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V:;V W&  -7-7u/ *7 /  ational  U S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics April 1990 Bulletin 2350  1990-91  Edition  gjjyfajs.j*''  1.  g $> i-*‘L  mrm  ^fesas*v>-  x^x&Jr-  A- •>->  tessssg  9jftgg|  -  MW*^F$*KS#livmL. If  WE\ 1 **■'v ^?vWicws!si   » • o*- < https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  '  , . iiBS  TSb»^.  .  V*  1*—»**£-. ~  -  •  *  i K  ..   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Things Worth Noting Pointers on interpreting the information presented in the Handbook are found in the chapter Keys To Understanding What’s in the Handbook, page 1. Additional career-oriented materials, available from private and public organizations, are described in the chapter Leads to More Information, page 4. An overview of the job outlook for the year 2000 is given in Tomorrow’s Jobs, page 8. For some 80 occupations not covered in detail in the Handbook, brief descriptions of the nature of the work, number of jobs in 1988, and the projected 1988-2000 change in employment are presented in a section beginning on page 452. The assumptions and methods used in preparing BLS employment projections are described briefly on page 459. Occupational Projections and Training Data and the Occupational Outlook Quarterly are publications that supplement or complement material presented in the Handbook. See page 494 and the inside back cover for information about these publications. Sources of State and local job outlook information can be found on pages 460-62. Information also can be obtained from any of the following Bureau of Labor Statistics Regional Offices: Atlanta  1371 Peachtree Street, NE. Atlanta, GA 30367  Phone: (404) 347-4416  Boston  Suite 1603 John F. Kennedy Federal Building Government Center Boston, MA 02203  Phone: (617) 565-2327  Chicago  9th Floor Federal Office Building 230 South Dearborn Street Chicago, IL 60604  Phone: (312) 353-1880  Dallas  Federal Building 525 Griffin Street Room 221 Dallas TX 75202  Phone: (214) 767-6970  Kansas City  911 Walnut Street Kansas City, MO 64106  Phone: (816) 426-2481  New York  Room 808 201 Varick Street New York, NY 10014  Phone: (212) 337-2400  Philadelphia  3535 Market Street P.O. Box 13309 Philadelphia, PA 19101  Phone: (215) 596-1154  San Francisco  71 Stevenson Street PO. Box 3766 San Francisco, CA 94119  Phone: (415) 744-6600  Occupational Outlook Handbook  1990-91 Edition ■sSrfljS-  U.S. Department of Labor Elizabeth Dole, Secretary Bureau of Labor Statistics Janet L. Norwood, Commissioner April 1990 Bulletin 2350   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  S.M.S.U. LIBRARY U.S. npDno'TQRY may  2 9 1990   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Message From the Secretary  Workplace competency will be the keystone support­ ing future increases in our standard of living and our global competitiveness. Preparation for tomorrow’s jobs and the challenges posed by demographic trends, chang­ ing technology, and increased international competition will require an efficient match between workplace require­ ments and worker skills. The Occupational Outlook Handbook, the Government’s premier publication on career guidance, provides essential information about the changes in the world of work and the qualifications that will be needed by tomorrow’s workers. ELIZABETH DOLE   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Foreword -•w- -Wg;  1  1 '^5^'  spsm  •>*  (Changing technology and business practices, increased foreign competition, and shifts in the demand for goods and services will reshape tomorrow’s job market—mak­ ing the need for comprehensive, up-to-date, and reliable career information more important than ever before. The Bureau’s Occupational Outlook Handbook has been a nationally recognized source of career information for more than four decades. Revised every two years, the Handbook describes what workers do on the job, working conditions, the training and education needed, earnings, and expected job prospects in a wide range of occupations covering over 100 million jobs. The 1990-91 edition of the Handbook should provide valuable assistance to individuals making career decisions about their future work lives. JANET L. NORWOOD Commissioner Bureau of Labor Statistics  v  r   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Acknowledgments The Handbook was produced in the Bureau of Labor Statistics under the general guidance and direction of Neal H. Rosenthal, Chief, Division of Occupational Outlook, and Ronald E. Kutscher, Associate Commissioner for Employment Projections. Mike Pilot, Manager, Occupational Outlook Program, was respon­ sible for planning and day-to-day direction. Project leaders supervising the research and preparation of material were Douglas I. Braddock, Daniel E. Hecker, Anne Kahl, Chester C. Levine, and Darrel Patrick Wash. Occupa­ tional analysts who contributed material were Thomas A. Amirault, Verada P. Bluford, Liesel E. Brand, Shelley J. Davis, Conley Hall Dillon, Jr., Lawrence C. Drake, Jr., Sandy Gamliel, Arthur J. Gartaganis, Steven D. Hitchcock, Elizabeth McGregor, Ludmilla K. Murphy, Janet Pfleeger, Jon Q. Sargent, Stephen G. Tise, Brenda S. Wallace, Anne E. Weston, and Martha C. White. Under the direction ofBeverly A. Williams, word processing support was handled by Marilyn Queen and Idena B. Sanders.  Note A great many trade associations, professional societies, unions, industrial organizations, and government agencies provide career information that is valuable to counselors and jobseekers. For the convenience of Handbook users, some of these organizations are listed at the end of each occupational statement. Although these references were carefully compiled, the Bureau of Labor Statistics has neither authority nor facilities for investigating the organiza­ tions or the information or publications that may be sent in response to a request and cannot guarantee the accuracy of such information. The listing of an organization, therefore, does not constitute in any way an endorsement or recommendation by the Bureau either of the organization and its activities or of the information it may supply. Each organization has sole responsibility for whatever information it may issue. The occupational information contained in the Handbook pres­ ents a general, composite description ofjobs and cannot be expected to reflect work situations in specific establishments or localities. The Handbook, therefore, is not intended and should not be used as a guide for determining wages, hours, the right of a particular union to represent workers, appropriate bargaining units, or formal job evaluation systems. Nor should earnings data in the Handbook be used to compute future loss of earnings in adjudication proceed­ ings involving work injuries or accidental deaths. Material in this publication is in the public domain and, with appropriate credit, may be reproduced without permission. Com­ ments about the contents of this publication and suggestions for improving it are welcome. Please address them to Chief, Division of Occupational Outlook, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Depart­ ment of Labor, Washington, DC 20212.  ■  VI  Photograph Credits The Bureau of Labor Statistics wishes to express its appreciation for the cooperation and assistance of the many government and private sources—listed below—that either contributed photo­ graphs or made their facilities available to photographers work­ ing under contract to the U.S. Department of Labor. Photo­ graphs may not be free of every possible safety or health hazard. Depiction of company or trade name in no way constitutes endorsement by the Department of Labor. A.F. & G. Tool & Die Company, Inc.; AT&T; Allen-Mitchell Company; American Textile Manufacturers Institute; Baltimore County Public Schools, MD; Baltimore Gas and Electric Com­ pany; Baltimore-Washington International Airport; Bethlehem Steel Corporation; Blakeslee-Lane, Inc.-Stuart Zolotorow; Buzzell Building Corporation; C & P Telephone; Carey, Bow­ man, and Associates, Inc.; Carl’s Messenger Service; Connor Travel; Designer Optical; District of Columbia Department of Correction; Dulles International Airport; Exxon Company, U.S. A.; F. Scott Black’s Harborlights Dinner Theatre; Ferris, Baker, & Watts; Finch and Company; Fontana Lithograph, Inc.; Fort Meyer Construction Company; General Dynamics Corporation; George Meany Labor Studies Center; George Washington University; George Washington University Hospi­ tal; Georgetown Barber Shop; Georgetown Cobbler Shop; Giant Food, Inc.; Hartford Insurance Group; Hecht’s; Hotel Belve­ dere; Howard University; Inter-American Foundation; Iona House Senior Services; Jack Blevins and Associates, Inc.; Jemi Fashions, Inc.; M & M Fabricators, Inc.; Madison West De­ sign; Memorial Hospital & Medical Center of Cumberland, Inc.; Metropolitan Washington Area Transit Authority; Metro­ politan Washington Council of Governments; Microlog Corpo­ ration; Montgomery County Public Schools, MD; MPR Associ­ ates; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; National Association of Professional Insurance Agents; National Trading Sales Corporation; National Zoological Park; North Carolina Highway Department; Omni-Mill Operations; Oregon State De­ partment of Forestry; PEPCO; Petrovitch Auto Repair; Port City Press; R.P. Upholstery Shop; Shannon & Luchs Co.; St. Martin’s Parish School; Star Rug Company; Super 8 Motel; Ted’s Music Store; U.S. Department of Agriculture; U.S. De­ partment of Commerce; U.S. Department of Defense; U.S. Department of Labor; U.S. General Services Administration; U.S. Postal Service; University of Maryland; USAir Group; WMAR-TV (Baltimore); W.R. Grace & Company; Working Images Photographs-Martha Tabor.  \   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  VII  Contents Special Features Keys To Understanding What’s in the Handbook.......  1  Leads to More Information..........................................  4  Tomorrow’s Jobs.............................................................  8  Summary Data for Occupations Not Studied in Detail'............................................................................ 452 Assumptions and Methods Used in Preparing Employment Projections............................................. 459 Sources of State and Local JobOutlook Information. 460 Dictionary of Occupational Titles Coverage.................. 463 Reprints ............................................................................. 480 Index................................................................................. 483 Companion Publications................................................... 494  Occupational Coverage xecutive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations Accountants and auditors........................... v..................................... Administrative services managers................................................... Budget analysts................................................................................... Construction and building inspectors.............................................. Construction managers...................................................................... Cost estimators................................................................................... Education administrators................................................................... Employment interviewers................................................................. Engineering, science, and data processing managers................... Financial managers............................................................................ General managers and top executives............................................ Government chief executives and legislators................................. Health services managers.................................................................. Hotel managers and assistants......................................................... Industrial production managers........................................................ Inspectors and compliance officers, except construction............. Management analysts and consultants............................................ Marketing, advertising, and public relations managers................ Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers................................................................................. Property and real estate managers................................................... Purchasing agents and managers..................................................... Restaurant and food service managers........................................... Underwriters....................................................................................... Wholesale and retail buyers.............................................................  13 15 17 19 21 23 25 26 28 30 32 33 35 38 39 41 44 46  Electrical and electronicsengineers.................................................. Industrial engineers............................................................................ Mechanical engineers......................................................................... Metallurgical, ceramic, andmaterials engineers............................. Mining engineers................................................................................ Nuclear engineers............................................................................... Petroleum engineers..........................................................................  66 67 67 68 68 69 69  Architects and surveyors Architects............................................................................................. Landscape architects.......................................................................... Surveyors.............................................................................................  71 72 74  Computer, mathematical, and operations research occupations Actuaries.............................................................................................. Computer systems analysts............................................................... Mathematicians................................................................................... Operations research analysts............................................................ Statisticians..........................................................................................  76 77 79 81 82  Life scientists Agricultural scientists........................................................................ * Biological scientists............................................................................ Foresters and conservation scientists ..............................................  85 86 88  Physical scientists Chemists.............................................................................................. Geologists and geophysicists............................................................ Meteorologists.................................................................................... Physicists and astronomers...............................................................  90 91 93 94  Lawyers and judges  96  Social scientists and urban planners ... Economists and market research analysts Psychologists............................................... Sociologists ................................................. Urban and regional planners.................... Social and recreation workers Human services workers........................... Social workers............................................ Recreation workers....................................  101  110^  113 115 118  Religious workers Protestant ministers............................................................................ 121 Rabbis.................................................................................................. 122 Roman Catholic priests..................................................................... 123  3Kjkachers, librarians, and counselors 48 (Adult and vocational education teachers........................................ 51 Archivists and curators...................................................................... 54 College and university faculty......................................................... 56 Counselors............................................................................................ 58 Kindergarten and elementary school jeachers................................ 60 \ Librarians......................................... .................. 7777777777777777......... Secondary school teachers..................................................... s,........  125 126 128 130 132 133 135  Health diagnosing practitioners Chiropractors....................................................................................... Dentists................................................................................................ Optometrists......................................................................................... Physicians............................................................................................  138 139 141 143  Professional Specialty Occupations Engineers........................................................................................... Aerospace engineers.......................................................................... Chemical engineers............................................................................ Civil engineers....................................................................................  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  62 64 65 65  '  Podiatrists ... Veterinarians  146---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------147 Administrative Support Occupations, Including Clerical  Adjusters, investigators, and collectors.......................................... 2.44 Health assessment and treating occupations Dietitians and nutritionists................................................................ 150 ^•Bank tellers......................................................................................... 248 Clerical supervisors and managers................................................... 250 Occupational therapists........................................................................(152 Computer and peripheral equipment operators............................... 251 Pharmacists.......................................................................................... 153 Credit clerks and authorizers............................................................. 253 Physical therapists............................................................................. 155 Financial records processors............................................................. 254 Physician assistants............................................................................ 157 Billing clerks.................................................................................... 255 Recreational therapists...................................................................... 159 Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks.......................... 255 Registered nurses................................................................................ 160 Payroll and timekeeping clerks.................................................... 256 Respiratory therapists......................................................................... 1.63 General office clerks........................................................................... 256 Speech-language pathologists and audiologists............................ /1651 / Information clerks............................................................................... 257 Hotel and motel desk clerks.......................................................... 259 Communications occupations Interviewing and new accounts clerks......................................... 259 Public relations specialists................................................................ 168 Receptionists.................................................................................... 260 Radio and television announcers and newscasters........................ 169 Reservation and transportation ticket agents Reporters and correspondents.......................................................... 171 and travel clerks............................................................................261 Writers and editors............................................................................. 173 Mail clerks and messengers.............................................................. 262 Material recording, scheduling, dispatching, Visual arts occupations and distributing occupations.......................................................... 263 Designers............................................................................................. 175 Dispatchers...................................................................................... 265 Photographers and camera operators............................................... 177 Stock clerks..................................................................................... 266 Visual artists....................................................................................... 180 Traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks....................................... 267 Postal clerks and mail carriers.......................................................... 268 Performing arts occupations Record clerks...................................................................................... 270 Actors, directors, and producers..................................................... 182 Brokerage clerks ind statement clerks....................................... 272 Dancers and choreographers............................................................ 183 File clerks........................................................................................ 272 Musicians............................................................................................. 185 Library assistants and bookmobile drivers.................................. 273 Order clerks..................................................................................... 274 Technicians and Related Support Occupations Personnel clerks.............................................................................. 275 Secretaries............................................................................................ 276 Health technologists and technicians Stenographers...................................................................................... 278 Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians.......................... 187 Teacher aides...................................................................................... 279 Dental hygienists................................................................................ 189 Telephone, telegraph, and teletype operators................................ 280 Dispensing opticians.......................................................................... 191 Typists, word processors, and data entry keyers.......................... 282 EEG technologists............................................................................. 193 EKG technicians ................................................................................ 195 Service Occupations Emergency medical technicians ...................................................... 196 Licensed practical nurses.................................................................. 199 Protective service occupations Medical record technicians............................................................... 201 Correction officers.............................................................................. 285 Nuclear medicine technologists........................................................ 203 Firefighting occupations..................................................................... 286 Radiologic technologists................................................................... 205 Guards.................................................................................................. 288 Surgical technicians............................................................................ 208 Police, detectives, and special agents............................................. 290 Technologists, except health Aircraft pilots...................................................................................... Air traffic controllers......................................................................... Broadcast technicians......................................................................... Computer programmers..................................................................... Drafters................................................................................................ Engineering technicians.................................................................... Library technicians............................................................................. Paralegals............................................................................................. Science technicians............................................................................ Tool programmers, numerical control............................................  210 212 214 215 217 219 220 221 223 224  Marketing and Sales Occupations Cashiers................................................................................................ Counter and rental clerks.................................................................. Insurance sales workers..................................................................... Manufacturers’ and wholesale sales representatives.................... Real estate agents, brokers, and appraisers.................................... Retail sales workers.......................................................................... Securities and financial services sales representatives................. Services sales representatives........................................................... Travel agents.......................................................................................   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  227 228 230 232 234 236 238 240 242  Food and beverage preparation and service occupations Chefs, cooks, and other kitchen workers....................................... 294 Food and beverage service occupations.......................................... 296 Health service occupations Dental assistants.................................................................................. 299 Medical assistants............................................................................... 300 Nursing aides and psychiatric aides................................................. 302 Personal service and building and grounds service occupations Animal caretakers, except farm....................................................... 304 Barbers.................................................................................................. 306 Childcare workers............................................................................... 307 Cosmetologists and related workers................................................ 308 Flight attendants.................................................................................. 310 Gardeners and groundskeepers.......................................................... 311 Homemaker-home health aides......................................................... 313 Janitors and cleaners........................................................................... 315 Private household workers................................................................. 316  Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, and Related Occupations Farm operators and managers........................................................... 318 IX  Fishers, hunters, and trappers.......................................................... 320 Timber cutting and logging workers............................................... 323  Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers Aircraft mechanics and engine specialists..................................... Automotive body repairers............................................................... Automotive mechanics...................................................................... Commercial and industrial electronic equipment repairers.......... Communications equipment mechanics......................................... Computer and office machine repairers.......................................... Diesel mechanics................................................................................ —-Electronic home entertainment equipment repairers .................... Elevator installers and repairers...................................................... Farm equipment mechanics............................................................. General maintenance mechanics...................................................... Heating, air-conditioning, and refrigerationmechanics................ Home appliance and power tool repairers..................................... Industrial machinery repairers......................................................... Line installers and cable splicers..................................................... Millwrights.......................................................................................... Mobile heavy equipment mechanics............................................... Motorcycle, boat, and small-engine mechanics............................. Musical instrument repairers and tuners........................................ Telephone installers and repairers................................................... Vending machine servicers and repairers.......................................  326 327 329 331 333 335 337 339 341 342 344 345 347 348 350 352 353 355 357 358 360  Construction Trades and Extractive Occupations Bricklayers and stonemasons............................................................ Carpenters........................................................................................... Carpet installers................................................................................. Concrete masons and terrazzo workers........................................... Drywall workers and lathers............................................................ Electricians.......................................................................................... Glaziers............................................................................................... Insulation workers............................................................................. Painters and paperhangers................................................................ Plasterers............................................................................................. Plumbers and pipefitters................................................................... Roofers................................................................................................. Roustabouts........................................................................................ Sheet-metal workers.......................................................................... Structural and reinforcing ironworkers........................................... Tilesetters.............................................................................................  362 363 365 366 367 369 371 372 373 375 377 378 379 381 383 384  Production Occupations Assemblers Precision assemblers.......................................................................... 386 Blue-collar worker supervisors..................... .............................. 387 Food processing occupations Butchers and meat, poultry, and fish cutters................................. 389  Digitized xfor FRASER https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  "^Inspectors, testers, and graders.................... Metalworking and plastic-working occupations Boilermakers....................................................................................... Jewelers................................................................................................ Machinists............................................................................................ Metalworking and plastic-working machine operators................. Metalworking machine operators................................................. Plastic-working machine operators.............................................. Steel workers.................................................................................. Numerical-control machine-tool operators..................................... Tool and die makers........................................................................... Welders, cutters, and welding machine operators........................  390  391 392 394 396 397 398 399 401 402 404  Plant and systems operators Electric power generating plant operators and power distributors and dispatchers.........................................406 Stationary engineers.......................................................................... 407 Water and wastewater treatment plant operators.......................... 409 Printing occupations Bindery workers.................................................................................. Compositors and typesetters.............................................................. Lithographic and photoengraving workers..................................... Printing press operators.....................................................................  411 412 414 416  Textile, apparel, and furnishings occupations Apparel workers.................................................................................. Shoe and leather workers and repairers.......................................... Textile machinery operators.............................................................. Upholsterers.........................................................................................  418 420 421 424  Woodworking occupations.............................................................. 425 Miscellaneous production occupations Dental laboratory technicians........................................................... Ophthalmic laboratory technicians.................................................. Painting and coating machine operators.......................................... Photographic process workers..........................................................  427 428 430 432  Transportation and Material Moving Occupations Busdrivers............................................................................................ Material moving equipment operators............................................. Rail transportation occupation......................................................... Truckdrivers......................................................................................... Water transportation occupations.....................................................  434 436 438 440 442  Handlers, Equipment Cleaners, Helpers, and Laborers............................................................................. 445 Job Opportunities in the Armed Forces........................ 447  Keys To Understanding What’s in the Handbook The Occupational Outlook Handbook describes in detail about 250 occupations—covering about 101 million jobs, or 86 percent of all jobs in the economy. Occupations that require lengthy education or training are given the most attention. In addition, summary information on 80 occupations—accounting for another 5 percent of all jobs—is presented in the chapter beginning on page 452. The Handbook is best used as a reference; it is not meant to be read from cover to cover. Instead, start by exploring the table of contents, where related occupations are grouped in clusters, or look in the alpha­ betical index at the end of the Handbook for specific occupations that interest you or sound familiar. This introductory chapter explains how the occupational statements are organized. The next two chapters, Leads to More Information and Tomorrow’s Jobs, tell where you can get more information and discuss the forces that are likely to affect employment opportunities in industries and occupations to the year 2000. For any occupation that sounds interesting to you, use the Handbook to find out what the work is like; what education and training are needed; what the advancement possibilities, earnings, and job outlook are; and what related occupations you might consider. Each occupa­ tional description, or statement, in the Handbook follows a standard format, making it easier to compare occupations. What follows is a description of each section of a Handbook statement, plus some aids for interpreting the information. About Those Numbers at the Beginning of Each Statement The numbers in parentheses that appear just below the title of most occupational statements are D.O.T. codes. D.O.T. stands for the Dictionary of Occupational Titles, a U.S. Department of Labor publication. Each number classifies the occupation by the type of work, required training, physical demands, and working condi­ tions. D.O.T. numbers are used primarily by State employment service offices to classify applicants and job openings. They are included in the Handbook because some career information centers and libraries use them for filing occupational information. An index at the back of this book cross-references the D.O.T. numbers to occupations covered in the Handbook.  Nature of the Work This section tells what workers typically do on the job, what tools or equipment they use, how closely they are supervised, the end product of their efforts, new technologies that are changing what they do or how they do it, and new specialties that are evolving. Responsibilities of workers in the same occupation usually vary by employer, industry, and size of firm. In small organizations, for example, workers generally perform a wider range of duties because the resources simply do not exist for specialization. In addition, most occupations have several levels of skill and responsibility. Beginners or those without a lot of formal training may start as trainees, petform­ ing routine tasks under close supervision. Experienced workers per­ form more difficult duties, with greater independence, while the most skilled and most senior workers perform the most difficult and respon­ sible jobs. Working Conditions This section describes work hours, the physical environment, and other characteristics of the occupation. In many occupations, people usually work regular business hours—40 hours a week, mornings and afternoons, Monday through Friday. Others may work nights or  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  weekends, or more than 40 hours—periodically or on a regular basis. Some workers have a degree of freedom in determining their hours— in occupations that lend themselves to temporary work or self-employ­ ment, for example. Many jobs are performed in pleasant surroundings, while others are in dirty, noisy, dangerous, or stressful ones. Workers may move around a lot or work in a confined space. Some jobs require outdoor work or overnight travel. A growing number of employers require drug testing. Employment This section indicates how many jobs there were in this occupation in 1988 and what industries and parts of the country they were located in. Where significant, it also gives the proportion of workers in the occupation who worked part time (fewer than 35 hours a week) and the proportion who were self-employed. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement You can get training for jobs in high schools, colleges, postsecondary vocational schools (both public and private), home study courses, government training programs, the Armed Forces, apprenticeships and other formal training offered by employers, or informally on the job. In most occupations, there is more than one way to get training. This section identifies all the ways and notes the most common or the type generally preferred by employers. It lists high school and college courses considered useful preparation for a job and reveals if continu­ ing education is required to maintain the position. Remember, the amount of training you have often determines the level at which you enter an occupation and the speed with which you advance. For entry level jobs in many occupations covered in the Handbook, employers may not require specific job training but look for other qualifications. They hire people with good general skills and the ability to learn and give them the specific training needed to do the work. Employers want people who read, write, and speak well; compute accurately; get along with others; and have good work habits. They may require a high school diploma or college degree as evidence of good general skills. Statements also list other desirable aptitudes and personal characteristics—for example, mechanical aptitude, manual dexterity, patience, accuracy, and ability to work without close super­ vision. This section also indicates whether a certificate or license is required for entry or for independent practice, or if it is helpful for advancement. It also describes typical paths of advancement within the occupation and patterns of movement or advancement to other occupations. Job Outlook This section identifies the factors that will be affecting employment in the occupation through the year 2000. Will defense spending, new technologies, changing business practices, and shifting population patterns affect the demand for workers? The projections of the job outlook presented in the Handbook are based on a reasonable set of assumptions about how the economy is likely to change between 1988 and the year 2000. From studies of economic trends and of how industries currently operate and the direc­ tions in which they are moving, the number, distribution, and composi­ tion of jobs in the year 2000 were projected. Of course, no one can foresee with certainty all the economic, political, social, and technological forces that will ultimately affect employment growth and job prospects over the period. A summary of the assumptions and methods used by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in making employment projections is presented in a chapter beginning on page 459. A detailed description is presented in Outlook 2000, BLS Bulletin 2352. 1  2  Occupational Outlook Handbook  If an occupation grows rapidly, it obviously will provide more openings than if it grows slowly. Moreover, the demand for talent in a rapidly growing occupation generally improves chances for advance­ ment and mobility. Keep in mind that slow-growing occupations, if large, also provide many job openings. The need to replace workers who leave their jobs creates most of the openings in most occupations, regardless of the rate of growth. Large occupations generally have more replacement openings than small ones. Those with low pay and status, few training requirements, and a high proportion of young or old or part-time workers generally have more turnover than ones with high pay and status, lengthy training requirements, and many prime­ working-age full-time workers. Besides describing projected employment change, this section may also discuss the degree of competition for jobs that applicants are likely to encounter. How easy or hard will it be to get a job in this field? Does the occupation attract many more jobseekers than there are openings to be filled? Do opportunities vary by industry, size of firm, or geographic location? The accompanying figure explains what is meant by key phrases used to describe projected employment change. It also explains the terms used to describe the relationship between the number of job openings and the number of jobseekers. Key Phrases in the Handbook Changing employment between 1988 and 2000 If the statement reads. . .  Employment  Grow much faster than the average Grow faster than the average Grow about as fast as the average Grow more slowly than the average Show little change  Increase 31 percent or more  Decline  Increase 20 to 30 percent Increase 11 to 19 percent Increase 4 to 10 percent  Finally, it is possible that prospects in your community or State are better or worse than those described in the Handbook, which discusses prospects in the Nation as a whole. Therefore, it is wise to check with local sources. (See the chapter on Leads to More Information beginning on page 4 and the list of state and local agencies, page 460.) Earnings This section cites figures on what workers in the occupation generally eam. Earnings are based on several types of pay plans. Some workers are paid a straight annual salary. Some receive an hourly wage for the hours they work, commissions based on a percentage of what they sell, or a piece rate for each item they produce. Others receive tips for services to customers. Workers may also be paid a combination of a salary or hourly wage, plus bonus, piecework, or tips. Most workers also receive employer-paid benefits such as paid vacations and holidays, health insurance, and pensions. Some also get stock options, profit-sharing plans, savings plans, and bonuses. Workers in many occupations also receive discounts on merchandise, meals and housing, reduced travel fares, business expense accounts, or use of a company car. About 10 percent of all workers are self-employed. Their earnings vary more than those of workers on wages or salaries, and, unlike most wage and salary workers, they pay for their own benefits. Within every occupation, earnings of workers vary, depending on experience, level of responsibility, performance, industry, amount of unionization, and geographic area. Earnings generally are higher in cities than in rural areas and vary from one region to another. Keep in mind that the geographic areas that offer the highest eamings often are those in which living costs are highest. The amount of responsibility that goes with a job affects eamings. The bar chart shows annual salaries for eight levels of engineers, five levels of engineering technicians, and four levels of buyers. These reflect different work levels, starting with entry level jobs and continu­ ing up the career ladder to the most complex and responsible supervi­ sory positions within the occupation. Therefore, it is not always possi­ ble to say that people in one occupation earn more than those in  Increase or decrease 3 percent or less Decrease 4 percent or more Jobs within occupations differ in complexity, and pay varies accordingly.  Opportunities and competition for jobs If the statement reads. . . Excellent opportunities Very good opportunities Good or favorable opportunities May face competition May face keen competition  Job openings compared to jobseekers may be. . . Much more numerous More numerous About the same  3rd  90.000 80.000  Fewer Much fewer  70.000  ■ 1 ■  60.000  1 1  1 quartile Mean 1 1st____ quartile  ■  50.000  ■ ■  40.000 30.000  II  Understandably, individuals might want to enter an occupation or specialty or locate in a geographic area that has fewer qualified workers than jobs because, under these shortage conditions, jobseekers gener­ ally can choose from more job offers, expect higher salaries, advance faster or, possibly, get a job with only minimal qualifications. Keep in mind, however, that even in occupations with a rough balance, almost all qualified applicants can find jobs. On the other hand, when there are surpluses of workers, applicants may have to look for a long time, accept an offer they would otherwise pass up, find a job in another occupation, or face extended unemployment. But since job openings do exist even in overcrowded fields, good students or wellqualified individuals should not be deterred from undertaking training or seeking entry. Some statements discuss job security—workers in some occupations are more likely than those in others to keep or lose their jobs during recessions or government budget cuts, or when new technologies are introduced.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Range of annual salaries for middle 50 percent of employees in each level, March 1988  $100,000  ■  20.000 10,000  I  II  III  IV  V VI VII VIII  Engineers Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics  IV Engineering technicians  V  I  II  Buyers  III IV  Keys To Understanding What’s in the Handbook  Half of all butchers and meat, poultry, and fish cutters earned between $11,400 and $25,200 in 1988. Percent distribution of full-time salaried butchers and meat, poultry, and fish cutters, f988  Median: $f6,300  3rd quartile: . $25,200 1st quartile $11,400 9th decile: . $30,700 1st decile: Is. S9.2CC A/  SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics  another. We can say that the average is higher or that the middle range of earnings is higher, but there is usually some overlap.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  3  Many Handbook statements cite Current Population Survey (CPS) data. They show the median earnings of full-time salaried (but not self-employed) workers in 1988. (The median is the midpoint—half earned more than this and half earned less.) They generally also give the range of earnings of the middle 50 percent of workers, and earnings of the lowest 10 percent and the highest 10 percent. The accompanying chart, based on CPS data, shows the earnings distribution of butchers and meatcutters in 1988. The shaded area under the curve indicates that one-half earned between $11,400 and $25,200. The lowest 10 percent earned under $9,200, while the highest 10 percent earned more than $30,700. You can compare CPS earnings data between occupations or to the average for all occupations. The median for all full-time wage and salary workers in 1988 was $20,000; the middle 50 percent earned between $13,500 and $29,200; the top 10 percent earned $41,200 or more, the bottom 10 percent, $9,700 or less. Some statements include earnings data from sources other than the CPS. The characteristics of these data vary, making it difficult to compare earnings precisely among occupations. Related Occupations When you find that an occupation appeals to you, also explore the jobs listed in this section. Usually, they call for similar aptitudes, interests, and education and training. Sources of Additional Information This section lists names and addresses of associations, government agencies, unions, and other organizations that provide useful informa­ tion on careers. Also, for some occupations, this section refers you to free or relatively inexpensive publications that offer more information. These publications may also be available in libraries, school career centers, or guidance offices. (For additional sources of information, read the next chapter, Leads to More Information.)  Leads to More Information In this chapter you will find many other ways to obtain information about occupations, counseling, education and training, financial aid, and finding a job. Also, look at the end of each occupational statement in the Handbook, under Sources of Additional Information, for organi­ zations that have agreed to provide information about that particular occupation. Career Information A good place to start collecting the information you will need is from the people closest to you, your family and friends. These personal contacts are often overlooked but can be extremely helpful. They may be able to answer your questions directly or, more importantly, put you in touch with someone who can. This “networking” can lead to an “informational interview” where you can meet with someone who is willing to answer your questions about a career or a company and who can provide inside information on related fields and other helpful hints. This is a highly effective way to learn what type of training is recommended for a certain position, how someone in that position entered and advanced, and what he or she likes and dislikes about the work. While you are developing your network of contacts, you may want to begin exploring other avenues. Public libraries, career centers, and guidance offices have a great deal of career material. To begin your library search, look in the card catalog or at the computer listings under “vocations” or “careers” and then under specific fields. Also, leaf through the file of pamphlets that describe employment in different organizations. Check the periodicals section, where you will find trade and professional magazines and journals about specific occupations. Familiarize yourself with the ac­ tivities of potential employers by skimming their annual reports and other information they distribute to the public. You can also find occupational information on video cassettes, in kits, and through computerized information systems. Check career centers for programs such as individual counseling, group discussions, guest speakers, field trips, and career days. Assess career guidance materials carefully. Information should be current. Be skeptical of materials produced by schools for recruitment purposes that seem to glamorize the occupation, overstate the earnings, or exaggerate the demand for workers. You may wish to seek the advice of a counselor. Counselors are trained to help you discover your strengths and weaknesses and guide you through an evaluation of your goals and values so you can begin to determine what you want in a career. The counselor will not tell you what to do, but will administer interest inventories and aptitude tests, interpret the results, and help you explore your options. Counsel­ ors also may be able to discuss local job markets and the entry require­ ments and costs of the schools, colleges, or training programs that offer preparation for the kind of work in which you are interested. You can find counselors in: —high school guidance offices. —career planning and placement offices in colleges. —placement offices in private vocational/technical schools and insti­ tutes. —vocational rehabilitation agencies. —counseling services offered by community organizations. —private counseling agencies or private practices. —State employment service offices affiliated with the U.S. Employ­ ment Service. Before employing the services of a private counselor or agency, seek recommendations or check their credentials. The International Association of Counseling Services (IACS) accredits counseling ser­ vices for areas throughout the country. To receive the listing of accred­ ited services for your region, call (703)823-9800 or send a self-ad­ Digitized4for FRASER https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  dressed, stamped envelope to IACS, 5999 Stevenson Ave., 3rd Floor, Alexandria, VA 22304. The Directory of Counseling Services, an IACS publication providing employment counseling and other assis­ tance, may be available in your library or school career counseling center. Professional societies, trade associations, labor unions, business firms, and educational institutions provide a variety of free or inex­ pensive career material. Many of these are identified in the Sources of Additional Information section of each Handbook statement. For information on an occupation not covered in the Handbook, consult the directories in your library’s reference section for the names of potential sources. You may need to start with The Guide to American Directories or The Directory of Directories. The Encyclopedia of Associations, an annual multivolume publication listing thousands of trade associations, professional societies, labor unions, and fraternal and patriotic organizations, is another useful resource. The National Audiovisual Center, a central source for all audiovisual material produced by the U.S. Government, rents and sells material on jobs and careers. For a catalog, contact the National Audiovisual Center, 8700 Edgeworth Dr., Capitol Heights, MD 20743. Phone: (301) 763-1896. For first-hand experience in an occupation, you may wish to intern or take a summer or part-time job. Some internships offer academic credit or pay a stipend. Check with guidance offices, college career resource centers, or directly with employers. State and Local Information The Handbook provides information for the Nation as a whole. For help in locating State or area information, contact the State occupa­ tional information coordinating committee (SOICC) in your State. These committees may provide the information directly or refer you to other sources. Refer to the chapter beginning on page 460 for addresses and telephone numbers of the SOICC’s. Forty-six States have career information delivery systems (CIDS). Jobseekers can use the computers, printed material, microfiche, and toll-free hotlines to obtain information on occupations, educational opportunities, student financial aid, apprenticeships, and military ca­ reers. Look for these systems in secondary schools, postsecondary institutions, libraries, job training sites, vocational rehabilitation cen­ ters, and employment service offices. Ask counselors and SOICC’s for specific locations. State employment security agencies develop detailed information about the labor market, such as current and projected employment by occupation and industry, characteristics of the work force, and changes in State and local area economic activity. Addresses and telephone numbers of the directors of research and analysis in these agencies are listed in the chapter beginning on page 460. Education and Training Information Check with professional and trade associations for lists of schools that offer career preparation in a particular field. The Sources of Additional Information section of many Handbook statements directs you to organizations that can provide training information. Refer to various directories, such as those that follow, for descrip­ tions of courses of study, admissions requirements, expenses, and student financial aid information for colleges, universities, and other training institutions. Guidance offices, libraries, and large bookstores usually carry copies. Be sure to use the most recent edition because these directories are revised frequently. Guidance offices and libraries also have collections of college catalogs that list their specific pro­ grams, requirements, and expenses. The Directory of Educational Institutions, published annually, lists schools accredited by the Association of Independent Colleges and Schools (AICS). Most AlCS-accredited institutions are business  Leads To More Information schools, offering programs in secretarial science, business administra­ tion, accounting, data processing, court reporting, paralegal studies, fashion merchandising, travel/tourism, culinary arts, drafting, elec­ tronics, and other subjects. For a copy of the Directory, write: Associa­ tion of Independent Colleges and Schools, 1 Dupont Circle NW., Suite 350, Washington, DC 20036. Phone: (202) 659-2460. For information on private trade and technical schools, write to the National Association of Trade and Technical Schools (NATTS). Among its publications are the Handbook of Accredited Private Trade and Technical Schools and a series of pamphlets, including How to Choose a Career and a Career School. For a complete list, write: NATTS, 2251 Wisconsin Ave. NW., Suite 200, Washington, DC 20007. Information about home study programs is available from The Na­ tional Home Study Council. It publishes the Directory of Accredited Home Study Schools. Direct requests for the Directory as well as a list of other publications to the National Home Study Council, 1601 18th St. NW., Washington, DC 20009. Phone: (202) 234-5100. Local labor unions, school guidance counselors, and State employ­ ment offices provide information about apprenticeships. Copies of The National Apprenticeship Program and Apprenticeship Information are available from the Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training, U.S. De­ partment of Labor, 200 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20210. Phone: (202) 535-0545. Financial Aid Information Information about financial aid is available from a variety of sources. Contact your high school guidance counselor and college financial aid officer for information concerning scholarships, fellowships, grants, loans, and work-study programs. In addition, every State administers financial aid programs—contact State Departments of Education for information. Banks and credit unions can provide information about student loans. You also may want to study the directories and guides to sources of student financial aid available in guidance offices and public libraries. The Federal Government provides grants, loans, work-study pro­ grams, and other benefits to students. Information about programs administered by the U.S. Department of Education is presented in The Student Guide to Federal Financial Aid Programs, updated annually. To get a copy, call: 1-800-333-4636 or write: Federal Student Aid Programs, P.O. Box 84, Washington, DC 20044. Meeting College Costs, an annual publication of the College Board, explains how student financial aid works and how to apply for it. The current edition is available to high school students through guidance counselors. Need a Lift?, an annual publication of the American Legion, con­ tains career and scholarship information. Single copies may be ob­ tained without charge by calling (317) 635-8411. Multiple copies cost $1 each prepaid (including postage) and can be obtained from: American Legion, Attn: National Emblem Sales, 700 N. Pennsylvania St., Indianapolis, IN 46204. Some student aid programs are designed to assist specific groups— Hispanics, blacks, native Americans, or women, for example. Higher Education Opportunities for Minorities and Women, published by the U.S. Department of Education, is a guide to organizations offering assistance. This publication can be found in libraries and guidance offices, or may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. Phone (202) 783-3238 for price and ordering information. The Armed Forces have several educational assistance programs. These include the Reserve Officers’ Training Corps (ROTC), the New G.I. bill, and tuition assistance. Information can be obtained from military recruiting centers, located in most cities. Information on Finding a Job It takes some people a great deal of time and effort to find a job they enjoy. Others may walk right into an ideal employment situation. Don’t be discouraged if you have to pursue many leads. Friends, neighbors, teachers, and counselors may know of available jobs in your  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  5  field of interest. Read the want ads. Consult State public employment service offices and private or nonprofit employment agencies or contact employers directly. Where To Learn About Job Openings • State employment service offices. • Civil service announcements (Federal, State, local). • Classified ads. —Local and out-of-town newspapers. —Professional journals. —Trade magazines. • Labor unions. • Professional associations (State and local chapters). • Libraries and community centers. • Women’s counseling and employment programs. • Youth programs. • School or college placement services. • Employment agencies and career consultants. • Employers. • Parents, friends, and neighbors. Merchandising Your Job Talents, a U.S. Department of Labor pamphlet, offers tips on organizing your job search, writing a resume, taking preemployment tests, and making the most of an interview. It is available at most State public employment service offices or may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington. DC 20402. Phone (202) 783-3238 for price and ordering information. Informal job search methods. It is possible to apply directly to employers without a referral. You may locate a potential employer in the Yellow Pages, in directories of local chambers of commerce, and in other directories that provide information about employers. When you find an employer you are interested in, you can file an application even if you don’t know for certain that an opening exists. Want ads. The "Help Wanted” ads in newspapers list hundreds of jobs. Realize, however, that many job openings are not listed there. Also, be aware that the classified ads commonly do not give some important information. Many offer little or no description of the job, working conditions, or pay. Some ads do not identify the employer. They may just give a post office box for sending your resume. This makes followup inquiries very difficult. Furthermore, some ads offer out-of-town jobs; others advertise employment agencies rather than employment. Keep the following in mind if you are using want ads: —Do not pin your hopes on finding a job through the classifieds; follow other leads as well. —Answer ads promptly. The opening may be filled quickly, even before the ad stops appearing in the paper. —Follow the ads diligently. Checking them every day as early as possible gives you an advantage that may result in your being hired. —Beware of “no experience necessary” ads. These ads often signal low wages or poor working conditions or straight commission work. —Keep a record of all ads to which you have responded. Public employment service. The State employment service, some­ times called the Job Service, operates in coordination with the Labor Department’s U.S. Employment Service. Its 2,000 local offices, also known as employment service centers, help jobseekers locate employ­ ment and help employers find qualified workers at no cost to them­ selves. To find the office nearest you, look in the State government telephone listings under “Job Service” or “Employment.” Job matching and referral. At a State employment service office, an interviewer will determine if you are “job ready” or if counseling and testing services would be helpful before you begin your job search. You may examine the Job Bank, a computerized listing of public and private sector job openings that is updated daily when you are “job  6  Occupational Outlook Handbook Job Interview Tips Preparation: • Learn about the organization. • Have specific job or jobs in mind. • Review your qualifications for the job. • Prepare to answer broad questions about yourself. • Review your resume. • Arrive before the scheduled time of your interview. Personal Appearance: • Be well groomed. • Dress appropriately. • Do not chew gum or smoke. The Interview: • Answer each question concisely. • Be prompt in giving responses. • Use good manners. • Use proper English and avoid slang. • Convey a sense of cooperation and enthusiasm. • Ask questions about the position and the organization.  Test (if employer gives one): • Listen carefully to instructions. • Read each question carefully. • Write legibly and clearly. • Budget your time wisely and don't dwell on one question. Information To Bring to an Interview: • Social Security number. • Driver’s license number. • Resume. Although not all employers require applicants to bring a resume, you should be able to furnish the interviewer with information about your education and previous employment. • Usually an employer requires three references. Get permission from people before using their names. Try to avoid using relatives. For each reference, provide the following information: Name, address, telephone number, and occupation. For more information on interviews and resumes, see Resumes, Application Forms, Cover Letters, and Interviews in the Spring 1987 Occupational Outlook Quarterly. A reprint of this article may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. Phone (202) 783-3238 for price and ordering information.  Personnel Management, for information about employment with the U.S. Government. The phone number is (202) 653-8468 or write to: Federal Job Information Center, 1900 E St. NW., Room 1416, Washington, DC 20415. Private employment agencies. These agencies can be very helpful, but don’t forget that they are in business to make money. Most agencies operate on a commission basis, with the fee dependent upon a success­ ful match. You or the hiring company will have to pay a fee for the matching service. Find out the exact cost and who is responsible for paying it before using the service. While employment agencies can help you save time and contact employers who otherwise may be difficult to locate, in some cases, your costs may outweigh the benefits. Weigh any guarantee they offer when figuring the cost. College career planning and placement offices. College place­ ment offices facilitate matching job openings with suitable jobseekers. You can set up schedules and use available facilities for interviews with recruiters or scan lists of part-time, temporary, and summer jobs maintained in many of these offices. You also can get counseling, testing, and job search advice and take advantage of their career resource library. Here you will also be able to identify and evaluate your interests, work values, and skills; attend workshops on such topics as job search strategy, resume writing, letter writing, and effective interviewing; critique drafts of resumes and videotapes of mock inter­ views; explore files of resumes and references; and attend job fairs conducted by the office. Community agencies. Many nonprofit organizations offer counsel­ ing, career development, and job placement services, generally tar­ geted to a particular group, such as women, youth, minorities, ex­ offenders, or older workers. Many communities have career counseling, training, placement, and support services for employment. These programs are sponsored by a variety of organizations, including churches and synagogues, nonprofit organizations, social service agencies, the State employment service, and vocational rehabilitation agencies. Many cities have com­ missions that attend to the concerns of and provide services for these special groups. Organizations for Specific Groups The organizations listed below provide information on career planning, training, or public policy support for specific groups. Handicapped: President’s Committee on Employment of the Hand­ icapped, 1111 20th St. NW., Room 636, Washington, DC 20036. Phone: (202) 653-5044. The blind: Call the Job Opportunities for the Blind Program, a division of the National Federation for the Blind, toll-free, at: 1-800­ 638-7518. What Goes Into a Resume  ready.” Select openings that interest you, then get more details from a staff member who can describe job openings in detail and arrange for interviews with prospective employers. Counseling and testing. Centers can test for occupational aptitudes and interests and then help you choose and prepare for a career. Services for special groups. By law, veterans are entitled to priority at State employment service centers. Veterans’ employment represen­ tatives can inform you of available assistance and help you deal with any problems. Summer Youth Programs provide summer jobs in city, county, and State government agencies for low-income youth. Students, school dropouts, or graduates entering the labor market who are between 16 and 21 years of age are eligible. In addition, the Job Corps, with more than 100 centers throughout the United States, helps young people learn skills or obtain education. Service centers also refer applicants to opportunities available under the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) of 1982. JTPA prepares economically disadvantaged persons and those facing barriers to em­ ployment for jobs. Call the Federal Job Information Center, operated by the Office of  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  A resume should summarize your qualifications and employment history. It is usually required when applying for a managerial, administrative, professional, or technical position. Although there is no set format, it should contain the following information: • Name, address, and telephone number. • Employment objective. • Education, including school name and address, dates of atten­ dance, curriculum, and highest grade completed or degree awarded. • Experience, paid or volunteer. Include the following for each job: Job title, name and address of employer, and dates of em­ ployment. • Special skills, knowledge of machinery, honors received, awards, or membership in organizations. • Note on your resume that references are available on request. On a separate sheet, list the names, addresses, and telephone num­ bers of three references.  Leads To More Information Minorities: League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC), National Educational Service Centers Inc., 400 First St. NW., Suite 716, Washington, DC 20001. Phone: (202) 347-1652. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), 4805 Mount Hope Dr. Baltimore, MD21215-3297. Phone: (301) 358-8900. National Urban League, Employment Department, 500 E. 62nd St., New York, NY 10021. National Urban League, Washington Operations, 1111 14th St. NW., 6th Floor, Washington, DC 20005. Older workers: National Association of Older Workers Employ­ ment Services, c/o National Council on Aging, 600 Maryland Ave. SW., Washington, DC 20024. Phone: (202) 479-1200. American Association of Retired Persons, Worker Equity, 1909 K St. NW., Washington, DC 20049. Phone: (202) 872-4891. Asociacion Nacional Pro Personas Mayores (National Association for Hispanic Elderly), 2727 W. 6th St., Suite 270, Los Angeles, CA 90057. Phone: (213) 487-1922. Specifically serves low-income minority older persons. National Caucus/Center on Black Aged, Inc., 1424 K St. NW., Suite 500, Washington, DC 20005. Phone: (202) 637-8400. National Urban League, Employment Department, 500 E. 62nd St., New York, NY 10021.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  7  Veterans: Contact the nearest regional office of the Veterans Ad­ ministration. Women: U.S. Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau, 200 Consti­ tution Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20210. Phone: (202) 523-6652. Catalyst, 250 Park Ave. South, New York, NY 10003. Phone: (212) 777-8900. (Ask for the free referral pamphlet called Career Development Resources.) Wider Opportunities for Women, 1325 G St. NW., Lower Level, Washington, DC 20005. Phone: (202) 638-3143. Federal laws, executive orders, and selected Federal grant programs bar discrimination in employment based on race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, and handicap. Information on how to file a charge of discrimination is available from U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission offices around the country. Their addresses and telephone numbers are listed in telephone directories under U.S. Government, EEOC, or are available from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 2401 E St. NW., Washington, DC 20507. Phone: (202) 634-6922. Information on Federal laws concerning fair labor standards such as the minimum wage and equal employment opportunity can be obtained from the Office of Information and Consumer Affairs, Employment Standards Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, Room C-4331,200 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20210.  Tomorrow’s Jobs Every other year, the Bureau of Labor Statistics develops projections of the labor force, economic growth, industry employment, and occu­ pational employment under alternative assumptions. These projec­ tions, which usually cover a 10- to 15-year period, provide the frame­ work for the discussion of the job outlook in each of the occupational statements in the Handbook. Each of the approximately 250 statements in this edition of the Handbook identifies the principal factors that affect job prospects and indicates how these factors are expected to affect the occupation in the future. This chapter uses the moderate alternative of each of the projections to provide a framework for the individual job outlook discussions. Population Trends Population trends affect employment opportunities in a number of ways. First of all, changes in the size and composition of the population influence the demand for goods and services—a growing and aging population has increased the demand for health services, for example. Equally important, population changes produce corresponding changes in the size and characteristics of the labor force. The U.S. population is expected to grow more slowly over the next 12 years than it did during the previous 12-year period. However, even slow population growth will increase the demand for goods and services, causing greater demand for workers in many occupations and industries. The age structure will shift toward relatively fewer children and youth and~a growing proportion of middle-aged and older people well jnto the 21st century. Several things account for thisj.The decline in the proportion of children and youth reflects low birth rates that have prevailed for the past 20 years and that seem likely to continue^the impending large increase in the middle-aged population reflects the maturing of the “baby boom” generation born after World War II; and the very rapid growth in the number of old people is attributable to 3 high birth rates prior to the Great Depression of the 1930’s, together with j>tri_des in medical science that have made it possible for most Americans to survive into old age. Minorities and immigrants will constitute a larger share of the U.S. population in 2000 than they do today. Substantial increases in -the~murribef of Hispanics, Asians, and blacks are anticipated, reflecting high birth rates in these population groups as well as net immigration. Substantial inflows of migrants, both documented and undocumented, are expected to continue. The arrival of immigrants from every comer of the world has significant implications for the labor force because immigrants tend to be of working age but of different educational and occupational backgrounds than the U.S. population as a whole. Population growth varies greatly among geographic regions, which is reflected in differences in the demand for goods and services. Between 1980 and 1988, the population of the Midwest and the Northeast grew by only 1.7 percent and 3 percent, respectively, compared with 12.3 percent in the South and 17.4 percent in the West. These differences reflect the movement of people seeking new jobs or retiring as well as higher birth rates in some areas than in others. Projections by the Bureau of the Census indicate that the West will continue to be the fastest growing region of the country, increasing about 17 percent between 1988 and the year 2000. In the South, the population is expected to increase about 15 percent. The number of people in the Midwest is expected to remain about the same, while the Northeast is projected to increase slightly, by about 2 percent. Geographic shifts in the population alter the demand for and the supply of workers in local job markets. Moreover, many areas are dominated by one or two industries, and local job markets may be extremely sensitive to the economic fortunes of those industries. For  8   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  these and other reasons, local employment opportunities may differ substantially from the projections for the Nation as a whole presented in the Handbook. Sources of information on State and local employment prospects arc identified on page 460. Labor Force Trends Population is the single most important factor governing the size and composition of the labor force, which comprises people who are either working or looking for work. The civilian labor force totaled. 121.7 million in 1988 and is expectedlo reach' 141.1 miliioiTin the year 2000. Ihis projected increase—Ipercent—represents a slowing in both the number added to the labor force and the rate of labor force growth, largely due to slower population growth (chart 1). American workers will be an increasingly diverse group as we approach the year 2000: White non-Hispanic men will make up a smaller share of the labor force, and women and minority group members will make up a larger share. White non-Hispanics have historically been the largest component of the labor force, but their share has been dropping and is expected to fall to about 74 percent by 2000. Blacks, Hispanics, and Asian and other racial groups will account for roughly 33 percent of labor force entrants between 1988 and 2000. Women will continue to join the labor force in growing numbers. In the past, much of the growth in the labor force has been due to dramatic increases in participation by women, who are expected to account for slightly over half of all entrants through the year 2000. Not only do most American women of working age hold jobs, they tend to continue working despite competing demands for their time. By 2000, 4 out of 5 women between the ages of 25 and 54 will be in the labor force, which then will be almost evenly divided in terms of its composition by sex. Women were only 41 percent of the labor  Chart 1  Labor force growth will slow in the future due to slowing population growth.  Source Bureau of Labor Statistics  Tomorrow’s Jobs  Chart 2  The age distribution of the labor force is changing. (percent)  15 ■  55 years and over  percent  35 to 54  36 percett  25 to 34  16 to 24  'percent  Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics  force as recently as 1976; by 2000. they are expected to account for 47 percent.. The changing age structure of the population will directly affect tomorrow’s labor force. As the proportion of young workers declines, the pool of experienced workers will increase (chart 2). __ The number of youths (16 to 24 years of age) in the population will drop until the children of the baby-boom generation enter the labor force during the 1990’s. Among youths, the teenage labor force (16 to 19 years of age) will decline until 1992, then rise over the rest of the decade for a net increase of 800,000 over the 1988-2000 period. However, because the labor force 22 to 24 years of age is projected to decline until 1998, with only a slight recovery by 2000, the total size of the youth labor force should remain the same over the projection period and account for only 16 percent of the entire labor force at the end of the century, compared to 19 percent in 1988 and 24 percent in 1976. Thus colleges, the Armed Forces, eating and drinking places, and other establishments can expect to see a decrease in the population from which they draw students and young workers throughout most of the 1988-2000 period. ^ The scenario should be different for prime-age workers (25 to 54 years of age). These workers, many of whom were bom during the baby-boom years, should account for 72 percent of the labor force in 2000, up from 69 percent in 1988 and 61 percent in 1976. Even more striking is the growing proportion of workers between the ages of 35 and 54. These workers should account for 49 percent of the labor force by the year 2000. a significant increase from 40 percent in 1988 and 36 percent in 1976. Because workers in their mid-thirties to mid-fifties usually have substantial work experience and tend to be more stable and reliable than younger workers, this could result in im proved productivity and a greater pool of experienced applicants from which employers may choose. Contrary to popular belief, the number of older workers (55 years and above) is expected to be only slightly higher in 2000 than in 1988 because the labor force participation of those in this age group is not expected to change appreciably. Older workers should make up 12 percent of the work force in 2000, the same as in 1988 and down from 15 percent in 1976.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  9  In recent years, the educational attainment of the labor force has risen dramatically. Between 1976 and 1988, the proportion of the labor force age 18 to 64 with at least 1 year of college increased from 32 to 42 percent, while the proportion with 4 years of college or more increased from 16 to 22 percent (chart 3). The emphasis on education will continue. Three out of the four fastest growing occupational groups will be the executive, administra­ tive, and managerial; professional specialty; and technicians and re­ lated support occupations. These occupations generally require the highest levels of education and skill. In contrast, such factors as office and factory automation, changes in consumer demand, and substitution of imports for domestic products are expected to cause employment to stagnate or decline in many occupations that require little formal education—laborers, assemblers, and machine operators, for example. Opportunities for high school dropouts will be increasingly limited, and workers who cannot read and follow directions may not even be considered for most jobs. Employment Change Employment is expected to increase from 118.1 million in 1988 to 136.2 million in 2000, or 15 percent. This is only about half the rate of increase recorded during the previous 12-year period. The 18.1 million jobs that will be added to the U.S. economy by 2000 will not be evenly distributed across major industry and occupational groups, which means that the structure of employment will change. The following two sections look at projected employment change from both the industry and occupational perspectives. Industrial Profile The shift from goods-producing to service-producing employment is Very well known and not at all recent. (See chart 4.) By 2000, nearly 4 out of 5 jobs will he. in industries that provide services. Expansion of service sector employment is linked to a number of different factors, including changes in consumer tastes and preferences, legal and regula­ tory changes, advances in science and technology, and changes in the way businesses are organized and managed. Factors responsible for  Chart 3  The proportion of workers with a college background has increased substantially since the mid ’70’s.  197fi  lll^K  A.  /  /  1 ro 3 years of college  allege  \ \  16 percent  \ \  I l \  \  4 years of high school or less 68 percent  \\  / A  / /  \  r  Source:  Bureau of Labor Statistics  20 percent  57 percent  /  10  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Chart 4  Industries providing services will account for nearly four out of five jobs by the year 2000. Workers  122.1  million million  million  million  Total \ I employment \| Service-producing employment Goods-producing employment 1976  1988  2000  Source Bureau of Labor Statistics  varying growth prospects in major industry divisions are noted below. Service-Producing Industries. Services. Services is both the largest and the fastest growing industry division within the serviceproducing sector (chart 5.) This division provided 34.5 million jobs in 1988; employment is expected to rise 28 percent to 44.2 million by 2000, accounting for almost one-half of all new jobs. Jobs will be found in small firms as well as in large corporations, in all levels of government, and in industries as diverse as banking, hospitals, data processing, and management consulting. The two largest industry groups in this division, health services and business services, are projected to continue to grow very fast, and educational services, which has been growing slowly, is projected to have average growth. Health care will continue to be one of the most important groups of industries in the economy in terms of job creation. Employment in the health services industries is projected to grow from 8.2 to 11.3 million. New technology and a growing and aging population will increase the demand for health services. Because of the rapid expansion of health care employment, 7 of the 10 fastest growing occupations between 1988 and 2000 will be health related. Not all of the health industries will grow at the same rate; outpatient care facilities and offices of “other health practitioners,” which includes chiropractors, optome­ trists, psychologists, and other practitioners will be increasing the fastest. Hospitals, both private and public, will be growing more slowly than all the other health industries, but faster than the average for all industries. Nonetheless, hospitals will continue to employ the most workers among the health care industries. Another important industry group that is expected to generate many jobs is business services. These industries employed 5.6 million work­ ers in 1988 and are projected to employ 8.3 million in the year 2000. Personnel supply services, which includes temporary help agencies, is the largest industry in this group and will add the most new jobs. Business services also includes the fastest growing industry in the economy—computer and data processing services. This industry is expected to grow five times faster than the average for all industries, due to a rapidly increasing demand from business firms, government agencies, and individuals. A third industry in business services— research, management, and consulting—is expected to have very rapid  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  growth, although not as rapid as computer and personnel supply ser­ vices. Education, in both the private and public sectors, is expected to add 1.2 million jobs to the 8.9 million employed in 1988. The increase reflects rising enrollments projected for elementary and secondary schools. The elementary school age population (ages 5-13) will rise by over 2 million between 1988 and 2000, and the secondary school age (14-17) by 1.3 million. On the other hand, the traditional college age population (18-24) has been declining and is projected to continue to decline for the next decade; however, rising enrollments of older students, women, foreign students, and part-time students have offset the absolute decline in the 18-24 population. Not all the increase in employment in education will be for teachers; teacher aides, counsel­ ors, technicians, and administrative staff are also projected to increase. Retail trade. Nearly 3.8 million jobs will be added in retail trade, which will provide22.9 million jobs in 2000, up 20 percent from the 1988 Icvel. Eating and drinking places will employ the most workers in the retail trade division and also will be among the fastest growing industries. Substantial increases in retail employment are also antici­ pated in grocery stores, department stores, and miscellaneous shopping goods stores. Government. Between 1988 and 2000, government employment, excluding public education and public hospitals, is expected to increase 7 percent, from 9 million to 9.6 million jobs. Most of the growth will be in State and local government; the Federal Government is expected to add only 88,000 jobs. Finance, insurance, and real estate. Employment is expected to increase 16 percent—adding 1.1 million jobs to the 1988 level of 6.7 million. The fastest growing industry within this division is expected to be security and commodity brokers and exchanges, although it will not be growing as fast as in the past. Wholesale trade. Employment in wholesale trade is expected to rise from 6 million to 6.9 million between 1988 and 2000, an increase of 15 percent. Transportation, communications, and public utilities. Overall em­ ployment in this division is expected to rise 10 percent from the 1988 level of 5.5 million. The three fastest growing industries in this division  Chart 5.  Some industries will grow more rapidly than others.  Percent change in employment, 1988-2000 Service-producing  >97 rlV.-Os . O'. O' <Z>Cj (5"m ^ £  O Or  f/ff* &J *  Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics  Goods-producing  Tomorrow's Jobs are arrangement of transportation, freight forwarding, and air carriers, each growing at least three times as fast as the division as a whole. Only modest employment growth is expected in the communications industry. Although output will show an increase, new laborsaving technology will result in very little job growth. Goods-Producing Industries. Employment in this sector peaked in the late 1970’s and has not recovered from the recessionary period of the early 1980’s and the trade imbalances that began in the mid1980’s. Although overall employment in goods-producing industries is expected to show little change, growth prospects within the sector vary considerably. Construction . Construction is expected to add 760,000 jobs between 1988 and 2000. Construction employment is expected to increase by f5"percent, from 5.1 to 5.9 million jobs, in response to economic conditions and demographic trends. Manufacturing. Manufacturing employment is expected to decline 2 percent from the 1988 level of 19.4 million. The projected loss of manufacturing jobs reflects productivity gains achieved from increased investment in manufacturing technologies as well as a winnowing out of less efficient operations. The composition of manufacturing employment is expected to shift since most of the jobs that will disappear are production jobs. The number of professional, technical, and managerial positions in manu­ facturing firms will actually increase. Mining. Mining employment is expected to remain at about the present level of 700,000. Underlying this projection is the assumption that domestic oil production will drop and oil imports will rise sharply. Agriculture. Employment in agriculture has been declining for many decades and this trend is expected to continue—the number of jobs is projected to decline 4 percent, from 3.3 million to 3.1 million. The decline in agricultural jobs reflects a decrease of 225,000 in the number of self-employed workers. Wage and salary positions are projected to increase by 91,000—with especially strong growth in the agricultural services industry. Occupational Profile Continued expansion of the service-producing sector conjures up an image of a work force dominated by cashiers, retail sales workers, and waiters. However, although service sector growth will generate millions of clerical, sales, and service jobs, it will also create jobs for financial managers, engineers, nurses, electrical and electronics technicians, and many other managerial, professional, and technical workers. In fact, the fastest growing occupations will be those that require the most educational preparation. This section furnishes an overview of projected employment in 12 categories or “clusters” of occupations based on the Standard Occupa­ tional Classification (SOC). The SOC is used by all Federal agencies that collect occupational employment data, and is the organizational framework for grouping statements in the Handbook. In the discussion that follows, projected employment change is described as faster, slower, or the same as the average for all occupa­ tions. (These phrases are explained on page 2.) While occupations that are growing fast generally offer good opportunities, the numerical change in employment also is important because large occupations, such as retail sales worker, may offer many more new jobs than a small, fast-growing occupation, such as paralegal (chart 6). Technicians and related support occupations. Workers in this group provide technical assistance to engineers, scientists, and other profes­ sional workers as well as operate and program technical equipment. Employment in this cluster is expected to increase 32 percent, from 3.9 to 5.1 million, making it the fastest growing in the economy (chart 7). It also contains the fastest growing occupation—paralegals. Employment of paralegals is expected to skyrocket due to increased utilization of these workers in the rapidly expanding legal services industry. Professional specialty occupations. Employment in this cluster is expected to grow 24 percent, from 14.6 to 18.1 million jobs. Much of this growth is a result of rising demand for engineers; computer specialists; lawyers; health diagnosing and treating occupations; and  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Chart 6  11  Even though an occupation is expected to grow rapidly, it may provide fewer openings than a slower growing larger occupation.  percent  19 percent.  Percent change in employment,  730 000 workers1  1988-2000  Absolute change in employment,  ----------- ;  62,000 workers  1988-2000 Paralegals  Retail sales workers  Source Bureau of Labor Statistics  preschool and elementary and secondary school teachers. Service occupations. This group includes a wide range of workers in protective services, food and beverage preparation, and cleaning and personal services. These occupations are expected to grow 23 percent, from 18.5 to 22.7 million, because a growing population and economy, combined with higher incomes and increased leisure time, will spur demand for all types of services. Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations. Employ­ ment in this cluster is expected to increase 22 percent, from 12.1 to 14.8 million. Growth will be spurred by the increasing complexity of business operations and by large employment gains in trade and services—industries that employ a higher than average proportion of managers. Employment in management-related occupations tends to be tied to industry growth. Thus jobs for employment interviewers are projected to grow much faster than the average, in line with the expected growth in the personnel supply industry. Hiring requirements in many managerial and administrative jobs are rising. Work experience, specialized training, or graduate study will be increasingly necessary. Familiarity with computers is a “must” in a growing number of firms, due to the widespread use of computerized management information systems. Marketing and sales occupations. Employment in this large cluster is projected to increase 20 percent, from 13.3 to 15.9 million jobs. Demand for real estate brokers, travel agents, and securities and financial services sales workers is expected to grow much faster than the average due to strong growth in the industries that employ them. Many part- and full-time job openings are expected for retail sales workers and cashiers due to the large size, high turnover, and faster than average employment growth in these occupations. The outlook for higher paying sales jobs, however, will tend to be more competitive. Construction trades and extractive occupations. Overall employ­ ment in this group of occupations is expected to rise from 4.0 to 4.7 million, or 16 percent. Virtually all of the new jobs will be in construction. Employment growth in construction will be spurred by new projects and alterations to existing structures. On the other hand, continued stagnation in the oil and gas industries and low growth in  12  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Chart 7.  Employment change will vary widely by broad occupational group.  Occupational group  Percent change in employment, 1988­ 2000  Total, all occupations Technicians and related support occupations Professional specialty occupations Service occupations Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations Marketing and sales occupations Construction trades and extractive occupations Mechanics, repairers, and installers Administrative support occupations, including clerical Transportation and material moving occupations Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers Production occupations Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related occupations Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics  demand for coal, metal, and other materials will result in little change in the employment of extractive workers. Mechanics, installers, and repairers. These workers adjust, main­ tain, and repair automobiles, industrial equipment, computers, and many other types of equipment. Overall employment in these occupa­ tions is expected to grow 13 percent—from 4.8 to 5.5 million—due to increased use of mechanical and electronic equipment. One of the fastest growing occupations in this group is expected to be automotive body repairers, reflecting the growth in the number of lightweight cars that are prone to collision damage. Telephone installers and repairers, in sharp contrast, are expected to record a decline in employment due to laborsaving advances. Administrative support occupations, including clerical is the largest major occupational group. Workers in these occupations perform the wide variety of tasks necessary to keep organizations functioning smoothly. The group as a whole is expected to grow 12 percent, from 21.1 to 23.6 million jobs. However, technological advances are projected to decrease the demand for stenographers and typists, word processors, and data entry keyers. Others, such as receptionists and information clerks, will grow much faster than the average, spurred by rapidly expanding industries such as business services. Moreover, because of their large size and substantial turnover, clerical occupa­ tions will offer abundant opportunities for qualified jobseekers in the years ahead. Transportation and material moving occupations. Workers in this cluster operate the equipment used to move people and equipment. Employment in this group is expected to increase 12 percent, from 4.6   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  to 5.2 million jobs. Employment of busdrivers and truckdrivers will grow as fast as the average, while employment of material moving equipment operators is expected to grow more slowly due to greater use of automated materials handling equipment in factories and ware­ houses. Railroad transportation workers and water transportation workers are projected to show a decline in employment. Production occupations. Workers in these occupations set up, in­ stall, adjust, operate, and tend machinery and equipment and use handtools and hand-held power tools to fabricate and assemble prod­ ucts. Employment is expected to decline 2 percent, from 12.8 to 12.5 million. More efficient production techniques—such as computeraided manufacturing and industrial robotics—will eliminate some pro­ duction worker jobs. Many production occupations are sensitive to fluctuations in the business cycle and competition from imports. Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers. Workers in this group assist skilled workers and perform routine, unskilled tasks. Employment is expected to increase only about 2 percent, from 4.9 to 5.0 million jobs as routine tasks are automated. Agriculture, forestry, and fishing occupations. Workers in these occupations cultivate plants, breed and raise animals, and catch fish. Although demand for food, fiber, and wood is expected to increase as the world’s population grows, the use of more productive farming and forestry methods and the consolidation of smaller farms are expected to result in a 5 percent decline in employment, from 3.5 to 3.3 million jobs. Replacement Needs Most jobs through the year 2000 will become available as a result of replacement needs. Thus, even occupations with little or no employ­ ment growth or slower than average employment growth may still offer many job openings. Replacement openings occur as people leave occupations. Some transfer to other occupations as a step up the career ladder or to change careers. Others stop working in order to return to school, to assume household responsibilities, or to retire. The number of replacement openings and the proportion of job openings made up by replacement needs varies by occupation. Occupa­ tions with the most replacement openings generally arc large, with low pay and status, low training requirements, and a high proportion of young and part-time workers. Some examples include cashiers, waiters and waitresses, and childcare workers. The occupations with relatively few replacement openings, on the other hand, are those with high pay and status, lengthy training require­ ments, and a high proportion of prime working age, full-time workers. Among these occupations are education administrators, lawyers, and tool and die makers. Workers in these occupations generally have spent several years acquiring training that often is not applicable to other occupations. Interested in More Detail? Readers interested in more information about projections and detail on the labor force, economic growth, industry and occupational em­ ployment, or methods and assumptions should consult the November 1989 Monthly Labor Review or Outlook 2000, BLS Bulletin 2352. Information on the limitations inherent in economic projections also can be found in either of these two publications. Additional occupa­ tional data as well as statistics on educational and training completions can be found in the 1990 edition of Occupational Projections and Training Data, BLS Bulletin 2351.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations Accountants and Auditors (D.O.T. 160 through .167-042, and .267-014)  Nature of the Work Managers must have up-to-date financial information to make impor­ tant decisions. Accountants and auditors prepare, analyze, and verify financial reports that furnish this kind of information to managers in all business, industrial, and government organizations. Four major fields of accounting are public, management, and govern­ ment accounting and internal auditing. Public accountants have their own businesses or work for accounting firms. Management accountants, also called industrial or private accountants, handle the financial records of their companies. Government accountants and auditors maintain and examine the records of government agencies and audit private busi­ nesses and individuals whose dealings are subject to government regula­ tions. Internal auditors verify the accuracy of their organization's finan­ cial records and check for mismanagement, waste, or fraud. Within each field, accountants often concentrate on one phase of accounting. For example, many public accountants are employed pri­ marily in auditing (examining a client’s financial records and reports and attesting that they are in conformity with standards of preparation and reporting). Others concentrate on tax matters, such as preparing income tax returns and advising clients of the tax advantages and disadvantages of certain business decisions. Still others concentrate on consulting and offer advice on matters such as the design of companies’ accounting and data processing systems and controls to safeguard assets. They might develop or revise an accounting system to serve the needs of clients more effectively or give advice about how to manage cash resources more profitably. Management accountants, the largest group of accountants and audi­ tors, provide the financial information executives need to make sound business decisions. They also may prepare financial reports to meet the public disclosure requirements of various stock exchanges, the Securi­ ties and Exchange Commission, and other regulatory bodies. They may work in areas such as taxation, budgeting, costs, or investments. Internal auditing is rapidly growing in importance as top manage­ ment must increasingly base its decisions on reports and records rather than personal observation. Internal auditors examine and evaluate their firms’ financial and information systems, management procedures, and internal controls to ensure that records are accurate and controls are adequate to protect against fraud and waste. They also review company operations—evaluating their efficiency, effectiveness, and compliance with corporate policies and procedures, laws, and govern­ ment regulations. Accountants and auditors also work for Federal, State, and local governments. Government accountants see that revenues are received and expenditures are made in accordance with laws and regulations. Many persons with accounting backgrounds work for the Federal Government as Internal Revenue Service agents or in financial manage­ ment, financial institution examination, and budget administration. In addition, a small number of persons trained as accountants staff the faculties of business and professional schools as accounting teach­ ers, researchers, or administrators. Some work part time as accountants or consultants. Computers are increasingly being used in accounting and auditing. With the aid of special computer software systems, accountants sum­ marize transactions in standard formats for financial records, put the data in special formats that aid in financial or management analysis,  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Accountants and auditors are increasingly using computers to reduce hand posting of ledgers and records. and prepare income tax returns. Controls are placed in systems to enable auditors to ensure the reliability of the systems, the integrity of data, and continuity of operations. Software systems used in account­ ing and auditing generally are easily learned and require few special­ ized computer skills, but greatly reduce the amount of tedious manual work with figures and records. Newer, less expensive personal comput­ ers are enabling accountants and auditors in all fields—even those who work independently—to use these special software systems and extract information from large mainframe computers. A growing number of accountants and auditors have extensive computer skills and specialize in correcting problems with software systems or developing special software programs to meet unique data needs. Working Conditions Accountants and auditors work in offices, but public accountants may frequently visit the offices of clients while conducting audits. Selfemployed accountants may be able to do much of their work at home. The majority of accountants and auditors work no more than 40 hours per week, but many work 50 hours per week or more, particular­ ly if they are self-employed and free to take on the work of as many clients as they choose. Tax specialists often work long hours under heavy pressure during the tax season. Accountants and auditors em­ ployed by large firms and government agencies may travel frequently to perform audits at clients’ places of business, branches of their firm, or government facilities. Employment Accountants and auditors held about 963,000jobs in 1988. The various States licensed over 300,000 as Certified Public Accountants (CPA) and more than 20,000 as Public Accountants or Registered Public Accountants; the majority were unlicensed management and govern­ ment accountants and auditors. Many accountants and auditors had voluntarily earned professional designations that certify their profes­ sional competence in fields of accounting and auditing that are not State regulated; About 15,000 were Certified Internal Auditors, over 8,000 were Certified Management Accountants, about 5,000 were Certified Information Systems Auditors, and about 4,000 held certifi­ cates of accreditation in accounting or taxation awarded by the Accredi­ tation Council for Accountancy. Most accountants and auditors work in urban areas where public  13  14  Occupational Outlook Handbook  accounting firms and central or regional offices of businesses are concentrated. About 10 percent of all accountants were self-employed and fewer than 10 percent worked part time. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Most public accounting and business firms require applicants for ac­ countant and internal auditor positions to have at least a bachelor’s degree in accounting or a closely related field. Many employers prefer those with a master’s degree in accounting or a master’s degree in business administration with a concentration in accounting. A growing number of employers prefer applicants who are familiar with comput­ ers and their applications in accounting and internal auditing. For beginning accounting and auditing positions, the Federal Gov­ ernment requires 4 years of college (including 24 semester hours in accounting or auditing) or an equivalent combination of education and experience. Previous experience in accounting or auditing can help an applicant get a job. Many colleges offer students an opportunity to gain experi­ ence through summer or part-time internship programs conducted by public accounting or business firms. Such training is invaluable in gaining permanent employment in the field. ■ Professional recognition through certification or licensure also is extremely valuable. In the majority of States, CPA’s are the only accountants who are licensed and regulated. Anyone working as a CPA must have a certificate and a license, or permit, issued by a State board of accountancy. The vast majority of States require CPA candidates to be college graduates, but a few States substitute a certain number of years of public accounting experience for the educational requirement. Based on recommendations made by the American Insti­ tute of Certified Public Accountants and the National Association of State Boards of Accountancy, eight States presently require, or plan to introduce in the 1990's as a requirement, that CPA candidates complete 150 semester hours of college education with a major in accounting. This 150-hour rule requires an additional year of college education beyond the usual 4-year bachelor’s degree in accounting— for example, a 5-year bachelor’s degree or a master’s degree in ac­ counting. This requirement may become more common in the coming years. All States use the four-part Uniform CPA Examination, prepared by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, to help establish eligibility for certification. The 2 1/2-day CPA examination is rigorous, and candidates are not required to pass all four parts at once. However, most States require candidates to pass at least two parts for partial credit. Many States require all sections of the test to be passed within a certain period of time. Most States also require applicants for a CPA certificate to have some public accounting experi­ ence. For example, bachelor’s degree holders most often need 2 years of experience, while master’s degree holders often need no more than 1 year. The designation Public Accountant (PA), or Registered Public Ac­ countant (RPA), is also recognized by 38 States. With the dramatic growth in the number of CPA’s, the majority of States are phasing out the PA or RPA designations by not issuing any more new PA or RPA licenses, and others no longer offer them. Accountants who hold PA or RPA designations have similar legal rights, duties, and obligations as CPA’s, but their qualifications for licensure are less stringent. The designation Accounting Practitioner is awarded by four States. It requires less formal training than a CPA license and covers a more limited scope of practice. Professional societies grant other forms of certification on a volun­ tary basis. Voluntary certification can attest to professional competence in a specialized field of accounting and auditing. It also can certify that a recognized level of professional competence has been achieved by accountants and auditors who acquired their skills at least partially on the job, without the amount of formal education or public account­ ing work experience needed to meet the rigorous standards required to take the CPA examination. The Institute of Internal Auditors, Inc., confers the designation Certified Internal Auditor upon graduates from accredited colleges  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  and universities who have completed 2 years’ experience in internal auditing and who have passed a four-part examination. The EDP Auditors Association confers the designation Certified Information Systems Auditor upon candidates who pass an examination and who have completed 5 years’ experience in auditing electronic data process­ ing systems. However, auditing or data processing experience and college education may be substituted for up to 3 years. The National Association of Accountants confers the Certificate in Management Accounting upon candidates who pass a series of uniform examinations and meet specific educational and professional standards. The Accreditation Council for Accountancy of the National Society of Public Accountants awards a Certificate of Accreditation in Accoun­ tancy and a Certificate of Accreditation in Taxation to persons who have passed comprehensive examinations; there are no educational requirements to take these tests. Persons planning a career in accounting should have an aptitude for mathematics, be able to analyze, compare, and interpret facts and figures quickly, and make sound judgments based on this knowledge. They must question how and why things are done and be able to clearly communicate the results of their work, orally and in writing, to clients and management. Accountants and auditors must be patient and able to concentrate for long periods of time. They must be good at working with business systems and computers as well as with people. Accuracy and the ability to handle responsibility with limited supervision are important. Perhaps most important, because millions of financial statement users rely on their services, accountants and auditors should have high standards of integrity. Nearly all States require both CPA’s and PA’s to complete a certain number of hours of continuing professional education before licenses can be renewed. The professional associations representing accoun­ tants sponsor numerous courses, seminars, group study programs, and other forms of continuing education. Capable accountants and auditors should advance rapidly; those having inadequate academic preparation may be assigned routine jobs and find promotion difficult. Many graduates of junior colleges and business and correspondence schools, as well as outstanding book­ keepers and accounting clerks who meet the education and experience requirements set by their employers, are successful in landing junior accounting positions and advance to more responsible positions by demonstrating their accounting skills on the job. Beginning public accountants usually start by assisting with auditing work for several clients. They may advance to intermediate positions with more responsibility in 1 or 2 years and to senior positions within another few years. Those who deal successfully with top industry executives often become supervisors, managers, or partners, or trans­ fer to executive positions in private firms. Some open their own public accounting offices. Beginning management accountants often start as ledger accoun­ tants, junior internal auditors, or as trainees for technical accounting positions. They may advance to chief plant accountant, chief cost accountant, budget director, or manager of internal auditing. Some become controllers, treasurers, financial vice presidents, or corpora­ tion presidents. Many senior corporation executives have backgrounds in accounting, internal auditing, and finance. Job Outlook Employment of accountants and auditors is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000 due to the key role these workers play in the management of all types of businesses. Although increased demand will generate many new jobs, most openings will result from the need to replace workers who leave the occupation or retire. While accountants and auditors tend to leave the profession at a lower rate than members of most other occupations, replacement needs will be substantial because the occupation is large. As the economy grows, the number of business establishments increases, requiring more accountants and auditors to set up their books, prepare their taxes, and provide management advice. As these  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations businesses grow, the volume and complexity of information developed by accountants and auditors on costs, expenditures, and taxes will increase as well. Plant expansion, mergers, or foreign investments may depend upon information on the financial condition of the firm, tax implications of the proposed action, and other financial considerations. Also, growing international competition is forcing many businesses to develop more cost information to help make their operations more efficient. Requirements for accountants and auditors may also be affected by changes in legislation related to taxes, financial reporting standards, business investment, mergers, and other financial matters. In addition, increases in investment and lending associated with gen­ eral economic growth also should spur demand for accountants and auditors. Growth in demand for management advisory services and personal financial planning assistance may also contribute to growth in requirements for public accountants. Opportunities are expected to be favorable for college graduates seeking accounting and auditing jobs. While the demand for accoun­ tants and auditors is expected to continue to increase, the annual number of graduates with degrees in accounting has been virtually unchanged since the early 1980’s. CPA’s should have a wider range of job opportunities than other accountants. However, competition for jobs with prestigious accounting firms will remain keen; a master’s degree in accounting would be an asset. Opportunities for accountants without a college degree will occur mainly in small businesses and accounting and tax preparation firms. The increasing use of computers in accounting should stimulate the demand for accountants and auditors familiar with their operation. Many employers prefer graduates who have worked part time in a business or accounting firm while in school. In fact, experience has become so important that some employers in business and industry seek persons with 1 or 2 years’ experience for beginning positions. Accountants rarely lose their jobs when other workers are laid off during hard economic times. Financial information must be developed and tax reports prepared regardless of the state of the economy. Earnings According to a 1989 College Placement Council Salary Survey, bache­ lor’s degree candidates in accounting received starting salary offers averaging $25,300 a year; inexperienced master’s degree candidates, $28,800. Beginning public accountants employed by public accounting firms averaged $22,100 a year in 1988, according to a national survey. The middled(J percent had starting salaries ranging from $20,900 to $23,700. Salaries of junior public accountants who were not owners or partners of their firms averaged $26,600, but some had salaries of more than $38,000. Many owners and partners of firms earned considerably more. The starting salary of management accountants in private industry averaged $22,200 a year in 1988, according to the same survey. The middle 50 percent had starting annual salaries ranging from $20,000 to $24,300. Salaries of nonsupervisory management accountants aver­ aged $33,500 in 1988, and some of the most experienced had salaries of over $75,000. Chief management accountants who direct the ac­ counting program of a company or one of its establishments averaged $53,300 a year. Their salaries ranged from over $38,000 to more than $97,000, depending upon the scope of their authority and the size of their professional staff. According to the same survey, beginning trainee internal auditors averaged $23,500 a year in 1988. The middle 50 percent had annual starting salaries ranging from $21,000 to $25,000. Internal auditors averaged $32,900, but some of the most experienced had salaries of more than $47,000. In the Federal Government, the starting annual salary for junior accountants and auditors was about $15,700 in 1989. Candidates who had a superior academic record could begin at about $19,500. Applicants with a master’s degree or 2 years’ professional experience began at $23,900. Accountants and auditors employed by the Federal Government averaged about $36,400 a year in 1988.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  15  Related Occupations Accountants and auditors design internal control systems and analyze financial data. Others for whom training in accounting is invaluable include appraisers, budget officers, loan officers, financial analysts, bank officers, actuaries, underwriters, tax collectors and revenue agents, FBI special agents, securities sales workers, and purchasing agents. Sources of Additional Information Information about careers in certified public accounting and about CPA standards and examinations may be obtained from: (•-American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, 1211 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10036-8775.  Information on specialized fields of accounting and auditing is available from: (•-National Association of Accountants, 10 Paragon Dr., Montvale, NJ 07645. (•-National Society of Public Accountants and the Accreditation Council for Accountancy, 1010 North Fairfax St., Alexandria, VA 22314. (•-The Institute of Internal Auditors, 249 Maitland Ave., Altamonte Springs, FL 32701-4201. (•-The EDP Auditors Association, P.O. Box 88180, Carol Stream, IL 60188­ 0180.  For information on accredited accounting programs and educational institutions offering a specialization in accounting or business manage­ ment, contact: (•-American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business, 605 Old Balias Rd., Suite 220, St. Louis, MO 63141.  Administrative Services Managers (D.O.T. 162.117-014; 163.167-026; 169.167-034; 187.117-062; 188.117-122, .167-106; 189.167-022, -030)  Nature of the Work Administrative services managers—who work throughout private in­ dustry and government—coordinate and direct supportive services such as secretarial and correspondence; conference planning and travel; information processing; personnel and financial records processing; communication; mail; materials scheduling and distribution; printing and reproduction; personal property procurement, supply, and dis­ posal; data processing; library; food; and transportation. They work within the same managerial hierarchy as other managers. Supervisory level administrative services managers report to their mid-level coun­ terparts who, in turn, report to proprietors or top-level managers— who are included in the Handbook statement on general managers and top executives. Supervisory level managers directly oversee supervisors or staffs involved in supportive services. Mid-level administrative services managers develop overall plans, set goals and deadlines, develop procedures to direct and improve supportive services, define supervi­ sory level managers’ responsibilities, and delegate authority. They are generally found in larger firms. Administrative services managers often are involved in the hiring and dismissal of employees but gener­ ally have no role in the formulation of policy. In small firms, one administrative services manager may oversee all supportive services. As the size of the firm increases, however, administrative services managers increasingly specialize in one or more of these activities. In some firms, supportive services may be directed by other managers and supervisors, some of whom are dis­ cussed in other Handbook statements. For example, administrative services managers may work as office managers, overseeing supervi­ sors of large clerical staffs. In small firms, clerical supervisors—who are discussed in the Handbook statement on clerical supervisors and managers—perform this function. Administrative services managers also work as contract administrators, directing contract development related to the purchase or sale of equipment, materials, supplies, products, or services. However, procurement functions are generally  16  Occupational Outlook Handbook  directed by purchasing agents and managers, discussed in a separate Handbook statement. Property management is divided into the man­ agement and use of personal property such as materials and supplies, an administrative services management function, and real property management, a function of property and real estate managers—who are discussed elsewhere in the Handbook. In small firms, the alloca­ tion, use, and security of building space also is an administrative services management function, but is often the responsibility of facili­ ties managers in larger companies. Other administrative services managers are engaged in surplus prop­ erty disposal, an increasingly important source of revenue, while others oversee unclaimed property disposal. In State government, these activities include locating owners of unclaimed liquid assets— such as stocks, bonds, savings accounts, and the contents of safe deposit boxes—and in local government, locating owners or auction­ ing off unclaimed personal property—such as motor vehicles. Working Conditions Administrative services managers generally work in comfortable of­ fices. However, in small firms, these managers may work alongside the supervisors and staffs they oversee, and the office area may be crowded and noisy. Since their duties involve a wide range of activi­ ties, they must maintain regular contact with personnel in other depart­ ments. Their work can be stressful, as they attempt to schedule work to meet deadlines. Although the 40-hour week is standard, uncompen­ sated overtime is often required to resolve problems. Managers in­ volved in personal property procurement, utilization, and disposal may travel extensively between home offices, branch offices, vendors’ offices, and property sales sites. Employment Administrative services managers held about 217,000 jobs in 1988 and were found in virtually every industry. Industries employing the largest numbers include local government, miscellaneous business services—primarily management consulting firms—educational insti­ tutions, banks, social services establishments, and hospitals. A few run their own management consulting or management services firms. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Most administrative services managers advance through the ranks in an organization, acquiring several years’ work experience in various administrative services before assuming supervisory duties. For exam­ ple, managers who oversee clerical supervisors should be familiar with office procedures and equipment and have a working knowledge of word processing, communications, data processing, and recordkeep­ ing. Managers of personal property acquisition and disposal need experience in purchasing and sales and knowledge of a wide variety of supplies, machinery, and equipment. Managers concerned with supply, inventory, and distribution must be experienced in receiving, warehousing, packaging, shipping, transportation, and related opera­ tions. Contract administrators may have worked as contract specialists, cost analysts, or procurement specialists. Managers of unclaimed prop­ erty often have experience in claims analysis and records management. For supervisory level administrative services managers of secre­ tarial, mail room, and related administrative support activities, many employers prefer an associate of arts degree in business or manage­ ment, although a high school diploma may suffice. For managers of audiovisual, graphics, and other more technical activities, post­ secondary technical school training is preferred. For managers of highly complex services such as contract administration, a bachelor’s degree, preferably in business administration, is usually required. The curriculum should include courses in office technology, accounting, business mathematics, computer applications, and business law. What­ ever the administrative services duties, a manager’s educational back­ ground must be accompanied by work experience reflecting demon­ strated ability. Persons interested in becoming administrative services managers should be able to communicate and establish effective working rela­ tionships with many different people—managers, supervisors, profes­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  sionals, clerks, and blue-collar workers. They should be analytical, detail-oriented, flexible, and decisive. The ability to coordinate several activities and to quickly analyze and resolve specific problems is important. Ability to work under stress and cope with deadlines is also important. Advancement is easier in large firms that employ several levels of administrative services managers. A bachelor’s degree enhances a supervisory level manager’s opportunities to advance to a mid-level management position—such as director of administrative services— and eventually to a top-level management position—such as executive vice president for administrative services—in one’s own or a larger firm. Those with the required capital and experience can establish their own management consulting or management services firm. Job Outlook Employment of administrative services managers is expected to in­ crease faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000, as the number of large firms—where these managers are gener­ ally found—increases. The need to reduce administrative costs by improving the efficiency of operations should spur demand for these managers. In addition, the increasing emphasis on the sale of surplus property to raise revenue should add to the rapid employment growth of administrative services managers. As in the case of other managerial jobs, the ample supply of compe­ tent, experienced workers seeking advancement should result in com­ petition for administrative services management positions. Earnings In 1988, most administrative services managers earned between $20,000 and $70,000, according to the limited data available. Earnings vary substantially depending upon the managerial level, size of firm, and industry. In government, salaries at the Federal and State levels were generally higher than those at the local level. Similar to other managers, administrative services managers typi­ cally receive a range of fringe benefits such as vacation and sick leave, health and life insurance, and pension plans, among others. Related Occupations Administrative services managers direct and coordinate supportive services and oversee the purchase, use, and disposal of personal prop­ erty. Occupations with similar functions include administrative assis­ tants, appraisers, buyers, clerical supervisors, contract specialists, cost estimators, procurement services managers, project directors, property and real estate managers, purchasing managers, and sales managers. Sources of Additional Information Information about careers in administrative and office services man­ agement is available from: (•-Administrative Management Society, 4622 Street Rd., Trevose, PA 19047.  i-  A *:-'4  t-i? 'S -■*:  The need to reduce costs should spur demand for administrative services managers.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations For information about careers in personal property utilization man­ agement, contact: w-National Property Management Association, Suite 105, 16418 West Sixth Ave., Boulder, CO 80401.  Information about careers in contract administration is available from: w-National Contract Management Associaton, 1912 Woodford Rd., Vienna, VA 22180. For information about careers in facilities management, contact: ^International Facilities Management Association, Summit Tower, Suite 1410, Greenway Plaza, Houston, TX 77046.  Budget Analysts D.O.T. Codes (161.117-010 and 161.267-030)  Nature of the Work All organizations are limited by the scarcity of resources. As a result, organizations develop budgets to plan, organize, and allocate their limited resources efficiently among alternative uses. Budgets serve as a financial plan for controlling future operations and as a means of analyzing the organization’s allocation of labor, capital, and other resources. Budget analysis is an integral part of the decisionmaking process in most corporations and government agencies. Budget ana­ lysts play a primary role in the research, analysis, and development of budgets. In smaller firms, budget analysis is sometimes undertaken by ac­ countants or by controllers. Larger firms often establish a separate budget department which is overseen by the controller. The work performed by analysts in both private industry and the public sector is essentially the same with a few minor variations. In private industry, a budget analyst’s job centers around examining, analyzing, and seeking new ways to improve efficiency and increase profits. While analysts working in government generally are not con­ cerned with profits, they too are interested in finding the most efficient distribution of funds and resources among various departments and programs. Budget analysts perform a variety of tasks. Their major responsi­ bility is to provide advice and technical assistance in the preparation of annual budgets. Analysts begin by examining past and current budgets, researching economic developments, and reviewing com­ pany objectives. This process allows analysts to assess an organiza­ tion’s position, address policy issues, and establish company goals for the coming year. For instance, a private organization might be concerned with the extent to which expansion will be financed by revenues or debt. Managers and department heads submit proposed operating and financial plans according to established company objectives for the coming year to budget analysts for review. These plans outline ex­ pected programs, estimated costs and expenses, and capital expendi­ tures needed to finance these programs. For example, sales managers prepare sales projections and operating plans for various sales activities and advertising campaigns their department expects to pursue in the coming year, along with the financial requirements needed to undertake these projects. Analysts examine the budget estimates for completeness, accuracy, and conformance with procedures and regulations. They must review financial requests by employing cost-benefit analysis, determining program trade-offs, and exploring alternative funding methods. Ana­ lysts also evaluate financial requests in terms of the agency’s priorities and financial resources. After this review process, budget analysts consolidate the individual department budgets into operating and financial budget summaries. The analyst submits preliminary budgets to the president or top-level managers with comments and recommendations justifying or denying funding requests. By reviewing different departments’ operating plans, analysts gain insight into an organization’s overall operations. This  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  17  generally proves very useful when analysts must interpret and offer technical assistance to officials approving the budget. At this point in the budget process, budget analysts help the president or other top managers analyze the proposed plan and devise possible alterna­ tives if the projected results are unsatisfactory. The final decisions on the budget, however, are made by either the president or other high-ranking officials in their firm or government agency. Analysts assist in developing procedural guidelines and policies governing the development, formulation, and maintenance of the bud­ get. If necessary, they conduct training sessions for company personnel on new budget procedures. Throughout the year, analysts periodically monitor the operating budget by reviewing reports and accounting records to determine if allocated funds have been expended as specified. If any deviations appeal' between actual performance and the proposed budget, budget analysts draft a report explaining the causes of the variations along with recommendations for new or revised budget procedures. Analysts recommend periodic adjustments to offset changes in programs, staffing levels, or available funds. They keep program managers and others within their organization informed on the status and availability of funds in different budget accounts and methods to control their distribution. Working Conditions Budget analysts generally work in a normal office setting and adhere to a structured work schedule. However, during the initial development and final review of budgets, they often experience the pressure of deadlines and tight work schedules. The work during these periods is extremely stressful, and analysts are usually required to work more than the routine 40 hours a week. Budget analysts spend the majority of their time working indepen­ dently on compiling and analyzing data and preparing budget propos­ als. However, their routine schedule is often interrupted by special budget requests, meetings, and training sessions. They attend meetings to justify budget requests and to keep officials informed on the status and availability of funds in different budget accounts. Some travel to regional offices may be required. Employment Budget analysts held about 62,000 jobs throughout private industry and government in 1988. Federal, State, and local governments ac-  SMS  L—^  Budget analysts provide technical assistance in the preparation of annual budgets.  18  Occupational Outlook Handbook  counted for approximately 32 percent of all budget analyst jobs. The Department of Defense employed over half of the budget analysts working for the Federal Government. The educational services indus­ try was the next largest employer of budget analysts, accounting for 8 percent of all jobs. Other major employers include hospitals and manufacturers of transportation equipment and electrical and electronic machinery. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Most private firms and government agencies require candidates for budget analyst positions to have at least a bachelor’s degree in business administration, accounting, finance, economics, or some closely related field. A growing number of employers prefer that candidates possess a master’s degree, while some large corporations use only certified public accountants to conduct budget analysis. However, experience can often be substituted for an advanced degree when applying for a budget analyst position. Some companies prefer to promote from within; therefore, competent accounting or payroll clerks and other clerical staff who have worked closely with the budget process can often advance to entry level budget analyst positions even if they do not meet the educational requirements. Since developing a budget requires strong analytical skills, courses in mathematics, statistics, and computer science are highly recom­ mended. In recent years, computers have had the greatest impact on budget analysis, allowing analysts to process and manipulate complex variations of budget data very rapidly. Current studies indicate that most financial analysis performed by organizations is automated. Ac­ cordingly, a background in computers is particularly important, espe­ cially a working knowledge of the financial software packages used by most organizations in budget analysis. Those seeking a career as a budget analyst must possess strong interpersonal skills because of the frequent interaction with others in their organization. Analysts must be able to analyze, compare, and interpret data, and be able to make sound judgments and recommenda­ tions under strict time constraints. They also must have strong oral and written communication skills to prepare and present budget proposals effectively. Entry level budget analysts may receive some formal training when they begin their jobs. However, most employers feel that the best training is obtained by working through one complete budget cycle. During the cycle, analysts become familiar with all the steps involved in the budgeting process. The Federal Government, on the other hand, offers extensive onthe-job and classroom training for entry level analysts. Some of the classes offered include budget execution, budget formulation, Federal budget process, and planning, programming, and budget systems. Analysts are encouraged to participate in the various classes offered throughout their careers. Beginning analysts usually learn their jobs working under a supervisor. Capable entry level analysts can be promoted quickly into intermediate level positions within 1 to 2 years, and then into senior positions within a few more years. Progressing to a higher level means added budgeting responsibility and an increased supervi­ sory role. In the Federal Government, for example, beginning budget ana­ lysts compare projected costs with prior expenditures; consolidate and enter data prepared by others; and assist higher grade analysts by doing research on regulations concerning appropriate budget practices. As analysts progress, their responsibilities increase. They develop and formulate budget estimates and justification statements; perform in-depth analyses of budget requests; write statements supporting funding requests; and advise program managers and others on the status and availability of funds in different budget activities. In many instances, analysts are able to capitalize on their close working relationships with top-level managers to advance into manage­ ment positions within their company. In addition, because financial and analytical skills are vital in any organization, analysts often are able to transfer to a related field in other organizations.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Job Outlook Employment of budget analysts is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Most job openings, however, should result from the need to replace experienced budget analysts who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Expanding use of automation may make analysts more productive, allowing them to process more data in less time. However, because of the growing complexity of business and the increasing specialization of functions within organizations, more attention is being given to better planning and financial control. Many companies will continue to rely heavily on budget analysts to examine, analyze, and develop budgets to help integrate the fragmented parts of their organization and to allocate labor, capital, and other resources in the most efficient manner. Managers will continue to use budgets as a vehicle to plan, coordinate, control, and evaluate activities within their organizations more effectively. While the demand for budget analysts is increasing, competition for budget analyst jobs should remain keen because of the increasing number of qualified applicants. Job opportunities are usually best for candidates with a college degree, particularly a master’s. In some cases, experience is often more beneficial than a degree and can be used to offset lack of education. People with backgrounds in finance and accounting generally are in a better position than those without these qualifications. A working knowledge of computer financial soft­ ware packages can also enhance one’s employment opportunities in this field. The financial work performed by budget analysts is an important function in every organization. Financial and budget reports must be completed even during periods of economic slowdowns. Therefore, employment of budget analysts generally is not adversely affected during hard economic times when other workers may be laid off. Earnings Salaries of budget analysts vary widely by experience, education, and employer. According to a 1988 survey of financial and data processing fields conducted by Robert Half International Incorpo­ rated, average annual starting salaries of budget analysts ranged from $20,500 to $23,000 for those working in medium-size firms, and from $21,000 to $25,000 for those employed by larger organiza­ tions. Analysts with 1 to 3 years of experience earned from $23,000 to $29,500 a year working in medium-size firms and from $25,000 to $33,000 in larger companies. Senior analysts earned from $28,000 to $35,000 in smaller firms and from $29,000 to $38,500 in larger firms. Earnings of managers in this field ranged from $35,500 to $41,500 in medium-size firms to $38,500 to $55,000 in large organizations. In the Federal Government, budget analysts generally started a $15,800 a year in 1989. Candidates with a master’s degree or 1 year of financial experience began at $19,500. The average salary of all budget analysts employed by the Federal Government was approxi­ mately $33,000 in 1988. Related Occupations Budget analysts analyze, review, and interpret financial data; make recommendations; and assist in the implementation of new ideas. Workers who use these skills in other occupations include accountants and auditors, credit analysts, economists, financial analysts, financial managers, and loan officers. Sources of Additional Information Information about career opportunities as a budget analyst may be available from your State or local employment service. Persons interested in working as a budget analyst in the Federal Government can obtain information from: wU.S. Office of Personnel Management, 1900 E St. NW., Washington, DC 20415.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations  Construction and Building Inspectors (D.O.T. 168.167-030, -034, -038, -046, and -050; .267-010, -102; 182.267; 850.387, .467)  Nature of the Work Construction and building inspectors examine the construction, alter­ ation, or repair of highways, streets, sewer and water systems, dams, bridges, buildings, and other structures to insure compliance with building codes and ordinances, zoning regulations, and contract speci­ fications. Initial inspections are made during construction, and fol­ lowup inspections are conducted periodically to monitor continuing compliance with regulations. In areas subject to unusually severe natural hazards—such as earthquakes or hurricanes—inspectors moni­ tor compliance with additional regulations. Inspectors generally spe­ cialize in one particular type of construction work. Building inspectors inspect the structural quality of buildings. Some may specialize—for example, in structural steel or reinforced concrete buildings. Before construction, plan examiners determine whether the plans for the building or other structure comply with applicable build­ ing code regulations and are suited to the engineering and environmen­ tal demands of the building site. They visit the worksite before the foundation is poured to inspect the soil condition and positioning and depth of the footings. They inspect the foundation after it has been completed. The size and type of structure and the rate of completion  « .ItilWIH  1 T ITT  mn • TlM'-lZ  Construction inspectors insure compliance with building codes, zoning regulations, and contract specifications.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  I  19  determine the number of other visits they must make. Upon completion of the project, they conduct a final comprehensive inspection. In addition, inspectors may determine fire insurance rates by assessing the type of construction, building contents, availability of fire protection equipment, and risks posed by adjoining buildings. Electrical inspectors inspect the installation of electrical systems and equipment to insure that they function properly and comply with electrical codes and standards. They visit worksites to inspect new and existing wiring, lighting, sound and security systems, motors, and generating equipment. They also inspect the installation of the electri­ cal wiring for heating and air-conditioning systems, appliances, and other components. Elevator inspectors examine lifting and conveying devices such as elevators, escalators, moving sidewalks, personnel lifts and hoists, inclined railways, ski lifts, and various amusement rides. Mechanical inspectors inspect the installation of the mechanical components of commercial kitchen appliances, heating and air-condi­ tioning equipment, gasoline and butane tanks, gas and oil piping, and gas-fired and oil-fired appliances. Some specialize in inspecting boilers or ventilating equipment. Plumbing inspectors examine plumbing systems, including private disposal systems, water supply and distribution systems, plumbing fixtures and traps, and drain, waste, and vent lines. Public works inspectors insure that Federal, State, and local govern­ ment construction of water and sewer systems, highways, streets, bridges, and dams conforms to detailed contract specifications. They inspect excavation and fill operations, the placement of forms for concrete, concrete mixing and pouring, asphalt paving, and grading operations. They record the work and materials used so that contract payments can be calculated. Public works inspectors may specialize in highways, reinforced concrete, or ditches. Others specialize in dredging operations required for bridges and dams or for harbors. Home inspectors conduct inspections of newly built homes to ascer­ tain adherence to regulatory requirements. Some home inspectors are hired by prospective home buyers to inspect and report on the condition of the home’s major systems and components. Home inspectors typi­ cally are hired either immediately prior to a purchase offer or as a contingency to a sales contract. Construction and building inspectors increasingly use computers to help them monitor the status of construction inspection activities and the issuance of permits. Details about construction projects, building and occupancy permits, and other information can be stored and easily retrieved. Although inspections are primarily visual, inspectors often use tape measures, survey instruments, metering devices, and test equipment such as concrete strength measurers. They often keep a daily log of their work, take photographs, file reports, and, if necessary, act on their findings. For example, construction inspectors notify the con­ struction contractor, superintendent, or supervisor when they discover a detail of a project that does not comply with the appropriate codes, ordinances, contract specifications, or approved plans. If the deficiency is not corrected within a reasonable or specified period of time, govern­ ment inspectors have authority to issue a “stop-work” order. Many inspectors also investigate reported incidents of construction or alteration being carried on without proper permits. Violators of permit laws are directed to obtain permits and submit to inspection. Working Conditions Construction and building inspectors usually work alone. However, several may be assigned to a large, complex project. They may spend much of their time in a field office reviewing blueprints, answering letters or telephone calls, writing reports, and scheduling inspections. The rest of their time is spent inspecting construction and building sites. Inspection sites may be dirty and cluttered with tools, materials, or debris. Inspectors may have to climb ladders or many flights of stairs, or may have to crawl beneath buildings. Although the work is not considered hazardous, inspectors often wear “hard hats” for safety. Inspectors normally work regular hours. However, if an accident  20  Occupational Outlook Handbook  occurs at a construction site, inspectors must respond immediately and may work irregular hours to complete their report. Employment Construction and building inspectors held about 56,000 jobs in 1988. Over half worked for local governments, primarily municipal or county building departments. Employment of local government inspectors is concentrated in cities and in suburban areas undergoing rapid growth. Local governments employ large inspection staffs, including many inspectors who specialize in structural steel, reinforced concrete, boiler, electrical, and elevator inspection. Almost 20 percent of all construction and building inspectors were employed at the Federal and State levels. Many construction inspectors employed by the Federal Government worked for the Department of Defense, primarily for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Other important Federal employers include the Departments of Agriculture, Housing and Urban Development, and Interior, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. Over one-fourth of all inspectors worked for private industry, includ­ ing the engineering and architectural services, business services, con­ struction, and educational services industries. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement To become a construction or building inspector, several years of experience as a construction contractor, supervisor, or craft worker are generally required. Most employers also require an applicant to have a high school diploma. High school preparation should include courses in drafting, algebra, geometry, and English. Workers who want to become inspectors should have a thorough knowledge of construction materials and practices in either a general area like structural or heavy construction, or in a specialized area such as electrical or plumbing systems, reinforced concrete, or structural steel. A significant number of construction and building inspectors have recent experience as carpenters, electricians, plumbers, or pipe­ fitters. Many employers prefer inspectors who have graduated from an apprenticeship program, have studied engineering or architecture for at least 2 years, or have a degree from a community or junior college, with courses in construction technology, blueprint reading, mathemat­ ics, and building inspection. Construction and building inspectors must be in good physical condition in order to walk and climb about construction sites. They also must have a motor vehicle operator’s license. In addition, Federal, State, and many local governments usually require that inspectors pass a civil service examination. Construction and building inspectors usually receive most of their training on the job. At first, working with an experienced inspector, they learn about inspection techniques; codes, ordinances, and regula­ tions; contract specifications; and recordkeeping and reporting duties. They begin by inspecting less complex types of construction such as residential buildings. The difficulty of their assignments is gradually increased until they are able to handle complex assignments. An engineering degree is frequently required to advance to supervisory inspector. Since they advise representatives of the construction industry and the general public on building code interpretation, construction prac­ tices, and technical developments, construction and building inspec­ tors must keep abreast of new building code developments. Many employers provide formal training programs to broaden inspectors’ knowledge of construction materials, practices, and inspection tech­ niques. Inspectors who work for small agencies or firms that do not conduct training programs can broaden their knowledge and upgrade their skills by attending State-conducted training programs, by taking college or correspondence courses, or by attending seminars sponsored by the organizations listed under Sources of Additional Information below. Certification enhances construction inspectors’ chances for higher paying, more responsible positions. Some States and cities require certification for employment. Inspectors having substantial experience  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  and education can attain certification by passing stringent examinations on construction techniques, materials, and code requirements. The organizations listed below offer many categories of certification for inspectors and plan examiners, including the designation “CBO,” Certified Building Official. Job Outlook Employment of construction and building inspectors is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Increases in both the level of construction activity and the complexity of construction materials and technology, as well as rising concern for public safety and for improvements in the quality of construction, should spur demand for construction and building inspec­ tors. The trend of government—particularly Federal and State—to contract out construction inspection functions should increase demand for inspectors in the private sector. Most job openings will arise from the need to replace inspectors who retire or leave the occupation for other reasons. Because of the trend toward the establishment of professional standards for inspectors, job prospects should be best for highly experienced craft workers who have some college education or who are certified as inspectors. Employment of construction and building inspectors is not always directly affected by changes in the level of building activity. Unlike most construction occupations, inspectors—particularly those in gov­ ernment—do not usually experience layoffs when construction activity declines. During these periods, maintenance and renovation—which usually require more frequent inspection than new construction— generally continue, enabling inspectors to continue working full time year round. In an upturn, new jobs for inspectors increase but not to the same degree as construction activity. Earnings The median annual salary of construction and building inspectors was $25,700 in 1988, with the overwhelming majority of inspectors earning between $17,500 and $41,100. Generally, building inspectors, includ­ ing plan examiners, earn the highest salaries. Salaries in large metro­ politan areas are substantially higher than those in small local jurisdic­ tions. Salaries in the North and West tend to be higher than salaries in the South. The average salary of inspectors in the Federal Government was $27,000 in 1988. Similar to other workers, construction and building inspectors typi­ cally receive a range of fringe benefits that includes vacation and sick leave, health and life insurance, and pension plans, among others. Related Occupations Construction and building inspectors combine a knowledge of con­ struction principles and law with the ability to coordinate data, diag­ nose problems, and communicate with people. Workers in other occu­ pations involving a combination of similar skills are drafters, estimators, industrial engineering technicians, and surveyors. Sources of Additional Information Information about a career and certification as a construction or build­ ing inspector is available from the following model code organizations: (•-International Conference of Building Officials, 5360 South Workman Mill Rd., Whittier, CA 90601. (•-Building Officials and Code Administrators International, Inc., 4051 West Flossmoor Rd., Country Club Hills, 1L 60478. (•-Southern Building Code Congress International, Inc., 900 Montclair Rd., Birmingham, AL 35213.  Information on careers and certification as a home inspector is available from: (•-American Society of Home Inspectors, Inc., Seventh Floor, 3299 K St. NW., Washington, DC 20007.  For information on careers and certification as a plumbing or me­ chanical inspector, contact: (•-International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Inspectors, 20001 South Walnut Dr., Walnut, CA 91789.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations For information about a career as a State or local government construction or building inspector, contact your State or local employ­ ment service. Persons interested in a career as a construction and building inspector with the Federal Government can obtain information from:  21  'I  irU.S, Office of Personnel Management, 1900ESt. NW., Washington, DC 20415.  Construction Managers (D.O.T. 182.167 except-022)  Nature of the Work Construction managers may assume various levels of responsibility and are known by a wide range of job titles that are often used interchangeably—for example, construction superintendent, construc­ tor, production manager, project manager, general construction man­ ager, executive construction manager, contractor, subcontractor, and general contractor. Construction managers may be either salaried em­ ployees or self-employed workers under contract with the owner, contractor, developer, or management firm overseeing the construction project. In addition, within the construction industry, the term con­ struction manager is often used to denote the firm—usually a contract construction company or a construction management services firm— involved in the construction activity. This Handbook statement discusses supervisory level salaried and self-employed construction managers who oversee construction super­ visors and workers. Supervisory level construction managers report to mid-level and top-level construction managers, who are included in the Handbook statement on general managers and top executives. On small constmction projects—for example, remodeling a home— construction managers are usually self-employed construction contrac­ tors who directly oversee their employees. However, large construc­ tion projects—for example, an industrial complex—are divided into many segments: Site preparation, including land clearing, sewage systems, landscaping, and road construction; building construction, including excavation, laying foundations, erection of frameworks, and adding floors, walls, and roofs; or installation of building services, including carpentry, electrical, plumbing, air-conditioning, and heat­ ing. Salaried construction managers plan, direct, and complete their assigned part of the overall construction project. Construction managers determine the appropriate construction methods and schedule all required construction activities in logical, discrete steps, each leading to an intermediate objective. They estimate the time required to complete each step in an effort to meet established budgets and deadlines for particular construction projects. Construc­ tion managers determine the labor requirements and, if necessary, supervise or monitor the hiring and dismissal of engineers, cost estima­ tors, clerks, construction supervisors, craft workers, machinery and equipment operators, and other construction workers. Planning, often in collaboration with engineers, architects, and other design profes­ sionals, may require sophisticated analytical techniques such as the critical path method (CPM)—a standardized presentation of the time sequence of the work showing where construction activities might be disrupted—supplemented by flow charts, bar charts, and other graphic presentation. Computers are used to evaluate various construction methods and determine the most cost-efficient and timesaving plan. On the job, construction managers direct construction supervisors and monitor the progress of construction activities including the deliv­ ery and use of supplies, tools, machinery, equipment, and vehicles. They are responsible for all necessary permits and licenses and, de­ pending upon the contractual arrangements, direct or monitor compli­ ance with safety codes and other labor or union regulations. Construction managers regularly review engineering and architec­ tural drawings and specifications and confer with construction engi­ neers to maintain the rate of construction activity. They meet with cost estimators to monitor construction costs and avoid overruns. Based  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ■■  Construction managers review engineering and architectural drawings and specifications. upon direct observation and reports by subordinate supervisors, con­ struction managers may prepare daily reports of progress and require­ ments for labor, material, and machinery and equipment at the con­ struction site. Construction managers meet regularly with owners, other construction managers, and design professionals to monitor and synchronize all phases of the construction project. Working Conditions Construction managers work out of a central office—often spacious and orderly, where the overall construction project is monitored—and the construction site office—usually small and crowded with workers streaming in and out, where management decisions regarding daily construction activities are made. Substantial travel may be required when the construction site is in another State, and overseas projects may entail temporary residence in another country. The standard 40-hour week is rare in this occupation, since construc­ tion may proceed round-the-clock for days or even weeks to meet dead­ lines. In addition, construction managers are always “on call” to deal with accidents, delays, or complications caused by bad weather at the site. Although the work generally is not considered dangerous, construc­ tion managers must be alert while touring construction sites, especially when machinery, equipment, and vehicles are operating. The pace can be hectic, and construction managers must be prepared to answer questions and assign priorities quickly. Employment Construction managers held about 187,000 jobs in 1988. About 9 out of 10 were employed in the contract construction industry, primarily  22  Occupational Outlook Handbook  by special trade contractors—for example, plumbing, heating and air­ conditioning, and electrical—and general building contractors. Other employers included local governments, educational institutions, real estate developers, and engineering, architectural, surveying, and con­ struction management services firms. In addition, thousands of selfemployed contractors worked as construction managers, primarily in the special trades contract construction industries. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement An increasing proportion of entrants into this occupation acquire a strong academic background. Completion of a bachelor’s degree pro­ gram in construction science with emphasis on construction manage­ ment can greatly enhance one’s opportunities in this occupation. In 1988, about 75 colleges and universities offered such programs, which include courses in project control and development, site planning, construction materials, building design, construction methods, value analysis, cost estimating, scheduling, contract administration, building codes and standards, inspection procedures, and electives in engineer­ ing and architectural sciences, mathematics, statistics, and computer science. Recent college graduates in construction science usually are hired as assistants to construction managers, field engineers, sched­ ulers, or cost estimators. A growing number of graduates in related fields—engineers, architects, and cost estimators—also enter con­ struction management, often after having worked as supervisors on construction projects. About 15 colleges and universities also offer a master’s degree program, and one, the University of Florida, offers a doctoral degree program in this field. Master’s degree recipients, especially those with experience, typically become construction managers in very large construction companies. Doctoral degree recipients generally become college teachers. Many construction managers have substantial experience as con­ struction craft workers—for example, carpenters, masons, plumbers, or electricians—and proven supervisory ability. Many have worked as construction supervisors or small, self-employed contractors over­ seeing workers in one or more construction activities—for example, structural steel work, roofing, or excavation. Many have also attended training and educational programs sponsored by industry associations, usually in collaboration with postsecondary institutions. In 1988, over 200 2-year colleges offered construction management or construction technology programs. Persons interested in becoming construction managers should be flexible and able to work under stressful conditions. They should be decisive and able to select quickly among alternative courses of action. The ability to coordinate several activities and speedily analyze and resolve specific problems is imperative. The ability to rapidly evaluate engineering, architectural, and other construction drawings is impor­ tant. Construction managers must be able to establish effective working relationships with many different people—entrepreneurs, managers, professionals, supervisors, and blue-collar workers. They must also be able to assess the character and competency of workers in order to achieve an efficient working group. Advancement depends upon the size of the construction company. In large companies, construction managers may become mid-level and eventually top-level managers. Highly experienced individuals may become consultants; some serve as expert witnesses in court or arbitra­ tors in disputes. Those with the required capital may establish their own firms and offer construction management services. Others may establish their own general contract construction firms that oversee construction projects from start to finish—including project planning and design, construction, and management. Job Outlook Employment of construction managers is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000 as construction projects increase in size and complexity. Advances in building materials and construction methods and the growing nuinber of multipurpose buildings, electronically operated “smart" buildings.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  and energy-efficient structures will require the expertise of more construction managers. In addition, the proliferation of laws setting standards for buildings and construction materials, worker safety, energy efficiency, and environmental pollution has further compli­ cated the construction manager’s job and should further increase demand for these workers. Many job openings for construction managers will arise in nonresidential construction firms and special trade contractor establishments offering maintenance and repair services for buildings and building equipment. Although employment in residential construction firms is expected to grow more slowly than in other sectors of the construction industry, many openings should result from the need to replace workers who leave the occupation or retire. Demand is expected to be particu­ larly favorable—especially in the rapidly proliferating construction management services firms—for experienced construction managers with a bachelor’s degree in construction science with emphasis on construction management. Employment of construction managers is sensitive to the short­ term nature of many construction projects and cyclical fluctuations in construction activity. During periods of diminished construction activity—when many construction workers are laid off—many con­ struction managers remain employed in their own or other firms plan­ ning, scheduling, or estimating costs of future construction projects. However, some self-employed contractors may merge operations or dissolve their business and seek salaried employment with other con­ tractors. Earnings Earnings of salaried construction managers and incomes of self-em­ ployed contractors vary depending upon the size and nature of the construction project, its geographic location, and economic conditions. Based on limited information, starting salaries of construction manag­ ers in 1988 were about $20,000 to $30,000; annual earnings of most experienced construction managers ranged from $30,000 to $100,000. Many salaried construction managers receive fringe benefits such as bonuses, liberal motor vehicle allowances, and per diem allowances. The income of self-employed contractors varies even more widely than that of salaried managers. Related Occupations Construction managers participate in the conceptual development of a construction project and organize, schedule, and oversee its implemen­ tation. Others whose work entails similar functions include architects, builders, civil engineers, construction supervisors, cost engineers, cost estimators, developers, electrical engineers, industrial engineers, landscape architects, and mechanical engineers. Sources of Information Information about construction managers and construction manage­ ment services firms is available from: •-Construction Management Association of America, Suite 640, 12355 Sunrise Valley Dr., Reston, VA 22091.  For information about careers in construction management, contact: •-American Institute of Constructors, 20 S. Front St., Columbus, OH 43215. •-Associated Builders and Contractors, 729 15th St. NW., Washington, DC 20005.  For information about construction management in contract con­ struction operations, contact: •-Associated General Contractors of America, 1957 E St. NW., Washington, DC 20006.  Names of postsecondary institutions offering educational programs in construction management and related fields are available from: •-Associated Schools of Construction, 20 S. Front St., Columbus, OH 43215.  Information on construction science and management program ac­ creditation requirements is available from: •-American Council for Construction Education, Suite 700, 1015 15th St. NW., Washington, DC 20005.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations  Cost Estimators (D.O.T. 160.267-018; 221.362-018, .367-014, .387-022, .482-014, .484-010)  Nature of the Work Being able to predict the cost of future projects is vital to the economic survival of any business. Cost estimators develop this information for owners, managers, and government to use in making bids for contracts, in determining if a new product will be profitable, or in determining if the government is getting good value for the taxpayer’s money. Whether in construction, manufacturing, or government, estimators compile and analyze data on all the factors that can influence costs— materials, labor, location, and special machinery, among others. Ac­ tual job duties vary widely depending upon the type and size of the project. On a new, large construction project, for example, the estimating process begins with the decision to submit a bid. After reviewing the architect’s drawings, specifications, and other bidding documents, the estimator visits the site of the proposed construction to gather information on access to the site and availability of electricity, water, and other services, as well as surface topography and drainage. If the project is a remodeling or renovation job, the estimator might consider the need to control noise and dust and to perform work in such a way that occupants can continue to carry out their activities as normally as possible. The information developed during the site visit generally is recorded in a signed report that is made part of the project estimate. After the site visit is completed, the estimator must determine the quantity of materials and labor that the firm will have to furnish. This process, called the quantity survey or “takeoff,” is completed by filling out standard estimating forms that provide spaces for the entry of dimensions, number of units, and other information. A cost estimator working for a general contractor, for example, will estimate the costs of the items the contractor must provide. Although subcontractors involved will estimate their costs as part of their own bidding process, cost estimators often analyze bids made by subcontractors. Allowances for the waste of materials, inclement weather, shipping delays, and other factors that may increase costs are made as the takeoff proceeds. In large construction organizations with several estimators, it is com­ mon practice for each person to specialize. For instance, one person may estimate only electrical work, whereas another may concentrate on excavation, concrete, and forms. Also during the takeoff process, the estimator must make decisions concerning equipment needs, se­ quence of operations, and crew sizes. On completion of the quantity surveys, a total project cost summary is prepared by the chief estimator that includes the cost of labor,  Cost estimators make extensive use of quantitative techniques.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  23  equipment, materials, subcontracts, overhead, taxes, insurance, markup, and any other costs that may affect the project. The chief estimator then prepares the bid proposal for submission to the de­ veloper. In manufacturing and other firms, cost estimators generally are assigned to the engineering or cost department. In manufacturing, their job may begin with a request by top management to estimate the costs associated with a major redesign of an existing product or the development of a new product or production process. For example, to develop a new product, the estimator, working with engineers, first reviews blueprints or concepts to determine the machining operations, tools and gauges, and materials that would be required for the job. The estimator then must prepare a parts list and determine whether it is more efficient to produce or to purchase the parts. To do this, the estimator must initiate inquiries for price information from potential suppliers. The next step is to determine the cost of manufacturing each component of the product. This requires the cost estimator to review records of the cost of manufacturing similar parts in the past. The cost estimator then prepares time-phase charts and learning curves. The former indicate the time required for tool design and fabrication, tool “debugging” (finding and correcting all problems), manufacturing of parts, assembly, and testing. Learning curves repre­ sent graphically the fact that performance improves with practice, which yields reduced cost. These curves are commonly called “prob­ lem-elimination” curves because many problems, such as engineering changes, rework, parts shortages, and lack of operator skills, diminish as the number of parts produced increases, resulting in lower unit costs. Using all this information, the estimator then calculates the standard labor hours necessary to produce a predetermined number of units. Standard labor hours are then converted to dollar values, to which are added factors for waste, overhead, and profit to yield the unit cost in dollars. Then the estimator compares the cost of purchasing parts with the firm’s cost of manufacturing them to determine which is cheaper. Computers are widely used since cost estimating may involve com­ plex mathematical techniques—for example, in parametric analysis. Although computers cannot be used for the entire estimating process, they can relieve estimators of much of the drudgery associated with routine, repetitive, and time-consuming calculations. This leaves esti­ mators with more time to study and analyze projects and can lead to more accurate estimates. (Details on various cost estimating techniques are available from the organizations listed under Sources of Additional Information below.) Working Conditions Estimators spend most of their time in an office. Nevertheless, con­ struction estimators must make frequent visits to construction sites that are dirty and cluttered with debris. Likewise, estimators in manufactur­ ing must spend some time on the factory floor where it can be hot, noisy, and dirty. Cost estimators usually operate under pressure, espe­ cially when facing deadlines, because inaccurate estimating can cause a firm to lose out on a bid that would have been profitable or to take on a job that proves to be unprofitable. Although estimators usually work a 40-hour week, much overtime is often required. In some industries, frequent travel between the parent firm and its subsidiaries or subcontractors is required. Government and other estimators often visit firms to substantiate bids or prices. Employment Cost estimators held about 169,000jobs in 1988, primarily in construc­ tion industries. Others worked for manufacturing industries. Some worked for engineering and architectural services firms, business ser­ vices firms, and a wide range of other industries. Still others worked as self-employed consultants, and for the Federal Government. Con­ struction analysts in the Department of Housing and Urban Develop­ ment and operations research, production control, cost, and price analysts in the Departments of Defense and Energy may do significant amounts of cost estimating in the course of their regular duties. (For  24  Occupational Outlook Handbook  more information, see the statement on operations research analysts elsewhere in the Handbook.) Cost estimators work in all parts of the country, usually in or near major industrial, commercial, and government centers and in cities and suburban areas undergoing rapid change or development where large amounts of construction are taking place. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Entry requirements vary by industry. In construction, employers prefer applicants with a thorough knowledge of construction materials, costs, and procedures in areas ranging from heavy construction to electrical work, plumbing systems, or masonry work. In fact, most construction estimators have experience as a construction craft worker or as a contractor. Persons who combine this experience with some postsec­ ondary training in construction estimating or a bachelor's or associate degree in civil engineering, architectural drafting, or building construc­ tion have the edge in landing jobs. Those with an academic background who lack work experience qualify for some jobs, but are at a distinct disadvantage when competing for jobs with experienced applicants. In manufacturing, employers prefer persons with a degree in engineering, science, operations research, mathematics, or statistics, or in account­ ing, finance, business, or a related subject. In high-technology indus­ tries, great emphasis is placed on experience involving quantitative techniques. Computer literacy and, in some cases, programming capa­ bility are required. For beginning positions in the Federal Government, applicants generally must have a bachelor’s degree with a major in engineering, mathematics, science, operations research, business ad­ ministration, economics, or a related subject. Regardless of background, estimators receive much training on the job. Working with an experienced estimator, they become familiar with each step in the process. Those with no experience reading construction specifications or blueprints first learn that aspect of the work. Then they may accompany an experienced estimator to the construction site or the shop floor where they may observe the work being done, take measurements, or perform other routine tasks. As they become more knowledgeable, they learn how to tabulate quanti­ ties and dimensions from drawings and how to select which material prices are to be used. Cost estimating is included as part of the civil engineering, industrial engineering, and construction management curriculums in some col­ leges and universities. In addition, many technical schools, junior colleges, and universities offer courses and programs in cost estimating techniques and procedures. Master’s degree programs in cost analysis are offered by the Air Force Institute of Technology in Dayton, Ohio, and the University of Toledo in Toledo, Ohio. Organizations that represent cost estimators, such as the American Association of Cost Engineers, the American Society of Professional Estimators, the Na­ tional Estimating Society, the Institute of Cost Analysis, and the International Society of Parametric Analysts also sponsor educational programs. These programs help students, estimators-in-training, and experienced estimators stay abreast of changes affecting the pro­ fession. Professional recognition through certification is valuable, because it is a mark of the estimator’s competence and experience. In order to become certified, estimators generally must have between 3 and 7 years of estimating experience and must pass both a written and an oral examination. In addition, certification requirements may include publication of at least one article or paper in the field. Cost estimators should have an aptitude for mathematics, be able to quickly analyze, compare, and interpret detailed and sometimes poorly defined information, and be able to make sound and accurate judgments based on this knowledge. Assertiveness and self-confidence in present­ ing and supporting their conclusions are important. For most estimators, advancement takes the form of higher pay and prestige. Some move into a management position, such as project manager for a construction firm or manager of the industrial engineer­ ing department for a manufacturer. Others may go into business for themselves as consultants, providing estimating services for a fee to government or construction and manufacturing firms.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Job Outlook Employment of cost estimators is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Most job openings, however, will arise from the need to replace experienced estimators who transfer to another occupation or leave the labor force. Employment is dependent upon the level of construction, manu­ facturing, and government—primarily defense-related—activity. Residential construction is expected to slow over the 1988-2000 period; the aging of the population—particularly among those of retirement age—will stimulate demand for multiunit housing relative to single units. In contrast, nonresidential construction is expected to expand more rapidly, particularly commercial and industrial buildings and health-related facilities. Other areas within construction also are expected to expand, such as maintenance and repair, commercial and industrial renovations, and hazardous waste cleanup. As more construction projects are planned, more estimators will be needed to predict the costs of these jobs. However, employment growth may be moderated by the growing use of improved computer software packages that significantly increase cost estimators’ effi­ ciency. Although little or no change in employment is projected in the manufacturing sector, job opportunities for cost estimators should expand as more firms realize the importance of accurate estimating. Demand is expected to rise as competition forces manufacturers to reduce their operating costs. In addition to working on new projects, estimators increasingly will be monitoring operations to uncover hid­ den costs or other inefficiencies. In construction, job prospects should be best for workers with substantial experience in various phases of construction or those with a degree in construction management, engineering, or architectural drafting. In manufacturing, experienced persons with degrees in engi­ neering, science, mathematics, business administration, or economics and who have computer expertise should have the best job prospects. Certification is an asset in all instances. Earnings Salaries for cost estimators vary widely by experience, education, size of firm, and industry. According to limited data available, most starting salaries in the construction industry for those with limited training ranged from $14,000 to $18,000 in 1988. College graduates in fields such as engineering or construction management that provide a strong background in cost estimating can start at $30,000 or more. Highly experienced individuals earned $75,000 or more. Starting salaries and annual earnings in the manufacturing sector were somewhat higher, on the average. In the Federal Government, those doing cost estimating had a start­ ing salary between $15,700 and $23,800 in 1989, depending upon their education, academic achievement, and experience. As is the case for other workers, cost estimators receive a benefit package that includes vacation and sick leave, health and life insur­ ance, and pension plans, among other benefits.  Related Occupations Other workers who quantitatively analyze information based upon relatively imprecise data include appraisers, cost accountants, cost engineers, economists, evaluators, financial analysts, loan officers, operations research analysts, underwriters, and value engineers.  Sources of Additional Information Information about career opportunities, certification, schools, and con­ tinuing education programs in cost estimating in the construction industry may be obtained from: w-American Society of Professional Estimators, Inc., 6911 Richmond Hwy., Suite 230, Alexandria, VA 22306. ••-American Association of Cost Engineers, 308 Monongahela Bldg., Morgan­ town, WV 26505.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations Similar information about cost estimating in government and manu­ facturing and other industries is available from: ••-National Estimating Society, 101 S. Whiting St., Suite 313, Alexandria, VA 22304. (•-Institute of Cost Analysis, 101 S. Whiting St., Suite 313, Alexandria, VA 22304. (•-International Society of Parametric Analysts, P.O. Box 1056, Germantown, MD 20874-1056.  Education Administrators (D.O.T. 075.117-010, -018; 090.117 except -034, .167; 091.107; 092.137; 094.107, .117-010, -014, .167-010. 096.167-010, -014; 097.167; 099.117 except -022; 169.267-022; 239.137-010)  Nature of the Work Smooth operation of an educational institution requires competent administrators. Education administrators provide direction, leader­ ship, and day-to-day management of educational activities in schools, colleges and universities, businesses, correctional institutions, muse­ ums, and job training and community service organizations. (For information on college presidents and school superintendents, who are not covered in this statement, see the Handbook statement on general managers and top executives.) Education administrators set educa­ tional standards and goals and set up policies and procedures to carry them out. They develop academic programs; hire, train, and motivate teachers and other staff; manage guidance and other student services; administer recordkeeping; prepare budgets; handle relations with par­ ents, prospective students, employers, or others outside of education; and perform numerous other activities. They supervise subordinate managers, management support staff, teachers, counselors, librarians, coaches, and others. In a small organi­ zation, such as a day care center, there may be one administrator who handles all functions. In a major university or large school system, responsibilities are divided among many administrators, organized according to specific functions. Principals manage elementary and secondary schools. They set the academic tone—high-quality instruction is their most important responsibility. Principals hire and assign teachers and other staff, help them improve their skills, and evaluate them. They confer with them— advising, explaining, or answering procedural questions. They visit classrooms, review instructional objectives, and examine learning materials. They also meet with other administrators, students, parents, and representatives of community organizations. They prepare budgets and reports, keep track of attendance, and see that supplies are requisit­ ioned and allocated. Assistant principals aid the principal in the overall administration of the school. They are responsible for the scheduling of student classes and coordinating transportation, custodial, cafeteria, and other support services. They usually handle discipline, social and recreational pro­ grams, and health and safety. They may also counsel students on personal, educational, or vocational matters. Public schools are also managed by administrators in school district central offices. This group includes education supervisors, who direct subject area programs such as English, music, vocational education, special education, and mathematics. They plan, evaluate, and improve curriculums and teaching techniques and help teachers improve their skills and learn about new methods and materials. This group also includes directors of programs such as guidance, school psychology, athletics, curriculum development, and audiovisual materials. In colleges and universities, academic deans, also known as deans of faculty, provosts, or university deans, assist presidents and develop budgets and academic policies and programs. They direct and coordi­ nate activities of deans and chairpersons of individual colleges and academic departments. College or university department heads or chairpersons are in charge of departments such as English, biological science, or mathematics.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  25  They coordinate schedules of classes and teaching assignments, pro­ pose budgets, recruit and interview applicants for teaching positions, and perform other administrative duties in addition to teaching. Higher education administrators also provide student services. Deans of students, also known as vice presidents of student affairs or directors of student services, direct and coordinate admissions, foreign student services, and health and counseling services, as well as social, recreation, and related programs. They set and enforce student person­ nel policies and administer discipline. In a small college, they may counsel students. Registrars are custodians of students’ education records. They prepare student transcripts, evaluate academic records, and analyze registration statistics. Directors of admissions manage the process of admitting students, oversee the preparation of college catalogs, recruit students, and work closely with financial aid directors, who oversee scholarship, fellowship, and loan programs. Directors of student activities plan and arrange social, cultural, and recreational activities, assist student-run organizations, and orient new students. Athletic directors plan and direct intramural and intercollegiate athletic activities, including publicity for athletic events, preparation of bud­ gets, and supervision of coaches. Working Conditions Education administrators may work alone in offices but also meet with the staffs they supervise, other administrators, students, alumni, and others. Some jobs include travel. Many education administrators work more than 40 hours a week, including some nights and weekends when school activities take place. Unlike teachers, they usually work year round. Employment Education administrators held about 320,000 jobs in 1988. More than 88 percent were in educational services—in elementary, secondary, and technical schools and colleges and universities. The rest worked in child day care centers, religious organizations, job training centers, State departments of education, and businesses and other organizations that provide training activities for their employees. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Education administrator is not usually an entry level job. Most educa­ tion administrators begin their careers in other related occupations. Because of the diversity of duties and levels of responsibility, their educational backgrounds and experience vary considerably. Princi­ pals, assistant principals, central office administrators, and academic deans usually have taught or held another related job before moving into administration. Some teachers move directly into principalships; others first gain experience as an assistant principal or in a central office administrative job. In some cases, administrators move up from related staff jobs such as recruiter, residence hall director, or financial aid or admissions officer. To be considered for education administrator positions, workers must first prove themselves in their current jobs. In evaluating candidates, supervisors look for determination, confidence, innovativeness, motivation, and managerial attributes such as ability to make sound decisions, to organize and coordinate work efficiently, and to establish good personal relationships with and motivate others. Knowledge of management principles and practices, gained through work experience and formal education, is important. Principals, assistant principals, and school administrators in central offices generally need a master’s degree or higher in education adminis­ tration or educational supervision, and a State teaching certificate. Some principals and central office administrators have a doctorate in education administration. Academic deans usually have a doctorate in their specialty. Admis­ sions, student affairs, and financial aid directors and registrars often start in related staff jobs with bachelor’s degrees—any field is usually acceptable—and get advanced degrees in student counseling and per­ sonnel services or higher education administration. A Ph.D. or Ed.D. is usually necessary for top student personnel positions. Courses in data processing are an asset in admissions, records, and financial work. Advanced degrees in education administration, educational supervi-  26  Occupational Outlook Handbook level of responsibility and experience, and the size and location of the institution. According to the Educational Research Service, Inc., average sala­ ries for principals and assistant principals in the school year 1988-89 were as follows: Principals: Senior high school.................................................................. $52,987 Junior high/middle school..................................................... 49,427 Elementary school.................................................................. 45,909 Assistant principals: Senior high school.................................................................. Junior high/middle school..................................................... Elementary school..................................................................  44,002 42,292 38,360  In 1988-89, according to the College and University Personnel Association, median annual salaries for selected administrators in higher education were as follows:  Education administrator positions are not usually entry level jobs. sion, and student counseling and personnel services are offered in many colleges and universities. The National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education accredits programs. Education administration degree programs include courses in school management, school law, school finance and budgeting, curriculum development and evaluation, research design and data analysis, community relations, politics in education, and leadership. Educational supervision degree programs include courses in supervision of instruction and curriculum, human relations, curriculum development, research, and advanced pedagogy courses. Education administrators advance by moving up an administrative ladder or transferring to larger schools or systems. They may also become superintendent of a school system or president of an educa­ tional institution. (See the statement on general managers and top executives elsewhere in the Handbook.) Job Outlook Employment of education administrators is expected to grow as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Most job openings will result from the need to replace administrators who leave the profession. Employment of education administrators will grow as school enroll­ ments increase, as more services are provided to students, and as efforts to improve the quality of education continue. The number of education administrators employed depends largely on State and local expenditures for education. Pressure from taxpayers to limit spending could result in fewer administrators than anticipated; pressures to increase spending to improve the quality of education could result in more. Substantial competition is expected for jobs as principals, assistant principals, and central office administrators. Many teachers and other staff meet the education and experience requirements for these jobs and seek promotion. However, the number of openings is relatively small, so generally only the most highly qualified are selected. Earnings The median annual salary for education administrators who worked full time was $35,000 in 1988. The middle 50 percent earned between $23,000 and $45,000. Salaries of education administrators vary according to position,  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Academic deans: Medicine................................................................................ $143,200 Law......................................................................................... 100,500 Engineering........................................................................... 76,008 Arts and sciences................................................................. 60,732 Education............................................................................... 60,192 Business................................................................................ 60,050 Social sciences..................................................................... 47,549 Mathematics......................................................................... 47,500 Student services directors: Admissions and registrar.................................................... Development and alumni affairs....................................... Student financial aid............................................................ Student activities..................................................................  44,144 42,350 34,032 28,530  Related Occupations Education administrators apply organizational and leadership skills to provide services to individuals. Related occupations include health services administrators, social service agency administrators, recre­ ation and park managers, museum directors, library directors, and professional and membership organization executives. Sources of Additional Information For information about careers in school administration, contact: ••-American Association of School Administrators, 1801 North Moore St., Arlington, VA 22209. ••-The National Association of Elementary School Principals, 1615 Duke St., Alexandria, VA 22317-3483. "•-The National Association of Secondary School Principals, 1904 Association Dr., Reston, VA 22091. ••-Association for the Study of Higher Education, Texas A&M University, Department of Educational Administration, College Station, TX 77843-4426. ••-American Association of University Administrators, University of Alabama, Box 870122, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487. ••-National Association of Student Personnel Administrators. 1700 18th St. NW., Washington, DC 20009-2508.  Employment Interviewers (D.O.T. 166.267-010)  Nature of the Work Whether you are looking for a job or trying to fill one, you could find yourself turning to an employment interviewer for help. Sometimes called personnel consultants, account representatives, manpower de­ velopment specialists, employment brokers, or head hunters, employ­  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations ment interviewers have two principal duties: They help jobseekers find employment and help employers find qualified staff. Working largely in private personnel consultant firms or State em­ ployment security offices (also known as Job Service centers), employ­ ment interviewers act as brokers, putting together the best combination of applicant and job. To accomplish this, they obtain information from employers as well as jobseekers. Being a private industry employment interviewer is a sales job. Counselors pool together a group of qualified applicants and try to sell them to many different companies. Often a consultant will call a company that has never been a client (cold-calling) with the aim of filling its employment needs. Employers generally pay private (but not public) agencies for finding them workers. The employer places a “job order” with the agency describing the opening and listing requirements such as education, licenses or credentials, and experience. Employment interviewers of­ ten interview employers to determine their exact needs. Jobseekers are asked to fill out forms or present resumes that detail their education, experience, and other qualifications. They may be interviewed or tested and have their background, references, and credentials checked. The employment interviewer then reviews each set of information to determine the best possible match of employer and employee. This process is usually done with a computer data base. Maintaining good relations with employers is an important part of the employment interviewer’s job since this helps assure a steady flow of job orders; being prepared to fill an opening quickly with a qualified applicant is the best way to impress an employer. Besides helping firms fill job openings, employment interviewers help individuals find jobs. The services they provide depend upon the type of agency they work for and the clientele it serves. Employment interviewers in private placement firms are generally called counselors. They usually place job applicants who have the right qualifications for certain positions but lack knowledge of the job market for their desired position. Counselors in private placement firms do, however, offer tips on personal appearance, suggestions on presenting a positive picture of oneself, background on the company with which an interview is scheduled, and recommendations about interviewing techniques. Many private placement firms specialize in placing applicants in particular kinds of jobs—secretarial, word pro­ cessing, engineering, accounting, law, or health, for example. Coun­ selors in such firms usually have 3 to 5 years of experience in the field into which they are placing applicants. Some employment interviewers work in temporary help services companies. These companies send out their own employees to firms that need temporary help. Employment interviewers take job orders from client firms and match their requests against a list of available workers. The employment interviewer selects the best qualified worker available and refers him or her to the firm requiring assistance. Regular evaluation of employee job skills is an important part of the job for those interviewers working in temporary help services companies. Initially, interviewers evaluate or test new employees’ skills to determine their abilities and weaknesses. The results, which are kept on file, are referred to when filling job orders. Periodically, the interviewer may reevaluate or retest employees in an effort to identify any new skills they may have developed. The duties of employment interviewers in Job Service centers are somewhat different because applicants may lack marketable skills. In these centers, applicants present resumes and fill out forms that ask for educational attainment, job history, skills, awards, certificates, and licenses. An employment interviewer reviews these forms and asks the applicant about the type of job sought and salary range desired. Applicants sometimes have exaggerated expectations. Employment interviewers must be tactful, but persuasive, if an applicant’s job or salary requests are unreasonable. Applicants may need help identifying the kind of work for which they are best suited. The employment interviewer evaluates the appli­ cant’s qualifications and either chooses an appropriate occupation or class of occupations, or refers the applicant for vocational testing. Once an appropriate type of job has been identified, the employment  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  27  Employment interviewers help people find jobs. interviewer searches the file of job orders seeking a possible job match, and refers the applicant to the employer if a match is found. If no match is found, the interviewer shows the applicant how to use listings of available jobs. Some applicants are hindered by problems such as poor English language skills, no high school diploma, a history of drug or alcohol dependency, or a prison record. The amount and nature of special help for such applicants vary from State to State. In some States, it is the employment interviewer’s responsibility to counsel hard-to-place applicants and refer them elsewhere for literacy or language instruc­ tion, vocational training, transportation assistance, childcare, and the like. In other States, specially trained counselors perform this task. Working Conditions Employment interviewers usually work in comfortable, well-lighted offices. Some interviewers may spend much of their time out of their office interviewing clients. Work can be hectic, especially in temporary help service companies which supply clients with immediate help for short periods of time. Some overtime may be required and use of personal transportation may be necessary to make employer visits. The private placement industry is competitive, so there is pressure on counselors to give their client companies the best service. Employment Employment interviewers held about 81,000 jobs in 1988. Three out of five worked for employment firms or temporary help services com­ panies in the private sector. Most of the rest worked for State employ­ ment security agencies. Employees of career consulting or outplacement firms are not in­ cluded in these estimates. Workers in these firms help clients market themselves; they do not act as job brokers, nor do they match individu­ als with particular vacancies. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Although most public and private agencies prefer to hire college graduates for interviewer jobs, a degree is not always necessary. Hi; ing requirements in the private sector reflect a firm’s management approach as well as the placements in which it specializes. Firms that place highly trained individuals such as accountants, lawyers, engineers, physicians, or executives prefer their interviewers to have some train­ ing or experience in the field in which they are placing workers. Thus,  28  Occupational Outlook Handbook  a bachelor’s or even a master’s degree may be a prerequisite for interviewers in some firms. Firms placing secretaries, word processing operators, and other clerical personnel do not ordinarily stress educational background for their interviewers. In these positions, qualities such as energy level, telephone voice, and sales ability take precedence over educational attainment. Entry level employment interviewer positions in the public sector are generally filled by college graduates, even though a bachelor’s degree is not always a formal requirement. Some States allow substitu­ tion of suitable work experience for college education. “Suitable work experience” is generally defined as public contact work or time spent at other jobs (including clerical jobs) in a Job Service office. In States that permit employment interviewers to engage in counseling, course work in counseling may be required. Most States and many large city and county governments use some form of merit system for hiring interviewers. Applicants may take a written exam, undergo a preliminary interview, or submit records of their education and experience for evaluation. Those who meet the standards are placed on a list from which the top-ranked candidates are selected for later interviews. Other desirable qualifications for employment interviewers include good communications skills, a desire to help people, office skills, and adaptability. A friendly, confidence-winning manner is an asset since personal interaction is a large part of this occupation. Advancement as an employment interviewer in the public sector is often based on a system providing regular promotions and salary increases for those meeting established standards. Advancement to supervisory positions is highly competitive. Advancement in personnel consulting firms generally takes the form of greater responsibility and higher income. Successful individuals may form their own businesses.  on a commission basis while those in temporary help service companies receive a salary. When workers are paid on a commission basis (or salaty plus commission), total earnings depend on how much business they bring in. This is usually based on the type as well as the number of place­ ments. Those who place more highly skilled or hard-to-find employees make more. An interviewer or counselor working strictly on a commis­ sion basis often makes around 30 percent of what he or she bills the client, although this varies from firm to firm. Some work on a salaryplus-commission basis because they fill difficult or highly specialized positions requiring long periods of search. The salary, usually small by normal standards, guarantees these individuals security through slow times while the commission provides the incentive and opportu­ nity for higher earnings. Some personnel consulting firms employ new workers for a 2- to 3month probationary period during which they draw a regular salary. This is intended to provide new workers time to develop their skills and acquire some clients. At the end of the probationary period, the new employees are evaluated, and are either let go or switched to a commission basis. According to the limited data available, average earnings of inter­ viewers or counselors in personnel consulting and temporary help services firms ranged from about $17,000 to $25,000 in 1989; some earned considerably more. Salaries for those placing professional workers are usually higher than those placing clerical workers. Starting salaries for employment interviewers in State Job Service centers vary from State to State and ranged from about $10,000 to $22,000 a year in 1989. Related Occupations Employment interviewers serve as intermediaries for jobseekers and employers. Workers in several other occupations do similar jobs. Personnel officers screen and help hire new employees but their major concern is the hiring needs of the firm; they never represent individual jobseekers. Personnel officers may also have additional duties in areas such as payroll or benefits management. College career counselors help students and alumni find jobs, but their primary emphasis is career counseling and decisionmaking, not placement. Counselors in community organizations and vocational rehabilita­ tion facilities help clients find jobs, but they also provide assistance with drug or alcohol dependencies, housing, transportation, childcare, and other problems that stand in the way of finding and keeping a job.  Job Outlook Employment in this occupation is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Most new jobs will be in temporary help or personnel consulting firms. Relatively little growth is anticipated in State Job Service offices. Additional job openings will result from replacement needs, which are substantial because of the relatively high turnover in this field. Rapid expansion of firms supplying temporary help will be responsi­ ble for much of the growth in this occupation. Businesses of all types are turning to temporary help services companies for additional workers during busy periods, for handling short-term assignments or one-time projects, and for launching new programs. Expansion of the personnel consulting industry will also spur job growth. Job orders will increase as the economy expands and new businesses are formed; this is expected to heighten demand for employ­ ment interviewers. Firms that lack the time or resources to develop their own screening procedures arc likely to turn to personnel firms. It is also possible that businesses that rely on young workers will make greater use of personnel firms in the years ahead because competition for these workers is expected to intensify significantly. While little job growth is foreseen in the State Job Service centers, employment opportunities in private placement firms should be good. Entry to this occupation is relatively easy for college graduates (or people who have had some college courses) except in those positions specializing in placement of lawyers, doctors, and engineers. A rela­ tively high turnover rate, due to job stress, will provide many opportu­ nities in addition to those generated by very rapid growth in demand. Employment interviewers may lose their jobs during recessions because employers reduce or eliminate new hiring during downturns in the economy, greatly reducing the need for employment interviewers. Those who place permanent or temporary personnel are more suscepti­ ble to layoffs than State Job Service employment interviewers.  (D.O.T. 003.167-034 and -070; 005.167-010 and 022; 007.167-014; 008.167­ 010; 010.161-014 and -018; 011.161-010; 012.167-058 and -062; 018.167­ 022; 019.167-014; 022.161-010; 029.167-014; 162.117-030; 169.167-030; and 189.117-014)  Earnings Earnings in private firms vary, in part because the basis for compensa­ tion varies. Workers in personnel consulting firms generally are paid  Nature of the Work Engineering, science, and data processing managers plan, coordinate, and direct technical and scientific activities. They supervise a staff of   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Sources of Additional Information For information on a career as an employment interviewer/counselor and requirements for becoming a Certified Personnel Consultant, contact: ••-National Association of Personnel Consultants, 3133 Mt. Vernon Ave., Alexandria, VA 22305.  For information on a career as an employment interviewer in State employment security offices, contact: (•-International Association of Personnel in Employment Security, 1801 Louisville Rd., Frankfort, KY 40601. ••-Interstate Conference of Employment Security Agencies, 444 North Capitol St. NW., Suite 126, Washington, DC 20001.  Engineering, Science, and Data Processing Managers  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations engineers, scientists, or data processing workers who perform techni­ cal tasks. Engineering, science, and data processing managers determine sci­ entific and technical goals within broad outlines provided by top management. These goals may include the design of a new line of products, improvements in manufacturing processes, or advances in basic scientific research. Managers make detailed plans for the accom­ plishment of these goals—for example, they may develop the overall concepts of new products or identify promising scientific research areas to investigate. They forecast costs and equipment and personnel needs for projects and programs. They assign scientists, engineers, or computer specialists to carry out specific parts of the projects, supervise their daily work, and review their designs, plans, and reports. Managers coordinate the activities of their unit with other units or organizations. They confer with higher levels of management; with financial, industrial production, marketing, and other managers; and with contractors and equipment suppliers. They establish procedures and policies for those who work for them and cany out procedures and policies set by others. Managers hire, train, and evaluate personnel under them. Engineering managers supervise engineering activities in testing, production, operations, or maintenance, or plan and coordinate the de­ sign and development of machinery, products, systems, and processes. Many are plant engineers, directing and coordinating the maintenance, operation, design, and construction of equipment and machinery in in­ dustrial plants. Others manage research and development activities that produce new products and processes or improve existing ones. Natural science managers oversee activities in agricultural science, chemistry, biology, geology, meteorology, or physics. They manage research and development projects and direct and coordinate testing, quality control, and production activities in industrial plants. Electronic data processing managers direct, plan, and coordinate data processing activities. Top level managers direct all computerrelated activities in an organization. Others manage computer opera­ tions, software development, or data bases. They determine the data processing requirements of their organization and assign, schedule, and review the work of systems analysts, computer programmers, and computer operators. Some engineering, science, and data processing managers head a section of perhaps 5 to 10 or more scientists, engineers, or computer professionals. Above them are heads of divisions composed of a number of sections, with as many as 15 to 50 scientists or engineers. A few are directors of large laboratories or directors of research or data processing. Working Conditions Engineering, science, and data processing managers spend most of their time in an office. Some managers, however, may also work in  29  laboratories or industrial plants, where they may occasionally be ex­ posed to the same conditions as production workers. Those in construc­ tion may spend part of their time at construction sites. Most work at least 40 hours a week and may work much longer on occasion to meet project deadlines. Some may experience considerable pressure to meet technical or scientific goals within a short time or within a tight budget. Employment Engineering, science, and data processing managers held about 258,000 jobs in 1988. Although these managers are found in almost all industries, almost half are employed in manufacturing, especially in the electrical and electronic equipment, transportation equipment, and chemicals industries. They also work for engineering, architec­ tural, and computer and data processing services companies and busi­ ness and management consulting firms as well as for government, colleges and universities, and nonprofit research organizations. The majority are engineering managers, often managing industrial re­ search, development, and design projects. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Experience as an engineer, mathematician, natural scientist, or com­ puter professional is the usual requirement for becoming an engineer­ ing, science, or data processing manager. Consequently, educational requirements are similar to those for scientists, engineers, and data processing professionals. Engineering managers start as engineers. A bachelor’s degree in engineering from an accredited engineering program is acceptable for beginning engineering jobs, but many engineers increase their chances for promotion to manager by obtaining a master’s degree in engineering or business administration. A degree in business administration or engineering management is especially useful for becoming a general manager. Natural science managers usually start as a chemist, physicist, biologist, or other natural scientist. A large proportion of natural scientists have a Ph.D. degree, especially those engaged in basic research, although some in applied research and other activities have lesser degrees. First level science managers are almost always special­ ists in the work they supervise. For example, the manager of a group of physicists doing optical research is almost always a physicist who is an expert in optics. Most data processing managers have been systems analysts, al­ though some may have experience as programmers or in other com­ puter specialties. There is no universally accepted way of preparing for a job as a systems analyst, but a bachelor’s degree is usually required. A graduate degree often is preferred. Many systems analysts have degrees in computer or information science, computer informa­ tion systems, or data processing and have experience as computer programmers. A typical career advancement progression in a large organization would be from programmer to programmer/analyst, to systems analyst, and then to project leader or senior analyst. The first real managerial position might be as project manager, programming supervisor, systems supervisor, or software manager. Experienced scientists, engineers, or computer specialists generally must demonstrate above-average technical skills to be considered for promotion to manager. In addition, superiors look for leadership, good communication skills, self-confidence, motivation, decisiveness, and flexibility, as well as managerial attributes such as the ability to make sound decisions, to organize and coordinate work effectively, to estab­ lish good personal relationships, and to motivate others. Also, a suc­ cessful manager must have the desire to manage. Many scientists, engineers, and computer specialists want to be promoted but actually prefer doing technical work. Some science and engineering managers become managers in mar­ keting, personnel, purchasing, or other areas or become general man­ agers.  An engineering manager meets with his staff to discuss the progress of a project.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Job Outlook Employment of engineering and science managers is expected to in­ crease much faster than the average for all occupations through the  30  Occupational Outlook Handbook  year 2000. Employment growth of each type of manager is expected to correspond closely with growth of the occupation they supervise. (See the statements on natural scientists, engineers, computer program­ mers, and systems analysts elsewhere in the Handbook.) Underlying much of the growth of managers in science and engineer­ ing is the expected continued growth of research and development as companies update and improve products more frequently. Increasing investment in plants to expand output of goods and services and to increase productivity also will add to employment requirements for science and engineering managers involved in developing, designing, operating, and maintaining production facilities. The development of new technologies such as superconductivity and biotechnology also will add to efforts to develop new products using these technologies. Employment of data processing managers will increase as the economy expands and as advances in technology lead to new applications for computers. Despite this rapid growth in employment, most job openings will result from the need to replace workers who leave the occupation. Because many engineers, natural scientists, and computer specialists are eligible for management and seek promotion, there usually is substantial competition for these jobs. Earnings Earnings for engineering, science, and data processing managers vary by specialty and level of management. Salaries in 1988 ranged from about $40,000 to over $100,000 for the most senior managers in large organizations. Managers generally earned about 15 to 25 percent more than those they directly supervised. The average salary for Federal science and engineering managers was $54,900 in 1988. In addition, engineering, science, and data processing managers, especially those at higher levels, often are provided more fringe bene­ fits than nonmanagerial workers in their organizations. Higher level managers often are provided with expense accounts, stock option plans, and bonuses. Related Occupations The work of engineering, science, and data processing managers is closely related to that of engineers, natural scientists, computer person­ nel, and mathematicians. It is also related to the work of other manag­ ers, especially general managers and top executives. Sources of Additional Information Contact the sources of additional information on engineers, natural scientists, and systems analysts that are listed in statements on these occupations elsewhere in the Handbook.  Financial Managers  Highly trained and experienced financial managers head each financial department. Controllers direct the preparation of all finan­ cial reports—for example, income statements, balance sheets, and special reports such as depreciation schedules. They oversee the accounting, audit, or budget departments. Cash managers monitor and control the flow of cash receipts and disbursements and other financial instruments to meet the business and investment needs of the firm. For example, loans may be obtained to meet a cash shortage, or surplus cash may be invested in interest-bearing instru­ ments. Risk and insurance managers oversee programs to minimize risks and losses that may arise from financial transactions and business operations undertaken by the institution. Credit card opera­ tions managers establish credit rating criteria, determine credit ceilings, and monitor their institution’s extension of credit. Reserve officers review their institution’s financial statements and direct the purchase and sale of bonds and other securities to maintain the assetliability ratio required by law. User representatives in international accounting develop integrated international financial and accounting systems for the banking transactions of multinational organizations. A working knowledge of the financial systems of foreign countries is essential. Financial institutions—such as banks, savings and loan associa­ tions, personal credit institutions, and finance companies—may serve as depositories for cash and financial instruments and offer loans, investment counseling, trust management, and other financial services. Some institutions specialize in specific financial services. Financial managers in these institutions include vice presidents—who may head one or more financial departments—bank branch managers, savings and loan association managers, consumer credit managers, and credit union managers, for example. Financial managers in financial institutions make decisions in accor­ dance with Federal and State laws and regulations and policy set by the institution's board of directors. They must have detailed knowledge of industries allied to banking—such as insurance, real estate, and securities—and broad knowledge of business and industrial activities. With growing domestic hnd foreign competition, promotion of an expanding and increasingly complex variety of financial services is becoming a more important function of financial managers in banks and related institutions. Besides supervising financial services, they may advise individuals and businesses on financial planning and partic­ ipate in community projects.  1 9  1®  |  .  (D.O.T. 161.117-018; 186.117-014, -038, -066, -070, -078; .167-022 -026 -054; and 189.117-038)  Nature of the Work Practically every firm—whether in manufacturing, communications, finance, education, or health care—has one or more financial manag­ ers—treasurer, controller, cash manager, and others—who prepare the financial reports required by the firm to conduct its operations and to satisfy tax and regulatory requirements. Financial managers also oversee the flow of cash and financial instruments and develop informa­ tion to assess the present and future financial status of the firm. In small firms, treasurers’ duties usually include all financial man­ agement functions. However, in large firms, treasurers or chief finan­ cial officers oversee all financial management departments. In these instances, treasurers help top managers develop financial and economic policy and establish procedures, delegate authority, and oversee the implementation of these policies.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Controllers direct the preparation offinancial reports.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations Working Conditions Financial managers are provided with comfortable offices close to top managers and to departments which develop the financial data these managers need. Although overtime may sometimes be required, fi­ nancial managers typically work a 40-hour week. Attendance at meet­ ings of financial and economic associations and similar activities is often required. In very large corporations, some traveling to subsidiary firms may be necessary. Employment Financial managers held about 673,000 jobs in 1988. Although these managers are found in virtually every industry, about one-third were employed by financial services industries—banks, finance companies, insurance companies, securities dealers, real estate firms, and related institutions. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree in accounting or finance, or in business administra­ tion with an emphasis on accounting or finance, is suitable academic preparation for financial managers. A Master of Business Administra­ tion (MBA) degree in addition to a bachelor’s degree in any field is acceptable to some employers. However, many financial management positions are filled by promoting experienced, technically skilled pro­ fessional personnel—for example, accountants, budget analysts, credit analysts, insurance analysts, loan officers, and securities analysts—or accounting or related department supervisors in large institutions. In small firms, where the number of positions is limited, advancement to a financial management position may come slowly. In large firms, promotions may occur more quickly. Although experience, ability, and leadership are emphasized for promotion, advancement may be accelerated by special study. Firms often provide opportunities for workers to broaden their knowledge and skills and encourage employees to take courses at local colleges and universities. In addition, financial managment and banking associ­ ations, often in cooperation with colleges and universities, sponsor numerous national or local training programs. Their schools, located throughout the country, each deal with a different phase of financial management. Persons enrolled prepare extensively at home, then at­ tend sessions on subjects such as accounting management, budget management, corporate cash management, financial analysis, interna­ tional banking, and data processing systems procedures and manage­ ment. Firms also sponsor seminars and conferences and provide text­ books and other educational materials. Many firms pay all or part of the costs for those who successfully complete courses. Persons interested in becoming financial managers should like to work independently and analyze detailed information. The ability to communicate, both orally and in writing, with top managers is impor­ tant. They also need tact, good judgment, and the ability to establish effective personal relationships to oversee supervisory and professional staff members. Financial analysis and management have been revolutionized by technological improvements in computers and data processing equip­ ment. Knowledge of their applications is vital to upgrade managerial skills and to enhance advancement opportunities. Because financial management is critical for efficient business oper­ ations, well-trained, experienced financial managers may transfer to closely related positions in other industries. Some are promoted to top management positions. Financial managers with extensive experience and sufficient capital may head their own consulting firms. Job Outlook Employment of financial managers is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2000. The growing need for skilled financial management in the face of the increasing variety and complexity of services—including financial planning—offered by financial institutions, more domestic and foreign competition, changing laws regarding taxes and other financial mat­ ters, and greater emphasis on accurate reporting of financial data should spur demand for financial managers. At the same time, expand­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  31  ing automation—such as use of computers for electronic funds trans­ mission and for data and information processing—makes financial managers more productive. Most job openings will result from the need to replace those who transfer to other fields, retire, or leave the occupation for other reasons. Because of the increasing number of qualified applicants, competi­ tion for financial managerial positions is expected to stiffen. Familiar­ ity with a range of financial services—for example, banking, insur­ ance, real estate, and securities—and with computers and data processing systems may enhance one’s chances for employment. De­ veloping expertise in a rapidly growing industry, such as health care, may also prove helpful. Once employed, financial managers are likely to work year round, even during periods of slow economic activity, because cyclical swings in the economy seem to have little immediate effect on financial management activities. Earnings The median annual salary of financial managers was $32,800 in 1988. The lowest 10 percent earned $17,500 or less, while the top 10 percent earned over $52,000. The salary level depends upon the size and location of the organization, and is likely to be higher in large institu­ tions and cities. Many financial managers in private industry receive additional compensation in the form of bonuses, which also vary substantially by size of firm. Financial managers generally receive fringe benefits typically of­ fered other managers—vacations, sick leave, health and life insurance, and pensions, for example. Related Occupations Financial managers combine formal education with experience in one or more areas of finance—such as asset management, lending, credit operations, securities investment, or insurance risk and loss control. Workers in other occupations which require similar training and ability include accountants and auditors, budget officers, credit analysts, loan officers, insurance consultants, pension consultants, real estate advisors, securities consultants, and underwriters. Sources of Additional Information For information about financial management careers, contact: w-American Financial Services Association, Fourth Floor, 1101 14th St. NW., Washington, DC 20005. (•-Financial Executives Institute, Academic Relations Committee, P.O. Box 1938, Morristown, NJ 07962-1938. (•-National Corporate Cash Management Association, P.O. Box 7001, Newton, CT 06740.  For information about financial management careers in banking and related financial institutions, contact: (•-American Bankers Association, Reference Librarian, 1120Connecticut Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20036.  For information about financial management careers in savings and loan associations and related financial institutions, contact: (•-Institute of Financial Education and Financial Managers Society, 111 E. Wacker Dr., Chicago, IL 60601.  For information about financial management careers in credit unions, contact: (•-Credit Union Executives Society, P.O. Box 14167. Madison, WI 53714.  Additional information on careers in credit management is available from: (•-National Association of Credit Management, World Headquarters, 8815 Centre Park Dr., Suite 200, Columbia, MD 21045-2117.  For information about financial management careers in the health care industry, contact: (•-Healthcare Financial Management Association, Suite 700, Two Westbrook Corporate Center, Westchester, IL 60154.  Information about careers with the Federal Reserve System is avail­ able from: (•-Board of Governors, The Federal Reserve System, Personnel Division, Washington, DC 20551, or from the personnel department of the Federal Reserve bank serving each geographic area.  32  Occupational Outlook Handbook  State bankers’ associations can furnish specific information about job opportunities in their State. Or write directly to a particular bank to inquire about job openings. For the names and addresses of banks and savings and related institutions, as well as the names of their principal officers, consult one of the following directories. m-The American Bank Directory (Norcross, Ga., McFadden Business Publica­ tions). m-The U.S. Savings and Loan Directory (Chicago, Rand McNally & Co.). m-Rand McNally Credit Union Directory (Chicago, Rand McNally & Co.). M-Polk’s World Bank Directory (Nashville, R.L. Polk & Co.).  General Managers and Top Executives (List of D.O.T. codes available upon request. See p. 463.)  Nature of the Work Chief executive officer, executive vice president for marketing, depart­ ment store manager, financial institution president, brokerage office manager, college president, school superintendent, and police chief— these are examples of general managers and top executives who, at the top of the management hierarchy, formulate the policies or direct the operations of the Nation’s private firms or government agencies. (Top executives in public administration who formulate policy are discussed in detail in the Handbook statement on government chief executives and legislators.) The fundamental objective of private organizations is to maintain efficiency and profitability in the face of accelerating technological complexity, economic interdependence, and domestic and foreign competition. Government agencies must effectively implement pro­ grams subject to budgetary constraints and shifting public preferences. In response to these trends, successful organizations have broadened their activities, grown in size and complexity, and expanded their management hierarchy. An organization’s general goals and policies are established by the chief executive officer in collaboration with other top executives, usually executive vice presidents, and with the board of directors. In a large corporation, a busy chief executive officer may frequently meet with top executives of other corporations, government, or foreign countries to discuss matters affecting the organization’s policies. Al­ though the chief executive officer retains ultimate authority and respon­ sibility, the chief operating officer may be delegated the authority to oversee executive vice presidents who direct the activities of various departments and are responsible for implementing the organization’s goals. The responsibilities of executive vice presidents depend greatly upon the size of the organization. In large corporations, their duties may be highly specialized. For example, they may oversee the activi­ ties of general managers of marketing, sales promotion, purchasing, finance, personnel, training, industrial relations, administrative ser­ vices, electronic data processing, property management, transporta­ tion, or legal services. (Some of these and other general managerial occupations are discussed elsewhere in this section of the Handbook.) In smaller firms, an executive vice president might be responsible for a number of these departments. General managers, in turn, direct their individual department’s ac­ tivities within the framework of the organization’s overall plan. With the help of supervisory managers and their staffs, general managers strive to achieve their department’s goals as rapidly and economically as possible. Working Conditions General managers are provided with offices close to the departments they direct and to the top executives to whom they report. Top execu­ tives may be provided with spacious offices and may enjoy numerous perquisites, such as executive dining rooms, automobiles, country club memberships, and liberal expense allowances—which may facilitate  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  meetings and negotiations with top executives from other corporations, government, or other nations. Long hours, including evenings and weekends, are the rule, and business discussions may occupy most of their time during social engagements. Substantial travel is often required. General managers may travel between national, regional, and local offices. Top executives may travel to meet with their counterparts in other corporations in the country or overseas. Perquisites such as reimbursement of an accompa­ nying spouse’s travel expenses help executives cope with frequent or extended periods away from home. Meetings and conferences spon­ sored by industries and associations occur regularly and provide invalu­ able opportunities to meet with peers and keep abreast of technological and other developments. In large corporations, job transfers between the parent company and its local offices or subsidiaries, here or abroad, are common. General managers and top executives often work under intense pressure to attain, for example, production and marketing goals. And sometimes they find themselves in situations over which they have limited influence—for example, when meeting with government offi­ cials, private interest groups, or competitors, or negotiating with for­ eign governments. Employment General managers and top executives held over 3 million jobs in 1988. Although they are found in every industry, employment is more concentrated in the largest industries—eating and drinking places, grocery stores, and miscellaneous business services, for example. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement The educational background of managers and top executives varies as widely as the nature of their diverse responsibilities. Most general managers and top executives have a bachelor’s degree in liberal arts or business administration. Their major often is related to the departments they direct—for example, accounting for a general manager of finance or computer science for a general manager of data processing. Graduate and professional degrees are common. Many managers in administra­ tive, marketing, financial, and manufacturing activities have a master’s degree in business administration. Managers in highly technical manu­ facturing and research activities often have a master’s or doctoral degree in an engineering or scientific discipline. A law degree is mandatory for general managers of corporate legal departments, and hospital administrators generally have a master’s degree in health services administration or business administration. (For additional information, see the Handbook statement on health services manag­ ers.) College presidents and school superintendents generally have a doctorate, often in education administration; some have a law degree. In some industries, such as retail trade, competent individuals without a college degree may become general managers. Most general managers in the public sector have a liberal arts degree in public administration or in one of the social sciences such as economics, psychology, sociology, or urban studies. For others, expe­ rience is still the primary qualification. City managers usually have a liberal arts degree, although the master’s degree in public administra­ tion is increasing in importance. For park superintendents, a liberal arts degree also provides a suitable background. Police chiefs are graduates of police academies; in addition, a degree in police science or a related field is increasingly important. Similarly, fire chiefs are graduates of fire academies; in addition, a degree in fire science is gaining in importance. For harbormasters, a high school education and experience as a harbor pilot are sufficient. Most general management and top executive positions are filled by promoting experienced, lower level managers who display the leadership, self-confidence, motivation, decisiveness, and flexibility required by these demanding positions. In small firms, where the number of positions is limited, advancement to a higher management position may come slowly. In large firms, promotions may occur more quickly. Advancement may be accelerated by participation in company train­ ing programs to broaden knowledge of company policy and operations.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations  33  accounting, bookkeeping, and auditing services firms and in some industries concerned with health and welfare such as outpatient clinics and establishments offering individual and family social services. On the other hand, employment of general managers and top executives is expected to increase more slowly in the educational services industry in line with the growth of the school-age population. Little or no change or even a decline in employment is projected in some manufacturing industries.  Executive positions demand leadership, self-confidence, motivation, and decisiveness. Attendance at national or local training programs sponsored by numer­ ous industry and trade associations and continuing education, often at company expense, in colleges and universities can familiarize manag­ ers with the latest developments in management techniques. Participa­ tion in interdisciplinary conferences and seminars can expand knowl­ edge of national and international issues influencing the manager’s firm. Persons interested in becoming general managers and top executives must have highly developed personal skills. A highly analytical mind able to quickly assess large amounts of information and data is very important. The ability to consider and evaluate the interrelationships of numerous factors and to select the best course of action is imperative. In the absence of sufficient information, sound intuitive judgment is crucial to reaching favorable decisions. General managers and top executives also must be able to communicate clearly and persuasively, both orally and in writing. General managers may advance to top executive positions, such as executive or administrative vice president, in their own firm or to a corresponding general management position in a larger firm. Similarly, top-level managers may advance to peak corporate positions—chief operating officer and, finally, chief executive officer. Chief executive officers, upon retirement, may become members of the board of direc­ tors of one or more firms. Some general managers and top executives with sufficient capital establish their own firms. Job Outlook Employment of general managers and top executives is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2000 as businesses grow in number, size, and complexity. However, in the face of intense competition, many firms are improving operating efficiency by expanding individual managers’ responsibilities—thus moderating employment growth. While many job openings will also occur each year to replace those who transfer to better paying positions, start their own businesses, or retire, competent, experienced lower level managers should expect keen competition for high-paying, presti­ gious general and top management positions. Outstanding individuals whose accomplishments reflect strong leadership qualities and the ability to improve the efficiency or competitive position of their organi­ zation will have the best job opportunities. Projected employment growth varies by industry. For example, most services industries will continue to expand rapidly. Employment of general managers and top executives in the computer and data processing services industry is expected to grow much faster than the average as computer use expands. Very rapid employment growth also is expected in firms supplying management, consulting, public relations, personnel supply, and other business services as many firms find it cost-efficient to contract out for these services. Employment of general managers and top executives is expected to grow rapidly in  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Earnings The estimated median annual salary of general managers and top executives was around $38,700 in 1988. Many earned well over $52,000. Salary levels vary substantially depending upon the level of managerial responsibility, length of service, and type, size, and loca­ tion of the firm. Most salaried general managers and top executives in the private sector receive additional compensation in the form of bonuses, stock awards, and cash-equivalent fringe benefits such as company-paid insurance premiums, physical examinations, use of company cars, and paid country club memberships. Similar to their subordinates, general managers and top executives receive other fringe benefits such as paid vacations, sick leave, and pensions. Chief executive officers are the most highly paid top-level managers. A recent survey of top corporations revealed that over 150 chief executive officers received base salaries of $1 million or more and additional compensation—such as fringe benefits and company stock—equivalent, on the average, to nearly half of their base salary. Other surveys of executive salaries reveal the importance of the size of the corporation. A top-level manager in a very large corporation can earn 10 times as much as a counterpart in a small firm. Salaries also vary substantially by industry and geographic location. For example, salaries in manufacturing and finance are generally higher than those for corresponding positions in State and local govern­ ments. Also, salaries in large metropolitan areas such as New York City are normally higher than those in small cities and towns. Related Occupations General managers and top executives plan, organize, direct, control, and coordinate the operations of an organization and its major depart­ ments or programs. The members of the board of directors and supervi­ sory managers are also involved in these activities. Occupations in government with similar functions are governor, mayor, postmaster, commissioner, director, and office chief. Sources of Additional Information For information about careers as general managers and top executives, contact: (•-American Management Association, Management Information Service, 135 West 50th St., New York, NY 10020. (•-National Management Association, 2210 Arbor Blvd., Dayton, OH 45439.  Information about general managers and top executives in specific industries may be obtained from organizations listed under a number of headings—for example, administration, administrators, directors, executives, management, managers, and superintendents—in various encyclopedias or directories of associations in public libraries.  Government Chief Executives and Legislators Nature of the Work Go to school. Pay your taxes. Register for the draft. Stop at the stop sign. It seems as though the government is always telling us what to do. Who, then, tells the government what to do? Chief executives and legislators at the Federal, State, and local level do the telling. They are elected or appointed officials who strive to meet the needs of their constituents with an effective and efficient government.  34  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Chief executives are officials in charge of units of government who carry out and enforce laws. They include the President and Vice President of the United States, State governors and lieutenant gover­ nors, county commissioners, township supervisors, mayors, and city managers. All except city and county managers are elected; managers are appointed by the city council and the county commission. Government chief executives, like corporation presidents and other chief executives, have overall responsibility for the performance of their organizations. In coordination with legislators, they establish goals and objectives, then organize programs and formulate policies to attain these goals. They appoint people to head departments, such as highways, health, police, recreation, economic development, and finance. Through these department heads, chief executives oversee the work of civil servants, who carry out programs and enforce laws enacted by the legislative bodies. They prepare budgets, which specify how government resources will be used. They insure that resources are being used properly and that programs are carried out as planned by holding staff conferences, requiring work schedules and periodic performance reports, and by conducting personal inspections. Chief executives meet with legislators and constituents to solicit their ideas, discuss programs, and encourage their support, and confer with leaders of other governments to solve mutual problems. They encourage business investment and economic development in their jurisdictions and seek Federal or State funds. Chief executives nomi­ nate citizens for government boards and commissions—to oversee government activities or examine and help the government solve prob­ lems such as drug abuse, crime, deteriorating roads, or inadequate public education. They also solicit bids from and select contractors to do work for the government. Chief executives of large jurisdictions rely on a staff of aides and assistants, while those in small ones often do much of the work themselves. Legislators are the elected officials who make laws or amend existing ones in order to remedy problems or to promote certain activities. They include U.S. Senators and Representatives, State senators and representatives (called assemblymen or delegates in some States) and county legislatures and city and town council members (called aidermen or selectmen in some areas). Legislators introduce bills in the legislative body and examine and vote on bills introduced by other legislators. In preparing legislation, they read reports and work with constituents, representatives of interest groups, members of boards and commissions, the chief executive and department heads, consultants, and legislators in other units of government. They also approve budgets and the appointments of department heads and commission members submitted by the chief executive. In some jurisdictions, the legislative body appoints a city or county manager. Many legislators have a staff to help do research and prepare legislation and resolve constituents’ problems. In some units of government, the line between legislative and execu­ tive functions is not clear. For example, mayors and city managers may draft legislation and conduct council meetings, while council members may oversee the operation of departments. Both chief executives and legislators perform ceremonial duties__ they open new structures and businesses; make proclamations, wel­ come visitors, and lead celebrations.  Working Conditions Working conditions of chief executives and legislators vary depending on the size of the government unit. Those in small jurisdictions may work less than 20 hours a week; others may work 60 or more hours per week. U.S. Senators and Representatives, governors and lieutenant governors, and chief executives and legislators in some large local jurisdictions work full time year round, as do almost all county and city managers. Most State legislators work full time while legislatures are in session—usually for a few months a year and part time the rest of the year. Local elected officials in most jurisdictions usually work part time; however, in some cases, while the job is officially designated part time, incumbents actually work a full-time schedule.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Regardless of their regular schedules, chief executives are generally on call at all hours to handle emergencies. Some jobs require only occasional out-of-town travel, while others involve more frequent travel—generally to attend sessions of the legis­ lature or to meet with officials of other units of government. Officials in districts covering a large area may drive long distances to perform their regular duties. Employment Chief executives and legislators held about 69,000 jobs in 1988. About 4 of 5 worked in local government; the rest worked in the Federal and State governments. The Federal Government had 535 Senators and Representatives. State legislators totaled approximately 7,500, and city managers, approximately 4,900. Executives and council members for local governments made up the remainder. While chief executives and legislators are found in every government unit, city managers are most commonly found in medium-size and large cities. Officials who do not hold full-time, year-round positions generally work in another occupation as well—commonly the one they held before being elected—are retired from another occupation, or have household responsibilities. Business owner or manager, teacher, and lawyer are the most common other occupation, but there are many others as well. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Because most chief executives and legislators are elected, the voters determine whether an individual who meets the minimum age and citizenship requirements of the position is fit to hold it. Therefore, the question is not “How does one become qualified?” but “How does one get elected?” Successful candidates generally have a record of accomplishment in paid and unpaid work. Many have business, teaching, or legal experience, but others come from a wide variety of occupations. In addition, many have served as volunteers on school boards or zoning commissions; with charities, political action groups, and political campaigns; or with religious, fraternal, and similar organizations. Not surprisingly, few young adults enter these jobs. Work experience and public service help develop the planning, organizing, negotiating, motivating, fundraising, bugdeting, public speaking, and problem-solving skills needed to run a political cam­ paign. Candidates must be decisive, quickly making fair decisions  About four out offive government officials work at the local level.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations with little or contradictory information. They must have confidence in themselves and their employees, being able to inspire and motivate their constituents and their staff. They must also be sincere and candid, presenting their views thoughtfully and convincingly. Additionally, they must know how to negotiate and hammer out compromises with colleagues and constituents. National and statewide campaigns also require a good deal of energy and stamina. City managers are appointed by the council while county managers are appointed by the commission. Managers come from a variety of educational backgrounds. A master’s degree in public administra­ tion—which would include courses such as public financial manage­ ment and legal issues in public administration—is widely recom­ mended but not required. Generally, a city manager in a smaller city is required to have some expertise in a wider variety of areas, while those who work for larger cities concentrate on administrative and personnel matters. County managers, on the other hand, must have expertise in a broad range of administrative areas regardless of the size of the jurisdiciton. For all managers, communication skills and the ability to get along with others are essential. Advancement opportunities for most elected public officials are not clearly defined. Because elected positions generally require a period of residency and because local public support is critical, officials can usually advance to other offices only in the jurisdictions where they live. For example, council members may run for mayor or for a position in the State government, and State legislators may run for governor or for Congress. Many officials are not politically ambitious, however, and do not seek advancement. And many lose their bids for reelection or voluntarily leave the occupation. City managers have a more well-defined career path. They generally obtain a master’s degree in public administration, then gain experience as management analysts or assistants in government departments work­ ing with councils and mayors and learning about planning, budgeting, civil engineering, and other aspects of runnning a city. After several years, they may be hired to manage a town or a small city and may eventually become manager of progressively larger cities. Job outlook Little change in employment of government chief executives and legislators is expected through the year 2000. Few, if any, new govern­ ments are likely to be formed, and the number of chief executives and legislators in existing governments rarely changes. Some small increase may occur as growing communities become independent cities and towns and elect a chief executive and legislators and, per­ haps, appoint a town manager. A few new positions may also develop as cities and counties without managers hire them and as unpaid offices—which are not counted as employment—are converted to paid positions. Elections provide the opportunity for newcomers to unseat incum­ bents or to fill vacated positions. In many elections, there is substantial competition, although the level of competition varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction and from year to year. In general, there is less competi­ tion in small jurisdictions which have part-time positions with low salaries and little or no staff to help with tedious work. In some cases, an incumbent is unopposed or an incumbent resigns and there is only one candidate. Earnings Earnings of public administrators vary widely, depending on the size of the government unit and on whether the job is part time, full time year round, or full time for only a few months a year. In general, earnings are low. According to the International City Management Association, the median annual salary of full-time council members was $2,400 in 1986. It ranged from $750 in cities with a population of 2,500 and under to $40,000 in cities with a population of 500,000 and above. The average annual salary of mayors was $8,321 in 1988. in cities with a population under 2,500, they averaged $1,645; in cities with a population over 1 million, $55,833. The average annual salary of city managers was $50,536 in 1988.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  35  Salaries ranged from $30,049 in towns with fewer than 2,500 residents to $109,017 in cities with a population of 500,000 to 1 million. According to the Council of State Governments, the average salary for legislators in the 39 States that paid legislators an annual salary was $17,711 in 1987. In 11 States, legislators just received per diem while legislatures were in session. Salaries and per diem were generally higher in the larger States. According to Book of the States 1988-89, gubernatorial annual salaries ranged from $35,000 in Arkansas to $130,000 in New York. In addition to a salary, most governors received perquisites such as transportation and an official residence. Lieutenant governors earned an average salary of $47,292, according to a 1989 survey conducted by the National Conference of Lieutenant Governors. Related occupations Related occupations include managerial positions that require a broad range of skills in addition to administrative expertise. Sources of Additional Information For more information on careers in public administration, consult your elected representatives and local library. Information on county governments can be obtained from: •-The National Association of Counties, 440 First St. NW., Washington, DC 20001.  Information on all local government appointed officials can be obtained from:  •-International City Management Association, 1120 G St. NW., Washington, DC 20005.  Health Services Managers (D.O.T. 074.131; 075.117-014, -022, -026, and -030; 079.117-010, .131, .137, and .167-014; 187.117-010, -018, and -062; and 188.117-082 and .167­ 058)  Nature of the Work Walk into a busy emergency room and the place probably looks chaotic, with staff hurrying from one patient to another. What looks like chaos actually is a highly structured and smoothly running opera­ tion. The person who ensures that it functions efficiently is the emer­ gency medical service coordinator, just one of many health services managers who keep hospitals and other health facilities operating smoothly. Health services manager is an inclusive term for individuals in many different positions who plan, organize, coordinate, and supervise the delivery of health care. Health services managers include both general­ ists—the administrators managing or helping to manage the entire facility—and health specialists—the managers in charge of specific clinical departments or services that are found only in the health industry. The top administrator or chief executive officer (CEO) and the assistant administrators without specific titles are considered health care generalists. Although their titles may vary by type and size of institution, these managers set the overall direction of the facility. They also are concerned with community outreach, planning, policymaking, response to government agencies and regulations, and negotiating. Their range of knowledge is necessarily broad, including developments in the clinical departments as well as in the business arena. The job often includes speaking before civic groups, promoting public participation in health programs, and coordinating the activities of the organization with those of government or community agencies. Institutional planning is an increasingly important responsibility for CEO’s, who must assess the need for services, personnel, facilities, and equipment and recommend such changes as opening a home health service, for example, or closing a burn center. CEO’s need leadership ability as well as technical skills in order to respond effectively to the community’s requirements for health care while, at the same time,  36  Occupational Outlook Handbook  satisfying demand for financial viability, cost containment, and public and professional accountability. CEO’s have to be ready for the extensive oversight and scrutiny to which health facilities are subjected. Both past performance and plans for the future are subject to review by a variety of groups and organiza­ tions, including consumer groups, government agencies, professional oversight bodies, insurance companies and other third-party payers, business coalitions, and even the courts. Preparing for inspection visits by observers from regulatory and accrediting bodies and submitting appropriate records and documentation are generally time consuming as well as technically demanding. Some facilities may have one or more assistant administrators to aid the CEO and to handle day-to-day management decisions. There may be directors responsible for broad clinical areas such as nursing services or medical affairs and for other nonhealth areas such as finance, personnel, and information management. (Because the nonhealth de­ partments are not directly related to health care, these managers are not included in this statement. For information about these kinds of managers, see the statements on managerial occupations elsewhere in the Handbook). Health specialists provide the day-to-day management of specialized departments like surgery, rehabilitation therapy, nursing, medical re­ cords, and so on. These managers have more narrowly defined respon­ sibilities than the generalists to whom they report. Another characteris­ tic of these specialists is the need to have specific training and/or experience in the field. For example, the director of physical therapy would invariably have been a staff physical therapist who has been promoted; a medical records administrator needs a bachelor’s degree regardless of the amount of experience he or she possesses. These managers establish and implement policies, goals, objectives, and procedures for their departments; evaluate personnel and work; de­ velop reports and budgets; and coordinate activities with other depart­ ment heads, the top administration, and professional colleagues. Although there arc many common elements involved in running a health facility, there are significant differences among settings that affect job duties. For example, hospital and nursing home management differ in important respects. The chief hospital administrator works with the governing board in establishing general policies and an opera­ ting philosophy and provides direction to assistant administrators and department heads who carry out those policies. Nursing home administratiors need many of the same management skills but are much more involved in detailed management decisions than hospital administra­ tors. Administrative staffs in nursing homes are typically much smaller than those in hospitals—nursing home administrators often have only one or two assistants, sometimes none. Nursing home administrators directly manage personnel, finance, operations, and admissions. They analyze data and make daily management decisions in all of these areas. Because many nursing home residents are long term—staying for months or even years—administrators must try to create an environ­ ment that nourishes residents’ psychological, social, and spiritual well­ being, as well as to tend to their health care needs. This long-term residency allows the nursing home administrator to have direct contact with the patients, something that few hospital administrators are able to do unless a problem arises. In the growing field of group practice management, managers need to be able to work effectively with the physicians who own the practice. Specific job duties vary according to the size of the group. While an office manager handles business affairs in very small medical groups, leaving policy decisions to the physicians themselves, larger groups generally employ a full-time administrator to advise on business strate­ gies and coordinate the day-to-day management of the practice. A small group of 10 or 15 physicians might employ a single adminis­ trator to oversee personnel matters, billing and collection, budgeting, planning, equipment outlays, advertising, and patient flow, whereas a large practice of 40 or 50 physicians would require a chief administra­ tor and several business assistants, each responsible for a different functional area of management. In addition to providing overall man­ agement direction, the chief administrator would be responsible for assuring that the practice maintained or strengthened its competitive  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  position. This is no small task, given the rapidly changing nature of the health care environment. Assuring competitiveness might entail market research to analyze the services the practice currently offers and those it might offer; negotiating contracts with hospitals or other health care providers to gain access to specialized facilities and equip­ ment; or entering joint ventures for the purchase of an expensive piece of medical equipment such as a magnetic resonance imager. Health services managers in health maintenance organizations (HMO's) per­ form all of the functions of those in large medical group practices. Working Conditions Health services managers often work long hours. Facilities such as nursing homes and hospitals operate around the clock, and administra­ tors and managers may be called at all hours to deal with emergencies. The job also may include travel to attend meetings or to inspect satellite health care facilities. Employment Health services managers held about 177,000 jobs in 1988. Half of all jobs were in hospitals. About a quarter of health services managers worked in nursing and personal care facilities and in offices of physi­ cians. The remainder worked in outpatient care facilities, other health and allied services, medical and dental laboratories, and offices of dentists and other practitioners. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Knowledge of management principles and practices is the essential requirement for a position in this field, and such knowledge often is gained through work experience. Nonetheless, formal educational preparation is important, especially for those who wish to advance in the profession. For many chief administrative positions, a graduate degree in health services administration, nursing administration, or business administration is a decided asset. For all health specialist positions and some generalist positions, employers seek applicants who have had clinical experience (as nurses or therapists, for example) as well as academic preparation in business or health services adminis­ tration. Many hospitals are setting up separate ventures such as outpatient surgical centers, alcoholism treatment centers, and home health care services. When they operate at a profit, separate companies such as these can funnel needed revenue to the hospital. To operate and manage these subsidiary companies, hospitals look outside the health industry for managers with well-established skills in profit and loss analysis, marketing, and finance. Nonetheless, graduate education in health services administration remains a prerequisite for many upper level administrative positions within hospitals and their subsidiaries. Academic programs in health administration, leading to a bache­ lor’s, master’s, or doctoral degree, are offered by colleges, universi­ ties, and schools of public health, allied health, and business adminis­ tration. The various degree programs provide different levels of career preparation. The master’s degree—in hospital administration, health administration, public health, or business administration—is regarded as the standard credential for many positions in this field. Educational requirements vary with the size of the organization and the amount of responsibility involved. Generally, larger organizations require more specialized academic preparation than smaller ones do. In 1989, 29 colleges and universities offered bachelor’s degree programs in health services administration. Fifty schools had accred­ ited programs leading to the master’s degree in health services adminis­ tration, according to the Accrediting Commission on Education for Health Services Administration. To enter graduate programs, applicants must have a bachelor’s degree. Some schools seek students with undergraduate degrees in business or health administration; however, many programs prefer those students with a liberal arts or social science background. Compe­ tition for entry to these programs is keen, and applicants need above­ average grades to gain admission. The programs generally last between 2 and 3 years. They include up to 1 year of supervised administrative experience, undertaken after completion of course work in such areas  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations as hospital organization and management, accounting and budget con­ trol, personnel administration, strategic planning, and management of health information systems. New graduates with master’s degrees in health or hospital adminis­ tration may be hired by hospitals as assistant administrators. Others may have to start as managers of nonhealth departments and work up to top administrative positions. Postgraduate residencies and fellow­ ships are offered by hospitals and other health facilities; these are normally staff jobs. Growing numbers of graduates from master’s degree programs are also taking jobs in HMO’s, large group medical practices, multifacility nursing home corporations, and clinics. Students should be aware, however, that mid-level job transfers from one setting to another may be difficult. Employers place a high value on experience in similar settings because some of the management skills are unique to each setting. New recipients of bachelor’s degrees in health administration usu­ ally begin their careers as administrative assistants or assistant depart­ ment heads in larger hospitals, or as department heads or assistant administrators in small hospitals or in nursing homes. The Ph.D. degree usually is required for positions in teaching, consulting, or research. Nursing service administrators are usually chosen from among supervisory registered nurses with administrative abilities and advanced education. Licensure is not required in most areas of health services manage­ ment, except for nursing home or long-term care administration. All States and the District of Columbia require nursing home administra­ tors to pass a licensing examination, complete a State-approved train­ ing program, and pursue continuing education. Most States have addi­ tional specific requirements, so persons interested in nursing home administration should contact the individual agencies of the State in which they wish to work for information. At the time of this writing, the Health Care Financing Administration was developing Medicare guidelines for nursing home administrators, but they had not been released. Health services managers are often responsible for millions of dol­ lars of facilities and equipment and hundreds of employees. To make effective decisions, they need to be open to different opinions and good at sifting through contradictory information. To motivate subor­ dinates to implement their decisions, they need strong leadership qualities. Interpersonal skills are important in all settings, but nowhere more so than in medical groups, where success depends on developing a good working relationship with the physician-owners. Tact, diplo­ macy, and communication skills are essential. Like their counterparts in other kinds of organizations, health ser­ vices managers need to be self-starters. In order to create an atmosphere favorable to good patient care, they must like people, enjoy working with them, and be able to deal effectively with them. They also should be good at public speaking.  Health services managers need strong interpersonal skills.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  37  Health services managers may advance by moving into more respon­ sible and higher paying positions within their own institution; advance­ ment occurs with promotion to successively more responsible jobs such as assistant or associate administrator and, finally, CEO. Health services managers sometimes begin their careers in small hospitals in positions with broad responsibilities, such as assistant administrator. Managers also advance by shifting to another health care facility or organization.  Job Outlook Employment of health services managers is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000 as health services continue to expand and diversify. Most job openings, however, will result from the need to replace managers who transfer to another field or stop working. Hospitals will continue to employ the greatest number of health services managers, although the number of jobs will not be growing as fast as in other areas. Opportunities for managers in hospitals should be best in major medical centers as well as hospital subsidiaries that provide such services as ambulatory surgery, alcohol and drug abuse rehabilitation, hospice facilities, or home health care. Opportunities should be poor in small rural hospitals. Employment in offices of physicians and other health practitioners, outpatient care facilities, health and allied services, and nursing and long-term care facilities will be growing the fastest and will provide many job opportunities. Demand in facilities that provide ambulatory or outpatient care will be stimulated primarily by the expansion of HMO’s and medical group practices, but continued growth of such facilities as urgent care centers, cardiac rehabilitation centers, diagnostic imaging centers, and pain clinics will play an important role, too. Ambulatory facilities such as outpatient surgical centers and after-hours clinics are expected to experience very rapid growth due to their convenience and competitive fee structure, generating additional management jobs. With better medical care and healthier lifestyles, Americans are living longer than ever before. Very rapid growth is projected in the number of people 85 years of age and above between now and the year 2000, and this is likely to exert strong pressure for an expansion of long-term care facilities and services—not just nursing homes, but home health care, adult day care programs, life care communities, and assisted living arrangements. Opportunities for managers in the large and rapidly expanding nursing home sector should be highly favorable. Nursing home chains will need more management personnel at the corporate level to plan new facilities, acquire existing ones, and pro­ mote new services and activities. Health service managers in hospitals will face very keen competition for upper level management jobs, a reflection of the pyramidal manage­ ment structure characteristic of most large and complex organizations. In nursing homes and other long-term care facilities, where a gradu­ ate degree in health administration is not ordinarily a requirement, job opportunities for individuals with strong business or management skills will continue to be good.  Earnings Median earnings for all health service managers were $30,524 in 1988. The middle 50 percent earned between $22,516 and $41,080. The lowest 10 percent averaged less than $15,704, the highest 10 percent, more than $50,856. The personal standing and performance of the administrator, geographic location, type and size of the facility, and type of ownership are all factors in determining the earnings of admin­ istrators. For example, median salaries for hospital CEO’s range from $70,000 in hospitals with fewer than 150 beds to $135,000 in hospitals with 500 or more, according to the Hospital and Health Care Report, 13th edition, 1988/89, published by the Executive Compensation Ser­ vice, a Wyatt Data Services Company, Fort Lee, New Jersey. Management incentive bonuses based on job performance are in­ creasingly commonplace in executive compensation packages.  38  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Related Occupations Health service managers have training or experience in health and in management. Other occupations that require knowledge of both fields are public health directors, social welfare administrators, directors of voluntary health agencies and health professional associations, and underwriters in health insurance companies and HMO’s. Sources of Additional Information Information about health administration and academic programs in this field is available from: (•-American College of Healthcare Executives, 840 North Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, IL 60611. ••-Association of University Programs in Health Administration, 1911 Fort Myer Dr., Suite 503, Arlington, VA 22209.  Information about health administration and job opportunities in group medical practices is available from: ••-Medical Group Management Association, 1355 South Colorado Blvd., Suite 900, Denver, CO 80222.  For information about career opportunities in long-term care, contact: ••-American College of Health Care Administrators, 8120 Woodmont Ave., Suite 200, Bethesda, MD 20814.  The American Association of Homes for the Aging maintains a listing of positions available and positions wanted in nonprofit nursing homes, continuing care retirement communities, and housing for the elderly. For details, write: w-Job Mart, AAHA, 1129 20th St. NW„ Suite 400, Washington, DC 20036.  Hotel Managers and Assistants (D.O.T. 187.117-038, .167-046, -078, -106, -110, -122; and 320)  Nature of the Work Across the Nation, hotels and motels are a welcome haven for weary travelers. For vacationing families and persons whose jobs take them out of town, a comfortable room, good food, and a helpful hotel staff can make being away from home an enjoyable experience. They may be guests overnight at a roadside motel, spend several days at a towering downtown convention hotel, or a week at a large resort complex with tennis courts, a golf course, and a variety of other recreational facilities. At each, hotel managers and assistant managers work to insure that guests’ visits are pleasant. Hotel managers are responsible for the efficient and profitable opera­ tion of their establishments. In a small hotel, motel, or inn with a limited staff, a single manager may direct all aspects of operations. However, large hotels may employ hundreds of workers, and the manager may be aided by a number of assistant managers assigned among departments responsible for various aspects of operations. The general manager has overall responsibility for the operation of the hotel and sets room rates, allocates funds to departments, approves expenditures, and establishes standards for service to guests, decor, housekeeping, food quality, and banquet operations. (For more infor­ mation, see the statement on general managers and top executives elsewhere in the Handbook.) Assistant managers must insure that the day-to-day operations of their departments meet the general manager’s standards. Resident managers live in hotels and are on call 24 hours a day to resolve any problems or emergencies. As the most senior assistant manager, they oversee the day-to-day operations of the hotel. In many hotels, the general manager also serves as the resident manager. Executive housekeepers are responsible for insuring that guest rooms, meeting and banquet rooms, and public areas are clean, orderly, and well maintained. They train, schedule, and supervise the work of housekeepers, inspect rooms, and order cleaning supplies. Front office managers coordinate reservations and room assign­ ments and train and direct the hotel’s front desk staff that deals with the  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  public. They insure that guests are handled courteously and efficiently, complaints and problems are resolved, and requests for special services are carried out. Food and beverage managers direct the food services of hotels. They oversee the operation of hotels’ restaurants, cocktail lounges, and banquet facilities. They supervise and schedule food and beverage preparation and service workers, plan menus, estimate costs, and deal with food suppliers. (For more information, see the statement on restaurant and food service managers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Convention services managers coordinate the activities of large hotels’ various departments for meetings, conventions, and other spe­ cial events. They meet with representatives of groups or organizations to plan the number of rooms to reserve, the desired configuration of hotel meeting space, and any banquet services needed. During the meeting or event, they resolve unexpected problems and monitor activities to check that hotel operations conform to the expectations of the group. Other assistant managers may be specialists responsible for activi­ ties such as personnel, accounting and office administration, market­ ing and sales, security, and recreational facilities. (For more informa­ tion, see the related statements on personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers; financial managers; and market­ ing, advertising, and public relations managers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Large hotel and motel chains often centralize some activities, such as purchasing or sales, so that individual hotels in the chain may not need managers for these departments. Managers who work for chains may be assigned to organize and staff a newly built hotel, refurbish an older hotel, or reorganize a hotel or motel that is not operating successfully. Working Conditions Since hotels are open around the clock, night and weekend work is common. Many hotel managers work considerably more than 40 hours per week. Managers who live in the hotel usually have regular work schedules, but they may be called for work at any time. Some employ­ ees of resort hotels are managers during the busy season and have other duties the rest of the year. Hotel managers sometimes experience the pressures of coordinating a wide range of functions. Conventions and large groups of tourists may present unusual problems. Dealing with irate patrons can also be stressful. The job can be particularly hectic for front office managers around checkin and checkout time. Employment Hotel managers and assistant managers held about 96,000 wage and salary jobs in 1988. An additional number—primarily owners of  Front office hotel managers oversee the front desk staff and resolve guests' complaints.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations small hotels and motels—were self-employed. Others were employed by companies that manage hotels and motels under contract. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Postsecondary training in hotel or restaurant management is preferred for most hotel management positions, although a college liberal arts degree may be sufficient when coupled with related hotel experience. In the past, most managers were promoted from the ranks of front desk clerks, housekeepers, waiters and chefs, and hotel sales workers. While some persons still advance to hotel management positions with­ out the benefit of education or training beyond high school, increas­ ingly, postsecondary education is required and specialized hotel or restaurant training is preferred. Nevertheless, experience working in a hotel—even part time while in school—is an asset to all persons seeking to enter hotel management careers. Restaurant management training or experience is also a good background for entering hotel management because the success of a hotel’s restaurant and cocktail lounge is often of great importance to the profitability of the entire establishment. A bachelor’s degree in hotel and restaurant administration provides particularly strong preparation for a career in hotel management. In 1988, over 150 colleges and universities offered bachelor’s and graduate programs in this field. Over 600 community and junior colleges, technical institutes, vocational and trade schools, and other academic institutions also have programs leading to an associate degree or other formal recognition in hotel or restaurant management. Graduates of hotel or restaurant management programs usually start as trainee assistant managers, or at least advance to such positions more quickly. Hotel management programs usually include instruction in hotel administration, accounting, economics, marketing, housekeeping, food service management and catering, hotel maintenance engineer­ ing, and data processing—reflecting the widespread use of computers in hotel operations such as reservations, accounting, and housekeeping management. Programs encourage part-time or summer work in hotels and restaurants because the experience gained and the contacts made with employers may benefit students when they seek full-time employ­ ment after graduation. Hotel managers must be able to get along with all kinds of people, even in stressful situations. They need initiative, self-discipline, and the ability to organize and direct the work of others. They must be able to solve problems and concentrate on details. Sometimes large hotels sponsor specialized on-the-job management training programs which enable trainees to rotate among various de­ partments and gain a thorough knowledge of the hotel’s operation. Other hotels may help finance the necessary training in hotel manage­ ment for outstanding employees. Most hotels promote employees who have proven their ability. Newly built hotels, particularly those without well-established onthe-job training programs, often prefer experienced personnel for managerial positions. Large hotel and motel chains may offer better opportunities for advancement than small, independently owned establishments, but relocation every several years often is necessary for advancement. They have more extensive career ladder programs and offer managers the opportunity to transfer to another hotel or motel in the chain or to the central office if an opening occurs. Career advancement can be accelerated by completion of certification programs offered by the associations listed below. These programs generally require a combination of course work, examinations, and experience. Job Outlook Employment of salaried hotel managers is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000 as more hotels and motels are built. Business travel will continue to grow, and in­ creased domestic and foreign tourism will also create demand for additional hotels and motels. Most openings are expected to occur as experienced managers transfer to other occupations, retire, or stop working for other reasons.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  39  Opportunities to enter hotel management are expected to be vety good for persons who have college degrees in hotel or restaurant management. Earnings Salaries of hotel managers varied greatly according to their responsibil­ ities and the size of the hotel in which they worked. In 1989, annual salaries of assistant hotel managers averaged about $30,000, based on a survey conducted for the American Hotel and Motel Association. Assistants employed in large hotels with 600 rooms or more averaged over $40,000 in 1989, while those in small hotels with less than 200 rooms averaged about $23,000. Salaries of assistant managers also varied because of differences in duties and responsibilities. For exam­ ple, food and beverage managers averaged $37,700, according to the same survey, whereas front office managers averaged $22,600. The manager’s level of experience is also an important factor. In 1989, salaries of general managers averaged about $53,000, ranging from an average of about $37,800 in hotels and motels with less than 200 rooms to an average of more than $76,000 in large hotels with 600 rooms or more. Managers may earn bonuses ranging up to 20 percent of their basic salary in some hotels. In addition, they and theirfamilies may be furnished with lodging, meals, parking, laundry, and other services. Most managers and assistants receive 5 to 10 paid holidays a year, paid vacation, sick leave, life insurance, medical benefits, and pension plans. Some hotels offer profit-sharing plans, educational assistance, and other benefits to their employees. Related Occupations Hotel managers and assistants are not the only workers concerned with organizing and directing a business in which pleasing people is very important. Others with similar responsibilities include restaurant man­ agers, apartment building managers, department store managers, and office managers. Sources of Additional Information For information on careers and scholarships in hotel management, contact:  w-The American Hotel and Motel Association (AH&MA), 1201 New York Ave. NW„ Washington, DC 20005.  For information on certification requirements and educational pro­ grams in hotel management, write to: (•-The Educational Institute of AH&MA, P.O. Box 1240, East Lansing, MI 48826.  Information on careers in housekeeping management may be ob­ tained from: (•-National Executive Housekeepers Association, Inc., 1001 Eastwind Dr., Suite 301, Westerville, OH 43081.  For information on hospitality careers, as well as how to purchase a directory of colleges and other schools offering programs and courses in hotel and restaurant administration, write to: (•-Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and Institutional Education, 1200 17th St. NW., Washington, DC 20036-3097.  General career information and a directory of accredited private trade and technical schools offering programs in hotel-motel manage­ ment may be obtained from: (•-National Association of Trade and Technical Schools, P.O. Box 10429, Department BL, Rockville, MD 20850.  Industrial Production Managers (D.O.T. 180.167-054; 181.117-010; 182.167-022; 183.117-010, -014, .161­ 014, .167-010, -014, -018, -022, -026, -034, and-038; and 189.117-042, .167­ 042, and -046)  Nature of the Work Each day we consume products made in factories across the country. Although few of these factories are exactly alike, they all share a  40  Occupational Outlook Handbook  similar organizational structure: production workers operate industrial machinery and equipment to produce goods, and blue-collar worker supervisors—first-line supervisors—oversee these workers and handle any minor problems that arise. Directing the work of first-line supervi­ sors and coordinating all activities related to production are the respon­ sibility of industrial production managers. Production managers usually report to the plant manager or the vice president for manufacturing. (Information about these workers can be found in the statement on general managers and top executives else­ where in the Handbook.) In many plants, one production manager is responsible for all production. In large plants with several operations— aircraft assembly, for example—there are managers in charge of each operation, such as machining, assembly, or finishing. Although specific duties may vary from plant to plant, industrial production managers generally have the same major functions regard­ less of the industry. These include responsibility for production sched­ uling, staffing, equipment, quality control, inventory control, and coordinating activities with other departments. Based on current and projected customer demand, management determines how much of a good will be produced. Working within budgetary limitations, industrial production managers plan the produc­ tion schedule. This entails analyzing the plant’s personnel and capital resources and selecting the best way to meet the production quota. They determine which machines will be used, whether overtime or extra shifts are necessary, the sequence of production, and related matters. They also monitor the production run to make sure that it stays on schedule, and, if problems arise, take action to solve them. Another area of responsibility is cost control. In many organizations, the ability to keep production on schedule and within budget is the critical factor in rating the production manager’s performance. Meeting production schedules within budgetary constraints requires an adequate and well-trained work force. At various times, this can mean hiring and training workers, approving overtime, or laying off workers. When employment is cut, industrial production managers may work with other departments in the company to reassign workers or may make suggestions to their workers about finding a new job or selecting a training program. Regardless of whether they are hiring or releasing employees, they must work closely with members of the human re­ sources department to insure a smooth transition. When manufacturing firms purchase machinery and equipment, production managers are usually involved in their selection and instal­ lation. For example, they may visit trade shows or meet with manufac­ turers’ representatives to leam what type of machinery is available. Although they do not make the final decision as to what will be purchased, industrial production managers make recommendations to their superiors based on the equipment’s rated efficiency and cost, training requirements, and other factors. Regardless of the age or type of machinery, the production manager insures that the machinery is well maintained and meets all safety requirements. Industrial production managers also monitor product standards. When quality drops below the established standard, product managers must determine why standards aren’t being maintained and how to improve the product. If the problem is poor workmanship, the manager may implement better training programs, reorganize the manufacturing process, or institute employee suggestion or involvement programs. If the cause is substandard materials, the manager works with the purchasing department to improve the quality of the product’s compo­ nents. Maintaining the inventory of materials necessary for production ties up the firm’s financial resources. Yet insufficient quantities of materials cause delays in production. Working with the purchasing department, the production manager insures that plant inventories are being main­ tained at their optimal level. The use of “just-in-time” inventory man­ agement systems by more and more firms has increased the importance of this job function. “Just-in-time” systems connect manufacturers with their materials suppliers, so that stock is ordered only when it is needed. Because materials are not stockpiled in advance, a breakdown in this system can cause slowdowns and a failure to meet production schedules.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  In addition to their responsibilities on the shop floor, production managers routinely meet with managers of other departments—such as sales, industrial engineering, or traffic—to discuss production goals, policies, procedures, and other areas of mutual concern. Production managers regularly write reports and give presentations summarizing production performance. Working Conditions Most industrial production managers divide their time between the shop floor and their office. While on the floor, they must follow established health and safety practices and wear the required protective clothing and equipment. The time in the office—often located on or near the production floor—is usually spent meeting with subordinates or other department managers, analyzing production data, and writing and reviewing reports. Most industrial production managers work more than 40 hours a week, especially when production deadlines must be met. In facilities that operate around the clock, managers may have to work shifts or may be called at any hour to deal with emergencies. Occasionally, this may mean going to the plant to resolve the problem, regardless of the hour, and staying until the situation is under control. In large corporations with several production facilities, production managers may be transferred between plants. This can often mean relocation to different areas of the country or even abroad, as many U.S. manufacturers have production facilities in other countries. When problems occur, it is the responsibility of the industrial pro­ duction manager to resolve them with minimal downtime to the produc­ tion line—no matter what else has to be done. Because they regularly meet with other department managers and may be responsible for personnel matters in their department, they must be able to deal with people diplomatically. These factors, in addition to working under the pressure of production deadlines, can be stressful. Employment Industrial production managers held about 215,000 jobs in 1988. Employed throughout manufacturing, nearly one-quarter were found in plants that manufacture machinery. Other large employers were manufacturers of transportation equipment, fabricated metal products, food products, and chemicals, as well as printers and publishers. Although production managers work in all parts of the country, jobs are most plentiful in areas where manufacturing is concentrated. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Because of the diversity of manufacturing operations and job require­ ments, there is no standard preparation for this occupation. Many industrial production managers have a college degree in business administration or industrial engineering. Some have a master’s degree in business administration (MBA). Others are former production line supervisors who have been promoted. Increasingly, however, employ­ ers—especially large firms—are looking for candidates with a college degree. Although many employers prefer candidates to have a degree in business or engineering, some companies hire liberal arts graduates. As production operations become more and more sophisticated, an increasing number of employers are looking for candidates with MBA’s. This, combined with an undergraduate degree in engineering, is considered particularly good preparation. Those who enter the field directly from college or graduate school often are unfamiliar with the firm’s production process. As a result, they may spend their first few months on the job in the company’s training program. These programs familiarize trainees with the produc­ tion line, company policies and procedures, and the requirements of the job. In larger companies, they may also include assignments to other departments, such as purchasing and accounting. During this time, trainees also may take company-sponsored courses such as pro­ duction planning, personnel management, and inventory control. Blue-collar worker supervisors who advance to production manager positions already have an intimate knowledge of the production process and the firm’s organization. To be selected for promotion, these work­ ers must have demonstrated their leadership ability and often have to  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations  41  some have moved their production facilities overseas, and others have decreased the size of their U.S. operations. As a result, few opportuni­ ties are expected in these industries. To combat increasing domestic and foreign competition, firms are expected to continue to automate their facilities. Automation often reduces the number of production workers needed, although it is expected to have little impact on production managers. Even in a highly automated factory, production managers are needed to oversee the flow of materials, the capital stock, and quality control. However, because of the increasing sophistication of production technology, opportunities are expected to be best for those with college degrees in business administration or industrial engineering and MBA’s with undergraduate engineering degrees.  I____£ A combination of engineering and business education is particularly good preparation for industrial production managers. take company-sponsored courses in management skills and communi­ cations techniques. Once in their job, industrial production managers must stay abreast of new production technologies and management practices. They may attend trade shows where new equipment is displayed or industry conferences and conventions where changes in production methods and technological advances are discussed. In addition, several times a year they may participate in management workshops and seminars. Although certification in production management and inventory control is not required for most positions, it demonstrates an individu­ al’s knowledge of the production process and related areas. Certifica­ tion is available through the American Production and Inventory Con­ trol Society. To be certified in production and inventory managment, candidates must pass a series of examinations that test their knowledge of inventory management, just-in-time systems, production control, capacity management, and master and materials planning. Industrial production managers must be able to speak and write effectively and be able to work with or supervise people with varying educational backgrounds and experience. Leadership skills and the ability to work well under pressure are also very important. Industrial production managers with a proven record of superior performance may advance to plant manager or vice president for manufacturing. Others transfer to jobs at larger firms with more respon­ sibilities. Opportunities also exist as consultants. (For more informa­ tion, see the statement on management analysts and consultants else­ where in the Handbook.)  Earnings Salaries of industrial production managers vary significantly by indus­ try and plant size. According to the Middle Management Report, 37th edition, 1988/89, published by the Executive Compensation Service, a Wyatt Data Services Company, median salaries ranged from $35,000 to $48,000 a year. In addition, industrial production managers usually receive bonuses based on job performance. Benefits for industrial production managers tend to be similar to those offered most workers: Vacation and sick leave, health and life insurance, and retirement plans. In addition, many of these workers receive bonuses, participate in profit-sharing plans, and may have the use of company equipment, such as automobiles or personal com­ puters. Related Occupations Industrial production managers oversee production staff and equip­ ment, insure that production goals and quality standards are being met, and implement company policies. Individuals with similar functions include materials, operations, purchasing, and traffic managers. Other occupations requiring similar training and skills are sales engineer, manufacturers’ sales representative, and industrial engineer. Sources of Additional Information Information on industrial production management can be obtained from: erAmerican  Production and Inventory Control Society, 500 West Annandale Rd., Falls Church, VA 22046-4274.'  Inspectors and Compliance Officers, Except Construction (List of DOT. codes available upon request. See p. 463.)  Job Outlook Employment of industrial production managers is expected to increase as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Employment growth will be fueled by increasing demand for consumer and industrial products. In addition, many openings will occur as these managers advance to become plant managers, transfer to other occupations, or leave the labor force. As the economy expands and more goods are produced, additional production managers will be needed to supervise this increased produc­ tion. However, some industries will offer better opportunities than others due to changing consumer and industrial demand, industrial reorganization, and foreign competition. For example, as plastics continue to replace steel and other metals in many consumer and industrial products, demand for plastic products is expected to in­ crease. As output increases, additional managers will be needed. In the steel industry, on the other hand, obsolete plants are expected to close and be replaced by fewer, more productive plants. As the number of plants declines, fewer production management positions will be available. In recent years, many domestic industries have faced fierce competi­ tion from foreign producers. Some firms have gone out of business,  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Nature of the Work Inspectors and compliance officers enforce adherence to a wide range of laws, regulations, policies, and procedures that protect the public on matters such as health, safety, food, immigration, licensing, interstate commerce, and international trade. Depending upon their employer, inspectors vary widely in title and responsibilities. Health Inspectors. Health inspectors work with engineers, chemists, microbiologists, health workers, and lawyers to insure compliance with public health and safety regulations governing food, drugs, cosmetics, and other consumer products. They also administer regulations that govern the quarantine of persons and products entering the United States from foreign countries. The major types of health inspectors are consumer safety, food, agricultural quaran­ tine, and environmental health inspectors. In addition, some inspec­ tors work in a field closely related to food inspection—agricultural commodity grading. Most consumer safety inspectors specialize in food, feeds and pesti­ cides, weights and measures, cosmetics, or drugs and medical equip­  42  Occupational Outlook Handbook  ment. Some are proficient in several areas. Working individually or in teams under a senior or supervisory inspector, they periodically check firms that produce, handle, store, and market food, drugs, and cosmetics. They look for inaccurate product labeling, and for decomposition or chemical or bacteriological contamination that could result in a product becoming harmful to health. They use portable scales, cameras, ultraviolet lights, container sampling devices, ther­ mometers, chemical testing kits, radiation monitors, and other equip­ ment to ascertain violations. They send product samples collected as part of their examinations to laboratories for analysis. After completing their inspection, inspectors discuss their observa­ tions with plant managers or officials and point out areas where correc­ tive measures are needed. They write reports of their findings and, when necessary, compile evidence that may be used in court if legal action must be taken to enforce the law. Federal and State laws empower food inspectors to inspect meat, poultry, and their byproducts to insure that they are wholesome and safe for public consumption. Working as an onsite team under a veterinarian, they inspect meat and poultry slaughtering, processing, and packaging operations. They also check for correct product labeling and proper sanitation. Agricultural quarantine inspectors protect American agricultural products from the spread of foreign plant pests and animal diseases. To safeguard crops, forests, gardens, and livestock, they inspect ships, aircraft, railroad cars, and motor vehicles entering the United States for restricted or prohibited plant or animal materials. Environmental health inspectors, or sanitarians, who work primarily for State and local governments, insure that food, water, and air meet government standards. They check the cleanliness and safety of food and beverages produced in dairies and processing plants, or served in restaurants, hospitals, and other institutions. They often examine the handling, processing, and serving of food for compliance with sanita­ tion rules and regulations and oversee the treatment and disposal of sewage, refuse, and garbage. In addition, inspectors examine places where pollution is a danger, test for pollutants, and collect air, water, or waste samples for analysis. They determine the nature and cause of pollution and initiate action to stop it. In large local and State health or agriculture departments, environ­ mental health inspectors may specialize in milk and dairy products, food sanitation, waste control, air pollution, water pollution, institu­ tional sanitation, or occupational health. In rural areas and small cities, they may be responsible for a wide range of environmental health activities. Agricultural commodity graders apply quality standards to aid the buying and selling of commodities and to insure that retailers and consumers receive wholesome and reliable products. They generally specialize in an area such as eggs and egg products, meat, poultry, processed or fresh fruits and vegetables, grain, tobacco, cotton, or dairy products. They examine product samples to determine quality and grade, and issue official grading certificates. Graders also may inspect the plant and equipment to maintain sanitation standards. Regulatory Inspectors. Regulatory inspectors insure compliance with laws and regulations that protect the public welfare. Important types of regulatory inspectors include immigration, customs, air safety, railroad, motor vehicle, occupational safety and health, mine, wagehour compliance, and alcohol, tobacco, and firearms inspectors. Immigration inspectors interview and examine people seeking to enter the United States and its territories. They inspect passports to determine whether people are legally eligible to enter and to verify their citizenship status and identity. Immigration inspectors also prepare reports, maintain records, and process applications and petitions for immigration or temporary residence in the United States. Customs inspectors enforce laws governing imports and exports. Stationed at airports, seaports, and border crossing points, they exam­ ine, count, weigh, gauge, measure, and sample commercial cargoes entering and leaving the United States to determine admissibility and the amount of tax that must be paid. They also inspect baggage and articles worn by passengers and crew members to insure that all  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  merchandise is declared, proper duties are paid, and contraband is not present. Postal inspectors observe the functioning of the postal system and recommend improvements. They investigate criminal activities such as theft and misuse of the mail. In instances of suspected mismanage­ ment or fraud, inspectors conduct management or financial audits. They also collaborate with other government agencies, such as the Internal Revenue Service, as members of special task forces. Aviation safety inspectors insure that Federal Aviation Administra­ tion (FAA) regulations which govern the quality and safety of aircraft equipment and personnel are maintained. Aviation safety inspectors may inspect aircraft and equipment manufacturing, maintenance and repair, or flight operations procedures. They usually specialize in either commercial or general aviation aircraft. They also examine and certify aircraft pilots, pilot examiners, flight instructors, schools, and instructional materials. Railroad inspectors verify the compliance of railroad systems and equipment with Federal safety regulations. They investigate accidents and review railroads’ operating practices. Motor vehicle inspectors verify the compliance of automobiles and trucks with State requirements for safe operation and emissions. They inspect truck cargoes to assure compliance with legal limitations on gross weight and hazardous cargoes. Traffic inspectors oversee the scheduled service of streetcar, bus, or railway systems and determine the need for additional vehicles, revised schedules, or other changes to improve service. They also report conditions hazardous to passengers and disruptive to service. Occupational safety and health inspectors visit places of employ­ ment to detect unsafe machinery and equipment or unhealthy working conditions. They discuss their findings with the employer or plant manager and urge that violations be promptly corrected in accordance with Federal, State, or local government safety standards and regula­ tions. Mine inspectors work to insure the health and safety of miners. They visit mines and related facilities to obtain information on health and safety conditions and to enforce safety laws and regulations. They discuss their findings with the management of the mine and issue notices describing violations and hazards that must be corrected. Mine inspectors also investigate and report on mine accidents and may direct rescue and firefighting operations when fires or explosions occur. Wage-hour compliance inspectors inspect employers’ time, payroll,  _r“f,  Customs inspectors enforce laws governing imports and exports.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations and personnel records to insure compliance with Federal laws on such matters as minimum wages, overtime, pay, and employment of minors. They often interview employees to verify the employer’s records and to check for complaints. Equal opportunity representatives ascertain and correct unfair em­ ployment practices through consultation with and mediation between employers and minority groups. Alcohol, tobacco, and firearms inspectors inspect distilleries, win­ eries, and breweries; cigar and cigarette manufacturing plants; whole­ sale liquor dealers and importers; firearms and explosives manufactur­ ers, dealers, and users; and other regulated facilities. They insure compliance with revenue laws and other regulations on operating procedures, unfair competition, and trade practices, and determine that appropriate taxes are paid. Securities and real estate directors implement regulations concern­ ing securities and real estate transactions. Their departments investi­ gate applications for registration of securities sales and complaints of irregular securities or real estate transactions, and recommend neces­ sary legal action. Revenue officers investigate delinquent tax returns and liabilities. They discuss the resolution of tax problems with taxpayers and recom­ mend penalties and prosecution when necessary. Attendance officers investigate continued absences of pupils from public schools. Dealer compliance representatives inspect franchised establish­ ments to ascertain compliance with the franchiser’s policies and proce­ dures. They may suggest changes in financial and other operations. Logging operations inspectors review contract logging operations. They prepare reports and issue remedial instructions for violations of contractual agreements and of fire and safety regulations. Travel accommodations raters inspect hotels, motels, restaurants, campgrounds, and vacation resorts. They evaluate travel and tourist accommodations for travel guide publishers and organizations such as tourism promoters and automobile clubs. Quality control inspectors and coordinators inspect products manu­ factured or processed by private companies for government use to insure compliance with contract specifications. They may specialize in specific products such as lumber, machinery, petroleum products, paper products, electronic equipment, or furniture. Others coordinate the activities of workers engaged in testing and evaluating pharmaceu­ ticals in order to control quality of manufacture and insure compliance with legal standards. Other inspectors and compliance officers include coroners, code inspectors, mortician investigators, and construction and building in­ spectors. (Construction and building inspectors are discussed else­ where in the Handbook.) Working Conditions Inspectors and compliance officers live an active life; they meet many people and work in a variety of environments. Their jobs often involve considerable fieldwork, and some inspectors travel frequently. They are furnished with an automobile or are reimbursed for travel expenses. At times, inspectors have unfavorable working conditions. For ex­ ample, mine inspectors often are exposed to the same hazards as miners. Customs inspectors may be threatened by drug smugglers and other criminals. Food and alcohol, tobacco, and firearms inspectors frequently come in contact with strong, unpleasant odors. Many in­ spectors work long and often irregular hours. Employment Inspectors and compliance officers held 130,000 jobs in 1988. State governments employed 31 percent, the Federal Government—chiefly the Departments of Defense, Treasury, Agriculture, and Justice— employed 30 percent, and local governments employed 20 percent. The remaining 19 percent were employed in the U.S. Postal Service and throughout the private sector—primarily in miscellaneous business services, hospitals, insurance companies, labor unions, and manufac­ turing firms. The largest single employer of consumer safety inspectors is the  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  43  U.S. Food and Drug Administration, but the majority work for State governments. Most food inspectors and agricultural commodity grad­ ers in processing plants are employed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, as are agricultural quarantine inspectors. Most environ­ mental health inspectors work for State and local governments. Most Federal regulatory inspectors work in regional and district offices throughout the United States. The Department of Defense employs many quality control inspectors. The Treasury Department employs internal revenue officers, alcohol, tobacco, and firearms in­ spectors, and customs inspectors. Aviation safety inspectors work for the Federal Aviation Administration. The Environmental Protection Agency employs inspectors to verify compliance with pollution control laws. Department of Labor employs wage-hour compliance officers. Occupational safety and health inspectors and mine inspectors also work for the Department of Labor and for many State governments. Immigration inspectors are employed by the Department of Justice. Like agricultural quarantine inspectors, immigration and customs in­ spectors work at U.S. airports, seaports, and border crossing points, and at foreign airports and seaports. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Because of the diversity of functions, qualifications for inspector and compliance officer jobs differ greatly. Requirements are a combination of education, experience, and a passing grade on a written examina­ tion. Employers generally prefer applicants with college training, including courses related to the job. Food inspectors must have related experience and pass an examina­ tion based on specialized knowledge. Aviation safety inspectors must have considerable experience in aviation maintenance and operations and knowledge of the industry and relevant Federal laws. In addition, FAA mechanic or pilot and medical certificates are required. Some also are required to have an FAA flight instructor rating. Many aviation safety inspectors have had flight training and mechanical training in the Armed Forces. No written examination is required. Applicants for mine safety inspector positions generally must have experience in mine safety, management, or supervision, or possess a skill such as that of an electrician (for mine electrical inspectors). In some cases, a general aptitude test may be required. Applicants for internal revenue officer jobs must have a bachelor’s degree or 3 years of business, legal, or investigative work experience that displays strong analytical ability. Some civil service examinations, including those for agricultural quarantine inspectors and agricultural commodity graders, rate appli­ cants solely on their experience and education and require no written examination. Environmental health inspectors, called sanitarians in many States, sometimes must have a bachelor’s degree in environmental health or in the physical or biological sciences. In most States, they are licensed by examining boards. All inspectors and compliance officers are trained in applicable laws and inspection procedures through a combination of classroom and onthe-job training. In general, people who want to enter this occupation should be able to accept responsibility and like detailed work. They should be neat and personable and able to express themselves well orally and in writing. Federal Government inspectors and compliance officers whose job performance is satisfactory advance through their career ladder to a specified full performance level. For positions above this level (usually supervisory positions), advancement is competitive, based on agency needs and individual merit. Advancement opportunities in State and local governments and the private sector are often similar to those in the Federal Government. Job Outlook Employment of inspectors and compliance officers is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Employment growth, particularly in local government, will reflect the expansion of regulatory and compliance programs such as  44  Occupational Outlook Handbook  solid and hazardous waste disposal and water pollution. In private industry, employment growth will reflect increasing self-enforcement of government and company regulations and policies, particularly among the rapidly growing number of franchise dealerships in various industries. Most job openings, however, will arise from the need to replace those who transfer to other occupations, or retire or leave the labor force for other reasons. Employment of inspectors and compliance officers is seldom af­ fected by general economic fluctuations. Most work in programs which enjoy wide public support. As a result, they are less likely to lose their jobs than many other workers when government programs are cut. Earnings The median annual salary of inspectors and compliance officers, except construction, was $26,700 in 1988. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $16,500; the highest 10 percent earned at least $44,100. Most starting Federal salaries were around $15,700 a year in 1989. However, some inspectors and compliance officers—for example, aviation safety officers and postal inspectors—started at $23,800 a year. In the Federal Government, the average annual salary in 1988 varied substantially—from $20,100 to $55,800— depending upon the nature of the inspection or compliance activity. Table 1 presents average salaries for selected inspectors and compliance officers in the Federal Government in 1988. Salaries of inspectors and compliance officers in State and local governments and in private industry are generally lower than those of their Federal counterparts. Most inspectors and compliance officers work for Federal, State, and local governments and in large private firms, all of which generally offer more generous fringe benefits—for example, pension and retire­ ment plans, health and life insurance plans, and paid vacations—than do smaller firms. Related Occupations Inspectors and compliance officers are responsible for seeing that laws and regulations are obeyed. Revenue agents, construction and building inspectors, fire marshals. State and local police officers, customs patrol  Table 1. Average salaries of selected Federal inspectors and com­ pliance officers, 1988 Type of inspector Patent classification examiners................................................ Postal inspectors........................................................................ Highway safety inspectors....................................................... Aviation safety inspectors......................................................... Consumer safety inspectors...................................................... Securities compliance examiners............................................. Coal mine inspectors................................................................. Equal opportunity compliance officials.................................. Environmental protection specialists...................................... Import specialists....................................................................... Alcohol, tobacco, and firearms inspectors............................. Quality assurance inspectors..................................................... Public health quarantine inspectors......................................... Internal revenue officers............................................................ Agricultural commodity warehouse examiners..................... Customs inspectors.................................................................... Agricultural commodity graders............................................. Immigration inspectors............................................................. Food inspectors.......................................................................... Environmental health technicians............................................ Environmental protection assistants........................................ Source: U.S. Office of Personnel Management   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Salary $55,800 51,100 46,700 45,600 42,700 41,100 39,800 37,700 36,900 34,300 33,200 30,400 30,300 30,300 28,200 28,100 27,900 26,100 24,500 20,400 20,100  officers, customs special agents, and fish and game wardens also enforce laws. Sources of Additional Information Information on Federal Government jobs is available from offices of the State employment service, area offices of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management, and Federal Job Information Centers in large cities throughout the country. For information on a career as a specific type of Federal inspector or compliance officer, the Federal department or agency that employs them may also be contacted directly. Information about State and local government jobs is available from State civil service commissions, usually located in each State capital, or from local government offices. Information about jobs in private industry is available from the State employment service, which is listed under “Job Service” or “Employment” in the State government section of local telephone directories.  Management Analysts and Consultants (D.O.T. 100.117-014; 161.117-014, .167-010, .267 except -014 and -030; 169.167-074; and 375.267-026)  Nature of the Work A rapidly growing small company needs a better system of control over inventories and expenses. An established manufacturing company decides to relocate to another State and needs assistance planning the move. After acquiring a new division, a large company realizes that its corporate structure must be reorganized. A division chief of a government agency wants to know why the division’s contracts are always going over budget. These are just a few of the many organiza­ tional problems that management analysts, as they are called in govern­ ment agencies, and management consultants, as business firms refer to them, help solve. Although their job titles may differ, their job duties are essentially the same. The work of management analysts and consultants varies from employer to employer and from project to project. For example, some projects require several consultants to work together, each specializing in one area; at other times, they will work independently. In general, analysts and consultants collect, review, and analyze information; make recommendations; and often assist in the implementation of their proposal. Both public and private organizations use consultants for a variety of reasons. Some don’t have the internal resources needed to handle a project; others need a consultant’s expertise to determine what re­ sources will be required—or problems encountered—if they pursue a particular course of action; while others want to get outside advice on how to resolve organizational problems that have already been identi­ fied or to avoid troublesome problems that could arise. Firms providing consulting services range in size from solo prac­ titioners to large international organizations employing thousands of consultants. These services usually are provided on a contract basis— a company chooses a consulting firm specializing in the area in which it needs assistance and then the two firms determine the conditions of the contract. These conditions include the proposed cost of the project, staffing requirements, and the deadline. Upon getting an assignment or contract, consultants define the nature and extent of the project. During this phase of the job, they may analyze data such as annual revenues, employment, or expenditures; interview employees; or observe the operations of the organizational unit. Next, they use their knowledge of management systems and their expertise in a particular area to develop solutions. In the course of preparing their recommendations, they must take into account the general nature of the business, the relationship the firm has with  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations others in that industry, and the firm’s internal organization, as well as information gained through data collection and analysis. Once they have decided on a course of action, consultants usually report their findings and recommendations to the client, often in writ­ ing. In addition, they often make informal oral presentations regarding their findings. For some projects, this is all that is required; for others, consultants may assist in the implementation of their suggestions. Management analysts in government agencies use the same skills as their private-sector colleagues to advise managers in government on many types of issues—most of which are similar to the problems faced by private firms. For example, if an agency is planning to purchase several personal computers, it first must determine which type to buy, given its budget and data processing needs. Management analysts would assess the various types of machines available and determine which best meets their department’s needs. Working Conditions Management analysts and consultants usually divide their time be­ tween their offices and their client’s operation. Although much of their time is spent indoors in clean, well-lighted offices, they may have to visit a client’s production facility where conditions may not be so favorable. They must follow established safety procedures when mak­ ing field visits to sites where they may encounter potentially hazardous conditions. Typically, analysts and consultants work at least 40 hours a week. Overtime is common, especially when deadlines must be met. In addition, because they must spend a significant portion of their time with clients, they may travel frequently. Self-employed consultants can set their workload and hours and work at home. On the other hand, their livelihood depends on their ability to maintain and expand their clientele, which can be difficult at times. The constant pressure of deadlines and client expectations can be very stressful. Occasionally, consultants may face hostility from em­ ployees of the client’s organization, especially when a reorganization or reduction in force is being considered. As a result, they must be able to deal with people diplomatically. Employment Management analysts and consultants held about 130,000jobs in 1988. Almost half of these workers were self-employed. Most of the rest worked in management consulting and accounting firms and for Fed­ eral, State, and local governments. The majority of those working for the Federal Government were found in the Department of Defense. Management analysts and consultants are found throughout the country, but employment is concentrated in metropolitan areas.  Most management consultants specialize in a specific area of business or industry.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  45  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement There are no universal educational requirements for entry level jobs in this field. However, employers prefer to hire those with a master’s degree in business or public administration or those with a bachelor’s degree and several years of appropriate work experience. Most govern­ ment agencies and some firms hire those with a bachelor’s degree and no work experience as entry level analysts and consultants. In addition, many entrants are career changers who were formerly mid- and upperlevel managers. Many fields of study provide a suitable formal educational back­ ground for this occupation because of the diversity of problem areas addressed by management analysts and consultants. These include most areas of business and management, as well as computer and information sciences and engineering. Experience in education, com­ munications, marketing, distribution, architecture, and environmental design may also be sought by some employers. Management analysts and consultants who are hired directly from school often participate in formal company training programs. These programs may include instruction on policies and procedures, com­ puter systems and software, and management practices and principles. Because of their previous industry experience, most who enter at middle levels do not participate in formal company training programs. However, regardless of background, analysts and consultants routinely attend conferences to keep abreast of current developments in their field. Management analysts and consultants must have strong interper­ sonal skills and be able to work on a variety of projects. They should be able to analyze and interpret data, draw conclusions, and make sound recommendations based on this knowledge. They also must be able to communicate effectively orally and in writing. In large consulting firms, beginners usually start as a member of a consulting team. The team is responsible for the entire project and each consultant is assigned to a particular area. After 1 or 2 years of experience on a variety of projects, the consultant may be promoted to team leader—overseeing a project and supervising entry level workers. From there, consultants may advance into more senior positions; for example, they may be responsible for several teams of consultants. Those with exceptional skills may eventually become a partner in the firm. Others with entrepreneurial ambition may open their own firm. Job Outlook Employment of management analysts and consultants is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000 as industry and government increasingly rely on their expertise to improve the performance of their organizations. Growth is expected to be concentrated in larger consulting and accounting firms. Most job openings, however, will result from the need to replace personnel who transfer to other fields or leave the labor force. Increased foreign competition has caused American industry to take a closer look at its operations. In a more competitive international market, firms cannot afford inefficiency and wasted resources or else they risk losing their share of the market. Management consultants are being increasingly relied upon to help reduce costs and streamline operations. In addition, the trend toward acquisitions and mergers of companies is increasing the need for management consultants to help companies make the best fit after they merge. Federal, State, and local agencies also are expected to expand their use of management analysts. In the era of budget deficits, analysts’ skills at identifying problems and implementing cost reduction mea­ sures are expected to become increasingly important. Job opportunities are expected to be best for those with a graduate degree or industry expertise. Because many small consulting firms fail each year for lack of managerial expertise and clients, those interested in opening their own firm should have good organizational and market­ ing skills. Earnings Salaries for management analysts and consultants vary widely by experience, education, and employer. In 1988, those who were wage  46  Occupational Outlook Handbook  and salary workers had median annual earnings of about $34,900. The middle 50 percent earned between $24,900 and $51,000. In the Federal Government, management analysts with a bachelor’s degree had a starting salary of $15,738 a year in 1988. Entrants with a superior academic record could begin at $19,493, while those with a master’s degree started at $23,846. The average salary for management analysts working in the Federal Government in 1988 was $34,017. Earnings of self-employed management consultants generally are considerably higher than those of salaried workers. Most self-em­ ployed management consultants charge a daily rate based on the type of project and its time requirements. Typical benefits for salaried analysts and consultants include health and life insurance, a retirement plan, vacation and sick leave, profit sharing, and bonuses for outstanding work. In addition, all travel expenses usually are reimbursed by their employer. Self-employed consultants usually have to maintain an office and do not receive employer-provided benefits. Related Occupations Management analysts and consultants collect, review, and analyze data; make recommendations; and assist in the implementation of their ideas. Others who utilize similar skills are managers, computer systems analysts, operations research analysts, economists, and financial ana­ lysts. Sources of Additional Information Information about career opportunities in management consulting is available from: «-The Association of Management Consulting Firms, 230 Park Ave., New York, NY 10169. wThe Institute of Management Consultants, 230 Park Ave., Suite 544, New York, NY 10169.  For information about a career as a State or local government management analyst, contact your State or local employment service. Persons interested in a management analyst position in the Federal Government can obtain information from: «*-U.S. Office of Personnel Management, 1900 E St. NW., Washington, DC 20415.  Marketing, Advertising, and Public Relations Managers (D.O.T. 141.137; 159.167-022; 163.117-014, -018, -022, -026, .167-010, -018, -022, .267; 164.117-010, -014, -018, .167; 185.117-014, .157-010, -014; 187.167-162; 189.117-018)  Nature of the Work The fundamental objective of any firm is to market its products or services profitably. In very small firms, all marketing responsibilities may be assumed by the owner or chief executive officer. In large firms, which may offer numerous products and services nationally or even worldwide, experienced marketing, advertising, and public relations managers coordinate these and related activities. In large firms, the executive vice president for marketing directs the overall marketing policy—including market research, marketing strategy, sales, advertising, sales promotion, pricing, product develop­ ment, and public relations activities. (This occupation is included in the Handbook statement on general managers and top executives.) These activities are supervised by middle and supervisory managers who oversee staffs of professionals and technicians. Marketing managers develop the firm’s detailed marketing strategy. With the help of subordinates, including product development manag­ ers and market research managers, they determine the demand for products and services offered by the firm and its competitors and identify potential consumers—for example, business firms, whole­ salers, retailers, government, or the general public. Mass markets are further categorized according to various factors such as geographic  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  region, age, income, and lifestyle. Marketing managers develop pric­ ing strategy with an eye towards maximizing the firm’s share of the market and ultimately its profits. In collaboration with sales, product development, and other managers, they monitor trends that indicate the need for new products and services and oversee product development. Marketing managers work with advertising and sales promotion man­ agers to best promote the firm’s products and services and to attract potential users. Sales managers direct the firm’s sales program. They assign sales territories and goals and establish training programs for their sales representatives. Managers advise their sales representatives on ways to improve their sales performance. In large, multiproduct firms, they oversee regional and local sales managers and their staffs. Sales man­ agers maintain contact with dealers and distributors. They analyze sales statistics gathered by their staffs to determine sales potential and inventory requirements and monitor the preferences of customers. Such information is vital to develop products and maximize profits. Except in the largest firms, advertising and sales promotion staffs are generally small and serve as a liaison between the firm and the advertising or sales promotion agency to which most advertising or promotional functions are contracted out. Advertising managers over­ see the account services, creative services, and media services depart­ ments. The account services department is managed by account execu­ tives, who assess the need for advertising and, in advertising agencies, maintain the accounts of clients. The creative services department— which develops the subject matter and presentation of advertising—is supervised by a creative director, who oversees the copy chief and art director and their staffs. The media services department is supervised by the media director, who oversees planning groups which select the communication media—for example, radio, television, newspapers, magazines, or outdoor signs—to disseminate the advertising. Sales promotion managers—who supervise staffs of sales promotion specialists—direct sales promotion programs, which combine adver­ tising with financial incentives to increase sales of products and ser­ vices. In an effort to establish closer contact with purchasers—dealers, distributors, or consumers—sales promotion programs may involve direct mail, catalogs, exhibits, inserts in newspapers, displays in stores, and special events. Financial incentives may include discounts, samples, gifts, coupons, and contests. Public relations managers—who supervise staffs of public relations specialists—direct publicity programs, using any necessary communi­ cation media, designed to gain attention for the firm and its activities from various groups such as consumers, stockholders, or the general public. For example, public relations managers may clarify or justify the firm’s point of view on health or environmental issues to commu­ nity or special interest groups. In large product-oriented firms—such as motor vehicle manufacturers—or in service-oriented firms—such as airlines—they may evaluate advertising and sales promotion pro­ grams for compatibility with public relations efforts. Public relations managers in effect serve as the eyes and ears of senior management— observing social, economic, and political trends that might ultimately have an impact upon the firm, and making recommendations to enhance the firm’s public image in view of those trends. Public relations manag­ ers may confer with labor relations managers to produce internal com­ pany communications—such as news about employee-management re­ lations—and with financial managers to produce company reports. They may assist company executives in drafting speeches, arranging inter­ views, and other forms of public contact; oversee company archives; and respond to information requests. In addition, public relations managers may handle special events such as sponsorship of races, parties introduc­ ing new products, or other activities by which the firm seeks public attention through the press without advertising directly. Working Conditions Marketing, advertising, and public relations managers are provided with offices close to top managers. Long hours, including evenings and weekends, are usual. Working under pressure is unavoidable as schedules change, problems arise, and deadlines and goals must be met. Marketing, advertising, and public relations managers meet fre­  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations quently with other managers; some meet with the public and govern­ ment officials. Substantial travel may be involved. For example, attendance at meetings sponsored by associations or industries is often mandatory. Sales managers travel to national, regional, and local offices and to various dealers and distributors. Advertising and sales promotion managers may travel to meet with clients or representatives of commu­ nications media. Public relations managers may travel to meet with special interest groups or government officials. Job transfers between headquarters and regional offices are common—particularly among sales managers—and may disrupt family life. Employment Marketing, advertising, and public relations managers held about 406,000 jobs in 1988. These managers are found in virtually every industry. Industries employing them in significant numbers include motor vehicle dealers; management, consulting, and public relations firms; advertising agencies; department stores; computer and data processing services firms; radio and television broadcasting stations; and educational institutions. Training, Advancement, and Other Qualifications A wide range of educational backgrounds are suitable for entry into marketing, advertising, and public relations managerial jobs, but many employers prefer a broad liberal arts background. A bachelor’s degree in sociology, psychology, literature, or philosophy, among other sub­ jects, is acceptable. However, requirements vary depending upon the particular job. For marketing and sales management positions, some employers prefer a bachelor's or master’s degree in business administration with an emphasis on marketing. Courses in business law, economics, ac­ counting, finance, mathematics, and statistics are also highly recom­ mended. In highly technical industries, such as computer and electron­ ics manufacturing, a bachelor’s degree in engineering or science combined with a master’s degree in business administration may be preferred. For advertising and sales promotion management positions, some employers prefer a bachelor’s degree in advertising or journal­ ism. The curriculum should include courses in marketing, consumer behavior, market research, sales, communications methods and tech­ nology , and visual arts courses—for example, art history and photogra­ phy. For public relations management positions, some employers prefer a bachelor’s or master’s degree in public relations or journalism. The curriculum should include courses in advertising, business admin­ istration, public affairs, political science, and creative and technical writing. Familiarity with computerized word processing applications is important for many marketing, advertising, and public relations management positions. Most marketing, advertising, and public relations management posi­ tions are filled by promoting experienced staff or related professional or technical personnel—for example, sales representatives, purchasing agents, buyers, advertising workers, and public relations specialists. In small firms, where the number of positions is limited, advancement to a management position may come slowly. In large firms, promotion may occur quickly. Although experience, ability, and leadership are emphasized for promotion, advancement may be accelerated by participation in man­ agement training programs conducted by many large firms. Many firms also provide their employees with continuing education opportunities, either in-house or at local colleges and universities, and encourage employee participation in seminars and conferences, often provided by professional societies. In addition, numerous marketing and related associations, often in collaboration with colleges and universities, sponsor national or local management training programs. Courses in these schools include brand and product management, international marketing, sales management evaluation, telemarketing and direct sales, marketing communication, market research, organizational communication, and data processing systems procedures and manage­ ment. Many firms pay all or part of the cost for those who successfully complete courses.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  47  Persons interested in becoming marketing, advertising, and public relations managers should be mature, creative, highly motivated, resis­ tant to stress, and flexible, yet decisive. The ability to communicate persuasively, both orally and in writing, with other managers, staff, and the public is vital. Marketing, advertising, and public relations managers also need tact, good judgment, and exceptional ability to establish and maintain effective personal relationships with supervi­ sory and professional staff members and client firms. Because of the importance and high visibility of their jobs, market­ ing, advertising, and public relations managers are often prime candi­ dates for advancement. Well-trained, experienced, successful manag­ ers may be promoted to higher positions in their own or other firms. Some become top executives. Managers with extensive experience and sufficient capital may open their own businesses. Job Outlook Employment of marketing, advertising, and public relations managers is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Increasingly intense domestic and foreign competition in products and services offered consumers—further spurred by deregulation in financial services and other industries— should require greater marketing, sales, and public relations efforts. In addition to faster than average growth, many job openings will occur each year to replace managers who move into top management positions or leave the labor force. As is the case for other manage­ ment positions, however, the ample supply of experienced profes­ sional and technical personnel and recent college graduates seeking  Because of the importance and high visibility of their jobs, marketing, advertising, and public relations managers are prime candidates for advancement.  48  Occupational Outlook Handbook  advancement should result in substantial job competition. College graduates with extensive experience who possess a high level of creativity and strong communications skills should have the best job opportunities. Projected employment growth varies by industry. For example, employment of marketing, advertising, and public relations managers is expected to grow rapidly in the data processing services industry in response to the increasing use of computers. Much faster than average employment growth is also expected in other business services indus­ tries—including promotion agencies and public relations firms—as increasing numbers of firms find it necessary and cost-efficient to contract out these services. Faster than average growth is expected in the radio and television broadcasting industry as this communication medium is increasingly used, and in motor vehicle dealers due to the increasing demand for cars, vans, and trucks. On the other hand, employment is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations in the educational services industry, while little or no change or a decline in employment is projected in some manufacturing industries. Earnings The median annual salary of marketing, advertising, and public relations managers was $36,500 in 1988. The lowest 10 percent earned $19,200 or less, while the top 10 percent earned well over $52,000. Salaries between $75,000 and $100,000 are not uncom­ mon. Many cam bonuses equal to 10 percent or more of their salaries. Salary levels vary substantially depending upon the level of managerial responsibility, length of service, and size and location of the firm. For sales managers, the extent of their sales territory is another important factor. Like other managers, marketing, advertising, and public relations managers typically receive a range of fringe benefits that includes health and life insurance, vacation and sick leave, and a pension, among others. Related Occupations Marketing, advertising, and public relations managers supervise the sale of products and services offered by their firms and the communica­ tion of information about their firms’ activities. Other personnel in­ volved with marketing, advertising, and public relations include art directors, commercial and graphic artists, copy chiefs, copywriters, editors, lobbyists, market research analysts, public relations special­ ists, sales promotion specialists, sales representatives, and technical writers. (Some of these occupations are discussed elsewhere in the Handbook.)  Personnel, Training, and Labor Relations Specialists and Managers (D.O.T. 079.127; 099.167-010; 166.067, .117, .167 except-046, .257, .267­ 014 through -046; 169.107, .167-062, .207; 188.117-010, -086, .217)  Nature of the Work Attracting the best employees available and matching them to the jobs they can do best is important for the success of any organization. But many enterprises are too large to permit close contact between top management and employees. Instead, personnel and labor relations specialists and managers, also commonly known as human resources specialists and managers, provide this link. In an effort to improve morale and productivity, they help management make effective use of employees’ skills, and help employees find satisfaction in their jobs and working conditions. Although some jobs in this field require only limited contact with people outside the office, most involve frequent contact. Dealing with people is an essential part of the job. In a small organization, one person can handle all aspects of person­ nel administration. In contrast, in a large corporation, the top human resources executive—usually an executive vice president—develops, implements, and coordinates personnel programs and policies. (Execu­ tive vice presidents are included in the Handbook statement on general managers and top executives.) These policies are implemented by a director of human resources and a director of industrial relations. The director of human resources, also referred to as personnel manager, oversees several departments—each headed by an experi­ enced manager—concerned with basic personnel activities—employ­ ment, compensation, benefits, education and training, and employee welfare. Employment managers oversee the hiring and separation of employ­ ees. These activities require a range of specialists. Recruiters maintain contacts within the community and may travel extensively—often to college campuses—to search for promising job applicants. Recruiters interview applicants, and recommend those who appear qualified to fill vacancies. They may administer tests and check  IS Sources of Additional Information For information about careers in sales and marketing management, contact: •-American Marketing Association, 250 S. Wacker Dr., Chicago, IL 60606. •-Sales and Marketing Executives, International, 458 Statler Office Tower, Cleveland, OH 44115.  For information about careers in advertising management, contact: •-American Association of Advertising Agencies, 666 Third Ave., 13th Floor, New York, NY 10017. •-American Advertising Federation, 1400 K St. NW., Suite 1000, Washing­ ton, DC 20005.  Information about careers in sales promotion management is avail­ able from: •-Council of Sales Promotion Agencies, 750 Summer St., Stamford, CT 06901. •-Promotion Marketing Association of America, Inc., 322 Eighth Ave., Suite 1201, New York, NY 10001.  Information about careers in public relations management is avail­ able from: •-Public Relations Society of America, 33 Irving Place, New York, NY 10003.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Personnel managers plan training and employee relations programs.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations references. These workers need to be thoroughly familiar with the organization and its personnel policies to discuss wages, working conditions, and promotional opportunities with prospective employ­ ees . They also need to keep informed about equal employment opportu­ nity (EEO) and affirmative action guidelines. EEO representatives or affirmative action coordinators handle this area in large organizations. They investigate and resolve EEO griev­ ances, examine corporate practices for possible violations, and compile and submit EEO statistical reports. Employer relations representatives—who usually work in govern­ ment agencies—maintain working relationships with local employers and promote the use of public employment programs and services. Similarly, employment interviewers—sometimes called account rep­ resentatives, manpower development specialists, or personnel consul­ tants—help match jobseekers with employers. (For more information, see the statement on employment interviewers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Establishing and maintaining a firm’s pay system is the principal job of the compensation manager. Assisted by staff specialists, com­ pensation managers devise ways to ensure fair and equitable pay rates. They may conduct surveys to see how their rates compare with others and to see that the firm’s pay scale complies with laws and regulations. In addition, compensation managers often oversee their firm’s perfor­ mance evaluation system. Job analysts, sometimes called position classifiers, do very exacting work. They collect and examine detailed information about job duties to prepare job descriptions. These descriptions explain the duties, training, and skills each job requires. Whenever a large organization introduces a new job or reviews existing ones, it calls upon the expert knowledge of the job analyst. Occupational analysts conduct research, generally in large firms. They are concerned with occupational classification systems and study the effects of industry and occupational trends upon worker relation­ ships. They may serve as technical liaison between the firm and industry, government, and labor unions. Employee benefits managers handle the company’s employee bene­ fits program, notably its health insurance and pension plans. Expertise in designing and administering benefits programs continues to gain in importance as pension and benefit plans increase in number and complexity. Familiarity with health benefits is a top priority at present, as more and more firms search for ways to respond to the pressures posed by the rising cost of health insurance for employees and retirees. Benefits managers must keep abreast of changing Federal and State regulations affecting employee benefits. In addition to health insurance and pension coverage, many firms offer their employees dental insurance, accidental death and disability insurance, auto insurance, homeowners’ insurance, stock options, profit sharing, and thrift/savings plans. Benefits analysts and benefits administrators handle these programs. Training or, more broadly, human resource development is super­ vised by education and training managers. Increasingly, management recognizes that training offers a way of developing skills., enhancing productivity, and building loyalty to the firm. Training is widely accepted as a method of improving employee morale, but this is only one of the reasons for its growing importance. Other factors include the complexity of the work environment, the rapid pace of organiza­ tional and technological change, and the growing number of jobs in fields where new knowledge is constantly generated. In addition, advances in learning theory have provided insights into how adults learn, and how training can be organized to be most effective for adults. Training specialists are responsible for planning, organizing, and directing a wide range of training activities. Trainers conduct orienta­ tion sessions and arrange on-the-job training for new employees. They help rank-and-file workers maintain and improve their job skills and possibly prepare for jobs requiring greater skill. They help supervisors improve their interpersonal skills and deal effectively with employees. To help employees prepare for future responsibilities, they may set up  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  49  individualized training plans to strengthen existing skills or to teach new skills. Training specialists in some companies set up programs designed to develop executive potential among employees in lower echelon positions. Planning and program development is an important part of the training specialist’s job. In order to identify and assess training needs within the firm, trainers may confer with managers and supervisors or conduct surveys. They also periodically evaluate training effec­ tiveness. Depending on the size, goals, and nature of the organization, there may be considerable differences in trainers’ responsibilities and in the methods they use. Training methods include on-the-job training; “vestibule” schools, in which shop conditions are duplicated for train­ ees prior to putting them on the shop floor; apprenticeship training; classroom training; programmed instruction, which may involve inter­ active videos, videodiscs, and other computer-aided instructional tech­ nologies; simulators; conferences; and workshops. Employee welfare managers are responsible for a wide array of programs covering occupational safety and health standards and prac­ tices; health promotion and physical fitness, medical examinations, and minor health treatment, such as first aid; plant security; publica­ tions; food service and recreation activities; van-pooling; employee suggestion systems; childcare; and counseling services—an area of rapidly growing importance. Counseling—often provided through em­ ployee assistance programs—may help employees deal with emotional disorders, alcoholism, or marital, family, consumer, legal, and finan­ cial problems. Career counseling and second career counseling for employees approaching retirement age may also be provided. In large firms, some of these programs—such as security and safety—are in separate departments headed by other managers. The director of industrial relations formulates labor policy, oversees industrial labor relations, negotiates collective bargaining agreements, and coordinates grievance procedures to handle complaints resulting from disputes under the contract for firms with unionized employees. The increased attention to employee benefits has greatly expanded the scope of labor relations activities. The duties of the director of indus­ trial relations include advising and collaborating with the director of human resources and other managers and members of their staff, since all aspects of personnel policy—such as wages, benefits, pensions, and work practices—may be involved in drawing up a new or revised contract. Industrial labor relations programs are implemented by labor rela­ tions managers and their staff. When a collective bargaining agreement is up for negotiation, labor relations specialists prepare information for management to use during negotiation, which requires familiarity with economic and wage data as well as extensive knowledge of labor law and collective bargaining trends. The labor relations staff interprets and administers the contract with respect to grievances, wages and salaries, employee welfare, health care, pensions, union and manage­ ment practices, and other contractual stipulations. Dispute resolution—that is, attaining tacit or contractual agree­ ments—has become increasingly important as disputants attempt to avoid costly litigation, strikes, or other disruptions. Dispute resolution has also become more complex, involving employees, management, unions, other firms, and government agencies. Specialists involved in dispute resolution must be highly knowledgeable and experienced, and often report to the director of industrial relations. Conciliators, or mediators, advise and counsel labor and management to prevent and, when necessary, resolve disputes over labor agreements or other labor relations issues. Arbitrators, sometimes known as umpires or referees, decide disputes and bind both labor and management to specific terms and conditions of labor contracts. Labor relations specialists who work for unions perform many of the same functions on behalf of the union and its members. Working Conditions Personnel work is office work. Generally, the work setting is clean, pleasant, and comfortable. Personnel and training specialists and man­  50  Occupational Outlook Handbook  agers usually work a standard 35- to 40-hour workweek. Labor rela­ tions specialists and managers, however, may work longer hours— particularly when contract agreements are being prepared and nego­ tiated. Although most personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers work in the office, some travel extensively. For example, recruiters regularly attend professional meetings and visit college cam­ puses to interview prospective employees. Employment Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers held about 422,000 jobs in 1988. They were employed in virtually every industry. Specialists accounted for 252,000 positions; the rest were managers. About 10,000—mostly specialists—were self-employed, working as consultants to public and private employers. The private sector accounted for nearly 9 out of 10 salaried jobs. Labor unions—the largest employer among specific industries—ac­ counted for more than 1 out of 10 salaried jobs. Other important employers include management and consulting firms, hospitals, educa­ tional institutions, banks, department stores, and personnel supply agencies. Federal, State, and local governments employed over 1 out of 10 salaried personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers. They handled recruitment, interviewing, job classification, training, salary administration, benefits, employee relations, media­ tion, and related matters for the Nation’s millions of public employees concerned with sanitation, police protection, parks, defense, and nu­ merous other services. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Because of the diversity of duties and level of responsibility, the educational backgrounds of personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers vary considerably. In filling entry level jobs, firms generally seek college graduates. Some employers prefer appli­ cants who have majored in personnel administration or industrial and labor relations, while others look for college graduates with a technical or business background. Still others feel that a well-rounded liberal arts education is best. Many colleges and universities have programs leading to a degree in personnel, human resources, or labor relations. Some offer degree programs in personnel administration or human resource management, training and development, or compensation and benefits. Others, usu­ ally in collaboration with professional associations, offer accredited programs in personnel, human resources, compensation, and benefits leading to certification. Depending on the school, courses leading to a career in human resource management may be found in departments of business administration, education, instructional technology, orga­ nizational development, human services, communication, or public administration. Because an interdisciplinary background is appropriate for work in this area, a combination of courses in the social sciences, business, and behavioral sciences is useful. In some industries, a background in engineering or science is recommended. Prospective personnel special­ ists should take courses in principles of management, organization dynamics, and human relations. Other relevant courses include busi­ ness administration, public administration, psychology, sociology, political science, economics, and statistics. Courses in labor law, collective bargaining, labor economics, labor history, and industrial psychology provide a valuable background for the prospective labor relations specialist. Graduate study in industrial or labor relations is becoming increas­ ingly important for those seeking work in labor relations. A law degree seldom is required for entry level jobs, but many people responsible for contract negotiations are lawyers, and a combination of industrial relations courses and law is highly desirable. A background in law is also desirable for employee benefits managers and others who must interpret the growing number of laws and regulations. A degree in dispute resolution provides an excellent background for mediators, arbitrators, and related personnel. A master’s degree is desirable for  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  those seeking general and top management positions in all areas of personnel, training, and labor relations. For many specialized jobs in this field, previous experience is an asset; for managerial positions, it is essential. Personnel administration and human resource development require the ability to work with individuals as well as having a commitment to organizational goals. They also demand skills that may be developed outside the field— computer usage, selling, teaching, supervising, and volunteering, among others. In fact, the majority of personnel and labor relations jobs are filled by people previously employed in another occupation. This field offers clerical workers opportunities for advancement to professional positions. However, more responsible positions may be filled by experienced individuals from other fields, including business, government, education, social services administration, and the mil­ itary. Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers should speak and write effectively and be able to work with or supervise people of all levels of education and experience as part of a team. They must be patient to cope with conflicting points of view and emotionally stable to deal with the unexpected and the unusual. The ability to function under pressure is essential. Integrity, fair- minded­ ness, and a persuasive, congenial personality are important qualities. Entry level workers usually enter formal or on-the-job training programs, where they learn how to classify jobs, interview applicants, or administer employee benefits. Next, they are assigned to specific areas in the personnel department to gain experience. Later, they may advance to a managerial position, overseeing a major element of the personnel program—compensation or training, for example. Some workers leave for a more responsible job in another organiza­ tion. Exceptional employees may be promoted to director of personnel or industrial relations, which can eventually lead to a top managerial or executive position. Others may join a consulting firm or open their own business. A Ph.D. is an asset for teaching, writing, or consulting work. Job Outlook The number of personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Most job openings, however, will result from replacement needs. The job market is likely to remain competitive in view of the abundant supply of college graduates and experienced workers with suitable qualifications. Most growth will occur in the private sector as employers try to provide effective training and employee relations programs for an expanding work force. For example, very rapid employment growth is expected in management and consulting as well as personnel supply firms as businesses increasingly contract out personnel functions or hire personnel specialists on a contractual basis to meet the increasing cost and complexity of training and development programs. Firms that develop and administer increasingly complex employee benefits and compensation packages for other organizations are also expected to grow rapidly. On the other hand, slower growth is expected in labor unions and organizations, as firms increasingly assume labor relations functions. Unless government programs expand, slower growth is also anticipated in public personnel administration. Corporate recognition of the importance of human resources will spur demand for personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers. Much greater investment in job-specific, employersponsored training and retraining is anticipated in the years ahead— a response to the increasing complexity of many jobs, productivity concerns, the aging of the work force, and technological advances that can suddenly leave large numbers of employees with obsolete skills. Demand for personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers is also governed by the staffing needs of the firms where they work. A rapidly expanding business is likely to hire additional personnel workers—either as permanent employees or consultants— while a business that is reducing its operations will require fewer personnel workers. In any particular firm, the size and the job duties of the human resources staff are determined by a variety of factors,  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations including the firm’s organizational philosophy and goals, the labor intensity and skill profile of the industry, the pace of technological change, government regulations, collective bargaining agreements, standards of professional practice, and labor market conditions. Other factors stimulate demand for personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers. Legislation setting standards in occupational safety and health, equal employment opportunity, and benefits has substantially increased the amount of recordkeeping, anal­ ysis, and report writing in these areas. Data gathering and analytical activities will increase as employers continue to review and evaluate their personnel policies and programs, but that probably will not generate many additional jobs because of offsetting productivity gains associated with the automation of personnel and payroll information. Earnings The median annual salary of personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers was $29,000 in 1988. The lowest 10 percent earned under $15,700, while the highest 10 percent earned over $52,000. Median earnings of managers were $34,600; for specialists, $26,400. Salaries vary widely and depend upon the size and location of the firm and the nature of its business. In 1988, according to a comprehensive survey conducted by Abbott, Langer, and Associates, the median annual salaries for selected person­ nel and labor relations occupations were: Labor relations managers, $50,500; training and organizational development managers, $49,400; compensation and benefits managers, $47,300; safety specialists, $33,400; EEO/affirmative action specialists, $33,300; and benefits planning specialists, $31,100. In the Federal Government, starting salaries of personnel, training, and labor relations specialists depended upon education and experi­ ence. In 1989, persons with a bachelor’s degree or 3 years’ general experience in the personnel field generally started at $15,700 a year. Those with a superior academic record or an additional year of special­ ized experience started at $ 19,500 a year. Holders of a master’s degree started at $23,800, and those with a doctorate in a personnel field started at $28,900. There are no formal entry level requirements for managerial positions. Applicants must possess a suitable combination of educational attainment, experience, and record of accomplishment. In the Federal Government, the average annual salary of personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers was $36,700 in 1988. Generally, managers and specialists involved in mediation, labor management relations, industrial relations, and related activities had substantially higher salaries than personnel involved in routine activities such as classification, occupational analysis, and staffing. Similar to other workers, personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers receive fringe benefits that typically include vacation and sick leave, health and life insurance, and pension plans, among others. Related Occupations All personnel, training, and labor relations occupations are closely related. Other workers with skills and expertise in interpersonal rela­ tions include employment, rehabilitation, and college career planning and placement counselors; lawyers; psychologists; sociologists; and teachers. These occupations are described elsewhere in the Handbook. Sources of Additional Information For general information on careers and accreditation in the personnel and human resources field, send a self-addressed, stamped, legal-sized envelope to: ••-American Society for Personnel Administration, 606 N. Washington St., Alexandria, VA 22314.  For information about careers in employee training and develop­ ment, contact: ••-American Society for Training and Development, 1630 Duke St., Box 1443, Alexandria, VA 22313.  For information about careers and certification in employee compen­ sation, contact: ••-American Compensation Association, 14040 Northsight Blvd., Scottsdale, AZFRASER 85260. Digitized for https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  51  Information about careers and certification in employee benefits is available from: t»-lntemational Foundation of Employee Benefit Plans, 18700 W. Bluemound Rd., Brookfield, WI 53005.  For information about careers in arbitration and other aspects of dispute resolution, contact: ••-American Arbitration Association, 140 West 51st St., New York, NY 10020.  For information about academic programs in industrial relations, write to: ••-Industrial Relations Research Association, 7226 Social Science Bldg., 1180 Observatory Dr., Madison, WI 53706.  Information about personnel careers in the health care industry is available from: «*-American Society for Healthcare Human Resources Administration, 840 North Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, IL 60611.  For information about personnel and labor relations careers in gov­ ernment, contact: ••-International Personnel Management Association, 1617 Duke St., Alexan­ dria, VA 22314. (•-International Association of Personnel in Employment Security, 1801 Louis­ ville Rd., Frankfort, Kentucky 40601.  Property and Real Estate Managers (D.O.T. 186.117-042, -046, -058, and -062, .167-018, -030, -038, -042, -046, -062, and -066; 187.167-190; 189.157; 191.117-030 and -042 through -050).  Nature of the Work Many people own real estate in the form of a home, but, to businesses and investors, real estate is more than simply the roof over one’s head and the ground under one’s feet. Real estate is a valuable asset— land and structures, such as office buildings, shopping centers, and apartment complexes—that can produce income and appreciate in value over time if well managed. Real estate can be a source of income when its use is leased to others, but a substantial business expense when it must be leased from others. Property managers control incomeproducing commercial and residential properties and manage the com­ munal property and services of condominium and community associa­ tions. Real estate managers plan and direct the purchase, development, and disposal of real estate for businesses. The majority of property and real estate managers work in the field of property management. When owners of apartments, office buildings, retail and industrial properties, or condominiums lack the time or expertise to assume the day-to-day management of their real estate investments, they often hire a property manager, or contract for one’s services with a real estate management company. Most property managers handle several properties simultaneously. Property managers act as the owners’ agent and adviser for the property. They market vacant space to prospective tenants, through the use of a leasing agent, advertising, or by other means, and establish rental rates in light of prevailing local rates. They negotiate and prepare lease or rental agreements with tenants and collect their rent payments and other fees. Property managers direct the bookkeeping for the property, crediting the owners’ accounts for rent received and disbursing checks for mortgage payments, taxes, insurance premium payments, payroll, and upkeep and maintenance costs. They also direct the preparation of financial statements and periodically report to the owners on the status of the property, occupancy rates, dates of lease expirations, and other matters. Property managers negotiate contracts for janitorial, security, groundskeeping, trash removal, and other services. When contracts are awarded competitively, managers must solicit bids from several contractors and recommend to the owners which bid should be ac­ cepted. They monitor the performance of the contractors, and investi­ gate and resolve complaints from tenants. Managers also purchase all supplies and equipment needed for the property, and arrange for  52  Occupational Outlook Handbook  specialists to be brought in to perform any repairs that cannot be handled by the maintenance staff employed at the property. Property managers hire and, when necessary, discharge the mainte­ nance, stationary engineering, and on-site management personnel em­ ployed at the property. At smaller properties, the property manager might employ only a building engineer who maintains the building’s heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems and performs other routine maintenance and repair tasks. Larger properties require a siz­ able maintenance staff supervised by a full-time on-site or resident manager, who works under the direction of the property manager. Although some on-site managers oversee large office buildings or shopping centers, most manage apartments. They train, supervise, and assign duties to the maintenance staff at a property. Routinely, on-site managers inspect the grounds, facilities, and equipment, determine what repairs and maintenance are needed, and assign workers to perform them. Occasionally, outside contractors are required, and the on-site manager may obtain bids for the work and submit them to the property manager. On-site managers schedule routine service of the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems and insure that the work of the maintenance staff and contract workers is up to standards or contract specifications. They also keep records of labor and materials costs for operating the property and submit regular cost reports to the property manager or owners. They also may recruit candidates for vacant maintenance staff positions, interview the job applicants, and recommend a qualified candidate for employment to the property manager. Dealing with tenants is an important part of the work of on-site managers, particularly apartment managers. Apartment managers han­ dle tenants’ requests for service or repairs and try to resolve complaints concerning other tenants or visitors. They show apartments available for rent to prospective tenants and explain the occupancy terms. They also are responsible for enforcing rules and lease restrictions, such as limitations on tenants’ ownership of pets or use of parking areas. Property and on-site managers employed by condominium and homeowner associations must be particularly adept at dealing with people. Instead of tenants, they must deal on a daily basis with homeowners—members of the community association that employs the manager. Hired by the volunteer board of directors of the association, the community association manager administers its daily affairs and oversees the maintenance of property and facilities that the homeown­ ers own and use jointly through the association. Many community associations are small and do not require professional management, but managers of the larger condominiums have many of the same responsibilities as the managers of large apartment complexes. Some homeowner associations encompass thousands of homes, and, in addi­ tion to administering the associations’ financial records, their managers may be responsible for the operation of community pools, golf courses, community centers, and the maintenance of landscaping, parking ar­ eas, and streets.  Property managers negotiate leases with tenants.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Real estate managers are employed by businesses to locate, acquire, and develop real estate needed for their operations and to dispose of property no longer suited to their uses. Real estate managers employed by corporations that operate chains of restaurants, apparel and grocery stores, and gasoline service stations locate sites well suited for these types of establishments, and arrange to purchase or lease the property from the owners. They select a site based on their assessment of factors such as property values, zoning, likely patterns of population growth, and traffic volume and patterns. They negotiate contracts for the purchase or lease of the property, bargaining to secure the most benefi­ cial terms for their company. Real estate managers periodically review their company’s real estate holdings, identifying properties which have become less desirable locations for their type of business due to community development or changes in the composition of the popula­ tion. They negotiate the sale or termination of the lease of properties selected for disposal. Real estate managers who work for land development companies acquire land and plan the construction of shopping centers, houses and apartments, office buildings, or industrial parks. They negotiate with representatives of local government, other businesses, community and public interest groups, and public utilities to eliminate obstacles to the development of the land and gain support for the planned project. It sometimes takes managers years to win approval for a project, and in the process they may modify the plans for the project many times. Once they are free to proceed with a project, managers negotiate short­ term loans to finance the construction of the project, and later negotiate long-term permanent mortgage loans. They then contract with architec­ tural firms to draw up detailed plans, and with construction companies to build the project. Real estate managers also work as land and permit agents for compa­ nies engaged in mining and quarrying, oil exploration, and construct­ ing pipe and utility lines. They search public records to determine the owners of land which their companies have identified as being likely to contain oil, coal, or other mineral deposits, or which lie in the path of the planned pipe or utility line. They contact the landowners and negotiate the purchase of the land, or agreements such as leases, options, rights-of-way, or royalty contracts that permit use of the land. They also may settle claims by landowners for damage resulting from the activities of their company. Working Conditions Property and real estate managers work in clean, well-lighted offices, but they usually spend a major portion of their time away from their desks. Property managers frequently visit the properties that they oversee, sometimes nearly on a daily basis when contractors are per­ forming important repair or renovation work. On-site apartment man­ agers may spend a substantial portion of their workday away from their office visiting the building engineer in the boiler room, checking up on the janitorial and maintenance staff, or investigating a problem reported by a tenant. Many real estate managers spend the majority of their time away from home, traveling to company real estate holdings or searching for properties that might be acquired. Property and real estate managers often must attend meetings in the evening with property owners, community association boards of directors, or civic groups with an interest in property planned for development. Many apartment managers are required to live in the apartments where they work so that they are available to handle any emergency that occurs while they are normally off duty. They usually receive compensatory time off, however, for working at night or on weekends. Many apartment managers receive time off during the week so that they are available on weekends to show apartments to prospective tenants. Employment Property and real estate managers held about 225,000 jobs in 1988. Most worked for real estate operators and lessors or for property management firms. Others worked for real estate development compa­ nies, banks, government agencies that manage public buildings, corpo­ rations with extensive holdings of retail properties, real estate invest­  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations ors, and mining and oil companies. Many were self-employed developers, apartment owner-managers, or owners of property man­ agement or full-service real estate brokerage firms that manage as well as sell real estate for clients. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Most employers prefer to hire college graduates for property and real estate management positions. Degrees in business administration, finance, real estate, public administration, or related fields are pre­ ferred, but persons with degrees in the liberal arts are often accepted. Good speaking and writing skills and an ability to deal tactfully with people are essential. Most persons enter property and real estate man­ agement as on-site apartment or community association managers, or as assistants to property managers. Previous employment as a real estate agent is an asset to apartment managers because it provides experience useful in showing apartments and dealing with people, as well as an understanding that an attractive, well-maintained property can command higher rental rates and result in less turnover among tenants. In the past, many persons with backgrounds in stationary engineering and building maintenance have advanced to apartment manager positions on the strength of their knowledge of building mechanical systems, but this is becoming uncommon as employers are placing greater emphasis on administrative and communication abilities for manager jobs. On-site managers usually begin at a smaller apartment complex, condominium, or community association, or as an assistant manager at a large property or association. As they acquire experience working under the direction of a property manager, they may advance by transferring to positions with greater responsibility at larger properties. Persons who excel as on-site managers often transfer to assistant property manager positions where they can acquire experience handling a broader range of property management responsibilities. Although persons often advance to assistant property manager posi­ tions on the strength of on-site management experience, employers are increasingly hiring inexperienced college graduates with bachelor’s or master’s degrees in business administration, finance, or real estate for these jobs. Assistants work closely with a property manager and acquire experience performing a variety of management tasks, such as preparing financial statements, analyzing insurance coverage and risk options, marketing the property to prospective tenants, and collect­ ing overdue rent payments. In time, many assistants advance to prop­ erty manager positions. The responsibilities and compensation of property managers in­ crease as they manage larger properties. Most property managers are responsible for several properties at a time, and as their careers advance they are gradually entrusted with properties that are larger or whose management is more complex. Many specialize in the management of one type of property, such as apartments, office buildings, condominiums and homeowner associations, or retail properties. Managers who excel at marketing properties to tenants may specialize in managing new properties, while those who are particularly knowledgeable about buildings and their mechanical systems might specialize in the management of older properties that require renovation or more frequent repairs. Some experienced property and real estate managers open their own property manage­ ment or real estate firms. Persons most commonly enter real estate manager jobs by transfer­ ring from positions as property managers or real estate brokers. Real estate managers must be good negotiators, adept at persuading and handling people, and good at analyzing data to assess the fair value of property or its development potential. Resourcefulness and creativity in arranging financing are essential for managers who specialize in land development. Real estate managers may be required to hold a real estate broker’s license. Many property and real estate managers attend short-term formal training programs conducted by various professional and trade associa­ tions active in the real estate field. Employers send many managers to these programs to improve their management skills and expand their  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  53  knowledge of specialized subjects, such as the operation and mainte­ nance of building mechanical systems, insurance and risk manage­ ment, business and real estate law, and accounting and financial con­ cepts. Many managers also participate in these programs to prepare themselves to advance to positions of greater responsibility in property and real estate management. In many cases, completion of these programs, together with meeting job experience standards and achiev­ ing a satisfactory score on a written examination, leads to certification, or the formal award of a professional designation, by the sponsoring association. Managers of public housing subsidized by the Federal Government are required to be certified, but many property and real estate managers voluntarily earn a formal professional designation because it represents formal recognition of their achievements and status in the occupation. A number of organizations have such programs. The Institute of Real Estate Management awards the designations Accredited Residential Manager and Certified Property Manager, while the National Associa­ tion of Home Builders awards the designation Registered Apartment Manager. The National Apartment Association confers the designa­ tions Certified Apartment Manager and Certified Apartment Property Supervisor. The Community Associations Institute bestows the desig­ nation Professional Community Association Manager, while the Build­ ing Owners and Managers Institute International awards the designa­ tions Real Property Administrator and Facilities Management Administrator. The International Association of Corporate Real Estate Executives confers the designations Associate of Corporate Real Estate and Master of Corporate Real Estate. Job Outlook Employment of property and real estate managers is projected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2000. However, the majority of job openings are expected to occur as experienced managers transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Opportunities are expected to be best for persons with college degrees in business administration and related fields. The projected pattern of employment growth in the economy indicates growth in the demand for office buildings, retail establishments, and apartments, and consequently growth in requirements for property and real estate managers. A large proportion of the new jobs created over the 1988-2000 period are expected to be in wholesale and retail trade, finance, insurance, real estate, and the various service industries. Since establishments in these industries are the primary tenants of commercial properties, growth of these industries is expected to require growth in the Nation’s supply of office and retail space. In addition, the expected employment growth in retail trade should require growing numbers of real estate managers to acquire and develop properties for expanding restaurant, grocery, apparel, and specialized merchandise chains. Growth in the Nation’s stock of apartments and houses should also require more property and real estate managers. Although the rate of new household formation is expected to decline somewhat over the 1988-2000 period as fewer young workers enter the labor force, the high cost of purchasing a home is expected to force a growing proportion of new households to delay leaving rental housing. In addition, develop­ ments of new houses are increasingly being organized with community or homeowner associations that provide community services and over­ see jointly owned common areas, requiring professional management. A growing proportion of commercial and multiunit residential prop­ erty owners are expected to entrust the management of their properties to a professional manager. Recent changes to income tax laws have greatly limited the tax benefits that property owners and investors can derive from unprofitable apartments and commercial properties. To help properties become more profitable, more owners are expected to place their investments in the hands of property and real estate managers. Earnings Earnings of property and real estate managers vary greatly according to the level of their responsibility. A survey conducted by Huntress Real Estate Executive Search Inc. found that the middle third of the  54  Occupational Outlook Handbook  on-site apartment managers surveyed had annual salaries averaging $28,000 in 1988, while the lowest third averaged $18,800 a year and the highest third, $38,500 annually. Property managers had considerably higher earnings than on-site managers, according to the same survey. The middle third of property managers responsible for multiple apartment properties averaged $55,100 a year in 1988, while the lowest third averaged $45,400 and the highest third, $64,000 annually. Of property managers responsible for shopping centers, the middle third earned $60,800; the lowest third, $50,100; and the highest third, $68,800 annually. Of those who managed office buildings, the middle third earned $67,100; the lowest third, $47,200; and the highest third, $75,200 annually. Earnings of corporate real estate managers were generally compara­ ble to those of property managers, according to the same survey. Among those employed by fast-food and restaurant chains, the middle third of the lease negotiators and site selection representatives averaged $55,200 annually in 1988, while the lowest third averaged $45,000 and the highest third, $67,300 annually. The middle third of real estate directors earned $68,800 a year, while the lowest third earned $51,200 and the highest third, $78,800 annually. Among real estate managers employed by retail apparel chains, the middle third of the lease negotia­ tors and site selection representatives averaged $57,600 a year; the lowest third, $44,500; and the highest third, $70,000. The middle third of real estate directors for retail apparel chains had an average annual salary of $65,900, while the lowest third earned $54,600 and the highest third, $82,100 annually. Community association managers received compensation compara­ ble to on-site and property managers employed by other types of properties. Property and real estate managers usually receive medical and health insurance paid by their employer. Many resident apartment managers receive the use of an apartment as part of their compensation package. Property and real estate managers often are given the use of a company automobile, and managers employed in land development often receive a small percentage of ownership in projects that they develop. Related Occupations Property and real estate managers plan, organize, staff, and control the real estate operations of businesses. Workers who perform similar functions in other fields include restaurant and food service managers, hotel and resort managers and assistants, health services managers, education administrators, and city managers. Sources of Additional Information General information about careers in property and real estate manage­ ment and programs leading to the award of a professional designation in the field is available from; •-Apartment Owners and Managers Association of America, 65 Cherry Plaza, Watertown, CT 06795-0238. •-Building Owners and Managers Institute International, 1521 Ritchie Hwy., Arnold, MD 21012. •-Community Associations Institute, Suite 7, 1423 Powhatan St., Alexandria, VA 22314. •-Institute of Real Estate Management, 430 N. Michigan Ave., Chicago IL 60611. ••-International Association of Corporate Real Estate Executives, Suite 8, 471 Spencer Dr. South, West Palm Beach, FL 33409. •-National Apartment Association, Suite 900, 1111 14th St. NW., Washing­ ton, DC 20005. •-National Association of Home Builders, 15th & M Sts. NW., Washington, DC 20005.  Purchasing Agents and Managers (D.O.T. 162.117-018; .157-030, -034, and-038, . 167-022 and-030, 163.117­ 010; 169.167-054; 184.117-078; and 185.167-034)  Nature of the Work Purchasing agents and managers, sometimes called contract managers, procurement officers, or industrial buyers, purchase the goods, materi­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  als, supplies, and services that are required by their organization; for example, raw materials, machinery, office supplies, airline tickets, or television air time. They insure that products are of suitable quality and sufficient quantity, secured at the right price, and available when needed. This is important because the flow of work—or even the entire production process—could be slowed or halted if the right materials, supplies, or equipment are not on hand when needed. Changing business practices have changed the role of purchasing managers and agents and have placed greater importance on their function. Increasingly, they are helping with the design of new prod­ ucts and the improvement of existing ones. Many companies are recognizing the importance of purchasing specialists at the design stage of a product; by consulting the purchasing agent in the early stages of product development, potential problems with the supply of materials can be avoided, thus saving time and money. The nature of the work may differ according to the size and objective of the organization as well as its purchasing policy. In large organiza­ tions, a distinction is often drawn between the work of a purchasing agent and that of a purchasing manager. Purchasing agents typically focus on routine purchasing tasks, often specializing in a commodity or group of related commodities—for example, steel, lumber, cotton, or petroleum products. This often requires a buyer to track such things as market conditions, wholesale price indexes, or futures markets. Purchasing managers usually perform more complex purchasing tasks and may supervise a group of purchasing agents handling a number of related goods and services. Purchasing agents and managers often work with other departments to determine what supplies are needed, when they are needed, and the best way to buy them. Organizations have increasingly centralized their buying, placing more responsibilities on their purchasing depart­ ments. For example, a purchasing department may buy chemicals for a company’s production processes or arrange employee travel for the whole company. Computer technology plays a significant role in purchasing. Pur­ chasing agents and managers use computers to obtain up-to-date prod­ uct and price listings, to keep track of inventory levels, to process routine orders, and to help determine when to make purchases. Com­ puters are also used to maintain bidders’ lists, to record the history of supplier performance, and to issue purchase orders. Perhaps the most significant role that computers play is that they do many previously time-consuming tasks, thereby allowing the purchasing professional to concentrate on products and suppliers. The trend in the private sector toward single-source, or, more accu­ rately, limited-source contracting, reduces the number of vendors with whom an agent or manager deals. With limited-source contracting, an agent or manager develops fewer but longer relationships with a company’s suppliers, which makes the selection of the suppliers more critical. Increasingly, the agent’s or manager’s main job is to select the supplier who offers the best combination of quality, service, and price. Purchasing agents and managers must have a thorough understand­ ing of the items that are to be purchased. They must also be able to articulate their company’s needs to suppliers and to evaluate and choose between suppliers. Many agents and managers also need techni­ cal knowledge of the items they purchase. Purchasing agents and managers use a variety of means to choose suppliers. They compare listings in catalogs, directories, and trade journals. They meet with salespersons to discuss items to be purchased, examine samples, and attend demonstrations of products and equip­ ment. Frequently, they determine vendor qualifications and invite suppliers to bid on large orders. They then negotiate prices and contract terms or select the lowest bidder from among those who meet purchas­ ing and delivery date requirements. Successful purchasing agents and managers develop good business relationships with suppliers in order to attain the necessary materials and maintain a long-term relationship with them. This can be particu­ larly important if a company uses a limited number of sources. They also work closely with employees in their own organization. For example, they may discuss design of custom-made products with  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations  Purchasing professionals are becoming more specialized. company engineers, defects in purchased goods with quality control technicians, or shipment problems with workers in the shipping de­ partment. The Federal Government distinguishes between purchasing agents and the more highly skilled contract specialist. The work of govern­ ment purchasing agents and contract specialists can be very different from that of other purchasing agents and managers. Although the goal of those who work in the public sector is the same as in the private sector, government purchasing agents and managers must follow laws, statutes, and strict regulations in their work. These laws and regulations are continually being changed, so the job also requires keeping in­ formed about the latest regulations and their applications. Generally, Federal purchasing agents use simplified purchasing methods to pro­ cure items under $25,000; Federal contract specialists use sealed bid­ ding and negotiated agreements for more expensive or complex items. Working Conditions Purchasing agents and managers generally work a standard 35- to 40hour week in offices, although overtime work is common. On average, about 10 to 15 percent of their time is spent traveling to suppliers, seminars, or trade shows. Employment Purchasing agents and managers held about 458,000 jobs in 1988. More than one-fourth of all jobs were located in manufacturing indus­ tries. Government agencies, primarily in the Federal sector, provided almost 20 percent of the jobs. Because of its complex and extensive purchasing requirements, the Department of Defense employs the greatest number of purchasing agents and managers in the Federal Government. Other important Federal employers are the Departments of Agriculture, Interior, and Transportation, the General Services Administration, and the Veterans Administration. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Although there are no universal educational requirements for entry level jobs, most organizations prefer or require a college degree. A degree is almost essential to advance to higher positions. A master’s degree in business may be required for higher level jobs. It is also important to have strong analytical and communication skills. Educational requirements vary by industry. The Federal Govern­ ment seeks applicants with a college degree or 3 years of work experi­ ence. Companies that manufacture machinery or chemicals may prefer applicants with a technical background, such as engineering or science. Other companies hire business administration majors as trainees. Re­ gardless of the field, familiarity with computers is desirable. Many colleges and vocational-technical institutes offer courses or degrees in purchasing. Many small companies require a bachelor’s degree; some, however, hire graduates of associate degree and vocational education programs  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  55  in purchasing for entry level jobs. They also may promote clerks or technicians in the purchasing department. Whatever their educational background, beginning purchasing agents are often enrolled in company training programs and spend considerable time learning about company operations and purchasing procedures. They work with experienced agents to team about com­ modities, prices, suppliers, and negotiating techniques. They may be assigned to production planning to learn about the purchasing system, inventory records, and storage facilities. Purchasing agents and managers must be able to analyze the techni­ cal data in suppliers’ proposals, make buying decisions, and spend large amounts of money responsibly. The job requires the ability to work independently and a good memory for details. In addition, purchasing agents and managers must be able to get along well with people to balance the needs of personnel in the organization with budgetary constraints. They may work with lawyers, contract adminis­ trators, and engineers and scientists when involved in complex pro­ curements. A qualified purchasing agent may become an assistant purchasing manager in charge of a group of purchasing agents before advancing to purchasing manager, director or vice president of purchasing, or director or manager of materials management. At the top levels, duties may overlap into other management functions such as production, planning, and marketing. This occupation is becoming increasingly professionalized and spe­ cialized. Continuing education is essential for advancement. Many purchasing agents and managers participate in seminars offered by professional societies and take college courses in purchasing. Although no national standard exists, certification is becoming increasingly important. In private industry, the recognized mark of experience and profes­ sional competence is the designation Certified Purchasing Manager. It is conferred by the National Association of Purchasing Management, Inc. (NAPM), upon candidates who pass four examinations and meet educational and experience requirements. Educational background is evaluated on degrees held and courses and seminars attended. Experi­ ence is evaluated by years of work experience and contributions made to the field such as articles published or offices held in the NAPM. In State and local government, the indications of professional competence are the designations Professional Public Buyer (PPB) and Certified Public Purchasing Officer (CPPO), conferred by the National Institute of Governmental Purchasing, Inc. The PPB is earned by passing a two-part written examination. In addition, candidates must have 4 years of purchasing experience, 2 of which must be in public purchas­ ing. To earn the CPPO, a candidate must have 6 years of purchasing experience, of which 4 years must be in a public purchasing, manage­ ment-level position; pass a three-part written exam; and pass an oral interview assessment. As more purchasing is conducted on a long-term basis, both private and public purchasing agents are specializing in contractual aspects of purchasing. The National Contract Management Association confers the designations Certified Associate Contract Manager (CACM) or Certified Professional Contract Manager (CPCM). Candidates for the CPCM usually must have a bachelor’s degree and 2 years of on-the-job contracting experience. They must also complete certain procurement courses and pass a 6-hour exam. A candidate for the CACM must have 60 hours of college credit, complete certain procurement courses, have 1 year of related work experience, and pass the CACM test. These designations primarily apply to contract managers in the Federal Government and its suppliers. Job Outlook Employment of purchasing agents and managers is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Computerization has changed the nature of the work but has not eliminated jobs. Computers allow agents and managers to concentrate on buying decisions instead of routine paperwork. In addition, companies are placing larger responsibilities on purchasing departments, which increases the need for qualified personnel. As  56  Occupational Outlook Handbook  in the past, however, most job openings will arise from the need to replace workers who leave their jobs. Some purchasing agents and managers transfer to or from other occupations, often sales or managerial positions. Persons who have a master’s degree in business administration or a bachelor’s degree should have the best opportunities. Graduates of 2year programs in purchasing should continue to find good opportuni­ ties, especially in small firms. Earnings Median annual earnings for purchasing agents were about $25,896 in 1988. The middle 50 percent earned between $19,500 and $34,736. The bottom 10 percent earned less than $12,116, and the top 10 percent earned more than $47,268. The middle 50 percent of purchasing managers earned between $25,896 and $49,712 in 1988. The median starting salary for purchasing agents in the private sector was $21,268 annually in 1988. Experienced workers earned between $27,456 and $35,516, and senior agents averaged $42,484. In the Federal Government, beginning purchasing agents who had college degrees earned $15,738 or $19,493 in 1989, depending on scholastic achievement and experience. Purchasing agents in the Fed­ eral Government averaged $18,999 in 1989 and contract specialists averaged $33,060. Related Occupations Other workers who negotiate and contract to purchase equipment, supplies, or other merchandise include retail and wholesale buyers, procurement services managers, and traffic managers. Other related occupations include sales workers, especially manufacturers’ sales workers, because buying and selling are closely related. Sources of Additional Information Further information about careers in purchasing and certification is available from: w-National Association of Purchasing Management, Inc., P.O. Box 22160, Tempe, AZ 85285 •-National Institute of Governmental Purchasing, Inc., 115 Hillwood Ave., Falls Church, VA 22046. •-National Contract Management Association, 1912 Woodford Rd., Vienna, VA 22182.  For information concerning career opportunities in the Federal Gov­ ernment, contact: •-Federal Acquisition Institute (VF), General Services Administration, 18th and F Sts. NW„ Washington, DC 20405.  Restaurant and Food Service Managers (D.O.T. 185.137; 187.161-010 and .167-026, -106, -126, -206, and -210; 319.137-014 and -018)  Nature of the Work Food is consumed outside the home in a variety of settings. Eating places range from restaurants that serve fast food or that emphasize elegant dining, to institutional dining in school and employee cafete­ rias, hospitals, and nursing facilities. The cuisine offered, its price, and the setting in which it is consumed vary greatly, but the managers of these diverse dining facilities have many responsibilities in com­ mon. Efficient and profitable operation of restaurants and institutional food service facilities requires that managers and assistant managers select and appropriately price interesting menu items, efficiently use food and other supplies, achieve consistent quality in food preparation and service, recruit and train adequate numbers of workers and super­ vise their work, and painstakingly attend to the various administrative aspects of the business. In most restaurants and institutional food service facilities, the manager is assisted by one or more assistant managers, depending on the size and business hours of the establishment. In large establish­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ments, as well as in many others that offer fine dining, the management team consists of a general manager, one or more assistant managers, and an executive chef. The executive chef is responsible for the operation of the kitchen, while the assistant managers oversee service in the dining room and other areas of the operation. In some smaller restaurants, the executive chef may also be the general manager, and sometimes an owner. In fast-food restaurants and other food service facilities that operate long hours, 7 days a week, the manager is aided by several assistant managers, each of whom supervises a shift of workers. (For additional information, see the Handbook statements on general managers and top executives and chefs, cooks, and other kitchen workers.) Many restaurants change their menu only rarely, but other eating establishments change it frequently. Institutional food service facilities and some restaurants offer a new menu every day. Managers or execu­ tive chefs select menu items, taking into account the likely number of customers, the past popularity of various dishes, and considerations such as food left over from prior meals that should not be wasted, the need for variety on the menu, and the availability of foods due to seasonal and other factors. They analyze the recipes of the dishes to determine food, labor, and overhead costs and assign prices to the menu items. Menus must be developed far enough in advance that needed supplies may be received in time. Ordering supplies and dealing with suppliers are important aspects of the work of restaurant and food service managers. On a daily basis, managers estimate food consumption, place orders with suppliers, and schedule the delivery of fresh food and beverages. They receive and check the content of deliveries, evaluating the quality of meats, poul­ try, fish, fruits, vegetables, and baked goods. Managers meet or talk with sales representatives of restaurant suppliers to place orders to replenish stocks of tableware, linens, paper, cleaning supplies, cook­ ing utensils, and furniture and fixtures. They also arrange for equip­ ment maintenance and repairs, and for a variety of services such as waste removal and pest control. Managers interview, hire, and, when necessary, discharge workers. They familiarize newly hired workers with the establishment’s policies and practices and oversee their training. Managers schedule the work hours of employees, insuring that there are adequate numbers of workers present during busy periods, but not too many during slow periods. Restaurant and food service managers supervise the kitchen and the dining room. They oversee food preparation and cooking, checking the quality of the food and the sizes of portions to insure that dishes are prepared and garnished correctly and in a timely manner. They also investigate and resolve customers’ complaints about food quality or service. During busy periods, managers may roll up their sleeves and help with the cooking, clearing of tables, or other tasks. They direct the cleaning of the kitchen and dining areas and the washing of tableware, kitchen utensils, and equipment to maintain company and government sanitation standards. They monitor workers and observe patrons on a continual basis to insure compliance with health and safety standards and local liquor regulations. Managers have a variety of administrative responsibilities. In larger establishments, much of this work is delegated to a bookkeeper, but in others, managers must keep accurate records of the hours and wages of employees, prepare the payroll, and do paperwork to comply with licensing laws and reporting requirements of tax, wage and hour, unemployment compensation, and Social Security laws. They also must maintain records of the costs of supplies and equipment purchased and insure that accounts with suppliers are paid on a regular basis. In addition, managers record the number, type, and cost of items sold to weed out dishes that are unpopular or less profitable. Many managers are able to ease the burden of recordkeeping and paperwork through the use of computers. Managers are among the first to arrive and the last to leave at night. At the conclusion of each day, or sometimes each shift, managers must tally the cash received and charge receipts and balance them against the record of sales. They are responsible for depositing the day’s income at the bank, or securing it in a safe place. Managers are  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations "'  ,  Restaurant and food service managers check to see that food is prepared correctly and health and sanitation standards are maintained. also responsible for locking up and checking that ovens, grills, and lights are off and alarm systems switched on. Working Conditions Since evenings and weekends are popular dining periods, night and weekend work is common. However, many managers of institutional food service facilities work more conventional hours because factory and office cafeterias are often open only on weekdays for breakfast and lunch. Many restaurant and food service managers work 50 hours or more per week. Managers often experience the pressure of simultaneously coordi­ nating a wide range of activities. When problems occur, it is the responsibility of the manager to resolve them with minimal disruption to customers. The job can be hectic during peak dining hours, and dealing with irate customers or uncooperative employees can be partic­ ularly stressful. Employment Restaurant and food service managers held about 524,000 jobs in 1988. Most worked in restaurants or for contract institutional food service companies, but small numbers also were employed by educa­ tional institutions, hospitals, nursing and personal care facilities, de­ partment stores, and civic, social, and fraternal organizations. Nearly half were self-employed. Jobs are located throughout the country, but are most plentiful in large cities and tourist areas. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Many restaurant and food service manager positions are filled by promoting experienced food and beverage preparation and service workers. Waiters, waitresses, chefs, and fast-food workers who have demonstrated their potential for handling increased responsibility sometimes advance to assistant manager or management trainee jobs when openings occur. Executive chefs need extensive experience working as a chef, and general managers need experience working as assistant manager. However, most food service management compa­ nies and national or regional restaurant chains also recruit management trainees from among the graduates of 2-year and 4-year college pro­ grams. Food service and restaurant chains prefer to hire persons with degrees in restaurant and institutional food service management, but  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  57  they often hire graduates with degrees in other fields who have demon­ strated interest and aptitude. A bachelor’s degree in restaurant and food service management provides a particularly strong preparation for a career in this occupa­ tion. In 1988, more than 130 colleges and universities offered 4-year programs in restaurant and hotel management or institutional food service management. For persons who do not want to pursue a 4-year degree, a good alternative is provided by the more than 370 community and junior colleges, technical institutes, and other institutions that offer programs in these fields leading to an associate degree or other formal award below the baccalaureate. Both 2-year and 4-year pro­ grams provide instruction in subjects such as accounting, business law and management, food planning and preparation, and nutrition. Some programs combine classroom and laboratory study with internships that provide on-the-job experience. In addition, more than 150 educa­ tional institutions offer culinary programs that provide food preparation training which can lead to a career as a cook or chef and provide a foundation for advancement to an executive chef position. Most employers emphasize personal qualities. Restaurant and food service management can be demanding, so good health and stamina are important. Self-discipline, initiative, and leadership ability are essential. Managers must be able to solve problems and concentrate on details. They need good communication skills to deal with custom­ ers and suppliers, as well as to motivate and direct their subordinates. A neat and clean appearance is also required since managers are often in close personal contact with the public. Most restaurant chains and food service management companies have rigorous training programs for persons hired for management jobs. Through a combination of classroom and on-the-job training, trainees receive instruction and gain work experience in all aspects of the operations of a restaurant or institutional food service facility— food preparation, sanitation, security, company policies and proce­ dures, personnel management, recordkeeping, and preparation of re­ ports. Usually after 6 months or a year, trainees receive their first permanent assignment as an assistant manager. Willingness to relocate often is essential for advancement to posi­ tions with greater responsibility. Managers advance to larger establish­ ments, or regional management positions with restaurant chains. Some managers eventually open their own eating and drinking establish­ ments. Others transfer to hotel management positions, since their restaurant or institutional food service management experience is a good background for food and beverage manager jobs at hotels and resorts.  Job Outlook Employment of restaurant and food service managers is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000. In addition to growth in demand for these managers, the need to replace managers who transfer to other occupations or stop working for a variety of reasons will create many new jobs. Job opportunities are expected to be best for persons with bachelor’s or associate degrees in restaurant and institutional food service management. Employment will increase with growth in the number of eating and drinking establishments. Population growth, rising personal incomes, and increased leisure time will continue to produce growth in the number of meals consumed outside the home. Also, continued growth in the number of families in which both spouses work should make dining out a more frequent and affordable convenience. Projected employment growth, however, varies by industry. For example, little change is expected in the employment of managers in school and college cafeterias due to increased contracting-out of cafete­ ria operations to institutional food service companies. However, the growth in the number of elderly people is expected to result in rapid growth of food service manager jobs in nursing homes, residential care facilities, and other health care institutions. Employment in eating and drinking establishments is not very sensi­ tive to changes in economic conditions, so restaurant and food service managers are rarely laid off during hard times. However, competition  58  Occupational Outlook Handbook  among restaurants is always intense, and many restaurants do not survive. Earnings Earnings of restaurant and food service managers vary greatly accord­ ing to the type and size of establishment. Based on a survey conducted for the National Restaurant Association, their median base salary was $24,000 a year in 1987, but managers of the largest restaurants and institutional food service facilities often had annual salaries in excess of $40,000. Managers of fast-food restaurants had a median base salary of $21,000 a year; managers of full-menu restaurants with table service, $26,000; and managers of commercial and institutional cafeterias, $25,000 a year in 1987. Besides a salary, most managers received an annual bonus or incentive payment based on their perfor­ mance. In 1987, most of these payments ranged between $2,000 and $7,000 a year. Executive chefs had a median base salary of $30,400 a year in 1987, but those employed in the largest restaurants and institutional food service facilities often had base salaries over $40,000. Annual bonus or incentive payments of most executive chefs ranged between $1,400 and $5,000 a year. The median base salary of assistant managers was $18,000 a year in 1987, but ranged from $16,200 in fast-food restaurants to over $24,000 in some of the largest restaurants and food service facilities. Annual bonus or incentive payments of most assistant managers ranged between $1,000 and $3,500 a year. Manager trainees had a median base salary of $15,600 a year in 1987, but had salaries of more than $21,000 in some of the largest restaurants and food service facilities. Annual bonus or incentive payments of most trainees ranged between $800 and $3,000 a year. Most salaried restaurant and food service managers received free meals, sick leave, health and life insurance, and 1 to 3 weeks of paid vacation a year, depending on length of service. Related Occupations Restaurant and food service managers direct the activities of business establishments that provide a service to customers. Other managers in businesses that sell goods or services to the general public include hotel managers and assistants, health services administrators, retail store managers, and bank managers.  The underwriter must analyze information in insurance applications, reports from loss control consultants, medical reports, and actuarial studies (reports that describe the probability of insured loss) and then decide whether to issue a policy. An insurance company may lose business to competitors if the underwriter appraises risks too conserva­ tively, or it may have to pay more claims if the underwriting actions are too liberal. (The term “life underwriter” is increasingly used in referring to insurance sales workers; see the statement on insurance sales workers elsewhere in the Handbook for a discussion of that occupation.) When deciding that an applicant is an acceptable risk, an underwriter may outline the terms of the contract, including the amount of the premium. Underwriters frequently correspond with policyholders, agents, and managers about policy cancellations or other matters. On rare occasions, they accompany sales workers on appointments with prospective customers. Most underwriters specialize in one of three major categories of insurance: Life, property and liability, or health. They further special­ ize in group or individual policies. The property and liability under­ writer specializes by type of risk insured, such as fire, homeowner, automobile, marine, property, or workers’ compensation. In cases where casualty companies insure in a single “package” policy, cover­ ing various types of risks, the underwriter must be familiar with different lines of insurance. Some underwriters, called commercial account underwriters, handle business insurance exclusively. They often evaluate a firm’s entire operation in appraising its insurance application. An increasing proportion of insurance sales are being made through group contracts. A standard group policy insures all persons in a specified group through a single contract at uniform premium rates, generally for life or health insurance protection. The group underwriter analyzes the overall composition of the group to be sure that the total risk is not excessive. Another type of group policy provides members of a group—a labor union, for example—with individual policies reflecting their individual needs. These generally are casualty policies, such as those covering automobiles. The casualty underwriter analyzes the application of each group member and makes individual appraisals. Some group underwriters meet with union or employer representatives to discuss the types of policies available to their group.  Sources of Additional Information Information about job opportunities may be obtained from local em­ ployers and local offices of the State employment service. Career information about restaurant and food service managers and directories of 2- and 4-year college programs in restaurant and food service management are available from: •-The Educational Foundation of the National Restaurant Association, Suite 1400, 250 South Wacker Dr., Chicago, IL 60606.  General information on hospitality careers may be obtained from: •-Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and Institutional Education, 1200 17th St. NW„ Washington, DC 20036-3097.  For general career information and a directory of accredited private trade and technical schools offering programs in restaurant and food service management, write to: •-National Association of Trade and Technical Schools, P.O. Box 10429, Department BL, Rockville, MD 20850.  Underwriters (D.O.T. 169.167-058)  Nature of the Work Insurance companies assume billions of dollars in risks each year by transferring the risk of loss from their policyholders to themselves. Underwriters appraise and select the risks their company will insure.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Underwriters appraise and select the risks their company will insure.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations Working Conditions Underwriters have desk jobs that require no unusual physical activity. Their offices generally are comfortable and pleasant. Although some overtime may be required, the normal workweek is 35-40 hours. Underwriters occasionally may attend meetings away from home for several days. Construction and marine underwriters often travel to inspect the work site and assess the risk. Employment Insurance underwriters held about 103,000jobs in 1988. The following tabulation presents the percent distribution of wage and salary jobs by industry. Percent Total......................................................................................  100  Insurance industries................................................................  93  Insurance agents, brokers, and services......................... Fire, marine, and casualty insurance.............................. Life insurance..................................................................... Accident and health insurance, medical service plans.. Pension funds and insurance, not elsewhere classified.  39 36 13 3  Banks and credit agencies.....................................................  5  Real estate and related industries........................................  1  Security and commodity brokers and exchanges, holding and investment offices, and Federal Government........  1  2  Underwriters worked throughout the country in independent agen­ cies—firms which represent one or more insurance companies—and brokers—firms which may deal with any insurance company but repre­ sent none. Small numbers of underwriters worked for credit agencies and other financial institutions and in government. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement For beginning underwriting jobs, many large insurance companies prefer college graduates who have a degree in business administration with an accounting background. However, a liberal arts degree in almost any field plus courses in business law and accounting provide a good general background. Some small companies hire persons with­ out a college degree for underwriter trainee positions. In addition, some high school graduates who begin as underwriting clerks may be trained as underwriters after they demonstrate an aptitude for the work. Underwriter trainees begin by evaluating routine applications under the close supervision of an experienced risk appraiser. They study claim files to become familiar with factors associated with certain types of losses. As they develop the necessary judgment, they are assigned policy applications that are more complex and have a greater face value. These often require the use of computers for more efficient processing. Consequently, computer literacy is becoming necessary. Continuing education is necessary for the underwriter to advance. Insurance companies generally pay tuition for underwriting courses that their trainees successfully complete; some also offer salary in­ creases. Experienced life insurance underwriters who pass a series of examinations and complete a paper on a topic in the underwriting field can qualify as a “fellow” of the Academy of Life Underwriters, the educational arm of the Home Office Life Underwriters Association and the Institute of Home Office Underwriters. Designation as a fellow is recognized as a mark of achievement and is increasingly sought by employers in the life underwriting field. Independent study programs for experienced property and casualty underwriters are also available. In collaboration with the Society of Chartered Property and Casualty Underwriters, the Insurance Institute of America offers the designation “associate in underwriting,” and the American Institute for Property and Liability Underwriters offers the prestigious designation "CPCU”—chartered property casualty underwriter. Underwriting can be a satisfying career for persons who like working   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  59  with detail and enjoy evaluating information. In addition, underwriters must be able to make prompt decisions and communicate effectively. They must also be imaginative and aggressive, especially when they have to obtain information from outside sources. Experienced underwriters who complete courses of study may ad­ vance to chief underwriter or underwriting manager. Some underwrit­ ing managers are promoted to senior managerial jobs. Job Outlook Employment of underwriters is expected to rise faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000 as insurance sales continue to expand. Most job openings, however, are expected to result from the need to replace underwriters who transfer to other occupations or stop working altogether. A number of factors underlie the expected growth in the volume and complexity of insurance and the resulting need for underwriters. Shifts in the age distribution of the population will result in a large increase in the number of people who assume career and family responsibilities. People in this group have the greatest need for life and health insurance. A growing demand for insurance coverage for working women also is expected. In addition, expanding long-term healthcare and pension benefits for retirees—an increasing proportion of the population—will increase underwriting requirements. Growing security and liability consciousness should contribute to demand for more insurance protection for homes, automobiles, pleasure craft, and other valuables. New or expanding businesses will need protection for new plants and equipment, product liability, and insurance for work­ ers’ compensation and employee benefits. In addition, competition among insurance companies and changes in regulations affecting in­ vestment profits are expected to increase the need for underwriters. Since insurance is usually regarded as a necessity regardless of economic conditions, underwriters are unlikely to be laid off during a recession. Earnings The following tabulation presents the median salaries of casualty and property underwriters in 1988, according to a survey by the Alliance of American Insurers in collaboration with the American Insurance Association and the National Association of Independent Insurers. Type of underwriter Manager, commercial lines .. Manager, personal lines....... Supervisor, personal lines.... Supervisor, commercial lines Senior commercial lines....... Senior personal lines............. Commercial lines.................. Personal lines..........................  $49,000 48,100 40,500 40,200 33,000 30,700 25,900 23,400  Most insurance companies have liberal vacation policies and other employee benefits. Almost all insurance companies provide employerfinanced group life and retirement plans. Related Occupations Underwriters make decisions on the basis of financial data. Other workers with the same type of responsibility include auditors, budget analysts, financial advisors, loan officers, credit managers, real estate appraisers, and risk managers. Sources of Additional Information General information about a career as an insurance underwriter is available from the home offices of many life insurance and property and liability insurance companies. Information about the insurance  60  Occupational Outlook Handbook  business in general and the underwriting function in particular also may be obtained from: "■Society of Chartered Property and Casualty Underwriters, Kahler Hall, CB#9, 720 Providence Rd., Malvern, PA 19355.  Wholesale and Retail Buyers (D.O.T. 162.157-018 and -022)  Nature of the Work Imagine shopping for a living! Wholesale and retail buyers do just that. Working for wholesalers and retailers, buyers purchase merchan­ dise for resale. Regardless of what they are buying—from clothing to machinery—they seek the best available merchandise at the lowest possible price. Working with sales and marketing managers, they also determine how the merchandise will be distributed and marketed. Wholesale and retail buyers are an integral part of a complex system of production, distribution, and merchandising that caters to the vast variety of consumer needs and desires. Buyers working for large and medium-sized firms usually specialize in acquiring one or two lines of merchandise. However, buyers working for small stores may purchase their complete stock of merchandise. Wholesale buyers purchase goods directly from manufacturers or from other wholesale firms for resale to retail firms or to commercial establishments and other institutions. Retail buyers purchase goods from wholesale firms or directly from manufacturers for resale to the public. (Information about purchasing agents—buyers who purchase goods and services for their firm’s inter­ nal use—can be found elsewhere in the Handbook.) The success of any wholesale or retail firm depends on its ability to sell merchandise. Because buyers determine which products the establishment will sell, it is essential that they be knowledgeable about the products they are buying and know what will appeal to consumers. These skills usually are developed through several years of experience as an assistant buyer—observing and learning how buyers determine what to buy. In order to purchase the best selection of goods, buyers must be familiar with the merchandise, its domestic and foreign manufacturers and distributors, and its sales record. As a result, they must keep informed about changes in existing products and the development of new ones. To learn about merchandise, buyers read industry periodi­ cals, attend trade shows and conferences, and visit manufacturers’ showrooms. Many consult catalogs and computerized directories to determine where goods can be purchased. Traditionally, buyers have relied on sales staff and inventory counts to determine which products were selling. However, computerized systems have changed this. For example, cash registers connected to computers, known as point-of-sale terminals, allow retail chains to maintain centralized, up-to-date sales and inventory records. These can be used to produce weekly sales reports that reflect the types of products in demand. With the data generated by these systems, buyers can spend less time collecting information and more time analyzing it. In addition to monitoring their company’s sales, buyers follow ads in newspapers and other media to check competitors’ sales activities and watch general economic conditions to anticipate consumer buying patterns. Once buyers decide what to purchase, they determine from whom to purchase it. They base their decision on price, availability, reliability of the supplier, and selection. Buyers must be able to assess the resale value of goods after a brief inspection and make purchase decisions quickly. They also must be aware of their company’s profit margin and try to select merchandise that will sell quickly at well above the original cost. Because most buyers work within a limited budget, they must plan their purchases to keep needed items always in stock, but also allow for unexpected purchases when a “good buy” presents itself.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  The actual ordering process varies by firm. Many orders are placed during buying trips, but they are also made when wholesale and manufacturers’ sales workers call on buyers to display their merchan­ dise. Some firms are linked with manufacturers or wholesalers by electronic purchasing systems. These systems speed selection and ordering and provide information on availability and shipment. Often, assistant buyers are responsible for placing orders and checking ship­ ments. Wholesalers distribute products to thousands of retailers and institu­ tional buyers, and many retailers have several stores to which merchan­ dise must be dispersed. Buyers may play an integral role in this distribution process. They examine a variety of factors, including demographic characteristics, sales data, and store size to determine how merchandise will be distributed. Many buyers assist in the planning and implementation of sales promotion programs. Working with merchandising executives, they determine the nature of the sale and buy accordingly. They also work with advertising personnel to create the ad campaign. For example, they may determine the media in which the advertisement will be placed—newspapers, direct mail, radio, or television, or some combi­ nation of these. Before the sale, they may meet with sales workers to give instructions. In addition, retail buyers often visit the selling floor to insure that the goods are being displayed properly. Buyers usually have very busy schedules and deal with many differ­ ent people in the course of a day. On a typical day, they may meet with vendors’ sales representatives, discuss merchandising problems with wholesale buyers and store executives, and confer with advertis­ ing personnel about sales promotions. In addition, they often consult  Buyers base decisions on price, availability, and reliability of the supplier.  Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations with assistant buyers and sales personnel about how merchandise is selling. Most buyers direct assistants who handle many of the clerical duties associated with buying. Both wholesalers and retailers are continuing to expand their use of computers and other business equipment. This has simplified many of the routine buying functions and improved efficiency. For example, computers give wholesale buyers instant access to the specifications of thousands of commodities, their inventory records, and their retailers’ purchase records. Working Conditions Buyers often operate under great pressure since wholesale and retail trade establishments are highly competitive. Because both retail and wholesale establishments are solely dependent on sales, those who repeatedly buy products that sell poorly are quickly relieved of their duties. Buyers work in comfortable, well-lighted offices at stores or in corporate headquarters. They frequently work more than a 40-hour week because of special sales and conferences. Also, they may have to work evenings and weekends to complete work on time. For those working in retail trade, this is especially true during holiday seasons. In addition, many retail firms discourage the use of vacation time from Thanksgiving until early January. Substantial traveling usually is required, and most buyers spend at least several days a month on the road. However, this is almost always at their employers’ expense. Employment Wholesale and retail buyers held about 207,000 jobs in 1988. Nearly all were in full-time positions. About two-thirds of all buyers were employed in retail establishments, such as department stores, super­ markets and groceries, and clothing stores. The remainder worked for wholesalers of groceries; machinery; electrical goods; hardware, plumbing, and heating equipment; and other durable and nondurable goods. Although buyers work in all parts of the country, many are located in major metropolitan areas, where wholesale-distributors and retail stores are concentrated. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement This is not an entry level job. Firms prefer to hire applicants who are familiar with the merchandise they sell as well as with wholesaling and retailing practices. There are many ways to develop these skills, and preferences vary from company to company. Some firms promote qualified employees to assistant buyer positions; others recruit and train college graduates and other applicants who have completed post­ secondary programs in marketing or business administration. Most employers use a combination of methods. Educational requirements for entry level buying positions tend to vary with the size of the organization. The largest stores and distribu­ tors seek applicants who have completed associate or bachelor’s degree programs in marketing and purchasing. Nonetheless, most firms that have buyer trainee programs accept college graduates from any field of study. Trainee programs combine classroom instruction in merchan­ dising and purchasing with short rotations to jobs in areas such as sales, accounts receivable, and the stockroom. This training introduces the new worker to retail or wholesale trade operations and the policies fundamental to merchandising and management. Although training periods vary in length, most last several years. Most trainees begin by selling merchandise, supervising sales workers, checking invoices on material received, and keeping track of stock on hand, although widespread use of computers in both wholesale and retail trade has simplified some of these tasks. As they progress, trainees are given more buying-related responsibilities until manage­ ment feels they are qualified to become buyers. In order to maintain their effectiveness, buyers must constantly be aware of what their customers want. To stay abreast of new develop­ ments and products, they take courses in merchandising techniques, attend trade shows and conferences, and read industry periodicals.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  61  Persons who wish to become buyers should be good at planning and decisionmaking and have an interest in merchandising. Anticipating consumer preferences and ensuring that goods are in stock when they are needed require resourcefulness, good judgment, and self­ confidence. They must be able to make decisions quickly and take risks. Marketing skills and the ability to identify products that will sell are also very important. Employers often look for leadership ability and communication skills because buyers spend a large portion of their time supervising assistant buyers and dealing with manufacturers’ representatives and store executives. In addition, buyers need physical stamina and emotional stability to keep up with the fast-paced nature of their work. Experienced buyers may advance to merchandise managers; some advance to executive jobs such as general merchandise manager for distributors, department stores, or chain stores. Others “jump to the other side of the fence” and go to work in sales for a manufacturer. Job Outlook Employment of buyers is expected to increase more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Although sales volume will continue to increase with population growth, demand for buyers will slow because of the changes taking place in wholesale and retail trade. Most job openings, therefore, will result from replacement needs, which occur as experienced buyers transfer to other occupations in sales or management or leave the labor force. Over the past few years, the organizational structure of wholesale and retail trade industries has been changing. Many firms have pur­ chased or merged with other firms. Each of these companies previously employed a staff of buyers. However, when buying functions are centralized by the new organization, fewer buyers are needed. Another factor that will influence demand for buyers is the trend by retailers to ship “big ticket” items, such as major appliances, directly from the manufacturer to the consumer. This reduces the amount of stock on hand and consequently reduces demand for buyers to purchase this merchandise. Because merchandising attracts many college graduates, the number of qualified jobseekers should continue to exceed the number of open­ ings. Prospects are likely to be best for those with previous wholesale or retail experience, a degree in business administration or a related field, and the ability to work well under pressure. Earnings Median annual earnings of buyers were $24,700 in 1988. Most buyers earned between $17,420 and $35,412 a year. The lowest 10 percent averaged less than $13,052, while the top 10 percent earned more than $45,500. A buyer’s income depends upon the amount and type of product purchased, the employer’s sales volume and, to some extent, the buyer’s seniority. Buyers for large wholesale distributors and for mass merchandisers such as discount or large chain department stores are among the most highly paid. Buyers receive a variety of benefits. In addition to paid vacations and life and health insurance, buyers often earn cash bonuses based on their performance and may receive discounts on merchandise bought from the employer. Some firms also have incentive plans, such as profit sharing and stock options. Related Occupations Workers in other occupations who need a knowledge of marketing and the ability to assess demand are purchasing agents, retail sales workers, sales managers, comparison shoppers, manufacturers’ sales represen­ tatives, insurance sales agents, wholesale trade sales representatives, and travel agents. Sources of Additional Information General information about a career in retailing is available from; ••-National Retail Merchants Association, 100 West 31st St., New York, NY 10001.  Professional Specialty Occupations Engineers Nature of the Work Engineers apply the theories and principles of science and mathematics to the economical solution of practical technical problems. Often their work is the link between a scientific discovery and its application. Engineers design machineiy, products, systems, and processes for efficient and economical performance. They develop electric power, water supply, and waste disposal systems. They design industrial machinery and equipment for manufacturing goods, and heating, air-conditioning, and ventilation equipment for more comfortable living. Engineers also develop equipment to probe outer space and the ocean depths; design defense and weapons systems for the Armed Forces; and design, plan, and supervise the construction of buildings, highways, and rapid transit systems. They also design and develop consumer products such as automobiles, home appliances, electronic home entertainment equipment, and systems for control and automation of manufacturing, business, and management pro­ cesses. Engineers do a variety of tasks in developing a new product. For example, in developing an industrial robot, they determine the general way it will work; design and test components; fit them together in an integrated plan; and evaluate the design’s overall effectiveness, cost, reliability, and safety. This process applies to products as different as lawnmowers, computers, military weapons, and toys. In addition to design and development, many engineers work in testing, production, operations, or maintenance. They supervise pro­ duction in factories, determine the causes of breakdowns, and test manufactured products to maintain quality. They also estimate the time and cost to complete projects. Some work in engineering adminis­ tration and management or in sales, where an engineering background enables them to discuss the technical aspects of a product and assist in planning its installation or use. (See the statement on manufacturers’ sales workers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Most engineers specialize; more than 25 major specialties are recog­ nized by professional societies. Within the major branches are numer­ ous subdivisions. Structural, environmental, and transportation engi­ neering, for example, are subdivisions of civil engineering. Engineers also may specialize in one industry, such as motor vehicles, or in one field of technology, such as propulsion or guidance systems. This section, which contains an overall discussion of engineering, is fol­ lowed by separate statements on 10 branches of the profession— aerospace; chemical; civil; electrical and electronics; industrial; me­ chanical; metallurgical, ceramic, and materials; mining; nuclear; and petroleum engineering. Engineers in each branch apply their knowledge to many fields. Electrical and electronics engineers, for example, work in the medical, computer, missile guidance, or power distribution fields. Because complex problems cut across traditional fields, engineers in one field often work closely with specialists in scientific, other engineering, and business occupations. Engineers often use computers to solve mathematical equations which describe how a machine, structure, or system operates. Many engineers also use computer-aided design systems to produce and analyze designs. They also spend a great deal of time writing re­ ports and consulting with other engineers. Complex projects require many engineers, each working with a small part of the job. Supervisory engineers are responsible for major components or entire projects. Working Conditions Many engineers work in an office almost all of the time but others work in laboratories, industrial plants, or construction sites, where  62   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Chart 1.  Almost one-third of all engineers are electrical engineers. Employment, 1988  / / / ^  CC  ’Includes ceramic and materials engineers. Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics  they inspect, supervise, or solve on-site problems. Engineers in branches such as civil engineering may work outdoors part of the time. A few engineers travel extensively to plants or construction sites. Many engineers work a standard 40-hour week. However, in some jobs there may be great pressure to meet deadlines or design standards. Engineers in these jobs may work long hours and experience consider­ able stress. Employment In 1988, engineers held almost 1,411,000 jobs. Over one-half of all engineering jobs were located in manufacturing industries—mostly in electrical and electronic equipment, aircraft and parts, machinery, scientific instruments, chemicals, motor vehicles, fabricated metal products, and primary metals industries. In 1988, 511,000 jobs were in nonmanufacturing industries, primarily in engineering and architec­ tural services and business and management consulting services, where firms designed construction projects or did other engineering work on a contract basis for organizations in other parts of the economy. Engineers also worked in the communications, utilities, and construc­ tion industries. Federal, State, and local governments employed about 185,000 engineers. Two-thirds were in the Federal Government, mainly in the Departments of Defense, Transportation, Agriculture, Interior, and Energy, and in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Most engineers in State and local government agencies worked in highway and public works departments. Some engineers are selfemployed consultants.  Professional Specialty Occupations Engineers are employed in every State, in small and large cities, and in rural areas. Some branches of engineering are concentrated in particular industries and geographic areas, as discussed in statements later in this chapter. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree in engineering from an accredited engineering program is generally acceptable for beginning engineering jobs. Col­ lege graduates with a degree in science or mathematics may occasion­ ally qualify for some engineering jobs, especially in engineering spe­ cialties in high demand. Most engineering degrees are granted in branches such as electrical, mechanical, or civil engineering. How­ ever, engineers trained in one particular branch may work in another. This flexibility allows employers to meet staffing needs in new techno­ logies and specialties in short supply. It also allows engineers to shift to fields with better employment prospects, or ones that match their interests more closely. Many 2- or 4-year college programs in engineering technology prepare students for practical design and production work rather than for jobs that require more theoretical scientific and mathematical knowledge. Graduates of 4-year technology programs may get jobs similar to those obtained by graduates with a bachelor’s degree in engineering. However, some employers regard them as having skills between those of a technician and an engineer. Graduate training is essential for engineering faculty positions but is not required for the majority of entry level engineering jobs. Many engineers obtain a master’s degree to learn new technology, to broaden their education, and to enhance promotion opportunities. Nearly 260 colleges and universities offer a bachelor’s degree in engineering, and nearly 100 colleges offer a bachelor’s degree in engineering technology. Although most institutions offer programs in the larger branches of engineering, only a few offer some of the smaller specialties. Also, programs of the same title may vary in content. For example, some emphasize industrial practices, preparing students for a job in industry, while others are more theoretical and are better for students preparing to take graduate work. Therefore, students should  Chart 2.  The number of degrees granted in engineering has declined recently. Bachelor’s degrees 1978-88  80,000 70,000  50,000 40.000 30,000 20,000 10,000  Source: Engineering Manpower Commission   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  63  investigate curriculums carefully before selecting a college. Admis­ sions requirements for undergraduate engineering schools include courses in advanced high school mathematics and the physical sci­ ences. In a typical 4-year college curriculum, the first 2 years are spent studying basic sciences—mathematics, physics, chemistry—introduc­ tory engineering, and the humanities, social sciences, and English. In the last 2 years, most courses are in engineering, usually with a concentration in one branch. Some programs offer a general engineer­ ing curriculum; students then specialize in graduate school or on the job. A few engineering schools and 2-year colleges have agreements whereby the 2-year college provides the initial engineering education and the engineering school automatically admits students for their last 2 years. In addition, a few engineering schools have arrangements whereby a student spends 3 years in a liberal arts college studying preengineering subjects and 2 years in the engineering school and receives a bachelor’s degree from each. Some colleges and universities offer 5-year master’s degree programs. Some 5- or even 6-year cooperative plans combine classroom study and practical work experience permitting students to finance part of their education. All 50 States and the District of Columbia require registration for engineers whose work may affect life, health, or property, or who offer their services to the public. In 1988, nearly 500,000 engineers were registered. Registration generally requires a degree from an engineering program accredited by the Accreditation Board for EngiY neering and Technology (ABET), 4 years of relevant work experience, and passing a State examination. Some States will not register those with degrees in engineering technology. Beginning engineering graduates usually do routine work under the close supervision of experienced engineers and, in larger compa­ nies, may also receive formal classroom or seminar-type training. As they gain knowledge and experience, they are assigned more difficult tasks with greater independence to develop designs, solve problems, and make decisions. Engineers may become technical specialists or may supervise a staff or team of engineers and technicians. Some eventually become engineering managers or enter other managerial, management support, or sales jobs. (See the statements under executive, administrative, and managerial occupa­ tions; under sales occupations; and on computer systems analysts elsewhere in the Handbook.) Some engineers obtain graduate degrees in business administration to improve advancement opportunities; others obtain law degrees and become patent attorneys. Many high level executives in government and industry began their careers as engineers. Engineers should be able to work as part of a team and should have creativity, an analytical mind, and a capacity for detail. In addition, engineers should be able to express themselves well—both orally and in writing. Job Outlook Employment opportunities in engineering have been good for a number of years. They are expected to continue to be good through the year 2000 because employment is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations while the number of degrees granted in engineering is likely to decline. Employers will need more engineers as they increase investment in plants and equipment in order to expand output of goods and services and to increase productivity. In addition, competitive pressures and advancing technology will force companies to improve and update product designs more frequently. Finally, more engineers will be needed to improve roads, bridges, and other public facili­ ties. Freshman engineering enrollments began declining in 1983, and the number of bachelor’s degrees in engineering began declining in 1987. Although it is difficult to project engineering enrollments, this decline is expected to continue, at least through the early 1990’s, because the proportion of students interested in engineering  64  Occupational Outlook Handbook  careers has declined as prospects for college graduates in other fields have improved. Furthermore, the total college age population is projected to decline. One sign that engineering graduates have good prospects is that they have starting salaries substantially higher than those of most other graduates. Another is that most have received at least one job offer before graduation, which has not been the case for many other grad­ uates. Although employers generally prefer engineering graduates, there should continue to be opportunities in engineering for graduates in science and other related fields. Although only a relatively small proportion of engineers leave the profession each year, most job openings will arise from replacement needs. Most replacement openings are created by engineers who trans­ fer to management, sales, or other professional occupations rather than by engineers who leave the labor force. Most industries are less likely to lay off engineers than other work­ ers. Many engineers work on long-term research and development projects or in other activities which often continue even during reces­ sions. However, in industries such as electronics and aerospace, large cutbacks in defense or research and development may result in layoffs for engineers. New computer-aided design systems enable engineers to produce or modify designs much more rapidly than previously. This increased productivity might have resulted in fewer engineering jobs, but this has not happened. Instead, engineers have used these systems to improve the design process. They now produce and analyze many more design variations before selecting a final one. Therefore, this technology is not expected to limit employment growth signifi­ cantly. It is important for engineers to continue their education throughout their careers because their value to their employer depends on their knowledge of the latest technology. The pace of technological change varies by engineering specialty and industry. Engineers in high-technology areas such as advanced electronics or aerospace may find that their knowledge becomes obsolete rapidly. Even those who continue their education are vulnerable to obsolescence if the particular technology or product they have specialized in becomes obsolete. Engineers whom employers consider not to have kept up may find themselves passed over for promotions and are particularly vulnerable to layoffs. On the other hand, it is often these hightechnology areas that offer the greatest challenges, the most interest­ ing work, and the highest salaries. Therefore, the choice of engineer­ ing specialty and employer involves an assessment not only of the potential rewards but also of the risk of technological obsolescence. (The outlook for 10 branches of engineering is discussed in separate statements.) Earnings Starting salaries for engineers with the bachelor’s degree are signifi­ cantly higher than starting salaries of college graduates in other fields. According to the College Placement Council, engineering graduates with a bachelor’s degree averaged about $29,200 a year in private industry in 1988; those with a master’s degree and no experience, $34,600 a year; and those with a Ph.D., $46,600. Starting offers for those with the bachelor’s degree vary by branch, as shown in the following tabulation. Petroleum engineering.............................................................. Chemical engineering................................................................ Electrical engineering................................................................ Metallurgical engineering......................................................... Mechanical engineering........................................................... Nuclear engineering.................................................................. Industrial engineering................................................................ Mining engineering.................................................................... Aeronautical engineering.......................................................... Civil engineering.......................................................................   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  $32,016 30,996 29,736 29,448 29 388 28.740 28,476 28 440 28,176 25,596  As shown in the following tabulation, engineers in private industry in 1988 averaged $29,592 at the most junior level, and $87,914 at senior managerial levels. Experienced midlevel engineers with no supervisory responsibilities averaged $45,777. Percent of all engineers Engineers Engineers Engineers Engineers Engineers Engineers Engineers Engineers  1............................................................ II........................................................... III......................................................... IV......................................................... V........................................................... VI......................................................... VII........................................................ VIII......................................................  6.1 13.4 24.8 27.6 18.4 7.5 19 3  Average salary $29,592 33,278 38,353 45,777 55,194 65,710 75 594 87*914  The average salary for engineers in the Federal Government was about $42,300 in 1988. Related Occupations Engineers apply the principles of physical science and mathematics in their work. Other workers who use scientific and mathematical princi­ ples include physical scientists, life scientists, mathematicians, engi­ neering and science technicians, and architects. Sources of Additional Information A number of engineering-related organizations provide information on engineering careers. JETS-Guidance, at 1420 King St., Suite 405, Alexandria, VA 22314, serves as a central distribution point for infor­ mation from most of these organizations. To receive information, write JETS-Guidance for an order form. Enclose a stamped, selfaddressed business-size envelope to obtain the order form. Societies representing many of the individual branches of engineer­ ing are listed in this chapter. Each can provide information about careers in the particular branch.  Aerospace Engineers (D.O.T. 002.061 and .167)  Nature of the Work Aerospace engineers design, develop, test, and help produce commer­ cial and military aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft. They develop new technologies in commercial aviation, defense systems, and space ex­ ploration, often specializing in areas like structural design, guidance, navigation and control, instrumentation and communication, or pro­ duction methods. They also may specialize in one type of aerospace product, such as passenger planes, helicopters, spacecraft, or rockets. Employment Aerospace engineers held about 78,000 jobs in 1988. Two-thirds were in the aircraft and parts and guided missile and space vehicle manufacturing industries. Federal Government agencies, primarily the Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, provided over 1 out of 10 jobs. Business and engineer­ ing consulting firms and communications equipment manufacturing firms accounted for most of the remainder. California, Washington, and Texas, States with large aerospace manufacturers, have the most aerospace engineers. Job Outlook Employment of aerospace engineers is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Although Defense Department expenditures for military aircraft, missiles, and  Professional Specialty Occupations  65  Many aerospace engineers specialize in one type of product, such as commercial transports, helicopters, or spacecraft.  A chemical engineer at the control board of a research facility pilot plant.  other aerospace systems are not expected to grow much, faster growth is expected in the civilian sector. Much of the present fleet of airliners will be replaced with quieter and more fuel-efficient aircraft, and there will be increased demand for spacecraft, helicopters, and business aircraft. Future growth of aerospace engineer employment could be limited because a higher proportion of engineers in aerospace manufac­ turing may be materials, mechanical, or electrical engineers. Most job openings will result from the need to replace aerospace engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Since a large proportion of aerospace engineering jobs are defense related, cutbacks in defense spending can result in layoffs of aerospace engineers.  work on a contract basis, or worked for government agencies or as independent consultants.  Sources of Additional Information For information on aerospace careers, send $2 to: w-American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., AIAA Student Programs, The Aerospace Center, 370 L’Enfant Promenade SW., Washington, DC 20024.  (See introductory section of this chapter for information on training requirements and earnings.)  Chemical Engineers (D.O.T. 008.061 except .030)  Nature of the Work Chemical engineers work in many phases of the production of chemi­ cals and chemical products. They design equipment and plants, deter­ mine and test methods of manufacturing the products, and supervise production. Chemical engineers also work in industries other than chemical manufacturing such as electronics or aircraft manufacturing. Because the duties of chemical engineers cut across many fields, they apply principles of chemistry, physics, mathematics, and mechanical and electrical engineering. They frequently specialize in a particular operation such as oxidation or polymerization. Others specialize in a particular area such as pollution control or the production of a specific product like plastics or rubber.  Employment Chemical engineers held about 49,000 jobs in 1988. Three-quarters were in manufacturing industries, primarily in the chemical, petroleum refining, and related industries. Most of the rest worked for engineering services or consulting firms that design chemical plants or do other  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Job Outlook Employment of chemical engineers is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Most openings, however, will result from the need to replace chemical engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Employment in the chemical industry, where many chemical engi­ neers are employed, is expected to expand due to increased output and increased research and development expenditures. Areas relating to pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and materials science may provide better opportunities than other portions of the chemical industry. How­ ever, much of the projected growth in employment will be in nonmanu­ facturing industries, especially service industries. Low oil prices have reduced opportunities for chemical engineers in petroleum refining and energy-related industries as well as for chemical engineers working in research on alternative energy sources and energy conservation. Opportunities for chemical engineers in these areas will be limited until the price of oil increases. Sources of Additional Information (•-American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 345 East 47th St., New York, NY 10017. «r-American Chemical Society, Career Services, 115.'* 16th St. NW., Washing­ ton, DC 20036.  (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements and eamings.)  Civil Engineers (D.O.T. 005.061, .167-014 and -018; and 019.167-018)  Nature of the Work Civil engineers, who work in the oldest branch of engineering, design and supervise the construction of roads, airports, tunnels, bridges, water supply and sewage systems, and buildings. Major specialties within civil engineering are structural, water resources, environmental, construction, transportation, and geotechnical engineering. Many civil engineers hold supervisory or administrative positions, ranging from supervisor of a construction site to city engineer. Others work as independent consultants.  66  Occupational Outlook Handbook equipment includes power generating and transmission equipment used by electric utilities, and electric motors, machinery controls, and lighting and wiring in buildings, automobiles, and aircraft. Electronic equipment includes radar, computers, communications equipment, and TV sets. The specialties of electrical and electronics engineers include several major areas—such as power distributing equipment, integrated cir­ cuits, computers, electrical equipment manufacturing, or communica­ tions—or a subdivision of these areas—industrial robot control sys­ tems or aviation electronics, for example. Electrical and electronics engineers design new products, write performance requirements, and develop maintenance schedules. They also test equipment, solve op­ erating problems, and estimate the time and cost of engineering projects.  v...  '•9?  A civil engineer reviews street plans for a new subdivision. Employment Civil engineers held about 186,000 jobs in 1988. Over 40 percent of the jobs were in Federal, State, and local government agencies. Over one-third were in firms that provide engineering consulting services, primarily developing designs for new construction projects. The con­ struction industry, public utilities, railroads, and manufacturing indus­ tries accounted for most of the rest. Civil engineers usually are found in or near major industrial and commercial centers, often working at construction sites. Some projects are situated in remote areas or in foreign countries. In some jobs, civil engineers move from place to place to work on different projects. Job Outlook Employment of civil engineers is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Most job openings, however, will result from the need to replace civil engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. A growing population and an expanding economy will result in a need for more civil engineers to design and construct transportation systems, water resource and disposal systems, large buildings, and other structures. More civil engineers also will be needed to repair or replace existing roads, bridges, and other public structures. Because construction and related industries—including those pro­ viding design services—employ many civil engineers, employment opportunities will vary by geographic area and may decrease during economic slowdowns, when construction often is curtailed.  Employment Electrical and electronics engineers held about 439,000 jobs in 1988, making it the largest branch of engineering. Most jobs were in firms that manufacture electrical and electronic equipment, business ma­ chines, professional and scientific equipment, and aircraft and parts. Computer and data processing services firms, engineering and business consulting firms, public utilities, and government agencies accounted for most of the remaining jobs. Job Outlook Employment opportunities for electrical and electronics engineers are expected to be good through the year 2000 because employment is expected to increase much faster than the average for all occupations. Despite rapid growth, however, the majority of job openings will result from the need to replace electrical and electronics engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Although increased demand by businesses and government for com­ puters, communications equipment, and military electronics is ex­ pected to account for much of the projected employment growth, consumer demand for electrical and electronic goods and increased research and development on computers, robots, and other types of automation should create additional jobs. Since many electrical engineering jobs are defense related, cutbacks in defense spending could result in layoffs of electrical engineers. Furthermore, engineers who fail to keep up with the rapid changes in technology in some specialties risk technological obsolescence, which makes them more susceptible to layoffs or, at a minimum, likely to be passed over for advancement. Sources of Additional Information wlnstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers/United States Activities Board, 1828 L St., NW., Suite 1202, Washington, DC 20036.  (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements and earnings.)  Sources of Additional Information ^-American Society of Civil Engineers, 345 E. 47th St., New York, NY 10017.  (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements and earnings.)  Electrical and Electronics Engineers (D.O.T. 003.061, .167 except -034, -062, and -070, and .187)  Nature of the Work Electrical and electronics engineers design, develop, test, and super­ vise the manufacture of electrical and electronic equipment. Electrical  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Electrical engineering is the largest branch of engineering.  Professional Specialty Occupations  Industrial Engineers (D.O.T. 005.167-026; 012.061-018, .067, .167 except -022, -026, -034, -058, -062, and -066, and .187)  Nature of the Work Industrial engineers determine the most effective ways for an organiza­ tion to use the basic factors of production—people, machines, materi­ als, information, and energy. They bridge the gap between manage­ ment and operations, and are more concerned with people and methods of business organization than are engineers in other specialties, who generally work more with products or processes. To solve organizational, production, and related problems most efficiently, industrial engineers design data processing systems and apply mathematical analysis such as operations research. They also develop management control systems to aid in financial planning and cost analysis, design production planning and control systems to coor­ dinate activities and control product quality, and design or improve systems for the physical distribution of goods and services. Industrial engineers conduct surveys to find plant locations with the best combi­ nation of raw materials, transportation, and taxes. They also develop wage and salary administration systems and job evaluation programs. Many industrial engineers move into management positions because the work is closely related. Employment Industrial engineers held about 132,000 jobs in 1988; about 4 out of 5 jobs were in manufacturing industries. Because their skills can be used in almost any type of organization, industrial engineers are more widely distributed among industries than other engineers. For example, some even work for insurance companies, banks, hospitals, and retail organizations. Some work for government agencies or are independent consultants. Job Outlook Employment opportunities for industrial engineers are expected to be good; their employment is expected to grow about as fast as the  67  average for all occupations through the year 2000. Most job openings, however, will result from the need to replace industrial engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Industrial growth, more complex business operations, and the greater use of automation in factories and in offices underlie the projected employment growth. Jobs also will be created as firms seek to reduce costs and increase productivity through scientific manage­ ment and safety engineering. Sources of Additional Information •-Institute of Industrial Engineers, Inc., 25 Technology Park/Atlanta, Norcross, GA 30092.  (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements and earnings.)  Mechanical Engineers (D.O.T. 007.061, .161-022, -034, and -038, and .267)  Nature of the Work Mechanical engineers are concerned with the production, transmis­ sion, and use of mechanical power and heat. They design and develop power-producing machines such as internal combustion engines, steam and gas turbines, and jet and rocket engines. They also design and develop power-using machines such as refrigeration and air-condition­ ing equipment, robots, machine tools, materials handling systems, and industrial production equipment. The work of mechanical engineers varies by industry and function. Specialties include motor vehicles; energy conversion systems; heat­ ing, ventilating, and air-conditioning; instrumentation; and special machinery for industries such as petroleum, rubber, plastics, and construction. Some mechanical engineers work in production operations, mainte­ nance, and technical sales. Many are administrators or managers. Employment Mechanical engineers held about 225,000 jobs in 1988. Over 3 out of 5 jobs were in manufacturing—of these, most were in the machinery, transportation equipment, electrical equipment, and fabricated metal products industries. Business and engineering consulting services and government agencies provided most of the remaining jobs. Job Outlook Employment opportunities for mechanical engineers are expected to be good. Their employment is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2000 as the demand L’- i  Employment opportunities for industrial engineers are expected to be good.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  A mechanical engineer reviews the design of an electric power plant.  68  Occupational Outlook Handbook  for machinery and machine tools grows and industrial machinery and processes become increasingly complex. Despite this expected employment growth, however, most job openings will result from the need to replace mechanical engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Sources of Additional Information ••"The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 345 E. 47th St., New York, NY 10017. ••-American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engi­ neers, Inc., 1791 Tullie Circle NE., Atlanta, GA 30329.  (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements and earnings.)  Metallurgical, Ceramic, and Materials Engineers (D O T. 006.061; 011.061 and .261-018; and 019.061-014)  Nature of the Work Metallurgical, ceramic, and materials engineers develop new types of metals and other materials which meet special requirements—for example, materials that are heat resistant, or strong but light in weight. Most metallurgical engineers work in one of the three main branches of metallurgy—extractive or chemical, physical, and mechanical or process. Extractive metallurgists are concerned with removing metals from ores and refining and alloying them to obtain useful metal. Physical metallurgists study the nature, structure, and physical proper­ ties of metals and their alloys, and methods of converting refined metals into final products. Mechanical metallurgists develop and im­ prove metalworking processes such as casting, forging, rolling, and drawing. Ceramic engineers develop new ceramic materials and methods for making ceramic materials into useful products. Ceramics include all nonmetallic, inorganic materials which require the use of high tempera­ ture in their processing. Ceramic engineers work on products as diverse as glassware, electronic components, automobile and aircraft engine components, brick, and tile. Materials engineers evaluate technical and economic factors to de­ termine which of the many metals, plastics, ceramics, or other materi­ als available is best for each application. Materials engineers also test and evaluate materials and develop new materials, such as the composite materials now being used in advanced aircraft. Employment Metallurgical, ceramic, and materials engineers held over 19,000 jobs in 1988. Almost one-fifth worked in metal-producing industries. They  also worked in industries that manufacture aircraft and parts, machin­ ery, and electrical equipment, and in business and engineering consult­ ing firms and government agencies. Job Outlook Employment of metallurgical, ceramic, and materials engineers is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Most job openings, however, will result from the need to replace engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. More metallurgical, ceramic, and materials engineers will be needed by the metalworking and other industries to develop new metals and alloys as well as to adapt current ones to new applications. For exam­ ple, jet engines require metals that can withstand extreme heat. As the supply of high-grade ores diminishes, more metallurgical engineers will be required to develop new ways of recycling solid waste materials and processing low-grade ores now regarded as unprofitable to mine. More ceramic and materials engineers will be needed to develop improved materials and products, for example, ceramic automobile engines, which are more fuel efficient than metal engines. Sources of Additional Information "■The Minerals, Metals, & Materials Society, 420 Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale, PA 15086. "-ASM International, Metals Park, OH 44073.  (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements and eamings.)  Mining Engineers (D.O.T. 010.061 except -018)  Nature of the Work Mining engineers find, extract, and prepare minerals for manufacturing industries to use. They design open pit and underground mines, super­ vise the construction of mine shafts and tunnels in underground opera­ tions, and devise methods for transporting minerals to processing plants. Mining engineers are responsible for the safe and economical operation of mines, including ventilation, water supply, power, com­ munications, and equipment maintenance. Some mining engineers work with geologists and metallurgical engineers to locate and appraise new ore deposits. Others develop new mining equipment or direct mineral processing operations to separate minerals from the dirt, rock, and other materials they are mixed with. Mining engineers frequently specialize in the mining of one mineral, such as coal or copper. With increased emphasis on protecting the environment, many min­ ing engineers have been working to solve problems related to land reclamation and water and air pollution. Employment Mining engineers held about 5,300 jobs in 1988. Over half worked in the mining industry. Other jobs were located in engineering consulting firms, government agencies, or in manufacturing industries. Mining engineers are usually employed at the location of mineral deposits, often near small communities. However, those in research and development, management, consulting, or sales often are located in metropolitan areas.  A materials engineer measures heat conductivity in plastics.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Job Outlook Employment of mining engineers is expected to increase more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2000 due to expected low growth in demand for coal, metals, and other minerals. Most job openings will result from the need to replace the large proportion of mining engineers who transfer to other occupations each year. In the mid-1980’s, mining engineers experienced poor employment  Professional Specialty Occupations  69  ,m .  Mining engineers may spend most of their time in an office.  A nuclear engineer reviews plans for a nuclear power plant.  opportunities because low prices for oil and metals reduced coal, metal, and other mining. However, the prices of these commodities, metals in particular, have increased to a level sufficient to increase output and employment opportunities. Increased demand for coal and, consequently, for mining engineers in the coal industry will depend, to a great extent, on the availability and price of other energy sources such as petroleum, natural gas, and nuclear energy as well as the price of coal in other countries. More technologically advanced mining systems and further enforcement of mine health and safety regulations may also increase the need for mining engineers. As easily mined deposits are depleted, engineers must devise more efficient methods for mining and processing low-grade ores. Employment opportunities also may rise as new alloys and new uses for minerals and metals increase the demand for less widely used ores.  engineers were civilian employees of the Navy, about one-third worked for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and most of the rest worked for the Department of Energy or the Tennessee Valley Authority. Most nonfederally employed nuclear engineers worked for public utilities or engineering consulting companies. Some worked for defense manu­ facturers or manufacturers of nuclear power equipment.  Sources of Additional Information ••-The Society of Mining Engineers, Inc., P.O. Box 625002, Littleton, CO 80127-5002.  (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements and earnings.)  Job Outlook Employment of nuclear engineers is expected to change little through the year 2000. Almost all job openings will result from the need to replace nuclear engineers who retire or leave the occupation. Despite the expected absence of growth, there should be good opportunities for nuclear engineers because the number of new graduates with degrees in nuclear engineering is small and has been decl ining recently. Because of concerns over the safety of nuclear power, few or no nuclear power plants are likely to be started before the year 2000. However, nuclear engineers will be needed to operate plants presently under construction. In addition, nuclear engineers will be needed to work in defense-related areas and to improve and enforce safety standards. Sources of Additional Information  Nuclear Engineers  ••-American Nuclear Society, 555 North Kensington Ave., LaGrange Park, IL 60525.  (D.O.T. 008.061-030; 015.061, .067, .137, and .167)  (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements and earnings.)  Nature of the Work Nuclear engineers design, develop, monitor, and operate nuclear power plants used to generate electricity and power Navy ships. They also conduct research on nuclear energy and radiation. For example, they may work on the nuclear fuel cycle—the production, handling, and use of nuclear fuel and the safe disposal of waste produced by nuclear energy—or on breeder reactors or fusion energy. Some special­ ize in the development of nuclear weapons; others develop industrial and medical uses for radioactive materials. Employment Nuclear engineers held about 15,000 jobs in 1988; one-fifth were in the Federal Government. Nearly half of all federally employed nuclear  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Petroleum Engineers (D.O.T. 010.061 except -014 and -026, .161-010, and .167-010 and -014)  Nature of the Work Most petroleum engineers explore and drill for oil and gas. Many petroleum engineers plan and supervise drilling operations. If the drilling is successful, petroleum engineers work to achieve the maxi­ mum profitable recovery of oil and gas from a petroleum reservoir by determining and developing the most efficient production methods. Since only a small proportion of the oil and gas in a reservoir will  70  Occupational Outlook Handbook  *  4r  Petroleum engineers work to increase efficiency in the recovery of oil and gas from a petroleum reservoir. flow out under natural forces, petroleum engineers develop and use various enhanced recovery methods, such as flooding the oil field with water to force more of the oil out of the reservoir. The best methods in use today recover only about half the oil in a reservoir. Petroleum engineers work to find ways to increase this proportion. Employment Petroleum engineers held almost 17,000 jobs in 1988, mostly in the   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  petroleum industry and closely allied fields. Employers include major oil companies and hundreds of smaller, independent oil exploration, production, and service companies. Engineering consulting firms, government agencies, oil field services, and equipment suppliers also employ petroleum engineers. Others work as independent consultants. Most petroleum engineers work where oil and gas are found. Large numbers are employed in Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and Califor­ nia, including offshore sites. Also, many American petroleum engi­ neers work overseas in oil-producing countries. Job Outlook Employment of petroleum engineers is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Because of low oil prices, domestic petroleum companies have sharply curtailed exploration and production activities, resulting in poor employment opportunities for recent petroleum engineering graduates. In the long run, however, it appears likely that the price of oil will increase to a level sufficient to increase exploration and production, which would imply improved employment prospects for petroleum engineers. De­ spite this expected employment growth, most job openings will result from the need to replace petroleum engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Sources of Additional Information wSociety of Petroleum Engineers, P.O. Box 833836, Richardson, TX 75083­ 3836. (See introductory part of this section for information on training requirements and earnings.)  Architects and Surveyors Architects  'U '  (D.O.T. 001.061-010 and .167-010)  Nature of the Work The design of a building involves far more than its appearance. Build­ ings must also be functional, safe, and economical and must suit the needs of the people who use them. Architects take all these things into consideration when they design buildings. Architects provide a wide variety of professional services to individ­ uals and organizations planning a building project. They may be involved in all phases of development, from the initial discussion of general ideas with the client through construction. Their duties require a variety of skills—design, engineering, managerial, and supervisory. The architect and client first discuss the purposes, requirements, and cost of a project. Based on the discussions, the architect prepares a program—a report specifying the requirements the design must meet. The architect then prepares drawings presenting ideas for meeting the client’s needs. After the initial proposals are discussed and accepted, the architect develops final construction documents. These documents show the building’s appearance and details of its construction. Accompanying these are drawings of the structural system; air-conditioning, heating, and ventilating systems; electrical systems; plumbing; and possibly landscape plans. Architects also specify the building materials and, in some cases, the interior furnishings. In developing designs, architects follow building codes, zoning laws, fire regulations, and other ordi­ nances, such as those that require easy access by handicapped persons. Throughout the planning stage, the architect makes necessary changes. The architect may also assist the client in obtaining construction bids, selecting a contractor, and negotiating the construction contract. As construction proceeds, the architect may be employed by the client to visit the building site to ensure that the contractor is following the design, using the specified materials, and meeting the specified standards for the quality of work. The job is not complete until all construction is finished, required tests are made, and construction costs are paid. Architects design a wide variety of buildings, such as office and apartment buildings, schools, churches, factories, hospitals, houses, and airport terminals. They also design multibuilding complexes such as urban centers, college campuses, industrial parks, and entire com­ munities. In addition to designing buildings, architects may advise on the selection of building sites, prepare cost and land-use studies, and do long-range planning for land development. Architects sometimes specialize in one phase of the work. Some specialize in the design of one type of building—for example, hospi­ tals, schools, or housing. Others specialize in construction manage­ ment or the management of their firm and do little design work. Architects often work with engineers, urban planners, interior design­ ers, landscape architects, and others. Working Conditions Architects generally work in a comfortable environment. Most of their time is spent in offices advising clients, developing reports and drawings, and working with other architects and engineers. However, they also often work at construction sites reviewing the progress of projects. Architects may be under great stress, working nights and weekends to meet deadlines. Employment Architects held almost 86,000jobs in 1988. Most jobs were in architec­ tural firms—many of which employ fewer than five workers. Over  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Architects are increasingly using computer-aided design systems to produce and modify building designs. one-quarter of all architects were self-employed. They practiced as partners in architectural firms or on their own. A few worked for builders, real estate developers, and for government agencies responsi­ ble for housing, planning, or community development such as the Departments of Defense, Interior, Housing and Urban Development, and the General Services Administration. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement All States and the District of Columbia require individuals to be licensed (registered) before they may call themselves architects or contract to provide architectural services. Many architecture school graduates work in the field even though they are not licensed. However, a licensed architect is required to take legal responsibility for all work. Three requirements generally must be met for licensure: a “first professional degree" in architecture, a period of practical training or internship (usually for 3 years), and passage of all sections of the Architect Registration Examination. In most States, the first professional degree in architecture must be from one of the 94 schools of architecture accredited by the National Architectural Accrediting Board in 1989. There are four types of first professional degrees in architecture. Over half of all architecture degrees are from 5-year Bachelor of Architecture programs intended for students entering from high school. Another type of Bachelor of Architecture program, for students with a prior degree in another discipline, requires 3 or 4 years. Two-year Master of Architecture programs are for students with pre-professional undergraduate degrees in architecture or a related area, although some programs offer options for students with a prior degree in another discipline. The fourth type is a 3- or 4-year Master of Architecture program, for students with a degree in another discipline. In addition, there are many combinations and variations. Prospective architecture students should carefully con­ sider the available options before committing to a program. For exam­ ple, although the 5-year Bachelor of Architecture degree offers the fastest route to the first professional degree, courses are specialized and, if the student does not complete the program, moving to a non­ architecture program may be difficult. A typical program includes courses in architectural history and theory, building design, including its technical and legal aspects, and science and liberal arts. Many architecture schools also offer graduate education for those who al­ ready have a bachelor’s or master’s degree in architecture or other areas. Although graduate education beyond the first professional de­ gree is not essential for practicing architects, it is desirable for research, teaching, and certain specialties. Artistic and drawing ability is helpful because architects must be  72  Occupational Outlook Handbook  able to visually communicate their ideas to clients and others. Archi­ tects also need mathematical ability and the ability to visualize spatial relationships and solve technical problems. Architects must be pre­ pared to work in a competitive environment where leadership and ability to work with others are important. Students who work for architects during summer vacations can gain useful experience. New graduates usually begin in architectural firms, where they assist in preparing architectural documents or drawings. They also may do research on building codes and materials; or write specifications for building materials, the method of installation, the quality of finishes, and many other related details. Graduates with degrees in architecture also enter related fields such as graphic, interior, or industrial design; urban planning; real estate development; civil engineering; or construc­ tion management. In large firms, architects may advance to supervisory or managerial positions. Some architects become partners in established firms; others set up their own firm. Job Outlook Employment opportunities for architects are expected to be good through the year 2000 because employment is expected to rise faster than the average for all occupations and the number of degrees granted in architecture is not expected to increase significantly. However, demand for architects is highly dependent upon the local level of construction, particularly of nonresidential structures such as office buildings and shopping centers. Although growth in this area is ex­ pected, construction is sensitive to cyclical changes in the economy. During recessions or periods of slow growth, architects will face competition for job openings or clients, and layoffs may occur. Even in good times, there may be areas of the country with poor opportunities. Regardless of economic conditions, there will continue to be compe­ tition for jobs in the most prestigious firms, which offer good potential for career advancement. Although the increasing use of computeraided design increases efficiency, employment is not expected to be adversely affected because computer technologies are used to improve the quality of building designs rather than reduce the need for archi­ tects. Although employment is expected to rise faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000, most job openings are expected to arise as architects transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Earnings The median annual earnings for salaried architects who worked full time were about $32,000 in 1988. The middle 50 percent earned between $25,300 and $42,200. The top 10 percent earned more than $51,700 and the lowest 10 percent, less than $19,500. Architects who are partners in well-established architectural firms or solo practitioners generally earn much more than their salaried employees, but their income may fluctuate due to changing business conditions. Architects may have difficulty getting established in their own practices and may go through a period when their expenses are greater than their income. In 1988, the average salary for architects working in the Federal Government was about $39,500. Related Occupations Architects are concerned with the design and construction of buildings and related structures. Others who engage in similar work are land­ scape architects, building contractors, civil engineers, urban planners, interior designers, industrial designers, drafters, and surveyors. Sources of Additional Information Information about education and careers in architecture can be obtained from: ••-Director, Education Programs, The American Institute of Architects, 1735 New York Ave. NW„ Washington, DC 20006.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Landscape Architects (D.O.T. 001.061-018)  Nature of the Work Everyone enjoys attractively designed residential areas, public parks, college campuses, shopping centers, golf courses, parkways, and industrial parks. Landscape architects design these areas so that they are not only functional but beautiful and environmentally appropriate as well. They may plan the location of buildings, roads, and walkways and the arrangement of flowers, shrubs, and trees and other features of open space. They also may redesign streets to limit automobile traffic and to improve pedestrian access and safety. Natural resource conservation and historic preservation are other important objectives to which landscape architects may apply their knowledge of the envi­ ronment as well as their design and artistic talents. Landscape architects are hired by many types of organizations— from real estate development firms starting new projects to municipali­ ties constructing airports or parks. They are often involved with the development of a site from its conception. Working with architects and engineers, they help determine the best arrangement of roads and buildings. Once these decisions are made, landscape architects create detailed plans indicating new topography, vegetation, walkways, and landscape amenities. In planning a site, landscape architects first consider the nature and purpose of the project and the funds available. They analyze the natural elements of the site, such as the climate, soil, slope of the land, drainage, and vegetation. They observe where sunlight falls on the site at different times of the day and examine the site from various angles. They assess the effect of existing buildings, roads, walkways, and utilities on the project. After studying and analyzing the site, they prepare a preliminary design. To account for the needs of the client as well as the conditions at the site, they may have to make many changes before a final design is approved. An increasing number of landscape architects are using computer-aided design systems to assist them in preparing their de­ signs. Throughout all phases of the design, landscape architects consult with other professionals involved in the project. Once the design is complete, they prepare a proposal for the client. They draw up detailed plans of the site which include written reports, sketches, models, photographs, land-use studies, and cost estimates. If the plans are approved, landscape architects prepare working drawings showing all existing and proposed features. They also outline in detail the methods of construction and draw up a list of necessary materials. Although many landscape architects supervise the installation of their design, some are involved in the construction of the site. How­ ever, this usually is done by the developer or contractor. Some landscape architects work on a wide variety of projects. Others specialize in a particular area, such as residential development, historic landscape restoration, waterfront improvement projects, parks and playgrounds, or shopping centers. Still others work in regional plan­ ning and resource management; feasibility, environmental impact, and cost studies; or site construction. Relatively few landscape architects specialize in landscape design for individual homeowners because most residential landscape design projects are too small to provide suitable income compared with larger commercial or multiunit residential projects. Some nurseries offer residential landscape design services, but these services often are performed by lesser qualified landscape designers or others with train­ ing and experience in related areas. Landscape architects who work for government agencies do similar work at national parks, government buildings, and other governmentowned facilities. In addition, they may prepare environmental impact statements and studies on environmental issues such as land-use planning.  Professional Specialty Occupations Working Conditions Landscape architects spend much of their time in offices preparing drawings, models, and cost estimates and discussing projects with clients. Time in the office is balanced by time spent outdoors, studying and planning sites and supervising landscape projects. Salaried employees in both government and landscape architectural firms usually work regular hours, although they may work overtime to meet a project deadline. Hours of self-employed landscape architects may vary. Employment Landscape architects held about 19,000 jobs in 1988. Almost twothirds worked for firms that provide landscape architecture services. Most of the rest were employed by architectural firms. The Federal Government also employs these workers; most were found in the Departments of Agriculture, Defense, and Interior. About 1 of every 10 landscape architects was self-employed. Although they are found throughout the country, landscape archi­ tects are concentrated in areas with favorable weather conditions such as Florida, California, and Texas. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree in landscape architecture, which takes 4 to 5 years, usually is the minimum educational requirement for entering the profession. Over the last few years, however, an increasing number have been entering the field with a master’s degree. In 1988, 47 colleges and universities offered 61 undergraduate and graduate programs in landscape architecture that were accredited by the American Society of Landscape Architects. College courses in this field include technical subjects such as surveying, landscape design and construction, computer techniques, structural design, and city and regional planning. Other courses include history of landscape architecture, plant and soil science, geology, design and color theory, and general management. In addition, most students at the undergraduate level take a year of prerequisite courses such as English, mathematics, and social science. Increasingly, stu­ dents are participating in cooperative work/study programs that com­ bine academic credit with practical work experience. Forty-one States require landscape architects to be licensed. Licens­ ing is based on the Uniform National Examination, and admission to the exam usually requires a degree from an accredited school plus 1 to 4 years of work experience. Over a 3-day period, examinees are tested on all aspects of landscape architecture. In the Federal Government, candidates for entry positions should have a bachelor’s or master’s degree in landscape architecture. The Federal Government does not require its landscape architects to be licensed. Persons planning a career in landscape architecture should appreciIf  S  Landscape architects prepare detailed plans showing locations of trees and gardens as well as buildings, roads, and walkways.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  73  ate nature, be creative, and have artistic talent. They should take high school courses in mechanical or geometric drawing, art, botany, and mathematics. Good written and oral communication skills are impor­ tant, because these workers must be able to convey their ideas to other professionals and their clients and make presentations before large groups. Those interested in starting their own firm should be skilled in small business management. New graduates usually begin by preparing project drawings and doing other simple drafting work. After gaining experience, they help prepare specifications and construction details and handle other aspects of project design. After 2 or 3 years, they usually can carry a design through all stages of development. After several years, they may become associates, and eventually they may become partners or open their own offices. Job Outlook Employment of landscape architects is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Despite this growth, most job openings are expected to result from the need to replace experienced landscape architects who transfer to other occupa­ tions or leave the labor force. The level of new construction plays an important role in determining demand for landscape architects. Anticipated growth in construction is expected to increase demand for landscape architectural services over the long run. Employment should increase faster than construction activity because an increasing proportion of office and other commer­ cial and industrial development will occur outside cities. These projects typically have a large area of surrounding land which needs to be designed, in contrast to urban development, which often includes little or no surrounding land. Also, as the cost of land increases, the desirability of good landscape design increases. Increased concern for the environment also should stimulate employment growth because of the need to design development projects which best fit in with the surrounding environment. Other factors expected to contribute to the growth of demand for landscape architects are the need to refurbish existing sites and in­ creased city and environmental planning and historic preservation. Although landscape architects are increasingly using computeraided design, employment is not expected to be affected because this technology will be used to create more and better designs rather than reduce the demand for landscape architects. Earnings According to the American Society of Landscape Architects, graduates with a bachelor’s degree in landscape architecture usually started at about $18,000 in 1989; those with a master’s degree at about $27,000. Although salaries for experienced landscape architects varied by loca­ tion and experience, the median salary for all landscape architects was about $37,000 in 1989, according to the American Society of Landscape Architects. Those who are partners in well-established firms may earn much more than their salaried employees, but their incomes may fluctuate with changing business conditions. In 1988, the average annual salary for all landscape architects in the Federal Government was about $39,300. Because many work for small firms or are self-employed, benefits tend to be less generous than those of other workers with similar skills who work for large organizations. With the exception of those who are self-employed, however, most landscape architects receive health insurance, paid vacations, and sick leave. Related Occupations Landscape architects use their knowledge of design theory and landuse planning to develop a landscape project. Others whose work requires similar skills are architects, interior and industrial designers, civil engineers, and urban and regional planners. Landscape architects also know how to grow and use plants in the landscape; others who study plants are botanists, who study plants in general, and horticultur­ ists, who study ornamental plants as well as fruit, vegetable, green­ house, and nursery crops.  74  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Sources of Additional Information Additional information, including a list of colleges and universities offering accredited programs in landscape architecture, is available from: •-American Society of Landscape Architects, 4401 Connecticut Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20008.  Surveyors (D.O.T. 018.131, .167 except -022, .261, .262, .281; 024.061-014; and 184.167-026)  Nature of the Work This statement covers three groups of workers who measure and map the earth’s surface. Land surveyors establish official land and water boundaries, write descriptions of land for deeds, leases, and other legal documents, and measure construction and mineral sites. They are assisted by survey technicians, who operate surveying instruments and collect information. Mapping scientists and other surveyors collect information for and prepare maps and charts. Land surveyors manage one or more survey parties who measure distances, directions, and angles between points and elevations of points, lines, and contours on the earth’s surface. They plan the fieldwork, select survey reference points, and determine the precise location of all important features of the survey area. They research legal records and look for evidence of previous boundaries. They record the results of the survey, verify the accuracy of data, and prepare plats, maps, and reports. Surveyors who establish official boundaries must be licensed by the State in which they work. The information needed by the land surveyor is gathered by a survey party. A typical survey party is made up of a party chief and several survey technicians and helpers. The party chief, who may be either a land surveyor or a senior survey technician, leads the day-to-day work activities. The party chief is assisted by survey technicians, who adjust and operate surveying instruments such as the theodolite (used to measure horizontal and vertical angles) and electronic distance-mea­ suring equipment. Survey technicians or helpers hold the vertical rods that the theodolite operator sights on to measure angles, distances, or elevations. They may also hold measuring tapes and chains if electronic distance-measuring equipment is not used. Survey technicians also compile notes, make sketches, and enter the data obtained from these instruments into computers. Some survey parties include laborers or helpers to clear brush from sight lines, pound stakes, carry equipment, and perform other less skilled duties. New technology is changing the nature of the work of surveyors and survey technicians. For larger surveying projects, surveyors are increasingly using Global Positioning Systems (GPS), electronic sys­ tems which precisely locate points on the earth using information from satellites. When all the planned satellites are placed in orbit and as the cost of the electronic equipment is reduced, much more surveying work will be done by GPS. Mapping scientists, like land surveyors, measure, map, and chart the earth’s surface but generally cover much larger areas. Unlike land surveyors, however, mapping scientists work mainly in offices and may seldom or never visit the sites they are mapping. Mapping scien­ tists include workers in several occupations. Cartographers prepare maps using information provided by geodetic surveys, aerial photo­ graphs, and satellite data. Photogrammetrists prepare maps and draw­ ings by measuring and interpreting aerial photographs, using analytical processes and mathematical formulas. Photogrammetrists make de­ tailed maps of areas that are inaccessible or difficult to survey by other methods. Map editors develop and verify map contents from aerial photographs and other reference sources. Some surveyors perform specialized functions which are closer to mapping science than traditional surveying. Geodetic surveyors use high-accuracy techniques, including satellite observations, to measure  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  '  mEh  S .  W&i'ml A surveyor talks to his assistant by radio at a construction site.  large areas of the earth’s surface. Geophysical prospecting surveyors mark sites for subsurface exploration, usually petroleum related. Ma­ rine surveyors survey harbors, rivers, and other bodies of water to determine shorelines, topography of the bottom, water depth, and other features. The work of mapping scientists is also changing due to new techno­ logies. The technologies include GPS, computerized data banks of spatial data, new earth resources data satellites, and improved aerial photography. The older specialties of photogrammetrist and cartogra­ pher are becoming a new one, geographic information specialist. Further, many observe that the functions of mapping science and surveying are merging into a broader field, that of the collection and analysis of geographic spatial information. Working Conditions Surveyors usually work an 8-hour day 5 days a week. Sometimes they work longer hours during the summer, when weather and light conditions are most suitable for fieldwork. Land surveyors and technicians do active and sometimes strenuous work. They often stand for long periods, walk long distances, and climb hills with heavy packs of instruments and equipment. They also are exposed to all types of weather. Occasionally, they may commute long distances or temporarily relocate near a survey site. They also spend considerable time in an office, planning surveys and preparing reports, computations, and maps. Most computations and map drafting are done at a computer. Mapping scientists spend almost all their time in offices.  Professional Specialty Occupations Employment Surveyors held about 100,000jobs in 1988. Engineering, architectural, and surveying firms employ over three-fifths of all surveyors. Federal, State, and local government agencies employ about one-fourth. Major Federal Government employers are the U.S. Geological Survey, the Bureau of Land Management, the Army Corps of Engineers, the Forest Service, the National Ocean Survey, and the Defense Mapping Agency. Most surveyors in State and local government work for highway departments and urban planning and redevelopment agencies. Construction firms, mining and oil and gas extraction companies, and public utilities also employ surveyors. About 8,000 surveyors were self-employed. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Most persons prepare for surveying work by combining postsecondary school courses in surveying with extensive on-the-job training. Junior and community colleges, technical institutes, and vocational schools offer 1-, 2-, and 3-year programs in both surveying and surveying technology. High school students interested in surveying should take courses in algebra, geometry, trigonometry, drafting, mechanical drawing, and computer science. All 50 States license land surveyors. In the past, many surveyors started as members of survey crews and worked their way up to licensed surveyor with little formal training in surveying. However, due to changing technology and an increase in licensing standards, more formal education is now required. Most States at the present time require some formal post-high school education courses and 5 to 12 years of surveying experience to gain licensure. However, require­ ments vary among the States. Generally, the quickest route is a combi­ nation of 4 years of college, 2 to 4 years of experience (a few States do not require any), and passing the State licensing examination. An increasing number of States require a bachelor’s degree in surveying or in a closely related field such as civil engineering or forestry with courses in surveying. By the year 2000, most or all States may require a bachelor's degree. High school graduates with no formal training in surveying usually start as helpers. Beginners with postsecondary school training in sur­ veying can generally start as technicians. With on-the-job experience and formal training in surveying—either in an institutional program or from a correspondence school—workers may advance to senior survey technician, then to party chief, and finally, in some cases, to licensed surveyor (depending on State licensing requirements). Cartographers and photogrammetrists usually have a bachelor’s degree in engineering or a physical science, although it is possible to enter these jobs through experience as a photogrammetric or carto­ graphic technician. Most cartographic and photogrammetric techni­ cians have had some specialized postsecondary school training. Some mapping scientists have education and experience in computers. Surveyors should have the ability to visualize objects, distances, sizes, and other abstract forms and to work precisely and accurately because mistakes can be very costly. Leadership qualities are important for party chief and other supervisors. Members of a survey party must be in good physical condition to work outdoors and carry equipment over difficult terrain. They also need good eyesight, coordination, and hearing to communicate by hand or voice signals.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  75  Job Outlook Employment of surveyors is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2000. In addition to openings arising from growth in demand for surveyors, many will result from the need to replace those who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. The anticipated growth in construction should create jobs for survey­ ors who lay out streets, shopping centers, housing developments, factories, office buildings, and recreation areas. Road and highway construction and improvement also should create new surveying posi­ tions. However, employment may fluctuate from year to year along with construction activity. Some growth in employment of mapping scientists and other survey­ ors may occur in private firms; little or no growth is expected in the Federal Government. Higher levels of technology, upgraded licensing requirements, and the increased demand for geographic spatial data (as opposed to tradi­ tional surveying services) mean that opportunities will be best for surveyors and mapping scientists who have at least a bachelor’s degree. New technology such as GPS may increase productivity for larger projects and may reduce employment opportunities for surveyors and survey technicians who do not have the educational background to use it. Earnings In 1988, the median annual earnings for survey technicians who worked full time year round were about $21,800. The middle 50 percent earned between $ 16,400 and $31,700 a year; 10 percent earned less than $13,200 a year; and 10 percent earned more than $41,600. In 1989, high school graduates with little or no training or experience earned about $11,484 annually at entry level jobs on survey crews with the Federal Government. Those with 1 year of related postsecondary training earned $12,531. Those with an associate degree that included courses in surveying generally started as instrument assistants with an annual salary of $14,067. The average annual salary for Federal surveying technicians in 1988 was $19,535. In 1989, persons starting as land surveyors or cartographers with the Federal Government earned $15,738 or $19,493 a year, depending on their qualifications. The average annual salary for Federal land surveyors in 1988 was $32,082 and, for cartographers, $33,880. Related Occupations Surveying is related to the work of civil engineers and architects, since an accurate survey is the first step in a construction project. Mapping science and geodetic surveying are related to the work of geologists and geophysicists, who study the earth’s internal composition, surface, and atmosphere. Mapping science is also related to the work of geogra­ phers and urban planners, who study how the earth’s surface is used. Sources of Additional Information Information about career opportunities, licensure requirements, and schools that offer training in surveying is available from: •-American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, 210 Little Falls St., Falls Church, VA 22046.  General information on careers in photogrammetry is available from: •-American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 210 Little Falls St., Falls Church, VA 22046.  Computer, Mathematical, and Operations Research Occupations Actuaries (D.O.T. 020.167-010)  Nature of the Work Why do young drivers pay more for automobile insurance than older drivers? How much should an insurance policy cost? How much should an organization contribute each year to its pension fund? Answers to these and similar questions are provided by actuaries, who design insurance and pension plans and keep informed on their operation to make sure that they are maintained on a sound financial basis. Actuaries assemble and analyze statistics to calculate probabilities of death, sickness, injury, disability, unemployment, retirement, and property loss from accident, theft, fire, and other hazards. They use this information to determine the expected insured loss. For example, they may calculate how many persons who are 21 years old today can be expected to die before age 65—the probability that an insured person might die during this period is a risk to the company. They must make sure that the price charged for the insurance will enable the company to pay all claims and expenses as they occur. Finally, this price must be profitable and yet be competitive with other insurance companies. In a similar manner, the actuary calculates premium rates and determines policy contract provisions for each type of insurance offered. Most actuaries specialize in either life and health insurance or property and liability (casualty) insurance; others specialize in pension plans. The increasing use of computers has enabled actuaries to develop more comprehensive policies. To perform their duties effectively, actuaries must keep informed about general economic and social trends and legislative, health, and other developments that may affect insurance practices. Because of their broad knowledge of insurance, company actuaries may work in investment, group underwriting, or pension planning departments. Actuaries in executive positions help determine company policy. In that role, they may be called upon to explain complex technical matters to company executives, government officials, policyholders, and the public. They may testify before public agencies on proposed legislation affecting the insurance business, for example, or explain intended changes in premium rates or contract provisions. They also may help companies develop plans to enter new lines of business. The small number of actuaries who work for the Federal Government  Actuaries calculate the probabilities of death, sickness, injury, disability, and property loss. Digitized76 for FRASER https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  usually deal with a particular insurance or pension program, such as Social Security or life insurance for veterans and members of the Armed Forces. Actuaries in State government are usually employed by State insurance departments that regulate insurance companies, oversee the operations of State retirement or pension systems, handle unemployment insurance or workers’ compensation problems, and assess the impact of proposed legislation. They might determine whether the rates charged by an insurance company are proper or whether an employee benefit plan is financially sound. Consulting actuaries provide advice for a fee to various clients including insurance companies, corporations, hospitals, labor unions, government agencies, and attorneys. Consulting actuaries set up pen­ sion and welfare plans, calculate future benefits, and determine the amount of employer contributions. They may be called upon to testify in court regarding the value of potential lifetime earnings lost by a person who has been disabled or killed in an accident, the current value of future pension benefits in divorce cases, or the calculation of automobile insurance rates. Actuaries who are enrolled under the provisions of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA) evaluate these pension plans and report on their financial soundness. Working Conditions Actuaries have desk jobs that require no unusual physical activity; their offices generally are comfortable and pleasant. They generally work at least 40 hours a week. Some actuaries, particularly consulting actuaries, often travel to meet with clients. Employment Actuaries held about 16,000 jobs in 1988. Some actuaries were selfemployed. Many actuaries worked in insurance company headquarters in cities such as New York, Hartford, Chicago, Philadelphia, and Boston. Most worked for life insurance companies; others worked for property and liability (casualty) companies. The number of actuaries employed by an insurance company depends on its volume of business and the types of insurance policies it offers. Large companies may employ over 100 actuaries; others, generally smaller companies, may rely instead on consulting firms or rating bureaus (associations that supply actuarial data to member companies). Other actuaries work for private organizations administering health benefits and welfare plans, account­ ing firms, or government agencies. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A good educational background for a beginning job in a large life or casualty company is a bachelor’s degree with a major in mathematics or statistics; a degree in actuarial science is even better. Some compa­ nies hire applicants with a major in engineering, economics, or busi­ ness administration, provided the applicant has a working knowledge of mathematics, including calculus, probability, and statistics. Courses in accounting, computer science, and insurance also are useful. Com­ panies increasingly prefer well-rounded individuals who, in addition to a strong technical background, have training in liberal arts and business and good communication skills. Although only about 30 colleges and universities offer a degree in actuarial science, hundreds of schools offer a degree in mathematics or statistics. A strong background in mathematics is essential for persons inter­ ested in a career as an actuary. It is an advantage to pass, while still in school, one or more of the examinations offered by professional actuarial societies. Three societies sponsor programs leading to full professional status in their specialty. The Society of Actuaries gives 10 actuarial examinations for the life and health insurance and pension field; the Casualty Actuarial Society gives 10 examinations for the  Professional Specialty Occupations property and liability field. Because the first parts of the examination series of each society cover similar materials, students need not commit themselves to a specialty until they have taken three examinations. These test competence in subjects such as linear algebra, probability, calculus, statistics, numerical methods, and operations research. These first few examinations help students evaluate their potential as actu­ aries, and those who pass usually have better opportunities for employ­ ment and higher starting salaries. The American Society of Pension Actuaries gives seven examina­ tions covering the pension field. Membership status requires the pas­ sage of two actuarial exams. Fellowship status requires the passage of three additional actuarial and two advanced consulting exams. Actuaries are encouraged to complete the entire series of examina­ tions as soon as possible; completion generally takes from 5 to 10 years. Many students pass two or more actuarial examinations before graduating from college. Examinations are given twice each year. Extensive home study is required to pass the advanced examinations; many actuaries study for several months to prepare for an examination. Actuaries who complete five examinations in either the life insurance series or the pension series or seven examinations in the casualty series are awarded “associate” membership in their society. Those who pass an entire series receive full membership and the title “fellow.” Consulting pension actuaries who service private pension plans and certify their solvency must be enrolled and licensed by the Joint Board for the Enrollment of Actuaries. Applicants for enrollment must meet certain experience, education, and examination requirements as stipu­ lated by the Joint Board. Beginning actuaries often rotate among jobs to leam various actuar­ ial operations and different phases of insurance work. At first, they prepare tabulations for actuarial tables or perform other simple tasks. As they gain experience, they may supervise clerks, prepare correspon­ dence and reports, and do research. Advancement to more responsible work as assistant, associate, and chief actuary depends largely on job performance and the number of actuarial examinations passed. Actuaries with a broad knowledge of the insurance, pension, and employee benefits fields often advance to administrative and executive positions in underwriting, accounting, or data processing departments. Actuaries with a business background and supervisory ability may advance to management positions involv­ ing marketing, advertising, or planning.  77  creating their own actuarial departments or using the services of con­ sulting actuaries. The liability of companies for damage resulting from their products has received much attention in recent years. Actuaries will continue to be involved in the development of product liability insurance, medical malpractice and workers ’ compensation coverage, and self-insurance— internal trust funds being established by some large corporations. Insurance coverage is considered a necessity by most individuals and businesses, regardless of economic conditions. Therefore, actu­ aries are unlikely to be laid off during a recession. Earnings In 1989, new college graduates entering the actuarial field without having passed any actuarial exams averaged about $22,000-$26,000, according to estimates by the Society of Actuaries. Beginners who had completed the first exam received between $24,000 and $28,000, and those who had passed the second exam averaged between $26,000 and $30,000, depending on geographic location. Insurance companies and consulting firms give merit increases to actuaries as they gain experience and pass examinations. Actuaries who became associates in 1989 averaged between $35,000 and $48,000 a year; actuaries who became fellows during that year aver­ aged between $47,000 and $57,000. Fellows with additional years of experience can earn substantially more—top actuarial executives received salaries of $55,000-$ 100,000 a year and higher. Actuaries typically receive various fringe benefits including vacation and sick leave, health and life insurance, and pension plans, among others. Related Occupations Actuaries determine the probability of income or loss from various risk factors. Other workers whose jobs involve related skills include accountants, economists, financial analysts, mathematicians, rate ana­ lysts, rate engineers, risk managers, statisticians, and value engineers. Sources of Additional Information For facts about actuarial careers, contact: ••-American Academy of Actuaries, 1720 I St. NW., 7th Floor, Washington, DC 20006. (■-Society of Actuaries, 475 N. Martingale Rd., Schaumburg, IL 60173.  For information about actuarial careers in casualty insurance, contact: Job Outlook Employment of actuaries is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000. In addition to growth in the demand for actuarial services, job openings are expected to arise each year to replace actuaries who transfer to other occupations, retire, or stop working for other reasons. Job opportunities should be favorable for college graduates who have passed at least two actuarial examinations while still in school and have a strong mathematical and statistical background. Employment growth will be spurred by the increasing volume and complexity of insurance policies and pension plans. Shifts in the age distribution of the population will result in a large increase in the number of people with established careers and family responsibilities. This is the group that traditionally has accounted for the bulk of private insurance sales. As people live longer, they draw health and pension benefits for a longer period, and more actuaries are needed to recalculate the probabilities of such factors as death, sickness, and length of retire­ ment. As insurance companies branch out into several types of insur­ ance coverage—for example, dental, legal, and kidnap insurance— more actuaries will be needed to establish rates. The increase in the number of mergers and acquisitions and the passage of legislation on tax reform should spur demand for actuaries to evaluate the financial condition and investment portfolios of firms. Continuing amendments to the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 should also add to the demand for actuarial services. In addition, many companies that previously relied on rating bureaus for actuarial data are now  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ••-Casualty Actuarial Society, One Penn Plaza, 250 West 34th St., New York, NY 10119.  Career information on actuaries specializing in pensions is available from: ••-American Society of Pension Actuaries, 2029 K St. NW., 4th Floor, Wash­ ington, DC 20006. For information about a career as a consulting actuary, contact: ••-Conference of Actuaries in Public Practice, 475 N. Martingale Rd., Schaum­ burg, IL 60173.  Computer Systems Analysts (D.O.T. 012.167-066; 020.062-010, .067-010, and .224-010; and 109.067­ 010)  Nature of the Work Systems analysts plan and develop new computer systems or devise ways to apply existing systems to processes still completed manually or by some less efficient method. They may design whole new systems, including hardware and software, or add a single new software applica­ tion to harness more of the computer’s power. Analysts begin an assignment by discussing the data processing problem with managers and users to determine the exact nature of the problem. Much time is devoted to clearly defining the goals of the system so that it can be broken down into separate programmable  78  Occupational Outlook Handbook and office workers. Occasionally, however, evening or weekend work may be necessary to meet deadlines.  ,  o  -  Systems analysts improve business operations by harnessing the computer's potential. procedures. Analysts then use techniques such as mathematical model building, sampling, and cost accounting to plan the system. Once the design has been developed, systems analysts prepare charts and diagrams that describe it in terms that managers and other users can understand. They also may prepare a cost-benefit and retum-on-investment analysis to help management decide whether the proposed system will be satisfactory. If the system is accepted, systems analysts may determine what computer hardware and software will be needed to set up the system. They also prepare specifications for computer programmers to follow and work with them to “debug,” or eliminate errors from the system. Some organizations do not employ programmers; instead, a single worker called a programmer-analyst is responsible for both systems analysis and programming. (The work of programmers is described elsewhere in the Handbook.) The analyst also would design any forms required to collect data from sources outside the organization so that it can be easily entered into the data base. One of the biggest obstacles to wider computer utilization is the inability of different computers to communicate with each other. Many systems analysts are involved with connecting all the computers in an individual office, department, or establishment. This “networking” has many variations; they may be called local area networks, wide area networks, or multiuser systems. A primary goal of networking is to allow users of microcomputers (also known as personal computers or PC’s) to retrieve data from a mainframe computer and use it on their machine. This connection also allows data to be entered into the mainframe from the PC. If a manufacturer wishes to improve customer service by utilizing a just-in-time order, production, and delivery process, for example, a systems analyst would determine what data are needed, how it will be organized, and what pathways need to be opened so that data are accessible to all those using the system. Similarly, electronic mail requires open pathways to send messages, documents, and data from one computer “mailbox” to another across different equipment and program lines. The analyst must design the gates in the hardware and software that allow free exchange of data, custom applications, and the computer power to process it all. They study the seemingly incom­ patible pieces and create ways to link them so that any user can access any data from any terminal location. Because the possible uses of computers are so varied and complex, analysts usually specialize in either business, scientific, or engineering applications. Previous experience or training in a particular area usu­ ally dictates the field in which they are most qualified to develop computer systems. Working Conditions Systems analysts work in offices in comfortable surroundings. They usually work about 40 hours a week—the same as other professional  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Employment Systems analysts held about 403,000 jobs in 1988. Most systems analysts work in urban areas for data processing service firms, govern­ ment agencies, insurance companies, banks, and firms that manufac­ ture durable goods. A small but growing number of systems analysts are employed on a temporary basis. For example, a company installing a new computer system may need the services of several systems analysts just to get the system running. Because not all of them would be needed once the system is functioning, the company might contract either directly with the systems analysts themselves or with a temporary help agency. The company would contract for their services for the duration of the contract; temporary jobs usually are for several months at least, and some last up to 2 years or more. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement There is no universally accepted way to prepare for a job as a systems analyst because employers’ preferences depend on the work being done. Prior work experience is very important. Many persons entering this occupation transfer from another occupation, such as computer programmer or engineer. For example, a lead programmer in an engi­ neering firm may become a systems analyst specializing in engineering applications. College graduates almost always are sought for systems analyst positions, and, for some of the more complex jobs, persons with graduate degrees are preferred. Employers usually want analysts with a background in business management or a closely related field for work in a business environment, while a background in the physical sciences, applied mathematics, or engineering is preferred for work in scientifically oriented organizations. Many employers seek applicants who have a degree in computer science, information science, computer information systems, or data processing. Regardless of college major, employers look for people who are familiar with programming lan­ guages and have a broad knowledge of computer systems. Courses in computer concepts, systems analysis, and data base management systems offer good preparation for a job in this field. Systems analysts must be able to think logically, have good commu­ nication skills, and like working with ideas and people. They often deal with a number of tasks simultaneously. The ability to concentrate and pay close attention to detail also is important. Although systems analysts often work independently, they also work in teams on large projects. They must be able to communicate effectively with technical personnel, such as programmers and managers, as well as with people who have no computer background. Technological advances come so rapidly in the computer field that continuous study is necessary to keep skills up to date. Training usually takes the form of 1- and 2-week courses offered by employers and software vendors. Additional training may come from professional development seminars offered by professional computing societies. Certification is an indication of experience and professional compe­ tence . The designations Certified Data Processor and Certified Systems Professional are conferred by the Institute for Certification of Computer Professionals upon candidates who have 5 years of experience and who have passed a core examination plus exams in 2 specialty areas. Systems analysts may be promoted to senior or lead systems analysts after several years of experience. Those who show leadership ability also can advance to jobs as manager of information systems or chief information officer. Systems analysts with several years of experience may start their own computer consulting firms. Job Outlook Employment of systems analysts is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000. The demand for systems analysts is expected to rise as advances in technology lead to new applications for computers. Office and factory automation, telecommunications technology, and scientific research are areas  Professional Specialty Occupations where the use of computer systems will expand dramatically in the years ahead. More systems analysts will be needed to implement these changes in new or existing systems. As users develop a more sophisticated knowledge of computers, they become more aware of the machine’s potential and better able to suggest operations that will increase their own productivity and that of the organization. In addition, falling prices of computer hardware and software are inducing more small businesses to computerize their operations, further stimulating demand for systems analysts. Despite this rapid growth in employment, most job openings will result from the need to replace workers who leave the occupation— although a smaller proportion of systems analysts than of all profes­ sional workers leave their occupation each year. Most of the systems analysts who leave the occupation transfer to other jobs such as man­ ager or senior administrator. College graduates who have had courses in computer programming, systems analysis, and other data processing areas as well as training or experience in an applied field should enjoy good prospects for employment. Persons without a college degree and college graduates unfamiliar with data processing will face keen competition from the large number of experienced workers seeking jobs as systems analysts. Earnings Median annual earnings of systems analysts who worked full time in 1988 were about $35,800. The middle 50 percent earned between $27,100 and $45,400 a year. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $19,900; the highest tenth, more than $51,600. In the Federal Government, the entrance salary for recent college graduates with a bachelor’s degree was about $15,700 a year in 1989. Systems analysts working in the Northeast had the highest earnings; those in the Midwest, the lowest. Salaries tend to be highest in mining and public utilities and lowest in finance, insurance, and real estate. Related Occupations Other workers who use logic and reasoning ability to solve problems are programmers, financial analysts, urban planners, engineers, mathe­ maticians, operations research analysts, scientists, and actuaries. Sources of Additional Information Further information about the occupation of systems analyst is avail­ able from:  Applied mathematicians use mathematics to develop theories and techniques, such as mathematical modeling, to solve practical prob­ lems in business, government, engineering, and the natural and social sciences. For example, they may analyze the mathematical aspects of launching communications satellites, the effects of new drugs on disease, the aerodynamic characteristics of objects, and the distribution costs of businesses. Mathematicians use computers extensively in all phases of their work—analyzing relationships among variables, solving complex problems, and processing large amounts of data. Much work in applied mathematics, however, is carried on by persons other than mathematicians. In fact, the number of workers using mathematical techniques is many times greater than the number actually designated as mathematicians. Working Conditions Mathematicians working for government agencies and private firms have structured work schedules. They may work alone with only computers, calculators, and mathematical formulas as company, or be an integral part of a research team that includes engineers, computer scientists, and others. Deadlines, overtime work, special requests for information, and travel to attend seminars or conferences may be part of their jobs. Mathematics faculty have flexible work schedules, dividing their time among teaching, research, consulting, and administrative respon­ sibilities. Employment Mathematicians held about 16,000 jobs in 1988. In addition, an esti­ mated 33,000 persons held mathematics faculty positions in colleges and universities. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Most mathematicians worked in the government and in service and manufacturing industries. The Department of Defense is the primary Federal employer of mathematicians. Smaller numbers work for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Department of Commerce. Major employers within the services sector included educational services; computer and data processing services; noncom­ mercial educational and research organizations; and engineering, ar­ chitectural, and surveying services. Within manufacturing, the aircraft  (•-Association for Systems Management, 24587 Bagley Rd., Cleveland, OH 44138.  hhhss  Information about certification as a computer professional is avail­ able from: (•-Institute for the Certification of Computer Professionals, 2200 East Devon Ave. Suite 268, Des Plaines, IL 60018.  ,v ■  Mathematicians (D.O.T. 020.067-014, .187-018; 199.267-014)  Nature of the Work Mathematics is one of the oldest and most basic sciences. Mathemati­ cians today are engaged in a wide variety of activities, ranging from the creation of new theories and techniques to the translation of economic, scientific, and managerial problems into mathematical terms. Mathematical work falls into two broad classes: Theoretical (pure) mathematics; and applied mathematics. However, these classes are not sharply defined and often overlap. Theoretical mathematicians advance mathematical science by devel­ oping new principles and new relationships between existing principles of mathematics. Although they seek to increase basic knowledge without necessarily considering its practical use, this pure and abstract knowledge has been instrumental in producing many scientific and engineering achievements.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  79  Mathematicians work on both theoretical and applied problems.  80  Occupational Outlook Handbook  and chemicals industries were key employers. Some mathematicians also worked for banks, insurance companies, and public utilities. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement An advanced degree is the preferred requirement for beginning teach­ ing jobs, as well as for most research positions. However, in most 4year colleges and universities, the Ph.D. degree is necessary for full faculty status. The master’s degree is generally the minimum require­ ment for teaching jobs in 2-year and some small 4-year colleges. A bachelor’s degree is considered adequate preparation for some jobs in private industry and government. Individuals with this back­ ground usually assist senior mathematicians by performing computa­ tions and solving less advanced problems in applied mathematics. The majority of bachelor’s degree holders work in related fields such as computer science, where employment opportunities are rapidly expanding. However, an advanced degree is a prerequisite for the more responsible positions. Many research positions require the doctorate. A bachelor’s degree in mathematics is offered by most colleges and universities. Mathematics courses usually required for this degree are analytical geometry, calculus, differential equations, linear algebra, probability theory and statistics, mathematical analysis, numerical analysis, modem algebra, and mathematical logic. Many colleges and universities urge or even require students majoring in mathematics to take several courses in a field that uses or is closely related to mathemat­ ics, such as computer science, engineering, operations research, a physical science, statistics, or economics. A double major in mathe­ matics and computer science or mathematics and statistics is particu­ larly desirable. A prospective college mathematics student should take as many mathematics courses as possible while in high school. Nearly 500 colleges and universities offer a master's degree in mathematics; about 220 also offer a Ph.D. In graduate school, students conduct research and take advanced courses, usually in a specific field of mathematics such as algebra, mathematical analysis, or geometry. For work in applied mathematics, training in the field in which the mathematics will be used is very important. Fields in which applied mathematics is used extensively include physics, actuarial science, engineering, and operations research; of increasing importance are computer and information science, business and industrial manage­ ment, economics, statistics, chemistry and life sciences, and the behav­ ioral sciences. Mathematicians should have substantial knowledge of computer programming since most complex mathematical computation is done by computer. Mathematicians need good reasoning ability, persistence, and the ability to apply basic principles to new types of problems. They must be able to communicate well since they often need to discuss the problem to be solved with nonmathematicians. Job Outlook Employment of mathematicians is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Most job openings, however, will arise from the need to replace experienced mathematicians who transfer to other occupations, or retire or leave the labor force for other reasons. The shortage of Ph.D.’s in mathematics is expected to continue, resulting in favorable employment opportunities. In industry, holders of the doctorate in applied mathematics have better employment pros­ pects than their theoretically oriented colleagues. Holders of a doctor­ ate in theoretical mathematics should continue to have excellent oppor­ tunities for teaching and research jobs in colleges and universities. Industry and government agencies will need mathematicians for work in operations research, mathematical modeling, aerodynamics, numerical analysis, computer systems design and programming, infor­ mation and data processing, applied mathematical physics, robotics, market research, commercial surveys, and as consultants in industrial laboratories. Holders of a master’s degree in mathematics may face some compe­ tition for jobs in college teaching or theoretical research. However, there will be many openings in applied mathematics and related areas  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  such as computer science and data processing in industry and gov­ ernment. Bachelor’s degree holders in mathematics with a strong back­ ground—preferably a second major—in computer science should have very good opportunities in computerized data processing activities in industry and government. Those who meet State certification require­ ments may become high school mathematics teachers. (For additional information, see the statement on secondary school teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Earnings According to a 1988 College Placement Council Survey, starting salary offers for mathematics graduates with a bachelor’s degree averaged about $27,500 a year; for those with a master’s degree, $29,600; and for new graduates having the Ph.D., $40,700. Starting salaries were generally higher in industry than in government or educational institu­ tions. In the Federal Government in 1989, the average starting salary for mathematicians having the bachelor’s degree and no experience was either $15,800 or $19,500 a year, depending on their college records. Those with the master’s degree averaged $23,100 or $28,900; and persons having the Ph.D. degree started at either $28,900 or $34,600. The average salary for all mathematicians in the Federal Government was about $40,100 in 1988. According to the Professional and Scientific Personnel Report, 15th edition, 1988/89, from the Executive Compensation Service, a Wyatt Data Service Company, experienced mathematicians averaged from $35,300 to $64,900 a year. According to a 1987 survey by the National Science Foundation, the median annual salary of mathematicians with a doctoral degree was $46,600; in business and industry, $55,100; in educational institutions, $45,400; and in the Federal Government, $56,400. Fringe benefits for mathematicians tend to be similiar to those offered to most professionals who work in office settings: Vacation and sick leave, health and life insurance, and retirement plans, among others. Related Occupations A degree in mathematics generally qualifies one to enter related occu­ pations such as actuary, statistician, computer programmer, systems analyst, and operations research analyst. In addition, a strong back­ ground in mathematics facilitates employment in fields such as engi­ neering, economics, finance, and genetics. Sources of Additional Information Several brochures are available that give facts about the field of mathe­ matics, including career opportunities, professional training, and col­ leges and universities with degree programs. Seeking Employment in the Mathematical Sciences is available for $4 from: •-American Mathematical Society, P.O. Box 6248, Providence, RI 02940.  Professional Opportunities in Mathematics is available for $2 from: •■Mathematical Association of America, 1529 18th St. NW., Washington, DC 20036.  For specific information on careers in applied mathematics, contact: •-Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 1400 Architects Building, 117 S. 17th St., Philadelphia, PA 19103.  For information on a career as a mathematical statistician, contact: •-Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 3401 Investment Blvd., No. 7, Hayward, CA 94545.  Information on Federal job opportunities is available from area offices of the State employment service and the U.S. Office of Person­ nel Management’s Federal Job Information Centers located in various large cities throughout the country. For information about careers in noncollegiate academic institu­ tions, contact: •-National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1906 Association Dr., Reston, VA 22091.  Professional Specialty Occupations  81  Operations Research Analysts (D.O.T. 020.067-018)  Nature of the Work Organizations develop’their own ways of making and carrying out plans. Unfortunately, these processes are not always the best way in light of the organization’s overall goals. Operations research analysts help organizations plan and operate in the most efficient and effective manner. They accomplish this by applying the scientific method and mathematical principles to organizational problems so that managers can evaluate alternatives and choose the course of action that best suits the organization. Operations research analysts are problem solvers. The problems they tackle are for the most part those encountered in large business organizations: Business strategy, forecasting, resource allocation, facilities layout, inventory control, personnel schedules, and distribu­ tion systems. The method they use generally revolves about a mathematical model or set of equations that explains how things happen within the organiza­ tion. Models are simplified representations that enable the analyst to break down systems into their component parts, assign numerical values to each component, and examine the mathematical relationships between them. These values can be altered to determine what will happen to the system under different sets of circumstances. Different types of models include simulation, linear programming, and game theory models. Because many of these techniques have been computer­ ized, analysts need to be able to write computer programs or use existing ones. The type of problem they usually handle varies by industry. For example, an analyst in a bank might deal with branch location, check processing, and personnel schedules, while an analyst employed by a hospital would concentrate on a different set of problems—scheduling admissions, managing patient flow, assigning shifts, monitoring use of pharmacy and laboratory services, or forecasting demand for new hospital services. The role of the operations research analyst varies according to the structure and management philosophy of the firm. Some firms centralize operations research in one department; others disperse opera­ tions research personnel throughout all divisions of the firm. Moreover, some operations research analysts specialize in one type of application; others are generalists. The degree of supervision also varies by organizational structure. In some organizations, analysts have a great deal of professional autonomy; in others, analysts are more closely supervised. Operations research analysts work closely with managers, who have a wide variety of support needs. Analysts must adapt their work to reflect these requirements. Regardless of the industry or structure of the organization, opera­ tions research entails a similar set of procedures. Managers begin the process by describing the symptoms of a problem to the analyst. The analyst then defines the problem, which sometimes is general in nature and at other times specific. For example, an operations research analyst for an auto manufacturer may want to determine the best inventory level for each of the materials for a new production process or, more specifically, to determine just how much steel should be stocked. After analysts define the problem, they learn everything they can about it. They research the problem, then break it into its component parts. Then they gather information about each of these parts. Usually this involves consulting a wide variety of personnel. To determine the most efficient amount of steel to be kept on hand, for example, operations research analysts might talk with engineers about produc­ tion levels; discuss purchasing arrangements with industrial buyers; and examine data on storage costs provided by the accounting de­ partment. With this information in hand, the operations research analyst is  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Operations research analysts work to improve productivity and performance. ready to select the most appropriate analytical technique. There may be several techniques that could be used, or there may be one standard model or technique that is used in all instances. In a few cases, the analyst must construct an original model to examine and explain the system. In almost all cases, the selected model must be modified to reflect the specific circumstances of the situation. A model for the inventory of steel, for example, might take into account the amount of steel required to produce a unit of output, several projected levels of output, varying costs of steel, and storage costs. The analyst chooses the values for these variables, enters them into the computer, which has already been programmed to make the calculations required, and runs the program to produce the best inventory level consistent with several sets of assumptions. The analyst would probably design a model that would take into account wide variations in the different variables. At this point, the operations research analyst presents the final work to management along with recommendations based on the results of the analysis. The manager, who is the decisionmaker, may request additional runs based on different assumptions to help in making the final decision. Managers assume responsibility for the final decision, but once a decision has been reached, the analyst works with the staff to ensure its successful implementation. Working Conditions Operations research analysts generally work regular hours in an office environment. Usually they work on projects that are of immediate interest to management. In these circumstances, analysts often are under pressure to meet deadlines and may work more than a 40-hour week. The work is sedentary in nature, and very little physical strength or stamina is required. Employment Operations research analysts held about 55,000 jobs in 1988. They are employed in most industries. Major employers include manufacturers of chemicals, machinery, and transportation equipment; firms provid­ ing transportation and telecommunications services; public utilities; banks; insurance agencies; and government agencies at all levels. Some analysts work for management consulting agencies that develop operations research applications for firms that do not have an in-house operations research staff. Most analysts in the Federal Government work for the Armed Forces. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Employers look for college graduates who have a strong background in quantitative methods with exposure to computer programming. Employers prefer applicants with a graduate degree in operations  82  Occupational Outlook Handbook  research or management science, mathematics, statistics, business administration, computer science, or other quantitative disciplines. Regardless of educational background or prior work experience, the employer usually plays a large role in the training process. New workers typically participate in on-the-job training programs, working closely with experienced workers until they become proficient. Gener­ ally, they help senior analysts gather information and run computer programs. The organization also sponsors skill-improvement training for experienced workers, helping them keep up with new developments in operations research techniques as well as advances in computer science. Some analysts attend college and university classes on these subjects. Operations research analysts must be able to think logically and work well with people. Thus, employers prefer workers with good oral and written communication skills. The computer is an increasingly important tool for quantitative analysis, and programming experience is a must. Beginning analysts usually do routine work under the close supervi­ sion of experienced analysts. As they gain knowledge and experience, they are assigned more complex tasks, with greater autonomy to design models and solve problems. Operations research analysts advance by assuming positions as technical specialists or supervisors. The skills acquired by operations research analysts are useful for upper level jobs in an organization, and experienced analysts with leadership potential often leave the field altogether to assume nontechnical managerial or administrative positions.  Job Outlook Employment of operations research analysts is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000 due to the increasing importance of quantitative analysis in decisionmak­ ing. In addition to jobs arising from the increased demand for these workers, many openings will occur each year as workers transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force altogether. More and more organizations are using operations research tech­ niques to improve productivity and reduce costs. This reflects growing acceptance of a systematic approach to decisionmaking as well as more affordable computers, which give even small firms access to operations research applications. The interplay of these two trends should greatly stimulate demand for these workers in the years ahead. Much of the job growth is expected to occur in the trade and services sectors. Firms in these sectors recognize that quantitative analysis can achieve dramatic improvements in operating efficiency and profitabil­ ity. More retailers, for example, are using operations research to design store layouts, select the best store location, analyze customer characteristics, and control inventory, among other things. Motel chains are beginning to utilize operations research analysis to improve their efficiency. For example, they analyze automobile traffic patterns and customer attitudes to determine location, size, and style of new motels. Like other management support functions, operations research is spread by its own success. When one firm in an industry increases productivity by adopting a new procedure, its competitors usually follow. This competitive pressure will contribute to demand for opera­ tions research analysts. Demand also should be strong in the manufacturing sector as firms expand existing operations research staffs in the face of growing foreign competition. More and more manufacturers are using mathe­ matical models to study parts of the organization for the first time. For example, analysts will be needed to determine the best way to distribute finished products and to find out where sales offices should be based. In addition, increasing factory automation will require more operations research analysts to alter existing models or develop new ones for production layout, robotics installation, work schedules, and inventory control. Little change is expected in the number of operations research analysts working for the Federal Government.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Earnings Median annual earnings for operations research analysts were about $35,000 a year in 1988; the middle 50 percent earned between $25,000 and $42,000 annually. The top 10 percent earned over $51,000; the bottom 10 percent earned less than $20,000 a year. In the Federal Government, the starting annual salary for operations research analysts was about $16,000 in 1989. Candidates with a supe­ rior academic record could begin at $19,000. Operations research analysts employed by the Federal Government averaged about $45,000 a year in 1986. Related Occupations Operations research analysts apply mathematical principles to organi­ zational problems. Workers in other occupations that stress quantita­ tive analysis include computer scientists, applied mathematicians, statisticians, and economists. Sources of Additional Information Information on career opportunities for operations research analysts are available from: wThe Operations Research Society of America, 428 East Preston St., Balti­ more, MD 21202. wThe Institute for Management Science, 290 Westminster St., Providence, RI 02903.  For information on careers in the Armed Forces and Department of Defense, contact: •-Military Operations Research Society, 101 South Whiting St., Suite 202, Alexandria, VA 22304.  Statisticians (D.O.T. 020.067-022, .167-026)  Nature of the Work Statistics deals with the collection, analysis, and presentation of nu­ merical data. Statisticians design, carry out, and interpret the numerical results of surveys and experiments. In doing so, they apply their knowledge of statistical methods to a particular subject area, such as biology, economics, engineering, medicine, or psychology. They use statistical techniques to predict population growth or economic condi­ tions, develop quality control tests for manufactured products, assess the nature of environmental problems, analyze legal and social prob­ lems, or help business managers and government officials make deci­ sions and evaluate the results of new programs. Often statisticians are able to obtain accurate information about a group of people or things by surveying a small portion, called a sample, of the group. For example, to determine the size of the total audience, television rating services ask only a few thousand families, rather than all viewers, what programs they watch. Statisticians decide where and how to gather the data, determine the type and size of the sample group, and develop the survey questionnaire or reporting form. They also prepare instructions for workers who will collect and tabulate the data. Statisticians use computers extensively to process large amounts of data for statistical modeling and graphic analysis. Since statistics are used in so many areas, it sometimes is difficult to distinguish statisticians from specialists in other fields who use statistics. For example, a statistician working with data on economic conditions may have the title of economist. Working Conditions Statisticians usually work regular hours in offices. Some statisticians may travel occasionally to supervise or set up a survey, or to gather statistical data. Some may have fairly repetitive tasks, while others may have a variety of tasks, such as in designing experiments.  Professional Specialty Occupations  Computers help statisticians analyze large amounts of data quickly. Employment Statisticians held about 15,000 jobs in 1988. Most of these jobs were in industry, primarily in manufacturing, finance, and insurance compa­ nies and in business service establishments such as consultants’ offices. The remaining jobs were in government, primarily at the Federal level. Federally employed statisticians were concentrated in the Departments of Commerce, Agriculture, Health and Human Services, Defense, and Labor. Others worked in hospitals, colleges and universities, and nonprofit organizations. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree with a major in statistics or mathematics is the minimum educational requirement for many beginning jobs in statis­ tics. For other entry level statistical jobs, a bachelor’s degree with a major in an applied field such as economics or a life science and a minor in statistics is preferable. Teaching and research positions in institutions of higher education and some positions in private industry require a graduate degree, often a doctorate, in statistics. Over 60 colleges and universities offered bachelor’s degrees in statistics in 1988. Many other schools also offered degrees in mathe­ matics, operations research, psychology, and other fields which in­ cluded a sufficient number of courses in statistics to qualify graduates for beginning positions. Required subjects for statistics majors include mathematics through differential and integral calculus, statistical meth­ ods, mathematical modeling, and probability theory. Due to the use of computers for statistical applications, a strong background in computer science is highly recommended; a double major in statistics and com­ puter science is particularly desirable. For positions involving quality control, training in engineering or physical science is desirable. A background in biological or health science is useful in positions involv­ ing the preparation and testing of pharmaceutical products. For many market research, business analysis, and forecasting jobs, courses in economics and business administration are helpful. In 1988, over 100 universities offered a master’s degree program in statistics, and about 85 offered a doctoral degree program. Many other schools also offered graduate level courses in applied statistics for students majoring in biology, business, economics, education, engi­ neering, psychology, and other fields. Acceptance into graduate statis­ tics programs does not require an undergraduate degree in statistics although a good mathematics background is essential. Beginning statisticians who have only the bachelor’s degree often spend much of their time doing routine work supervised by an experi­ enced statistician. With experience, they may advance to positions of greater technical and supervisory responsibility. However, opportuni­ ties for promotion are best for those with advanced degrees. Job Outlook Employment opportunities for persons who combine training in statis­ tics with knowledge of computer science or a field of application—  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  83  such as biology, economics, or engineering—generally are expected to be favorable through the year 2000. Demand is particularly strong for those with advanced degrees in statistics. Employment of statisti­ cians is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations. Most openings are expected to result from the need to replace experi­ enced statisticians who transfer to other occupations, or retire or leave the labor force for other reasons. Private industry, in the face of increasing competition and strong government regulation, will require increasing numbers of statisticians to monitor productivity and quality in the manufacture of various products including pharmaceuticals, motor vehicles, chemicals, and food products. For example, pharmaceutical firms will need more statisticians to assess the safety and effectiveness of the rapidly expand­ ing number of drugs. In an effort to meet growing competition, motor vehicle manufacturers will need more statisticians to monitor the qual­ ity of automobiles, trucks, and their components. Statisticians with knowledge of engineering and the physical sciences will find jobs working with scientists and engineers in research and development. Business firms will rely more heavily than in the past on statisticians to forecast sales, analyze business conditions, modernize accounting procedures, and help solve management problems. In addition, sophis­ ticated statistical services will increasingly be contracted out to consult­ ing firms. Federal, State, and local government agencies will need statisticians in fields such as agriculture, demography, consumer and producer surveys, transportation, Social Security, health, education, energy conservation, and environmental quality control. Among graduates with a bachelor’s degree in statistics, those with a strong background in mathematics and computer science should have the best prospects of finding jobs related to their field of study in private industry or government. Those who meet State certification requirements may become high school statistics teachers, a newly emerging field. (For additional information, see the statement on secondary school teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Master’s degree holders in statistics with a strong background in computer science should have very good employment opportunities as statisticians in computerized data processing activities and in research, particularly in private industry. Some may find teaching positions in junior colleges and small 4-year colleges. Ph.D.’s in statistics have excellent employment prospects, espe­ cially in large corporations and in colleges and universities—which increasingly are establishing separate departments of statistics or ex­ panding them. Earnings In the Federal Government in 1989, the average starting salary of statisticians who had the bachelor’s degree and no experience was $15,700 or $19,500 a year, depending on their college grades. Begin­ ning statisticians with the master’s degree averaged $23,800 or $28,900. Those with the Ph.D. began at $28,900 or $34,600. The average annual salary for statisticians in the Federal Government was about $41,300 in 1988. According to a 1987 survey by the National Science Foundation, the median annual salary of statisticians with a doctoral degree was about $46,700; in business and industry, $55,500; in educational institutions, $45,000; and in the Federal Government, $50,000. Fringe benefits for statisticians tend to be similar to those offered most professionals who work in an office setting: Vacation and sick leave, health and life insurance, and retirement plans, among others. Related Occupations People in numerous occupations work with statistics. Among them are actuaries, computer programmers, computer systems analysts, educators, engineers, environmental scientists, financial analysts, health scientists, information scientists, life scientists, mathemati­ cians, operations researchers, physical scientists, and social scien­ tists.  84  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Sources of Additional Information For information about career opportunities in statistics, contact: •-American Statistical Association, 1429 Duke St., Alexandria, VA 22314.  For information on a career as a mathematical statistician, contact: •-Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 3401 Investment Blvd, No. 7, Hayward, CA 94545.  Information on Federal job opportunities is available from area   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  offices of the State employment service and the U.S. Office of Person­ nel Management or from Federal Job Information Centers located in various large cities throughout the country. For information about careers in noncollegiate academic institu­ tions, contact: •-National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1906 Association Dr., Reston, VA 22091.  Life Scientists Agricultural Scientists (D.O.T. 040.061-010, -014, -018, -038, -042, and -058; 041.061-014, -018, -046, and -082; and 041.081)  Nature of the Work The work done by agricultural scientists has played an important part in the Nation’s sharply rising agricultural productivity. Agricultural scientists study farm crops and animals and develop ways of improving their quantity and quality. They look for ways to improve crop yield and quality with less labor, control pests and weeds more safely and effectively, and conserve soil and water. Agricultural science is closely related to biological science, and agricultural scientists use the principles of biology and other sciences to solve problems in agriculture. They often work with biological scientists on basic biological research and in applying to agriculture the advances in knowledge brought about by biotechnology. Many agricultural scientists manage or administer research and development programs or manage marketing or production operations in companies that produce food products or agricultural chemicals, supplies, and machinery. Many do research and development. Some agricultural scientists are consultants to business firms or to gov­ ernment. Agricultural scientists usually specialize in one of the following areas. Agronomists (D.O.T. 040.061-010) study how field crops such as corn, wheat, and cotton grow. They improve their quality and yield by developing new growth methods and by controlling diseases, pests, and weeds. Some agronomists specialize in one crop or crop problem. Animal scientists (D.O.T. 040.061-014) do research on the selec­ tion, breeding, feeding, management, and health of domestic farm animals. Dairy scientists (D.O.T. 040.061-018) and poultry scientists (D.O.T. 040.061-042) conduct research on the selection, breeding, feeding, and management of dairy cattle and poultry. Food technologists (D.O.T. 041.081 -010) study the chemical, phys­ ical, and biological nature of food to learn how to safely process, preserve, package, distribute, and store it. Some develop new products and others insure quality standards. Horticulturists (D.O.T. 040.061-038) work with fruit, vegetable, greenhouse, and nursery crops and ornamental plants. They seek improved quality, yield, resistance to disease, and adaptability. Soil scientists (D.O.T. 040.061-058) study soil characteristics, map soil types, and determine the best types of crops for each soil. They study the chemical and physical characteristics of soils and their re­ sponses to fertilizers, tillage practices, and crop rotation. Animal breeders (D.O.T. 041.061-014) and plant breeders (D.O.T. 041.061-082) select and breed animals and plants to develop and improve their economic or esthetic characteristics. Entomologists (D.O.T. 041.061-046) study insects and their rela­ tionship to humans and plant and animal life. Apiculturists (D.O.T. 041.061-018) study the culture and breeding of bees. Working Conditions Agricultural scientists generally work regular hours in offices and laboratories. Some spend much time outdoors conducting research on farms or agricultural research stations. Employment Agricultural scientists held over 25,000 jobs in 1988. In addition, about 18,000 persons held agricultural science faculty positions in colleges and universities. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.)  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  An agricultural scientist measures plant growth under conditions which simulate ozone depletion. Over two-fifths of all nonfaculty agricultural scientists work for Federal, State, or local governments. Over 3 out of 10 worked for the Federal Government in 1988, mostly in the Department of Agriculture. In addition, large numbers worked for State governments at State agricultural colleges or agricultural research stations. Some worked for agricultural service companies; others for commercial research and development laboratories, seed companies, wholesale distributors, and food products companies. About 3,000 agricultural scientists were self-employed in 1988, mainly as consultants. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Training requirements for agricultural scientists depend on the spe­ cialty and the type of work performed. Sales, production management, inspection, regulatory, and other nonresearch jobs require a bachelor’s or master’s degree in agricultural science. A Ph.D. degree in agricul­ tural science or a related life science specialty is usually required for college teaching, for independent research, and for advancement to administrative research positions. A master’s degree is sufficient for some jobs in applied research. Degrees in related sciences such as biology, chemistry, or physics or in related engineering specialties also may be acceptable for some agricultural science jobs. A degree in agricultural science is helpful in becoming a farm operator. All States have at least one land-grant college which offers agricul­ tural science degrees. Many other colleges and universities also offer  85  86  Occupational Outlook Handbook  some agricultural science courses. However, not every school offers all specialties. Advanced degree programs include classroom and fieldwork, laboratory research, and a thesis based on independent research. Agricultural scientists should be able to work independently or as part of a team and be able to communicate clearly and concisely, both orally and in writing. Agricultural scientists who have advanced degrees usually begin in research or teaching. With experience, they may advance to jobs such as supervisors of research programs or managers of other agriculturerelated activities. Job Outlook Employment opportunities for agricultural scientists are expected to be good through the year 2000 because enrollments in agricultural science curriculums have dropped considerably over the past few years and because employment is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations. Probably much of the decreased enrollment in agricultural science stems from the mistaken belief that reduced oppor­ tunities in agricultural science have resulted from the widely publicized problems of farm operators. In addition to jobs arising from growth in demand for these workers, many openings will occur as workers transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Employment in Federal agencies is not expected to grow much, but employment of agricultural scientists in private industry may grow rapidly as advances in biotechnology, such as recombinant DNA, are applied to agriculture. Employment opportunities as an agricultural scientist are limited for those with only a bachelor’s degree. However, a bachelor’s degree in agricultural science is useful for managerial jobs in businesses that deal with ranchers and farmers such as feed, fertilizer, seed, and farm equipment manufacturers, retailers or wholesalers, and farm credit institutions or for occupations such as farmer or farm manager, cooper­ ative extension service agent, agricultural products inspector, techni­ cian, landscape architect, or purchasing or sales agent for agricultural commodities or farm supplies. Earnings According to the College Placement Council, beginning salary offers for agricultural scientists with a bachelor’s degree averaged $20,220 a year in 1988. In the Federal Government in 1989, agricultural scientists with a bachelor’s degree could start at $15,738 or $19,493 a year, depending on their college records. Those having a master’s degree could start at $19,493 or $23,846, depending on their academic records or work experience; and those with a Ph.D. degree could begin at $28,852 or $34,580 a year. Agricultural scientists in the Federal Government averaged about $37,100 a year in 1988. Related Occupations The work of agricultural scientists is closely related to that of biologists and other natural scientists such as chemists and physicists. It is also related to agricultural production occupations such as fanner and farm manager and cooperative extension service agent as well as to the work of foresters and conservation scientists. Certain specialties of agricultural science are also related to other occupations. For example, the work of animal scientists is related to that of veterinarians; horticul­ turists, to landscape architects; and soil scientists, to soil conserva­ tionists. Source of Additional Information Information on careers in agricultural science is available from: ••-Office of Higher Education Programs, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Administration Bldg., 14th St. and Independence Ave. SW., Washington, DC 20250. ••-American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America, 677 S. Segoe Rd., Madison, WI 53711. ••-Council for Agricultural Science and Technology, 137 Lynn Ave., Ames IA 50010. ••-Food and Agricultural Careers for Tomorrow, Purdue University, 127 Ag­ ricultural Administration Bldg., West Lafayette, IN 47907.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  For information on careers in food technology, write to: ••-Institute of Food Technologists, Suite 300, 221 N. LaSalle St., Chicago IL 60601.  For information on careers in horticultural science, send a stamped, self-addressed envelope to: ••-American Society for Horticultural Science, 701 North Saint Asaph St., Alexandria, VA 22314.  Information on Federal job opportunities is available from local offices of State employment security agencies or offices of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management, located in major metropolitan areas.  Biological Scientists (D.O.T. 022.081-010; 041.061, except -010, -014, -018, -046, -054, -070, -074, and -082)  Nature of the Work Biological scientists study living organisms and their relationship to their environment. Most specialize in some area such as ornithology (the study of birds) or microbiology (the study of microscopic or­ ganisms). About two-fifths of all biological scientists work in research and development. Some conduct basic research to increase knowledge of living organisms. Others, in applied research, use knowledge provided by basic research to develop new medicines, increase crop yields, and improve the environment. Biological scientists may work in laboratories and use laboratory animals or greenhouse plants, electron microscopes, computers, electronic instruments, or a wide variety of other equipment to conduct their research. A good deal of research, however, is performed outside of laboratories. For example, a botanist may do research in the volcanic valleys of Alaska to see what plants grow there, or an ecologist may study how a forest area recovers after a fire. Other biological scientists work in management or administration. They may plan and administer programs for testing foods and drugs, for example, or direct activities at zoos or botanical gardens. Some work as consultants to business firms or to government, while others test and inspect foods, drugs, and other products or write for technical publications. Some work in sales and service jobs for companies manufacturing chemicals or other technical products. (See the state­ ments on manufacturers’ sales representatives and wholesale trade sales workers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Advances in basic biological knowledge, especially at the genetic level, have resulted in a new technology called biotechnology. Biolo­ gists using this rapidly developing technology recombine the genetic material of animals or plants, making organisms more productive or disease resistant. The first application of this technology has been in the medical and pharmaceutical area. The human gene that codes for the production of insulin has been inserted into bacteria, causing them to produce human insulin. This insulin, used by diabetics, is much purer than insulin from animals, the only previous source. Many other substances not previously available in large quantities are starting to be produced by biotechnological means; some may be useful in treating cancer and other diseases. Advances in biotechnology have opened up research opportunities in almost all areas of biology, including commercial applications in agriculture and the food and chemical industries. Most biological scientists who come under the broad category of biologist (D.O.T. 041.061-030) are further classified by the type of organism they study or by the specific activity they perform, although recent advances in the understanding of basic life processes at the molecular and cellular level have blurred some traditional classifica­ tions. Aquatic biologists (D.O.T. 041.061-022) study plants and animals living in water. Marine biologists study salt water organisms and limnologists study fresh water organisms. Marine biologists are some­ times called oceanographers, but oceanography usually refers to the  Professional Specialty Occupations  87  dures are not followed. Many biological scientists such as botanists, ecologists, and zoologists take field trips which involve strenuous physical activity and primitive living conditions. Employment Biological scientists held about 57,000 jobs in 1988. In addition, about 50,000 held biology faculty positions in colleges and universities. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) About 40 percent of nonfaculty biological scientists were employed by Federal, State, and local governments. Federal biological scientists worked mainly in the Departments of Agriculture, Interior, and De­ fense, and in the National Institutes of Health. Most of the rest worked in the pharmaceutical industry, hospitals, or commercial or nonprofit research and development laboratories. A few were self-employed.  Although many biologists work in laboratories, some work in offices, classrooms, and outdoors. study of the physical characteristics of oceans and the ocean floor. (See the statement on geologists and geophysicists elsewhere in the Handbook.) Biochemists (D.O.T. 041.061-026) study the chemical composition of living things. They try to understand the complex chemical combina­ tions and reactions involved in metabolism, reproduction, growth, and heredity. Much of the work in biotechnology is done by biochemists because this technology involves understanding the complex chemistry of life. Botanists (D.O.T. 041.061 -038) study plants and their environment. Some study all aspects of plant life, while others specialize in areas such as identification and classification of plants, the structure and function of plant parts, the biochemistry of plant processes, or the causes and cures of plant diseases. Microbiologists (D.O.T. 041.061-058) investigate the growth and characteristics of microscopic organisms such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Medical microbiologists study the relationship between organisms and disease or the effect of antibiotics on microorganisms. Other microbiologists may specialize in environmental, food, agricul­ tural, or industrial microbiology, virology (the study of viruses), or immunology (the study of mechanisms that fight infections). Many microbiologists are using biotechnology to advance knowledge of cell reproduction and human disease. Physiologists (D.O.T. 041.061-078) study life functions of plants and animals, both in the whole organism and at the cellular or molecu­ lar level, under normal and abnormal conditions. Physiologists may specialize in functions such as growth, reproduction, photosynthesis, respiration, or movement, or in the physiology of a certain area or system of the body. Zoologists (D.O.T. 041.061-090) study animals—their origin, be­ havior, diseases, and life processes. Some experiments are with live animals in controlled or natural surroundings while others involve dissecting dead animals to study their structure. Zoologists are usually identified by the animal group studied—ornithologists (birds), mammalogists (mammals), herpetologists (reptiles), and ichthyologists (fish). Ecologists study the relationship among organisms and between organisms and their environments and the effects of influences such as pollutants, rainfall, temperature, and altitude on organisms. Agricultural scientists, who may also be classified as biological scientists, are included in a separate statement elsewhere in the Handbook. Working Conditions Biological scientists generally work regular hours in offices, labora­ tories, or classrooms and usually are not exposed to unsafe or unhealthy conditions. However, some work with dangerous organisms or toxic substances in the laboratory. They could be exposed if safety proce­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement The Ph.D. degree generally is required for college teaching, indepen­ dent research, and for advancement to administrative positions. A master’s degree is sufficient for some jobs in applied research and for jobs in management, inspection, sales, and service. The bachelor’s degree is adequate for some nonresearch jobs. Some graduates with a bachelor’s degree start as biological scientists in testing and inspection, or get jobs related to biological science such as technical sales or service representatives. Others become biological technicians, medical laboratory technologists or, with courses in education, high school biology teachers. (See the statements on clinical laboratory technolo­ gists and technicians, science technicians, and secondary school teach­ ers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Many with a bachelor’s degree in biology enter medical, dental, veterinary, or other health profession schools. Some enter a wide range of occupations with little or no connection to biology. Most colleges and universities offer bachelor’s degrees in biological science and many offer advanced degrees. Curriculums for advanced degrees often emphasize a subfield such as microbiology or botany but not all universities offer all curriculums. However, specialization on one life form is being deemphasized in favor of study of basic biochemical and genetic life processes. Advanced degree programs include classroom and field work, laboratory research, and a thesis or dissertation. Biological scientists who have advanced degrees usually begin in research or teaching. With experience, they may become managers or administrators within biology; others leave biology for nontechnical managerial, administrative, and sales jobs. Biological scientists should be able to work independently or as part of a team and be able to communicate clearly and concisely, both orally and in writing. Those doing field research in remote areas must have physical stamina. Job Outlook Employment of biological scientists is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Most growth will be in private industry. Many more biological scientists will con­ duct genetic and biotechnical research and help develop and produce products developed by new biological methods. In addition, efforts to clean up and preserve the environment will continue to add to growth. More biological scientists will be needed to determine the environmen­ tal impacts of industry and government actions and to correct past environmental problems. Anticipated increases in health-related re­ search should also result in growth. Employment of biologists is expected to grow slowly in government. In addition to jobs arising from growth in demand for biologists, openings will occur as biological scientists transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Many persons with a bachelor’s degree in biological science find jobs as science or engineering technicians or health technologists and technicians. Some become high school biology teachers. However, they are usually regarded as teachers rather than biologists. Those with a doctorate in biological science may become college and university faculty. (See statements on science and engineering technicians, health  88  Occupational Outlook Handbook  technologists and technicians, high school teachers, and college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Biological scientists are less likely to lose their jobs during reces­ sions than those in many other occupations since most are employed on long-term research projects or in agricultural research, activities which are not much affected by economic fluctuations. Earnings According to the College Placement Council, beginning salary offers in private industry in 1988 averaged $20,400 a year for bachelor’s degree recipients in biological science. In the Federal Government in 1989, biological scientists having a bachelor’s degree could begin at $15,738 or $19,493 a year, depending on their college records. Those having the master’s degree could start at $19,493 or $23,846, depending on their academic records or work experience; those having the Ph.D. degree could begin at $28,352 or $34,580 a year. Biological scientists in the Federal Government averaged $38,700 a year in 1988. Related Occupations Many other occupations deal with living organisms. These include the conservation occupations of forester, forestry technician, range manager, and soil conservationist, as well as agricultural scientist, soil scientist, and life science technician. The wide array of health occupations are all related to those in the biological sciences, as are occupations dealing with raising plants and animals such as farmer and farm manager, animal breeder, landscape contractor, florist, nursery manager, and greenskeeper. Sources of Additional Information General information on careers in biological science is available from: ••-American Institute of Biological Sciences, Office of Career Service, 730 11th St. NW., Washington, DC 20001-4584. it American Society of Zoologists, 104 Sirius Circle, Thousand Oaks, CA 91360.  For information on careers in physiology, contact: •-American Physiological Society, Membership Services Dept., 9650 Rock­ ville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20814.  For information on careers in biochemistry, contact: •-American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20814.  grounds, parks, and grazing lands; and do research. Foresters in exten­ sion work provide information to forest owners and to the general public. Range managers, also called range conservationists, range ecolo­ gists, or range scientists, manage, improve, and protect rangelands to maximize their use without damaging the environment. Rangelands cover about 1 billion acres of the United States, mostly in the Western States and Alaska. They contain many natural resources, including grass and shmbs for animal grazing, wildlife habitats, water from vast watersheds, recreation facilities, and valuable mineral and energy resources. Rangelands also serve as areas for scientific study of the environment. Range managers help ranchers attain optimum livestock production by determining the number and kind of animals to graze, the grazing system to use, and the best season for grazing. At the same time, however, they maintain soil stability, hydrologic values, and vegetation for other uses such as wildlife habitats and outdoor recre­ ation. Soil conservationists provide technical assistance to farmers, ranchers, and others concerned with the conservation of soil, water, and related natural resources. They develop programs that are designed to get the most productive use of land without damaging it. Soil conservationists do most of their work in the field. Conservationists visit areas with erosion problems, find the source of the problem, and help land owners and managers develop management practices to combat it. Foresters and conservation scientists often specialize in one area of work, such as timber management, outdoor recreation, urban forestry, or forest economics. Working Conditions Working conditions for foresters and conservation scientists vary con­ siderably. Their image as solitary horseback riders singlehandedly protecting large areas of land far from civilization no longer holds true. Modem foresters and conservation scientists spend a great deal of time working with people. They deal regularly with land owners, loggers, forestry technicians and aides, farmers, ranchers, government officials, special interest groups, and the public in general. The work can still be physically demanding, though. Many foresters and conservation scientists often work outdoors in all kinds of weather, sometimes in remote areas. To get to these areas, they use airplanes,  For information on careers in botany, contact: •-Dr. Gregory Anderson, Secretary, Botanical Society of America, Dept, of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, U-43, 75 North Eagleville Rd., Storrs, CT 06269-3043.  X ^ m-v *  :  For information on careers in microbiology, contact: •-American Society for Microbiology, Office of Education and Professional Recognition, 1913 I St. NW., Washington, DC 20006.  Information on Federal job opportunities is available from local offices of State employment services or offices of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management, located in major metropolitan areas.  Foresters and Conservation Scientists (D.O.T. 040.061-030, -034, -046, -050, -054, -062; 049.127)  Nature of the Work Forests and rangelands serve a variety of needs: They supply wood products, livestock forage, minerals, and water; serve as sites for recreational activities; and provide habitats for wildlife. Foresters and conservation scientists manage, develop, and help protect these and other natural resources. Foresters plan and supervise the growing, protection, and harvesting of trees. They map forest areas, estimate the amount of standing timber and future growth, and manage timber sales. Foresters also protect the trees from fire, harmful insects, and disease. Some foresters also protect wildlife and manage watersheds; develop and supervise camp­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  t f 1  /  Foresters map forest areas and estimate the amount of standing timber.  Professional Specialty Occupations helicopters, four-wheel drive vehicles, and horses, or walk. Foresters and conservation scientists also may work long hours fighting fires or in other emergencies. Employment Foresters and conservation scientists held about 27,000 jobs in 1988. Nearly half of the salaried workers were in the Federal Government, primarily in the Department of Agriculture’s Forest Service and Soil Conservation Service and in the Department of Interior’s Bureau of Land Management; 20 percent worked for State governments; and 6 percent worked for local governments. The remainder worked in pri­ vate industry, mainly in the forestry industry. Other significant em­ ployers included logging and lumber companies and sawmills. Some were self-employed either as consultants—primarily for large land owners—or forest owners. Most soil conservationists work for the Department of Agriculture’s Soil Conservation Service. Others are employed by State and local governments in their soil conservation districts. Although foresters and conservation scientists work in every State, employment is concentrated in the Western and Southeastern States, where many national and private forests and parks are located, and where most of the lumber and pulpwood producing forests are located. Range managers work almost entirely in the Western States, where most of the rangeland is located. Soil conservationists, on the other hand, are employed in almost every county in the country. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree in forestry is the minimum educational require­ ment for professional careers in forestry. However, due to keen job competition and the increasingly complex nature of the forester’s work, many employers prefer graduates with some work experience and an advanced degree, especially for teaching and research positions. In addition, continuing education is increasingly expected. In 1989, 50 colleges and universities offered bachelor’s or higher degrees in forestry; 46 of these were accredited by the Society of American Foresters. Curriculums stress liberal arts, communications skills, and computer science, as well as technical forestry subjects. Courses in forest economics and business administration supplement the student’s scientific and technical knowledge. Many colleges require students to complete a field session in a camp operated by the college. All schools encourage summer jobs that provide experience in forestry or conservation work. A bachelor’s degree in range management or range science is the usual minimum educational requirement for range managers. Graduate degrees in range management generally are required for teaching and research positions and may be helpful for advancement in other jobs. In 1989, 35 colleges and universities offered degrees in range manage­ ment or range science. A number of other schools offered some courses in range management. Specialized range management courses combine plant, animal, and soil sciences with principles of ecology and resource management. Desirable electives include economics, forestry, hydrol­ ogy, agronomy, wildlife, animal husbandry, computer science, and recreation. Very few colleges and universities offer degrees in soil conservation. Most soil conservationists have degrees in agronomy, agricultural education, or general agriculture; a few have degrees in related fields such as wildlife biology, forestry, and range management. Programs of study generally include 30 semester hours in natural resources or agriculture, including at least 3 hours in soil science. In addition to meeting the demands of forestry and conservation research and analysis, foresters and conservation scientists must enjoy working outdoors, be physically hardy, and be willing to move—often to remote places. They must also be able to work well with people and have good communication skills. Decisiveness, firmness, and tact are important in disputes involving rights and uses of land and other natural resources. Recent forestry and range management graduates usually work un­ der the supervision of experienced foresters or range managers. After gaining experience, they may advance to more responsible positions.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  89  In the Federal Government, an experienced forester may supervise an entire forest area, and may advance to regional forest supervisor or to a top administrative position. In private industry, foresters start by learning the practical and administrative aspects of the business. Many foresters work their way up to top managerial positions within their companies. Soil conservationists usually begin working within one county or conservation district and with experience may advance to the area, State, regional, or national level. Also, soil conservationists can trans­ fer to related occupations such as farm or ranch management advisor or land appraiser. Job Outlook Job opportunities for foresters and conservation scientists should be more favorable than in the past due to an expected wave of retire­ ments—creating many job openings—and to recent declines in the number of graduates in forestry and related fields—reducing competi­ tion for those openings. However, employment of foresters and conser­ vation scientists is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2000 due to budgetary constraints in government, where employment is highly concentrated. More foresters and range managers should be needed in private industry to improve forest, logging, and range management practices and increase output and profitability. Also, private owners of timberland, rangeland, and grazing land may employ more soil conservation scientists due to the need for better environmental protection and water quality mainte­ nance. Earnings Most graduates entering the Federal Government as foresters, range managers, or soil conservationists with a bachelor’s degree started at $15,700 a year, in 1989. Those with a master’s degree could start at $23,800. Holders of doctorates could start at $28,900 or, in research positions, at $34,600. In 1988, the average Federal salary for foresters was $34,600; for range conservationists, $30,000; and for soil conser­ vationists, $30,000. Salaries in State and local government and in private industry were generally lower. Most foresters and conservation scientists work for Federal, State, and local governments and large private firms, which generally offer more generous fringe benefits—for example, pension and retirement plans, health and life insurance, and paid vacations—than smaller firms. Related Occupations Foresters and conservation scientists are not the only workers con­ cerned with managing, developing, and protecting natural resources. Other workers with similar responsibilities include agricultural scien­ tists, agricultural engineers, biological scientists, farmers, farm man­ agers, forest fire officers and aides, ranchers, ranch managers, soil scientists and soil conservation technicians, and wildlife managers. Sources of Additional Information General information about the forestry profession and lists of schools offering education in forestry are available from: ••-Society of American Foresters, 5400 Grosvenor Lane, Bethesda, MD 20814. ••-American Forestry Association, P.O. Box 2000, Washington, DC 20013.  Information about a career as a range manager as well as a list of schools offering training are available from: ••-Society for Range Management, 1839 York St., Denver, CO 80206.  Information about careers in soil conservation is available from: ••-National Association of Conservation Districts, 509 Capitol Court NE., Washington, DC 20002.  For information about career opportunities in the Federal Govern­ ment, contact: ••-Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Department of the Interior, Room 3619, Washington, DC 20240. ••-U.S. Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, P.O. Box 96090, Washington, DC 20090-6090. wSoil Conservation Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Room 6155, P.O. Box 2890, Washington, DC 20013.  Physical Scientists Chemists CD.O.T. 022.061-010, -014, and .137-010)  Nature of the Work Chemists search for and put to practical use new knowledge about chemicals. Although chemicals are often thought of as artificial or toxic substances, all physical things, both natural and manmade, are composed of chemicals. Chemists have developed a tremendous vari­ ety of new and improved synthetic fibers, paints, adhesives, drugs, electronic components, lubricants, and other products. They also de­ velop processes which save energy and reduce pollution, such as improved oil refining methods. Research on the chemistry of living things provides the basis for advances in medicine, agriculture, and other areas. Many chemists work in research and development. Much research is performed in laboratories, but research chemists also work in offices when they do theoretical research or plan, record, and report on their research. Some chemical research laboratories resemble high school chemical labs, but others are large and may incorporate prototype chemical manufacturing facilities as well as advanced equipment. Chemists may also do some of their research in a chemical plant or outdoors—while gathering samples of pollutants, for example. In basic research, chemists investigate the properties, composition, and structure of matter and the laws that govern the combination of elements and reactions of substances. In applied research and develop­ ment, they create new products or improve existing ones, often using knowledge gained from basic research. For example, synthetic rubber and plastics resulted from research on small molecules uniting to form large ones (polymerization). Chemists also work in production and inspection in chemical manu­ facturing plants. They prepare instructions for plant workers which specify ingredients, mixing times, and temperatures for each stage in the process. They also monitor automated processes to ensure proper product yield, and test samples to insure they meet industry and government standards. Chemists also record and report on test results. Others are marketing or sales representatives who sell and provide technical information on chemical products. Chemists often specialize in a subfield. Analytical chemists deter­ mine the structure, composition, and nature of substances and develop analytical techniques. They also identify the presence of chemical pollutants in air, water, and soil. Organic chemists study the chemistry of the vast number of carbon compounds. Many commercial products, such as drugs, plastics, and fertilizers, have been developed by organic chemists. Inorganic chemists study compounds consisting mainly of elements other than carbon, such as those in electronic components. Physical chemists study the physical characteristics of atoms and molecules and investigate how chemical reactions work. Their research may result in new and better energy sources. Biochemists, whose work encompasses both biology and chemistry, are included under biological scientists elsewhere in the Handbook. Working Conditions Chemists usually work regular hours in offices and laboratories. Some are exposed to health or safety hazards when handling certain chemi­ cals, but there is little risk if proper procedures are followed. Employment Chemists held about 80,000 jobs in 1988. Over five-eighths of all chemists work for manufacturing firms—over three-fifths of these are in the chemical manufacturing industry; the rest are scattered throughout other manufacturing industries. Chemists also work for  90   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ryvfej;*  5 A chemist analyzes a pesticide by use of gas chromatography. State and local governments, primarily in health and agriculture, and for Federal agencies, chiefly the Departments of Defense, Health and Human Services, and Agriculture. Some work for nonprofit research organizations. In addition, about 19,000 persons held chemistry fac­ ulty positions in colleges and universities. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Chemists are employed in all parts of the country, but they are concentrated in large industrial areas. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree with a major in chemistry or a related discipline is sufficient for some beginning jobs as a chemist. However, graduate training is required for most research jobs, and most college teaching jobs require a Ph.D. degree. Beginning chemists should have a broad background in chemistry, with good laboratory skills. Many colleges and universities offer a bachelor’s degree program in chemistry. About 580 are approved by the American Chemical Society. In addition to required courses in analytical, inorganic, or­ ganic, and physical chemistry, undergraduates usually study biology, mathematics, physics, and liberal arts. Several hundred colleges and universities award advanced degrees in chemistry. Graduate students generally specialize in a subfield of chemistry. Requirements for a master’s and doctor’s degree usually include a thesis based on independent research. Students planning careers as chemists should enjoy studying science and mathematics, and should like working with their hands building scientific apparatus and performing experiments. Perseverance, curios­ ity, and the ability to concentrate on detail and to work independently are essential. In government or industry, beginning chemists with a bachelor’s degree analyze or test products, work in technical sales or services, or assist senior chemists in research and development laboratories. Employers may have training and orientation programs which pro­ vide special knowledge needed for the employer’s type of work. Some chemists become science managers. (See the statement on engineering, science, and data processing managers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Beginning chemists with a master’s degree can usually teach in a 2-year college or go into applied research in government or private industry. A Ph.D. generally is required for basic research, for 4-year college faculty positions, and for advancement to many administrative positions. Many people with a bachelor’s degree in chemistry enter other occupations in which a chemistry background is helpful, such as technical writers and manufacturers’ sales representatives and whole­  Professional Specialty Occupations sale trade sales workers in chemical marketing. Some enter medical, dental, veterinary, or other health profession schools. Others enter a wide range of occupations with little or no connection to chemistry. Chemistry graduates may become high school teachers. However, they usually arc then regarded as science teachers rather than chemists. Others may qualify as engineers, especially if they have taken some courses in engineering. Those with a doctorate in chemistry may become college and university faculty members. (See statements on secondary school teachers, engineers, and college and university (ac­ uity elsewhere in the Handbook.)  Job Outlook Chemists arc expected to have very good employment opportunities through the year 2000 because employment is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations and the number of degrees granted in chemistry is not expected to increase enough to meet future demand. Employment is expected to grow because of expanded re­ search and development—for new products and more efficient produc­ tion processes, and because more will be needed in environmental protection efforts. Also, the chemical industry, which faced many problems in the early 1980's, is now much healthier. Areas relating to pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and environmental protection should provide especially good opportunities. Despite the expected growth, most openings will result as chemists transfer to other occupations or leave the occupation for other reasons.  Earnings According to the College Placement Council, chemists with a bache­ lor’s degree were offered starting salaries averaging $26,000 a year in 1988; those with a master's degree, $31,600; and those with a Ph.D., $41,300. According to the American Chemical Society, median salaries of their members with a bachelor's degree were $35,400 a year in 1988; with a master’s degree, $41,000; with a Ph.D., $50,000. In a Bureau of Labor Statistics survey, chemists in manufacturing, transportation, and utilities averaged $26,600 a year in 1988 at the most junior level. Experienced midlevel chemists with no supervisory responsibilities averaged $45,800and senior, nonsupervisory chemists averaged $55,000. Chemists who become managers often earn much more. Depending on a person's college record, the annual starting salary in the Federal Government in early 1989 for an inexperienced chemist with a bachelor's degree was either $15,738 or $19,493. Those who had 2 years of graduate study began at $23,846 a year, and with a Ph D. degree, $28,852 or $34,580. The average salary for all chemists in the Federal Government in 1988 was $40,500 a year.  Related Occupations The work of chemical engineers, occupational safety and health work­ ers, agricultural scientists, biological scientists, and chemical techni­ cians is closely related to the work done by chemists. The work of other physical and life science occupations may also be similar to that of chemists.  Sources of Additional Information General information on career opportunities and earnings for chemists is available from: ••-American Chemical Society, Career Services, 1155 16th St. NW., Washing­ ton, DC 20036.  Information on Federal job opportunities is available from local offices of State employment services or offices of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management, located in major metropolitan areas.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  91  Geologists and Geophysicists (D.O.T. 024.061 except -014, .161, and .167)  Nature of the Work Geologists and geophysicists study the physical aspects and history of the earth. They identify and examine surface rocks and buried rocks recovered by drilling; study information collected by satellites, conduct geological surveys, construct maps, and use instruments to measure the earth’s gravity and magnetic held. They also analyze information collected through seismic prospecting, which involves bouncing sound waves off deeply buried rock layers. Many geologists search for oil, natural gas, minerals, and underground water. Geologists and geophysicists play an increasingly important role in studying, monitoring, and cleaning up the environment. For example, they monitor groundwater quality, manage and clean up toxic waste, and investigate the potential increase in the earth’s temperature due to increased amounts of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (the greenhouse effect). Geologists and geophysicists examine chemical and physical proper­ ties of specimens in laboratories under controlled temperature and pressure. They may study fossil remains of animal and plant life or experiment with the flow of water and oil through rocks. Laboratory instruments used include X-ray diffractometers, which determine the crystal structure of minerals, and petrographic microscopes, for study of rock and sediment samples. Earthquakes are located using seismo­ graphs, which measure movements of the earth. Geologists and geophysicists also apply geological knowledge to engineering problems in constructing large buildings, dams, tunnels, and highways. Some administer and manage research and exploration programs and others become general managers in petroleum and min­ ing companies. Geology and geophysics are closely related fields, but there are some major differences. Geologists study the composition, structure, and history of the earth’s crust. They try to find out how rocks were formed and what has happened to them since their formation. Geophys­ icists use the principles of physics and mathematics to study not only the earth’s surface but its internal composition, fresh water, atmosphere, and oceans as well as its magnetic, electrical, and gravita­ tional forces. Geologists and geophysicists usually specialize. Geological ocean­ ographers study the ocean floor. They collect information using remote sensing devices aboard surface ships or underwater research craft. Physical oceanographers study the physical aspects of oceans such as currents and the interaction of the surface of the sea with the atmosphere. Geochemical oceanographers study the chemical composition, dissolved elements, and nutrients of oceans. Although biological scientists who study ocean life are also called oceanogra­ phers (as well as marine biologists), the work they do and the training they need are related to biology rather than geology or geophysics. (See the statement on biological scientists elsewhere in the Handbook.) Hydrologists study the distribution, circulation, and physical properties of underground and surface waters. They study the form and intensity of precipitation, its rate of infiltration into the soil, and its return to the ocean and atmosphere. Mineralogists analyze and classify minerals and precious stones according to composition and structure. Paleontologists study fossils found in geological formations to trace the evolution of plant and animal life and the geologic history of the earth. Seismologists interpret data from seismographs and other instruments to locate earthquakes and earthquake faults. Stratigraphers study the distribution and arrangement of sedimentary rock layers by examining their fossil and mineral content. Meteorologists sometimes are classified as geophysical scientists. (See (he statement on meteorologists else­ where in the Handbook.)  92  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Working Conditions Most geologists and geophysicists divide their time between lieldwork and office or laboratory work. Geologists often travel to remote field sites by helicopter or jeep and cover large areas by foot. Exploration geologists and geophysicists often work overseas or in remote areas, and geological and physical oceanographers may spend considerable time at sea. Employment Geologists and geophysicists held over 42,(XX) jobs in 1988. In addi­ tion, about 8,500 persons held geology, geophysics, and oceanography faculty positions in colleges and universities. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere-,in Ihe Handbook.) About 4 in 10 were in oil and gas companies or oil and gas field service firms, many of which explore for oil and gas. Many other geologists worked for business service and consulting firms, which often provide services to oil and gas companies. About I geologist in 10 was self-employed; most were consultants to industry or gov­ ernment. The Federal Government employed about 6,500 geologists, geo­ physicists, oceanographers, and hydrologists in 1988. Three-fifths worked for the Department of the Interior in the U.S. Geological Survey, the Bureau of Mines, and the Bureau of Reclamation. Others worked for the Departments of Defense, Agriculture, and Commerce. Some worked for State agencies such as State geological surveys and State departments of conservation. Geologists and geophysicists also worked for nonprofit research institutions. Some were employed by American firms overseas for varying periods of time.  ** *  .  m-*-  •’*'■1 *,»  * ,  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree in geology or geophysics is adequate for entry into some lower level geology jobs, but better jobs with good advancement potential usually require at least a master’s degree in geology 0r geophysics. Persons with strong backgrounds in physics, mathematics, or computer science also may qualify for some geophysics jobs. A Ph D. degree is essential for most research positions. Over 500 colleges and universities offer a bachelor's degree in geology or geophysics. Other programs offering training for beginning geophysicists include geophysical technology, geophysical engineer­ ing, geophysical prospecting, engineering geology, petroleum geol­ ogy, and geodesy. In addition, more than 270 universities award advanced degrees in geology or geophysics. Geologists and geophysicists need to be able to work as part of a team. They should be curious, analytical, and able to communicate effectively. Those involved in fieldwork must have physical stamina. Geologists and geophysicists usually begin their careers in field exploration or as research assistants in laboratories. They are given more difficult assignments as they gain experience. Eventually they may be promoted to project leader, program manager, or other manage­ ment and research positions.  Job Outlook Employment of geologists and geophysicists is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2000. In the past, most jobs for geologists and geophysicists were in or related to the petroleum industry, particularly in the exploration for oil and gas. This industry is subject to cyclical fluctuations. In recent years, low oil prices have caused exploration activities to be greatly curtailed— resulting in layoffs of many geologists and geophysicists. As a result of generally poor job prospects, the number of students enrolling in geology and geophysics has dropped considerably. However, since new sources of oil and gas must be found, exploration activities will increase eventually. When this occurs, geologists and geophysicists should have excellent employment opportunities because many experi­ enced geologists and geophysicists have left the occupation and the number of degrees granted in geology is likely to be so low that even a small increase in openings in the oil industry will be greater than the number of geologists and geophysicists available to fill them. Although it probably will never offer the number of jobs available in the oil industry, environmental protection is becoming an important field of work for geologists and geophysicists with the appropriate training. Examples of jobs in environmental protection are groundwa­ ter quality monitoring, toxic waste management and cleanup, and geophysical research on the interaction of the atmosphere, oceans, and land and how human activities affect them. Many of these jobs require training in geophysics, hydrology, oceanography, or other areas re­ lated to the broad area of earth science as opposed to traditional training in geology with its emphasis on oil and mineral exploration.  i-L-n  **.*<■■■*■  A geologist examines a mineral sample with a mu rostope.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Earnings Surveys by the College Placement Council indicate that graduates with bachelor's degrees in physical and earth sciences received an average starting offer of $21,2(K) a year in 1988. According to a 1986 American Geological Institute survey, geolo­ gists, geochemists, and other earth scientists earned about $50,000. and geophysicists, $53,000 a year. However, this survey includes a high proportion of managers; nonsupervisory geologists and geophysi­ cists earn somewhat less. In the Federal Government in 1989, geologists and geophysicists having a bachelor’s degree could begin at $15,738 or $19,493 ayear, depending on their college records. Those having a master’s degree could start at $19,493 or $23,846 a year; those having the Ph Ddegree, at $28,852 or $34,580. In 1988, the average salary for geolo­ gists in the Federal Government was about $40,200 a year, and for geophysicists, about $43,9(X) a year.  Professional Specialty Occupations Related Occupations Many geologists and geophysicists work in the petroleum and natural gas industry . This industry also employs many other workers in the scientilie and technical aspects of petroleum and natural gas explora­ tion and extraction, including drafters, engineering technicians, sci­ ence technicians, petroleum engineers, and surveyors. Also, some physicists, chemists, and meteorologists, as well as mathematicians, computer scientists, and cartographers, do related work. Sources of Additional Information Information on training and career opportunities for geologists and a directory of college and university geoscience departments are avail­ able from: (■-American Geological Institute, 4220 King St., Alexandria, VA 22302.  Information on training and career opportunities for geologists is available from: (•-Geological Society of America, I’.O. Box 9140, 3300 Penrose PI.. Boulder, CO 80301.  Information on training and career opportunities for geophysicists is available from: ir-American Geophysical Union, 2000 Florida Ave. NW„ Washington, DC 20009. (■-Society of Exploration Geophysicists. P.O. Box 70240. Tulsa, OK 74170.  A directory of college and university eurriculums in oceanography is available from: (•-Marine Technology Society, 1825 K St. NW, Second Floor, Washington, DC 20006.  Information on Federal job opportunities is available from local offices of State employment services or offices of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management located in major metropolitan areas.  Meteorologists (D.O.T. 025.062-010)  Nature of the Work Meteorology is the study of the atmosphere, the air that surrounds the earth. Meteorologists study the atmosphere’s physical characteristics, motions, and processes, and the way the atmosphere affects the rest of our environment. The best-known application of this knowledge is in forecasting the weather. However, weather information and meteo­ rological research also are applied in air-pollution control, agriculture, air and sea transportation, and the study of trends in the earth’s climate such as global warming or ozone depletion. Meteorologists who forecast the weather, known professionally as operational or synoptic meteorologists, are the largest group of special­ ists. They study information on air pressure, temperature, humidity, and wind velocity, and apply physical and mathematical relationships to make short- and long-range weather forecasts. Their information comes from weather satellites, weather radar, and front remote sensors and observers in many parts of the world. Meteorologists use sophisti­ cated computer models of the world's atmosphere to help forecast the weather and interpret the results of these models to make long-term, short-term, and local-area forecasts. Some meteorologists engage in research. Physical meteorologists, for example, study the atmosphere’s chemical and physical properties, fte transmission of light, sound, and radio waves, and the transfer of in the atmosphere. They also study factors affecting formation °f clouds, rain, snow, and other weather phenomena. Climatologists analyze past records of wind, rainfall, sunshine, and temperature in specific areas or regions. Their studies are used to plan heating and Pooling systems, design buildings, and aid in effective land utilization. uch meteorological research is centered on improving wealher fore­ casting, mainly through building better computer models of the atmo­ sphere, including interactions with land and water surfaces.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  93  Working Conditions Jobs in weather stations, most ot which operate around the clock 7 days a week, often involve night work and rotating shifts. Weather stations are at airports, m or near cities, and in isolated and remote areas. Meteorologists in smaller weather offices generally work alone; in larger ones, they work as part of a team. Meteorologists not doing forecasting work regular hours, usually in offices. (Employment Meteorologists held about 6,200jobs in 1988. In addition, about I ,(XX) persons held meteorology faculty positions in colleges and universities. (Sec the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) The largest employer of civilian meteorologists is the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), which employs about 1,8(X) meteorologists. About two-thirds of NOAA’s meteorolo­ gists work in the National Weather Service at stations in all parts of the United States. The remainder of NOAA’s meteorologists work mainly in research. I'he Department of Defense employs about 275 civilian meteorologists. Others work for private weather consultants, engineering services firms, and nonprofit organizations. In addition to civilian meteorologists, thousands of members of the Armed Forces do forecasting and other meteorological work. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor's degree with a major in meteorology is the usual minimum requirement for beginning jobs in weather forecasting. However, many employers prefer to hire those with an advanced degree, and an ad­ vanced degree is increasingly necessary for promotion. Jobs with the National Weather Service require a bachelor’s de­ gree—not necessarily in meteorology—with 20 semester hours in meteorology, including 6 hours in weather analysis and forecasting (synoptic meteorology) and 6 hours in dynamic meteorology. Six hours of differential and integral calculus and 6 hours of college physics also are required, For research and college teaching, an advanced degree, preferably a Ph.D. in meteorology, is essential. People with graduate degrees in other sciences also may qualify if they have advanced courses in meteorology, physics, mathematics, and chemistry. Because meteorology is a small field, relatively few colleges and universities offer degrees in meteorology, although many departments of physics, earth science, and geophysics offer atmospheric science and related courses. Prospective students should make certain that courses required by the National Weather Service and other employers are offered at the college they are considering. Many programs com­ bine the study of meteorology with another field, such as agriculture, engineering, or physics.  A National Weather Service meteorologist records a weather forecast for a radio broadcast.  94  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Beginning meteorologists often do routine data collection, computa­ tion, or analysis and are given more difficult assignments as they gain experience. Experienced meteorologists may advance to various supervisory or administrative jobs. A few meteorologists establish their own weather consulting services. Job Outlook Employment of meteorologists is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000. The National Weather Service, which employs many meteorologists, plans to in­ crease its employment of meteorologists, mainly in its field offices, to improve short-term and local-area weather forecasts. Although some of these additional jobs will be filled internally through the upgrading of meteorological technicians, there still should be many more open­ ings in the National Weather Service in the next 5 to 10 years than there have been in the past. Employment of meteorologists in other parts of the Federal Government is not expected to increase. However, many new jobs will be created in private industry with the increased use of private weather forecasting and meteorological services by farmers, commodity investors, transportation and construction firms, and radio and TV stations. For people in these and other areas, even a slight improvement in the detail and accuracy of weather information and forecasts over the standard information provided by the National Weather Service can be a significant benefit. Despite the projected faster-than-average growth, most of the job openings in this very small occupation will arise from the need to replace those who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Earnings The average salary for meteorologists employed by the Federal Gov­ ernment was $40,800 in 1989. In 1989, meteorologists in the Federal Government with a bachelor’s degree and no experience received starting salaries of $15,738 or $19,493 a year, depending on their college grades. Those with a master's degree could start at $19,493 or $23,846; those with the Ph.D. degree, at $28,852 or $34,580. Related Occupations Workers in other occupations concerned with the physical environment include oceanographers, geologists and geophysicists, and environ­ mental engineers.  fundamental nature of the universe and the sun. moon, planets, stars, and galaxies. They apply their knowledge to problems in navigation and space (light. Most physicists work in research and development. Some do basic research to increase scientific knowledge. For example, they investi­ gate the structure of the atom or the nature of gravity. Practical applications of basic research discoveries are made by physicists who conduct applied research and work to develop new devices, products, and processes. For instance, basic research in solidstate physics led to the development of transistors and then to the integrated circuits used in computers. Physicists also design research equipment. Ibis equipment often has additional unanticipated uses. For example, lasers (devices that amplify light and emit it in a highly directional, intense beam) are used in surgery; microwave devices are used for ovens; and measuring instruments can analyze blood or the chemical content of foods. A small number work in inspection, testing, quality control, and other production-related jobs in industry. Some physics research is done in small or medium-sized labora­ tories. However, many experiments in nuclear, particle, and some other areas of physics require extremely large, expensive equipment such as particle accelerators. Physicists in these sublields often work in large teams. Although physics research may require extensive experimentation, most research physicists spend much of their time in offices planning, recording, analyzing, and reporting on research. Almost all astronomers do research. They analyze large quantities of data and write scientific papers on their findings. Most astronomers spend only a few weeks each year making observations with tele­ scopes, radio telescopes, and other instruments. Contrary to the popu­ lar image, astronomers almost never make observations by looking through a telescope because photographic and electronic radiation detecting equipment is more effective than the human eye. Most physicists specialize in one subfield—elementary particle physics; nuclear physics; atomic and molecular physics; physics of condensed matter (solid-state physics); optics; acoustics: health phys­ ics; plasma physics; or the physics of fluids. Some specialize in a subdivision of one of these subfields; for example, within solid-state physics specialties include superconductivity, crystallography, and semiconductors. However, since all physics involves the same funda-  Sources of Additional Information Information on career opportunities in meteorology is available from: ar-American Meteorological Society. 45 Beacon St., Boston, MA 02108.  Physicists and Astronomers (D O T. 021.067-010, 023.061-010, -014, and 067)  Nature of the Work Physicists attempt to discover basic principles governing the structure and behavior of matter, the generation and transfer of energy, and the interaction of matter and energy. Some physicists use these principles in theoretical areas, such as the nature of time and the origin of the universe, while others work in practical areas such as the development of advanced materials, electronic devices, and medical equipment. Physicists design and perform experiments with lasers, cyclotrons, telescopes, mass spectrometers, and other equipment. Based on obser­ vations and analysis, they formulate theories and laws to describe the forces of nature, such as gravity, electromagnetism, and nuclear interactions. They also find ways to apply these laws and theories to problems in nuclear energy, electronics, materials, communications, aerospace technology, and medical instrumentation. Astronomy is sometimes considered a subfield of physics. Astrono­ mers use the principles of physics and mathematics to learn about the  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Physieists attempt to discover the haste prim t/>lcs of nuttier and energy.  Professional Specialty Occupations lental principles, specialties may overlap, and physicists may switch from one subfield to another. Growing numbers of physicists work in combined fields such as biophysics, chemical physics, and geophysics. Furthermore, the prac­ tical applications of physicists’ work increasingly have merged with engineering. Working Conditions Physicists usually work regular hours in laboratories and offices. Most do not encounter unusual hazards in their work. Some physicists work away from home temporarily at national or international facilities with unique equipment such as particle accelerators. Astronomers who make observations may travel to observatories, which are usually in remote locations, and frequently work at night. Employment Physicists and astronomers held over 18,000 jobs in 1988. In addition, about 14,000 persons held physics faculty positions in colleges and universities. (See the statement on college and university faculty else­ where in the Handbook.) About one-third of all nonfaculty physicists worked for independent research and development laboratories. The Federal Government employed over one-fifth, mostly in the Depart­ ments of Defense and Commerce and in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Others worked in colleges and universities in nonfaculty positions and for aerospace firms, noncommercial research laboratories, electrical equipment manufacturers, engineering services firms, and the automobile industry. Although physicists are employed in all parts of the country, most are in areas that have heavy industrial concentrations and large research and development laboratories. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A doctoral degree in physics or a closely related field is almost essential for most jobs in physics. The doctorate usually is required for full faculty status at colleges and universities. A doctorate is also the usual requirement for a job in astronomy. Those having master’s degrees may qualify for some research jobs in private industry and in the Federal Government <. "as for teaching jobs in 2-year colleges. Those having bachelor’s degrees may qualify for a few applied research and development jobs. Many become engineers or go into other scientific fields. (See statements on engi­ neers, geologists and geophysicists, computer programmers, and com­ puter systems analysts elsewhere in the Handbook.) About 750 colleges and universities offer a bachelor’s degree in physics. The undergraduate program provides a broad background in the natural sciences and mathematics. Typical physics courses include mechanics, electromagnetism, optics, thermodynamics, and atomic and molecular physics. About 250 colleges and universities offer advanced degrees in phys­ ics. Graduate students usually concentrate in a subfield of physics. Many begin studying for their doctorates immediately after their bache­ lor’s degree without obtaining a master’s degree.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  95  About 40 universities offer the Ph.D. degree in astronomy. Students take courses in astronomy, physics, and mathematics and, in some schools, work at an observatory. Students planning a career in physics should have an inquisitive mind, mathematical ability, imagination, and the ability to work on their own. Beginning physicists, especially those without a Ph.D., often do routine work under the close supervision of more senior workers. After some experience, they are assigned more complex tasks and given more independence. Physicists who develop new products or processes sometimes form their own companies or join new firms to exploit their own ideas. Job Outlook Physicists and astronomers with the Ph.D. should experience very good employment opportunities in the 1990’s. The employment of physicists is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Employment opportunities are expected to improve as retirements increase. Many physicists and college and university physics faculty were hired during the 1960’s, and they will begin retiring in the late 1990’s. Furthermore, the number of Ph.D.’s granted to U.S. citizens in physics and astronomy is not expected to increase much by the year 2000. A large proportion of physicists are employed on defense-related projects. Changes in defense expenditures, especially for research— on the Strategic Defense Initiative, for example—could have a major impact on the growth of jobs. Persons with only a bachelor’s degree in physics are not qualified to enter most physicist jobs. However, many find jobs as engineers, technicians, computer specialists, or high school physics teachers. (See the statements on these occupations elsewhere in the Handbook.) Earnings Starting salaries for physicists averaged about $42,500 a year in 1988 for those with a Ph.D. and $34,700 for those with a master’s degree, according to the College Placement Council. Average earnings for all physicists in the Federal Government in 1988 were $48,600 a year. Related Occupations Physics is closely related to other scientific occupations such as chemis­ try, geology, and geophysics. Engineers and engineering and science technicians also use the principles of physics in their work. Sources of Additional Information General information on career opportunities in physics is available from: ••-American Institute of Physics, 335 East 45th St., New York, NY 10017. ••-American Physical Society, 335 East 45th St., New York, NY 10017.  For a pamphlet containing information on careers in astronomy and on schools offering training in the field, send 35 cents to: «*-Dr. Charles R. Tolbert, Education Officer, American Astronomical Society, Box 3818 University Station, Charlottesville, VA 22903.  Lawyers and Judges (DOT. 110; 111; 119.107, .117, .167-010, .267-014; 169.267-010)  Laws affect every aspect of our society. They regulate the entire spectrum of relationships among individuals, groups, businesses, and governments. They define rights as well as restrictions, covering such diverse activities as judging and punishing criminals, granting patents, drawing up business contracts, paying taxes, settling labor disputes, constructing buildings, and administering wills. Because social needs and attitudes are continually changing, the legal system that regulates our social, political, and economic relationships also changes. Lawyers and judges link the legal system and society. To perform this role, they must understand the world around them and be sensitive to the numerous aspects of society that the law touches. They must comprehend not only the words of a particular statute, but the human circumstances it addresses as well. As our laws grow more complex, the work of lawyers takes on broader significance. Laws affect our lives in a variety of ways as the legal system performs regulatory tasks in areas such as transportation, energy conservation, consumer protection, the environment, and social welfare. Lawyers interpret these laws, rulings, and regulations for individuals and businesses, and serve as their advocates in resolving disputes. When disputes must be settled in court, judges hear each side of the disputes and administer resolutions. Nature of the Work Lawyers. Lawyers, also called attorneys, act as both advocates and advisors in our society. As advocates, they represent one of the oppos­ ing parties in criminal and civil trials by presenting arguments that support the client in court. As advisors, lawyers counsel their clients as to their legal rights and obligations and suggest particular courses of action in business and personal matters. Whether acting as advocates or advisors, nearly all attorneys have certain activities in common. Probably the most fundamental activities are the interpretation of the law and its application to a specific situa­ tion. This requires in-depth research into the purposes behind the applicable laws and into judicial decisions that have been applied to those laws under circumstances similar to those currently faced by the client. Based on this research, attorneys advise clients what actions would best serve their interests. A growing number of lawyers are using computers in legal research. While all lawyers continue to make use of law libraries to prepare cases, some supplement their search of the conventional printed sources with computer software packages that automatically search the legal literature and identify legal texts that may be relevant to a specific subject. In litigation that involves many supporting documents, lawyers may also use computers to organize and index the material. Tax lawyers are also increasingly using computers to make tax computations and explore alternative tax strategies for clients. Lawyers must deal with people in a courteous, efficient manner and not disclose matters discussed in confidence with clients. They hold positions of great responsibility, and are obligated to adhere to strict rules of ethics. Finally, most lawyers write reports or briefs which must communi­ cate clearly and precisely. The more detailed aspects of a lawyer’s job depend upon his or her field of specialization and position. While all lawyers are allowed to represent parties in court, some appear in court more frequently than others. Some lawyers specialize in trial work. These lawyers need an exceptional ability to think quickly and speak with ease and authority, and must be thoroughly familiar with courtroom rules and strategy. Trial lawyers still spend most of their time outside the courtroom conducting research, interviewing clients and witnesses, and handling other details in preparation for trial.  96   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Although most lawyers deal with many different areas of the law, a significant number concentrate on one branch of law, such as admiralty, probate, or international law. Communications lawyers, for example, may represent radio and television stations in court and in their dealings with the Federal Communications Commission. They help established stations prepare and file license renewal applications, employment reports, and other documents required by the FCC on a regular basis. They also keep their clients informed of changes in FCC regulations. Communications lawyers help individuals or corporations buy or sell a station or establish a new one. Lawyers who represent public utilities before the Federal En­ ergy Regulatory Commission and other Federal and State regula­ tory agencies handle matters involving utility rates. They develop strategy, arguments, and testimony; prepare cases for presenta­ tion; and argue the case. These lawyers also inform clients about changes in regulations and give advice about the legality of their actions. Still other lawyers advise insurance companies about the legality of insurance transactions. They write insurance policies to conform with the law and to protect companies from unwarranted claims. They review claims filed against insurance companies and represent the companies in court. Lawyers in private practice may concentrate on civil law, areas such as litigation, wills, trusts, contracts, mortgages, titles, and leases. Some manage a person’s property as trustee or, as executor, see that provisions of a client’s will are carried out. Others handle only public interest cases—civil or criminal—which have a potential impact ex­ tending well beyond the individual client. A lawyer may be employed full time by a single client. If the client is a corporation, the lawyer is known as house counsel and usually advises a company about legal questions that arise from its business activities. These questions might involve patents, govern­ ment regulations, a business contract with another company, a property interest, or a collective bargaining agreement with a union. Attorneys employed at the various levels of government constitute still another category. These lawyers are an important part of the criminal justice system and may work for a State attorney general, a prosecutor or public defender, or a court. At the Federal level, attor­ neys may investigate cases for the Department of Justice or other agencies. Also, lawyers at every government level help develop laws and programs, draft and interpret legislation, establish enforcement procedures, and argue cases. Other lawyers work for legal aid societies—private .nonprofit corpo­ rations established to serve disadvantaged people. These lawyers gen­ erally handle civil rather than criminal cases. A relatively small number of trained attorneys work in law schools. Most are faculty members who specialize in one or more subjects, while others serve as administrators. Some work full time in nonaca­ demic settings and teach part time. (For additional information, see the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Hand­ book.) Some lawyers become judges, although not all judges have practiced law. Judges. Judges oversee the legal process that in courts of law resolves civil disputes and determines guilt in criminal cases according to Federal and State laws and those of local jurisdictions. They are responsible for insuring that trials and hearings are conducted fairly and justice is administered in a manner that safeguards the legal rights of all parties involved. Judges preside over trials or hearings and listen as attorneys representing the parties present and argue their cases. They rule on the admissibility of evidence and methods of conducting testimony, and settle disputes between the opposing attorneys. They insure that rules and procedures are followed, and if unusual circum­ stances arise for which standard procedures have not been established,  Professional Specialty Occupations judges direct how the trial will proceed based on their knowledge of the law. Judges often hold pretrial hearings for cases. They listen to allegations and, based on the evidence presented, determine whether they have enough merit for a trial to be held. In criminal cases, judges may decide that persons charged with crimes should be held in jail pending their trial, or may set conditions for temporary release. In civil cases, judges may impose restrictions upon the parties until a trial is held. When trials are held, juries are often selected to decide cases. However, judges decide cases when the law does not require a jury trial, or when the parties waive their right to a jury. Judges instruct juries on applicable laws, direct them to deduce the facts from the evidence presented, and hear their verdict. Judges sentence those convicted in criminal cases in many States. They also award relief to litigants including, where appropriate, compensation for damages in civil cases. Judges’ duties vary according to the extent of their jurisdictions and powers. Trial court judges of the Federal and State court systems have general jurisdiction over any case in their system. They generally try civil cases that transcend the jurisdiction of lower courts, and all cases involving felony offenses. Federal and State appellate court judges, although few in number, have the greatest power and prestige. They review cases handled by lower courts and administrative agencies, and, if they determine that errors were made in a case or if legal precedent does not support the judgment of the lower court, they may nullify the verdict of that court. The majority of State court judges preside in courts whose jurisdic­ tion is limited by law to certain types of cases. A variety of titles are assigned to these judges, but among the most common are municipal court judge, county court judge, magistrate, or justice of the peace. Traffic violations, misdemeanors, small claims cases, and pretrial hearings constitute the bulk of the work of these judges, but some States allow them to handle cases involving domestic relations, pro­ bate, contracts, and selected other areas of the law. Administrative law judges or hearing officers are employed by government agencies to rule on appeals of agency administrative decisions regarding such things as persons’ eligibility for various social insurance benefits or worker’s compensation, protection of the environment, enforcement  &.• v •  ' i  * Judges preside over trials and ensure that attorneys follow rules i and procedures in the admission of evidence and the conduct of ' testimony.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  97  of health and safety regulations, and compliance with economic regula­ tory requirements. Working Conditions Lawyers and judges do most of their work in offices, law libraries, and courtrooms. Lawyers sometimes meet in clients’ homes or places of business and, when necessary, in hospitals or prisons. They fre­ quently travel to attend meetings; to gather evidence; and to appear before courts, legislative bodies, and other authorities. Salaried lawyers in government and private corporations generally have structured work schedules. Lawyers in private practice may work irregular hours while conducting research, conferring with clients, or preparing briefs during nonoffice hours. Lawyers often work long hours, and about half regularly work 50 hours or more per week. They are under particularly heavy pressure, for example, when a case is being tried. Preparation for court includes keeping abreast of the latest laws and judicial decisions. The majority of judges work a standard 40-hour week, but the caseload of some judges requires that they work over 50 hours per week. Many judges spend as many hours outside of court preparing for trials, researching points of law, and preparing rulings and judge­ ments as they do on the bench. Some judges with limited jurisdiction are employed part time and divide their time between their judicial responsibilities and other careers. Although work generally is not seasonal, the work of tax lawyers and other specialists may be an exception. Since lawyers in private practice can often determine their own workload and when they will retire, many stay in practice well beyond the usual retirement age. Employment Lawyers and judges held about 622,000 jobs in 1988. About fourfifths of the 582,000 lawyers practiced privately, either in law firms or in solo practices. Most of the remaining lawyers held positions in government, the majority at the local level. In the Federal Government, lawyers are concentrated in the Departments of Justice, Treasury, and Defense, but they work for other Federal agencies as well. Other lawyers are employed as house counsel by public utilities, banks, insurance companies, real estate agencies, manufacturing firms, wel­ fare and religious organizations, and other business firms and nonprofit organizations. Some salaried lawyers also have part-time independent practices; others work as lawyers part time while working full time in another occupation. Judges held 40,000 jobs in 1988. All worked for Federal, State, or local governments, with about half holding positions in State govern­ ment. Most of the remainder were employed at the local level. Many people trained as lawyers are not employed as lawyers or judges; they work as law clerks, law school professors, managers and administrators, and in a variety of other occupations. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement To practice law in the courts of any State or other jurisdiction, a person must be licensed, or admitted to its bar, under rules established by the jurisdiction’s highest court. Nearly all require that applicants for admission to the bar pass a written bar examination. Most jurisdictions also require applicants to pass a separate written ethics examination. Lawyers who have been admitted to the bar in one jurisdiction occa­ sionally may be admitted to the bar in another without taking an examination if they meet that jurisdiction’s standards of good moral character and have a specified period of legal experience. Federal courts and agencies set their own qualifications for those practicing before them. To qualify for the bar examination in most States, an applicant must complete at least 3 years of college and graduate from a law school approved by the American Bar Association (ABA) or the proper State authorities. (ABA approval signifies that the law school—particularly its library and faculty—meets certain standards developed by the association to promote quality legal education.) In 1988, the American Bar Association approved 175 law schools. Others were approved by State authorities only. With certain exceptions, graduates of schools  98  Occupational Outlook Handbook  not approved by the ABA generally are restricted to taking the bar examination and practicing in the State or other jurisdiction in which the school is located; most of these schools are in California. Seven States accept the study of law in a law office or in combination with study in a law school; only California accepts the study of law by correspondence as qualifying for taking the bar examination. Several States require registration and approval of students by the State Board of Law Examiners, either before they enter law school or during the early years of legal study. Although there is no nationwide bar examination, 46 States, the District of Columbia, Guam, Saipan, and the Virgin Islands require the 6-hour Multistate Bar Examination (MBE) as part of the bar examination; the MBE is not required in Indiana, Iowa, Louisiana, and Washington. The MBE, covering issues of broad interest, is given in addition to a locally prepared 6-hour State bar examination. The 3hour Multistate Essay Examination (MSEE) is used as part of the State bar examination in eight States. States vary in their use of MBE and MSEE scores. The required college and law school education usually takes 7 years of full-time study after high school—4 years of undergraduate study followed by 3 years in law school. Although some law schools accept a very small number of students after 3 years of college, most require applicants to have a bachelor’s degree. To meet the needs of students who can attend only part time, a number of law schools have night or part-time divisions which usually require 4 years of study. In 1987, about one-eighth of all graduates of ABA-approved schools were part­ time students. Preparation for a career as a lawyer really begins in college. Al­ though there is no recommended “prelaw” major, the choice of an undergraduate program is important. Certain courses and activities are desirable because they give the student the skills needed to succeed both in law school and in the profession. Essential skills—proficiency yn writing, reading and analyzing, thinking logically, and communicat­ ing verbally—are learned during high school and college. An under­ graduate program that cultivates these skills while broadening the student’s view of the world is desirable. Majors in the social sciences, natural sciences, and humanities all are suitable, although a student should not specialize too narrowly. Regardless of one’s major, courses in English, a foreign language, public speaking, government, philoso­ phy, history, economics, mathematics, and computer science, among others, are useful. Students interested in a particular aspect of law may find related courses helpful; for example, engineering and science courses for the prospective patent attorney, and accounting for the future tax lawyer. In addition, word processing is advisable simply for convenience in law school and on the job. Acceptance by most law schools depends on the applicant’s ability to demonstrate an aptitude for the study of law, usually through good undergraduate grades, the college admission test, the Law School Admission Test (LSAT), the quality of the applicant’s undergraduate school, any prior work experience, and sometimes a personal inter­ view. However, law schools vary in the weight that they place on each of these factors. Nearly all law schools require that applicants take the LSAT and submit a Law School Data Assembly Service Report, which contains certified copies of the applicant’s LSAT scores and undergraduate college transcript. Both are administered by the Law School Admis­ sions Service. Competition for admission to many law schools is intense. Enroll­ ments rose very rapidly during the 1970’s, with applicants far outnum­ bering available seats. Since then, law school enrollments have re­ mained relatively unchanged and the number of applicants has declined slightly, but applicants to many law schools still greatly exceed the number that can be admitted. Enrollments are expected to remain at about their present level through the year 2000, and competition for admission to some law schools is expected to ease somewhat. How­ ever, competition for admission to the more prestigious law schools will remain keen. During the first year or year and a half of law school, students  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  generally study fundamental courses such as constitutional law, con­ tracts, property law, torts, judicial procedures, and legal writing. In the remaining time, they may elect specialized courses in fields such as tax, labor, or corporation law. Practical experience often is acquired by participation in school-sponsored legal aid or legal clinic activities, in the school’s moot court competitions in which students conduct appellate arguments, in practice trials under the supervision of experi­ enced lawyers and judges, and through research and writing on legal issues for the school’s law journal. In 1988, law students in 38 States and other jurisdiction were required to pass the Multistate Professional Responsibility Examina­ tion (MPRE), which tests their knowledge of the ABA codes on professional responsibility and judicial conduct. In some States, the MPRE may be taken during law school, usually after completing a course on legal ethics. A number of law schools have clinical programs where students gain legal experience through practice trials and law school projects under the supervision of practicing lawyers and law school faculty. Law school clinical programs might include work in legal aid clinics, for example, or on the staff of legislative committees. Part-time or summer clerkships in law firms, government agencies, and corporate legal departments also provide experience that can be extremely valu­ able later on. Such training can provide references or lead directly to a job after graduation, and can help students decide what kind of practice best suits them. Clerkships also may be an important source of financial aid. Graduates receive the degree of juris doctor (J.D.) or bachelor of law (LL.B.) as the first professional degree. Advanced law degrees may be desirable for those planning to specialize, do research, or teach. Some law students pursue joint degree programs, which gener­ ally require an additional year. Joint degree programs are offered in a number of areas, including law and business administration and law and public administration. After graduation, lawyers must keep informed about legal and nonlegal developments that affect their practice. An attorney representing electronics manufacturers, for example, must follow trade journals and the latest Federal regulations. Attorneys in the Department of State must remain well versed in current events and international law, while divorce lawyers read about the changing role of the family in modem society. Many law schools and State and local bar associations provide continuing education courses that help lawyers stay abreast of recent developments. The practice of law involves a great deal of responsibility. Persons planning careers in law should like to work with people and be able to win the respect and confidence of their clients, associates, and the vpublic. Integrity and honesty are vital personal qualities. Perseverance and reasoning ability are essential to analyze complex cases and reach sound conclusions. Lawyers also need creativity when handling new and unique legal problems. Most beginning lawyers start in salaried positions. Newly hired salaried attorneys usually act as research assistants to experienced lawyers or judges. After several years of progressively more responsi­ ble salaried employment, many lawyers are admitted to partnership in their firm, or go into practice for themselves. Some lawyers, after years of practice, become full-time law school faculty or administrators; a growing number have advanced degrees in other fields as well. Some persons use their legal training in administrative or managerial positions in various departments of large corporations. A transfer from a corporation’s legal department to another department often is viewed as a way to gain administrative experience and rise in the ranks of management. Experience in the practice of law is required, or at least strongly preferred, for most judgeships. All Federal judges and State trial and appellate court judges are required to be lawyers or “learned in law.” Some judges with limited jurisdiction are not required to be lawyers, but nonlawyers are being phased out in many States, or the positions are being eliminated. Federal administrative law judges must be law­ yers and pass a competitive examination administered by the U.S. | Office of Personnel Management. Many State administrative law *  Professional Specialty Occupations judges and other hearing officials are not required to be lawyers, but law degrees are preferred for most positions. Federal judges are appointed for life by the President, with the consent of the Senate. Federal administrative law judges are appointed by the various Federal agencies with virtually lifetime tenure. About half of all State judges are appointed, while the remainder are elected in partisan or nonpartisan State elections. Most State and local judges serve fixed terms, which range from 4 or 6 years for most limited jurisdiction judgeships to as long as 14 years for some appellate court judges. Judicial nominating commissions, composed of members of the bar and the public, are used to screen candidates for judgeships in many States, as well as for Federal judgeships. Job Outlook Persons seeking positions as lawyers or judges should encounter com­ petition through the year 2000, although the degree of competition for lawyer positions is expected to gradually ease. The prestige associated with serving as a judge should insure continued intense competition for openings on the bench. Although judges work in government, where employment is generally expected to increase slowly, public concerns about crime, safety, and efficient administration of justice should cause employment of judges to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Employment of lawyers has grown very rapidly since the early 1970’s, and is expected to continue to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Increased popula­ tion and growing business activity will help sustain the strong growth in demand for lawyers. This demand also will be spurred by growth of legal action in such areas as employee benefits, consumer protection, the environment, and safety, and an anticipated increase in the use of legal services by middle-income groups through legal clinics and prepaid legal service programs. Rapid growth in the Nation’s requirements for lawyers is expected to bring job openings into rough balance with the relatively stable number of law school graduates each year, which will gradually ease competition for jobs through the year 2000. During the 1970’s, the annual number of law school graduates more than doubled, even outpacing the rapid growth of jobs. Growth in the yearly number of law school graduates tapered off during the 1980’s, but, nevertheless, the number remains at a level high enough to tax the economy’s capacity to absorb them. Although graduates with superior academic records from well-regarded law schools will continue to enjoy excellent opportunities, most graduates will encounter keen competition for jobs. Turnover among lawyers and judges is low because they are gener­ ally well paid, enjoy considerable social status, and have made a substantial educational investment for entry into the field. Neverthe­ less, the majority of job openings will stem from the need to replace lawyers and judges who transfer to other occupations or retire or stop working for other reasons. Employment growth of lawyers will continue to be concentrated in salaried jobs, as businesses and all levels of government employ a growing number of staff attorneys, and as employment in the legal services industry is increasingly concentrated in larger law firms. The number of self-employed lawyers is expected to continue to increase slowly, reflecting the difficulty of establishing a profitable new practice in the face of competition from larger, established law firms. Also, the growing complexity of law—which encourages specialization— and the cost of maintaining up-to-date legal research materials both favor larger firms. Large national and regional law firms will continue to be selective in hiring new lawyers for associate positions that offer the potential for partnership status. Graduates of prestigious law schools and those who rank high in their classes should have the best opportunities for such positions. Graduates of less prominent schools and those with lower scholastic ratings may experience difficulty in securing associate positions with partnership potential but should experience an easing of competition for positions with smaller law firms, and for salaried jobs on the legal staffs of corporations and government agencies. As  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  99  in the past, some graduates may continue to be forced to accept positions for which they are overqualifed or in areas outside their field of interest. They may have to enter fields where legal training is an asset but not normally a requirement. For example, banks, insurance firms, real estate companies, government agencies, and other organiza­ tions seek law graduates to fill many administrative, managerial, and business positions. Due to the competition for jobs, a law graduate’s geographic mobil­ ity and work experience assume greater importance. The willingness to relocate may be an advantage in getting a job, but to be licensed in a new State, a lawyer may have to take an additional State bar examination. In addition, employers increasingly seek graduates who have advanced law degrees and experience in a particular field such as tax, patent, or admiralty law. Establishing a new practice probably will continue to be easiest in small towns and expanding suburban areas, as long as an active market for legal services already exists. In such communities, competition from larger established law firms is likely to be less than in big cities, and new lawyers may find it easier to become known to potential clients; also, rent and other business costs are somewhat lower. Never­ theless, starting a new practice will remain an expensive and risky undertaking that should be weighed carefully. Most salaried positions will remain in urban areas where government agencies, law firms, and big corporations are concentrated. Some lawyers are adversely affected by cyclical swings in the economy. During recessions, the demand for some discretionary legal services, such as planning estates, drafting wills, and handling real estate transactions, declines. Also, corporations are less likely to litigate cases when declining sales and profits result in budgetary restrictions. Although few lawyers actually lose their jobs during these times, earnings may decline for many. Some corporations and law firms will not hire new attorneys until business improves. Several factors, however, mitigate the overall impact of recessions on lawyers. During recessions, individuals and corporations face other legal prob­ lems, such as bankruptcies, foreclosures, and divorces, that require legal action. Furthermore, new laws and legal interpretations will create new opportunities for lawyers.  Earnings Annual salaries of beginning lawyers in private industry averaged about $34,000 in 1988, but top graduates from the Nation’s best law schools started in some cases at over $80,000 a year. In the Federal Government, annual starting salaries for attorneys in 1989 were about $23,800 or $28,900, depending upon academic and personal qualifica­ tions. Factors affecting the salaries offered to new graduates include: Academic record; type, size, and location of employer; and the desired specialized educational background. The field of law makes a differ­ ence, too. Patent lawyers, for example, generally are among the highest paid attorneys. Salaries of experienced attorneys also vary widely according to the type, size, and location of their employer. The average salary of the most experienced lawyers in private industry in 1988 was over $110,000, but some senior lawyers who were partners in the Nation’s top law firms earned over $1 million. General attorneys in the Federal Government averaged around $48,500 a year in 1988; the relatively small number of patent attorneys in the Federal Government averaged around $56,600. Lawyers on salary receive increases as they assume greater responsi­ bility. Lawyers starting their own practice may need to work part time in other occupations during the first years to supplement their income. Their incomes usually grow as their practices develop. Lawyers who are partners in law firms generally earn more than those who practice alone. < Federal trial court judges had salaries of $89,000 in 1989, while appellate court judges earned $95,000 a year. Federal judges with limited jurisdiction, such as magistrates and bankruptcy court judges, had salaries of $82,300 in 1989. Full-time Federal administrative law judges had average salaries of $67,900 in 1988. Annual salaries of State trial court judges averaged $69,400 in 1989,  100  Occupational Outlook Handbook  according to a survey by the National Center for State Courts, and ranged from $49,200 to $95,000. Salaries of State appellate court judges averaged $76,700, but ranged from $59,100 to $102,500. Salaries of State judges with limited jurisdiction varied widely; some part-time judges were paid as little as $600 a year in 1989, while some who worked full-time earned as much as $95,000 annually. Most salaried lawyers and judges were provided health and life insurance, and contributions were made on their behalf to retirement plans. Lawyers who practiced independently were only covered by such benefits if they arranged and paid for them themselves.  Education in the United States, which provides detailed information on each of the 175 law schools approved by the ABA, State require­ ments for admission to legal practice, a directory of State bar examina­ tion administrators, and other information on legal education. Single copies are free from the ABA, but there is a fee for multiple copies. Free information on the bar examination, financial aid for law students, and law as a career may also be obtained from:  Related Occupations Legal training is useful in many other occupations. Some of these are legal assistant, arbitrator, journalist, patent agent, title examiner, legislative assistant, lobbyist, FBI special agent, political office holder, and corporate executive.  (•-Association of American Law Schools, 1 Dupont Circle NW., Suite 370, Washington, DC 20036.  Sources of Additional Information The American Bar Association annually publishes A Review of Legal   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  (•-Information Services. American Bar Association, 750 North Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, IL 60611.  Information on legal education and applying to law school is avail­ able from: Information on the LSAT, the Law School Data Assembly Service, and financial aid for law students may be obtained from: (•-Law School Admissions Service, Box 2000, Newtown, PA 18940.  The specific requirements for admission to the bar in a particular State or other jurisdiction may also be obtained at the State capital from the clerk of the Supreme Court or the administrator of the State Board of Bar Examiners.  Social Scientists and Urban Planners Nature of the Work Social scientists study all aspects of human society—from the distribu­ tion of products and services to newly formed religious groups or plans for modem mass transportation systems. Social science research provides insights that help us understand the many different ways in which individuals and groups make decisions, exercise power, or respond to change. Through their studies and analyses, social scientists and urban planners assist educators, government officials, business leaders, and others in solving social, economic, and environmental problems. Research is a basic activity for many social scientists. They use established or newly discovered methods to assemble a body of fact and theory that contributes to human knowledge. Applied research usually is designed to produce information that will enable people to make better decisions or manage their affairs more effectively. Interviews and surveys are widely used to collect facts, opinions, or other information. Data collection takes many other forms, however, including living and working among the people studied; archeological and other field investigations; the analysis of historical records and documents; experiments with human subjects or animals in a psycho­ logical laboratory; the administration of standardized tests and ques­ tionnaires; and the preparation and interpretation of maps and graphic materials. Social sciences are interdisciplinary in nature. Specialists in one field often find that the research they are performing overlaps work that is being conducted in another social science discipline. Regardless of their field of specialization, social scientists are concerned with some aspect of society, culture, or personality. Anthropologists seek to discover principles of human behavior that are applicable to all communities. They study the way of life, remains, language, and physical characteristics of people in all parts of the world; they compare the customs, values, and social patterns of different cultures. Anthropologists generally concentrate in one of four subfields: Cultural anthropology, archeology, linguis­ tics, or physical anthropology. Most anthropologists specialize in cultural anthropology, studying the customs, cultures, and social lives of groups in a wide range of settings from nonindustrialized societies to modem urban cultures. Archeologists determine the characteristics and history of cultures from the study of artifacts and other buried remains. Linguistic anthropologists study the role of language in various cultures. Physical anthropologists study the evolution of the human body and look for the earliest evidences of human life. Economists, who account for nearly 1 out of 5 social scientists, study the way we allocate our resources to produce a wide variety of goods and services. They conduct surveys and analyze data to deter­ mine public preferences for these goods and services. Most economists are concerned with the practical applications of economic policy in a particular area, such as finance, labor, agriculture, transportation, energy, or health. Others develop theories to explain economic phe­ nomena such as unemployment or inflation. Geographers study the distribution of both physical and cultural phenomena over an area. Geographers specialize, as a rule. Economic geographers deal with the geographic distribution of an area’s re­ sources and economic activities. Political geographers are concerned with the relationship of geography to political phenomena—local, national, and international. Physical geographers study the distribution of climates, vegetation, soil, and land forms. Urban and transportation geographers study cities and metropolitan areas, while regional geogra­ phers study the physical, climatic, economic, political, and cultural characteristics of a particular region or area, which may range in size from a river basin to a State, country, or continent. Medical geographers study health care delivery systems, epidemiology, and the effect of the environment on health. Geographic Information Systems   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  (GIS)—a newly emerging specialty—combines computer graphics, artificial intelligence, and high-speed communication to store, retrieve, manipulate, and map geographic data. GIS can be applied to many specialties such as weather forecasting, emergency management, or resource management. (Some occupational classification systems in­ clude geographers under physical scientists rather than social scien­ tists.) Historians research and analyze the past. Historians usually specialize in a specific country or geographic region; in a particular time period; or in a particular field, such as social, intellectual, political, or diplomatic history. Biographers collect detailed informa­ tion on individuals. Genealogists trace family histories. Other histori­ ans help study and preserve archives, artifacts, and historic buildings and sites. Political scientists investigate the ways in which political power is organized, distributed, and used. They study a wide range of subjects such as Soviet-American relations, the beliefs and institutions of na­ tions in Asia and Africa, the politics of a New England town or a major metropolis, and the decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court. Studying topics such as public opinion, political decisionmaking, and ideology, they analyze the structure and operation of governments as well as informal political entities. Depending on the topic under study, a political scientist might conduct a public opinion survey, analyze election results, or analyze public documents. Psychologists, who constitute over half of all social scientists, study human behavior and use their expertise to counsel or advise individuals or groups. Their research also assists advertisers, politicians, and others interested in influencing or motivating people. While clinical psychology is the largest specialty, psychologists specialize in many other fields such as counseling, experimental, social, or industrial psychology. Sociologists analyze the behavior of groups or social systems such as families, neighborhoods, or clubs. Sociologists may specialize in a particular field such as criminology, rural sociology, or medical sociology. Urban and regional planners develop comprehensive plans and programs for the use of land for industrial and public sites. Planners prepare for situations that are likely to develop as a result of population growth or social and economic change. Working Conditions Most social scientists have regular hours. While working alone behind a desk, they read and write research reports. Many experience the pressures of deadlines and tight schedules, and sometimes must work overtime. Their routine may be interrupted by telephone calls, letters to answer, special requests for information, meetings, or conferences. Travel may be necessary to collect information or attend meetings. Social scientists on foreign assignment must adjust to unfamiliar cul­ tures and climates. Some social scientists do fieldwork. For example, anthropologists, archeologists, and geographers often must travel to remote areas to live among the people they study or stay for long periods at the site of their investigations. Employment Social scientists held about 194,000 jobs in 1988. They worked for a wide range of employers, including government agencies; research organizations and consulting firms; international organizations; associ­ ations; museums; historical societies; securities and commodities deal­ ers; social service agencies; hospitals and other health facilities; and business firms. About 1 out of 4 social scientists is self-employed and involved in counseling, consulting, research, and related activities. In addition,  101  102  Occupational Outlook Handbook  many persons with graduate training in a social science discipline, usually a doctoral degree, are employed by colleges and universities, where they characteristically combine teaching with research and con­ sulting. (For more information, see the Handbook statement on college and university faculty.) As a source of employment, the academic world is more important for graduates in anthropology, sociology, or political science than for graduates in urban and regional planning or psychology.  science subjects in secondary schools is strengthening the demand for social science teachers. (For additional information, see the statement on secondary school teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Other considerations that affect employment opportunities in these occupations include specific skills and technical expertise; desired work setting; salary requirements; and geographic mobility. In addi­ tion, experience acquired through internships can prove invaluable later in obtaining a full-time position in a social science field.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Educational attainment among social scientists is significantly higher than for most other occupations. The Ph.D. or equivalent degree is a minimum requirement for most positions in colleges and universities and is important for advancement to many top-level nonacademic research and administrative posts. Graduates with master’s degrees have more limited professional opportunities, although the situation varies a great deal by field. For example, job prospects for master’s degree holders in urban and regional planning are brighter than for master’s degree holders in sociology. Graduates with a master’s degree in a social science discipline qualify for teaching positions in junior colleges. Bachelor’s degree holders have very limited opportunities and in most social science occupations do not qualify for “professional” positions. The bachelor’s degree does, however, provide a suitable background for many different kinds of “junior professional” jobs, such as research assistant, administrative aide, or management trainee. Training in statistics and mathematics is essential for most social scientists. Mathematical and other quantitative research methods are increasingly used in economics, geography, political science, experi­ mental psychology, and other fields. The ability to use computers for research purposes is a “must” in many disciplines. Depending on their jobs, social scientists and urban planners may need a wide range of personal characteristics. Because they constantly seek new information about people, things, and ideas, intellectual curiosity and creativity are two fundamental personal traits. The ability to think logically and methodically is important to a political scientist comparing the merits of various forms of government. The ability to analyze data is important to an economist studying proposals to reduce Federal budget deficits. Objectivity, openmindedness, and systematic work habits are important in all kinds of social science research. Perseverance is essential for an anthropologist, who might spend years accumulating artifacts from an ancient civilization. Emotional stability and sensitivity are vital to a clinical psychologist working with mental patients. And, of course, written and oral communication skills are essential to all these workers.  Earnings Median annual earnings of all social scientists were about $31,000 in 1988. The middle 50 percent earned between $22,600 and $40,600 annually. The lowest 10 percent earned under $15,500, while the highest 10 percent earned over $51,500. According to the College Placement Council, persons with a bache­ lor’s degree in a social science field received starting offers averaging about $24,000 a year in 1988. According to a 1987 National Science Foundation survey, the me­ dian annual salary of doctoral social scientists ranged from $41,700 to $50,800. In the Federal Government, social scientists with a bachelor’s degree and no experience could start at $15,700 or $19,500 a year in 1989, depending on their college records. Those with a master’s degree could start at $23,800, and those having a Ph.D. degree could begin at $28,900, while some individuals could start at $34,600. The average salary of all social scientists working for the Federal Government in 1988 was about $39,600. Like many professional occupations, social scientists often receive a fringe benefit package which includes vacation and sick leave, health and life insurance, and pension plans. For those entering academic careers, benefits may include summer research money, computer ac­ cess, housing, and secretarial support.  Job Outlook Employment of social scientists is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000, spurred primarily by rapid growth among psychologists and economists—the largest social science occupations. Most job openings, however, will result from the need to replace social scientists who transfer to other occupa­ tions or stop working altogether. Opportunities are best for those with advanced degrees. Social scientists currently face competition for academic positions, with top graduates of leading universities having a decided advantage in com­ peting for jobs. However, competition may ease in the future as more college faculty reach retirement age. Prospects are generally better in disciplines such as economics, psychology, and urban and regional planning, which offer many oppor­ tunities in nonacademic settings. However, graduates in all other social science fields are expected to find enhanced job opportunities in applied fields due to the excellent research, organizational, and quantitative skills they develop in school. For example, the growing number of historical societies has renewed demand for historians as curators, directors, and archivists. Rising concern over environmental and eco­ logical issues is spurring demand for geographers, anthropologists, archeologists, and other social scientists. Increased emphasis on social  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Related Occupations A number of fields that require training and personal qualities similar to those of the various social science fields are covered elsewhere in the Handbook. These include lawyers, statisticians, mathematicians, computer programmers, computer systems analysts, reporters and cor­ respondents, social workers, religious workers, college and university faculty, and counselors. Sources of Additional Information For general information concerning the social sciences, contact: (•-Consortium of Social Science Associations, 1625 I St. NW., Suite 911, Washington, DC 20006.  More detailed information about economists, psychologists, sociol­ ogists, and urban and regional planners is presented in the Handbook statements that follow this introductory statement. Anthropology For information about careers, job openings, grants and fellowships, and schools that offer training in anthropology, and for a copy of Getting a Job Outside the Academy (special publication no. 14), contact: e*-The American Anthropological Association, 1703 New Hampshire Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20009.  Archeology For information about careers in archaeology, contact: (•-Society for American Archaeology, 808 17th St. NW., Suite 200, Washing­ ton, DC 20006. (•-Archaeological Institute of America, P.O. Box 1901, Kenmore Station, Boston, MA 02215.  Geography Two pamphlets that provide information on careers and job openings for geographers—Geography-Tomorrow’s Career and Careers in Ge­ ography—and the annual publication listing schools offering various  Professional Specialty Occupations programs in geography—A Guide to Departments of Geography in the U.S. and Canada—may be obtained from: (•-Association of American Geographers, 1710 16th St. NW., Washington, DC 20009.  History Information on careers and job openings for historians is available from: ••-American Historical Association, 400 A St. SE., Washington, DC 20003.  General information on careers for historians is available from: (•-Organization of American Historians, 112 North Bryan St., Bloomington, IN 47408.  For additional information on careers for historians, send a selfaddressed, stamped envelope to: (•-American Association for State and Local History, 172 Second Ave. N., Nashville, TN 37201.  Political Science Careers and the Study ofPolitical Science: A Guidefor Undergradu­ ates is available for $2, with bulk rates for multiple copies, from: (•-American Political Science Association, 1527 New Hampshire Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20036.  Programs in Public Affairs and Administration, a biennial directory that contains data on the academic content of programs, the student body, the format of instruction, and other information, may be pur­ chased from: (•-National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration, 1120 G St. NW., Suite 520, Washington, DC 20005.  Economists and Market Research Analysts (D.O.T. 050.067)  Nature of the Work Economists. Economists study the ways a society uses scarce re­ sources such as land, labor, raw materials, and machinery to produce goods and services. They analyze the costs and benefits of distributing and consuming these goods and services. Their research might focus on topics such as energy costs, inflation, interest rates, farm prices, or imports. Economists who are primarily theoreticians may use mathematical models to develop theories on the causes of business cycles and inflation or the effects of unemployment and tax policy. Other econo­ mists, however, are concerned with practical applications of economic policy in a particular area, such as finance, labor, agriculture, transpor­ tation, energy, or health. They use their understanding of economic relationships to advise business firms, insurance companies, banks, securities firms, industry associations, labor unions, government agen­ cies, and others. Depending on the topic under study, economists devise methods and procedures for obtaining data they need. For example, sampling techniques may be used to conduct a survey, and econometric modeling techniques may be used to develop projections. Preparing reports usually is an important part of the economist’s job. He or she may be called upon to review and analyze all the relevant data, prepare tables and charts, and write up the results in clear, concise language. Being able to present economic and statistical concepts in a meaningful way is particularly important for economists whose research is policy directed. Economists who work for government agencies assess economic conditions in the United States and abroad and estimate the economic impact of specific changes in legislation or public policy. For example, they may study how changes in the minimum wage affect teenage unemployment. Most government economists are in the fields of agri­ culture, business, finance, labor, transportation, utilities, urban eco­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  103  nomics, or international trade. Economists in the U.S. Department of Commerce, study domestic production, distribution, and consumption of commodities or services; those in the Federal Trade Commission prepare industry analyses to assist in enforcing Federal statutes de­ signed to eliminate unfair, deceptive, or monopolistic practices in interstate commerce; and those in the Bureau of Labor Statistics ana­ lyze data on prices, wages, employment, and productivity. Market Research Analysts. Market research analysts are concerned with the design, promotion, price, and distribution of a product or service. Like economists, market research analysts devise methods and procedures for obtaining data they need. Market research analysts often design surveys and questionnaires; conduct telephone, personal, or mail interviews; and sometimes offer product samples to assess consumer preferences and indicate current trends. Once the data are compiled, market research analysts code, tabulate, and evaluate the data. They then make recommendations to management based upon their findings and suggest a course of action. They may provide management with information to make decisions on the promotion, distribution, design, and pricing of company products or services; determining the advisability of adding new lines of merchandise, opening new branches, or diversifying the company’s operations; or analyzing the effect of changes in the tax laws on future operations. Market research analysts employed by large organizations often work with statisticians who help them select a group of people to be interviewed who will accurately represent the prospective customers. Under an experienced market research analyst’s direction, trained interviewers conduct surveys and office workers tabulate the results. Working Conditions Economists and market research analysts working for government agencies and private firms have structured work schedules. They may work alone writing reports, preparing statistical charts, and using computers and calculators. Or they may be an integral part of a research team. Most work under pressure of deadlines and tight schedules, and sometimes must work overtime. Their routine may be interrupted by special requests for data, letters, meetings, or conferences. Travel may be necessary to collect data or attend conferences. Economics and marketing faculty have flexible work schedules, dividing their time among teaching, research, consulting, and admin­ istrative responsibilities. Employment Economists and market research analysts held about 36,000 jobs in 1988. Private industry—particularly economic and market research firms, management consulting firms, advertising firms, banks, and securities, investment, and insurance companies—employed over  Labor economists analyze data on employment, productivity, prices, and wages.  104  Occupational Outlook Handbook  three-fifths of all salaried workers. The remainder, primarily econo­ mists, were employed by a wide range of government agencies, primar­ ily in the Federal Government. The Departments of State, Labor, Agriculture, and Commerce are the largest Federal employers of econ­ omists . A number of economists and market research analysts combine a full-time job in government or business with part-time or consulting work in another setting. Employment of economists and market research analysts is concen­ trated in large cities. The greatest number work in New York City, Washington, D.C., and Chicago. Some economists work abroad for companies with major international operations; for the Department of State and other U.S. Government agencies; and for international organizations. Besides the jobs described above, many economists and market research analysts held economics and marketing faculty positions in colleges and universities. (For information about this occupation, see the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree with a major in economics or marketing is suffi­ cient for many beginning research, administrative, management trainee, and sales jobs. The undergraduate curriculum for economics majors includes courses in microeconomics, macroeconomics, busi­ ness cycles, economic and business history, economic development of selected areas, money and banking, international economics, public finance, industrial organization, labor economics, comparative eco­ nomic systems, economics of national planning, and urban economic problems. For marketing majors, courses in business, marketing, and consumer behavior are recommended. Courses in related disciplines, such as political science, psychology, organizational behavior, sociol­ ogy, finance, business law, and international relations, are suggested. Because of the importance of quantitative skills to economists and market researchers, courses in mathematics, statistics, sampling the­ ory, and survey design, and computer science are highly recom­ mended. Aspiring market research analysts should gain experience conduct­ ing interviews or surveys while in college. This experience can prove invaluable later in obtaining a full-time position in the field since much of their work in the beginning centers around conducting interviews and writing reports on findings. Beginning analysts also do consider­ able clerical work such as copying data, editing and coding questions, and tabulating survey results. With further experience, market research analysts are eventually assigned their own research projects. Graduate training increasingly is required for most economist and some market research analyst jobs and for advancement to more re­ sponsible positions. Areas of specialization at the graduate level for economists include advanced economic theory, mathematical econom­ ics, econometrics, history of economic thought, and comparative eco­ nomic systems and planning. Other areas include economic history, economic development, environmental and natural resource econom­ ics, industrial organization, marketing, decision theory, institutional economics, international economics, labor economics, monetary eco­ nomics, public finance, regional and urban economics, and social policy. Students should select graduate schools strong in specialties in which they are interested. Market research analysts may earn a master’s degree in business administration or some related discipline. Some schools help graduate students find internships or part-time employ­ ment in government agencies, economic consulting firms, financial institutions, or market research firms. Work experience and contacts can be useful in testing career preferences and learning about the job market for economists and market research analysts. In the Federal Government, candidates for beginning economist positions generally need a college degree with a minimum of 21 semester hours of economics and 3 hours of statistics, accounting, or calculus. However, because competition is keen, additional education or experience may be required. For a job as a college instructor in many junior colleges and small 4-year schools, a master’s degree generally is the minimum require­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ment. In some colleges and universities, however, a Ph.D. is necessary for appointment as an instructor. The Ph.D. and extensive publication are required for a professorship and for tenure, which are increasingly difficult to obtain. In government, industry, research organizations, and consulting firms, economists and market research analysts who have a graduate degree usually can qualify for more responsible research and adminis­ trative positions. A Ph.D. is necessary for top positions in many organizations. Many corporation and government executives have a strong background in economics or marketing. Over 1,200 colleges and universities offer bachelor’s degree pro­ grams in economics and marketing; over 600 offer master’s degrees; and about 130 have doctoral programs. Persons considering careers as economists or market research ana­ lysts should be able to work accurately with detail since much time is spent on data analysis. Patience and persistence are necessary qualities for economists and market research analysts since they may spend long hours on independent study and problem solving. At the same time, they must be able to work well with others. Economists and market research analysts must be objective and systematic in their work and be able to present their findings, both orally and in writing, in a clear, meaningful way. Creativity and intellectual curiosity are essential for success in these fields, just as they are in other areas of scientific endeavor. Job Outlook Employment of economists and market research analysts is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Most job openings, however, will result from the need to replace experienced workers who transfer to other occupations, or retire or leave the labor force for other reasons. Opportunities for economists should be best in manufacturing, fi­ nancial services, advertising agencies, research organizations, and consulting firms, reflecting the complexity of the domestic and interna­ tional economies and increased reliance on quantitative methods of analyzing business trends, forecasting sales, and planning of purchas­ ing and production. The continued need for economic analyses by lawyers, accountants, engineers, health service administrators, urban and regional planners, environmental scientists, and others also will increase the number of jobs for economists. Other employment oppor­ tunities for economists exist in nonprofit organizations and trade asso­ ciations. Little or no change is expected in the employment of econo­ mists in the Federal Government—in line with the rate of growth projected for the Federal work force as a whole. Employment of economists in State and local government is expected to grow more slowly than the average. A strong background in economic theory, statistics, and economet­ rics provides the tools for acquiring any specialty within the field. Those skilled in quantitative techniques and their application to eco­ nomic modeling and forecasting and market research, including the use of computers, should have the best job opportunities. Persons who graduate with a bachelor’s degree in economics through the year 2000 should face very keen competition for the limited number of economist positions for which they qualify. However, many will find employment in government, industry, and business as manage­ ment or sales trainees, or as research or administrative assistants. Those with strong backgrounds in mathematics, statistics, survey de­ sign, and computer science may be hired by private firms for market research work. Those who meet State certification requirements may become high school economics teachers. The demand for secondary school economics teachers is expected to grow as more States make economics a required course. (For additional information, see the statement on secondary school teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Candidates who hold a master’s degree in economics face very strong competition, particularly for teaching positions in colleges and universities. However, some may gain positions in junior and commu­ nity colleges. Those with a strong background in marketing and finance may have the best prospects in business, banking, advertising, and management consulting firms.  Professional Specialty Occupations Ph.D. graduates may face some competition for academic positions, although top graduates from leading universities should have little difficulty in acquiring teaching jobs at the larger and higher paying institutions. Other graduates will accept jobs at smaller and lower paying institutions. Ph.D. graduates should have favorable opportuni­ ties to work as economists in government, industry, educational and research organizations, and consulting firms. Demand for market research analysts should be strong due to in­ creasing competition in business and industry. As companies seek to expand their market and consumers become better informed, the need for marketing professionals is increasing. Opportunities for market research analysts should be good in a wide range of employment settings including research firms, financial organizations, health care institutions, and insurance companies. Like economists, graduates with an advanced degree in marketing or a closely related business field should have the best job opportunities. Earnings Median annual earnings of full-time economists and market research analysts were about $35,000 in 1988. The middle 50 percent earned between $26,000 and $47,000. The lowest 10 percent earned under $21,000, while the top 10 percent earned over $52,000. According to a 1988 salary survey by the College Placement Coun­ cil, persons with a bachelor’s degree in economics received an average starting salary of about $24,400 a year; in marketing and distribution, about $21,500. The median base salary of business economists in 1988 was $56,000, according to a survey by the National Association of Business Economists. Ninety percent of the respondents held advanced degrees. The highest salaries were reported by those who had a Ph.D., with a median salary of $65,000. Over one-fourth of those responding also had income from secondary employment. Economists in general ad­ ministration and international economics commanded the highest sala­ ries; those in market research and econometrics, the lowest. The highest paid business economists were in the securities and investment, retail and wholesale trade, and nondurable manufacturing industries; the lowest paid were in education, nonprofit research organizations, and communications and utilities. The Federal Government recognizes education and experience in certifying applicants for entry level positions. In general, the entrance salary for economists having a bachelor’s degree averaged about $15,800 a year in 1989; however, those with superior academic records could begin at about $19,500. Those having a master’s degree could qualify for positions at an annual salary of about $23,800. Those with a Ph.D. could begin at about $28,900, while some individuals with experience could start at $34,600. Economists in the Federal Govern­ ment averaged around $43,600 a year in 1988. As in many other professional occupations, economists and market research analysts often receive a basic benefit package which includes vacation and sick leave, health and life insurance, and a pension plan. For those entering academic careers, benefits may include summer research money, computer access, housing, and secretarial support. Related Occupations Economists are concerned with understanding and interpreting finan­ cial matters, among other subjects. Others with jobs in this area include financial managers, financial analysts, accountants and auditors, un­ derwriters, actuaries, securities and financial services sales workers, credit analysts, loan officers, and budget officers. Market research analysts are involved in social research, including the planning, implementation, and analysis of surveys to determine people’s needs and preferences. Other jobs using these skills include social welfare research workers, employment research and planning directors, sociologists, and urban and regional planners. Sources of Additional Information For information on schools offering graduate training in economics, contact: •■American Economic Association, 1313 21st Ave. South, Nashville, TN 37212.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  105  For information on careers in business economics, contact: (•"National Association of Business Economists, 28349 Chagrin Blvd., Suite 201, Cleveland, OH 44122.  For information about careers and salaries in market research, contact: (•American Marketing Association, 250 South Wacker Dr., Chicago, IL 60606. w-Marketing Research Association, 111 East Wacker Dr., Suite 600, Chicago, IL 60601.  For information about careers in noncollegiate academic institu­ tions, contact: (•Joint Council on Economic Education, 432 Park Ave. South, New York, NY 10016.  Psychologists (D.O.T. 045.061, .067, .107-022, -026, -030, -034, and -046)  Nature of the Work Psychologists study human behavior and mental processes to under­ stand, explain, and change people’s behavior. Some research psychol­ ogists investigate the physical, cognitive, emotional, or social aspects of human behavior. Other psychologists in applied fields counsel and conduct training programs; do market research; or provide mental health services in hospitals, clinics, or private settings. Like other social scientists, psychologists formulate hypotheses and collect data to test their validity. Research methods depend on the topic under study. Psychologists may gather information through controlled laboratory experiments; personality, performance, aptitude, and intel­ ligence tests; observation, interviews, and questionnaires; clinical studies; or surveys. Computers are widely used to record and analyze this information. Psychologists usually specialize. Experimental psychologists study behavior processes and work with human beings and animals such as rats, monkeys, and pigeons. Prominent areas of experimental research include motivation, thinking, learning and retention, sensory and per­ ceptual processes, and genetic and neurological factors in behavior. Developmental psychologists study the patterns and causes of behav­ ioral change as people progress through life. Some concern themselves with behavior during infancy, childhood, and adolescence, while oth­ ers study changes that take place during maturity and old age. Person­ ality psychologists study human nature, individual differences, and the ways in which those differences develop. Social psychologists examine people’s interactions with others and with the social environ­ ment. Prominent areas of study include group behavior, leadership, attitudes, and interpersonal perception. Comparative psychologists study the behavior of humans and animals. Physiological psychologists study the relationship of behavior to the biological and neurological functions of the body. Psychologists in the field of psychometrics develop and apply procedures for measuring psychological variables such as intelligence and concepts of personality. Clinical psychologists—who constitute the largest specialty—gen­ erally work in hospitals or clinics, or maintain their own practices. They help the mentally or emotionally disturbed adjust to life. They interview patients; give diagnostic tests; provide individual^ family, and group psychotherapy; and design and implement behavior modifi­ cation programs. Clinical psychologists may collaborate with physi­ cians and other specialists in developing treatment programs. Some clinical psychologists work in universities, where they train graduate students in the delivery of mental health services. Others administer community mental health programs. Counseling psychologists use several techniques, including interviewing and testing, to advise peo­ ple on how to deal with problems of everyday living—personal, social, educational, or vocational. (Also see the statements on counselors and social workers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Educational psychologists design, develop, and evaluate educational programs. School psycholo­ gists work with teachers, parents, and administrators to resolve stu-  106  Occupational Outlook Handbook Compared to other academic fields, a much larger proportion of recipients of doctoral degrees in psychology enter professional services. percent Psychology degrees  All academic fields  Professional services  Teaching  Research and development  Administration  Other  i-t®  Source: National Research Council  dents’ learning and behavior problems. Industrial and organizational psychologists apply psychological techniques to personnel administra­ tion, management, and marketing problems. They are involved in policy planning, applicant screening, training and development, psy­ chological test research, counseling, and organizational development and analysis, among other activities. For example, an industrial psy­ chologist may work with management to develop better training pro­ grams and to reorganize the work setting to improve worker productiv­ ity. Engineering psychologists, often employed in factories and plants, develop and improve industrial products and human-machine systems. An engineering psychologist might study the psychological and physi­ ological effects on military personnel of using various weapons, the impact on pilots and astronauts of operating aircraft and space vehicles equipped with complex equipment, or the effect on workers of continu­ ously operating and programming computers. Community psychologists apply psychological knowledge to prob­ lems of urban and rural life. Consumer psychologists study the psycho­ logical factors that determine an individual’s behavior as a consumer of goods and services. Health psychologists counsel the public in health maintenance to help people avoid serious emotional or physical illness and do research on the psychological aspects of medical prob­ lems. Cognitive psychologists deal with the brain’s role in memory, thinking, and perceptions; some are involved with research related to computer programming and artificial intelligence. Other areas of specialization include clinical neuropsychology, environmental psy­ chology, forensic psychology, population psychology, psychology and the arts, history of psychology, psychopharmacology, and military and rehabilitation psychology. Working Conditions A psychologist’s specialty and place of employment determine work­ ing conditions. For example, clinical, school, and counseling psychol­ ogists in private practice have pleasant, comfortable offices and set their own hours. However, they often have evening hours to accommo­ date their clients. Some employed in hospitals, nursing homes, and other health facilities often work evenings and weekends, while others  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  in schools and clinics work regular hours. Psychologists employed by academic institutions divide their time among teaching, research, and administrative responsibilities. Some maintain part-time consulting practices as well. In contrast to the many psychologists who have flexible work schedules, some in government and private industry have more structured schedules. Reading and writing research reports, they often work alone behind a desk. Many experience the pressures of deadlines, tight schedules, and overtime work. Their routine may be interrupted frequently. Travel may be required to attend conferences or conduct research. Employment Psychologists held about 104,000 jobs in 1988. Educational institu­ tions—primarily elementary and secondary schools—employed more than one-third of all salaried psychologists in positions involving counseling, testing, special education, research, and administration; hospitals, clinics, rehabilitation centers, nursing homes, and other health facilities employed one-third; while government agencies at the Federal, State, and local levels employed one-fifth. The Veterans Administration, the Department of Defense, and the Public Health Service employ the overwhelming majority of psychologists employed by Federal agencies. Psychologists also work in social service organi­ zations, research organizations, management consulting firms, market research firms, and other businesses. After several years of experience, some psychologists enter private practice or set up their own research or consulting firms. About twofifths of all psychologists are self-employed. Besides the jobs described above, approximately 19,000 persons held psychology faculty positions at colleges and universities. (For information about this occupation, see the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A doctoral degree is generally required for employment as a psycholo­ gist, particularly in the academic world. Psychologists with doctorates (Ph.D or Psy.D.—Doctor of Psychology) qualify for a wide range of responsible research, clinical, and counseling positions in universities, private industry, school settings, and government. Persons with a master’s degree in psychology can administer and interpret tests as psychological assistants. Under the supervision of psychologists, they can conduct research in laboratories, conduct psy­ chological evaluations, counsel patients, or perform administrative duties. They may teach in 2-year colleges or work as school psycholo­ gists or counselors. A bachelor’s degree in psychology qualifies a person to assist psy­ chologists and other professionals in community mental health centers, vocational rehabilitation offices, and correctional programs; to work as research or administrative assistants; and to take jobs as trainees in government or business. However, without additional academic training, their advancement opportunities are limited. In the Federal Government, candidates having at least 24 semester hours in psychology and one course in statistics qualify for entry level positions. Competition for these jobs is keen, however. Clinical psychologists generally must have completed the Ph.D. or Psy.D. requirements and have served an internship; vocational and guidance counselors usually need 2 years of graduate study in counseling and 1 year of counseling experience. At least 1 year of full-time graduate study is needed to earn a master’s degree in psychology. Requirements usually include practical experience in an applied setting or a master’s thesis based on a research project. For example, a master’s degree in school psychology requires 2 years of course work and a 1-year internship. Three to five years of graduate work usually are required for a doctoral degree. The Ph.D. degree culminates in a dissertation based on original research. Courses in quantitative research methods, which include the use of computers, are an integral part of graduate study and usually necessary to complete the dissertation. The Psy.D., based on practical work and examinations rather than a dissertation, prepares students for clinical and other applied positions. In clinical or counsel-  Professional Specialty Occupations  107  Table 1. Percent of doctoral degrees awarded in psychology by subfield, 1988 Subfield  ||;V /“  A doctoral degree is often required for employment as a psychologist.  Percent  Total.................................................................................................. 100 Clinical................................................................................................. Counseling........................................................................................... General................................................................................................. Developmental..................................................................................... Social.................................................................................................... Experimental........................................................................................ Industrial/organizational .................................................................... School.................................................................................................... Educational............................................................................. Physiological........................................................................................ Cognitive.............................................................................................. Other.....................................................................................................  36 16 12 6 5 4 4 4 3 3 3 4  Source: National Research Council  ing psychology, the requirements for the doctoral degree generally include an additional year or more of internship or supervised expe­ rience. Competition for admission into graduate programs is keen. Some universities require an undergraduate major in psychology. Others prefer only basic psychology with courses in the biological, physical, and social sciences, statistics, and mathematics. Over 3,000 colleges and universities offer a bachelor’s degree pro­ gram in psychology; about 400, a master’s; about 300, a Ph.D. In addition, about 30 professional schools of psychology—some affili­ ated with colleges or universities—offer the Psy.D. The American Psychological Association (APA) presently accredits Ph.D. training programs in clinical, counseling, and school psychology as well as Psy.D. programs. In 1988, 155 colleges and universities offered fully approved programs in clinical psychology (including 13 Psy.D. pro­ grams); 51 in counseling psychology; and 38 in school psychology (including 3 Psy.D. programs). The National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, with the assistance of the National Association of School Psychologists, is also involved in the accreditation of ad­ vanced degree programs in school psychology. APA also has accred­ ited about 310 institutions that provide internships for doctoral students in school, clinical, and counseling psychology. Although financial aid is difficult to obtain, some universities award fellowships or scholarships or arrange for part-time employment. The Veterans Administration (VA) offers predoctoral traineeships to in­ terns in VA hospitals, clinics, and related training agencies. The National Science Foundation, the Department of Health and Human Services, the Armed Forces, and many other organizations also provide financial aid. Psychologists who want to enter independent practice must meet certification or licensing requirements. All States and the District of Columbia have such requirements. Licensing laws vary by State, but generally require a doctorate in psychology and 1 to 2 years of professional experience. In addition, most States require that appli­ cants pass an examination. Most State boards administer a standardized test and, in many instances, additional oral or essay examinations. Very few States certify those with master’s level training as psycholog­ ical assistants or associates. Some States require continuing education for relicensure. Most States require that licensed or certified psychologists limit their practice to those areas in which they have developed professional competence through training and experience. The American Board of Professional Psychology recognizes profes­ sional achievement by awarding diplomas primarily in clinical psy­ chology, clinical neuropsychology, and counseling, forensic, indus­ trial and organizational, and school psychology. Candidates need a doctorate in psychology, 5 years of experience, and professional en­ dorsements; they also must pass an examination.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Even more so than in other occupations, persons pursuing a career in psychology must be emotionally stable, mature, and able to deal effectively with people. Sensitivity, compassion, and the ability to lead and inspire others are particularly important for clinical work and counseling. Research psychologists should be able to do detailed work independently and as part of a team. Verbal and writing skills are necessary to communicate treatment and research findings. Patience and perseverance are vital qualities because results from psychological treatment of patients or research often are long in coming. Job Outlook Employment of psychologists is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Largely because of the substantial investment in training required to enter this specialized field, psychologists have a strong attachment to their occupation— only a relatively small proportion leave the profession each year. Nevertheless, most job openings are expected to result from replace­ ment needs. Several factors may help maintain the demand for psychologists: Increased emphasis on mental health maintenance in conjunction with the treatment of physical illness; public concern for the development of human resources, including the growing elderly population; and increased testing and counseling of children. Changes in the level of government funding of these services could affect the demand for psychologists. Some openings are likely to occur as psychologists study the effec­ tiveness of changes in health, education, military, law enforcement, and consumer protection programs. Psychologists also are increasingly studying the effects on people of technological advances in areas such as agriculture, energy, the conservation and use of natural resources, and industrial automation. Opportunities are best for candidates with a doctoral degree. Persons holding doctorates from leading universities in applied areas such as school, clinical, counseling, health, industrial, and engineering psychology should have particularly good prospects for both academic and nonacademic jobs. Psychologists with extensive training in quanti­ tative research methods and computer science will have a competitive edge over applicants without this background. Most graduates with only a master’s degree in psychology may encounter competition for the limited number of jobs for which they qualify. Graduates of master’s degree programs in school psychology should have the best job prospects, as schools are expected to increase student counseling and mental health services. Some master’s degree holders may find jobs as psychological assistants in community mental health centers or in other jobs involving data collection and analysis. Bachelor’s degree holders can expect very few opportunities in this  108  Occupational Outlook Handbook  field. Some may find jobs as assistants in rehabilitation centers or in other jobs involving data collection and analysis. Those who meet State certification requirements may become high school psychology teachers. (For more information, see the statement on secondary school teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Earnings According to a 1987 survey by the National Science Foundation, the median annual salary of psychologists with a doctoral degree was about $44,000. In educational institutions, the median was about $42,100; in State and local government, about $40,000; in hospitals and clinics, about $38,700; in other nonprofit organizations, about $34,500; and in business and industry (including self-employed), about $60,100. Ph.D. or Psy.D. psychologists in private practice and in applied specialties generally have higher earnings than other psycholo­ gists. The Federal Government recognizes education and experience in certifying applicants for entry level positions. In general, the average starting salary for psychologists having a bachelor’s degree was about $15,700 a year in 1989; those with superior academic records could begin at $ 19,500. Counseling and school psychologists with a master’s degree and 1 year of counseling experience could start at $23,800. Clinical psychologists having a Ph.D. or Psy.D. degree and 1 year of internship could start at $28,900; some individuals could start at $34,600. The average salary for psychologists in the Federal Govern­ ment was about $44,800 a year in 1988. Psychologists receive a variety of fringe benefits including paid vacations, sick leave, health insurance, and pensions. In addition, many employers also offer tuition reimbursement. Related Occupations Psychologists are trained to evaluate, counsel, and advise individuals and groups. Others who do this kind of work are psychiatrists, social workers, clergy, special education teachers, and counselors. Sources of Additional Information For information on careers, educational requirements, financial assis­ tance, and licensing in all fields of psychology, contact: (•-American Psychological Association, Educational Affairs Office, 1200 17th St. NW., Washington, DC 20036.  For information on careers, educational requirements, and licensing of school psychologists, contact: (•-National Association of School Psychologists, 808 17th St. NW., Suite 200, Washington, DC 20006. Information about State licensing requirements is available from: w-The American Association of State Psychology Boards, P.O. Box 4389, Montgomery, AL 36103.  Information on traineeships and fellowships also is available from colleges and universities that have graduate departments of psy­ chology.  Sociologists (D.O.T. 054)  Nature of the Work Sociologists study human society and social behavior by examining the groups and social institutions that people form. These include families, tribes, communities, and governments, as well as a variety of social, religious, political, business, and other organizations. Soci­ ologists study the behavior and interaction of groups, trace their origin and growth, and analyze the influence of group activities on individual members. Some sociologists are concerned primarily with the charac­ teristics of social groups, organizations, and institutions. Others are more interested in the ways individuals are affected by the groups to which they belong. The numerous areas of specialization available to sociologists reflect  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  the interdisciplinary nature of this field. These include social organiza­ tion, stratification, and mobility; racial and ethnic relations; social psychology; urban, rural, political, industrial, and comparative sociol­ ogy; and sociological practice. Other specialties include medical soci­ ology—the study of social factors that affect mental and public health; gerontology—the study of aging and the special problems of aged persons; environmental sociology—the study of the effects of the physical environment and technology on people; and clinical sociol­ ogy—therapy and intervention in social systems for assessment and change. Increasingly important areas of study such as demography— the study of the size, characteristics, and movement of populations— and criminology—the study of factors producing deviance from ac­ cepted legal and cultural norms—have emerged as independent spe­ cialties. Household and family matters have always been areas of interest for sociologists; however, these subjects recently have been attracting more attention due to the increase in the number of divorces and changes in living arrangements. Sociological research, like other kinds of social science research, involves collecting data, assessing its validity, and analyzing the re­ sults . Sociologists usually conduct surveys or engage in direct observa­ tion to gather data. For example, after providing for controlled condi­ tions, an organizational sociologist might test the effects of different styles of leadership on individuals in a small work group. A medical sociologist might study the effects of terminal illness on family interac­ tion. Sociological researchers also evaluate the efficacy of different kinds of social programs. They might examine and evaluate particular programs of income assistance, job training, or remedial education. Increasingly, sociologists use statistical and computer techniques in their research. The results of sociological research aid educators, lawmakers, administrators, and others interested in resolving social problems and formulating public policy. For example, in recent years sociologists have devoted more time to studying issues related to AIDS disease and to the homeless. Sociologists often work closely with community groups and members of other professions, including psy­ chologists, physicians, economists, statisticians, urban and regional planners, political scientists, anthropologists, law enforcement and criminal administration officials, and social workers. Some sociologists are primarily administrators. They apply their professional knowledge in areas as diverse as intergroup relations, family counseling, public opinion analysis, law enforcement, educa­ tion, personnel administration, public relations, regional and commu­ nity planning, and health services planning. They may, for example, administer social service programs in family and child welfare agencies or develop social policies and programs for government, community, youth, or religious organizations. A number of sociologists are employed as consultants. Using their expertise and research skills, they advise on such diverse problems as halfway houses and foster care for the mentally ill; ways of counseling ex-offenders; or how to improve efficiency and flexibility in large corporations. Sociologists in business consult on the management of complex organizations and conduct market research for advertisers and manufacturers. Increasingly, sociologists are involved in the eval- ' uation of social and welfare programs. Sociologists are often confused with social workers, and in fact they do contribute to one another’s disciplines. However, while sociologists conduct research on organizations, groups, and individuals, social workers directly help people who are unable to cope with their circum­ stances. (For more information, see the statement on social workers elsewhere in the Handbook.)  Working Conditions The work of sociologists generally includes much reading, research, and report writing. Sociologists working in government agencies and private firms have structured work schedules, and many experience the pressures of deadlines, tight schedules, heavy workloads, and overtime. Their routine may be interrupted by numerous telephone calls, letters, requests for information, and meetings. Travel may be required to collect data for research projects or to attend professional  Professional Specialty Occupations  Sociologists study social groups and institutions. conferences. Sociologists in private practice may work evenings and weekends to accommodate clients. Sociology faculty have more flexible work schedules, dividing their time between teaching, research, consulting, and administrative re­ sponsibilities. Employment Sociologists held several thousand jobs in 1988. Government agencies employ a significant proportion of sociologists to deal with such sub­ jects as poverty, crime, public assistance, population growth, educa­ tion, social rehabilitation, community development, mental health, racial and ethnic relations, and environmental impact studies. Sociolo­ gists in the Federal Government work primarily for the Departments of Health and Human Services, Agriculture, Interior, and Defense. Sociologists specializing in demography work for international organi­ zations such as the World Bank, the United Nations, and the World Health Organization and Federal agencies such as the Bureau of the Census. Sociologists specializing in criminology work primarily for law enforcement agencies in State and local government. Sociologists also hold managerial, research, and planning positions in research firms, consulting firms, educational institutions, corporations, profes­ sional and trade associations, hospitals, and welfare or other nonprofit organizations. Some sociologists have private practices in counseling, research, or consulting. Besides the jobs described above, other persons held sociology faculty positions in colleges and universities. (For more information about this occupation, see the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.)  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  109  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement The Ph.D. degree is required for appointment to permanent teaching and research positions in colleges and universities and is essential for many senior level positions in research institutes, consulting firms, corporations, and government agencies. A Ph.D. will be increasingly required for virtually all academic and professional sociologist posi­ tions. Sociologists with master’s degrees can qualify for administrative and research positions in public agencies and private businesses. Train­ ing in research, statistical, and computer methods is an advantage in obtaining such positions. Advancement opportunities are more limited for master’s degree holders than for Ph.D.’s. Sociologists with mas­ ter’s degrees may qualify for teaching positions in junior colleges and for some college instructorships. Bachelor’s degree holders in sociology often get jobs in related fields. Many work as social workers, counselors, or recreation workers in public and private welfare agencies. Others are employed as inter­ viewers or as administrative or research assistants. Sociology majors with sufficient training in statistical and survey methods may qualify for positions as junior analysts or statisticians in business or research firms or government agencies. Regardless of a sociologist’s level of educational attainment, completion of an internship while in school can prove invaluable in finding a position in this field. In the Federal Government, candidates generally need a college degree with 24 semester hours in sociology, including course work in theory and methods of social research. However, since competition for the limited number of positions is keen, advanced study in the field is highly recommended. Over 180 colleges and universities offer doctoral degree programs in sociology; most of these also offer a master’s degree. In over 160 schools, the master’s is the highest degree offered; about 850 schools have bachelor’s degree programs. Sociology departments offer a wide variety of courses, including sociological theory, field methods, social statistics and quantitative methods, crime and deviance, social psy­ chology, family and society, sex roles, population, social stratification, social control, small group analysis, urban sociology, rural sociology, social organizations, and sociology of religion, law, the arts, peace and war, politics, education, work and occupations, mental health, and science and technology. Some departments of sociology have highly structured programs, while others are relatively unstructured and leave most course selection up to the individual student. Departments have different requirements regarding foreign language skills, courses in statistics, internships, and completion of a thesis for the master’s degree. The choice of a graduate school is important for people who want to become sociologists. Students should select a school that has adequate research facilities and offers appropriate areas of specialization such as theory, demography, clinical sociology, or quantitative methods. Opportunities to gain practical experience also may be available, and sociology departments may help place students in business or research firms and government agencies. The American Sociological Association sponsors a master’s level certification program in applied social research. Certification by the Sociological Practice Association (SPA) is necessary for some clinical sociology positions. Certification requirements generally include at least 1 year of experience that demonstrates competence in clinical sociology, a doctorate or a master’s degree from an accredited school, and successful demonstration of competency at SPA-sponsored train­ ing workshops or conferences. The ability to work independently is important for sociologists. Intellectual curiosity is an essential trait; researchers must have an inquiring mind and a desire to find explanations for the phenomena they observe. Like other social scientists, sociologists must be objective in gathering information about social institutions and behavior; they need analytical skills in order to organize data effectively and reach valid conclusions; and they must be careful and systematic in their work. Because communicating their findings to other people is an important part of the job, sociologists must be able to speak well and to write clearly and concisely. .  110  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Job Outlook Demand for sociologists should be spurred by research in various fields such as demography, criminology, and gerontology and by the need to evaluate and administer programs designed to cope with social and welfare problems. Most job openings, however, are expected to result from the need to replace sociologists who transfer to other occupations, or retire or leave the labor force for other reasons. The number of persons who graduate with advanced degrees in sociology through the year 2000 is likely to exceed the available job openings. Ph.D. ’s will continue to face keen competition for academic positions; Ph.D.’s from the most outstanding institutions will have an advantage in securing teaching jobs. An increasing proportion of Ph.D.’s will enter nonacademic careers. Some may take research and administrative positions in government, research organizations, and business firms. Those well-trained in quan­ titative research methods—including survey techniques, advanced sta­ tistics, and computer science—will have the widest choice of jobs. For example, private firms that contract with the government to evalu­ ate social programs and conduct other research increasingly seek soci­ ologists with strong quantitative skills. Demand is expected to be much stronger for sociologists with training in practice areas—such as clinical sociology, criminology, environmental sociology, medical sociology, gerontology, evaluation research, and demography—than for specialists in sociological theory. For example, additional demog­ raphers may be sought to help businesses plan marketing and advertis­ ing programs and to help developing countries analyze censuses, prepare population projections, and formulate long-range public plan­ ning programs. More criminologists may be sought to help reduce deviance from legally and socially accepted behavior in our society. More gerontologists may be needed to help formulate programs for our expanding elderly population. Sociologists with training in other applied disciplines—such as public policy, public administration, and business administration—will be attractive to employers seeking man­ agerial and administrative personnel. Persons with a master’s degree will find few, if any, academic positions, even in junior and community colleges. They may also face competition for nonacademic positions. Some may find employment in Federal, State, and local governments as planners, demographers, or social researchers. Others may find research and administrative jobs in research firms, business, and government. For example, sociologists with backgrounds in business and quantitative research methods may find opportunities as management analysts or market researchers. Bachelor’s degree holders will find fewer opportunities for jobs as professional sociologists. As in the past, many graduates will take positions as trainees and assistants in business, industry, and govern­ ment. As with advanced degree holders, extensive training in quantita­ tive research methods provides these graduates with the most market­ able skills. Some may find positions in social welfare agencies. For those planning careers in law, journalism, business, social work, recreation, counseling, and other related disciplines, sociology pro­ vides an excellent background. Those who meet State certification requirements may become high school sociology teachers. (For more information, see the statement on secondary school teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Earnings According to a 1987 survey of doctoral scientists and engineers by the National Science Foundation, the median annual salary of sociologists and anthropologists combined was $41,700. For those in educational institutions, it was $41,900, in business and industry, $41,200; and in nonprofit organizations, $34,800. The Federal Government recognizes education and experience in certifying applicants for entry level positions. In general, the average entrance salary for sociologists with a bachelor's degree was about $15,800 or $19,400 a year in 1989, depending upon the applicant’s academic record. The starting salary for those with a master’s degree was about $23,900 a year, and for those with a Ph.D., about $28,900, while some individuals could start at $34,600. Sociologists in the Federal Government averaged around $42,900 a year in 1988.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  In general, sociologists with the Ph.D. degree earn substantially higher salaries than those without the doctoral degree. Some sociolo­ gists supplement their regular salaries with earnings from other sources, such as consulting, counseling work, or publishing articles and books. Like other professional workers, sociologists receive a variety of fringe benefits including paid vacations, sick leave, health insurance, and a pension plan. Related Occupations Sociologists are not the only people whose jobs require an understand­ ing of social processes and institutions. Others whose work demands such expertise include anthropologists, economists, geographers, his­ torians, political scientists, psychologists, urban and regional planners, reporters and correspondents, and social workers. Sources of Additional Information Additional information on careers and graduate departments of sociol­ ogy is available from: •-The American Sociological Association, 1722 N St. NW., Washington, DC 20036.  For information about careers in demography, contact: •-Population Association of America, 1429 Duke St., Alexandria, VA 22314­ 3402.  For information about careers in clinical and applied sociology, contact: •-Sociological Practice Association, Institute of Criminal Justice and Criminol­ ogy, University of Maryland, 2220 LaFrak, College Park, MD 20742.  For information about careers in rural sociology, contact: •-Rural Sociology Society, Department of Sociology, Montana State Univer­ sity, Bozeman, MT 59717.  Urban and Regional Planners (D.O.T. 188.167-110 and 199.167-014)  Nature of the Work Urban and regional planners, often called community or city planners, develop programs to provide for growth and revitalization of urban, suburban, and rural communities and their regions. Planners help local officials make decisions on social, economic, and environmental problems. Planners usually devise plans outlining the best use of a community's land—where residential, commercial, recreational, and other human services should take place. Planners also are involved in various other planning activities, including social services, transportation, and re­ source development. They address such issues as central city redevel­ opment, traffic congestion, and the impact of growth and change on an area. They formulate capital improvement plans to construct new school buildings, public housing, and sewage systems. Planners are becoming more involved in social issues such as sheltering the home­ less, premises for drug treatment centers, and needs of an aging population. Planners examine community facilities such as health clinics and schools to be sure these facilities can meet the demands placed upon them. They keep abreast of the economic and legal issues involved in community development or redevelopment and changes in housing and building codes or environmental regulations. Because suburban growth has increased the need for traveling between suburbs and the urban center, the planner’s job often includes designing new transpor­ tation systems and parking facilities. As an alternative, planners may develop transportation management plans which are designed to con­ trol the traffic, not accommodate it. For example, developers may be required to provide public transportation facilities or cities are required to set up van pool transportation systems. Urban and regional planners prepare for situations that are likely to  Professional Specialty Occupations develop as a result of population growth or social and economic change. They estimate, for example, the community’s long-range needs for housing, transportation, and business and industrial sites. Working within a framework set by the community government, they analyze and propose alternative ways to achieve more efficient and attractive urban areas. Before preparing plans for long-range community development, urban and regional planners prepare detailed studies that show the current use of land for residential, business, and community purposes. These reports include such information as the location of streets, highways, water and sewer lines, schools, libraries, and cultural and recreational sites. They also provide information on the types of indus­ tries in the community, characteristics of the population, and employ­ ment and economic trends. With this information, urban and regional planners propose ways of using undeveloped or underutilized land and design the layout of recommended buildings and other facilities such as subway lines and stations. They also prepare materials that show how their programs can be carried out and what they will cost. As in many other fields, planners increasingly use computers to record and analyze information. Urban and regional planners often confer with land developers, civic leaders, and other public planning officials. They often function as mediators in community disputes by presenting alternatives that are acceptable to opposing parties. Planners may prepare materials for community relations programs, speak at civic meetings, and appear before legislative committees to explain their proposals. In large organizations, planners usually specialize in areas such as physical design, public transportation, community relations, and the renovation or reconstruction of rundown business districts. In small organizations, planners must be able to do several kinds of work. Working Conditions Urban and regional planners spend most of their time in offices. To be familiar with areas that they are developing, however, they occasionally spend time outdoors examining the features of the land under consideration for development, its current use, and the types of structures on it. Although most planners have a scheduled 40-hour workweek, they frequently attend evening or weekend meetings or public hearings with citizens’ groups. Employment Urban and regional planners held about 20,000 jobs in 1988. Local government planning agencies—city, county, or regional—employed 7 out of 10. An increasing proportion of public agency planners work in small jurisdictions with fewer than 50,000 inhabitants. Many are employed in State agencies that deal with housing, transportation, or environmental protection. The largest Federal employers are the Departments of Defense, Housing and Urban Development, and Trans­ portation.  mwsvfteik  Ha  Mi  mem I » ■i  Urban planners consulting over a transportation map.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  111  Many planners do consulting work, either part time in addition to a regular job, or full time for a firm that provides services to private developers or government agencies. Other employers include architec­ tural and surveying firms, educational institutions, banks and mortgage companies, large land developers, or law firms specializing in land use. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Employers often seek workers who have advanced training in urban or regional planning. Most entry jobs in Federal, State, and local government agencies require 2 years of graduate study in urban or regional planning, or the equivalent in work experience. Although the master’s degree in planning is the usual requirement at the entry level, person’s having a bachelor’s degree in city planning, architecture, or engineering may qualify for beginning positions. Courses in related disciplines such as demography, economics, finance, health adminis­ tration, location theory, and management are highly recommended. In addition, familiarity with statistical techniques and computer usage is highly desirable. In 1988, about 80 colleges and universities offered a master’s degree program in urban or regional planning. Most of these programs have been accredited by the Planning Accreditation Board, which consists of representatives of the American Planning Association (APA), the American Institute of Certified Planners, and the Association of Colle­ giate Schools of Planning. Most graduate programs in planning require 2 years. Graduate students spend considerable time in studios, work­ shops, or laboratory courses learning to analyze and solve urban and regional planning problems and often are required to work in a planning office part time or during the summer. The American Institute of Certified Planners (AICP), a branch of the APA, grants certification to individuals with the appropriate combi­ nation of education and professional experience who pass an examina­ tion. Data on AICP membership indicate that certified urban planners tend to hold the more responsible, better paying positions in their field. Planners must be able to think in terms of spatial relationships and visualize the effects of their plans and designs. They should be flexible and able to reconcile different viewpoints to make constructive policy recommendations. The ability to write clearly and effectively is im­ portant. After a few years’ experience, urban and regional planners may advance to assignments requiring a high degree of independent judg­ ment such as designing the physical layout of a large development or recommending policy, program, and budget options. Some are promoted to jobs as planning directors and spend a great deal of time meeting with officials in other organizations, speaking to civic groups, and supervising other professionals. Further advancement occurs through a transfer to a large city with more complex problems and greater responsibilities. Job Outlook Employment of urban and regional planners is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Most job openings will arise from the need to replace experienced planners who transfer to other occupations, or retire or leave the labor force for other reasons. Demand will be spurred primarily by the continuing importance of environmental, economic, transportation, and energy production planning. Other factors contributing to the demand for urban and regional planners include interest in zoning and land-use planning in undeveloped and nonmetropolitan areas, including coastal areas; the need to replace old public facilities such as bridges, highways, and sewers; historic preservation and rehabilitation activities; central city redevelopment; and commercial development to support suburban areas with rapidly growing populations. Demand for urban and regional planners varies by region. Demand is currently strong in States which have mandated planning, such as Florida and Maine, and in rapidly growing areas such as, California and northern Virginia. lob growth is also expected to occur in smaller  112  Occupational Outlook Handbook  cities and towns in older areas—for example, in the Northeast— undergoing preservation and redevelopment. Graduates of leading institutions with accredited planning programs should have very good job prospects. For other jobseekers, geographic mobility and the willingness to work in small towns or rural areas may be necessary.  Federal service as interns at yearly salaries of about $15,700 or $19,400. Salaries of urban and regional planners employed by the Federal Government averaged $42,600 a year in 1988. Like many professional occupations, urban and regional planners receive a basic fringe benefit package which includes vacation and sick leave, health and life insurance, and a pension plan.  Earnings  Related Occupations Urban and regional planners develop plans for the orderly growth of urban and rural communities. Others whose work is related to the work of planners include architects, landscape architects, city manag­ ers, civil engineers, environmental engineers, geographers, and urban designers.  According to a 1987 survey by the APA, urban and regional planners earned a median annual salary of about $36,000. The median annual salary of planners in city governments was $34,700; in county govern­ ments, $31,000; in joint city/county governments, $31,500; in State governments, $38,000; in private consulting firms, $42,000; in busi­ ness, $47,000; and in nonprofit foundations, $35,000. For planners with over 10 years’ experience, county and joint city/county agencies paid about $41,000 annually, while private businesses and consulting firms paid about $50,000. Directors of public planning agencies earned as much as $10,600 more than staff members at comparable levels of experience. Salaries of planners in large jurisdictions may be as much as $6,000 a year higher than their counterparts in small jurisdictions. Planners with a master’s degree were hired by the Federal Govern­ ment at a starting average salary of $23,800 a year in 1989. In some cases, persons having less than 2 years of graduate work could enter   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Sources of Additional Information Additional information on careers and salaries in urban and regional planning, a list of schools offering training, and job referrals are available from; ••-American Planning Association, 1776 Massachusetts Ave. NW., Washing­ ton, DC 20036.  Information on schools offering training in urban and regional plan­ ning is also available from; ••-Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning, Department of Urban Plan­ ning, University of Wisconsin, P.O. Box 413, Milwaukee, WI 53201.  Social and Recreation Workers Human Services Workers (D.O.T. 195.267-014 and .367 except -026 and -030)  Nature of the Work “Human services worker” is a generic term for people who hold professional and paraprofessional jobs in such diverse settings as group homes and halfway houses; correctional, mental retardation, and com­ munity mental health centers; family, child, and youth service agen­ cies; and programs concerned with alcoholism, drug abuse, family violence, and aging. Depending on the employment setting and the kinds of clients served there, job titles and duties vary a great deal. Examples of job titles are: Social service technician, case management aide, social work assistant, residential counselor, alcoholism or drug abuse counselor, mental health technician, child abuse worker, com­ munity outreach worker, and gerontology aide. Despite differences in what they are called and what they do, human services workers generally perform under the direction of professional staff. Those employed in mental health settings, for example, may be assigned to assist a treatment team made up of social workers, psychologists, and other human services professionals. The amount of responsibility these workers assume and the degree of supervision they receive vary a great deal. Some workers are on their own most of the time and have little direct supervision; others work under close direction. Human services workers in community, residential care, or institu­ tional settings provide direct services such as leading a group, organiz­ ing an activity, or offering individual counseling. They may handle some administrative support tasks, too. Specific job duties reflect organizational policy and staffing patterns, as well as the worker’s educational preparation and experience. Some human services workers help clients through the red tape that surrounds many social welfare programs. First of all, this involves interviewing clients, assessing their needs, and establishing their eligi­ bility for services that are available in the community. Recordkeeping is another important part of the job. Regardless of whether a manual or computerized system is used, client and agency files must be kept up to date and in order. Social work assistants often handle eligibility determination, a com­ plex job. The assistant usually examines financial documents such as  / '-VW  Id  Recordkeeping is an important part of human services work.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  rent receipts and tax returns to determine whether the client is eligible for food stamps, Medicaid, or other welfare programs. Social work assistants also provide information on how to obtain needed services; arrange for transportation and escort service, if necessary ; and provide emotional and psychological support. Case aides may transport or accompany clients to group meal sites, adult day care programs, or doctors’ offices. Aides also telephone or visit clients’ homes, checking to be sure that needed services are being received. Some aides serve tenants of public housing projects. They provide information about regulations and services, and may at times help resolve disagreements between tenants and landlords. Interest in alternatives to institutional care for people who are frail, severely handicapped, mentally ill, or mentally retarded has brought forth a variety of community-based facilities and programs. These include neighborhood clinics, mental health centers, emergency shel­ ters, “drop-in” centers for drug abusers and the mentally ill, and group homes and halfway houses. Human services workers play a variety of roles in community settings such as these. They may organize and lead group activities, for example; assist clients in need of counseling or crisis intervention; or administer a food bank or emergency fuel program. Job duties vary, depending on the particular group of people receiv­ ing services. In a mental health setting, be it a mental hospital, a halfway house, or an outpatient psychiatric clinic, mental health tech­ nicians work directly with individual clients. They may help them master practical aspects of everyday living, for example, or teach them how to communicate more effectively and get along better with others. Technicians assist with a number of different treatment approaches, including music, art, and dance therapy, together with individual and group counseling. In addition to the personal contact with clients, human services workers in mental health settings are responsible for keeping records and informing and updating the professional staff about the clients’ condition. Monitoring progress is a typical job duty in all types of programs, whether for senior citizens, the mentally ill, or the disabled. Halfway houses and group homes serve adults who need some supervision or assistance on a day-to-day basis. These homes were orginally set up to give people with mental or physical impairments a chance to live in the community instead of in an institution. Currently, group homes for elderly persons are being launched in some communi­ ties. Activity programs at nearby community centers give residents a place to go during the day to meet people and participate in educational and rehabilitative activities. In the evening, residents return to the group homes, where they live in a family-like setting with supervision and support from counselors and aides. Residential counselors take a close interest in each member of the group home. They have access to and may consult confidential records, confer with medical personnel, and talk with the client’s family in order to gain better insight into the client’s history and needs. These interviews are conducted under the supervision of professional social workers or psychologists. Counselors in group homes follow the instructions of professional staff when dealing with clients. The social worker, for example, may instruct residential staff to teach members of the group home how to prepare their own meals. It may be up to the counselor to decide how to involve every resident in all the necessary steps, from menu planning and grocery shopping through cooking and cleanup. The amount of freedom the worker has in implementing instructions depends on the worker’s experience and the policy of the organization. In one home, the counselor may operate with relatively few guidelines, while in another a step-by-step plan must be adhered to. Residential counselors are responsible for keeping clients’ records  113  114  Occupational Outlook Handbook  up to date and reporting changes in behavior to the supervisor. The counselor must prepare oral and written reports on the condition and progress of each member of the residence. Residential counselors may also be responsible for the financial management of the household, including documenting all household expenditures. Working Conditions Working conditions vary. Human services workers in social service agencies generally spend part of the time in the office and the rest of the time in the field. Most work a 40-hour week. Some evening and weekend work may be necessary, but compensatory time off is usually granted. Human services workers in community-based settings move around a great deal in the course of a workweek. They may be inside one day and outdoors on a field visit the next. They, too, work a standard 40hour week. Human services workers in residential settings generally work in shifts. Because residents of group homes need supervision in the evening and at night, 7 days a week, evening and weekend hours are required. The work, while satisfying, can be emotionally draining. Under­ staffing and lack of equipment add to the pressure. Turnover is reported to be high, especially among workers without academic preparation for this field. Employment Human services workers held about 118,000 jobs in 1988. About onefourth were employed by State and local governments, primarily in hospitals and outpatient mental health centers, facilities for the men­ tally retarded and developmentally disabled, and public welfare agen­ cies. Another fourth worked in agencies offering adult day care, group meals, crisis intervention, counseling, and other social services. Some supervised residents of group homes and halfway houses. Human services workers also held jobs in clinics, community mental health centers, and private psychiatric hospitals. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Human services workers have a wide range of educational back­ grounds. However, the kind of work they do and the amount of responsibility entrusted to them often depend on their level of formal education. Workers with a high school education or less are likely to perform clerical duties. Those with a college degree might be assigned to do direct counseling, coordinate program activities, or manage a group home. While some employers hire high school graduates, most prefer applicants with some college preparation in human services, social work, or one of the social or behavioral sciences. Some human services workers transfer from other occupations or enter the field on the basis of course work in psychology, sociology, rehabilitation, or special education. A strong desire to help others is an important consideration for a job as a human services worker. Individuals who show patience, understanding, and caring in their dealings with others are highly valued by employers. Other important personal traits include commu­ nication skills, a strong sense of responsibility, and the ability to manage time effectively. Hiring requirements in group homes tend to be more stringent than in other settings. In 1988, approximately 400 certificate and associate degree pro­ grams in human services or mental health were offered at community and junior colleges, vocational-technical institutes, and other postsec­ ondary institutions. In addition, about 200 programs offered a bache­ lor’s degree in human services. A small number of programs leading to master’s degrees in human services administration were offered as well. Generally speaking, academic programs in this field educate stu­ dents for particular kinds of roles—an associate degree program might specialize in preparing students to work with developmentally disabled adults, for example. As is also the case in social work, rehabilitation counseling, and other practice-oriented disciplines, educators maintain  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  continuing contact with local employers to keep up with their changing needs. Students are exposed early and often to the kinds of situations they may encounter on the job. Undergraduate and graduate programs typically include courses in psychology, sociology, crisis intervention, family dynamics, therapeutic interviewing, rehabilitation, and gerontology. Through classroom simulation and required internships, students develop skills in interviewing, observing, and recording behavior; learn techniques of individual and group counseling; and are introduced to program planning. Formal education is almost always necessary for career advance­ ment. In group homes, completion of a 1-year certificate in human services along with several years of experience may suffice for promo­ tion to a supervisory position. In general, however, career advance­ ment requires a bachelor’s or master’s degree in counseling, rehabilita­ tion, social work, or a related field. Most employers encourage workers to further their education, and some are willing to pay part of the cost. In addition, many employers provide in-service training such as seminars and workshops. Job Outlook Employment of human services workers is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Opportunities for qualified applicants are expected to be excellent, not only because of projected rapid growth in the occupation, but because of substantial replacement needs. Turnover among counselors in group homes is reported to be especially high. Employment prospects should be favorable in facilities and pro­ grams that serve the elderly, mentally impaired, or developmentally disabled. Adult day care, a relatively new concept, is expected to expand significantly due to very rapid growth in the number of people of advanced age, together with growing awareness of the value of day programs for adults in need of care and supervision. While projected growth in the elderly population is the dominant factor in the anticipated expansion of adult day care, public response to the needs of people who are handicapped or mentally ill underlies anticipated employment growth in group homes and residential care facilities. As more and more mentally retarded or developmentally disabled individuals reach the age of 21 and thereby lose their eligibility for programs and services offered by the public schools, the need for community-based alternatives can be expected to grow. Pressures to respond to the needs of the chronically mentally ill can also be expected to persist. For many years, as deinstitutionalization has proceeded, chronic mental patients have been left to their own devices. If the movement to help the homeless and chronically mentally ill gains momentum, more community-based programs and group residences will be established, and demand for human services workers will increase accordingly. Job prospects in public agencies are not as bright as they once were, due to anticipated budget constraints that may reduce the use of paraprofessionals for outreach, eligibility determination, information and referral, and similar tasks. State and local govern­ ments will remain a major employer of human services workers, however, and replacement needs alone will generate many job openings in the public sector. Because so many human services jobs involve direct contact with people who are impaired and therefore vulnerable to exploitation, employers try to be selective in hiring. Applicants are screened for appropriate personal qualifications. Relevant academic preparation is generally required, and volunteer or work experience is preferred. Inasmuch as this is responsible and emotionally draining work which pays relatively poorly, qualified applicants should have little difficulty finding employment. Earnings According to limited data available, starting salaries for human ser­ vices workers ranged from $12,000 to $18,000 a year in 1988. Experi­ enced workers earned up to about $23,000 annually, depending on the amount of experience and the employer.  Professional Specialty Occupations Related Occupations Workers in other occupations that require skills similar to those of human services workers include social workers, community outreach workers, religious workers, occupational therapy assistants, physical therapy assistants and aides, psychiatric aides, and activity leaders. Sources of Additional Information Information on academic programs in human services may be found in most directories of 2- and 4-year colleges, available at libraries or career counseling centers. For information on programs and careers in human services, contact: (•-National Organization for Human Service Education, P.O. Box 6257, Fitch­ burg State College, Fitchburg, MA 01420. •-Council for Standards in Human Service Education, Montgomery Commu­ nity College, 340 Dekalb Pike, Blue Bell, PA 19422.  Information on job openings may be available from State employ­ ment service offices or directly from city, county, or State departments of health, mental health and mental retardation, and human resources.  Social Workers (D.O.T. 189.267-010, 195.107-010 through-046, .137-010, .164-010, .167­ 010, -014, -030, and -034, .267-018, .367-018 and -026)  Nature of the Work Social workers help individuals, families, and groups cope with prob­ lems of every description. Mostly, however, they aid people who are having difficulties dealing with circumstances in their lives—the homeless, the unemployed, the seriously ill, the bereaved, and the handicapped. Among the major helping professions, social work is distinguished by a tradition of concern for the poor, the disadvantaged, and those too young or too old to fend for themselves. Through direct counseling and referral to other services, social workers help people overcome the problems they face. Through policy­ making and advocacy, they help make society more responsive to people’s changing needs. Major areas of social work practice include child welfare and family services, mental health, medical social work, school social work, community organization, planning and policy development, and social welfare administration. Social workers in child welfare or family services provide a wide array of services, depending on the client’s needs and resources. Improving the well-being of children and youth is the traditional role of child welfare workers. They may advise parents on the care of handicapped infants, counsel children and youth who have difficulties in social adjustment, or arrange homemaker service during a parent’s illness. If children have serious problems in school, child welfare workers may consult with parents, teachers, and counselors to identify underlying problems. Some social workers assist single parents, coun­ sel couples about adoption, and help find homes for neglected or abandoned children. Child welfare workers also work in residential institutions for children and adolescents. A growing number of social workers specialize in child or adult protective services. Those in child protective services investigate re­ ported cases of abuse and neglect and intervene if necessary. They sometimes institute legal action to remove the child from the home, placing the child, temporarily, in an emergency shelter or with a foster family. Social workers who specialize in adult protective services take similar steps on behalf of adults, typically battered wives, neglected or abused elderly, or mentally impaired individuals. Whenever a social worker helps an individual or a family in crisis, direct counseling is a major part of the job. This requires effective listening skills and facility in creating a climate of openness and trust. Several meetings with the client and others familiar with the situation may be necessary in order to establish all the relevant facts. Using their training in human behavior, personality theory, group relations, and casework, social workers engaged in direct counseling help clients bring their real concerns into the open and consider possible solutions.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  115  Often, the social worker provides concrete information in areas that are unfamiliar or bewildering to the client: Where to go for debt counseling; how to word a help-wanted ad for childcare or eldercare; how to apply for public assistance, disability benefits, or child support; where to report suspected cases of abuse; how to get an alcoholic admitted to a rehabilitation program. Case management and other coordinating activities represent an increasingly important job duty. Case management is directed at identi­ fying and pulling together the most appropriate package of services in consultation with the client and then following through to assure that needed services—transportation, housing, or a sheltered workshop placement for a mentally retarded adult, for example—are actually provided. Once having determined what services would benefit the client, case managers may review eligibility requirements, fill out forms and applications, arrange for transportation or escort service, visit the client on a regular basis, and step in during emergencies. The mental health field attracts many social workers. Much effort has gone into developing community residential facilities and an array of supportive services for the mentally disabled—services such as outreach, crisis intervention, social rehabilitation, and training in skills of everyday living, to name a few. Social workers provide these services in community mental health centers, outpatient psychiatric clinics, emergency shelters, and “drop-in” centers. Psychiatric social workers are also employed in State mental hospitals. Veterans Admin­ istration hospitals, for-profit psychiatric hospitals, substance abuse treatment facilities, and psychiatric units of general hospitals. Provid­ ing individual and group therapy for psychiatric patients is one of their principal job duties. In addition, some social workers help plan for supportive services to ease patients’ return to the community. (Also see the statement on counselors and psychologists elsewhere in the Handbook.) Social workers employed in hospitals and other health care establish­ ments are often called medical social workers. They are trained to help patients and their families cope with devastating illnesses and handle problems that may stand in the way of recovery or rehabilitation. Most medical social workers employed by hospitals handle patient counseling or discharge planning. Those who work in nursing homes may help with the admissions process and direct the activities program in addition to counseling residents and their families. Patient counseling—working with children suffering from a termi­ nal illness, for example—is handled differently from one hospital to the next. Generally, however, it is the responsibility of the social work department. This traditional role has expanded as technology has made it possible for very sick people to survive months or even years longer than they used to. In addition, the increasingly popular practice of assisting family caregivers has created new roles for hospital social workers, who have taken the lead in organizing support groups for families of patients suffering from cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, or other illnesses that impose a heavy burden on families. Discharge planning is an important part of the hospital social work­ er’s job. This has come about because hospitals are under financial pressure to release patients as soon as possible. Discharge planners arrange for the various services—from meals-on-wheels to oxygen equipment—that make it possible to send patients home as soon as their medical condition warrants it. Other medical social work roles are evolving. In some hospitals, social workers undertake primary care functions in departments of pediatrics or obstetrics. A few specialize in organ transplant procure­ ments. Others work on interdisciplinary teams that specialize in evalu­ ating certain kinds of patients—geriatric or transplant patients, for example. Social workers are also involved in hospitals’ efforts to bring in business by offering new programs and services. Examples are adult day care, respite care, hospice care, health screening and education, worksite wellness, and employee assistance programs. School social workers help students and teachers alike. Chiefly concerned with supporting children in trouble and integrating handi­ capped students into the general school population, school social workers diagnose problems and arrange needed services. A school social worker might arrange transportation for a disabled child one  116  Occupational Outlook Handbook  hour, then spend the next hour helping a pregnant teenager think about childcare arrangements. The primary goal is to encourage students and help them overcome obstacles that stand in the way of learning. Often, a school social worker is called in when a student skips class on a regular basis or acts totally out of character. The social worker interviews the student, the family, and the teacher to try get at the source of the problem. If it appears that family matters are the root of the problem, the social worker might provide short-term counseling or refer the family to a community agency. The social worker might even accompany the family for the first few visits, just to be sure that needed services are being used. At times the social worker will be called in by the teacher to observe a particular student in an effort to determine whether a student is in fact experiencing difficulties. Other times teachers ask for advice on dealing with a particular student’s behavior, or with a classroom situation that arises during the course of the day. Some social workers specialize in the field of criminal justice. They work with criminal offenders, providing direct services for inmates of penal or correctional institutions. They counsel on the social problems that arise on returning to family and community life,/and also may help secure necessary education, training, employment, or community services. Juvenile and adult probation officers provide similar services to individuals sentenced by the court to probation as an alternative to prison. Industrial or occupational social workers are employed by business firms to run employee assistance programs, for the most part. They generally are located in the personnel department or health unit, and offer direct counseling to employees and their families, develop educa­ tion programs, and provide information about community resources. These social workers typically counsel employees whose performance at work is affected by alcoholism, drug abuse, or emotional problems. In a few companies, employee assistance programs focus on other sources of stress; social workers may help employees investigate child­ care or eldercare arrangements, for example. A growing number of social workers are in private practice. Most of these are clinical social workers who offer psychotherapy or counsel­ ing to individuals, families, and groups. They might work with families of troubled adolescents, help couples deal with marital difficulties, assist individuals experiencing job-related stress, or set up support groups for people coping with similar situations. Some private practitioners specialize in organizational consulting, and contract with business firms to counsel employees during plant closings, workforce reductions, or other stressful changes in the work environment. Still others serve as consultants to trade unions and develop educational, recreational, and service programs for active and retired members. A small but growing number of private practice social workers specialize in gerontological services. Some run support groups for family caretakers or for the adult children of aging parents. Others provide geriatric case management services on a fee-for-service basis. They assess service needs and then advise elderly people or family members about the choices open to them in such areas as housing, transportation, and long-term care. They coordinate and may monitor services, providing as much or as little assistance as the client desires. In addition to their work with individual clients, gerontological social workers often serve as consultants for government agencies, commu­ nity organizations, and business firms. They might evaluate existing programs for the elderly, for example, and advise on new programs and services. Working Conditions Most social workers have a 5-day, 35- to 40-hour week. However, some, particularly in voluntary nonprofit agencies, work part time. Many work evenings and weekends to meet with clients, attend com­ munity meetings, and handle emergencies. Extra leave is generally granted for overtime. Because social workers often must visit clients or attend meetings, some travel may be necessary. The work, while satisfying, can be emotionally draining. Under­ staffing and large caseloads add to the pressure in some agencies.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  .of  Ld/mjC  Social work, while satisfying, can be emotionally draining. Employment Social workers held about 385,000 jobs in 1988. About 2 out of 5 jobs were in State, county, or municipal government agencies; relatively few were in the Federal Government. Social workers in the public sector are employed primarily in departments of human resources, social services, mental health, health, housing, education, and correc­ tions. Those in the private sector work mostly for voluntary social service agencies, community and religious organizations, hospitals, nursing homes, and home health agencies. Although employment is concentrated in urban areas, many social workers work with rural families. A small number of American social workers serve in other parts of the world under the auspices of the Federal Government, the United Nations, or one of the voluntary international social service agencies. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree is the minimum requirement for most professional positions in this field. Besides the bachelor’s in social work (BSW), undergraduate majors in psychology, sociology, and related fields satisfy hiring requirements in many agencies, especially small commu­ nity agencies. A master’s degree in social work (MSW) is generally necessary for professional social work positions in health and mental health settings. Jobs in public agencies may require an MSW as well. A master’s degree in social work is almost always necessary for supervisory, administrative, or research positions. A doctorate in so­ cial work usually is required for teaching and is desirable for some research and administrative jobs. In 1987, there were 370 accredited BSW programs and nearly 100 MSW programs. BSW programs prepare graduates for direct service  Professional Specialty Occupations positions such as caseworker or group worker. Classroom instruction is offered in social work practice, social welfare policies, human behavior and the social environment, and social research methods. All accredited BSW programs require 400 hours of supervised field experience. An MSW degree prepares graduates to perform assessments, serve as case managers, and advance to supervisory or administrative posi­ tions. Two years of specialized study, including 900 hours of super­ vised field instruction, or internship, are required to earn a master’s degree in social work. Field placement affords an opportunity to test one’s suitability for social work practice. At the same time, the student may develop expertise in a specialized area and make personal contacts that later are helpful in securing a permanent job. Previous training in social work is not required for entry into an MSW program, but courses such as psychology, sociology, economics, political science, history, social anthropology, and urban studies, as well as social work, are recommended. Some graduate schools offer accelerated MSW pro­ grams for qualified applicants who have earned BSW degrees. A limited number of scholarships and fellowships are available for graduate education. A few social welfare agencies grant workers educational leave to obtain graduate education. Career advancement usually takes the form of promotion to supervi­ sor, administrator, or director, although some social workers go into teaching, research, or consulting. In addition to experience, which is essential, advancement generally requires additional graduate educa­ tion. Some schools of social work offer advanced practice certificate programs in specialized fields of practice like family counseling. More than 50 schools offer Ph. D. or DSW (Doctor of Social Work) programs for individuals interested in careers in research, teaching, policy analy­ sis, private practice, or consulting. Social workers seeking to broaden their career options are also pursuing graduate studies in related fields including human services administration, public administration, business administration, health services administration, education, and law. A number of colleges and universities offer joint degree programs. Private practice offers variety, prestige, and the potential for much higher pay than most agency jobs. Social workers who wish to advance professionally without taking the supervisory or administrative route often consider private practice. Ordinarily, this means clinical prac­ tice—counseling individuals or groups—although some private prac­ titioners specialize in organizational consulting. Others set up private case management agencies. An MSW as well as sufficiently varied work experience to develop a network of contacts for referral purposes is usually a prerequisite for a career as a private practitioner. Entrepre­ neurial ability is important for success in this rapidly developing but highly competitive field. In 1988, 46 States had licensing or registration laws regarding social work practice and the use of professional titles. Voluntary certification is offered by the National Association of Social Workers (NASW), which grants the title ACSW (Academy of Certified Social Workers) to those who qualify. For clinical social workers, professional credentials include listing in the NASW Register of Clinical Social Workers or in the Registry of Health Care Providers in Clinical Social Work. These credentials are particularly important for social workers in private practice; some health insurance providers require them for reim­ bursement. Social workers should be emotionally mature, objective, and sensi­ tive, and should possess a basic concern for people and their problems. They must be able to handle responsibility, work independently, and maintain good working relationships with clients and coworkers. Vol­ unteer, part-time, or summer jobs as a social work aide offer ways of testing one’s interest in pursuing a career in this field. Job Outlook Employment of social workers is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000 in response to the needs of a growing and aging population. The need to replace social workers who leave the occupation or stop working is expected to be the principal source of jobs, however.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  117  Demand for social workers is governed not only by the need for services, but also by the availability of funds to pay for these services. Due to anticipated budget constraints, prospects in public agencies are not as bright as they once were. Some public programs are likely to expand—notably child protective services, services for the elderly, and community-based services for the mentally retarded and chronically mentally ill. Others, however, may contract in the face of budgetary limitations. Programs most likely to be cut are public assistance, State mental hospitals, and training schools for the mentally retarded. Job growth in public agencies will continue to be subject to consider­ able regional variation, reflecting differences in economic conditions, budget priorities, and the tradition of public support for social welfare services. Among the States, some have a long history of commitment to publicly funded human services, while others have had a more limited view of social welfare spending. Despite regional variations, State and local governments are expected to retain their importance as a leading employer of social workers. Replacement needs alone will generate many openings in this large sector. Substantial growth is projected for social work jobs in voluntary agencies as well as in the small for-profit sector. These will be case­ work counseling and case management jobs, for the most part. Pro­ jected employment growth in this sector reflects the rapidly increasing number of older persons, on the one hand, and stepped-up spending for child protective services, on the other. Older people’s needs for social work services cut across distinctions of income and social class. Death of a spouse, poor eyesight, a broken hip, or other characteristic losses of old age can overwhelm affluent people as well as those who are poor. Nonetheless, certain groups of older people may require the services of a social worker more than others. This is particularly true for people living alone, predominantly widows of advanced age, who frequently are in poor health and living on very low incomes. Exceptionally rapid growth is projected in the number of Americans over the age of 85 in the years immediately ahead. This is expected to produce a sharp increase in social service needs and substantial growth in the number of social work personnel involved in assisting the elderly and their adult children. The demand for services provided by social workers will not be limited to the elderly, however. Changes in society, the family, and the role of religion have made it more acceptable to turn to mental health professionals instead of clergy or close family members for advice and emotional support. Social workers who provide mental health counseling work either in agency settings or as private prac­ titioners. Demand in both areas is projected to grow rapidly. Opportunities for social workers in private practice will expand, not only because of growing acceptance of private practice by the profession and by the public at large, but because of the anticipated availability of funding from health insurance, from public sector con­ tracts, and from an increasingly affluent population willing to pay for professional help in dealing with personal problems. The growing popularity of employee assistance programs is also expected to spur demand for private practitioners, some of whom provide social work services to corporations on a contract basis. Entry into private practice does not guarantee success. Private prac­ titioners must be able to market themselves to prospective purchasers of their services such as schools, health care providers, corporations, or individuals. Moreover, they must be prepared to deal with competition from psychologists, psychiatric nurses, counselors, and other mental health providers. Prospects for hospital social workers should be favorable through the year 2000, largely because of greatly increased emphasis on discharge planning, which facilitates early discharge of hospital patients by assuring that the necessary medical services and social supports are in place. The pivotal role of social workers in discharge planning is expected to sustain strong demand for hospital social workers. Home health is gaining importance as an area of social work prac­ tice, not only because hospitals are moving to release patients more quickly, but because a large and growing number of people have  118  Occupational Outlook Handbook  impairments or disabilities that make it difficult to live at home without some form of assistance. Social workers determine what kind of assistance is most appropriate, establish the client’s eligibility for publicly funded in-home services, and supervise the aides who provide direct care. Demand for social workers is also expected to grow in health maintenance organizations (HMO’s), medical group practices, and rehabilitation facilities that minister to alcoholics and drug abusers. Services provided by social workers in HMO’s include counseling on teenage pregnancy, stress management, substance abuse, family planning, crisis intervention for cases of spouse or child abuse, assis­ tance for the elderly, and case management. The overall outlook for school social workers is good, especially for persons with training or experience in this area. Growing awareness that scholastic achievement depends upon the child’s ability to concen­ trate on school is among the factors likely to heighten demand. School authorities’ efforts to respond to the adjustment problems of newly arrived immigrants, children from broken families, and others in diffi­ cult situations will contribute to job growth. Moreover, continued emphasis on integrating handicapped childreninto the general school population—a requirement under the Education for All Handicapped Children Act—will probably lead to more jobs as school officials take steps to expand and strengthen the services they offer. The availability of State and local funding will dictate the actual increase in jobs in this setting, however. Job prospects for social workers vary a great deal. Opportunities differ depending upon academic credentials, experience, and field of practice. Geographic location is a consideration, too. Competition is stronger in cities where training programs for social workers abound. At the same time, population growth in the Sunbelt States is spurring expansion of social service programs there, and some isolated rural areas are finding it difficult to attract and retain qualified staff. Trends in the number of individuals obtaining degrees in social work may affect job prospects. While the number of individuals earn­ ing BSW and MSW degrees from accredited programs appears to be on the upswing, the number of new social work graduates is not likely to return to the peak levels attained in the late 1970’s. In light of the impending decrease in the college-age population, the supply of formally prepared social workers is not likely to keep pace with anticipated growth in social work positions. This does not imply a shortage of social workers, in view of the abundant supply of new college graduates, career changers, and reen­ trants who have the requisite education or experience. However, it does indicate that a larger proportion of social service positions will be filled by people without professional preparation. Competition for entry level human service jobs, which historically has been keen, should abate somewhat. As in the past, competition will be strongest for social work positions offering the most favorable pay and benefits.  Earnings Salaries for social workers at all levels vary greatly by type of agency (private or public; Federal, State, or local) and geographic region, but generally are highest in large cities and in States with sizable urban populations. Private practitioners, administrators, teachers, and re­ searchers often earn considerably more than other types of social workers. Median earnings for full-time social workers were $22,000 a year in 1988. The middle 50 percent earned between $18,000 and $28,600 per year. The bottom 10 percent earned less than $ 12,600 a year while the top 10 percent earned over $38,480 a year. MSW’s generally earn more. In 1986, the average salary for social workers with an MSW was $27,700 a year, according to a membership survey conducted by the National Association of Social Work. The average annual starting salary for social workers in hospitals and medical centers (positions requiring an MSW) was about $22,212 in 1988, according to a survey conducted by the University of Texas Medical Branch. Experienced hospital social workers were paid about $30,768 a year, according to the same survey.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Related Occupations Through direct counseling or referral to other services, social workers help people solve a range of personal problems. Workers in occupa­ tions with similar duties include the clergy, counselors, counseling psychologists, and vocational rehabilitation counselors. Sources of Additional Information For information about career opportunities in social work, contact: w-National Association of Social Workers, 7981 Eastern Ave., Silver Spring, MD 20910.  The Council on Social Work Education publishes an annual Direc­ tory of Accredited BSW and MSW Programs. Price and ordering information for this and other CSWE publications is available from: ••-Council on Social Work Education, 1744 R St. NW., Washington, DC 20009.  For information on doctoral programs in social work, contact: ••Group for the Advancement of Doctoral Education in Social Work, c/o Dr. Richard Estes, Ph D., ACSW, School of Social Work, 3701 Locust Walk Dr., University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.  Recreation Workers (D.O.T. 153.137-010; 159.124-010; 187.137-010; 195.227-010 and-014; and 352.167-010)  Nature of the Work As leisure time in our lives increases, opportunities for organized recreation become more important. Recreation workers plan, organize, and direct activities that help people enjoy and benefit from leisure hours. They should not be confused with recreational therapists, who help individuals recover or adjust to illness, disability, or specific social problems. (The work of recreational therapists is described elsewhere in the Handbook.) Recreation programs, whether institutionally or community based, are as diverse as the people they serve and the people who mn them. Employment settings range from pristine wilderness areas to health clubs in the city center. At local playgrounds and community centers, for example, recreation personnel organize and conduct a variety of  ’:C,  ^  Recreation workers instruct young people in the basics of sports and hobbies.  Professional Specialty Occupations leisure activities, including arts, crafts, fitness, and sports. Recreation workers are also employed by theme parks, tourist attractions, and firms that offer “getaway” vacations or adventure trips. Other employment settings include parks, campgrounds, and recre­ ational areas; schools, churches, and synagogues; retirement commu­ nities, senior centers, and adult day care programs; military bases; correctional institutions; and corporations. Recreation personnel in industry organize and direct leisure activi­ ties and athletic programs for employees and their families such as bowling and softball leagues, social functions, travel programs, dis­ count services, and, to an increasing extent, exercise and fitness pro­ grams. These activities are generally for adults. Camp counselors lead and instruct campers in nature-oriented forms of recreation such as swimming, hiking, and horseback riding as well as outdoor education. In addition, they provide campers with specialized instruction in a particular area such as music, drama, gymnastics, tennis, or computers. In resident camps, the staff also provides guidance and supervision in daily living tasks and general socialization. Recreation workers occupy a variety of positions at different levels of responsibility. Recreation leaders provide direction and are respon­ sible for a recreation program’s daily operation. They may give instruc­ tion in dance, drama, crafts, games, and sports; keep records; and maintain recreation facilities. Those who provide instruction in special­ ties such as art, music, drama, swimming, or tennis may be called activity specialists. They often conduct classes and coach teams in the activity in which they specialize. Recreation leaders and activity specialists usually work under a supervisor. Recreation supervisors plan programs to meet the needs of the population they serve; supervise recreation leaders, sometimes over a large region; and direct specialized activities. In order to accomplish these tasks more efficiently, a growing number of supervisors are using computers in their work. Working Conditions While the average workweek for recreation workers is 35 to 40 hours, people entering this field should expect some night work, weekend work, and irregular hours. Work can be physically tiring. Recreation workers often spend much of their time outdoors and may work under a variety of weather conditions. Recreation supervisors may spend most of their time in an office. Since full-time recreation workers are spending more time acting as managers instead of hands-on activities leaders, they are engaged in less physical activity. However, as is the case for anyone engaged in physical activity, recreation workers risk physical injuries. The work setting for recreation workers may be anywhere from a vacation cruise ship to a woodland recreational park. Generally, employment follows overall population patterns; most jobs are in urban and suburban areas, where the majority of Americans live. Jobs in camping, while often set in rural or wilderness areas, also follow general population patterns, with more camps in heavily populated States. Employment Recreation workers held about 186,000 jobs in 1988. (This estimate does not include many summer workers.) More than half of these jobs were in government agencies, primarily in park and recreation departments at the municipal and county levels. State park systems employ some recreation workers, and the Federal Government em­ ploys a small number of recreation specialists, sports specialists, out­ door recreation planners, and recreation assistants and aides for pro­ grams run by the Veterans Administration and the Departments of Defense and Interior. About 15 percent of the jobs were in membership organizations with a civic, social, fraternal, or religious orientation—the Boy Scouts, the YWCA, and Red Cross, for example. Approximately 12 percent were in programs run by social service organizations (senior centers and adult day care programs, for example) or in residential care facilities  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  119  such as halfway houses, group homes, and institutions for delinquent youth. Other employers include commercial recreation establishments, amusement parks, sports and entertainment centers, wilderness and survival enterprises, tourist attractions, vacation excursions, hotels and other resorts, camps, health spas, athletic clubs, apartment com­ plexes, and other settings. The recreation field is characterized by an unusually large number of part-time, seasonal, and volunteer jobs. The largest number of paid employees in the recreation field are part-time or seasonal workers. Typical jobs include summer camp counselors and playground leaders, lifeguards, craft specialists, and after-school and weekend recreation program leaders. Many jobs are filled by teachers and college students. The vast majority of volunteers serve as activity leaders at local playgrounds, or in youth organizations, camps, nursing homes, hospi­ tals, senior centers, YMCA’s, and other settings. Some volunteers serve on local park and recreation boards and commissions. Part-time work during school and volunteer experience may lead to a full-time job. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Educational requirements for jobs in this field range from a high school diploma or less for many summer jobs to graduate education for administrative positions in large public systems. Many applicants for full-time career positions are college graduates with majors in parks and recreation, or leisure studies, but a bachelor’s degree in any liberal arts field may be sufficient in the private sector. Some jobs require specialized training in a particular field, such as art, music, drama, or athletics, and some require special certification, such as holding a certificate in lifesaving. According to the National Recreation and Park Association (NRPA), about 70 percent of students receiving bachelor’s degrees in parks and recreation obtain jobs in their field within a year. However, a bache­ lor’s degree is not always necessary. Some recreation positions are filled by high school graduates, while others are filled by graduates of associate degree programs in parks and recreation, social work, and other human services disciplines. A number of jobs in this field are held by college students who work part time while earning a degree. Most supervisors have a bachelor’s degree and experience. Persons with academic preparation in parks and recreation, leisure studies, physical education, fitness management, and related fields generally have better prospects for career advancement, although this varies from one employer to another. In some organizations, the top of the career ladder can be reached without a college education, but usually more slowly than with one. A bachelor’s degree and experience are considered minimum re­ quirements for administrators. However, increasing numbers are ob­ taining master’s degrees in parks and recreation as well as in related disciplines. Many persons in other disciplines, including social work, forestry, and resource management, pursue graduate degrees in recre­ ation. In industrial recreation, or “employee services” as this field is more commonly called, companies prefer applicants with a bachelor’s de­ gree in recreation and a strong background in business administration. In recent years, demand has increased dramatically for college graduates having expertise in commercial recreation and tourism. Many colleges are starting to offer specializations in these areas to meet this growing demand. In 1987, about 200 community and junior colleges offered park and recreation programs leading to an associate degree, and 300 colleges and universities offered programs leading to a bachelor’s, master’s, or Ph.D. degree. In 1989, 84 parks and recreation curriculums at the bachelor’s degree level were accredited by the Council on Accreditation, spon­ sored by the NRPA. Accredited programs provide broad exposure to the history, theory, and philosophy of park and recreation manage­ ment. Courses are offered in community organization; supervision and administration; recreational needs of special populations such as older adults or the disabled; and supervised fieldwork. Students have an  120  Occupational Outlook Handbook  opportunity to specialize in areas such as therapeutic recreation, park management, outdoor recreation, industrial or commercial recreation, and camp management. The American Camping Association has developed a curriculum for camp director education. Many national youth associations offer training courses for camp directors at the local and regional levels. Persons planning recreation careers should be outgoing, good at motivating people, and sensitive to the needs of others. Good health and physical stamina are required. Activity planning calls for creativity and resourcefulness. Willingness to accept responsibility and the abil­ ity to exercise judgment are important qualities since recreation person­ nel often work alone. To increase their leadership skills and under­ standing of people, students are advised to obtain related work experience in high school and college. Such experience may help students decide whether their interests really point to a human services career. Students also should talk to local park and recreation profes­ sionals, school guidance counselors, and others. Individuals contemplating careers in recreation at the supervisory or administrative level should develop managerial skills. College courses in management, business administration, accounting, and per­ sonnel management are likely to be useful. Certification for this field is offered by the NRPA and the American Camping Association. In 1989, 38 States had adopted NRPA standards for leisure service technicians and leisure service professionals. The Arperican Camping Association certifies individuals who meet their standards of professional competence, and so does the National Em­ ployee Services and Recreation Association. Certification is not usually required for employment or advancement in this field. However, employers faced with an abundance of qualified applicants are likely to give preference to those with professional credentials, experience, or both. Job Outlook Employment of recreation workers is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Factors pointing to future expansion of this field include a growing number of people with both leisure time and the money to purchase leisure services; increased interest in fitness and health; rising demand for recreational opportunities for older adults in senior centers and retire­ ment communities; and more activity programs for persons with disa­ bilities. As is generally the case, however, most job openings will result from replacement needs. Employment opportunities will be more favorable in some settings than others, a reflection of divergent prospects for industry growth. Job growth will occur in the rapidly growing commercial recreation industry, composed of amusement parks, athletic clubs, camps, sports clinics, and the like. Hiring practices in commercial recreation vary a great deal, and employer preference for applicants with formal training in recreation, physical education, and related fields has not been clearly established, although it is steadily moving in that direction. Demand for recreation workers is also expected in the fast-growing social services industry. Recreation workers will be needed to develop and lead activity programs in such settings as senior centers, halfway houses, children’s homes, and day care programs for the mentally retarded or developmentally disabled. Hiring practices in social service agencies vary, too. Some jobs require course work or degrees in recreation, rehabilitation, or other human services fields, while others require only suitable personal qualifications and work experience. Overall job growth in local government is expected to be slow due to budget constraints, and local park and recreation departments are expected to do less hiring for permanent, full-time positions than in the past. As a result, this sector’s share of recreation worker employ­ ment will shrink by the end of the century. Nonetheless, opportunities will vary widely by region, since resources as well as priorities for public services differ from one community to another. Thus, hiring   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  prospects for recreation personnel will be much better in some park and recreation departments than overall projections would suggest. Because the field is open to all college graduates regardless of major, applications for career positions in recreation greatly exceed the number of job openings. Keen competition for jobs is expected to continue. Individuals with both experience and formal training in recreation are expected to have the best opportunities for staff posi­ tions. Those with graduate degrees should have the best opportunities for supervisory or administrative positions. While the market for full-time career positions is expected to remain competitive, prospects are much better for the very large number of temporary seasonal jobs. These positions, typically filled by high school or college-age individuals, do not generally require formal education in recreation or leisure studies, although swimming, lifeguarding, skiing, and similar skills may be necessary. Demand for seasonal workers is great, and job opportunities should be plentiful. Employers are competing for their share of the vacationing student labor market, and salaries in recreation are not always competitive with those in other fields. Earnings Median annual earnings of recreation workers who worked full time in 1988 were about $14,300. The middle 50 percent earned between about $10,000 and $20,000. The lowest 10 percent earned about $7,400 or less, while the top 10 percent earned about $27,300 or more. According to the American Camping Association, the average salary for camp directors was about $380 a week in 1988. Seasonally em­ ployed camp personnel earned between about $95 and $175 a week. Room and board, however, were usually provided free of charge. The starting salary for recreation workers in the Federal Government was about $15,700 a year in 1989. Most public and private recreation agencies provide full-time recre­ ation workers with vacation and other fringe benefits such as sick leave and hospital insurance. Part-time workers receive few, if any, fringe benefits. Related Occupations Recreation workers must exhibit leadership and sensitivity in dealing with people. Other occupations that require similar personal qualities include recreational therapists, social workers, parole officers, human relations counselors, school counselors, clinical and counseling psy­ chologists, and teachers. Sources of Additional Information For information on local government jobs in recreation, contact the nearest department of parks and recreation. Ordering information for materials describing careers and academic programs in recreation is available from: ••-National Recreation and Park Association, Division of Professional Services, 3101 Park Center Dr., Alexandria, VA 22302.  The NRPA also publishes a bulletin of job openings twice monthly. The American Association for Leisure and Recreation publishes information sheets on 25 separate careers in parks and recreation. For price and ordering information, contact: ••-AALR, 1900 Association Dr., Reston, VA 22091.  AALR also can provide a free list of job opportunities in the park and recreation field. For information on careers in employee services and recreation, contact: ••-National Employee Services and Recreation Association, 2400 South Down­ ing St., Westchester, IL 60154.  For information on careers in camping and summer counselor oppor­ tunities, send request and postpaid return envelope to: ••-American Camping Association, Bradford Woods, 5000 State Rd., 67 N, Martinsville, IN 46151.  For information on careers with the YMCA, contact: w-YMCA National Office, 101 North Wacker Dr., Chicago, IL 60606.  Religious Workers Protestant Ministers (D.O.T. 120.007)  Nature of the Work Protestant ministers lead their congregations in worship services and administer the various rites of the church, such as baptism, confirma­ tion, and Holy Communion. They prepare and deliver sermons and give religious instruction. They also perform marriages; conduct funer­ als; counsel individuals who seek guidance; visit the sick, aged, and handicapped at home and in the hospital; comfort the bereaved; and serve church members in other ways. Many Protestant ministers write articles for publication, give speeches, and engage in interfaith, com­ munity, civic, educational, and recreational activities sponsored by or related to the interests of the church. Some ministers teach in semi­ naries, colleges and universities, and church-affiliated preparatory or high schools. The services that ministers conduct differ among Protestant denomi­ nations and also among congregations within a denomination. In many denominations, ministers follow a traditional order of worship; in others, they adapt the services to the needs of youth and other groups within the congregation. Most services include Bible reading, hymn singing, prayers, and a sermon. In some denominations, Bible reading by a member of the congregation and individual testimonials may constitute a large part of the service. Ministers serving small congregations generally work personally with parishioners. Those serving large congregations have greater administrative responsibilities and spend considerable time working with committees, church officers, and staff, besides other duties. They may share specific aspects of the ministry with one or more associates or assistants, such as a minister of education who assists in educational programs for different age groups, or a minister of music. Working Conditions Ministers are “on call” for any serious troubles or emergencies that involve or affect members of their churches. They also may work long and irregular hours in administrative, educational, and community service activities. Many of the ministers’ duties are sedentary, such as reading or doing research in a study or a library to prepare sermons or write articles. In some denominations, ministers are reassigned by a central body to a new pastorate every few years. Employment In 1988, there were an estimated 429,000 Protestant ministers, of whom about 260,000 served individual congregations. Others worked in closely related fields such as chaplains in hospitals, the Armed Forces, universities, and correctional institutions. While there are numerous denominations, most ministers are employed by the five largest Protestant bodies—Baptist, Episcopalian, Lutheran, Method­ ist, and Presbyterian. All cities and most towns in the United States have at least one Protestant church with a full-time minister. Although most ministers are located in urban areas, many serve two or more small congregations in less densely populated areas. Some small churches increasingly are employing part-time ministers who are seminary students, retired ministers, or holders of secular jobs. Unpaid pastors serve other churches with tight budgets. Some churches employ specially trained members of the laity to conduct nonliturgical functions. Training and Other Qualifications Educational requirements for entry into the Protestant ministry vary greatly. Some denominations have no formal educational require https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Ml  Ministers administer various rites of the church. ments, and others ordain persons having various types of training in Bible colleges, Bible institutes, or liberal arts colleges. Many denomi­ nations now allow women to be ordained, but a woman should verify this with her particular denomination before deciding on a career as a minister. In 1988, over 200 American Protestant theological schools were accredited by the Association of Theological Schools in the United States and Canada. These admit only students who have received a bachelor’s degree or its equivalent in liberal arts from an accredited college. Many denominations require a 3-year course of professional study in one of these accredited schools or seminaries after college graduation for the degree of master of divinity. Recommended preseminary or undergraduate college courses in­ clude English, history, philosophy, natural sciences, social sciences, fine arts, music, religion, and foreign languages. These courses pro­ vide a knowledge of modem social, cultural, and scientific institutions and problems. However, students considering theological study should contact, at the earliest possible date, their denominations and the schools to which they intend to apply, to learn how to prepare for the program they hope to enter. The standard curriculum for accredited theological schools consists of four major categories: Biblical, historical, theological, and practi­ cal. Courses of a practical nature include pastoral care, preaching, religious education, and administration. Many accredited schools re­ quire that students work under the supervision of a faculty member or experienced minister. Some institutions offer doctor of ministry de­ grees to students who have completed additional study, usually 2 or more years, and served at least 2 years as a minister. Scholarships and loans are available for students of theological institutions. In general, each large denomination has its own school or schools of theology that reflect its particular doctrine, interests, and needs. However, many of these schools are open to students from other denominations. Several interdenominational schools associated with universities give both undergraduate and graduate training covering a wide range of theological points of view. Persons who have denominational qualifications for the ministry usually are ordained after graduation from a seminary or after serving  121  122  Occupational Outlook Handbook  a probationary pastoral period. Denominations that do not require seminary training ordain clergy at various appointed times. For exam­ ple, some evangelical churches may ordain ministers with only a high school education. Men and women entering the clergy often begin their careers as pastors of small congregations or as assistant pastors in large churches. Job Outlook The increasing cost of operating churches is expected to result in limited growth in the demand for ministers through the year 2000. However, enrollments in seminaries are expected to stabilize in the coming years. As a result, new graduates of theological schools are expected to face less competition for jobs than in the past. The supplydemand situation will vary among denominations and geographic re­ gions. Ministers will still face stiff competition for more responsible positions serving large, urban congregations. Relatively favorable prospects are expected for ministers in evangelical churches. Ministers willing to work part time or for smaller, rural congregations also should have relatively favorable opportunities. Most of the openings for ministers through the year 2000 will arise from the need to replace retirees and, to a lesser extent, those who die or leave the ministry. Employment alternatives for newly ordained Protestant ministers who are unable to find positions in parishes include working in youth counseling, family relations, and welfare organizations; teaching in religious educational institutions; and serving as chaplains in the Armed Forces, hospitals, universities, and correctional institutions. Earnings Salaries of Protestant clergy vary substantially, depending on age, experience, denomination, size and wealth of congregation, and geo­ graphic location. Based on limited information, the estimated average annual income of Protestant ministers was about $23,000 in 1988. The average salary, including fringe benefits such as housing, insurance, and transportation, was an estimated $38,000.-- In large, wealthier denominations, ministers often earned significantly higher salaries. Increasingly, ministers with modest salaries earn additional income from employment in secular occupations. Related Occupations Protestant ministers advise and counsel individuals and groups regard­ ing their religious as well as personal, social, and vocational develop­ ment. Other occupations involved in this type of work include social workers, clinical and counseling psychologists, teachers, and coun­ selors. Sources of Additional Information Persons who are interested in entering the Protestant ministry should seek the counsel of a minister or church guidance worker. Each theo­ logical school can supply information on admission requirements. Prospective ministers also should contact the ordination supervision body of their particular denomination for information on special re­ quirements for ordination. Occupational information about the Protestant ministry can also be obtained from; ••-National Council of Churches, Professional Church Leadership, Room 770, 475 Riverside Dr., New York, NY 10115.  Rabbis (D.O.T. 120.007)  Nature of the Work Rabbis are the spiritual leaders of their congregations, and teachers and interpreters of Jewish law and tradition. They conduct religious services and deliver sermons on the Sabbath and on Jewish holidays. Like other clergy, rabbis conduct weddings and funeral services, visit  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  the sick, help the poor, comfort the bereaved, supervise religious education programs, engage in interfaith activities, and involve them­ selves in community affairs. Rabbis serving large congregations may spend considerable time in administrative duties, working with their staffs and committees. Large congregations frequently have an associate or assistant rabbi. Many assistant rabbis serve as educational directors. Rabbis serve either Orthodox, Conservative, Reform, or Recon­ structionist congregations. Regardless of their particular point of view, all Jewish congregations preserve the substance of Jewish religious worship. Congregations differ in the extent to which they follow the traditional form of worship—for example, in the wearing of head coverings, the use of Hebrew as the language of prayer, or the use of instrumental music or a choir. The format of the worship service and, therefore, the ritual that the rabbi uses may vary even among congregations belonging to the same branch of Judaism. Rabbis also may write for religious and lay publications and teach in theological seminaries, colleges, and universities. Working Conditions Rabbis work long hours and are “on call” to visit the sick, comfort the bereaved, and counsel those who seek it. Community and educational activities may also require long or irregular hours. Some of their duties are intellectual and sedentary, such as studying religious texts, researching and writing sermons and articles for publi­ cation, and preparing lectures for adult education. Rabbis have a good deal of independent authority, since they have no formal hierarchy. They are responsible only to the board of trustees of the congregations they serve. Employment In 1988, approximately 850 Orthodox rabbis served congregations, many of them relatively small. In addition, 800 Conservative, 800 Reform, and 65 Reconstructionist rabbis served congregations. Many rabbis functioned in other settings. Some taught in Jewish Studies programs at colleges and universities. Others served as chaplains in the military services, in hospitals, in college settings, and other institutions, or in one of the many Jewish community service agencies. Although rabbis serve Jewish communities throughout the nation, they are concentrated in major metropolitan areas with large Jewish populations. Training and Other Qualifications To become eligible for ordination as a rabbi, a student must complete a course of study in a seminary. Entrance requirements and the curricu­ lum depend upon the branch of Judaism with which the seminary is associated. About 35 seminaries educate and ordain Orthodox rabbis. The Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary and the Beth Medrash Govoha Seminary are representative of the two basic kinds of Orthodox semi­ naries. The former requires a bachelor’s degree for entry and has a formal 3-year ordination program. The latter has no formal admission requirements but may require more years of study for ordination. The training is rigorous. When students have become sufficiently learned in the Talmud, the Bible, and other religious studies, they may be ordained with the approval of an authorized rabbi, acting either inde­ pendently or as a representative of a rabbinical seminary. The Jewish Theological Seminary of America educates rabbis for the Conservative branch. The Hebrew Union College—Jewish Institute of Religion educates rabbis for the Reform branch. Both seminaries require the completion of a 4-year college course, as well as earlier preparation in Jewish studies, for admission to the rabbinical program leading to ordination. A student with a strong background in Jewish studies can complete the course at the Conservative seminary in 4 years; for other enrollees, the course may take as long as 6 years. Normally, 5 years of study are required to complete the rabbinical course at the Reform seminary, including 1 year of preparatory study in Jerusalem. Exceptionally well-prepared students can shorten this 5year period to a minimum of 3 years.  Professional Specialty Occupations  123  Related Occupations Rabbis advise and counsel individuals and groups regarding their religious, personal, social, and vocational development. Others in­ volved in this type of work include social workers, clinical and counsel­ ing psychologists, teachers, and counselors. Sources of Additional Information Persons who are interested in becoming rabbis should discuss their plans for a vocation with a practicing rabbi. Information on the work of rabbis and allied occupations can be obtained from:  Ordination as a rabbi requires many years of study.  The Reconstructionist Rabbinical College educates rabbis in the newest branch of Judaism. A bachelor’s degree is required for admis­ sion. The rabbinical program is based on a 5-year course of study which emphasizes, in each year, a period in the history of Jewish civilization. A preliminary preparatory year is required for students without sufficient grounding in Hebrew and Jewish studies. Graduates are awarded the title “Rabbi” and the Master of Arts in Hebrew Letters and, with special study, can earn the Doctor of Hebrew Letters degree. In general, the curriculums of Jewish theological seminaries provide students with a comprehensive knowledge of the Bible, Talmud, Rab­ binic literature, Jewish history, theology, and courses in education, pastoral psychology, and public speaking. Students get extensive prac­ tical training in dealing with social problems in the community. Train­ ing for alternatives to the pulpit, such as leadership in community services and religious education, is increasingly stressed. Some seminaries grant advanced academic degrees in such fields as Biblical and Talmudic research. All Jewish theological seminaries make scholarships and loans available. Newly ordained rabbis usually begin as spiritual leaders of small congregations, assistants to experi­ enced rabbis, directors of Hillel Foundations on college campuses, teachers in educational institutions, or chaplains in the Armed Forces. As a rule, experienced rabbis fill the pulpits of large and well-estab­ lished Jewish congregations.  ••-The Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary, 2540 Amsterdam Ave., New York, NY 10033. (Orthodox) ••-Beth Medrash Govoha Seminary, 626 Seventh St., Lakewood, NJ 08701. (Orthodox) ••-The Jewish Theological Seminary of America, 3080 Broadway, New York, NY 10027. (Conservative) ••-Hebrew Union College—Jewish Institute of Religion, Director of Admis­ sions, at any one of three campuses: 1 W. 4th St., New York, NY 10012; 3101 Clifton Ave., Cincinnati, OH 45220; 3077 University Mall, Los Angeles, CA 90007. (Reform) ••-Reconstructionist Rabbinical College, Church Rd. and Greenwood Ave., Wyncote, PA 19095.  Roman Catholic Priests (D.O.T. 120.007)  Nature of the Work Roman Catholic priests attend to the spiritual, pastoral, moral, and educational needs of the members of their church. They deliver ser­ mons, administer the sacraments, and preside at liturgical functions such as funeral services. They also comfort the sick, console and counsel those in need of guidance, and assist the poor. In recent years, some priests have paid increasing attention to nonliturgical concerns such as human rights and social welfare. A priest’s day usually begins with morning meditation and mass and may end with an individual counseling session or an evening visit to a hospital or home. Many priests direct and serve on church  Job Outlook The job outlook for rabbis is generally favorable in the four major branches of Judaism. Since most rabbis prefer to serve in large, urban areas, employment opportunities generally are best in nonmetropolitan areas, particularly in smaller communities in the South, Midwest, and Northwest. Graduates of Orthodox seminaries who seek pulpits should have good opportunities as growth in enrollments slows and as many gradu­ ates choose not to seek pulpits. Orthodox rabbis willing to work in small communities should have particularly good prospects. Conservative and Reform rabbis are expected to have good employ­ ment opportunities throughout the country. Reconstructionist rabbis are expected to have very good employment opportunities since membership is expanding rapidly.  ' Earnings Income varies widely, depending on the size and financial status of the congregation, as well as its denominational branch and geographic location. Rabbis may earn additional income from gifts or fees for officiating at ceremonies such as bar mitzvahs and weddings. Based on limited information, annual average earnings of rabbis generally ranged from $30,000 to $80,000 in 1988, including fringe benefits.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  A priest gives communion during Mass.  124  Occupational Outlook Handbook  committees, work in civic and charitable organizations, and assist in community projects. The two main classifications of priests—diocesan (secular) and religious—have the same powers, acquired through ordination by a bishop. The differences lie in their way of life, their type of work, and the church authority to whom they are immediately subject. Diocesan priests generally work in parishes assigned by the bishop of their diocese. Religious priests generally work as part of a religious order, such as the Jesuits, Dominicans, or Franciscans. They may engage in specialized activities, such as teaching or missionary work, assigned by superiors of their order. Both religious and diocesan priests hold teaching and administrative posts in Catholic seminaries, colleges and universities, and high schools. Priests attached to religious orders staff a large proportion of the church’s institutions of higher education and many high schools, whereas diocesan priests are usually concerned with the parochial schools attached to parish churches and with diocesan high schools. The members of religious orders do most of the missionary work conducted by the Catholic Church in this country and abroad. Working Conditions Priests spend long and irregular hours working for the church and the community. Religious priests are assigned duties by their superiors in their particular orders. Some religious priests serve as missionaries in for­ eign countries, where they may live under difficult and primitive conditions. Some live a communal life in monasteries, where they devote themselves to prayer, study, and assigned work. Diocesan priests are “on call” at all hours to serve their parishioners in emergencies. They also have many intellectual duties, including study of the scriptures and keeping abreast of current religious and secular events in order to prepare sermons. Diocesan priests are respon­ sible to the bishop of the diocese. Employment There were approximately 54,000 priests in 1988, according to the Official Catholic Directory. Over 18,000—primarily diocesan priests—served congregations as pastors. There are priests in nearly every city and town and in many rural communities. The majority are in metropolitan areas, where most Catholics reside. Large numbers of priests are located in communities near Catholic educational and other institutions. Training and Other Qualifications Preparation for the priesthood generally requires 8 years of study beyond high school in one of about 230 seminaries. Preparatory study may begin in the first year of high school, at the college level, or in theological seminaries after college graduation. High school seminaries provide a college preparatory program that emphasizes English grammar, speech, literature, and social studies. Latin may be required and modem languages are encouraged. In Hispanic communities, knowledge of Spanish is mandatory. The semi­ nary college offers a liberal arts program stressing philosophy and religion, the study of man through the behavioral sciences and history, and the natural sciences and mathematics. In many college seminaries, a student may concentrate in any one of these fields. The remaining 4 years of preparation include sacred scripture; dog­ matic, moral, and pastoral theology; homiletics (art of preaching); church history; liturgy (mass); and canon law. Fieldwork experience usually is required; in recent years, this aspect of a priest’s training has been emphasized. Diocesan and religious priests attend different major seminaries, where slight variations in the training reflect the differences in their duties. Priests commit themselves to celibacy. Postgraduate work in theology is offered at a number of American Catholic universities or at ecclesiastical universities around the world, particularly in Rome. Also, many priests do graduate work in fields unrelated to theology. Priests are encouraged by the Catholic Church   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  to continue their studies, at least informally, after ordination. In recent years, continuing education for ordained priests has stressed social sciences, such as sociology and psychology. Young men never are denied entry into seminaries because of lack of funds. In seminaries for secular priests, scholarships or loans are available. Those in religious seminaries are financed by contributions of benefactors. A newly ordained secular priest usually works as an assistant pastor or curate. Newly ordained priests of religious orders are assigned to the specialized duties for which they are trained. Depending on the talents, interests, and experience of the individual, many opportunities for greater responsibility exist within the church. Job Outlook More priests will be needed in the years ahead to provide for the spiritual, educational, and social needs of the increasing number of Catholics. In recent years, the number of ordained priests has been insufficient to fill the needs of newly established parishes and other Catholic institutions, and to replace priests who retire, die, or leave the priesthood. This situation is likely to intensify if, as expected, seminary enrollments continue to decline and an increasing proportion of priests retire. In response to the shortage of priests, certain traditional functions increasingly are being performed by lay deacons and by teams of clergy and laity. Presently about 8,500 lay deacons have been ordained to preach and perform liturgical functions such as baptisms, distribut­ ing Holy Communion, and reading the gospel at the mass. The only services a deacon cannot perform are saying mass and hearing confes­ sions. Teams of clergy and laity undertake nonliturgical functions such as hospital visits and meetings. Priests will continue to offer mass, administer sacraments, and hear confession, but may be less involved in teaching and administrative work. Earnings Diocesan priests’ salaries vary from diocese to diocese. Based on limited information, in 1988 most salaries ranged from about $6,000 to $9,000 a year. The diocesan priest also may receive a car allowance, free room and board in the parish rectory, and fringe benefits such as group insurance and retirement benefits. Religious priests take a vow of poverty and are supported by their religious order. Priests who do special work related to the church, such as teaching, usually receive a partial salary which is less than a lay person in the same position would receive. The difference between the usual salary for these jobs and the salary that the priest receives is called “contrib­ uted service. ” In some of these situations, housing and related expenses may be provided; in other cases, the priest must make his own arrange­ ments. Some priests doing special work receive the same compensation that a lay person would receive. Related Occupations Roman Catholic priests advise and counsel individuals and groups regarding their religious as well as personal, social, and vocational development. Other occupations involved in this type of work include social workers, clinical and counseling psychologists, teachers, and counselors. Sources of Additional Information Young men interested in entering the priesthood should seek the guidance and counsel of their parish priests. For information regarding the different religious orders and the secular priesthood, as well as a list of the seminaries which prepare students for the priesthood, contact the diocesan Director of Vocations through the office of the local pastor or bishop. Occupational information about the Roman Catholic priesthood can also be obtained from: w-National Conference of Diocesan Vocation Directors, 1307 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago, IL 60605.  Teachers, Librarians, and Counselors Adult and Vocational Education Teachers (D.O.T. 075.127-010; 090.222; 097.227-010 and -014; 099.223, .227-014, -018, -026, and-030; 149.021; 150.027-014; 151.027-014; 152.021; 153.227­ 014; 159.227; 166.227; 239.227; 621.221; 683.222; 689.222; 715.221; 740.221; 789.222; 806.227; and 919.223)  Nature of the Work Adults participate in vocational and adult education not only to learn job skills, but also for personal enrichment. Some adult and vocational education programs prepare people who have graduated or left school for occupations that do not require a college degree, such as welder, word processor, dental assistant, and cosmetologist, or help people upgrade current skills. Others offer courses not specifically intended to prepare for an occupation, such as basic education for school dropouts, cooking, dancing, exercise and physical fitness, photogra­ phy, and the stock market. Adult and vocational education teachers may lecture in classrooms and also give students hands-on experience—much like secondary school shop and home economics teachers. Generally, they demon­ strate techniques, have students apply them, and provide criticism so students can learn from mistakes. For example, welding instructors show students various welding techniques, including the use of tools and equipment. Similarly, teachers of music, tennis, or sewing demon­ strate the techniques before having students apply them. Some instruct in adult basic education programs. Teachers may work with students who do not speak English; teach adults reading, writing, and mathematics up to the eighth grade level; or teach adults through a twelfth grade level in preparation for the General Educational Development Examination (GED). The GED offers the equivalent of a high school diploma. Teachers in this program deal with students at different levels of development who may lack proper study habits and self-confidence, and who may require more attention and patience than other students. These teachers may refer students for counseling or job placement. Because many people who need adult basic education are reluctant to seek it out, teachers may also recruit participants. Adult and vocational education teachers also prepare lessons and assignments, grade papers and do related paperwork, attend faculty and professional meetings, and stay abreast of developments in their field. Working Conditions Teaching involves extended periods of standing and talking, and can be both physically and mentally tiring. Teachers may face frustration with students who have difficulty learning, but they also can experience satisfaction when students succeed. Many adult and vocational education teachers teach part time. Adult basic education teachers are more likely to work full time than other adult and vocational education teachers. Many courses are offered at night or on weekends and range from 1-day minisessions to semesterlong courses. Employment Adult and vocational education teachers held about 466,500 jobs in 1988. About half taught part time, a larger proportion than for other teachers, and many taught only intermittently. However, many of them also held other jobs, in many cases doing work related to the subject they taught. Adult and vocational teachers are employed by automotive repair, bartending, business, computer, electronics, medical technology, and similar schools and institutes; public school systems; community and  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  f' •>« Adult and vocational education teachers may conduct activities outside of the classroom. junior colleges; dance studios; health clubs; businesses that provide formal training for their employees; job training centers; labor unions; and religious organizations. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Training requirements vary widely by State and by subject. In general, teachers need work or other experience in their field, and a license or certificate in fields where these are usually required for full professional status. In some cases, a bachelor’s, master’s, or doctoral degree or other credential is required and in others, an acceptable portfolio of work. Most States and the District of Columbia require adult basic educa­ tion teachers to have a bachelor’s degree from an approved teacher training program, and some require teacher certification. (See state­ ments on elementary and secondary school teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Adult and vocational education teachers should communicate and relate well with students, enjoy working with them, and be able to motivate them. Adult basic education instructors, in particular, must be patient, understanding, and supportive to make students comfortable, develop trust, and help them better understand their needs and aims. Some teachers advance to administrative positions in departments of education, colleges and universities, and corporate training depart­ ments. Such positions may require advanced degrees. (See statement on education administrators elsewhere in the Handbook.) Job Outlook Employment of adult and vocational education teachers is expected to grow as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2000 as the demand for adult and vocational education programs continues to rise. An increasing number of adults are taking courses for career advancement, skills upgrading, and personal enrichment. Enrollments in adult basic education programs are increasing rapidly because of changes in immigration policy that require basic competency in English and civics, and an increased awareness of the difficulty in finding a good job without basic academic skills. Employment of vocational education teachers will not grow as fast as that of adult education teachers because the number of people 16 to 34 years old—the age group traditionally most likely to enroll in a vocational program—will decline through the year 2000. However, vocational education teachers will still be needed to train young adults for entry level jobs and to upgrade the skills of experienced workers who want to advance or switch fields or whose jobs have been elimi­ nated due to changing technology or business reorganization.  125  126  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Most job openings for adult and vocational education teachers will stem from the need to replace persons who leave the occupation. Because many teach part time, their attachment to the occupation is weak and turnover is higher than that for most other teaching occupa­ tions. Opportunities will be best in fields such as computer technology, automotive mechanics, and medical technology which offer very at­ tractive job opportunities outside of teaching. Earnings In 1988, salaried adult and vocational education teachers who usually worked full time averaged about $470 a week. The middle 50 percent earned between $330 and $670. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $210, while the top 10 percent earned more than $815. Earnings varied widely by subject, academic credentials, experience, and region of the country. Part-timers generally earned between $8 and $20 per hour of teaching and did not receive benefits or pay for preparation time outside of class. Related Occupations Adult and vocational education teaching requires a wide variety of skills and aptitudes, including organizational, administrative, and communication skills; the power to influence, motivate, and train others; and creativity. Workers in other occupations that require these aptitudes are other teachers, counselors, school administrators, public relations specialists, and employee development specialists. Sources of Additional Information Information on adult basic education programs and certification re­ quirements is available from State departments of education. For information about vocational education teaching positions, con­ tact State departments of vocational education. For information on adult education teaching positions, contact de­ partments of local government, State adult education departments, schools, colleges and universities, and organizations such as the YMCA and YWCA. General information on adult and vocational education is available from: wAmerican  Association for Adult and Continuing Education, 1112 16th St. NW„ Suite 420, Washington, DC 20036. •-American Vocational Association, 1410 King St., Alexandria, VA 22314.  blueprints, audiovisual materials, and other items also are stored. Archivists often specialize in an area of history or technology so they can properly determine what should become part of the archives. Archivists may also work with specialized types of records—for exam­ ple, machine-readable records, photographs, cartographic records, motion pictures, and sound recordings. Curators manage collections in museums, zoos, aquariums, botanic gardens, and historic sites. They acquire items through purchases, gifts, field exploration, intermuseum loans, or, in the case of plants and animals, breeding. They may restore objects (such as works of art or historic items) that have deteriorated or been damaged. Curators also plan and prepare exhibits. Most curators specialize in fields such as zoology, art, or history. Those working in large institutions may be highly specialized. A large natural history museum, for example, would have specialists in birds, fishes, mammals, and dinosaurs. Furthermore, in large institutions, most curators specialize in functions. Some restore or maintain the collection, while others perform administrative tasks. Registrars, for example, are responsible for keeping track of and moving objects in the collection. In small institutions, with only one or a few curators, they are responsible for almost everything from maintaining collections to directing the affairs of museums. Conservators coordinate the activities of workers engaged in the examination, repair, and conservation of art objects. This may require substantial historical and archeological research. They use X-rays, radiographs, special lights, and other laboratory equipment in examin­ ing objects to determine their condition, the need for repair, and the method of preservation. Archivists and curators are increasingly using computers to catalog and organize collections. Working Conditions The working conditions of archivists and curators vary. Some spend most of their time working with the public, providing reference assis­ tance and educational services. Others work primarily on processing records, which may require meticulous attention to detail, and perhaps work alone or in offices with only one or two other persons. Those who restore and install exhibits or work with bulky, heavy record containers may climb, stretch, or lift, and those in zoos, botanical gardens, and other outdoor museums or historic sites walk a lot.  Archivists and Curators (D.O.T. 101; 102 except .261-014 and .367-010; 109 except .067-010 and .137-010)  Nature of the Work Archivists, curators, museum technicians, conservators, and restorers search for, acquire, analyze, describe, catalog, restore, preserve, ex­ hibit, maintain, and store items of lasting value. These may consist of historical documents, audiovisual materials, corporate records, art, coins, stamps, minerals, clothing, maps, live and preserved plants and animals, buildings, or historic sites. Archivists and curators plan and oversee the work of maintaining collections. They may also, along with technicians and restorers, work directly on collections. Archivists and curators may coordinate educational and public service programs, such as tours, workshops, lectures, and classes, and may work with the boards of institutions to administer plans and policies. Archivists determine what portion of the vast amount of information produced by government agencies, corporations, educational institu­ tions, and other organizations should be made part of a historical record or put on exhibit. They organize and describe records so they can be located easily, and determine whether records should be stored as original documents, on microfilm, or on computers. Archives may be part of a library or museum or may be a separate unit. Most items in archives are textual documents, but photographs,  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Archivists and curators prepare, maintain, and store items of lasting value.  Professional Specialty Occupations Curators in large, heavily endowed museums may travel extensively to evaluate potential additions to the collection and to organize exhibi­ tions. Those in museums with very limited budgets may travel only occasionally. Employment Archivists and curators held about 16,000 jobs in 1988. About onefourth were employed in museums, botanical gardens, and zoos, and one-fifth were in public and private education, particularly in college and university libraries. About 1 in 3 worked in Federal, State, and local government. Most Federal archivists work in the National Ar­ chives and Records Administration; others manage military archives in the Department of Defense. Most Federal Government curators work at the Smithsonian Institution, in the military museums of the Department of Defense, and in archeological and other museums managed by the Department of Interior. All State governments have archival or historical records sections employing archivists. State and local governments have numerous historical museums, parks, li­ braries, and zoos employing curators. Some large corporations have archival or records centers, employing archivists to manage the growing volume of historical records required by law or necessary to the firms’ operations. Religious and fraternal organizations, professional associations, and research firms also em­ ploy archivists and curators. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Employment as an archivist or curator generally requires graduate training and substantial practical or work experience. Many archivists and curators work in archives or museums while completing their formal education, in order to gain the experience that many employers look for when hiring. Employers generally look for archivists with undergraduate and graduate degrees in history or related fields, with courses in archival or library science. An increasing number of archivists have a master’s degree, a doctorate, or a second master’s degree. Approximately 65 colleges and universities offer courses or practical training in archival science; some also offer master’s and doctoral degrees. Archivists need analytical ability to understand the content of docu­ ments and to decipher deteriorated or poor quality printed matter, handwritten manuscripts, or photographs and films. Archivists also must be able to organize large amounts of information and write clear instructions for its retrieval and use. Many archival units are very small, with limited promotion opportu­ nities. Advancement generally is through transferring to a larger unit with supervisory positions. Where an archives is part of a library or a museum, archivists may become librarians, manuscript curators, or managers of these organizations. The minimum requirements for employment as a curator are a bachelor’s degree in an appropriate discipline of the museum’s spe­ cialty—for example, art, history, or archeology—and experience in museum work or museum studies training. In most museums, a mas­ ter’s degree in a related field is generally required, but employers prefer a doctorate. For some positions, an internship of full-time museum work supplemented by courses in museum practices is needed. Students interested in museum work may take courses or obtain a bachelor’s or master’s degree in museum studies (museology). Col­ leges and universities throughout the country offer bachelor’s and master’s degrees in museum studies. However, many employers feel that, while museum studies are helpful, a thorough knowledge of the museum’s specialty and museum work experience are more important. Curatorial positions often require knowledge in a number of fields. For historic and artistic conservation, courses in chemistry, physics, and in painting and crafts are desirable. Since curators—particularly those in small museums—may have administrative and managerial responsibilities, courses in business administration and public relations also are recommended. Curators must be flexible because of their wide variety of duties. They need an aesthetic sense to design and present exhibits, and, in  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  127  small museums, manual dexterity is needed to erect exhibits or restore objects. Leadership ability is important for museum directors, while public relations skills are valuable in increasing museum attendance and fundraising. In large museums, curators may advance through several levels of responsibility, eventually to museum director. Curators in smaller museums often advance to larger ones. Individual research and publi­ cations are important for advancement. Continuing education for archivists, curators, museum technicians, and restorers is available through meetings, conferences, and work­ shops sponsored by archival, historical, and curatorial associations. Continuing education enables these workers to keep up with develop­ ments in the field. Job Outlook Employment of archivists and curators is expected to increase as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Federal Government archival activities are expected to grow slowly, but those in other areas, such as educational services and State and local govern­ ment, are expected to grow faster. Archival jobs will also become available as institutions put more emphasis on establishing archives and organizing records and information. Museums and botanical and zoological gardens, where curators are concentrated, are expected to grow in response to increased public interest in science, art, history, technology, and culture. Despite the anticipated increase in the employment of curators, competition for jobs is expected to be keen. A job as a curator is attractive to many people, and many have the necessary subject knowl­ edge; yet there are only a few openings. Consequently, candidates may have to work part time, or as an intern, or even as a volunteer assistant curator or research associate after completing their formal education, and substantial work experience in collection management, exhibit design, or restoration will be necessary for permanent status. Archivists can improve their job opportunities by taking courses in library or information science. Some employment opportunities will arise in related occupations such as librarian, records manager, collec­ tion manager, public historian, and information scientist. Job prospects will be better in small museums and archives, particu­ larly those in cities or less desirable geographic locations. Earnings Earnings of archivists and curators vary considerably by type and size of employer. Average salaries in the Federal Government, for example, are much higher than those in religious organizations. Sala­ ries of curators in large, well-funded museums may be several times higher than those in small ones. Salaries in the Federal Government depend upon education and experience. In early 1989, inexperienced archivists and curators with a bachelor’s degree started at $ 15,738, while those with some experience started at $19,493. Those with a master’s degree started at $23,846, and with a doctorate, $28,852 or $34,580. In 1988, archivists em­ ployed by the Federal Government averaged $37,210 a year, while curators in the Federal Government averaged $38,303. Related Occupations Archivists' and curators’ interests in preservation and display are shared by anthropologists, arborists, archeologists, artifacts conserva­ tors, botanists, ethnologists, folklorists, genealogists, historians, horti­ culturists, information specialists, librarians, paintings restorers, re­ cords managers, and zoologists. Sources of Additional Information For information about certification for archivists and schools offering courses in archival science, contact: ••-Society of American Archivists, 600 South Federal St., Suite 504, Chicago, IL 60605.  For general information about careers as a curator and schools offering courses in curatorial science, contact; •-American Association of Museums, 12251 St. NW., Suite 200, Washington, DC 20005.  128  Occupational Outlook Handbook  For information about curatorial careers and internships in botanical gardens, contact: (•-American Association of Botanical Gardens and Arboreta, P.O. Box 206, Swarthmore, PA 19081.  For information about conservation and preservation careers, contact: (•-American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, 1400 16th St. NW., Suite 340, Washington, DC 20036.  College and University Faculty (D.O.T. 090.227-010)  Nature of the Work College and university faculty teach and advise over 12 million full­ time and part-time college students and perform a significant part of our Nation’s research. They also study and meet with colleagues to keep up with developments in their field and consult with government, business, nonprofit, and community organizations. Faculty are generally organized into departments, based on subject or field. They usually teach several different courses in their depart­ ment—algebra, calculus, and differential equations, for example. They may instruct undergraduates, graduate students, or both. College and university faculty may give lectures to several hundred students in large halls, lead small seminars, and supervise students in laboratories. They also prepare lectures, exercises, and laboratory experiments, grade exams and papers, and advise and work with students individually. In universities, they also counsel graduate stu­ dents doing research. They may use closed-circuit and cable television, computers, and other teaching aids. Faculty keep up with developments in their field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, and participating in professional conferences. They also do their own research to expand knowledge in their field. They experiment, collect and analyze data, and examine original documents, literature, and other source material. From this, they develop hypotheses, arrive at conclusions, and write about their findings in scholarly journals and books. Many faculty members serve on academic or administrative commit­ tees which deal with the policies of their institution, budgets, equip­ ment purchases, and hiring. Some work with student organizations. Department heads generally have heavier administrative responsibil­ ities. The amount of time spent on each of these activities varies by individual circumstance and type of institution. Faculty members at universities generally spend a significant part of their time doing research; those in 4-ycar colleges, somewhat less; and those in 2-year colleges, relatively little. However, the teaching load usually is heavier in 2-year colleges. Working Conditions College faculty generally have flexible schedules. They must be pres­ ent for classes, usually 12 to 16 hours a week, and for faculty meetings. Most establish regular office hours for student consultations, usually 3 to 6 hours per week. Otherwise, they are relatively free to decide when and where they will work, and how much time to devote to course preparation, study, research, and other activities. They may work staggered hours and teach classes at night and on weekends. They have even greater flexibility during the summer and school holidays, when they may teach or do research, travel, or pursue nonacademic interests. Faculty generally work more than 40 hours a week during the school year, less during the summer. College faculty have the opportunity to develop and share ideas with colleagues and students, teach and do research in their chosen field, and guide and counsel students—activities most find very attractive. On the other hand, budget constraints and the prospect of declining enrollments are making career advancement difficult, are leading to  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  College and university faculty retirements will increase by the year 2000. the replacement of full-time and permanent positions with part-time and temporary ones, and are limiting research facilities and support services. In addition, faculty may experience a conflict between their responsibilities to teach students and the pressure to do research— “publish or perish.” This may be a particular problem for young faculty seeking advancement. Employment College and university faculty held about 846,000 jobs in 1988. Over 70 percent were in public institutions. About one-third of college and university faculty work part time. Some part-timers, known as “adjunct faculty,” have primary jobs outside of academia—in government, private industry, or in non­ profit research—and teach “on the side.” Others want full-time jobs but can’t find them. Some of them work part time in more than one institution. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Most full-time college and university faculty are in four academic ranks: Professors, associate professors, assistant professors, and in­ structors. A small number are lecturers. Most faculty members are hired as instructors or assistant professors. Four-year colleges and universities generally hire doctoral degree holders for full-time long-term positions, but may hire master’s degree holders or doctoral candidates for part-time and temporary jobs. How­ ever, in some departments, such as art, music, and law, other qualifi­ cations may be appropriate. Doctoral programs usually take 4 to 7 years of full-time study beyond the bachelor’s degree. Candidates usually specialize in a subfield of a discipline, for example, organic chemistry, counseling psychology, or European history, but also take courses covering the whole discipline. Programs include 20 or more increasingly special­ ized courses and seminars plus comprehensive examinations on all major areas of the field. They also include a dissertation. This is a report on original research to answer some significant question in the field; it sets forth an original hypothesis or proposes a model and tests it. Students in the natural sciences and engineering usually do laboratory work; in the humanities, they study original documents and other published material. The dissertation, done under the guidance of a faculty advisor, usually takes 1 or 2 years of full­ time work. In some fields, particularly the natural sciences, it is common to spend an additional 2 years on postdoctoral research and study before taking a faculty position. Advancement through the academic ranks in universities and 4year colleges usually requires a doctorate plus teaching experience, research, and publication. In 2-year colleges, a doctorate is helpful  Professional Specialty Occupations but is not generally required, and research and publication are less important. A major step in the traditional academic career is attaining tenure. Newly hired faculty serve a certain period (usually 7 years) under temporary contracts. Then, their record of teaching, research, and overall contribution to the institution is reviewed; tenure is granted if the review is favorable and positions are available. With tenure, a professor cannot be fired without just cause and due process. Those denied tenure usually must leave. Tenure protects the faculty’s aca­ demic freedom—the ability to teach and conduct research without fear of being fired for advocating unpopular ideas. It also gives both faculty and institutions the stability needed for effective research and teaching. About two-thirds of full-time faculty are tenured, and many others are in the probationary period. Budget constraints and the prospect of declining enrollments have made tenure more difficult to obtain. Some full-time faculty are hired in non-tenure-track positions, often filling in for tenured faculty members on leave, and are not even considered for tenure. College faculty need intelligence, inquiring and analytical minds, and a strong desire to pursue and disseminate knowledge. They should be able to communicate clearly and logically, both orally and in writing. They need to be able to establish rapport with students and, as models for them, to be dedicated to the principles of academic integrity and intellectual honesty. Finally, they need to be able to work in an environment where they receive little direct supervision. Job Outlook Employment of college and university faculty is expected to experience little or no change through the year 2000. Most openings will arise as faculty members retire or transfer to other occupations. Employment of faculty depends primarily on enrollments—which depend largely on the size of the traditonal college-age (18-24) popula­ tion and the proportion who attend college. Enrollments were expected to decline in the early and mid-1980’s along with the decline in the traditional college-age population. However, they did not because a  The college age population will begin to increase In the late 1990’s. Population 18 to 24 years of age (millions)  31 ----------------------------------------------------------  129  higher proportion of this declining population attended college. The college-age population will continue to shrink through 1996, and, unless the proportion attending college continues to increase sharply, enrollments will drop. The number of students age 25 or over may increase, but may not compensate for the decline in enrollment of the traditional college population. Almost all faculty job openings will result from replacement needs. However, by the late 1990’s, when today’s college freshmen and sophmores who pursue a doctorate begin to graduate, conditions should improve. The leading edge of the babyboom “echo” generation will reach college age and enrollments will begin to increase. Also, at about this time, faculty retirements should increase significantly as the large number of faculty now in their late 40’s and 50’s approach retirement age. The keen competition for faculty jobs that existed in many fields during the 1970’s and 1980’s will likely continue through the mid1990’s. However, once enrollments and retirements increase in the late 1990’s, opportunities for faculty should be better. In the past two decades, many applicants accepted part-time or short-term academic appointments that offered little hope of tenure. Some had to seek nonacademic positions which did not require a master’s degree or a doctorate. However, as competition for jobs lessens in the late 1990’s, fewer college and university faculty will have to take part-time or short-term appointments. Job prospects will continue to be better in certain fields—business, engineering, computer science, physical sciences, and mathematics, for example—largely because very attractive nonacademic jobs will be available for many potential faculty. Employment of college faculty is also related to the nonacademic job market through an “echo effect.” Good job prospects in a field—for example, engineering during the late 1970’sand early 1980’s—cause more students to enroll, increasing faculty needs in that field. On the other hand, a bad job market—for teachers during the 1970’s, for example—discourages students and reduces demand for faculty.  Earnings Earnings vary according to faculty rank and type of institution and, in some cases, by field. Faculty in 4-year institutions earn higher salaries, on the average, than those in 2-year schools. According to a 1988-89 survey by the American Association of University Professors, salaries for full-time faculty on 9-month contracts averaged $39,410. By rank, the average for professors was $50,420; associate professors, $37,530; assistant professors, $31,160; and instructors, $23,660. Those on 11or 12-month contracts obviously earned more. In fields where there are high-paying nonacademic alternatives, notably medicine and law but also engineering and business, earnings exceed these averages. In others, the liberal arts, for example, they are lower. Many faculty have added earnings, both during the academic year and the summer, from consulting, teaching additional courses, re­ search, writing for publication, or other employment. Most college and university faculty enjoy some unique benefits, including access to campus facilities and tuition waivers for depen­ dents, housing and travel allowances, and paid sabbatical leaves.  Related Occupations College and university faculty function both as teachers and research­ ers. They communicate information and ideas. Related occupations include elementary and secondary school teachers, librarians, writers, consultants, lobbyists, trainers and employee development specialists, and policy analysts. Faculty research activities are often similar to those of their colleagues in industry, government, and nonprofit re­ search organizations.  1975  1980  Source: Bureau of Census   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  1985  1990  1995  2000  Sources of Additional Information Professional societies generally provide information on employment opportunities in their fields. Names and addresses of these societies appear in the statements elsewhere in the Handbook.  130  Occupational Outlook Handbook  I  Counselors (D.O.T. 045.107-010, -014, -018, -038, -042, .117-010; 090.107-010; and 169.267.026)  Nature of the Work Counselors help people evaluate their interests and abilities and advise and assist them with personal, social, educational, and career problems and concerns. Their duties depend on the individuals they serve and the settings in which they work. School and college counselors use interviews, counseling sessions, tests, or other tools to help students understand their abilities, interests, talents, and personality characteristics. They help translate these into realistic academic and career options. They may run career information centers and career education programs. High school counselors advise on college admission requirements, entrance exams, and financial aid, and on trade, technical school, and apprenticeship programs. They help students develop jobfinding skills for part-time and summer work and, for those who are not going to college, full-time jobs. They also help students understand and deal with their social, behavioral, and personal problems. They work with students individually, in small groups, or with entire classes. In classrooms, counselors may work with students in developing interpersonal, decisionmaking, problem­ solving, and other related skills. Counselors consult and work with parents, teachers, school psychologists, school nurses, and social workers. Elementary school counselors do more social and personal counseling, and less vocational and academic counseling than second­ ary school counselors. They observe younger children during class­ room and play activities and confer with their teachers and parents to evaluate their strengths, problems, or special needs. College career planning and placement counselors help students and alumni plan careers and locate jobs. Rehabilitation counselors help persons deal with the personal and vocational impact of their disabilities. The counselor’s goal is to help persons who are disabled become more self-sufficient and productive. They evaluate clients’ disabilities and potential for employment, and arrange for medical care, vocational training, and job placement. They interview the individuals with disabilities and their families, evaluate school and medical reports, and confer and plan with physicians, psychologists, occupational therapists, employers, and others. They then recommend and carry out a rehabilitation program which may include training to help the person become more independent and employable. They also work toward increasing the client’s capacity to adjust and live independently. Employment counselors help individuals make wise career deci­ sions. They help clients explore and evaluate their education, training, work history, interests, skills, personal traits, and physical capacities, and may arrange for aptitude and achievement tests. They also work with individuals in developing jobseeking skills, such as resume writ­ ing and interviewing, and assist clients in locating and applying for jobs. Mental health counselors work with individuals and groups to pro­ mote optimum mental health. They help individuals deal with such concerns as addictions and substance abuse, family, parenting, and marital problems, suicide, stress management, problems with self­ esteem, issues associated with aging, job and career concerns, educa­ tional decisions, and issues of mental and emotional health. Mental health counselors work closely with other mental health specialists, including psychiatrists, psychologists, clinical social workers, and psychiatric nurses. Working Conditions Most school counselors work the traditional 9- to 10-month school year with a 2- to 3-month vacation, although an increasing number are employed on 10 1/2- or 11-month contracts. They generally have the same hours as teachers.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  : "■ '  Counselors assist people with educational, career, and social problems. Rehabilitation and employment counselors generally work a stan­ dard 40-hour week. Self-employed counselors and those working in mental health and community agencies often work evenings to counsel clients who work during the day. College career planning and place­ ment counselors may work long and irregular hours during recruiting periods. Since privacy is essential for confidential and frank discussions with clients, counselors usually have private offices. Employment Counselors held about 124,000 jobs in 1988. More than 2 out of 3 were in educational services. Most of these worked in secondary schools; the rest worked in elementary schools and colleges and univer­ sities. Outside education settings, counselors worked in a wide variety of public and private establishments, including community mental health centers, job training and vocational rehabilitation centers, social agen­ cies, or in nonprofit organizations like Goodwill Industries and Light­ house for the Blind. Some worked in correctional institutions and residential care facilities, such as halfway houses for criminal offenders and group homes for children, the aged, and the disabled. Others worked in hospitals and other health care facilities, such as hospice programs. Counselors also worked in organizations engaged in com­ munity improvement and social change, as well as drug and alcohol rehabilitation programs and State and local government agencies. A growing number of counselors are in private practice, health mainte­ nance organizations, and group practice. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Generally, a master’s degree in college student personnel counseling, elementary or secondary school counseling, rehabilitation counseling, agency or community counseling, mental health counseling, counsel­ ing psychology, career counseling, or a related field is required. In some cases, individuals with a bachelor’s degree in psychology, sociol­ ogy, counseling, or rehabilitation services qualify for employment, particularly if they have had experience in social work, teaching, interviewing, job placement, psychology, or personnel. These individ­ uals may not be eligible for certification or licensure, however. Graduate level counselor education programs are available in nearly 500 colleges and universities, usually in departments of education or psychology. Courses include counseling theory and techniques, assessment and evaluation, individual and group counseling, career development information, and community resources. Up to 2 years of graduate study, including a period of supervised experience in counseling, are usually required for a master’s degree. Fifty-seven graduate institutions offering one or more programs in counseling are currently accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs.  Professional Specialty Occupations Thirty-two States require that counselors in private practice have a State license. Requirements vary from State to State. Many counselors are voluntarily certified by the National Board for Certified Counselors, which grants the credential “National Certified Counselor.” In order to be certified, a counselor must hold a master’s degree in counseling, have at least 2 years of professional counseling experience, and pass NBCC’s National Counselor Examination. Most States require public school counselors to have both counseling and teaching certificates. Depending on the State, a master’s degree in counseling and 2 to 5 years of teaching experience may be required for a counseling certificate. State departments of education can provide specific information. Vocational and related rehabilitation agencies generally require a master’s degree in rehabilitation counseling, counseling and guidance, or counseling psychology for rehabilitation counselor jobs. Some, however, may accept applicants with a bachelor’s degree in rehabilita­ tion services, counseling, psychology, or related fields. Experience in employment counseling, job development, psychology, education, or social work may be helpful. In 1988, the Council on Rehabilitation Education accredited 73 graduate programs in rehabilitation counseling. Usually, 2 years of study—including a period of supervised clinical experience—are re­ quired for the master’s degree. Some colleges and universities offer a bachelor’s degree in rehabilitation services education. In most State vocational rehabilitation agencies, applicants must pass a written examination and be evaluated by a board of examiners. Many employers require rehabilitation counselors to be certified. To become certified, counselors must meet educational and experience standards established by the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification, and pass a written examination. They are then designated as “Certified Rehabilitation Counselors.” Some States require counselors in public employment offices to have a master’s degree; others accept a bachelor’s degree with appropriate counseling courses. Mental health counselors generally have a master’s degree or doctor­ ate in mental health counseling, another area of counseling, or in psychology or social work. They are voluntarily certified by the Na­ tional Academy of Certified Clinical Mental Health Counselors. Gen­ erally, to receive this certification, a counselor must have a master’s degree in counseling, 2 years of post-master’s experience, a period of supervised clinical experience, a taped sample of clinical work, and a passing grade on a written examination. Some employers provide training for newly hired counselors. Many have work-study programs so that employed counselors can earn grad­ uate degrees. Counselors must participate in graduate studies, work­ shops, institutes, and personal studies to maintain their certificates and licenses. Persons interested in counseling should have a strong interest in helping others and the ability to inspire respect, trust, and confidence. They should be able to work independently or as part of a team. Prospects for advancement vary by counseling field. School counsel­ ors may move to a larger school; become directors or supervisors of counseling or pupil personnel services; or, with further graduate education, become counseling psychologists or school administrators. (See statements on psychologists and education administrators else­ where in the Handbook.) Rehabilitation, mental health, and employment counselors may be­ come supervisors or administrators in their agencies. Some counselors move into research, consulting, or college teaching, or go into private practice. Job Outlook Overall employment of counselors is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000. In addition, replacement needs will increase significantly by the end of the decade as the large number of counselors now in their 40’s reach retirement age. Employment of school counselors—the largest specialty area—is expected to grow faster than average because of increasing secondary  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  131  school enrollments, State legislation requiring counselors in elemen­ tary schools, and the expanded responsibilties of counselors. Counsel­ ors are increasingly becoming involved in crisis and preventive coun­ seling, helping students deal with issues ranging from drug and alcohol abuse to death and suicide. Faster than average growth is also expected for rehabilitation and mental health counselors. Insurance companies are increasingly allow­ ing for reimbursement of counselors, enabling many counselors to move from government agencies to private practice. The number of people who need rehabilitation services will rise as advances in medical technology continue to save lives that only a few years ago would have been lost. In addition, more rehabilitation and mental health counselors will be needed as society focuses on ways of developing mental well-being, such as controlling job and family-related stress, with the help of counselors. The number of employment counselors, who work primarily for State and local governments, is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations. The number of counselors in private practice is expected to grow faster than those not in private practice. Earnings The average salary of school counselors in the 1988-89 academic year was $34,244, according to the Educational Research Service. Salaries were lowest in the Southeast and highest in the Far West. Some school counselors earn additional income working summers in the school system or in other jobs. Wage and salary earnings of rehabilitation, mental health, and employment counselors are usually somewhat lower than those of school counselors. Self-employed counselors who have well-estab­ lished practices have the highest earnings. Related Occupations Counselors help people evaluate their interests, abilities, and disabili­ ties, and deal with personal, social, academic, and career problems. Others who help people in similar ways include college and student personnel workers, teachers, personnel workers and managers, social workers, psychologists, psychiatrists, members of the clergy, occupa­ tional and physical therapists, training and employee development specialists, and equal employment opportunity/affirmative action spe­ cialists. Sources of Additional Information For general information about counselors, contact: w-American Association for Counseling and Development, 5999 Stevenson Ave., Alexandria, VA 22304.  For information on training programs accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs, contact; ••-Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs, American Association for Counseling and Development, 5999 Stevenson Ave., Alexandria, VA 22304.  For information on national certification requirements and proce­ dures, contact: ••-National Board for Certified Counselors, 5999 Stevenson Ave., Suite 402, Alexandria, VA 22304.  State departments of education can supply information on colleges and universities that offer approved guidance and counseling training for State certification and licensure requirements. State employment service offices have information about their job opportunities and entrance requirements. For information about rehabilitation counseling, contact: ••-National Rehabilitation Counseling Association, 633 So. Washington St., Alexandria, VA 22314. ••-National Council on Rehabilitation Education, 1213 29th St. NW., Washing­ ton, DC 20007.  A list of accredited graduate programs in rehabilitation counseling may be obtained from: ••-Council on Rehabilitation Education, 185 North Wabash St., Room 1617, Chicago, IL 60601.  132  Occupational Outlook Handbook  For a list of federally funded programs offering training in rehabilita­ tion counseling, contact: ••-Division of Resource Development, Rehabilitation Services Administration, U.S. Department of Education, 330 C St. SW., Washington, DC 20202-2649.  For information on certification requirements for rehabilitation counselors, contact: ••-Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification, 1156 Shure Dr., Suite 350, Arlington Heights, IL 60004.  For information on certification requirements for clinical mental health counselors, contact: ••-National Academy of Certified Clinical Mental Health Counselors, 5999 Stevenson Ave., Alexandria, VA 22304.  For general information about mental health counselors, contact: ••-American Mental Health Counselors Association, 5999 Stevenson Ave., Alexandria, VA 22304.  For general information about school counselors, contact: ••-American School Counselor Association, 5999 Stevenson Ave., Alexandria, VA 22304.  Kindergarten and Elementary School Teachers (D.O.T. 092.227-010, -014; 094.224-010, .227-010 through -022; 099.224­ 010)  Nature of the Work Kindergarten and elementary school teachers play a vital role in the development of children. What is learned and experienced during the early years can shape children’s views of themselves and the world, and affect later success or failure in school and work. Kindergarten and elementary school teachers introduce children to numbers, language, science, and social studies. Teachers lecture and demonstrate to an entire class, and also provide individual attention as much as possible. Kindergarten and elementary school teachers may use games, music, artwork, films, slides, and computers to teach basic skills. They assign lessons, give tests, hear oral presentations, and oversee special projects. They maintain order in the classroom and instill good study habits and an appreciation for learning. Teachers observe and evaluate students’ performance and potential, keep track of their social development and health, and discuss problems or progress with parents. They may also counsel pupils with academic or personal problems. Most elementary school teachers instruct one class of children in several subjects. In some schools, two or more teachers team teach and are jointly responsible for a group of students in at least one subject. In other schools, a teacher may teach one special subject— usually music, art, reading, science, arithmetic, or physical educa­ tion—to a number of classes. In addition to classroom activities, teachers plan lessons, prepare tests, grade papers, prepare report cards, meet with parents, attend faculty meetings, and supervise extracurricular activities after school. Working Conditions Kindergarten and elementary school teachers spend most of their time moving about the classroom, often bending and kneeling to be at eye level with children. Introducing children to the joy of learning and seeing them gain new skills can be very rewarding. However, teachers may have to deal with disruptive children. Including activities outside the classroom, many teachers work more than 40 hours per week. Most elementary school teachers work a traditional 2-semester, 9- to 10-month school year with a 2- to 3-month vacation. Teachers on a 9- to 10-month schedule may teach in the summer session or take other jobs. Many enroll in college courses or workshops. Some teachers in year-round schools work 8-week ses­ sions, are off 1 week between sessions, and have a long midwinter break. Most States have tenure laws that prevent teachers from being fired  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  without just cause and due process. Teachers may obtain tenure after they have satisfactorily completed a probationary period of teaching, usually 3 years. Tenure is not a guarantee of a job, but it does provide some security. Employment Kindergarten and elementary school teachers held about 1,359,000 jobs in 1988. More than 8 out of 10 worked in public schools. Most were in schools that have students in kindergarten through grade six; however, some taught in middle schools, where students are between the upper elementary and lower high school grades. In addition, most of the 275,000 special education teachers—those who work with children who are mentally retarded, emotionally disturbed, learning disabled, mobility impaired, speech and hearing' impaired, or very bright or “gifted” children—taught in elementary schools. Kindergarten and elementary school teachers are distributed geo­ graphically much the same as the population. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement All States and the District of Columbia require public elementary school teachers to be certified. Usually certification is granted by the State board of education, the State superintendent of education, or a certification advisory committee. Teachers may be certified to teach the early childhood grades (usu­ ally nursery school through the third grade); the elementary grades (grades one through six or eight); or a special subject, such as reading, music, or bilingual education. A special certificate is required for special education teachers. Requirements for regular certification vary by State. Generally, however, they include a bachelor’s degree from a 4-year program and completion of an approved teacher education program. Some 5-year programs exist, and these generally lead to a master’s degree as well as teacher certification. Training programs for kindergarten and ele­ mentary school teachers include courses—designed specifically for those preparing to teach—in mathematics, science, social science, music, art, and literature, as well as prescribed professional education courses, such as philosophy of education, psychology of learning, and teaching methods. Future teachers acquire teaching skills through supervised practice teaching in an elementary school for about 1 semester. Many States require a specific grade point average in the course work. Under other certification programs, college graduates who do not meet certification requirements take only those courses that they lack, and then become certified. This may take from 1 to 2 semesters of full-time study. Some programs grant a second bachelor’s degree in education; however, this method of certification is the least common. States also issue emergency certificates to individuals who do not  wm  Kindergarten and elementary school teachers in public schools must be certified.  Professional Specialty Occupations meet all requirements for a regular certificate when schools cannot hire enough teachers with regular certificates. Almost all States require applicants for certification to be tested for competency in basic skills, teaching skills, or subject matter. Almost all require additional education for renewal of a teacher’s certificate— many require a master’s degree. Information on certification is avail­ able from State departments of education or superintendents of schools. Many States have reciprocity agreements that make it easier for teachers who are certified in one State to become certified in another. Kindergarten and elementary school teachers should be organized, creative, dependable, and patient. They should be able to communicate with students and understand their educational and emotional needs. Teachers may become supervisors or administrators, although the number of these positions is limited. In some school systems, wellqualified experienced teachers can be appointed senior or mentor teachers, with higher pay and additional responsibilities. They guide and assist less experienced teachers while retaining most of their teaching responsibilities. Job Outlook Employment of kindergarten and elementary school teachers is ex­ pected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2000 as enrollments increase and class size declines. Rising enrollments reflect the increase in births beginning in the mid-1970’s. Largely because of migration to the South and West, employment of teachers is expected to increase more in those regions and less in others. Job openings for elementary school teachers are expected to remain at current levels through the early and mid-1990’s. Enrollments are expected to level off in the mid- 1990’s and then drop slightly, reflecting a leveling off and then a drop in births some years earlier. Despite this drop in enrollments, the number of job openings should increase substantially from the mid- 1990’s to the year 2000 as the large number of teachers now in their 40’s reach retirement age. In addition, the supply of teachers is likely to increase in response to reports of im­ proved job opportunities, greater public interest in education, and higher salaries. In fact, enrollments in teacher education programs have already increased, and it appears that more former teachers have returned to teaching. Some central cities and rural areas have difficulty attracting teachers. Job prospects should continue to be better in these areas than in suburban districts. The number of teachers employed depends on State and local expen­ ditures for education. The job outlook presented here assumes moder­ ate increases in these expenditures. Pressure from taxpayers to limit spending could result in fewer teachers than projected; pressures to increase spending to improve the quality of education could result in more. Earnings According to the National Education Association, public elementary school teachers averaged about $28,900 a year in 1988-89. Generally, salaries were higher in the Mid-Atlantic and far western States. Earn­ ings in private schools generally were lower. Some teachers earn extra income during the summer working in the school system or in other jobs. Most public school teachers belong to unions that bargain with school systems over wages, hours, and the terms and conditions of employment. Related Occupations Kindergarten and elementary school teaching requires a wide variety of skills and aptitudes, including organizational and administrative abilities; a talent for working with children; communication skills; the power to influence, motivate, and train others; creativity; and patience. Workers in other occupations that require some of these aptitudes include childcare attendants, trainers and employee development spe­ cialists, employment interviewers, librarians, personnel specialists, public relations specialists, social workers, and counselors.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  133  The elementary school age population will continue to increase in the first half of the 1990’s and then will decline through the year 2000. Population 5 to 13 years of age (millions)  34  Source Bureau of Census  Sources of Additional Information Information on certification requirements is available from local school systems and State departments of education. Information on teachers’ unions and education-related issues can be obtained from; w-American Federation of Teachers, 555 New Jersey Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20001. •-National Education Association, 1201 16th St. NW., Washington, DC 20036.  A list of colleges and universities with teacher education programs accredited by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Educa­ tion can be obtained from: •-National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, 2039 K St. NW., Suite 500, Washington, DC 20006.  Librarians (D.O.T. 100 except 100.167-010 and .367-018)  Nature of the Work Librarians make information available to people. They collect, orga­ nize, and lend books, periodicals, films, records, videotapes, computer tapes, and cassettes to all types of users. Library work is divided into two basic functions: User services and technical services. Librarians in user services—for example, reference and children’s librarians—work directly with users to help them find the information they need. Librarians in technical services such as acquisitions librarians and catalogers acquire and prepare materials for use and generally don’t deal with the public. In small libraries or information centers, librarians generally handle all aspects of the work. They select, purchase, and process materials; publicize services; provide reference help; supervise the support staff; prepare the budget; and oversee other administrative matters. In large libraries, librarians specialize in a single area, such as acquisitions,  134  Occupational Outlook Handbook  cataloging, bibliography, reference, special collections, circulation, or administration. Or they may handle special collections. Building and maintaining a strong collection are essential activities in any library. Acquisitions librarians (D.O.T. 100.267-010) select and order books, periodicals, films, and other materials. They read book reviews and study publishers’ announcements and catalogs to keep up with current literature. They deal with publishers and whole­ salers of new books as well as with distributors of records, films, and other materials. Other librarians prepare new material for use. Classifiers (D.O.T. 100.367-014) classify materials by subject matter. They skim through book reviews, encyclopedias, and technical publications to determine the subject matter and assign classification numbers and descriptive headings. Catalogers (D.O.T. 100.387-010) describe books and other library materials in a way that users can easily find them. They super­ vise assistants who prepare cards, computer records, or other access tools that indicate the title, author, subject, publisher, date of publica­ tion, and location in the library. Bibliographers (D.O.T. 100.367-010), who usually work in re­ search libraries, compile lists of books, periodicals, articles, and audio­ visual materials on particular subjects. They also recommend materials to be acquired. Special collections librarians (D.O.T. 100.267-014) collect and organize books, pamphlets, manuscripts, and other materi­ als in a specific field, such as rare books, genealogy, or music. They may prepare reports and exhibits about important additions. Librarians are also classified according to the type of library in which they work: Public libraries, school library/media centers, academic libraries, and special libraries. Public librarians serve people of all ages and from all walks of life, including persons who, because of physical handicaps, cannot use conventional print materials. The professional staff of a large public library system includes the chief librarian, an assistant chief, and division heads who plan and coordinate the work of the entire system. The system also may include librarians who supervise branch libraries and specialists in acquisitions, cataloging, special collections, and user services. Some public librarians work with specific groups of readers. Chil­ dren’s librarians (D.O.T. 100.167-018) find materials children will enjoy and show children how to use the library. They may plan and conduct special programs such as story hours or film programs and work with school and community organizations. Adult services librari­ ans handle materials suited for adults and may conduct education programs. Young adult librarians (D.O.T. 100.167-034) help junior and senior high school students select and use books and other materi­ als. They may organize programs of interest to young adults, such as book or film discussions, concerts of recorded music, or computer clubs. They also may coordinate the library’s work with school pro­ grams. Community outreach librarians and bookmobile librarians (D.O.T. 100.167-014) develop library services to meet the needs of underserved groups such as residents of rural areas, migrant labor camps, inner-city housing projects, and nursing homes. School librarians (D.O.T. 100.167-030) teach students how to use the school library/media center. They show them how to find, evaluate, and use materials and help them with assignments and projects. They prepare lists of materials on certain subjects and help select materials for school programs. They also select, order, and organize library materials. Librarians help teachers develop curricula, acquire materials for classroom instruction, and sometimes team teach. They are often responsible for computer libraries. Academic librarians serve students, faculty members, and research­ ers in colleges and universities. They work closely with faculty mem­ bers to ensure the library has reference materials required for their courses, help students and faculty search data bases, and maintain research collections. Special librarians (D.O.T. 100.167-026) work in information cen­ ters or libraries maintained by government agencies and corporations, as well as by law firms, advertising agencies, museums, professional associations, medical centers, and research laboratories. They build and arrange the organization’s information resources, usually limited  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  to subjects of special interest to the organization. Special librarians may conduct literature searches, compile bibliographies, or prepare abstracts. Many libraries are tied into remote data bases through their computer terminals and some also maintain their own computerized data bases. These libraries may employ automated systems librarians who plan and operate these systems, and information scientists (D.O.T. 109.067-010) who design information storage and retrieval systems and develop procedures for collecting, organizing, interpreting, and classifying information. (See statement on computer systems analysts elsewhere in the Handbook.) Working Conditions Working conditions in user services are different from those in techni­ cal services. In user services, the work may be busy, demanding, even stressful. Contact with people, which often is a major part of the job, can be taxing. Physically, the job may require much standing, stooping, bending, and reaching. In technical services, librarians may sit at desks or at computer terminals all day. Extended work at video display terminals may cause eyestrain and headaches. They may also have their performance monitored for errors or for quantity of tasks completed each hour or day. Librarians typically work a 5-day, 35- to 40-hour week, although 1 in 4 works part time. Public and college librarians may work some weekends and evenings. School librarians generally have the same workday schedule as classroom teachers and similar vacation sched­ ules. Special librarians usually work normal business hours. Employment Librarians held about 143,000 jobs in 1988. Most were in school and academic libraries; the rest were in public libraries and special libraries. A small number of librarians were consultants or administered State and Federal library programs. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A master’s degree in library science (M.L.S.) is necessary for positions in most public, academic, and special libraries, and in some school libraries. In the Federal Government, an M.L.S. or the equivalent in education and experience is needed. Many colleges and universities offer M.L.S. programs, but most employers prefer graduates of the 61 schools accredited by the American Library Association. Most M.L.S. programs require a bachelor’s degree; any liberal arts major is appropriate. Some programs take 1 year to complete; others take 2. A typical graduate program includes courses in the foundations of library and information science, including the history of books and printing, intel­ lectual freedom and censorship, and the role of libraries and informa­ tion in society. Other basic courses cover material selection and pro­ cessing; the organization of information; reference tools and strategies; and user services. Course options include resources for children or young adults; classification, cataloging, indexing, and abstracting; library administration; and library automation. The M.L.S. provides a general, all-round preparation for library work, but some people specialize in a particular area such as archives, media, or library automation. A Ph.D. degree in library and informa­ tion science is advantageous for college teaching or for a top adminis­ trative post, particularly in a college or university library or in a large library system. In special libraries, a knowledge of the subject specialization, or a master’s degree, doctorate, or professional degree in the subject is highly desirable. Subject specializations include medicine, law, busi­ ness, engineering, and the natural and social sciences. In some jobs, knowledge of a foreign language is needed. State certification requirements for public school librarians vary widely. Most States require that school librarians— often called library media specialists— be certified as teachers and have courses in library science. In some cases, an M.L.S., perhaps with a library media specialization, or a master's in education with a specialty in library  Professional Specialty Occupations school media or educational media is needed. State departments of education can provide information about specific requirements. Some States require certification of public librarians employed in municipal, county, or regional library systems. State library agencies can provide information. Experienced librarians may advance to administrative positions, such as department head or library director. Job Outlook Employment of librarians is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Slow employment growth in school libraries reflects the slow growth of enrollments. Public library employment will also grow slowly, due to slow popula­ tion growth and limited budgets. Little growth is likely in colleges and universities, since college enrollments will decline. Employment in special libraries is expected to grow faster than average, as the number of managerial and professional specialty workers they serve grows rapidly. Most job openings will result from the need to replace librari­ ans who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. There have been reports of librarian shortages. If individuals respond to this and library schools start producing more graduates, as is likely, shortages may not last. Employment of library school graduates outside traditional library settings is expected to grow. Nontraditional library settings include bibliographic cooperatives, regional information networks, and infor­ mation search services. These settings employ systems analysts, data base specialists, managers, and researchers. Some of these jobs require a knowledge of both libraries and computers; others, only a knowledge of libraries. Information management outside the traditional library setting, a rapidly developing field, is also expected to offer many employment opportunities for library school graduates with backgrounds in infor­ mation science and library automation. Employers include private corporations, consulting firms, and information brokers. Earnings Salaries of librarians vary by the individual’s qualifications and the type, size, and location of the library. Starting salaries of graduates of library school master’s degree programs accredited by the American Library Association averaged  135  $23,491 in 1988, and ranged from $21,531 in public libraries to $25,183 in school libraries. In college and university libraries, they averaged $22,454, and in special libraries, they averaged $25,190. According to the Educational Research Service, experienced school librarians averaged $31,645 during the 1988-89 school year. According to the Special Libraries Association, salaries for special librarians with 1 to 5 years of library experience averaged $27,576 in 1988, and salaries for special library managers averaged $38,000. Librarians in the Federal Government averaged $34,282 in 1988. Related Occupations Librarians play an important role in the transfer of knowledge and ideas by providing people with access to the information they need and want. Jobs requiring similar analytical, organizational, and com­ municative skills include archivists, information scientists, museum curators, publishers’ representatives, research analysts, information brokers, and records managers. School librarians have many duties similar to those of school teachers. Sources of Additional Information Information on librarianship, including a listing of accredited educa­ tion programs and information on scholarships or loans, may be ob­ tained from: (•-American Library Association, 50 East Huron St., Chicago, IL 60611.  For information on a career as a special librarian, write to: wSpecial Libraries Association, 1700 18th St. NW., Washington, DC 20009.  Material about a career in information science may be obtained from: •-American Society for Information Science, 1424 16th St. NW., Suite 404, Washington, DC 20036.  Information on graduate schools of library and information science can be obtained from: ••Association for Library and Information Science Education, 5633 Palm Aire Dr., Sarasota, FL 34243.  Information on Federal financial assistance for library training is available from: ••-Office of Educational Research and Improvement, Library Programs, Library Development Staff, U.S. Department of Education, 555 New Jersey Ave. NW., Room 402, Washington, DC 20202-1430.  Those interested in a position as a librarian in the Federal service should write to: ••-Office of Personnel Management. 1900 E St. NW., Washington, DC 20415.  Information concerning requirements and application procedures for positions in the Library of Congress may be obtained directly from:  aSst5"  ••Personnel Office, Library of Congress, Washington, DC 20540.  [tNtl i» »|tWP.  State library agencies can furnish information on scholarships avail­ able through their offices, requirements for certification, and general information about career prospects in the State. Several of these agen­ cies maintain job “hotlines” which report openings for librarians. State boards of education can furnish information on certification requirements and job opportunities for school librarians.  Secondary School Teachers (D.O.T. 091.221-010, .227-010; 094.224-010, .227-010 through -022; 099.244-010, and .227-022)  Employment of special librarians is expected to grow faster than employment of other librarians.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Nature of the Work Secondary school teachers help students move from childhood to adulthood. They help them delve more deeply into subjects introduced in elementary school and learn more about the world and about them­ selves. Secondary school teachers specialize in a specific subject, such as English, Spanish, mathematics, history, or biology, in junior high or high school. They may teach a variety of related courses, for example, American history, contemporary American problems, and world geog­ raphy. Special education teachers work with students who are mentally  136  Occupational Outlook Handbook  retarded, emotionally disturbed, learning disabled, or speech and hear­ ing impaired. Others work with very bright or “gifted” students. Teachers lecture and demonstrate to students, and may use films, slides, overhead projectors, and computers. They design their class­ room presentations to meet student needs and abilities. They may also work with students individually. Teachers also assign lessons, give tests, and maintain classroom discipline. Science teachers supervise laboratory work, and vocational educa­ tion teachers give students “hands-on” experience with instruments, tools, and machinery. In addition to classroom activities, secondary school teachers plan lessons, prepare tests, grade papers, prepare report cards, oversee study halls and homerooms, supervise extracurricular activities, and meet with parents and school staff. They also may help students deal with academic or personal problems and in their choice of courses, colleges, and careers. Teachers also participate in education confer­ ences and workshops. Working Conditions Seeing students develop and gain an appreciation of the joy of learning can be very rewarding. However, teaching involves long periods of standing and talking and may be stressful for those who deal with unmotivated and disrespectful students. Including school duties performed outside the classroom, many teachers work more than 40 hours a week. Most teachers work the traditional 9- to 10-month school year with a 2- to 3-month vacation. Teachers on a 9- to 10-month schedule may teach in summer sessions or take other jobs. Many enroll in college courses or workshops. Teachers in districts with a year-round schedule work 8 weeks, are on vacation for 1 week, and have a 5-week midwinter break. Most States have tenure laws that prevent teachers from being fired without just cause and due process. Teachers may obtain tenure after they have satisfactorily completed a probationary period of teaching, normally 3 years. Tenure is not a guarantee of a job, but it does provide some security.  board of education, the State superintendent of education, or a certifi­ cation advisory committee. Requirements for regular certificates vary by State. However, all States require a bachelor’s degree and completion of an approved teacher training program with a prescribed number of subject and education credits and supervised practice teaching in a secondary school. Aspiring teachers either major in the subject they plan to teach while also taking education courses, or major in education and take subject courses. A number of States require specific grade point aver­ ages for teacher certification. Many States offer alternative teacher certification programs for people who have college training in the subject they will teach but do not have the necessary education courses required for a regular certificate. Alternative certification programs are designed to ease teacher shortages in certain subjects or to attract more capable people into teaching. In such programs, individuals begin teaching immedi­ ately under provisional certification. After working under the close supervision of experienced educators for 1 or 2 years while taking education courses outside school hours, they receive regular certifica­ tion if they have progressed satisfactorily. Under other programs, college graduates who do not meet certification requirements take only those courses that they lack, and then become certified. This may take from 1 to 2 semesters of full-time study. They also have the option of obtaining a second bachelor’s degree with an education major, but since this takes more time than taking only those courses required for certification, it is less common. Aspiring teachers who need certifica­ tion may also enter programs that grant a master’s degree in education, as well as certification. States also issue emergency certificates to individuals who do not meet all requirements for a regular certificate when schools cannot hire enough teachers with regular certificates. Almost all States require applicants for teacher certification to be tested for competency in basic skills, teaching skills, or subject matter proficiency. Almost all require additional education for renewal of the teacher’s certificate—many require a graduate degree. Information on certification is available from State departments of education or school superintendents. Many States have reciprocity  Employment Secondary school teachers held about 1,164,000 jobs in 1988; more than 90 percent were in public schools. In addition, some of the 275,000 special education teachers worked in secondary schools. Em­ ployment is distributed geographically much the same as the popu­ lation.  The high school age population will increase from 1990 to the year 2000. Population 14 to 17 years of age (millions)  18  ------------------------------------------------------------  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement All 50 States and the District of Columbia require public secondary school teachers to be certified. Certification is generally for one or several related subjects. Usually certification is granted by the State  Secondary school teachers may use laboratory exercises, videos, and computers to supplement their lectures.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Source: Bureau of Census  Professional Specialty Occupations agreements that make it easier for teachers certified in one State to become certified in another. Secondary school teachers should be knowledgeable in their subject and able to communicate with and motivate students. With additional preparation and certification, teachers may move into positions as school librarians, reading specialists, curriculum specialists, or guid­ ance counselors. Teachers may become administrators or supervisors, although the number of positions is limited. In some systems, wellqualified experienced teachers can become senior or mentor teachers, with higher pay and additional responsibilities. They guide and assist less experienced teachers while keeping most of their teaching respon­ sibilities. Job Outlook Employment of secondary school teachers is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2000 as high school enrollments grow. Largely because of migration to the South and West, employment of teachers is expected to increase more in those regions and less in others. Job openings for secondary school teachers are expected to increase through the year 2000 as enrollments rise. In addition, job openings should increase substantially by the end of the decade as the large number of teachers now in their 40’s reach retirement age. The supply of secondary school teachers is also expected to increase in response to reports of job opportunities, greater public interest in education, and higher salaries. In fact, enrollments in teacher training programs have already increased. More teachers should also be available from the pool of those certified but not now teaching, and from recently instituted alternative certification programs, which are creating oppor­ tunities for knowledgeable people without education courses to enter the occupation. Some central cities and rural areas have difficulty attracting enough teachers, so job prospects should continue to be better in these areas than in suburban districts. The number of teachers employed depends on State and local expen­ ditures for education. The job outlook presented here assumes moder­ ate increases in these expenditures. Pressures from taxpayers to limit spending could result in fewer teachers than projected; pressures to spend more to improve the quality of education could mean more.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  137  Earnings According to the National Education Association, public secondary school teachers averaged about $30,300 a year in 1988-89. Generally, salaries were higher in the Mid-Atlantic and far western States. Earn­ ings in private schools generally were lower. Most public school teachers belong to unions that bargain with school systems over wages, hours, and the terms and conditions of employment. In some schools, teachers receive extra pay for coaching sports and working with students in extracurricular activities. Some teachers earn extra income during the summer working in the school system or in other jobs.  Related Occupations Secondary school teaching requires a wide variety of skills and aptitudes, including organizational, administrative, and recordkeep­ ing abilities; research and communication skills; the power to influence, motivate, and train others; and creativity. Workers in other occupations requiring some of these aptitudes include school administrators, college and university faculty, counselors, trainers and employee development specialists, employment interviewers, librarians, public relations representatives, sales representatives, and social workers.  Sources of Additional Information Information on certification requirements and approved teacher train­ ing institutions is available from State departments of education. Information on teachers’ unions and education-related issues may be obtained from: (•-American Federation of Teachers, 555 New Jersey Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20001. w-National Education Association, 1201 16th St. NW., Washington, DC 20036.  A list of colleges and universities with teacher education programs accredited by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Educa­ tion can be obtained from: ••-National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, 2039 K St. NW., Suite 500, Washington, DC 20006.  Health Diagnosing Occupations Chiropractors (D.O.T. 079.101-010)  Nature of the Work Chiropractors are health practitioners who primarily treat patients whose health problems are associated with the body’s structural and neurological systems, especially the spine. Interference with these systems is believed to impair normal functions and lower resistance to disease. Chiropractors hold that misalignment or compression of the spinal nerves, for example, can alter many important body functions by affecting the neurological system. The chiropractic approach to health care reflects a holistic view, which stresses the patient’s overall well-being. It recognizes that many factors affect health, including exercise, diet, rest, environment, and heredity. In keeping with the holistic tradition, chiropractors encourage the use of natural, nondrug, nonsurgical health treatments. In cases where chiropractic care is inappropriate, chiropractors refer patients to other health practitioners. They also recommend lifestyle changes— in eating and sleeping habits—to their patients. Like other health practitioners, chiropractors follow a standard rou­ tine to secure the information needed for diagnosis and treatment: They take the patient’s medical history, conduct physical, neurological, and orthopedic examinations, order laboratory tests, and take X-rays, if needed. They also employ a postural and spinal analysis unique to chiropractic diagnosis. The treatment depends on the diagnosis. In cases where difficulties can be traced to weakness of the musculoskeletal structure, chiroprac­ tors will treat patients by manually manipulating or adjusting the spinal column. In addition, chiropractors utilize physiological therapeutics such as water, light, massage, ultrasound, electric, and heat therapy. In addition, straps, tapes, braces, and other support mechanisms may be used. Counseling about nutrition, exercise, stress management, and other matters is offered as necessary. Some chiropractors specialize in areas related to athletic injuries, diseases and disorders of children, or mental and nervous disorders. Others specialize in taking and interpreting X-rays or in orthopedics. Chiropractors, like other health professionals, are subject to State laws and regulations that specify the types of services they may or may not provide. All States, for example, prohibit chiropractors from prescribing drugs and performing surgery. Almost all chiropractors are solo or group practitioners. Depending on practice size, they may have administrative and financial responsi­ bilities in addition to treating patients. In larger offices, chiropractors delegate these tasks to office managers. Working Conditions Chiropractors work in offices that are clean and comfortable. The average workweek is about 42 hours. Chiropractors who work for themselves, as many do, are free to set their own hours. Since they must accommodate their patients, however, this sometimes means working in the evening and weekends. Since X-rays are an important diagnostic tool, chiropractors must take appropriate precautions against the dangers of repeated exposure to radiation. Employment In 1988, an estimated 36,000 persons practiced chiropractic. About 70 percent of active chiropractors are in solo practice. The remainder are in group practice or work for other chiropractors. A small number teach and conduct research at chiropractic colleges. Digitized138 for FRASER https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Chiropractors manipulate the spine to relieve pain.  Chiropractors differ from other health practitioners in their propen­ sity to locate in small communities; half work in cities of 50,000 inhabitants or less. There are also geographic imbalances in the distri­ bution of chiropractors, in part because many of them establish their practices in areas close to colleges of chiropractic. Large numbers of chiropractors work in California, for example, where 5 of the Nation’s 14 accredited chiropractic schools are located. Although California has a large number of chiropractors, other areas have higher concentrations relative to the population. Portions of the country with concentrations higher than the national average include the West and the Southwest, including Oregon, Colorado, Wyoming, Arizona, and New Mexico. Relative to population, the fewest chiropractors practice in the Middle Atlantic and Southeastern States of Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement All 50 States and the District of Columbia regulate the practice of chiropractic and grant licenses to chiropractors who meet educational requirements and pass a State board examination. Many States have reciprocity agreements that permit chiropractors already licensed in another State to obtain a license without taking an examination. The scope of the practice permitted and the educational requirements for a license vary considerably from one State to another, but in general, State licensing boards require successful completion of a 4year chiropractic college course following 2 years (or 60 semester hours) of undergraduate education. Most State boards recognize only academic training in chiropractic colleges accredited by the Council on Chiropractic Education. Several States require that chiropractors pass a basic science examination, similar to that required for other health practitioners. All States require a licensure exam. Most State boards recognize either all or part of the three-part test administered by the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners. State examinations may supplement the National Board tests, depending on State requirements. To maintain licensure, 44 States require completion of a specified  Professional Specialty Occupations number of hours of continuing education each year to remain current in the field. Continuing education programs are offered by chiropractic colleges, the American Chiropractic Association (ACA), International Chiropractors Association, and State chiropractic associations. Special councils within the ACA also offer programs leading to certification, called "diplomate status,” in the areas of orthopedics, nutrition, and radiology and internal disorders. In 1989, 14 of the 17 chiropractic colleges in the United States were fully accredited by the Council on Chiropractic Education. All chiropractic colleges require applicants to have at least 2 years of undergraduate study, including courses in English, the social sci­ ences, organic and inorganic chemistry, biology, physics, and psychology. Chiropractic colleges emphasize courses in skeletal manipulation and spinal adjustments. All, however, offer a broader curriculum consisting of the basic and clinical sciences in addition to the chiroprac­ tic courses. During the first 2 years, most chiropractic colleges empha­ size classroom and laboratory work in basic science subjects such as anatomy, public health, microbiology, pathology, physiology, and biochemistry. The last 2 years stress physical and laboratory diagnosis, neurology, orthopedics, geriatrics, physiotherapy, nutrition, in addi­ tion to adjustment techniques and clinical experience. Students com­ pleting chiropractic education earn the degree of Doctor of Chiropractic (DC.). Chiropractic requires keen observation to detect physical abnormali­ ties and considerable hand dexterity but not unusual strength or endur­ ance. Persons desiring to become chiropractors should be able to work independently and handle responsibility. The ability to work with detail is important. As in other health-related occupations, sympathy, understanding, and the desire to help others are desirable qualities for dealing effectively with patients. Newly licensed chiropractors have a number of options upon gradua­ tion: They can apply for a residency program, set up a new practice, purchase an established one, enter into partnership with an established practitioner, or take a salaried position with an established chiropractor to acquire the experience and the funds needed to open and equip an office.  Job Outlook Demand for chiropractic is related to the ability of patients to pay, either directly or through health insurance, and to public acceptance of the profession, which appears to be growing. At present, newly graduated chiropractors enter practice with little difficulty. However, the number of graduates from chiropractic col­ leges has increased fourfold since the early 1970’s, and, as more students graduate, new chiropractors may encounter competition. This will be especially true for chiropractors trying to establish a practice in areas where other practitioners already are located.  Earnings In 1987, the median income for experienced chiropractors was about $64,000, after expenses, according to the American Chiropractic Asso­ ciation. In chiropractic, as in other types of independent practice, earnings are relatively low in the beginning. As in most other health professions, earnings are influenced by the characteristics and qualifications of the practitioner, the number of years in practice, and geographic location. Self-employed chiropractors must provide for their own health insur­ ance and retirement.  Related Occupations Chiropractors diagnose, treat, and work to prevent diseases, disorders, and injuries. They emphasize the importance of the nervous system for good health. Other professions requiring similar skills include physicians, dentists, optometrists, podiatrists, veterinarians, occupa­ tional therapists, and physical therapists.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  139  Sources of Additional Information General information on chiropractic as a career is available from: (•-American Chiropractic Association, 1701 Clarendon Blvd., Arlington, VA 22209. •-International Chiropractors Association, 1110 North Glebe Rd., Suite 1000, Arlington, VA 22201.  For a list of chiropractic colleges, as well as general information on chiropractic as a career, contact: •-Council on Chiropractic Education, 4401 Westown Parkway, Suite 120, West Des Moines, IA 50265.  For information on State education and licensure requirements, contact: •-Federation of State Licensing Boards, 501 East California Ave., Glendale, CA 91206.  For information on requirements for admission to a specific chiro­ practic college, as well as scholarship and loan information, contact the admissions office.  Dentists (D.O.T. 072, except .117)  Nature of the Work Dentists diagnose and treat problems of the teeth and tissues of the mouth. They take X-rays, place protective plastic sealants on chil­ drens’ teeth, fill cavities, straighten teeth, repair fractured teeth, and treat gum disease. Dentists remove teeth only when necessary and provide dentures to replace missing teeth. They also perform corrective surgery of the gums and supporting bones. Increasingly, dentists are concerned with preventing dental problems. In addition to cleaning teeth, dentists may provide instruction in diet, flossing, the use of fluorides, and other aspects of dental care. Dentists may devote some time to laboratory work such as making dentures and crowns. More commonly, they send specifications for dentures and crowns to dental laboratories. Some dentists employ dental hygienists to clean patients’ teeth and provide instruction for patient self-care. Dentists may also employ other assistants to perform office work, assist in “chairside” duties, and provide therapeutic ser­ vices under their supervision. (The work of dental hygienists, dental assistants, and dental laboratory technicians is described elsewhere in the Handbook.) The practice of dentistry is changing as a result of changes in the dental care needs of the population, greater use of support personnel, and technological advances that affect the materials and techniques dentists employ. A growing percentage of young dentists are preparing for specialty practice. Despite the trend toward specialization, most dentists are general practitioners who handle a wide variety of dental needs. Such timehonored tasks as cleaning teeth and filling cavities no longer fill the general practitioner’s day, however. Fluoridation of community water supplies and improved dental hygiene have dramatically improved the dental health of the population. Dental caries among all age groups— children, in particular—have declined. As a result, dental services are shifting from children to the elderly, who generally require more complex dental procedures such as endodontic services, fixed bridges, and partial dentures. In 1987, about 20 percent of all dentists practiced in one of the eight specialty areas recognized by the American Dental Association. The largest group of specialists are orthodontists, who straighten teeth. The next largest group, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, operate on the mouth and jaws. The remainder specialize in pediatric dentistry (dentistry for children); periodontics (treating the gums); prosthodontics (making artificial teeth or dentures); endodontics (root canal ther­ apy); public health dentistry (community dental health); and oral pa­ thology (diseases of the mouth). Since most dentists are in private practice, they must handle the business aspects of running an office in addition to diagnosing and  140  Occupational Outlook Handbook  treating dental disease. Dentists typically oversee a wide variety of administrative tasks, ranging from keeping the books to negotiating a lease for office space to buying new equipment. Sometimes they perform these tasks themselves, but often they delegate them to a member of the staff or hire an office manager to make day-to-day decisions about staff, supplies, workflow, and the lease. Working Conditions Most dental offices are open 5 days a week. Some dentists work evenings and weekends to meet their patients' needs. Most dentists work about 40 hours a week, although some work more. Younger dentists may work fewer hours as they build up their practice, while established dentists often work fewer hours as they grow older. A considerable number continue in part-time practice well beyond the usual retirement age. Employment Dentists held about 167,000 jobs in 1988. Because some dentists hold more than one job, the number of jobs exceeds the number of professionally active civilian dentists—about 142,000 in 1988, according to the U.S. Public Health Service. Almost 9 out of 10 dentists are in private practice. Private practice, however, includes a wide variety of work settings and payment sys­ tems. Some dentists work in shopping malls; others contract with individual companies to provide dental services to a firm’s employees. Of the dentists outside of private practice, about half do research, teach, or hold positions in dental schools. Others work in hospitals and clinics, or are dental interns, residents, or other advanced education  ..  Dentists wear protective clothing to guard against infection.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  students. About 2,000 civilian dentists work for the Federal Govern­ ment, predominantly in the hospitals and clinics of the Veterans Ad­ ministration and the U.S. Public Health Service. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement All 50 States and the District of Columbia require dentists to be licensed. To qualify for a license in most States, a candidate must graduate from a dental school approved by the Commission on Dental Accreditation and pass written and practical examinations. In 1988, candidates in 49 States and the District of Columbia could fulfill part of the State licensing requirements by passing a written examination given by the National Board of Dental Examiners. Most State licenses permit dentists to engage in both general and specialized practice. Currently, about 15 States require dentists to obtain a specialty license before practicing as a specialist. Requirements include 2 to 4 years of graduate education and, in some cases, completion of a special State examination. Extra education also is necessary in the other States, but the dental profession, not the State licensing authority, regulates the specialist’s practice. To practice in a different State, a licensed dentist usually must pass that State’s examination. However, about 20 States grant licenses to dentists from other States on the basis of their credentials. Dentists who want to teach or do research usually spend an additional 2 to 4 years in advanced dental training in programs operated by dental schools, other institutions of higher education, and hospitals. Dental schools require a minimum of 3 to 4 years of college-level predental education. In fact, the overwhelming majority of dental students are college graduates. Three out of four of the students entering dental schools in 1987 had a bachelor’s or master’s degree. Predental education must include courses in both the sciences and humanities. All dental schools participate in a nationwide testing program, and, in selecting students, they consider scores earned on these tests along with the applicants’ overall grade point average (GPA), science course GPA, and information gathered through recommendations and inter­ views. Many State-supported dental schools give preference to resi­ dents of the State. Dental school generally lasts 4 academic years, although one institu­ tion condenses the program into 3 calendar years, and another program lasts 5 years. Studies begin with classroom instruction and laboratory work in basic sciences including anatomy, microbiology, biochemis­ try, and physiology. Courses in preclinical technique and beginning courses in clinical sciences also are provided at this time. During the last 2 years, the student gains practical experience by treating patients, usually in dental clinics. Most dental schools award the degree of Doctor of Dental Surgery (D.D.S). An equivalent degree, Doctor of Dental Medicine (D.M.D.), is conferred by the rest. Earning a dental degree is a costly process, but financial aid is available from the Federal and State governments, health-related orga­ nizations, industry, and dental schools. Many dental students rely on student loans to finance their professional training. Dentistry requires both manual skills and a high level of diagnostic ability. Dentists should have good visual memory, excellent judgment of space and shape, and a high degree of manual dexterity, as well as scientific ability. Good business sense, self-discipline, and the ability to instill confidence are helpful for success in private practice. High school students who want to become dentists are advised to take courses in biology, chemistry, health, and mathematics. Dental school graduates may launch their careers by working for established dentists on an associate basis for a year or two. This enables them to gain experience and save money to equip an office of their own. Most dental school graduates, however, purchase an established practice or open a new practice immediately after graduation. A growing number of new graduates—currently about one-third— enroll in postgraduate training programs in approved hospitals or dental schools. Dentists who enter the Armed Forces are commissioned as captains  Professional Specialty Occupations in the Army and Air Force and as lieutenants in the Navy. Graduates of recognized dental schools are eligible for positions in the Federal civil service and for commissions (equivalent to lieutenants in the Navy) in the U.S. Public Health Service. Job Outlook Employment of dentists is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2000 as changes in population size and structure boost demand for preventive and restorative dentistry. As members of the baby-boom generation advance into middle age, a large number will be candidates for intensive dental care. Unlike younger people, who have benefited from advances in preventive dental care, people born before the 1950’s tend to have intricate dental work that will require complicated maintenance as they grow older. Moreover, elderly people, an increasing proportion of the population, are more likely to retain their teeth than in the past and will increase demand for maintenance and preventive care and treatment of oral diseases and other abnormalities. Also contributing to job growth for dentists are growing public awareness that regular dental care helps prevent and control dental disease, and fairly widespread dental insurance, which makes it easier for people to purchase dental care. The private practice of dentistry is expected to remain competitive, though less so than in recent years. Keen competition for patients during much of the decade of the 1980’s is attributable to the influx of new dental graduates that resulted from a Federal decision to support expansion of the Nation’s dental schools during the 1960’s. New graduates eventually found that some communities already had enough dentists; setting up a practice in those places proved difficult. More­ over, demand for dental care drops during economic downturns. Dental school enrollments have declined over the past decade (see chart), and no upturn is foreseen before the end of the century. More­ over, the increasing propensity of dental school graduates to pursue specialty training delays their entry into practice by several years. Together, these trends portend a reduced supply of new practitioners, which means that opportunities for young dentists will improve. Although competition among dentists is likely to abate, a poorly managed practice is unlikely to succeed. Weekend and evening hours, a competitive fee structure, acceptance of dental insurance, and expan­ sion of services are business practices that may help a dental practice thrive. Replacement needs create relatively few job openings for dentists. Once having completed their training and entered practice, dentists tend to remain in the profession. Some dentists reduce their hours of work because of ill health or desire for leisure, but very few individuals leave dentistry to take up other careers. Earnings During the first year or two of practice, dentists often earn less than they do after they develop their practice. Specialists generally earn considerably more than general practitioners. The net median income of dentists in general practice was about SjjJ&rQQO^a year in 1988, according to the American Dental Association. Net median income of those in specialty practices was about $100,000 a year. A relatively large proportion of dentists are self-employed. Like other business owners, these dentists must provide their own health insurance, life insurance, and retirement benefits. The location of the dental practice has a large influence on the dentist’s earnings. For example, in high-income urban areas, dental services are in great demand. However, a practice can be developed most quickly in small towns, where new dentists can become known easily and where they may face less competition from established practitioners. Although income in small towns may rise rapidly at first, over the long run, the level of earnings, like the cost of living, may be lower than it is in larger communities. Except for emergencies, dental work generally can be postponed. During periods of high unemployment and economic hardship, there­ fore, dentists tend to experience a reduction in the volume of work  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  141  The decline of dental school enrollments points to better opportunities for young practitioners. First-year enrollments  Source American Dental Association  and lower earnings. However, dental insurance coverage somewhat dampens the impact of economic downturns on the demand for dental care. Related Occupations Dentists examine, diagnose, and treat various oral diseases and abnor­ malities. Others whose work involves personal contact and requires a long and rigorous period of scientific training include psychologists, optometrists, physicians, veterinarians, and podiatrists. Sources of Additional Information For information on dentistry as a career and a list of accredited dental schools, contact: (•-American Dental Association, Council on Dental Education, 211 E. Chicago Ave., Chicago, IL 60611. (•-American Association of Dental Schools, 1625 Massachusetts Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20036.  The American Dental Association also will furnish a list of State boards of dental examiners. Persons interested in practicing dentistry should obtain the requirements for licensure from the board of dental examiners of the State where they plan to work. Prospective dental students should contact the office of student financial aid at the schools to which they apply for information on scholarships, grants, and loans, including Federal financial aid.  Optometrists (D.O.T. 079.101-018)  Nature of the Work Over half the people in the United States wear glasses or contact lenses. Optometrists (doctors of optometry, also known as O.D.’s) provide most of the primary vision care these people need.  142  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Optometrists should not be confused with either ophthalmologists or dispensing opticians. Ophthalmologists are physicians who special­ ize in medical diagnosis and treatment of eye and vision disorders, especially diseases and injuries to the eye. Ophthalmologists may perform eye surgery and prescribe drugs or other eye treatment, includ­ ing corrective lenses. Dispensing opticians fit and adjust eyeglasses and in some States may fit contact lenses according to prescriptions written by ophthalmologists or optometrists, but they do not examine eyes or prescribe treatment. (See statements on physicians and dispens­ ing opticians elsewhere in the Handbook.) Optometrists are primary eye care providers who examine people’s eyes to diagnose and treat vision problems and, in some cases, eye disease. They also test to insure that the patient has proper depth and color perception and the ability to focus and coordinate the eyes. Optometrists prescribe eyeglasses, contact lenses, vision therapy, and low-vision aids. Optometrists may use drugs for diagnosis and, as of 1988, they may use drugs to treat eye diseases in 23 States. When optometrists diagnose conditions requiring treatment beyond the optometric scope of practice, they arrange for consultation with the appro­ priate health care practitioners. Although most optometrists are in general practice, some specialize in work with the elderly or with children. Others work with partially sighted persons, who use microscopic or telescopic lenses. Still others concentrate on contact lenses, sports vision aids, or vision therapy. Optometrists teach, do research, consult, and serve on health advisory committees of various kinds. The majority of optometrists are private practitioners and, therefore, must handle or oversee the business aspects of running an office as well as treating patients. Although they may hire an office manager to handle day-to-day duties, optometrists in private practice are ultimately responsible for such administrative tasks as developing a clientele, promoting the practice, negotiating for office space, keeping the books, paying salaries, arranging for employee benefits, keeping tax records, and ordering equipment and supplies. Office management and market­ ing duties are also part of the job for optometrists who buy optical store franchises and operate as independent business owners. Opportu­ nities for optometrists in nontraditional modes of practice such as retail optical stores have grown rapidly in recent years. Working Conditions Optometrists work in places—usually their own offices—that are clean, well lighted, and comfortable. The work requires attention to detail. Optometrists who are self-employed have considerable flexibil­ ity in setting their hours of work, and many practitioners choose to work over 40 hours a week. Saturday and evening hours, to suit the needs of patients, are not uncommon. Employment Optometrists held about 37,000 jobs in 1988. The number of jobs is greater than the number of practicing optometrists because some  ..  An optometrist prepares to test a patient’s eyesight.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  optometrists hold two or more jobs. For example, an optometrist may have a private practice and also work all or part of a day each week in another practice, clinic, or vision care center. Although many optometrists are in solo practice, a growing number are in partnership or group practices, largely because young optome­ trists often have to pay off educational loans and because setting up a practice is expensive. For the same reasons, some optometrists work as salaried employees in the offices of established practitioners, health maintenance organizations (HMO’s), optical stores, opthalmologists, and the Veterans Administration. Some optometrists act as consultants to industrial safety programs, insurance companies, manufacturers of ophthalmic products, HMO’s, and others. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement All States and the District of Columbia require that optometrists be licensed. Applicants for a license must have a Doctor of Optometry degree from an accredited optometric school or college and pass a State board examination. In some States, applicants can substitute the examination of the National Board of Examiners in Optometry, usually taken in the third year of optometric school, for part or all of the written State examination. Some States allow applicants to be licensed without lengthy examination if they have a license in another State. In 47 States and the District of Columbia, optometrists must earn a certain number of continuing education credits to renew their licenses. Licenses are renewed either annually or biennially. The Doctor of Optometry degree requires completion of a 4-year professional degree program at an accredited optometric school pre­ ceded by at least 2 or 3 years of preoptometric study at an accredited college or university (most optometry students hold a bachelor’s de­ gree). In 1989, 16 U.S. schools and colleges of optometry were accredited by the Council on Optometric Education of the American Optometric Association. Requirements for admission to schools of optometry include courses in English, mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology or zoology. A few schools require or recommend courses in psychology, social studies, literature, philosophy, and foreign languages. All applicants must take the Optometric Admissions Test (OAT). Competition for admission is keen. Business ability, self-discipline, and the ability to deal tactfully with patients are important for success. Optometrists wishing to teach or perform research may study for a master’s or Ph.D. degree in visual science, physiological optics, neurophysiology, public health, health administration, health informa­ tion and communication, or health education. One-year postgraduate clinical residency programs are available for optometrists who wish to specialize in certain aspects of optometry, including family practice optometry, pediatric optometry, geriatric optometry, low-vision reha­ bilitation, vision training, contact lenses, hospital-based optometry, and primary care optometry. Job Outlook Employment of optometrists is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2000 in response to the vision care needs of a growing and aging population. Of central importance is the maturing of the large baby-boom generation, together with rapid growth in the elderly population in the years immediately ahead. Visits to both optometrists and ophthalmologists are more frequent for persons over the age of 45, reflecting the onset of vision problems in middle age and the increased likelihood of cataracts, glaucoma, diabetes, and hypertension in old age. Demand for optometric services is likely to grow due to greater recognition of the importance of vision care on the part of the popula­ tion and improved ability to pay. Rising personal incomes, growth in employee vision care plans, and a recent change in the Medicare law should all heighten demand for optometric services. Medicare now pays for certain eye care services provided by optometrists, a change that is expected to produce increased business from persons aged 65  Professional Specialty Occupations and above. However, optometrists will face competition as ophthal­ mologists try to regain their share of the elderly market. Employment of optometrists would grow even more rapidly were it not for the anticipated productivity gains. Greater use of optometric aides and other support personnel, and introduction of new kinds of equipment are expected to allow optometrists to handle more visits, thereby constraining demand for additional practitioners. Replacement needs will produce some job openings in the years ahead. In this occupation, replacement needs arise almost entirely from retirements and deaths. Optometrists, like other health prac­ titioners, have a strong attachment to their profession and generally remain in practice until they leave the labor force; few transfer to other occupations. Because one-fourth of all active optometrists are now over 50 years of age, it is likely that a large number of experienced practitioners will need to be replaced by the year 2000.  which uses sound waves to pulverize kidney stones, are replacing traditional treatment methods. High-technology medicine requires much skill and training. Its dominant role in American medical care underlies the system of spe­ cialty medicine. In fact, most M.D.’s are specialists. Medical special­ ties for which there is training include internal medicine, general surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, psychiatry, pediatrics, radiology, anesthesiology, ophthalmology, pathology, and orthopedic surgery. While most M.D’s specialize, D.O.’s tend to be primary care providers such as family practitioners.  Table 1. Distribution of M.D.’s by specialty, 1986 Percent Total................................................................................................  Earnings According to the American Optometric Association, net earnings of new optometry graduates in their first full year of practice averaged about $40,000 in 1988. Experienced optometrists averaged about $65,000 annually. Incomes vary greatly, depending upon location, specialization, and other factors. Optometrists who start out by working on a salaried basis tend to earn more money initially than optometrists who set up their own independent practice. However, in the long ran, those in private practice generally earn more than those employed by others. Related Occupations Workers in other occupations who do similar work or apply logical thinking and scientific knowledge to prevent, diagnose, and treat disease, disorders, or injuries in humans or animals are chiropractors, dentists, physicians, podiatrists, veterinarians, ophthalmologists, and opticians. Sources of Additional Information For information on optometry as a career, write to: ••-American Optometric Association, Educational Services, 243 North Lind­ bergh Blvd., St. Louis, MO 63141.  Additional career information and a listing of accredited optometric educational institutions, as well as required preoptometry courses and admission information, can be obtained from: •-Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry, 6110 Executive Blvd., Suite 514, Rockville, MD 20852.  The Board of Optometry in the capital of each State can supply information on licensing requirements. For information on specific admission requirements and sources of financial aid, contact individual optometry schools.  143  100  General and family practice............................................................. 11.9 Medical specialties: Cardiovascular specialist.............................................................. 2.5 Dermatology................................. ,.............................................. 1.2 Gastroenterology.......... ......... ...................................................... 1.1 Internal medicine........................................................................... 16.0 Pediatrics........................................................................................ 6.4 Pulmonary disease........................................................................ 1.0 Surgical specialties: General surgery............................................................................. 6.5 Neurological surgery............................................................................7 Obstetrics/gynecology.................................................................. 5.5 Ophthalmology.............................................................................. 2.7 Orthopedic surgery....................................................................... 3.1 Otorlary ngology............................................................................. 1.3 Plastic surgery....................................................................................... 7 Urological surgery........................................................................ 1.6 Other specialties: Anesthesiology.............................................................................. 4.1 Child psychiatry.................................................................................... 7 Diagnostic radiology.................................................................... 2.4 Emergency medicine.................................................................... 2.2 Neurology...................................................................................... 1.5 Occupational medicine.........................................................................5 Pathology........................................................................................ 2.7 Physical and rehabilitation medicine ................................................ 6 Psychiatry...................................................................................... 5.7 Public health.......................................................................................... 5 Radiology...................................................................................... 1.5 Other............................................................................................... 15.3 Source; American Medical Association  Physicians (D.O.T. 070 and 071)  Nature of the Work Physicians perform medical examinations, diagnose illnesses, and treat people suffering from injury or disease. They also advise patients on good health practices. There are two types of physicians: The M.D.—Doctor of Medicine—and the D.O.—Doctor of Osteopathy. While M.D.’s and D.O.’s may use all accepted methods of treatment, including drugs and surgery, D.O.’s place special emphasis on the body’s musculoskeletal system. They believe that good health requires proper alignment of bones, muscles, ligaments, and nerves. In recent years, advances in medical technology have been many and dramatic. Some have resulted in entirely new medical treatments, such as liver and kidney transplants and ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. Others, such as laser surgery and lithotripsy,  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  The shift from fee-for-service medicine to “managed care” is begin­ ning to alter the practice environment as well. Managed care refers to the effort to cut costs by setting guidelines for medical practice, such as the type and number of tests a physician can order, based on each patient’s symptoms. Examples of managed care systems are the popular health maintenance organizations (HMO’s) and preferred provider organizations (PPO’s). Working Conditions Physicians often work long, irregular hours. While one-fourth gener­ ally work a 40-hour week, almost half work more than 60 hours a week. Most specialists work fewer hours each week than general and family practitioners. As doctors approach retirement age, they may accept fewer new patients and tend to work shorter hours. Physicians in salaried positions, such as those in HMO’s or group practice, generally have shorter and more regular hours, consult more with peers, and have more flexible work schedules than solo prac­ titioners.  144  Occupational Outlook Handbook  Some physicians specialize in obstetrics. Unlike salaried physicians or those in group practice, solo prac­ titioners are responsible for the business aspect of a practice. This includes handling all administrative tasks such as keeping track of inventory, ordering supplies, paying bills, and hiring support per­ sonnel. Employment Physicians (M.D.’s and D.O.’s) held about 535,000 jobs in 1988. About 2 out of 3 were in office-based practice; about one-fifth were employed in hospitals; and most of the remainder practiced in HMO’s, urgent care centers, surgicenters, public health clinics, and the Federal Government. While some physicians are solo practitioners, a growing number are partners or salaried employees of group practices. Sometimes organized as clinics and sometimes as a group of physicians, medical groups can afford expensive medical equipment and realize other business advantages. For this reason, and because such practices have the flexibility to adapt to changes in the health care environment, group practice is becoming more prevalent. The Northeast has the highest ratio of physicians to population; the South, the lowest. More than half of all D.O.’s practice in small cities and towns and in rural areas. M.D. ’s, on the other hand, tend to locate in urban areas, close to hospital and educational centers. Some rural areas remain underserved, although the situation is changing some­ what. Currently, more medical students are being exposed to practice in rural communities with the direct support of educational centers and hospitals in more populous areas. Osteopathic physicians are located chiefly in those States that have osteopathic hospitals. In 1986, three-fifths of all D.O.’s were in Flor­ ida, Michigan, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Texas, and Missouri. Fifteen States and the District of Columbia each had fewer than 50 D.O.’s in 1986. Training and Other Qualifications The minimum educational requirement for entry to a medical or osteo­ pathic school is 3 years of college; most applicants, however, have at least a bachelor’s degree, and many have advanced degrees. A few medical schools offer a combined college and medical school program that lasts 6 years instead of the customary 8. Required premedical study includes undergraduate work in English, physics, biology, and inorganic and organic chemistry. Students should also take courses in the humanities, mathematics, and the social sciences to acquire a broad general education. Medicine is a popular career, and most applicants to medical school compete with other students who generally have excelled in preprofes­ sional education. Application to medical school is much like applica­ tion to college. Applicants must submit transcripts, their scores from the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), and letters of recom­ mendation. An interview with an admissions officer may also be  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  necessary. Character, personality, leadership qualities, and participa­ tion in extracurricular activities also play a role in the selection process. Students spend the first 2 years of medical school primarily in laboratories and classrooms taking basic medical courses such as anatomy, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, microbiology, pa­ thology, medical ethics, and laws governing medicine. They also learn how to take case histories, perform examinations, and recognize symptoms. Some schools provide students with clinical experience during this time. During the last 2 years, students work under supervi­ sion in hospitals and clinics to learn acute, chronic, preventive, and rehabilitative care. Through rotations in internal medicine, obstetrics and gynecology, pediatrics, psychiatry, and surgery, they gain experi­ ence in the diagnosis and treatment of illness. While in school, most medical school students must take an exam given by the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME); most osteopathy students must take an exam given by the National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners (NBOME). Following medical school, almost all M.D.’s go on to 3 years of graduate medical education (residency). After graduation, all D.O.’s must serve a 12-month rotating internship which includes experience in surgery, pediatrics, internal medicine, and other specialties. M.D.’s and D.O.’s seeking board certification in a specialty may spend up to 5 years—depending on the specialty—in residency train­ ing. For those training in a subspecialty, another 1 to 2 years of residency is usual. A final examination immediately after residency, or after 1 or 2 years of practice, is also necessary for certification. All States, the District of Columbia, and U.S. territories require physicians to be licensed. Licensure requirements for both D.O.’s and M.D.’s include graduation from an accredited professional school, completion of a licensing examination, and, in most States, between 1 and 6 years of supervised practice in an accredited graduate medical education program (intemship/residency). Graduates of foreign medical schools can generally begin practice in the United States after completing a U.S. hospital residency training program. To enter an approved residency, graduates of foreign medical schools must pass an examination administered by the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates and be certified by that organization. After 1 year of work in an approved residency, foreign medical graduates, as well as graduates of U.S. medical schools who have not taken the NBME or NBOME test, must take the Federation Licensing Examination (FLEX) that all jurisdictions accept. Although physicians licensed in one State can usually get a license to practice in another without further examination, some States limit reciprocity. Of the 127 accredited schools in the United States in which students can study for the M.D. degree, 126 award the degree of Doctor of Medicine (M.D.). One school offers a 2-year program in the basic medical sciences to students who transfer to another medical school for the last 2 years of study. Fifteen schools of osteopathic medicine in the U.S. award the degree of Doctor of Osteopathy (D.O.). To teach or do research, physicians may acquire a master’s or Ph.D. in such fields as biochemistry or microbiology. They may otherwise spend 1 year or more in research or in an advanced clinical training fellowship. A physician’s training is costly. In 1986-87, the annual expense for in-State residents in medical schools of public institutions was approximately $12,300; for students in private medical schools it was approximately $23,000. While education costs have increased, student financial assistance has not. Scholarships, while still available, have become harder to find. Loans are available, but subsidies to reduce interest rates are limited. Persons who wish to become physicians must have a desire to serve the sick and injured, be self-motivated, and be able to survive the pressures of premedical and medical education. The workload associ­ ated with internship/residency that follows medical school is very heavy, with residents often working 24-hour shifts and 80 hours a week or more. Efforts, however, are being made to limit the hours a resident can work without a break. Prospective physicians must also be willing to study throughout their career in order to keep up with advances in medical science. Physicians should have a good bedside  Professional Specialty Occupations manner, be emotionally stable, and be able to make decisions in emergencies. Job Outlook Employment of physicians is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000 due to continued expansion of the health industry. Population growth and aging; continued intro­ duction of new treatments and procedures; and the widespread ability to pay for services through private insurance, Medicare, and Medicaid will underlie future growth in demand for physicians. Tending to constrain what would otherwise be faster growth, however, are man­ aged care arrangements such as HMO’s which place greater reliance on physician assistants and nurse practitioners to provide services. The need to replace physicians is low because almost all physicians remain in the profession until they retire. The number of medical school graduates rose substantially during the 1970’s—a deliberate, publicly subsidized response to the perceived shortage of medical personnel. If the number of medical school gradu­ ates remains at current high levels, the supply of physicians is expected to exceed demand. The surplus of physicians will continue to affect patient load, earn­ ings, geographic location, specialty choice, and practice setting. Some communities may have too many physicians—leading to fewer patient visits per physician and correspondingly lower earnings. There is already some evidence that the oversupply of physicians in large metropolitan areas has encouraged some to relocate to historically underserved areas. However, areas that are too sparsely populated, or too poor, are not likely to attract doctors. Despite prospects of a general oversupply of physicians, there may not be a surplus of primary care physicians, specifically general/family practitioners and internists, or of specialists in geriatric and preventive medicine. On the other hand, some medical specialties will experience even greater competition in the future. These specialties include many of the surgical subspecialties, such as neurosurgery and orthopedic sur­ gery, as well as ophthalmology, pathology, and radiology. The spe­  145  cialty imbalances mentioned above assume that specialty choices will not change markedly in the future. Decisions about the specialty to pursue are governed by factors such as lifestyle and faculty role models as well as by economic considerations. Unlike their predecessors, newly trained physicians face radically different choices of where and how to practice. Many new physicians are likely to avoid solo practice and take salaried jobs in group medical practices, clinics, and HMO’s in order to have regular work hours and the opportunity for peer consultation. Others will take salaried positions simply because they cannot afford the high costs associated with establishing a private practice while paying off student loans. Graduates of foreign medical schools have long been a source of physicians in the United States, It seems unlikely, however, that they will continue to augment the supply of U.S.-trained physicians to the extent they have had in the past. This is due to such factors as lower foreign medical school enrollments, more difficult qualifying entrance exams for foreign-trained students seeking U.S. residencies, and keener competition for a residency once having passed the exams. Earnings Physicians have among the highest average annual earnings of any occupation. According to the American Medical Association’s Center for Health Policy Research, average income, after expenses, for all physicians was about $132,300 in 1987; those under 36 years of age averaged $96,100. Earnings vary according to specialty; the number of years in practice; geographic region; hours worked; and the physician’s skill, personality, and professional reputation. Self-employed physi­ cians—those who own or are part owners of their medical practice— had an average income of $146,200, while those who were employed by others earned an average of $99,600 a year. As shown in the following table of physician income in 1987, average income after expenses varies by specialty.  Table 2. Average income of M.D.’s after expenses, 1987 Income  The increase in medical degrees granted has contributed to the competitive outlook for physicians. 18,000 16,000 14,000  Source: American Medical Association  12,000  Stipends of medical school graduates serving as residents in hospi­ tals vary according to the type of residency, year of residency, geo­ graphic area, and size of the hospital, but allowances of $24,000 to $31,000 a year are common. Many hospitals also provide full or partial room and board and other maintenance allowances to residents. Salaries in the Veterans Administration vary according to experi­ ence, specialty, board certification, and supervisory level. In 1989, the minimum salary for full-time physicians in the VA was about $54,100; the maximum salary was about $94,100. Newly qualified physicians who establish their own practice must make a sizable financial investment to equip a modem office. During the first year or two of independent practice, physicians probably earn little more than the minimum needed to pay expenses. As a rule, however, their earnings rise rapidly as their practice develops.  10,000  19851989 Source: U.S. Department of Education, the American Osteopathic Association   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Surgeons..................................................................................... $187,900 Radiologists............................................................................... 180,700 Obstetricians/gynecologists..................................................... 163,200 Anesthesiologists....................................................................... 163,100 Pathologists............................................................................... 124,600 Internists..................................................................................... 121,800 Psychiatrists............................................................................... 102,700 General/family practitioners.................................................... 91,500 Pediatricians.............................................................................. 85,300  Related Occupations Physicians work to prevent, diagnose, and treat diseases, disorders, and injuries. Professionals in other occupations that require similar kinds of skill and critical judgment include audiologists, chiropractors,  146  Occupational Outlook Handbook  dentists, optometrists, podiatrists, speech pathologists, and veteri­ narians.  maintenance organizations (HMO’s), or clinics may work nights and weekends and be on call.  Sources of Additional Information For a list of AMA-approved medical schools, as well as general information on premedical education, financial aid, and medicine as a career, contact:  Employment Podiatrists held about 17,000 jobs in 1988. The vast majority of podiatrists are in private practice. Traditionally, podiatrists have been solo practitioners and most still are. Recently, however, other practice arrangements such as partnerships and group practices have begun to emerge. Some podiatrists are employed by hospitals, nursing homes, clinics, HMO’s, and podiatric medical colleges. The Veterans Admin­ istration and public health departments employ podiatrists, too. Geographic imbalances are pronounced in podiatric medicine. This reflects the fact that most podiatry graduates establish their practices in or near one of the seven States that have colleges of podatric medicine. This has left large areas of the country—particularly the South, the Southwest, and nonmetropolitan areas—with few podia­ trists. In these areas, foot care is typically provided by primary care physicians and orthopedists.  ••-American Medical Association, 535 N. Dearborn St., Chicago, IL 60610. •-Association of American Medical Colleges, Publications Department, One Dupont Circle NW., Suite 200, Washington, DC 20036. For general information on osteopathic medicine as a career, contact: •-American Osteopathic Association, Department of Public Relations, 142 East Ontario St., Chicago, IL 60611. •-American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine, 6110 Executive Blvd., Suite 405, Rockville, MD 20852.  Information on Federal scholarships and loans is available from the directors of student financial aid at schools of medicine and osteopathic medicine. Persons who wish to practice medicine or osteopathic medicine in a particular State should inquire about licensure requirements directly from the board of examiners of that State.  Podiatrists (D.O.T. 079.101-022)  Nature of the Work Dancing, walking, and jogging can be enjoyable and healthy activities, but if your feet hurt, even the thought of standing can make you miserable. Being unable to stand or move about easily is an inconve­ nience at the very least, but if the disability is permanent, it can be a crushing blow. Podiatrists, also known as doctors of podiatric medicine (DPM’s), diagnose and treat disorders and diseases of the foot and lower leg. Podiatrists treat the major foot conditions: Corns and calluses, in­ grown toenails, and bunions. Other conditions treated by podiatrists include hammertoes, ankle and foot injuries, and foot complaints associated with diseases such as diabetes. For example, diabetics are prone to ulcers and infections due to their poor circulation. In diagnosing a foot problem, podiatrists may order X-rays and laboratory tests. If the podiatrist determines that the problem is improp­ erly fitting shoes, he or she may use a new instrument, the force plate, to help design custom-made shoes. A patient walks across the plate that is hooked up to a computer, which “reads” the patient’s feet. From the computer readout, properly fitted shoes can be designed. Depending on the diagnosis, they also fit corrective inserts called orthotics, prescribe drugs, order physical therapy, or perform surgery. Corrective surgery—performed in hospitals, outpatient surgery cen­ ters, clinics, or podiatrists’ offices—is an increasingly important part of podiatric practice. Some practioners specialize in surgery. Other specialties are ortho­ pedics and public health. Besides these three recognized specialties, podiatrists may choose subspecialty areas such as elderly care, sports medicine, and diabetic foot care. One of the biggest subspecialty areas is primary podiatric medicine, which is considered the family medicine of foot care. Going to a podiatrist for treatment of a foot problem may be the entry point into the health care system for some patients since clinical signs of diseases such as arthritis, diabetes, and heart disease may first appear in the foot. Podiatrists are trained to spot these and other systemic diseases, and refer patients to other medical specialists when appropriate. Working Conditions Podiatrists usually work independently in their own offices. They work over 38 hours a week, on the average. Podiatrists with solo practices set their own hours. Podiatrists who are employed in hospitals, health  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement All States and the District of Columbia require a license for the practice of podiatric medicine. Each State and jurisdiction defines its own licensing requirements. Generally, however, the applicant mfist be a graduate of an accredited college of podiatric medicine and pass written and oral examinations. Many States also require applicants to have completed an accredited residency program. Some States permit appli­ cants to substitute the examination of the National Board of Podiatric Examiners, given in the second and fourth years of podiatric medical college, for part or all of the written State examination. Certain States grant reciprocity to podiatrists who are licensed in another State. The seven colleges of podiatric medicine are located in California, Florida, Illinois, Iowa, New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio. Prerequi­ sites for admission include the completion of at least 90 semester hours of undergraduate study, an acceptable grade point average, and suitable scores on the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT). Certain undergraduate courses are required: Eight semester hours each of biology, inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, and physics and 6 hours of English. Most entrants surpass the minimum qualifications. Although not mandated, 9 of every 10 recent podiatric students pos­ sessed a bachelor’s degree. Colleges of podiatric medicine offer a 4-year program whose core curriculum is similar to that in other schools of medicine. Classroom instruction in basic sciences, including anatomy, chemistry, pathol­ ogy, and pharmacology, is given during the first 2 years. Thirdand fourth-year students have clinical rotations in different practice settings, including private practice, hospitals, and clinics. During these rotations, they acquire clinical skills—learning how to take general and podiatric histories, to perform routine physical examinations, to interpret tests and findings, to make diagnoses, and to perform  The majority of podiatrists are in private practice.  Professional Specialty Occupations therapeutic procedures. Graduates are awarded the degree of doctor of podiatric medicine, DPM. Most graduates complete a 1- to 3-year residency after receiving the DPM degree. Competition for admission to residency programs is keen. Since 13 States have licensure provis