in project control and devel­ opment, site planning, building design, construction methods, con­ struction materials, value analysis, cost estimating, scheduling, contract administration, building codes and standards, inspection procedures, and electives in engineering and architectural sciences, mathematics, statistics, and computer science. Recent graduates from these 4-year degree programs usually are hired as assistants to project managers, field engineers, schedulers, or cost estimators. A growing number of graduates in related fields—engineering, archi­ tecture, and cost estimating—also enter construction management, often after having had substantial experience on construction projects. About 30 colleges and universities also offer a master’s degree program in construction science, and one, the University of Florida, offers a doctoral degree program in this field. Master’s degree recipi­ ents, especially those with experience, typically become construc­ tion managers in very large construction companies. Doctoral de­ gree recipients generally become college teachers. Many contractors and managers have substantial experience as construction craft workers—for example, carpenters, masons, plumbers, or electricians—and proven supervisory ability. Many managers have worked as construction supervisors or as indepen­ dent contractors overseeing workers in one or more construction trades—for example, structural steel, roofing, or excavation. Many have also attended training and educational programs sponsored by industry associations, usually in collaboration with postsecondary institutions. In 1992, over 200 2-year colleges offered construction management or construction technology programs. Persons interested in becoming a construction contractor or man­ ager should be adaptable and be able to work effectively in a fast­ paced environment. They should be decisive and able to quickly se­ lect among alternative courses of action. The ability to coordinate several major activities at once, while being able to analyze and re­ solve specific problems is imperative, as is the ability to understand engineering, architectural, and other construction drawings. They must be able to establish a good working relationship with many dif­ ferent people—entrepreneurs, other managers, construction profes­ sionals, supervisors, and craft workers.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  27  Advancement depends upon the size of the construction com­ pany. In large companies, they may become mid-level and eventu­ ally top-level managers. Highly experienced individuals may be­ come consultants; some serve as expert witnesses in court or as arbitrators in disputes. Those with the required capital may estab­ lish their own firms and offer construction management services. Others may establish their own general contract construction firms that oversee construction projects from start to finish—including project planning, design, and construction. Job Outlook Employment of construction contractors and managers is expected to increase much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005 as the number and complexity of construction projects continues to grow. In addition to this rising demand, many openings should result from the need to replace workers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Prospects are expected to be particularly favorable—especially in rapidly growing construction management services firms—for experienced construction manag­ ers with a bachelor’s (or higher) degree in construction science with emphasis on construction management. Increased spending on the Nation’s infrastructure—highways, bridges, dams, schools, subways, airports, water and sewage sys­ tems, and electric power generation and transmission facilities— will be the primary stimulus to the demand for construction con­ tractors and managers. Additional jobs will be created by growth in less rapidly expanding construction activities as well. The need to build more residential housing, commercial and office buildings, and factories, as well as maintenance and repair of all kinds of ex­ isting structures will stimulate further demand for these workers. In addition to growth in the level of construction activity, the in­ creasing complexity of construction projects will lead to more jobs being created. Advances in building materials and construction methods and the growing number of multipurpose buildings, elec­ tronically operated “smart”buildings, and energy-efficient struc­ tures will require the expertise of more construction managers. In addition, the proliferation of laws setting standards for buildings and construction materials, worker safety, energy efficiency, and en­ vironmental pollution has further complicated the manager’s job and should increase demand for these workers. Employment of construction contractors and managers is sensi­ tive to the short-term nature of many construction projects and cyc­ lical fluctuations in construction activity. During periods of dimin­ ished construction activity—when many construction workers are laid off—many construction contractors and managers remain em­ ployed in their own or other firms planning, scheduling, or estimat­ ing costs of future construction projects. When these downturns oc­ cur, some self-employed contractors may merge operations or dissolve their business and seek salaried employment with other contractors. Earnings Earnings of salaried construction managers and incomes of self-em­ ployed contractors vary depending upon the size and nature of the construction project, its geographic location, and economic condi­ tions. Based on limited information, average starting salaries of con­ struction managers in 1992 were about $32,000; annual earnings of most experienced managers ranged from $35,000 to $110,000. Many salaried construction managers receive fringe such as bo­ nuses, liberal motor vehicle and per diem allowances, paid vaca­ tions, and life and health insurance. The income of self-employed contractors varies even more widely than that of salaried managers. The failure rate of small, newly formed construction firms is higher than that of other newly established small businesses. Related Occupations Construction contractors and managers participate in the concep­ tual development of a construction project and organize, schedule,  28  Occupational Outlook Handbook  and oversee its implementation. Occupations with similar functions include architects, civil engineers, construction supervisors, cost en­ gineers, cost estimators, developers, electrical engineers, industrial engineers, landscape architects, and mechanical engineers. Sources of Information For information about careers for construction managers contact: f3= American Institute of Constructors, 9887 North Gandy Blvd., Suite 104, St. Petersburg, FL 33702. O’Associated Builders and Contractors, 729 15th St. NW., Washington, DC 20005. O’Associated General Contractors of America, 1300 North 17th St. Rossyln, VA 22209-3883. O* Construction Management Association of America, 1893 Preston White Dr., Suite 130, Reston, VA 22091.  Information on construction science and management program accreditation requirements is available from: O’American  Council for Construction Education, 901 Hudson Lane, Monroe, LA 71201.  Cost Estimators (D.O.T. 169.267-038; 221.362-018, and .367-014)  Nature of the Work Being able to accurately predict the cost of future projects is vital to the economic survival of any business. Cost estimators develop this information for owners or managers to use in making bids for con­ tracts or in determining if a new product will be profitable, or in de­ termining which of a firms’ products are making a profit. Regardless of industry, estimators compile and analyze data on all the factors that can influence costs—materials, labor, location, and special machinery requirements, including computer hardware and software. Job duties vary widely depending upon the type and size of the project. Estimators working in the construction industry and manufacturing businesses have different methods of, and rea­ sons for, estimating costs. On a large construction project, for example, the estimating pro­ cess begins with the decision to submit a bid. After reviewing the ar­ chitect’s drawings, specifications, and other bidding documents, the estimator visits the site of the proposed construction project to gather information on access to the site and availability of electric­ ity, water, and other services, as well as surface topography and drainage. If the project is a remodeling or renovation job, the esti­ mator might consider the need to control noise and dust and to per­ form work in such a way that occupants can continue to carry out their activities as normally as possible. The information developed during the site visit generally is recorded in a signed report that is made part of the project estimate. After the site visit is completed, the estimator must determine the quantity of materials and labor that the firm will have to furnish. This process, called the quantity survey or “takeoff,” is completed by filling out standard estimating forms that provide spaces for the entry of dimensions, number of units, and other information. A cost estimator working for a general contractor, for example, will esti­ mate the costs of the items the contractor must provide. Although subcontractors will estimate their costs as part of their own bidding process, the general contractor’s cost estimator often analyzes bids made by subcontractors as well. Allowances for the waste of materi­ als, inclement weather, shipping delays, and other factors that may increase costs are made as the takeoff proceeds. In large construc­ tion companies with several estimators, it is common practice for them to specialize. For instance, one person may estimate only elec­ trical work, whereas another may concentrate on excavation, con­ crete, and forms. Also during the takeoff process, the estimator  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  must make decisions concerning equipment needs, sequence of op­ erations, and crew size. On completion of the quantity surveys, a total project cost sum­ mary is prepared by the chief estimator that includes the cost of la­ bor, equipment, materials, subcontracts, overhead, taxes, insurance, markup, and any other costs that may affect the project. The chief estimator then prepares the bid proposal for submission to the de­ veloper. In manufacturing and other firms, cost estimators generally are assigned to the engineering or cost department. The estimators’ goal in manufacturing is to accurately allocate costs of making products to the people and machines they are produced by. Their job may be­ gin with a request by managers to estimate the costs associated with a major redesign of an existing product or the development of a new product or production process. For example, to develop a new prod­ uct, the estimator, working with engineers, first reviews blueprints or conceptual drawings to determine the machining operations, tools and gauges, and materials that would be required for the job. The estimator then must prepare a parts list and determine whether it is more efficient to produce or to purchase the parts. To do this, the estimator must initiate inquiries for price information from po­ tential suppliers. The next step is to determine the cost of manufac­ turing each component of the product. Some high technology prod­ ucts require massive amounts of computer programming during the design phase. The cost of software is one of the fastest growing and most difficult activities to estimate. Some cost estimators now spe­ cialize in estimating computer software development and related costs. The cost estimator then prepares time-phase charts and learning curves. The former indicate the time required for tool design and fabrication, tool “debugging” (finding and correcting all problems), manufacturing of parts, assembly, and testing. Learning curves re­ present graphically the rate at which performance improves with practice. These curves are commonly called “problem-elimination” curves because many problems, such as engineering changes, re­ work, parts shortages, and lack of operator skills, diminish as the number of parts produced increases, resulting in lower unit costs. Using all this information, the estimator then calculates the stan­ dard labor hours necessary to produce a predetermined number of units. Standard labor hours are then converted to dollar values, to which are added factors for waste, overhead, and profit to yield the unit cost in dollars. Then the estimator compares the cost of purchasing parts with the firm’s cost of manufacturing them to de­ termine which is cheaper. Computers are widely used because cost estimating may involve complex mathematical techniques. For example, to undertake a par­ ametric analysis, a process used to estimate project costs on a per unit basis subject to the specific requirements of a project, cost es­ timators use a computer database containing information on costs and conditions of many other similar projects. Although computers cannot be used for the entire estimating process, they can relieve es­ timators of much of the drudgery associated with routine, repetitive, and time-consuming calculations. This leaves estimators with more time to study and analyze projects and can lead to more accurate es­ timates. (Details on various cost estimating techniques are available from the organizations listed under Sources of Additional Informa­ tion below.) Working Conditions Estimators spend most of their time in an office. Nevertheless, con­ struction estimators must make frequent visits to work sites that are dirty and cluttered with debris. Likewise, estimators in manufactur­ ing must spend time on the factory floor where it can be hot, noisy, and dirty. Cost estimators usually operate under pressure, especially when facing deadlines, because inaccurate estimating can cause a firm to lose out on a bid that would have been profitable or to take on a job that proves to be unprofitable. Although estimators usually  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations  Cost estimators use quantitative techniques to analyze factors that influence cost. work a 40-hour week, much overtime is often required. In some in­ dustries, frequent travel between the parent firm and its subsidiaries or subcontractors is required. Government and other estimators often visit firms to substantiate bids or prices. Employment Cost estimators held about 163,000 jobs in 1992, primarily in con­ struction industries. Others worked for manufacturing industries. Some worked for engineering and architectural services firms, busi­ ness services firms, and a wide range of other industries. Construc­ tion analysts in the Department of Housing and Urban Develop­ ment and operations research, production control, cost, and price analysts in the Departments of Defense and Energy may do signifi­ cant amounts of cost estimating in the course of their regular duties. (For more information, see the statement on operations research analysts elsewhere in the Handbook.) Cost estimators work in all parts of the country, usually in or near major industrial, commercial, and government centers and in cities and suburban areas undergoing rapid change or development where large amounts of construction are taking place. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Entry requirements vary by industry. In construction, employers prefer applicants with a thorough knowledge of construction mater­ ials, costs, and procedures in areas ranging from heavy construction to electrical work, plumbing systems, or masonry work. In fact, most construction estimators have experience as a construction craft worker or as a contractor. Persons who combine this experi­ ence with some postsecondary training in construction estimating or a bachelor’s or associate degree in civil engineering, architectural drafting, or building construction have the edge in landing jobs. Those with an academic background who lack work experience qualify for some jobs, but are at a distinct disadvantage when com­ peting for jobs with experienced applicants. In manufacturing, em­ ployers prefer persons with a degree in engineering, science, opera­ tions research, mathematics, or statistics, or in accounting, finance, business, or a related subject. In high-technology industries, great emphasis is placed on experience involving quantitative techniques.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  29  Computer literacy and, in some cases, programming capability are required. Regardless of background, estimators receive much training on the job. Working with an experienced estimator, they become famil­ iar with each step in the process. Those with no experience reading construction specifications or blueprints first learn that aspect of the work. Then they may accompany an experienced estimator to the construction site or the shop floor where they observe the work be­ ing done, take measurements, or perform other routine tasks. As they become more knowledgeable, they learn how to tabulate quan­ tities and dimensions from drawings and how to select which mate­ rial prices are to be used. Cost estimating is included as part of the civil engineering, indus­ trial engineering, and construction management or construction en­ gineering technology curriculums in many colleges and universities. Many technical schools, junior colleges, and universities offer courses and programs in cost estimating techniques and procedures. In addition, cost estimating is a significant part of the master’s de­ gree program in construction management offered by many colleges and universities. Organizations that represent cost estimators, such as AACE International and the Society of Cost Estimating and Analysis, also sponsor educational programs. These programs help students, estimators-in-training, and experienced estimators stay abreast of changes affecting the profession. Professional recognition through certification is valuable, because it is a mark of the estimator’s competence and experience. To be­ come certified, estimators generally must have between 3 and 7 years of estimating experience and must pass both a written and an oral examination. In addition, certification requirements may in­ clude publication of at least one article or paper in the field. Cost estimators should have an aptitude for mathematics, be able to quickly analyze, compare, and interpret detailed and sometimes poorly defined information, and be able to make sound and accurate judgments based on this knowledge. Assertiveness and self-confi­ dence in presenting and supporting their conclusions are important. For most estimators, advancement takes the form of higher pay and prestige. Some move into a management position, such as pro­ ject manager for a construction firm or manager of the industrial en­ gineering department for a manufacturer. Others may go into busi­ ness for themselves as consultants, providing estimating services for a fee to government or construction and manufacturing firms. Job Outlook Employment of cost estimators is dependent primarily upon the level of construction and manufacturing activity. Growth of the construction industry, where about 58 percent of all cost estimators are employed, will be the driving force behind the rising demand for these workers, whose employment is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. The fastest growing sectors of the construction industry will be those associated with spending on the Nation’s infrastructure. Construction and re­ pair of highways and streets, bridges, and construction of more sub­ way systems, airports, water and sewage systems, and electric powerplants and transmission lines will stimulate demand for many more cost estimators. In addition, spending on hotels, office and other commercial buildings, and construction of residential units, will add to the demand for cost estimators to predict the costs of these projects. Job prospects should be best for those workers who have substantial experience in various phases of construction or a specialty craft or those with a degree in construction management, engineering, or architectural drafting. Employment of cost estimators in manufacturing should expand as output increases and as more firms use the services of cost estima­ tors to identify and control their operating costs. In manufacturing, experienced persons with degrees in engineering, science, mathe­ matics, business administration, or economics and who have com­ puter expertise should have the best job prospects. Certification is an asset in all instances.  30  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Earnings Salaries for cost estimators vary widely by experience, education, size of firm, and industry. According to limited data available, most starting salaries in the construction industry for those with limited training ranged from $17,000 to $21,000 in 1992. College graduates in fields such as engineering or construction management that pro­ vide a strong background in cost estimating can start at $30,000 or more. Highly experienced individuals earned $75,000 or more. Starting salaries and annual earnings in the manufacturing sector were usually somewhat higher. Related Occupations Other workers who quantitatively analyze information based upon relatively imprecise data include appraisers, cost accountants, cost engineers, economists, evaluators, financial analysts, loan officers, operations research analysts, underwriters, and value engineers. Sources of Additional Information Information about career opportunities, certification, schools, and continuing education programs in cost estimating in the construc­ tion industry may be obtained from: tgr AACE International, P.O. Box 1557, Morgantown, WV 26507-1557. IW Professional Construction Estimators Association of America, P.O. Box 11626, Charlotte, NC 28220-1626.  Similar information about cost estimating in government and manufacturing and other industries is available from: O” Society of Cost Estimating and Analysis, 101 S. Whiting St., Suite 313, Alexandria, VA 22304.  Education Administrators (D.O.T. 075.117-010, -018, -030; 090.117 except -034, .167; 091.107; 092.167; 094.107, .117-010, .167-014; 096.167; 097.167; 099.117 except -022, .167-034; 100.117-010; 169.267-022; 188.167-094; 239.137-010)  Nature of the Work Smooth operation of an educational institution requires competent administrators. Education administrators provide direction, leader­ ship, and day-to-day management of educational activities in schools, colleges and universities, businesses, correctional institu­ tions, museums, and job training and community service organiza­ tions. (College presidents and school superintendents are covered in the Handbook statement on general managers and top executives.) Education administrators set educational standards and goals and aid in establishing policies and procedures to carry them out. They develop academic programs; train and motivate teachers and other staff; manage guidance and other student services; administer re­ cordkeeping; prepare budgets; handle relations with parents, pro­ spective students, employers, or others outside of education; and perform numerous other activities. • They supervise subordinate managers, management support staff, teachers, counselors, librarians, coaches, and others. In an organiza­ tion such as a small daycare center, there may be one administrator who handles all functions. In a major university or large school sys­ tem, responsibilities are divided among many administrators, each with a specific function. Principals manage elementary and secondary schools. They set the academic tone—high-quality instruction is their main responsi­ bility. Principals assign teachers and other staff, help them improve their skills, and evaluate them. They confer with them—advising, explaining, or answering procedural questions. They visit class­ rooms, review instructional objectives, and examine learning mater­ ials. They also meet with other administrators, students, parents, and representatives of community organizations. They prepare  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  budgets and reports on various subjects, including finances, health, and attendance, and oversee the requisitioning and allocation of supplies. As school budgets become tighter, many principals are try­ ing to encourage financial support for their schools from local busi­ nesses. In recent years, as schools have become more involved with a stu­ dent’s emotional welfare as well as academic achievement, schools are providing more services to students. As a result, principals face new responsibilities. For example, in response to the growing num­ ber of dual-income and single-parent families and teenage parents, more schools have before- and after-school child-care programs or family resource centers, which also may offer parenting classes and social service referrals. With the help of other community organiza­ tions, principals also may establish programs to combat the increase in crime, drug and alcohol abuse, and sexually transmitted disease among students. Assistant principals aid the principal in the overall administration of the school. Depending on the number of students, a school may have more than one assistant principal, or may not have any. They are responsible for programming student classes and coordinating transportation, custodial, cafeteria, and other support services. They usually handle discipline, social and recreational programs, and health and safety. They also may counsel students on personal, educational, or vocational matters. Public schools also are managed by administrators in school dis­ trict central offices. This group includes those who direct subject area programs such as English, music, vocational education, special education, and mathematics. They plan, evaluate, and improve curriculums and teaching techniques and help teachers improve their skills and learn about new methods and materials. They oversee ca­ reer counseling programs, and testing which measures students’ abilities and helps place them in appropriate classes. Central office administrators also include directors of programs such as guidance, school psychology, athletics, curriculum and instruction, and pro­ fessional development. With the trend toward site-based manage­ ment, principals and assistant principals, along with teachers and other staff, have primary responsibility for many of these programs in their individual schools. In colleges and universities, academic deans, also known as deans of faculty, provosts, or university deans, assist presidents and de­ velop budgets and academic policies and programs. They direct and coordinate activities of deans of individual colleges and chairper­ sons of academic departments. College or university department heads or chairpersons are in charge of departments such as English, biological science, or mathe­ matics. They coordinate schedules of classes and teaching assign­ ments, propose budgets, recruit, interview, and hire applicants for teaching positions, evaluate faculty members, and perform other ad­ ministrative duties in addition to teaching. Higher education administrators also provide student services. Deans of students—also known as vice presidents of student affairs or student life, or directors of student services—direct and coordi­ nate admissions, foreign student services, and health and counseling services, as well as social, recreation, and related programs. In a small college, they may counsel students. Registrars are custodians of students’ education records. They register students, prepare stu­ dent transcripts, evaluate academic records, oversee the preparation of college catalogs and schedules of classes, and analyze registration statistics. Directors of admissions manage the process of recruiting and admitting students, and work closely with financial aid direc­ tors, who oversee scholarship, fellowship, and loan programs. Di­ rectors of student activities plan and arrange social, cultural, and recreational activities, assist student-run organizations, and may orient new students. Athletic directors plan and direct intramural and intercollegiate athletic activities, including publicity for athletic events, preparation of budgets, and supervision of coaches.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations  Education administrators, unlike teachers, usually work year round. Working Conditions Education administrators hold management positions with signifi­ cant responsibility. Coordinating and interacting with faculty, par­ ents, and students can be fast-paced and stimulating, but also stress­ ful and demanding. Some jobs include travel. Principals and assistant principals whose main duty is discipline may find working with difficult students frustrating, but challenging. Most education administrators work more than 40 hours a week, including many nights and weekends when school activities take place. Unlike teachers, they usually work year round. Employment Education administrators held about 351,000 jobs in 1992. About 9 out of 10 were in educational services—in elementary, secondary, and technical schools and colleges and universities. The rest worked in child daycare centers, religious organizations, job training cen­ ters, State departments of education, and businesses and other orga­ nizations that provide training activities for their employees. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Education administrator is not usually an entry level job. Many edu­ cation administrators begin their careers in related occupations, and prepare for a job in education administration by completing a mas­ ter’s or doctoral degree. Because of the diversity of duties and levels of responsibility, their educational backgrounds and experience vary considerably. Principals, assistant principals, central office ad­ ministrators, and academic deans usually have taught or held an­ other related job before moving into administration. Some teachers  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  31  move directly into principalships; however, most first gain experi­ ence as an assistant principal or in a central office administrative job. In some cases, administrators move up from related staff jobs such as recruiter, residence hall director, or financial aid or admis­ sions counselor. Earning a higher degree generally improves one’s advancement opportunities in education administration. To be considered for education administrator positions, workers must first prove themselves in their current jobs. In evaluating can­ didates, supervisors look for determination, confidence, innovative­ ness, motivation, and managerial attributes, such as ability to make sound decisions and to organize and coordinate work efficiently. Since much of an administrator’s job involves interacting with others, from students to parents to teachers, they must have strong interpersonal skills and be effective communicators and motivators. Knowledge of management principles and practices, gained through work experience and formal education, is important. In public schools, principals, assistant principals, and school ad­ ministrators in central offices generally need a master’s degree in ed­ ucation administration or educational supervision, and a State teaching certificate. Some principals and central office administra­ tors have a doctorate in education administration. In private schools, they often have a master’s or doctoral degree, but may hold only a bachelor’s degree since they are not subject to State certifica­ tion requirements. Academic deans usually have a doctorate in their specialty. Ad­ missions, student affairs, and financial aid directors and registrars often start in related staff jobs with bachelor’s degrees—any field usually is acceptable—and get advanced degrees in college student affairs or higher education administration. A Ph.D. or Ed.D. usu­ ally is necessary for top student affairs positions. Computer literacy and a background in mathematics or statistics may be assets in ad­ missions, records, and financial work. Advanced degrees in higher education administration, educa­ tional supervision, and college student affairs are offered in many colleges and universities. The National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education accredits programs. Education administration degree programs include courses in school management, school law, school finance and budgeting, curriculum development and evalua­ tion, research design and data analysis, community relations, polit­ ics in education, counseling, and leadership. Educational supervi­ sion degree programs include courses in supervision of instruction and curriculum, human relations, curriculum development, re­ search, and advanced pedagogy courses. Education administrators advance by moving up an administra­ tive ladder or transferring to larger schools or systems. They also may become superintendent of a school system or president of an educational institution. Job Outlook Substantial competition is expected for prestigious jobs as education administrators. Many teachers and other staff meet the education and experience requirements for these jobs, and seek promotion. However, the number of openings is relatively small, so generally only the most highly qualified are selected. Candidates who have the most formal education and who are willing to relocate should have the best job prospects. Employment of education administrators is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Most job openings, particularly for principals and assistant principals, are likely to result from the need to replace administra­ tors who retire. Additional openings will be created by workers who transfer to other occupations. Employment of education administrators will grow as school en­ rollments increase; as more services are provided to students; as ef­ forts to improve the quality of education continue; and as institu­ tions comply with government regulations, such as those regarding financial aid.  32  Occupational Outlook Handbook  The number of education administrators employed depends largely on State and local expenditures for education. Budgetary constraints could result in fewer administrators than anticipated; pressures to increase spending to improve the quality of education could result in more. Earnings Salaries of education administrators vary according to position, level of responsibility and experience, and the size and location of the institution. According to the Educational Research Service, Inc., average sal­ aries for principals and assistant principals in the school year 1992­ 93 were as follows: Principals: Elementary school..................................................................... Junior high/middle school........................................................ Senior high school.....................................................................  $54,900 58,600 63,000  Assistant principals: Elementary school..................................................................... Junior high/middle school........................................................ Senior high school.....................................................................  45,400 49,900 52,300  In 1992-93, according to the College and University Personnel Association, median annual salaries for selected administrators in higher education were as follows: Academic deans: Medicine.................................................................................... $ 182,600 Law............................................................................................ 129,000 Engineering.................................................................................... 97,000 Arts and sciences........................................................................... 74,100 Business........................................................................................... 73,700 Education....................................................................................... 72,500 Social sciences........................................................................... 54,500 Mathematics.............................................................................. 53,400 Student services directors; Admissions and registrar............................................................... Student financial aid....................................................................... Student activities...........................................................................  47,500 40,500 30,900  Related Occupations Education administrators apply organizational and leadership skills to provide services to individuals. Workers in related occupations include health services administrators, social service agency admin­ istrators, recreation and park managers, museum directors, library directors, and professional and membership organization execu­ tives. Since principals and assistant principals generally have exten­ sive teaching experience, their backgrounds are similar to those of teachers and many school counselors. Sources of Additional Information For information on elementary and secondary school principals, as­ sistant principals, and central office administrators, contact: ^American Federation of School Administrators, 1729 21st St. NW., Washington, DC 20009. IT American Association of School Administrators, 1801 North Moore St., Arlington, VA 22209.  For information on elementary school principals and assistant principals, contact: 13= The National Association of Elementary School Principals, 1615 Duke St., Alexandria, VA 22314-3483.  For information on secondary school principals and assitant prin­ cipals, contact: 13* The National Association of Secondary School Principals, 1904 Associa­ tion Dr., Reston, VA 22091.  For information on college student affairs administrators, con­ tact:  tw National Association of Student Personnel Administrators, 1875 Con­ necticut Ave. NW., Suite 418, Washington, DC 20009-5728.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  For information on collegiate registrars and admissions officers, contact:  American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers, One Dupont Circle NW., Suite 330, Washington, DC 20036-1171.  Employment Interviewers (D.O.T. 166.267-010)  Nature of the Work Whether you are looking for a job or trying to fill one, you could find yourself turning to an employment interviewer for help. Some­ times called personnel consultants, human resources coordinators, manpower development specialists, or employment brokers, em­ ployment interviewers help jobseekers find employment and help employers find qualified staff. Working largely in private personnel supply firms or State em­ ployment security offices (also known as job or employment service centers), employment interviewers act as brokers, putting together the best combination of applicant and job. To accomplish this, they obtain information from employers as well as jobseekers. Being a private industry employment interviewer is a sales job. Counselors pool together a group of qualified applicants and try to sell them to many different companies. Often a consultant will call a company that has never been a client (cold-calling) with the aim of filling their employment needs. Employers generally pay private (but not public) agencies to re­ cruit workers. The employer places a “job order” with the agency describing the opening and listing requirements such as education, licenses or credentials, and experience. Employment interviewers often contact the employer to determine their exact personnel needs. Jobseekers are asked to fill out forms or present resumes that detail their education, experience, and other qualifications. They may be interviewed or tested and have their background, references, and credentials checked. The employment interviewer then reviews the job requirements and the jobseeker qualifications to determine the best possible match of position and employee. Although computers are increasingly used to keep records and match employers with job­ seekers, personal contact with an employment interviewer remains an essential part of an applicant’s job search. Maintaining good relations with employers is an important part of the employment interviewer’s job because this helps assure a steady flow of job orders. Being prepared to fill an opening quickly with a qualified applicant impresses employers most and keeps them as clients. Besides helping firms fill job openings, employment interviewers help individuals find jobs. The services they provide depend upon the company or type of agency they work for and the clientele it serves. Employment interviewers in personnel supply firms who place permanent employees are generally called counselors. They usually place job applicants who have the right qualifications but lack knowledge of the job market for their desired position. Counselors in these firms offer tips on personal appearance, suggestions on presenting a positive image of oneself, background on the company with which an interview is scheduled, and recommendations about interviewing techniques. Many firms specialize in placing applicants in particular kinds ofjobs, for example secretarial, word processing, computer programming and computer systems analysis, engineer­ ing, accounting, law, or health. Counselors in such firms usually have 3 to 5 years of experience in the field into which they are plac­ ing applicants. Some employment interviewers work in temporary help services companies. These companies send out their own employees to firms that need temporary help. Employment interviewers take job orders  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations from client firms and match their requests against a list of available workers. The employment interviewer selects the best qualified worker available and assigns him or her to the firm requiring assis­ tance. Sometimes these employees are placed with a company as a temporary and later become a permanent employee. Traditionally, firms that placed permanent employees usually dealt with highly skilled applicants, such as lawyers or accountants, and those placing temporary employees dealt with less skilled work­ ers, such as secretaries or data entry operators. However, temporary help services increasingly place workers with a wide range of educa­ tional backgrounds and work experience; businesses are turning to temporary employees to fill all types of positions to reduce costs of pay and benefits associated with hiring permanent employees. Regular evaluation of employee job skills is an important part of the job for those interviewers working in temporary help services companies. Initially, interviewers evaluate or test new employees’ skills to determine their abilities and weaknesses. The results, which are kept on file, are referred to when filling job orders. In some cases, the temporary help company will train employees to improve their skills. Periodically, the interviewer may reevaluate or retest employees to identify any new skills they may have developed. The duties of employment interviewers in job service centers dif­ fer somewhat because applicants may lack marketable skills. In these centers, jobseekers present resumes and fill out forms that ask about educational attainment, job history, skills, awards, certifi­ cates, and licenses. An employment interviewer reviews these forms and asks the applicant about the type ofjob sought and salary range desired. Applicants sometimes have exaggerated expectations. Em­ ployment interviewers must be tactful, but persuasive, if an appli­ cant’s job or salary requests are unreasonable. Applicants may need help identifying the kind of work for which they are best suited. The employment interviewer evaluates the ap­ plicant’s qualifications and either chooses an appropriate occupa­ tion or class of occupations, or refers the applicant for vocational testing. After identifying an appropriate job type, the employment inter­ viewer searches the file of job orders seeking a possible job match, and refers the applicant to the employer if a match is found. If no match is found, the interviewer shows the applicant how to use list­ ings of available jobs. Some applicants are hindered by problems such as poor English language skills, no high school diploma, a history of drug or alcohol dependency, or a prison record. The amount and nature of special help for such applicants vary from State to State. In some States, it is the employment interviewer’s responsibility to counsel hard-toplace applicants and refer them elsewhere for literacy or language instruction, vocational training, transportation assistance, child care, and other services. In other States, specially trained counselors perform this task. Working Conditions Employment interviewers usually work in comfortable, well-lighted offices. Some interviewers may spend much of their time out of the office interviewing clients or at a computer terminal. The work can prove hectic, especially in temporary help service companies which supply clients with immediate help for short periods of time, or longer spells, depending on the client’s needs. Some overtime may be required, and temporary workers may need their own transporta­ tion to make employer visits. The private placement industry is competitive, so counselors feel pressed to give their client companies the best service. Employment Employment interviewers held about 79,000 jobs in 1992. Three out of 5 worked for personnel supply services, generally of employment firms or temporary help services companies, in the private sector. One out of 5 worked for State or local government.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  33  Employment interviewers help bring jobseekers and employers together. Employees of career consulting or outplacement firms are not in­ cluded in these estimates. Workers in these firms help clients market themselves; they do not act as job brokers, nor do they match indi­ viduals with particular vacancies. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Although most public and private agencies prefer to hire college graduates for interviewer jobs, a degree is not always necessary. Hir­ ing requirements in the private sector reflect a firm’s management approach as well as the placements in which its interviewers special­ ize. Those that place highly trained individuals such as accountants, lawyers, engineers, physicians, or managers generally have some training or experience in the field in which they are placing workers. Thus, a bachelor’s, master’s, or even a doctoral degree may be a pre­ requisite for some interviewers. Even with the right education, how­ ever, sales ability is still required to succeed in the private sector. Educational requirements play a lesser role for interviewers plac­ ing secretaries, word processing operators, and other clerical per­ sonnel. In these positions, qualities such as energy level, telephone voice, and sales ability take precedence over educational attainment. Entry level employment interviewer positions in the public sector are generally filled by college graduates, even though the positions do not always require a bachelor’s degree. Some States allow substi­ tution of suitable work experience for college education. Suitable work experience is generally defined as public contact work or time spent at other jobs (including clerical jobs) in a job service office. In States that permit employment interviewers to engage in counseling, course work in counseling may be required. Most States and many large city and county governments use some form of merit system for hiring interviewers. Applicants may take a written exam, undergo a preliminary interview, or submit records of their education and experience for evaluation. Those who meet the standards are placed on a list from which the top-ranked candidates are selected for later interviews and possible hiring. Other desirable qualifications for employment interviewers in­ clude good communications skills, a desire to help people, office skills, and adaptability. A friendly, confidence-winning manner is an asset because personal interaction plays a large role in this occu­ pation. Increasingly, employment interviewers use computers as a tool; thus, knowledge of computers is helpful. Advancement as an employment interviewer in the public sector is often based on a system providing regular promotions and salary increases for those meeting established standards. Advancement to supervisory positions is highly competitive. In personnel supply  34  Occupational Outlook Handbook  firms, advancement often depends on one’s success in placing work­ ers and generally takes the form of greater responsibility and higher income. Successful individuals may form their own businesses. Job Outlook Employment in this occupation is expected to grow as fast as the av­ erage for all occupations through the year 2005. Most new jobs will be with temporary help or personnel supply firms. Relatively little growth is anticipated in State job service offices because of budget­ ary problems and the increasing use of computerized job matching and information systems. Some additional job openings will result from the need to replace interviewers who do not meet their employ­ er’s requirements for placing job applicants, and to replace exper­ ienced interviewers who transfer to other occupations, retire, or leave the labor force for other reasons. Expansion of firms supplying temporary help will be responsible for much of the growth in this occupation. Businesses of all types are turning to temporary help services companies for additional work­ ers during busy periods, for handling short-term assignments or one-time projects, for launching new programs, and to reduce costs of pay and benefits associated with hiring permanent employees. Expansion of the personnel supply industry in general will also spur job growth. Job orders will increase as the economy expands and new businesses are formed; this is expected to heighten demand for employment interviewers. Firms that lack the time or resources to develop their own screening procedures will likely turn to person­ nel firms. Employment opportunities should be better in private placement firms than in State job service centers. Entry to this occupation is relatively easy for college graduates, or people who have had some college courses, except in those positions specializing in placement of workers with highly specialized training, such as lawyers, doc­ tors, and engineers. Employment interviewers who place permanent workers may lose their jobs during recessions because employers reduce or elimi­ nate hiring for permanent positions during downturns in the econ­ omy. Also, during periods of high unemployment, employers have fewer problems finding the workers they need, so they turn less often to employment agencies for help. However, during these times the need for the services of employment interviewers who place tem­ porary employees may increase. Employers are increasingly turning to temporary services because temporary employees cost less to hire than permanent employees and are more flexible in terms of hours and working conditions. Those who place permanent or temporary personnel are more susceptible to layoffs than State job service em­ ployment interviewers. Earnings Earnings in private firms vary, in part because the basis for compen­ sation varies. Workers in personnel supply firms tend to be paid on a commission basis; those in temporary help service companies re­ ceive a salary. When workers are paid on a commission basis (or salary plus commission), total earnings depend on how much business they bring in. This is usually based on the type as well as the number of placements. Those who place more highly skilled or hard-to-find employees earn more. An interviewer or counselor working strictly on a commission basis often makes around 30 percent of what he or she bills the client, although this varies widely from firm to firm. Some work on a salary-plus-commission basis because they fill diffi­ cult or highly specialized positions requiring long periods of search. The salary, usually small by normal standards, guarantees these in­ dividuals security through slow times. The commission provides the incentive and opportunity for higher earnings. Some personnel supply firms employ new workers for a 2-to 3month probationary period during which they draw a regular sal­ ary. This gives new workers time to develop their skills and acquire  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  some clients. At the end of the probationary period, the new em­ ployees are evaluated, and they are either let go or switched to a commission basis. According to the limited data available, average earnings of inter­ viewers or counselors in personnel supply and temporary help ser­ vices firms ranged from about $17,000 to $25,000 in 1991; some earned considerably more. Salaries for those placing professional workers are usually higher than those placing clerical workers. Starting salaries for employment interviewers in State job service centers vary from State to State and ranged from about $13,000 to $20,000 a year in 1992. Related Occupations Employment interviewers serve as intermediaries for jobseekers and employers. Workers in several other occupations do similar jobs. Personnel officers screen and help hire new employees, but they concern themselves mainly with the hiring needs of the firm; they never represent individual jobseekers. Personnel officers may also have additional duties in areas such as payroll or benefits manage­ ment. Career counselors help students and alumni find jobs, but they primarily emphasize career counseling and decision making, not placement. Counselors in community organizations and vocational rehabili­ tation facilities help clients find jobs, but they also assist with drug or alcohol dependencies, housing, transportation, child care, and other problems that stand in the way of finding and keeping a job. Sources of Additional Information For information on a career as an employment interviewer/coun­ selor, contact: O’National Association of Personnel Consultants, 3133 Mt. Vernon Ave., Alexandria, VA 22305. O’ National Association of Temporary Services, 119 S. Saint Asaph St., Al­ exandria, VA 22314.  For information on a career as an employment interviewer in State employment security offices, contact: O’ Interstate  Conference of Employment Security Agencies, 444 North Capitol St. NW., Suite 142, Washington, DC 20001.  Engineering, Science, and Data Processing Managers (D.O.T. 007.167012.167029.167-  002.167-018; 003.167-034 and -070; 005.167-010 and -022 014; 008.167-010; 010.161-010, -014, and .167-018; 011.161-010 058 and-062; 018.167-022; 019.167-014; 022.161-010; 024.167-010 014; 162.117-030; 169.167-030 and-082; and 189.117-014)  Nature of the Work Engineering, science, and data processing managers plan, coordi­ nate, and direct research, development, design, production, and computer related activities. They supervise a staff which may in­ clude engineers, scientists, technicians, computer specialists, data processing workers, along with support personnel. Engineering, science, and data processing managers determine scientific and technical goals within broad outlines provided by top management. These goals may include the redesign of an industrial machine, improvements in manufacturing processes, the develop­ ment of a large computer program, or advances in basic scientific re­ search. Managers make detailed plans for the accomplishment of these goals—for example, they may develop the overall concepts of new products or identify problems standing in the way of project completion. They forecast costs and equipment and personnel needs for projects and programs. They hire and assign scientists, engi­ neers, technicians, computer specialists, data processing workers,  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations and support personnel to carry out specific parts of the projects, su­ pervise their work, and review their designs, programs, and reports. Managers coordinate the activities of their unit with other units or organizations. They confer with higher levels of management; with financial, industrial production, marketing, and other manag­ ers; and with contractors and equipment suppliers. They also estab­ lish working and administrative procedures and policies. Engineering managers direct and coordinate production, opera­ tions, quality assurance, testing, or maintenance in industrial plants; or plan and coordinate the design and development of machinery, products, systems, and processes. Many are plant engineers, who di­ rect and coordinate the maintenance, operation, design, and instal­ lation of equipment and machinery in industrial plants. Others man­ age research and development activities that produce new products and processes or improve existing ones. Natural science managers oversee activities in agricultural sci­ ence, chemistry, biology, geology, meteorology, or physics. They manage research and development projects and direct and coordi­ nate testing, quality control, and production activities in industrial plants. Electronic data processing managers direct, plan, and coordinate data processing activities. Top level managers direct all computerrelated activities in an organization. Others manage computer oper­ ations, software development, or data bases. They analyze the data processing requirements of their organization and assign, schedule, and review the work of systems analysts, computer programmers, and computer operators. They determine computer hardware re­ quirements, evaluate equipment options, and make purchasing deci­ sions. Some engineering, science, and data processing managers head a section of perhaps 3 to 10 or more scientists, engineers, or computer professionals. Above them are heads of divisions composed of a number of sections, with as many as 15 to 50 scientists or engineers. A few are directors of large laboratories or directors of research. Working Conditions Engineering, science, and data processing managers spend most of their time in an office. Some managers, however, may also work in laboratories or industrial plants, where they normally are exposed to the same conditions as research scientists and may occasionally be exposed to the same conditions as production workers. Most work at least 40 hours a week and may work much longer on occa­ sion to meet project deadlines. Some may experience considerable pressure to meet technical or scientific goals within a short time or within a tight budget.  BSP1  g  Engineering managers direct the research, development, and manufacture of a product.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  35  Employment Engineering, science, and data processing managers held about 337,000 jobs in 1992. Although these managers are found in almost all industries, nearly two-fifths are employed in manufacturing, es­ pecially in the industrial machinery and equipment, electrical and electronic equipment, transportation equipment, instruments, and chemicals industries. They also work for engineering, management, and computer and data processing services companies. Others work for government, colleges and universities, and nonprofit research organizations. The majority are most likely engineering managers, often managing industrial research, development, and design projects. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Experience as an engineer, mathematician, natural scientist, or computer professional is the usual requirement for becoming an en­ gineering, science, or data processing manager. Consequently, edu­ cational requirements are similar to those for scientists, engineers, and data processing professionals. Engineering managers start as engineers. A bachelor’s degree in engineering from an accredited engineering program is acceptable for beginning engineering jobs, but many engineers increase their chances for promotion to manager by obtaining a master’s degree in engineering or business administration. A degree in business admin­ istration or engineering management is especially useful for becom­ ing a general manager. Natural science managers usually start as a chemist, physicist, bi­ ologist, or other natural scientist. Most natural scientists engaged in basic research have a Ph.D. degree. Some in applied research and other activities may have lesser degrees. First-level science manag­ ers are usually specialists in the work they supervise. For example, the manager of a group of physicists doing optical research is almost always a physicist who is an expert in optics. Most data processing managers have been systems analysts, al­ though some may have experience as programmers, operators, or in other computer specialties. There is no universally accepted way of preparing for a job as a systems analyst. Many have degrees in com­ puter or information science, computer information systems, or data processing and have experience as computer programmers. A bachelor’s degree is usually required and a graduate degree often is preferred. A typical career advancement progression in a large or­ ganization would be from programmer to programmer/analyst, to systems analyst, and then to project leader or senior analyst. The first real managerial position might be as project manager, program­ ming supervisor, systems supervisor, or software manager. In addition to educational requirements, scientists, engineers, or computer specialists generally must have demonstrated above-aver­ age technical skills to be considered for promotion to manager. Superiors also look for leadership and communication skills, as well as managerial attributes such as the ability to make rational deci­ sions, to manage time well, to organize and coordinate work effec­ tively, to establish good working and personal relationships, and to motivate others. Also, a successful manager must have the desire to manage. Many scientists, engineers, and computer specialists want to be promoted but actually prefer doing technical work. Some scientists and engineers become managers in marketing, personnel, purchasing, or other areas or become general managers. Job Outlook Employment of engineering and science managers is expected to in­ crease faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Opportunities for those who wish to become engineering, sci­ ence, and data processing managers should be closely related to the growth of the occupations they supervise and the industries in which they are found. (See the statements on natural scientists, engi­ neers, computer programmers, and computer scientists and systems analysts elsewhere in the Handbook.)  36  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Underlying much of the growth of managers in science and engi­ neering are competitive pressures and advancing technologies which force companies to update and improve products more fre­ quently. Research and investment in plants and equipment to ex­ pand output of goods and services and to raise productivity also will add to employment requirements for science and engineering man­ agers involved in research and development, design, and the opera­ tion and maintenance of production facilities. Many of the industries which employ engineers and scientists de­ rive a large portion of their business from defense contracts. Because defense expenditures are being reduced, employment growth and job outlook for managers in these industries may not be as strong in the future as in the 1980’s, when defense expenditures were increas­ ing. Employment of data processing managers will increase rapidly due to the fast paced expansion of the computer and data processing services industry and the increased employment of computer sys­ tems analysts. Large computer centers are consolidating or closing as small computers become more powerful, and more automated systems are resulting in fewer opportunities for data processing managers at computing centers. However, as the economy expands and as advances in technology lead to broader applications for com­ puters, opportunities should increase and employment growth should be brisk. Despite growth in employment, most job openings will result from the need to replace workers who leave the occupation. Because many engineers, natural scientists, and computer specialists are eli­ gible for management and seek promotion, there can be substantial competition for these openings. Earnings Earnings for engineering, science, and data processing managers vary by specialty and level of management. Science and engineering managers had average salaries that ranged from $50,000 to well over $100,000 for the most senior managers in large organizations, ac­ cording to the limited data available. Data processing managers had salaries that ranged from $35,000 to $80,000. Managers often earn about 15 to 25 percent more than those they directly supervise, al­ though there are cases where some employees are paid more than the manager who supervises them, especially in research. In addition, engineering, science, and data processing managers, especially those at higher levels, often are provided more benefits than non-managerial workers in their organizations. Higher level managers often are provided with expense accounts, stock option plans, and bonuses. Related Occupations The work of engineering, science, and data processing managers is closely related to that of engineers, natural scientists, computer per­ sonnel, and mathematicians. It is also related to the work of other managers, especially general managers and top executives. Sources of Additional Information Contact the sources of additional information on engineers, natural scientists, and systems analysts that are listed in statements on these occupations elsewhere in the Handbook.  Financial Managers (D.O.T. 160.167-058; 161.117-018; 169.167-086; 186.117-066, -070, -078, -086; .167-054, -086; and 189.117-038)  Nature of the Work Practically every firm—whether in manufacturing, communica­ tions, finance, education, or health care—has one or more financial  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  managers. Some of them are treasurers, controllers, credit manag­ ers, cash managers; they prepare the financial reports required by the firm to conduct its operations and to ensure that the firm satis­ fies tax and regulatory requirements. Financial managers also over­ see the flow of cash and financial instruments, monitor the exten­ sion of credit, assess the risk of transactions, raise capital, analyze investments, develop information to assess the present and future fi­ nancial status of the firm, and communicate with stock holders and other investors. In small firms, chief financial officers usually handle all financial management functions. However, in large firms, these officers over­ see all financial management departments and help top managers develop financial and economic policy and establish procedures, delegate authority, and oversee the implementation of these policies. Highly trained and experienced financial managers head each fi­ nancial department. Controllers direct the preparation of all finan­ cial reports—for example, income statements, balance sheets, and special reports such as depreciation schedules. They oversee the ac­ counting, audit, or budget departments. Cash and credit managers monitor and control the flow of cash receipts and disbursements to meet the business and investment needs of the firm. For example, cash flow projections are needed to determine whether loans must be obtained to meet cash requirements, or whether surplus cash may be invested in interest-bearing instruments. Risk and insurance managers oversee programs to minimize risks and losses that may arise from financial transactions and business operations under­ taken by the institution. Credit operations managers establish credit rating criteria, determine credit ceilings, and monitor their institu­ tion’s extension of credit. Reserve officers review their institution’s financial statements and direct the purchase and sale of bonds and other securities to maintain the asset-liability ratio required by law. User representatives in international accounting develop integrated international financial and accounting systems for the banking transactions of multinational organizations. A working knowledge of the financial systems of foreign countries is essential. Financial institutions—such as banks, savings and loan associa­ tions, credit unions, personal credit institutions, and finance compa­ nies—may serve as depositories for cash and financial instruments and offer loans, investment counseling, consumer credit, trust man­ agement, and other financial services. Some specialize in specific fi­ nancial services. Financial managers in financial institutions include vice presidents—who may head one or more financial depart­ ments—bank branch managers, savings and loan association man­ agers, consumer credit managers, and credit union managers, for example. These managers make decisions in accordance with policy set by the institution’s board of directors and Federal and State laws and regulations. Due to changing regulations and increased government scrutiny, financial managers in financial institutions must place greater em­ phasis on accurate reporting of financial data. They must have de­ tailed knowledge of industries allied to banking—such as insurance, real estate, and securities—and broad knowledge of business and in­ dustrial activities. With growing domestic and foreign competition, knowledge of an expanding and increasingly complex variety of fi­ nancial services is becoming a necessity for financial managers in fi­ nancial institutions and other corporations. Besides supervising fi­ nancial services, financial managers in financial institutions may advise individuals and businesses on financial planning. Working Conditions Financial managers are provided with comfortable offices, often close to top managers and to departments which develop the finan­ cial data these managers need. Although overtime may sometimes be required, financial managers typically work a 40-hour week. At­ tendance at meetings of financial and economic associations and similar activities is often required. In very large corporations, some traveling to subsidiary firms and to customer accounts may be nec­ essary.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations  Outstanding financial managers are prime candidates for promotion to top management jobs. Employment Financial managers held about 701,000 jobs in 1992. Although these managers are found in virtually every industry, one-third were employed by financial institutions—banks, savings institutions, fi­ nance companies, credit unions, insurance companies, securities dealers, and real estate firms, for example. Nearly another third were employed by services industries, including business, health, so­ cial, and management services. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree in accounting or finance, or in business admin­ istration with an emphasis on accounting or finance, is suitable aca­ demic preparation for financial managers. A Master of Business Ad­ ministration (MBA) degree is increasingly valued by employers. Many financial management positions are filled by promoting ex­ perienced, technically skilled professional personnel—for example, accountants, budget analysts, credit analysts, insurance analysts, loan officers, and securities analysts—or accounting or related de­ partment supervisors in large institutions. Due to the growing complexity of global trade, shifting Federal and State laws and regulations, and a proliferation of new, complex financial instruments, continuing education is becoming vital for fi­ nancial mangers. Firms often provide opportunities for workers to broaden their knowledge and skills and encourage employees to take graduate courses at colleges and universities or attend confer­ ences sponsored by the company. In addition, financial manage­ ment, banking, and credit union associations, often in cooperation with colleges and universities, sponsor numerous national or local training programs. Persons enrolled prepare extensively at home, then attend sessions on subjects such as accounting management, budget management, corporate cash management, financial analy­ sis, international banking, and data processing and management in­ formation systems. Many firms pay all or part of the costs for those who successfully complete courses. Although experience, ability, and leadership are emphasized for promotion, advancement may be accelerated by this type of special study. In some cases, financial managers may also broaden their skills and exhibit their competency in specialized fields by attaining pro­ fessional certification. For example, the Association for Investment  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  37  Management and Research confers the Chartered Financial Ana­ lyst designation to investment professionals who have a bachelor’s degree, pass three test levels, and have 3 or more years of experience in the field. The National Association of Credit Management ad­ ministers a three-part certification program for business credit pro­ fessionals. Through a combination of experience and examinations, these financial managers pass through the level of Credit Business Associate, to Credit Business Fellow, to Certified Credit Executive. The Treasury Management Association confers the Certified Cash Manager designation to those who pass an examination and have 2 years of relevant experience. Persons interested in becoming financial managers should like to work independently, deal with people, and analyze detailed account information. The ability to communicate, both orally and in writing, is increasingly important. They also need tact, good judgment, and the ability to establish effective personal relationships to oversee su­ pervisory and professional staff members. Financial analysis and management have been revolutionized by technological improvements in personal computers and data processing equipment. Knowledge of their applications is vital to upgrade managerial skills and to enhance advancement opportuni­ ties. Because financial management is critical for efficient business op­ erations, well-trained, experienced financial managers who display a strong grasp of the operations of various departments within their organization are prime candidates for promotion to top manage­ ment positions. Some financial managers transfer to closely related positions in other industries. Those with extensive experience and access to sufficient capital may head their own consulting firms. Job Outlook Like other managerial occupations, the number of applicants for fi­ nancial management positions is expected to exceed the number of job openings, resulting in competition for jobs. Employment of fi­ nancial managers is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. In addition, job openings will arise each year as financial managers transfer to other occupa­ tions, start their own businesses, or retire. Similar to other manag­ ers, most financial managers who leave their jobs seek other posi­ tions in their field; relatively few experienced workers leave the occupation permanently each year. Although the need for skilled financial management will increase due to the demands of global trade, the proliferation of complex fi­ nancial instruments, and continually changing Federal and State laws and regulations, employment growth among financial manag­ ers will be tempered by corporate restructuring and downsizing in many industries. Many firms are reducing their ranks of middle managers in an effort to be more efficient and competitive. Simi­ larly, as the banking industry consolidates and banks merge their operations, some financial management positions may be elimi­ nated. These forces will prevent the growing need for skilled finan­ cial managers from resulting in dramatic employment growth. Many opportunities will still exist for the most skilled, adaptable, and knowledgeable financial managers. Those who keep abreast of the latest financial instruments and changing regulations, and those familiar with a range of financial services—for example, banking, business credit, credit unions, insurance, real estate, and securities—and with data processing and management information systems will enjoy the best employment opportunities. Developing expertise in a rapidly growing industry, such as health care, also may prove helpful. Earnings The median annual salary of financial managers was $39,700 in 1992. The lowest 10 percent earned $20,200 or less, while the top 10 percent earned over $77,800. According to a survey by Robert Half International, a staffing services firm specializing in accounting and finance, salaries of chief  38  Occupational Outlook Handbook  financial officers/treasurers ranged from $56,000 in the smallest firms to $290,000 in the largest firms in 1993; controllers, $44,000 to $129,000; and assistant controllers, $38,000 to $75,000. The salary level depends upon the manager’s experience and the size and location of the organization, and is likely to be higher in large organizations and cities. Many financial managers in private industry receive additional compensation in the form of bonuses, which also vary substantially by size of firm. Related Occupations Financial managers combine formal education with experience in one or more areas of finance—such as asset management, lending, credit operations, securities investment, or insurance risk and loss control. Workers in other occupations which require similar train­ ing and ability include accountants and auditors, budget officers, credit analysts, loan officers, insurance consultants, portfolio man­ agers, pension consultants, real estate advisors, securities analysts, and underwriters. Sources of Additional Information For general information about financial management careers, con­ tact:  ©"Financial Management Association, Inti., College of Business Adminis­ tration, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620-5500. ©"Financial Managers Society, 8 S. Michigan Ave., Suite 500, Chicago, IL 60603.  For information about financial management careers in banking and related financial institutions, contact: ©"American Bankers Association, Center for Banking Information, 1120 Connecticut Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20036.  For information about financial management careers in credit un­ ions, contact: ©"Credit Union Executives Society, P.O. Box 14167, Madison, WI 53714.  For information about financial careers in business credit man­ agement, the Certified Credit Executive program, and institutions offering graduate courses in credit and financial management, con­ tact:  ©" National Association of Credit Management (NACM), and Credit Re­ search Foundation, the education and research affiliate of NACM, 8815 Centre Park Dr., Columbia, MD 21045-2117.  For information about careers in corporate cash management and the Certified Cash Manager program, contact: ©"Treasury Management Association, 7315 Wisconsin Ave., Bethesda, MD 20814.  For information about the Chartered Financial Analyst program, contact:  ©" Association for Investment Management and Research, 5 Boar’s Head Lane, P.O. Box 3668, Charlottesville, VA 22903.  For information about financial management careers in the health care industry, contact: ©"Healthcare Financial Management Association, 2 Westbrook Corporate Center, Suite 700, Westchester, IL 60154.  For information on careers and courses for financial managers in the banking industry, contact: ©■Savings and Community Bankers of America, Education Services, Center For Financial Studies, 200 Barlow Rd., Fairfield, CT 06430.  Information about careers with the Federal Reserve System is available from: ©"Board of Governors, The Federal Reserve System, Division of Human Resources Management, Washington, DC 20551, or from the human re­ sources department of the Federal Reserve bank serving each geographic area.  State bankers’ associations can furnish specific information about job opportunities in their State. Or write directly to a particular bank to inquire about job openings. For the names and addresses of banks and savings and related institutions, as well as the names of their principal officers, consult one of the following directories. ©" The American Financial Directory (Norcross, Ga., McFadden Business Publications). ©" The U.S. Savings and Loan Directory (Chicago, Rand McNally & Co.). ©* Rand McNally Credit Union Directory (Chicago, Rand McNally & Co.). ©■ Polk's World Bank Directory (Nashville, R.L. Polk & Co.).  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Funeral Directors (D.O.T. 187.167-030)  Nature of the Work Since the earliest of times, most peoples have held funeral ceremo­ nies. The dead have ritually been interred in pyramids, cremated on burning pyres, and sunk beneath the oceans’ waves. Even today, fu­ neral practices and rites vary greatly among various cultures and re­ ligions. Among the many diverse groups in the United States, fu­ neral practices generally share some common elements: Removal of the remains of the deceased to a mortuary, preparation of the re­ mains, performance of a ceremony that honors the deceased and ad­ dresses the spiritual needs of the living as well as the dead, and the burial or destruction of the remains. To unburden themselves of ar­ ranging and directing these tasks, grieving families turn to funeral directors. Funeral directors are also called morticians or undertakers. Al­ though this career does not appeal to everyone, the men and women who work as funeral directors take great pride in the fact that they provide efficient and appropriate services that give comfort to their customers. Funeral directors interview the family to learn what they desire with regard to the nature of the funeral the clergy members or other persons who will officiate, and the final disposition of the remains; sometimes the deceased leave detailed instructions for their own fu­ nerals. Directors establish with the family the location, dates, and times of wakes, memorial services, and burials. They also send a hearse to carry the body to the funeral home or mortuary. Burial in a casket is the most common method of disposing of re­ mains in this country, although entombments also occur. Crema­ tion, which is the burning of a body in a special furnace, is increas­ ingly selected. Even when remains are cremated, the ashes are often placed in an urn and buried. Funeral directors usually stock a selec­ tion of caskets and urns for families to purchase. Directors arrange the details and handle the logistics of funerals. They prepare obituary notices and have them placed in newspapers, arrange for pallbearers and clergy, schedule with the cemetery the opening and closing of a grave, decorate and prepare the sites of all services, and provide for the transportation of the remains, mourn­ ers, and flowers between sites. They also direct preparation and shipment of remains for out-of-State burial. Funeral services may take place in the home, a house of worship, or the funeral home and at the grave site or crematory. Services may be nonreligious, but often they reflect the religion of the family, so funeral directors must be familiar with the funeral and burial cus­ toms of many faiths, ethnic groups, and fraternal organizations. For example, members of some religions seldom have the bodies of the deceased embalmed or cremated. Most funeral directors are also trained, licensed, and practicing embalmers. In large funeral homes, an embalming staff of one or more embalmers, plus several apprentices, may be employed. Em­ balming is a sanitary, cosmetic, and preservative process through which the body is prepared for interment. If more than 24 hours or so elapses between death and interment, State laws usually require that remains be embalmed. The embalmer washes the body with germicidal soap and replaces the blood with embalming fluid to pre­ serve the body. Embalmers may reshape and reconstruct disfigured or maimed bodies using materials, such as clay, cotton, plaster of Paris, and wax. They also may apply cosmetics to provide a natural appearance, and then dress the body and place it in a casket. Em­ balmers may maintain records, such as itemized lists of clothing or valuables delivered with the body and the name of person em­ balmed. Funeral directors also handle the paper work involved with the person’s death. They may help family members apply for veterans’  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations burial benefits, notify the Social Security Administration of the death, apply on behalf of survivors for the transfer of any pensions or annuities, and submit papers to State authorities so that a formal certificate of death may be issued and copies distributed to heirs. Funeral directors are also responsible for the success and the profitability of their businesses. Directors keep records on expenses, purchases, and services rendered; prepare and send invoices for ser­ vices; prepare and submit reports for unemployment insurance; pre­ pare Federal, State, and local tax forms; and prepare itemized bills for customers. Directors also strive to foster a cooperative spirit and friendly attitude among employees and a compassionate demeanor toward the families. Most funeral homes have a chapel, one or more viewing rooms, a casket-selection room, and a preparation room. Equipment may in­ clude a hearse, a flower car, limousines, and sometimes an ambu­ lance. Working Conditions Funeral directors often work long, irregular hours. Shift work is sometimes necessary because funeral home hours include evenings and weekends. In smaller funeral homes, working hours vary, but in larger homes employees generally work 8 hours a day, 5 or 6 days a week. Funeral directors occasionally come into contact with the re­ mains of persons who had contagious diseases, but the possibility of infection is remote if strict health regulations are followed. To show proper respect and consideration for the families and the dead, funeral directors must dress appropriately. The profession usually requires short, neat hair cuts and trim beards if any, for men. Suits, ties, and dresses are customary for a conservative look. Employment Funeral directors held about 27,000 jobs in 1992. About one-third were self-employed. Nearly all worked in the funeral service and crematory industry, but a few worked for the Federal Government. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Funeral directors must be licensed in all but one State, Colorado. Li­ censing laws vary from State to State, but most require applicants to be 21 years old, have a high school diploma, complete some college training in mortuary science, and serve an apprenticeship. After passing a State board licensing examination, new funeral directors may join the staff of a funeral home. Embalmers are required to be licensed in all States, and some States issue a single license for both funeral directors and embalmers. In States that have separate licens­ ing and apprenticeship requirements for the two positions, most  Most funeral directors are also trained, licensed, and practicing embalmers.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  39  people in the field obtain both licenses. Persons interested in a career as a funeral director should contact their state board for specific state requirements. College programs in mortuary science usually last from 1 to 4 years, depending on the school. There were 40 mortuary science programs accredited by the American Board of Funeral Service Ed­ ucation in 1992. One-year mortuary science programs offered by some vocational schools emphasized basic subjects such as anat­ omy, physiology, embalming techniques, and restorative art. Twoyear programs were offered by a small number of community and junior colleges, and a few colleges and universities offered both 2and 4-year programs. Longer mortuary science programs include courses in business management, accounting, and use of computers in funeral home management and client services. They also included courses in the social sciences and legal, ethical, and regulatory sub­ jects, such as psychology, grief counseling, oral and written commu­ nication, funeral service law, business law, and ethics. The National Foundation of Funeral Service offers a continuing education program designed for active practitioners in the field. It is a 3-week program in communications, counseling, and manage­ ment. Some States have continuing education requirements that fu­ neral directors must meet before a license can be renewed. Apprenticeships must be completed under an experienced and li­ censed funeral director or embalmer. Depending on State regula­ tions, apprenticeships last from 1 to 2 years and may be served before, during, or after mortuary school. They provide practical ex­ perience in all facets of the funeral service from embalming to trans­ porting remains. State board licensing examinations vary, but they usually consist of written and oral parts and include a demonstration of practical skills. Persons who want to work in another State may have to pass the examination for that State, although many States will grant li­ censes to funeral directors from another State without further exam­ ination. High school students can start preparing for a career as a funeral director by taking courses in biology and chemistry and participat­ ing public speaking or debating clubs. Part-time or summer jobs in funeral homes consist mostly of maintenance and clean-up tasks, such as washing and polishing limousines and hearses, but these tasks can help students become familiar with the operation of fu­ neral homes. Important personal traits for funeral directors are composure, tact, and the ability to communicate easily with the public. They also should have the desire and ability to comfort people in their time of sorrow. Advancement opportunities are best in large funeral homes at which directors and embalmers may earn promotions to higher pay­ ing positions such as branch manager or general manager. Some di­ rectors eventually acquire enough money and experience to estab­ lish their own funeral businesses. Job Outlook Employment of funeral directors and embalmers is expected to in­ crease about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Employment opportunities are expected to be excellent, because the number of graduates in mortuary science is likely to continue to be less than the number ofjob openings in the field. Demand for funeral services will rise as the population grows, and with it the number of deaths. The population is projected to become older because the number of persons age 55 and over is expected to increase significantly faster than the population as a whole. Deaths will also increase among members of the younger population due to AIDS. Cremations have been increasing over the years. This trend may lessen the demand for embalming somewhat, because in some States, embalming is not required before cremation. As a conse­ quence, fewer services would be needed from funeral directors.  40  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Earnings Salaries of funeral directors depend on the size of the establishment and the number of services performed. A survey conducted by the National Funeral Directors Association found that the average sal­ ary, including bonus, for funeral directors who were owner/manag­ ers was $59,574 in 1991; mid-level managers averaged $41,393. Embalmers had average salaries of $27,421, and apprentices averaged $17,489. Related Occupations The job of a funeral director requires tact, discretion, and compas­ sion when dealing with grieving people. Others who need these qual­ ities include members of the clergy, social workers, psychologists, psychiatrists, and other health care professionals. Sources of Additional Information Information on a career as a funeral director is available from:  their duties may be highly specialized. For example, they may over­ see general managers of marketing, sales promotion, purchasing, fi­ nance, personnel, training, industrial relations, administrative ser­ vices, electronic data processing, property management, transportation, or legal services departments. (Some of these and other managerial occupations are discussed elsewhere in this section of the Handbook.) In smaller firms, an executive vice president might be responsible for a number of these departments. General managers, in turn, direct their individual department’s activities within the framework of the organization’s overall plan. With the help of supervisory managers and their staffs, general man­ agers oversee and strive to motivate workers to achieve their depart­ ment’s goals as rapidly and economically as possible. In smaller or­ ganizations, such as independent retail stores or small manufacturers, a general manager may be responsible for purchas­ ing, hiring, training, quality control, and all other day-to-day super­ visory duties. (See the Handbook statement on retail managers.)  O’ The National Funeral Directors Association, 11121 West Oklahoma Ave., Milwaukee, WI 53227. XW National Selected Morticians, 1616 Central St., Evanston, IL 60201.  For a list of accredited programs in mortuary science and scholar­ ship information contact:  @°The American Board of Funeral Service Education, 14 Crestwood Rd., Cumberland, ME 04021.  For information on continuing funeral service education contact: O’The National Foundation of Funeral Service, 2250 East Devon Ave., Suite 250, Des Plaines, IL 60018.  General Managers and Top Executives (A list of D.O.T. codes is available upon request. See page 468.)  Nature of the Work Chief executive officer, executive vice president for marketing, de­ partment store manager, financial institution president, brokerage office manager, college president, school superintendent, and police chief—these are examples of general managers and top executives who, at the upper end of the management hierarchy, formulate the policies and direct the operations of the Nation’s private firms and government agencies. (Top executives who formulate policy in pub­ lic administration are discussed in detail in the Handbook statement on government chief executives and legislators.) The fundamental objectives of private organizations are to main­ tain efficiency and profitability in the face of shifting consumer tastes and needs, accelerating technological complexity, economic interdependence, and domestic and foreign competition. Similarly, nonprofit organizations and government agencies must effectively implement programs subject to budgetary constraints and shifting public preferences. General managers and top executives try to en­ sure that their organizations meet these objectives. An organization’s general goals and policies are established by the chief executive officer in collaboration with other top executives, usually executive vice presidents, and often with a board of direc­ tors. In a large corporation, a chief executive officer may frequently meet with top executives of other corporations, domestic or foreign governments, or outside consultants to discuss matters affecting the organization’s policies. Although the chief executive officer retains ultimate authority and responsibility, the chief operating officer may be delegated the authority to oversee executive vice presidents who direct the activities of various departments and are responsible for implementing the organization’s policies in these departments. The scope of executive vice presidents’ responsibility depends greatly upon the size of the organization. In large corporations,  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Working Conditions General managers in large firms or government agencies are pro­ vided with offices close to the departments they direct and to the top executives to whom they report. Top executives may be provided with spacious offices and often meet and negotiate with top execu­ tives from other corporations, government, or other countries. Long hours, including evenings and weekends, are the rule for most top executives and general managers, though their schedules may be flexible. Though still uncommon, more executives are accepting temporary positions, sometimes only working for the duration of one project or several months. Substantial travel is often required. General managers may travel between national, regional, and local offices to monitor operations and meet with other executives. Top executives may travel to meet with their counterparts in other corporations in the country or over­ seas. Many attend meetings and conferences that are sponsored by industries and associations and provide invaluable opportunities to meet with peers and keep abreast of technological and other devel­ opments. Perquisites such as reimbursement of an accompanying  Corporate restructuring and downsizing will limit employment growth among general managers and top executives.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations spouse’s travel expenses may help executives cope with frequent or extended periods away from home. In large corporations, job transfers between the parent company and its local offices or subsidiaries, here or abroad, are common. With increasing domestic and international competition, general managers and top executives are under intense pressure to attain, for example, ever higher production and marketing goals. Executives in charge of poorly performing companies or departments often find that their jobs are in jeopardy. Employment General managers and top executives held nearly 2.9 million jobs in 1992. They are found in every industry—wholesale and retail trade and services industries employ over 6 out of 10 general managers and top executives. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement The educational background of managers and top executives varies as widely as the nature of their diverse responsibilities. Many gen­ eral managers and top executives have a bachelor’s degree in liberal . arts or business administration. Their major often is related to the departments they direct—for example, accounting for a general manager of finance or computer science for a general manager of in­ formation systems. Graduate and professional degrees are common. Many managers in administrative, marketing, financial, and manu­ facturing activities have a master’s degree in business administra­ tion. Managers in highly technical manufacturing and research ac­ tivities often have a master’s or doctoral degree in an engineering or scientific discipline. A law degree is mandatory for general manag­ ers of corporate legal departments, and hospital administrators gen­ erally have a master’s degree in health services administration or business administration. (For additional information, see the Hand­ book statement on health services managers.) College presidents and school superintendents generally have a doctorate, often in educa­ tion administration; some have a law degree. (See the Handbook statement on education administrators.) On the other hand, in some industries, such as retail trade, competent individuals without a col­ lege degree may become general managers. Many general managers in the public sector have a liberal arts de­ gree in public administration or in one of the social sciences such as economics, psychology, sociology, or urban studies. For others, ex­ perience is still the primary qualification. For park superintendents, a liberal arts degree also provides a suitable background. Police chiefs are graduates of police academies, and a degree in police sci­ ence or a related field is increasingly important. Similarly, fire chiefs are graduates of fire academies, and a degree in fire science is gain­ ing in importance as well. For harbormasters, a high school educa­ tion and experience as a harbor pilot are sufficient. Most general manager and top executive positions are filled by promoting experienced, lower level managers. Some companies pre® fer that their top execuitves have specialized backgrounds—in fi­ nance or marketing, for example. However, certain qualities, includ­ ing leadership, self-confidence, motivation, decisiveness, flexibility, the ability to communicate effectively, and sound business judgment are far more important. In small firms, where the number of posi­ tions is limited, advancement to a higher management position may come slowly. In large firms, promotions may occur more quickly. Advancement may be accelerated by participation in company training programs to broaden knowledge of company policy and op­ erations. Attendance at national or local training programs spon­ sored by numerous industry and trade associations and continuing education, normally at company expense, in colleges and universi­ ties can familiarize managers with the latest developments in man­ agement techniques. Every year, thousands of senior managers, who often have some experience in a particular field such as accounting, engineering, or science, attend executive development programs to facilitate their promotion from functional specialists to general managers. In addition, participation in interdisciplinary conferences  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  41  and seminars can expand knowledge of national and international issues influencing the manager’s firm. Persons interested in becoming general managers and top execu­ tives must have highly developed personal skills. A highly analytical mind able to quickly assess large amounts of information and data is very important. The ability to consider and evaluate the interrela­ tionships of numerous factors and to select the best course of action is imperative. In the absence of sufficient information, sound intui­ tive judgment is crucial to reaching favorable decisions. General managers and top executives also must be able to communicate clearly and persuasively with customers, subordinates, and other managers in their firm. General managers may advance to top executive positions, such as executive or administrative vice president, in their own firm or to a corresponding general manager position in a larger firm. Similarly, top-level managers may advance to peak corporate posi­ tions—chief operating officer and, finally, chief executive officer. Chief executive officers and other top executives may also become members of the board of directors of one or more firms. Some gen­ eral managers and top executives with sufficient capital and experi­ ence establish their own firms or become independent consultants. Job Outlook Employment of general managers and top executives is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2005 as companies restructure managerial hierarchies in an ef­ fort to cut costs. General managers and top executives may be more affected by these cost-cutting strategies than in the past, thus mod­ erating employment growth. Although this is a large occupation, and many openings will oc­ cur each year as executives transfer to other positions, start their own businesses, or retire, competition for top managerial jobs will be keen. Many executives who leave their jobs transfer to other exec­ utive or managerial positions, limiting openings for new entrants, and large numbers of layoffs resulting from downsizing and restruc­ turing will lead to an ample supply of competent managers. Moreo­ ver, the aging of the workforce will result in more senior middle managers vying for a limited number of top executive positions. Projected employment growth of general managers and top exec­ utives varies widely among industries. For example, employment growth is expected to be faster than average in all services industries combined, but slower than average in all finance, insurance, and real estate industries combined. Employment of general managers and top executives is projected to decline in manufacturing industries overall. • Managers whose accomplishments reflect strong leadership qual­ ities and the ability to improve the efficiency or competitive position of their organizations will have the best opportunities in all indus­ tries. In an increasingly global economy, certain types of experience, such as international economics, marketing, or information sys­ tems, or knowledge of several disciplines, will also be advantageous. Earnings General managers and top executives are among the highest paid workers in the Nation. However, salary levels vary substantially de­ pending upon the level of managerial responsibility, length of ser­ vice, and type, size, and location of the firm. At the highest level, chief executive officers (CEO) are extremely well paid. According to a survey by Fortune magazine, CEO’s at 200 major companies averaged S3.2 million in 1993, including bonuses and stock awards, which are often tied to performance. According to a similar survey of 365 companies by Business Week magazine, CEO salaries and bonuses averaged $1.1 million in 1992; total com­ pensation, including stock options and dividends, averaged $3.8 million. Salaries are related to the size of the corporation—a top manager in a very large corporation can earn significantly more than a counterpart in a small firm.  42  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Salaries also vary substantially by type and level of responsibili­ ties and by industry. According to a salary survey by Robert Half International, a staffing services firm specializing in accounting and finance, senior vice presidents/heads of lending in banks with $1 bil­ lion and higher in assets earned about $200,000 in 1993. Based on a survey sponsored by the Society for Human Resource Management, the average base salary for top human resources managers was about $136,000 in 1993. A survey by Network World newsweekly found that upper level computer network managers—including chief information officers, vice presidents, and directors—averaged $83,900 in 1993; mid-level managers—including network, data communications, telecommunications, and technical support man­ agers—averaged $59,400 in that year. Among top network manag­ ers, those in the health care industry were the highest paid, averag­ ing $142,500 in 1993, while those in wholesale/retail trade were the lowest paid, averaging $56,000. Among other industries, top net­ work managers in manufacturing/finance and utilities were among the highest paid, while those in education and government were among the lowest paid. Company-paid insurance premiums, physical examinations, exec­ utive dining rooms, use of company cars, paid country club mem­ berships, and expense allowances are among the benefits enjoyed by some general managers and top executives in private industry. Related Occupations General managers and top executives plan, organize, direct, control, and coordinate the operations of an organization and its major de­ partments or programs. The members of the board of directors and supervisory managers are also involved in these activities. Occupa­ tions in government with similar functions are governor, mayor, postmaster, commissioner, director, and office chief. Sources of Additional Information For a wide variety of information on general managers and top exec­ utives, including educational programs and job listings, contact: 0= American Management Association, Management Information Service,  135 West 50th St., New York, NY 10020. 0" National Management Association, 2210 Arbor Blvd., Dayton, OH  45439.  Information about general managers and top executives in spe­ cific industries may be obtained from organizations listed under a number of headings—for example, administration, administrators, directors, executives, management, managers, and superintend­ ents—in various encyclopedias or directories of associations in pub­ lic libraries.  Government Chief Executives and Legislators Nature of the Work Go to school. Pay your taxes. Register for the draft. Stop at the stop sign. It seems as though the Government is always telling us what to do. Who, then, tells the Government what to do? Chief executives and legislators at the Federal, State, and local level do the telling. They are elected or appointed officials who strive to meet the needs of their constituents with an effective and efficient government. Chief executives are officials who run governmental units that help formulate, carry out, and enforce laws. These officials include the President and Vice President of the United States, State gover­ nors and lieutenant governors, county executives, town and town­ ship officials, mayors, and city, county, town, and township manag­ ers. All except local government managers are elected; managers are appointed by the local government council or commission.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Government chief executives, like corporation presidents and other chief executives, have overall responsibility for how their or­ ganizations perform. In coordination with legislators, they establish goals and objectives and then organize programs and form policies to attain these goals. They appoint people to head departments, such as highway, health, police, park and recreation, economic develop­ ment, and finance. Through these departmental heads, chief execu­ tives oversee the work of civil servants, who carry out programs and enforce laws enacted by the legislative bodies. They prepare budg­ ets, specifying how government resources will be used. They insure that their government uses resources properly and carries out pro­ grams as planned by holding staff conferences, requiring work schedules and periodic performance reports, and conducting per­ sonal inspections. Chief executives meet with legislators and constituents to solicit their ideas, discuss programs, and encourage their support. They also may confer with leaders of other governments to solve mutual problems. Chief executives nominate citizens for government boards and commissions to oversee government activities or ex­ amine and help the government solve problems such as drug abuse, crime, deteriorating roads, and inadequate public education. They also solicit bids from and select contractors to do work for the government, encourage business investment and economic de­ velopment in their jurisdictions, and seek Federal or State funds. Chief executives of large jurisdictions rely on a staff of aides and as­ sistants, but those in small ones often do much of the work them­ selves. City, county, town, and other managers, although appointed officials, may act as, and refer to themselves as, chief executives. Legislators are the elected officials who make laws or amend ex­ isting ones in order to remedy problems or to promote certain activi­ ties. They include U.S. Senators and Representatives, State senators and representatives (called assemblymen and assemblywomen, or delegates in some States), county legislators (called supervisors, commissioners, councilmembers, or freeholders in some States), and city and town council members (called aldermen and alderwomen, trustees, clerks, supervisors, magistrates, and commissioners, among other titles). Legislators introduce bills in the legislative body and examine and vote on bills introduced by other legislators. In preparing legisla­ tion, they read reports and work with constituents, representatives of interest groups, members of boards and commissions, the chief executive and department heads, consultants, and legislators in other units of government. They also approve budgets and the ap­ pointments of department heads and commission members submit­ ted by the chief executive. In some jurisdictions, the legislative body appoints a city, town, or county manager. Many legislators, espe­ cially at the State and Federal levels, have a staff to help do research, prepare legislation, and resolve constituents’ problems. In some units of government, the line between legislative and ex­ ecutive functions blurs. For example, mayors and city managers may draft legislation and conduct council meetings, and council members may oversee the operation of departments. Both chief executives and legislators perform ceremonial duties— they open new structures and businesses, make proclamations, wel­ come visitors, and lead celebrations. Working Conditions Working conditions of chief executives and legislators vary depend­ ing on the size of the governmental unit. Time spent at work ranges from meeting once a month for a local council member to 60 or more hours per week for a legislator. U.S. Senators and Representa­ tives, governors and lieutenant governors, and chief executives and legislators in some large local jurisdictions work full time year round, as do almost all county and city managers. Some city and town managers work for several small jurisdictions. Most State leg­ islators work full time while legislatures are in session (usually for a few months a year) and part time the rest of the year. Local elected officials in most jurisdictions work part time; however, even though  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations  Government chief executives exercise authority over local, State, and National political institutions. the job is officially designated part time, some incumbents actually work a full-time schedule. In addition to their regular schedules, chief executives are on call at all hours to handle emergencies. Some jobs require only occasional out-of-town travel, but others involve more frequent travel—often to attend sessions of the legisla­ ture or to meet with officials of other units of government. Officials in districts covering a large area may drive long distances to perform their regular duties. Employment Chief executives and legislators held about 73,000 jobs in 1992. About 5 of 6 worked in local government; the rest worked primarily in State governments. The Federal Government had 535 Senators and Representatives and 2 chief exexutives. There were about 7,500 State legislators and, according to the International City/County Management Association (ICMA), about 11,000 city managers. Ex­ ecutives and council members for local governments made up the remainder. Chief executives and legislators who do not hold full-time, yearround positions normally work in a second occupation as well (com­ monly the one they held before being elected), are retired from an­ other occupation, or attend to household responsibilities. Business owner or manager, teacher, and lawyer are common second occupa­ tions, and there are many others as well. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Choosing from among candidates who meet the minimum age, resi­ dency, and citizenship requirements, the voters try to elect the indi­ vidual who they decide is most fit to hold the position at stake. The question is thus not “How does one become qualified?” but “How does one get elected?” Successful candidates usually have a strong record of accomplish­ ment in paid and unpaid work. Many have business, teaching, or le­ gal experience, but others come from a wide variety of occupations. In addition, many have served as volunteers on school boards or zoning commissions; with charities, political action groups, and po­ litical campaigns; or with religious, fraternal, and similar organiza­ tions. Work experience and public service help develop the planning, organizing, negotiating, motivating, fundraising, budgeting, public speaking, and problem solving skills needed to run a political cam­ paign. Candidates must make decisions quickly and fairly with little or contradictory information. They must have confidence in them­ selves and their employees to inspire and motivate their constituents  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  43  and their staff. They should also be sincere and candid, presenting their views thoughtfully and convincingly. Additionally, they must know how to hammer out compromises with colleagues and constit­ uents. National and Statewide campaigns also require a good deal of energy, stamina, and fund raising skills. Town, city, and county managers are appointed by a council or commission. Managers come from a variety of educational back­ grounds. A master’s degree in public administration—including courses such as public financial management and legal issues in pub­ lic administration—is widely recommended but not required. Virtu­ ally all town, city, and county managers have at least a bachelor’s degree and many hold a master’s degree. In addition, working as a student intern in government is recommended—the experience and personal contacts acquired can prove invaluable in eventually secur­ ing a position as a town, city, or county manager. Generally, a town, city, or county manager in a smaller jurisdic­ tion is required to have some expertise in a wide variety of areas; those who work for larger jurisdictions specialize in financial, ad­ ministrative, or personnel matters. For all managers, communica­ tion skills and the ability to get along with others are essential. Advancement opportunities for most elected public officials are not clearly defined. Because elected positions normally require a pe­ riod of residency and because local public support is critical, offi­ cials can usually advance to other offices only in the jurisdictions where they live. For example, council members may run for mayor or for a position in the State government, and State legislators may run for governor or for Congress. Many officials are not politically ambitious, however, and do not seek advancement. Others lose their bids for reelection or voluntarily leave the occupation. A lifetime ca­ reer as a government chief executive or legislator is rare. Town, city, and county managers have a clearer career path. They generally obtain a master’s degree in public administration, then gain experience as management analysts or assistants in government departments working with councils and chief executives and learn­ ing about planning, budgeting, civil engineering, and other aspects of running a city. After several years, they may be hired to manage a town or a small city and may eventually become manager of pro­ gressively larger cities. Job Outlook Little, if any, growth is expected in the number of government chief executives and legislators through the year 2005. Few, if any, new governments are likely to form, and the number of chief executives and legislators in existing governments rarely changes. The addition of one or two States to the union would lead to several additional U.S. Senators and Representatives. Some small increase may occur as growing communities—in the rapidly growing South and West, for example—become independent cities and towns and elect a chief executive and legislators and, perhaps, appoint a town manager. A few new positions may also develop as cities and counties without managers hire them and as unpaid offices—which are not counted as employment—are converted to paid positions. On the other hand, attempts by governments to cut costs and streamline opera­ tions, in response to tight budgets, could reduce the number of paid positions, particularly at the local level. The number of State legislators recently declined slightly when States, as required by law, completed their decennial redistricting. Elections give newcomers the chance to unseat incumbents or to fill vacated positions. In many elections, there is substantial compe­ tition, although the level of competition varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction and from year to year. Generally, there is less competi­ tion in small jurisdictions, which have part-time positions offering relatively low salaries and little or no staff to help with tedious work, than in large jurisdictions, which have full-time positions offering higher salaries, more staff, and greater status. In some cases, usually in small jurisdictions, an incumbent runs unopposed, or an incum­ bent resigns, leaving only one candidate for a job. The high cost of  44  Occupational Outlook Handbook  running for such positions in large jurisdictions may serve as a de­ terrent to running, or may leave the challenger dependent on contri­ butions from special interest groups. Earnings Earnings of public administrators vary widely, depending on the size of the government unit and on whether the job is part time, full time and year round, or full time for only a few months a year. Sala­ ries range from little or nothing for a small town council member to $200,000 a year for the President of the United States. According to the International City/County Management Asso­ ciation, the average annual salary of mayors was about $9,900 in 1991. In cities with a population under 2,500, they averaged about $1,800; in cities with a population over 1 million, around $78,000. ICMA data indicate that the average salary for the chair of the county legislative body in 1991 was about $19,700. Those in coun­ ties with populations over 1 million earned an average of $76,900. County managers earned $68,100 on average in 1991. In counties with a population over 1 million, they earned an average of $120,000. The average annual salary of city managers was about $60,000 in 1991. Salaries ranged from $35,000 in towns with fewer than 2,500 residents to $127,000 in cities with a population over 1 million. According to Book of The States, 1992-93, published by the Council of State Governments, the average salary for legislators in the 40 States that paid an annual salary was about $23,000 in 1992. In 10 States, legislators just received a per diem while legislatures were in session. Salaries and per diem were generally higher in the larger States. Data from Book of the States, 1992-93 also indicate that guberna­ torial annual salaries ranged from $35,000 in Arkansas to $130,000 in New York. In addition to a salary, most governors received per­ quisites such as transportation and an offical residence. Lieutenant governors averaged over $57,000 annually. Related Occupations Related occupations include managerial positions that require a broad range of skills in addition to administrative expertise, such as corporate chief executives and board members, and generals in the military. Sources of Additional Information For more information on careers in public administration, consult your elected representatives and local library. Information on State governments can be obtained from: IW Council of State Governments, P.O. Box 11910, Iron Works Pike, Lex­ ington, KY 40578. Information on appointed officials in local government can be ob­ tained from: tw International City/County Management Association, 111 North Capitol St. NE., Suite 500, Washington, DC 20002.  Health Services Managers (D.O.T. 072.117; 074.167; 075.117-014, -022, -026, and -030; 076.117; 077.117; 078.131,.161-010,-014, and.162; 079.117-010, .131, .151, .167-014 and .267; 187.117-010, -058, -062, and .167-090; 188.117-082  Nature of the Work Health care is a business, albeit a special one. Like every other busi­ ness, it needs good management to keep it running smoothly. The term “health services manager” encompasses individuals in many different positions who plan, organize, coordinate, and supervise the  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  delivery of health care. Health services managers include both gen­ eralists—the administrators managing or helping to manage an en­ tire facility—and health specialists—the managers in charge of spe­ cific clinical departments or services that are found only in the health industry. The top administrator or chief executive officer (CEO) and the as­ sistant administrators without specific titles are health care general­ ists. They set the overall direction of the facility. They also are con­ cerned with community outreach, planning, policymaking, and complying with government agencies and regulations. Their range of knowledge is necessarily broad, including developments in the clinical departments as well as in the business arena. They often speak before civic groups, promote public participation in health programs, and coordinate the activities of the organization with those of government or community agencies. CEO’s make long term institutional plans by assessing the need for services, personnel, fa­ cilities, and equipment and recommending changes such as opening a home health service. CEO’s need leadership ability as well as tech­ nical skills to provide quality health care while, at the same time, satisfying demand for financial viability, cost containment, and pub­ lic and professional accountability. CEO’s prepare for oversight and scrutiny of their facility’s past performance and plans by consumer groups, government agencies, professional oversight bodies, and insurance companies and other third-party payers. Larger facilities typically have several assistant administrators to aid the top administrator and to handle day-to-day decisions. They may direct actitivies in clinical areas such as nursing, surgery, ther­ apy, food service, and medical records; or the activities in nonhealth areas such as finance, housekeeping, human resources, and informa­ tion management. (Because the nonhealth departments are not di­ rectly related to health care, these managers are not included in this statement. For information about them, see the statements on man­ agerial occupations elsewhere in the Handbook). In smaller facili­ ties, top administrators may handle more of the details of day-to­ day operations. For example, many nursing home administrators di­ rectly manage personnel, finance, operations, and admissions. Clinical managers have more narrowly defined responsibilities than the generalists to whom they report and have training and/or experience in the field. For example, directors of physical therapy are experienced physical therapists, and most medical records ad­ ministrators have a bachelor’s degree in medical records administra­ tion. These managers establish and implement policies, objectives, and procedures for their departments; evaluate personnel and work; develop reports and budgets; and coordinate activities with other managers. In group practices, managers work closely with the physician owners. While an office manager may handle business affairs in small medical groups, leaving policy decisions to the physicians themselves, larger groups generally employ a full-time administra­ tor to advise on business strategies and coordinate day-to-day busi­ ness. A small group of 10 or 15 physicians might employ a single ad­ ministrator to oversee personnel matters, billing and collection, budgeting, planning, equipment outlays, and patient flow. A large practice of 40 or 50 physicians may have a chief administrator and several assistants, each responsible for different areas. Health services managers in health maintenance organizations (HMO’s) perform functions similar to those in large group prac­ tices, except their staffs may be larger. The size of the administrative staff in HMO’s may vary according to the type of HMO and the size of the enrolled population. Some health services managers oversee the activities of a number of facilities in multifacility health organizations.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations  ■ ■III  Health services managers plan, organize, coordinate, and supervise the delivery of health care. Working Conditions Many health services managers work long hours. Facilities such as nursing homes and hospitals operate around the clock, and adminis­ trators and managers may be called at all hours to deal with problems. The job also may include travel to attend meetings or to inspect satellite facilities. Employment Health services managers held about 302,000 jobs in 1992. Over one-half of all jobs were in hospitals. About 1 in 7 were in nursing and personal care facilities, and 1 in 8 were in offices and clinics of physicians. The remainder worked in home health agencies, medical and dental laboratories, offices of dentists and other practitioners, and other health and allied services. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Health services managers must be familiar with management princi­ ples and practices. Some learn from work experience. However, for­ mal education is usually necessary for advancement. For most CEO positions, a graduate degree in health services administration, nurs­ ing administration, or business administration is required. For some generalist positions, employers seek applicants with clinical experi­ ence (as nurses or therapists, for example) as well as academic prep­ aration in business or health services administration. Bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degree programs in health ad­ ministration are offered by colleges, universities, and schools of pub­ lic health, medicine, allied health, public administration, and busi­ ness administration. There are also some certificate or diploma programs, generally lasting less than 1 year, in health services ad­ ministration and in medical office management. A master’s degree—in hospital administration, health services administration, long term care administration, health sciences, public health, public administration, or business administration—is regarded as the stan­ dard credential for most generalist positions in this field. However, a bachelor’s degree is adequate for some entry-level positions and a few top positions in smaller operations, and for some middle man­ agement jobs in larger ones. Bachelor’s degrees may not be needed in smaller nursing homes, physicians’ offices, and other facilities. Appropriate experience or certificates and diplomas are sometimes  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  45  acceptable. For clinical department heads, a degree in the appropri­ ate field and work experience are usually sufficient, but courses in health services administration are helpful. In 1993, 29 colleges and universities offered bachelor’s degree programs in health services administration. Sixty-four schools had accredited programs leading to the master’s degree in health ser­ vices administration, according to the Accrediting Commission on Education for Health Services Administration. Some graduate programs seek students with undergraduate de­ grees in business or health administration; however, many programs prefer students with a liberal arts or health professions background. Competition for entry to these programs is keen, and applicants need above-average grades to gain admission. The programs gener­ ally last between 2 and 3 years. They include up to 1 year of super­ vised administrative experience, and course work in areas such as hospital organization and management, accounting and budgeting, human resources administration, strategic planning, health eco­ nomics, and health information systems. Students generally special­ ize in one type of facility—hospitals; nursing homes; mental health facilities; HMO’s; or outpatient care facilities, including medical groups. New graduates with master’s degrees in health services or hospi­ tal administration may start as assistant hospital administrators, or as managers of nonhealth departments, like finance. Postgraduate residencies and fellowships are offered by hospitals and other health facilities; these are normally staff jobs. Graduates from master’s de­ gree programs also take jobs in HMO’s, large group medical prac­ tices, clinics, mental health facilities, and multifacility nursing home corporations. New recipients of bachelor’s degrees in health administration usually begin as administrative assistants or assistant department heads in larger hospitals, or as department heads or assistant admin­ istrators in small hospitals or in nursing homes. A Ph.D. degree may be required to teach, consult, or do research. Nursing service administrators are usually chosen from among su­ pervisory registered nurses with administrative abilities and ad­ vanced education. All States and the District of Columbia require nursing home ad­ ministrators to pass a licensing examination, complete a State-ap­ proved training program, and pursue continuing education. Most States also have additional requirements. A license is not required in other areas of health services management. Health services managers are often responsible for millions of dol­ lars of facilities and equipment and hundreds of employees. To make effective decisions, they need to be open to different opinions and good at analyzing contradictory information. To motivate others to implement their decisions, they need strong leadership qualities. Tact, diplomacy, and communication skills are essential. Health services managers advance by moving into more responsi­ ble and higher paying positions such as assistant or associate admin­ istrator and, finally, CEO, or by moving to larger facilities. Job Outlook Employment of health services managers is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005 as health services continue to expand and diversify. Hospitals will con­ tinue to employ the most managers, although the number of jobs will not be growing as fast as in other areas. Employment in home health agencies and nursing and long term care facilities will grow the fastest, due to an increased number of elderly who will need care. Demand in medical group practices will grow, too. As medical group practices and HMO’s become larger and more complex, more job opportunities for department heads should emerge. Health services managers in hospitals will face very keen competi­ tion for upper level management jobs, a reflection of the pyramidal management structure characteristic of most large organizations. In nursing homes and other long term care facilities, job opportunities  46  Occupational Outlook Handbook  for individuals with strong business and management skills will con­ tinue to be good. Earnings Earnings vary by type and size of the facility, as well as by level of responsibility. For example, the Medical Group Management Asso­ ciation reported that the median salary for administrators in small group practices—with net revenues of $2 million or less—was $46,600; for those in very large group practices—with net revenues over $50 million—$166,700. According to a survey sponsored by the Hay Group and the American Society of Healthcare Human Resources Administration, half of all hospital CEO’s earned $140,900 or more in 1993. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $77,000; the top 10 percent earned $223,600 or more. Clinical department heads’ salaries varied too. According to a survey by Modern Healthcare magazine, average salaries in 1993 for heads of the following clinical departments were: Medical records, $47,600; home health, $52,500; imaging/radiology, $53,300; physi­ cal therapy, $54,700; rehabilitation services, $58,800; and nursing services, $65,700. According to the American College of Health Care Administra­ tors, nursing home administrators had median annual total com­ pensation of $44,100 in 1992. The middle 50 percent earned between $36,000 and $54,000. Those in facilities with less than 50 licensed beds earned $36,500; those in facilities with 400 or more beds, $68,200. Licensed assistant administrators earned median total compensation of $35,000. Related Occupations Health services managers have training or experience in both health and management. Other occupations that require knowledge of both fields are public health directors, social welfare administrators, directors of voluntary health agencies and health professional as­ sociations, and underwriters in health insurance companies and HMO’s. Sources of Additional Information General information about health administration is available from: American College of Healthcare Executives, 840 North Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, IL 60611.  Information about undergraduate and graduate academic pro­ grams in this field is available from: 0= Association of University Programs in Health Administration, 1911  North Fort Myer Dr., Suite 503, Arlington, VA 22209.  For a list of accredited graduate programs in health services ad­ ministration, contact:  XW Accrediting Commission on Education for Health Services Administra­ tion, 1911 North Fort Myer Dr., Suite 503, Arlington, VA 22209.  For information about career opportunities in long term care ad­ ministration, contact:  IS" American College of Health Care Administrators, 325 S. Patrick St., Al­ exandria, VA 22314.  For information about career opportunities in medical group practices and ambulatory care management, contact:  XW Medical Group Management Association, 104 Inverness Terrace East, Englewood, CO 80112-5306.  Hotel Managers and Assistants (D.O.T. 187.117-038, .137-018; .167-046, -078, -106, -122; and 320)  Nature of the Work For vacationing families and persons whose jobs take them out of town, a comfortable room, good food, and a helpful hotel staff can  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  make being away from home an enjoyable experience. Hotel manag­ ers and assistant managers work to insure that guests’ visits are pleasant. Hotel managers are responsible for the efficient and profitable op­ eration of their establishments. In a small hotel, motel, or inn with a limited staff, a single manager may direct all aspects of operations. However, large hotels may employ hundreds of workers, and the manager may be aided by a number of assistant managers assigned among departments responsible for various aspects of operations. The general manager has overall responsibility for the operation of the hotel. Within guidelines established by the owners of the hotel or executives of the hotel chain, the general manager sets room rates, allocates funds to departments, approves expenditures, and estab­ lishes standards for service to guests, decor, housekeeping, food quality, and banquet operations. (For more information, see the statement on general managers and top executives elsewhere in the Handbook.) Assistant managers must insure that the day-to-day op­ erations of their departments meet the general manager’s standards. Resident managers live in hotels and are on call 24 hours a day to resolve any problems or emergencies, although they normally work an 8-hour day. As the most senior assistant manager, a resident manager oversees the day-to-day operations of the hotel. In many hotels, the general manager also serves as the resident manager. Executive housekeepers are responsible for insuring that guest rooms, meeting and banquet rooms, and public areas are clean, or­ derly, and well maintained. They train, schedule, and supervise the work of housekeepers, inspect rooms, and order cleaning supplies. Front office managers coordinate reservations and room assign­ ments and train and direct the hotel’s front desk staff that deals with the public. They insure that guests are handled courteously and effi­ ciently, complaints and problems are resolved, and requests for spe­ cial services are carried out. Food and beverage managers direct the food services of hotels. They oversee the operation of hotels’ restaurants, cocktail lounges, and banquet facilities. They supervise and schedule food and bever­ age preparation and service workers, plan menus, estimate costs, and deal with food suppliers. (For more information, see the state­ ment on restaurant and food service managers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Convention services managers coordinate the activities of large ho­ tels’ various departments for meetings, conventions, and other spe­ cial events. They meet with representatives of groups or organiza­ tions to plan the number of rooms to reserve, the desired configuration of hotel meeting space, and any banquet services needed. During the meeting or event, they resolve unexpected problems and monitor activities to check that hotel operations con­ form to the expectations of the group. Other assistant managers may be specialists responsible for activi­ ties such as personnel, accounting and office administration, mar­ keting and sales, purchasing, security, maintenance, and recrea­ tional facilities. (For more information, see the related statements on personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers; financial managers; and marketing, advertising, and public relations managers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Managers who work for chains may be assigned to organize and staff a newly built hotel, re­ furbish an older hotel, or reorganize a hotel or motel that is not op­ erating successfully. Working Conditions Since hotels are open around the clock, night and weekend work is common. Many hotel managers work considerably more than 40 hours per week. Managers who live in the hotel usually have regular work schedules, but they may be called for work at any time. Some employees of resort hotels are managers during the busy season and have other duties the rest of the year. Hotel managers sometimes experience the pressures of coordinat­ ing a wide range of functions. Conventions and large groups of tour­ ists may present unusual problems. Dealing with irate patrons can  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations  Front office managers coordinate reservations and room assignments. also be stressful. The job can be particularly hectic for front office managers around checkin and checkout time. Employment Hotel managers and assistant managers held about 99,000 wage and salary jobs in 1992. An additional number—primarily owners of small hotels and motels—were self-employed. Others were em­ ployed by companies that manage hotels and motels under contract. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Postsecondary training in hotel or restaurant management is pre­ ferred for most hotel management positions, although a college lib­ eral arts degree may be sufficient when coupled with related hotel experience. In the past, most managers were promoted from the ranks of front desk clerks, housekeepers, waiters and chefs, and ho­ tel sales workers. Although some persons still advance to hotel man­ agement positions without the benefit of education or training be­ yond high school, postsecondary education is increasingly preferred. Nevertheless, experience working in a hotel—even part time while in school—is an asset to all persons seeking to enter hotel management careers. Restaurant management training or experi­ ence is also a good background for entering hotel management be­ cause the success of a hotel’s food service and beverage operations is often of great importance to the profitability of the entire establish­ ment. A bachelor’s degree in hotel and restaurant administration pro­ vides particularly strong preparation for a career in hotel manage­ ment. In 1993, over 160 colleges and universities offered bachelor’s and graduate programs in this field. Over 800 community and jun­ ior colleges, technical institutes, vocational and trade schools, and other academic institutions also have programs leading to an associ­ ate degree or other formal recognition in hotel or restaurant man­ agement. Graduates of hotel or restaurant management programs usually start as trainee assistant managers, or at least advance to such positions more quickly. Hotel management programs usually include instruction in hotel administration, accounting, economics, marketing, housekeeping, food service management and catering, hotel maintenance engineer­ ing, and data processing—reflecting the widespread use of com­ puters in hotel operations such as reservations, accounting, and housekeeping management. Programs encourage part-time or sum­ mer work in hotels and restaurants because the experience gained and the contacts made with employers may benefit students when they seek full-time employment after graduation. Hotel managers must be able to get along with all kinds of people, even in stressful situations. They need initiative, self-discipline, and  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  47  the ability to organize and direct the work of others. They must be able to solve problems and concentrate on details. Sometimes large hotels sponsor specialized on-the-job manage­ ment training programs which enable trainees to rotate among vari­ ous departments and gain a thorough knowledge of the hotel’s oper­ ation. Other hotels may help finance the necessary training in hotel management for outstanding employees. Most hotels promote employees who have proven their ability. Newly built hotels, particularly those without well-established onthe-job training programs, often prefer experienced personnel for managerial positions. Large hotel and motel chains may offer better opportunities for advancement than small, independently owned es­ tablishments, but relocation every several years often is necessary for advancement. The large chains have more extensive career lad­ der programs and offer managers the opportunity to transfer to an­ other hotel or motel in the chain or to the central office if an opening occurs. Career advancement can be accelerated by completion of certification programs offered by the associations listed below. These programs generally require a combination of course work, ex­ aminations, and experience. Job Outlook Employment of salaried hotel managers is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005 as more hotels and motels are built. Business travel will continue to grow, and increased domestic and foreign tourism will also create demand for additional hotels and motels. However, manager jobs are expected to grow more slowly than the hotel industry because a growing share of the industry will be comprised of economy proper­ ties, which generally have fewer managers than full-service hotels. In the face of financial constraints, guests are becoming more bar­ gain-conscious, and hotel chains are increasing the number of rooms in economy class hotels. Economy hotels offer clean, comfortable rooms and front desk services without costly extras like restaurants and room service. Because there are not as many departments in each hotel, fewer managers are needed on the hotel premises. Econ­ omy hotels have a general manager, and regional offices of the hotel management company employ department managers, such as exec­ utive housekeepers, to oversee several hotels. Although new employment growth is expected to be concentrated in economy hotels, large full-service hotels will continue to offer many trainee and managerial opportunities. Most openings are ex­ pected to occur as experienced managers transfer to other occupa­ tions, retire, or stop working for other reasons. Opportunities to enter hotel management are expected to be good for persons who have college degrees in hotel or restaurant manage­ ment. Earnings Salaries of hotel managers varied greatly according to their respon­ sibilities and the size of the hotel in which they worked. In 1993, an­ nual salaries of assistant hotel managers averaged an estimated $32,500, based on a survey conducted for the American Hotel and Motel Association. Assistants employed in large hotels with over 350 rooms averaged nearly $38,400 in 1993, while those in small ho­ tels with no more than 150 rooms averaged more than $26,000. Sal­ aries of assistant managers also varied because of differences in du­ ties and responsibilities. For example, food and beverage managers averaged an estimated more than $41,200, according to the same survey, whereas front office managers averaged nearly $26,500. The manager’s level of experience is also an important factor. In 1993, salaries of general managers averaged more than $59,100, ranging from an average of about $44,900 in hotels and motels with no more than 150 rooms to an average of about $86,700 in large hotels with over 350 rooms. Managers may earn bonuses ranging up to 15 percent of their basic salary in some hotels. In addi­ tion, they and their families may be furnished with lodging, meals, parking, laundry, and other services.  48  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Most managers and assistants receive 3 to 11 paid holidays a year, paid vacation, sick leave, life insurance, medical benefits, and pen­ sion plans. Some hotels offer profit-sharing plans, educational assis­ tance, and other benefits to their employees. Related Occupations Hotel managers and assistants are not the only workers concerned with organizing and directing a business in which pleasing people is very important. Others with similar responsibilities include restau­ rant managers, apartment building managers, retail store managers, and office managers. Sources of Additional Information For information on careers and scholarships in hotel management, contact:  The American Hotel and Motel Association (AH&MA), Information Center, 1201 New York Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20005-3931.  For information on educational programs, including correspon­ dence courses, in hotel and restaurant management, write to: [5= The Educational Institute of AH&MA, P.O. Box 1240, East Lansing, MI 48826.  Information on careers in housekeeping management may be ob­ tained from: fW National Executive Housekeepers Association, Inc., 1001 Eastwind Dr., Suite 301, Westerville, OH 43081.  For information on hospitality careers, as well as how to purchase a directory of colleges and other schools offering programs and courses in hotel and restaurant administration, write to: W Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and Institutional Education, 1200 17th St. NW., Washington, DC 20036-3097.  Industrial Production Managers (D.O.T. 180.167-054; 181.117-010; 182.167-022; 183.117-010,-014, .161-014, .167-010, -014, -018, -022, -026, -034, and -038; and 189.117-042, .167-042, and -046)  Nature of the Work Industrial production managers coordinate activities related to pro­ duction of goods and direct the work of first-line supervisors. Due to the variety of goods produced, few factories are exactly alike, so managers’ duties may vary from plant to plant. However, industrial production managers generally have the same major functions re­ gardless of industry. These include responsibility for production scheduling, staffing, equipment, quality control, inventory control, and the coordination of activities with other departments. Based on current and projected customer demand, management determines what and how much will be produced. Working within budgetary limitations and time constraints, industrial production managers plan the production schedule. This entails analyzing the plant’s personnel and capital resources and selecting the best way to meet the production quota. They determine which machines will be used, whether overtime or extra shifts are necessary, the sequence of production, and related matters. They also monitor the production run to make sure that it stays on schedule, and, if problems arise, take action to solve them. Industrial production managers also monitor product standards. When quality drops below the established standard, product man­ agers must determine why standards aren’t being maintained and how to improve the product. If the problem is poor work, the man­ ager may implement better training programs, reorganize the manu­ facturing process, or institute employee suggestion or involvement programs. If the cause is substandard materials, the manager works with the purchasing department to improve the quality of the prod­ uct’s components. Maintaining the inventory of materials necessary for production ties up the firm’s financial resources. Yet, insufficient quantities of materials cause delays in production. Working with the purchasing department, the production manager ensures that plant inventories  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  are maintained at their optimal level. A breakdown in communica­ tions between departments can cause slowdowns and a failure to meet production schedules. Production managers usually report to the plant manager or the vice president for manufacturing. (Information about these workers can be found in the statement on general managers and top execu­ tives elsewhere in the Handbook). In many plants, one production manager is responsible for all production. In large plants with sev­ eral operations—aircraft assembly, for example—there are manag­ ers in charge of each operation, such as machining, assembly, or fin­ ishing. Because the work of many departments is dependent upon others, managers work closely with heads of other departments such as sales, purchasing, and traffic to plan and implement companies’ goals, policies, and procedures. Production managers also work closely with, and act as a liaison between, executives and first-line supervisors. Computers play an integral role in the coordination of the pro­ duction process by providing up-to-date data on such things as in­ ventory, work-in-progress, and product standards. Industrial pro­ duction managers then analyze these data and, working with those from upper management and other departments, determine if ad­ justments need to be made. As the trend toward flatter management structure and worker empowerment continues, production managers will increasingly take on the role of a facilitator. Instead of singly making decisions and giving and taking orders, production managers will review and discuss recommendations with subordinates and superiors in the hopes of improving productivity. Because of the additional duties resulting from corporate downsizing, production managers are dele­ gating more authority and responsibility to first-line supervisors. Working Conditions Most industrial production managers divide their time between the shop floor and their office. While on the floor, they must follow es­ tablished health and safety practices and wear the required protec­ tive clothing and equipment. The time in the office—often located on or near the production floor—is usually spent meeting with sub­ ordinates or other department managers, analyzing production data, and writing and reviewing reports.  Industrial production managers ensure that quality standards are maintained.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations Most industrial production managers work more than 40 hours a week, especially when production deadlines must be met. In facili­ ties that operate around the clock, managers may have to work shifts or may be called at any hour to deal with emergencies that could result in production line downtime. Occasionally, this may mean going to the plant to resolve the problem, regardless of the hour, and staying until the situation is under control. Dealing with production workers as well as superiors when working under the pressure of production deadlines or emergency situations can be stressful. In addition, restructuring has eliminated levels of manage­ ment and support staff. As a result, production managers now have to accomplish more with less and this has greatly increased job-re­ lated stress. Employment Industrial production managers held about 203,000 jobs in 1992. Although employed throughout manufacturing, about one-half are employed in five industries: Industrial machinery and equipment, transportation equipment, electronic and electrical equipment, fabricated metal products, and food products. Although production managers work in all parts of the country, jobs are most plentiful in areas where manufacturing is concen­ trated. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Because of the diversity of manufacturing operations and job re­ quirements, there is no standard preparation for this occupation. Many industrial production managers have a college degree in busi­ ness administration or industrial engineering. Some have a master’s degree in business administration (MBA). Others are former pro­ duction line supervisors who have been promoted. Although many employers prefer candidates to have a degree in business or engi­ neering, some companies hire liberal arts graduates. As production operations become more sophisticated, an increas­ ing number of employers are looking for candidates with MBA’s. This, combined with an undergraduate degree in engineering, is considered particularly good preparation. Companies also are plac­ ing greater importance on a candidate’s personality. Because the job demands technical knowledge and the ability to compromise, per­ suade, and negotiate, successful production managers must be well rounded and have excellent communication skills. Those who enter the field directly from college or graduate school often are unfamiliar with the firm’s production process. As a result, they may spend their first few months on the job in the company’s training program. These programs familiarize trainees with the pro­ duction line, company policies and procedures, and the require­ ments of the job. In larger companies, they may also include assign­ ments to other departments, such as purchasing and accounting. Blue-collar worker supervisors who advance to production man­ ager positions already have an intimate knowledge of the production process and the firm’s organization. To be selected for promotion, these workers must have demonstrated leadership qualities, and often take company-sponsored courses in management skills and communications techniques. Some companies hire college gradu­ ates as blue-collar worker supervisors and then promote them. Once in their job, industrial production managers must stay abreast of new production technologies and management practices. To do this, they belong to professional organizations and attend trade shows where new equipment is displayed; they also attend in­ dustry conferences and conventions where changes in production methods and technological advances are discussed. Although certification in production management and inventory control is not required for most positions, it demonstrates an indi­ vidual’s knowledge of the production process and related areas. Va­ rious certifications are available through the American Production and Inventory Control Society. To be certified in production and in­ ventory management, candidates must pass a series of examinations that test their knowledge of inventory management, just-in-time sys­ tems, production control, capacity management, and materials planning.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  49  Industrial production managers must be able to speak and write effectively and deal tactfully with both subordinates and superiors in pressure situations. Industrial production managers with a proven record of superior performance may advance to plant manager or vice president for manufacturing. Others transfer to jobs at larger firms with more re­ sponsibilities. Opportunities also exist as consultants. (For more in­ formation, see the statement on management analysts and consul­ tants elsewhere in the Handbook.) Job Outlook Little change in employment of industrial production managers is expected through the year 2005. Although manufacturing output is expected to rise significantly, the trend towards smaller manage­ ment staffs and the lack of growth in production worker employ­ ment will limit demand for production managers. Nevertheless, many additional openings will result from the need to replace work­ ers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. How­ ever, many of these openings may be filled through internal promo­ tions. Opportunities should be best for those with college degrees in in­ dustrial engineering or business administration and MBA’s with un­ dergraduate engineering degrees. Employers also are likely to seek candidates who have excellent communication skills, and who are personable, flexible, and eager to participate in ongoing training. Earnings Salaries of industrial production managers vary significantly by in­ dustry and plant size. According to the limited data available, the average salary for all production managers was about $60,000 in 1992. In addition to salary, industrial production managers usually receive bonuses based on job performance. Benefits for industrial production managers tend to be similar to those offered many workers: Vacation and sick leave, health and life insurance, and retirement plans. Related Occupations Industrial production managers oversee production staff and equip­ ment, insure that production goals and quality standards are being met, and implement company policies. Individuals with similar functions include materials, operations, purchasing, and traffic managers. Other occupations requiring similar training and skills are sales engineer, manufacturers’ sales representative, and industrial engi­ neer. Sources of Additional Information Information on industrial production management can be obtained from: National Management Association, 2210 Arbor Blvd., Dayton, OH 45439. 13* American Manufacturing Association, 135 W 50th St., New York, NY 10020.  Inspectors and Compliance Officers, Except Construction (A list of D.O.T. codes is available upon request. See page 468.)  Nature of the Work Inspectors and compliance officers enforce adherence to a wide range of laws, regulations, policies, and procedures that protect the public on matters such as health, safety, food, immigration, licens­ ing, interstate commerce, and international trade. Depending upon their employer, inspectors’ duties vary widely. Health Inspectors. Health inspectors work with engineers, chem­ ists, microbiologists, health workers, and lawyers to insure compli­ ance with public health and safety regulations governing food,  50  Occupational Outlook Handbook  drugs, cosmetics, and other consumer products. They also adminis­ ter regulations that govern the quarantine of persons and products entering the United States from foreign countries. The major types of health inspectors are consumer safety, food, agricultural quaran­ tine, and environmental health inspectors. In addition, some inspec­ tors work in agricultural commodity grading, a field closely related to food inspection. Most consumer safety inspectors specialize in food, feeds and pes­ ticides, weights and measures, cosmetics, drugs and medical equip­ ment, or radiation emitting products. Some are proficient in several areas. Working individually or in teams under a senior or supervi­ sory inspector, they periodically check firms that produce, handle, store, and market the products they regulate. Inspectors look for in­ accurate product labeling, and for decomposition or chemical or bacteriological contamination that could result in a product becom­ ing harmful to health. They may use portable scales, cameras, ultra­ violet lights, container sampling devices, thermometers, chemical testing kits, radiation monitors, and other equipment to ascertain vi­ olations. They may send product samples collected as part of their examinations to laboratories for analysis. After completing their inspection, inspectors discuss their obser­ vations with plant managers or officials and point out areas where corrective measures are needed. They write reports of their findings and, when necessary, compile evidence that may be used in court if legal action must be taken to enforce the law. Federal and State laws empower food inspectors to inspect meat, poultry, and their byproducts to insure that they are safe for public consumption. Working onsite as a team under a veterinarian, they inspect meat and poultry slaughtering, processing, and packaging operations. They also check for correct product labeling and proper sanitation. Agricultural quarantine inspectors protect American agriculture from the spread of foreign plant and animal pests and diseases. To safeguard crops, forests, gardens, and livestock, they inspect ships, aircraft, railroad cars, and motor vehicles entering the United States for restricted or prohibited plants, animals, insects, agricultural commodities, and animal by-products. Environmental health inspectors, or sanitarians, who work prima­ rily for State and local governments, insure that food, water, and air meet government standards. They check the cleanliness and safety of food and beverages produced in dairies and processing plants, or served in restaurants, hospitals, and other institutions. They often examine the handling, processing, and serving of food for compli­ ance with sanitation rules and regulations and oversee the treatment and disposal of sewage, refuse, and garbage. In addition, inspectors may visit pollution sources and test for pollutants by collecting air, water, or waste samples for analysis. They try to determine the na­ ture and cause of pollution and initiate action to stop it. In large local and State health or agriculture departments, envi­ ronmental health inspectors may specialize in milk and dairy prod­ ucts, food sanitation, waste control, air pollution, water pollution, institutional sanitation, or occupational health. In rural areas and small cities, they may be responsible for a wide range of environ­ mental health activities. Agricultural commodity graders apply quality standards to aid the buying and selling of commodities and to insure that retailers and consumers know the quality of the products they purchase. Al­ though this grading is not required by law, buyers generally will not purchase ungraded commodities. Graders usually specialize in an area such as eggs and egg products, meat, poultry, processed or fresh fruits and vegetables, grain, tobacco, cotton, or dairy products. They examine product samples to determine quality and grade, and issue official grading certificates. Graders also may inspect the plant and equipment to maintain sanitation standards. Regulatory Inspectors. Regulatory inspectors insure compliance with laws and regulations that protect the public welfare. Important types of regulatory inspectors include immigration, customs, avia­ tion safety, railroad, motor vehicle, occupational safety and health, mine, wage-hour compliance, postal, and alcohol, tobacco, and fire­ arms.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Immigration inspectors interview and examine people seeking to enter the United States and its territories. They inspect passports to determine whether people are legally eligible to enter and to verify their citizenship status and identity. Immigration inspectors also prepare reports, maintain records, and process applications and pe­ titions for immigration or temporary residence in the United States. Customs inspectors enforce laws governing imports and exports. Stationed in the U.S. and overseas at airports, seaports, and border crossing points, they examine, count, weigh, gauge, measure, and sample commercial and noncommercial cargoes entering and leav­ ing the United States to determine admissibility and the amount of tax that must be paid. They insure that all cargo is properly de­ scribed on accompanying manifests to determine the proper duty. They inspect baggage and articles worn by passengers and crew members to insure that all merchandise is declared, proper duties are paid, and contraband is not present. They also ensure that peo­ ple, ships, planes, and anything used to import or export cargo com­ ply with all appropriate entrance and clearance requirements. Postal inspectors observe the functioning of the postal system and enforce laws and regulations. As law enforcement agents, postal in­ spectors have statutory powers of arrest and the authority to carry firearms. They investigate criminal activities such as theft and mis­ use of the mail. In instances of suspected mismanagement or fraud, inspectors conduct management or financial audits. They also col­ laborate with other government agencies, such as the Internal Reve­ nue Service, as members of special task forces. Aviation safety inspectors insure that Federal Aviation Adminis­ tration (FAA) regulations which govern the quality and safety of aircraft equipment and personnel are maintained. Aviation safety inspectors may inspect aircraft and equipment manufacturing, maintenance and repair, or flight operations procedures. They usu­ ally specialize in either commercial or general aviation aircraft. They also examine and certify aircraft pilots, pilot examiners, flight instructors, repair stations, schools, and instructional materials. Railroad inspectors verify the compliance of railroad systems and equipment with Federal safety regulations. They investigate acci­ dents and review railroads’ operating practices. Motor vehicle inspectors verify the compliance of automobiles and trucks with State requirements for safe operation and emissions. They inspect truck cargoes to assure compliance with legal limita­ tions on gross weight and hazardous cargoes. Traffic inspectors oversee the scheduled service of streetcar, bus, or railway systems and determine the need for additional vehicles, revised schedules, or other changes to improve service. They also re­ port conditions hazardous to passengers and disruptive to service. Park rangers enforce laws and regulations in State and national parks. Their duties range from registering vehicles and visitors, col­ lecting fees, and providing information regarding park use and points of interest, to patrolling areas to prevent fire and theft, partic­ ipating in first aid and rescue activities, and training and supervising other park workers. Some rangers specialize in snow safety and ava­ lanche control. With increasing numbers of visitors to our national parks, their duties increasingly resemble those of traditional urban law enforcement officers in a rural setting, a kind of forest police. Occupational safety and health inspectors visit places of employ­ ment to detect unsafe machinery and equipment or unhealthy work­ ing conditions. They discuss their findings with the employer or plant manager and urge that violations be promptly corrected in ac­ cordance with Federal, State, or local government safety standards and regulations. Mine safety and health inspectors work to insure the health and safety of miners. They visit mines and related facilities to obtain in­ formation on health and safety conditions and to enforce safety laws and regulations. They discuss their findings with the management of the mine and issue citations describing violations and hazards that must be corrected. Mine inspectors also investigate and report on mine accidents and may direct rescue and firefighting operations when fires or explosions occur. Wage-hour compliance inspectors inspect employers’ time, pay­ roll, and personnel records to insure compliance with Federal laws  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations on such matters as minimum wages, overtime, pay, and employ­ ment of minors. They often interview employees to verify the em­ ployer’s records and to check for complaints. Equal opportunity representatives ascertain and correct unfair em­ ployment practices through consultation with and mediation be­ tween employers and minority groups. Alcohol, tobacco, and firearms inspectors inspect distilleries, win­ eries, and breweries; cigar and cigarette manufacturing plants; wholesale liquor dealers and importers; firearms and explosives manufacturers, dealers, and users; and other regulated facilities. They insure compliance with revenue laws and other regulations on operating procedures, unfair competition, and trade practices, and determine that appropriate taxes are paid. Some alcohol, tobacco, and firearms inspectors have statutory powers of arrest and the au­ thority to carry firearms and investigate criminal activities. Securities compliance examiners implement regulations concern­ ing securities transactions. They investigate applications for regis­ tration of securities sales and complaints of irregular securities transactions, and recommend necessary legal action. Revenue officers investigate delinquent tax returns and liabilities. They attempt to resolve tax problems with taxpayers and recom­ mend penalties, collection actions, and prosecution when necessary. Chief bank examiners direct investigations of financial institu­ tions to enforce Federal and State laws and regulations governing the institution’s operations and solvency. Examiners schedule au­ dits, determine actions to protect the institution’s solvency and the interests of shareholders and depositors, and recommend accept­ ance or rejection of applications for mergers, acquisitions, establish­ ment of a new institution, or acceptance in the Federal Reserve Sys­ tem. Attendance officers investigate continued absences of pupils from public schools. Dealer compliance representatives inspect franchised establish­ ments to ascertain compliance with the franchiser’s policies and procedures. They may suggest changes in financial and other opera­ tions. Logging operations inspectors review contract logging operations. They prepare reports and issue remedial instructions for violations of contractual agreements and of fire and safety regulations. Travel accommodations raters inspect hotels, motels, restaurants, campgrounds, and vacation resorts. They evaluate travel and tourist accommodations for travel guide publishers and organizations such as tourism promoters and automobile clubs. Quality control inspectors and coordinators inspect products man­ ufactured or processed by private companies for government use to insure compliance with contract specifications. They may specialize in specific products such as lumber, machinery, petroleum prod­ ucts, paper products, electronic equipment, or furniture. Others co­ ordinate the activities of workers engaged in testing and evaluating pharmaceuticals in order to control quality of manufacture and in­ sure compliance with legal standards. Other inspectors and compliance officers include coroners, code inspectors, mortician investigators, and construction and building inspectors. (Construction and building inspectors are discussed else­ where in the Handbook.) Working Conditions Inspectors and compliance officers meet people and work in a vari­ ety of environments. Their jobs often involve considerable field work, and some inspectors travel frequently. They often are fur­ nished with an automobile or are reimbursed for travel expenses. Inspectors may experience unpleasant or dangerous working con­ ditions. For example, mine safety and health inspectors often are ex­ posed to the same hazards as miners. Food inspectors may examine and inspect the livestock slaughtering process in slaughterhouses and frequently come in contact with strong, unpleasant odors. Alco­ hol, tobacco, and firearms inspectors frequently confront risk when trying to curtail criminal activity. Customs inspectors may have to conduct body searches of passengers or crewmembers and may ex­ perience violence in the course of subsequent arrests. Park rangers may help work outdoors in very hot or bitterly cold weather, and risk injury in rough terrain or mountainous areas. Many inspectors  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  51  Inspectors promote the general health and safety by ensuring compliance with laws and regulations. work long and often irregular hours. Even those inspectors not en­ gaged in some form of police work may find themselves in adver­ sarial roles when the group being inspected does not want them there. Employment Inspectors and compliance officers held 155,000 jobs in 1992. State governments employed 33 percent, the Federal Government— chiefly the Departments of Defense, Treasury, Agriculture, and Jus­ tice—employed 28 percent, and local governments employed 20 percent. The remaining 19 percent were employed in the U.S. Postal Service and throughout the private sector—primarily in education, hospitals, insurance companies, labor unions, and manufacturing firms. The largest single employer of consumer safety inspectors is the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, but the majority work for State governments. Most food inspectors and agricultural commod­ ity graders in processing plants are employed by the U.S. Depart­ ment of Agriculture, as are agricultural quarantine inspectors. Many environmental health inspectors work for State and local gov­ ernments. Most Federal regulatory inspectors work in regional and district offices throughout the United States. The Department of Defense employs the most quality control inspectors. The Treasury Depart­ ment employs internal revenue officers, alcohol, tobacco, and fire­ arms inspectors, and customs inspectors. Aviation safety inspectors work for the Federal Aviation Administration. The Environmental Protection Agency employs inspectors to verify compliance with pollution control laws. The U.S. Department of Labor and many State governments employ wage-hour compliance officers, occupa­ tional safety and health inspectors, and mine safety and health in­ spectors. Immigration inspectors are employed by the U.S. Depart­ ment of Justice, while the U.S. Department of Interior employs park rangers. Like agricultural quarantine inspectors, immigration and customs inspectors work in the United States and overseas at air­ ports, seaports, and border crossing points. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Because of the diversity of functions, qualifications for inspector and compliance officer jobs differ greatly. Requirements are a com­ bination of education, experience, and often a passing grade on a  52  Occupational Outlook Handbook  written examination. Employers generally prefer applicants with college training, including courses related to the job. The following examples illustrate the range of qualifications for various inspector jobs. Food inspectors must have related experience and pass an exami­ nation based on specialized knowledge. Postal inspectors must have a bachelor’s and a graduate degree or one of several professional certifications, such as certified public ac­ countant. They also must pass certain age and health requirements, possess a valid State driver’s license, and be a U.S. citizen. Aviation safety inspectors must have considerable experience in aviation maintenance and operations and knowledge of the industry and relevant Federal laws. In addition, FAA mechanic or pilot and medical certificates are required. Some also are required to have an FAA flight instructor rating. Many aviation safety inspectors have had flight and maintenance training in the Armed Forces. No writ­ ten examination is required. Applicants for positions as mine safety and health inspectors gen­ erally must have experience in mine safety, management, or supervi­ sion or possess a skill such as that of an electrician (for mine electri­ cal inspectors). Most mine safety inspectors are former miners. Applicants for internal revenue officer jobs must have a bache­ lor’s degree or 3 years of business, legal, or investigative work expe­ rience that displays strong analytical ability. Park rangers need at least 2 years of college with courses in sci­ ence and criminal justice. Many start as part-time, seasonal workers with the U.S. Forest Service. Environmental health inspectors, called sanitarians in many States, sometimes must have a bachelor’s degree in environmental health or in the physical or biological sciences. In most States, they are licensed by examining boards. All inspectors and compliance officers are trained in applicable laws and inspection procedures through a combination of classroom and on-the-job training. In general, people who want to enter this occupation should be able to accept responsibility and like detailed work. Inspectors and compliance officers should be neat and per­ sonable and able to express themselves well orally and in writing. Federal Government inspectors and compliance officers whose job performance is satisfactory advance through their career ladder to a specified full performance level. For positions above this level (usually supervisory positions), advancement is competitive, based on agency needs and individual merit. Advancement opportunities in State and local governments and the private sector are often simi­ lar to those in the Federal Government. Some civil service examinations, including those for agricultural quarantine inspectors, aviation safety inspectors, and agricultural commodity graders, rate applicants solely on their experience and education and require no written examination. Job Outlook Employment of inspectors and compliance officers is expected to in­ crease faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005, reflecting growing public demand for a safe environment and quality products. Employment growth, particularly in local govern­ ment, will stem from the expansion of regulatory and compliance programs in solid and hazardous waste disposal and water pollu­ tion. In private industry, employment growth will reflect increasing self-enforcement of government and company regulations and poli­ cies, particularly among the rapidly growing number of franchise dealerships in various industries. Job openings will also arise from the need to replace those who transfer to other occupations, retire, or leave the labor force for other reasons. Employment of inspectors and compliance officers is seldom af­ fected by general economic fluctuations. Most work in programs which enjoy wide public support. In addition, Federal, State, and lo­ cal governments—which employ most inspectors—provide workers with considerable job security. As a result, inspectors are less likely  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  to lose their jobs than many other workers when government pro­ grams are cut. Earnings The median weekly salary of inspectors and compliance officers, ex­ cept construction, was about $630 in 1992. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $375; the highest 10 percent earned over $1,000. In the Federal Government, the average annual salaries for in­ spectors varied substantially in 1993—from $24,800 to $59,300— depending upon the nature of the inspection or compliance activity. The following tabulation presents 1993 average salaries for selected inspectors and compliance officers in the Federal Government in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions.  Table 1. Average salaries of selected Federal inspectors and compliance of­ ficers, 1992 Aviation safety inspectors....................................... Highway safety inspectors..................................... Insurance examiners.............................................. Railroad safety inspectors...................................... Equal opportunity compliance officials................. Mine safety and health inspectors.......................... Internal revenue agent.......................................... Environmental protection specialists.................... Import specialists............................................ Safety and occupational health managers............ Alcohol, tobacco, and firearms inspectors........... Quality assurance inspectors................................ Public health quarantine inspectors .................... Securities compliance examiners.......................... Customs inspectors .............................................. Agricultural commodity graders ......................... Immigration inspectors........................................ Food inspectors.................................................... Consumer safety inspectors.................................. Transportation rate and tariff examiners............ Environmental protection assistants....................  $59,300 55.100 51.100 50.200 49.100 48.400 48.000 45,700 43.600 43.400 41.500 41.000 39.600 36.500 36.400 34.200 33.500 29.800 27.600 25.600 24.800  SOURCE: U.S. Office of Personnel Management  Salaries of inspectors and compliance officers in State and local government and in private industry are generally lower than those of their Federal counterparts. Most inspectors and compliance officers work for Federal, State, and local governments and in large private firms, all of which gener­ ally offer more generous fringe benefits than do smaller firms. Related Occupations Inspectors and compliance officers are responsible for seeing that laws and regulations are obeyed. Construction and building inspec­ tors, fire marshals, State and local police officers, FBI and Secret Service agents, and fish and game wardens also enforce laws. Sources of Additional Information Information on Federal Government jobs is available from offices of the State employment service, area offices of the U.S. Office of Per­ sonnel Management, and Federal Job Information Centers in large cities throughout the country. For information on a career as a spe­ cific type of Federal inspector or compliance officer, the Federal de­ partment or agency that employs them may also be contacted di­ rectly. Information about State and local government jobs is available from State civil service commissions, usually located in each State capital, or from local government offices. Information about jobs in private industry is available from the State Employment Service, which is listed under “Job Service” or “Employment” in the State government section of local telephone directories.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations  Loan Officers and Counselors (D.O.T. 186.167-078, .267-018, -022, -026)  Nature of work Banks and other financial institutions need up-to-date information on companies and individuals applying for loans and credit. Cus­ tomers and clients provide this information to the financial institu­ tion’s loan officers and counselors, generally the first employees to be seen by them. Loan officers prepare, analyze, and verify loan ap­ plications, make decisions regarding the extension of credit, and help borrowers fill out loan applications. Loan counselors help con­ sumers with low income or a poor credit history qualify for credit, usually a home mortgage. Loan officers usually specialize in commercial, consumer, or mortgage loans. Commercial or business loans help companies pay for new equipment or to expand operations. Consumer loans in­ clude home equity, automobile, and personal loans. Mortgage loans are made to purchase real estate or to refinance an existing mort­ gage. Loan officers represent lending institutions that provide funds for a variety of purposes. Personal loans can be made to consolidate bills, purchase expensive items such as an automobile or furniture, or finance a college education. Loan officers attempt to lower their firm’s risk by receiving collateral—security pledged for the payment of a loan. For example, when lending money for a college education, the bank may insist that the borrower offer his or her home as collat­ eral. If the borrower were ever unable to repay the loan, the bor­ rower would have to sell the home to raise the necessary money. Loans backed by collateral also are beneficial to the customer be­ cause they generally carry a lower interest rate. Loan officers and counselors must keep abreast of new financial products and services. To meet their customers’ needs, for example, banks and other lenders now offer a variety of mortgage products, including reverse equity mortgages, shared equity mortgages, and adjustable rate mortgages. A reverse equity mortgage provides in­ come to the owner of the property, and is paid back either through a conventional mortgage or in a lump sum. A shared equity mortgage allows a group of people to jointly own and be responsible for pay­ ment of the mortgage. Adjustable rate mortgages have a fluctuating interest rate, commonly based on the interest rate paid on govern­ ment bonds—a change in interest rates affects the borrower’s monthly payment. Loan officers meet with customers and gather basic information about the loan request. Often customers will not fully understand the information requested, and will call the loan officer for assis­ tance. Once the customer completes the financial forms, the loan of­ ficer begins to process them. The loan officer reviews the completed financial forms for accuracy and thoroughness, and requests addi­ tional information if necessary. For example, the loan officer verifies that the customer has correctly identified the type and purpose of the loan. The loan officer then requests a credit report from one or more of the major credit reporting agencies. This information, along with comments from the loan officer, is included in a loan file, and is compared to the lending institution’s requirements. Banks and other lenders have established requirements for the maximum percentage of income that can safely go to repay loans. At this point, the loan officer, in consultation with company managers, decides whether or not to grant the loan. A loan that would otherwise be denied may be approved if the customer can provide the lender appropriate collat­ eral. Whether or not the loan request is approved, the loan officer informs the borrower of the lender’s decision. Loan counselors meet with consumers who are attempting to purchase a home or refinance debt, but who do not qualify for loans with banks. Often clients rely on income from self-employment or  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  53  government assistance to prove that they can repay the loan. Coun­ selors also help to psychologically prepare consumers to be home­ owners and to pay their debts. Counselors frequently work with cli­ ents who have no experience with financial matters. Loan counselors provide positive reinforcement along with the fi­ nancial tools needed to qualify for a loan. This assistance may take several forms. Some clients simply need help in understanding what information loan officers need to complete a loan transaction. Most clients, however, need loans and grants for a down payment suffi­ cient to qualify them for a bank-financed mortgage loan. Many cli­ ents have been renting for years and want to buy their properties. While they have the desire to improve their lives through home ownership, they frequently have little or no resources for a down payment. Other clients want to move to a safer and more secure en­ vironment where, as owners, they can make decisions regarding the property. The loan counselor helps the client complete an applica­ tion, and researches Federal, State, and local government programs that could provide the additional money needed for the client to purchase the home. Often several government programs are com­ bined to provide the necessary money. Working Conditions Loan officers and counselors work in offices, but mortgage loan of­ ficers frequently move from office to office and often visit homes of clients while completing a loan request. Commercial loan officers employed by large firms may travel frequently to prepare complex loan agreements. Most loan officers and counselors work a standard 40-hour week, but may work longer, particularly mortgage loan officers who are free to take on as many customers as they choose. Loan officers and counselors usually carry a heavy caseload and sometimes cannot ac­ cept new clients until they complete current cases. They are espe­ cially busy when interest rates are low, resulting in a surge in loan applications. Employment Loan officers and counselors held about 172,000 jobs in 1992. About 7 out of 10 are employed by commercial banks, savings insti­ tutions, and credit unions. Others are employed by nonbank finan­ cial institutions, such as mortgage brokerage firms and personal credit firms. Most loan counselors work for State and local govern­ ments, or for nonprofit organizations. Loan officers and counselors generally work in urban areas where large banks are concentrated.  Loan officers and counselors are particularly busy when interest rates are low, resulting in a surge in loan applications.  54  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Most loan officer positions require a bachelor’s degree in finance, economics, or a related field. Most employers al?o prefer applicants who are familiar with computers and their applications in banking. A mortgage loan officer is the exception, with training or experience in sales more crucial to potential employers. Many loan officers ad­ vance through the ranks in an organization, acquiring several years of work experience in various other occupations, such as teller or customer service representative. Capable loan officers may advance to larger branches of the firm or to a managerial position, while less capable loan officers and those having inadequate academic preparation may be assigned to smaller branches and find promotion difficult. Advancement from a loan officer position usually includes becoming a supervisor over other loan officers and clerical staff. Most loan counselors receive substantial on-the-job training, gaining a thorough understanding of the requirements and proce­ dures for approval of loans. Some acquire this knowledge through work experience in a related field. In addition, accounting skills can be very helpful. Educational requirements vary—some counselors are high school graduates while others have a college degree in eco­ nomics, finance, or a related field. Like other workers, outstanding loan counselors can advance to supervisory positions. However, promotion potential is limited, and many loan counselors leave for better paying positions elsewhere. Persons planning a career as a loan officer or counselor should have good mathematical and communications skills. Developing ef­ fective working relationships with different people—managers, cli­ ents, and the public—is essential to success as a loan officer or coun­ selor. They also must be able to clearly communicate the results of their work, orally and in writing, to customers and management. Loan officers must enjoy public contact and be willing to attend community events as a representative of their employer. Persons interested in counseling should have a strong interest in helping others and the ability to inspire trust, respect, and confi­ dence. Because loan counselors frequently explain the complicated world of banking to clients who have never been exposed to it, pa­ tience and an understanding of mortgage banking is necessary to be an effective loan counselor. Counselors should be sensitive to their clients’ needs and feelings. Clients want to improve their lives, and counselors must consider the importance and pride they attach to home ownership. Counselors should be able to work independently or as part of a team. Job Outlook Employment of loan officers and counselors is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. As the population and economy grow, applications for commercial, consumer, and mortgage loans will increase, spurring demand for loan officers and counselors. Growth in the variety and complexity of loans, and the importance of loan officers to the success of banks and other lending institutions, also should assure rapid employment growth. Although increased demand will generate many new jobs, most openings will result from the need to replace workers who leave the occupation or retire. College graduates and those with banking or lending experience should have the best job prospects. Loan officers are less likely to lose their jobs than other workers in banks and other lending institutions during difficult economic times. Since loans are the major source of income for banks, loan of­ ficers are central to the success of their organizations. Loan counsel­ ors typically have so many clients that a reduction in their numbers would lead to a decline in the services provided to the community. However, job security is influenced by the spending patterns of local governments. Budget reductions could result in less hiring or even layoffs of loan counselors.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Earnings According to a salary survey conducted by Robert Half Interna­ tional, a staffing services firm specializing in accounting and fi­ nance, real estate mortgage loan officers earned between $25,000 and $45,000 in 1993; consumer loan officers, between $27,000 and $44,000. Larger banks generally paid higher salaries than smaller banks. Some mortgage loan officers, who typically are paid on a commission basis, earn considerably more. Based on limited information, most loan counselors earned be­ tween $15,000 and $35,000 in 1993. Local government employees in large cities earned the highest salaries. Banks and other lenders sometimes offer their loan officers free checking privileges and somewhat lower interest rates on personal loans. Loan counselors sometimes get awards for their service to the community. Related Occupations Loan officers and counselors help the public manage financial assets and secure loans. Occupations that involve similar functions include securities and financial services sales representatives, financial aid officers, real estate agents and brokers, and insurance agents and brokers. Sources of Additional Information For information on job opportunities as a loan officer or counselor, contact local employers—banks, savings institutions, mortgage bro­ kers, personal credit firms, or your municipal government—or the local State employment service office. Information about a career as a loan officer may be obtained from:  13° American Bankers Association, 1120 Connecticut Ave. NW., Washing­ ton, DC 20036.  Management Analysts and Consultants (D.O.T. 100.117-014; 161.117-014, .167-010, -014, -018, and -022, .267 except -014 and -030; 169.167-074; and 310.267-010)  Nature of the Work A rapidly growing small company needs a better system of control over inventories and expenses. An established manufacturing com­ pany decides to relocate to another State and needs assistance plan­ ning the move. After acquiring a new division, a large company real­ izes that its corporate structure must be reorganized. A division chief of a government agency wants to know why the division’s con­ tracts are always going over budget. These are just a few of the many organizational problems that management analysts, as they are called in government agencies, and management consultants, as business firms refer to them, help solve. Although their job titles may differ, their job duties are essentially the same. The work of management analysts and consultants varies from employer to employer and from project to project. For example, some projects require several consultants to work together, each specializing in one area; at other times, they will work indepen­ dently. In general, analysts and consultants collect, review, and ana­ lyze information; make recommendations; and often assist in the implementation of their proposal. Both public and private organizations use consultants for a vari­ ety of reasons. Some don’t have the internal resources needed to handle a project; others need a consultant’s expertise to determine what resources will be required—or problems encountered—if they pursue a particular course of action; while others want to get outside advice on how to resolve organizational problems that have already been identified or to avoid troublesome problems that could arise.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations Firms providing consulting services range in size from solo prac­ titioners to large international organizations employing thousands of consultants. Some firms specialize by industry; others by type of business function, such as human resources or information systems. Consulting services usually are provided on a contract basis—a company solicits proposals from consulting firms specializing in the area in which it needs assistance. These proposals include the esti­ mated cost and scope of the project, staffing requirements, and the deadline. The company then selects the proposal which best meets its needs. Upon getting an assignment or contract, consultants define the nature and extent of the problem. During this phase of the job, they may analyze data such as annual revenues, employment, or expendi­ tures; interview employees; or observe the operations of the organi­ zational unit. Next, they use their knowledge of management systems and their expertise in a particular area to develop solutions. In the course of preparing their recommendations, they must take into account the general nature of the business, the relationship the firm has with others in that industry, and the firm’s internal organization, as well as information gained through data collection and analysis. Once they have decided on a course of action, consultants usually report their findings and recommendations to the client, often in writing. In addition, they often make oral presentations regarding their findings. For some projects, this is all that is required; for others, consultants may assist in the implementation of their sugges­ tions. Management analysts in government agencies use the same skills as their private-sector colleagues to advise managers in government on many types of issues—most of which are similar to the problems faced by private firms. For example, if an agency is planning to purchase several personal computers, it first must determine which type to buy, given its budget and data processing needs. Manage­ ment analysts would assess the various types of machines available and determine which best meets their department’s needs. Working Conditions Management analysts and consultants usually divide their time be­ tween their offices and their client’s operation. Although much of their time is spent indoors in clean, well-lighted offices, they may have to visit a client’s production facility where conditions may not be so favorable. They must follow established safety procedures when making field visits to sites where they may encounter poten­ tially hazardous conditions.  Management consultants may spend a significant portion of their time with clients.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  55  Typically, analysts and consultants work at least 40 hours a week. Overtime is common, especially when deadlines must be met. In ad­ dition, because they must spend a significant portion of their time with clients, they may travel frequently. Self-employed consultants can set their workload and hours and work at home. On the other hand, their livelihood depends on their ability to maintain and expand their client base, which can be diffi­ cult at times. Employment Management analysts and consultants held about 208,000 jobs in 1992. Four out of 10 of these workers were self-employed. Most of the rest worked in management consulting firms and for Federal, State, and local governments. The majority of those working for the Federal Government were found in the Department of Defense. Management analysts and consultants are found throughout the country, but employment is concentrated in metropolitan areas. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement There are no universal educational requirements for entry level jobs in this field. However, employers in private industry prefer to hire those with a master’s degree in business administration or a disci­ pline related to the firms’ area of specialization. Those individuals hired straight out of school with only a bachelor’s degree are likely to work as research associates or junior consultants, rather than fullfledged management consultants. It is possible for research associ­ ates to advance up the career ladder if they demonstrate a strong ap­ titude for consulting, but, more often, they need to get an advanced degree to do so. Many entrants to this occupation have, in addition to the appro­ priate formal education, several years of experience in management or in another occupation. Most government agencies hire those with a bachelor’s degree and no work experience as entry level management analysts, and often provide formal classroom training in management analysis. Many fields of study provide a suitable formal educational back­ ground for this occupation because of the diversity of problem areas addressed by management analysts and consultants. These include most areas of business and management, as well as computer and in­ formation sciences and engineering. Management analysts and consultants who are hired directly from school sometimes participate in formal company training pro­ grams. These programs may include instruction on policies and pro­ cedures, computer systems and software, research processes, and management practices and principles. Because of their previous in­ dustry experience, most who enter at middle levels do not partici­ pate in formal company training programs. However, regardless of background, analysts and consultants routinely attend conferences to keep abreast of current developments in their field. Additionally, some large firms offer in-house formal training programs for all levels of staff. Management analysts and consultants often work under little or no supervision, so they should be independent and self-motivated. Analytical skills, strong oral communication and written skills, good judgment, the ability to manage time well, and creativity in de­ veloping solutions to problems are other desirable qualities for pro­ spective management analysts and consultants. In large consulting firms, beginners usually start as a member of a consulting team. The team is responsible for the entire project and each consultant is assigned to a particular area. As consultants gain experience, they may be assigned to work on one specific project full-time, taking on more responsibility and managing their own hours. At the senior level, consultants may supervise entry level workers and become increasingly involved in seeking out new busi­ ness. Those with exceptional skills may eventually become a partner or principal in the firm. Others with entrepreneurial ambition may open their own firm.  56  Occupational Outlook Handbook  A high percentage of management consultants are self-employed, partly because start-up costs are low. Little capital is required ini­ tially, and it is possible for self-employed consultants to share office space, administrative help, and other resources with other self-em­ ployed consultants or small consulting firms, thus reducing over­ head costs. The Institute of Management Consultants (a division of the Council of Consulting Organizations) offers the Certified Manage­ ment Consultant (CMC) designation to those who pass an examina­ tion and meet minimum levels of education and experience. Certifi­ cation is not mandatory for management consultants to practice, but it may give a jobseeker a competitive advantage. Job Outlook Employment of management analysts and consultants is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005 as industry and government increasingly rely on outside expertise to improve the performance of their organizations. Growth is expected in large consulting firms, but also in small con­ sulting firms whose consultants will specialize in highly specific ar­ eas of expertise. Although most job openings will result from em­ ployment growth of the occupation, additional opportunities will arise from the need to replace personnel who transfer to other fields or leave the labor force. Increased competition has caused American industry to take a closer look at its operations. In more competitive international and domestic markets, firms cannot afford inefficiency and wasted re­ sources or else they risk losing their share of the market. Manage­ ment consultants are being increasingly relied upon to help reduce costs, streamline operations, and develop marketing strategies. As businesses downsize and eliminate needed functions as well as per­ manent staff, consultants will be used to perform those functions on a contractual basis. On the other hand, businesses undergoing ex­ pansion, particularly into world markets, will also need the skills of management consultants to help with organizational, administra­ tive, and other issues. Continuing changes in the business environ­ ment also are expected to lead to demand for management consul­ tants: Firms will use consultants’ expertise to incorporate new technologies, to cope with more numerous and complex government regulations, and to adapt to a changing labor force. As businesses rely more on technology, there are increasing roles for consultants with a technical background, such as engineering or biotechnology, particularly when combined with an MBA. Federal, State, and local agencies also are expected to expand their use of management analysts. In the era of budget deficits, ana­ lysts’ skills at identifying problems and implementing cost reduction measures are expected to become increasingly important. However, because one-half of the management analysts employed by the Fed­ eral government work for the Department of Defense, the pace of Federal employment growth will vary with the defense budget. In the private sector, job opportunities are expected to be best for those with a graduate degree and some industry expertise, while op­ portunities for those with only a bachelor’s degree will be best in the Federal Government. Because many small consulting firms fail each year for lack of managerial expertise and clients, those interested in opening their own firm should have good organizational and marketing skills, plus several years of consulting experience. Despite projected rapid employment growth, competition for jobs as management consultants is expected to be keen in the private sec­ tor. Because management consultants can come from such diverse educational backgrounds, the pool of applicants from which em­ ployers hire is quite large. Additionally, the independent and chal­ lenging nature of the work combined with high earnings potential make this occupation attractive to many.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Earnings Salaries for management analysts and consultants vary widely by experience, education, and employer. In 1992, those who were wage and salary workers had median annual earnings of about $40,300. The middle 50 percent earned between $26,500 and $60,100. In 1991, according to the Association of Management Consulting Firms (ACME), earnings—including bonuses and/or profit shar­ ing—for research associates in ACME member firms averaged $31,300; for entry level consultants, $39,100; for management con­ sultants, $56,300; for senior consultants, $76,700; for junior part­ ners, $105,600; and for senior partners, $166,100. Typical benefits for salaried analysts and consultants include health and life insurance, a retirement plan, vacation and sick leave, profit sharing, and bonuses for outstanding work. In addition, all travel expenses usually are reimbursed by their employer. Self-em­ ployed consultants usually have to maintain an office and do not re­ ceive employer-provided benefits. Related Occupations Management analysts and consultants collect, review, and analyze data; make recommendations; and assist in the implementation of their ideas. Others who use similar skills are managers, computer systems analysts, operations research analysts, economists, and fi­ nancial analysts. Sources of Additional Information Information about career opportunities in management consulting is available from:  ACME, The Association of Management Consulting Firms, 521 Fifth Ave., 35th Floor, New York, NY 10175-3598.  For information about a career as a State or local government management analyst, contact your State or local employment ser­ vice. Persons interested in a management analyst position in the Fed­ eral Government can obtain information from: EF*U.S. Office of Personnel Management, 1900 ESt. NW., Washington, DC 20415.  Marketing, Advertising, and Public Relations Managers (D.O.T. 141.137-010; 159.167-022; 163.117-014, -018, -022, -026, .167-010, -018, -022, .267-010; 164.117-010, -014, -018, .167-010; 185.117-014, .157-010, -014; 187.167-162; 189.117-018)  Nature of the Work The fundamental objective of any firm is to market its products or services profitably. In small firms, all marketing responsibilities may be assumed by the owner or chief executive officer. In large firms, which may offer numerous products and services nationally or even worldwide, experienced marketing, advertising, and public relations managers coordinate these and related activities. The executive vice president for marketing in large firms directs the overall marketing policy—including market research, market­ ing strategy, sales, advertising, promotion, pricing, product devel­ opment, and public relations activities. (This occupation is included in the Handbook statement on general managers and top execu­ tives.) These activities are supervised by middle and supervisory managers who oversee staffs of professionals and technicians. Marketing managers develop the firm’s detailed marketing strat­ egy. With the help of subordinates, including product development managers and market research managers, they determine the de­ mand for products and services offered by the firm and its competi­ tors and identify potential consumers—for example, business firms,  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations wholesalers, retailers, government, or the general public. Mass mar­ kets are further categorized according to various factors such as re­ gion, age, income, and lifestyle. Marketing managers develop pric­ ing strategy with an eye towards maximizing the firm’s share of the market and its profits while ensuring that the firm’s customers are satisfied. In collaboration with sales, product development, and other managers, they monitor trends that indicate the need for new products and services and oversee product development. Marketing managers work with advertising and promotion managers to best promote the firm’s products and services and to attract potential users. Sales managers direct the firm’s sales program. They assign sales territories and goals and establish training programs for their sales representatives. Managers advise their sales representatives on ways to improve their sales performance. In large, multiproduct firms, they oversee regional and local sales managers and their staffs. Sales managers maintain contact with dealers and distributors. They ana­ lyze sales statistics gathered by their staffs to determine sales poten­ tial and inventory requirements and monitor the preferences of cus­ tomers. Such information is vital to develop products and maximize profits. Except in the largest firms, advertising and promotion staffs are generally small and serve as a liaison between the firm and the ad­ vertising or promotion agency to which many advertising or promo­ tional functions are contracted out. Advertising managers oversee the account services, creative services, and media services depart­ ments. The account services department is managed by account ex­ ecutives, who assess the need for advertising and, in advertising agencies, maintain the accounts of clients. The creative services de­ partment develops the subject matter and presentation of advertis­ ing. This department is supervised by a creative director, who over­ sees the copy chief and art director and their staffs. The media services department is supervised by the media director, who over­ sees planning groups that select the communication media—for ex­ ample, radio, television, newspapers, magazines, or outdoor signs— to disseminate the advertising. Promotion managers supervise staffs of promotion specialists. They direct promotion programs combining advertising with purchase incentives to increase sales of products or services. In an effort to establish closer contact with purchasers—dealers, distribu­ tors, or consumers—promotion programs may involve direct mail, telemarketing, television or radio advertising, catalogs, exhibits, in­ serts in newspapers, in-store displays and product endorsements, and special events. Purchase incentives may include discounts, sam­ ples, gifts, rebates, coupons, sweepstakes, and contests. Public relations managers supervise public relations specialists (see the Handbook statement on public relations specialists). These managers direct publicity programs to a targeted public. They use any necessary communication media in their effort to maintain the support of the specific group upon whom their organization’s suc­ cess depends, such as consumers, stockholders, or the general pub­ lic. For example, public relations managers may clarify or justify the firm’s point of view on health or environmental issues to community or special interest groups. They may evaluate advertising and pro­ motion programs for compatibility with public relations efforts. Public relations managers, in effect, serve as the eyes and ears of top management. They observe social, economic, and political trends that might ultimately have an effect upon the firm, and make recom­ mendations to enhance the firm’s public image in view of those trends. Public relations managers may confer with labor relations managers to produce internal company communications—such as news about employee-management relations—and with financial managers to produce company reports. They may assist company executives in drafting speeches, arranging interviews, and other forms of public contact; oversee company archives; and respond to information requests. In addition, public relations managers may  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  57  handle special events such as sponsorship of races, parties introduc­ ing new products, or other activities the firm supports in order to gain public attention through the press without advertising directly. Working Conditions Marketing, advertising, and public relations managers are provided with offices close to top managers. Long hours, including evenings and weekends, are common. Working under pressure is unavoidable as schedules change, problems arise, and deadlines and goals must be met. Marketing, advertising, and public relations managers meet frequently with other managers; some meet with the public and gov­ ernment officials. Substantial travel may be involved. For example, attendance at meetings sponsored by associations or industries is often mandatory. Sales managers travel to national, regional, and local of­ fices and to various dealers and distributors. Advertising and pro­ motion managers may travel to meet with clients or representatives of communications media. Public relations managers may travel to meet with special interest groups or government officials. Job trans­ fers between headquarters and regional offices are common—par­ ticularly among sales managers—and may disrupt family life. Employment Marketing, advertising, and public relations managers held about 432,000 jobs in 1992. These managers are found in virtually every industry. Industries employing them in significant numbers include motor vehicle dealers; printing and publishing firms; advertising agencies; department stores; computer and data processing services firms; and management and public relations firms. Training, Advancement, and Other Qualifications A wide range of educational backgrounds are suitable for entry into marketing, advertising, and public relations managerial jobs, but many employers prefer a broad liberal arts background. A bache­ lor’s degree in sociology, psychology, literature, or philosophy, among other subjects, is acceptable. However, requirements vary depending upon the particular job. For marketing, sales, and promotion management positions, some employers prefer a bachelor’s or master’s degree in business administration with an emphasis on marketing. Courses in business law, economics, accounting, finance, mathematics, and statistics are also highly recommended. In highly technical industries, such as  Increasing competition in products and services will spur rapid employment growth among marketing, advertising, and public relations managers.  58  Occupational Outlook Handbook  computer and electronics manufacturing, a bachelor’s degree in en­ gineering or science combined with a master’s degree in business ad­ ministration may be preferred. For advertising management posi­ tions, some employers prefer a bachelor’s degree in advertising or journalism. A course of study should include courses in marketing, consumer behavior, market research, sales, communications meth­ ods and technology, and visual arts—for example, art history and photography. For public relations management positions, some em­ ployers prefer a bachelor’s or master’s degree in public relations or journalism. The individual’s curriculum should include courses in advertising, business administration, public affairs, political science, and creative and technical writing. For all these specialties, courses in management and completion of an internship while in school are highly recommended. Familiarity with computerized word process­ ing and data base applications also are important for many market­ ing, advertising, and public relations management positions. Most marketing, advertising, and public relations management positions are filled by promoting experienced staff or related profes­ sional or technical personnel—for example, sales representatives, purchasing agents, buyers, product or brand specialists, advertising specialists, promotion specialists, and public relations specialists. In small firms, where the number of positions is limited, advancement to a management position may come slowly. In large firms, promo­ tion may occur more quickly. Although experience, ability, and leadership are emphasized for promotion, advancement may be accelerated by participation in management training programs conducted by many large firms. Many firms also provide their employees with continuing education opportunities, either in-house or at local colleges and universities, and encourage employee participation in seminars and conferences, often provided by professional societies. Often in collaboration with colleges and universities, numerous marketing and related associa­ tions sponsor national or local management training programs. Courses include brand and product management, international marketing, sales management evaluation, telemarketing and direct sales, promotion, marketing communication, market research, or­ ganizational communication, and data processing systems proce­ dures and management. Many firms pay all or part of the cost for those who successfully complete courses. Some associations (listed under sources of additional informa­ tion) offer certification programs for marketing, advertising, and public relations managers. Certification is a sign of competence and achievement in this field that is particularly important in a competi­ tive job market. While relatively few marketing, advertising, and public relations managers currently are certified, the number of managers who seek certification is expected to grow. For example, Sales and Marketing Executives International offers a management certification program based on education and job performance. The Public Relations Society of America offers an accreditation pro­ gram for public relations practitioners based on years of experience and an examination. The American Marketing Association is devel­ oping a certification program for marketing managers. Persons interested in becoming marketing, advertising, and pub­ lic relations managers should be mature, creative, highly motivated, resistant to stress, and flexible, yet decisive. The ability to communi­ cate persuasively, both orally and in writing, with other managers, staff, and the public is vital. Marketing, advertising, and public rela­ tions managers also need tact, good judgment, and exceptional abil­ ity to establish and maintain effective personal relationships with supervisory and professional staff members and client firms. Because of the importance and high visibility of their jobs, mar­ keting, advertising, and public relations managers often are prime candidates for advancement. Well-trained, experienced, successful managers may be promoted to higher positions in their own or other firms. Some become top executives. Managers with extensive experi­ ence and sufficient capital may open their own businesses.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Job Outlook Employment of marketing, advertising, and public relations manag­ ers is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Increasingly intense domestic and global competition in products and services offered to consumers should require greater marketing, promotional, and public relations efforts. Management and public relations firms may experience particularly rapid growth as businesses increasingly hire contractors for these services rather than support additional full-time staff. In addition to faster than average growth, many job openings will occur each year as a result of managers moving into top manage­ ment positions, transferring to other jobs, or leaving the labor force. However, many of these highly coveted jobs will be sought by other managers or highly experienced professional and technical person­ nel, resulting in substantial job competition. College graduates with extensive experience, a high level of creativity, and strong communi­ cation skills should have the best job opportunities. Projected employment growth varies by industry. For example, employment of marketing, advertising, and public relations manag­ ers is expected to grow much faster than average in most business services industries, such as computer and data processing, and man­ agement and public relations firms, while average growth is pro­ jected in manufacturing industries overall. Earnings According to a College Placement Council survey, starting salary offers to marketing majors graduating in 1993 averaged about $24,000; advertising majors, about $21,000. The median annual salary of marketing, advertising, and public relations managers was $41,000 in 1992. The lowest 10 percent earned $22,000 or less, while the top 10 percent earned $79,000 or more. Many earn bonuses equal to 10 percent or more of their sala­ ries. Surveys show that salary levels vary substantially depending upon the level of managerial responsibility, length of service, educa­ tion, and the employer’s size, location, and industry. For example, manufacturing firms generally pay marketing, advertising, and pub­ lic relations managers higher salaries than nonmanufacturing firms. For sales managers, the size of their sales territory is another impor­ tant factor. According to a 1992 survey by Abbot, Langer and Associates, of Crete, Illinois, annual incomes for sales/marketing managers varied greatly—from under $25,000 to over $250,000—depending on the manager’s level of education, experience, industry, and the number of employees he or she supervises. The median annual income for top advertising managers was $45,000; product/brand managers, $54,000; top market research managers, $55,000; regional sales managers, $64,000; and chief marketing executives, $67,000. Related Occupations Marketing, advertising, and public relations managers direct the sale of products and services offered by their firms and the commu­ nication of information about their firms’ activities. Other personnel involved with marketing, advertising, and public relations include art directors, commercial and graphic artists, copy chiefs, copywriters, editors, lobbyists, marketing research analysts, public relations specialists, promotion specialists, sales representatives, and technical writers. (Some of these occupations are discussed else­ where in the Handbook.) Sources of Additional Information For information about careers in sales and marketing management, contact:  ^American Marketing Association, 250 S. Wacker Dr., Chicago, IL 60606. O" Sales and Marketing Executives International, 458 Statler Office Tower, Cleveland, OH 44115.  For information about careers in advertising management, con­ tact:  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations tW American Advertising Federation, Education Services Department, 1101 Vermont Ave. NW,, Suite 500, Washington, DC 20005.  Information about careers in promotion management is available from: ©"Council of Sales Promotion Agencies, 750 Summer St., Stamford, CT 06901. ©•Promotion Marketing Association of America, Inc., 322 Eighth Ave., Suite 1201, New York, NY 10001.  Information about careers in public relations management is available from: ©“ Public Relations Society of America, 33 Irving Place, New York, NY 10003-2376.  Personnel, Training, and Labor Relations Specialists and Managers (D.O.T. 079.127; 099.167-010; 166.067, .117, .167 except -046, .257, .267-014 through-046; 169.107, .167-062, .207; 188.117-010, -086, .217)  Nature of the Work Attracting the most qualified employees available and matching them to the jobs they are best suited for is important for the success of any organization. However, many enterprises are too large to per­ mit close contact between top management and employees. Instead, personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers, commonly known as human resource specialists and managers, pro­ vide this link. These individuals recruit and interview employees and advise on hiring decisions in accordance with policies and re­ quirements that have been established in conjunction with top man­ agement. In an effort to improve morale and productivity and limit job turnover, they also help their firms effectively use employees’ skills, provide training opportunities to enhance those skills, and boost employees’ satisfaction with their jobs and working condi­ tions. Although some jobs in the human resources field require only limited contact with people outside the office, most involve frequent contact. Dealing with people is an essential part of the job. In a small organization, one person may handle all aspects of per­ sonnel, training, and labor relations work. In contrast, in a large corporation, the top human resources executive usually develops and coordinates personnel programs and policies. (Executives are included in the Handbook statement on general managers and top executives.) These policies usually are implemented by a director or manager of human resources and, in some cases, a director of indus­ trial relations. The director of human resources may oversee several depart­ ments, each headed by an experienced manager, who most likely specializes in one personnel activity such as employment, compen­ sation, benefits, training and development, or employee relations. Employment and placement managers oversee the hiring and sep­ aration of employees and supervise various workers, including equal employment opportunity specialists and recruitment specialists. Recruiters maintain contacts within the community and may travel extensively—often to college campuses—to search for prom­ ising job applicants. Recruiters screen, interview, and, in some cases, test applicants, and recommend those who are qualified to fill vacancies. They may also check references before an offer is made. These workers need to be thoroughly familiar with the organization and its personnel policies to discuss wages, working conditions, and promotional opportunities with prospective employees. They also need to keep informed about equal employment opportunity (EEO) and affirmative action guidelines and laws, such as the Americans With Disabilities Act. EEO representatives or affirmative action coordinators handle this area in large organizations. They investigate and resolve EEO grievances, examine corporate practices for possible violations, and compile and submit EEO statistical reports.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  59  Employer relations representatives—who usually work in gov­ ernment agencies—maintain working relationships with local em­ ployers and promote the use of public employment programs and services. Similarly, employment interviewers—sometimes called personnel consultants—help match jobseekers with employers. (For more information, see the statement on employment interviewers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Job analysts, sometimes called position classifiers, perform very exacting work. They collect and examine detailed information about job duties to prepare job descriptions. These descriptions explain the duties, training, and skills each job requires. Whenever a large or­ ganization introduces a new job or reviews existing jobs, it calls upon the expert knowledge of the job analyst. Occupational analysts conduct research, generally in large firms. They are concerned with occupational classification systems and study the effects of industry and occupational trends upon worker relationships. They may serve as technical liaison between the firm and industry, government, and labor unions. Establishing and maintaining a firm’s pay system is the principal job of the compensation manager. Assisted by staff specialists, com­ pensation managers devise ways to ensure fair and equitable pay rates. They may conduct surveys to see how their rates compare with others and to see that the firm’s pay scale complies with chang­ ing laws and regulations. In addition, compensation managers often oversee their firm’s performance evaluation system, and they may design reward systems such as pay-for-performance plans. Employee benefits managers handle the company’s employee benefits program, notably its health insurance and pension plans. Expertise in designing and administering benefits programs contin­ ues to gain importance as employer-provided benefits account for a growing proportion of overall compensation costs, and as benefit plans increase in number and complexity. For example, pension benefits might include savings and thrift, profit sharing, and stock ownership plans, and health benefits may include long-term cata­ strophic illness insurance and dental insurance. Familiarity with health benefits is a top priority at present, as more firms struggle to cope with the rising cost of health care for employees and retirees. In addition to health insurance and pension coverage, some firms offer their employees life and accidental death and dismemberment insur­ ance, disability insurance, and relatively new benefits designed to meet the needs of a changing work force, such as parental leave, child care and elder care, long-term nursing home care insurance, employee assistance and wellness programs, and flexible benefits plans, in which employees have the option of receiving cash instead of benefits. Benefits managers must keep abreast of changing Fed­ eral and State regulations and legislation that may affect employee benefits. Employee assistance plan managers—also called employee wel­ fare managers—are responsible for a wide array of programs cover­ ing occupational safety and health standards and practices; health promotion and physical fitness, medical examinations, and minor health treatment, such as first aid; plant security; publications; food service and recreation activities; car pooling; employee suggestion systems; child care and elder care; and counseling services. Child care and elder care are increasingly important due to growth in the number of dual-income households and the elderly population. Counseling may help employees deal with emotional disorders, al­ coholism, or marital, family, consumer, legal, and financial problems. Career counseling and second career counseling for em­ ployees approaching retirement age also may be provided. In large firms, some of these programs—such as security and safety—are in separate departments headed by other managers. Training is supervised by training and development managers. In­ creasingly, management recognizes that training offers a way of de­ veloping skills, enhancing productivity and quality of work, and building loyalty to the firm. Training is widely accepted as a method of improving employee morale, but this is only one of the reasons for its growing importance. Other factors include the complexity of the  60  Occupational Outlook Handbook  work environment, the rapid pace of organizational and technologi­ cal change, and the growing number of jobs in fields that constantly generate new knowledge. In addition, advances in learning theory have provided insights into how adults learn, and how training can be organized most effectively for adults. Training specialists plan, organize, and direct a wide range of training activities. Trainers conduct orientation sessions and ar­ range on-the-job training for new employees. They help rank-andfile workers maintain and improve their job skills and possibly pre­ pare for jobs requiring greater skill. They help supervisors improve their interpersonal skills in order to deal effectively with employees. To help employees prepare for future responsibilities, they may set up individualized training plans to strengthen existing skills or to teach new skills. Training specialists in some companies set up pro­ grams to develop executive potential among employees in lower level positions. In government-supported training programs, train­ ing specialists function as case managers. They first assess the train­ ing needs of the client, then help guide the client through the appro­ priate training method. After training, they either refer the client to employer relations representatives or help them get a job. Planning and program development is an important part of the training specialist’s job. In order to identify and assess training needs within the firm, trainers may confer with managers and super­ visors or conduct surveys. They also periodically evaluate training effectiveness. Depending on the size, goals, and nature of the organization, trainers may differ considerably in their responsibilities and in the methods they use. Training methods include on-the-job training; schools in which shop conditions are duplicated for trainees prior to putting them on the shop floor; apprenticeship training; classroom training; programmed instruction, which may involve interactive videos, videodiscs, and other computer-aided instructional technol­ ogies; simulators; conferences; and workshops. The director of industrial relations forms labor policy, oversees industrial labor relations, negotiates collective bargaining agree­ ments, and coordinates grievance procedures to handle complaints resulting from disputes under the contract for firms with unionized employees. The director of industrial relations also advises and col­ laborates with the director of human resources and other managers and members of their staff, because all aspects of personnel policy— such as wages, benefits, pensions, and work practices—may be in­ volved in drawing up a new or revised contract. Industrial labor relations programs are implemented by labor re­ lations managers and their staff. When a collective bargaining agreement is up for negotiation, labor relations specialists prepare information for management to use during negotiation, which re­ quires familiarity with economic and wage data as well as extensive knowledge of labor law and collective bargaining trends. The labor relations staff interprets and administers the contract with respect to grievances, wages and salaries, employee welfare, health care, pensions, union and management practices, and other contractual stipulations. As union membership is continuing to decline in most industries, industrial relations personnel are working more with em­ ployees who are not members of a labor union. Dispute resolution—that is, attaining tacit or contractual agree­ ments—has become increasingly important as disputants attempt to avoid costly litigation, strikes, or other disruptions. Dispute resolu­ tion also has become more complex, involving employees, manage­ ment, unions, other firms, and government agencies. Specialists in­ volved in dispute resolution must be highly knowledgeable and experienced, and often report to the director of industrial relations. Conciliators, or mediators, advise and counsel labor and manage­ ment to prevent and, when necessary, resolve disputes over labor agreements or other labor relations issues. Arbitrators, sometimes called umpires or referees, decide disputes and bind both labor and management to specific terms and conditions of labor contracts. La­ bor relations specialists who work for unions perform many of the same functions on behalf of the union and its members.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Other emerging specialists include international human resources managers, who handle human resources issues related to a com­ pany’s foreign operations, and human resources information system specialists, who develop and apply computer programs to process personnel information, match jobseekers with job openings, and handle other personnel matters. Working Conditions Personnel work is office work. Generally, the work setting is clean, pleasant, and comfortable. Many personnel, training, and labor re­ lations specialists and managers work a standard 35- to 40-hour week. However, many work longer hours—for example, labor rela­ tions specialists and managers—when contract agreements are be­ ing prepared and negotiated. Although most personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers work in the office, some travel extensively. For exam­ ple, recruiters regularly attend professional meetings and visit col­ lege campuses to interview prospective employees. Employment Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers held about 474,000 jobs in 1992. They were employed in virtually every industry. Specialists accounted for 281,000 positions; manag­ ers, 193,000. About 10,000—mostly specialists—were self-em­ ployed, working as consultants to public and private employers. The private sector accounted for about 85 percent of salaried jobs. Among these salaried jobs, services industries—including business, health, social, management, and educational services—accounted for nearly 4 out of 10 jobs; labor organizations—the largest em­ ployer among specific industries—accounted for 1 out of 10. Manu­ facturing industries accounted for over 2 out of 10 jobs, while fi­ nance, insurance, and real estate firms accounted for about 1 out of 10. Federal, State, and local governments employed about 15 percent of salaried personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and  More personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers will be needed as employers devote greater resources to job-specific training programs.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations managers. They handled the recruitment, interviewing, job classifi­ cation, training, salary administration, benefits, employee relations, and related matters of the Nation’s public employees. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Because of the diversity of duties and level of responsibility, the edu­ cational backgrounds of personnel, training, and labor relations spe­ cialists and managers vary considerably. In filling entry level jobs, firms generally seek college graduates. Some employers prefer appli­ cants who have majored in human resources, personnel administra­ tion, or industrial and labor relations, while others look for college graduates with a technical or business background. Still others feel that a well-rounded liberal arts education is best. Many colleges and universities have programs leading to a degree in personnel, human resources, or labor relations. Some offer degree programs in personnel administration or human resources manage­ ment, training and development, or compensation and benefits. De­ pending on the school, courses leading to a career in human re­ sources management may be found in departments of business administration, education, instructional technology, organizational development, human services, communication, or public adminis­ tration, or within a separate human resources institution or depart­ ment. Because an interdisciplinary background is appropriate for work in this area, a combination of courses in the social sciences, business, and behavioral sciences is useful. Some jobs may require a back­ ground in engineering, science, finance, or law. Most prospective personnel specialists should take courses in compensation, recruit­ ment, training and development, and performance appraisal, as well as courses in principles of management, organizational structure, and industrial psychology. Other relevant courses include business administration, public administration, psychology, sociology, politi­ cal science, economics, and statistics. Courses in labor law, collec­ tive bargaining, labor economics, labor history, and industrial psy­ chology also provide a valuable background for the prospective labor relations specialist. Knowledge of computers and information systems is important for some jobs. Graduate study in industrial or labor relations is increasingly im­ portant for those seeking work in labor relations. A law degree sel­ dom is required for entry level jobs, but many people responsible for contract negotiations are lawyers, and a combination of industrial relations courses and law is highly desirable. A background in law is also desirable for employee benefits managers and others who must interpret the growing number of laws and regulations. A degree in dispute resolution provides an excellent background for mediators, arbitrators, and related personnel. A master’s degree in personnel, training, or labor relations, or in business administration with a con­ centration in human resources management, is desirable for those seeking general and top management positions. For many specialized jobs in this field, previous experience is an asset; for managerial positions, it is essential. Many employers pre­ fer entry level workers who have gained some experience through an internship or work-study program while in school. Personnel ad­ ministration and human resources development require the ability to work with individuals as well as a commitment to organizational goals. This field also demands other skills that people may develop elsewhere—computer usage, selling, teaching, supervising, and vol­ unteering, among others. This field offers clerical workers opportu­ nities for advancement to professional positions. Responsible posi­ tions sometimes are filled by experienced individuals from other fields, including business, government, education, social services ad­ ministration, and the military. Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers should speak and write effectively and be able to work with or super­ vise people of all levels of education and experience as part of a team. They must be patient to cope with conflicting points of view and emotionally stable to deal with the unexpected and the unusual. The ability to function under pressure is essential. Integrity, fair https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  61  mindedness, and a persuasive, congenial personality are important qualities. Entry level workers often enter formal or on-the-job training pro­ grams, in which they learn how to classify jobs, interview appli­ cants, or administer employee benefits. Next, they are assigned to specific areas in the personnel department to gain experience. Later, they may advance to a managerial position, overseeing a major ele­ ment of the personnel program—compensation or training, for ex­ ample. Exceptional personnel, training, and labor relations workers may be promoted to director of personnel or industrial relations, which can eventually lead to a top managerial or executive position. Others may join a consulting firm or open their own business. A Ph.D. is an asset for teaching, writing, or consulting work. Though not widespread, some organizations offer certification examinations to members who meet certain education and experi­ ence requirements. Certification is a sign of competence and can en­ hance one’s advancement opportunities. (Several of these organiza­ tions are listed under sources of additional information.) Job Outlook The number of personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers is expected to grow faster than the average for all oc­ cupations through the year 2005. As in other occupations, job growth among specialists is projected to outpace job growth among managers. In addition, many job openings will result from the need to replace workers who leave this occupation to transfer to other jobs, retire, or for other reasons. However, the job market is likely to remain competitive in view of the abundant supply of qualified col­ lege graduates and experienced workers. Most new jobs for personnel, training, and labor relations special­ ists and managers will be in the private sector as employers, increas­ ingly concerned about productivity and quality of work, devote greater resources to job-specific training programs in response to the growing complexity of many jobs, the aging of the work force, and technological advances that can leave employees with obsolete skills. In addition, legislation and court rulings setting standards in occupational safety and health, equal employment opportunity, wages, and health, pension, family leave, and other benefits will in­ crease demand for experts in these areas. The increasing cost of liti­ gation related to labor-management disputes may spur demand for labor relations workers to help resolve these disputes out of court. Increasing demand for international human resources managers and human resources information systems specialists may spur ad­ ditional job growth. On the other hand, widespread use of comput­ erized human resources information systems could make workers more productive, thus limiting job growth. Employment demand will be particularly strong in management and consulting firms as well as personnel supply firms as businesses increasingly contract out personnel functions or hire personnel spe­ cialists on a contractual basis to meet the increasing cost and com­ plexity of training and development programs. Demand should also increase in firms that develop and administer the increasingly com­ plex employee benefits and compensation packages for other organi­ zations. Demand for personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers also is governed by the staffing needs of the firms where they work. A rapidly expanding business is likely to hire addi­ tional personnel workers—either as permanent employees or con­ sultants—while a business that has experienced a merger or a reduc­ tion in its work force will require fewer personnel workers. Similar to other workers, employment of personnel, training, and labor rela­ tions specialists and managers, particularly in larger firms, may be adversely affected by corporate downsizing and restructuring. On the other hand, as human resource management becomes increas­ ingly important to the success of an organization, some small and medium-size businesses that do not have a human resources depart­ ment may employ workers to perform human resources duties on a  62  Occupational Outlook Handbook  part-time basis while maintaining other unrelated responsibilities within the company. In any particular firm, the size and the job du­ ties of the human resources staff are determined by a variety of fac­ tors, including the firm’s organizational philosophy and goals, the labor intensity and skill profile of the industry, the pace of techno­ logical change, government regulations, collective bargaining agree­ ments, standards of professional practice, and labor market condi­ tions. Earnings According to a 1993 College Placement Council salary survey, bachelor’s degree graduates who majored in human resources, in­ cluding labor relations, received starting offers averaging $22,900 a year; master’s degree recepients, $30,500. The median annual salary of personnel, training, and labor rela­ tions specialists was about $32,000 in 1992. For managers, the me­ dian annual salary was over $37,000. However, salaries varied widely. The lowest 10 percent of specialists earned around $17,000, while the highest 10 percent of managers earned nearly $64,000. According to a 1992 survey of compensation in the human re­ sources field, conducted by Abbott, Langer, and Associates of Crete, Illinois, the median annual salaries for selected personnel and labor relations occupations were: Industrial/labor relations manag­ ers, $70,000; corporate training directors, $63,900; compensation specialists (executive, managerial, and professional jobs), $40,200; EEO/affirmative action specialists, $33,800; personnel research specialists, $29,400; and benefits specialists (clerical jobs), $24,200. According to a survey of workplaces in 160 metropolitan areas, personnel specialists with limited experience had median earnings of $25,100 a year in 1992, with the middle half earning between $22,500 and $28,000 a year. The most experienced personnel spe­ cialists had median earnings of $76,900, with the middle half earn­ ing between $67,200 and $84,300. Personnel supervisors/managers with limited experience had median earnings of $51,100 a year in 1992, with the middle half earning between $47,200 and $56,400 a year. The most experienced personnel supervisors/managers had median earnings of $105,000, with the middle half earning between $94,800 and $123,900. In the Federal Government in 1993, persons with a bachelor’s de­ gree or 3 years’ general experience in the personnel field generally started at $18,300 a year. Those with a superior academic record or an additional year of specialized experience started at $22,700 a year. Holders of a master’s degree started at $27,800, and those with a doctorate in a personnel field started at $33,600. There are no for­ mal entry level requirements for managerial positions. Applicants must possess a suitable combination of educational attainment, ex­ perience, and record of accomplishment. Labor relations specialists in the Federal Government averaged $50,400 a year in 1993; personnel managers, $48,200; equal employ­ ment opportunity specialists, $47,200; position classification spe­ cialists, $45,000; and personnel staffing specialists, $42,600. Related Occupations All personnel, training, and labor relations occupations are closely related. Other workers with skills and expertise in interpersonal re­ lations include employment, rehabilitation, and college career plan­ ning and placement counselors; lawyers; psychologists; sociologists; social workers; public relations specialists; and teachers. These oc­ cupations are described elsewhere in the Handbook. Sources of Additional Information For general information on careers and certification in the human resources field, send a self-addressed, stamped, legal-sized envelope to:  tw Society for Human Resource Management, 606 N. Washington St., Al­ exandria, VA 22314.  For information about careers in employee training and develop­ ment, contact:  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  American Society for Training and Development, 1640 King St., Box 1443, Alexandria, VA 22313.  For information about careers and certification in employee com­ pensation and benefits, contact: tw American Compensation Association, 14040 Northsight Blvd., Scotts­ dale, AZ 85260.  Information about careers and certification in employee benefits is available from: O'International Foundation of Employee Benefit Plans, 18700 W. Bluemound Rd., Brookfield, WI 53008.  For information about careers in arbitration and other aspects of dispute resolution, contact: O'American Arbitration Association, 140 West 51st St., New York, NY 10020.  For information about academic programs in industrial relations, write to: tw Industrial Relations Research Association, University of Wisconsin, 7226 Social Science Bldg., 1180 Observatory Dr., Madison, WI 53706.  Information about personnel careers in the health care industry is available from: XW American  Hospital Association, American Society for Healthcare Human Resources, 840 North Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, IL 60611. tw American Society for Healthcare Education and Training, 840 North Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, IL 60611.  For information about personnel and labor relations careers in government, contact: 0= International Association of Personnel in Employment Security, 1801  Louisville Rd., Frankfort, KY 40601.  For additional information on government careers in personnel, send a self-addressed, stamped envelope to: xw International Personnel Management Association, IPMA Center for Personnel Research, 1617 Duke St., Alexandria, VA 22314.  Property and Real Estate Managers (D.O.T. 186.117-042, -046, -058, and -062,-167-018, -030, -038, -042, -046, -062, -066, and -090; 187.167-190; 189.157; 191.117-030 and -042 through -050)  Nature of the Work Many people own real estate in the form of a home, but, to busi­ nesses and investors, commercial real estate is a source of income and profit rather than simply a place for shelter. For them, real es­ tate—including land and structures such as office buildings, shop­ ping centers, and apartment complexes—is a valuable asset that can produce income and appreciate in value over time if well managed. Real estate can be a source of income when it is leased to others, and a substantial business expense when it is leased from others. For this reason, property managers perform an important function in in­ creasing and maintaining the value of real estate investments for in­ vestors. Property managers administer income-producing commer­ cial and residential properties and manage the communal property and services of condominium and community associations. Real es­ tate managers plan and direct the purchase, development, and dis­ posal of real estate for businesses. Most property and real estate managers work in the field of prop­ erty management. When owners of apartments, office buildings, re­ tail and industrial properties, or condominiums lack the time or ex­ pertise to assume the day-to-day management of their real estate investments, they often hire a property manager, or contract for one’s services with a real estate management company. Most prop­ erty managers handle several properties simultaneously. Property managers act as the owners’ agent and adviser for the property. They market vacant space to prospective tenants, through the use of a leasing agent, advertising, or by other means, and establish rental rates in accordance with prevailing local conditions. They negotiate and prepare lease or rental agreements with tenants and collect their rent payments and other fees. Property managers also handle the bookkeeping for the property. They see to it that rents are received  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations and make sure that mortgages, taxes, insurance premiums, payroll, and maintenance bills are paid on time. They also supervise the preparation of financial statements and periodically report to the owners on the status of the property, occupancy rates, dates of lease expirations, and other matters. Property managers negotiate contracts for janitorial, security, groundskeeping, trash removal, and other services. When contracts are awarded competitively, managers must solicit bids from several contractors and recommend to the owners which bid to accept. They monitor the performance of the contractors, and investigate and resolve complaints from tenants. Managers also purchase all supplies and equipment needed for the property, and make arrange­ ments with specialists for any repairs that cannot be handled by the regular property maintenance staff. Property managers hire the maintenance and on-site management personnel. At smaller properties, the property manager might em­ ploy only a building engineer who maintains the building’s heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems and performs other rou­ tine maintenance and repair. Larger properties require a sizable maintenance staff supervised by a full-time on-site manager, who works under the direction of the property manager. Although some on-site managers oversee large office buildings or shopping centers, most manage apartments. They train, supervise, and assign duties to the maintenance staff and routinely inspect the grounds, facilities, and equipment, determine what repairs and maintenance are needed, and assign workers to do them. Occasion­ ally, outside contractors are required, and the on-site manager may obtain bids for the work and submit them to the property manager. On-site managers schedule routine servicing of the heating, ventila­ tion, and air-conditioning systems and ensure that the work of the maintenance staff and contract workers is up to standards or con­ tract specifications. They keep records of expenditures incurred for operating the property and submit regular expense reports to the property manager or owners. They may recruit maintenance staff, interview job applicants, and make hiring recommendations to the property manager. Tenant relations is an important part of the work of on-site man­ agers, particularly apartment and condominium managers. They are responsible for enforcing rules and lease restrictions, such as pet restrictions or use of parking areas. Apartment managers handle te­ nants’ requests for service or repairs and try to resolve complaints. They show vacant apartments to prospective tenants and explain the occupancy terms. Property managers must understand the pro­ visions of legislation such as the Americans With Disabilities Act and local fair housing laws to be sure they are not being discrimina­ tory in the renting or advertising of apartments. Property and on-site managers employed by condominium and homeowner associations must be particularly adept at dealing with people. Instead of tenants, they must deal on a daily basis with homeowners—members of the community association that employs the manager. Hired by the volunteer board of directors of the associ­ ation, the community association manager administers its daily af­ fairs and oversees the maintenance of property and facilities that the homeowners own and use jointly through the association. Many community associations are small and cannot afford professional management, but managers of larger condominiums have many of the same responsibilities as the managers of large apartment com­ plexes. Some homeowner associations encompass thousands of homes, and, in addition to administering the associations’ financial records, their managers may be responsible for the operation of community pools, golf courses, community centers, and the mainte­ nance of landscaping, parking areas, and streets. Some real estate managers are employed by businesses to locate, acquire, and develop real estate needed for their operations and to dispose of property no longer suited to their uses. These managers locate desirable sites for factories, retail stores, hotels and motels, and other business ventures and arrange to purchase or lease the  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  63  property. They select a site based on their assessment of considera­ tions such as property values, zoning, population growth, and traffic volume and patterns. They negotiate contracts for the purchase or lease of the property, securing the most beneficial terms for their company. Real estate managers periodically review their company’s real estate holdings, identifying properties that are no longer com­ mercially attractive. They negotiate the sale or termination of the lease of properties selected for disposal. Real estate managers who work for land development companies acquire land and plan the construction of shopping centers, houses and apartments, office buildings, or industrial parks. They negotiate with representatives of local government, other businesses, commu­ nity and public interest groups, and public utilities to eliminate ob­ stacles to the development of the land and to gain support for the planned project. It sometimes takes years to win approval for a pro­ ject, and in the process managers may have to modify the plans for the project many times. Once they are free to proceed with a project, managers negotiate short-term loans to finance the construction of the project, and later negotiate long-term permanent mortgage loans. They then contract with architectural firms to draw up de­ tailed plans, and with construction companies to build the project. Working Conditions Most property and real estate managers work in clean, well-lighted offices, but many spend a major portion of their time away from their desks. Property managers frequently visit the properties they oversee, sometimes on a daily basis when contractors are doing ma­ jor repair or renovation work. On-site apartment managers may spend a large portion of their workday away from their office visit­ ing the building engineer in the boiler room, checking up on the janitorial and maintenance staff, or investigating a problem reported by a tenant. Many real estate managers spend the majority of their time away from home, traveling to company real estate holdings or searching for properties that might be acquired. Property and real estate managers often must attend meetings in the evening with property owners, community association boards of directors, or civic groups. Not surprisingly, many property and real estate managers put in long work weeks. Many apartment managers are required to live in the apartments where they work so that they are available to handle any emergency that occurs while they are off duty. They usually receive compensatory time off, however, for working at night or on weekends. Many apartment managers re­ ceive time off during the week so that they are available on week­ ends to show apartments to prospective tenants.  Property managers must quickly resolve tenants' complaints.  64  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Employment Property and real estate managers held about 243,000 jobs in 1992. Most worked for real estate operators and lessors or for property management firms. Others worked for real estate development com­ panies, banks, government agencies that manage public buildings, and corporations with extensive holdings of commercial properties. Many were self-employed developers, apartment owner-managers, or owners of property management or full-service real estate broker­ age firms that manage as well as sell real estate for clients. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Most employers prefer to hire college graduates for property and real estate management positions. Degrees in business administra­ tion, finance, real estate, public administration, or related fields are preferred, but persons with degrees in the liberal arts are often ac­ cepted. Good speaking and writing skills and an ability to deal tact­ fully with people are essential. Most persons enter property and real estate management as on-site apartment or community association managers, or as assistants to property managers. Previous employ­ ment as a real estate agent may be an asset to apartment managers because it provides experience useful in showing apartments and dealing with people, as well as an understanding that an attractive, well-maintained property can command higher rental rates and result in lower turnover among tenants. In the past, many persons with backgrounds in building maintenance have advanced to apartment manager positions on the strength of their knowledge of building mechanical systems, but this is becoming uncommon as employers are placing greater emphasis on administrative and com­ munication abilities for managerial jobs. On-site managers usually begin at a smaller apartment complex, condominium, or community association, or as an assistant man­ ager at a large property, association, or management company. As they acquire experience working under the direction of a property manager, they may advance to positions with greater responsibility at larger properties. Persons who excel as on-site managers often transfer to assistant property manager positions where they can ac­ quire experience handling a broader range of property management responsibilities. Although most persons who enter jobs as assistant property man­ agers do so on the strength of on-site management experience, em­ ployers are increasingly hiring inexperienced college graduates with bachelor’s or master’s degrees in business administration, finance, or real estate for these jobs. Assistants work closely with a property manager and acquire experience performing a variety of manage­ ment tasks, such as preparing the budget, analyzing insurance cov­ erage and risk options, marketing the property to prospective te­ nants, and collecting overdue rent payments. In time, many assistants advance to property manager positions. The responsibilities and compensation of property managers in­ crease as they manage larger properties. Most property managers are responsible for several properties at a time, and as their careers advance they are gradually entrusted with properties that are larger or whose management is more complex. Many specialize in the management of one type of property, such as apartments, office buildings, condominiums and homeowner associations, or retail properties. Managers who excel at marketing properties to tenants may specialize in managing new properties, while those who are particularly knowledgeable about buildings and their mechanical systems might specialize in the management of older properties that require renovation or more frequent repairs. Some experienced property and real estate managers open their own property manage­ ment or real estate firms. Persons most commonly enter real estate manager jobs by trans­ ferring from positions as property managers or real estate brokers. Real estate managers must be good negotiators, adept at persuading and handling people, and good at analyzing data to assess the fair market value of property or its development potential. Resourceful­ ness and creativity in arranging financing are essential for managers  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  who specialize in land development. Real estate managers may be required to hold a real estate broker’s license. Many property and real estate managers attend short-term for­ mal training programs conducted by various professional and trade associations active in the real estate field. Employers send managers to these programs to improve their management skills and expand their knowledge of specialized subjects, such as the operation and maintenance of building mechanical systems, insurance and risk management, personnel management, business and real estate law, communications, and accounting and financial concepts. Managers also participate in these programs to prepare themselves for posi­ tions of greater responsibility in property and real estate manage­ ment. Completion of these programs, together with meeting job ex­ perience standards and achieving a satisfactory score on a written examination, leads to certification, or the formal award of a profes­ sional designation, by the sponsoring association. In addition to these qualifications, some associations require their members to ad­ here to a specific code of ethics. Managers of public housing subsidized by the Federal Govern­ ment are required to be certified, but many property and real estate managers who work with all kinds of property choose to earn a pro­ fessional designation voluntarily because it represents formal recog­ nition of their achievements and status in the occupation. A number of organizations offer such programs. The Institute of Real Estate Management awards the designations Accredited Residential Man­ ager and Certified Property Manager, while the National Associa­ tion of Home Builders awards the designation Registered Apart­ ment Manager. The National Apartment Association confers the designations Certified Apartment Manager and Certified Apart­ ment Property Supervisor. The Community Associations Institute bestows the designation Professional Community Association Man­ ager and Association Management Specialist, while the Building Owners and Managers Institute International awards the designa­ tions Real Property Administrator and Facilities Management Ad­ ministrator. The International Association of Corporate Real Estate Executives confers the designations Associate of Corporate Real Es­ tate and Master of Corporate Real Estate. Job Outlook Employment of property and real estate managers is projected to in­ crease faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Despite the rapid growth in demand for these workers, the vast majority ofjob openings are expected to occur as property man­ agers transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Oppor­ tunities should be best for persons with college degrees in business administration and related fields. Growth in the demand for office buildings and retail establish­ ments will spur employment of property and real estate managers. Nearly 9 of every 10 new jobs that will be created over the 1992­ 2005 period are expected to be in wholesale and retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and service industries. Because establish­ ments in these industries are the primary tenants of commercial properties, expansion of these industries is expected to require growth in the Nation’s supply of office and retail space. Although development in this area is slow now, it is expected to pick up within several years. Some growth will come from adding on to existing buildings. Although some of these additions will be handled by the property manager already on the site, other additions will require the hiring of additional property managers. More complex responsi­ bilities combined with larger facilities may lead to the hiring of more property managers per building. In addition, the expected faster than average employment growth in some retail trade industries should require greater numbers of real estate managers to acquire and develop properties for ex­ panding restaurant, food, apparel, and specialized merchandise chains. Growth in the Nation’s stock of apartments and houses also should require more property and real estate managers. Although  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations the rate of new household formation is expected to slow somewhat over the 1992-2005 period, the high cost of purchasing a home is ex­ pected to force an increasing proportion of individuals to delay leav­ ing rental housing. In addition, developments of new homes are in­ creasingly being organized with community or homeowner associations that provide community services and oversee jointly owned common areas, requiring professional management. A growing proportion of commercial and multiunit residential property owners are expected to entrust the management of their properties to a professional manager. Recent changes to income tax laws have greatly limited the tax benefits that property owners and investors can derive from unprofitable apartments and commercial properties. To help properties become more profitable, more owners are expected to place their investments in the hands of property and real estate managers. Earnings Median earnings of all property and real estate managers were $21,800 a year in 1992. The middle 50 percent earned between $14,600 and $33,600. Ten percent earned less than $10,300 and 10 percent earned more than $47,300 annually. Earnings of property and real estate managers vary widely by level of responsibility. Those who are certified in their field tend to earn a higher salary than those who are not. A survey conducted by Huntress Real Estate Executive Search Inc. found that the middle third of the on-site apartment managers surveyed had annual sala­ ries averaging $33,000 in 1992. Property managers had considerably higher earnings, with the middle third of property managers respon­ sible for multiple apartment properties averaging $67,200. Of prop­ erty managers responsible for regional shopping malls, the middle third earned $72,700; of those who managed office buildings, the middle third earned $75,200. Earnings of corporate real estate managers were generally compa­ rable to those of property managers, according to the same survey. Among those employed by fast-food and restaurant chains, the mid­ dle third of the lease negotiators and site selection representatives averaged $62,300 annually, while the middle third of real estate di­ rectors earned $68,900. Among real estate managers employed by retail apparel chains, the middle third of the lease negotiators and site selection representatives averaged $64,700 and the middle third of real estate directors had an average annual salary of $64,500, Community association managers received compensation compa­ rable to on-site and property managers employed by other types of properties. Many resident apartment managers receive the use of an apartment as part of their compensation package. Property and real estate managers often are given the use of a company automobile, and managers employed in land development often receive a small percentage of ownership in projects that they develop. Related Occupations Property and real estate managers plan, organize, staff, and manage the real estate operations of businesses. Workers who perform simi­ lar functions in other fields include restaurant and food service man­ agers, hotel and resort managers and assistants, health services managers, education administrators, and city managers. Sources of Additional Information General information about careers in property and real estate man­ agement and programs leading to the award of a professional desig­ nation in the field is available from: O’ Apartment Owners and Managers Association of America, 65 Cherry Plaza, Watertown, CT 06795-0238. O’Building Owners and Managers Institute International, 1521 Ritchie Hwy., Arnold, MD 21012. O’Community Associations Institute, 1630 Duke St., Alexandria, VA 22314. fsr Institute of Real Estate Management, 430 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago IL 60611. O’ International Association of Corporate Real Estate Executives, 440 Co­ lumbia Dr., Suite 100, West Palm Beach, FL 33409.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  65  O’ National Apartment Association, 1111 14th St. NW., Suite 900, Wash­ ington, DC 20005. O’ National Association of Home Builders, 15th & M Sts. NW., Washing­ ton, DC 20005.  Purchasers and Buyers (D.O.T. 162.117-010, and -018, .157-010, -018, -022, -030, -034, and -038, .167-010,-014,-018,-022, and-030; 163.117-010; 169.167-054; 184.117-078; and 185.167-034)  Nature of the Work Purchasers and buyers seek to obtain the highest quality merchan­ dise at the lowest possible price for their employers. The work gen­ erally involves determining which commodities or services are best, determining the suppliers of the product or service, negotiating the lowest price, and awarding contracts that ensure that the correct amount of the product or service is received at the appropriate time. In order to accomplish these tasks successfully, purchasers and buy­ ers study sales records and inventory levels of current stock, identify foreign and domestic suppliers, and keep abreast of changes affect­ ing both the supply of and demand for products and materials for which they are responsible. Purchasers and buyers evaluate and se­ lect suppliers based upon price, quality, availability, reliability, and selection. They review listings in catalogs, industry periodicals, di­ rectories, and trade journals, research the reputation and history of the suppliers, and advertise anticipated purchase actions in order to solicit bids from suppliers. Meetings, trade shows, conferences, and visits to suppliers’ plants and distribution centers also provide op­ portunities for purchasers and buyers to examine products, assess a supplier’s production and distribution capabilities, and discuss other technical and business considerations that bear on the purchase. Although this describes the general activities of purchas­ ers and buyers, specific job duties and responsibilities depend upon the type of commodities or services to be purchased and on the em­ ployer. Purchasing professionals who are most often employed by gov­ ernment agencies or manufacturing firms are usually called purchasing directors, managers, agents, industrial buyers, or con­ tract specialists. These workers acquire product materials, interme­ diate goods, machines, supplies, and other materials used in the pro­ duction of a final product. Purchasing agents and managers obtain items ranging from raw materials, fabricated parts, machinery, and office supplies to construction services and airline tickets. The flow of work—or even the entire production process—can be slowed or halted if the right materials, supplies, or equipment are not on hand when needed. In order to be effective, purchasers and buyers must have a working technical knowledge of the goods or services to be purchased. In large industrial organizations, a distinction is often drawn be­ tween the work of a buyer or purchasing agent and that of a purchasing manager. Purchasing agents and buyers typically focus on routine purchasing tasks, often specializing in a commodity or group of related commodities—for example, steel, lumber, cotton, fabricated metal products, or petroleum products. This usually re­ quires the purchaser to track such things as market conditions, price trends, or futures markets. Purchasing managers usually handle the more complex or critical purchases and may supervise a group of purchasing agents handling other goods and services. Whether a person is titled purchasing agent, buyer, or manager depends more on specific industry and employer practices than on specific job du­ ties. Changing business practices have altered the traditional roles of purchasing professionals. Manufacturing companies have begun to recognize the importance of purchasing professionals and increas­ ingly involve them at most stages of product development. Their  66  Occupational Outlook Handbook  ability to forecast which materials will be most available, inexpen­ sive, and acceptable for production standards can affect the entire product design. For example, potential problems with the supply of materials may be avoided by consulting the purchasing department in the early stages of product design. In addition, there is a trend toward limited-source, long-term contracting. These contracts increase the importance of supplier se­ lection because agreements are larger in scope and longer in dura­ tion. A major responsibility of most purchasers is to work out problems that may occur with a supplier because the success of the relationship directly affects the buying firm’s performance. Increas­ ingly, purchasing professionals work closely with other employees in their own organization. For example, they may discuss the design of custom-made products with company design engineers, quality problems in purchased goods with quality assurance engineers and production supervisors, or shipment problems with managers in the receiving department. Some purchasing managers who work in the industrial sector and specialize in negotiating and supervising supply contracts are called contract specialists or supply managers. Contract specialists in the Federal Government typically use sealed bidding, but sometimes use negotiated agreements for com­ plex items. Government purchasing agents and managers must fol­ low strict laws, statutes, and regulations in their work. These legal requirements are occasionally changed, so agents and contract spe­ cialists must stay informed about the latest regulations and their ap­ plications. Other professionals, who buy finished goods for resale, are em­ ployed by wholesale and retail establishments where they are com­ monly referred to as “buyers” or “merchandise managers.” Whole­ sale and retail buyers are an integral part of a complex system of production, distribution, and merchandising that caters to the vast array of consumer needs and desires. Wholesale buyers purchase goods directly from manufacturers or from other wholesale firms for resale to retail firms or to commercial establishments and other organizations. Buyers in retail firms purchase goods from wholesale firms or directly from manufacturers for resale to the public. Buyers largely determine which products their establishment will sell. Therefore, it is essential they have the ability to accurately predict what will appeal to consumers. Buyers must constantly stay in­ formed of the latest fashions and trends. Failure to do so could jeop­ ardize profits and the reputation of their company. Buyers also fol­ low ads in newspapers and other media to check competitors’ sales activities and watch general economic conditions to anticipate con­ sumer buying patterns. Buyers working for large and medium sized firms usually specialize in acquiring one or two lines of merchan­ dise. However, buyers working for small stores may purchase their complete inventory. The use of private-label merchandise and the consolidation of buying departments have increased the responsibilities of retai buy­ ers. Private-label merchandise, produced for a particular retailer, re­ quires buyers to work closely with vendors to develop and obtain the desired product. The downsizing and consolidation of buying de­ partments is also increasing the demands placed on buyers because, although the amount of work remains unchanged, there are fewer people to accomplish it. The result is an increase in the workloads and levels of responsibility. Many merchandise managers assist in the planning and imple­ mentation of sales promotion programs. Working with merchandis­ ing executives, they determine the nature of the sale and purchase accordingly. They also work with advertising personnel to create the ad campaign. For example, they may determine the media in which the advertisement will be placed—newspapers, direct mail, television, or some combination of these. In addition, merchandis­ ing managers often visit the selling floor to ensure that the goods are properly displayed. Often, assistant buyers are responsible for plac­ ing orders and checking shipments.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Although purchasers and buyers of farm products may work in manufacturing or wholesale or retail trade, many are self-employed brokers who store grain and sell it for a commission. These individu­ als may also speculate on grain prices. Computers are having a major impact on the jobs of purchasers and buyers. In manufacturing and service industries, computers handle most of the more routine tasks—enabling purchasing profes­ sionals to concentrate mainly on the analytical aspects of the job. Computers are used to obtain up-to-date product and price listings, to track inventory levels, process routine orders, and help determine when to make purchases. Computers also maintain bidders’ lists, re­ cord the history of supplier performance, and issue purchase orders. Computerized systems have dramatically simplified many of the routine buying functions and improved efficiency in determining which products are selling. For example, cash registers connected to computers, known as point-of-sale terminals, allow organizations to maintain centralized, up-to-date sales and inventory records. This information can then be used to produce weekly sales reports that reflect the types of products in demand. As well as monitoring their company’s sales, buyers use computers to gain instant access to the specifications for thousands of commodities, inventory records, and their customers’ purchase records. Some firms are linked with man­ ufacturers or wholesalers by electronic purchasing systems. These systems speed selection and ordering and provide information on availability and shipment. All this allows buyers to better concen­ trate on the selection of goods and suppliers. Working Conditions Most purchasers and buyers work in comfortable, well-lighted of­ fices at stores, corporate headquarters, or production facilities. They frequently work more than a 40-hour week because of special sales, conferences, or production deadlines. Evening and weekend work is common. For those working in retail trade, this is especially true prior to holiday seasons. Consequently, many retail firms discour­ age the use of vacation time from Thanksgiving until early January. Buyers and merchandise managers often work under great pres­ sure since wholesale and retail stores are so competitive; buyers need physical stamina to keep up with the fast-paced nature of their work. Traveling is usually required and most purchasers and buyers spend at least several days a month on the road. High fashion buyers and purchasers for worldwide manufacturing companies often travel outside the United States.  f 'tV*=k-  Purchasers and buyers must stay informed about new products and services.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations Employment Purchasers and buyers held about 624,000 jobs in 1992. Purchasing agents and purchasing managers each accounted for slightly more than one-third of the total while buyers accounted for the remain­ der. Almost all worked full time. About one-half of all buyers and purchasers worked in wholesale and retail trade establishments such as grocery or department stores. One-fourth worked in manufacturing. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement. Qualified persons usually begin as trainees, purchasing clerks, expe­ diters, junior buyers, or assistant buyers. Retail and wholesale firms prefer to hire applicants who are familiar with the merchandise they sell as well as with wholesaling and retailing practices. Some retail firms promote qualified employees to assistant buyer positions; others recruit and train college graduates as assistant buyers. Most employers use a combination of methods. Educational requirements tend to vary with the size of the organi­ zation. Large stores and distributors accept applicants who have completed associate or bachelor’s degree programs from any field of study, but prefer individuals with a business background. Manufac­ turing firms tend to put a greater emphasis on formal training and many desire applicants with a bachelor’s or master’s degree in busi­ ness, economics, or technical training such as engineering or one of the applied sciences. Regardless of academic preparation, new em­ ployees must learn the specifics of the employers’ business. Although training periods vary in length, most last several years. In wholesale and retail establishments, most trainees begin by sell­ ing merchandise, supervising sales workers, checking invoices on material received, and keeping track of stock on hand, although widespread use of computers has simplified some of these tasks. As they progress, retail trainees are given more buying-related respon­ sibilities. In manufacturing, new purchasing employees are often en­ rolled in company training programs and spend a considerable amount of time learning about company operations and purchasing practices. They work with experienced purchasers to learn about commodities, prices, suppliers, and markets. In addition, they may be assigned to production planning to learn about the material re­ quirements system and the inventory system. Persons who wish to become wholesale or retail buyers should be good at planning and decision making and have an interest in mer­ chandising. Anticipating consumer preferences and ensuring that goods are in stock when they are needed require resourcefulness, good judgment, and self-confidence. Buyers must be able to make decisions quickly and take risks. Marketing skills and the ability to identify products that will sell are also very important. Employers often look for leadership ability and communication skills because buyers spend a large portion of their time supervising assistant buy­ ers and dealing with manufacturers’ representatives and store exec­ utives. Purchasing professionals must be able to analyze the technical data in suppliers’ proposals, make buying decisions, and spend large amounts of money responsibly. The job requires the ability to work independently as well as a part of a team. In addition, these workers must be able to get along well with people to balance the needs of de­ partments within the organization with budgetary constraints. They may consult with lawyers, engineers, and scientists when involved in complex procurements. Experienced buyers may advance by moving to a department that manages a larger volume or by becoming a merchandise manager. Others go to work in sales for a manufacturer. An experienced purchasing agent or buyer may become an assis­ tant purchasing manager in charge of a group of purchasing profes­ sionals before advancing to purchasing manager, supply manager, or director of materials management. At the top levels, duties may overlap into other management functions such as production, plan­ ning, and marketing.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  67  In high technology manufacturing firms, continuing education is essential for advancement. Many purchasers participate in seminars offered by professional societies and take college courses in purchas­ ing. Although no national standard exists, professional certification is becoming increasingly important. In private industry, the recognized marks of experience and pro­ fessional competence are the designations Certified Purchasing Manager (CPM), conferred by the National Association of Purchas­ ing Management, Inc. and Certified Purchasing Professional (CPP) and Certified Purchasing Executive (CPE), conferred by the Ameri­ can Purchasing Society, Inc. upon candidates who pass examina­ tions and meet specified educational, experience, and related re­ quirements. In Federal, State, and local government, the indications of professional competence are the designations Certified Profes­ sional Public Buyer (CPPB) and Certified Public Purchasing Of­ ficer (CPPO), conferred by the National Institute of Governmental Purchasing, Inc. The CPPB is earned by passing a two-part written examination and meeting certain experience requirements. To earn the CPPO, a candidate must have additional purchasing and super­ visory or management experience, pass a three-part written exam, and undergo an oral interview assessment. As more materials purchasing is conducted on a long-term basis, both private and public purchasing professionals are specializing in the contractual aspects of purchasing. The National Contract Man­ agement Association confers the designations Certified Associate Contract Manager (CACM) or Certified Professional Contract Manager (CPCM). Candidates for these certifications must have re­ lated work experience, complete academic course-work, and pass written exams. These designations primarily apply to contract man­ agers in the Federal Government and its suppliers. Job Outlook Employment of purchasers and buyers is expected to increase more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Demand for these workers will not keep pace with the rising level of economic activity; mergers and the resulting consolidations of buy­ ing departments along with other changes such as limited source, long-term contracting will reduce the need for purchasers and buy­ ers. The increased use of point-of-sale inventory control, artificial intelligence systems, electronic data interchange, and other auto­ mated systems will restrict demand further. Consequently, most job openings will result from the need to replace workers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Persons who have a bachelor’s degree in business should have the best chance of landing a buyer job. A master’s degree or bachelor’s degree in a technical field will be an advantage for those interested in working for a manufacturing or industrial company. However, graduates of 2-year programs in purchasing/buying should con­ tinue to find good opportunities, especially in small firms. Earnings Median annual earnings of purchasers and buyers were $33,067 in 1992. The middle 50 percent earned between $23,092 and $44,684. The lowest 10 percent averaged less than $13,959 while the top 10 percent earned more than $56,581. Merchandise managers and purchasing managers generally earned higher salaries than buyers or agents. As a general rule, those with the most education in their field have the highest incomes. Purchasing agents in the Federal Government averaged $24,400 in 1993 and contract specialists averaged $43,800. Purchasers and buyers receive the same benefits package as their coworkers, frequently including vacations, sick leave, life and health insurance, and pension plans. In addition to standard benefits, retail buyers often earn cash bonuses based on their performance and may receive discounts on merchandise bought from the employer.  68  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Related Occupations Workers in other occupations who need a knowledge of marketing and the ability to assess demand are retail sales workers, sales man­ agers, comparison shoppers, manufacturers’ and wholesale sales representatives, insurance sales agents, services sales representa­ tives, procurement services managers, and traffic managers. Sources of Additional Information General information about a career in retailing is available from: National Retail Federation, 100 West 31st St., New York, NY 10001. Further information about careers in purchasing and certification is available from: 13" American Purchasing Society, Inc., 11910 Oak Trail Way, Port Richey, FL 34668. xw National Association of Purchasing Management, Inc., P.O. Box 22160, Tempe, AZ 85285. XW National Institute of Governmental Purchasing, Inc., 11800 Sunrise Val­ ley Dr., Suite 1050, Reston, VA 22091. O" National Contract Management Association, 1912 Woodford Rd., Vi­ enna, VA 22182. X3" Federal Acquisition Institute (VF), General Services Administration, 18th and F Sts. NW„ Washington, DC 20405.  Restaurant and Food Service Managers (D.O.T. 185.137; 187.161-010 and .167-026, -106, -126, -206, and -210; 319.137-014 and -018)  Nature of the Work Food is consumed outside the home in a variety of settings. Eating places range from restaurants that serve fast food or that emphasize elegant dining, to institutional dining in school and employee cafete­ rias, hospitals, and nursing facilities. The cuisine offered, its price, and the setting in which it is consumed vary greatly, but the manag­ ers of these diverse dining facilities have many responsibilities in common. Efficient and profitable operation of restaurants and insti­ tutional food service facilities requires that managers and assistant managers select and appropriately price interesting menu items, effi­ ciently use food and other supplies, achieve consistent quality in food preparation and service, recruit and train adequate numbers of workers and supervise their work, and attend to the various admin­ istrative aspects of the business. In most restaurants and institutional food service facilities, the manager is assisted by one or more assistant managers, depending on the size and business hours of the establishment. In large estab­ lishments, as well as in many others that offer fine dining, the man­ agement team consists of a general manager, one or more assistant managers, and an executive chef. The executive chef is responsible for the operation of the kitchen, while the assistant managers over­ see service in the dining room and other areas of the operation. In some smaller restaurants, the executive chef may also be the general manager, and sometimes an owner. In fast-food restaurants and other food service facilities that operate long hours, 7 days a week, the manager is aided by several assistant managers, each of whom supervises a shift of workers. (For additional information, see the Handbook statements on general managers and top executives and chefs, cooks, and other kitchen workers.) Many restaurants rarely change their menu, but other eating es­ tablishments change it frequently. Institutional food service facili­ ties and some restaurants offer a new menu every day. Managers or executive chefs select menu items, taking into account the likely number of customers, the past popularity of various dishes, and con­ siderations such as food left over from prior meals that should not be wasted, the need for variety on the menu, and the availability of foods due to seasonal and other factors. They analyze the recipes of the dishes to determine food, labor, and overhead costs and assign  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  prices to the menu items. Menus must be developed far enough in advance that needed supplies may be received in time. Ordering supplies and dealing with suppliers are important as­ pects of the work of restaurant and food service managers. On a daily basis, managers estimate food consumption, place orders with suppliers, and schedule the delivery of fresh food and beverages. They receive and check the content of deliveries, evaluating the quality of meats, poultry, fish, fruits, vegetables, and baked goods. Managers meet or talk with sales representatives of restaurant sup­ pliers to place orders to replenish stocks of tableware, linens, paper, cleaning supplies, cooking utensils, and furniture and fixtures. They also arrange for equipment maintenance and repairs, and for a vari­ ety of services such as waste removal and pest control. Managers interview, hire, and, when necessary, discharge work­ ers. They familiarize newly hired workers with the establishment’s policies and practices and oversee their training. Managers schedule the work hours of employees, insuring that there are enough work­ ers present during busy periods, but not too many during slow peri­ ods. Restaurant and food service managers supervise the kitchen and the dining room. They oversee food preparation and cooking, checking the quality of the food and the sizes of portions to insure that dishes are prepared and garnished correctly and in a timely manner. They also investigate and resolve customers’ complaints about food quality or service. During busy periods, managers may roll up their sleeves and help with the cooking, clearing of tables, or other tasks. They direct the cleaning of the kitchen and dining areas and the washing of tableware, kitchen utensils, and equipment to maintain company and government sanitation standards. They monitor workers and observe patrons on a continual basis to insure compliance with health and safety standards and local liquor regu­ lations. Managers have a variety of administrative responsibilities. In larger establishments, much of this work is delegated to a book­ keeper, but in others, managers must keep accurate records of the hours and wages of employees, prepare the payroll, and do paperwork to comply with licensing laws and reporting require­ ments of tax, wage and hour, unemployment compensation, and So­ cial Security laws. They also must maintain records of the costs of supplies and equipment purchased and insure that accounts with suppliers are paid on a regular basis. In addition, managers record the number, type, and cost of items sold to weed out dishes that are unpopular or less profitable. Many managers are able to ease the burden of recordkeeping and paperwork through the use of com­ puters. Managers are among the first to arrive and the last to leave at night. At the conclusion of each day, or sometimes each shift, man­ agers must tally the cash received and charge receipts and balance them against the record of sales. They are responsible for depositing the day’s income at the bank, or securing it in a safe place. Managers are also responsible for locking up, checking that ovens, grills, and lights are off, and switching on alarm systems. Working Conditions Since evenings and weekends are popular dining periods, night and weekend work is common. However, many managers of institu­ tional food service facilities work more conventional hours because factory and office cafeterias are often open only on weekdays for breakfast and lunch. Many restaurant and food service managers work 50 hours or more per week. Managers often experience the pressure of simultaneously coordi­ nating a wide range of activities. When problems occur, it is the re­ sponsibility of the manager to resolve them with minimal disruption to customers. The job can be hectic during peak dining hours, and dealing with irate customers or uncooperative employees can be particularly stressful. Employment Restaurant and food service managers held about 496,000 jobs in 1992. Most worked in restaurants or for contract institutional food  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations  Ordering supplies and dealing with suppliers are important aspects of restaurant and food service managers. service companies, but small numbers also were employed by educa­ tional institutions, hospitals, nursing and personal care facilities, and civic, social, and fraternal organizations. About two-fifths were self-employed. Jobs are located throughout the country, but are most plentiful in large cities and tourist areas. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Many restaurant and food service manager positions are filled by promoting experienced food and beverage preparation and service workers. Waiters, waitresses, chefs, and fast-food workers who have demonstrated their potential for handling increased responsibility sometimes advance to assistant manager or management trainee jobs when openings occur. Executive chefs need extensive experi­ ence working as a chef, and general managers need experience work­ ing as assistant manager. However, most food service management companies and national or regional restaurant chains also recruit management trainees from among the graduates of 2-year and 4year college programs. Food service and restaurant chains prefer to hire persons with degrees in restaurant and institutional food service management, but they often hire graduates with degrees in other fields who have demonstrated interest and aptitude. A bachelor’s degree in restaurant and food service management provides a particularly strong preparation for a career in this occu­ pation. In 1992, more than 160 colleges and universities offered 4year programs in restaurant and hotel management or institutional food service management. For persons who do not want to pursue a 4-year degree, a good alternative is provided by the more than 800 community and junior colleges, technical institutes, and other insti­ tutions that offer programs in these fields leading to an associate de­ gree or other formal award below the bachelor’s degree. Both 2-year and 4-year programs provide instruction in subjects such as ac­ counting, business law and management, food planning and prepa­ ration, and nutrition. Some programs combine classroom and labo­ ratory study with internships that provide on-the-job experience. In addition, many educational institutions offer culinary programs that provide food preparation training which can lead to a career as a cook or chef and provide a foundation for advancement to an exec­ utive chef position. Most employers emphasize personal qualities. Restaurant and food service management can be demanding, so good health and  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  69  stamina are important. Self-discipline, initiative, and leadership ability are essential. Managers must be able to solve problems and concentrate on details. They need good communication skills to deal with customers and suppliers, as well as to motivate and direct their subordinates. A neat and clean appearance is also required since managers are often in close personal contact with the public. Most restaurant chains and food service management companies have rigorous training programs for persons hired for management jobs. Through a combination of classroom and on-the-job training, trainees receive instruction and gain work experience in all aspects of the operations of a restaurant or institutional food service facil­ ity—food preparation, nutrition, sanitation, security, company poli­ cies and procedures, personnel management, recordkeeping, and preparation of reports. Usually after 6 months or a year, trainees re­ ceive their first permanent assignment as an assistant manager. A measure of professional achievement for restaurant and food service managers is to earn the designation of certified Foodservice Management Professional (FMP). Although not a requirement for employment or advancement in the occupation, voluntary certifica­ tion provides recognition of professional competence, particularly for managers who acquired their skills largely on the job. The Edu­ cational Foundation of the National Restaurant Association awards the FMP designation to managers who achieve a qualifying score on a written examination, complete a series of courses that cover a range of food service management topics, and who meet standards of work experience in the field. Willingness to relocate often is essential for advancement to posi­ tions with greater responsibility. Managers advance to larger estab­ lishments, or regional management positions with restaurant chains. Some managers eventually open their own eating and drink­ ing establishments. Others transfer to hotel management positions, since management experience in their restaurant or institutional food service is a good background for food and beverage manager jobs at hotels and resorts. Job Outlook Employment of restaurant and food service managers is expected to increase much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. In addition to growth in demand for these managers, the need to replace managers who transfer to other occupations or stop working will create many job openings. Job opportunities are expected to be best for persons with bachelor’s or associate degrees in restaurant and institutional food service management. Employment growth is expected to vary by industry. Eating and drinking places will provide the most new jobs as the number of eat­ ing and drinking establishments increases and other industries con­ tinue to contract out their food services. Population growth, rising personal incomes, and increased leisure time will continue to pro­ duce growth in the number of meals consumed outside the home. To meet the demand for prepared food, more restaurants will be built, and more managers will be employed to supervise them. In addition, the number of manager jobs will increase in eating and drinking places as schools, hospitals, and other businesses contract out more of their food services to institutional food service companies located in the eating and drinking industry. Employment of wage and salary managers in eating and drinking places is expected to increase more rapidly than self-employed man­ agers. New restaurants are increasingly affiliated with national chains rather than being independently owned and operated. As this trend continues, fewer owners will manage restaurants themselves, and more restaurant managers will be employed to run the estab­ lishments. Employment in eating and drinking establishments is not very sensitive to changes in economic conditions, so restaurant and food service managers are rarely laid off during hard times. However, competition among restaurants is always intense, and many restau­ rants do not survive. Food service manager jobs are expected to increase in other in­ dustries, but growth will be slowed as contracting out becomes more common. Growth in the population of elderly people is expected to  70  Occupational Outlook Handbook  result in growth of food service manager jobs in nursing homes, resi­ dential care facilities, and other health care institutions. Likewise, growth in the population of young people enrolled in educational in­ stitutions should result in growth of food service manager jobs in school and college cafeterias. Earnings Median earnings for restaurant and food service managers were $418 a week in 1992. The middle 50 percent earned between about $300 and $600 a week. The lowest paid 10 percent earned $225 a week or less, while the highest paid 10 percent earned over $815 a week. Earnings of restaurant and food service managers vary greatly ac­ cording to their responsibilities and the type and size of establish­ ment. Based on a survey conducted for the National Restaurant As­ sociation, the median base salary of managers in restaurants was estimated to be about $27,900 a year in early 1993, but managers of the largest restaurants and institutional food service facilities often had annual salaries in excess of $45,000. Managers of fast-food res­ taurants had an estimated median base salary of $24,900 a year; managers of full-menu restaurants with table service, almost $30,400; and managers of commercial and institutional cafeterias, nearly $29,300 a year in early 1993. Besides a salary, most managers received an annual bonus or incentive payment based on their per­ formance. In 1993, most of these payments ranged between $2,000 and $8,000 a year. Executive chefs had an estimated median base salary of about $33,600 a year in early 1993, but those employed in the largest res­ taurants and institutional food service facilities often had base sala­ ries over $49,000. Annual bonus or incentive payments of most ex­ ecutive chefs ranged between $2,000 and $4,000 a year. The estimated median base salary of assistant managers was over $23,400 a year in early 1993, but ranged from less than $19,800 in fast-food restaurants to over $31,700 in some of the largest restau­ rants and food service facilities. Annual bonus or incentive pay­ ments of most assistant managers ranged between $1,000 and $4,000 a year. Manager trainees had an estimated median base salary of about $20,200 a year in early 1993, but had salaries of nearly $27,900 in some of the largest restaurants and food service facilities. Annual bonus or incentive payments of most trainees ranged between $ 1,000 and $3,000 a year. Most salaried restaurant and food service managers received free meals, sick leave, health and life insurance, and 1 to 3 weeks of paid vacation a year, depending on length of service. Related Occupations Restaurant and food service managers direct the activities of busi­ ness establishments that provide a service to customers. Other man­ agers in service-oriented businesses include hotel managers and as­ sistants, health services administrators, retail store managers, and bank managers. Sources of Additional Information Information about job opportunities may be obtained from local employers and local offices of the State employment service. Career information about restaurant and food service managers, directories of 2- and 4-year college programs in restaurant and food service, management, and certification as a Foodservice Manage­ ment Professional are available from: O’ The Educational Foundation of the National Restaurant Association, Suite 1400, 250 South Wacker Dr., Chicago, IL 60606.  General information on hospitality careers may be obtained from: IW Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and Institutional Education, 1200 17th St. NW„ Washington, DC 20036-3097.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Retail Managers (D.O.T. 163.167-018; 184.167-114; 185.117, .137, .157-010, .167-014, -030, -034, -038, -046, -082, and -158; 189.117-022, and -046, .167-014 and -018; 299.137-010 and -026)  Nature of the Work Retail stores sell a wide range of merchandise and provide services directly to the customer. Retail establishments are found every­ where and include shops that sell a wide variety of goods, such as large supermarkets and department and general merchandise stores. Also included are stores that sell specific lines of merchandise, in­ cluding meat and fish markets, bakeries, and clothing, shoe, hard­ ware, electronic, furniture and homefurnishings, and drug and li­ quor stores. Retail stores also provide services directly to the customer, and include restaurants and bars, automotive and boat dealers, and vehicle service stations. Managers who work in these establishments, generally called retail managers, are responsible for the success of retail stores. They insure that retail businesses func­ tion smoothly and efficiently, and provide quality goods and ser­ vices to the customer. (Managers in eating and drinking places, the largest retail trade industry, are discussed in the Handbook state­ ment on restaurant and food service managers.) Retail managers have many responsibilities, depending on the size and type of establishment. Managers coordinate and direct all aspects of retail trade, including ordering, inspection, pricing, and inventorying of goods; monitoring sales activity; developing mer­ chandising plans; maintaining good customer relations; monitoring profits and losses; and coordinating displays, advertisements, and sales announcements. Retail managers supervise, among others, chefs, cooks, and other kitchen workers, food and beverage service workers, retail sales workers, cashiers, customer service workers, stock and inventory clerks, and grocery clerks. (Some of these occupations are discussed elsewhere in the Handbook.) Retail managers also are responsible for interviewing, hiring, and training employees, as well as prepar­ ing work schedules and assigning workers to their specific duties. Because the retail trade industry provides goods and services di­ rectly to customers, the retail manager is ultimately responsible for complete customer satisfaction. Answering customers’ complaints and inquiries, and ensuring that customers receive prompt service and quality goods, is the primary duty of retail managers. As the size of the retail store and the types of goods and services increase, retail managers increasingly specialize in one department or one aspect of merchandising. Larger organizations tend to have many layers of management. Similar to other industries, supervi­ sory level retail managers usually report to their mid-level counter­ parts who, in turn, report to top-level managers. Small stores and stores that carry specialized merchandise typically have fewer levels of management. Supervisory level retail managers, often known as department managers, provide the day-to-day management of individual depart­ ments such as shoe, cosmetic, or housewares in large department stores, produce and meat in grocery stores, and service and sales in automotive dealerships. Department managers commonly are found in large retail stores. These managers establish and implement policies, goals, objectives, and procedures for their specific depart­ ment; coordinate activites with other department heads; and strive for a smooth operation within their specific department. They su­ pervise employees who price and ticket goods and place them on dis­ play, clean and organize shelves, displays, and inventory in stock­ rooms, and inspect merchandise to ensure that none is outdated. Department managers also may greet and assist customers to im­ prove customer services and promote sales and good public rela­ tions. Department managers also review inventory and sales records, develop merchandising techniques, and coordinate sales promotions.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations Mid-level retail managers, often called store managers, have broader responsibilities than supervisory level managers. Mid-level managers set sales goals, create budgets, develop procedures to di­ rect and improve customer services, define department managers’ responsibilities, and delegate authority within their store. Store managers coordinate different departments so that sales promotions and procedures are consistent throughout the store. They also may open and close the store, and may even make bank deposits. Some coordinate other activities within the store, such as safety and secur­ ity, maintenance and cleaning, and meetings, seminars, and pro­ grams for employees. Store managers usually are responsible for im­ plementation and compliance with corporate programs and rules within the store. They plan merchandise demonstrations and coor­ dinate marketing events to promote products. They may implement employee incentive programs, including bonuses and awards, that increase motivation and morale and inspire good customer service. Store managers may review purchasing and sales records and meet with department heads to determine when to restock inventory or announce price-slashing sales. Store managers meet frequently with top management and other store employees to keep the lines of com­ munication open. Senior level retail managers, commonly known as district, area, or regional managers in large chains and franchises, are covered in the Handbook statement on general managers and top executives. District managers coordinate sales and distribution operations for a number of stores and franchises in a specific area or district of the country, and choose the wholesalers that can supply the highest quality goods to the stores. They define store managers’ responsibili­ ties and regularly meet with them to make sure that stores attain sales and profit goals, that merchandising and pricing techniques are up to date and comply with company procedures, and that the store and specific departments are clean and follow company guide­ lines. In order to evaluate the productivity of each individual store, district managers make on-site visits, and often report back to the top executive of the company. Working Conditions Most retail managers have offices within the store itself, while senior level managers may have offices at corporate headquarters. Though  71  much of their time is spent in the office completing merchandise or­ ders or arranging work schedules, for example, a large portion of a retail manager’s time is spent on the sales floor of the store. Work hours vary greatly among retail establishments. The work schedule of retail managers usually depends on consumers’ needs. Most retail managers work around 40 hours a week, but longer hours are common, especially during holidays, busy shopping hours and seasons, sales, and store inventory. Retail managers are ex­ pected to work evenings and weekends, but usually are compensated by getting a weekday off. Hours can change weekly, and managers sometimes may have to report to work on short notice, especially when many employees are absent. Independent owners can set their own schedules, but hours must be convenient to their customers. Mid- and senior level managers’ jobs often require substantial travel. District managers travel frequently between national head­ quarters and regional and local store branches. Store managers travel to vendors’ offices and trade shows to order goods. Meetings and conferences sponsored by industries, vendors, and associations occur regularly, and provide opportunities to meet with peers and keep abreast of trends in consumer preferences. Employment Managers who work in retail trade held about 1,070,000 wage and salary jobs in 1992. About 175,000—primarily owners of small re­ tail establishments—were self-employed. Managers are found in every retail trade industry—eating and drinking places, grocery stores, department stores, clothing and shoe stores, automotive dealers, and furniture stores are among the largest industries. The accompanying table shows the distribution of wage and salary em­ ployment by industry. Table 1. Distribution of managers, selected retail establishments, 1992 Total (percent)................................................................................  100.0  Eating and drinking places................................................................ General merchandise stores............................................................... Grocery stores.................................................................................... Department stores ............................................................................. Miscellaneous shopping goods stores............................................... Motor vehicle dealers........................................................................ Building material and garden supplies.............................................. Clothing and accessories................................................................... Furniture and home furnishings stores............................................ Appliance, radio, TV, and music stores............................................ Auto and home supply stores............................................................ Gasoline service stations................................................................... Food stores, other than grocery stores.............................................. Shoestores......................................................................................... Other..................................................................................................  34.7 9.3 9.0 7.6 6.0 5.9 5.7 4.3 3.8 3.1 2.3 2.2 1.6 1.2 3.3  SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics  Customer service and satisfaction are important duties of retail managers.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Knowledge of management principles and practices is the essential requirement for a management position in retail trade, and such knowledge usually is acquired through work experience. Most man­ agers begin their careers on the sales floor as a sales clerk, cashier, customer service worker, or a food and beverage service worker, for example. In these positions they learn merchandising, customer ser­ vice, and the basic policies and procedures of the store. Those individuals who display leadership skills, self-confidence, motivation, and decisiveness become candidates for promotion to assistant manager or department manager, depending on the size and structure of the store. In many retail establishments, managers are promoted from within the company. In small retail establish­ ments, where the number of positions is limited, advancement to a higher management position may come slowly. Larger establish­ ments have more extensive career ladder programs and offer manag­ ers the opportunity to transfer to another store in the chain or to the central office if an opening occurs. Promotion may occur more quickly in larger establishments, but relocation every several years  72  Occupational Outlook Handbook  may be necessary for advancement. Purchasers and buyers (dis­ cussed elsewhere in the Handbook), who purchase merchandise di­ rectly from distributors for resale, is one career step within the cen­ tral office. Other positions within the central office include marketing, advertising, and public relations managers, who coordi­ nate marketing plans, monitor sales, and propose advertisments and promotions, and purchasing agents and managers, who purchase goods and supplies for their organization. (Both occupations are covered in other Handbook statements.) Training varies from store to store. Many national chains have formal training programs for management trainees, which include both classroom and in-store training. Training may last from 1 week to 1 year or more, as many retail organizations require their trainees to gain experience during all shopping seasons. Other retail organi­ zations may not have any formal training program at all. Classroom training may include such topics as interviewing and customer service skills, and employee and inventory management and scheduling. Management trainees may be placed in one specific department while training on the job, or they may be rotated among several departments to gather a well-rounded knowledge of the store’s operation. Training programs in franchises generally are ex­ tensive, covering all functions of the operation, including promo­ tion, marketing, management, finance, purchasing, product prepa­ ration, human resource management, and compensation. College graduates usually directly enter management training programs. The educational background of managers in retail trade varies widely. A high school diploma often is required, and a postsecon­ dary degree is preferred for individuals who wish to advance in the profession. Though generally not required, postsecondary educa­ tion is a sign of motivation and maturity, increasingly important qualities as the individual is promoted to more responsible positions. Regardless of the education received, business courses including ac­ counting, administration, marketing, management, and sales, as well as courses in psychology, sociology, and communication, are helpful. Managers also must be computer literate as cash registers and inventory control systems become more computerized. Most managers who have postsecondary education hold an asso­ ciate or a bachelor’s degree in liberal arts, social science, business, or management. Many postsecondary students participate in intern­ ship programs to gain retail experience. Such programs usually are planned between individual schools and retail firms. Many managers who have worked in the retail industry for a long time open their own store. However, retail trade is highly competi­ tive, and although many independent retail owners succeed, some fail to cover expenses and eventually go out of business. Retail own­ ers need good business sense and strong customer service and public relations skills. Retail managers must get along with all kinds of people. They need initiative, self-discipline, and the ability to organize and direct the work of others. Patience and a mild temperament are necessary when dealing with rude, angry, or demanding customers. Good judgment and decisiveness are necessary when reacting to competi­ tion from other stores. Retail managers also must be able to moti­ vate subordinates and communicate clearly and persuasively with customers and other managers.  earnings, weekly hours, number of employees supervised, and type of goods and services. Since most jobs in retail management do not require education beyond high school, competition is expected for jobs with the most attractive earnings and working conditions. Can­ didates who have retail experience will have the best opportunities. Projected employment growth of retail managers reflects pro­ jected industry growth. For example, faster than average growth is expected in appliance, radio, television, and music stores, while av­ erage growth is expected in miscellaneous shopping goods stores. On the other hand, slower than average growth is expected in de­ partment stores, while employment of managers is expected to de­ cline in gasoline service stations. Earnings Salaries of retail managers vary substantially, depending upon the level of responsibility, length of service, and type, size, and location of the firm. According to a survey sponsored by the Association of Conve­ nience Stores, the median salary for assistant store managers ranged between $13,100 and $14,300 a year in 1992, depending on the size of the organization. Store managers earned between $18,400 and $23,700; district managers, $29,800 and $62,700; and regional man­ agers, $47,000 and $128,500. Compensation systems vary by type of establishment and mer­ chandise sold. Most managers receive a commission or a combina­ tion of salary and commission. Under a commission system, retail managers receive a percentage of department or store sales. These systems offer managers the opportunity to significantly increase their earnings, but they may find that their earnings depend on their ability to sell their product and the condition of the economy. Those managers who sell large amounts of merchandise often are rewarded with bonuses and awards, and receive recognition throughout the store or chain. Retail managers receive typical benefits and, in some cases, stock options. In addition, retail managers generally are able to buy their store’s merchandise at a discount, often from 10 to 40 percent below regular prices. In some cases, this privilege is extended to the em­ ployee’s family as well. Related Occupations Retail managers serve customers, supervise workers, and direct and coordinate the operations of an establishment whose aim is to maxi­ mize profits and satisfy the customer. Others with similar responsi­ bilities include managers in wholesale trade, hotels, banks, hospi­ tals, law firms, and a wide range of other industries. Sources of Additional Information Information on employment opportunities for retail managers may be obtained from the employment offices of various retail establish­ ments, or State employment service offices. Information on educational programs for retail managers is avail­ able from: fW American Management Association, 135 W. 50th St., New York, NY 10020.  Job Outlook Employment of salaried retail managers is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Re­ tail establishments are growing in number and size. However, simi­ lar to other industries, corporate downsizing and restructuring may temper demand for retail managers. In the face of intense competi­ tion, many firms are improving operating efficiency by using com­ puterized registers and inventory control systems, also slowing growth of new retail management jobs. Because retail managers comprise a large occupation, most job openings are expected to occur as experienced managers retire or stop working for other reasons. Many retail managers transfer to other occupations because of high pressure, long hours, and inabil­ ity to meet sales quotas. Jobs in retail management vary greatly in  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  General information on management careers in retail establish­ ments is available from: ts” National Retail Federation, 701 Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Suite 710, Washington, DC 20004.  Information on management careers in grocery stores, and schools offering related programs, is available from: Food Marketing Institute, 800 Connecticut Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20006-2701.  Information about management careers and training programs in the motor vehicle dealers industry is available from: X3■ National Automotive Dealers Association, 8400 Westpark Dr., McLean, VA 22102.  Information about management careers in convenience stores is available from: W National Association of Convenience Stores, 1605 King St., Alexandria, VA 22314.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations  73  Underwriters (D.O.T. 169.267-046)  Nature of the Work Insurance companies assume billions of dollars in risks each year by writing policies that transfer the risk of loss from their policyholders to themselves. Underwriters appraise and select the risks their com­ pany will insure. An insurance company may lose business to com­ petitors if the underwriter appraises risks too conservatively, or it may have to pay more claims if the underwriting actions are too lib­ eral. Underwriters decide whether an applicant for insurance is an ac­ ceptable risk. They analyze information in insurance applications, reports from loss control consultants, medical reports, and actuarial studies—reports that describe the probability of insured loss. They then decide whether to issue a policy and may outline the terms of the contract, including the amount of the premium. Underwriters frequently correspond with policyholders, agents, and managers about policy cancellations or other matters. On rare occasions, they accompany sales workers on appointments with prospective cus­ tomers. (Life insurance agents and brokers are increasingly called “life underwriters;” they are included in the statement on insurance agents and brokers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Most underwriters specialize in one of three major categories of insur­ ance: Life, property and casualty, or health. They further specialize in group or individual policies. Property and casualty underwriters spe­ cialize by type of risk insured, such as fire, homeowner, automobile, marine, property, or workers’ compensation. In cases where casualty companies insure in a single “package” policy, covering various types of risks, the underwriter must be familiar with different lines of insurance. Some underwriters, called commercial account underwriters, handle business insurance exclusively. They often evaluate a firm’s entire oper­ ation in appraising its insurance application. An increasing proportion of insurance sales are being made through group contracts. A standard group policy insures all per­ sons in a specified group through a single contract at uniform pre­ mium rates, generally for life or health insurance protection. The group underwriter analyzes the overall composition of the group to be sure that the total risk is not excessive. Another type of group policy provides members of a group—a labor union, for example— with individual policies reflecting their needs. These generally are casualty policies, such as those covering automobiles. The casualty underwriter analyzes the application of each group member and makes individual appraisals. Some group underwriters meet with union or employer representatives to discuss the types of policies available to their group. Working Conditions Underwriters have desk jobs that require no unusual physical activ­ ity. Their offices generally are comfortable and pleasant. Although some overtime may be required, the normal workweek is 35-40 hours. Underwriters occasionally may attend meetings away from home for several days. Construction and marine underwriters often travel to inspect work sites and assess risks. Employment Insurance underwriters held about 100,000 jobs in 1992. The fol­ lowing tabulation shows the percent distribution of wage and salary jobs by industry. Total...................................................................................................  100  Insurance carriers................................................................................. Fire, marine, and casualty insurance................................................ Life insurance..................................................................................... Medical service plans and health insurance..................................... Pension funds and miscellaneous insurance..................................... Insurance agents, brokers, and service................................................. Banks and credit agencies..................................................................... Other industries.....................................................................................  61 40 14 4 3 32 5 2   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Underwriters frequently correspond with policyholders, agents, and managers about policy cancellations or other matters. The majority of underwriters worked for insurance companies (or carriers). Most of the remaining underwriters worked throughout the country in independent agencies—firms which represent one or more insurance companies—and brokers—firms which may deal with any in­ surance company but represent none. Small numbers of underwriters worked for banks, mortgage companies, and real estate firms. Underwriters in the life insurance industry are most likely to work in an insurance company’s home office. In some large agen­ cies, underwriters help life insurance agents determine if the risk will be accepted or rejected by the home office. However, most re­ gional life insurance offices deal predominantly with sales, not un­ derwriting. Property and casualty underwriters also work in home offices, but more work for agencies or regional branch offices, where they have the authority to underwrite risks and determine an appro­ priate rating without consulting the home office. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement For beginning underwriting jobs, many large insurance companies prefer college graduates who have a degree in business administra­ tion or finance, with courses or experience in accounting. However, a degree in almost any field plus courses in business law and ac­ counting provide a good general background. Basic familiarity with computers is also needed. Some companies also hire persons without a college degree for underwriter trainee positions. In addition, some high school gradu­ ates who begin as underwriting clerks may be trained as underwrit­ ers after they demonstrate an aptitude for the work. In the property and casualty industry, ratings clerks sometimes advance to under­ writer jobs through their skill and experience in researching risk and setting rates. Underwriter trainee or assistant underwriter is the typical entrylevel position for this occupation. Beginners may help collect infor­ mation on applicants and evaluate routine applications under the close supervision of an experienced risk appraiser. Property and cas­ ualty trainees study claim files to become familiar with factors asso­ ciated with certain types of losses. Many larger insurers offer a training program, lasting from a few months to a year, that com­ bines study with work. As trainees develop the necessary judgment, they are assigned policy applications that are more complex and have a greater face value. These often require the use of computers for more efficient processing. Continuing education is necessary for advancement. Insurance com­ panies generally pay tuition for underwriting courses that their trainees successfully complete; some also offer salary incentives. Independent study programs for experienced property and casualty underwriters are also available. The American Institute for Chartered Property Casualty Underwriters offers the designations “Associate in Underwriting (AU),” and “Chartered Property Casualty Underwriter (CPCU).” Earning the AU designation usually requires a year and a half and the  74  Occupational Outlook Handbook  completion of an examination covering course material. Earning the more advanced CPCU designation generally takes about 5 years, and re­ quires passing 10 examinations covering such subjects as personal and commercial risk management, business law, accounting, finance, eco­ nomics, and ethics. Although CPCU’s may be underwriters, the CPCU is intended for prospective managers. An AU designation is sufficient for a career in underwriting. Underwriting can be a satisfying career for persons who like working with detail and enjoy analyzing information. In addition, underwriters must possess good judgment in order to make sound decisions. They must also be imaginative and aggressive, especially when they have to obtain information from outside sources. Experienced underwriters who complete courses of study may ad­ vance to chief underwriter or underwriting manager. Some under­ writing managers are promoted to senior managerial jobs. Job Outlook Employment of underwriters is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Most job openings, however, are expected to result from the need to replace underwriters who transfer to other occupations or stop working altogether. A number of factors underlie the continuing need for underwrit­ ers. Shifts in the age distribution of the population will result in an increase in the number of people who assume career and family re­ sponsibilities. People in this group have the greatest need for life and property and casualty insurance. A growing demand for insurance coverage for working women also is expected. In addition, ex­ panding long-term healthcare and pension benefits for retirees—an increasing proportion of the population—will increase underwriting requirements. Growing concerns for financial security and liability should also contribute to demand for more insurance protection for homes, automobiles, pleasure craft, and other valuables. New or ex­ panding businesses will need protection for new plants and equip­ ment, product liability, and insurance for workers’ compensation and employee benefits. On the other hand, the trend toward self-insurance is expected to lower the demand for some property and casualty underwriters. Businesses who self-insure set a rate for their own company and pay premiums into a reserve fund. Additionally, many property and cas­ ualty companies are foregoing personal lines of insurance—espe­ cially automobile—and concentrating on commercial lines of busi­ ness. Demand for health insurance underwriters should be lower if national health insurance legislation reduces insurers’ freedom to   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  refuse coverage to high-risk individuals. Underwriters specializing in one particular area of insurance may find it difficult to transfer to another type of insurance if their jobs are threatened. Since insurance is usually regarded as a necessity, regardless of economic conditions, underwriters are unlikely to be laid off be­ cause of a recession. Earnings The following tabulation shows the median salaries of casualty and property underwriters in 1991, according to a survey by the Alliance of American Insurers in collaboration with the American Insurance Association and the National Association of Independent Insurers. Underwriters of personal lines Entry level.................................................................................. Intermediate level ...................................................................... Senior level ................................................................................. Supervisor.................................................................................. Manager.....................................................................................  $25,000 32,200 40,400 45,300 61,000  Underwriters of commercial lines Entry level.................................................................................. Intermediate level ...................................................................... Senior level ................................................................................ Supervisor.................................................................................. Manager.....................................................................................  $28,000 32,800 40,600 45,500 61,000  Most insurance companies have liberal vacation policies and other employee benefits. Almost all insurance companies provide employer-financed group life and retirement plans. Related Occupations Underwriters make decisions on the basis of financial data. Other workers with the same type of responsibility include auditors, budget analysts, financial advisors, loan officers, credit managers, real estate appraisers, and risk managers. Sources of Additional Information General information about a career as an insurance underwriter is available from the home offices of many life insurance and property and liability insurance companies. Information about the insurance business in general and the underwriting function in particular also may be obtained from:  XW Society of Chartered Property and Casualty Underwriters, Kahler Hall, P.O. Box 3009, 720 Providence Rd., Malvern, PA 19355-0709.  Professional Specialty Occupations ____  Engineers  Nature of the Work Engineers apply the theories and principles of science and mathe­ matics to the economical solution of practical technical problems. Often their work is the link between a scientific discovery and its ap­ plication. Engineers design machinery, products, systems, and processes for efficient and economical performance. They design in­ dustrial machinery and equipment for manufacturing goods and de­ fense and weapons systems for the Armed Forces. Many engineers design, plan, and supervise the construction of buildings, highways, and rapid transit systems. They also design and develop consumer products and systems for control and automation of manufacturing, business, and management processes. Engineers consider many factors in developing a new product. For example, in developing an industrial robot, they determine pre­ cisely what function it needs to perform; design and test compo­ nents; fit them together in an integrated plan; and evaluate the de­ sign’s overall effectiveness, cost, reliability, and safety. This process applies to products as different as computers, gas turbines, genera­ tors, helicopters, and toys. In addition to design and development, many engineers work in testing, production, or maintenance. They supervise production in factories, determine the causes of breakdowns, and test manufac­ tured products to maintain quality. They also estimate the time and cost to complete projects. Some work in engineering management or in sales, where an engineering background enables them to discuss the technical aspects of a product and assist in planning its installa­ tion or use. (See the statements on engineering, science, and data processing managers and manufacturers’ and wholesale sales repre­ sentatives elsewhere in the Handbook.) Most engineers specialize; more than 25 major specialties are rec­ ognized by professional societies. Within the major branches are nu­ merous subdivisions. Structural, environmental, and transportation engineering, for example, are subdivisions of civil engineering. Engi­ neers also may specialize in one industry, such as motor vehicles, or in one field of technology, such as propulsion or guidance systems. This section, which contains an overall discussion of engineering, is followed by separate sections on 10 engineering branches: Aero­ space; chemical; civil; electrical and electronics; industrial; mechan­ ical; metallurgical, ceramic, and materials; mining; nuclear; and petroleum engineering. Branches of engineering not covered in detail, but in which there are established college programs include: Architectural engineering—the design of a building’s internal sup­ port structure; biomedical engineering—the application of engineer­ ing to medical and physiological problems; environmental engineer­ ing—a small but growing discipline involved with identifying, solving, and alleviating environmental problems; and marine engi­ neering—the design and installation of ship machinery and propul­ sion systems. Engineers in each branch have knowledge and training that can be applied to many fields. Electrical and electronics engineers, for example, work in the medical, computer, missile guidance, and power distribution fields. Because there are many separate problems to solve in a large engineering project, engineers in one field often work closely with specialists in scientific, other engineering, and business occupations. Engineers often use computers to simulate and test how a ma­ chine, structure, or system operates. Many engineers also use com­ puter-aided design systems to produce and analyze designs. They also spend a great deal of time writing reports and consulting with other engineers. Complex projects require many engineers, each working with a small part of the job. Supervisory engineers are re­ sponsible for major components or entire projects.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Working Conditions Many engineers work in laboratories, industrial plants, or construc­ tion sites, where they inspect, supervise, or solve onsite problems. Others work in an office almost all of the time. Engineers in branches such as civil engineering may work outdoors part of the time. A few engineers travel extensively to plants or construction sites. Many engineers work a standard 40-hour week. At times, dead­ lines or design standards may bring extra pressure to a job. When this happens, engineers may work long hours and experience con­ siderable stress. Employment In 1992, engineers held 1,354,000 jobs. Just under one-half of all en­ gineering jobs were located in manufacturing industries—mostly in electrical and electronic equipment, aircraft and parts, machinery, scientific instruments, chemicals, motor vehicles, fabricated metal products, and primary metals industries. In 1992, 713,000 jobs were in nonmanufacturing industries, primarily in engineering and archi­ tectural services, research and testing services, and business ser­ vices, where firms designed construction projects or did other engi­ neering work on a contract basis for organizations in other parts of the economy. Engineers also worked in the communications, utili­ ties, and construction industries. Federal, State, and local governments employed about 190,000 engineers. Over half of these were in the Federal Government, mainly in the Departments of Defense, Transportation, Agriculture, Interior, and Energy, and in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Most engineers in State and local government  Electrical engineering accounts for more than one-fourth of all engineers. Electrical Mechanical  Industrial Aerospace Chemical Materials Nuclear Petroleum Mining | All other ^  50  100  150  200  250  300  350  400  Employment (thousands) Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics  75  76  Occupational Outlook Handbook  agencies worked in highway and public works departments. Some engineers are self-employed consultants. Engineers are employed in every State, in small and large cities, and in rural areas. Some branches of engineering are concentrated in particular industries and geographic areas, as discussed in state­ ments later in this chapter. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree in engineering from an accredited engineering program is usually required for beginning engineering jobs. College graduates with a degree in a physical science or mathematics may occasionally qualify for some engineering jobs, especially in engi­ neering specialties in high demand. Most engineering degrees are granted in branches such as electrical, mechanical, or civil engineer­ ing. However, engineers trained in one branch may work in another. This flexibility allows employers to meet staffing needs in new tech­ nologies and specialties in short supply. It also allows engineers to shift to fields with better employment prospects, or ones that match their interests more closely. In addition to the standard engineering degree, many colleges of­ fer degrees in engineering technology, which are offered as either 2or 4-year programs. These programs prepare students for practical design and production work rather than for jobs that require more theoretical, scientific and mathematical knowledge. Graduates of 4year technology programs may get jobs similar to those obtained by graduates with a bachelor’s degree in engineering. In fact, some em­ ployers regard them as having skills between those of a technician and an engineer. Graduate training is essential for engineering faculty positions but is not required for the majority of entry level engineering jobs. Many engineers obtain a master’s degree to learn new technology, to broaden their education, and to enhance promotion opportunities. Nearly 390 colleges and universities offer a bachelor’s degree in engineering, and nearly 300 colleges offer a bachelor’s degree in en­ gineering technology, although not all are accredited programs. Al­ though most institutions offer programs in the larger branches of engineering, only a few offer some of the smaller specialties. Also,  The number of degrees granted in engineering continues its declining trend. Number of degrees (thousands)  I I I 1  111  I  I  I I I  1  I I  1  I  .  1111 1  1982198319841985198619871988198919901991 1992 Source: Engineering Workforce Commission   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  programs of the same title may vary in content. For example, some emphasize industrial practices, preparing students for a job in indus­ try, while others are more theoretical and are better for students preparing to take graduate work. Therefore, students should investi­ gate curriculums and check accreditations carefully before selecting a college. Admissions requirements for undergraduate engineering schools include courses in advanced high school mathematics and the physical sciences. Bachelor’s degree programs in engineering are typically designed to last 4 years, but many students find that it takes between 4 and 5 years to complete their studies. In a typical 4-year college curricu­ lum, the first 2 years are spent studying basic sciences (mathematics, physics, and chemistry), introductory engineering, and the humani­ ties, social sciences, and English. In the last 2 years, most courses are in engineering, usually with a concentration in one branch. For example, the last 2 years <jf an aerospace program might include courses such as fluid mechanics, heat transfer, applied aerodynam­ ics, analytical mechanics, flight vehicle design, trajectory dynamics, and aerospace propulsion systems. Some programs offer a general engineering curriculum; students then specialize in graduate school or on the job. A few engineering schools and 2-year colleges have agreements whereby the 2-year college provides the initial engineering educa­ tion and the engineering school automatically admits students for their last 2 years. In addition, a few engineering schools have ar­ rangements whereby a student spends 3 years in a liberal arts college studying preengineering subjects and 2 years in the engineering school and receives a bachelor’s degree from each. Some colleges and universities offer 5-year master’s degree programs. Some 5- or even 6-year cooperative plans combine classroom study and practical work, permitting students to gain valuable expe­ rience and finance part of their education. All 50 States and the District of Columbia require registration for engineers whose work may affect life, health, or property, or who of­ fer their services to the public. In 1992, nearly 380,000 engineers were registered. Registration generally requires a degree from an en­ gineering program accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engi­ neering and Technology, 4 years of relevant work experience, and passing a State examination. Some States will not register people with degrees in engineering technology. Beginning engineering graduates usually do routine work under the supervision of experienced engineers and, in larger companies, may also receive formal classroom or seminar-type training. As they gain knowledge and experience, they are assigned more difficult tasks with greater independence to develop designs, solve problems, and make decisions. Engineers may become technical specialists or may supervise a staff or team of engineers and technicians. Some eventually become engineering managers or enter other managerial, management support, or sales jobs. (See the statements under execu­ tive, administrative, and managerial occupations; under sales occu­ pations; and on computer systems analysts elsewhere in the Hand­ book.) Some engineers obtain graduate degrees in engineering or business administration to improve advancement opportunities; others obtain law degrees and become patent attorneys. Many high level executives in government and industry began their careers as engineers. Engineers should be able to work as part of a team and should have creativity, an analytical mind, and a capacity for detail. In ad­ dition, engineers should be able to express themselves well—both orally and in writing. Job Outlook Employment opportunities in engineering have been good for a number of years. They are expected to continue to be good through the year 2005 because employment is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations while the number of degrees granted in engineering is expected to remain near present levels through the year 2005. Many of the jobs in engineering are related to national defense. Defense expenditures will decline in the future, so employment growth and job outlook for engineers may not be as strong as in the  Professional Specialty Occupations 1980’s, when defense expenditures were increasing. However, grad­ uating engineers will continue to be in demand for jobs in engineer­ ing and other areas, possibly even at the same time other engineers, especially defense industry engineers, are being laid off. Employers will need more engineers as they increase investment in plant and equipment to further increase productivity and expand output of goods and services. In addition, competitive pressures and advancing technology will force companies to improve and update product designs more frequently. Finally, more engineers will be needed to improve deteriorating roads, bridges, water and pollution control systems, and other public facilities. Freshman engineering enrollments began declining in 1983, and the number of bachelor’s degrees in engineering began declining in 1987. Although it is difficult to project engineering enrollments, this decline may continue through the late 1990’s because the total col­ lege-age population is projected to decline. Furthermore, the pro­ portion of students interested in engineering careers has declined as prospects for college graduates in other fields have improved and in­ terest in other programs has increased. Only a relatively small proportion of engineers leave the profes­ sion each year. Despite this, three-fourths of all job openings will arise from replacement needs. A greater proportion of replacement openings is created by engineers who transfer to management, sales, or other professional specialty occupations than by those who leave the labor force. Most industries are less likely to lay off engineers than other workers. Many engineers work on long-term research and develop­ ment projects or in other activities which may continue even during recessions. In industries such as electronics and aerospace, however, large government cutbacks in defense or research and development have resulted in layoffs for engineers. New computer-aided design systems enable engineers to produce or modify designs much more rapidly than previously. This in­ creased productivity might have resulted in fewer engineering jobs had engineers not used these systems to improve the design process. They now produce and analyze many more design variations before selecting a final one. Therefore, this technology is not expected to limit employment opportunities. It is important for engineers to continue their education through­ out their careers because much of their value to their employer de­ pends on their knowledge of the latest technology. In 1990, about 110,000 persons, or 7.5 percent of all engineers were enrolled in graduate engineering programs. The pace of technological change varies by engineering specialty and industry. Engineers in high-tech­ nology areas such as advanced electronics or aerospace may find that their knowledge becomes obsolete rapidly. Even those who con­ tinue their education are vulnerable to obsolescence if the particular technology or product they have specialized in becomes obsolete. Engineers whom employers consider not to have kept up may find themselves passed over for promotions and are particularly vulnera­ ble to layoffs. On the other hand, it is often these high-technology areas that offer the greatest challenges, the most interesting work, and the highest salaries. Therefore, the choice of engineering spe­ cialty and employer involves an assessment not only of the potential rewards but also of the risk of technological obsolescence. (The out­ look for 10 branches of engineering is discussed in separate sec­ tions.) Earnings Starting salaries for engineers with the bachelor’s degree are signifi­ cantly higher than starting salaries of bachelor’s degree graduates in other fields. According to the College Placement Council, engineer­ ing graduates with a bachelor’s degree averaged about $34,000 a year in private industry in 1992; those with a master’s degree and no experience, $39,200 a year; and those with a Ph.D., $54,400. Start­ ing salaries for those with the bachelor’s degree vary by branch, as shown in the following tabulation. Petroleum...................................................................................... Chemical........................................................................................ Mechanical..................................................................................... Nuclear........................................................................................... Electrical........................................................................................  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  $40,679 39,203 34,462 34,447 33,754  Materials....................................................................................... Industrial....................................................................................... Aerospace...................................................................................... Mining............................................................................................ Civil...............................................................................................  77  33,502 32,348 31,826 31,177 29,376  A survey of workplaces in 160 metropolitan areas reported that beginning engineers had median annual earnings of about $31,000 in 1992, with the middle half earning between about $28,800 and $37,400 a year. Experienced midlevel engineers with no supervisory responsibilities had median annual earnings of about $52,500, with the middle half earning between about $48,200 and $57,300 a year. Median annual earnings for engineers at senior managerial levels were about $87,000. Median annual earnings for these and other levels of engineers are shown in the following tabulation. Engineer I...................................................................................... Engineer II.................................................................................... Engineer III................................................................................... Engineer IV................................................................................... Engineer V ..................................................................................... Engineer VI ................................................................................... Engineer VII................................................................................. Engineer VIII................................................................................  $32,864 37,232 43,368 52,520 63,596 75,504 87,048 102,544  The average annual salary for engineers in the Federal Govern­ ment in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions was $54,422 in 1993. Related Occupations Engineers apply the principles of physical science and mathematics in their work. Other workers who use scientific and mathematical principles include physical scientists, life scientists, computer scien­ tists, mathematicians, engineering and science technicians, and ar­ chitects. Sources of Additional Information A number of engineering-related organizations provide information on engineering careers. JETS-Guidance, at 1420 King St., Suite 405, Alexandria, VA 22314, serves high school students as a central dis­ tribution point for information from most of these organizations. To receive information, write JETS-Guidance and enclose a stamped, self-addressed business-size envelope. Societies representing many of the individual branches of engi­ neering are listed in this chapter. Each can provide information about careers in the particular branch.  Aerospace Engineers (D.O.T. 002.061 and. 167)  Nature of the Work Aerospace engineers design, develop, test, and help manufacture commercial and military aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft. They de­ velop new technologies in commercial aviation, defense systems, and space exploration, often specializing in areas like structural de­ sign, guidance, navigation and control, instrumentation and com­ munication, or production methods. They also may specialize in one type of aerospace product, such as commercial transports, helicop­ ters, spacecraft, or rockets. Aerospace engineers may be experts in aerodynamics, propulsion, thermodynamics, structures, celestial mechanics, acoustics, or guidance and control systems. Employment Aerospace engineers held about 66,000 jobs in 1992. Almost 55 per­ cent were in the aircraft and parts and guided missile and space ve­ hicle manufacturing industries. Federal Government agencies, pri­ marily the Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, provided more than 1 out of 10 jobs. Business services, engineering and architectural services, research and testing services, and communications equipment manufactur­ ing firms accounted for most of the remainder.  78  Occupational Outlook Handbook  A chemical engineer studies data describing the results of a chemical reaction trial run.  Art aerospace engineer studies technical specifications for the wing of a commercial jet. California, Washington, and Texas, States with large aerospace manufacturers, have the most aerospace engineers. Job Outlook Those seeking employment as aerospace engineers are likely to face keen competition because the number of job opportunities is ex­ pected to be significantly fewer than the relatively large pool of graduates. Defense Department expenditures for military aircraft, missiles, and other aerospace systems are declining. Growth in the civilian sector, which needs to replace the present fleet of airliners with quieter and more fuel-efficient aircraft, is projected to be much slower than previously anticipated due to the financial problems of airlines. Consequently, employment of aerospace engineers is ex­ pected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Future growth of employment in this field could also be limited because a higher proportion of engineers in aerospace manufacturing may come from the materials, mechani­ cal, or electrical engineering fields. Most job openings will result from the need to replace aerospace engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Because a large proportion of aerospace engineering jobs are de­ fense related, unexpected cancellation of a defense contract and other defense expenditure cutbacks can result in layoffs of aerospace engineers. Sources of Additional Information For information on aerospace careers, send $3 to:  ty American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., AIAA Stu­ dent Programs, The Aerospace Center, 370 L’Enfant Promenade SW., Washington, DC 20024-2518.  (See introductory section of this chapter for information on train­ ing requirements and earnings.)  Many work in the production of chemicals and chemical products. They design equipment and develop processes for manufacturing chemicals in chemical plants, plan and test methods of manufactur­ ing the products, and supervise production. Chemical engineers also work in industries other than chemical manufacturing such as elec­ tronics or aircraft manufacturing. Because the knowledge and du­ ties of chemical engineers cut across many fields, they apply princi­ ples of chemistry, physics, mathematics, and mechanical and electrical engineering in their work. They frequently specialize in a particular operation such as oxidation or polymerization. Others specialize in a particular area such as pollution control or the pro­ duction of a specific product like automotive plastics or chlorine bleach.  Employment Chemical engineers held over about 52,000 jobs in 1992. Seventy percent were in manufacturing industries, primarily in the chemical, petroleum refining, and related industries. Most of the rest worked for engineering services, research and testing services, or consulting firms that design chemical plants or do other work on a contract ba­ sis, or worked for government agencies or as independent consul­ tants.  Job Outlook Although employment in the chemical manufacturing industry is projected to grow very little through 2005, chemical engineers should find favorable job opportunities. The number of positions arising from employment growth, which is expected to be as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005, and the need to replace those who leave the occupation should be sufficient to ab­ sorb the number of graduates with degrees in chemical engineering and other entrants. Areas relating to the production of industrial chemicals, biotech­ nology, and materials science may provide better opportunities than other portions of the chemical industry. Much of the projected growth in employment, however, will be in nonmanufacturing in­ dustries, especially service industries.  Chemical Engineers Sources of Additional Information (D.O.T. 008.061)  Nature of the Work Chemical engineers apply the principles of chemistry and engineer­ ing to solve problems involving the production or use of chemicals.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ty American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 345 East 47th St., New York, NY 10017. iy American Chemical Society, Career Services, 1155 16th St. NW, Wash­ ington, DC 20036.  (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements and earnings.)  Professional Specialty Occupations  Civil Engineers  Electrical and Electronics Engineers  (D.O.T. 005.061, .167-014 and -018; and 019.167-018)  Nature of the Work Civil engineers, who work in the oldest branch of engineering, design and supervise the construction of roads, airports, tunnels, bridges, water supply and sewage systems, and buildings. Major specialties within civil engineering are structural, water resources, environmental, construc­ tion, transportation, and geotechnical engineering. Many civil engineers hold supervisory or administrative posi­ tions, ranging from supervisor of a construction site to city engineer. Others may work in design, construction, research, and teaching. Employment Civil engineers held about 173,000 jobs in 1992. Over 40 percent of the jobs were in Federal, State, and local government agencies. Over one-third were in firms that provide engineering consulting services, primarily developing designs for new construction projects. The construction industry, public utilities, transportation, and manufac­ turing industries accounted for most of the rest. Civil engineers usually are found working near major industrial and commercial centers, often at construction sites. Some projects are situated in remote areas or in foreign countries. In some jobs, civil engineers move from place to place to work on different projects. Job Outlook Employment of civil engineers is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005, spurred by population growth and an expanding economy. More civil engineers will be needed to design and construct higher capacity transporta­ tion, water supply, and pollution control systems, large buildings, and other structures, and repair or replace existing roads, bridges, and other public structures. Most job openings, however, will result from the need to replace civil engineers who transfer to other occu­ pations or leave the labor force. Because construction and related industries—including those providing design services—employ many civil engineers, employ­ ment opportunities will vary by geographic area and may decrease during economic slowdowns, when construction often is curtailed.  (D.O.T. 003.061,. 167 except -034 and -070, and .187)  Nature of the Work Electrical and electronics engineers design, develop, test, and super­ vise the manufacture of electrical and electronic equipment. Electri­ cal equipment includes power generating and transmission equip­ ment used by electric utilities, and electric motors, machinery controls, and lighting and wiring in buildings, automobiles, and air­ craft. Electronic equipment includes radar, computer hardware, and communications and video equipment. The specialties of electrical and electronics engineers include sev­ eral major areas—such as power generation, transmission, and dis­ tribution; communications; computer electronics; and electrical equipment manufacturing—or a subdivision of these areas—indus­ trial robot control systems or aviation electronics, for example. Electrical and electronics engineers design new products, write per­ formance requirements, and develop maintenance schedules. They also test equipment, solve operating problems, and estimate the time and cost of engineering projects. Employment Electrical and electronics engineers held about 370,000jobs in 1992, making it the largest branch of engineering. Most jobs were in firms that manufacture electrical and electronic equipment, business ma­ chines, professional and scientific equipment, and aircraft and air­ craft parts. Computer and data processing services firms, engineer­ ing and business consulting firms, public utilities, and government agencies accounted for most of the remaining jobs. Job Outlook Employment opportunities for electrical and electronics engineers are expected to be good through the year 2005. Most job openings will result from job growth and the need to replace electrical engi­ neers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. These openings should be sufficient to absorb the number of new graduates and other entrants.  Sources of Additional Information  lit' American Society of Civil Engineers, 345 E. 47th St., New York, NY 10017.  (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements and earnings.) ■Illlllllliiiiii i  ^  ^  is  ^- - - - - - - y  ■. ;  A civil engineer completes plans for a city park recreational complex and roadway system.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  79  An electrical engineer designs the lighting system for a city traffic circle.  80  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Employment in this engineering specialty is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations. Job growth is ex­ pected to be fastest in industrial sectors other than manufacturing. Increased demand by businesses and government for computers and communications equipment is expected to account for much of the projected employment growth. Consumer demand for electrical and electronic goods and increased research and development on com­ puters, robots, and other types of automation should create addi­ tional jobs. Because many electrical engineering jobs are defense related, cut­ backs in defense spending could result in layoffs of electrical engi­ neers, especially if a defense-related project or contract is unexpect­ edly cancelled. Furthermore, engineers who fail to keep up with the rapid changes in technology in most specialties risk technological obsolescence, which makes them more susceptible to layoffs or, at a minimum, likely to be passed over for advancement. Sources of Additional Information  Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1828 L St. NW., Suite 1202, Washington, DC 20036.  (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements and earnings.)  Industrial Engineers (D.O.T. 005.167-026; 012.061 -018, .067, .167 except -022, -026, -034, -058, and -062, and . 187)  Nature of the Work Industrial engineers determine the most effective ways for an organ­ ization to use the basic factors of production—people, machines, materials, information, and energy—to make or process a product. They are the bridge between management and operations. They are more concerned with increasing productivity through the manage­ ment of people and methods of business organization than are engi­ neers in other specialties, who generally work more with products or processes. To solve organizational, production, and related problems most efficiently, industrial engineers carefully study the product and its requirements, design manufacturing and information systems, and use mathematical analysis methods such as operations research to meet those requirements. They develop management control sys­ tems to aid in financial planning and cost analysis, design produc­ tion planning and control systems to coordinate activities and con­ trol product quality, and design or improve systems for the physical distribution of goods and services. Industrial engineers conduct surveys to find plant locations with the best combination of raw materials, transportation, and costs. They also develop wage and salary administration systems and job evaluation programs. Many industrial engineers move into management positions because the work is closely related. Employment Industrial engineers held about 119,000 jobs in 1992; about 80 per­ cent of jobs were in manufacturing industries. Because their skills can be used in almost any type of organization, industrial engineers are more widely distributed among manufacturing industries than other engineers. Their skills can be readily applied outside manufacturing as well. For example, some work for insurance companies, banks, hospitals, and retail organizations. Others work for government agencies or are independent consultants. Job Outlook Employment of industrial engineers is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005, mak­ ing for favorable opportunities. Most job openings, however, will re­ sult from the need to replace industrial engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Industrial growth, more complex business operations, and the greater use of automation in factories and in offices underlie the pro­ jected employment growth. Because the main function of an indus­ trial engineer is to make a higher quality product as efficiently as  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Industrial engineers determine the most productive way the resources of a business can be used in the production of a product. possible, their services should be in demand in the manufacturing sector as firms seek to reduce costs and increase productivity through scientific management and safety engineering. Sources of Additional Information  O* Institute of Industrial Engineers, Inc., 25 Technology Park/Atlanta, Norcross, GA 30092.  (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements and earnings.)  Mechanical Engineers (D.O.T. 007.061, .161-022, -034, and -038, and .267-010)  Nature of the Work Mechanical engineers plan and design tools, engines, machines, and other mechanical equipment. They design and develop power-pro­ ducing machines such as internal combustion engines, steam and gas turbines, and jet and rocket engines. They also design and de­ velop power-using machines such as refrigeration and air-condition­ ing equipment, robots, machine tools, materials handling systems, and industrial production equipment. The work of mechanical engineers varies by industry and func­ tion. Specialties include, among others, applied mechanics, design engineering, heat transfer, power plant engineering, pressure vessels and piping, and underwater technology. Mechanical engineers de­ sign tools needed by other engineers for their work. Mechanical engineering is the broadest engineering discipline, ex­ tending across many interdependent specialties. Some mechanical engineers work in production operations, maintenance, and techni­ cal sales. Many are administrators or managers. Employment Mechanical engineers held about 227,000 jobs in 1992. More than 3 out of 5 jobs were in manufacturing—of these, most were in the ma­ chinery, transportation equipment, electrical equipment, instru­ ments, and fabricated metal products industries. Business and engi­ neering consulting services and government agencies provided most of the remaining jobs.  Professional Specialty Occupations  81  processing metals into final products. Mechanical metallurgists de­ velop and improve metalworking processes such as casting, forging, rolling, and drawing. Ceramic engineers develop new ceramic materials and methods for making ceramic materials into useful products. Ceramics in­ clude all nonmetallic, inorganic materials which require high tem­ peratures in their processing. Ceramic engineers work on products as diverse as glassware, semiconductors, automobile and aircraft en­ gine components, fiber-optic phone lines, tile, and electric power line insulators. Materials engineers evaluate technical requirements and material specifications to develop materials that can be used, for example, to reduce the weight, but not the strength of an object. Materials engi­ neers also test and evaluate materials and develop new materials, such as the composite materials now being used in “stealth” air­ craft.  A mechanical engineer uses a CAD workstation to design an improved industrial lathe. Job Outlook Employment of mechanical engineers is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Al­ though overall employment in manufacturing is expected to decline, employment of mechanical engineers in manufacturing should in­ crease as the demand for machinery and machine tools grows and industrial machinery and processes become increasingly complex. Employment of mechanical engineers in other sectors of the econ­ omy, such as construction and services, is expected to grow faster than average as firms in these industries learn to apply these engi­ neers’ skills. Job prospects in this field should be favorable through the year 2005. Most of the expected job openings resulting from employment growth and the need to replace those who will leave the occupation should be sufficient to absorb the supply of new graduates and other entrants. Many mechanical engineering jobs are in defense related indus­ tries. Reductions in defense spending has and may continue to result in layoffs in these industries. Sources of Additional Information  *3= The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 345 E. 47th St., New York, NY 10017. tw American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engi­ neers, Inc., 1791 Tullie Circle NE., Atlanta, GA 30329.  (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements and earnings.)  Employment Metallurgical, ceramic, and materials engineers held nearly 19,000 jobs in 1992. About one-quarter worked in metal-producing and processing industries. They also worked in industries that manufac­ ture aircraft and aircraft parts, machinery, and electrical equip­ ment, and in engineering consulting firms, research and testing ser­ vices, and government agencies. Job Outlook Employment of metallurgical, ceramic, and materials engineers is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Many of the industries in which they are concentrated, such as stone, clay, and glass products, primary met­ als, fabricated metal products, and transportation equipment indus­ tries, are expected to experience little if any employment growth through the year 2005. Anticipated employment growth in service industries such as research and testing services and engineering and architectural services, however, should provide significant job open­ ings as these firms are employed to develop improved materials for their industrial customers. Those seeking to become employed as metallurgical, ceramic, and materials engineers should find good opportunities, as the antici­ pated growth should be sufficient to absorb the relatively low num­ ber of new graduates in this engineering discipline. Sources of Additional Information *3°The Minerals, Metals, & Materials Society, 420 Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale, PA 15086-7514. tw ASM International, Student Outreach Program, Materials Park, OH 44073.  (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements and earnings.)  Metallurgical, Ceramic, and Materials Engineers (D.O.T. 006.061; 011.061; and 019.061-014)  Nature of the Work Metallurgical, ceramic, and materials engineers develop new types of metal alloys, ceramics, composites, and other materials which meet special requirements. Examples are graphite golf club shafts that are light but stiff, ceramic tiles on the space shuttle that protect it from overheating during reentry, and the alloy turbine blades in a jet. Most metallurgical engineers work in one of the three main branches of metallurgy—extractive or chemical, physical, and mechanical or process. Extractive metallurgists are concerned with removing metals from ores and refining and alloying them to obtain useful metal. Physical metallurgists study the nature, structure, and physical properties of metals and their alloys, and methods of  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  mjM.  A materials engineer prepares a thin-film deposition experiment.  82  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Mining Engineers (D.O.T. 010.061 except-018)  for mining engineers. In fact, little change in employment is ex­ pected through the year 2005. However, the number of annual open­ ings arising from the need to replace those who transfer out of the occupation or retire should be sufficient to absorb the expected small number of new graduates and other entrants. Sources of Additional Information  Nature of the Work Mining engineers find, extract, and prepare metals and minerals for manufacturing industries to use. They design open pit and under­ ground mines, supervise the construction of mine shafts and tunnels in underground operations, and devise methods for transporting minerals to processing plants. Mining engineers are responsible for the safe, economical, and environmentally sound operation of mines. Some mining engineers work with geologists and metallurgi­ cal engineers to locate and appraise new ore deposits. Others de­ velop new mining equipment or direct mineral processing opera­ tions to separate minerals from the dirt, rock, and other materials they are mixed with. Mining engineers frequently specialize in the mining of one mineral, such as coal or gold. With increased emphasis on protecting the environment, many mining engineers have been working to solve problems related to land reclamation and water and air pollution. Employment Mining engineers held about 3,600 jobs in 1992. Over two-thirds worked in the mining industry. Other jobs were located in engineer­ ing consulting firms, government agencies, or in manufacturing in­ dustries. Mining engineers are usually employed at the location of mineral deposits, often near small communities. Those in research and de­ velopment, management, consulting, or sales, however, often are lo­ cated in metropolitan areas. Job Outlook Opportunities in the mining industry are closely related to the price of the metals and minerals they produce. If the price of these prod­ ucts is high, it makes it worthwhile for a mining company to invest the many millions of dollars in material moving equipment and ore processing technology necessary to operate the mine and make a profit. In the mid-1980’s, mining engineers experienced poor employ­ ment opportunities because low prices for oil and metals reduced profitability in coal, metal, and other mining. The prices of these commodities, metals in particular, have increased recently to levels high enough to raise output and expand employment opportunities. Although the long-term business environment for mining generally is perceived to be favorable, a mine takes years of research, plan­ ning, and development to become fully operational, and, even then, may not contribute to rapid expansion in employment opportunities  ©" The Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc., P.O. Box 625002, Littleton, CO 80162-5002.  (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements and earnings.)  Nuclear Engineers (D.O.T. 015.061, .067, .137, and .167)  Nature of the Work Nuclear engineers conduct research on nuclear energy and radia­ tion. They design, develop, monitor, and operate nuclear power plants used to generate electricity and power Navy ships. For exam­ ple, they may work on the nuclear fuel cycle—the production, han­ dling, and use of nuclear fuel and the safe disposal of waste pro­ duced by nuclear energy—or on fusion energy. Some specialize in the development of nuclear weapons; others develop industrial and medical uses for radioactive materials such as equipment to help di­ agnose and treat medical problems. Employment Nuclear engineers held about 17,000 jobs in 1992; one-fifth each were in the Federal Government, research and testing services, and utilities. Nearly half of all federally employed nuclear engineers were civilian employees of the Navy, about one-third worked for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and most of the rest worked for the Department of Energy or the Tennessee Valley Authority. Most nonfederally employed nuclear engineers worked for public utilities or engineering consulting companies. Some worked for defense manufacturers or manufacturers of nuclear power equipment. Job Outlook Because of concerns over the cost and safety of nuclear power, it is unlikely that any new nuclear power plants will be built by the year 2005. Nevertheless, nuclear engineers will be needed to operate ex­ isting plants. In addition, nuclear engineers will be needed to work in defense-related areas and to improve and enforce safety stan­ dards. Therefore, employment of nuclear engineers is expected to change little through the year 2005. Despite the expected absence of employment growth, good op­ portunities for nuclear engineers should exist because the number of  i [pm if  *mm ip« rTf t  A mining engineer studies a map of a strip mine.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  A nuclear engineer assesses the operation of a reactor and its power generating unit.  Professional Specialty Occupations persons graduating with degrees in nuclear engineering is likely to be in rough balance with the number of job openings. Those open­ ings will arise as nuclear engineers transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force.  ft it®  - -  83  *  Sources of Additional Information  W American Nuclear Society, 555 North Kensington Ave., LaGrange Park, IL 60525.  (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements and earnings.)  Petroleum Engineers (D.O.T. 010.061 except -014 and -026, .161-010, and .167-010 and -014)  paw;'-: Nature of the Work Petroleum engineers explore for and produce oil and natural gas. If a workable reservoir containing oil or natural gas is discovered, pe­ troleum engineers work to achieve the maximum profitable recov­ ery from the reservoir by determining and developing the most effi­ cient production methods. Beacause only a small proportion of the oil and gas in a reservoir will flow out under natural forces, petroleum engineers develop and use various enhanced recovery methods. These include injecting water, chemicals, or steam into an oil reservoir to force more of the oil out, and horizontal drilling or fracturing to connect more of a gas reservoir to a well. Since even the best methods in use today recover only a portion of the oil and gas in a reservoir, petroleum engineers work to find ways to increase this proportion. Employment Petroleum engineers held over 14,000 jobs in 1992, mostly in the pe­ troleum industry and closely allied fields. Employers include major oil companies and hundreds of smaller, independent oil exploration, production, and service companies. Engineering consulting firms, government agencies, oil field services, and equipment suppliers also employ petroleum engineers. Others work as independent consul­ tants. Because petroleum engineers specialize in the discovery and pro­ duction of oil and gas, relatively few are employed in the refining, transportation, and retail sectors of the oil and gas industry. Most petroleum engineers work where oil and gas are found. Large numbers are employed in Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and California, including offshore sites. Also, many American petro­ leum engineers work overseas in oil-producing countries. Job Outlook The price of oil has a major effect on the level of employment oppor­ tunities for petroleum engineers in the United States. A high price of   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  i.  A petroleum engineer checks the flow of crude oil at a pumping unit. oil and gas makes it profitable for oil exploration firms to seek oil and gas reservoirs, and they will hire petroleum engineers to do so. With low oil prices, however, it is cheaper to purchase needed oil from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), such as Saudi Arabia, who have vast oil reserves. Employment of petroleum engineers is expected to decline through the year 2005 unless oil and gas prices unexpectedly in­ crease enough to encourage increased exploration for oil in this country. Even if new job growth doesn’t materialize, employment opportunities for petroleum engineers should be good because the number of degrees granted in petroleum engineering has tradition­ ally been low. So, new graduates are not likely to significantly ex­ ceed the number of job openings that will arise as petroleum engi­ neers transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Sources of Additional Information or Society of Petroleum Engineers, 222 Palisades Creek Dr., Richardson, TX 75080.  (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements and earnings.)  Architects and Surveyors Architects (D.O.T. 001.061-010and .167-010)  Nature of the Work Architects design buildings and other structures. The design of a building involves far more than its appearance. Buildings must also be functional, safe, and economical and must suit the needs of the people who use them. Architects take all these things into consider­ ation when they design buildings and other structures. Architects provide a wide variety of professional services to indi­ viduals and organizations planning a construction project. They may be involved in all phases of development, from the initial dis­ cussion of general ideas with the client through construction. Their duties require a number of skills—design, engineering, managerial, communication, and supervisory. The architect and client first discuss the purposes, requirements, and budget of a project. Based on the discussions, the architect may prepare a program—a report specifying the requirements the design must meet. In some cases, the architect assists in conducting feasi­ bility and environmental impact analyses and selecting a site. The architect then prepares drawings and written information present­ ing ideas for the client to review. After the initial proposals are discussed and accepted, the archi­ tect develops final construction plans. These plans show the build­ ing’s appearance and details for its construction. Accompanying these are drawings of the structural system; air-conditioning, heat­ ing, and ventilating systems; electrical systems; plumbing; and pos­ sibly site and landscape plans. Architects also specify the building materials and, in some cases, the interior furnishings. In developing designs, architects follow building codes, zoning laws, fire regula­ tions, and other ordinances, such as those that require easy access by disabled persons. Throughout the planning stage, the architect makes necessary changes. While architects have traditionally used pencil and paper to produce design and construction drawings, ar­ chitects are increasingly turning to computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) technology for these important tasks. The architect may also assist the client in obtaining construction bids, selecting a contractor, and negotiating the construction con­ tract. As construction proceeds, the architect may be employed by the client to visit the building site to ensure that the contractor is fol­ lowing the design, meeting the schedule, using the specified materi­ als, and meeting the specified standards for the quality of work. The job is not complete until all construction is finished, required tests are made, and construction costs are paid. Architects design a wide variety of buildings, such as office and apartment buildings, schools, churches, factories, hospitals, houses, and airport terminals. They also design multibuilding complexes such as urban centers, college campuses, industrial parks, and entire communities. In addition to designing buildings, architects may ad­ vise on the selection of building sites, prepare cost analysis and landuse studies, and do long-range planning for land development. Architects sometimes specialize in one phase of work. Some spe­ cialize in the design of one type of building—for example, hospitals, schools, or housing. Others specialize in construction management or the management of their firm and do little design work. Archi­ tects often work with engineers, urban planners, interior designers, landscape architects, and others. During a training period leading up to licensure as architects, en­ try-level workers are called intern-architects. This training period gives them practical work experience while they prepare for the Ar­ chitect Registration Examination. Typical duties may include pre­ paring construction drawings on CADD, assisting in the design of one part of a project, or managing the production of a small project. Working Conditions Architects generally work in a comfortable environment. Most of their time is spent in offices advising clients, developing reports and 84  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ^gPPi  Architects occasionally work nights and weekends to meet project deadlines. drawings, and working with other architects and engineers. How­ ever, they also often work at construction sites reviewing the pro­ gress of projects. While a 40-hour workweek is usual, architects may occasionally be under great stress, working nights and weekends to meet dead­ lines. Employment Architects held about 96,000 jobs in 1992. Most jobs were in archi­ tecture firms—the majority of which employ fewer than five work­ ers. About one-third were self-employed architects, practicing as partners in architecture firms or on their own. A few worked for builders, real estate developers, and for government agencies re­ sponsible for housing, planning, or community development such as the Departments of Defense, Interior, and Housing and Urban De­ velopment, and the General Services Administration. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement All States and the District of Columbia require individuals to be li­ censed (registered) before they may call themselves architects or contract to provide architectural services. Many architecture school graduates work in the field even though they are not licensed. How­ ever, a licensed architect is required to take legal responsibility for all work. Three requirements generally must be met for licensure: A professional degree in architecture, a period of practical training or internship (usually for 3 years), and passage of all sections of the Ar­ chitect Registration Examination. In most States, the professional degree in architecture must be from one of the approximately 100 schools of architecture with pro­ grams accredited by the National Architectural Accrediting Board. There are several types of professional degrees in architecture. Over half of all architecture degrees are from 5-year Bachelor of Archi­ tecture programs intended for students entering from high school. Some schools offer a 2-year Master of Architecture program for stu­ dents with a preprofessional undergraduate degree in architecture or a related area, or a 3- or 4-year Master of Architecture program for students with a degree in another discipline. In addition, there are many combinations and variations of these degree programs.  Professional Specialty Occupations The choice of degree type depends upon each individual’s prefer­ ence and educational background. Prospective architecture students should carefully consider the available options before committing to a program. For example, although the 5-year Bachelor of Architec­ ture program offers the fastest route to the professional degree, courses are specialized and, if the student does not complete the pro­ gram, moving to a nonarchitecture program may be difficult. A typ­ ical program includes courses in architectural history and theory, building design, including its technical and legal aspects, profes­ sional practice, math, physical sciences, and liberal arts. Many ar­ chitecture schools also offer graduate education for those who al­ ready have a bachelor’s or master’s degree in architecture or other areas. Although graduate education beyond the professional degree is not essential for practicing architects, it is normally required for research, teaching, and certain specialties. Architects must be able to visually communicate their ideas to cli­ ents. Artistic and drawing ability is very helpful in doing this, but not essential. More important is a visual orientation and the ability to conceptualize and understand spatial relationships. Good com­ munication skills (both written and oral), the ability to work inde­ pendently or as part of a team, and creativity are important qualities for anyone interested in becoming an architect. Computer literacy is also required as most firms use computers for word processing, specifications writing, two- and three-dimensional drafting, and fi­ nancial management. A knowledge of computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) is helpful and will become more important as ar­ chitecture firms continue to adopt this technology. New graduates usually begin in architecture firms, where they as­ sist in preparing architectural documents or drawings. They also may do research on building codes and materials; or write specifica­ tions for building materials, installation criteria, the quality of fin­ ishes, and other related details. Graduates with degrees in architec­ ture also enter related fields such as graphic, interior, or industrial design; urban planning; real estate development; civil engineering; or construction management. In large firms, architects may advance to supervisory or manage­ rial positions. Some architects become partners in established firms; others set up their own practice. Job Outlook Employment opportunities for architects are highly dependent on the level of local construction, particularly of nonresidential struc­ tures such as office buildings and shopping centers. Because the level of construction nationally is not expected to be higher during the 1992-2005 period than the 1980’s, employment growth of archi­ tects is expected to increase as fast as the average for all occupations through 2005. Although the need to replace architects who leave the labor force will provide many job openings in addition to growth openings, and the number of degrees granted in architecture is not expected to increase significantly, prospective architects may still face competition, particularly for jobs in the most prestigious firms. Also, noninstitutional construction is sensitive to cyclical changes in the economy, and during recessions architects will face strong com­ petition for jobs or clients, and layoffs may occur. Architects in­ volved in the design of institutional buildings such as schools, hospi­ tals, and nursing homes, will be less affected by fluctuations in the economy. The expected expansion of the population under age 15 and over age 65 should spur the demand for such buildings. Even in times of overall good opportunities, there may be areas of the country with poor opportunities. Architects who are licensed to practice in one State must meet the licensing requirements of other States before practicing elsewhere. These requirements are becom­ ing more standardized, however, facilitating movement to other States. Although the use of computer-aided design and drafting is be­ coming more prevalent in architecture firms, it is not expected to re­ duce the need for architects. Rather, CADD allows architects to vis­ ualize, develop, and present more options, and to make changes in plans and elevations more easily, improving the quality of building designs and increasing productivity and profit margins for firms. Prospective architects who know CADD technology may experi­ ence better opportunities in the future, particularly in a competitive job market.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  85  Earnings According to The American Institute of Architects, the median sal­ ary for intern-architects in architecture firms was $24,500 in 1992. Licensed architects with 8 to 10 years’ experience but who were not managers or principals of a firm earned a median salary of $36,700 in 1992; and principals or partners of firms earned a median salary of $50,000 in 1992. Partners in some large practices earned over $100,000. Most employers of wage and salary architects offer paid vacation and sick leave, and many also provide medical insurance. Employees of very small architecture firms (fewer than 5 employ­ ees) are less likely to receive these benefits. Architects who are partners in well-established architecture firms generally earn much more than their salaried employees, but their income may fluctuate due to changing business conditions. Archi­ tects may have difficulty getting established in their own practices and may go through a period when their expenses are greater than their income, requiring substantial financial resources. Related Occupations Architects are concerned with the design and construction of build­ ings and related structures. Others who engage in similar work are landscape architects, building contractors, civil engineers, urban planners, interior designers, industrial designers, drafters, and graphic designers. Sources of Additional Information Information about education and careers in architecture can be ob­ tained from: IS" Director, Careers in Architecture Programs, The American Institute of Architects, 1735 New York Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20006.  Landscape Architects (D.O.T. 001.061-018)  Nature of the Work Everyone enjoys attractively designed residential areas, public parks, college campuses, shopping centers, golf courses, parkways, and industrial parks. Landscape architects design these areas so that they are not only functional but beautiful and compatible with the natural environment as well. They may plan the location of build­ ings, roads, and walkways and the arrangement of flowers, shrubs, and trees. They also may redesign streets to limit automobile traffic and to improve pedestrian access and safety. Natural resource con­ servation and historic preservation are other important objectives to which landscape architects may apply their knowledge of the envi­ ronment as well as their design and artistic talents. Landscape architects are hired by many types of organizations— from real estate development firms starting new projects to munici­ palities constructing airports or parks. They are often involved with the development of a site from its conception. Working with archi­ tects and engineers, they help determine the best arrangement of roads and buildings. Once these decisions are made, landscape ar­ chitects create detailed plans indicating new topography, vegeta­ tion, walkways, and landscape amenities. In planning a site, landscape architects first consider the nature and purpose of the project and the funds available. They analyze the natural elements of the site, such as the climate, soil, slope of the land, drainage, and vegetation. They observe where sunlight falls on the site at different times of the day and examine the site from vari­ ous angles. They assess the effect of existing buildings, roads, walk­ ways, and utilities on the project. After studying and analyzing the site, they prepare a preliminary design. To account for the needs of the client as well as the condi­ tions at the site, they may have to make many changes before a final design is approved. An increasing number of landscape architects are using computer-aided design (CAD) systems to assist them in preparing their designs. Many landscape architects are also using video simulation as a tool to help clients envision the landscape ar­ chitects’ ideas. Throughout all phases of the design, landscape architects consult with other professionals involved in the project. Once the design is  86  Occupational Outlook Handbook  complete, they prepare a proposal for the client. They draw up de­ tailed plans of the site, including written reports, sketches, models, photographs, land-use studies, and cost estimates, and submit them for approval by the client and by regulatory agencies. If the plans are approved, landscape architects prepare working drawings show­ ing all existing and proposed features. They also outline in detail the methods of construction and draw up a list of necessary materials. Although many landscape architects supervise the installation of their design, some are involved in the construction of the site. How­ ever, this usually is done by the developer or contractor. Some landscape architects work on a wide variety of projects. Others specialize in a particular area, such as residential develop­ ment, historic landscape restoration, waterfront improvement projects, parks and playgrounds, or shopping centers. Still others work in regional planning and resource management; feasibility, en­ vironmental impact, and cost studies; or site construction. Some landscape architects teach at the college or university level. Although most landscape architects do at least some residential work, relatively few limit their practice to landscape design for indi­ vidual homeowners because most residential landscape design projects are too small to provide suitable income compared with larger commercial or multiunit residential projects. Some nurseries offer residential landscape design services, but these services often are performed by lesser qualified landscape designers or others with training and experience in related areas. Landscape architects who work for government agencies do simi­ lar work at national parks, government buildings, and other govern­ ment-owned facilities. In addition, they may prepare environmental impact statements and studies on environmental issues such as pub­ lic land-use planning. Working Conditions Landscape architects spend most of their time in offices creating plans and designs, preparing models and cost estimates, doing re­ search, or attending meetings. The remainder of their time is spent at the site. Before the project is actually begun, landscape architects analyze the site. During the design and planning stage, they may visit the site to verify that the design can be incorporated into the landscape. After the plans and specifications are completed, they spend time at the site observing or supervising the construction. Those who work in large firms may spend considerably more time out of the office because of travel to sites outside the local area. Salaried employees in both government and landscape architec­ tural firms usually work regular hours, although they may work overtime to meet a project deadline. Hours of self-employed land­ scape architects may vary. Employment Landscape architects held about 19,000 jobs in 1992. Three-fifths worked for firms that provide landscape architecture services. Most  A landscape architect prepares final working drawings after a design is approved.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  of the rest were employed by architectural firms. The Federal Gov­ ernment also employs these workers; most were found in the U.S. Departments of Agriculture, Defense, and the Interior. About 1 of every 6 landscape architects was self-employed. Most employment for landscape architects is concentrated in ur­ ban and suburban areas in all parts of the country. Some landscape architects work in rural areas, particularly those in the Federal Government who plan and design parks and recreation areas. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s or master’s degree in landscape architecture is usually necessary for entry into the profession. The bachelor’s degree in landscape architecture takes 4 or 5 years to complete. There are two types of master’s degree programs. The master’s degree as a first professional degree is a 3-year program designed for students with an undergraduate degree in another discipline; this is the most com­ mon type. The master’s degree as the second professional degree is a 2-year program for students who have a bachelor’s degree in land­ scape architecture and wish to demonstrate mastery or specialize in some aspect of landscape architecture. In 1992, approximately 50 colleges and universities offered 65 un­ dergraduate and graduate programs in landscape architecture that were accredited by the Landscape Architecture Accreditation Board of the American Society of Landscape Architects. College courses required in this field usually include technical subjects such as surveying, landscape design and construction, land­ scape ecology, structural design, and city and regional planning. Other courses include history of landscape architecture, plant and soil science, geology, design and color theory, and general manage­ ment. In addition, most students at the undergraduate level take a year of prerequisite courses such as English, mathematics, and so­ cial and physical science. The design studio is an important aspect of many landscape architecture curriculums. Whenever possible, stu­ dents are assigned real projects to work on, providing them with val­ uable hands-on experience. While working on real projects, students may become more proficient in the use of technologies such as com­ puter-aided design, geographic information systems, and video sim­ ulation. Forty-four States require landscape architects to be licensed. Li­ censing is based on the Landscape Architect Registration Examina­ tion (L. A.R.E.), sponsored by the Council of Landscape Architec­ tural Registration Boards. Admission to the exam usually requires a degree from an accredited school plus 1 to 4 years of work experi­ ence, although standards vary from State to State. Nineteen States require additional examinations focusing on laws and/or plant materials indigenous to their State. Because States’ requirements for licensure are not uniform, land­ scape architects may not find it easy to transfer their registration to another State to practice. However, those who meet the national standard of graduating from an accredited program, serving 3 years of internship under the supervision of a registered landscape archi­ tect, and passing of the L.A.R.E. can satisfy requirements in most States. In the Federal Government, candidates for entry positions should have a bachelor’s or master’s degree in landscape architecture. The Federal Government does not require its landscape architects to be licensed. Persons planning a career in landscape architecture should appre­ ciate nature and enjoy working with their hands. Although creativ­ ity and artistic talent are also desirable qualities, they are not abso­ lutely essential to success as a landscape architect. High school courses in mechanical or geometric drawing, art, botany, and math­ ematics are helpful. Good oral communication skills are important, because these workers must be able to convey their ideas to other professionals and to clients and to make presentations before large groups. Those interested in starting their own firm should be skilled in small business management. In States where licensure is required, new hires are technically called intern landscape architects until they become licensed. Intern landscape architects’ duties vary depending on the type and size of employing firm. They may do project research or prepare base maps of the area to be landscaped, while some are allowed to participate in the actual design of a project. However, interns must perform all work under the supervision of a licensed landscape architect. Addi­ tionally, all drawings and specifications must be signed and/or  Professional Specialty Occupations sealed by the licensed landscape architect, who takes legal responsi­ bility for the work. After gaining experience and becoming licensed, landscape architects usually can carry a design through all stages of development. After several years, they may become associates, and eventually they may become partners in a firm or open their own of­ fices. Job Outlook Employment of landscape architects is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. The level of new construction plays an important role in determining de­ mand for landscape architects. Anticipated growth in construction is expected to increase demand for landscape architectural services over the long run. An increasing proportion of office and other com­ mercial and industrial development will occur outside cities. These projects are typically located on larger sites with more surrounding land which needs to be designed, in contrast to urban development, which often includes little or no surrounding land. Also, as the cost of land increases, the importance of good site planning and land­ scape design increases. Because employment is linked to new con­ struction, however, landscape architects may face layoffs and com­ petition for jobs when real estate sales and construction slow down, such as during a recession. Increased development of open space into recreation areas, wild­ life refuges, and parks will also require the skills of landscape archi­ tects. Continued concern for the environment should stimulate em­ ployment growth because of the need to design development projects which best fit in with the surrounding environment. In addition to the work related to new development and construc­ tion, landscape architects are expected to be involved in historic preservation, local, city, and regional planning, land reclamation, and refurbishment of existing sites. Although landscape architects are increasingly using computeraided design and other technologies, employment is not expected to be affected because these technologies will be used to create more and better designs rather than reduce the demand for landscape ar­ chitects. In addition to new openings due to job growth, nearly as many openings are expected to result from the need to replace landscape architects who retire or leave the labor force for other reasons. Earnings According to the limited data available, graduates with a bachelor’s degree in landscape architecture started at about $20,400 in 1992; those with a master’s degree started at about $30,600. Although sal­ aries for experienced landscape architects vary by location and ex­ perience, the median salary for all landscape architects was about $41,900 in 1992. Those who are partners in well-established firms may earn much more than their salaried employees, but their in­ comes may fluctuate with changing business conditions. In 1993, the average annual salary for all landscape architects in the Federal Government in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial posi­ tions was $46,855. Because many landscape architects work for small firms or are self-employed, benefits tend to be less generous than those of other workers with similar skills who work for large organizations. With the exception of those who are self-employed, however, most land­ scape architects receive health insurance, paid vacations, and sick leave. Related Occupations Landscape architects use their knowledge of design, construction, and land-use planning to develop a landscape project. Others whose work requires similar skills are architects, interior designers, civil engineers, and urban and regional planners. Landscape architects also know how to grow and use plants in the landscape. Botanists, who study plants in general, and horticulturists, who study orna­ mental plants as well as fruit, vegetable, greenhouse, and nursery crops, do similar work. Sources of Additional Information Additional information, including a list of colleges and universities offering accredited programs in landscape architecture, is available from: ty American Society of Landscape Architects, 4401 Connecticut Ave. NW„ Washington, DC 20008.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  87  General information on registration or licensing requirements is available from: ^Council of Landscape Architectural Registration Boards, 12700 Fair Lakes Circle, Suite 110, Fairfax, VA 22033.  Surveyors (D.O.T. 018 except. 167-022, and 024.061-014)  Nature of the Work This statement covers three groups of workers who measure and map the earth’s surface. Land surveyors establish official land, air space, and water boundaries. They write descriptions of land for deeds, leases, and other legal documents; define air space for air­ ports; and measure construction and mineral sites. They are assisted by survey technicians, who operate surveying instruments and col­ lect information. Mapping scientists and other surveyors collect geo­ graphic information and prepare maps and charts of large areas. Land surveyors manage one or more survey parties that measure distances, directions, and angles between points and elevations of points, lines, and contours on the earth’s surface. They plan the fieldwork, select known survey reference points, and determine the precise location of all important features of the survey area. They re­ search legal records and look for evidence of previous boundaries. They record the results of the survey, verify the accuracy of data, and prepare plats, maps, and reports. Surveyors who establish offi­ cial boundaries must be licensed by the State in which they work. The information needed by the land surveyor is gathered by a sur­ vey party. A typical survey party is made up of a party chief and sev­ eral survey technicians and helpers. The party chief, who may be ei­ ther a land surveyor or a senior survey technician, leads the day-to­ day work activities. The party chief is assisted by survey technicians, who adjust and operate surveying instruments such as the theodolite (used to measure horizontal and vertical angles) and electronic dis­ tance-measuring equipment. Survey technicians or helpers position and hold the vertical rods or targets that the theodolite operator sights on to measure angles, distances, or elevations. They may also hold measuring tapes and chains if electronic distance-measuring equipment is not used. Survey technicians also compile notes, make sketches, and enter the data obtained from these instruments into computers. Some survey parties include laborers or helpers to clear brush from sight lines, drive stakes, carry equipment, and perform other less skilled duties. New technology is changing the nature of the work of surveyors and survey technicians. For larger surveying projects, surveyors are increasingly using the Global Positioning System (GPS), a satellite system which precisely locates points on the earth using radio sig­ nals transmitted by satellites. To use it, a surveyor places a satellite receiver—about the size of a backpack—on a desired point. The re­ ceiver collects information from several differently positioned satel­ lites at once to locate its precise position. Two receivers are gener­ ally operated simultaneously, one at a known point and the other at the unknown point. The receiver can also be placed in a vehicle to trace out road systems, or for other uses. As the cost of the receivers falls, much more surveying work will be done by GPS. Mapping scientists, like land surveyors, measure, map, and chart the earth’s surface but generally cover much larger areas. Unlike land surveyors, however, mapping scientists work mainly in offices and may seldom or never visit the sites they are mapping. Mapping scientists include workers in several occupations. Cartographers pre­ pare maps using information provided by geodetic surveys, aerial photographs, and satellite data. Photogrammetrists prepare maps and drawings by measuring and interpreting aerial photographs, us­ ing analytical processes and mathematical formulas. Photogramme­ trists make detailed maps of areas that are inaccessible or difficult to survey by other methods. Map editors develop and verify map con­ tents from aerial photographs and other reference sources. Some surveyors perform specialized functions which are closer to mapping science than traditional surveying. Geodetic surveyors use high-accuracy techniques, including satellite observations, to mea­ sure large areas of the earth’s surface. Geophysical prospecting sur­ veyors mark sites for subsurface exploration, usually petroleum re­ lated. Marine surveyors survey harbors, rivers, and other bodies of  88  Occupational Outlook Handbook  water to determine shorelines, topography of the bottom, water depth, and other features. The work of mapping scientists is also changing due to new tech­ nologies. The technologies include the GPS, Geographic Informa­ tion Systems (GIS)—which are computerized data banks of spatial data—new earth resources data satellites, and improved aerial pho­ tography. From the older specialties of photogrammetrist or cartog­ rapher, a new type of mapping scientist is emerging. The geographic information specialist combines the functions of mapping science and surveying into a broader field concerned with the collection and analysis of geographic spatial information. Working Conditions Surveyors usually work an 8-hour day, 5 days a week, and spend a lot of their time outdoors. Sometimes they work longer hours during the summer, when weather and light conditions are most suitable for fieldwork. Land surveyors and technicians do active and sometimes strenu­ ous work. They often stand for long periods, walk long distances, and climb hills with heavy packs of instruments and equipment. They also are exposed to all types of weather. Occasionally, they may commute long distances, stay overnight, or even temporarily relocate near a survey site. Surveyors also spend considerable time in offices, planning surveys, analyzing data, and preparing reports and maps. Most computations and map drafting are done at a computer. Mapping scientists spend almost all their time in offices. Employment Surveyors held about 99,000 jobs in 1992. Engineering, architec­ tural, and surveying firms employed nearly three-fifths of all survey­ ors. Federal, State, and local government agencies employed an ad­ ditional one-fourth. Major Federal Government employers are the U.S. Geological Survey, the Bureau of Land Management, the Army Corps of Engineers, the Forest Service, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the Defense Mapping Agency. Most surveyors in State and local government work for highway departments and urban planning and redevelopment agen­ cies. Construction firms, mining and oil and gas extraction compa­ nies, and public utilities also employ surveyors. About 10,000 sur­ veyors were self-employed.  Land surveyors measure distances and elevations along the earth’s surface.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Most persons prepare to be a licensed surveyor by combining post­ secondary school courses in surveying with extensive on-the-job training. About 25 universities offer 4-year programs leading to a BS degree in surveying. Junior and community colleges, technical insti­ tutes, and vocational schools offer 1-, 2-, and 3-year programs in both surveying and surveying technology. High school students interested in surveying should take courses in algebra, geometry, trigonometry, drafting, mechanical drawing, and computer science. All 50 States license land surveyors. For licensure, most State li­ censing boards require that individuals pass two written examina­ tions, one prepared by the State and one given by the National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying. In addition, they must meet varying standards of formal education and work ex­ perience in the field. In the past, many surveyors started as members of survey crews and worked their way up to licensed surveyor with little formal training in surveying. However, due to advancing tech­ nology and an increase in licensing standards, more formal educa­ tion is now required. Most States at the present time require some formal post-high school education courses and 5 to 12 years of sur­ veying experience to gain licensure. However, requirements vary among the States. Generally, the quickest route is a combination of 4 years of college, 2 to 4 years of experience (a few States do not re­ quire any), and passing the licensing examinations. An increasing number of States require a bachelor’s degree in surveying or in a closely related field such as civil engineering or forestry with courses in surveying. High school graduates with no formal training in surveying usu­ ally start as a helper. Beginners with postsecondary school training in surveying can generally start as technicians. With on-the-job ex­ perience and formal training in surveying—either in an institutional program or from a correspondence school—workers may advance to senior survey technician, then to party chief, and finally, in some cases, to licensed surveyor (depending on State licensing require­ ments). The American Congress on Surveying and Mapping has a volun­ tary certification program for survey technicians. Technicians are certified at four levels that require progressive amounts of experi­ ence; technicians who qualify are certified at a higher level after passing a written examination. Although not required for State li­ censure, many employers require certification for promotion to more responsible positions. Cartographers and photogrammetrists usually have a bachelor’s degree in engineering or a physical science, although it is possible to enter these jobs through experience as a photogrammetric or carto­ graphic technician. Most cartographic and photogrammetry techni­ cians have had some specialized postsecondary school training. With the development of Geographic Information Systems, cartog­ raphers, photogrammetrists, and other mapping scientists now need more education and experience in the use of computers than in the past. The American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing has voluntary certification programs for photogrammetrists and mapping scientists. To qualify for these professional distinctions, in­ dividuals must meet work experience standards and pass an oral or written examination. Surveyors should have the ability to visualize objects, distances, sizes, and other abstract forms and to work precisely and accurately because mistakes can be very costly. Surveying is a cooperative pro­ cess, so good interpersonal skills and the ability to work as part of a team are important. Leadership qualities are important for party chief and other supervisory positions. Members of a survey party must be in good physical condition to work outdoors and carry equipment over difficult terrain. They also need good eyesight, coordination, and hearing to communicate by hand or voice signals. Job Outlook Employment of surveyors is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. In addition to openings arising from growth in demand for surveyors, many will result from the need to replace those who transfer to other occupa­ tions or leave the labor force.  Professional Specialty Occupations Growth in construction through the year 2005 should create jobs for surveyors who lay out streets, shopping centers, housing devel­ opments, factories, office buildings, and recreation areas. Road and highway construction and improvement also should create new sur­ veying positions. However, employment may fluctuate from year to year along with construction activity. Some growth in employment of mapping scientists and other sur­ veyors may occur in private firms; little or no growth is expected in the Federal Government. As a result of trends towards more complex technology, upgraded licensing requirements, and the increased demand for geographic spatial data (as opposed to traditional surveying services), opportu­ nities will be best for surveyors and mapping scientists who have at least a bachelor’s degree. New technology such as GPS and GIS may increase productivity for larger projects and may enhance em­ ployment opportunities for surveyors and survey technicians who have the educational background to use it, but limit opportunities for those with less education. Earnings In 1992, the median annual earnings for surveyors were about $26,800. The middle 50 percent earned between about $22,600 and $37,000 a year. The median annual earnings for survey technicians were about $23,700 a year in 1992. The middle 50 percent earned between $17,900 and $31,700 a year; 10 percent earned less than $14,500 a year; 10 percent earned more than $38,500 a year. In 1993, The Federal Government hired high school graduates with little or no training or experience at salaries or about $13,400 annually for entry level jobs on survey crews. Those with 1 year of   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  89  related postsecondary training earned about $14,600 a year. Those with an associate degree that included courses in surveying gener­ ally started as instrument assistants with an annual salary of about $16,400. In 1993, persons starting as land surveyors or cartogra­ phers with the Federal Government earned about $18,300 or $22,700 a year, depending on their qualifications. The average an­ nual salary for Federal land surveyors in 1993 was about $41,000, for cartographers, about $44,000, and for geodesists, about $47,600. The average annual salary for Federal surveying technicians was about $24,000, for cartographic technicians, about $30,100, and for geodetic technicians, about $37,300. Related Occupations Surveying is related to the work of civil engineers and architects, since an accurate survey is the first step in a construction project. Mapping science and geodetic surveying are related to the work of geologists and geophysicists, who study the earth’s internal compo­ sition, surface, and atmosphere. Mapping science is also related to the work of geographers and urban planners, who study how the earth’s surface is used. Sources of Additional Information Information about career opportunities, licensure requirements, and the survey technician certification program is available from:  fW American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, 5410 Grosvenor Lane, Bethesda,MD 20814-2122.  General information on careers in photogrammetry is available from: tw American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 5410 Gros­ venor Lane, Suite 200, Bethesda, MD 20814.  Computer, Mathematical, and Operations Research Occupations Actuaries (D.O.T. 020.167-010)  Nature of the Work Why do young drivers pay more for automobile insurance than older drivers? How much should an insurance policy cost? How much should an organization contribute each year to its pension fund? Answers to these and similar questions are provided by actua­ ries, who design insurance and pension plans and ensure that they are maintained on a sound financial basis. Actuaries assemble and analyze statistics to calculate probabili­ ties of death, sickness, injury, disability, unemployment, retirement, and property loss. They use this information to determine the ex­ pected insured loss. For example, they may calculate the probability of claims due to automobile accidents, which can vary depending on the insured’s driving history, type of car, and many other factors. They must make sure that the price charged for the insurance will enable the company to pay all claims and expenses as they occur. Fi­ nally, this price must be profitable and yet be competitive with other insurance companies. In a similar manner, the actuary calculates premium rates and determines policy contract provisions for each type of insurance offered. Most actuaries specialize in either life, health, or property and casualty insurance; others specialize in pen­ sion plans or in financial planning and investment. To perform their duties effectively, actuaries must keep informed about general economic and social trends and legislative, health, and other developments that may affect insurance practices. Be­ cause of their broad knowledge of insurance, company actuaries may work in investment, underwriting, or pension planning depart­ ments. Actuaries in executive positions help determine company policy. In that role, they may be called upon to explain complex technical matters to other company executives, government offi­ cials, policyholders, and the public. They may testify before public agencies on proposed legislation affecting the insurance business, for example, or explain changes in premium rates or contract provi­ sions. They also may help companies develop plans to enter new lines of business, such as environmental risk, or long-term health care. The small number of actuaries who work for the Federal Govern­ ment usually deal with a particular insurance or pension program, such as Social Security or life insurance for veterans and members of the Armed Forces. Actuaries in State government are usually em­ ployed by State insurance departments that regulate insurance com­ panies, oversee the operations of State retirement or pension sys­ tems, handle unemployment insurance or workers’ compensation problems, and assess the impact of proposed legislation. They might determine whether the rates charged by an insurance company are proper or whether an employee benefit plan is financially sound. Consulting actuaries provide advice for a fee to various clients in­ cluding insurance companies, corporations, hospitals, labor unions, government agencies, and attorneys. Some consulting actuaries set up pension and welfare plans, calculate future benefits, and deter­ mine the amount of employer contributions. They also provide ad­ vice to health care and financial services firms. Consultants may be called upon to testify in court regarding the value of potential life­ time earnings lost by a person who has been disabled or killed in an accident, the current value of future pension benefits in divorce cases, or the calculation of automobile insurance rates. Actuaries who are enrolled under the provisions of the Employee Retirement 90   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA) evaluate the pension plans covered by that act and report on their financial soundness. Working Conditions Actuaries have desk jobs that require no unusual physical activity; their offices generally are comfortable and pleasant. They usually work at least 40 hours a week. Some actuaries, particularly consult­ ing actuaries, often travel to meet with clients. Consulting actuaries may also be expected to work more than 40 hours per week. Employment Actuaries held about 15,000 jobs in 1992. Some actuaries were selfemployed. Well over one-half of wage and salary actuaries worked in the in­ surance industry. Most worked for life insurance companies; others worked for property, casualty, and health insurance companies, and insurance agents and brokers. Most of the remaining actuaries worked for firms providing services, especially consulting actuarial services. A small number of actuaries worked for government agen­ cies. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A good educational background for a beginning job in a large life or casualty company is a bachelor’s degree in a mathematics- or busi­ ness-related discipline, such as actuarial science, mathematics, sta­ tistics, economics, finance, or accounting. Some companies hire ap­ plicants with a liberal arts major, provided the applicant has a working knowledge of mathematics, including calculus, probability, and statistics, and has demonstrated this ability by passing at least the beginning actuarial exams required for professional designation. Courses in accounting, computer science, and insurance also are useful. Companies increasingly prefer well-rounded individuals  \U\ u i  I  Although few in number, actuaries provide essential services to insurance companies.  Professional Specialty Occupations who, in addition to a strong technical background, have some train­ ing in liberal arts and business. Good communication and interper­ sonal skills are important, particularly for prospective consulting actuaries. Although only about 55 colleges and universities offer an actuarial science program, hundreds of schools offer a degree in mathematics or statistics. A strong background in mathematics is essential for persons in­ terested in a career as an actuary. It is an advantage to pass, while still in school, two or more of the examinations offered by profes­ sional actuarial societies. Three societies sponsor programs leading to full professional status in their specialty. The Society of Actuaries gives a series of actuarial examinations for the life and health insur­ ance, pension, and finance and investment fields and the Casualty Actuarial Society gives a series of examinations for the property and casualty field. Because the first parts of the examination series of each society are jointly sponsored and cover the same material, stu­ dents need not commit themselves to a specialty until they have taken the initial examinations. These examinations test competence in subjects such as linear algebra, probability, calculus, statistics, risk theory, and actuarial mathematics. The first few examinations help students evaluate their potential as actuaries. Those who pass usually have better opportunities for employment and higher start­ ing salaries. Actuaries are encouraged to complete the entire series of exami­ nations as soon as possible; completion generally takes from 5 to 10 years. Examinations are given twice each year. Extensive home study is required to pass the advanced examinations; many actuaries study for several months to prepare for an examination. Actuaries who complete approximately half of the total examinations in either the life insurance series or the pension series or seven examinations in the casualty series are awarded “associate” membership in their society. Those who pass an entire series receive the title “fellow.” The American Society of Pension Actuaries confers several desig­ nations, both actuarial and nonactuarial, for which requirements vary. However, membership status generally requires the passage of some actuarial exams, as well as some pension experience. Pension actuaries who attest to the Federal Government as to the financial status of defined benefit plans must be enrolled by the Joint Board for the Enrollment of Actuaries. Applicants for enrollment must meet certain experience, education, and examination require­ ments as stipulated by the Joint Board. Beginning actuaries often rotate among jobs to learn various actu­ arial operations and different phases of insurance work, such as marketing, underwriting, or product development. At first, they prepare data for actuarial tables or perform other simple tasks. As they gain experience, they may supervise clerks, prepare correspon­ dence and reports, and do research. Advancement to more responsible work as assistant, associate, and chief actuary depends largely on job performance and the num­ ber of actuarial examinations passed. Actuaries with a broad knowl­ edge of the insurance, pension, and employee benefits fields often advance to administrative and executive positions in underwriting, accounting, or data processing departments. Actuaries with a busi­ ness background and supervisory ability may advance to manage­ ment positions in other areas, such as marketing, advertising, or planning. Job Outlook Employment of actuaries is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. College graduates who have passed at least two actuarial examinations while still in school, have a strong mathematical and statistical background and strong communication and problem-solving skills, and have gained some practical experience by completing an internship should have the best prospects. Employment growth of consulting actuaries is expected to be faster than growth in life insurance companies, traditionally the ma­ jor employer of actuaries. As companies seek to boost profitability  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  91  by streamlining operations, some actuarial departments may be cut back or eliminated completely. Insurance companies may increas­ ingly turn to consultants to provide actuarial services formerly per­ formed in-house. The need to assess the financial effects of prospective changes in the health care system and health problems such as AIDS or heart disease on insurance companies or government will result in contin­ ued overall employment growth. Also, shifts in the age distribution of the population will result in a large increase in the number of peo­ ple with established careers and family responsibilities. This is the group that traditionally has accounted for the bulk of private insur­ ance sales. As people live and work longer, they draw health and pension benefits for a longer period, and actuaries are needed to re­ estimate the probabilities of such events as death, sickness, and length of retirement. The liability of companies for damage resulting from their prod­ ucts has received much attention in recent years. Casualty actuaries will continue to be involved in the development of product liability insurance, medical malpractice and workers’ compensation cover­ age, and self-insurance, which may involve internal reserve funds es­ tablished by some large corporations. The growing need to evaluate environmental risks and calculate prices for insuring facilities which carry such risks, such as underground storage tanks, will contribute to the demand for actuaries. Despite expected employment growth, actuaries may face compe­ tition for jobs. Due to favorable publicity about the actuarial profes­ sion, the number of workers entering this small occupation has in­ creased substantially in recent years, while at the same time, demand is expected to slow due to slower growth in the insurance industry. Earnings In 1992, starting salaries for actuaries averaged about $31,800 for those with a bachelor’s degree, according to the College Placement Council. New college graduates entering the actuarial field without having passed any actuarial exams averaged slightly lower salaries. Insurance companies and consulting firms give merit increases to actuaries as they gain experience and pass examinations. Some com­ panies also offer cash bonuses for each exam passed. A 1992 salary survey of insurance and financial services companies, conducted by the Life Office Management Association, Inc., indicated that actua­ rial students who have been designated Associate, Society of Actua­ ries, received an average salary of about $46,000. Newly designated Fellows, Society of Actuaries, received an average salary of nearly $65,500. Fellows with additional years of experience can earn sub­ stantially more. Actuaries typically receive other benefits including vacation and sick leave, health and life insurance, and pension plans. Related Occupations Actuaries determine the probability of income or loss from various risk factors. Other workers whose jobs involve related skills include accountants, economists, financial analysts, mathematicians, rate analysts, rate engineers, risk managers, statisticians, and value engi­ neers. Sources of Additional Information For facts about actuarial careers, contact: tw American Academy of Actuaries, 1720 I St. NW, 7th Floor, Washing­ ton, DC 20006.  For information about actuarial careers in life and health insur­ ance, contact: t3= Society of Actuaries, 475 N. Martingale Rd., Suite 800, Schaumburg, IL 60173-2226.  For information about actuarial careers in property and casualty insurance, contact: Casualty Actuarial Society, 1100 N. Glebe Rd., Suite 600, Arlington, VA 22201.  92  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Career information on actuaries specializing in pensions is availa­ ble from: American Society of Pension Actuaries, 4350 N. Fairfax Dr., Suite 820, Arlington, VA 22203.  Computer Scientists and Systems Analysts (D.O.T. 030.062-010, .162-014, .167-014; 033.167-010, .262-010; and 109.067-010)  Nature of the Work The rapid spread of computers amd computer-based technologies over the past two decades has generated a need for skilled, highly trained workers to design and develop the hardware and software systems and to determine how to incorporate these advances into new or existing systems. Although many narrow specializations have developed and no uniform job titles exist, this professional spe­ cialty group is widely referred to as computer scientists and systems analysts. Computer scientists, including computer engineers conduct re­ search, design computers, and discover and use principles of apply­ ing computers. Computer scientists and engineers may perform many of the same duties as other computer professionals through­ out a normal workday, but their jobs are distinguished by the higher level of theoretical expertise they apply to complex problems and in­ novative ideas for the application or creation of new technology. Computer scientists employed by academic institutions work in ar­ eas from theory to hardware to language design, or on multi-disci­ pline projects, for example, developing and advancing uses for artifi­ cial intelligence (AI). Their counterparts in private industry work in areas such as applying theory, developing specialized languages, or designing programming tools, knowledge-based systems, or com­ puter games. Computer engineers often work as part of a team that designs new computing devices or computer-related equipment. Far more numerous than scientists and engineers, systems ana­ lysts define business, scientific, or engineering problems and design their solutions using computers. This process may include planning and developing new computer systems or devising ways to apply ex­ isting systems to operations still completed manually or by some less efficient method. Systems analysts may design entirely new systems, including hardware and software, or add a single new software ap­ plication to harness more of the computer’s power. Analysts begin an assignment by discussing the data processing problem with managers and users to determine its exact nature. Much time is devoted to clearly defining the goals of the system so that it can be broken down into separate programmable procedures. Analysts then use techniques such as structured analysis, data mod­ eling, information engineering, mathematical model building, sam­ pling, and cost accounting to plan the system. Once the design has been developed, systems analysts prepare charts and diagrams that describe it in terms that managers and other users can understand. They may prepare a cost-benefit and return-on-investment analysis to help management decide whether the proposed system will be sat­ isfactory and financially feasible. Analysts must specify the files and records to be accessed by the system, design the processing steps, and design the format for the output that will meet the users’ needs. They must be sure that the system they design is user-friendly, so that it can be easily learned by the user and any problems encountered can be overcome quickly. Analysts also ensure security of the data by making it inaccessible to those who are not authorized to use it. When the system is accepted, systems analysts may determine what computer hardware and software will be needed to set up the system or implement changes to it. They coordinate tests and ob­ serve initial use of the system to ensure it performs as planned. They  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  prepare specifications, work diagrams, and structure charts for computer programmers to follow and then work with them to “debug,” or eliminate errors from the system. Some organizations do not employ programmers; instead, a single worker called a programmer-analyst is responsible for both systems analysis and programming. This is becoming more common with the develop­ ment of Computer Assisted Software Engineering (CASE) tools which automate much of the coding process, making programming functions easier to learn. (The work of programmers is described elsewhere in the Handbook.) One of the biggest obstacles to wider computer use is the inability of different computers to communicate with each other. Many sys­ tems analysts are involved with connecting all the computers in an individual office, department, or establishment. This “networking” has many variations; it may be called local area network, wide area network, or multiuser system, for example. A primary goal of networking is to allow users of microcomputers (also known as per­ sonal computers or PC’s) to retrieve data from a mainframe com­ puter and use it on their machine. This connection also allows data to be entered into the mainframe from the PC. Because up-to-date information—accounting records, sales figures, or budget projections, for example—is so important in mod­ em organizations, systems analysts may be instructed to make the computer systems in each department compatible with each other so facts and figures can be shared. Similarly, electronic mail requires open pathways to send messages, documents, and data from one computer “mailbox” to another across different equipment and pro­ gram lines. Analysts must design the gates in the hardware and software to allow free exchange of data, custom applications, and the computer power to process it all. They study the seemingly in­ compatible pieces and create ways to link them so that users can ac­ cess information from any part of the system. Because the possible uses of computers are so varied and complex, analysts usually specialize in either business, scientific, engineering, or microcomputer applications. Previous experience or training in a particular area usually dictates the field in which they are most qualified to develop computer systems.  ^1  SSrf-  |  '  ■ ' Va  Systems analysts design ways to link computers through networks.  Professional Specialty Occupations Working Conditions Computer scientists and systems analysts work in offices or labora­ tories in comfortable surroundings. They usually work about 40 hours a week—the same as other professional and office workers. Occasionally, however, evening or weekend work may be necessary to meet deadlines. Because computer scientists and systems analysts spend long pe­ riods of time in front of a computer terminal typing on a keyboard, they are susceptible to eye strain and back discomfort and hand and wrist problems. Employment Computer scientists and systems analysts held about 666,000 jobs in 1992. Although they are found in most industries, the greatest con­ centration is in computer and data processing service firms. Many others work for government agencies, manufacturers of computer and related electronic equipment, insurance companies, and univer­ sities. A small but growing number of these workers are employed on a temporary basis. For example, a company installing a new computer system may need the services of several systems analysts just to get the system running. Because not all of them would be needed once the system is functioning, the company might contract directly with the systems analysts themselves or with a temporary help agency or consulting firm. The company would contract for their services on a temporary basis; temporary jobs usually are for several months at least, and some last up to 2 years or more. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement There is no universally accepted way to prepare for a job as a com­ puter professional because employers’ preferences depend on the work being done. Prior work experience is very important. Many persons develop an area of expertise in their jobs which tends to make them more marketable to employers. For example, people move into systems analyst jobs after working as computer program­ mers. Another example is the auditor in an accounting department who becomes a systems analyst specializing in accounting systems development. College graduates almost always are sought for computer profes­ sional positions, and, for some of the more complex jobs, persons with graduate degrees are preferred. Generally, a computer scientist working in a research lab or academic institution will hold a Ph.D. or master’s degree in computer science or engineering. Some com­ puter scientists are able to gain sufficient experience for this type of position with only a bachelor’s degree, but this is more difficult. Computer engineers generally have a bachelor’s degree in computer engineering, electrical engineering, or math. Employers usually want systems analysts to have a background in business management or a closely related field for work in a business environment, while a background in the physical sciences, applied mathematics, or engineering is preferred for work in scientifically oriented organizations. Many employers seek applicants who have a bachelor’s degree in computer science, information science, com­ puter information systems, or data processing. Regardless of college major, employers look for people who are familiar with program­ ming languages and have a broad knowledge of computer systems and technologies. Courses in computer programming or systems de­ sign offer good preparation for a job in this field. Systems analysts must be able to think logically, have good com­ munication skills, and like working with ideas and people. They often deal with a number of tasks simultaneously. The ability to con­ centrate and pay close attention to detail also is important. Al­ though systems analysts often work independently, they also work in teams on large projects. They must be able to communicate effec­ tively with technical personnel, such as programmers and manag­ ers, as well as with other staff who have no technical computer back­ ground.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  93  Technological advances come so rapidly in the computer field that continuous study is necessary to keep skills up to date. Continu­ ing education is usually offered by employers, hardware and software vendors, colleges and universities, or private training insti­ tutions. Additional training may come from professional develop­ ment seminars offered by professional computing societies. The Institute for Certification of Computer Professionals offers the designation Certified Systems Professional (CSP) to those who have 4 years of experience and who pass a core examination plus ex­ ams in two specialty areas. The Quality Assurance Institute awards the designation Certified Quality Analyst (CQA) to those who meet education and experience requirements, pass an exam, and endorse a code of ethics. Neither designation is mandatory, but either may provide a jobseeker a competitive advantage. Systems analysts may be promoted to senior or lead systems ana­ lysts after several years of experience. Those who show leadership ability also can advance to management positions such as manager of information systems or chief information officer. Systems ana­ lysts with several years of experience may start their own computer consulting firms. Computer engineers and scientists employed in industry can eventually move into managerial or project leader positions. Those employed in academic institutions can advance to become heads of research departments or published authorities in their field. Some start their own consulting firms. Job Outlook Computer scientists and systems analysts will be among the fastest growing occupations through the year 2005. In addition, tens of thousands of job openings will result annually from the need to re­ place workers who move into managerial positions or other occupa­ tions or leave the labor force. The demand for computer scientists and engineers is expected to rise as organizations attempt to maximize the efficiency of their computer systems. As international and domestic competition in­ creases, organizations will face growing pressure to use technologi­ cal advances in areas such as office and factory automation, tele­ communications technology, and scientific research. Computer scientists and engineers will be needed to develop this new technol­ ogy. In addition, the complexity associated with designing new ap­ plications is growing. More computer scientists will be needed to de­ velop innovative and increasingly sophisticated systems. As users develop more sophisticated knowledge of computers, they become more aware of the machine’s potential and are better able to suggest operations that will increase their own productivity and that of the organization. The need to design computer networks that will facilitate the sharing of information will be a major factor in the rising demand for systems analysts. A greater emphasis on problem definition, analysis, and implementation also will guaran­ tee a higher demand for systems analysts. In addition, falling prices of computer hardware and software are inducing more small busi­ nesses to computerize their operations, further stimulating demand for these workers. Individuals with an advanced degree in computer science should enjoy very favorable employment prospects because the number of these degrees has not kept pace with the needs of employers. College graduates with a bachelor’s degree in computer science, computer engineering, information science, or information systems should also experience good prospects for employment. College graduates with non-computer science majors who have had courses in com­ puter programming, systems analysis, and other data processing ar­ eas as well as training or experience in an applied field should be able to find jobs as systems analysts. Those who are familiar with CASE and other programming tools will have an even greater ad­ vantage. Employers will be more willing to hire someone who can combine programming skills with traditional systems analysis skills.  94  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Earnings Median annual earnings of systems analysts who worked full time in 1992 were about $42,100. The middle 50 percent earned between $32,000 and $52,200. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $25,200 and the highest tenth, more than $65,500. Computer scien­ tists with advanced degrees generally earn more than systems ana­ lysts. In the Federal Government, the entrance salary for recent college graduates with a bachelor’s degree was about $18,300 a year in 1993; for those with a superior academic record, $22,700. Related Occupations Other workers who use research, logic, and creativity to solve busi­ ness problems are computer programmers, financial analysts, urban planners, engineers, operations research analysts, management ana­ lysts, and actuaries. Sources of Additional Information Further information about computer careers is available from: W Association for Computing Machinery, 1515 Broadway, New York, NY 10036.  Information about certification as a computer professional is available from: O' Institute for the Certification of Computer Professionals, 2200 East Devon Ave., Suite 268, Des Plaines, IL 60018.  Information about certification as a Certified Quality Analyst is available from:  O'Quality Assurance Institute, 7575 Dr. Phillips Blvd., Suite 350, Orlando, FL 32819.  Mathematicians (D.O.T. 020.067-014, .167-030; 199.267-014)  Nature of the Work Mathematics is one of the oldest and most basic sciences. Mathema­ ticians today are engaged in a wide variety of activities, ranging from the creation of new mathematical theories and techniques in­ volving the latest technology to the solving of economic, scientific, engineering, and business problems using mathematical knowledge and computational tools. Mathematical work falls into two broad classes: Theoretical (pure) mathematics; and applied mathematics. However, these clas­ ses are not sharply defined and often overlap. Theoretical mathematicians advance mathematical science by de­ veloping new principles and new relationships between existing principles of mathematics. Although they seek to increase basic knowledge without necessarily considering its practical use, this pure and abstract knowledge has been instrumental in producing or furthering many scientific and engineering achievements. Applied mathematicians use theories and techniques, such as mathematical modeling and computational methods, to formulate and solve practical problems in business, government, engineering, and the physical, life, and social sciences. For example, they may an­ alyze the mathematical aspects of computer and communications networks, the effects of new drugs on disease, the aerodynamic char­ acteristics of aircraft, or the distribution costs or manufacturing processes of businesses. Applied mathematicians working in indus­ trial research and development may develop or enhance mathemati­ cal methods when confronted with difficult problems. Some mathe­ maticians, called cryptanalysts, analyze and decipher encryption systems designed to transmit national security-related information. Mathematicians use computers extensively to analyze relation­ ships among variables, solve complex problems, develop models, and process large amounts of data.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Much work in applied mathematics, however, is carried on by persons other than mathematicians. In fact, because mathematics is the foundation upon which many other academic disciplines are built, the number of workers using mathematical techniques is many times greater than the number actually designated as mathe­ maticians. Engineers, computer scientists, and economists are among those who use mathematics extensively but have job titles other than mathematician. Some workers, such as statisticians, ac­ tuaries, and operations research analysts, actually are specialists in a particular branch of mathematics. (See statements on actuaries, op­ erations research analysts, and statisticians elsewhere in the Hand­ book.) Working Conditions Mathematicians working for government agencies or private firms usually have structured work schedules. They may work alone, in a small group of mathematicians, or as an integral part of a team that includes engineers, computer scientists, physicists, technicians, and others. Deadlines, overtime work, special requests for information or analysis, and travel to attend seminars or conferences may be part of their jobs. Mathematics faculty have flexible work schedules, dividing their time among teaching, research, consulting, and administrative re­ sponsibilities. Employment Mathematicians held about 16,000 jobs in 1992. In addition, about 16,000 persons held mathematics faculty positions in colleges and universities, according to the American Mathematical Society. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Most nonfaculty mathematicians work in the government and in service and manufacturing industries. The Department of Defense is the primary Federal employer of mathematicians; more than threefourths of the mathematicians employed by the Federal Govern­ ment work for the Navy, Army, or Air Force. A significant number of mathematicians also work in State governments. In the private sector, major employers within services industries include research  Applied mathematicians often use their knowledge to solve practical problems in business, government, engineering, and science.  Professional Specialty Occupations and testing services, educational services, and computer and data processing services. Within manufacturing, the aircraft, chemicals, and computer and office equipment industries are key employers. Some mathematicians also work for banks, insurance companies, and public utilities. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree in mathematics is the minimum education needed for prospective mathematicians. A master’s degree in mathe­ matics is sufficient preparation for some research positions and for teaching jobs in many junior or community colleges and in some small 4-year colleges. However, in most 4-year colleges and univer­ sities, as well as in many research and development positions in pri­ vate industry, a doctoral degree is necessary. In the Federal Government, entry-level job candidates usually must have a 4-year degree with a major in mathematics or a 4-year degree with the equivalent of a mathematics major—24 semester hours of mathematics courses. In private industry, job candidates generally need a master’s de­ gree to obtain jobs as mathematicians. The majority of bachelor’s and master’s degree holders in private industry work, not as mathe­ maticians, but in related fields such as computer science, where they are called computer programmers, systems analysts, or systems en­ gineers. A bachelor’s degree in mathematics is offered by most colleges and universities. Mathematics courses usually required for this de­ gree are calculus, differential equations, and linear and abstract al­ gebra. Additional coursework might include probability theory and statistics, mathematical analysis, numerical analysis, topology, modern algebra, discrete mathematics, and mathematical logic. Many colleges and universities urge or even require students major­ ing in mathematics to take several courses in a field that uses or is closely related to mathematics, such as computer science, engineer­ ing, operations research, a physical science, statistics, or economics. A double major in mathematics and either computer science, statis­ tics, or one of the sciences is particularly desirable. A prospective college mathematics major should take as many mathematics courses as possible while in high school. In 1992, 255 colleges and universities offered a master’s degree as the highest degree in either pure or applied mathematics; 187 of­ fered a Ph.D. in pure or applied mathematics. In graduate school, students conduct research and take advanced courses, usually spe­ cializing in a subfield of mathematics. Some areas of concentration are algebra, number theory, real or complex analysis, geometry, to­ pology, logic, and applied mathematics. For work in applied mathematics, training in the field in which the mathematics will be used is very important. Fields in which ap­ plied mathematics is used extensively include physics, actuarial sci­ ence, engineering, and operations research; of increasing impor­ tance are computer and information science, business and industrial management, economics, statistics, chemistry, geology, life sciences, and the behavioral sciences. Mathematicians should have substantial knowledge of computer programming because most complex mathematical computation and much mathematical modeling is done by computer. Mathematicians need good reasoning ability and persistence in order to identify, analyze, and apply basic principles to technical problems. Communication skills are also important, as mathemati­ cians must be able to interact with others, including nonmathemati­ cians, and discuss proposed solutions to problems. Job Outlook Employment of mathematicians is expected to increase more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. The number ofjobs available for workers whose educational background is solely mathematics is not expected to increase significantly. Many firms engaged in civilian research and development that use mathe­ maticians are not planning to expand their research departments  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  95  much, and, in some cases, may reduce them. Expected reductions in defense-related research and development will also affect mathema­ ticians' employment, especially in the Federal Government. Those whose educational background includes the study of a related disci­ pline will have better job opportunities. However, as advancements in technology lead to expanding applications of mathematics, more workers with a knowledge of mathematics will be required. An in­ creasing number of these workers have job titles which reflect the end product of their work rather than the discipline of mathematics used in that work, which will contribute further to the slowdown in positions for mathematicians. Bachelor’s degree holders in mathematics are usually not quali­ fied for jobs as mathematicians. However, those with a strong back­ ground in computer science, electrical or mechanical engineering, or operations research should have good opportunities in industry. Bachelor’s degree holders who meet State certification requirements may become high school mathematics teachers. (For additional in­ formation, see the statement on kindergarten, elementary, and sec­ ondary school teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Holders of a master’s degree in mathematics will face very strong competition for jobs in college teaching or theoretical research. However, job opportunities in applied mathematics and related ar­ eas such as computer programming, operations research, and engi­ neering design in industry and government will be more numerous. Earnings According to a 1992 College Placement Council Survey, starting salary offers for mathematics graduates with a bachelor’s degree av­ eraged about $28,400 a year; for those with a master’s degree, $33,600; and for new doctoral graduates, $41,000. Starting salaries were generally higher in industry and government than in educa­ tional institutions. For example, the American Mathematical Soci­ ety reported that, based on a 1992 survey, median annual earnings for new recipients of doctorates in research were $30,200; for those in teaching or teaching and research (9-10 month academic year), $34,000; for those in government, $53,000; and for those in business and industry, $53,000. In the Federal Government in 1993, the average annual salary for mathematicians in supervisory, nonsupervisory, and managerial po­ sitions was $53,232; for mathematical statisticians, $54,109; and for cryptanalysts, $43,070. Benefits for mathematicians tend to be similar to those offered to most professionals who work in office settings: Vacation and sick leave, health and life insurance, and a retirement plan, among others. Related Occupations Other occupations that require a degree in or extensive knowledge of mathematics include actuary, statistician, computer program­ mer, systems analyst, systems engineer, and operations research an­ alyst. In addition, a strong background in mathematics facilitates employment in fields such as engineering, economics, finance, and physics. Sources of Additional Information For more information about the field of mathematics, including ca­ reer opportunities and professional training, contact: ^American Mathematical Society, P.O. Box 6248, Providence, RI02940. XW Mathematical Association of America, 1529 18th St. NW., Washington, DC 20036.  For specific information on careers in applied mathematics, con­ tact: tg” Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 3600 University City Science Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104-2688.  For information about careers in noncollegiate academic institu­ tions, contact: ty National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1906 Association Dr., Reston, VA 22091.  96  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Information on Federal job opportunities is available from area offices of the State employment service and the U.S. Office of Per­ sonnel Management’s Federal Job Information Centers located in various large cities throughout the country.  Operations Research Analysts (D.O.T. 020.067-018)  Nature of the Work Efficiently running a complex organization or operation such as a large manufacturing plant, an airline, or a military deployment re­ quires the precise coordination of materials, machines, and people. Operations research analysts help organizations coordinate and op­ erate in the most efficient manner by applying scientific methods and mathematical principles to organizational problems. Managers can then evaluate alternatives and choose the course of action that best meets the organizational goals. Operations research analysts, also called management science analysts, are problem solvers. The problems they tackle are for the most part those encountered in large business organizations: Strat­ egy, forecasting, resource allocation, facilities layout, inventory con­ trol, personnel schedules, and distribution systems. The methods they use generally revolve about a mathematical model or set of equations that explains how things happen within the organization. Models are simplified representations that enable the analyst to break down systems into their component parts, assign numerical values to each component, and examine the mathematical relation­ ships between them. These values can be altered to determine what will happen to the system under different sets of circumstances. Types of models include simulation, linear optimization, networks, waiting lines, and game theory. Operations research analysts use computers extensively in their work. They are typically highly proficient in database management, programming, and in the development and use of sophisticated software programs. Most of the models built by operations research analysts are so complicated that only a computer can solve them ef­ ficiently. The type of problem they usually handle varies by industry. For example, an analyst for an airline would coordinate flight and main­ tenance scheduling, passenger level estimates, and fuel consumption to produce a schedule that optimizes all of these factors to ensure safety and produce the most profits. An analyst employed by a hos­ pital would concentrate on a different set of problems—scheduling admissions, managing patient flow, assigning shifts, monitoring use of pharmacy and laboratory services, or forecasting demand for new hospital services. The role of the operations research analyst varies according to the structure and management philosophy of the firm. Some centralize operations research in one department; others disperse operations research personnel throughout all divisions. Some operations re­ search analysts specialize in one type of application; others are gen­ eralists. The degree of supervision varies by organizational structure and experience. In some organizations, analysts have a great deal of pro­ fessional autonomy; in others, analysts are more closely supervised. Operations research analysts work closely with senior managers, who have a wide variety of support needs. Analysts must adapt their work to reflect these requirements. Regardless of the industry or structure of the organization, opera­ tions research entails a similar set of procedures. Managers begin the process by describing the symptoms of a problem to the analyst. The analyst then defines the problem, which sometimes is general in nature and at other times specific. For example, an operations re­ search analyst for an auto manufacturer may be asked to determine  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  the best inventory level for each of the materials for a new produc­ tion line or, more specifically, to determine how many windshields should be kept in inventory. After analysts define the problem, they learn everything they can about it. They study the problem, then break it into its component parts. Then they gather information about each of these parts. Usu­ ally this involves consulting a wide variety of people. To determine the most efficient amount of steel to be kept on hand, for example, operations research analysts might talk with engineers about pro­ duction levels; discuss purchasing arrangements with industrial buyers; and examine data on storage costs provided by the account­ ing department. With this information in hand, the operations research analyst is ready to select the most appropriate analytical technique. There may be several techniques that could be used, or there may be one standard model or technique that is used in all instances. In a few cases, the analyst must construct an original model to examine and explain the system. In almost all cases, the selected model must be modified to reflect the specific circumstances of the situation. A model for airline flight scheduling, for example, might include variables for the amount of fuel required to fly the routes, several projected levels of passenger demand, varying ticket prices, pilot scheduling, and maintenance costs. The analyst chooses the values for these variables, enters them into a computer, which has already been programmed to make the calculations required, and runs the program to produce the best flight schedule consistent with several sets of assumptions. The analyst would probably design a model that would take into account wide variations in the different vari­ ables. At this point, the operations research analyst presents the final work to management along with recommendations based on the re­ sults of the analysis. Additional runs based on different assumptions may be needed to help in making the final decision. Once a decision has been reached, the analyst works with others in the organization to ensure its successful implementation.  4  The field of operations research is growing rapidly due to the success of applying statistical techniques to business problems.  Professional Specialty Occupations Working Conditions Operations research analysts generally work regular hours in an of­ fice environment. Because they work on projects that are of immedi­ ate interest to management, analysts often are under pressure to meet deadlines and may work more than a 40-hour week. Employment Operations research analysts held about 45,000 jobs in 1992. They are employed in most industries. Major employers include com­ puter and data processing services, commercial banks and savings institutions, insurance agencies, engineering and management ser­ vices firms, manufacturers of transportation equipment, airlines, and the Federal Government. Some analysts work for management consulting agencies that conduct operations research for firms that do not have an in-house operations research staff. Most analysts in the Federal Government work for the Armed Forces. In addition, many operations research analysts who work in private industry do work directly or indirectly related to national defense. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Employers strongly prefer applicants with at least a master’s degree in operations research or management science, or other quantitative disciplines. A high level of computer skills is also required. Employers often sponsor skill-improvement training for exper­ ienced workers, helping them keep up with new developments in op­ erations research techniques as well as advances in computer sci­ ence. Some analysts attend advanced university classes on these subjects. Operations research analysts must be able to think logically and work well with people, so employers prefer workers with good oral and written communication skills. The computer is the most impor­ tant tool for quantitative analysis, and training or experience in pro­ gramming is a must. Beginning analysts usually do routine work under the supervision of experienced analysts. As they gain knowledge and experience, they are assigned more complex tasks, with greater autonomy to de­ sign models and solve problems. Operations research analysts ad­ vance by assuming positions as technical specialists or supervisors. The skills acquired by operations research analysts are useful for higher level jobs, and experienced analysts with leadership potential often leave the field altogether to assume nontechnical managerial or administrative positions. Job Outlook Organizations are increasingly using operations research and man­ agement science techniques to improve productivity and quality and to reduce costs. This reflects growing acceptance of a systematic ap­ proach to decisionmaking as well as more affordable computers, which give even small firms access to operations research applica­ tions. The interplay of these two trends should greatly stimulate de­ mand for these workers in the years ahead. Those seeking employment as operations research or manage­ ment science analysts who hold a master’s or Ph.D. degree should find good opportunities through the year 2005. The number of openings generated each year as a result of employment growth and the need to replace those leaving the occupation, is expected to ex­ ceed the number of persons graduating with master’s and Ph.D. de­ grees from management science or operations research programs. Graduates with only a bachelors degrees in operations research or management science should find good opportunities as research as­ sistants or analyst assistants in a variety of related fields; only the most highly qualified are likely to find employment as operations re­ search or management science analysts. Employment of operations research analysts is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005 due to the increasing importance of quantitative analysis in  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  97  decisionmaking and the increasing availability of computing re­ sources. Much of the job growth is expected to occur in the trans­ portation, manufacturing, finance, and services sectors. Firms in these sectors recognize that quantitative analysis can achieve dra­ matic improvements in operating efficiency and profitability. More airlines, for example, are using operations research to determine the best flight and maintenance schedules, select the best routes to ser­ vice, analyze customer characteristics, and control fuel consump­ tion, among other things. Motel chains are beginning to use opera­ tions research to improve their efficiency by, for example, analyzing automobile traffic patterns and customer attitudes to determine lo­ cation, size, and style of new motels. Like other management sup­ port functions, operations research grows by its own success. When one firm in an industry increases productivity by adopting a new procedure, its competitors usually follow. This competitive pressure will contribute to demand for operations research analysts. Demand also should be strong in the manufacturing sector as firms expand existing operations research staffs in the face of grow­ ing domestic and foreign competition. More manufacturers are us­ ing mathematical models to study the operations of the organization for the first time. For example, analysts will be needed to determine the best way to control product inventory, distribute finished prod­ ucts, and to decide where sales offices should be based. In addition, increasing factory automation will require more operations research analysts to alter existing models or develop new ones for production layout, robotics installation, work schedules, and inventory control. The Department of Defense and defense contractors employ many operations research analysts. For example, operations re­ searchers helped plan the 1990 military deployment to Saudi Ara­ bia. Not only did they determine the best air and water transport schedules to move the maximum number of personnel and amount of equipment in the shortest time, making optimal use of people, ships, aircraft, and fuel, but they were also central to the planning and command decisions made during combat. Because defense ex­ penditures will be cut in the future, there will be fewer jobs available in the military and defense-related industries for these workers. However, high demand outside the military should more than offset reductions in defense-related demand. Earnings According to recruiters and national operations research associa­ tions, operations research analysts with a master’s degree generally earned starting salaries of about $30,000 to $35,000 a year in 1992. Experienced operations research analysts earned about $50,000 a year in 1992, with top salaries exceeding $90,000. The average annual salary for operations research analysts in the Federal Government in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and manage­ rial positions was $57,419 in 1993. Related Occupations Operations research analysts apply mathematical principles to orga­ nizational problems. Workers in other occupations that stress quan­ titative analysis include computer scientists, applied mathemati­ cians, statisticians, and economists. Operations research is closely allied to managerial occupations in that its goal is improved organi­ zational efficiency. Sources of Additional Information Information on career opportunities for operations research ana­ lysts is available from: (3° The Operations Research Society of America, 1314 Guilford Ave., Balti­ more, MD 21202. The Institute of Management Sciences, 290 Westminster St., Providence, RI 02903.  For information on careers in the Armed Forces and Department of Defense, contact: t3= Military Operations Research Society, 101 South Whiting St., Suite 202, Alexandria, VA 22304.  98  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Statisticians (D.O.T. 020.067-022, .167-026)  Nature of the Work Statistics is the collection, analysis, and presentation of numerical data. Statisticians design, implement, compile, and interpret the nu­ merical results of surveys and experiments. In doing so, they often apply their knowledge of statistical methods to a particular subject area, such as biology, economics, engineering, medicine, or psychol­ ogy. They may use statistical techniques to predict population growth or economic conditions, develop quality control tests for manufactured products, assess the nature of environmental problems, analyze legal and social problems, or help business man­ agers and government officials make decisions and evaluate the re­ sults of new programs. Often statisticians are able to obtain information about a group of people or things by surveying a small portion, called a sample, of the group. For example, to determine the size of the total audience for particular programs, television rating services ask only a few thou­ sand families, rather than all viewers, which programs they watch. Statisticians decide where and how to gather the data, determine the type and size of the sample group, and develop the survey question­ naire or reporting form. They also prepare instructions for workers who will collect and tabulate the data. Statisticians use computers extensively to process large amounts of data for statistical modeling and graphic analysis. Because statistics are used in so many areas, it sometimes is diffi­ cult to distinguish statisticians from specialists in other fields who use statistics. For example, a statistician working with data on eco­ nomic conditions may have the title of economist. Working Conditions Statisticians usually work regular hours in offices. Some statisticians may travel occasionally to supervise or set up a survey, or to gather statistical data. Some may have fairly repetitive tasks, while others may have a variety of tasks, such as in designing experiments. Employment Statisticians held about 16,000 jobs in 1992. About one-fourth of these jobs were in the Federal Government, where statisticians were concentrated in the Departments of Commerce (especially the Bu­ reau of the Census); Agriculture; and Health and Human Services.  A statistician compiles and analyzes large amounts of data with the aid of a personal computer.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Most of the remaining jobs were in private industry, especially in the insurance, transportation equipment, research and testing services, management and public relations, and computer and data process­ ing services industries. Others worked in colleges and universities, and business and professional organizations. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree with a major in statistics or mathematics is the minimum educational requirement for many beginning jobs in sta­ tistics. The training required for employment as an entry level statis­ tician in the Federal Government is a college degree including at least 15 semester hours of statistics—or a combination of 15 hours of mathematics and statistics if at least 6 semester hours are in statis­ tics. An additional 9 semester hours in another academic discipline, such as economics, physical or biological science, medicine, educa­ tion, engineering, or social science, are also required. To qualify as a mathematical statistician in the Federal Government requires 24 se­ mester hours of mathematics and statistics with a minimum of 6 se­ mester hours in statistics and 12 semester hours in mathematics at the calculus level or higher. Teaching and research positions in insti­ tutions of higher education and many positions in private industry require a graduate degree, often a doctorate, in statistics. Over 80 colleges and universities offered bachelor’s degrees in sta­ tistics in 1992. Many other schools also offered degrees in mathe­ matics, operations research, and other fields which included a suffi­ cient number of courses in statistics to qualify graduates for some beginning positions, particularly in the Federal Government. Re­ quired subjects for statistics majors include mathematics through differential and integral calculus, statistical methods, mathematical modeling, and probability theory. Additional courses that under­ graduates should take include linear algebra, design and analysis of experiments, applied multivariate analysis, and mathematical statis­ tics. Because computers are used extensively for statistical applica­ tions, a strong background in computer science is highly recom­ mended. For positions involving quality and productivity improvement, training in engineering or physical science is useful. A background in biological or health science is important for positions involving the preparation and testing of pharmaceutical or agricul­ tural products. For many jobs in market research, business analysis, and forecasting, courses in economics and business administration are helpful. In 1992, approximately 110 universities offered a master’s degree program in statistics, and about 70 had statistics departments which offered a doctoral degree program. Many other schools also offered graduate level courses in applied statistics for students majoring in biology, business, economics, education, engineering, psychology, and other fields. Acceptance into graduate statistics programs does not require an undergraduate degree in statistics although a good mathematics background is essential. Good communications skills are important for prospective statis­ ticians, not only for those who plan to teach, but also to qualify for many positions in industry, where the need to explain statistical processes to nonstatisticians is common. A solid understanding of business and management is also important for those who plan to work in private industry. Beginning statisticians who have only the bachelor’s degree often spend much of their time doing routine work supervised by an ex­ perienced statistician. With experience, they may advance to posi­ tions of greater technical and supervisory responsibility. However, opportunities for promotion are best for those with advanced de­ grees. Master’s and Ph.D. degree holders enjoy greater indepen­ dence in their work and are qualified to engage in research, to de­ velop statistical methodology, or, after several years of experience in a particular area of technological application, to become statistical consultants.  Professional Specialty Occupations Job Outlook Although employment of statisticians is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2005, job opportunities should remain favorable. Many statistics majors, particularly at the bachelor’s degree level, but also at the master’s degree level, may find positions in which they do not have the title of statistician. This is especially true for those involved in analyzing and interpreting data from other disciplines such as economics, bio­ logical science, psychology, or engineering. Among graduates with a bachelor’s degree in statistics, those with a strong background in mathematics, engineering, or physical or computer science should have the best prospects of finding jobs related to their field of study in private industry or government. Federal Government agencies will need statisticians in fields such as agriculture, demography, consumer and producer surveys, trans­ portation, Social Security, health, education, energy conservation, and environmental quality control. However, competition for entry level positions in the Federal Government is expected to be strong for those just meeting the minimum qualification standards for stat­ isticians. Those who meet State certification requirements may be­ come high school statistics teachers, a newly emerging field. (For additional information, see the statement on kindergarten, elemen­ tary, and secondary school teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Private industry, in the face of increasing competition and strong government regulation, will continue to require statisticians, espe­ cially at the master’s and Ph.D. degree levels, to not only monitor but improve productivity and quality in the manufacture of various products including pharmaceuticals, motor vehicles, chemicals, and food products. For example, pharmaceutical firms will need more statisticians to assess the safety and effectiveness of the rapidly ex­ panding number of drugs. To meet growing competition, motor ve­ hicle manufacturers will need statisticians to monitor the quality of automobiles, trucks, and their components. Statisticians with knowledge of engineering and the physical sciences will find jobs in research and development, working with scientists and engineers to help improve design and production processes in order to ensure consistent quality of newly developed products. Business firms will rely more heavily than in the past on workers with a background in   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  99  statistics to forecast sales, analyze business conditions, and help solve management problems. In addition, sophisticated statistical services will increasingly be contracted out to consulting firms. Earnings The average annual salary for statisticians in the Federal Govern­ ment in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions was $51,893 in 1993; mathematical statisticians averaged $54,109. According to a 1992 American Statistical Association salary sur­ vey of statisticians in departments with statistics programs, the me­ dian starting salary for assistant professors was $40,000; for associ­ ate professors, $43,500; and for professors, $54,500. Statisticians who hold advanced degrees and work in private in­ dustry generally earn higher starting salaries than their counter­ parts in academic settings and in government. Benefits for statisticians tend to resemble those offered most pro­ fessionals who work in an office setting: Vacation and sick leave, health and life insurance, and a retirement plan, among others. Related Occupations People in numerous occupations work with statistics. Among them are actuaries, mathematicians, operations research analysts, com­ puter programmers, computer systems analysts, engineers, econo­ mists, financial analysts, information scientists, life scientists, math­ ematicians, operations research analysts, physical scientists, and social scientists. Sources of Additional Information For information about career opportunities in statistics, contact: fg’ American Statistical Association, 1429 Duke St., Alexandria, VA 22314.  For information on a career as a mathematical statistician, con­ tact:  Idf Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 3401 Investment Blvd., No. 7, Hay­ ward, CA 94545.  Information on Federal job opportunities is available from area offices of the State employment service and the U.S. Office of Per­ sonnel Management or from Federal Job Information Centers lo­ cated in various large cities throughout the country.  Life Scientists Agricultural Scientists (D.O.T. 040.061-010, -014, -018, -038, -042, and -058; 041.061-014, -018, -046, and -082; and 041.081)  Nature of the Work The work agricultural scientists do has played an important part in the Nation’s sharply rising agricultural productivity. Agricultural scientists study farm crops and animals and develop ways of im­ proving their quantity and quality. They look for ways to improve crop yield and quality with less labor, control pests and weeds more safely and effectively, and conserve soil and water. They research methods of converting raw agricultural commodities into attractive and healthy food products for consumers. Agricultural science is closely related to biological science, and agricultural scientists use the principles of biology, chemistry, and other sciences to solve problems in agriculture. They often work with biological scientists on basic biological research and in apply­ ing to agriculture the advances in knowledge brought about by bio­ technology. Many agricultural scientists manage or administer research and development programs or manage marketing or production opera­ tions in companies that produce food products or agricultural chemicals, supplies, and machinery. Many work in basic or applied research and development. Some agricultural scientists are consul­ tants to business firms, private clients, or to government. Depending on the agricultural scientist’s area of specialization, the nature of the work performed varies. Food science. Food scientists or technologists are usually employed in the food processing industry, universities, or the Federal Govern­ ment, and help meet consumer demand for food products that are healthful, safe, palatable, and convenient. To do this, they use their knowledge of chemistry, microbiology, and other sciences to de­ velop new or better ways of preserving, processing, packaging, stor­ ing, and delivering foods. Some engage in basic research, discover­ ing new food sources; analyzing food content to determine levels of vitamins, fat, sugar, or protein; or searching for substitutes for harmful or undesirable additives, such as nitrites. Many food tech­ nologists work in product development. Others enforce government regulations, inspecting food processing areas and ensuring that sani­ tation, safety, quality, and waste management standards are met.  how to avoid or correct problems such as erosion. They may also consult with engineers and other technical personnel working on construction projects about the effects of, and solutions to, soil problems. Since soil science is closely related to environmental sci­ ence, persons trained in soil science also apply their knowledge to ensure environmental quality and effective land use. Animal science. Animal scientists develop better, more efficient ways of producing and processing meat, poultry, eggs, and milk. Dairy scientists, poultry scientists, animal breeders, and other re­ lated scientists study the genetics, nutrition, reproduction, growth, and development of domestic farm animals. Some animal scientists inspect and grade livestock food products, purchase livestock, or work in technical sales or marketing. As extension agents or consul­ tants, animal scientists advise agricultural producers on how to up­ grade animal housing facilities properly, lower mortality rates, or increase production of animal products, such as milk or eggs. Working Conditions Agricultural scientists involved in management or basic research tend to work regular hours in offices and laboratories. The working environment for those engaged in applied research or product devel­ opment varies, depending on the discipline of agricultural science and the type of employer. For example, food scientists in private in­ dustry may work in test kitchens while investigating new processing techniques. Animal scientists working for Federal or State research stations may spend part of their time at dairies, farrowing houses, feedlots, farm animal facilities, or outdoors conducting research as­ sociated with livestock. Soil and crop scientists also spend time out­ doors conducting research on farms or agricultural research sta­ tions. Employment Agricultural scientists held about 29,000 jobs in 1992. In addition, several thousand persons held agricultural science faculty positions  Plant science. Another important area of agricultural science is plant science, which includes the disciplines of agronomy, crop sci­ ence, entomology, and plant breeding, among others. These scien­ tists study plants and their growth in soils, helping producers of food, feed, and fiber crops to continue to feed a growing population while conserving natural resources and maintaining the environ­ ment. Agronomists and crop scientists not only help increase pro­ ductivity, but also study ways to improve the nutritional value of crops and the quality of seed. Some crop scientists study the breed­ ing, physiology, and management of crops and use genetic engineer­ ing to develop crops resistant to pests and drought. Soil science. Soil scientists study the chemical, physical, biological, and mineralogical composition of soils as they relate to plant or crop growth. They study the responses of various soil types to fertilizers, tillage practices, and crop rotation. Many soil scientists who work for the Federal Government conduct soil surveys, classifying and mapping soils. They provide information and recommendations to farmers and other landowners regarding the best use of land and 100  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Agricultural scientists who specialize in agronomy work to improve crop yield and quality.  Professional Specialty Occupations in colleges and universities. (See the statement on college and uni­ versity faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) About two-fifths of all nonfaculty agricultural scientists work for Federal, State, or local governments. Nearly 3 out of 10 worked for the Federal Government in 1992, mostly in the Department of Agri­ culture. In addition, large numbers worked for State governments at State agricultural colleges or agricultural research stations. Some worked for agricultural service companies; others worked for com­ mercial research and development laboratories, seed companies, pharmaceutical companies, wholesale distributors, and food prod­ ucts companies. About 5,000 agricultural scientists were self-em­ ployed in 1992, mainly as consultants. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Training requirements for agricultural scientists depend on spe­ cialty and the type of work they perform. A bachelor’s degree in ag­ ricultural science is sufficient for some jobs in applied research or in assisting in basic research, but a master’s or doctoral degree is re­ quired for basic research. A Ph.D. degree in agricultural science is usually needed for college teaching and for advancement to admin­ istrative research positions. Degrees in related sciences such as biol­ ogy, chemistry, or physics or in related engineering specialties also may qualify persons for some agricultural science jobs. All States have at least one land-grant college which offers agri­ cultural science degrees. Many other colleges and universities also offer agricultural science degrees or some agricultural science courses. However, not every school offers all specialties. A typical undergraduate agricultural science curriculum includes communi­ cations, economics, business, and physical and life sciences courses, in addition to a wide variety of technical agricultural science courses. For prospective animal scientists, these technical agricul­ tural science courses might include animal breeding, reproductive physiology, nutrition, and meats and muscle biology; students pre­ paring as food scientists take courses such as food chemistry, food analysis, food microbiology, and food processing operations; and those preparing as crop or soil scientists take courses in plant pa­ thology, soil chemistry, entomology, plant physiology, and bio­ chemistry, among others. Advanced degree programs include class­ room and Fieldwork, laboratory research, and a thesis based on independent research. Agricultural scientists should be able to work independently or as part of a team and be able to communicate clearly and concisely, both orally and in writing. Most agricultural scientists also need an understanding of basic business principles. Agricultural scientists who have advanced degrees usually begin in research or teaching. With experience, they may advance to jobs such as supervisors of research programs or managers of other agri­ culture-related activities. Job Outlook Employment of agricultural scientists is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Addi­ tionally, the need to replace agricultural scientists who retire or oth­ erwise leave the occupation permanently will account for even more job openings than projected growth. Although enrollments in agri­ cultural science programs have begun to increase again after declin­ ing for several years during the 1980’s, opportunities should still be available in most major subfields of agricultural science. Animal and plant scientists with a background in molecular biology, microbiology, genetics, or biotechnology, soil scientists with an in­ terest in the environment, and food technologists may find the best opportunities. Generally speaking, those with advanced degrees will be in the best position to enter jobs as agricultural scientists. However, com­ petition for teaching positions in colleges or universities and for  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  101  some basic research jobs may be keen, even for doctoral holders. Federal and State budget cuts may limit funding for these positions through the year 2005. It is possible for bachelor’s degree holders to work in some ap­ plied research and product development positions, but usually only in certain subfields, such as food science and technology. Also, the Federal Government hires bachelor’s degree holders to work as soil scientists in the Soil Conservation Service. Despite the more limited opportunities for those with only a bachelor’s degree to obtain jobs as agricultural scientists, a bachelor’s degree in agricultural science is useful for managerial jobs in businesses that deal with ranchers and farmers such as feed, fertilizer, seed, and farm equipment manu­ facturers; retailers or wholesalers; and farm credit institutions. Four-year degrees may also help persons enter occupations such as farmer or farm manager, cooperative extension service agent, agri­ cultural products inspector, technician, landscape architect, or purchasing or sales agent for agricultural commodities or farm sup­ plies.  Earnings According to the College Placement Council, beginning salary of­ fers in 1992 for graduates with a bachelor’s degree in animal science averaged $20,189 a year, and for graduates in plant science, $22,150. Average Federal salaries for employees in nonsupervisory, super­ visory, and managerial positions in certain agricultural science spe­ cialties in 1993 were as follows: Animal science, $55,631; agronomy, $45,911; soil science, $43,033; horticulture, $44,492; entomology, $53,889.  Related Occupations The work of agricultural scientists is closely related to that of biolo­ gists and other natural scientists such as chemists and physicists. It is also related to agricultural production occupations such as farmer and farm manager and cooperative extension service agent as well as to the work of foresters and conservation scientists. Certain special­ ties of agricultural science are also related to other occupations. For example, the work of animal scientists is related to that of veterinari­ ans; horticulturists, to landscape architects; and soil scientists, to soil conservationists.  Sources of Additional Information Information on careers in agricultural science is available from: Office of Higher Education Programs, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Room 350A, Administration Bldg., 14th St. and Independence Ave. SW., Washington, DC 20250. XW American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America, 677 S. Segoe Rd., Madison, WI 53711. Food and Agricultural Careers for Tomorrow, Purdue University, 1140 Agricultural Administration Bldg., West Lafayette, IN 47907-1140.  For information on careers in food technology, write to: Institute of Food Technologists, Suite 300, 221 N. LaSalle St., Chicago IL 60601.  For information on careers in animal science, write to: @*The American Society of Animal Science, 309 West Clark St., Cham­ paign, IL 61820.  For information on careers in soil science in the Federal Govern­ ment, write to: ®=Soil Conservation Service, 14th St. and Independence Ave. SW., Wash­ ington, DC 20013.  Information on Federal job opportunities is available from local offices of State employment security agencies or offices of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management, located in major metropolitan ar­ eas.  102  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Biological and Medical Scientists (DOT. 022.081-010; 041.061, except -014, -018, -046, and -082; 041.067-010; 041.261-010)  Nature of the Work Biological and medical scientists study living organisms and their relationship to their environment. Most specialize in some area of biology such as zoology (the study of animals) or microbiology (the study of microscopic organisms). Many biological scientists and virtually all medical scientists work in research and development. Some conduct basic research to increase knowledge of living organisms. Others, in applied research, use knowledge provided by basic research to develop new medicines, increase crop yields, and improve the environment. Bio­ logical and medical scientists who conduct research usually work in laboratories and use electron microscopes, computers, thermal cy­ clers, or a wide variety of other equipment. Some may conduct ex­ periments on laboratory animals or greenhouse plants. For some kinds of biological scientists, a good deal of research is performed outside of laboratories. For example, a botanist may do research in tropical rain forests to see what plants grow there, or an ecologist may study how a forest area recovers after a fire. Some biological and medical scientists work in management or administration. They may plan and administer programs for testing foods and drugs, for example, or direct activities at zoos or botanical gardens. Some biological scientists work as consultants to business firms or to government, while others test and inspect foods, drugs, and other products or write for technical publications. Some work in sales and service jobs for companies manufacturing chemicals or other technical products. (See the statement on manufacturers’ and wholesale sales representatives elsewhere in the Handbook.) In recent years, advances in basic biological knowledge, especially at the genetic level, have spurred the field of biotechnology. Biologi­ cal and medical scientists using this technology manipulate the ge­ netic material of animals or plants, attempting to make organisms more productive or disease resistant. The first application of this technology has been in the medical and pharmaceutical areas. Many substances not previously available in large quantities are starting to be produced by biotechnological means; some may be useful in treating cancer and other diseases. Advances in biotechnology have opened up research opportunities in almost all areas of biology, in­ cluding commercial applications in agriculture and the food and chemical industries. Most biological scientists who come under the broad category of biologist are further classified by the type of organism they study or by the specific activity they perform, although recent advances in the understanding of basic life processes at the molecular and cellu­ lar level have blurred some traditional classifications. Aquatic biologists study plants and animals living in water. Marine biologists study salt water organisms and limnologists study fresh water organisms. Marine biologists are sometimes called oceanographers, but oceanography usually refers to the study of the physical characteristics of oceans and the ocean floor. (See the state­ ment on geologists and geophysicists elsewhere in the Handbook.) Biochemists study the chemical composition of living things. They try to understand the complex chemical combinations and re­ actions involved in metabolism, reproduction, growth, and heredity. Much of the work in biotechnology is done by biochemists and mo­ lecular biologists because this technology involves understanding the complex chemistry of life. Botanists study plants and their environment. Some study all as­ pects of plant life; others specialize in areas such as identification and classification of plants, the structure and function of plant parts, the biochemistry of plant processes, or the causes and cures of plant diseases.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Microbiologists investigate the growth and characteristics of mi­ croscopic organisms such as bacteria, algae, or fungi. Medical mi­ crobiologists study the relationship between organisms and disease or the effect of antibiotics on microorganisms. Other microbiolo­ gists may specialize in environmental, food, agricultural, or indus­ trial microbiology, virology (the study of viruses), or immunology (the study of mechanisms that fight infections). Many microbiolo­ gists are using biotechnology to advance knowledge of cell repro­ duction and human disease. Physiologists study life functions of plants and animals, both in the whole organism and at the cellular or molecular level, under normal and abnormal conditions. Physiologists may specialize in functions such as growth, reproduction, photosynthesis, respiration, or movement, or in the physiology of a certain area or system of the organism. Zoologists study animals—their origin, behavior, diseases, and life processes. Some experiment with live animals in controlled or natu­ ral surroundings while others dissect dead animals to study their structure. Zoologists are usually identified by the animal group studied—ornithologists (birds), mammalogists (mammals), herpe­ tologists (reptiles), and ichthyologists (fish). Ecologists study the relationship among organisms and between organisms and their environments and the effects of influences such as population size, pollutants, rainfall, temperature, and altitude. Agricultural scientists, who may also be classified as biological scientists, are included in a separate statement elsewhere in the Handbook. Biological scientists who do biomedical research are usually called medical scientists. Medical scientists working on basic re­ search into normal biological systems often do so in order to under­ stand the causes of and to discover treatment for disease and other health problems. Medical scientists may try to identify the kinds of changes in a cell, chromosome, or even gene that signal the develop­ ment of medical problems, such as different types of cancer. After identifying structures of or changes in organisms that provide clues to health problems, medical scientists may then work on the treat­ ment of problems. For example, a medical scientist involved in can­ cer research might try to formulate a combination of drugs which will lessen the effects of the disease. Medical scientists who have a medical degree might then administer the drugs to patients in clinical trials, monitor their reactions, and observe the results. (Medical scientists who do not have a medical degree normally col­ laborate with a medical doctor who deals directly with patients.) The medical scientist might then return to the laboratory to ex­ amine the results and, if necessary, adjust the dosage levels to reduce negative side effects or to try to induce even better results. In addi­ tion to using basic research to develop treatments for health problems, medical scientists attempt to discover ways to prevent health problems from developing, such as affirming the link be­ tween smoking and increased risk of lung cancer, or alcoholism and liver disease. Working Conditions Biological and medical scientists generally work regular hours in of­ fices or laboratories and usually are not exposed to unsafe or un­ healthy conditions. Some work with dangerous organisms or toxic substances in the laboratory, so strict safety procedures must be fol­ lowed to avoid contamination. Medical scientists also spend time working in clinics and hospitals administering drugs and treatments to patients in clinical trials. Many biological scientists such as bota­ nists, ecologists, and zoologists take field trips which involve strenu­ ous physical activity and primitive living conditions. Employment Biological and medical scientists held about 117,000 jobs in 1992. In addition, many biological and medical scientists held biology faculty positions in colleges and universities. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.)  Professional Specialty Occupations  'v',.  ________ Research biological scientists use a variety of sophisticated laboratory equipment, such as scanning electron microscopes. Almost 4 in 10 nonfaculty biological scientists were employed by Federal, State, and local governments. Federal biological scientists worked mainly in the U.S. Departments of Agriculture, the Interior, and Defense, and in the National Institutes of Health. Most of the rest worked in the pharmaceutical industry, hospitals, or research and testing laboratories. About one-fifth of medical scientists worked in research and testing laboratories, with most of the re­ mainder found in hospitals and the pharmaceutical industry. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement For biological scientists, the Ph.D. degree generally is required for college teaching, independent research, and for advancement to ad­ ministrative positions. A master’s degree is sufficient for some jobs in applied research and for jobs in management, inspection, sales, and service. The bachelor’s degree is adequate for some nonresearch jobs. Some graduates with a bachelor’s degree start as biological scientists in testing and inspection, or get jobs related to biological science such as technical sales or service representatives. In some cases, graduates with a bachelor’s degree are able to work in a labo­ ratory environment on their own projects, but this is unusual. Some may work as research assistants. Others become biological techni­ cians, medical laboratory technologists or, with courses in educa­ tion, high school biology teachers. (See the statements on clinical laboratory technologists and technicians; science technicians; and kindergarten, elementary, and secondary school teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Many with a bachelor’s degree in biology enter medical, dental, veterinary, or other health profession schools. Some enter a wide range of occupations with little or no connection to biology. Most colleges and universities offer bachelor’s degrees in biologi­ cal science and many offer advanced degrees. Curriculums for ad­ vanced degrees often emphasize a subfield such as microbiology or botany but not all universities offer all curriculums. Advanced de­ gree programs include classroom and field work, laboratory re­ search, and a thesis or dissertation. Biological scientists who have advanced degrees usually begin in research or teaching. With expe­ rience, they may become managers or administrators within biol­ ogy; others leave biology for nontechnical managerial, administra­ tive, and sales jobs.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  103  Biological scientists should be able to work independently or as part of a team and be able to communicate clearly and concisely, both orally and in writing. Those doing field research in remote ar­ eas must have physical stamina. The Ph.D. degree in a biological science is the minimum educa­ tion required for prospective medical scientists because the work of medical scientists is almost entirely research oriented. A Ph.D. de­ gree qualifies one to do research on basic life processes or on partic­ ular medical problems or diseases, and to analyze and interpret the results of experiments on patients. Medical scientists who adminis­ ter drug or gene therapy to human patients, or who otherwise inter­ act medically with patients (such as drawing blood, excising tissue, or performing other invasive procedures) must have a medical de­ gree. It is particularly helpful for medical scientists to earn both Ph.D. and medical degrees. In addition to the formal education, medical scientists are usually expected to spend several years in a post-doctoral position before they are offered permanent jobs. Post-doctoral work provides valua­ ble laboratory experience, including experience in specific processes and techniques (such as gene splicing) which are transferable to other research projects later on. In some institutions, the post-doc­ toral position can lead to a permanent position. Job Outlook Employment of biological and medical scientists is expected to in­ crease faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Biological and medical scientists will continue to conduct ge­ netic and biotechnological research and help develop and produce products developed by new biological methods. In addition, efforts to clean up and preserve the environment will continue to add to growth. More biological scientists will be needed to determine the environmental impact of industry and government actions and to correct past environmental problems. Expected expansion in re­ search related to health issues, such as AIDS, cancer, and the Human Genome project, should also result in growth. However, much research and development, including many areas of medical research, is funded by the Federal Government. Anticipated budget tightening should lead to slower employment growth of biological and medical scientists in the public sector and in some private indus­ try research laboratories as the number and amount of government grants increases more slowly than in the past. Many persons with a bachelor’s degree in biological science find jobs as science or engineering technicians or health technologists and technicians. Some become high school biology teachers, where they are usually regarded as teachers rather than biologists. Those with a doctorate in biological science may become college and uni­ versity faculty. (See statements on science and engineering techni­ cians, health technologists and technicians, high school teachers, and college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Biological and medical scientists are less likely to lose their jobs during recessions than those in many other occupations since most are employed on long-term research projects or in agricultural re­ search. However, a recession could influence the amount of money allocated to new research and development efforts, particularly in areas of risky or innovative research. A recession could also limit the possibility of extension or renewal of existing projects. Earnings Median annual earnings for biological and life scientists were about $34,500 in 1992; the middle 50 percent earned between $26,000 and $46,800. Ten percent earned less than $20,400, and 10 percent earned over $56,900. For medical scientists, median annual earnings were about $32,400; the middle 50 percent earned between $25,800 and $52,200. Ten percent earned less than $20,000, and 10 percent earned over $77,600. According to the College Placement Council, beginning salary offers in private industry in 1992 averaged $21,850 a year for bachelor’s degree recipients in biological science.  104  Occupational Outlook Handbook  In the Federal Government in 1993, general biological scientists in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions earned an average salary of $45,155; microbiologists averaged $49,440; ecolo­ gists, $44,657; physiologists, $55,326; and geneticists, $55,709. Related Occupations Many other occupations deal with living organisms and require a level of training similar to that of biological and medical scientists. These include the conservation occupations of forester, range man­ ager, and soil conservationist; animal breeders, horticulturists, soil scientists, and most other agricultural scientists; and life science technicians. Many health occupations are also related to those in the biological sciences, such as medical doctors, dentists, and veterinari­ ans. Sources of Additional Information For information on careers in physiology, contact: W American Physiological Society, Membership Services Dept., 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20814.  For information on careers in biochemistry, contact: W American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 9650 Rock­ ville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20814.  For information on careers in botany, contact: ry Business Office, Botanical Society of America, 1725 Neil Ave., Colum­ bus, OH 43210-1293.  For information on careers in microbiology, contact: W American Society for Microbiology, Office of Education and Training— Career Information, 1325 Massachusetts Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20005.  Information on Federal job opportunities is available from local offices of State employment services or offices of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management, located in major metropolitan areas.  Foresters and Conservation Scientists (D.O.T. 040.061-030, -046, -050, -054, and -062; .167-010; 049.127)  Nature of the Work Forests and rangelands serve a variety of needs: They supply wood products, livestock forage, minerals, and water; serve as sites for recreational activities; and provide habitats for wildlife. Foresters and conservation scientists manage, develop, use, and help protect these and other natural resources. Foresters manage timberland, which involves a variety of duties. Those working in private industry may procure timber from private landowners. To do this, foresters contact local forest owners and gain permission to take inventory of the type, amount, and location of all standing timber on the property, a process known as timber cruising. Foresters then appraise the timber’s worth, negotiate the purchase of timber, and draw up a contract for procurement. Next, they subcontract with loggers or pulpwood cutters for tree removal, aid in road layout, and maintain close contact with the subcontrac­ tor’s workers and the landowner to ensure that the work is per­ formed to the landowner’s, as well as federal, state, and local envi­ ronmental specifications. Forestry consultants often act as agents for the forest owner, performing the above duties and negotiating timber sales with industrial procurement foresters. Throughout the process, foresters consider the economics of the purchase as well as the environmental impact on natural resources, a function which has taken on added importance in recent years. To do this, they determine how best to preserve wildlife habitats, creek beds, water quality, and soil stability and how best to comply with environmental regulations. Foresters must balance the desire to conserve forested ecosystems for future generations with the need to use forest resources for recreational or economic purposes. Foresters also supervise the planting and growing of new trees, a process called regeneration. They choose and prepare the site, using controlled burning, bulldozers, or herbicides to clear weeds, brush, and logging debris. They advise on the type, number, and placement  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  of trees to be planted. Foresters then monitor the trees to ensure healthy growth and to determine the best time for harvesting. If they detect signs of disease or harmful insects, they decide on the best course of treatment to prevent contamination or infestation of healthy trees. Foresters who work for State and Federal governments manage public parks and forests and also work with private landowners to protect and manage forest land outside of the public domain. They may also design campgrounds and recreation areas. Foresters use a number of tools to perform their jobs: Clinometers measure the heights, diameter tapes measure the diameter, and in­ crement borers and bark gauges measure the growth of trees so that timber volumes can be computed and future growth estimated. Photogrammetry and remote sensing (aerial photographs taken from airplanes and satellites) are often used for mapping large forest areas and for detecting widespread trends of forest and land use. Com­ puters are used extensively, both in the office and in the field, for the storage, retrieval, and analysis of information required to manage the forest land and its resources. Range managers, also called range conservationists, range ecolo­ gists, or range scientists, manage, improve, and protect rangelands to maximize their use without damaging the environment. Rangelands cover about 1 billion acres of the United States, mostly in the west­ ern States and Alaska. They contain many natural resources, in­ cluding grass and shrubs for animal grazing, wildlife habitats, water from vast watersheds, recreation facilities, and valuable mineral and energy resources. Range managers help ranchers attain optimum livestock production by determining the number and kind of ani­ mals to graze, the grazing system to use, and the best season for grazing. At the same time, however, they maintain soil stability and vegetation for other uses such as wildlife habitats and outdoor recre­ ation. Soil conservationists provide technical assistance to farmers, ranchers, and others concerned with the conservation of soil, water, and related natural resources. They develop programs designed to get the most productive use of land without damaging it. Soil con­ servationists do most of their work in the field. Conservationists visit areas with erosion problems, find the source of the problem, and help landowners and managers develop management practices to combat it. Foresters and conservation scientists often specialize in one area such as forest resource management, urban forestry, wood technol­ ogy, or forest economics. Working Conditions Working conditions for foresters and conservation scientists vary considerably. Although some of the work is solitary, they also deal regularly with landowners, loggers, forestry technicians and aides, farmers, ranchers, government officials, special interest groups, and the public in general. Some work regular hours in offices or labs.  A forester consults a map to locate a client’s property.  Professional Specialty Occupations The work can still be physically demanding, though. Many forest­ ers and conservation scientists often work outdoors in all kinds of weather, sometimes in isolated areas. Some foresters may need to walk long distances through densely wooded land to carry out their work. Foresters and conservation scientists also may work long hours fighting fires or in other emergencies. Employment Foresters and conservation scientists held about 35,000jobs in 1992. About one-third of the salaried workers were in the Federal Gov­ ernment, primarily in the Department of Agriculture’s Forest Ser­ vice and Soil Conservation Service and in the Department of the In­ terior’s Bureau of Land Management. The Forest Service alone employed over 5,000 foresters and over 400 range conservationists in 1992. Another 25 percent worked for State governments, and 8 percent worked for local governments. The remainder worked in private industry, mainly in the forestry industry. Other significant employers included logging and lumber companies and sawmills. Some were self-employed as consultants for private landowners, State and Federal governments, and forestry-related businesses. Most soil conservationists work for the Department of Agricul­ ture’s Soil Conservation Service. Others are employed by State and local governments in their soil conservation districts. Although foresters and conservation scientists work in every State, employment is concentrated in the western and southeastern States, where many national and private forests and parks are, and where most of the lumber and pulpwood-producing forests are. Range managers work almost entirely in the western States, where most of the rangeland is located. Soil conservationists, on the other hand, are employed in almost every county in the country. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree in forestry is the minimum educational require­ ment for professional careers in forestry. In the Federal Govern­ ment, a combination of experience and appropriate education can occasionally substitute for a 4-year forestry degree, but job competi­ tion makes this difficult. Thirteen States have mandatory licensing or registration require­ ments which a forester must meet in order to acquire the title “pro­ fessional forester.”Becoming licensed or registered usually requires a 4-year degree in forestry, a minimum period of training time, and passing an exam. Foresters who wish to perform specialized research or teach should have an advanced degree, preferably a Ph.D. In 1993, about 55 colleges and universities offered bachelor’s or higher degrees in forestry; 45 of these were accredited by the Society of American Foresters. Curriculums stress science, mathematics, communications skills, and computer science, as well as technical forestry subjects. Courses in forest economics and business adminis­ tration supplement the student’s scientific and technical knowledge. Prospective foresters should also have a strong grasp on policy is­ sues and on the increasingly numerous and complex environmental regulations which affect many forestry-related activities. Many col­ leges require students to complete a field session in a camp operated by the college. All schools encourage students to take summer jobs that provide experience in forestry or conservation work. A bachelor’s degree in range management or range science is the usual minimum educational requirement for range managers; grad­ uate degrees generally are required for teaching and research posi­ tions. In 1992, 31 colleges and universities offered degrees in range management or range science or in a closely related discipline with a range management or range science option. A number of other schools offered some courses in range management or range science. Specialized range management courses combine plant, animal, and soil sciences with principles of ecology and resource management. Desirable electives include economics, forestry, hydrology, agron­ omy, wildlife, animal husbandry, computer science, and recreation. Very few colleges and universities offer degrees in soil conserva­ tion. Most soil conservationists have degrees in agronomy, general agriculture, or crop or soil science; a few have degrees in related fields such as wildlife biology, forestry, and range management.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  105  Programs of study generally include 30 semester hours in natural re­ sources or agriculture, including at least 3 hours in soil science. In addition to meeting the demands of forestry and conservation research and analysis, foresters and conservation scientists generally must enjoy working outdoors, be physically hardy, and be willing to move to where the jobs are. They must also work well with people and have good communications skills. Recent forestry and range management graduates usually work under the supervision of experienced foresters or range managers. After gaining experience, they may advance to more responsible po­ sitions. In the Federal Government, most entry level foresters work in forest resource management. An experienced Federal forester may supervise a ranger district, and may advance to regional forest supervisor or to a top administrative position. In private industry, foresters start by learning the practical and administrative aspects of the business and acquiring comprehensive technical training. They are then introduced to contract writing, timber harvesting, and deci­ sion making. Some foresters work their way up to top managerial positions within their companies. Foresters in management usually leave the fieldwork behind, spending more of their time in an office, working with teams to develop management plans and supervising others. After gaining several years of experience, many foresters be­ come consulting foresters, working alone or with one or several partners. They advise State or local governments, private landown­ ers, private industry, or other forestry consulting groups. Soil conservationists usually begin working within one county or conservation district and with experience may advance to the area, State, regional, or national level. Also, soil conservationists can transfer to related occupations such as farm or ranch management advisor or land appraiser. Job Outlook Employment of foresters and conservation scientists is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2005, partly due to budgetary constraints in the Federal Government, where employment is concentrated. However, an expected wave of retirements in the Federal Government should create additional job openings for both foresters and range conservationists. Job opportunities for foresters outside of the Federal Government are expected to be better. Demand will continue to increase at the State and local government level in re­ sponse to the emphasis on environmental protection and responsible land management. For example, urban foresters are increasingly needed to do environmental impact studies in urban areas, and to help regional planning commissions make land use decisions, particularly in the Northeast and in other major population centers of the country. At the State level, more numerous and complex environmental regulations have created demand for more foresters to deal with these issues. Also, the nationwide Stewardship Incentive Program, funded by the Federal Government, provides money to the States to encourage landowners to practice multiple-use forest management. Foresters will be needed to as­ sist landowners in making decisions about how to manage their forested property. In private industry, more foresters should be needed to im­ prove forest and logging practices and increase output and profitability. Certain areas of the country offer greater job opportunities for foresters and range conservationists than others. Employment for range conservationists is concentrated in the West and Midwest, and most forestry-related employment is in the South and West. Earnings Most graduates entering the Federal Government as foresters, range managers, or soil conservationists with a bachelor’s degree started at $18,340 or $22,717 a year, in 1993, depending on academic achieve­ ment. Those with a master’s degree could start at $22,717 or $27,789. Holders of doctorates could start at $33,623 or, in research positions, at $40,298. In 1993, the average Federal salary for foresters in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions was $42,440; for soil conser­ vationists, $39,448; and for forest products technologists, $56,559. In private industry, starting salaries for students with a bachelor’s degree were comparable to starting salaries in the Federal Govern­ ment, but starting salaries in State and local governments were gen­ erally lower.  106  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Foresters and conservation scientists who work for Federal, State, and local governments and large private firms generally re­ ceive more generous benefits—for example, pension and retirement plans, health and life insurance, and paid vacations—than those working for smaller firms.  13* Society of American Foresters, 5400 Grosvenor Ln., Bethesda, MD 20814.  Related Occupations Foresters and conservation scientists are not the only workers who manage, develop, and protect natural resources. Other workers with similar responsibilities include agricultural scientists, agricultural engineers, biological scientists, environmental scientists, farmers, farm managers, ranchers, ranch managers, soil scientists and soil conservation technicians, and wildlife managers.  Soil and Water Conservation Society, 7515 Northeast Ankeny Rd., RR #1, Ankeny, IA 50021-9764.  Sources of Additional Information Information about the forestry profession and lists of schools offer­ ing education in forestry are available from:   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Information about a career as a range manager as well as a list of schools offering training is available from: Society for Range Management, 1839 York St., Denver, CO 80206.  Information about a career as a soil conservationist is available from: For information about career opportunities in the Federal Gov­ ernment, contact:  Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Department of the Interior, Room 3619, 1849 C St. NW, Washington, DC 20240. XW Chief, U.S. Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, P.O. Box 96090, Washington, DC 20090-6090. Soil Conservation Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 14th St. and Independence Ave. SW., Washington, DC 20013.  Physical Scientists  Chemists (D.O.T. 022.061-010, -014, and .137-010)  Nature of the Work Chemists search for and put to practical use new knowledge about chemicals. Although chemicals are often thought of as artificial or toxic substances, all physical things, whether naturally occurring or of human design, are composed of chemicals. Chemists have devel­ oped a tremendous variety of new and improved synthetic fibers, paints, adhesives, drugs, electronic components, lubricants, and other products. They also develop processes which save energy and reduce pollution, such as improved oil refining and petrochemical processing methods. Research on the chemistry of living things spurs advances in medicine, agriculture, food processing, and other areas. Many chemists work in research and development. In basic re­ search, chemists investigate the properties, composition, and struc­ ture of matter and the laws that govern the combination of elements and reactions of substances. In applied research and development, they create new products and processes or improve existing ones, often using knowledge gained from basic research. For example, synthetic rubber and plastics resulted from research on small mole­ cules uniting to form large ones (polymerization). Chemists also work in production and quality control in chemical manufacturing plants. They prepare instructions for plant workers which specify ingredients, mixing times, and temperatures for each stage in the process. They also monitor automated processes to en­ sure proper product yield, and they test samples to ensure they meet industry and government standards. Chemists also record and re­ port on test results. Others are marketing or sales representatives who sell and provide technical information on chemical products. Chemists often specialize in a subfield. Analytical chemists deter­ mine the structure, composition, and nature of substances and de­ velop analytical techniques. They also identify the presence and concentration of chemical pollutants in air, water, and soil. Organic chemists study the chemistry of the vast number of carbon com­ pounds. Many commercial products, such as drugs, plastics, and fertilizers, have been developed by organic chemists. Inorganic chemists study compounds consisting mainly of elements other than carbon, such as those in electronic components. Physical chemists study the physical characteristics of atoms and molecules and inves­ tigate how chemical reactions work. Their research may result in new and better energy sources. Biochemists, whose work encompasses both biology and chemis­ try, are included under biological scientists elsewhere in the Hand­ book. Working Conditions Chemists usually work regular hours in offices and laboratories. Re­ search chemists spend much time in laboratories, but also work in offices when they do theoretical research or plan, record, and report on their lab research. Although some laboratories are small, others are large and may incorporate prototype chemical manufacturing facilities as well as advanced equipment. Chemists may also do some of their research in a chemical plant or outdoors—while gathering samples of pollutants, for example. Some chemists are exposed to health or safety hazards when handling certain chemicals, but there is little risk if proper procedures are followed.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  t 4  Chemists contribute to the development of a variety ofpractical products, including pharmaceuticals, paints, and synthetic fibers and materials. Employment Chemists held about 92,000 jobs in 1992. The majority of chemists are employed in manufacturing firms—mostly in the chemical man­ ufacturing industry, which includes firms that produce plastics and synthetic materials, drugs, soap and cleaners, paints, industrial or­ ganic chemicals, and other miscellaneous chemical products. Chem­ ists also work for State and local governments, primarily in health and agriculture, and for Federal agencies, chiefly in the Depart­ ments of Defense, Health and Human Services, and Agriculture. Others work for research and testing services. In addition, thousands of persons held chemistry faculty positions in colleges and universities. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Chemists are employed in all parts of the country, but they are mainly concentrated in large industrial areas. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree in chemistry or a related discipline is usually the minimum education necessary to work as a chemist. However, most research and college teaching jobs require a Ph.D. degree. Many colleges and universities offer a bachelor’s degree program in chemistry, about 602 of which are approved by the American Chemical Society. Approximately 325 colleges and universities also offer advanced degree programs in chemistry. Students planning careers as chemists should enjoy studying sci­ ence and mathematics, and should like working with their hands building scientific apparatus and performing experiments. Persever­ ance, curiosity, and the ability to concentrate on detail and to work independently are essential. In addition to required courses in ana­ lytical, inorganic, organic, and physical chemistry, undergraduate chemistry majors usually study biological sciences, mathematics, and physics. Computer courses are also important, as chemists in­ creasingly use computers as a tool in their everyday work. 107  108  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Because research and development chemists are increasingly ex­ pected to work on interdisciplinary teams, some understanding of other disciplines, including business and marketing, is desirable, along with leadership ability and good oral and written communica­ tion skills. Experience, either in academic laboratories or through internships or co-op programs in industry, also is useful. Although graduate students typically specialize in a subfield of chemistry, such as analytical chemistry or polymer chemistry, stu­ dents usually need not specialize at the undergraduate level. In fact, undergraduates who are broadly trained have more flexibility when job hunting or changing jobs than if they narrowly define their inter­ ests. Some employers provide new bachelor’s degree chemists with additional training or education. In government or industry, beginning chemists with a bachelor’s degree work in technical sales or services, quality control, or assist senior chemists in research and development laboratories. Some may work in research positions, analyzing and testing products, but these are often technicians’ positions, with limited upward mobility. Many employers prefer chemists with a Ph.D. to work in basic and applied research. A Ph.D. is also generally required for a 4-year col­ lege faculty position and for advancement to many administrative positions. Chemists who work in sales, marketing, or professional research positions often move into management eventually. Many people with a bachelor’s degree in chemistry enter other oc­ cupations in which a chemistry background is helpful, such as tech­ nical writers or sales representatives in chemical marketing. Some enter medical, dental, veterinary, or other health profession schools. Others choose from a wide range of occupations with little or no connection to chemistry. Chemistry graduates may become high school teachers. How­ ever, they usually are then regarded as science teachers rather than chemists. Others may qualify as engineers, especially if they have taken some courses in engineering. Job Outlook Employment of chemists is expected to grow about as fast as the av­ erage for all occupations through the year 2005. The chemical in­ dustry should face continued demand for goods such as new and better pharmaceuticals and personal care products, as well as more specialty chemicals designed to address specific problems or appli­ cations. To meet these demands, research and development expend­ itures will continue to increase, contributing to employment growth for chemists. However, employment will not grow as rapidly as in the past be­ cause, overall, research and development budgets are expected to grow more slowly compared to those of the 1980’s as firms restruc­ ture and streamline their operations. Also, temporary slowdowns in automobile manufacturing and construction, end users of many of the products of the chemical industry, will have a short-term damp­ ening effect on chemists’ employment. Regardless of the outlook, hiring may slow and layoffs occur during periods of economic reces­ sion, especially in the oil and industrial chemicals industries. Earnings According to a 1992 survey by the American Chemical Society, the median starting salary for recently graduated chemists with a bache­ lor’s degree was about $24,000 a year; with a master’s degree, $32,000; with a Ph.D., $48,000. The American Chemical Society also reports that the median sal­ ary of their members of all experience levels with a bachelor’s degree was $42,000 a year in 1992; with a master’s degree, $50,000; and with a Ph.D., $60,000. In 1993, chemists in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions in the Federal Government earned an average salary of $51,537.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Related Occupations The work of chemical engineers, agricultural scientists, biological scientists, and chemical technicians is closely related to the work done by chemists. The work of other physical and life science occu­ pations may also be similar to that of chemists. Sources of Additional Information General information on career opportunities and earnings for chem­ ists is available from:  American Chemical Society, Career Services, 1155 16th St. NW„ Wash­ ington, DC 20036.  Information on Federal job opportunities is available from local offices of State employment services or offices of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management, located in major metropolitan areas.  Geologists and Geophysicists (D.O.T. 024.061 except -014, and .161)  Nature of the Work Geologists and geophysicists study the physical aspects and history of the earth. They identify and examine rocks, study information collected by remote sensing instruments in satellites, conduct geo­ logical surveys, construct maps, and use instruments to measure the earth’s gravity and magnetic field. They also analyze information collected through seismic prospecting, which involves bouncing sound waves off buried rock layers. Many geologists and geophysi­ cists search for oil, natural gas, minerals, and underground water. Increasingly, geologists, geophysicists, and other earth scientists are becoming known as geological scientists or geoscientists, terms which better describe their role in studying all aspects of the earth. Geoscientists play an increasingly important part in studying, preserving, and cleaning up the environment. Many design and monitor waste disposal sites, preserve water supplies, and reclaim contaminated land and water to comply with stricter Federal envi­ ronmental rules. They also help locate safe sites for hazardous waste facilities and landfills. Geologists and geophysicists examine chemical and physical properties of specimens in laboratories, sometimes under controlled temperature and pressure. They may study fossil remains of animal and plant life or experiment with the flow of water and oil through rocks. Some geoscientists use two- or three-dimensional computer modeling to portray water layers and the flow of water or other fluids through rock cracks and porous materials. A large variety of sophisticated laboratory instruments is used, including x-ray dif­ fractometers, which determine the crystal structure of minerals, and petrographic microscopes, for study of rock and sediment samples. The locations and intensities of earthquakes are determined using seismographs, instruments which measure energy waves resulting from movements in the earth’s crust. Geologists and geophysicists also apply geological knowledge to engineering problems in constructing large buildings, dams, tun­ nels, and highways. Some administer and manage research and ex­ ploration programs, and others become general managers in petro­ leum and mining companies. Geology and geophysics are closely related fields, but there are some major differences. Geologists study the composition, struc­ ture, and history of the earth’s crust. They try to find out how rocks were formed and what has happened to them since their formation. Geophysicists use the principles of physics and mathematics to study not only the earth’s surface but its internal composition, ground and surface waters, atmosphere, and oceans as well as its magnetic, electrical, and gravitational forces. Both, however, com­ monly apply their skills to the search for natural resources and to solve environmental problems. Geologists and geophysicists often specialize. Geological oceanog­ raphers study and map the ocean floor. They collect information us­ ing remote sensing devices aboard surface ships or underwater re­ search craft. Physical oceanographers study the physical aspects of  Professional Specialty Occupations oceans such as currents and the interaction of the surface of the sea with the atmosphere. Chemical oceanographers study the chemical composition, dissolved elements, and nutrients of oceans. Although biological scientists who study ocean life are also called oceanogra­ phers (as well as marine biologists), the work they do and the train­ ing they need are related to biology rather than geology or geophys­ ics. (See the statement on biological scientists elsewhere in the Handbook.) Hydrologists study the distribution, circulation, and physical properties of underground and surface waters. They study the form and intensity of precipitation, its rate of infiltration into the soil, and its return to the ocean and atmosphere. Petroleum geolo­ gists explore for oil and gas by studying and mapping the subsurface of the ocean or land. They use sophisticated geophysical instrumen­ tation, well log data, and computers to collect information. Mineral­ ogists analyze and classify minerals and precious stones according to composition and structure. Paleontologists study fossils found in ge­ ological formations to trace the evolution of plant and animal life and the geologic history of the earth. Seismologists interpret data from seismographs and other geophysical instruments to detect earthquakes and locate earthquake-related faults. Stratigraphers help to locate minerals by studying the distribution and arrange­ ment of sedimentary rock layers and by examining the fossil and mineral content of such layers. Working Conditions Some geoscientists spend the majority of their time in an office, others divide their time between fieldwork and office or laboratory work. Geologists often travel to remote field sites by helicopter or four-wheel drive vehicles and cover large areas by foot. Exploration geologists and geophysicists often work overseas or in remote areas, and job relocation is not unusual. Geological and physical oceanog­ raphers may spend considerable time at sea. Employment Geologists and geophysicists held about 48,000 jobs in 1992. In ad­ dition, thousands of persons held geology, geophysics, and oceanog­ raphy faculty positions in colleges and universities. (See the state­ ment on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) About 1 in 4 were employed in oil and gas companies or oil and gas field service firms. Many other geologists worked for consulting firms and business services, especially engineering services, which often provide services to oil and gas companies. About 1 geologist in 10 was self-employed; most of these were consultants to industry or government. The Federal Government employed about 6,400 geologists, geo­ physicists, oceanographers, and hydrologists in 1992. Over one-half worked for the Department of the Interior in the U.S. Geological  mm  -  Geologists and geophysicists often apply their knowledge of the physical aspects of the earth to solve or prevent environmental problems.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  109  Survey, the Bureau of Land Management, the Minerals Manage­ ment Service, the Bureau of Mines, and the Bureau of Reclamation. Others worked for the Departments of Defense, Agriculture, Com­ merce, and Energy, and the Environmental Protection Agency. Some worked for State agencies such as State geological surveys and State departments of conservation. Geologists and geophysicists also worked for nonprofit research institutions. Some were em­ ployed by American firms overseas for varying periods of time. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree in geology or geophysics is adequate for entry into some lower level geology jobs, but better jobs with good ad­ vancement potential usually require at least a master’s degree in ge­ ology or geophysics. Persons with strong backgrounds in physics, chemistry, mathematics, or computer science also may qualify for some geophysics or geology jobs. A Ph.D. degree is essential for most college or university teaching positions, and is important for work in Federal agencies that involves basic research. Over 500 colleges and universities offer a bachelor’s degree in ge­ ology, geophysics, oceanography, or other geoscience. Other pro­ grams offering related training for beginning geological scientists in­ clude geophysical technology, geophysical engineering, geophysical prospecting, engineering geology, petroleum geology, and geochem­ istry. In addition, more than 300 universities award advanced de­ grees in geology or geophysics. Geologists and geophysicists need to be able to work as part of a team. Computer modeling, data processing, and effective oral and written communication skills are important, as well as the ability to think independently and creatively. Those involved in fieldwork must have physical stamina. Traditional geoscience courses emphasizing classical geologic methods and concepts (such as mineralogy, paleontology, stra­ tigraphy, and structural geology) are important for all geoscientists. However, those students interested in working in the environmental or regulatory fields should take courses in hydrology, hazardous waste management, environmental legislation, chemistry, fluid mechanics, and geologic logging. Geologists and geophysicists often begin their careers in field ex­ ploration or as research assistants in laboratories. They are given more difficult assignments as they gain experience. Eventually they may be promoted to project leader, program manager, or other management and research positions. Job Outlook Employment of geologists and geophysicists is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Many jobs for geologists and geophysicists are in or related to the petroleum industry, especially the exploration for oil and gas. This industry is subject to cyclical fluctuations. Low oil prices, higher production costs, improvements in energy efficiency, and re­ strictions on potential drilling sites have caused exploration activi­ ties to be curtailed in the United States. If these conditions continue, there will be few openings in the petroleum industry for geoscien­ tists working in the United States. As a result of generally poor job prospects in the past few years, the number of students enrolling in geology and geophysics has dropped considerably. Although enrollments are rising again, the number of students trained in petroleum geology is likely to be so low that even a small increase in openings in the oil industry will be greater than the number of petroleum geologists and geophysicists available to fill them, creating good employment opportunities if ex­ ploration activities increase. Despite the generally poor job prospects encountered by geo­ scientists in recent years in the petroleum industry, the demand for these professionals in environmental protection and reclamation has been growing rapidly. Geologists and geophysicists will be needed to help clean up contaminated sites in the United States, and to help private companies and government comply with more numerous and complex environmental regulations. In particular, jobs requir­ ing training in engineering geology, hydrology and geochemistry should be in demand. However, if the number of geo-scientists who  110  Occupational Outlook Handbook  obtain training in these areas increases very rapidly, they may expe­ rience competition despite the increasing number ofjobs available. Earnings Surveys by the College Placement Council indicate that graduates with bachelor’s degrees in the geological sciences received an aver­ age starting offer of $25,704 a year in 1992. According to a 1991 American Geological Institute survey, the average starting salaries for inexperienced geoscientists were about $23,100 for those with a bachelor’s degree, $28,100 for those with a master’s degree, and $33,600 for those with a Ph.D. However, the starting salaries can vary widely depending on the employing indus­ try. For example, the oil and gas industry offered an average starting salary of $36,250 for bachelor’s degree holders, while in research in­ stitutions, colleges, and universities, new hires with a bachelor’s de­ gree averaged about $21,000. Although the petroleum, mineral, and mining industries offer higher salaries, the competition in these areas is normally intense, and the job security less than in other areas. In 1993, the Federal Government’s average salary for geologists in managerial, supervisory, and nonsupervisory positions was $51,800; for geophysicists, $57,929; for hydrologists, $47,793; and for oceanographers, $54,552. Related Occupations Many geologists and geophysicists work in the petroleum and natu­ ral gas industry. This industry also employs many other workers in the scientific and technical aspects of petroleum and natural gas ex­ ploration and extraction, including engineering technicians, science technicians, petroleum engineers, and surveyors. Also, some life scientists, physicists, chemists, and meteorologists, as well as mathe­ maticians, computer scientists, soil scientists, and mapping scien­ tists, do related work in both petroleum and natural gas exploration and extraction and in environment-related activities. Sources of Additional Information Information on training and career opportunities for geologists is available from:  XW American Geological Institute, 4220 King St., Alexandria, VA 22302­ 1507.  XW Geological Society of America, P.O. Box 9140, 3300 Penrose PI., Boul­ der, CO 80301. Xir American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Communications De­ partment, P.O. Box 979, Tulsa, OK 74101.  Information on training and career opportunities for geophysi­ cists is available from: XW American Geophysical Union, 2000 Florida Ave. NW., Washington, DC  Meteorologists who forecast the weather, known professionally as operational meteorologists, are the largest group of specialists. They study information on air pressure, temperature, humidity, and wind velocity, and they apply physical and mathematical relationships to make short- and long-range weather forecasts. Their data come from weather satellites, weather radar, and remote sensors and ob­ servers in many parts of the world. Meteorologists use sophisticated computer models of the world’s atmosphere to help forecast the weather and interpret the results of these models to make long-term, short-term, and local-area forecasts. These forecasts inform not only the general public, but also those who need accurate weather infor­ mation for both economic and safety reasons, as in the shipping, avi­ ation, agriculture, fishing, and utilities industries. The use of weather balloons, launched twice a day, to measure wind, temperature, and humidity in the upper atmosphere, is being supplemented by more sophisticated weather equipment which transmits data as frequently as every few minutes. Doppler radar, for example, can detect rotational patterns in violent storm systems, allowing forecasters to better predict thunderstorms, tornadoes, flash floods, as well as their direction and intensity. Some meteorologists engage in research. Physical meteorologists, for example, study the atmosphere’s chemical and physical proper­ ties; the transmission of light, sound, and radio waves; and the trans­ fer of energy in the atmosphere. They also study factors affecting formation of clouds, rain, snow, and other weather phenomena, such as severe storms. Climatologists collect, analyze, and interpret past records of wind, rainfall, sunshine, and temperature in specific areas or regions. Their studies are used to design buildings and to plan heating and cooling systems, effective land use, and agricul­ tural production. Other research meteorologists may examine the most effective ways to control or diminish air pollution or improve weather forecasting using mathematical models. Working Conditions Jobs in weather stations, most of which operate around the clock 7 days a week, often involve night, weekend, and holiday work and ro­ tating shifts. Operational meteorologists are often under pressure to meet forecast deadlines. Weather stations are found all over the country: At airports, in or near cities, and in isolated and remote ar­ eas. Meteorologists in smaller weather offices often work alone; in  ^fR-88D Leather  20009. tjf Society of Exploration Geophysicists, P.O. Box 70240, Tulsa, OK 74170.  Information on training and career opportunities in oceanogra­ phy is available from: t*- Marine Technology Society, 1828 L St. NW., Suite 906, Washington, DC 20036.  Information on Federal job opportunities is available from local offices of State employment services or offices of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management located in major metropolitan areas.  Meteorologists (D.O.T. 025.062-010)  Nature of the Work Meteorology is the study of the atmosphere, the air that covers the earth. Meteorologists study the atmosphere’s physical characteris­ tics, motions, and processes, and the way the atmosphere affects the rest of our environment. The best-known application of this knowl­ edge is in forecasting the weather. However, weather information and meteorological research also are applied in air-pollution con­ trol, agriculture, air and sea transportation, defense, and the study of trends in the earth’s climate such as global warming or ozone de­ pletion.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Meteorologists involved in weather forecasting sometimes work evenings, weekends, or holidays.  Professional Specialty Occupations larger ones, they work as part of a team. Meteorologists not doing forecasting work regular hours, usually in offices. Employment Meteorologists held about 6,100 jobs in 1992. The largest employer of civilian meteorologists is the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), which employs about 2,400 meteorolo­ gists. The majority of NOAA’s meteorologists work in the National Weather Service at stations in all parts of the United States. The re­ mainder of NOAA’s meteorologists work mainly in research or in program management. The Department of Defense employs about 280 civilian meteorologists. Others work for private weather consul­ tants, research and testing services, and computer and data process­ ing services. Hundreds of people teach meteorology and related courses in col­ lege and university departments of meteorology or atmospheric sci­ ence, physics, earth science, and geophysics. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) In addition to civilian meteorologists, thousands of members of the Armed Forces do forecasting and other meteorological work. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree with a major in meteorology or a closely related field with coursework in meteorology is the usual minimum require­ ment for a beginning job as a meteorologist. The preferred educational requirement for entry level meteorolo­ gists in the Federal Government is a bachelor’s degree—not neces­ sarily in meteorology—with at least 20 semester hours of meteorol­ ogy courses, including 6 hours in weather analysis and forecasting and 6 hours in dynamic meteorology. In addition to meteorology coursework, differential and integral calculus and 6 hours of college physics are required. These requirements will probably be upgraded soon, and most likely will include coursework in computer science and additional coursework appropriate for a physical science major, such as statistics, chemistry, physical oceanography, or physical cli­ matology. Sometimes, a combination of experience and education may be substituted for a degree. Although positions in operational meteorology are available for those with only a bachelor’s degree, obtaining a graduate degree en­ hances advancement potential. A master’s degree is usually neces­ sary for conducting research and development, and a Ph.D. is usu­ ally required for college teaching. Students who plan a career in teaching or research and development need not necessarily major in meteorology as an undergraduate. In fact, a bachelor’s degree in mathematics, physics, or engineering is excellent preparation for graduate study in meteorology. Because meteorology is a small field, relatively few colleges and universities offer degrees in meteorology or atmospheric science, al­ though many departments of physics, earth science, geography, and geophysics offer atmospheric science and related courses. Prospec­ tive students should make certain that courses required by the Na­ tional Weather Service and other employers are offered at the col­ lege they are considering. Computer science courses, additional meteorology courses, and a strong background in mathematics and physics are expected to become more important to prospective em­ ployers as new, sophisticated weather equipment and radar systems become operational. Many programs combine the study of meteor­ ology with another field, such as agriculture, engineering, or phys­ ics. For example, hydrometeorology is the blending of hydrology (the science of the earth’s water) and meteorology, and this is an emerging field concerned with the impact of precipitation on the hy­ drologic cycle and the environment. Beginning meteorologists often do routine data collection, com­ putation, or analysis and some basic forecasting. Entry level meteo­ rologists in the Federal Government are usually placed in intern po­ sitions for training and experience. Experienced meteorologists may advance to various supervisory or administrative jobs, or may han­ dle more complex forecasting jobs. Increasing numbers of meteorol­ ogists establish their own weather consulting services.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  111  Job Outlook Employment of meteorologists is expected to grow as fast as the av­ erage for all occupations through the year 2005. The National Weather Service, which employs many meteorologists, expects to increase its employment of meteorologists, mainly in its field offices, to improve short-term and local-area weather forecasts. Although some of these additional jobs are being filled internally through the upgrading of meteorological technicians, there still should be more openings in the National Weather Service in the next 5 years than there have been in the past. Employment of meteorologists in other parts of the Federal Government is not expected to increase. Addi­ tional jobs will be created in private industry with the increased use of private weather forecasting and meteorological services by farm­ ers, commodity investors, utilities, transportation and construction firms, and radio and TV stations. For people in these and other ar­ eas, even a slight improvement in the detail and accuracy of weather information and forecasts over the general information provided by the National Weather Service can yield significant benefits. How­ ever, because many customers for private weather services are in in­ dustries sensitive to fluctuations in the economy, the sales and growth of private weather services depend on the health of the econ­ omy. Along with the projected average growth, many of the job open­ ings in this very small occupation will arise from the need to replace those who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Earnings The average salary for meteorologists in nonsupervisory, supervi­ sory, and managerial positions employed by the Federal Govern­ ment was $48,266 in 1993. In 1993, meteorologists in the Federal Government with a bachelor’s degree and no experience received a starting salary of $18,340 or $22,717 a year, depending on their col­ lege grades. Those with a master’s degree could start at $22,717 or $27,790; those with the Ph.D. degree, at $33,623 or $40,299. Related Occupations Workers in other occupations concerned with the physical environ­ ment include oceanographers, geologists and geophysicists, hydrol­ ogists, and civil and environmental engineers. Sources of Additional Information Information on career opportunities in meteorology is available from: fw American Meteorological Society, 45 Beacon St., Boston, MA 021 OS-  3693. Eg" National Weather Service, Personnel Branch, 1335 East West Hwy., SSMC1, Silver Spring, MD 20910.  Physicists and Astronomers (D.O.T. 015.021-010; 021.067-010; 023.061-010, -014, and .067; 079.021-014)  Nature of the Work Physicists explore and identify basic principles governing the struc­ ture and behavior of matter, the generation and transfer of energy, and the interaction of matter and energy. Some physicists use these principles in theoretical areas, such as the nature of time and the ori­ gin of the universe, while others work in practical areas such as the development of advanced materials, electronic and optical devices, and medical equipment. Physicists design and perform experiments with lasers, cyclo­ trons, telescopes, mass spectrometers, and other equipment. Based on observations and analysis, they attempt to discover the laws that describe the forces of nature, such as gravity, electromagnetism, and nuclear interactions. They also find ways to apply physical laws and theories to problems in nuclear energy, electronics, optics, materi­ als, communications, aerospace technology, and medical instru­ mentation.  112  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Astronomy is sometimes considered a subfield of physics. Astron­ omers use the principles of physics and mathematics to learn about the fundamental nature of the universe, including the sun, moon, planets, stars, and galaxies. They apply their knowledge to problems in navigation and space flight. Most physicists work in research and development. Some do ba­ sic research to increase scientific knowledge. For example, they in­ vestigate the structure of the atom or the nature of gravity. Physicists who conduct applied research build upon the discover­ ies made through basic research and work to develop new devices, products, and processes. For instance, basic research in solid-state physics led to the development of transistors and then to the inte­ grated circuits used in computers. Physicists also design research equipment. This equipment often has additional unanticipated uses. For example, lasers are used in surgery; microwave devices are used for ovens; and measuring in­ struments can analyze blood or the chemical content of foods. A small number work in inspection, testing, quality control, and other production-related jobs in industry. Much physics research is done in small or medium-size laborato­ ries. However, experiments in plasma, nuclear, high energy, and some other areas of physics require extremely large, expensive equipment such as particle accelerators. Physicists in these subfields often work in large teams. Although physics research may require extensive experimentation in laboratories, research physicists still spend time in offices planning, recording, analyzing, and reporting on research. Almost all astronomers do research. They analyze large quanti­ ties of data gathered by observatories and satellites and write scien­ tific papers or reports on their findings. Most astronomers spend only a few weeks each year making observations with optical telescopes, radio telescopes, and other instruments. Contrary to the popular image, astronomers almost never make observations by looking directly through a telescope because enhanced photo­ graphic and electronic detecting equipment can see more than the human eye. Most physicists specialize in one of many subfields—elementary particle physics; nuclear physics; atomic and molecular physics; physics of condensed matter (solid-state physics); optics; acoustics; plasma physics; or the physics of fluids. Some specialize in a subdivi­ sion of one of these subfields; for example, within condensed matter physics, specialties include superconductivity, crystallography, and semiconductors. However, all physics involves the same fundamen­ tal principles, so specialties may overlap, and physicists may switch from one subfield to another. Also, growing numbers of physicists work in combined fields such as biophysics, chemical physics, and geophysics.  Research and development work is an integral part of most physicists' jobs.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Working Conditions Physicists often work regular hours in laboratories and offices. At times, however, those who are deeply involved in research may work long or irregular hours. Most do not encounter unusual hazards in their work. Some physicists work away from home tem­ porarily at national or international facilities with unique equipment such as particle accelerators. Astronomers who make observations may travel to observatories, which are usually in remote locations, and routinely work at night. Employment Physicists and astronomers held nearly 21,000 jobs in 1992. Also, a significant number held physics or astronomy faculty positions in colleges and universities. (See the statement on college and univer­ sity faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) About two-fifths of all nonfaculty physicists worked for research, development, and testing laboratories in industry. The Federal Government employed almost one-fifth, mostly in the Departments of Defense and Commerce and in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Others worked in colleges and universities in nonfaculty positions and for aerospace firms, noncommercial research laboratories, electrical equipment manufacturers, engineering services firms, and the trans­ portation equipment industry. Although physicists are employed in all parts of the country, most work in areas that have universities and large research and de­ velopment laboratories. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A doctoral degree is the usual educational requirement for physi­ cists and astronomers, because most jobs are in research and devel­ opment or in teaching at large universities or 4-year colleges. Those having bachelor’s or master’s degrees in physics are gener­ ally qualified to work in an engineering-related area or other scien­ tific fields, to work as technicians, or to assist in setting up laborato­ ries. Some may qualify for applied research jobs in private industry or nonresearch positions in the Federal Government, and a master’s degree often suffices for teaching jobs in 2-year colleges. Astronomy bachelor’s degree holders often enter a field unrelated to astronomy, but they are also qualified to work in planetariums running science shows or to assist astronomers doing research. (See statements on engineers, geologists and geophysicists, computer programmers, and computer scientists and systems analysts elsewhere in the Handbook.) About 750 colleges and universities offer a bachelor’s degree in physics. The undergraduate program provides a broad background in the natural sciences and mathematics. Typical physics courses in­ clude mechanics, electromagnetism, optics, thermodynamics, atomic physics, and quantum mechanics. About 180 colleges and universities have physics departments which offer Ph.D. degrees in physics. Graduate students usually concentrate in a subfield of physics such as elementary particles or condensed matter. Many begin studying for their doctorate immedi­ ately after their bachelor’s degree. About 72 universities offer the Ph.D. degree in astronomy, either through an astronomy department, a physics department, or a com­ bined physics/astronomy department. Applicants to astronomy doctoral programs face keen competition for available slots. Those planning a career in astronomy should have a very strong physics background—in fact, an undergraduate degree in physics is excel­ lent preparation, followed by a Ph.D. in astronomy. Mathematical ability, computer skills, an inquisitive mind, imagi­ nation, and the ability to work independently are important traits for anyone planning a career in physics or astronomy. Prospective physicists who hope to work in industrial laboratories applying physics knowledge to practical problems should broaden their edu­ cational background to include courses outside of physics, such as economics, computer technology, and current affairs. Good oral and written communication skills are also becoming increasingly important. Most Ph.D. physics and astronomy graduates choose to take a postdoctoral position, which is helpful for those who want to con­ tinue research in their specialty and for those who plan a career  Professional Specialty Occupations teaching at the university level. Beginning physicists, especially those without a Ph.D., often do routine work under the close super­ vision of more senior scientists. After some experience, they are as­ signed more complex tasks and given more independence. Physicists who develop new products or processes sometimes form their own companies or join new firms to exploit their own ideas. Job Outlook A large proportion of physicists and astronomers are employed on research projects, many of which, in the past, were defense related. Expected reductions in defense-related research and an expected slowdown in the growth of civilian physics-related research will cause employment of physicists and astronomers to decline through the year 2005. Since the number of doctorates granted in physics is not expected to decrease much from present levels, competition is expected for the kind of research and academic jobs that those with new doctorates in physics have traditionally sought. Although research and development budgets in private industry will continue to grow, many research laboratories in private indus­ try are expected to reduce basic research, which is where much physics research takes place, in favor of applied research and prod­ uct and software development. Furthermore, although the number of retiring academic physicists is expected to increase in the late 1990’s, it is possible that many of them will not be replaced or will be replaced by faculty in other disciplines. Persons with only a bachelor’s degree in physics are not qualified to enter most physicist jobs. However, many find jobs as high school physics teachers and in engineering, technician, mathematics, and computer- and environment-related occupations. (See the state­ ments on these occupations elsewhere in the Handbook.) Also, those with advanced degrees in physics will find their skills transferrable to many other occupations.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  113  Earnings Starting salaries for physicists averaged about $30,000 a year in 1992 for those with a bachelor’s or master’s degree, and about $41,000 for those with a doctoral degree, according to the College Placement Council. The American Institute of Physics reported a median salary of $65,000 in 1992 for its members with Ph.D.’s. Those working in 4year colleges (9-10 months a year) earned the least—$43,000— while those employed in industry and hospitals earned the most— $71,500 and 78,000, respectively. Average earnings for physicists in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions in the Federal Government in 1993 were $61,956 a year, and for astronomy and space scientists, $65,709. Related Occupations The work of physicists and astronomers relates closely to that of other scientific and mathematic occupations such as chemist, geolo­ gist, geophysicist, and mathematician. Engineers and engineering and science technicians also use the principles of physics in their work. Sources of Additional Information General information on career opportunities in physics is available from: 0s American Institute of Physics, American Center for Physics, 1 Physics  Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740. O" American Physical Society, American Center for Physics, 1 Physics El­ lipse, College Park, MD 20740.  For a pamphlet containing information on careers in astronomy and on schools offering training in the field, send your request to: 13* American Astronomical Society, Education Office, University of Texas, Department of Astronomy, Austin, TX 78712-1083.  Lawyers and Judges  (D.O.T. 110; 111; 119.107, .117, .167-010, .267-014; 169.267-010)  Nature of the Work Lawyers. Lawyers, also called attorneys, act as both advocates and advisors in our society. As advocates, they represent one of the op­ posing parties in criminal and civil trials by presenting evidence that support their client in court. As advisors, lawyers counsel their cli­ ents as to their legal rights and obligations and suggest particular courses of action in business and personal matters. Whether acting as advocates or advisors, all attorneys interpret the law and apply it to specific situations. This requires research and communication abilities. Lawyers perform in-depth research into the purposes behind the applicable laws and into judicial decisions that have been applied to those laws under circumstances similar to those currently faced by the client. While all lawyers continue to make use of law libraries to prepare cases, some supplement their search of the conventional printed sources with computer software packages that automati­ cally search the legal literature and identify legal texts that may be relevant to a specific subject. In litigation that involves many sup­ porting documents, lawyers may also use computers to organize and index the material. Tax lawyers are also increasingly using com­ puters to make tax computations and explore alternative tax strate­ gies for clients. Lawyers then communicate to others the information obtained by research. They advise what actions clients may take and draw up le­ gal documents, such as wills and contracts, for clients. Lawyers must deal with people in a courteous, efficient manner and not dis­ close matters discussed in confidence with clients. They hold posi­ tions of great responsibility, and are obligated to adhere to strict rules of ethics. The more detailed aspects of a lawyer’s job depend upon his or her field of specialization and position. Even though all lawyers are allowed to represent parties in court, some appear in court more fre­ quently than others. Some lawyers specialize in trial work. These lawyers need an exceptional ability to think quickly and speak with ease and authority, and must be thoroughly familiar with court­ room rules and strategy. Trial lawyers still spend most of their time outside the courtroom conducting research, interviewing clients and witnesses, and handling other details in preparation for trial. Besides trials, lawyers may specialize in other areas, such as bank­ ruptcy, probate, or international law. Environmental lawyers, for example, may represent public interest groups, waste disposal com­ panies, or construction firms in their dealings with the Environmen­ tal Protection Agency (EPA) and other State and Federal agencies. They help clients prepare and file for licenses and applications for approval before certain activities can occur. They also represent cli­ ents’ interests in administrative adjudications and during drafting of new regulations. Some lawyers concentrate in the emerging field of intellectual property. These lawyers help protect clients’ claims to copyrights, art work under contract, product designs, and computer programs. Still other lawyers advise insurance companies about the legality of insurance transactions. They write insurance policies to conform with the law and to protect companies from unwarranted claims. They review claims filed against insurance companies and represent the companies in court. The majority of lawyers are in private practice where they may concentrate on criminal or civil law. In criminal law, lawyers re­ present persons who have been charged with crimes and argue their cases in courts of law. In civil law, attorneys assist clients with litiga­ tion, wills, trusts, contracts, mortgages, titles, and leases. Some 114   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  manage a person’s property as trustee or, as executor, see that provi­ sions of a client’s will are carried out. Others handle only public in­ terest cases—civil or criminal—which have a potential impact ex­ tending well beyond the individual client. Lawyers sometimes are employed full time by a single client. If the client is a corporation, the lawyer is known as “house counsel” and usually advises the company about legal questions that arise from its business activities. These questions might involve patents, government regulations, contracts with other companies, property interests, or collective bargaining agreements with unions. Attorneys employed at the various levels of government make up still another category. Lawyers that work for State attorneys gen­ eral, prosecutors, public defenders, and courts play a key role in the criminal justice system. At the Federal level, attorneys investigate cases for the Department of Justice or other agencies. Also, lawyers at every government level help develop programs, draft laws, inter­ pret legislation, establish enforcement procedures, and argue civil and criminal cases on behalf of the government. Other lawyers work for legal aid societies—private, nonprofit or­ ganizations established to serve disadvantaged people. These law­ yers generally handle civil rather than criminal cases. A relatively small number of trained attorneys work in law schools. Most are faculty members who specialize in one or more subjects, and others serve as administrators. Some work full time in nonacademic settings and teach part time. (For additional informa­ tion, see the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Some lawyers become judges, although not all judges have practiced law. Judges. Judges apply the law. They oversee the legal process that in courts of law resolves civil disputes and determines guilt in criminal cases according to Federal and State laws and those of local jurisdic­ tions. They preside over cases touching on virtually every aspect of society, from traffic offenses to disputes over management of profes­ sional sports, from the rights of huge corporations to questions of disconnecting life support equipment for terminally ill persons. They must insure that trials and hearings are conducted fairly and that the court administers justice in a manner that safeguards the le­ gal rights of all parties involved. Judges preside over trials or hearings and listen as attorneys rep­ resenting the parties present and argue their cases. They rule on the admissibility of evidence and methods of conducting testimony, and settle disputes between the opposing attorneys. They insure that rules and procedures are followed, and if unusual circumstances arise for which standard procedures have not been established, judges direct how the trial will proceed based on their knowledge of the law. Judges often hold pretrial hearings for cases. They listen to allega­ tions and, based on the evidence presented, determine whether they have enough merit for a trial to be held. In criminal cases, judges may decide that persons charged with crimes should be held in jail pending their trial, or may set conditions for release through the trial. In civil cases, judges may impose restrictions upon the parties until a trial is held. When trials are held, juries are often selected to decide cases. However, judges decide cases when the law does not require a jury trial, or when the parties waive their right to a jury. Judges instruct juries on applicable laws, direct them to deduce the facts from the evidence presented, and hear their verdict. Judges sentence those convicted in criminal cases in many States. They also award relief to litigants including, where appropriate, compensation for damages in civil cases.  Professional Specialty Occupations Judges also work outside the courtroom “in chambers.” In their private offices, judges read documents on pleadings and motions, re­ search legal issues, hold hearings with lawyers, write opinions, and oversee the court’s operations. Running a court is like running a small business, and judges manage their courts’ administrative and clerical staff, too. Judges’ duties vary according to the extent of their jurisdictions and powers. General trial court judges of the Federal and State court systems have jurisdiction over any case in their system. They gener­ ally try civil cases that transcend the jurisdiction of lower courts, and all cases involving felony offenses. Federal and State appellate court judges, although few in number, have the power to overrule decisions made by trial court or administrative law judges if they de­ termine that legal errors were made in a case, or if legal precedent does not support the judgement of the lower court. They rule on fewer cases and rarely have direct contacts with the people involved. The majority of State court judges preside in courts in which ju­ risdiction is limited by law to certain types of cases. A variety of ti­ tles are assigned to these judges, but among the most common are municipal court judge, county court judge, magistrate, or justice of the peace. Traffic violations, misdemeanors, small claims cases, and pretrial hearings constitute the bulk of the work of these judges, but some States allow them to handle cases involving domestic rela­ tions, probate, contracts, and selected other areas of the law. Administrative law judges, formerly called hearing officers, are employed by government agencies to rule on appeals of agency ad­ ministrative decisions. They make decisions on a person’s eligibility for various Social Security benefits or worker’s compensation, pro­ tection of the environment, enforcement of health and safety regula­ tions, employment discrimination, and compliance with economic regulatory requirements. Working Conditions Lawyers and judges do most of their work in offices, law libraries, and courtrooms. Lawyers sometimes meet in clients’ homes or places of business and, when necessary, in hospitals or prisons. They frequently travel to attend meetings; to gather evidence; and to ap­ pear before courts, legislative bodies, and other authorities. Salaried lawyers in government and private corporations gener­ ally have structured work schedules. Lawyers in private practice may work irregular hours while conducting research, conferring with clients, or preparing briefs during nonoffice hours. Lawyers often work long hours, and about half regularly work 50 hours or more per week. They are under particularly heavy pressure, for ex­ ample, when a case is being tried. Preparation for court includes keeping abreast of the latest laws and judicial decisions.  Lawyers and judges do most of their work in offices, law libraries, and courtrooms.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  115  Although work generally is not seasonal, the work of tax lawyers and other specialists may be an exception. Because lawyers in pri­ vate practice can often determine their own workload and when they will retire, many stay in practice well beyond the usual retire­ ment age. Many judges work a standard 40-hour week, but a third of all judges work over 50 hours per week. Some judges with limited juris­ diction are employed part time and divide their time between their judicial responsibilities and other careers. Employment Lawyers and judges held about 716,000 jobs in 1992. About fourfifths of the 626,000 lawyers practiced privately, either in law firms or in solo practices. Most of the remaining lawyers held positions in government, the greatest number at the local level. In the Federal Government, lawyers are concentrated in the Departments of Jus­ tice, Treasury, and Defense, but they work for other Federal agen­ cies as well. Other lawyers are employed as house counsel by public utilities, banks, insurance companies, real estate agencies, manufac­ turing firms, welfare and religious organizations, and other business firms and nonprofit organizations. Some salaried lawyers also have part-time independent practices; others work as lawyers part time while working full time in another occupation. Judges held 90,000 jobs in 1992. All worked for Federal, State, or local governments, with about half holding positions in the Federal Government. The majority of the remainder were employed at the State level. Many people trained as lawyers are not employed as lawyers or judges; they work as law clerks, law school professors, managers and administrators, and in a variety of other occupations. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Lawyers. To practice law in the courts of any State or other jurisdic­ tion, a person must be licensed, or admitted to its bar, under rules established by the jurisdiction’s highest court. Nearly all require that applicants for admission to the bar pass a written bar examina­ tion. Most jurisdictions also require applicants to pass a separate written ethics examination. Lawyers who have been admitted to the bar in one jurisdiction occasionally may be admitted to the bar in another without taking an examination if they meet that jurisdic­ tion’s standards of good moral character and have a specified period of legal experience. Federal courts and agencies set their own quali­ fications for those practicing before them. To qualify for the bar examination in most States, an applicant must complete at least 3 years of college and graduate from a law school approved by the American Bar Association (ABA) or the proper State authorities. (ABA approval signifies that the law school—particularly its library and faculty—meets certain stan­ dards developed by the Association to promote quality legal educa­ tion.) In 1992, the American Bar Association approved 177 law schools. Others were approved by State authorities only. With cer­ tain exceptions, graduates of schools not approved by the ABA are restricted to taking the bar examination and practicing in the State or other jurisdiction in which the school is located; most of these schools are in California. Seven States accept the study of law in a law office or in combination with study in a law school; only Cali­ fornia accepts the study of law by correspondence as qualifying for taking the bar examination. Several States require registration and approval of students by the State Board of Law Examiners, either before they enter law school or during the early years of legal study. Although there is no nationwide bar examination, 46 States, the District of Columbia, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Virgin Islands require the 6-hour Multistate Bar Examination (MBE) as part of the bar examination; the MBE is not required in Indiana, Iowa, Louisiana, Washington, and Puerto Rico. The MBE, covering issues of broad interest, is given in addition to a locally pre­ pared 6-hour State bar examination. The 3-hour Multistate Essay Examination (MEE) is used as part of the State bar examination in a few States. States vary in their use of MBE and MEE scores.  116  Occupational Outlook Handbook  The required college and law school education usually takes 7 years of full-time study after high school—4 years of undergraduate study followed by 3 years in law school. Although some law schools accept a very small number of students after 3 years of college, most require applicants to have a bachelor’s degree. To meet the needs of students who can attend only part time, a number of law schools have night or part-time divisions which usually require 4 years of study. In 1991, about one 1 of 6 students in ABA-approved schools were part time. Preparation for a career as a lawyer really begins in college. Al­ though there is no recommended “prelaw” major, the choice of an undergraduate program is important. Certain courses and activities are desirable because they give the student the skills needed to suc­ ceed both in law school and in the profession. Essential skills—pro­ ficiency in writing, reading and analyzing, thinking logically, and communicating verbally—are learned during high school and col­ lege. An undergraduate program that cultivates these skills while broadening the student’s view of the world is desirable. Courses in English, a foreign language, public speaking, government, philoso­ phy, history, economics, mathematics, and computer science, among others, are useful. Whatever the major, students should not specialize too narrowly. Students interested in a particular aspect of law may find related courses helpful; for example, many law schools with patent law tracks require bachelor’s degrees, or at least several courses, in engi­ neering and science. Future tax lawyers should have a strong under­ graduate background in accounting. Acceptance by most law schools depends on the applicant’s abil­ ity to demonstrate an aptitude for the study of law, usually through good undergraduate grades, the Law School Admission Test (LSAT), the quality of the applicant’s undergraduate school, any prior work experience, and sometimes a personal interview. How­ ever, law schools vary in the weight that they place on each of these factors. All law schools approved by the American Bar Association re­ quire that applicants take the LSAT. Nearly all law schools require that applicants have certified transcripts sent to the Law School Data Assembly Service. This service then sends applicants’ LSAT scores and their standardized records of college grades to the law schools of their choice. Both this service and the LSAT are adminis­ tered by the Law School Admission Services. Competition for admission to many law schools is intense. Enroll­ ments rose very rapidly during the 1970’s, with applicants far out­ numbering available seats. Since then, law school enrollments have remained relatively unchanged, and the number of applicants has fluctuated. However, the number of applicants to most law schools still greatly exceeds the number that can be admitted. Enrollments are expected to remain at about their present level through the year 2005, and competition for admission to the more prestigious law schools will remain keen. During the first year or year and a half of law school, students generally study fundamental courses such as constitutional law, contracts, property law, torts, civil procedure, and legal writing. In the remaining time, they may elect specialized courses in fields such as tax, labor, or corporation law. Law students often acquire practi­ cal experience by participation in school sponsored legal aid or legal clinic activities, in the school’s moot court competitions in which students conduct appellate arguments, in practice trials under the supervision of experienced lawyers and judges, and through re­ search and writing on legal issues for the school’s law journal. In 1992, law students in 36 States and 2 other jurisdictions were required to pass the Multistate Professional Responsibility Exami­ nation (MPRE), which tests their knowledge of the ABA codes on professional responsibility and judicial conduct. In some States, the MPRE may be taken during law school, usually after completing a course on legal ethics. A number of law schools have clinical programs where students gain legal experience through practice trials and law school projects under the supervision of practicing lawyers and law school faculty. Law school clinical programs might include work in legal aid clin­ ics, for-example, or on the staff of legislative committees. Part-time  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  or summer clerkships in law firms, government agencies, and corpo­ rate legal departments also provide experience that can be extremely valuable later on. Such training can provide references or lead di­ rectly to a job after graduation, and can help students decide what kind of practice best suits them. Clerkships also may be an impor­ tant source of financial aid. Graduates receive the degree ofjuris doctor (J.D.) or bachelor of law (LL.B.) as the first professional degree. Advanced law degrees may be desirable for those planning to specialize, do research, or teach. Some law students pursue joint degree programs, which gen­ erally require an additional year. Joint degree programs are offered in a number of areas, including law and business administration and law and public administration. After graduation, lawyers must keep informed about legal and nonlegal developments that affect their practice. Thirty-seven States and jurisdictions mandate Continuing Legal Education (CLE). Fur­ thermore, many law schools and State and local bar associations provide continuing education courses that help lawyers stay abreast of recent developments. The practice of law involves a great deal of responsibility. Persons planning careers in law should like to work with people and be able to win the respect and confidence of their clients, associates, and the public. Integrity and honesty are vital personal qualities. Persever­ ance and reasoning ability are essential to analyze complex cases and reach sound conclusions. Lawyers also need creativity when handling new and unique legal problems. Most beginning lawyers start in salaried positions. Newly hired salaried attorneys usually act as research assistants to experienced lawyers or judges. After several years of progressively more respon­ sible salaried employment, some lawyers are admitted to partner­ ship in their firm, or go into practice for themselves. Some lawyers, after years of practice, become full-time law school faculty or ad­ ministrators; a growing number have advanced degrees in other fields as well. Some persons use their legal training in administrative or mana­ gerial positions in various departments of large corporations. A transfer from a corporation’s legal department to another depart­ ment often is viewed as a way to gain administrative experience and rise in the ranks of management. Judges. Most judges, although not all, have been lawyers first. All Federal judges and State trial and appellate court judges are re­ quired to be lawyers or “learned in law.” About 40 States presently allow nonlawyers to hold limited jurisdiction judgeships, but oppor­ tunities are better with law experience. Federal administrative law judges must be lawyers and pass a competitive examination admin­ istered by the U.S. Office of Personnel Management. Many State ad­ ministrative law judges and other hearing officials are not required to be lawyers, but law degrees are preferred for most positions. Federal judges are appointed for life by the President, with the consent of the Senate. Federal administrative law judges are ap­ pointed by the various Federal agencies with virtually lifetime ten­ ure. About half of all State judges are appointed, while the remain­ der are elected in partisan or nonpartisan State elections. Most State and local judges serve fixed terms, which range from 4 or 6 years for most limited jurisdiction judgeships to as long as 14 years for some appellate court judges. Judicial nominating commissions, composed of members of the bar and the public, are used to screen candidates for judgeships in many States, as well as for Federal judgeships. All States have some type of orientation for newly elected or ap­ pointed judges. Thirteen States also require judges to take continu­ ing education courses while serving on the bench. Job Outlook Persons seeking positions as lawyers or judges should encounter keen competition through the year 2005. Law schools still attract large numbers of applicants and are not expected to decrease their enrollments, so the supply of persons trained as lawyers should con­ tinue to exceed job openings. As for judges, the prestige associated with serving on the bench should insure continued intense competi­ tion for openings.  Professional Specialty Occupations  117  Lawyers. Employment of lawyers has grown very rapidly since the early 1970’s, and is expected to continue to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. New j'obs created by growth should exceed job openings that arise from the need to replace lawyers who stop working or leave the profession. The strong growth in demand for lawyers will result from growth in the population and the general level of business activities. Demand also will be spurred by growth of le­ gal action in such areas as employee benefits, consumer protection, criminal prosecution, the environment, and finance, and an anticipated increase in the use of legal services by middle-income groups through le­ gal clinics and prepaid legal service programs. Even though jobs for lawyers are expected to increase rapidly, competition for job openings should continue to be keen because of the large numbers graduating from law school each year. During the 1970’s, the annual number of law school graduates more than doubled, outpacing the rapid growth of jobs. Growth in the yearly number of law school graduates tapered off during the 1980’s, but again increased in the early 1990’s. The high number of graduates will strain the economy’s capacity to absorb them. Although gradu­ ates with superior academic records from well-regarded law schools will continue to enjoy good opportunities, most graduates will en­ counter competition for jobs. As in the past, some graduates may have to accept positions in areas outside their field of interest or for which they feel they are overqualified. They may have to enter jobs for which legal training is an asset but not normally a requirement. For example, banks, insurance firms, real estate companies, govern­ ment agencies, and other organizations seek law graduates to fill many administrative, managerial, and business positions. Due to the competition for jobs, a law graduate’s geographic mo­ bility and work experience assume greater importance. The willing­ ness to relocate may be an advantage in getting a job, but to be li­ censed in a new State, a lawyer may have to take an additional State bar examination. In addition, employers increasingly seek graduates who have advanced law degrees and experience in a particular field such as tax, patent, or admiralty law. Employment growth of lawyers will continue to be concentrated in salaried jobs, as businesses and all levels of government employ a growing number of staff attorneys, and as employment in the legal services industry is increasingly concentrated in larger law firms. The number of self-employed lawyers is expected to continue to in­ crease slowly, reflecting the difficulty of establishing a profitable new practice in the face of competition from larger, established law firms. Also, the growing complexity of law—which encourages spe­ cialization—and the cost of maintaining up-to-date legal research materials both favor larger firms. For lawyers who nevertheless wish to work independently, estab­ lishing a new practice probably will continue to be easiest in small towns and expanding suburban areas, as long as an active market for legal services already exists. In such communities, competition from larger established law firms is likely to be less than in big cities, and new lawyers may find it easier to become known to potential clients; also, rent and other business costs are somewhat lower. Neverthe­ less, starting a new practice will remain an expensive and risky un­ dertaking that should be weighed carefully. Most salaried positions will remain in urban areas where government agencies, law firms, and big corporations are concentrated. Some lawyers are adversely affected by cyclical swings in the economy. During recessions, the demand for some discretionary le­ gal services, such as planning estates, drafting wills, and handling real estate transactions, declines. Also, corporations are less likely to litigate cases when declining sales and profits result in budgetary restrictions. Although few lawyers actually lose their jobs during these times, earnings may decline for many. Some corporations and law firms will not hire new attorneys until business improves. Sev­ eral factors, however, mitigate the overall impact of recessions on lawyers. During recessions, individuals and corporations face other legal problems, such as bankruptcies, foreclosures, and divorces, that require legal action. Furthermore, new laws and legal interpre­ tations will create new opportunities for lawyers.  the demand for judges. Pushing up demand are public concerns about crime, safety, and efficient administration of justice; on the other hand, tight public funding should slow job growth. Competition for judgeships should remain keen. Most job open­ ings will arise as judges retire. Traditionally, many judges have held their positions until late in life. Now, early retirement is becoming more common, creating more job openings; however, becoming a judge will still be difficult. Besides competing with other qualified people, judicial candidates must gain political support in order to be elected or appointed.  Judges. Employment ofjudges is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations. Contradictory social forces affect  tw Member Services, American Bar Association, 541 North Fairbanks   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Earnings Annual salaries of beginning lawyers in private industry averaged about $36,600 in 1992, but top graduates from the Nation’s best law schools started in some cases at over $80,000 a year. In the Federal Government, annual starting salaries for attorneys in 1993 were about $27,800 or $33,600, depending upon academic and personal qualifications. Factors affecting the salaries offered to new gradu­ ates include: Academic record; type, size, and location of employer; and the specialized educational background desired. The field of law makes a difference, too. Patent lawyers, for example, generally are among the highest paid attorneys. Salaries of experienced attorneys also vary widely according to the type, size, and location of their employer. The average salary of the most experienced lawyers in private industry in 1992 was over $134,000, but some senior lawyers who were partners in the Na­ tion’s top law firms earned over $1 million. General attorneys in the Federal Government averaged around $62,200 a year in 1993; the relatively small number of patent attorneys in the Federal Govern­ ment averaged around $71,600. Lawyers on salary receive increases as they assume greater re­ sponsibility. Lawyers starting their own practice may need to work part time in other occupations during the first years to supplement their income. Their incomes usually grow as their practices develop. Lawyers who are partners in law firms generally earn more than those who practice alone. Federal district court judges had salaries of $133,600 in 1993, as did judges in the Court of Federal Claims. Circuit court judges earned $141,700 a year. Federal judges with limited jurisdiction, such as magistrates and bankruptcy court judges, had salaries of $122,900 in 1993. Full-time Federal administrative law judges had average salaries of $94,800 in 1993. The Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court earned $171,500 in 1993, and the Associate Justices earned $ 164,100. Annual salaries of associate justices of States’ highest courts averaged nearly $89,570 in 1992, according to a survey by the National Center for State Courts, and ranged from about $62,500 to $121,207. Salaries of State intermediate appellate court judges averaged $88,435, but ranged from $79,975 to $113,632. Salaries of State judges with limited jurisdic­ tion varied widely; many salaries are set locally. Most salaried lawyers and judges were provided health and life in­ surance, and contributions were made on their behalf to retirement plans. Lawyers who practiced independently were only covered if they arranged and paid for such benefits themselves. Related Occupations Legal training is useful in many other occupations. Some of these are paralegal, arbitrator, journalist, patent agent, title examiner, leg­ islative assistant, lobbyist, FBI special agent, political office holder, and corporate executive. Sources of Additional Information The American Bar Association annually publishes A Review of Le­ gal Education in the United States, which provides detailed informa­ tion on each of the 177 law schools approved by the ABA, State re­ quirements for admission to legal practice, a directory of State bar examination administrators, and other information on legal educa­ tion. Single copies are free from the ABA, but there is a fee for mul­ tiple copies. Free information on the bar examination, financial aid for law students, and law as a career may also be obtained from: Court, Chicago, IL 60611-3314.  118  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Information on the LSAT, the Law School Data Assembly Ser­ vice, applying to law school, and financial aid for law students may be obtained from: Law School Admission Services, P.O. Box 40, Newtown, PA 18940. Phone: (215) 968-1001.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  The specific requirements for admission to the bar in a particular State or other jurisdiction may also be obtained at the State capital from the clerk of the Supreme Court or the administrator of the State Board of Bar Examiners.  Social Scientists and Urban Planners (D.O.T. 029.067; 045.061, .067, .107-022, -026, -030, -034, -046; 050.067; 051; 052 except .067-014; 054; 055; 059; 188.167-110; and 199.167-040)  Nature of the Work Social scientists study all aspects of human society—from the distri­ bution of goods and services to the beliefs of newly formed religious groups to modern mass transportation systems. Social science re­ search provides insights that help us understand the different ways in which individuals and groups make decisions, exercise power, or respond to change. Through their studies and analyses, social scien­ tists and urban planners assist educators, government officials, busi­ ness leaders, and others in solving social, economic, and environ­ mental problems. Research is a basic activity for many social scientists. They use es­ tablished or newly discovered methods to assemble facts and theory that contribute to human knowledge. Applied research usually is designed to produce information that will enable people to make better decisions or manage their affairs more effectively. Interviews and surveys are widely used to collect facts, opinions, or other infor­ mation. Data collection takes many other forms, however, including living and working among the people studied; archaeological and other field investigations; the analysis of historical records and doc­ uments; experiments with human subjects or animals in a psycho­ logical laboratory; the administration of standardized tests and questionnaires; and the preparation and interpretation of maps and graphic materials. Social sciences are interdisciplinary in nature. Specialists in one field often find that the research they are performing overlaps work that is being conducted in another social science discipline. Regard­ less of their field of specialization, social scientists are concerned with some aspect of society, culture, or personality. Anthropologists study the origin and the physical, social, and cul­ tural development and behavior of humans. They may study the way of life, remains, language, or physical characteristics of people in various parts of the world; they compare the customs, values, and social patterns of different cultures. Anthropologists generally con­ centrate in sociocultural anthropology, archaeology, linguistics, or biological-physical anthropology. Sociocultural anthropologists study the customs, cultures, and social lives of groups in a wide range of settings from nonindustrialized societies to modem urban cultures. Archaeologists engage in the systematic recovery and ex­ amination of material evidence, such as graves, buildings, tools, and pottery, remaining from past human life and culture, to determine the history, customs, and living habits of earlier civilizations. Lin­ guistic anthropologists study the role of language in various cul­ tures. Biological-physical anthropologists study the evolution of the human body and look for the earliest evidences of human life. Economists study the production, distribution, and consumption of commodities and services. They may conduct surveys and ana­ lyze data to determine public preferences for these goods and ser­ vices. Most economists are concerned with the practical applica­ tions of economic policy in a particular area, such as finance, labor, agriculture, transportation, energy, or health. Others develop theo­ ries to explain economic phenomena such as unemployment or in­ flation. Marketing research analysts research market conditions in localities, regions, the Nation, or the world to determine potential sales of a product or service; they examine and analyze data on past sales and trends to develop forecasts. Geographers study the distribution of both physical and cultural phenomena on local, regional, continental, and global scales. Geog­ raphers specialize, as a rule. Economic geographers study the re­ gional distribution of resources and economic activities. Political ge­ ographers are concerned with the relationship of geography to  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  political phenomena—local, national, and international. Physical geographers study the distribution of climates, vegetation, soil, and land forms. Urban and transportation geographers study cities and metropolitan areas, while regional geographers study the physical, climatic, economic, political, and cultural characteristics of regions, ranging in size from a congressional district, to a State, country, continent, or the entire world. Medical geographers study health care delivery systems, epidemiology, and the effect of the environ­ ment on health. Geographic Information Systems (GIS)—a relatively new spe­ cialty—combines computer graphics, artificial intelligence, and high-speed communication to store, retrieve, manipulate, analyze, and map geographic data. GIS is widely used in weather forecasting, emergency management, resource analysis and management, and other activities. (Some occupational classification systems include geographers under physical scientists rather than social scientists.) Historians research and analyze the past. They use many sources of information during their research, including government and in­ stitutional records, newspapers and other periodicals, photographs, interviews, films, and unpublished manuscripts such as diaries and letters. Historians usually specialize in a specific country or region; in a particular time period; or in a particular field, such as social, in­ tellectual, political, or diplomatic history. Biographers collect de­ tailed information on individuals. Genealogists trace family histo­ ries. Other historians help study and preserve archival materials, artifacts, and historic buildings and sites. Political scientists study the origin, development, and operation of political systems. They conduct research on a wide range of subjects such as relations between the United States and foreign countries, the beliefs and institutions of foreign nations, for example those in Asia and Africa, the politics of small towns or a major metropolis, or the decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court. Studying topics such as public opinion, political decisionmaking, and ideology, they analyze the structure and operation of governments as well as informal po­ litical entities. Depending on the topic under study, a political scien­ tist might conduct a public opinion survey, analyze election results, or analyze public documents. Psychologists, who constitute over half of all social scientists, study human behavior and use their expertise to counsel or advise individuals or groups. Their research also assists business advertis­ ers, politicians, and others interested in influencing or motivating people. While clinical psychology is the largest specialty, psycholo­ gists specialize in many other fields such as counseling, experimen­ tal, social, or industrial psychology. Sociologists analyze the development, structure, and behavior of groups or social systems such as families, neighborhoods, or clubs. Sociologists may specialize in a particular field such as criminology, rural sociology, or medical sociology. Urban and regional planners develop comprehensive plans and programs for the use of land for industrial and public sites. Planners prepare for situations that are likely to develop as a result of popula­ tion growth or social and economic change. Working Conditions Most social scientists have regular hours. Generally working behind a desk, either alone or in collaboration with other social scientists, they read and write research reports. Many experience the pressures of deadlines and tight schedules, and sometimes they must work overtime, for which they generally are not reimbursed. Social scien­ tists often work as an integral part of a research team. Their routine may be interrupted frequently by telephone calls, letters to answer, special requests for information, meetings, or conferences. Travel may be necessary to collect information or attend meetings. Social 119  120  Occupational Outlook Handbook  scientists on foreign assignment must adjust to unfamiliar cultures and climates. Some social scientists do fieldwork. For example, anthropolo­ gists, archaeologists, and geographers often must travel to remote areas, live among the people they study, and stay for long periods at the site of their investigations. They may work under primitive con­ ditions, and their work may involve strenuous physical exertion. Social scientists employed by colleges and universities generally have flexible work schedules, often dividing their time among teach­ ing, research, consulting, or administrative responsibilities. Employment Social scientists held about 258,000 jobs in 1992. Over half of all so­ cial scientists are psychologists. About one-third of all social scien­ tists—overwhelmingly psychologists—are self-employed, involved in counseling, consulting, or research. Salaried social scientists worked for a wide range of employers. Nearly 4 out of 10 worked for Federal, State, and local govern­ ments; 3 out of 10 worked in health, research, and management ser­ vices firms; and 2 out of 10 worked in educational institutions, as re­ searchers, administrators, and counselors. Other employers include social service agencies, international organizations, associations, museums, historical societies, computer and data processing firms, and business firms. In addition, many persons with training in a social science disci­ pline teach in colleges and universities, and in secondary and ele­ mentary schools. (For more information, see the Handbook state­ ments on college and university faculty, and kindergarten, elementary, and secondary school teachers.) The proportion of so­ cial scientists who teach varies by occupation—for example, the ac­ ademic world generally is a more important source of jobs for grad­ uates in sociology than for graduates in psychology. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Educational attainment of social scientists is among the highest of all occupations. The Ph.D. or equivalent degree is a minimum re­ quirement for most positions in colleges and universities and is im­ portant for advancement to many top level nonacademic research and administrative posts. Graduates with master’s degrees generally have better professional opportunities outside of colleges and uni­ versities, although the situation varies by field. For example, job prospects for master’s degree holders in urban or regional planning are brighter than for master’s degree holders in history. Graduates with a master’s degree in a social science discipline qualify for teach­ ing positions in junior colleges. Bachelor’s degree holders have lim­ ited opportunities and in most social science occupations do not qualify for “professional” positions. The bachelor’s degree does, however, provide a suitable background for many different kinds of entry level jobs, such as research assistant, administrative aide, or management trainee. With the addition of sufficient education courses, social science graduates also can qualify for teaching posi­ tions in secondary and elementary schools. Training in statistics and mathematics is essential for many social scientists. Mathematical and other quantitative research methods are increasingly used in economics, geography, political science, ex­ perimental psychology, and other fields. The ability to use com­ puters for research purposes is mandatory in most disciplines. Depending on their jobs, social scientists and urban planners may need a wide range of personal characteristics. Because they con­ stantly seek new information about people, things, and ideas, intel­ lectual curiosity and creativity are fundamental personal traits. The ability to think logically and methodically is important to a political scientist comparing the merits of various forms of government. The ability to analyze data is important to an economist studying pro­ posals to reduce Federal budget deficits. Objectivity, openminded­ ness, and systematic work habits are important in all kinds of social science research. Perseverance is essential for an anthropologist,  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  who might spend years accumulating artifacts from an ancient civi­ lization. Emotional stability and sensitivity are vital to a clinical psychologist working with mental patients. Written and oral com­ munication skills are essential to all these workers. Job Outlook Employment of social scientists is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005, spurred by rising concern over the environment, crime, communicable disease, mental illness, the growing elderly and homeless populations, the in­ creasingly competitive global economy, and a wide range of other is­ sues. Psychologists, the largest social science occupation, is ex­ pected to grow much faster than average. Economists and marketing research analysts, urban and regional planners, and all other social scientists combined, including anthropologists, geogra­ phers, historians, political scientists, and sociologists, should experi­ ence average growth. Most job openings, however, will result from the need to replace social scientists who transfer to other occupa­ tions or stop working altogether. Prospects are best for those with advanced degrees, and generally are better in disciplines such as economics, psychology, and urban and regional planning, which offer many opportunities in nonaca­ demic settings. However, graduates in all social science fields are ex­ pected to find enhanced job opportunities in applied fields due to the excellent research, communication, and quantitative skills they de­ velop in school. Government agencies, health and social service or­ ganizations, marketing, research and consulting firms, and a wide range of businesses seek social science graduates. Social scientists currently face stiff competition for academic po­ sitions. However, competition may ease in the future due to a wave of retirements expected among college and university faculty. The growing importance and popularity of social science subjects in sec­ ondary schools is strengthening the demand for social science teach­ ers at this level as well. Other considerations that affect employment opportunities in these occupations include specific skills and technical expertise, de­ sired work setting, salary requirements, and geographic mobility. In addition, experience acquired through internships can prove invalu­ able later in obtaining a full-time position in a social science field. Earnings Median annual earnings of all social scientists were about $36,700 in 1992. The middle 50 percent earned between $24,700 and $51,300 annually. The lowest 10 percent earned under $17,800, while the highest 10 percent earned over $68,700. According to a 1993 survey by the College Placement Council, people with a bachelor’s degree in a social science field received starting offers averaging about $19,000 a year in 1993, those with a master’s degree in a social science field received starting offers aver­ aging about $28,400 a year in 1993, and the average salary offer for doctoral social scientists was $30,000. In the Federal Government, social scientists with a bachelor’s de­ gree and no experience could start at $18,300 or $22,700 a year in 1993, depending on their college records. Those with a master’s de­ gree could start at $27,800, and those having a Ph.D. degree could begin at $33,600, while some individuals with experience and an ad­ vanced degree could start at $40,300. The average salary of all social scientists working for the Federal Government in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions was about $43,000 in 1993. Social scientists entering careers in higher education may receive benefits such as summer research money, computer access, student research assistants, and secretarial support. Related Occupations A number of fields that require training and personal qualities simi­ lar to those of the various social science fields are covered elsewhere  Professional Specialty Occupations in the Handbook. These include lawyers, statisticians, mathemati­ cians, computer programmers, computer scientists and systems ana­ lysts, reporters and correspondents, social workers, religious work­ ers, college and university faculty, and counselors. Sources of Additional Information More detailed information about economists and marketing re­ search analysts, psychologists, sociologists, and urban and regional planners is presented in the Handbook statements that follow this introductory statement. Anthropology For information about careers, job openings, grants and fellow­ ships, and schools that offer training in anthropology, and for a copy of Getting a Job Outside the Academy (special publication no. 14), contact: tw The American Anthropological Association, 4350 N. Fairfax Dr., Suite 640, Arlington, VA 22203.  Archaeology For information about careers in archaeology, contact: tw Society for American Archaeology, 900 2nd St. NE., #12, Washington, DC 20002. tw Archaeological Institute of America, 675 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02215.  Geography Two publications that provide information on careers and job openings for geographers—Geography—Today’s Career for To­ morrow, available free of charge, and Careers in Geography, availa­ ble for $3—and the annual publication listing schools offering vari­ ous programs in geography—A Guide to Programs of Geography in the U.S. and Canada—may be obtained from: tw Association of American Geographers, 1710 16th St. NW., Washington, DC 20009.  History Information on careers for students of history is available from: O’ American Historical Association, 400 A St. SE., Washington, DC 20003.  General information on careers for historians is available from: O’Organization of American Historians, 112 North Bryan St., Blooming­ ton, IN 47408.  For additional information on careers for historians, send a selfaddressed, stamped envelope to: O’American  Association for State and Local History, 530 Church St., 6th Floor, Nashville, TN 37219.  Political Science Information on careers and job openings, including Careers and the Study of Political Science: A Guide for Undergraduates, available for $3.50 plus $1.00 postage and handling, with bulk rates for multi­ ple copies, may be purchased from: O American Political Science Association, 1527 New Hampshire Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20036.  Programs in Public Affairs and Administration, a biennial direc­ tory that contains data on the academic content of programs, the student body, the format of instruction, and other information, may be purchased from: tw National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration, 1120 G St. NW., Suite 730, Washington, DC 20005.  Economists and Marketing Research Analysts (D.O.T. 050.067)  Nature of the Work Economists. Economists study the ways a society uses scarce re­ sources such as land, labor, raw materials, and machinery to pro­ duce goods and services. They analyze the costs and benefits of dis­ tributing and consuming these goods and services. Economists conduct research, collect and analyze data, monitor economic trends, and develop forecasts. Their research might focus on topics  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  121  such as energy costs, inflation, interest rates, farm prices, rents, im­ ports, or employment. Most economists are concerned with practical applications of ec­ onomic policy in a particular area, such as finance, labor, agricul­ ture, transportation, real estate, environment, natural resources, en­ ergy, or health. They use their understanding of economic relationships to advise business firms, insurance companies, banks, securities firms, industry and trade associations, labor unions, gov­ ernment agencies, and others. On the other hand, economists who are primarily theoreticians may use mathematical models to develop theories on the causes of business cycles and inflation, or the effects of unemployment and tax legislation. Depending on the topic under study, economists devise methods and procedures for obtaining the data they need. For example, sam­ pling techniques may be used to conduct a survey, and econometric modeling techniques may be used to develop forecasts. Preparing re­ ports usually is an important part of the economist’s job. He or she may be called upon to review and analyze all the relevant data, pre­ pare tables and charts, and write up the results in clear, concise lan­ guage. Being able to present economic and statistical concepts in a meaningful way is particularly important for economists whose re­ search is policy directed. Economists who work for government agencies assess economic conditions in the United States and abroad and estimate the eco­ nomic effects of specific changes in legislation or public policy. For example, they may study how the dollar’s fluctuation against for­ eign currencies affects import and export markets. Most govern­ ment economists are in the fields of agriculture, business, finance, labor, transportation, utilities, urban economics, or international trade. Economists in the U.S. Department of Commerce study do­ mestic production, distribution, and consumption of commodities or services; those in the Federal Trade Commission prepare indus­ try analyses to assist in enforcing Federal statutes designed to elimi­ nate unfair, deceptive, or monopolistic practices in interstate com­ merce; and those in the Bureau of Labor Statistics analyze data on prices, wages, employment, productivity, and safety and health. An economist working for a State or local government might analyze regional or local data on trade and commerce, industrial and com­ mercial growth, and employment and unemployment, and project labor force trends. Marketing Research Analysts. Marketing research analysts are concerned with the design, promotion, price, and distribution of a product or service. They provide information which is used to iden­ tify and define marketing opportunities; generate, refine, and evalu­ ate marketing actions; and monitor marketing performance. Like economists, marketing research analysts devise methods and proce­ dures for obtaining data they need. Marketing research analysts often design surveys and questionnaires; conduct telephone, per­ sonal, or mail interviews; and sometimes offer product samples to assess consumer preferences and indicate current trends. Once the data are compiled, marketing research analysts code, tabulate, and evaluate the data. They then make recommendations to manage­ ment based upon their findings and suggest a course of action. They may provide management with information to make decisions on the promotion, distribution, design, and pricing of company prod­ ucts or services; or to determine the advisability of adding new lines of merchandise, opening new branches, or diversifying the com­ pany’s operations. Analysts also conduct public opinion research to familiarize the media, government, lobbyists, and others with the needs and attitudes of the public. This can help political leaders and others assess public support for new taxes or spending on health, ed­ ucation, welfare, or defense, for example. Marketing research analysts employed by large organizations may have a strong background in statistics or they may work with statisticians to select a group of people to be interviewed who accu­ rately represent prospective customers of a product or service. Under an experienced marketing research analyst’s direction, trained interviewers conduct surveys and office workers tabulate the  122  Occupational Outlook Handbook  results. The researchers must maintain confidentiality, accuracy, and good scientific methods in order to obtain useful results. Working Conditions Economists and marketing research analysts working for govern­ ment agencies and private firms have structured work schedules. They may work alone writing reports, preparing statistical charts, and using computers and calculators. Or they may be an integral part of a research team. Most work under pressure of deadlines and tight schedules, and sometimes must work overtime. Their routine may be interrupted by special requests for data, letters, meetings, or conferences. Travel may be necessary to collect data or attend con­ ferences. Economics and marketing faculty have flexible work schedules, and may divide their time among teaching, research, consulting, and administration. Employment Economists and marketing research analysts held about 51,000 jobs in 1992. Private industry—particularly economic and marketing re­ search firms, management consulting firms, banks, securities and commodities brokers, and computer and data processing compa­ nies—employed 7 out of 10 salaried workers. The remainder, prima­ rily economists, were employed by a wide range of government agencies, primarily in the Federal Government. The Departments of State, Labor, Agriculture, and Commerce are the largest Federal employers of economists. A number of economists and marketing research analysts combine a full-time job in government or business with part-time or consulting work in academia or another setting. Employment of economists and marketing research analysts is concentrated in large cities—for example, New York City, Wash­ ington, D.C., and Chicago. Some economists work abroad for com­ panies with major international operations; for the Department of State and other U.S. Government agencies; and for international or­ ganizations, including the World Bank and the United Nations. Besides the jobs described above, many economists and market­ ing research analysts held economics and marketing faculty posi­ tions in colleges and universities. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree with a major in economics or marketing is suffi­ cient for many entry-level research, administrative, management trainee, and sales jobs. Economics majors can choose from a variety of courses, ranging from those which are intensly mathematical like  Economists and marketing research analysts use computers to prepare reports, develop surveys, and analyze data.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  microeconomics, macroeconomics, and econometrics, to more phil­ osophical courses like the history of economic thought. In addition to courses in business, marketing, and consumer behavior, market­ ing majors should take courses in related disciplines, including eco­ nomics, political science, psychology, organizational behavior, soci­ ology, finance, business law, and international relations. Because of the importance of quantitative skills to economists and marketing researchers, courses in mathematics, statistics, econometrics, sam­ pling theory and survey design, and computer science are highly recommended. Aspiring economists and marketing research analysts can gain experience gathering and analyzing data, conducting interviews or surveys, and writing reports on their findings while in college. This experience can prove invaluable later in obtaining a full-time posi­ tion in the field, since much of their work in the beginning centers around these duties. Beginning workers also may do considerable clerical work, such as copying data, editing and coding questions, and tabulating survey results. With further experience, economists and marketing research analysts eventually are assigned their own research projects. Graduate training increasingly is required for many economist and marketing research analyst jobs, and for advancement to more responsible positions. Economics includes many specialties at the graduate level, such as advanced economic theory, mathematical ec­ onomics, econometrics, history of economic thought, international economics, and labor economics. Students should select graduate schools strong in specialties in which they are interested. Marketing research analysts may earn a master’s degree in business administra­ tion, marketing, statistics, or some related discipline. Some schools help graduate students find internships or part-time employment in government agencies, economic consulting firms, financial institu­ tions, or marketing research firms. Like undergraduate students, work experience and contacts can be useful in testing career prefer­ ences and learning about the job market for economists and market­ ing research analysts. In the Federal Government, candidates for beginning economist positions generally need a college degree with a minimum of 21 se­ mester hours of economics and 3 hours of statistics, accounting, or calculus. Competition is keen, however, and additional education or experience may be required for some jobs. For a job as a college instructor in many junior colleges and some 4-year schools, a master’s degree is the minimum requirement. In most colleges and universities, however, a Ph.D. is necessary for ap­ pointment as an instructor. Similar to other disciplines, a Ph.D. and extensive publication are required for a professorship and for ten­ ure. In government, industry, research organizations, and consulting firms, economists and marketing research analysts who have a grad­ uate degree usually can qualify for more responsible research and administrative positions. A Ph.D. is necessary for top positions in many organizations. Many corporation and government executives have a strong background in economics or marketing. Persons considering careers as economists or marketing research analysts should be able to work accurately with detail since much time is spent on data analysis. Patience and persistence are neces­ sary qualities since economists and marketing research analysts may spend long hours on independent study and problem solving. At the same time, they must be able to work well with others, especially marketing research analysts, who often interview a wide variety of people. Economists and marketing research analysts must be objec­ tive and systematic in their work and be able to present their find­ ings, both orally and in writing, in a clear, meaningful way. Creativ­ ity and intellectual curiosity are essential for success in these fields, just as they are in other areas of scientific endeavor. Job Outlook Employment of economists and marketing research analysts is ex­ pected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations  Professional Specialty Occupations through the year 2005. Most job openings, however, are likely to re­ sult from the need to replace experienced workers who transfer to other occupations, or retire or leave the labor force for other rea­ sons. Opportunities for economists should be best in private industry and in research and consulting firms, as some companies contract out for economic research services rather than support a staff of full­ time economists. The growing complexity of the global economy and increased reliance on quantitative methods of analyzing busi­ ness trends, forecasting sales, and planning purchasing and produc­ tion should spur demand for economists. The continued need for ec­ onomic analyses by lawyers, accountants, engineers, health services administrators, education administrators, urban and regional plan­ ners, environmental scientists, and others also should result in addi­ tional jobs for economists. Other organizations, including trade as­ sociations, unions, and nonprofit organizations, may offer job opportunities for economists. Employment of economists in the Federal Government should decline in line with the rate of growth projected for the Federal workforce as a whole. Slower than average employment growth is expected among economists in State and lo­ cal government. A strong background in economic theory, mathematics, statistics, and econometrics provides the tools for acquiring any specialty within the field. Those skilled in quantitative techniques and their application to economic modeling and forecasting and marketing research, including the use of computers, should have the best job opportunities. Persons who graduate with a bachelor’s degree in economics through the year 2005 should face keen competition for the limited number of economist positions for which they qualify. Related work experience—conducting research, developing surveys, or analyzing data, for example—while in school is a major asset in this competi­ tive job market. Many graduates will find employment in govern­ ment, industry, and business as management or sales trainees, or as research or administrative assistants. Economists with good quanti­ tative skills are qualified for research analyst positions in a broad range of fields. Those with strong backgrounds in mathematics, sta­ tistics, survey design, and computer science may be hired by private firms for marketing research work. Those who meet State certifica­ tion requirements may become high school economics teachers. The demand for secondary school economics teachers is expected to grow as economics becomes an increasingly important and popular course. (See the statement on kindergarten, elementary, and secon­ dary school teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Candidates who hold a master’s degree in economics have better employment prospects than bachelor’s degree holders. Some busi­ nesses and research and consulting firms seek master’s degree hold­ ers who have strong computer and quantitative skills and can per­ form complex research, but do not command the high salary of a Ph.D. Master’s degree holders are likely to face competition for teaching positions in colleges and universities; however, some may gain positions in junior and community colleges. Opportunities will be best for Ph.D.’s. Ph.D. graduates should have opportunities to work as economists in private industry, re­ search and consulting firms, and government. In addition, employ­ ment prospects for economists in colleges and universities should improve due to an expected wave of retirements among college faculty. Demand for marketing research analysts should be strong due to an increasingly competitive global economy. Marketing research provides organizations valuable feedback from purchasers, allowing companies to evaluate consumer satisfaction and more effectively plan for the future. As companies seek to expand their market and consumers become better informed, the need for marketing profes­ sionals is increasing. Opportunities for marketing research analysts should be good in a wide range of employment settings, particularly  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  123  in marketing research firms, as companies find it more profitable to contract out for marketing research services rather than supporting their own marketing department. Other organizations, including fi­ nancial services organizations, health care institutions, advertising firms, manufacturing firms that produce consumer goods, and in­ surance companies may offer job opportunities for marketing re­ search analysts. Like economists, graduates with related work expe­ rience or an advanced degree in marketing or a closely related business field should have the best job opportunities. Earnings According to a 1993 salary survey by the College Placement Coun­ cil, persons with a bachelor’s degree in economics received offers averaging 325,200 a year; in marketing, $24,100. The median base salary of business economists in 1992 was $65,000, according to a survey by the National Association of Busi­ ness Economists. Ninety percent of the respondents held advanced degrees. The highest salaries were reported by those who had a Ph.D., with a median salary of $78,000. Master’s degree holders earned a median salary of $58,000, while bachelor’s degree holders earned $51,000. The highest paid business economists were in the nondurable manufacturing, securities and investment, mining, banking, and real estate industries. The lowest paid were in academia and government. The Federal Government recognizes education and experience in certifying applicants for entry level positions. In general, the en­ trance salary for economists having a bachelor’s degree averaged about $18,300 a year in 1993; however, those with superior aca­ demic records could begin at $22,700. Those having a master’s de­ gree could qualify for positions at an annual salary of $27,800. Those with a Ph.D. could begin at $33,600, while some individuals with experience and an advanced degree could start at $40,300. Economists in the Federal Government in nonsupervisory, supervi­ sory, and managerial positions averaged around $53,500 a year in 1993. Like other college faculty, economists and marketing research analysts entering careers in higher education may receive benefits such as summer research money, computer access, money for stu­ dent research assistants, and secretarial support. Related Occupations Economists are concerned with understanding and interpreting fi­ nancial matters, among other subjects. Others with jobs in this area include financial managers, financial analysts, accountants and au­ ditors, underwriters, actuaries, securities and financial services sales workers, credit analysts, loan officers, and budget officers. Marketing research analysts are involved in social research, in­ cluding the planning, implementation, and analysis of surveys to de­ termine people’s needs and preferences. Other jobs using these skills include social welfare research workers, employment research and planning directors, sociologists, and urban and regional planners. Sources of Additional Information For information on careers in economics and business, contact: t3“ National Association of Business Economists, 28790 Chagrin Blvd., Suite 300, Cleveland, OH 44122. t3*The Margin Magazine, University of Colorado, 1420 Austin Bluffs Pkwy., Colorado Springs, CO 80918.  For information about careers and salaries in marketing research, contact: XW American Marketing Association, 250 South Wacker Dr., Suite 200, Chicago, IL 60606.  tw Marketing Research Association, 2189 Silas Deane Hwy., Suite 5, Rocky Hill, CT 06067. 13= Council of American Survey Research Organizations, 3 Upper Devon, Port Jefferson, NY 11777.  124  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Psychologists (D.O.T. 045.061, .067, .107-022, -026, -030, -034, and -046)  Nature of the Work Psychologists study human behavior and mental processes to under­ stand, explain, and change people’s behavior. They may study the way a person thinks, feels, or behaves. Research psychologists inves­ tigate the physical, cognitive, emotional, or social aspects of human behavior. Pychologists in applied fields counsel and conduct train­ ing programs; do market research; apply psychological treatments to a variety of medical and surgical conditions; or provide mental health services in hospitals, clinics, or private settings. Like other social scientists, psychologists formulate hypotheses and collect data to test their validity. Research methods depend on the topic under study. Psychologists may gather information through controlled laboratory experiments; personality, perform­ ance, aptitude, and intelligence tests; observation, interviews, and questionnaires; clinical studies; or surveys. Computers are widely used to record and analyze this information. Since psychology deals with human behavior, psychologists apply their knowledge and techniques to a wide range of endeavors includ­ ing human services, management, education, law, and sports. In ad­ dition to the variety of work settings, psychologists specialize in many different areas. Clinical psychologists—who constitute the largest specialty—generally work in independent or group practice or in hospitals or clinics. They may help the mentally or emotionally disturbed adjust to life and are increasingly helping all kinds of med­ ical and surgical patients deal with their illnesses or injuries. They may work in physical medicine and rehabilitation settings, treating patients with spinal cord injuries, chronic pain or illness, stroke, and arthritis and neurologic conditions, such as multiple sclerosis. Others help people deal with life stresses such as divorce or aging. Clinical psychologists interview patients; give diagnostic tests; pro­ vide individual, family, and group psychotherapy; and design and implement behavior modification programs. They may collaborate with physicians and other specialists in developing treatment pro­ grams and help patients understand and comply with the prescribed treatment. Some clinical psychologists work in universities, where they train graduate students in the delivery of mental health and be­ havioral medicine services. Others administer community mental health programs. Counseling psychologists use several techniques, including interviewing and testing, to advise people on how to deal with problems of everyday living—personal, social, educational, or vocational. (Also see the statements on counselors and social work­ ers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Developmental psychologists study the patterns and causes of be­ havioral change as people progress through life from infancy to adulthood. Some concern themselves with behavior during infancy, childhood, and adolescence, while others study changes that take place during maturity and old age. The study of developmental disa­ bilities and how they affect a person and others is a new area within developmental psychology. Educational psychologists evaluate stu­ dent and teacher needs, and design and develop programs to en­ hance the educational setting. Experimental psychologists study be­ havior processes and work with human beings and animals such as rats, monkeys, and pigeons. Prominent areas of experimental re­ search include motivation, thinking, attention, learning and reten­ tion, sensory and perceptual processes, effects of substance use and abuse, and genetic and neurological factors in behavior. Industrial and organizational psychologists apply psychological techniques to personnel administration, management, and market­ ing problems. They are involved in policy planning, applicant screening, training and development, psychological test research, counseling, and organizational development and analysis. For ex­ ample, an industrial psychologist may work with management to  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  develop better training programs and to reorganize the work setting to improve worker productivity or quality of worklife. School psy­ chologists work with students, teachers, parents, and administrators to resolve students’ learning and behavior problems. Social psychol­ ogists examine people’s interactions with others and with the social environment. Prominent areas of study include group behavior, leadership, attitudes, and interpersonal perception. Some relatively new specialties include cognitive psychology, health psychology, neuropsychology, and geropsychology. Cogni­ tive psychologists deal with the brain’s role in memory, thinking, and perceptions; some are involved with research related to computer programming and artificial intelligence. Health psychologists pro­ mote good health through health maintenance counseling programs that are designed, for example, to help people stop smoking or lose weight. Neuropsychologists study the relation between the brain and behavior. They often work in stroke and head injury programs. Geropsychologists deal with the special problems faced by the elderly. The emergence and growth of these specialties reflects the increas­ ing participation of psychologists in providing direct services to spe­ cial patient populations. Other areas of specialization include psychometrics, psychology and the arts, history of psychology, psychopharmacology, and com­ munity, comparative, consumer, engineering, environmental, fam­ ily, forensic, population, military, and rehabilitation psychology. Working Conditions A psychologist’s specialty and place of employment determine working conditions. For example, clinical, school, and counseling psychologists in private practice have pleasant, comfortable offices and set their own hours. However, they often have evening hours to accommodate their clients. Some employed in hospitals, nursing homes, and other health facilities often work evenings and week­ ends, while others in schools and clinics work regular hours. Psy­ chologists employed by academic institutions divide their time among teaching, research, and administrative responsibilities. Some maintain part-time consulting practices as well. In contrast to the many psychologists who have flexible work schedules, most in gov­ ernment and private industry have more structured schedules. Reading and writing research reports, they often work alone. Many experience the pressures of deadlines, tight schedules, and overtime work. Their routine may be interrupted frequently. Travel may be required to attend conferences or conduct research. Employment Psychologists held about 144,000 jobs in 1992. Educational institu­ tions employed nearly 4 out of 10 salaried psychologists in positions  Psychologists counsel their clients on how to best deal with a variety of life's problems.  Professional Specialty Occupations involving counseling, testing, special education, research, and ad­ ministration; hospitals, mental health clinics, rehabilitation centers, nursing homes, and other health facilities employed 3 out of 10; and government agencies at the Federal, State, and local levels employed one-sixth. The Department of Veterans Affairs, the Department of Defense, and the Public Health Service employ the overwhelming majority of psychologists working for Federal agencies. Govern­ ments employ psychologists in hospitals, clinics, correctional facili­ ties, and other settings. Psychologists also work in social service or­ ganizations, research organizations, management consulting firms, marketing research firms, and other businesses. After several years of experience, some psychologists—usually those with doctoral degrees—enter private practice or set up their own research or consulting firms. A growing proportion of psychol­ ogists are self-employed. Besides the jobs described above, many persons held positions as psychology faculty at colleges and universities, and as high school psychology teachers. (See the statements on college and university faculty and kindergarten, elementary, and secondary school teach­ ers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A doctoral degree generally is required for employment as a psy­ chologist. Psychologists with a Ph.D qualify for a wide range of teaching, research, clinical, and counseling positions in universities, elementary and secondary schools, private industry, and govern­ ment. Psychologists with a Psy.D.—Doctor of Psychology—qualify mainly for clinical positions. Persons with a master’s degree in psychology can administer tests as psychological assistants. Under the supervision of doctoral level psychologists, they can conduct research in laboratories, conduct psychological evaluations, counsel patients, or perform administra­ tive duties. They may teach in high schools or 2-year colleges or work as school psychologists or counselors. A bachelor’s degree in psychology qualifies a person to assist psy­ chologists and other professionals in community mental health cen­ ters, vocational rehabilitation offices, and correctional programs; to work as research or administrative assistants; and to take jobs as trainees in government or business. However, without additional ac­ ademic training, their advancement opportunities in psychology are severely limited. In the Federal Government, candidates having at least 24 semes­ ter hours in psychology and one course in statistics qualify for entry level positions. Competition for these jobs is keen, however. Clinical psychologists generally must have completed the Ph.D. or Psy.D. requirements and have served an internship; vocational and gui­ dance counselors usually need 2 years of graduate study in counsel­ ing and 1 year of counseling experience. In most cases, 2 years of full-time graduate study are needed to earn a master’s degree in psychology. Requirements usually include practical experience in an applied setting or a master’s thesis based on a research project. A master’s degree in school psychology re­ quires about 2 years of course work and a 1-year internship. Five to 7 years of graduate work usually are required for a doc­ toral degree. The Ph.D. degree culminates in a dissertation based on original research. Courses in quantitative research methods, which include the use of computers, are an integral part of graduate study and usually necessary to complete the dissertation. The Psy.D. usu­ ally is based on practical work and examinations rather than a dis­ sertation. In clinical or counseling psychology, the requirements for the doctoral degree generally include a year or more of internship or supervised experience. Competition for admission into most graduate programs is keen. Some universities require an undergraduate major in psychology. Others prefer only basic psychology with courses in the biological, physical, and social sciences, statistics, and mathematics.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  125  Most colleges and universities offer a bachelor’s degree program in psychology; several hundred offer a master’s and/or a Ph.D. pro­ gram. A relatively small number of professional schools of psychol­ ogy—some affiliated with colleges or universities—offer the Psy.D. The American Psychological Association (APA) presently accred­ its doctoral training programs in clinical, counseling, and school psychology. The National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Ed­ ucation, with the assistance of the National Association of School Psychologists, also is involved in the accreditation of advanced de­ gree programs in school psychology. APA also accredits institutions that provide internships for doctoral students in school, clinical, and counseling psychology. Although financial aid is difficult to obtain, some universities award fellowships or scholarships or arrange for part-time employ­ ment. The Veterans Administration (VA) offers predoctoral traineeships to interns in VA hospitals, clinics, and related training agencies. The National Science Foundation, the Department of Health and Human Services, and many other organizations also provide grants to psychology departments to help fund student sti­ pends. Psychologists in independent practice or those who offer any type of patient care, including clinical, counseling, and school psycholo­ gists, must meet certification or licensing requirements. All States and the District of Columbia have such requirements. Licensing laws vary by State, but generally require a doctorate in psychology, completion of an approved internship, and 1 to 2 years of profes­ sional experience. In addition, most States require that applicants pass an examination. Most State boards administer a standardized test and, in many instances, additional oral or essay examinations. Very few States certify those with a master’s degree as psychological assistants or associates. Some States require continuing education for license renewal. Most States require that licensed or certified psychologists limit their practice to those areas in which they have developed profes­ sional competence through training and experience. The American Board of Professional Psychology recognizes pro­ fessional achievement by awarding diplomas primarily in clinical psychology, clinical neuropsychology, and counseling, forensic, in­ dustrial and organizational, and school psychology. Candidates need a doctorate in psychology, 5 years of experience, and profes­ sional endorsements; they also must pass an examination. Even more so than in other occupations, aspiring psychologists who are interested in direct patient care must be emotionally stable, mature, and able to deal effectively with people. Sensitivity, compas­ sion, and the ability to lead and inspire others are particularly im­ portant for clinical work and counseling. Research psychologists should be able to do detailed work independently and as part of a team. Verbal and writing skills are necessary to communicate treat­ ment and research findings. Patience and perseverance are vital qualities because results from psychological treatment of patients or research often are long in coming. Job Outlook Employment of psychologists is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Largely be­ cause of the substantial investment in training required to enter this specialized field, psychologists have a strong attachment to their oc­ cupation—only a relatively small proportion leave the profession each year. Nevertheless, replacement needs are expected to account for most job openings, similar to most occupations. Programs to combat the increase in alcohol abuse, drug depen­ dency, marital strife, family violence, crime, and other problems plaguing society should stimulate employment growth. Other fac­ tors spurring demand for psychologists include increased emphasis on mental health maintenance in conjunction with the treatment of physical illness; public concern for the development of human re­ sources, including the growing elderly population; increased testing and counseling of children; and more interest in rehabilitation of  126  Occupational Outlook Handbook  prisoners. Changes in the level of government funding for these kinds of services could affect the demand for psychologists. Job opportunities in health care should remain strong—particu­ larly in health care provider networks, such as health maintenance and preferred provider organizations, that specialize in mental health, and in nursing homes and alcohol and drug abuse rehabilita­ tion programs. Job opportunities will arise in businesses, nonprofit organizations, and research and computer firms. Companies will use psychologists’ expertise in survey design, analysis, and research to provide personnel testing, program evaluation, and statistical analysis. The increase in employee assistance programs—in which psychologists help people stop smoking, control weight, or alter other behaviors—also should spur job growth. The expected wave of retirements among college faculty, beginning in the late 1990’s, should result in job openings for psychologists in colleges and uni­ versities. Other openings are likely to occur as psychologists study the ef­ fectiveness of changes in health, education, military, law enforce­ ment, and consumer protection programs. Psychologists also are in­ creasingly studying the effects on people of technological advances in areas such as agriculture, energy, the conservation and use of nat­ ural resources, and industrial and office automation. Opportunities are best for candidates with a doctoral degree. Per­ sons holding doctorates from leading universities in applied areas such as school, clinical, counseling, health, industrial, and educa­ tional psychology should have particularly good prospects. Psychol­ ogists with extensive training in quantitative research methods and computer science may have a competitive edge over applicants with­ out this background. Graduates with a master’s degree in psychology may encounter competition for the limited number of jobs for which they qualify. Graduates of master’s degree programs in school psychology should have the best job prospects, as schools are expected to increase stu­ dent counseling and mental health services. Some master’s degree holders may find jobs as psychological assistants in community mental health centers—these positions often require direct supervi­ sion by a licensed psychologist. Others may find jobs involving re­ search and data collection and analysis in universities, government, or private companies. Bachelor’s degree holders can expect very few opportunities di­ rectly related to psychology. Some may find jobs as assistants in re­ habilitation centers or in other jobs involving data collection and analysis. Those who meet State certification requirements may be­ come high school psychology teachers. Earnings According to a 1991 survey by the American Psychological Associ­ ation, the median annual salary of psychologists with a doctoral de­ gree was $48,000 in counseling psychology; $50,000 in research po­ sitions; $53,000 in clinical psychology; $55,000 in school psychology; and $76,000 in industrial/organizational psychology. In university psychology departments, median annual salaries ranged from $32,000 for assistant professors to $55,000 for full professors. The median annual salary of master’s degree holders was $35,000 for faculty; $37,000 in counseling psychology; $40,000 in clinical psychology; $48,000 in research positions; $50,000 in indus­ trial/organizational psychology; and $52,000 in school psychology. Some psychologists have much higher earnings, particularly those in private practice. The Federal Government recognizes education and experience in certifying applicants for entry level positions. In general, the aver­ age starting salary for psychologists having a bachelor’s degree was about $18,300 a year in 1993; those with superior academic records could begin at $22,700. Counseling and school psychologists with a master’s degree and 1 year of counseling experience could start at $27,800. Clinical psychologists having a Ph.D. or Psy.D. degree and 1 year of internship could start at $33,600; some individuals could start at $40,300. The average salary for psychologists in the Federal  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Government in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial posi­ tions was about $54,400 a year in 1993. Related Occupations Psychologists are trained to conduct research and teach, evaluate, counsel, and advise individuals and groups with special needs. Others who do this kind of work include psychiatrists, social work­ ers, sociologists, clergy, special education teachers, and counselors. Sources of Additional Information For information on careers, educational requirements, financial as­ sistance, and licensing in all fields of psychology, contact: tw American Psychological Association, Education in Psychology and Ac­ creditation Offices, Education Directorate, 750 1st St. NE., Washington, DC 20002.  For information on careers, educational requirements, and licens­ ing of school psychologists, contact: W National Association of School Psychologists, 8455 Colesville Rd., Suite 1000, Silver Spring, MD 20910.  Information about State licensing requirements is available from: 13= Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards, P.O. Box 4389, Montgomery, AL 36103.  Information on traineeships and fellowships also is available from colleges and universities that have graduate departments of psychol­ ogy-  Sociologists (D.O.T. 054)  Nature of the Work Sociologists study human society and social behavior by examining the groups and social institutions that people form—families, com­ munities, and governments, as well as various social, religious, polit­ ical, and business organizations. They also study the behavior and interaction of groups, trace their origin and growth, and analyze the influence of group activities on individual members. They are con­ cerned with the characteristics of social groups, organizations, and institutions; the ways individuals are affected by each other and by the groups to which they belong, and the impact of social traits such as gender, age, or race on a person’s daily life. As a rule, sociologists work in one or more specialties, such as so­ cial organization, stratification, and mobility; revolution, war, and peace; racial and ethnic relations; education; family; social psychol­ ogy; urban, rural, political, and comparative sociology; gender roles and relations; and sociological practice. Other specialties include medical sociology—the study of social factors that affect mental and public health; gerontology—the study of aging and the special problems of aged persons; environmental sociology—the study of the effects of the physical environment and technology on people; clinical sociology—therapy, analysis, and in­ tervention for individuals, groups, organizations, and communities; demography—the study of the size, characteristics, and movement of populations; criminology—the study of factors producing devi­ ance from accepted legal and cultural norms; and industrial sociol­ ogy—the study of work and organizations. Other sociologists specialize in research design and data analysis. Sociologists usually conduct surveys or engage in direct observation to gather data. For example, after providing for controlled condi­ tions, an organizational sociologist might test the effects of different styles of leadership on individuals in a small work group. A medical sociologist might study the effects of terminal illness on family inter­ action. Sociological researchers also evaluate the efficacy of differ­ ent kinds of social programs. They might examine and evaluate par­ ticular programs of income assistance, job training, health care, or  Professional Specialty Occupations remedial education. Sociologists extensively use statistical and com­ puter techniques in their research, along with qualitative methods such as focus group research and social impact assessment. The results of sociological research aid educators, lawmakers, ad­ ministrators, and others interested in resolving social problems and formulating public policy. For example, sociologists study issues re­ lated to abortion rights, AIDS, high school dropouts, homelessness, and latch-key children. Sociologists often work closely with com­ munity groups and members of other professions, including psy­ chologists, physicians, economists, statisticians, urban and regional planners, political scientists, anthropologists, law enforcement and criminal justice officials, and social workers. Some sociologists are primarily administrators. They apply their professional knowledge in areas as diverse as intergroup relations, family counseling, public opinion analysis, law enforcement, educa­ tion, personnel administration, public relations, regional and com­ munity planning, and health services planning. They may, for exam­ ple, administer social service programs in family and child welfare agencies, or develop social policies and programs for government, community, youth, or religious organizations. A number of sociologists are employed as consultants. Using their expertise and research skills, they advise on such diverse problems as halfway houses and foster care for the mentally ill; counseling prisoners and ex-offenders; mediating labor-manage­ ment disputes; or improving efficiency and flexibility in large corpo­ rations. Sociologists in business may consult with management to solve a wide range of problems and improve productivity and profit­ ability. Sociologists can help companies plan for the future, deal with organizational restructuring and downsizing, and conduct market research for advertisers and manufacturers. Increasingly, sociologists are involved in the evaluation of social and welfare pro­ grams. Sociologists often are confused with social workers, and in fact they do contribute to one another’s discipline. While most sociolo­ gists conduct research on organizations, groups, and individuals, clinical sociologists, like social workers, may directly help people who are unable to cope with their circumstances. (See the statement on social workers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Working Conditions Most sociologists read, conduct research, and write reports, articles, and books. Sociologists working in government organizations, pri­ vate firms, and nonprofit agencies generally have structured work schedules, and many experience the pressures of deadlines, tight schedules, heavy workloads, and overtime. They devote their time  Training in quantitative research methods is important for sociologists.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  127  to research and the application of sociological knowledge and skills to solve organizational, community, and family problems. They often work as an integral part of a team. Some sociologists create their own private consulting firms and may work evenings or week­ ends to accommodate clients or complete a project. Travel may be required to collect data for research projects or to attend profes­ sional conferences. Sociology faculty have more flexible work schedules, dividing their time between teaching, research, consulting, and administra­ tive responsibilities. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) All sociologists engage in analyzing ideas and data on how society works. Mental efforts can be tiring and stressful. Employment Outside of academia, where most sociologists are employed, sociolo­ gists held several thousand jobs in 1992. Some of these jobs were with government agencies, which employ sociologists to deal with such subjects as poverty, crime, public assistance, population growth, education, social rehabilitation, community development, mental health, racial and ethnic relations, drug abuse, school droputs, and environmental impact studies. Sociologists in the Fed­ eral Government work primarily for the Departments of Health and Human Services, Agriculture, Education, Commerce (Bureau of the Census), Defense, and the General Accounting Office. The also may work in special government agencies such as the Peace Corps, Na­ tional Institute of Health, and the National Institute of Aging. Those specializing in demography, international development, or health may work for international organizations such as the World Bank, the United Nations, and the World Health Organization. Sociologists specializing in criminology work primarily for law en­ forcement agencies in State and local government. Sociologists also hold managerial, research, personnel, and plan­ ning positions in research firms, consulting firms, educational insti­ tutions, corporations, professional and trade associations, hospitals, and welfare or other nonprofit organizations. Some sociologists have private practices in counseling, research, or consulting. Most sociologists hold positions as sociology faculty in colleges and universities, or as high school sociology teachers. (See the state­ ments on college and university faculty and kindergarten, elemen­ tary, and secondary school teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A master’s degree in sociology usually is the minimum requirement for employment in applied research or community college teaching. The Ph.D. degree is essential for most senior level positions in re­ search institutes, consulting firms, corporations, and government agencies, and is required for appointment to permanent teaching and research positions in colleges and universities. Sociologists holding a master’s degree can qualify for administra­ tive and research positions in public agencies and private businesses. Training in research, statistical, and computer methods is an advan­ tage in obtaining such positions. Bachelor’s degree holders in sociology often get jobs in related fields. Their training in research, statistics, and human behavior qualifies them for entry level positions in social services, manage­ ment, sales, personnel, and marketing. Many work in social service agencies as counselors or child-care, juvenile, or recreation workers. Others are employed as interviewers or as administrative or re­ search assistants. Sociology majors with sufficient training in statis­ tical and survey methods may qualify for positions as junior analysts or statisticians in business or research firms or government agencies. Regardless of a sociologist’s level of educational attainment, com­ pletion of an internship while in school can prove invaluable in find­ ing a position in sociology or a related field. In the Federal Government, candidates generally need a college degree with 24 semester hours in sociology, including course work  128  Occupational Outlook Handbook  in theory and methods of social research. However, since competi­ tion for the limited number of positions is keen, advanced study in the field is highly recommended. In 1992 about 190 colleges and universities offered doctoral de­ gree programs in sociology; most of these also offer a master’s de­ gree. The master’s is the highest degree offered in over 150 schools; another approximately 860 schools have bachelor’s degree pro­ grams. Most colleges have core requirements for sociology degrees, in­ cluding courses in statistics, research methodology, and sociological theory. Other courses cover a wide range of topics such as aging (gerontology), criminal justice, delinquency, deviance and social control, family and society, gender roles, social psychology, rural sociology, organizational behavior and analysis, mental health, and science and technology. Some institutions offer courses in peace and war, conflict resolution, or world systems theory. Many offer stud­ ies focused on sociological analysis of such areas of Latin America, Eastern Europe, the Middle East, or Asia. Programs also may in­ clude internships or field experiences. Some departments of sociology have highly structured programs, while others are relatively unstructured and leave most course selec­ tion up to the individual student. Departments have different re­ quirements regarding foreign language skills and completion of a thesis or dissertation for the master’s and doctoral degrees. The choice of a graduate school is important. Students should se­ lect a school that has adequate research facilities and course offer­ ings in their areas of interest. Opportunities to gain practical experi­ ence also may be available, and sociology departments may help place students in teaching or research assistantships, business or re­ search firms, or government agencies. Certification by the Sociological Practice Association (SPA) is re­ quired for some positions in clinical sociology and applied sociol­ ogy, especially at the doctoral level. Candidates for certification must have at least one year of relevant experience, an advanced de­ gree from an accredited school, and demonstrate competence at SPA-sponsored workshops and conferences. Intellectual curiosity is an essential trait for sociologists; research­ ers must have an inquiring mind and a desire to find explanations for the phenomena they observe. They must have an open mind to new ideas and unfamiliar social patterns. Like other social scientists, sociologists must be objective in gathering information about social institutions and behavior and need keen analytical skills in order to organize data effectively and reach valid conclusions. They must get along well with people, especially in research, teaching, or interven­ tion situations, and should have good oral and writing skills. Job Outlook Most job openings in sociology are expected to result from the need to replace sociologists who transfer to other occupations, retire, or leave the labor force for other reasons. Additional positions for soci­ ologists will stem from the increasing demand for research in vari­ ous fields such as demography, criminology, gerontology, and medi­ cal sociology, and the need to evaluate and administer programs designed to cope with social and welfare problems. Growing recog­ nition of the research and statistical skills of sociologists and the role they can play in solving a wide range of problems in business and in­ dustry may spur more job growth. Opportunities in academia should be best for sociologists with a doctoral degree. The expected wave of retirements among college faculty, beginning in the late 1990’s, should result in job openings for sociologists in colleges and universities. Those with master’s de­ grees may find positions in community colleges. Sociologists interested in practice (applied and clinical) settings will find that positions outside of academia are rapidly expanding. Some Ph.D.’s may take research and administrative positions in government, research organizations, and business firms. Those welltrained in quantitative research methods—including survey tech­ niques, advanced statistics, and computer science—will have the  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  widest choice of jobs. For example, private firms that contract with the government to evaluate social programs and conduct other re­ search increasingly seek sociologists with strong quantitative skills. Demand is expected to be stronger for sociologists with training in practical rather than theoretical sociology. Such practical areas include clinical sociology, criminology, environmental sociology, medical sociology, gerontology, evaluation research, and demogra­ phy. For example, the growing need for family counseling and drug and alcohol abuse prevention and therapy should spur demand for clinical sociologists. Additional demographers may be sought to help businesses plan marketing and advertising programs and to help developing countries analyze censuses, prepare population pro­ jections, and formulate long-range public planning programs. Ger­ ontologists may be needed to help formulate programs for our ex­ panding elderly population. Persons with a master’s degree face keen competition for aca­ demic positions, but the master’s is the most marketable degree for entering sociological practice. Opportunities for employment exist in government agencies, industry or business, and research firms. They may obtain positions doing market research, policy building, administration, or quantitative research. Often the title of “sociolo­ gist” is not used—but program analysts, social science researchers, trainers, and maketing specialists are often titles appropriate for master’s level sociology graduates. Bachelor’s degree holders will find their degree provides a solid basis for further study or for entry level employment in a broad range of fields—media, public relations, corrections, social welfare, community activism, and even business. As in the past, these gradu­ ates will compete with other liberal arts graduates for positions as trainees and assistants in business, industry, and government. Some may find positions in social welfare agencies. For those planning ca­ reers in law, journalism, business, social work, recreation, counsel­ ing, and other related disciplines, sociology provides an excellent background. Those who meet State certification requirements may become high school sociology teachers. Earnings Earnings vary with work settings. Experienced sociologists with a doctoral degree tend to earn the highest salaries in academia. Those employed in business, industry, and private consulting may earn more than those in academia or in government. The master’s degree may be as lucrative as a doctorate in some settings outside of academia. The Federal Government recognizes education and experience in certifying applicants for entry level positions. In general, the aver­ age entrance salary for sociologists with a bachelor’s degree was about $18,300 or $22,700 a year in 1993, depending upon the appli­ cant’s academic record. The starting salary for those with a master's degree was $27,800 a year, and for those with a Ph.D., $33,600, while some individuals with experience and an advanced degree could start at $40,300. The average annual salary for all sociologists in the Federal Government in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions was around $53,300 a year in 1993. In general, sociologists with the Ph.D. degree earn substantially higher salaries than those with a lesser degree. Some sociologists supplement their regular salaries with earnings from other sources, such as consulting, counseling, or writing articles and books. Those who create their own consulting practice find that earnings vary ac­ cording to how much time they devote to their practice, the type of clients they serve, and the region of the country. Related Occupations Sociologists are not the only people whose jobs require an under­ standing of social processes and institutions. Others whose work de­ mands such expertise include anthropologists, economists, geogra­ phers, historians, political scientists, psychologists, urban and regional planners, reporters and correspondents, social workers, and intelligence specialists.  Professional Specialty Occupations Sources of Additional Information Additional information on careers, certification, and graduate de­ partments of sociology is available from: O’American Sociological Association, 1722 N St. NW., Washington, DC 20036-2981.  For information about careers in demography, contact: O’Population  Association of America, 1722 N St. NW., Washington, DC  20036.  For information about careers and certification in clinical and ap­ plied sociology, contact: O’ Sociological Practice Association, Department of Pediatrics/Human De­ velopment, B240 Life Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1317.  For information about careers in rural sociology, contact: O* Rural Sociology Society, Department of Sociology, Montana State Uni­ versity, Bozeman, MT 59715.  Urban and Regional Planners (D.O.T. 188.167-110 and 199.167-014)  Nature of the Work Urban and regional planners, often called community or city plan­ ners, develop programs to provide for growth and revitalization of urban, suburban, and rural communities and their regions. Planners help local officials make decisions on social, economic, and environ­ mental problems. Planners usually devise plans outlining the best use of a com­ munity’s land—where residential, commercial, recreational, and other human services should take place. Planners also are involved in various other planning activities, including social services, trans­ portation, and resource development. They address such issues as central city redevelopment, traffic congestion, air pollution, and the impact of growth and change on an area. They formulate capital im­ provement plans to construct new school buildings, public housing, and sewage systems. Planners are involved in environmental issues including pollution control, wetland preservation, and landfills. Planners also help find solutions to social issues such as the needs of an aging population, sheltering the homeless, and meeting the de­ mand for drug and alcohol treatment centers, correctional facilities, and abortion and AIDS patient clinics. Planners examine community facilities such as health clinics and schools to be sure these facilities can meet the demands placed upon them, and help resolve differences over their location. They keep abreast of the economic and legal issues involved in community de­ velopment or redevelopment and changes in zoning codes, building codes, or environmental regulations. They ensure that builders and developers follow these codes and regulations. Planners also deal with land use and environmental issues created by population move­ ments. For example, as suburban growth has increased the need for traveling between suburbs and the urban center, the planner’s job often includes designing new transportation systems and parking fa­ cilities. In conjunction with these new systems and facilities, plan­ ners also may develop transportation management plans designed to control traffic, not just accommodate it. For example, developers may be required to provide public transportation facilities, or cities may be required to set up van pool transportation systems. Urban and regional planners prepare for situations that are likely to develop as a result of population growth or social and economic change. They estimate, for example, the community’s long-range needs for housing, transportation, and business and industrial sites. Working within a framework set by the community government, they analyze and propose alternative ways to achieve more efficient and attractive urban areas. Before preparing plans for long-range community development, ur­ ban and regional planners prepare detailed studies that show the current  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  129  use of land for residential, business, and community purposes. These re­ ports include such information as the location of streets, highways, water and sewer lines, schools, libraries, and cultural and recreational sites. They also provide information on the types of industries in the community, characteristics of the population, and employment and eco­ nomic trends. With this information, along with input from citizens’ ad­ visory committees, urban and regional planners propose ways of using undeveloped or underutilized land and design the layout of recom­ mended buildings and other facilities such as subway lines and stations. They also prepare materials that show how their programs can be car­ ried out and what they will cost. As in many other fields, planners increasingly use computers to record and analyze information and to communicate their findings and recommendations to government leaders and others. For exam­ ple, computers are widely used to determine program costs, map land areas, and forecast future trends in employment, housing, transportation, or population. Computerized geographic informa­ tion systems enable planners to overlay maps depicting different ge­ ographic variables, and to combine and manipulate the data to pro­ duce alternative plans for land use or development. Urban and regional planners often confer with land developers, civic leaders, and other public planning officials. They may function as mediators in community disputes by presenting alternatives that are acceptable to opposing parties. Planners may prepare materials for community relations programs, speak at civic meetings, and ap­ pear before legislative committees to explain their proposals. In large organizations, planners usually specialize in areas such as physical design, transportation, housing supply and demand, com­ munity relations, historic preservation, environmental and regula­ tory issues, or economic development. In small organizations, plan­ ners must be generalists, able to do various kinds of planning. Working Conditions Urban and regional planners spend a great deal of their time in offices. To be familiar with areas that they are developing, however, they peri­ odically spend time outdoors examining the features of the land under consideration for development, its current use, and the types of struc­ tures on it. Although most planners have a scheduled 40-hour work­ week, they frequently attend evening or weekend meetings or public hearings with citizens’ groups. Planners may experience the pressure of deadlines and tight work schedules, as well as opposition from interest groups affected by their land use proposals.  °—..... ^  Urban and regional planners deal with land use and environmental issues created by population movements.  130  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Employment Urban and regional planners held about 28,000 jobs in 1992. Local government planning agencies—city, county, or regional—em­ ployed 2 out of 3. An increasing proportion of public agency plan­ ners work in smaller suburban jurisdictions—reflecting population movements in recent years. Others are employed in State agencies that deal with housing, transportation, or environmental protection. Federal employers include the Departments of Defense, Housing and Urban Development, and Transportation. Many planners do consulting work, either part time in addition to a regular job, or full time for a firm that provides services to private developers or government agencies. Private sector employers in­ clude architectural and surveying firms, management and public re­ lations firms, educational institutions, large land developers, and law firms specializing in land use. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Employers usually prefer workers who have advanced training in urban or regional planning. Most entry level jobs in Federal, State, and local government agencies require 2 years of graduate study in urban or re­ gional planning, or the equivalent in work experience. A bachelor’s de­ gree from an accredited planning program, coupled with a master’s de­ gree in landscape architecture or civil engineering, for example, also is good preparation for entry level planning jobs. A master’s degree from an accredited planning program provides the best training. Although graduates having an accredited bachelor’s degree in planning qualify for many beginning positions, their advancement opportunities may be lim­ ited. Courses in related disciplines such as demography, economics, fi­ nance, health administration, and management are highly recom­ mended. In addition, familiarity with computer models and statistical techniques is critical because of the increasing use of computerized mod­ eling and geographic information systems in urban and regional plan­ ning analyses. In 1992, about 80 colleges and universities offered an accredited master’s and about 10 offered an accredited bachelor’s degree pro­ gram in urban or regional planning. These programs are accredited by the Planning Accreditation Board, which consists of representa­ tives of the American Institute of Certified Planners and the Associ­ ation of Collegiate Schools of Planning. Most graduate programs in planning require 2 years. Graduate students spend considerable time in studios, workshops, or laboratory courses learning to ana­ lyze and solve urban and regional planning problems and often are required to work in a planning office part time or during the sum­ mer. Local government planning offices offer students internships that provide experience that often proves invaluable in obtaining a full-time planning position after graduation. The American Institute of Certified Planners (AICP), a profes­ sional institute within the American Planning Association (APA), grants certification to individuals who have the appropriate combi­ nation of education and professional experience and who pass an ex­ amination. Data on AICP membership indicate that certified plan­ ners tend to hold the more responsible, better paying positions in their field. Planners must be able to think in terms of spatial relationships and visualize the effects of their plans and designs. Planners should be flexible and able to reconcile different viewpoints to make con­ structive policy recommendations. The ability to communicate ef­ fectively, both orally and in writing, also is necessary for anyone in­ terested in this field. After a few years’ experience, urban and regional planners may advance to assignments requiring a high degree of independent judgment such as designing the physical layout of a large develop­ ment or recommending policy, program, and budget options. Some are promoted to jobs as planning directors and spend a great deal of time meeting with officials in other organizations, speaking to civic groups, and supervising other professionals. Further advancement occurs through a transfer to a large city with more complex  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  problems and greater responsibilities, or into related occupations, such as director of community or economic development. Job Outlook A master’s degree from an accredited planning program, or a mas­ ter’s degree in civil engineering or landscape architecture coupled with training in transportation or environmental planning, provide the most marketable background. Certified planners have the best job prospects. Graduates with only an accredited bachelor’s degree in planning may have more difficulty finding a job in this field, but their employment prospects still are relatively good. Employment of urban and regional planners is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Most job openings, however, are likely to arise from the need to replace experienced planners who transfer to other occupations, or retire or leave the labor force for other reasons. The continuing importance of transportation, environmental, housing, economic, and energy production planning will spur de­ mand for urban and regional planners. Specific factors contributing to job growth include commercial development to support suburban areas with rapidly growing populations; legislation related to the en­ vironment, transportation, housing, and land use and development, such as the Clean Air Act; historic preservation and rehabilitation activities; central city redevelopment; the need to replace the Na­ tion’s infrastructure, including bridges, highways, and sewers; and interest in zoning and land use planning in undeveloped and nonme­ tropolitan areas, including coastal and agricultural areas. Most new jobs for urban and regional planners will arise in rap­ idly expanding communities. Local governments need planners to address an array of problems associated with population growth. For example, new housing developments require roads, sewer sys­ tems, fire stations, schools, libraries, and recreation facilities that must be planned while considering budgetary constraints. Job growth also is expected to occur in smaller cities and towns in estab­ lished areas—for example, in the Northeast—undergoing preserva­ tion and redevelopment, and in tourist resorts. Changes in the level of government funding for planning services could greatly affect de­ mand for these workers. Earnings Salaries of planners vary by educational attainment, type of em­ ployer, experience, size of community in which they work, and geo­ graphic location. According to a 1991 survey by APA, urban and regional planners earned a median annual salary of $42,000. Plan­ ners with a Ph.D. in planning earned a median salary of $57,000; those with a master’s degree earned $43,000; and bachelor’s degree holders earned $39,200. The median annual salary of planners in city governments was $40,100; in county governments, $38,000; in joint city/county gov­ ernments, $36,000; and in State governments, $43,000; Planners in land development firms earned $65,500; in colleges and universities, $51,900; in private consulting firms, $49,000; and in nonprofit foun­ dations, $42,000. For planners with over 10 years’ experience, local government agencies paid $47,700 annually, while private busi­ nesses and consulting firms paid $58,000. Directors of public plan­ ning agencies within local governments earned 13 percent more than staff members at comparable levels of experience, while direc­ tors or chief executive officers of private consulting firms earned only 7 percent more than staff members. Salaries of planners in large jurisdictions may be as much as $6,000 a year higher than their counterparts in small jurisdictions. Planners with a master’s degree were hired by the Federal Gov­ ernment at a starting average salary of $27,800 a year in 1993. In some cases, persons having less than 2 years of graduate work could enter Federal service as interns at yearly salaries of about $18,300 or $22,700. Salaries of urban and regional planners employed by the Federal Government in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and manage­ rial positions averaged about $52,400 a year in 1993.  Professional Specialty Occupations Related Occupations Urban and regional planners develop plans for the orderly growth of urban and rural communities. Others whose work is similar to the work of planners include architects, landscape architects, city man­ agers, civil engineers, environmental engineers, and geographers. Sources of Additional Information Additional information on careers, salaries, and certification in ur­ ban and regional planning, as well as job referrals, are available from:   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  131  W American Planning Association, 1776 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Wash­ ington, DC 20036.  General information on urban and regional planning, and on schools offering training in urban and regional planning prepared by the Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning is available from: O” American Planning Association, Planners’ Bookstore, 1313 East 60th St., Chicago, IL 60637.  Social and Recreation Workers  Human Services Workers (D.O.T. 195.367 except -026 and -030)  Nature of the Work “Human services worker” is a generic term for people with various job titles, such as social service technician, case management aide, social work assistant, residential counselor, alcohol or drug abuse counselor, mental health technician, child abuse worker, commu­ nity outreach worker, and gerontology aide. They generally work under the direction of social workers or, in some cases, psycholo­ gists. The amount of responsibility and supervision they are given varies a great deal. Some are on their own most of the time and have little direct supervision; others work under close direction. Human services workers help clients obtain benefits or services. They assess the needs and establish the eligibility of clients for ser­ vices. They examine financial documents such as rent receipts and tax returns to determine whether the client is eligible for food stamps, Medicaid, or other welfare programs, for example. They also inform clients how to obtain services; arrange for transporta­ tion and escorts, if necessary; and provide emotional support. Human services workers monitor and keep case records on clients and report progress to supervisors. Human services workers may transport or accompany clients to group meal sites, adult daycare programs, or doctors’ offices; tele­ phone or visit clients’ homes to make sure services are being re­ ceived; or help resolve disagreements, such as those between tenants and landlords. Human services workers play a variety of roles in community set­ tings. They may organize and lead group activities, assist clients in need of counseling or crisis intervention, or administer a food bank or emergency fuel program. In halfway houses and group homes, they oversee adult residents who need some supervision or support on a daily basis, but who do not need to live in an institution. They review clients’ records, talk with their families, and confer with medical personnel to gain better insight into their background and needs. Human services workers may teach residents to prepare their own meals and to do other housekeeping activities. They also pro­ vide emotional support and lead recreation activities. In mental hospitals and psychiatric clinics, they may help clients master everyday living skills and teach them how to communicate more effectively and get along better with others. They also assist with music, art, and dance therapy and with individual and group counseling and lead recreational activities. Working Conditions Working conditions of human services workers vary. Many spend part of their time in an office or group residential facility and the rest in the field—visiting clients or taking them on trips, or meeting with people who provide services to the clients. Most work a regular 40-hour week, although some work may be in the evening and on weekends. Human services workers in residential settings generally work in shifts because residents need supervision around the clock. The work, while satisfying, can be emotionally draining. Under­ staffing and lack of equipment may add to the pressure. Turnover is reported to be high, especially among workers without academic preparation for this field. 132  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Human services workers help clients obtain benefits and services. Employment Human services workers held about 189,000 jobs in 1992. About one-fourth were employed by State and local governments, prima­ rily in public welfare agencies and facilities for the mentally re­ tarded and developmentally disabled. Another fourth worked in pri­ vate social services agencies offering a variety of services, including adult daycare, group meals, crisis intervention, and counseling. Still another fourth supervised residents of group homes and halfway houses. Human services workers also held jobs in clinics, commu­ nity mental health centers, and psychiatric hospitals. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement While some employers hire high school graduates, most prefer ap­ plicants with some college preparation in human services, social work, or one of the social or behavioral sciences. Some prefer to hire persons with a 4-year college degree. The level of formal education of human service workers often influences the kind of work they are assigned and the amount of responsibility entrusted to them. Work­ ers with no more than a high school education are likely to perform clerical duties, while those with a college degree might be assigned to do direct counseling, coordinate program activities, or manage a group home. Employers may also look for experience in other occu­ pations or leadership experience in school or in a youth group. Some enter the field on the basis of courses in social work, psychology, so­ ciology, rehabilitation, or special education. Most employers pro­ vide in-service training such as seminars and workshops. Because so many human services jobs involve direct contact with people who are vulnerable to exploitation or mistreatment, employ­ ers try to select applicants with appropriate personal qualifications. Relevant academic preparation is generally required, and volunteer or work experience is preferred. A strong desire to help others, pa­ tience, and understanding are highly valued characteristics. Other important personal traits include communication skills, a strong sense of responsibility, and the ability to manage time effectively. Hiring requirements in group homes tend to be more stringent than in other settings. In 1992, 375 certificate and associate degree programs in human services or mental health were offered at community and junior col­ leges, vocational-technical institutes, and other postsecondary insti­ tutions. In addition, 390 programs offered a bachelor’s degree in human services. A small number of programs leading to master’s degrees in human services administration were offered as well.  Professional Specialty Occupations Generally, academic programs in this field educate students for specialized roles—work with developmental^ disabled adults, for example. Students are exposed early and often to the kinds of situa­ tions they may encounter on the job. Programs typically include courses in psychology, sociology, crisis intervention, social work, family dynamics, therapeutic interviewing, rehabilitation, and ger­ ontology. Through classroom simulation internships, students learn interview, observation, and recordkeeping skills; individual and group counseling techniques; and program planning. Formal education is almost always necessary for advancement. In group homes, completion of a 1-year certificate in human services along with several years of experience may suffice for promotion to supervisor. In general, however, advancement requires a bachelor’s or master’s degree in counseling, rehabilitation, social work, or a re­ lated field. Job Outlook Opportunities for human services workers are expected to be excel­ lent for qualified applicants. The number of human services workers is projected to more than double between 1992 and the year 2005— making it among the most rapidly growing occupations. Also, the need to replace workers who retire or stop working for other reasons will create additional job opportunities. However, these jobs are not attractive to everyone because the work is responsible and emotion­ ally draining and most offer relatively poor pay, so qualified appli­ cants should have little difficulty finding employment. Opportunities are expected to be best in job training programs, residential settings, and private social service agencies, which in­ clude such services as adult daycare and meal delivery programs. Demand for these services will expand with the growing number of older people, who are more likely to need services. In addition, human services workers will continue to be needed to provide ser­ vices to the mentally impaired and developmentally disabled, those with substance abuse problems, and a wide variety of others. Faced with rapid growth in the demand for services, but slower growth in resources to provide the services, employers are expected to rely in­ creasingly on human services workers rather than other occupations that command higher pay. Job training programs are expected to require additional human services workers as the economy grows and businesses change their mode of production and workers need to be retrained. Human ser­ vices workers help determine workers’ eligibility for public assis­ tance programs and help them obtain services while unemployed. Residential settings should expand also as pressures to respond to the needs of the chronically mentally ill persist. For many years, chronic mental patients have been deinstitutionalized and left to their own devices. Now, more community-based programs and group residences are expected to be established to house and assist the homeless and chronically mentally ill, and demand for human services workers will increase accordingly. Although overall employment in State and local governments will grow only as fast as the average for all industries, jobs for human services workers will grow more rapidly. State and local govern­ ments employ most of their human services workers in correctional and public assistance departments. Correctional departments are growing faster than other areas of government, so human services workers should find their job opportunities increase along with other corrections jobs. Public assistance programs have been rela­ tively stable within governments’ budgets, but they have been em­ ploying more human services workers in an attempt to employ fewer social workers, who are more educated and higher paid. Earnings According to limited data available, starting salaries for human ser­ vices workers ranged from about $12,000 to $20,000 a year in 1992. Experienced workers generally earned between $15,000 and $25,000 annually, depending on their education, experience, and employer.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  133  Related Occupations Workers in other occupations that require skills similar to those of human services workers include social workers, community out­ reach workers, religious workers, occupational therapy assistants, physical therapy assistants and aides, psychiatric aides, and activity leaders. Sources of Additional Information Information on academic programs in human services may be found in most directories of 2- and 4-year colleges, available at libraries or career counseling centers. For information on programs and careers in human services, con­ tact: (3= National Organization for Human Service Education, Brookdale Com­ munity College, Lyncroft, NJ 07738. 13" Council for Standards in Human Service Education, Montgomery Com­ munity College, 340 Dekalb Pike, Blue Bell, PA 19422.  Information on job openings may be available from State employ­ ment service offices or directly from city, county, or State depart­ ments of health, mental health and mental retardation, and human resources.  Recreation Workers (D.O.T. 153.137-010; 159.124-010; 187.167-238; 195.227-010 and-014; and 352.167-010)  Nature of the Work Many people spend some of their leisure time participating in organ­ ized recreation ranging from aerobics or crafts to hiking or softball. Recreation programs as diverse as the people they serve are offered at local playgrounds and recreation areas, parks, community cen­ ters, health clubs, churches and synagogues, camps, theme parks and tourist attractions, correctional institutions, and a variety of other places. Recreation workers plan, organize, and direct the ac­ tivities these places offer. Recreation workers organize and lead programs and watch over recreational facilities and equipment. They help people to pursue their interest in crafts, art, or sports. They enable people to share common interests in basketball, basket weaving, or body building for their mutual entertainment, physical fitness, and self-improve­ ment. Recreation workers organize teams and leagues so young peo­ ple and adults can practice fair play and good sportsmanship through competitive sports. They also teach people the correct use of equipment and facilities so maximum benefit can be derived from their use without injury. Recreation workers at workplaces organize and direct leisure ac­ tivities and athletic programs for employees and their families, such as bowling and softball leagues, social functions, travel programs, discount services, and, to an increasing extent, exercise and fitness programs. These activities are generally for adults. Camp counselors lead and instruct child and teenage campers in outdoor-oriented forms of recreation, such as swimming, hiking, and horseback riding as well as camping. Activities often are in­ tended to enhance campers’ appreciation of nature and responsible use of the environment. In addition, counselors provide campers with specialized instruction in activities such as archery, boating, music, drama, gymnastics, tennis, or computers. In resident camps, counselors also provide guidance and supervise daily living tasks and general socialization. Recreation workers occupy a variety of positions at different levels of responsibility. Recreation leaders are responsible for a rec­ reation program’s daily operation and organize and direct partici­ pants. They may lead and give instruction in dance, drama, crafts, games, and sports; schedule use of facilities and keep records of equipment use; and monitor the use of recreation facilities and  134  Occupational Outlook Handbook  equipment to make sure they are used properly. Workers who pro­ vide instruction in specialties such as art, music, drama, swimming, or tennis may be called activity specialists. They often conduct clas­ ses and coach teams in the activity in which they specialize. Recreation supervisors plan programs to meet the needs of the population they serve and supervise recreation leaders and activity specialists, sometimes over a large region. They may also direct spe­ cialized activities and special events. A growing number of supervi­ sors are using computers in their work. In a related occupation, recreational therapists who help individu­ als recover or adjust to illness, disability, or specific social problems; this occupation is described elsewhere in the Handbook. Working Conditions Recreation workers must work while others engage in leisure time activities. While the majority of recreation workers worked about 40 hours a week, people entering this field should expect some night work, weekend work, and irregular hours. About one-fifth worked part time. Also, many jobs are seasonal. The work setting for recrea­ tion workers may be anywhere from a vacation cruise ship to a woodland recreational park. Recreation workers often spend much of their time outdoors and may work under a variety of weather con­ ditions. Recreation supervisors may spend most of their time in an office. Since full-time recreation workers spend more time acting as managers than hands-on activities leaders, they engage in less physi­ cal activity. However, as is the case for anyone engaged in physical activity, recreation workers risk injuries, and the work can be physi­ cally tiring. Employment Recreation workers held about 204,(XX) jobs in 1992, and many ad­ ditional workers held summer jobs in the occupation. Of those who held full-time jobs as recreation workers, about half worked for gov­ ernment agencies, primarily in park and recreation departments at the municipal and county levels. About 15 percent worked in mem­ bership organizations with a civic, social, fraternal, or religious ori­ entation—the Boy Scouts, the YWCA, and Red Cross, for example.  Recreation workers who work at pools conduct swimming and exercise classes.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Another 12 percent were in programs run by social service organiza­ tions (senior centers and adult daycare programs, for example) or in residential care facilities such as halfway houses, group homes, and institutions for delinquent youth. An additional 10 percent worked for nursing and other personal care facilities. Other employers included commercial recreation establishments, amusement parks, sports and entertainment centers, wilderness and survival enterprises, tourist attractions, vacation excursion compa­ nies, hotels and resorts, summer camps, health and athletic clubs, and apartment complexes. The recreation field has an unusually large number of part-time, seasonal, and volunteer jobs. These jobs include summer camp counselors, lifeguards, craft specialists, and after-school and week­ end recreation program leaders. Teachers and college students take many jobs as recreation workers when school is not in session. Many unpaid volunteers assist paid recreation workers. The vast majority of volunteers serve as activity leaders at local day-camp programs, or in youth organizations, camps, nursing homes, hospi­ tals, senior centers, YMCA’s, and other settings. Some volunteers serve on local park and recreation boards and commissions. Volun­ teer experience, part-time work during school, or a summer job may lead to a full-time job. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Education needed for recreation worker jobs ranges from a high school diploma, or sometimes less, for many summer jobs to gradu­ ate education for some administrative positions in large public sys­ tems. Full-time career professional positions usually require a col­ lege degree with a major in parks and recreation or leisure studies, but a bachelor’s degree in any liberal arts field may be sufficient for some jobs in the private sector. In industrial recreation, or “em­ ployee services” as it is more commonly called, companies prefer to hire persons with a bachelor’s degree in recreation or leisure studies and a strong background in business administration. A background with specialized training or experience in a partic­ ular field, such as art, music, drama, or athletics is an asset for many jobs. Some jobs also require a special certificate, such as a lifesaving certificate when there are water related activities. Graduates of asso­ ciate degree programs in parks and recreation, social work, and other human services disciplines also enter some career recreation positions. Occasionally high school graduates are able to enter ca­ reer positions, but this is not common. Some college students work part time as recreation workers while earning degrees. Persons with academic preparation in parks and recreation, lei­ sure studies, physical education, fitness management, and related fields generally have better prospects for career advancement, al­ though this varies from one employer to another. In some organiza­ tions, it is possible to reach the top of the career ladder without a college education, but this is becoming increasingly difficult. A bachelor’s degree and experience are preferred for most recrea­ tion supervisor jobs and required for most higher level administra­ tor jobs. However, increasing numbers of recreation workers who aspire to administrator positions are obtaining master’s degrees in parks and recreation or related disciplines. Also, many persons in other disciplines, including social work, forestry, and resource man­ agement, pursue graduate degrees in recreation. Programs leading to an associate or bachelor’s degree in parks and recreation, leisure studies, or related fields are offered at about 350 colleges and universities. Many also offer master’s or doctoral degrees in this field. In 1993, 90 bachelor’s degree programs in parks and recreation were accredited by the Council on Accreditation, sponsored by the National Recreation and Park Association (NRPA) in cooperation with the American Association for Leisure and Recreation (AALR). Accredited programs provide broad exposure to the his­ tory, theory, and philosophy of park and recreation management. Courses offered include community organization; supervision and administration; recreational needs of special populations such as  Professional Specialty Occupations older adults or the disabled; and supervised fieldwork. Students may specialize in areas such as therapeutic recreation, park management, outdoor recreation, industrial or commercial recreation, and camp management. The American Camping Association has developed a curriculum for camp director education. Many national youth associations offer training courses for camp directors at the local and regional levels. Persons planning recreation careers should be outgoing, good at motivating people, and sensitive to the needs of others. Good health and physical fitness are required. Activity planning calls for creativ­ ity and resourcefulness. Willingness to accept responsibility and the ability to exercise good judgment are important qualities since recre­ ation personnel often work without close supervision. Part-time or summer recreation work experience while in high school or college may help students decide whether their interests really point to a human services career. Such experience also may increase their leadership skills and understanding of people. Individuals contemplating careers in recreation at the supervisory or administrative level should develop managerial skills. College courses in management, business administration, accounting, and personnel management are likely to be useful. Certification for this field is offered by the NRPA National Certi­ fication Board and the American Camping Association. The Na­ tional Recreation and Parks Association, along with its State chap­ ters, offers certification as a Certified Leisure Professional (CLP) for those with a college degree in recreation, and as a Certified Leisure Technician (CLT) for those with less than 4 years of college. The American Camping Association offers a certification program for camp directors. Continuing education is necessary to remain certi­ fied in either field. Certification is not usually required for employment or advance­ ment in this field, but it is an asset. Employers choosing among qual­ ified job applicants may opt to hire the person with a demonstrated record of professional achievement represented by certification. Job Outlook Employment of recreation workers is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005 as growing numbers of people possess both leisure time and the money to purchase leisure services. Growth in these jobs will also be due to in­ creased interest in fitness and health and rising demand for recrea­ tional opportunities for older adults in senior centers and retirement communities. Opportunities for part-time and seasonal jobs are ex­ pected to be plentiful, but competition is likely for full-time career positions. Overall job growth in local government—where half of all recrea­ tion workers are employed—is expected to be slow due to budget constraints, and local park and recreation departments are expected to do less hiring for permanent, full-time positions than in the past. As a result, this sector’s share of recreation worker employment will shrink by the end of the century. Nonetheless, opportunities will vary widely by region, since resources as well as priorities for public services differ from one community to another. Thus, hiring pros­ pects for recreation workers will be much better in some park and recreation departments than overall projections would suggest, but worse in others. Recreation worker jobs should also increase in the fast-growing social services industry. More recreation workers will be needed to develop and lead activity programs in senior centers, halfway houses, children’s homes, and daycare programs for the mentally re­ tarded or developmentally disabled. Recreation worker jobs in employee services and recreation will continue to increase as more businesses recognize the benefits to their employees of recreation programs and other services such as wellness programs and elder care. Job growth will also occur in the  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  135  commercial recreation industry, composed of amusement parks, athletic clubs, camps, sports clinics, and swimming pools. Full-time career jobseekers will face keen competition. All college graduates can enter recreation worker jobs, regardless of major, as well as some high school and junior college graduates, so applica­ tions for career positions in recreation often greatly exceed the num­ ber of job openings. Opportunities for staff positions should be best for persons with job experience gained in part-time or seasonal rec­ reation jobs, together with formal recreation training. Those with graduate degrees should have the best opportunities for supervisory or administrative positions. Prospects are much better for the very large number of temporary seasonal jobs. Demand for seasonal recreation workers is great, and job opportunities should be good. These positions, typically filled by high school or college students, do not generally have formal educa­ tion requirements and are open to anyone with the desired personal qualities. Employers compete for a share of the vacationing student labor force, and while salaries in recreation are often lower than those in other fields, the nature of the work and the opportunity to work outdoors is nevertheless attractive to many. Seasonal employ­ ment prospects should be very good for applicants with specialized training and certification in an activity like swimming. These work­ ers may obtain jobs as program directors. Earnings Median annual earnings of recreation workers who worked full time in 1992 were about $14,900. The middle 50 percent earned between about $10,700 and $19,900. The lowest 10 percent earned about $7,700 or less, while the top 10 percent earned about $27,200 or more. However, earnings of recreation directors and others in su­ pervisory or managerial positions can be much higher—anywhere from $22,000 to $95,000, depending on the level of responsibility and the size of the staff. Most public and private recreation agencies provide full-time rec­ reation workers with vacation and other benefits such as paid vaca­ tion and sick leave and health insurance. Part-time workers receive few, if any, benefits. Related Occupations Recreation workers must exhibit leadership and sensitivity in deal­ ing with people. Other occupations that require similar personal qualities include recreational therapists, social workers, parole of­ ficers, human relations counselors, school counselors, clinical and counseling psychologists, and teachers. Sources of Additional Information For information on local government jobs in recreation, contact the nearest department of parks and recreation. Ordering information for materials describing careers and aca­ demic programs in recreation is available from: fST National Recreation and Park Association, Division of Professional Ser­ vices, 2775 South Quincy St., Suite 300, Arlington, VA 22206.  The American Association for Leisure and Recreation publishes information sheets on 25 separate careers in parks and recreation. For price and ordering information, contact: Ef-AALR, 1900 Association Dr., Reston, VA 22091.  For information on careers in employee services and recreation, contact: fw National Employee Services and Recreation Association, 2211 YorkRd., Suite 207, Oakbrook, IL 60521.  For information on careers in camping and summer counselor op­ portunities, contact: fw American Camping Association, 5000 State Rd. 67 North, Martinsville, IN 46151.  For information on careers with the YMCA, contact: \3= YMCA of the USA, 101 North Wacker Dr., Chicago, IL 60606.  136  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Social Workers (D.O.T. 045.107-058; 189.267-010; 195.107, .137, .164, .167-010 and -014, .267-018 and -022, and .367-026)  Nature of the Work Social workers help people. They help individuals cope with problems such as inadequate housing, unemployment, lack of job skills, financial mismanagement, serious illness, disability, sub­ stance abuse, unwanted pregnancy, or antisocial behavior. They also work with families that have serious conflicts, including those involving child or spousal abuse. Through direct counseling, social workers help clients identify their real concerns and help them to consider solutions and find re­ sources. Often, social workers provide concrete information such as: Where to go for debt counseling; how to find child care or elder care; how to apply for public assistance or other benefits; or how to get an alcoholic or drug addict admitted to a rehabilitation pro­ gram. Social workers may also arrange for services in consultation with clients and then follow through to assure the services are actu­ ally helpful. They may review eligibility requirements, fill out forms and applications, arrange for services, visit clients on a regular basis, and step in during emergencies. Most social workers specialize in a clinical field such as child wel­ fare and family services, mental health, medical social work, school social work. Clinical social workers offer psychotherapy or counsel­ ing and a range of services in public agencies, clinics, as well as in private practice. Other social workers are employed in community organization, administration, or research. Social workers in child welfare or family services may counsel children and youths who have difficulty adjusting socially, advise parents on how to care for disabled children, or arrange for home­ maker services during a parent’s illness. If children have serious problems in school, child welfare workers may consult with parents, teachers, and counselors to identify underlying causes and develop plans for treatment. Some social workers assist single parents, ar­ range adoptions, and help find foster homes for neglected or aban­ doned children. Child welfare workers also work in residential insti­ tutions for children and adolescents. Social workers in child or adult protective services investigate re­ ports of abuse and neglect and intervene if necessary. They may in­ stitute legal action to remove children from homes and place them temporarily in an emergency shelter or with a foster family. Mental health social workers provide services for persons with mental or emotional problems, such as individual and group ther­ apy, outreach, crisis intervention, social rehabilitation, and training in skills of everyday living. They may also help plan for supportive services to ease patients’ return to the community. (Also see the statements on counselors and psychologists elsewhere in the Hand­ book.) Medical social workers help patients and their families cope with chronic, acute, or terminal illnesses and handle problems that may stand in the way of recovery or rehabilitation. They may organize support groups for families of patients suffering from cancer, AIDS, Alzheimer’s disease, or other illnesses. They also advise family caregivers, and counsel patients and help plan for their needs after discharge by arranging for at-home services—from meals-on-wheels to oxygen equipment. Some work on interdisciplinary teams that evaluate certain kinds of patients—geriatric or transplant patients, for example. School social workers diagnose students’ problems and arrange needed services, counsel children in trouble, and help integrate dis­ abled students into the general school population. School social workers deal with problems such as student pregnancy, misbehavior in class, and excessive absences. They also advise teachers on how to deal with problem students.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Social workers in criminal justice make recommendations to courts, do pre-sentencing assessments, and provide services for prison inmates and their families. Probation and parole officers pro­ vide similar services to individuals on parole or sentenced by a court to probation. Industrial or occupational social workers generally work in an employer’s personnel department or health unit. Through employee assistance programs, they help workers cope with job-related pres­ sures or personal problems that affect the quality of their work. They offer direct counseling to employees, often those whose per­ formance is hindered by emotional or family problems or substance abuse. They also develop education programs and refer workers to specialized community programs. Some social workers specialize in gerontological services. They run support groups for family caregivers or for the adult children of aging parents; advise elderly people or family members about the choices in such areas as housing, transportation, and long-term care; and coordinate and monitor services. Working Conditions Most social workers have a standard 40-hour week. However, they may work some evenings and weekends to meet with clients, attend community meetings, and handle emergencies. Some, particularly in voluntary nonprofit agencies, work part time. They may spend most of their time in an office or residential facility, but may also travel locally to visit clients or meet with service providers. The work, while satisfying, can be emotionally draining. Under­ staffing and large caseloads add to the pressure in some agencies. Employment Social workers held about 484,000jobs in 1992. Nearly 40 percent of the jobs were in State, county, or municipal government agencies, primarily in departments of human resources, social services, child welfare, mental health, health, housing, education, and corrections. Most in the private sector were in voluntary social service agencies, community and religious organizations, hospitals, nursing homes, or home health agencies. Although most social workers are employed in cities or suburbs, some work in rural areas. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree is the minimum requirement for most positions. Besides the bachelor’s in social work (BSW), undergraduate majors in psychology, sociology, and related fields satisfy hiring require­ ments in some agencies, especially small community agencies. A  Social workers should be emotionally mature, objective, and sensitive to people and their problems.  Professional Specialty Occupations master’s degree in social work (MSW) is generally necessary for po­ sitions in health and mental health settings. Jobs in public agencies may also require an MSW. Supervisory, administrative, and staff training positions usually require at least an MSW. College and Uni­ versity teaching positions and most research appointments normally require a doctorate in social work. In 1991, the Council on Social Work Education accredited 297 BSW programs and 103 MSW programs. There were 49 doctoral programs for Ph.D. in Social Work and for DSW (Doctor of Social Work). BSW programs prepare graduates for direct service posi­ tions such as caseworker or group worker. They include courses in social work practice, social welfare policies, human behavior and the social environment, and social research methods. Accredited BSW programs require at least 400 hours of supervised field experi­ ence. An MSW degree prepares graduates to perform assessments, to manage cases, and to supervise other workers. Master’s programs usually last 2 years and include 900 hours of supervised field in­ struction, or internship. Entry into an MSW program does not re­ quire a bachelor’s in social work, but courses in psychology, biology, sociology, economics, political science, history, social anthropology, urban studies, and social work are recommended. Some schools of­ fer an accelerated MSW program for those with a BSW. Social workers may advance to supervisor, program manager, as­ sistant director, and finally to executive director of an agency or de­ partment. Advancement generally requires an MSW, as well as ex­ perience. Other career options for social workers are teaching, research, and consulting. Some help formulate government policies by analyzing and advocating policy positions in government agen­ cies, in research institutions, and on legislators’ staffs. Some social workers go into private practice. Most private practi­ tioners are clinical social workers who provide psychotherapeutic counseling, usually paid through health insurance. Private practi­ tioners must have completed an MSW and a period of supervised work experience. A network of contacts for referrals is also essen­ tial. In 1993, all States and the District of Columbia had licensing, cer­ tification, or registration laws regarding social work practice and the use of professional titles. In addition, voluntary certification is offered by the National Association of Social Workers (NASW), which grants the titled ACSW (Academy of Certified Social Work­ ers) or ACBSW (Academy of Certified Baccalaureate Social Work­ ers) to those who qualify. For clinical social workers, professional credentials include listing in the 1VASIT Register of Clinical Social Workers or in the Directory of American Board of Examiners in Clinical Social Work. These credentials are particularly important for those in private practice; some health insurance providers re­ quire them for reimbursement. Social workers should be emotionally mature, objective, and sen­ sitive to people and their problems. They must be able to handle re­ sponsibility, work independently, and maintain good working rela­ tionships with clients and coworkers. Volunteer or paid jobs as a social work aide offer ways of testing one’s interest in this field. Job Outlook Employment of social workers is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005. The number of older people, who are more likely to need social services, is growing rapidly. In addition, requirements for social workers will grow with increases in the need for and concern about services to the mentally ill, the mentally retarded, and individuals and families in crisis. Many job openings will also arise due to the need to replace social workers who leave the occupation. Employment of social workers in hospitals is projected to grow much faster than the average for the economy as a whole due to  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  137  greater emphasis on discharge planning, which facilitates early dis­ charge of patients by assuring that the necessary medical services and social supports are in place when individuals leave the hospital. Employment of social workers in private social service agencies is projected to grow about as fast as the average. Although demand for their services is expected to increase rapidly, agencies will increas­ ingly restructure services and hire more lower paid human services workers instead of social workers. Employment in government should also grow about as fast as the average in response to increas­ ing needs for public welfare and family services. Social worker employment in home health care services is grow­ ing, not only because hospitals are moving to release patients more quickly, but because a large and growing number of people have im­ pairments or disabilities that make it difficult to live at home with­ out some form of assistance. Opportunities for social workers in private practice will expand because of the anticipated availability of funding from health insur­ ance and from public sector contracts. Also, with increasing afflu­ ence, people will be more willing to pay for professional help to deal with personal problems. The growing popularity of employee assis­ tance programs is also expected to spur demand for private practi­ tioners, some of whom provide social work services to corporations on a contract basis. Employment of school social workers is expected to grow, due to expanded efforts to respond to the adjustment problems of immi­ grants, children from single-parent families, and others in difficult situations. Moreover, continued emphasis on integrating disabled children into the general school population—a requirement under the Education for All Handicapped Children Act—will probably lead to more jobs. The availability of State and local funding will dictate the actual increase in jobs in this setting, however. Competition for social worker jobs is stronger in cities where training programs for social workers abound; rural areas often find it difficult to attract and retain qualified staff. Earnings The median earnings of social workers with MSW degrees were $30,000 in 1992, according to a membership survey of the National Association of Social Workers. For those with BSW degrees, me­ dian earnings were $20,000 according to the same survey. In hospitals, social workers who worked full-time averaged about $30,850 in 1993, according to a survey performed by the University of Texas Medical Branch. Salaries ranged from a minimum of about $25,600 to a maximum of nearly $38,700. Social workers employed by the Federal Government averaged $41,400 in 1993. Related Occupations Through direct counseling or referral to other services, social work­ ers help people solve a range of personal problems. Workers in occu­ pations with similar duties include the clergy, counselors, counsel­ ing psychologists, and vocational rehabilitation counselors. Sources of Additional Information For information about career opportunities in social work, contact: ^National Association of Social Workers, 750 First St. NE., Suite 700, Washington, DC 20002-4241. tw National Network For Social Work Managers, Inc., 6501 North Federal Highway, Suite 5, Boca Raton, FL 33487.  An annual Directory of Accredited BSW and MSW Programs is available for $10.00 from: ty Council on Social Work Education, 1600 Duke St., Alexandria, VA 22314-3421.  Religious Workers Protestant Ministers (D.O.T. 120.007)  Nature of the Work Protestant ministers lead their congregations in worship services and administer the various rites of the church, such as baptism, con­ firmation, and Holy Communion. They prepare and deliver ser­ mons and give religious instruction. They also perform marriages; conduct funerals; counsel individuals who seek guidance; visit the sick, aged, and handicapped at home and in the hospital; comfort the bereaved; and serve church members in other ways. Many Prot­ estant ministers write articles for publication, give speeches, and en­ gage in interfaith, community, civic, educational, and recreational activities sponsored by or related to the interests of the church. Some ministers teach in seminaries, colleges and universities, and church- affiliated preparatory or high schools. The services that ministers conduct differ among Protestant de­ nominations and also among congregations within a denomination. In many denominations, ministers follow a traditional order of wor­ ship; in others, they adapt the services to the needs of youth and other groups within the congregation. Most services include Bible reading, hymn singing, prayers, and a sermon. In some denomina­ tions, Bible reading by a member of the congregation and individual testimonials may constitute a large part of the service. Ministers serving small congregations generally work personally with parishioners. Those serving large congregations have greater administrative responsibilities and spend considerable time working with committees, church officers, and staff, besides other duties. They may share specific aspects of the ministry with one or more as­ sociates or assistants, such as a minister of education who assists in educational programs for different age groups, or a minister of mu­ sic.  wmm  Many Protestant denominations now allow women to be ordained.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Working Conditions Ministers are “on call” for any serious troubles or emergencies that affect members of their churches. They also may work long and ir­ regular hours in administrative, educational, and community ser­ vice activities. Many of the ministers’ duties are sedentary, such as reading or doing research in a study or a library to prepare sermons or write ar­ ticles. In some denominations, ministers are reassigned by a central body to a new pastorate every few years. Employment In 1992, there were an estimated 290,000 Protestant ministers who served individual congregations. Thousands of others served with­ out a regular congregation, or worked in closely related fields, such as chaplains in hospitals, the Armed Forces, universities, and cor­ rectional institutions. While there are numerous denominations, most ministers are employed by the five largest Protestant bodies— Baptist, Episcopalian, Lutheran, Methodist, and Presbyterian. All cities and most towns in the United States have at least one Protestant church with a full-time minister. Although most minis­ ters are located in urban areas, many serve two or more small con­ gregations in less densely populated areas. Some small churches in­ creasingly are employing part-time ministers who may be seminary students, retired ministers, or holders of secular jobs. Unpaid pas­ tors serve other churches with meager funds. Some churches em­ ploy specially trained members of the laity to conduct nonliturgical functions. Training and Other Qualifications Educational requirements for entry into the Protestant ministry vary greatly. Many denominations require—or at least strongly pre­ fer—a college bachelor’s degree followed by study at a theological school. However, some denominations have no formal educational requirements, and others ordain persons having various types of training in Bible colleges, Bible institutes, or liberal arts colleges. Many denominations now allow women to be ordained, but others do not. Persons considering a career in the ministry should verify the entrance requirements with their particular denomination before deciding on a career as a minister. In general, each large denomination has its own school or schools of theology that reflect its particular doctrine, interests, and needs. However, many of these schools are open to students from other de­ nominations. Several interdenominational schools associated with universities give both undergraduate and graduate training covering a wide range of theological points of view. In 1992, over 200 American Protestant theological schools were accredited by the Association of Theological Schools in the United States and Canada. These admit only students who have received a bachelor’s degree or its equivalent in liberal arts from an accredited college. After college graduation, many denominations require a 3year course of professional study in one of these accredited schools or seminaries for the degree of master of divinity. College students considering theological study should prepare by taking courses that will aid them later. At the earliest possible date, they should contact their denominations and the schools to which they intend to apply, to learn how to prepare for the program they hope to enter. Recommended preseminary or undergraduate college courses generally include English, history, philosophy, natural sci­ ences, social sciences, fine arts, music, religion, and foreign lan­ guages. These courses provide a knowledge of modern social, cul­ tural, and scientific institutions and problems. The standard curriculum for accredited theological schools con­ sists of four major categories: Biblical, historical, theological, and  Professional Specialty Occupations practical. Courses of a practical nature include pastoral care, preaching, religious education, and administration. Many accred­ ited schools require that students work under the supervision of a faculty member or experienced minister. Some institutions offer doctor of ministry degrees to students who have completed addi­ tional study, usually 2 or more years, and served at least 2 years as a minister. Scholarships and loans are available for students of theo­ logical institutions. Persons who have denominational qualifications for the ministry usually are ordained after graduation from a seminary or after serv­ ing a probationary pastoral period. Denominations that do not re­ quire seminary training ordain clergy at various appointed times. Some evangelical churches may ordain ministers with only a high school education. Men and women entering the clergy often begin their careers as pastors of small congregations or as assistant pastors in large churches. Job Outlook Competition is expected to continue for paid Protestant ministers through the year 2005 due to slow growth of church membership and the large number of qualified candidates. Opportunities are ex­ pected to be best for graduates of theological schools. The amount of competition for paid positions will vary among denominations and geographic regions. Competition will still be strong for more re­ sponsible positions serving large, urban congregations. Relatively favorable prospects are expected for ministers in evangelical churches. Ministers willing to work part time or for smaller, rural congregations also should have relatively favorable opportunities. Most of the openings for ministers through the year 2005 will arise from the need to replace retirees and, to a lesser extent, those who die or leave the ministry. Employment alternatives for newly ordained Protestant ministers who are unable to find positions in parishes include working in youth counseling, family relations, and welfare organizations; teaching in religious educational institutions; and serving as chap­ lains in the Armed Forces, hospitals, universities, and correctional institutions. Earnings Salaries of Protestant clergy vary substantially, depending on age, experience, denomination, size and wealth of congregation, and geo­ graphic location. Based on limited information, the estimated aver­ age annual income of Protestant ministers was about $27,000 in 1992. Including benefits such as housing, insurance, and transporta­ tion, average compensation was an estimated $44,000. In large, wealthier denominations, ministers often earned significantly higher salaries. Increasingly, ministers with modest salaries earn additional income from employment in secular occupations.  139  Rabbis (D.O.T. 120.007)  Nature of the Work Rabbis are the spiritual leaders of their congregations, and teachers and interpreters of Jewish law and tradition. They conduct religious services and deliver sermons on the Sabbath and on Jewish holidays. Like other clergy, rabbis conduct weddings and funeral services, visit the sick, help the poor, comfort the bereaved, supervise relig­ ious education programs, engage in interfaith activities, and involve themselves in community affairs. Rabbis serving large congregations may spend considerable time in administrative duties, working with their staffs and committees. Large congregations frequently have an associate or assistant rabbi. Many assistant rabbis serve as educational directors. Rabbis serve either Orthodox, Conservative, Reform, or Recon­ structionist congregations. Regardless of their particular point of view, all Jewish congregations preserve the substance of Jewish re­ ligious worship. Congregations differ in the extent to which they fol­ low the traditional form of worship—for example, in the wearing of head coverings, the use of Hebrew as the language of prayer, or the use of instrumental music or a choir. The format of the worship ser­ vice and, therefore, the ritual that the rabbi uses may vary even among congregations belonging to the same branch of Judaism. Rabbis also may write for religious and lay publications and teach in theological seminaries, colleges, and universities. Working Conditions Rabbis work long hours and are “on call” to visit the sick, comfort the bereaved, and counsel those who seek it. Community and educa­ tional activities may also require long or irregular hours. Some of their duties are intellectual and sedentary, such as study­ ing religious texts, researching and writing sermons and articles for publication, and preparing lectures for adult education. Rabbis have a good deal of independent authority, since they have no formal hierarchy. They are responsible only to the board of trust­ ees of the congregations they serve. Employment  In 1992, there were approximately 1,600 Reform, 1,300 Conserva­ tive, 850 Orthodox, and 160 Reconstructionist rabbis. Although the  Related Occupations Protestant ministers advise and counsel individuals and groups re­ garding their religious as well as personal, social, and vocational de­ velopment. Other occupations involved in this type of work include social workers, clinical and counseling psychologists, teachers, and counselors. Sources of Additional Information Persons who'are interested in entering the Protestant ministry should seek the counsel of a minister or church guidance worker. Theological schools can supply information on admission require­ ments. Prospective ministers also should contact the ordination su­ pervision body of their particular denomination for information on special requirements for ordination.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Rabbis serving large congregations may spend considerable time in administrative duties.  140  Occupational Outlook Handbook  majority served congregations, many rabbis functioned in other set­ tings. Some taught in Jewish Studies programs at colleges and uni­ versities. Others served as chaplains in the military services, in hos­ pitals, in college settings, and other institutions, or in one of the many Jewish community service agencies. Although rabbis serve Jewish communities throughout the Na­ tion, they are concentrated in major metropolitan areas with large Jewish populations. Training and Other Qualifications To become eligible for ordination as a rabbi, a student must com­ plete a course of study in a seminary. Entrance requirements and the curriculum depend upon the branch of Judaism with which the sem­ inary is associated. In general, the curriculums of Jewish theological seminaries pro­ vide students with a comprehensive knowledge of the Bible, Tal­ mud, Rabbinic literature, Jewish history, theology, and courses in education, pastoral psychology, and public speaking. Students get extensive practical training in dealing with social problems in the community. Training for alternatives to the pulpit, such as leader­ ship in community services and religious education, is increasingly stressed. Some seminaries grant advanced academic degrees in such fields as Biblical and Talmudic research. All Jewish theological seminaries make scholarships and loans available. About 35 seminaries educate and ordain Orthodox rabbis. The Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary and the Beth Medrash Govoha Seminary are representative of the two basic kinds of Or­ thodox seminaries. The former requires a bachelor’s degree for en­ try and has a formal 4-year ordination program. The latter has no formal admission requirements but may require more years of study for ordination. The training is rigorous. When students have be­ come sufficiently learned in the Talmud, the Bible, and other relig­ ious studies, they may be ordained with the approval of an author­ ized rabbi, acting either independently or as a representative of a rabbinical seminary. The Jewish Theological Seminary of America educates rabbis for the Conservative branch. The Hebrew Union College—Jewish In­ stitute of Religion educates rabbis for the Reform branch. For ad­ mission to their rabbinical programs leading to ordination, both seminaries require the completion of a 4-year college course, as well as earlier preparation in Jewish studies. The Conservative seminary usually requires 5 years to complete the course of study. Normally, 5 years of study are also required to complete the rabbinical course at the Reform seminary, including 1 year of preparatory study in Je­ rusalem. Exceptionally well- prepared students can shorten this 5year period to a minimum of 3 years. The Reconstructionist Rabbinical College educates rabbis in the newest branch of Judaism. A bachelor’s degree is required for ad­ mission. The rabbinical program is based on a 5-year course of study which emphasizes, in each year, a period in the history of Jewish civ­ ilization. A preliminary preparatory year is required for students without sufficient grounding in Hebrew and Jewish studies. Gradu­ ates are awarded the title “Rabbi” and the Master of Arts in Hebrew Letters and, with special study, can earn the Doctor of Hebrew Let­ ters degree. Newly ordained rabbis usually begin as spiritual leaders of small congregations, assistants to experienced rabbis, directors of Hillel Foundations on college campuses, teachers in educational institu­ tions, or chaplains in the Armed Forces. As a rule, experienced rabbis fill the pulpits of large and well-established Jewish congrega­ tions. Job Outlook Job opportunities for rabbis are expected to be generally favorable in the four major branches of Judaism through the year 2005. Present unmet needs for rabbis, together with the need to replace the many rabbis approaching retirement age, should insure that the numbers of persons completing rabbinical training in the years ahead will en­ counter good job prospects. Since most rabbis prefer to serve in large, urban areas, employment opportunities generally are best in nonmetropolitan areas, particularly in smaller communities in the South, Midwest, and Northwest.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Graduates of Orthodox seminaries who seek pulpits should have good opportunities as growth in enrollments slows and as many graduates choose not to seek pulpits. Orthodox rabbis willing to work in small communities should have particularly good pros­ pects. Conservative and Reform rabbis are expected to have good em­ ployment opportunities throughout the country. Reconstructionist rabbis are expected to have very good employ­ ment opportunities since membership is expanding rapidly. Earnings Income varies widely, depending on the size and financial status of the congregation, as well as its denominational branch and geo­ graphic location. Rabbis may earn additional income from gifts or fees for officiating at ceremonies such as bar mitzvahs and wed­ dings. Based on limited information, annual average earnings of rabbis generally ranged from $38,000 to $60,000 in 1992, including bene­ fits. Benefits may include housing, health insurance, and a retire­ ment plan. Related Occupations Rabbis advise and counsel individuals and groups regarding their religious, personal, social, and vocational development. Others in­ volved in this type of work include social workers, clinical and coun­ seling psychologists, teachers, and counselors. Sources of Additional Information Persons who are interested in becoming rabbis should discuss their plans for a vocation with a practicing rabbi. Information on the work of rabbis and allied occupations can be obtained from: fS" Rabbinical Council of America, 275 7th Ave., New York, NY 10001. (Orthodox) O’The Jewish Theological Seminary of America, 3080 Broadway, New York, NY 10027. (Conservative) 0° Hebrew Union College—Jewish Institute of Religion, Director of Place­ ment, at any one of three campuses: 1 W. 4th St., New York, NY 10012; 3101 Clifton Ave., Cincinnati, OH 45220; 3077 University Mall, Los Ange­ les, CA 90007. (Reform) X>T Reconstructionist Rabbinical College, Church Rd. and Greenwood Ave., Wyncote, PA 19095.  Roman Catholic Priests (D.O.T. 120.007)  Nature of the Work Roman Catholic priests attend to the spiritual, pastoral, moral, and educational needs of the members of their church. They deliver ser­ mons, administer the sacraments, and preside at liturgical functions such as marriages, baptisms, and funerals. They also comfort the sick, console and counsel those in need of guidance, and assist the poor. Some priests are involved in nonliturgical concerns such as human rights and social welfare. A priest’s day usually begins with morning meditation and mass and may end with an individual counseling session or an evening visit to a hospital or home. Many priests direct and serve on church committees, work in civic and charitable organizations, and assist in community projects. The two main classifications of priests—diocesan (secular) and religious—have the same powers, acquired through ordination by a bishop. The differences lie in their way of life, their type of work, and the church authority to whom they are immediately subject. Di­ ocesan priests commit their lives to serving the people of a diocese and generally work in parishes assigned by the bishop of their dio­ cese. Religious priests generally work as part of a religious order, such as the Jesuits, Dominicans, or Franciscans. They may engage in specialized activities, such as teaching or missionary work, as­ signed by superiors of their order. Both religious and diocesan priests hold teaching and administra­ tive posts in Catholic seminaries, colleges and universities, and high  Professional Specialty Occupations schools. Priests attached to religious orders staff a large proportion of the church’s institutions of higher education and many high schools, whereas diocesan priests are usually concerned with the pa­ rochial schools attached to parish churches and with diocesan high schools. The members of religious orders do most of the missionary work conducted by the Catholic Church in this country and abroad. Working Conditions Priests spend long and irregular hours working for the church and the community. Religious priests are assigned duties by their superiors in their particular orders. Some religious priests serve as missionaries in for­ eign countries, where they may live under difficult and primitive conditions. Some live a communal life in monasteries, where they devote themselves to prayer, study, and assigned work. Diocesan priests are “on call” at all hours to serve their parishio­ ners in emergencies. They also have many intellectual duties, in­ cluding study of the scriptures and keeping abreast of current relig­ ious and secular events in order to prepare sermons and teach effectively. Diocesan priests are responsible to the bishop of the dio­ cese. Employment There were approximately 53,000 priests in 1992, about two-thirds of them diocesan priests, according to the Official Catholic Direc­ tory. There are priests in nearly every city and town and in many ru­ ral communities. The majority are in metropolitan areas, where most Catholics reside. Large numbers of priests are located in com­ munities near Catholic educational and other institutions. Training and Other Qualifications Preparation for the priesthood generally requires 8 years of study beyond high school in one of about 230 seminaries. Preparatory study may begin in the first year of high "school, at the college level, or in theological seminaries after college graduation. Today, most candidates for the priesthood take a 4-year degree at a conventional college or university. After graduation from college, candidates gen­ erally receive 2 years of “Pre-theology” preparatory study (philoso­ phy, religious studies, and prayer) before entering the seminary. Theology coursework in the seminary includes sacred scripture; dogmatic, moral, and pastoral theology; homiletics (art of preach­ ing); church history; liturgy (sacraments); and canon (church) law. Fieldwork experience usually is required; in recent years, this aspect of a priest’s training has been emphasized. Diocesan and religious priests attend different major seminaries, where slight variations in the training reflect the differences in their duties. Priests commit  Catholic priests who are part of a religious order may specialize in teaching.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  141  themselves to celibacy, remaining unmarried. Only men are or­ dained as priests; women, however, may serve in many other church positions. Alternatively, high school seminaries provide a college prepara­ tory program that emphasizes English grammar, speech, literature, and social studies. Latin may be required, and modern languages are encouraged. In Hispanic communities, knowledge of Spanish is mandatory. Candidates may also choose to enter a seminary college that offers a liberal arts program stressing philosophy and religion, the study of humankind through the behavioral sciences and his­ tory, and the natural sciences and mathematics. In many college seminaries, a student may concentrate in any one of these fields. Young men never are denied entry into seminaries because of lack of funds. In seminaries for secular priests, scholarships or loans are available. Those in religious seminaries are financed by contribu­ tions of benefactors. Postgraduate work in theology is offered at a number of Ameri­ can Catholic universities or at ecclesiastical universities around the world, particularly in Rome. Also, many priests do graduate work in fields unrelated to theology. Priests are encouraged by the Catho­ lic Church to continue their studies, at least informally, after ordi­ nation. In recent years, continuing education for ordained priests has stressed social sciences, such as sociology and psychology. A newly ordained secular priest usually works as an assistant pas­ tor or curate. Newly ordained priests of religious orders are assigned to the specialized duties for which they are trained. Depending on the talents, interests, and experience of the individual, many oppor­ tunities for greater responsibility exist within the church. Job Outlook The job outlook for Roman Catholic priests is expected to be very favorable through the year 2005. Many priests will be needed in the years ahead to provide for the spiritual, educational, and social needs of the increasing number of Catholics. In recent years, the number of ordained priests has been insufficient to fill the needs of newly established parishes and other Catholic institutions, and to replace priests who retire, die, or leave the priesthood. This situation is likely to continue—even if the recent modest increase in seminary enrollments continues—as an increasing proportion of priests ap­ proach retirement age. In response to the shortage of priests, certain traditional functions increasingly are being performed by permanent deacons and by teams of clergy and laity. Presently about 10,300 permanent dea­ cons have been ordained to preach and perform liturgical functions such as baptisms, distributing Holy Communion, and reading the gospel at the mass. The only services a deacon cannot perform are saying mass and hearing confessions. Teams of clergy and laity un­ dertake nonliturgical functions such as hospital visits and religious teaching. Priests will continue to perform mass, administer sacra­ ments, and hear confession, but may be less involved in teaching and administrative work. Earnings Diocesan priests’ salaries vary from diocese to diocese. Based on limited information, salaries averaged about $9,000 in 1992. In ad­ dition to a salary, diocesan priests received a package of benefits that could include a car allowance, free room and board in the parish rectory, health insurance, and a retirement plan. Including fringe benefits, the total value of a priest’s compensation package averages about $29,000 a year. Religious priests take a vow of poverty and are supported by their religious order. Any personal earnings are given to the order. Priests who do special work related to the church, such as teach­ ing, usually receive a partial salary which is less than a lay person in the same position would receive. The difference between the usual salary for these jobs and the salary that the priest receives is called “contributed service.” In some of these situations, housing and re­ lated expenses may be provided; in other cases, the priest must make his own arrangements. Some priests doing special work receive the same compensation that a lay person would receive.  142  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Related Occupations Roman Catholic priests advise and counsel individuals and groups regarding their religious as well as personal, social, and vocational development. Other occupations involved in this type of work in­ clude social workers, clinical and counseling psychologists, teach­ ers, and counselors. Sources of Additional Information Young men interested in entering the priesthood should seek the guidance and counsel of their parish priests. For information re­ garding the different religious orders and the secular priesthood, as   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  well as a list of the seminaries which prepare students for the priest­ hood, contact the diocesan director of vocations through the office of the local pastor or bishop. Information about a career as a diocesan or a religious Roman Catholic priest can also be obtained from:  National Conference of Diocesan Vocation Directors, 1603 S. Michigan Ave., Suite 400, Chicago, IL 60616. 13= National Religious Vocation Conference, 1603 S. Michigan Ave., Suite 400, Chicago, IL 60616.  Teachers, Librarians, and Counselors Adult Education Teachers (D.O.T. 075.127-010; 090.222, .227-018; 097.221, .227; 099.223, .224-014 .227-014,-018,-026,-030,-038; 149.021; 150.027-014; 151.027-014; 152.021; 153.227-014; 159.227; 166.221, .227; 235.222; 239.227; 375.227' 522.264­ 621.221; 683.222; 689.324; 715.221; 740.221; 788.222; 789.222; 919.223- and 955.222)  Nature of the Work Adult education teachers work in three main areas—adult voca­ tional-technical, adult basic, and adult continuing education. Some adult education teachers instruct people who have graduated or left school for occupations that do not require a college degree, such as welder, dental hygeinist, automated systems manager, x-ray techni­ cian, farmer, and cosmetologist. Other instructors help people up­ date their job skills or adapt to technological advances. For exam­ ple, an adult education teacher may train students how to use new computer software programs. Other teachers provide instruction in basic education courses for school dropouts or others who need to upgrade their skills to find a job. Adult education teachers also teach courses which students take for personal enrichment, such as cooking, dancing, writing, exercise and physical fitness, photogra­ phy, and finance. Adult education teachers may lecture in classrooms and also give students hands-on experience. Increasingly, adult vocational-tech­ nical education teachers integrate academic and vocational curriculums so that students obtain a variety of skills. For example, an elec­ tronics student may be required to take courses in principles of mathematics and science in conjunction with hands-on electronics skills. Generally, teachers demonstrate techniques, have students apply them, and critique the students’ work so that they can learn from their mistakes. For example, welding instructors show stu­ dents various welding techniques, including the use of tools and equipment, watch students use the techniques, and have them re­ peat procedures until students meet specific standards required by the trade. Adult education teachers who instruct in adult basic education programs may work with students who do not speak English; teach adults reading, writing, and mathematics up to the 8th-grade level; or teach adults through the 12th-grade level in preparation for the General Educational Development Examination (GED). The GED offers the equivalent of a high school diploma. These teachers may refer students for counseling or job placement. Because many people who need adult basic education are reluctant to seek it, teachers also may recruit participants. Adult education teachers also prepare lessons and assignments, grade papers and do related paperwork, attend faculty and profes­ sional meetings, and stay abreast of developments in their field. (For information on vocational education teachers in secondary schools, see the Handbook statement on kindergarten, elementary, and sec­ ondary school teachers.) Working Conditions Since adult education teachers work with adult students, they do not encounter some of the behavioral or social problems sometimes found when teaching younger students. The adults are there by choice, and usually are highly motivated—attributes that can make teaching these students rewarding and satisfying. However, teachers in adult basic education deal with students at different levels of de­ velopment who may lack effective study skills and self-confidence, and who may require more attention and patience than other stu­ dents.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Adult education teachers often work at night or on weekends. Many adult education teachers work part time. To accommodate students who may have job or family responsibilities, many courses are offered at night or on weekends, and range from 2- to 4-hour workshops and 1-day minisessions to semester-long courses. Employment Adult education teachers held about 540,000 jobs in 1992. About 4 out of 10 taught part time, a larger proportion than for other teach­ ers, and many taught only intermittently. However, many of them also held other jobs, in many cases doing work related to the subject they taught. Many adult education teachers are self-employed. Adult education teachers are employed by public school systems; community and junior colleges; universities; businesses that provide formal education and training for their employees; automotive re­ pair, bartending, business, computer, electronics, medical technol­ ogy, and similar schools and institutes; dance studios; health clubs; job training centers; community organizations; labor unions; and re­ ligious organizations. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Training requirements vary widely by State and by subject. In gen­ eral, teachers need work or other experience in their field, and a li­ cense or certificate in fields where these usually are required for full professional status. In some cases, particularly at educational insti­ tutions, a bachelor’s, master’s, or doctoral degree is required, espe­ cially to teach courses which can be applied toward a 4-year degree program. In other cases, an acceptable portfolio of work is required. For example, to secure a job teaching a flower arranging course, an applicant would need to show examples of previous work. Most States and the District of Columbia require adult basic edu­ cation teachers to have a bachelor’s degree from an approved teacher training program, and some require teacher certification. Adult education teachers update their skills through continuing education to maintain certification—requirements vary among in­ stitutions. Teachers may take part in seminars, conferences, or grad­ uate courses in adult education, training and development, or human resources development, or may return to work in business or industry for a limited time. Adult education teachers should communicate and relate well with students, enjoy working with them, and be able to motivate them. Adult basic education instructors, in particular, must be pa­ tient, understanding, and supportive to make students comfortable, 143  144  Occupational Outlook Handbook  develop trust, and help them better understand their needs and aims. Some teachers advance to administrative positions in depart­ ments of education, colleges and universities, and corporate training departments. Such positions may require advanced degrees, such as a doctorate in adult and continuing education. (See statement on ed­ ucation administrators elsewhere in the Handbook.) Job Outlook Employment of adult education teachers is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2005 as the de­ mand for adult education programs continues to rise. Participation in continuing education increases as the educational attainment of the population increases. More people are realizing that life-long learning is important to success in their careers. To keep abreast of changes in their fields and advances in technology, an increasing number of adults are taking courses for career advancement, skills upgrading, and personal enrichment, spurring demand for adult ed­ ucation teachers. In addition, enrollment in adult basic education programs is increasing because of changes in immigration policy that require basic competency in English and civics, and an in­ creased awareness of the difficulty in finding a good job without ba­ sic academic skills. Employment growth of adult vocational-technical education teachers will result from the need to train young adults for entry level jobs, and experienced workers who want to switch fields or whose jobs have been eliminated due to changing technology or business reorganization. In addition, increased cooperation between businesses and educational in­ stitutions to insure that students are taught the skills employers desire should result in greater demand for adult education teachers, particu­ larly at community and junior colleges. Since adult education programs receive State and Federal funding, employment growth may be affected by government budgets. Many job openings for adult education teachers will stem from the need to replace persons who leave the occupation. Many teach part time and move into and out of the occupation for other jobs, family responsibilities, or to retire. Opportunities will be best in fields such as computer technology, automotive mechanics, and medical technology, which offer very attractive, and often higher paying, job opportunities outside of teaching. Earnings In 1992, salaried adult education teachers who usually worked full time had median earnings around $26,900 a year. The middle 50 percent earned between $18,700 and $38,800. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $13,500, while the top 10 percent earned more than $49,200. Earnings varied widely by subject, academic credentials, experience, and region of the country. Part-timers generally are paid hourly wages and do not receive benefits or pay for preparation time outside of class. Related Occupations Adult education teaching requires a wide variety of skills and apti­ tudes, including the power to influence, motivate, and train others; organizational, administrative, and communication skills; and crea­ tivity. Workers in other occupations that require these aptitudes in­ clude other teachers, counselors, school administrators, public rela­ tions specialists, employee development specialists and interviewers, and social workers. Sources of Additional Information Information on adult basic education programs and teacher certifi­ cation requirements is available from State departments of educa­ tion and local school districts. For information about adult vocational-technical education teaching positions, contact State departments of vocational-techni­ cal education.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  For information on adult continuing education teaching posi­ tions, contact departments of local government, State adult educa­ tion departments, schools, colleges and universities, religious orga­ nizations, and a wide range of businesses that provide formal training for their employees. General information on adult education is available from: O’ American Association for Adult and Continuing Education, 1101 Con­ necticut Ave. NW., Suite 700, Washington, DC 20036. 13” American Vocational Association, 1410 King St., Alexandria, VA 22314. O’ ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education, 1900 Kenny Rd., Columbus, OH 43210-1090.  Archivists and Curators (D.O.T. 099.167-030; 101; 102 except .261-014 and .367-010; 109.067-014, .267-010, .281, .361,.364)  Nature of the Work Archivists, curators, museum and archives technicians, and conser­ vators search for, acquire, appraise, analyze, describe, arrange, cata­ log, restore, preserve, exhibit, maintain, and store items of lasting value so that they can be used by researchers or for exhibitions, pub­ lications, broadcasting, and other educational programs. These may consist of historical documents, audiovisual materials, institutional records, works of art, coins, stamps, minerals, clothing, maps, living and preserved plants and animals, buildings, computer records, or historic sites. Archivists and curators plan and oversee the work of maintaining collections and, along with technicians and conservators, work di­ rectly on collections. Archivists and curators may coordinate educa­ tional and public outreach programs, such as tours, workshops, lec­ tures, and classes, and may work with the boards of institutions to administer plans and policies. They also may conduct research on topics or items relevant to their collections. Although some duties of archivists and curators are similar, the types of items they deal with differ. Curators usually handle three-dimensional objects, such as sculptures, textiles, and paintings, while archivists mainly handle documents, or objects that are retained because they originally ac­ companied and relate specifically to the document. Archivists determine what portion of the vast amount of records maintained by various organizations, such as government agencies, corporations, or educational institutions, or by families and individ­ uals, should be made part of permanent historical holdings, and which of these records should be put on exhibit. They maintain records in their original arrangement according to the creator’s or­ ganizational scheme, and describe records so they can be located easily. Records may be saved on any medium, including paper, mi­ crofilm, or computer. They also may be copied onto some other for­ mat to protect the original from repeated handling, and to make them more accessible to researchers who use the records. Archives may be part of a library, museum, or historical society, or may exist as a distinct archival unit within an organization. Ar­ chivists consider any medium containing information as documents, including letters, books, and other paper documents, photographs, blueprints, audiovisual materials, and computer records, among others. Any document which reflects organizational transactions, hierarchy, or procedures can be considered a record. Archivists often specialize in an area of history or technology so they can better determine what records in that area qualify for retention and should become part of the archives. Archivists also may work with special­ ized forms of records—for example, manuscripts, electronic records, photographs, cartographic records, motion pictures, and sound recordings. Curators, sometimes called collections managers, oversee collec­ tions in museums, zoos, aquariums, botanic gardens, nature centers,  Professional Specialty Occupations  145  and historic sites. They acquire items through purchases, gifts, field exploration, intermuseum loans, or, in the case of some plants and animals, hybridization and breeding. Curators also plan and prepare exhibits. In natural history museums, curators collect and observe specimens in their natural habitat. Much of their work involves describing and classifying species. They conduct more research than other curators, who spend much of their time managing collections. Most curators specialize in fields such as botany, art, paleontol­ ogy, or history. Those working in large institutions may be highly specialized. A large natural history museum, for example, would have specialists in birds, fishes, insects, and mollusks. Furthermore, in large institutions, most curators specialize in particular functions. Some maintain the collection while others perform administrative tasks. Registrars, for example, are responsible for keeping track of and moving objects in the collection. In small institutions, with only one or a few curators, they are responsible for almost everything, from maintaining collections to directing the affairs of museums. Museum directors formulate policies, plan budgets, and raise funds for their museum. They coordinate activities of their staff to establish and maintain collections. Conservators oversee, manage, examine, care for, and preserve works of art, artifacts, and specimens. They coordinate the activities of workers engaged in the examination, repair, and conservation of museum objects. This may require substantial historical and archaeological research. They use xrays, microscopes, special lights, and other laboratory equipment in examining objects to determine their condition, the need for repair, and the appropriate method for preservation. Conservators usually specialize in treating various items—paintings, objects and sculptures, architectural material, glass, or furniture, for example. Museum technicians assist curators and conservators by perform­ ing various preparatory and maintenance tasks on museum items. Archives technicians help archivists organize and classify records. Archivists, curators, and conservators increasingly use com­ puters to catalog and organize collections, as well as to perform original research. Working Conditions The working conditions of archivists and curators vary. Some spend most of their time working with the public, providing reference as­ sistance and educational services. Others perform research or pro­ cess records, which often means working alone or in offices with only one or two other persons. Those who restore and install exhib­ its or work with bulky, heavy record containers may climb, stretch, or lift, and those in zoos, botanical gardens, and other outdoor mu­ seums or historic sites frequently walk great distances. Curators may travel extensively to evaluate potential additions to the collection, to organize exhibitions, and to conduct research in their area of expertise. Employment Archivists and curators held about 19,000 jobs in 1992. About 3 out of 10 were employed in museums, botanical gardens, and zoos, and approximately 1 in 5 was in public and private education, particu­ larly in college and university libraries. Over one-third worked in Federal, State, and local government. Most Federal archivists work for the National Archives and Records Administration; others man­ age military archives in the Department of Defense. Most Federal Government curators work at the Smithsonian Institution, in the military museums of the Department of Defense, and in archaeo­ logical and other museums managed by the Department of Interior. All State governments have archival or historical records sections employing archivists. State and local governments have numerous historical museums, parks, libraries, and zoos employing curators. Some large corporations have archives or records centers, em­ ploying archivists to manage the growing volume of records created  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Archivists and curators preserve and maintain articles of lasting value. or maintained as required by law or necessary to the firms’ opera­ tions. Religious and fraternal organizations, professional associa­ tions, conservation organizations, and research firms also employ archivists and curators. Conservators may work under contract to treat particular items, rather than work as a regular employee of a museum or other insti­ tution. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Employment as an archivist, conservator, or curator generally re­ quires graduate education and substantial practical or work experi­ ence. Many archivists and curators work in archives or museums while completing their formal education, in order to gain the “hands-on” experience that many employers seek when hiring. Employers generally look for archivists with undergraduate and graduate degrees in history or library science, with courses in archi­ val science. Some positions may require knowledge of the discipline related to the collection, such as business or medicine. An increasing number of archivists have a double master’s degree in history and li­ brary science. Approximately 65 colleges and universities offer courses or practical training in archival science as part of history, li­ brary science, or other discipline; some also offer a master’s degree in archival studies. The Academy of Certified Archivists offers vol­ untary certification for archivists. Certification requires the appli­ cant to have experience in the field and to pass an examination of­ fered by the Academy.  146 Occupational Outlook Handbook Archivists need analytical ability to understand the content of documents and the context in which they were created, and to deci­ pher deteriorated or poor quality printed matter, handwritten man­ uscripts, or photographs and films. Archivists also must be able to organize large amounts of information and write clear instructions for its retrieval and use. Many archives are very small, including one-person shops, with limited promotion opportunities. Advancement generally is through transferring to a larger unit with supervisory positions. A doctorate in history, library science, or a related field may be needed for some advanced positions, such as director of a State archives. In most museums, a master’s degree in an appropriate discipline of the museum’s specialty—for example, art, history, or archaeol­ ogy—or museum studies is required for employment as a curator. Many employers prefer a doctoral degree, particularly for curators in natural history or science museums. In small museums, curato­ rial positions may be available to individuals with a bachelor’s de­ gree. For some positions, an internship of full-time museum work supplemented by courses in museum practices is needed. Museum technicians generally need a bachelor’s degree in an appro­ priate discipline of the museum’s specialty, museum studies training, or previous museum work experience, particularly in exhibit design. Simi­ larly, archives technicians generally need a bachelor’s degree in library science or history, or relevant work experience. Technician positions often serve as a stepping stone for individuals interested in archival and curatorial work. With the exception of small museums, a master’s de­ gree is needed for advancement. When hiring conservators, employers look for a master’s degree in conservation, with an undergraduate background in science and art. There are only a few graduate programs in the United States. Competition for entry to these programs is keen; to qualify for these programs, a student must have a background in chemistry, studio art, and art history. These graduate programs last 3 to 4 years; the latter years include internship training. A few individuals may enter the profession through apprenticeship programs, available through museums, nonprofit organizations, and private practice conserva­ tors. In order to advance, those who enter the profession through apprenticeship programs usually must take courses in chemistry, art history, and studio art. The length of apprenticeship training varies widely, depending upon one’s specialty. Students interested in museum work may take courses or obtain a bachelor’s or master’s degree in museum studies. Colleges and uni­ versities throughout the country offer bachelor’s and master’s de­ grees in museum studies. However, many employers feel that, while museum studies are helpful, a thorough knowledge of the museum’s specialty and museum work experience are more important. Curatorial positions often require knowledge in a number of fields. For historic and artistic conservation, courses in chemistry, physics, and art are desirable. Since curators—particularly those in small museums—may have administrative and managerial responsi­ bilities, courses in business administration and public relations also are recommended. Curators must be flexible because of their wide variety of duties. They need an aesthetic sense to design and present exhibits, and, in small museums, manual dexterity is needed to erect exhibits or re­ store objects. Leadership ability is important for museum directors, while public relations skills are valuable in increasing museum at­ tendance and fundraising. In large museums, curators may advance through several levels of responsibility, eventually to museum director. Curators in smaller museums often advance to larger ones. Individual research and pub­ lications are important for advancement. Continuing education, which enables archivists, curators, mu­ seum technicians, and conservators to keep up with developments in the field, is available through meetings, conferences, and workshops sponsored by archival, historical, and curatorial associations.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Job Outlook Employment of archivists and curators is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2005. Al­ though the rate of turnover among archivists and curators is rela­ tively low, the need to replace workers who leave the occupation or stop working will create some additional job openings. While Federal Government archival jobs are not expected to grow, new archival jobs are expected in other areas, such as educa­ tional services and State and local government. Archival jobs also will become available as institutions put more emphasis on estab­ lishing archives and organizing records and information. Museums and botanical and zoological gardens, where curators are concen­ trated, are expected to grow in response to increased public interest in science, art, history, and technology. Despite the anticipated increase in the employment of archivists and curators, competition for jobs is expected to be keen. Graduates with highly specialized training, such as a master’s degree in library science with a concentration in archives or records management, may have the best opportunities for jobs as archivists. A job as a cu­ rator is attractive to many people, and many have the necessary sub­ ject knowledge; yet there are only a few openings. Consequently, candidates may have to work part time, or as an intern, or even as a volunteer assistant curator or research associate after completing their formal education, and substantial work experience in collec­ tion management, exhibit design, or restoration will be necessary for permanent status. Job opportunities for curators should be best in art and history museums, since these are the largest employers in the museum industry. The job outlook for conservators may be more favorable, particu­ larly for graduates of conservator programs. However, competition is stiff for the limited number of openings in these programs, and ap­ plicants need a technical background. Students who qualify and suc­ cessfully complete the program, and who are willing to relocate, usually find a job.  Earnings Earnings of archivists and curators vary considerably by type and size of employer. Average salaries in the Federal Government, for example, are generally higher than those in religious organizations. Salaries of curators in large, well-funded museums may be several times higher than those in small ones. Salaries in the Federal Government depend upon education and experience. In 1993, inexperienced archivists and curators with a bachelor’s degree started at about $18,300, while those with some experience started at $22,700. Those with a master’s degree started at $27,800, and with a doctorate, $33,600 or $40,300. In 1993, the average annual salary for archivists employed by the Federal Gov­ ernment in nonsupervisory, supervisory, and managerial positions was $46,000 a year, curators averaged $48,000, museum specialists and technicians averaged $29,800, and archives technicians aver­ aged $26,700. According to a survey by the Association of Art Museum Direc­ tors, salaries generally are highest for museum workers in Western and Mid-Atlantic States and in metropolitan areas with populations over 2 million. The following tabulation shows average salaries for employees in art museums in 1993:  Director.................................................. Chief curator.................................................................................. Curator........................................................................................... Curatorial assistant Senior conservator  $91,300 49,800 45,100  Professional Specialty Occupations Related Occupations Archivists’ and curators’ interests in preservation and display are shared by anthropologists, arborists, archaeologists, artifacts con­ servators, botanists, ethnologists, folklorists, genealogists, histori­ ans, horticulturists, information specialists, librarians, paintings re­ storers, records managers, and zoologists. Sources of Additional Information For information on archivists and on schools offering courses in ar­ chival science, contact: 13= Society of American Archivists, 600 South Federal St., Suite 504, Chi­ cago, IL 60605.  For information about certification for archivists, contact: Academy of Certified Archivists, 600 South Federal St., Suite 504, Chi­ cago, IL 60605.  For general information about careers as a curator and schools of­ fering courses in museum studies, contact: American Association of Museums, 1225 I St. NW„ Suite 200, Washing­ ton, DC 20005.  For information about curatorial careers and internships in bo­ tanical gardens, contact: 13= American Association of Botanical Gardens and Arboreta, 786 Church Rd., Wayne, PA 19087.  For information about conservation and preservation careers and education programs, contact: 13= American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, 1400 16th St. NW., Suite 340, Washington, DC 20036.  For information on curatorial and other positions in natural his­ tory museums, contact: 13= Association of Systematics Collections, 730 11th St. NW., Second Floor, Washington, DC 20001.  College and University Faculty (D.O.T. 090.227-010)  Nature of the Work College and university faculty teach and advise over 14 million full­ time and part-time college students and perform a significant part of our Nation’s research. They also study and meet with colleagues to keep up with developments in their field and consult with govern­ ment, business, nonprofit, and community organizations. Faculty generally are organized into departments or divisions, based on subject or field. They usually teach several different courses in their department—algebra, calculus, and differential equations, for example. They may instruct undergraduate or gradu­ ate students, or both. College and university faculty may give lectures to several hun­ dred students in large halls, lead small seminars, and supervise stu­ dents in laboratories. They also prepare lectures, exercises, and lab­ oratory experiments, grade exams and papers, and advise and work with students individually. In universities, they also counsel, advise, teach, and supervise graduate student research. They may use closed-circuit and cable television, computers, videotapes, and other teaching aids. Faculty keep abreast of developments in their field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, and participating in pro­ fessional conferences. They also do their own research to expand knowledge in their field. They experiment, collect and analyze data, and examine original documents, literature, and other source mate­ rial. From this, they develop hypotheses, arrive at conclusions, and write about their findings in scholarly journals and books. Most faculty members serve on academic or administrative com­ mittees which deal with the policies of their institution, departmen­ tal matters, academic issues, curricula, budgets, equipment  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  147  purchases, and hiring. Some work with student organizations. De­ partment heads generally have heavier administrative responsibili­ ties. The amount of time spent on each of these activities varies by in­ dividual circumstance and type of institution. Faculty members at universities generally spend a significant part of their time doing re­ search; those in 4-year colleges, somewhat less; and those in 2-year colleges, relatively little. However, the teaching load usually is heav­ ier in 2-year colleges. Working Conditions College faculty generally have flexible schedules. They must be pre­ sent for classes, usually 12 to 16 hours a week, and for faculty and committee meetings. Most establish regular office hours for student consultations, usually 3 to 6 hours per week. Otherwise, they are rel­ atively free to decide when and where they will work, and how much time to devote to course preparation, grading papers and exams, study, research, and other activities. They may work staggered hours and teach classes at night and on weekends, particularly those faculty who teach older students who may have full-time jobs or family responsibilities on weekdays. They have even greater flexibil­ ity during the summer and school holidays, when they may teach or do research, travel, or pursue nonacademic interests. Most colleges and universities have funds used to support faculty research or other professional development needs, including travel to conferences and research sites. Part-time faculty generally spend little time on campus, since they usually don’t have an office. In addition, they may teach at more than one college, requiring travel between their various places of employment. Faculty may experience a conflict between their responsibilities to teach students and the pressure to do research. This may be a partic­ ular problem for young faculty seeking advancement. Increasing emphasis on undergraduate teaching performance, particularly at small liberal arts colleges, in tenure decisions may alleviate some of this pressure, however. Employment College and university faculty held about 812,000 jobs in 1992, mostly in public institutions. About 3 out of 10 college and university faculty members work part time. Some part-timers, known as “adjunct faculty,” have pri­ mary jobs outside of academia—in government, private industry, or in nonprofit research—and teach “on the side.” Others want full­ time jobs but can’t find them. Some work part time in more than one institution.  College faculty generally have flexible schedules.  148  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Most college and university faculty are in four academic ranks: Pro­ fessor, associate professor, assistant professor, and instructor. A small number are lecturers. Most faculty members are hired as instructors or assistant profes­ sors. Four-year colleges and universities generally hire doctoral de­ gree holders for full-time, tenure-track positions, but may hire mas­ ter’s degree holders or doctoral candidates for certain disciplines, such as the arts, or for part-time and temporary jobs. In 2-year col­ leges, master’s degree holders often qualify for full-time positions. Doctoral programs usually take 4 to 7 years of full-time study be­ yond the bachelor’s degree. Candidates usually specialize in a sub­ field of a discipline, for example, organic chemistry, counseling psy­ chology, or European history, but also take courses covering the whole discipline. Programs include 20 or more increasingly special­ ized courses and seminars plus comprehensive examinations on all major areas of the field. They also include a dissertation. This is a re­ port on original research to answer some significant question in the field; it sets forth an original hypothesis or proposes a model and tests it. Students in the natural sciences and engineering usually do laboratory work; in the humanities, they study original documents and other published material. The dissertation, done under the gui­ dance of one or more faculty advisors, usually takes 1 or 2 years of full-time work. In some fields, particularly the natural sciences, some students spend an additional 2 years on postdoctoral research and study before taking a faculty position. A major step in the traditional academic career is attaining ten­ ure. Newly hired faculty serve a certain period (usually 7 years) under term contracts. Then, their record of teaching, research, and overall contribution to the institution is reviewed; tenure is granted if the review is favorable and positions are available. With tenure, a professor cannot be fired without just cause and due process. Those denied tenure usually must leave the institution. Tenure protects the faculty’s academic freedom—the ability to teach and conduct re­ search without fear of being fired for advocating unpopular ideas. It also gives both faculty and institutions the stability needed for effec­ tive research and teaching, and provides financial stability for faculty members. About 60 percent of full-time faculty are tenured, and many others are in the probationary period. Some faculty—based on teaching experience, research, publica­ tion, and service on campus committees and task forces—move into administrative and managerial positions, such as departmental chairperson, dean, and president. At 4-year institutio