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Occupational Outlook Handbook U.S. Department of Labor Ann McLaughlin, Secretary Bureau of Labor Statistics , Janet L. Norwood, Commissioner April 1988 Bulletin 2300   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  1988-89 Edition   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Foreword hoosing a career is one of the most important decisions that we face—whether as students, workers seeking a career change, or when entering the labor force after a lengthy absence. A wise choice can lead to rewarding occupational experiences and a job that offers pride in achievement, opportunity for personal growth, and the security of an'adequate income. The impact of technological advances, changes in business practices, foreign competition, and shifts in the demand for goods and services will alter to­ morrow’s job market—making the need for comprehensive, up-to-date, and reliable career information more important than ever before. For nearly 40 years, the Bureau’s Occupational Outlook Handbook has been a valuable source of career information. Revised every two years, the Handbook describes what workers do on the job, working conditions, the training and education needed, earnings, and expected job prospects for se­ lected occupations covering a wide spectrum of the Nation’s economy. I am certain that the updated 1988-89 edition of the Handbook will provide valuable assistance to individuals making career decisions about their future work lives.  JANET L. NORWOOD Commissioner Bureau of Labor Statistics  mi   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Acknowledgments The Handbook was produced in the Bureau of Labor Statistics under the general guidance and direction of Neal H. Rosenthal, Chief, Division of Occupational Outlook, and Ronald E. Kutscher, Associate Commissioner for Economic Growth and Employment Projections. Michael Pilot, Manager, Occupational Outlook Program, was responsible for planning and day-to-day direction. Project leaders supervising the research and preparation of material were Daniel E. Hecker, Anne Kahl, Chester C. Levine, and Darrel P. Wash. Occupational analysts who contributed material were William M. Austin, Mary-Jane Curran, Verada P. Bluford, Douglas J. Braddock, Conley Hall Dillon, Jr., Lawrence C. Drake, Jr., Sandy Gamliel, Arthur J. Gartaganis, Ludmilla K. Murphy, H. James Neary, Jon Q. Sargent, Stephen G. Tise, and Martha C. White. The D.O.T. index was compiled by Audrey J. Watson. Rosalind Springsteen of the Office of Publications coordinated the gathering and editing of photographs. Under the direction of Beverly A. Williams, word processing support was handled by Marilyn Queen and Idena B. Sanders.  Note A great many trade associations, professional societies, unions, industrial or­ ganizations, and government agencies provide career information that is valuable to counselors and jobseekers. For the convenience of Handbook users, some of these organizations are listed at the end of each occupational statement. Although these references were carefully compiled, the Bureau of Labor Sta­ tistics has neither authority nor facilities for investigating the organizations or the information or publications that may be sent in response to a request and cannot guarantee the accuracy of such information. The listing of an organi­ zation, therefore, does not constitute in any way an endorsement or recom­ mendation by the Bureau either of the organization and its activities or of the information it may supply. Each organization has sole responsibility for whatever information it may issue. The occupational information contained in the Handbook presents a general, composite description of jobs and cannot be expected to reflect work situations in specific establishments or localities. The Handbook, therefore, is not intended and should not be used as a guide for determining wages, hours, the right of a particular union to represent workers, appropriate bargaining units, or formal job evaluation systems. Nor should earnings data in the Handbook be used to compute future loss of earnings in adjudication proceedings involving work injuries or accidental deaths. Material in this publication is in the public domain and, with appropriate credit, may be reproduced without permission. Comments about the contents of this publication and suggestions for improving it are welcome. Please address them to Chief, Division of Occupational Outlook, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC 20212.  IV  Photograph Credits The Bureau of Labor Statistics wishes to express its appreciation for the cooperation and assistance of the many government and private sources—listed below—that either contributed photographs or made their facilities available to photographers working under contract to the U.S. Department of Labor. Photographs may not be free of every possible safety or health hazard. Depiction of company or trade name in no way constitutes endorsement by the Department of Labor.  Barbara Abels Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture Arena Stage, Joan Marcus American Academy of Physician Assistants American Chiropractic Association American Psychological Association American Textile Manufacturers Institute Baltimore Gas and Electric Company Stan Barouh Photography Robert Bennett Blakeslee-Lane, Inc. The Chase Manhattan Bank, N.A., Arthur Lavine Michael Dersin   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Focus Photo, Marilu Halamandars Geisinger Medical Center General Electric Georgetown University School of Nursing Gulf Oil Corporation, Lois M. Weissflog Homecare Kitt Peak National Observatory Tom Kochel-Photography Odette Lupis Martin Marietta (Baltimore) Mine Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor Morgan State University National Hospital for Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation  v  National Park Service, U.S. Department of Interior, Richard Frear Photo Agora-Robert Maust Photography, Howard Zehr Registered Medical Assistants Joseph T. Ryerson & Sons, Inc. Jerry Soalt for ILGWU Justice U.S. Department of Agriculture U.S. Department of Defense U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Department of Labor U.S. Postal Service VISTA A1 Whitley WJLA-TV (Washington, DC) WMAR-TV (Baltimore) Working Images Photographs— Martha Tabor  Contents page Special Features  1 How To Get the Most From the Handbook 4 Where To Go for More  Information 8 Tomorrow’s Jobs 406 Summary Data for Occupations  Not Covered in the Handbook 420 Assumptions and Methods Used  in Preparing Employment Projections 422 Sources of State and Local Job  Outlook Information 425 Dictionary of Occupational Titles  Index 447 Index to Occupations  page Occupational Coverage 14 Managerial and Management-  Related OccupatioAs 14 Accountants and auditors 16-Construction and building inspectors 18 Cost estimators 20 Education administrators 21 Employment interviewers 24-Financial managers 25 “General managers and top executives 27 Health services managers 30 Hotel managers and assistants 32 Inspectors and compliance officers, except construction 34 Management analysts and consultants 36 Marketing, advertising, and public relations managers 38 Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers 40 Property and real estate managers 43 Purchasing agents and managers 45 Restaurant and food service managers 47 Underwriters 48 Wholesale and retail buyers  page Occupational Coverage 73 73 74 76  Life scientists Agricultural scientists Biological scientists Foresters and conservation scientists  78 78 79 81 82  Physical scientists Chemists Geologists and geophysicists Meteorologists Physicists and astronomers  84 Lawyers, Social Scientists, Social  Workers, and Religious Workers 84 Lawyers 88 90 92 94 96  Social scientists and urban planners Economists Psychologists Sociologists Urban and regional planners  457 Reprints From the Occupational  Outlook Handbook   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  51 Engineers, Surveyors, and Architects 51 53 54 55 55 56 56 57  Engineers Aerospace engineers Chemical engineers Civil engineers Electrical and electronics engineers Industrial engineers Mechanical engineers Metallurgical, ceramic, and materials engineers 57 Mining engineers 58 Nuclear engineers 59 Petroleum engineers 60 60 61 62  Architects and surveyors Architects Landscape architects Surveyors  99 99 101 104  Social and recreation workers Human services workers Social workers Recreation workers  107 107 108 109  Religious workers Protestant ministers Rabbis Roman Catholic priests  111 Teachers, Librarians, and Counselors 111 Adult and vocational education teachers 112 Archivists and curators 113 College and university faculty 115 Counselors ■117 Kindergarten and elementary school teachers 119 Librarians 121 Secondary school teachers  65 Natural, Computer, and  Mathematical Scientists  124 Health Diagnosing and Treating  Practitioners 65 Computer, mathematical, and operations research occupations 65 Actuaries 66 Computer systems analysts 68 Mathematicians 69 Operations research analysts 71 Statisticians VI  124 125 127 129 132 133  Chiropractors Dentists Optometrists Physicians Podiatrists Veterinarians  page Occupational Coverage  136 Registered Nurses, Pharmacists, Dietitians, Therapists, and Physician Assistants 136 137 140 143 145 147 150 153 155  Dietitians and nutritionists Occupational therapists Pharmacists Physical therapists Physician assistants Recreational therapists Registered nurses Respiratory therapists Speech-language pathologists and audiologists  158 Health Technologists and  page Occupational Coverage  213 Marketing and Sales  Occupations 213 Cashiers ^ 214 Counter and rental clerks 215 Insurance sales workers 217 Manufacturers’ sales workers 218 Real estate agents and brokers 220 Retail sales workers 222 Securities and financial services sales ------'representatives 224 Services sales representatives 226 Travel agents 227 Wholesale trade sales workers 229 Administrative Support  Occupations, Including Clerical  Technicians 158 Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians 160 Dental hygienists 162 Dispensing opticians 164 EEG technologists and technicians 165 EKG technicians 167 Emergency medical technicians 169 Licensed practical nurses 171 Medical record technicians 173 Nuclear medicine technologists 175 Radiologic technologists 178 Surgical technicians  180 Writers, Artists, and Entertainers 180 Communications occupations 180 Public relations specialists 181 Radio and television announcers and newscasters 183 Reporters and correspondents 186 Writers and editors 188 188 189 192  Visual arts occupations Designers Photographers and camera operators Visual artists  195 195 197 198  Performing arts occupations Actors, directors, and producers Dancers and choreographers Musicians  229 230 231 233 -■<234 235 236 237 239 242 243 245 247 248 249 250 251 253 254  Bank tellers Bookkeepers and accounting clerks Clerical supervisors and managers Computer and peripheral equipment operators Data entry keyers File clerks General office clerks Insurance claims and policy processing occupations Postal clerks and mail carriers Receptionists and information clerks Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks Secretaries Statistical clerks Stenographers Stock clerks Teacher aides Telephone operators Traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks Typists and word processors  257 Service Occupations 257 257 258 260 262  Protective service occupations Correction officers Firefighting occupations Guards Police, detectives, and special agents  265 Food and beverage preparation and service occupations > 265 Chefs, cooks, and other kitchen workers V--.1267 Food and beverage service occupations  200 Technologists and Technicians,  Except Health 200 201 203 205 206 207 209 210 211  Air traffic controllers Broadcast technicians Computer programmers Drafters Engineering technicians Legal assistants Library technicians Science technicians Tool programmers, numerical control   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  270 270 271 273  Health service occupations Dental assistants Medical assistants Nursing aides and psychiatric aides  275 Personal service and cleaning occupations Barbers Childcare workers ^Cosmetologists and related workers light attendants VII  page Occupational Coverage  280 Homemaker-home health aides 282 Janitors and cleaners 283 Private household workers 285 Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing,  and Related Occupations 285 Farm operators and managers 287 Timber cutting and logging occupations 290 Mechanics, Installers, and  Repairers 290 Aircraft mechanics and engine specialists 292 Automotive body repairers 293 Automotive mechanics 295 Commercial and industrial electronic . «r, equipment repairers 297 Communications equipment mechanics 299 Computer service technicians 301 Diesel mechanics 303 Electronic home entertainment equipment repairers 304 Elevator installers and repairers 305 Farm equipment mechanics 307 General maintenance mechanics 308 Heating, air-conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics 310 Home appliance and power tool repairers 312 Industrial machinery repairers 314 Line installers and cable splicers 316 Millwrights 317 Mobile heavy equipment mechanics 319 Motorcycle, boat, and small-engine mechanics 320 Musical instrument repairers and tuners 322 Office machine and cash register servicers 324 Telephone installers and repairers 325 Vending machine servicers and repairers 327 Construction Trades and  Extractive Occupations 327 328 329 330 332 333 335 336 337 339 340 342 343 344 346  Bricklayers and stonemasons Carpenters Carpet installers Concrete masons and terrazzo workers Drywall workers and lathers Electricians Glaziers Insulation workers Painters and paperhangers Plasterers Plumbers and pipefitters Roofers Roustabouts Sheet-metal workers Structural and reinforcing metal workers 347 Tilesetters  page Occupational Coverage  349 Production Occupations 349 351 352 353 355 356 358 359  361 362 363 365 366  Apparel workers Bindery workers Blue-collar worker supervisors Boilermakers Butchers and meatcutters Compositors and typesetters Dental laboratory techncians Electric power generating plant operators and power distributors and dispatchers Inspectors, testers, and graders Jewelers Lithographic and photoengraving workers Machinists Mejalworking Metalworking and plastic-working nyicnine operators   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  page Occupational Coverage  369 Numerical-control machine-tool operators 370 Ophthalmic laboratory technicians 372 Painting and coating machine operators 373 Photographic process workers 375 Precision assemblers 376 Printing press operators 378 Shoe and leather workers and repairers 379 Stationary engineers 381 Textile machinery operators 383 Tool-and-die makers 384 Upholsterers 385 Water and wastewater treatment plant operators 387 Welders, cutters, and welding machine operators 389 Woodworking occupations  page Occupational Coverage  391 Transportation and Material  Moving Occupations 391 393 395 397  Aircraft pilots Busdrivers Material moving equipment operators Truckdrivers  400 Handlers, Equipment Cleaners,  Helpers, and Laborers 400 Construction trades helpers  401 Job Opportunities in the Armed Forces  How To Get the Most From the Handbook The Occupational Outlook Handbook de­ scribes in detail about 225 occupations—com­ prising about 80 percent of all jobs in the econ­ omy. Occupations that require lengthy education or training are given the most attention. In addition, summary information on about 125 occupations—accounting for about 10 percent of all jobs in the economy—is presented in an appendix beginning on page 406. The Handbook is not meant to be read from cover to cover. Instead, browse through the table of contents, where related occupations are grouped in clusters. Or look in the alpha­ betical index for occupations that interest you or for those that sound familiar. Don’t limit yourself to these, however. Other jobs also might be worth looking into. For an overview of the broad trends that are likely to shape the economy and jobs through the year 2000, read the introductory chapter, Tomorrow’s Jobs.  Choosing an Occupation Identifying your interests and abilities can help you decide what you want in a career. Does science or math interest you? How about writ­ ing? Do you enjoy working with your hands or planning and organizing activities? The an­ swers to such questions can help you discover your strengths and may suggest occupations to explore. An understanding of your goals and values also will help you determine what you want in a career. Do you want a job in which you can be creative? How important is high income? Are you willing to work nights and weekends? Do you want to be self-employed? There are many publications on career de­ cisionmaking that explain how you can assess your preferences and skills on your own, and counselors and other professionals trained in human behavior can administer diagnostic tests and interpret and discuss the results with you (see the section on Where To Go for More Information).  What’s In the Handbook Once you have chosen an occupation you’d like to learn more about, you can use the Hand­ book to find out what the work is like; what education and training are needed; what the advancement possibilities, earnings, and job outlook are; and what related occupations you might explore. Each occupational description, or statement, in the Handbook follows a stan­ dard format, making it easier to compare oc­ cupations. What follows is a description of the major sections of a Handbook statement, plus some hints on how to use the information.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  About Those Numbers at the Beginning of Each Statement The numbers in parentheses that appear just below the title of most occupational state­ ments are D.O.T. codes. D.O.T. stands for the Dictionary of Occupational Titles, a U.S. Department of Labor publication. Each number classifies jobs by the type of work, required training, physical demands, and working conditions. D.O.T. numbers are used primarily by State employment service offices to classify applicants and job open­ ings. They are included in the Handbook because some career information centers and libraries use them for filing occupational information. An index in the back of this book cross-references the D.O.T. numbers to occupations covered in the Handbook.  Nature of the Work This section tells what workers do on the job. Keep in mind that not all workers in an oc­ cupation perform all the duties described. Du­ ties vary by employer, industry, and size of firm—in small ones, workers generally per­ form a wider range of duties. In addition, most occupations have at least several levels of skill and responsibility. Beginners, or those without a lot of formal training, may start as trainees, performing routine tasks under close supervi­ sion. Experienced workers perform more dif­ ficult duties, with greater independence, while the most skilled and most senior ones perform the most difficult and responsible jobs. Working Conditions This section describes work hours, the physical environment, and hazards of the occupation. In many occupations, people usually work reg­ ular business hours—40 hours a week, morn­ ings and afternoons, Monday through Friday. In others, they may work nights or weekends, or more than 40 hours. In some, workers have a degree of freedom to determine their own hours. Many jobs are performed in pleasant surroundings; others are in dirty, noisy, dan­ gerous, or stressful ones. In some occupations, workers have a confined workspace; in others, workers move around a lot. Some jobs require outdoor work or overnight travel. Employment This section tells how many jobs there were in the occupation in 1986 and what industries and parts of the country they were located in. Where significant, it also gives the proportion of workers in the occupation who worked part  time (less than 35 hours a week) and the pro­ portion who were self-employed. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement You can get training for jobs in high schools, colleges, postsecondary vocational schools (both public and private), home study courses, government training programs, the Armed Forces, apprenticeships and other formal train­ ing offered by employers, or informally on the job. In most occupations, there is more than one way to get training. For each occupation, the Handbook identifies all the ways and notes the most common or the type generally pre­ ferred by employers. It gives the number of training institutions and, where appropriate, lists high school and college courses considered useful preparation. Remember, the amount of training you have often determines the level at which you enter an occupation and the speed with which you advance. For entry level jobs in many occupations covered in the Handbook, employers may not require specific job training. They hire people with good general skills and the ability to learn and give them the specific training needed to do the work. Employers want people who read, write, and speak well; compute accurately; think logically; get along with others; and have good work habits. They may require a high school or college diploma as evidence of good general skills. Statements also list other desirable ap­ titudes and personal characteristics—for ex­ ample, mechanical aptitude, manual dexterity, patience, accuracy, and ability to work without close supervision. This section indicates whether a certificate or license is required for entry or for indepen­ dent practice, or if it is helpful for advance­ ment. It also describes typical paths of ad­ vancement within the occupation and patterns of movement or advancement to other occu­ pations. Job Outlook The chances of getting a job in an occupation depend on the relationship between the number of openings and the number of qualified people seeking to fill them. In many occupations there is a rough balance between jobseekers and openings most of the time, but in some there are shortages or surpluses. Unanticipated growth or decline in the num­ ber of openings or in the number of jobseekers can cause shortages or surpluses. Limited train­ ing facilities, salary restrictions, or undesirable aspects of the work can cause shortages of applicants. Very attractive work—as in the arts or communications—or the prospect of high earnings can cause long-term surpluses of job-  1  Key Words in the Handbook Changing employment between 1986 and  2000 If the statement reads . . .  Employment is projected to . . .  Grow much faster than the average Grow faster than the average Grow about as fast as the average Grow more slowly than the average Show little change  Increase 35 percent or more Increase 25 to 34 percent Increase 14 to 24 percent Increase 5 to 13 per­ cent Increase or decrease 4 percent or less Decrease 5 percent or more  Decline  Opportunities and competition for jobs If the statement reads . . .  Job openings com­ pared to jobseek­ ers may be . . .  Excellent opportuni­ ties Very good opportun­ ities Good or favorable opportunities May face competi­ tion May face keen com­ petition  Much more numer­ ous More numerous About the same Fewer Much fewer  seekers. Within occupations, there may be too many applicants in some specialties, yet not enough or a balance in others. Economic forces and government programs tend to eliminate imbalances, but some may persist for long pe­ riods. Geographic imbalances may persist be­  cause many people are unwilling or unable to move. In general, shortages are most likely in rural and inner city areas and in small towns. Surpluses are most common in desirable sub­ urbs, central business districts, areas with fa­ cilities producing many graduates in the field, and areas with good cultural and recreational facilities and good climate. Some individuals, understandably, might want to enter a shortage occupation or specialty or locate in a geographic area with shortages because, under shortage conditions, jobseekers generally can choose from more job offers, get higher salaries, advance faster or, possibly, get a job with only minimal qualifications. Keep in mind, however, that even in occupations with a rough balance, almost all qualified ap­ plicants can find jobs. On the other hand, when there are surpluses, applicants may have to look for a long time, accept any offer they get, find a job in another occupation, or face extended unemployment. But since job openings do exist even in overcrowded fields, good students or well-qualified individuals should not be de­ terred from undertaking training or seeking en­ try. For some occupations—those for which quantitative data or other information on short­ ages, balances, and surpluses are available— the Handbook discusses job opportunites. And, for virtually all, it gives the expected change in employment through the year 2000. The accompanying figure explains what is meant by key phrases used to describe projected em­ ployment change. (It also explains the terms used to describe the relationship between the number of job openings and the number of jobseekers.) If an occupation grows rapidly, it obviously will provide more openings than if it grows slowly. Moreover, the demand for talent in a rapidly growing occupation generally improves chances for advancement and mobility. Keep in mind that even slow-growing oc­ cupations, if large, also provide many job openings. The need to replace workers who  Jobs within occupations differ in complexity, and pay varies accordingly. Range of annual salaries for middle 50 percent of employees in each level, March 1986 $o 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60000 70000 so 000  Occupation and level I Computer operators  |]  ' a  1 1 1:: ■ 1  t... ■. V  t  V I Computer  |jj  1  ’  riiFiii  —  \ 1  1  programmers iv V Systems analysts  I  II m IV V VI  Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics  2   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  1--------- 1--------- 1---------1---------  1 r .  :  "1  '"m <=3^.., r~  1  leave their jobs creates most of the openings in most occupations, regardless of the rate of growth. Large occupations generally have more replacement openings than small ones. Those with low pay and status, few training require­ ments, and a high proportion of young or old and part-time workers generally have higher replacement rates than ones with high pay and status, lengthy training requirements, and many prime-working-age full-time workers. The job outlook section also identifies fac­ tors that are expected to affect employment, such as defense spending, new technologies, changing business practices, and shifting pop­ ulation patterns. Some statements discuss job security—workers in some occupations are more likely than those in others to keep or lose their jobs during recessions or government budget cuts, or when new technologies are in­ troduced. Also keep in mind that no one possesses a crystal ball. While the projections presented in the Handbook are based on a reasonable set of assumptions about how the economy is likely to change between 1986 and the year 2000, no one can foresee with certainty all the economic, political, social, and technological forces that will ultimately affect employment growth and job prospects over the period. A summary of the assumptions and methods used by the Bu­ reau of Labor Statistics in making employment projections is presented in an appendix begin­ ning on page 420. Finally, it is possible that prospects in your community or State are better or worse than those described in the Handbook, which dis­ cusses prospects in the Nation as a whole. Therefore, it is wise to check with local sources. (See the section on Where To Go For More Information beginning on page 4 and appendix C, page 422.) Earnings Within every occupation, earnings of workers vary, depending on level of responsibility, ex­ perience and performance, industry, unioni­ zation, and geographic area. The barchart shows how the level of responsibility affects earnings. It shows annual earnings for five levels of com­ puter operators and computer programmers and six levels of systems analysts. These reflect different work levels, starting with entry level jobs and continuing up the career ladder to the most complex and responsible supervisory po­ sitions within the occupation. Therefore, it is not always possible to say that people in one occupation earn more than those in another. We can say that the average is higher or that the middle range of earnings is higher, but there is usually some overlap. Many Handbook statements cite Current Population Survey (CPS) data. They show the median earnings of full-time salaried (but not self-employed) workers in 1986. (The median is the midpoint—half earned more than this and half earned less.) They generally also give the range of earnings of the middle 50 percent of workers, and earnings of the lowest 10 per­ cent and the highest 10 percent. The accom­ panying chart, based on CPS data, shows the  Engineering technicians had median annual earnings of $24,400 in 1986. Percent distribution of full-time salaried engineering technicians, 1986 Median:  $24,400  First quartile:  Third quartile:  $18,000  $30,400 Ninth decile:  First decile:  $36,600  $14,000  $10,000  20,000  30,000  '2 percent earned $52,000 or more.  earnings distribution of engineering technicans in 1986. The shaded area under the curve in­ dicates that one-half earned between $18,000 and $30,400. The lowest 10 percent earned under $14,000, while the highest 10 percent earned more than $36,600. You can compare CPS earnings data between occupations or to the average for all occupations. The median for all full-time wage and salary workers in 1986 was $18,600; the middle 50 percent earned between $12,500 and $26,800; the top 10 per­ cent earned $37,700 or more, the bottom 10 percent, $9,100 or less. Statements also include earnings data from   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  40,000  in cities than in rural areas and vary from one city to another. Keep in mind that the areas that offer the highest earnings often are those in which living costs are highest. Most workers also receive employer-paid benefits such as paid vacations and holidays, health insurance, and pensions. Some also get stock options, profit-sharing plans, savings plans, and bonuses. Handbook statements do not mention benefits unless they are unusually high or low. Workers in many occupations also receive discounts on merchandise, meals and housing, reduced travel fares, business expense ac­ counts, or use of a company car. About 10 percent of all workers are selfemployed. Their earnings vary more than those of salaried workers, and they pay for benefits which salaried workers generally receive from their employers.  50,000'  Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics  a wide range of other sources. Coverage of these data varies, making it difficult to compare earnings precisely between occupations. Earnings are based on several types of pay plans. Some workers are paid a straight annual salary. Some receive an hourly wage for the hours they work, commissions based on a per­ centage of what they sell, or a piece rate for each item they produce. Others receive tips for services to customers. Workers may also be paid a combination of a salary or hourly wage, plus bonus, piecework, or tips. Earnings generally are highest in the West, lowest in the South. They generally are higher  Related Occupations If you find that an occupation appeals to you, you also may wish to explore the jobs listed in this section. Usually, the related occupations are those that require similar aptitudes, inter­ ests, and education and training. Sources of Additional Information This section lists names and addresses of as­ sociations, government agencies, unions, and other organizations that provide useful infor­ mation on careers. Also, for some occupations, this section refers you to free or relatively in­ expensive publications that offer more infor­ mation. These publications may also be avail­ able in libraries, school career centers, or guidance offices.  3  Where To Go for More Information Listed at the end of each occupational statement in the Handbook, under Sources of Additional Information, are organizations that have agreed to provide information upon request. This sec­ tion describes many other sources of infor­ mation about occupations, and about counsel­ ing, education and training, financial aid, and finding a job.  Sources of Career Information Public libraries, career centers, and guid­ ance offices have a great deal of career ma­ terial. Begin your library search by looking in the card catalog under “vocations” or “careers” and then under specific fields. Information may also be found in pamphlet files. Check the periodical section, where you will find trade and professional magazines and journals ad­ dressed to people in specific occupations. Also check annual reports; they can familiarize you with the activities of potential employers. Occupational information is also available on films and cassettes, in kits, and through computerized information systems. Career centers may also provide individual counsel­ ing, group discussions, guest speakers, field trips and career days. Counselors can provide vocational testing and counseling. They work in: —guidance offices in high schools. —career planning and placement offices in col­ leges. —placement offices in private vocational/tech­ nical schools and institutes. —vocational rehabilitation agencies. —counseling services offered by community organizations. —private counseling agencies or private prac­ tices. —State employment service offices affiliated with the U.S. Employment Service. A counselor will not tell you what to do, but will administer interest inventories and ap­ titude tests, interpret the results, and help you explore your options. Counselors can discuss local job markets and the entry requirements and costs of the schools, colleges or training programs that offer preparation for the kind of work in which you are interested. Before employing the services of a private counselor or agency, seek recommendations or check their credentials. The International As­ sociation of Counseling Services (1ACS) ac­ credits counseling services for areas throughout the U.S. To receive the listing of accredited services for your region, send a self-addressed, stamped envelope to IACS, 5999 Stevenson Ave., 3rd Floor, Alexandria, VA 22304. The 4   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Directory of Counseling Services, an IACS publication providing employment counseling and other assistance, may be available in your library or school career counseling center. Professional societies, trade associations, labor unions, business firms, and educa­ tional institutions publish a great deal of free or inexpensive career material. Many are iden­ tified in the Sources of Additional Information section of each Handbook statement. For in­ formation on an occupation not covered in the Handbook, consult the directories in your li­ brary’s reference section for the names of po­ tential sources. A good place to start is The Guide to American Directories or The Direc­ tory of Directories. The Encyclopedia of As­ sociations, an annual multivolume publication listing thousands of trade associations, profes­ sional societies, labor unions, and fraternal and patriotic organizations, is another useful re­ source. The National Audiovisual Center, a central source for all audiovisual material produced by the U.S. Government, rents and sells material on jobs and careers. For a catalogue, contact the National Audiovisual Center, 8700 Edge­ worth Dr., Capitol Heights. MD 20743. Phone: (301) 763-1896. Carefully assess career guidance materials. Information should be current. Some materials are produced by schools for recruitment pur­ poses and may omit important details, glam­ orize the occupation, overstate the earnings, or exaggerate the demand for workers. Don’t overlook the importance of personal contacts. Talk with people in an occupation you are considering. You can find out what type of training is recommended, how they entered and advanced, and what they like and dislike about the work. In order to learn about an occupation, you may wish to intern or take a summer or a part­ time job. Some internships offer academic credit or pay a stipend. Check with guidance offices, college career resource centers, or directly with employers.  Sources of State and Local Information The Handbook provides information for the Nation as a whole. State occupational infor­ mation coordinating committees (SOICC’s) can help you locate State or area information. Committees may provide the information di­ rectly or refer you to other sources. Addresses and telephone numbers for SOICC’s are listed in an appendix beginning on page 422. Forty-six States have career information de­ livery systems (CIDS). They use on-line com­ puters, microcomputers, printed material, mi­  crofiche, and toll-free hotlines to provide information on occupations, educational op­ portunities, student financial aid, apprentice­ ships, and military careers. These systems can be found in secondary schools, postsecondary institutions, libraries, job training sites, vo­ cational rehabilitation centers and employment service offices. Counselors and SOICC’s can tell you the locations. State employment security agencies de­ velop detailed information about the labor mar­ ket. They report on current and projected em­ ployment by occupation and industry, characteristics of the work force, and changes in State and area economic activity. Addresses and telephone numbers of the State employ­ ment security agency directors of research and analysis are listed in the appendix beginning on page 422.  Sources of Education and lYaining Information Professional and trade associations usually pro­ vide lists of schools that offer career prepa­ ration in a particular field. The Sources of Ad­ ditional Information section of each Handbook statement directs you to organizations that can provide training information. Various directories describe courses of study, admissions requirements, expenses, and stu­ dent financial aid for colleges, universities, and other training institutions. Guidance offices, libraries and large bookstores usually carry copies. Since they are updated and revised fre­ quently, be sure to use the most recent edition. Guidance offices and libraries have collections of college catalogs as well. The Directory of Educational Institutions, an annual publication, lists schools accredited by the Association of Independent Colleges and Schools (AICS). Most AlCS-accredited insti­ tutions are business schools. These schools of­ fer programs in secretarial science, business administration, accounting, data processing, court reporting, paralegal studies, fashion mer­ chandising, travel/tourism, culinary arts, draft­ ing, electronics, and other subjects. For a copy of the Directory, write: Association of Inde­ pendent Colleges and Schools, 1 Dupont Circle NW., Suite 350, Washington, DC 20036. Phone: (202) 659-2460. Information on private trade and technical schools is available from the National Asso­ ciation of Trade and Technical Schools (NATTS). Among their publications are the Handbook of Accredited Private Trade and Technical Schools and a series of pamphlets, including How to Choose a Career and a Ca­ reer School. For a complete list, write: NATTS,  Department OOH, P.O. Box 10429, Rock­ ville, MD 20850. The National Home Study Council provides information about home study programs. They publish the Directory of Accredited Home Study Schools. Requests for this and a list of other publications should be directed to National Home Study Council, 1601 18th St. NW., Washington, DC 20009. Phone: (202) 234­ 5100. Labor unions, school guidance counselors and State employment offices can provide in­ formation about apprenticeships. Copies of The National Apprenticeship Program and Ap­ prenticeship Information are available from the Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20210. Phone: (202) 535-0545. To get a copy of A Woman’s Guide to Apprenticeship, send a self-addressed mail­ ing label to the Women’s Bureau, U.S. De­ partment of Labor, 200 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20210. Phone: (202) 523­ 6631.  Sources of Financial Aid Information High school guidance counselors and college financial aid officers are two of the best sources of advice concerning financial aid—scholar­ ships, fellowships, grants, loans, and workstudy programs. Every State administers fi­ nancial aid programs—contact State Depart­ ments of Education. Banks or credit unions may also provide information, since they make student loans. Study the directories and guides to sources of student financial aid available in guidance offices and public libraries. Need a Lift?, an annual publication of the American Legion, contains career and schol­ arship information. It costs SI prepaid (in­ cludes postage) and can be obtained from: American Legion, Attn: National Emblem Sales, P.O. Box 1050, Indianapolis, IN 46206. Meeting College Costs, an annual publica­ tion of the College Board, explains how student financial aid works and how to apply for it. The current edition is available to high school students through guidance counselors. The Federal Government provides grants, loans, work-study, and benefits to students. Information about programs administered by the U.S. Department of Education is presented in The Student Guide to Federal Financial Aid Programs, updated annually. To get a copy, call: (301) 984-4070, or write: Federal Student Aid Programs, P.O. Box 84, Washington, DC 20044. Some student aid programs are designed to assist specific groups: Hispanics, blacks, native Americans, or women, for example. Higher Education Opportunities for Minorities and Women, published by the U.S. Department of Education, is a guide to organizations offering assistance. This publication can be found in libraries and guidance offices, or may be pur­ chased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washing­ ton, DC 20402. Phone (202) 783-3238 for price and ordering information.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  The Armed Forces have several educational assistance programs. These include Reserve Officers’ Training Corps (ROTC), the New G.I. bill, and tuition assistance. Information can be obtained from military recruiting cen­ ters, which are located in most cities.  Information for Special Groups Veterans, youth, handicapped persons, mi­ norities, women and others may face special difficulties in obtaining employment. Many communities have career counseling, training, placement and support services for employ­ ment. These programs are sponsored by a va­ riety of organizations, including churches and synagogues, nonprofit organizations, social service agencies, the State employment ser­ vice, and vocational rehabilitation agencies. The organizations listed below provide in­ formation on career planning and job hunting techniques for special groups. Handicapped: President’s Committee on Employment of the Handicapped, 1111 20th St., NW., Room 636, Washington, DC 20036. Phone: (202) 653-5044. The Blind: Call the Job Opportunities for the Blind Program, a division of the National Federation for the Blind, toll-free, at: 1-800­ 638-7518. Minorities: League of United Latin Amer­ ican Citizens (LULAC), National Educational Service Centers Inc., 400 First St. NW., Suite 716, Washington, DC 20001. Phone: (202) 347-1652. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), 4805 Mount Hope Dr., Baltimore, MD 21215-3297. Phone: (301) 358-8900. Older Workers: National Association of Older Workers Employment Services, c/o Na­ tional Council on Aging, 600 Maryland Ave. SW., Washington, DC 20024. Phone: (202) 479-1200. Veterans: Department of Veterans Benefits, Veterans Administration Central Office, 810 Vermont Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20420. Phone: (202) 872-1151. Women: U.S. Department of Labor, Wom­ en’s Bureau, 200 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20210. Phone: (202) 523­ 6652. Catalyst, 250 Park Ave. South, New York, NY 10003. Phone: (212) 777-8900. Wider Opportunities for Women, 1325 G St. NW., Lower Level, Washington, DC 20005. Phone: (202) 638-3143. Many local organizations such as women’s centers provide employment information or counseling programs. Many cities have com­ missions that attend to the concerns of and provide services for these special groups. Federal laws, Executive Orders, and se­ lected Federal grant programs bar discrimi­ nation in employment based on race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, and hand­ icap. Information on how to file a charge of discrimination is available from the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission offices around the country. Their addresses and tele­  Where To Learn About Job Openings • State employment service offices • Civil service announcements (Fed­ eral, State, local) • Classified ads —Local and out-of-town newspapers —Professional journals —Trade magazines • Labor unions • Professional associations (State and local chapters) • Libraries and community centers • Women’s counseling and employ­ ment programs • Youth programs • School or college placement services • Employment agencies and career consultants • Employers • Parents, friends, and neighbors  phone numbers are listed in telephone direc­ tories under U.S. Government, EEOC, or are available from the Equal Employment Oppor­ tunity Commission, 2401 E St. NW., Wash­ ington, DC 20507. Phone: (202) 634-6922. Information on Federal laws concerning fair labor standards such as the minimum wage law and equal employment opportunity can be ob­ tained from the Office of Information and Con­ sumer Affairs, Employment Standards Admin­ istration, U.S. Department of Labor, RoomC4331, 200 Constitution Ave. NW., Washing­ ton, DC 20210.  Information on Finding a Job It may take some effort to find a job. You may have to pursue many leads. Parents, neighbors, teachers, and counselors may know of avail­ able jobs. Read the want ads. Consult State public employment service offices and private or nonprofit employment agencies or contact employers directly. Merchandising Your JobTalents, a U.S. De­ partment of Labor pamphlet, offers tips on or­ ganizing your job search, writing a resume, taking preemployment tests, and making the most of an interview. It is available at most State public employment service offices or may be purchased from the Superintendent of Doc­ uments, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. Phone (202) 783-3238 for price and ordering information. Informal job search methods. Many job­ seekers apply directly to employers with or without referral by friends or relatives. They locate a potential employer and file an appli­ cation, often without certain knowledge that an opening exists. The Yellow Pages, local chambers of commerce directories, and other directories list employers. Want ads. The “Help Wanted” ads in news­ papers list hundreds of jobs. However, many 5  Job Interview Tips Preparation: • Learn about the organization • Have specific job or jobs in mind • Review your qualifications for the job • Prepare to answer broad questions about yourself • Review your resume  • Arrive before the scheduled time of your interview Personal Appearance: • Be well groomed • Dress appropriately • Do not chew gum or smoke The Interview: • Answer each question concisely • Be prompt in giving responses • Use good manners • Use proper English and avoid slang • Convey a sense of cooperation and enthusiasm • Ask questions about the position and the organization Test (if employer gives one): • Listen carefully to instructions • Read each question carefully • Write legibly and clearly • Budget your time wisely and don't dwell on one question Information To Bring to an Interview: • Social Security number • Driver’s license number • Resume. Although not all employers require applicants to bring a resume, you should be able to furnish the interviewer with information about your education and previous employment • Usually an employer requires three references. Get permission from people before using their names. Try to avoid using relatives. For each reference, provide the following information: Name, address, telephone number, and occupation. For more information on interviews and resumes, see Resumes, Application Forms, Cover Letters, and Interviews in the Spring 1987 Occupational Outlook Quarterly.  job openings are not listed there. Also, clas­ sifieds commonly do not mention important information. Many offer little or no description of the job, working conditions, or pay. Some ads do not identify the employer. Furthermore, some ads offer out-of-town jobs; others ad­ vertise employment agencies rather than em­ ployment. If you use want ads, keep the following in mind: —Do not pin your hopes on finding a job through the classifieds; follow other leads, too. —Answer ads promptly. The opening may be filled quickly, even before the ad stops ap­ pearing in the paper. —Follow the ads diligently. Checking them every day as early as possible gives you an advantage which may result in your being hired. —Beware of “no experience necessary” ads. These ads often signal low wages or poor working conditions or straight commission work. 6   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  —Keep a record of all ads to which you have responded.  Public employment service. The State em­ ployment service, sometimes called the Job Service, operates in coordination with the La­ bor Department’s U.S. Employment Service. Its 2,000 local offices, also known as employ­ ment service centers, help jobseekers locate employment and help employers find qualified workers without charge. To find the office nearest you, look in the State government tele­ phone listings under “Job Service” or “Em­ ployment.” Job matching and referral. At a State em­ ployment service office, an interviewer deter­ mines if the applicant is “job ready” or if coun­ seling and testing services are needed. Those who are "job ready” may examine the Job Bank, a computerized listing of public and private sector job openings that is updated daily. Ap­ plicants may select openings that interest them, then meet with a staff member who can de­  What Goes Into a Resume A resume should summarize your qual­ ifications and employment history. It is usually required when applying for a managerial, administrative, profes­ sional, or technical position. Although there is no set format, it should contain the following information: • Name, address, and telephone num­ ber • Employment objective • Education, including school name and address, dates of attendance, curric­ ulum, and highest grade completed or degree awarded • Experience, paid or volunteer. In­ clude the following for each job: Job title, name and address of employer, and dates of employment • Special skills, knowledge of machin­ ery, honors received, awards, or membership in organizations • On a separate sheet, list the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of three references. Note on your resume that these references are available on request. scribe job openings in detail and arrange for interviews with prospective employers. Counseling and testing. Centers can also test jobseekers to measure their occupational ap­ titudes and interests and then help them choose and prepare for a career. Services for special groups. By law, vet­ erans are entitled to priority at State employ­ ment service centers. Veterans employment representatives can inform them of available assistance and help them deal with their prob­ lems. Youths between 16 and 21—including stu­ dents, dropouts, and graduates entering the la­ bor market—are eligible for special programs. Summer Youth Programs provide summer jobs in city, county, and State government agencies for low-income youth. In addition, the Job Corps, with more than 100 centers throughout the United States, helps young people learn a skill or obtain education. Service centers also refer applicants to op­ portunities available under the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) of 1982. JTPA pre­ pares economically disadvantaged persons and those facing barriers to employment for jobs.  Private employment agencies. These agen­ cies can be very helpful, but don’t forget that they are in business to make money. Most agencies operate on a commission basis, with the fee dependent upon a successful match. The fee may be paid by either the applicant or the hiring firm. If borne by you, find out the exact cost before using the service. While employment agencies can help the job seeker save time and contact employers who otherwise may be difficult to locate, in some cases, the costs to the seeker may outweigh  the benefits. In addition to considering the cost to you, weigh any guarantee they offer.  your church, synagogue, or public library also may provide useful information.  Community agencies. Nonprofit organiza­ tions provide counseling, career development, and job placement services. These agencies generally concentrate on services for a partic­ ular labor force group, such as women, youth, minorities, ex-offenders, or older workers. A local State employment service office or  College career planning and placement of­ fices. College placement offices operate as em­ ployment agencies, matching applicants with suitable jobs and arranging interviews. They set up schedules and facilities for interviews with recruiters. Additionally, many offices maintain lists of part-time, temporary, and   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  summer jobs. They often provide counseling, testing and job search advice and maintain a career resource library. They administer tests that identify and evaluate interests, work val­ ues, and skills; conduct workshops on such topics as job search strategy, resume writing, letterwriting, and effective interviewing; cri­ tique drafts of resumes and videotapes of mock interviews; maintain files of resumes and ref­ erences; and conduct job fairs.  7  Tomorrow’s Jobs Every other year, the Bureau of Labor Statistics develops projections of the labor force, eco­ nomic growth, industry employment, and oc­ cupational employment under alternative as­ sumptions. These projections, which usually cover a 10- to 15-year period into the future, provide the framework for the discussion of job outlook in each of the occupational state­ ments in the Handbook. Each of the approx­ imately 225 statements in this edition of the Handbook identifies the principal factors that affect job prospects and indicates how these are expected to affect the occupation in the future. This chapter uses the moderate alter­ native of each of the projections to provide a framework for the individual job oulook dis­ cussions.  Population Trends Population trends affect employment oppor­ tunities in a number of ways. Changes in the size and composition of the population influ­ ence the demand for goods and services— bringing about a boom in school construction in one era, for example, and heightened de­ mand for retirement housing in another. Equally important, population changes produce cor­ responding changes in the size and demo­ graphic composition of the labor force. The U.S. population is expected to grow more slowly over the next 14 years than during the previous 14-year period. However, even slow population growth will create increased demand for goods and services, causing greater demand for workers in many occupations and industries. The population will consist of relatively fewer  children and youth and a considerably greater proportion of middle-aged and older people well into the 21st century. Several things ac­ count for this. The decline in the proportion of children and youth reflects low birth rates that have prevailed for the past 20 years and that seem likely to continue far into the future; the increase in the middle-aged population re­ flects the maturing of the large “baby boom” generation bom after World War II; and the very rapid growth in the number of old people is attributable to high birth rates prior to the Great Depression of the 1930’s, together with strides in medical science that have made it possible for more Americans to survive into old age. Minorities and immigrants will make up a larger share of the U.S. population in the year 2000 than they do today. Substantial increases in the number of blacks, Hispanics, and Asians are anticipated, reflecting high birth rates in these population groups as well as a continued flow of immigrants. The arrival of immigrants has significant implications for the labor force since immigrants tend to be of working age, but have different educational and occupational backgrounds than the U.S. population as a whole. Population growth varies among geographic regions, reflecting, among other factors, higher birth rates in some areas than in others and the drawing power of some areas for jobseekers and of others for retirees. Between 1970 and 1980, the population of the Northeast and the Midwest grew by only 0.2 percent and 4 per­ cent, respectively, compared with 20 percent in the South and 24 percent in the West.  Chart 1.  Labor force growth will slow in the future due to slowing population growth. Percent change in labor force 40  40  ?'  X' ^  30 -  20  - 30  -  Ig  liliiiitt 10  .  . '  :  ■  , ■ ■* : . ___________________  1972-86 Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics  8  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  20  -  10  1  ;V--*  ■ .  -  J  ■  | _L_ _ _ _  1986-2000  If current trends persist, the West will con­ tinue to be the fastest growing region of the country, increasing about 45 percent between 1980 and the year 2000. In the South, the population is expected to increase about 31 percent. The number of people in the Midwest is expected to remain about the same, while the Northeast is projected to have 6 percent fewer people. Geographic shifts in the population alter the demand for and the supply of workers in local job markets. Moreover, many areas are dom­ inated by one or two industries, and local job markets may be extremely sensitive to the eco­ nomic fortunes of those industries. For these and other reasons, local employment oppor­ tunities may differ substantially from the pro­ jections for the Nation as a whole presented in the Handbook. Sources of information on State and local employment prospects are identified on page 422.  Labor Force Population is the single most important factor governing the size and composition of the labor force, which comprises people who are either working or looking for work. The civilian labor force totaled about 118 million in 1986 and is expected to reach 139 million in the year 2000. This projected increase—nearly 18 percent— represents a slowing in both the number joining the labor force and the rate of growth of the labor force. (See chart I.) American workers will continue to be a di­ verse group; in the year 2000 minority group members will make up an even larger share than in 1986. Blacks will increase their share from 11 to 12 percent; Hispanics, from 7 to 10 percent, and Asians and others, from 3 to 4 percent. These groups are projected to ac­ count for about 58 percent of labor force growth between 1986 and 2000. Women will continue to join the labor force in growing numbers, accounting for nearly 2 out of 3 entrants. Women were only 39 percent of the labor force in 1972; by 2000, they are expected to account for over 47 percent. Past fluctuations in the birth rate will produce abrupt changes in major labor force age groups during the 1990’s. The number of young work­ ers (16 to 24 years of age) will decline until the mid-1990’s, then turn upward as the chil­ dren of the baby boom generation enter the labor force. The number of older workers (those 55 and above) will decline through the mid1990’s, then start to rise sharply as the baby boomers themselves enter the preretirement years. Contrary to popular belief, the number of older workers is expected to be only slightly higher in 2000 than in 1986. Declining labor  force participation of persons age 65 and older and men age 55 to 64 will largely offset the increase in the number of persons in this pop­ ulation group. The youth share of the labor force is pro­ jected to drop to only 16 percent by 2000, down from 20percent in 1986 and 23 percent in 1972. (See chart 2.) Many who have a primary in­ terest in this age group—colleges, the Armed Forces, eating and drinking establishments, and other retail establishments—can expect to see the population from whom they draw students, recruits, part-time workers, and customers shrink throughout most of the 1986-2000 pe­ riod. In the year 2000, almost 3 out of 4 workers will be between 25 and 54 years of age. The very large proportion of workers of “prime working age,” together with sustained growth in business investment, is expected to result in improved labor productivity. In recent years, the educational attainment of the labor force has risen dramatically. Be­ tween 1972 and 1986, the proportion of the labor force age 18 to 64 with at least 1 year of college increased from 28 to 41 percent, while the proportion with 4 years of college or more increased from 14 to 21 percent. (See chart 3.) The emphasis on education will continue. The fastest growing jobs will be in executive, managerial, professional, and technical fields requiring the highest levels of education and skill. In contrast, such factors as office and factory automation, changes in consumer de­ mand, and substitution of imports for domestic products are expected to cause employment to stagnate or dwindle in many occupations that require little, formal education—helpers, la­ borers, assemblers, and machine operators, for example. Opportunities for high school drop­ outs will be increasingly limited.  Employment Change Employment is projected to increase from 111.6 million in 1986 to 133.0 million in 2000, or about 19 percent. This is only about half the rate of increase during the previous 14-year period. The 21 million jobs that are expected to be added to the U.S. economy by 2000 will not be evenly distributed across major industry and occupational groups, which means that the structure of employment will change. The fol­ lowing two sections look at projected 1986­ 2000 employment change from both the in­ dustry and occupational perspectives.  Chart 2.  Workers in the prime working ages will account for three-fourths of the labor force in the year 2000. Distribution of the labor force by age i  m-b lit ism  i 1 1  13% ■  60%  — 55 years  110*  and over  73®,o '  - _ , ■ 67% '  -  25-54 years  23% 20%  16-24 years  16%  _________ 1972  1986  _  2000  Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics  Services. Employment in services—one of the subgoups within the service-producing sec­ tor—is expected to rise 34 percent, from 31.9 to 42.6 million—making it the fastest growing industry division. (See chart 5.) These jobs will be found in large corporations and government agencies as well as in one- or two-person firms, for the services industries are a diverse group. A few of these industries are expected to grow extremely fast and a few will grow very slowly, but most are projected to grow at a rate ex­ ceeding that for the economy as a whole. Job growth in legal services and business services (advertising, accounting, word pro­ cessing, and computer support, for example) will be exceptionally rapid. Employment in^ health services also should make impressive gains as demand for health care continues to expand. Cost-containment policies are ex­ pected to slow employment growth in hospitals as services once performed in hospitals are shifted to outpatient care facilities. This will  dramatically boost employment in outpatient settings such as clinics and physicians' offices. Retail and wholesale trade. Employment in both retail and wholesale trade is expected to rise by 27 percent; from 17.8 to 22.7 million in retail trade, and from 5.7 to 7.3 million in wholesale trade. Over half the nearly 5 million new retail jobs will be in eating and drinking places. Substantial increases in retail employ­ ment are also anticipated in grocery stores, department stores, and miscellaneous shopping goods stores—chiefly establishments selling sporting goods, jewelry, books, cards, and sta­ tionery. About half of the 1.5 million new jobs in wholesale trade will occur in machinery and equipment distributors, reflecting large outlays for electronic machinery in the future by do­ mestic manufacturers. Finance, insurance, and real estate. Em­ ployment is expected to increase by 26 percent, from 6.3 to 7.2 million jobs. The demand for financial products and services is expected to  Chart 3.  The proportion of workers with a college background has increased substantially since the early 1970’s, Distribution of the labor force1 by years of school completed 4 years of college or more /  21%  1 to 3 years of college  Industrial Profile  20%  Service-Producing Industries. The long-term shift from goods-producing to service-produc­ ing employment will continue. (See chart 4). By 2000, nearly 4 out of 5 jobs will be in industries that provide services—industries such as banking, insurance, health care, education, data processing, and management consulting. Factors responsible for • arying growth pros­ pects in major industry sectors are noted below.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  4 years of high school or less 1Age 18 to 64. Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics  9  Chart 4.  Industries providing services will account for nearly 4 out of 5 jobs by the year 2000. Workers (millions)1 150 Total employment  ____________ —------- --  100  -  Service producing 50  ;  "/"""-'I  Goods produc.ng 0 1972  1979  1986  1993  2000  11ncludes wage and salary workers, the self-employed, and unpaid family workers. Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics  continue unabated, but technological ad­ vances, such as automated banking and com­ puterized underwriting for insurance agencies, will act to dampen job growth. Government. Between 1986 and 2000, em­ ployment in this division (which does not in­ clude public education or public hospitals) is expected to increase by 9 percent, from 8.6 million to 9.4 million jobs. Most of the growth will be in State and local government; the Fed­ eral Government is expected to add only 100,000 jobs. Transportation, communications, and pub­ lic utilities. Employment in this broad sector is expected to rise only 9 percent, from 5.2 to 5.7 million jobs, making this the slowest grow­ ing industry division in the service-producing sector. The transportation industry is projected to grow almost twice as fast as the division as a whole, reflecting continued employment gains in trucking and airline transportation services.  Demand for electric power, gas utilities, and water and transportation services will continue to increase, too, producing slow but steady employment growth in utilities. Employment in the communications industry is expected to decline as competition among providers of tele­ phone service encourages productivity gains and as job growth in cable TV begins to taper. Goods-Producing Industries. Employment in this sector peaked in the late 1970’s and has not recovered from the recessionary period of the early 1980’s. Although overall employment in goods-producing industries is expected to remain constant, growth prospects within the sector vary a great deal. Construction. Construction is the only goodsproducing division that is expected to show an increase in employment over the period—up 18 percent, from 4.9 million to 5.8 million jobs, in response to economic conditions and demographic trends. When household forma­  Chart 5.  Some industries will grow more rapidly than others. - 10  Percent change in employment,1 1986-2000 0 10 20 30 1  I'll'  Service producing: Services  ..............................................  Retail trade Wholesale trade Finance, insurance, and real estate  .................... i  Government Transportation, communications, and public utilities  ----------- _J1  ..  ■  .  i  '  1  , ,  1  ,  -.................  ~1  '  :  i  Goods producing: Construction  l B2  Manufacturing Mining  r~-  Agriculture f... 'Wage and salary employment except for agriculture, which includes self-employed and unpaid family workers. SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics  10   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  40  tion slows during the 1990’s, employment in residential construction is expected to follow suit. Nonresidential construction, however, should take up the slack. Growth will be es­ pecially strong in construction and renovation of health facilities. Manufacturing. Employment in manufac­ turing is expected to decline by 4 percent, from 19.0 to 18.2 million jobs; 500,000 of the net decrease is expected to be in durable goods manufacturing and 300,000 in nondurable goods. The projected loss of manufacturing jobs reflects productivity gains achieved from increased investment in manufacturing tech­ nologies as well as a winnowing out of less efficient operations. Within durable goods manufacturing, job losses are projected to be greatest in blast fur­ naces, basic steel products, and the aircraft industry; within nondurable goods, in apparel and the weaving, finishing, and yam and thread mills industries. Not all manufacturing industries will de­ cline, however. Those in which increases are expected include, among the durable goods industries, electronic computing equipment and medical instmments and supplies; and miscel­ laneous plastics products and commercial printing and business forms among nondurable goods. The occupational composition of manufac­ turing employment is expected to shift since most of the jobs that will disappear will be production jobs. The number of professional, technical, and managerial positions in manu­ facturing firms will actually increase. Mining. Mining employment is expected to drop from 783,000 to 725,000—a 7-percent decline. Underlying this projection is the as­ sumption that domestic oil production will drop and oil imports will rise sharply. Other mining industries are expected to experience decreases in employment because of improvements in mining technology as well as import compe­ tition. Agriculture. Employment in agriculture has been declining for many decades and this trend is expected to continue—the number of jobs is projected to decline by 14 percent, from 3.3 to 2.9 million. The decline in agricultural jobs reflects a decrease of almost 500,000 in the number of self-employed workers. Wage and salary po­ sitions will increase by about 150,000—with especially strong growth in the agricultural ser­ vices industry.  Occupational Profile Continued expansion of the service-producing sector conjures up an image of a work force dominated by cashiers, retail sales workers, and waiters. Elowever, although service sector growth will usideniably create millions of cler­ ical, sales, and service jobs, it will also create jobs for engineer;"., accountants, lawyers, nurses, and many0 'her managerial, profes­ sional, and technical * orkers. In fact, the fast­ est growing occupation s will be those that re­ quire the most educational preparation.  This section furnishes an overview of pro­ jected employment in broad occupational groupings that adhere in principle to the Stan­ dard Occupational Classification (SOC). The SOC is the organizational framework used by all Federal agencies that collect occupational employment data. In the discussion that follows, projected em­ ployment change is described as faster, slower, or about the same as the average for all oc­ cupations. (These phrases are explained on page 2.) While occupations that are growing fast generally offer good opportunities, the nu­ merical change in employment also is impor­ tant because large occupations, such as retail sales worker, may offer many more new jobs than a small, fast-growing occupation, such as medical assistant. (See chart 6.) Managerial and management-related oc­ cupations. Employment in this cluster is ex­ pected to increase 29 percent, from 10.6 to 13.6 million jobs. Growth will be spurred by the increasing complexity of business opera­ tions and by large employment gains in trade and services—industries that employ a higher than average proportion of managers. Employment in management-related occu­ pations tends to be tied to industry growth. Thus, employment of health services managers is projected to grow very rapidly, in line with growth trends in nursing homes, health main­ tenance organizations, group medical prac­ tices, and other health care facilities except hospitals. On the other hand, employment of school principals, superintendents, and other education administrators is projected to grow more slowly than average, since the educa­ tional services industry will not expand much. Hiring requirements in many managerial and administrative jobs are rising. Work experi­ ence, specialized training, or graduate study will be increasingly necessary. Familiarity with computers is a “must” in a growing number of firms, due to the widespread use of comput­ erized management information systems. Engineers, architects, and surveyors. Em­ ployment in this cluster is expected to grow 32 percent, from 1.6 to 2.1 million jobs. The out­ look generally will be the brightest for engi­ neers. Electrical engineers, for example, are the fastest growing occupation in this cluster. More electrical engineers will be required in the future to create new products, update ex­ isting ones, and develop more efficient ways to produce goods. Employment of architects, except landscape and marine architects, is pro­ jected to grow faster than the average due to increased demand for office buildings, apart­ ment buildings, and residential housing. Natural, computer, and mathematical sci­ entists. Employment is expected to increase by 46 percent, from 738,000 to 1,077,000 jobs— making it one of the fastest growing occupa­ tional areas in the U.S. economy. (See chart 7.) Especially rapid employment growth is an­ ticipated for computer and mathematical sci­ entists, largely due to substantial growth in computer and data processing services. Government and health services are ex­ pected to employ increasing numbers of life   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Chart 6.  Even though an occupation is expected to grow rapidly, it may provide fewer openings than a slower growing but larger occupation. Percent change in employment, 1986-2000  Absolute change in employment, 1986-2000 (millions)  100  1.4  80  -  1.2  Medical assistants  _  Retail sales workers  1.0 60  .8 .6  40  20  Retail sales workers  .4  Medical  .2  “  n  J______ L  assistants  .  Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics  scientists for genetic research. Employment opportunities for physical scientists will ex­ pand due to private research and development efforts in the fields of lasers, superconductors, and other areas of advanced science. Teachers, librarians, and counselors. Em­ ployment in this cluster is expected to grow about 16 percent, from 4.9 to 5.7 million jobs. Projected job growth reflects underlying dem­ ographic trends: preschool and elementary school teaching, which involves young chil­ dren, will experience more growth than sec­ ondary school and college and university teach­ ing. Jobs for counselors are expected to grow as fast as the average; those for librarians, more slowly than the average. Health diagnosing, assessment, and treating occupations. Employment of health profes­ sionals is projected to grow 42 percent, from 2.6 to 3.7 million jobs. Faster than average growth in most health occupations is consistent with rapidly rising demand for health care. However, staffing patterns and advances in treatment and technology will also affect oc­ cupational employment. Demand for registered nurses is expected to rise sharply, for example, despite a slowdown in hospital industry growth, because the combination of shorter hospital stays, sicker patients, and more complex equipment calls for more and better trained nurses. Other professional specialists. These work­ ers are covered in two separate Handbook clus­ ters. Altogether, employment for this group is projected to grow by 26 percent, from 3.7 to 4.7 million. Growth in individual occupations varies greatly, however. Most of the occupations in the cluster cov­ ering lawyers, social scientists, social workers, and religious workers, with the exception of religious workers, are expected to record faster or much faster than average employment growth. Employment of lawyers is expected to grow much faster than the average due to very strong demand for legal services. Among social scientists, economists and psychologists are  expected to experience the greatest job growth. Competition for academic positions will re­ main keen, however, and prospects for those with advanced degrees will be best in applied fields. Social workers are expected to be in greater demand with the expansion of programs for chronically ill, abused, and neglected chil­ dren; services for the elderly; and private prac­ tice opportunities in clinical social work and organizational consulting. Employment in the writers, artists, and en­ tertainers cluster is expected to grow faster than the average largely because of anticipated growth in advertising, public relations, print and broadcast communications, and entertain­ ment. This group includes reporters, writers, designers, public relations specialists, and per­ forming artists. Keen job competition is likely, however, due to the large numbers of people these fields attract. Talent and personal drive will continue to be important for success. For those wishing to write for a living, it will be easier to land a job in technical writing than as a reporter for a newspaper. Technician occupations. Employment is ex­ pected to increase 38 percent, from 3.7 to 5.1 million jobs. Workers in this group provide technical assistance to engineers, scientists, health practitioners, and other professional workers as well as operate and program tech­ nical equipment. Employment in this cluster is expected to grow much faster than the average, reflecting the fact that it contains two of the fastest growing occupations in the economy, legal assistants and computer programmers. Employment of legal assistants is expected to skyrocket due to increased utilization of these workers in the rapidly expanding legal services industry. Employment of computer program­ mers will continue to grow rapidly, and more engineering technicians will be needed to assist the ever-growing number of engineers. Technological advances in health care are not laborsaving, as a rule, but there are ex­ ceptions. New kinds of heart monitoring equip­ ment have greatly increased the productivity 11  Chart 7.  Employment growth will vary widely by broad occupational group. Percent change in employment, 1986-2000 -10  0  10  20  30  40  50  Total, all occupations Natural, computer, and mathematical scientists Health diagnosing, assessment, and treating occupations  tt§ISIfl|l  Technician occupations Engineers, architects, and surveyors Service occupations Marketing and sales occupations Managerial and management-related workers Other professional specialists Construction trades and extractive occupations Teachers, librarians, and counselors Mechanics, installers, and repairers Administrative support occupations, including clerical Transportation and material moving occupations Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers Production occupations Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related occupations  ’No change.  of EKG technicians, for example, and pro­ ductivity has increased in clinical laboratory work, most phases of which are highly auto­ mated. As a result, employment of EKG tech­ nicians and clinical laboratory personnel is pro­ jected to grow only about as fast as the average—despite very substantial growth in the volume of testing in both areas. Marketing and sales occupations. Employ­ ment in this large cluster is projected to grow by 30 percent, from 12.6 to 16.3 million jobs. Demand for real estate agents and brokers, travel agents, and securities and financial ser­ vices sales workers is expected to grow much faster than the average due to strong employ­ ment growth in the industries that employ them. Many part-time and full-time job openings arc expected for retail sales workers and cashiers due to the large size, high turnover, and faster than average employment growth in these oc­ cupations. The higher paying sales jobs, how­ ever, tend to be more competitive. Personable, ambitious people who enjoy selling will have the best chance for success. Administrative support occupations, includ­ ing clerical. Workers in these occupations per­ form the wide variety of tasks essential to keep­ ing an office in order. Employment is expected to increase by only 11 percent, from 19.9 to 22.1 milion jobs, making this one of the slow­ est growing occupational areas. However, the relatively slow growth projected for secre­ taries, typists and word processors, bookkeep­ ers, and other clerical positions does not mean 12   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics  that administrative support jobs offer poor prospects. On the contrary, because of their large size and substantial replacement needs, clerical occupations will offer abundant op­ portunities for qualified jobseekers in the years ahead. The slowdown in job growth is generally attributable to technological change. Techno­ logical advances in mail sorting equipment, for example, will slow demand for postal service clerks. Increased use of word processing equip­ ment is expected to lead to a decline in the number of typists. Operations that involve in­ teraction with others will generally grow faster than “back-office” jobs that do not. Employ­ ment of receptionists and information clerks, for example, is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations. Other cler­ ical occupations—-such as computer operators and hotel desk clerks—are expected to grow extremely fast in the future because they are concentrated in fast-growing industries. Service occupations. This large group— which includes a wide range of workers in protective, food and beverage preparation, cleaning, personal, and health services—is ex­ pected to grow by 31 percent, from 17.5 to 22.9 million jobs. Most occupations in this group are expected to grow faster or much faster than the average. Of the health services occupations, medical assistant, dental assis­ tant, and nursing aide will be among the fastest growing in the economy. Growth among the food service occupations will be spurred as  people eat more meals out. Within the protec­ tive service workers group, employment of guards will grow particularly fast as companies contract out for protective services. Among cleaning and building service occupations, jan­ itors and cleaners will enjoy a sizable em­ ployment gain as the number of office build­ ings, factories, hospitals, schools, and other buildings increases. Within the personal ser-, vices area, homemaker-home health aide will grow very rapidly as a result of the growing frail elderly population and the expansion of home care services and programs. Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and related occupations. Overall employment in this clus­ ter is projected to decline 5 percent, from 3.6 to 3.4 million—largely because of the contin­ ued consolidation of small farms into larger ones. The larger farms will require more tech­ nically skilled workers to manage them—lead­ ing to faster than average growth for farm man­ agers. Mechanics, installers, and repairers. These workers adjust, maintain, and repair automo­ biles, industrial equipment, computers, and many other types of equipment. Overall, em­ ployment is expected to increase 15 percent, from 4.7 to 5.4 million jobs. Employment in most of these occupations is expected to grow as fast as the average due to increased use of mechanical and electronic equipment. The fastest growing occupation in this group is ex­ pected to be data processing equipment re­ pairers. Automotive mechanics, in sharp con­ trast, are expected to record slower than average job growth due to the enhanced performance of automobiles. Construction trades and extractive occu­ pations. Employment in this broad group of occupations is expected to grow about as fast as the average—18 percent, from 4.0 to 4.7 million. Construction occupations will grow more rapidly than extractive occupations, how­ ever, because of divergent industry trends. Em­ ployment growth in construction will be spurred by new projects and alterations to existing structures. Production occupations. Workers in these occupations set up, install, adjust, operate, and tend machinery and equipment and use handtools and hand-held power tools to fabricate and assemble products. Employment in this group is expected to remain unchanged from the 1986 level of 12.3 million. More efficient production techniques—such as computer-aided manufacturing and industrial robotics—will eliminate jobs for production workers. Like other occupations found in manufacturing, workers may experience layoffs or shortened workweeks during economic downturns. Transportation and material moving occu­ pations. Workers in this group of occupations operate the equipment used to move people and equipment. Overall, employment in these occupations is expected to grow by 10 percent, from 4.8 to 5.3 million. Employment of ma­ terial moving equipment operators, for ex­ ample, is expected to decline due to greater use of automated material handling equipment in factories and warehouses. In sharp contrast,  employment of aircraft pilots and flight engi­ neers is expected to grow faster than the av­ erage due to rapid growth in air transportation. Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers. These workers assist skilled workers and perform routine, unskilled tasks. Occu­ pations in this group are expected to grow by only 6 percent, from 4.3 to 4.5 million, as routine tasks are automated.  Replacement Needs Replacement openings occur as people leave occupations. Some transfer to other occupa­ tions as a step up the career ladder or to change careers. Others stop working, return to school, assume household responsibilities, or retire. Most job openings that arise are the result   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  of replacement needs. Thus, even occupations with little or no employment growth or slower than average employment growth may still of­ fer many job openings. The number of replacement jobs and the proportion of job openings arising from re­ placement needs vary by occupation. Occu­ pations with the most replacement openings generally are large, with low pay and status, low training requirements, and a high propor­ tion of young and part-time workers. Some examples include file clerks, retail sales work­ ers, and construction laborers. The occupations with relatively few replace­ ment openings, on the other hand, are ones with high pay and status, lengthy training re­ quirements, and a high proportion of prime working age, full-time workers. Among these occupations are dentists, architects, and phy­  sicians. Workers in these occupations generally have spent years acquiring training that often is not applicable to other occupations.  Interested in More Detail? Readers interested in more information about projections and detail on the labor force, eco­ nomic growth, industry and occupational em­ ployment, or methods and assumptions should consult the September 1987 Monthly Labor Review or Projections 2000, BLS Bulletin 2302. Information on the limitations inherent in eco­ nomic projections also can be found in either of these two publications. Additional occu­ pational data as well as statistics on educational and training completions can be found in the 1988 edition of Occupational Projections and Training Data, BLS Bulletin 2301.  Managerial and Management-Related Occupations Accountants and Auditors (D.O.T. 160 through .167-042, and .267-014)  Nature of the Work Managers must have up-to-date financial in­ formation to make important decisions. Ac­ countants and auditors prepare, analyze, and verify linancial reports that furnish this kind of information to managers in all business, industrial, and government organizations. Four major fields are public, management, and government accounting, and internal au­ diting. Public accountants have their own busi­ nesses or work for accounting firms. Manage­ ment accountants, also called industrial or private accountants, handle the financial rec­ ords of their companies. Government account­ ants and auditors maintain and examine the records of government agencies and audit pri­ vate businesses and individuals whose dealings are subject to government regulations. Internal auditors verify the accuracy of their firm’s fi­ nancial records and check for waste or fraud. Within each field, accountants often con­ centrate on one phase of accounting. For ex­ ample. many public accountants are employed primarily in financial auditing (examining a  Accountants provide the financial informa­ tion executives need to make sound business decisions. Digitized 14 for FRASER https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  client's financial records and reports and at­ testing that they are in conformity with stan­ dards of preparation and reporting). Others concentrate on tax matters, such as preparing income tax returns and advising clients of the tax advantages and disadvantages of certain business decisions. Still others concentrate on consulting and offer advice on a variety of matters. They might develop or revise an ac­ counting system to serve the needs of clients more effectively or give advice about how to manage cash resources more profitably. Management accountants, the largest group of accountants and auditors, provide the fi­ nancial information executives need to make sound business decisions. They also may pre­ pare financial reports to meet the public dis­ closure requirements of various stock ex­ changes, the Securities and Exchange Commission, and other regulatory bodies. They may work in areas such as taxation, budgeting, costs, or investments. Internal auditing is rapidly growing in im­ portance as top management must increasingly base its decisions on reports and records rather than personal observation. Internal auditors ex­ amine and evaluate their firms’ financial and information systems, management procedures, and internal controls to ensure that records are accurate and controls are adequate to protect against fraud and waste. They also review com­ pany operations—evaluating their efficiency, effectiveness, and compliance with corporate policies and procedures, laws, and government regulations. Accountants and auditors also work for Fed­ eral, State, and local governments. Many per­ sons with accounting backgrounds work for the Federal Government as Internal Revenue Ser­ vice agents or in financial management, finan­ cial institution examination, and budget admin­ istration. In addition, a small number of persons trained as accountants staff the faculties of business and professional schools as accounting teach­ ers, researchers, or administrators. Some work part time as accountants or consultants. Computers are increasingly being used in accounting and auditing. With the aid of special computer software systems, accountants sum­ marize transactions in standard formats for fi­ nancial records, put the data in special formats that aid in financial or management analysis, and prepare income tax returns. Controls are placed in systems to enable auditors to ensure the reliability of the systems and the integrity of data. Software systems coming into use in accounting and auditing generally are easily  learned and require few specialized computer skills, but greatly reduce the amount of tedious manual work with figures and records. Newer, less expensive personal computers are enabling accountants and auditors in all fields—even those who work independently—to use these special software systems and extract infor­ mation from large mainframe computers. A growing number of accountants and auditors have extensive computer skills and specialize in correcting problems with software systems or developing special software programs to meet unique data needs. Working Conditions Most accountants and auditors work in offices and have regular hours. Self-employed ac­ countants, who may set up offices at home, work as many hours as the business requires. Tax accountants work long hours under heavy pressure during the tax season. Accountants employed by large firms may travel extensively to audit or work for clients or branches of the firm. Employment Accountants and auditors held about 945,000 jobs in 1986; about 317,000 were Certified Public Accountants (CPA), about 22,000 were licensed public accountants, about 14,000 were Certified Internal Auditors (CIA), about 8,000 were Certified Management Accountants (CMA), and over 4,300 were Certified Infor­ mation Systems Auditors (CISA). About 10 percent of all accountants were self-employed. Less than 10 percent worked part time. Most accountants and auditors work in urban areas where public accounting firms and central or regional offices of businesses are concen­ trated. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Most public accounting and business firms re­ quire applicants for accountant and internal auditor positions to have at least a bachelor’s degree in accounting or a closely related field. Many employers prefer those with a master’s degree in accounting or a master’s degree in business administration with a concentration in accounting. A growing number of employers prefer applicants who are familiar with com­ puters and their applications in accounting and internal auditing. For beginning accounting and auditing po­ sitions, the Federal Government requires 4 years of college (including 24 semester hours in ac­ counting or auditing) or an equivalent com­  Managerial and Management-Related Occupations/15  bination of education and experience. How­ ever, applicants face competition for the limited number of openings in the Federal Govern­ ment. Previous experience in accounting or audit­ ing can help an applicant get a job. Many col­ leges offer students an opportunity to gain ex­ perience through summer or part-time internship programs conducted by public accounting or business firms. Such training is invaluable in gaining permanent employment in the field. Professional recognition through certifica­ tion or licensure also is extremely valuable. In the majority of States, Certified Public Ac­ countants are the only accountants who are licensed and regulated. Anyone working as a Certified Public Accountant must have a cer­ tificate and a license, or permit, issued by a State board of accountancy. The vast majority of States require CPA candidates to be college graduates, but a few States substitute a certain number of years of public accounting experi­ ence for the educational requirement. Based on recommendations made by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and the National Association of State Boards of Accountancy, a few States require or are con­ sidering requiring CPA candidates to have training beyond the usual 4-year bachelor’s de­ gree—for example, a 5-year bachelor’s degree or a master’s degree. This requirement may become more common in the coming years. All States use the four-part Uniform CPA Examination, prepared by the American Insti­ tute of Certified Public Accountants, to help establish eligibility for certification. The CPA examination is rigorous, and candidates are not required to pass all four parts at once. How­ ever, most States require candidates to pass at least two parts for partial credit. Many States require all sections of the test to be passed within a certain period of time. Most States require applicants for a CPA certificate to have some public accounting experience. For ex­ ample, bachelor’s degree holders most often need 2 years of experience, while master’s de­ gree holders often need no more than 1 year. The designation Licensed Public Accountant (LPA), or Registered Public Accountant (RPA), is also awarded by 9 States, and accountants who hold those designations have similar legal rights, duties, and obligations to CPA’s, but their qualifications for licensure are slightly less stringent. The designation Accounting Practitioner is awarded by 4 States and requires less formal training than a CPA license, but has a limited scope of practice. However, with dramatic growth in the number of CPA’s, the majority of States either no longer offer the LPA or RPA designations or are phasing it out by not issuing any more new LPA or RPA licenses. Professional societies grant other forms of certification on a voluntary basis. Voluntary certification can attest to professional compe­ tence in a specialized field of accounting and auditing. It also can certify that a recognized level of professional competence has been achieved by accountants and auditors who ac­ quired their skills at least partially on the job,  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  without the amount of formal education or pub­ lic accounting work experience needed to meet the rigorous standards required to take the CPA examination. The Institute of Internal Auditors, Inc., con­ fers the designation Certified Internal Auditor (CIA) upon graduates from accredited colleges and universities who have completed 2 years’ experience in internal auditing and who have passed a four-part examination. The EDP Aud­ itors Association confers the designation Cer­ tified Information Systems Auditor (CISA) upon candidates who pass an examination and who have completed 5 years’ experience in auditing electronic data processing systems. However, auditing or data processing experience and col­ lege education may be substituted for up to 3 years. The National Association of Accountants (NAA) confers the Certificate in Management Accounting (CMA) upon candidates who pass a series of uniform examinations and meet spe­ cific educational and professional standards. The Accreditation Council for Accountancy of the National Society of Public Accountants awards a Certificate of Accreditation in Ac­ countancy and a Certificate of Accreditation in Taxation to persons who have passed compre­ hensive examinations; there are no educational requirements to take these tests. Persons planning a career in accounting should have an aptitude for mathematics, be able to analyze, compare, and interpret facts and figures quickly, and make sound judgments based on this knowledge. They must question how and why things are done and be able to clearly communicate the results of their work, orally and in writing, to clients and manage­ ment. Accountants and auditors must be patient and able to concentrate for long periods of time. They must be good at working with business systems and computers as well as with people. Accuracy and the ability to handle responsi­ bility with limited supervision are important. Perhaps most important, because millions of financial statement users rely on their services, accountants and auditors should have high standards of integrity. A growing number of States require both CPA’s and licensed public accountants to com­ plete a certain number of hours of continuing education before licenses can be renewed. The professional associations representing account­ ants sponsor numerous courses, seminars, group study programs, and other forms of continuing education. Capable accountants and auditors should ad­ vance rapidly; those having inadequate aca­ demic preparation may be assigned routine jobs and find promotion difficult. Many graduates of junior colleges and business and correspond­ ence schools, as well as outstanding book­ keepers and accounting clerks who meet the education and experience requirements set by their employers, are successful in landing jun­ ior accounting positions and advance to more responsible positions by demonstrating their accounting skills on the job. Beginning public accountants usually start  by assisting with auditing work for several clients. They may advance to intermediate po­ sitions with more responsibility in 1 or 2 years and to senior positions within another few years. Those who deal successfully with top industry executives often become supervisors, man­ agers, or partners, or transfer to executive po­ sitions in private firms. Some open their own public accounting offices. Beginning management accountants often start as ledger accountants, junior internal aud­ itors, or as trainees for technical accounting positions. They may advance to chief plant accountant, chief cost accountant, budget di­ rector, or manager of internal auditing. Some become controllers, treasurers, financial vice­ presidents, or corporation presidents. Many corporation executives have backgrounds in accounting, internal auditing, and finance.  Job Outlook Employment of accountants and auditors is ex­ pected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000 due to the key role these workers play in the man­ agement of all types of businesses. Although increased demand will generate many new jobs, most openings will result from the need to replace workers who leave the occupation or retire. While accountants and auditors tend to leave the profession at a lower rate than mem­ bers of most other occupations, replacement needs will be substantial because the occupa­ tion is large. As the economy grows, the number of busi­ ness establishments increases, requiring more accountants and auditors to set up their books, prepare their taxes, and provide management advice. As these businesses grow, the volume and complexity of information developed by accountants and auditors on costs, expendi­ tures, and taxes will increase as well. Plant expansion, mergers, or foreign investments may depend upon information on the financial con­ dition of the firm, tax implications of the pro­ posed action, and other financial considera­ tions. Requirements for accountants and auditors may also be affected by changes in legislation related to taxes, financial reporting standards, business investment, and other fi­ nancial matters. In addition, increases in in­ vestment and lending associated with general economic growth also should spur demand for accountants and auditors. Growth in demand for personal financial planning assistance should also contribute to growth in requirements for accountants. Opportunities are expected to be favorable for college graduates seeking accounting and auditing jobs. Certified Public Accountants should have a wider range of job opportunities than other accountants. However, competition for jobs with prestigious accounting firms will remain keen; a master’s degree in accounting would be an asset. Opportunities for account­ ants without a college degree will occur mainly in small businesses and accounting and tax preparation firms. The increasing use of com­ puters in accounting should stimulate the de-  16/Occupational Outlook Handbook  For information on accredited accounting programs and educational institutions offering a specialization in accounting or business man­ agement, contact:  The number of new bachelor’s degrees in accounting has increased only slightly since the late 1970’s. Bachelor’s degrees in accounting (thousands)  American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Busi­ ness, 605 Old Balias Rd., Suite 220, St. Louis, MO 63141.  Construction and Building Inspectors  ' % •in •' . i§ i  197576  1976- 197777 78  197879  (D.O.T. 168.167-030, -034, -038, -046, and -050; .267­ 010, -102; .367-018; 182.267; and 850.387, and .467)  197980  198081  198182  198283  198384  198485  1985­ 86  Source: Center for Education Statistics  mand for accountants and auditors familiar with their operation. Many employers prefer graduates who have worked part time in a business or accounting firm while in school. In fact, experience has become so important that some employers in business and industry seek persons with 1 or 2 years’ experience for beginning positions. Accountants rarely lose their jobs when other workers are laid off during hard economic times. Financial information must be developed and tax reports prepared regardless of the state of the economy.  Earnings According to a 1986 College Placement Coun­ cil salary survey, bachelor’s degree candidates in accounting received offers averaging around $21,200 a year; master’s degree candidates, $25,600. Beginning public accountants employed by public accounting firms averaged $20,500 a year in 1986, according to a national survey. The middle 50 percent had starting salaries ranging from $19,500 to $21,500. Salaries of junior public accountants who were not owners or partners of their firms averaged $24,100, but some had salaries of more than $35,000. Many owners and partners of firms earned con­ siderably more. The starting salary of management account­ ants in private industry averaged abo ut $21,000 a year in 1986, according to the sarnie survey. The middle 50 percent had starting annual sal­ aries ranging from $18,800 to $22,700. Sal­ aries of nonsupervisory management account­ ants averaged $31,800 in 1986, and some of the most experienced had salaries of over $65,000. Chief management accountants who direct the accounting program of a company or one of its establishments averaged $54,700 a year. Their salaries ranged from over $40,000 to more than $80,000, depending upon the scope of their authority and the size of their profes­ sional staff. According to the same survey, beginning   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  trainee internal auditors averaged $21,500 a year in 1986. The middle 50 percent had annual starting salaries ranging from $20,000 to $22,800. Internal auditors averaged $30,300, but some of the most experienced had salaries of more than $40,000. In the Federal Government, the starting an­ nual salary for junior accountants and auditors was about $14,800 in 1987. Candidates who had a superior academic record could begin at about $18,400. Applicants with a master’s de­ gree or 2 years’ professional experience began at about $22,500. Accountants in the Federal Government averaged about $34,500 a year in 1986; auditors, about $35,200. Related Occupations Accountants and auditors design internal con­ trol systems and analyze financial data. Others for whom training in accounting is invaluable include appraisers, budget officers, loan offi­ cers, financial analysts, bank officers, actu­ aries, underwriters, tax collectors and revenue agents, FBI special agents, securities sales workers, and purchasing agents. Sources of Additional Information Information about careers in public accounting and about competency tests administered in colleges and public accounting firms may be obtained from: American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, 1211 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10036­ 8775.  Information on specialized fields of account­ ing and auditing is available from: National Association of Accountants, 10 Paragon Dr., Montvale, NJ 07645. National Society of Public Accountants and the Ac­ creditation Council for Accountancy, 1010 North Fairfax St., Alexandria, VA 22314. The Institute of Internal Auditors, P.O. Box 1119, 249 Maitland Ave., Altamonte Springs, FL 32701. The EDP Auditors Association, P.O. Box 88180, Carol Stream, IL 60188-0180.  Nature of the Work Construction and building inspectors examine the construction, alteration, or repair of high­ ways, streets, sewer and water systems, dams, bridges, buildings, and other structures to in­ sure compliance with building codes and or­ dinances, zoning regulations, and contract specifications. Following initial inspections during construction, followup inspections are conducted periodically to monitor continuing compliance with regulations. In areas subject to unusually severe environmental hazards— such as earthquakes or hurricanes—inspectors monitor compliance with additional regula­ tions. Inspectors generally specialize in one particular type of construction work. Building inspectors inspect the structural quality of buildings. Some may specialize— for example, in structural steel or reinforced concrete buildings. Before construction, plan checkers determine whether the plans for the building or other structure comply with build­ ing code regulations and are suited to the en­ gineering and environmental demands of the building site. They visit the worksite before the foundation is poured to inspect the soil condition and positioning and depth of the foot­ ings. They inspect the foundation after it has been completed. The size and type of structure and the rate of completion determine the num­ ber of other visits they must make. Upon com­ pletion of the project, they conduct a final com­ prehensive inspection. In addition, inspectors working for private industry may determine fire insurance rates by assessing the type of con­ struction, building contents, availability of fire protection equipment, and risks posed by ad­ joining buildings. Electrical inspectors inspect the installation of electrical systems and equipment to insure that they function properly and comply with electrical codes and standards. They visit worksites to inspect new and existing wiring, lighting, sound and security systems, motors, and generating equipment. They also may in­ spect the installation of the electrical wiring for heating and air-conditioning systems, kitchen appliances, and other components. Elevator inspectors examine lifting and con­ veying devices such as elevators, escalators, moving sidewalks, personnel lifts and hoists, inclined railways, ski lifts, and various amuse­ ment rides.  Managerial and Management-Related Occupations/17  Mechanical inspectors inspect the installa­ tion of the mechanical components of kitchen appliances, heating and air-conditioning equip­ ment, gasoline and butane tanks, gas piping, and gas-fired appliances. Some specialize in inspecting boilers. Plumbing inspectors examine plumbing sys­ tems, including septic tanks, water supply and distribution systems, plumbing fixtures and traps, and drain, waste, and vent lines. Public works inspectors insure that Federal, State, and local government construction of water and sewer systems, highways, streets, bridges, and dams conforms to detailed con­ tract specifications. They inspect excavation and fill operations, the placement of forms for concrete, concrete mixing and pouring, asphalt paving, and grading operations. They record the work and materials used so that contract payments can be calculated. Public works in­ spectors may specialize in highways, rein­ forced concrete, or ditches. Others specialize in dredging operations required for bridges and dams or for harbors. Construction and building inspectors in­ creasingly use computers to help them monitor the status of construction inspection activities and the issuance of permits. Details about con­ struction projects, building and occupancy per­ mits, and other information can be stored and easily retrieved. Although inspections are primarily visual, inspectors often use tape measures, survey in­ struments, metering devices, and test equip­ ment such as concrete strength measurers. They often keep a daily log of their work, take pho­ tographs, file reports, and, if necessary, act on their findings. For example, construction in­ spectors notify the construction contractor, su­ perintendent, or supervisor when they discover a detail of a project that does not comply with the appropriate codes, ordinances, contract specifications, or approved plans. If the defi­ ciency is not corrected within a reasonable or specified period of time, government inspec­ tors have authority to issue a “stop-work” or­ der. Many inspectors also investigate reported incidents of construction or alteration that is being carried on without proper permits. Vi­ olators of permit laws are directed to obtain permits and submit to inspection. Working Conditions Construction and building inspectors usually work alone on small jobs indoors and out. However, several may be assigned to a large, complex project. They may spend much of their time in a field office reviewing blueprints, answering letters or telephone calls, writing reports, and scheduling inspections. The rest of their time is spent inspecting construction and building sites. Inspection sites may be dirty and cluttered with tools, materials, or debris. Inspectors may have to climb ladders or several flights of stairs, or may have to crawl beneath buildings. How­ ever, the work is not considered hazardous. Inspectors normally work regular hours. However, if an accident occurs at a construc­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  tion site, such as a partially collapsed concrete structure, inspectors must respond immediately and may work irregular hours to complete their report. Employment Construction and building inspectors held about 50,000jobs in 1986. Over half worked for local governments, primarily municipal or county building departments. The employment of lo­ cal government inspectors is concentrated in cities and in suburban areas undergoing rapid growth. Local governments employ large in­ spection staffs, including most of the inspectors who specialize in structural steel, reinforced concrete, boiler, and elevator inspection. Almost 20 percent of all construction and building inspectors were employed at the Fed­ eral and State levels. Over half of the con­ struction inspectors employed by the Federal Government worked for the Department of De­ fense, primarily for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Other important Federal employers include the Departments of Agriculture, Hous­ ing and Urban Development, and Interior, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. Over one-fifth of all inspectors worked for private industry, primarily for construction companies. The insurance and educational ser­ vices industries employed relatively small numbers of inspectors. TVaining, Other Qualifications, and Advancement To become a construction or building inspec­ tor, several years of experience as a construc­ tion contractor, supervisor, or craft worker are generally required. Most employers also re­ quire an applicant to have a high school di­ ploma. High school preparation should include courses in drafting, algebra, geometry, and English. Workers who want to become inspectors should have a thorough knowledge of construc­ tion materials and practices in either a general area like structural or heavy construction, or in a specialized area such as electrical or plumbing systems, reinforced concrete, or structural steel. A significant number of con­ struction and building inspectors have recent experience as carpenters, electricians, plumbers, or pipefitters. Many employers prefer inspectors who have graduated from an apprenticeship program, have studied engineering or architecture for at least 2 years, or have a degree from a community or junior college, with courses in construction technology, blueprint reading, mathematics, and building inspection. Construction and building inspectors must be in good physical condition in order to walk and climb about construction sites. They also must have a motor vehicle operator’s license. In addition, Federal, State, and many local governments usually require that inspectors pass a civil service examination. Construction and building inspectors usually receive most of their training on the job. During the first couple of weeks, working with an experienced inspector, they learn about in-  PUP**  Smbw  ■ r ■  ■  ______ Building inspector assuring readiness for in­ stallation of prefabricated panels. spection techniques; codes, ordinances, and regulations; contract specifications; and re­ cordkeeping and reporting duties. They begin by inspecting less complex types of construc­ tion such as residential buildings. The difficulty of their assignments is gradually increased until they are able to handle complex assignments. An engineering degree is frequently needed to advance to supervisory inspector. Since they advise representatives of the con­ struction industry and the general public on building code interpretation, construction prac­ tices, and technical developments, construc­ tion and building inspectors must keep abreast of new building code developments. Many em­ ployers provide formal training programs to broaden inspectors’ knowledge of construction materials, practices, and inspection tech­ niques. Inspectors who work for small agencies or firms that do not conduct training programs can broaden their knowledge and upgrade their skills by attending State-conducted training programs or by taking college or correspond­ ence courses. Certification enhances construction inspec­ tors’ chances for higher paying, more respon­ sible positions. Some States and cities require certification for employment. Inspectors hav­ ing substantial experience and education can attain certification by passing stringent ex­ aminations on construction techniques, mate­ rials, and code requirements offered by the model code organizations listed below. Job Outlook Employment of construction and building in­ spectors is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Increases in both the level of construc ­ tion activity and complexity of construction materials and technology, as well as rising con­ cern for public safety and for improvements in the quality of construction, should spur demand for construction and building inspectors. How­  18/Occupational Outlook Handbook  ever, the continuing assumption of some in­ spection functions by engineers, construction managers, and maintenance supervisors should expedite construction and limit growth of con­ struction and building inspector jobs. Most job openings will arise from the need to replace inspectors who retire or leave the occupation for other reasons. Because of the trend toward the establishment of professional standards for inspectors, job prospects should be best for highly experienced craft workers who have some college education or who arc certified as inspectors. Employment of construction and building inspectors is not always directly affected by changes in the level of building activity. Unlike most construction occupations, inspectors do not usually experience layoffs when construc­ tion activity declines. During these periods, maintenance and renovation—which usually require more frequent inspection than new con­ struction—generally continue, enabling in­ spectors to continue working full time year round. In an upturn, new jobs for inspectors increase but not to the same degree as con­ struction activity. Earnings The median annual salary of construction and building inspectors was $27,100 in 1986. Gen­ erally, building inspectors, including plan checkers, earn the highest salaries. Salaries in large metropolitan areas are substantially higher than those in small local jurisdictions. Salaries in the North and West are slightly higher than salaries in the South. The average salary of inspectors in the Fed­ eral Government was $26,100 in 1986. Related Occupations Construction and building inspectors combine a knowledge of construction principles and law with the ability to coordinate data, diagnose problems, and communicate with people. Other occupations involving a combination of similar skills arc drafters, estimators, industrial en­ gineering technicians, and surveyors. Sources of Additional Information Information about a career and certification as a construction or building inspector is available from the following model code organizations: International Conference of Building Officials, 5360 South Workman Mill Rd., Whittier, CA 90601. Building Officials and Code Administrators Inter­ national, Inc., 4051 West Flossmoor Rd., Country Club Hills, IL 60477. Southern Building Code Congress International, Inc., 900 Montclair Road, Birmingham, AL 35213.  For information about a career as a State or local government construction or building in­ spector, contact your State or local employ­ ment service. Persons interested in a career as a construc­ tion and building inspector with the Federal Government can obtain information from: U.S. Office of Personnel Management, 1900 E St. NW„ Washington, DC 20415.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Cost Estimators (D.O.T. 160.267-018, 221.362-018, .367-014)  Nature of the Work Being able to predict the cost of future projects is vital to the economic survival of any busi­ ness. Cost estimators are the professionals who develop this information for owners and man­ agers to use in making bids for contracts or in determining if a new product will be profit­ able. Whether in construction or in manufactur­ ing, estimators compile and analyze data on all the factors that can influence costs—ma­ terials, labor, location, and special machinery. Actual job duties vary widely depending upon the type and size of the project. On a new, large construction project, for example, the estimating process begins with the decision to submit a bid. After reviewing the architect’s drawings, specifications, and other bidding documents, the estimator visits the site of the proposed construction to gather information on access to the site and availability of electricity, water, and other services, as well as surface topography and drainage. If the project is a remodeling or renovation job, the estimator might consider the need to control noise and dust and to perform work in such a way that occupants can continue to carry out their ac­ tivities as normally as possible. The infor­ mation developed during the site visit generally is recorded in a signed report that is made part of the project estimate. After the site visit is completed, the esti­ mator must determine the quantity of materials and labor that the firm will have to furnish. This process, called the quantity survey or “takeoff,” is completed by filling out standard estimating forms that provide spaces for the entry of dimensions, numbers of units, and other information. A cost estimator working for a general contractor, for example, will only estimate the costs of the items the contractor must provide. Any subcontractors involved will estimate their costs as part of their own bidding process. Allowances for the waste of materials, inclement weather, shipping delays, and other factors that may increase costs are made as the takeoff proceeds. In large construction organ­ izations with several estimators, it is common practice for each person to specialize. For in­ stance, one person may estimate only electrical work, whereas another may concentrate on ex­ cavation, concrete, and forms. Also during the takeoff process, the estimator must make de­ cisions concerning equipment needs, sequence of operations, and crew sizes. On completion of the quantity surveys, a total project cost summary is prepared by the chief estimator that includes the cost of labor, equipment, materials, subcontracts, overhead, taxes, insurance, markup, and any other costs that may affect the project. The chief estimator then prepares the bid proposal for submission to the developer.  In manufacturing firms, cost estimators gen­ erally are assigned to the manufacturing en­ gineering department. Their job may begin with a request by top management to estimate the costs associated with the development of a new product or a major redesign of an existing prod­ uct. Working with engineers, the estimator first reviews blueprints to determine the machining operations, tools and gauges, and materials that would be required for the job. The estimator then must prepare a parts list and determine whether it is more efficient to produce or to purchase the parts. To do this, the estimator must initiate inquiries for price information from potential suppliers. The next step is to deter­ mine the cost of manufacturing each compo­ nent of the product. This requires the cost es­ timator to review records of the cost of manufacturing similar parts in the past. The cost estimator then prepares time-phase charts and learning curves. The former indicate the time required for tool design and fabrica­ tion, tool “debugging” (finding and correcting all problems), manufacturing of parts, assem­ bly, and testing. Learning curves represent graphically the fact that performance improves with practice, which yields reduced cost. These curves are commonly called “problem-elimi­ nation” curves because many problems, such as engineering changes, rework, parts short­ ages, and lack of operator skills, diminish as the number of parts produced increases, re­ sulting in lower unit costs. Using all this information, the estimator then calculates the standard labor hours necessary to produce a predetermined number of units. Standard labor hours are then converted to dollar values, to which are added factors for waste, overhead, and profit to yield the unit cost in dollars. Then the estimator compares the cost of purchasing parts with the firm’s cost of manufacturing them to determine which is cheaper. Computers are increasingly used in esti­ mating. Although they cannot be used for the entire estimating process, they can relieve es­ timators of much of the drudgery associated with routine, repetitive, and time-consuming calculations. This leaves estimators with more time to study and analyze projects and can lead to more accurate estimates.  Working Conditions Estimators spend most of their time in an office. Nevertheless, construction estimators must make frequent visits to construction sites that are dirty and cluttered with debris. Likewise, estimators in manufacturing must spend some time on the factory floor where it can be hot, noisy, and dirty. Cost estimators often operate under great pressure, especially when facing bidding deadlines on a major contract. There always is a certain amount of pressure because inaccurate estimating can cause a firm to lose out on a bid that would have been profitable or to take on a job that proves to be unprof­ itable. Estimators usually work a 40-hour week, although overtime may be required when work­ ing on an important project.  Managerial and Management-Related Occupations/19  Employment Cost estimators held about 157,000 jobs in 1986. About 2 out of 3 worked in construction, primarily for contractors that specialize in plumbing, heating and air-conditioning, elec­ trical, or concrete work. Nearly 30 percent worked for manufacturing industries. A small number worked as self-employed consultants, and others worked for the Federal Government. Construction control specialists in the Depart­ ment of Housing and Urban Development and operations research specialists in the Depart­ ment of Defense may do significant amounts of cost estimating in the course of their regular duties. (For more information, see the state­ ment on operations research analysts elsewhere in the Handbook.) Cost estimators work in all parts of the coun­ try, usually in or near major industrial and commercial centers and in cities and suburban areas undergoing rapid change or development where large amounts of construction are taking place.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Entry requirements vary by industry. In con­ struction, employers prefer applicants with a thorough knowledge of construction materials, costs, and procedures in areas ranging from heavy construction to electrical work, plumb­ ing systems, or masonry work. In fact, most construction estimators have experience as a construction craft worker or as a contractor. Persons who combine this experience with some postsecondary training in construction esti­ mating or a bachelor’s or associate’s degree in civil engineering or building construction have the edge in landing jobs. Those with an aca­ demic background who lack work experience qualify for some jobs, but are at a distinct disadvantage when competing for jobs with experienced applicants. In manufacturing, em­ ployers prefer persons with a degree in indus­ trial engineering or in accounting, finance, or a related subject; less emphasis is placed on experience. For beginning positions in the Fed­ eral Government, applicants must have a bach­ elor’s degree with a major in engineering, mathematics, business administration, or a re­ lated subject. Regardless of background, estimators re­ ceive much training on the job. Working with an experienced estimator, they become familiar with each step in the process. Those with no experience reading construction specifications or blueprints first leant that aspect of the work. Then they may accompany an experienced es­ timator to the construction site or the shop floor where they may observe the work being done, take measurements, or perform other routine tasks. As they become more knowledgeable, they leant how to tabulate quantities and di­ mensions from drawings and how to select which material prices are to be used. Cost estimating is included as part of the civil engineering and industrial engineering curriculums in most colleges and universities. In addition, many technical schools, junior col­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  leges, and universities offer courses in esti­ mating techniques and procedures. Organiza­ tions that represent cost estimators, such as the American Association of Cost Engineers, the American Society of Professional Estimators, and the National Estimating Society also spon­ sor educational programs. These programs help students, estimators-in-training, and experi­ enced estimators stay abreast of changes af­ fecting the profession. Professional recognition through certifica­ tion is valuable, because it is a mark of the estimator’s competence and experience. In or­ der to become certified, estimators must have between 3 and 7 years’ estimating experience and must pass both a written and an oral ex­ amination. In addition, certification require­ ments may include publication of at least one article or paper in the field. Cost estimators should have an aptitude for mathematics, be able to quickly analyze, com­ pare, and interpret data, and be able to make sound and accurate judgments based on this knowledge. For most estimators, advancement takes the form of higher pay and prestige. Some move into a management position, such as project manager for a construction firm or manager of the industrial engineering department for a manufacturer. Others may go into business for themselves as consultants, providing estimat­ ing services for a fee to construction and man­ ufacturing firms.  Job Outlook Employment of cost estimators is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Most job openings, however, will arise from the need to replace experienced estimators who transfer to another occupation or leave the labor force. Employment is dependent upon the level of construction and manufacturing activity. Res­ idential construction is expected to slow over the 1986-2000 period; the aging of the popu­ lation—particularly among those of retirement age—-will stimulate demand for multiunit housing relative to single units. Nonresidential construction will expand strongly, particularly commercial and industrial buildings and healthrelated facilities. Other areas within construc­ tion also are expected to expand, such as main­ tenance and repair, commercial and industrial renovations, and hazardous waste cleanup. As more construction projects are planned, more estimators will be needed to predict the costs of these jobs. Despite a projected decline in employment in the manufacturing sector, increasing job op­ portunities for cost estimators will occur as more firms realize the importance of accurate estimating. Demand is expected to rise as com­ petition forces manufacturers to reduce their operating costs. In addition to working on new projects, estimators increasingly will be mon­ itoring operations to uncover hidden costs or other inefficiencies. Job prospects should be best for highly ex­ perienced construction workers or those with  Cost estimators receive much of their train­ ing on the job. a degree in engineering, construction, math­ ematics, accounting, or finance. Earnings Salaries for cost estimators vary widely by ex­ perience, education, size of firm, and industry. According to limited data available, average starting salaries ranged between $15,000 and $25,000 in 1986. Those with several years’ experience earned about $30,000, and those with certification earned between $30,000 and $80,000. In the Federal Government, those doing cost estimating work had a starting salary of $14,800 a year in 1987. Candidates with a superior academic record could begin at $18,400. The average salary for all Federal employees doing significant amounts of cost estimating work was $38,000 a year in 1986. Related Occupations Other workers who must have an aptitude for mathematics, skill in analyzing, comparing, and interpreting facts, figures, and measure­ ments quickly, and the ability to make sound and accurate judgments based on this knowl­ edge are accountants, engineers, actuaries, mathematicians, and bank officers. Sources of Additional Information Information about career opportunities, certi­ fication, and schools that offer training in cost estimating may be obtained from: National Estimating Society, 1001 Connecticut Ave. NW., Suite 800, Washington, DC 20036. American Society of Professional Estimators, Inc., 6911 Richmond Hwy., Suite 230, Alexandria, VA 22306. American Association of Cost Engineers (AACE Inc.), 308 Monongahela Bldg., Morgantown, WV 26505.  20/Occupational Outlook Handbook  Education Administrators (DOT. 075.117-010, -018; 090.117 except -034, .167; 091.107; 092.137; 094.107, .117-010, -014; 094.167­ 010; 096.167-010, -014; 097.167; 099.117 except -022; 169.267-022; 239.137-010)  Nature of the Work Smooth operation of an educational institution requires competent administrators. Education administrators provide direction, leadership, and day-to-day management of educational ac­ tivities in preschools; elementary, secondary, religious, vocational, and technical schools; colleges and universities; businesses; correc­ tional institutions; museums; and job training and community service organizations. They set educational standards and goals and set up pol­ icies and procedures to carry them out. Edu­ cation administrators develop academic pro­ grams; hire, train, and motivate teachers and other staff; manage guidance and other services to students; administer recordkeeping; prepare budgets; handle relations with parents, pro­ spective students, employers, or others outside of education; and perform numerous other ac­ tivities. They work through and supervise subordi­ nate managers, management support staff, teachers, counselors, librarians, coaches, and  others. In a small organization, such as a day care center, there may be one administrator who handles all functions. In a major university or large school system, responsiblities are di­ vided among many administrators, organized in a hierarchy. Principals manage elementary and second­ ary schools. They set the academic tone—highquality instruction is their most important re­ sponsibility. Principals hire and assign teachers and other staff, help them improve their skills, and evaluate them. They confer with them— advising, explaining, or answering procedural questions. They visit classrooms, review in­ structional objectives, and examine learning materials. They also meet with other admin­ istrators, students, parents, and representatives of community organizations. They prepare budgets and reports, keep track of attendance, and see that supplies are requisitioned and al­ located. Assistant principals may perform principals’ duties and usually handle discipline, social and recreational programs, health and safety, and building and grounds maintenance. They may also counsel students on personal, educational, or vocational matters. Public schools are also managed by admin­ istrators in school district central offices. This group includes education supervisors, who di­ rect subject area programs such as English, music, vocational education, special educa­  tion, and mathematics. They plan, evaluate, and improve curriculum and teaching tech­ niques and help teachers improve their skills and learn about new methods and materials. This group also includes directors of programs such as guidance, school psychology, athletics, curriculum development, and audiovisual ma­ terials. In colleges and universities, academic deans, also known as deans of faculty, provosts, or university deans, assist presidents and develop budgets and academic policies and programs. They direct and coordinate activities of deans and chairpersons of individual colleges and ac­ ademic departments. College or university department heads or chairpersons are in charge of departments such as English, biological science, or mathematics. They coordinate schedules of classes and teaching assignments, propose budgets, recruit and interview applicants for teaching positions, and perform other administrative duties in ad­ dition to teaching. Higher education administrators also pro­ vide student services. Deans of students, also known as vice-presidents of student affairs or directors of student services, direct and coor­ dinate admissions, foreign student services, and health and counseling services, as well as so­ cial, recreation, and related programs. They set and enforce student personnel policies and administer discipline. In a small college, they may counsel students. Registrars are custodi­ ans of students’ education records. They pre­ pare student transcripts, evaluate academic records, and analyze registration statistics. Di­ rectors of admissions manage the process of admitting students, oversee the preparation of college catalogs, recruit students, and work closely with financial aid directors, who over­ see scholarship, fellowship, and loan pro­ grams. Directors of student activities plan and arrange social, cultural, and recreational ac­ tivities, assist student-run organizations and orient new students. Athletic directors plan and direct intramural and intercollegiate athletic ac­ tivities, including publicity for athletic events, preparation of budgets, and supervision of coaches. Working Conditions Education administrators may work alone in offices but also meet with the staffs they su­ pervise, other administrators, students, alumni, and others. Some jobs include travel. Some education administrators work more than 40 hours a week, including some nights and weekends when school activities take place. Unlike teachers, they usually work year round.  Principals are usually required to have several years of experience as classroom teachers.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Employment Education administrators held about 288,000 jobs in 1986. More than 90 percent were in educational services—in elementary, second­ ary, and technical schools and colleges and universities. Some worked in child day care centers, religious organizations, job training centers, State departments of education, and businesses and other organizations that provide training activities for their employees.  Managerial and Management-Related Occupations/21  TVaining, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Education administrator is not usually an entry level job. Most education administrators begin their careers in other related occupations. Be­ cause of the diversity of duties and levels of responsibility, their educational backgrounds and experience vary considerably. Principals, assistant principals, central office administra­ tors, and academic deans usually have taught or held another related job before moving into administration. Some teachers move directly into principalships; others first gain experience in a central office administrative job. In some cases, administrators move up from related staff jobs such as recruiter, residence hall director, or financial aid or admissions officer. To be considered for education administrator posi­ tions, workers must first prove themselves in their current jobs. In evaluating candidates, superiors look for determination, confidence, innovativeness, motivation, and managerial at­ tributes such as ability to make sound deci­ sions, to organize and coordinate work effi­ ciently, and to establish good personal relationships with and motivate others. Knowl­ edge of management principles and practices, gained through work experience and formal education, is important. Principals and assistant principals in all 50 States and the District of Columbia need a master’s degree or higher in education admin­ istration and a State teaching certificate. Many principals have a doctorate. Academic deans usually have a doctorate in their specialty. Admissions, student affairs, and financial aid directors and registrars often start in related staff jobs with bachelor's degrees— any field is usually acceptable—and get ad­ vanced degrees in student counseling and per­ sonnel services or higher education adminis­ tration. A Ph.D. or Ed.D. is usually necessary for top student personnel positions. Courses in data processing are an asset in admissions, rec­ ords, and financial work. Advanced degrees in education administra­ tion are offered in many colleges and univer­ sities. The National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education accredits programs at over 250 campuses. There arc 92 doctorate programs in higher education administration. Graduate programs in student counseling and personnel services are offered in about 500 colleges and universities. Education adminis­ tration degree programs include courses in school management, school law, school fi­ nance and budgeting, curriculum development and evaluation, research design and data anal­ ysis, community relations, politics in educa­ tion, and leadership. Education administrators advance by mov­ ing up an administrative hierarchy or transfer­ ring to larger schools or systems. Some become administrators in industries outside education.  Job Outlook Employment of education administrators is ex­ pected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Most  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  job openings will be to replace administrators who leave the profession. Demand for education administrators is de­ termined primarily by enrollments. Elementary school enrollments are expected to increase moderately through the year 2000; secondary school enrollments are expected to increase only slightly. College enrollments should de­ cline through the mid-1990’s and then begin to increase, but will still be below the 1986 level in the year 2000. Therefore, jobs for el­ ementary school administrators are likely to grow faster than for other school administra­ tors. The number of education administrators em­ ployed depends largely on State and local ex­ penditures for education. Pressure from tax­ payers to limit spending could result in fewer administrators than anticipated; pressures to in­ crease spending to improve the quality of ed­ ucation could result in more. Substantial competition is expected for jobs as principals, assistant principals, and central office administrators. Many teachers and other staff meet the education and experience re­ quirements for these jobs and seek promotion. However, the number of openings is relatively small, so generally only the most highly qual­ ified are selected. Earnings The median annual salary for education ad­ ministrators who worked full time was $32,000 in 1986. The middle 50 percent earned between $23,000 and $41,000. Salaries of education administrators vary ac­ cording to position, level of responsibility and experience, and the size and location of the institution. According to the Educational Research Ser­ vice, Inc., average salaries for principals and assistant principals in the school year 1986-87 were as follows:  Student services directors: Admissions and registrar............. Development and alumni affairs.......................................... Student financial.......................... Student activities..........................  38,853 38,713 30,899 27,214  Related Occupations Education administrators apply organizational and leadership skills to provide services to in­ dividuals. Related occupations include health services administrators, social service agency administrators, recreation and park managers, museum directors, library directors, and professional and membership organization ex­ ecutives. Sources of Additional Information For information about careers in school admin­ istration, contact: American Association of School Administrators, 1801 North Moore St., Arlington, VA 22209. The National Association of Elementary School Prin­ cipals, 1615 Duke St., Alexandria, VA 22314-3406. The National Association of Secondary School Prin­ cipals, 1904 Association Dr., Reston, VA 22091. Association for the Study of Higher Education, Texas A&M University, Department of Educational Administration, College Station. TX 77843-4426. American Association of University Administrators, University of Alabama, Box 6211, Tuscaloosa, AL 35486. National Association of Student Personnel Admin­ istrators, 1700 18th St., N.W.. Washington DC 20009-2508.  Employment Interviewers (DOT. 166.267-010)  Principals: Senior high school.......................... $47,896 Junior high/middle school............. 44,861 Elementary school........................... 41,536 Assistant principals: Senior high school......................... 39,758 Junior high/middle school............. 37,958 Elementary school.......................... 34,347 In 1986-87, according to the College and University Personnel Association, median an­ nual salaries for selected administrators in higher education were as follows: Academic deans: Medicine......................................... $120,000 Law................................................. 89,000 Engineering.................................... 68,496 Arts and sciences......................... 57,681 Business.......................................... 55,790 Education...................................... 55,259 Social sciences.............................. 42,400 Mathematics.................................. 40,750  Nature of the Work Whether you are looking for a job or trying to fill one, you could find yourself turning to an employment interviewer for help. Sometimes called account representatives, manpower de­ velopment specialists, counselors, or personnel consultants, employment interviewers have two principal duties: They help jobseekers find em­ ployment and help employers find qualified staff. Working largely in private personnel con­ sultant firms or State employment security of­ fices (also known as Job Service centers), em­ ployment interviewers act as brokers, putting together the best combination of applicant and job. To accomplish this, they obtain infor­ mation from employers as well as jobseekers. Employers generally pay private (but not public) agencies for finding them workers. Either way, the employer places a “job order” with the firm that describes the opening and lists requirements such as education, licenses or credentials, and experience. Depending on the kind of job to be filled, an interviewer might  22/Occupational Outlook Handbook  visit the employer’s facility to get a better feel for the firm as well as the job in question. Site visits also provide a chance to discuss future staffing needs and develop rapport with the employer. Maintaining good relations with employers is an important part of the employment inter­ viewer’s job since this helps assure a steady flow of job orders. Successful employment in­ terviewers know that employers need a supply of prescreened applicants. Frequent telephone calls and visits help identify an employer’s present and future needs; help demonstrate the employment interviewer’s dedication to find­ ing the best applicants possible; and allow time to test and prescreen applicants with the em­ ployer’s needs in mind. Employment inter­ viewers know that being prepared to fill an opening quickly is the best way to impress an employer. Besides helping firms fill job openings, em­ ployment interviewers help individuals find jobs. The services they provide depend upon the type of agency they work for and the clien­ tele it serves. In Job Service centers, for in­ stance, interviewers’ duties reflect the fact that applicants may lack marketable skills. Upon entering a Job Service center, appli­ cants are asked to fill out forms that ask for educational attainment, job history, skills, awards, certificates, and licenses. An employ­ ment interviewer reviews these forms for com­ pleteness and legibility before interviewing the applicant. During the interview, the inter­ viewer asks about the type of job sought, salary range, and any special needs such as require­ ments for the handicapped. Applicants may need help identifying the kind of work for which they are best suited. Some have no preference. In such cases, the employment interviewer evaluates the appli­ cant’s qualifications and either chooses an ap­ propriate occupation or class of occupations, or refers the applicant for vocational testing. Applicants sometimes have exaggerated ex­ pectations. Employment interviewers must be tactful, but persuasive, if an applicant’s job or salary requests are unreasonable. Once an appropriate type of job has been identified, the employment interviewer searches the file of job orders seeking a possible job match, and refers the applicant to the employer if a match is found. If no match is found, the interviewer shows the applicant how to use the public job listings, and may suggest that the applicant return every few days to review them since they are frequently updated. These list­ ings do not always provide the employer’s name or address. The jobseeker must request this information from an employment interviewer, who approves the match before making the referral. Applicants with limited job skills and no clear idea of what kind of work they can do pose a challenge for Job Service personnel. But some applicants are hindered by additional obstacles: Poor English language skills, no high school diploma, a history of drug or al­ cohol dependency, or a prison record, for example.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  The amount and nature of special help for such applicants varies from State to State. In some States, it is the employment interviewer’s responsibility to counsel hard-to-place appli­ cants and refer them elsewhere for literacy or language instruction, vocational training, transportation assistance, child care, and the like. In other States, specially trained coun­ selors perform this task. Employment interviewers in Job Service centers have other duties as well. They may coach applicants in interview techniques; at least one State videotapes mock interviews which are reviewed and critiqued for the job­ seeker. They may explain the grounds for com­ plaints of job discrimination, and initiate re­ ferrals to job training programs. Employment interviewers in private place­ ment firms are generally called counselors, a title used regardless of whether or not they have completed formal coursework in counseling or hold professional credentials in the field. They usually place job applicants whose educational background or job skills are such that little extra assistance is required. Counselors in private placement firms do, however, offer tips on personal appearance, suggestions on present­ ing a positive picture of oneself, background on the company with which an interview is scheduled, and recommendations about inter­ viewing techniques. Many private placement firms specialize in placing applicants in par­ ticular kinds of jobs—secretarial, word pro­ cessing, engineering, accounting, law, or health, for example. Counselors in such firms must be familiar with these fields. Some employment interviewers work in temporary help service companies. These com­ panies send out their own employees to com­ panies that need temporary help. Employment interviewers take job orders from client com­ panies and match their requests against a list of available workers. The employment inter­ viewer notifies the selected worker that work is available and refers him or her to the firm requiring assistance. Subsequent to the re­ ferral, regular checks are made to insure that the temporary employee has been properly placed. Regular evaluation of employee job skills is an important part of the job for those inter­ viewers working in temporary help service companies. Initially, interviewers evaluate or test each new employee’s skills to determine their abilities and weaknesses. The results, which are kept on file, are referred to when filling job orders. Periodically, the interviewer may reevaluate or retest employees in an effort to identify any new skills they may have de­ veloped. Working Conditions Employment interviewers usually work in comfortable, well-lighted, temperature-con­ trolled offices. Work can be hectic, especially in temporary help service companies which supply clients with immediate help for short periods of time. Some overtime may be re­ quired and use of personal transportation may be necessary to make employer visits.  Work is occasionally hectic, requiring an employment interviewer to juggle paperwork, phone calls, and interviews. Employment in­ terviewers occasionally face the frustration of trying to place a difficult applicant or fill an unusual job order. Difficult situations some­ times arise; an applicant may become dis­ traught, unruly, or even violent. Employment Employment interviewers held about 75,000 jobs in 1986. Three out of five worked for employment firms or temporary help service companies in the private sector. Most of the rest worked for State employment security agencies. Employees of career consulting or outplace­ ment firms are not included in these estimates. Workers in these firms help clients market themselves; they do not act as job brokers, nor do they match individuals with particular va­ cancies. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Although most public and private agencies pre­ fer to hire college graduates, a degree is not always necessary. Temporary help service companies and personnel firms that place cler­ ical workers generally put top priority on “peo­ ple” skills and other personal characteristics. Entry level employment interviewer posi­ tions in the public sector are generally filled by college graduates, even though a bachelor’s degree is not always a formal requirement. This situation may reflect the abundant supply of college graduates interested in State govern­ ment jobs. Some States allow substitution of suitable work experience for college education. “Suitable work experience” is generally de­ fined as public contact work or time spent at different jobs (including clerical jobs) in a Job Service office. However, college graduates are likely to be at an advantage in competing for jobs as employment interviewers in State em­ ployment security agencies. In States that per­ mit employment interviewers to engage in counseling, coursework in counseling may be required. Most if not all States and many large city and county governments use some form of merit system for hiring purposes. To establish eli­ gibility for positions covered by a merit system, applicants may take a written exam, undergo an interview, or submit records of their edu­ cation and experience for evaluation. Those who meet the standards for a particular position are placed on a list from which the top-ranked candidates are selected for interviews. Hiring requirements in the private sector re­ flect the firm’s management approach as well as the placements in which it specializes. Firms limiting themselves to placement of individuals such as accountants, lawyers, engineers, phy­ sicians, or executives prefer their counselors to have some training or experience in the field. Thus, a bachelor’s or even a master’s degree becomes a prerequisite for placing highly trained individuals in particular jobs. Firms placing secretaries, word processing  Managerial and Management-Related Occupations/23  operators, and other clerical personnel do not ordinarily stress educational background when they hire interviewers or counselors. Qualities such as energy level, telephone voice, and sales ability take precedence over educational at­ tainment. Other desirable qualifications include good communications skills, a desire to help people, office skills, and adaptability. A friendly, con­ fidence-winning manner is an asset since per­ sonal interaction is a large part of this occu­ pation. Advancement as an employment interviewer in the public sector is often based on a system providing regular promotions and salary in­ creases for those meeting or exceeding estab­ lished standards. Advancement to supervisory positions is highly competitive. Advancement in personnel consulting firms generally takes the form of greater responsibility and higher income. Successful individuals may form their own businesses. Job Outlook Employment in this occupation is expected to grow much faster than the average for all oc­ cupations through the year 2000. Most new jobs will be in temporary help or personnel consulting firms. Relatively little growth is an­ ticipated in State Job Service offices. Addi­ tional job openings will result from replace­ ment needs, which are substantial because of relatively high turnover. Rapid expansion of firms supplying tem­ porary help will be responsible for much of the growth in this occupation. Businesses of all types are turning to temporary help service companies for additional workers during busy periods, for handling short-term assignments or one-time projects, and for launching new programs. Expansion of the personnel consulting in­ dustry will also spur job growth. Job orders will increase as the economy expands and new businesses are formed; this is expected to heighten demand for employment interview­ ers. Firms that lack the time or resources to develop their own screening procedures are likely to turn to personnel firms. It is also pos­ sible that businesses that rely on young workers will make greater use of personnel firms in the years ahead, inasmuch as competition for these workers is expected to intensify signifi­ cantly. While little job growth is foreseen in the public sector, prospects in the private sector should be excellent. Entry to this occupation is relatively easy for college graduates (or peo­ ple who have had some college courses) except in those positions specializing in placement of lawyers, doctors, and engineers. A relatively high turnover rate, due to job stress and an inability to meet job demands, will provide many opportunities in addition to those gen­ erated by very rapid industry growth. Earnings Private sector earnings vary, in part because the basis for compensation varies. Workers in personnel consulting firms generally are paid  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Employment interviewers help people find jobs. on a commission basis while those in temporary help service companies receive a salary. When workers are paid on a commission basis (or salary plus commission), total earn­ ings depend on how much business they bring in. This is usually based on the type as well as the number of placements. Placements of more highly skilled or hard-to-find employees command a higher price. An interviewer or counselor working strictly on a commission basis often makes around 30 percent of what he or she bills the client, although this varies from firm to firm. Some work on a salary plus commission basis because they fill difficult or highly specialized positions requiring long pe­ riods of search. The salary, usually small by normal standards, guarantees these individuals security through slow times while the com­ mission provides the incentive and opportunity to make money. Some personnel consulting firms employ new workers for a 2- to 3-month probationary period during which time they draw a regular salary. This is intended to provide new workers time to develop their skills and acquire some clients. At the end of the probationary period, the new employees are evaluated, and are either let go or switched to a commission basis. According to the limited data available, av­ erage eamings of interviewers or counselors in personnel consulting firms ranged from the high teens to the mid-twenties in 1986; some earned considerably more. Salaries are typically higher for those placing professional workers than those placing clerical workers. Most employment interviewers of temporary help service companies work on a salary basis. Salaries are higher in large cities. Based on limited data available, average salaries ranged from $16,000 to $24,000 a year in 1986. Starting salaries for employment interview­ ers in State Job Service centers vary from State to State and ranged from $9,800 to $20,200 a year in 1987.  Related Occupations Employment interviewers serve as intermedi­ aries for job seekers and employers. Workers in several other occupations do similar jobs. Personnel officers screen and help hire new employees but their major concern is the hiring needs of the firm; they never represent indi­ vidual jobseekers. Personnel officers may also have additional duties in areas such as payroll or benefits management. College career counselors help students and alumni find jobs, but their primary emphasis is career counseling and decisionmaking, not placement. A master's degree is usually the minimum educational requirement for these positions. Counselors in community organizations and vocational rehabilitation facilities help clients find jobs, but they also provide assistance with drug or alcohol dependencies, housing, trans­ portation, child care, and other problems that stand in the way of finding and keeping a job. Sources of Additional Information For information on a career as an employment interviewer/counselor and requirements for be­ coming a Certified Personnel Consultant, con­ tact: National Association of Personnel Consultants, 1432 Duke St., Alexandria, VA 22314.  For information on a career as an employ­ ment interviewer in State employment security offices, contact: International Association of Personnel in Employ­ ment Security, 1801 Louisville Road, Frankfort, KY 40601.  For information on a career as an employ­ ment interviewer in temporary help service companies, contact: National Association of Temporary Services, 119 South Saint Asaph St., Alexandria, VA 22314.  24/Occupational Outlook Handbook  Financial Managers (D.O.T. 161.117-018; 186.117-014, -038, -066, -070, -078; .167-022, -026, -054; and 189.117-038)  Nature of the Work Practically every firm—whether in manufac­ turing, communications, banking, education, or health care—has one or more financial man­ agers—treasurer, controller, cash manager, and others—who prepare the financial reports re­ quired by the firm to conduct its operations and to satisfy tax and regulatory requirements. Fi­ nancial managers also oversee the flow of cash and financial instruments and develop infor­ mation to assess the present and future financial status of the firm. In small firms, treasurers’ duties usually in­ clude all financial management functions. However, in large firms, treasurers oversee all financial management departments. In these instances, treasurers help top managers de­ velop financial and economic policy and es­ tablish procedures, delegate authority, and oversee the implementation of these policies. Highly trained and experienced financial managers head each financial department. Controllers direct the preparation of all finan­ cial reports—for example, income statements, balance sheets, and special reports such as de­ preciation schedules. They oversee the ac­ counting, audit, or budget departments. Cash managers monitor and control the flow of cash receipts and disbursements and other financial instruments to meet the business and invest­ ment needs of the firm. For example, loans may be obtained to meet a cash shortage, or surplus cash may be invested in interest-bear­ ing instruments. Risk and insurance managers oversee programs to minimize risks and losses that may arise from financial transactions un­ dertaken by the institution. Credit card oper­ ations managers establish credit rating criteria, determine credit ceilings, and monitor their  institution’s extension of credit. Reserve of­ ficers review their institution’s financial state­ ments and direct the purchase and sale of bonds and other securities to maintain the asset-lia­ bility ratio required by law. User representa­ tives in international accounting develop in­ tegrated international financial and accounting systems for the banking transactions of mul­ tinational organizations. A working knowledge of the financial systems of foreign countries is essential. Financial institutions—such as banks, sav­ ings and loan associations, and personal credit institutions—primarily serve as depositories for cash and financial instruments and offer loans, investment counseling, trust manage­ ment, and other financial services. Conse­ quently, financial managers in these institu­ tions include vice-presidents—who may head one or more financial departments—bank branch managers, savings and loan association managers, consumer credit managers, and credit union managers. Financial managers in financial institutions make decisions in accordance with Federal and State laws, regulations established by the Fed­ eral Reserve Board, and policy set by the in­ stitution’s board of directors. They must have detailed knowledge of industries allied to bank­ ing—such as insurance, real estate, and se­ curities—and broad knowledge of business and industrial activities. With growing domestic and foreign competition, promotion of an ex­ panding and increasingly complex variety of financial services is becoming a more important function of financial managers in banks and related institutions. Besides supervising finan­ cial services, they may advise individuals and businesses on financial planning and participate in community projects. Working Conditions Financial managers are provided with com­ fortable offices close to top managers and to departments which develop the financial data  IL|4  Financial managers direct the preparation offinancial reports.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  lliWi:  these managers need. Although overtime may sometimes be required, financial managers typ­ ically work a 40-hour week. Attendance at meetings of financial and economic associa­ tions and similar activities is often required. In very large corporations, some traveling to subsidiary firms may be necessary. Employment Financial managers held about 638,000 jobs in 1986. Although these managers are found in virtually every industry, about one-third were employed by financial services industries— banks, insurance companies, securities deal­ ers, real estate firms, and related institutions. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree in accounting or finance, or in business administration with an emphasis on accounting or finance, is suitable academic preparation for financial managers. A Master of Business Administration (MBA) degree in addition to a bachelor’s degree in any field is acceptable to some employers. However, many financial management positions are filled by promoting experienced, technically skilled professional personnel—for example, ac­ countants, budget analysts, credit analysts, in­ surance analysts, loan officers, and securities analysts—or accounting or related department supervisors in large institutions. In small firms, where the number of positions is limited, ad­ vancement to a financial management position may come slowly. In large firms, promotions may occur more quickly. Although experience, ability, and leadership are emphasized for promotion, advancement may be accelerated by special study. Firms often provide opportunities for workers to broaden their knowledge and,skills and en­ courage employees to take courses at local col­ leges and universities. In addition, financial managment and banking associations, often in cooperation with colleges and universities, sponsor numerous national or local training programs. Their schools, located throughout the country, each deal with a different phase of financial management. Persons enrolled pre­ pare extensively at home, then attend sessions on subjects such as accounting management, budget management, corporate cash manage­ ment, financial analysis, international banking, and data processing systems procedures and management. Firms also sponsor seminars and conferences and provide textbooks and other educational materials. Many firms pay all or part of the costs for those who successfully complete courses. Persons interested in becoming financial managers should like to work independently and analyze detailed information. The ability to communicate, both orally and in writing, with top managers is important. They also need tact, good judgment, and the ability to establish effective personal relationships to oversee su­ pervisory and professional staff members. Financial analysis and management have been revolutionized by technological improvements in computers and data processing equipment.  Managerial and Management-Related Occupations/25  Knowledge of their applications is vital to up­ grade managerial skills and to enhance ad­ vancement opportunities. Because financial management is critical for efficient business operations, well-trained, ex­ perienced financial managers may transfer to closely related positions in other industries. Some are promoted to top management posi­ tions. Financial managers with extensive ex­ perience and sufficient capital may head their own consulting firms.  consultants, pension consultants, real estate advisors, securities consultants, and under­ writers.  Job Outlook Employment of financial managers is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Expanding automation—such as use of computers for electronic funds transmission and for data and information processing—may make financial managers more productive. However, the growing need for skilled financial management in the face of increasing domestic and foreign competition, changing laws regarding taxes and other financial matters, and greater emphasis on accurate reporting of financial data should spur demand for financial managers. New jobs will also be created by the increasing variety and complexity of services—including finan­ cial planning—offered by financial institu­ tions. However, most job openings will result from the need to replace those who transfer to other fields, retire, or leave the occupation for other reasons. Because of the increasing number of qual­ ified applicants, competition for financial man­ agerial positions is expected to stiffen. Famil­ iarity with a range of financial services—for example, banking, insurance, real estate, and securities—and with computers and data pro­ cessing systems may enhance one’s chances for employment. Developing expertise in a rap­ idly growing industry, such as health services, may also prove helpful. Once employed, financial managers are likely to work year round, even during periods of slow economic activity, because cyclical swings in the economy seem to have little immediate effect on financial management activities.  National Corporate Cash Management Association, P.O. Box 7001, Newton, CT 06740.  Earnings The median annual salary of financial managers was $30,400 in 1986. The lowest 10 percent earned $17,100 or less, while the top lOpercent earned over $52,000. The salary level depends upon the size and location of the firm, and is likely to be higher in large institutions and cities. Many financial managers in private in­ dustry receive additional compensation in the form of bonuses, which also vary substantially by size of firm. Related Occupations Financial managers combine formal schooling with experience in one or more areas of fi­ nance—such as asset management, lending, credit operations, securities investment, or in­ surance risk and loss control. Other occupa­ tions which require similar training and ability include accountants and auditors, budget of­ ficers, credit analysts, loan officers, insurance  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Sources of Additional Information For information about financial management careers, contact: American Financial Services Association, Fourth Floor, 1101 14th St. NW„ Washington, DC 20005. Financial Executives Institute, Academic Relations Committee, P.O. Box 1938, Morristown, NJ 07960.  For information about financial management careers in banking and related financial insti­ tutions, contact: American Bankers Association, 1120 Connecticut Ave. NW„ Washington, DC 20036. Bank Administration Institute, 60 Gould Center, Rolling Meadows, IL 60008.  For information about financial management careers in savings and loan associations and related financial institutions, contact: Institute of Financial Education, 111 E. Wacker Dr., Chicago, IL 60601.  For information about financial management careers in credit unions, contact: Credit Union Executives Society, P.O. Box 14167, Madison, W1 53714.  For information about financial management careers in the health services industry, contact: Healthcare Financial Management Association, Suite 500, 1900 Spring Rd., Oak Brook, IL 60521.  Information about careers with the Federal Reserve System is available from: Board of Governors, The Federal Reserve System, Personnel Division, Washington, DC 20551, or from the personnel department of the Federal Reserve bank serving each geographic area.  State bankers’ associations can furnish spe­ cific information about job opportunities in their State. Or write directly to a particular bank to inquire about job openings. For the names and addresses of banks and savings and related in­ stitutions, as well as the names of their prin­ cipal officers, consult one of the following di­ rectories. The American Bank Directory (Norcross, Ga.,  McFadden Business Publications). The U.S. Savings and Loan Directory (Chicago, Rand  McNally & Co.). Polk's World Bank Directory (Nashville. R.L. Polk  & Co.).  General Managers and Top Executives (List of D.O.T. codes available upon request. See p 425.)  Nature of the Work Chief executive officer, executive vice-presi­ dent for marketing, department store manager, financial institution president, brokerage office  manager, college president, school superin­ tendent. and city manager—these are examples of general managers and top executives who, at the top of the management hierarchy, for­ mulate the policies or direct the operations of the Nation’s private firms or government agen­ cies. (Top executives in public administration who formulate policy are excluded.) The fundamental objective of private organ­ izations is to maintain efficiency and profit­ ability in the face of accelerating technological complexity, economic interdependence, and domestic and foreign competition. Govern­ ment agencies must effectively implement pro­ grams subject to budgetary constraints and shifting public preferences. In response to these trends, successful organizations have broad­ ened their activities, grown in size and com­ plexity, and expanded their management hi­ erarchy. An organization’s general goals and policies are established by the chief executive officer in collaboration with other top executives, usu­ ally executive vice-presidents, and with the board of directors. In a large corporation, a busy chief executive officer may frequently meet with top executives of other corporations, government, or foreign countries to discuss matters affecting the organization's policies. Although the chief executive officer retains ul­ timate authority and responsibility, the chief operating officer may be delegated the au­ thority to oversee executive vice-presidents who direct the activities of various departments and are responsible for implementing the organi­ zation's goals. The responsibilities of executive vice-pres­ idents depend greatly upon the size of the or­ ganization. In large corporations, their duties may be highly specialized. For example, they may oversee the activities of general managers of marketing, sales promotion, purchasing, fi­ nance, personnel, training, industrial relations, administrative services, electronic data pro­ cessing, property management, transportation, or legal services. (Some of these and other general managerial occupations are discussed elsewhere in this section of the Handbook.) In smaller firms, an executive vice-president might be responsible for a number of these depart­ ments. General managers, in turn, direct their in­ dividual department’s activities within the framework of the organization’s overall plan. With the help of supervisory managers and their staffs, general managers strive to achieve their department’s goals as rapidly and eco­ nomically as possible. Working Conditions General managers are provided with comfort­ able offices close to the departments they direct and to the top executives to whom they report. Top executives may be provided with spacious, lavish offices and may enjoy numerous per­ quisites, such as executive dining rooms, au­ tomobiles, country club memberships, and lib­ eral expense allowances—which may facilitate meetings and negotiations with top executives from other corporations, government, or other  26/Occupational Outlook Handbook  •  w  ■  Executives in consultation with directors formulate company policy. nations. Long hours, including evenings and weekends, are the rule, and business discussion may occupy most of their time during social engagements. Substantial travel is often required. General managers may travel between national, re­ gional, and local offices. Top executives may travel to meet with their counterparts in other corporations in the country or overseas. Per­ quisites such as reimbursement of an accom­ panying spouse's travel expenses help execu­ tives cope with frequent or extended periods away from home. Meetings and conferences sponsored by industries and associations occur regularly and provide invaluable opportunities to meet with peers and keep abreast of tech­ nological and other developments. In large corporations, job transfers between the parent company and its local offices or subsidiaries, here or abroad, are common. Genera! managers and top executives often work under intense pressure to attain, for ex­ ample, production and marketing goals. And sometimes they find themselves in situations over which they have limited influence—for example, when meeting with government of­ ficials, private interest groups, or competitors, or negotiating with foreign governments. Employment General managers and top executives held about 2.4 million jobs in 1986. Although they are found in every industry, employment is more concentrated in the largest industries: Eating and drinking places, grocery stores, miscel­ laneous business services, miscellaneous shop­ ping goods stores, clothing and accessories stores, commercial, stock, and mutual savings banks, educational institutions, and hospitals. TVaining, Other Qualifications, and Advancement The educational background of managers and top executives varies as widely as the nature of their diverse responsibilities. Most general   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  managers and top executives have a bachelor’s degree in liberal arts or business administra­ tion. Their major often is related to the de­ partments they direct—for example, account­ ing for a general manager of finance or computer science for a general manager of data pro­ cessing. Graduate and professional degrees are common. Many managers in administrative, marketing, financial, and manufacturing activ­ ities have a master’s degree in business admin­ istration. Managers in highly technical man­ ufacturing and research activities often have a master’s or doctoral degree in an engineering or scientific discipline. A law degree is man­ datory for general managers of corporate legal departments, and hospital administrators gen­ erally have a master’s degree in health services administration or business administration. Col­ lege presidents and school superintendents generally have a doctorate, often in education administration; some have a law degree. In some industries, such as retail trade, competent individuals without a college degree may be­ come general managers. Most general managers in the public sector have a liberal arts degree in public adminis­ tration or in one of the social sciences such as economics, psychology, sociology, or urban studies. For others, experience is still the pri­ mary qualification. City managers usually have a liberal arts degree, although the master’s de­ gree in public administration is increasing in importance. For park superintendents, a liberal arts degree also provides a suitable back­ ground. Police chiefs are graduates of police academies; in addition, a degree in police sci­ ence or a related field is increasingly important. Similarly, fire chiefs are graduates of fire aca­ demies; in addition, a degree in fire science is gaining in importance. For harbormasters, a high school education and experience as a har­ bor pilot are sufficient. Most general management and top executive positions are filled by promoting experienced, lower level managers who display the lead­  ership, self-confidence, motivation, decisive­ ness, and flexibility required by these de­ manding positions. In small firms, where the number of positions is limited, advancement to a higher management position may come slowly. In large firms, promotions may occur more quickly. Advancement may be accelerated by partic­ ipation in company training programs to broaden knowledge of company policy and operations. Attendance at national or local training pro­ grams sponsored by numerous industry and trade associations and continuing education, often at company expense, in colleges and uni­ versities can familiarize managers with the lat­ est developments in management techniques. Participation in interdisciplinary conferences and seminars can expand knowledge of na­ tional and international issues influencing the manager’s firm. Persons interested in becoming general man­ agers and top executives must have highly de­ veloped personal skills. A highly analytical mind able to quickly assess large amounts of information and data is very important. The ability to consider and evaluate the interrela­ tionships of numerous factors and to select the best course of action is imperative. In the ab­ sence of sufficient information, sound intuitive judgment is crucial to reaching favorable de­ cisions. General managers and top executives also must be able to communicate clearly and persuasively, both orally and in writing. General managers may advance to top ex­ ecutive positions, such as executive or admin­ istrative vice-president, in their own firm or to a corresponding general management position in a larger firm. Similarly, top-level managers may advance to peak corporate positions—chief operating officer and finally chief executive officer. Chief executive officers, upon retire­ ment, may become members of the board of directors of one or more firms. Some general managers and top executives with sufficient capital establish their own firms. Job Outlook Employment of general managers and top ex­ ecutives is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2000 as businesses grow in number, size, and complexity. In addition to openings arising from increased demand for these managers and executives, many job openings will occur each year to replace those who transfer to better paying positions, start their own businesses, or retire. However, the ample supply of compe­ tent, experienced lower level managers seeking top management positions should result in sub­ stantial job competition. Outstanding individ­ uals whose accomplishments reflect strong leadership qualities and the ability to improve the efficiency or competitive position of their organization will have the best job opportun­ ities. Projected employment growth varies by in­ dustry. For example, most services industries will continue to expand rapidly. Employment of general managers and top executives in the computer and data processing services industry  Managerial and Management-Related Occupations/27  is expected to more than double as computer use expands. Very rapid employment growth is expected in firms supplying management, consulting, public relations, and other business services as many firms find it cost-efficient to contract out for these services. Employment of general managers and top executives is also expected to grow rapidly in engineering, ar­ chitectural, and surveying services firms and in some industries concerned with health and welfare such as outpatient clinics and estab­ lishments offering individual and family social services. Much faster than average employ­ ment growth is projected in the hotel, restau­ rant, and travel industries as personal income and leisure time increase. On the other hand, employment of general managers and top ex­ ecutives is expected to increase only about as fast as the average for all occupations in the educational services industry in line with the growth of the school age population. The same is projected for hospitals as more medical care is provided by outpatient clinics and other health care establishments. Little or no change or even a decline in employment is projected in some manufacturing industries.  tions in government with similar functions are governor, mayor, postmaster, commissioner, director, and office chief.  Earnings The estimated median annual salary of general managers and top executives was around $34,000 in 1986. Many earned well over $52,000. Salary levels vary substantially de­ pending upon the level of managerial respon­ sibility, length of service, and type, size, and location of the firm. Most salaried general managers and top ex­ ecutives in the private sector receive additional compensation in the form of bonuses, stock awards, and cash-equivalent fringe benefits such as company-paid insurance premiums, use of company cars, and paid country club mem­ berships. Chief executive officers are the most highly paid top-level managers. A recent survey of top public corporations revealed that in 1986, over 100 chief executive officers received base salaries of $1 million or more and additional compensation—such as fringe benefits and company stock—equivalent, on the average, to nearly half of their base salary. Other surveys of executive salaries reveal the importance of the size of the corporation. A top-level manager in a very large corporation can earn ten times as much as a counterpart in a small firm. Salaries also vary substantially by industry and geographic location. For example, salaries in manufacturing and finance are generally higher than those for corresponding positions in State and local governments. Also, salaries in large metropolitan areas such as New York City are normally higher than those in small cities and towns.  (D.O.T. 070.107-018, .117; 072.117; 074.131; 075.117­ 014, -022, -026, and -030; 079.117-010. .131. .137, and .167-014; 161.117-018; 162.117-014 and-018; 164.117­ 010; 165.117-010 and -014; 166.117-010 and-018, .167­ 018. -026, -030. and -050; 169.167-030 and -034; 186.117- 014 and -066; 187.117-010, -018, -058, and -062, .167-022, -034, -038, -046. -090, -106 and -194; 189.117- 014 and -030, .167-022, -030, and -050; and 195.167.038)  Related Occupations General managers and top executives plan, or­ ganize, direct, control, and coordinate the op­ erations of an organization and its major de­ partments or programs. The members of the board of directors and supervisory managers are also involved in these activities. Occupa­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Sources of Additional Information For information about careers as general man­ agers and top executives, contact: American Management Association, Management Information Service, 135 West 50th St., New York, NY 10020. National Management Association, 2210 Arbor Blvd., Dayton, OH 45439.  Information about general managers and top executives in specific industries may be ob­ tained from organizations listed under a num­ ber of headings—for example, administration, administrators, directors, executives, manage­ ment, managers, and superintendents—in var­ ious encyclopedias or directories of associa­ tions in public libraries.  Health Services Managers  Nature of the Work Effective management of health care organi­ zations, and of the considerable resources at their disposal, requires competent managers. Like their counterparts in any organization, health services managers are responsible for facilities, services, programs, staff, budgets, and relations with other organizations. Health services manager is an inclusive term for individuals in many different positions who plan, organize, and coordinate the delivery of health care. Hospitals provide more than half the jobs in this field. Other places that employ health services managers include medical group practices, outpatient clinics, health mainte­ nance organizations (HMO’s), nursing homes, hospices, home health agencies, rehabilitation centers, community mental health centers, ur­ gent care centers, diagnostic imaging centers, and offices of doctors, dentists, and other health practitioners. The job of managing a health facility has become highly complex due to the many ad­ vances in medical technology and the emerg­ ence of dozens of specialty health professions, together with significant changes in consumer expectations, business practices, and health care financing. As a result, the need for professional managers continues to grow. Also contributing to the need for profes­ sional management is the extensive oversight and scrutiny to which health facilities are sub­ ject. Both past performance and plans for the future are subject to review by a variety of  groups and organizations, including consumer groups, government agencies, professional ov­ ersight bodies, insurance companies and other third-party payers, business coalitions, and even the courts. Preparing for inspection visits by observers from regulatory bodies and submit­ ting appropriate records and documentation can be time consuming as well as technically de­ manding. Three functional levels of administration are found in hospitals and other large facilities— executive, internal management, and special­ ized staff. The chief executive officer provides overall management direction, but also is con­ cerned with community outreach, planning, policymaking, response to government agen­ cies and regulations, and negotiating. The job often includes speaking before civic groups, promoting public participation in health pro­ grams, and coordinating the activities of the organization with those of government or com­ munity agencies. Institutional planning is an increasingly important responsibility for chief administrators, who must assess the need for services, personnel, facilities, and equipment and recommend such changes as shutting down a maternity ward, for example, or opening an outpatient clinic. Chief administrators need leadership ability as well as technical skills in order to respond effectively to the community's requirements for health care while, at the same time, satisfying demand for financial viability, cost containment, and public and professional accountability. Day-to-day management, particularly in large facilities, may be the responsibility of one or more associate or assistant administrators, who work with service unit managers and staff spe­ cialists. Depending on the size of the facility, associate or assistant administrators may be responsible for budget and finance; human re­ sources, including personnel administration, education, and in-service training; information management; and direction of the medical, nursing, ancillary services, housekeeping, physical plant, and other operating depart­ ments. As the health care system becomes more complex, more specialists in financial man­ agement, marketing, strategic planning, sys­ tems analysis, and labor relations will be needed as Well. Hospital and nursing home administration differ in important respects. Hospitals are com­ plex organizations, housing a great manvHe^ partments—admissions, surgery, clinical lab­ oratory, therapy, emergency medicine, nursing, physical plant, medical records, accounting, and so on. The hospital administrator works with the governing board in establishing gen­ eral policies and operating philosophy and pro­ vides direction to assistant administrators, or vice presidents as they may be called, and de­ partment heads who carry out those policies. The administrator coordinates the activities of the assistant administrators and department heads to assure that the hospital runs effi­ ciently, provides high quality medical care, and recovers adequate revenue to remain solvent or make a profit. Many of the same management skills are  28/Occupational Outlook Handbook  needed by nursing home administrators. How­ ever, administrative staffs in nursing homes are typically much smaller than those in hos­ pitals—nursing home administrators often have only one or two assistants, sometimes none. As a result, nursing home administrators “get their hands into” the detailed management de­ cisions much more than hospital administrators in all but the smallest hospitals. They wear various hats—personnel director, director of finance, director of facilities, admissions di­ rector, for example—analyzing data and then making daily management decisions in all of these areas. In addition, because many nursing home residents are long term, staying for months or even years, administrators must try to create an environment that nourishes residents’ psy­ chological, social, and spiritual well-being, as well as tend to their health care needs. In the growing field of group practice man­ agement, managers need to be able to work effectively with the physicians who own the practice. Specific job duties vary according to the size of the practice. While an office man­ ager handles the business side in very small medical groups, leaving policy decisions to the physicians themselves, larger groups generally employ a full-time administrator to advise on business strategies and coordinate the day-to­ day management of the practice. A group of 10 or 15 physicians might employ a single administrator to oversee personnel matters, billing and collection, budgeting, planning, equipment outlays, advertising, and patient flow, whereas a practice of 40 or 50 physicians would require a chief administrator and several assistants, each responsible for a different functional area of management. In addition to providing overall management di­ rection, the chief administrator would be re­ sponsible for assuring that the practice main­ tained or strengthened its competitive position. This is no small task, given the rapidly chang­ ing nature of the health care environment. As­ suring competitiveness might entail market re­  search to analyze the services the practice currently offers and those it might offer; ne­ gotiating contracts with hospitals or other health care providers to gain access to specialized facilities and equipment; or entering joint ven­ tures for the purchase of an expensive piece of medical equipment such as a magnetic reso­ nance imager. Managers in HMO’s perform all of the func­ tions of those in large medical group practices, but they perform one additional function—that of an insurance company. HMO enrollees pay an annual fee that covers almost all care. HMO managers must establish a comprehensive medical benefit package with enrollment fees low enough to attract adequate enrollments but high enough to operate successfully. Working Conditions Health services managers often work long hours. Facilities such as nursing homes and hospitals operate around the clock, and administrators and managers may be called at alfhours to deal with emergencies. The job also may include tfavei to 'attend meetings or to inspect health care facilities. Employment Health services managers held 274,000 jobs in 1986. More than half of all jobs were in hos­ pitals, as the following tabulation shows: Percent Total............................................... 100 Hospitals.........................................................55 Nursing homes ........................................... 17 Offices of physicians (M.D.’s and D.O.’s) ............................................. 10 Outpatient care facilities............................ 7 Offices of dentists ...................................... 2 Medical and dental laboratories ............... 2 Offices of other health practitioners ........ 2 Other ............................................................ 4  Ipfei  Expansion and diversification of the health services industry will lead to many new jobs.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement As is generally true with managerial jobs, most entrants transfer from other occupations. Knowledge of management principles and practices is the essential requirement for a po­ sition in this field, and such knowledge often is gained through work experience. Nonethe­ less, .formal educational preparation is impor­ tant, especially for those who wish to advance in the profession. For many positions, a grad­ uate degree in health services administration, nursing administration, or business adminis­ tration is a decided asset. For others, a degree in finance, personnel administration, or public administration provides an appropriate back­ ground. Some employers seek applicants who have had clinical experience (as nurses or ther­ apists, for example) as well as academic prep­ aration in business or health services admin­ istration. Many hospitals are setting up separate ven­ tures such as outpatient surgical centers, al­ coholism treatment centers, and home health care services. When they operate at a profit, separate companies such as these can funnel needed revenue to the hospital. To operate and manage these subsidiary companies, hospi­ tals—or the corporations that run them—are looking outside the health industry for man­ agers with well-established skills in profit and loss analysis, marketing, and finance. None­ theless, .graduate education in health services administration remains a prerequisite for many upper level administrative positions within hospitals and their subsidiaries. Academic programs in health administra­ tion, leading to a bachelor’s, master's, or doc­ toral degree, are offered by colleges, univer­ sities, and schools of public health, allied health, and business administration. The various de­ gree programs provide different levels of career preparation. The master’s degree—in hospital administration, health administration, or public TieaTfh—is regarded as the standard credential for many positions in this field. Educational requirements vary with the size of the orga­ nization and the amount of responsibility in­ volved. Generally, larger organizations require more specialized academic preparation than smaller ones do. In 1987, 31 colleges and universities offered bachelor's degree programs in health services administration. Sixty-one schools had pro­ grams leading to the master’s degree in hospital or htSflffi' services administration; 11 of these programs were in schools of public health. Some schools offer joint degree programs, leading to a master’s in public health and a master’s in business administration, for example. To enter graduate programs, applicants must have a bachelor's degree, with courses in nat­ ural sciences, psychology, sociology, statis­ tics, accounting, and economics. Competition for entry to these programs is keen, and ap­ plicants need above-average grades to gain admission. The programs generally last be­ tween 2 and 3 years. They include up to i undertaken after completion of course work in  Managerial and Management-Related Occupations/29  such areas as hospital organizatign_and man­ agement, accounting and budget control, per­ sonnel administration, strategic planning, and management of health information systems. New graduates with master’s degrees in health or hospital administration may be hired by hospitals as assistant administrators or, more often, as department heads or project directors. Postgraduate residencies and fellowships are offered by hospitals and other health facilities; these are normally staff jobs. Growing numbers of graduates from mas­ ter’s degree programs are also taking jobs in HMO’s, large group medical practices, mul­ tifacility nursing home corporations, and clin­ ics. Students should be aware, however, that midlevel job transfers from one setting to an­ other may be difficult. Employers place a high value on experience in similar settings because some of the management skills are unique to each setting. Relatively few master’s degree recipients take administrative positions in nursing homes or life-care communities, although graduates of the small number of long-term care adminis­ tration programs generally do so. Many nursing home administrators pursue graduate education while employed, however. New recipients of bachelor’s degrees in health administration usually begin their careers as administrative assistants or assistant depart­ ment heads in larger hospitals, or as department heads or assistant administrators in small hos­ pitals or in nursing homes. The Ph.D. degree usually is required for positions in teaching, consulting, or research. Nursing service administrators are usually cho­ sen from among supervisory registered nurses with administrative abilities and advanced ed­ ucation. Licensure is not required in most areas of health services management, except for nurs­ ing home or long-term care administration. Sixteen States currently require 2 years of col­ lege and an associate degree for licensure, while 25 require a bachelor’s degree. All States and the District of Columbia require these admin­ istrators to pass a licensing examination, and most students prepare for it by completing a special course of study. These preparatory courses, usually consisting of 100 to 200 hours of study in long-term care administration, are available through some colleges, universities, and home study programs. The licensing ex­ amination covers principles of administration; management of a long-term care facility; the role of government in long-term care; envi­ ronmental health and safety; and medical, psy­ chological, and social aspects of patient care. More than half the States require applicants to complete an internship known as an Admipistrator-in-Trairiing program before taking the licensure examination. This internship gener­ ally lasts 1 year and is supervised by a licensed administrator. Since requirements vary from State to State, persons considering a career in long-term care administration should investi­ gate licensing requirements where they wish to work. Health services managers are often respon­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  sible for millions of dollars of facilities and equipment and hundreds of employees. To make effective decisions, they need to be open to different opinions and good at sifting through contradictory information. To motivate sub­ ordinates to implement those decisions, they heed strong leadership qualities. Interpersonal skills are important in all settings, but nowhere more so than in medical groups, where success depends on developing a good working rela­ tionship with the physician-owners. Tact, di­ plomacy, and communication skills are essen­ tial. Like their counterparts in other kinds of or­ ganizations, health services managers need to be self-starters. In order to create an atmo­ sphere favorable to good patient care, they must like people, enjoy working with them, and be able to deal effectively with them. They also should be good at public speaking. Health services managers may advance by moving into more responsible and higher pay­ ing positions within their own institution, or by shifting to another health care facility or organization. Frequently, the first job in a large institution is fairly narrow in scope—depart­ ment head in charge of purchasing, for ex­ ample. Advancement occurs with promotion to successively more responsible jobs such as assistant or associate administrator and, finally, chief executive officer (CEO). Health services managers sometimes begin their careers in sp-iall hospitals in positions with broad responsibil­ ities, such as assistant administrator. Outside the more traditional avenues of ad­ vancement, many managers take staff positions with the Veterans Administration, U.S. Public Health Service, or State or local departments of public health. Others find positions with voluntary health agencies such as the American Cancer Society or with trade and professional associations in the health care field. A growing number of jobs are available with firms that provide health management services on a con­ tract basis. Jobs also are available in health planning agencies and professional review or­ ganizations. Individuals with academic train­ ing or experience in health administration are well suited for such positions.  Job Outlook Employment of health services managers is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations througfi flie year 2000 as health services continue to expand and diver­ sify. Some practice settings will offer more favorable prospects than others due to changes in organization and financing that are currently reshaping health care. New kinds of jobs are likely to emerge—in health care corporations, multi-institutional systems, contract manage­ ment, quality assurance, and utilization re­ view—as health care delivery in the United States increasingly takes on a business orien­ tation. Most job openings, however, will result from the need to replace managers who transfer to another field or stop working. Hospitals will not contribute as heavily to employment of health services managers as  they did in the past. The hospital industry is not expected to expand very much through the year 2000, although certain kinds of hospitals should"5xpgrience strong growth—major med­ ical centers to which complex cases are referred from smaller facilities, for example. Oppor­ tunities for managers should be best in these hospitals and in subsidiaries that provide am­ bulatory surgery, alcohol and drug abuse re­ habilitation, hospice facilities, or home health care, for example. Small rural hospitals and public hospitals serving a largely indigent pop­ ulation are among those most likely to cut back or close altogether. Opportunities in these hos­ pitals may be limited to filling replacement needs or may vanish entirely. Nevertheless, hospitals willjuill provide sig­ nificant career ancTadvancement opportunities for managers with appropriate skills and ex­ perience. As hospitals become more special­ ized, concentrating on services that they are particularly well suited to deliver—whether it be neonatal care or bum treatment, for ex­ ample—more managers with strategic plan­ ning and marketing skills will be needed. Man­ agers will also be needed to plan, install, and oversee comprehensive systems for monitoring and controlling resource use. Facilities that provide ambulatory or out­ patient care are expected to provide as many as one-fourth of all jobs for health services managers by the year 2000. Demand will be stimulated primarily by the very rapid expan­ sion of HMO’s and medical group practices, but continued growth of such facilities as ur­ gent care centers, cardiac rehabilitation cen­ ters, diagnostic imaging centers, pain clinics, and wellness centers will play an important role, too. Ambulatory facilities such as out­ patient surgical centers and after-hours clinics are expected to experience very rapid growth due to their convenience and competitive fee structure, generating additional management jobs. With better medical care and healthier life­ styles, Americans are living longer than ever before. Very rapid growth is projected in the number of people 85 years of age and above between now and the year 2000, and this is likely to exert strong pressure for an expansion of long-term care facilities and services—not just nursing homes, but home health care, adult day care programs, life care communities, and assisted living arrangements. Opportunities for managers in the large and rapidly expanding nursing home sector should be highly favor­ able. Nursing home chains will need more management personnel at the corporate level to plan new facilities, acquire existing ones, and promote new services and activities. Some nursing homes, for example, are expanding the scope of their activities by moving into retirement living; others have begun to offer respite and adult day care programs for non­ residents. Very rapid employment growth in the home health field is anticipated due to the aging of the population, consumer preference for noninstitutional care, incentives to discharge hos­ pital patients as soon as possible, technological  30/Occupational Outlook Handbook  advances that make it possible for patients to receive complex care at home, and changes in insurance coverage that make home health more affordable for some patients. Opportunities for administrative positions in home health will be found in visiting nurse associations and other nonprofit agencies, in hospital-based home care programs, and in the for-profit sector. New approaches to delivering care for the sick and dying will create some openings in hospices, which may be freestanding or based within a hospital or nursing home. Hospice programs are very small and take a personal approach to each patient. The hospice move­ ment stresses emotional and spiritual support for the dying patient and the family, and ready availability of drugs to control the excruciating pain that often accompanies terminal cancer, the disease most often suffered by hospice pa­ tients. Because the movement is so new, it is too soon to say what background lends itself best to hospice management. Job opportunities for health administration graduates are expected to be best in HMO’s, medical group practices, and nursing homes, although these jobs may not pay as well as hospital jobs. Traditionally a favored employ­ ment setting for health administration gradu­ ates, hospitals have become increasingly at­ tractive to people with formal training in business administration. The shift of hospitals from a service to a business orientation is ex­ pected to sustain demand for new MBA grad­ uates. This development, coupled with slow growth in the hospital sector, will greatly in­ tensify competition for entry level jobs in hos­ pital administration. One result may be that new graduates will be offered jobs at the de­ partment head or staff level rather than at the assistant administrator level, as was commonly the case until recently. Very stiff competition for upper level management jobs will continue, a reflection of the pyramidal management structure characteristic of most large and com­ plex organizations. In nursing homes and other long-term care facilities, where a graduate degree in health administration is not ordinarily a requirement, job opportunities for individuals with strong business or management skills will continue to be excellent.  Earnings The personal standing and performance of the adminRTfafbf.liospital size, geographic loca­ tion, and the type of hospital ownership are all factors in determining the earnings of hospital administrators. According to a survey con­ ducted for Modern Healthcare magazine, ad­ ministrators in hospitals with fewer than 100 beds had average earnings of nearly $51,000 in 1986. In hospitals of 100 to 349 beds, ad­ ministrators averaged close to $81,000 an­ nually. In the largest hospitals, those with more than 1,000 beds, chief administrators averaged almost $132,000. The associate administrator is directly under the chief administrator. Earn­ ings for associate administrators ranged from an average of about $37,500 annually in the  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  smallest hospitals to about $76,000 in very large hospitals. According to a 1986 survey conducted by Warren Associates of Henry W. Warren As­ sociates, Inc., the average salary of the chief executive administrator in health maintenance organizations was $94,000 a year in 1986. As­ sociate administrators earned about $63,000 a year, on the average. Management incentive bonuses based on job performance are increasingly commonplace in executive compensation packages. Starting salaries for recent graduates of mas­ ter’s programs in health administration aver­ aged $30,000 in 1985, according to a national survey conducted by the Association of Uni­ versity Programs in Health Administration. Recent recipients of master’s degrees in health administration starting work in Veterans Administration hospitals earned $22,500 a year in 1986. Top administrators earned as much as $72,500 a year. Related Occupations Health services managers plan programs, set policies, create marketing plans, and coordi­ nate the use of resources for a health facilty agency. Others with similar responsibilities in­ clude social welfare administrators, emergency medical services coordinators, public health directors, community organization directors, college or university department heads, comp­ trollers, department store managers, directors of data processing, and recreation superin­ tendents. Sources of Additional Information Information about health administration and academic programs in this field is available from: American College of Healthcare Executives, 840 North Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, IL 60611. Association of University Programs in Health Administration. 1911 Fort MyerDr., Suite 503, Ar­ lington, VA 22209. National Health Council, Health Careers Program, 622 Third Ave., 34th floor. New York, NY 10017­ 6765.  Information about health administration and job opportunities in group medical practices is available from: Medical Group Management Association, 1355 South Colorado Blvd., Suite 900, Denver, CO 80222.  For information about career opportunities in long-term care, contact: American College of Health Care Administrators, P.O. Box 5890, 8120 Woodmont Ave., Suite 200, Bethesda. MD 20814.  The American Association of Homes for the Aging maintains a listing of positions available and positions wanted in nonprofit nursing homes, life care communities, and housing for the elderly. For details, write: Job Mart, AAHA, 1129 20th St. NW„ Suite 400, Washington, DC 20036.  Hotel Managers and Assistants (D.O.T. 187.117-038, .167-046, -078, -106, -110, -122; and 320)  Nature of the Work Across the Nation, hotels and motels are a welcome haven for weary travellers. For va­ cationing families and persons whose jobs take them out of town, a comfortable room, good food, and helpful hotel staff can make being away from home an enjoyable experience. They may be guests overnight at a roadside hotel or motel, spend several days at a towering down­ town convention hotel, or a week at a large resort complex with tennis courts, a golf course, and a variety of other recreational facilities. At each, hotel managers and assistant managers work to insure that guests’ visits are pleasant. Hotel managers are responsible for the ef­ ficient and profitable operation of their estab­ lishments. In a small hotel, motel, or inn with a limited staff, a single manager may direct all aspects of operations. However, large hotels may employ hundreds of workers and the man­ ager may be aided by a number of assistant managers assigned among departments re­ sponsible for various aspects of operations. The hotel manager, often titled general manager, sets room rates, allocates funds to departments, approves expenditures, and establishes stan­ dards for service to guests, decor, housekeep­ ing, food quality, and banquet operations. As­ sistant managers must insure that the day-to­ day operations of their departments meet the manager’s standards. Executive housekeepers are responsible for insuring that guest rooms, meeting and banquet rooms, and public areas are clean, orderly, and well maintained. They train, schedule, and su­ pervise the work of room attendants, inspect rooms, and order cleaning supplies. Front office managers coordinate reserva­ tions and room assignments, and train and di­ rect the hotel’s front desk staff that deals with the public. They insure that guests are handled courteously and efficiently, complaints and problems are resolved, and requests for special services are carried out. Food and beverage managers direct the food services of hotels. They oversee the operation of hotels’ restaurants, cocktail lounges, and banquet facilities. They supervise and schedule food and beverage preparation and service workers, plan menus, estimate costs, and deal with food suppliers. Convention services managers coordinate the activities of large hotels’ various depart­ ments for meetings, conventions, and other special events. They meet with representatives of groups or organizations to plan the number of rooms to reserve, the desired configuration of hotel meeting space, and any banquet ser­ vices needed. During the meeting or event, they resolve unexpected problems and monitor activities to check that hotel operations con­ form to the expectations of the group.  Managerial and Management-Related Occupations/31  Other assistant managers may be specialists responsible for activities such as personnel, accounting and office administration, market­ ing and sales, security, and recreational facil­ ities. Large hotel and motel chains often cen­ tralize some activities, such as purchasing and advertising, so that individual hotels in the chain may not need managers for these departments. Managers who work for chains may be as­ signed to organize a newly built or purchased hotel or to reorganize an existing hotel or motel that is not operating successfully. Working Conditions Since hotels are open around the clock, night and weekend work is common. Hotel employ­ ees frequently must work on shifts. Managers who live in the hotel usually have regular work schedules, but they may be called for work at any time. Some employees of resort hotels are managers during the busy season and have other duties the rest of the year. Hotel managers sometimes experience the pressures of coordinating a wide range of func­ tions. Conventions and large groups of tourists may present unusual problems. Dealing with irate patrons can also be stressful. The job can be particularly hectic for front office managers around checkin and checkout time.  ■i  I  Hotel managers are responsible for the efficient and profitable operation of hotels and motels.  programs start as trainee assistant managers, or at least advance to such positions more quickly. Hotel management programs usually include instruction in hotel adninistration, accounting, Employment economics, marketing, housekeeping, food Hotel managers and assistant managers held service management and catering, hotel main­ about 78,000 wage and salary jobs in 1986. tenance engineering, and data processing—re­ An additional number—primarily owners of flecting the widespread use of computers in small hotels and motels—were self-employed. hotel operations such as reservations, account­ ing, and housekeeping. Part-time or summer Training, Other Qualifications, work in hotels and restaurants is encouraged and Advancement _____________ because the experience gained and the contacts Postsecondary training' in hotel or restaurant ■■ made with employers may benefit students when management is preferred for most hotel man­ they seek full-time employment after gradua­ agement positions, although a college liberal tion. arts degree may be sufficient when coupled Hotel managers must be able to get along with related hotel experience. In the past, most with all kinds of people, even in stressful sit­ managers were promoted from the ranks of uations. They need initiative, self-discipline, front desk clerks, housekeepers, waiters and and the ability to organize and direct the work chefs, and hotel sales workers. While some of others. They must be able to solve problems persons still advance to hotel management po­ and concentrate on details. sitions without the benefit of education or train­ Sometimes large hotels sponsor specialized ing beyond high school, and although related on-the-job management training programs hotel experience is an asset to all persons seek­ which enable trainees to rotate among various ing to enter hotel management careers, spe­ departments and gain a thorough knowledge of cialized hotel or restaurant training is preferred the hotel’s operation. Other hotels may help or even required by most hotel chains. Res­ finance the necessary training in hotel man­ taurant management training or experience is agement for outstanding employees. an acceptable background for entering hotel Most hotels promote employees who have management because a hotel’s restaurant and proven their ability. Newly built hotels, par­ cocktail lounge are often of great importance ticularly those without well-established on-theto the success of the entire establishment. job training programs, often prefer experienced A bachelor’s degree in hotel and restaurant personnel for managerial positions. Large hotel administration provides particularly strong and motel chains may offer better opportunities preparation for a career in hotel management. for advancement than small, independently In 1986, over 100 colleges and universities owned establishments, but frequent relocation offered 4-year programs in this field. Over 200 often is necessary. They have more extensive community and junior colleges, technical in­ career ladder programs and offer managers the stitutes, vocational and trade schools, and other opportunity to transfer to another hotel or motel academic institutions also have programs lead­ in the chain or to the central office if an opening ing to an associate degree or other formal rec­ occurs. Career advancement can be accelerated ognition in hotel or restaurant management. by completion of certification programs offered Graduates of hotel or restaurant management by the associations listed below. These pro­   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  J•  grams generally require a combination of course work, examinations, and experience. Job Outlook Employment of salaried hotel managers is ex­ pected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000 as more large hotels and motels are built. Business travel will continue to grow, and increased domestic and foreign tourism will also create demand for additional hotels and motels. Most openings are expected to occur as experienced managers transfer to other occupations, retire, or stop working for other reasons. Applicants who have college degrees in hotel administration should have a decided advan­ tage in seeking entry positions and later ad­ vancement. Earnings In 1986, annual salaries of assistant hotel man­ agers averaged an estimated $34,500, based on a survey conducted for the American Hotel and Motel Association. Salaries varied greatly according to the size of the hotel in which they worked. Assistants employed in large hotels with 600 rooms or more averaged an estimated $45,500 in 1986, while those in small hotels with less than 200 rooms averaged an estimated $21,100, according to the same survey. Sal­ aries of assistant managers also varied because of differences in duties and responsibilities. For example, food and beverage managers aver­ aged $42,000, whereas front office managers averaged $24,700. The manager’s level of ex­ perience is also an important factor. In 1986, salaries of general managers av­ eraged an estimated $63,900, ranging from an average of about $38,400 in hotels and motels with less than 200 rooms, to an average of more than $87,000 in large hotels with 600 rooms or more. Managers may earn bonuses ranging up to 20 percent of their basic salary in some hotels. In addition, they and their fam­  32/Occupational Outlook Handbook  ilies may be furnished with lodging, meals, parking, laundry, and other services. Most managers and assistants receive 5 to 10 paid holidays a year, paid vacation, sick leave, life insurance, medical benefits, and pension plans. Some hotels offer profit sharing plans, educational assistance, and other ben­ efits to their employees. Related Occupations Hotel managers and assistants are not the only workers concerned with organizing and di­ recting a business in which pleasing people is very important. Others with similar responsi­ bilities include apartment building managers, department store managers, and office man­ agers. Sources of Additional Information For information on careers and scholarships in hotel management, send a self-addressed, stamped envelope to: The American Hotel and Motel Association (AH&MA), 888 7th Ave., New York, NY 10106.  For information on certification require­ ments and educational programs in hotel man­ agement, send a self-addressed, stamped en­ velope to: The Educational Institute of AH&MA, 1407 S. Har­ rison Rd., Suite 310, East Lansing, MI 48823.  Information on careers in housekeeping management may be obtained from: National Executive Housekeepers Association, Inc., 1001 Eastwind Dr., Suite 301, Westerville, OH 43081.  For a directory of colleges and other schools offering programs and courses in hotel and restaurant administration, write to: Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and Institutional Ed­ ucation, 311 First St. NW., Washington, DC 20001.  Inspectors and Compliance Officers, Except Construction (List of D O T. codes available on request. See p. 425.)  Nature of the Work Inspectors and compliance officers enforce ad­ herence to a wide range of laws, regulations, policies, and procedures that protect the public on matters such as health, safety, food, im­ migration, licensing, and interstate commerce. Depending upon their employer, inspectors vary widely in title and responsibilities. Health Inspectors. Health inspectors work with engineers, chemists, microbiologists, and health workers to insure compliance with public health and safety regulations governing food, drugs, cosmetics, and other consumer products. They also administer regulations that govern the quarantine of persons and products entering the United States from foreign countries. The ma­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  jor types of health inspectors are consumer safety, food, agricultural quarantine, and en­ vironmental health inspectors. In addition, some inspectors work in a field closely related to food inspection—agricultural commodity grading. Most consumer safety inspectors specialize in food, feeds and pesticides, weights and mea­ sures, cosmetics, or drugs and medical equip­ ment. Some are proficient in several areas. Working individually or in teams under a senior or supervisory inspector, they periodically check firms that produce, handle, store, and market food, drugs, and cosmetics. They look for in­ accurate product labeling, and for decompo­ sition or chemical or bacteriological contam­ ination that could result in a product becoming harmful to health. They use portable scales, cameras, ultraviolet lights, container sampling devices, thermometers, chemical testing kits, radiation monitors, and other equipment to as­ certain violations. They send product samples collected as part of their examinations to lab­ oratories for analysis. After completing their inspection, inspectors discuss their observations with plant managers or officials and point out areas where corrective measures are needed. They write reports of their findings and, when necessary, compile evidence that may be used in court if legal action must be taken to enforce the law. Federal and State laws empower food in­ spectors to inspect meat, poultry, and their byproducts to insure that they are wholesome and safe for public consumption. Working as an onsite team under a veterinarian, they in­ spect meat and poultry slaughtering, process­ ing, and packaging operations. They also check for correct product labeling and proper sani­ tation. Agricultural quarantine inspectors protect American agricultural products from the spread of foreign plant pests and animal diseases. To safeguard crops, forests, gardens, and live­ stock, they inspect ships, aircraft, railroad cars, and motor vehicles entering the United States for restricted or prohibited plant or animal ma­ terials. Environmental health inspectors, or sani­ tarians, who work primarily for State and local governments, insure that food, water, and air meet government standards. They check the cleanliness and safety of food and beverages produced in dairies and processing plants, or served in restaurants, hospitals, and other in­ stitutions. They often examine the handling, processing, and serving of food for compliance with sanitation rules and regulations and over­ see the treatment and disposal of sewage, re­ fuse, and garbage. In addition, inspectors ex­ amine places where pollution is a danger, test for pollutants, and collect air or water samples for analysis. They determine the nature and cause of pollution and initiate action to stop it. In large local and State health or agriculture departments, environmental health inspectors may specialize in milk and dairy products, food sanitation, waste control, air pollution, insti­ tutional sanitation, or occupational health. In rural areas and small cities, they may be re­  sponsible for a wide range of environmental health activities. Agricultural commodity graders apply qual­ ity standards to aid the buying and selling of commodities and to insure that retailers and consumers receive wholesome and reliable products. They generally specialize in an area such as eggs and egg products, meat, poultry, processed or fresh fruits and vegetables, grain, tobacco, cotton, or dairy products. They ex­ amine product samples to determine quality and grade, and issue official grading certifi­ cates. Graders also may inspect the plant and equipment to maintain sanitation standards. Regulatory Inspectors. Regulatory inspectors insure compliance with laws and regulations that protect the public welfare. Important types of regulatory inspectors include immigration, customs, air safety, railroad, motor vehicle, occupational safety and health, mine, wagehour compliance, and alcohol, tobacco, and firearms inspectors. Immigration inspectors interview and ex­ amine people seeking to enter the United States and its territories. They inspect passports to determine whether people are legally eligible to enter and to verify their citizenship status and identity. Immigration inspectors also pre­ pare reports, maintain records, and process ap­ plications and petitions for immigration or tem­ porary residence in the United States. Customs inspectors enforce laws governing imports and exports. Stationed at airports, sea­ ports, and border crossing points, they ex­ amine, count, weigh, gauge, measure, and sample commercial cargoes entering and leav­ ing the United States to determine admissibility and the amount of tax that must be paid. They also inspect baggage and articles worn by pas­ sengers and crew members to insure that all merchandise is declared, proper duties are paid, and contraband is not present. Postal inspectors observe the functioning of the postal system and recommend improve­ ments. They investigate criminal activities such as theft and misuse of the mail. In instances of suspected mismanagement or fraud, in­ spectors conduct management or financial au­ dits. They also collaborate with other govern­ ment agencies, such as the Internal Revenue Service, as members of special task forces. Aviation safety inspectors insure that Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulations which govern the quality and safety of aircraft equipment and personnel are maintained. Aviation safety inspectors may inspect aircraft and equipment manufacturing, maintenance and repair, or flight operations procedures. They usually specialize in either commercial or gen­ eral aviation aircraft. They also examine and certify aircraft pilots, pilot examiners, flight instructors, schools, and instructional mate­ rials. Railroad inspectors verify the compliance of railroad systems and equipment with Federal safety regulations. They investigate accidents and review railroads’ operating practices. Motor vehicle inspectors verify the compli­ ance of automobiles and trucks with State re­  Managerial and Management-Related Occupations/33  quirements for safe operation and emissions. They inspect truck cargoes to assure compli­ ance with legal limitations on gross weight and hazardous cargoes. Traffic inspectors oversee the scheduled ser­ vice of streetcar, bus, or railway systems and determine the need for additional vehicles, re­ vised schedules, or other changes to improve service. They also report conditions hazardous to passengers and disruptive to service. Occupational safety and health inspectors visit places of employment to detect unsafe machinery and equipment or unhealthy work­ ing conditions. They discuss their findings with the employer or plant manager and urge that violations be promptly corrected in accordance with Federal, State, or local government safety standards and regulations. Mine inspectors work to insure the health and safety of miners. They visit mines and related facilities to obtain information on health and safety conditions and to enforce safety laws and regulations. They discuss their findings with the management of the mine and issue notices describing violations and hazards that must be corrected. Mine inspectors also in­ vestigate and report on mine accidents and may direct rescue and firefighting operations when fires or explosions occur. Wage-hour compliance inspectors inspect employers’ time, payroll, and personnel rec­ ords to insure compliance with Federal laws on minimum wages, overtime, pay, employ­ ment of minors, and equal employment op­ portunity. They often interview employees to verify the employer’s records and to check for complaints. Equal opportunity representatives ascertain and correct unfair employment practices through consultation with and mediation between em­ ployers and minority groups. Alcohol, tobacco, and firearms inspectors inspect distilleries, wineries, and breweries; cigar and cigarette manufacturing plants; wholesale liquor dealers and importers; fire­ arms and explosives manufacturers, dealers, and users; and other regulated facilities. They insure compliance with revenue laws and other regulations on operating procedures, unfair competition, and trade practices, and deter­ mine that appropriate taxes are paid. Securities and real estate directors imple­ ment regulations concerning securities and real estate transactions. Their departments inves­ tigate applications for registration of securities sales and complaints of irregular securities or real estate transactions, and recommend nec­ essary legal action. Revenue officers investigate delinquent tax returns and liabilities. They discuss the reso­ lution of tax problems with taxpayers and rec­ ommend penalties and prosecution when nec­ essary. Attendance officers investigate continued absences of pupils from public schools. Dealer compliance representatives inspect franchised establishments to ascertain compli­ ance with the franchiser’s policies and pro­ cedures. They may suggest changes in financial and other operations.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Logging operations inspectors review con­ tract logging operations. They prepare reports and issue remedial instructions for violations of contractual agreements and of fire and safety regulations. Travel accommodations raters inspect ho­ tels, motels, restaurants, campgrounds, and vacation resorts. They evaluate travel and tour­ ist accommodations for travel guide publishers and organizations such as tourism promoters and automobile clubs. Quality control inspectors and coordinators inspect products manufactured or processed by private companies for government use to insure compliance with contract specifications. They may specialize in specific products such as lumber, machinery, petroleum products, paper products, electronic equipment, or furniture. Others coordinate the activities of workers en­ gaged in testing and evaluating pharmaceuti­ cals in order to control quality of manufacture and insure compliance with legal standards. Other inspectors and compliance officers in­ clude coroners, code inspectors, mortician in­ vestigators, and construction and building in­ spectors. (Construction and building inspectors are discussed elsewhere in the Handbook.) Working Conditions Inspectors and compliance officers live an ac­ tive life; they meet many people and work in a variety of environments. Their jobs often involve considerable fieldwork, and some in­ spectors travel frequently. They are furnished with an automobile or are reimbursed for travel expenses. At times, inspectors have unfavorable work­ ing conditions. For example, mine inspectors often are exposed to the same hazards as min­ ers. Customs inspectors may be threatened by smugglers and other criminals. Food and al­ cohol, tobacco, and firearms inspectors fre­ quently come in contact with strong, unpleas­ ant odors. Many inspectors work long and often irregular hours. Employment Inspectors and compliance officers held 125,000 jobs in 1986. State governments employed 31 percent, the Federal Government—chiefly the Departments of Defense, Treasury, and Ag­ riculture—employed 28 percent, and local governments employed 20 percent. The re­ mainder—21 percent—were employed in the U.S. Postal Service and throughout the private sector—primarily in miscellaneous business services, hospitals, insurance companies, and manufacturing firms. The largest single employer of consumer safety inspectors is the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, but the majority work for State governments. Most food inspectors and agri­ cultural commodity graders in processing plants are employed by the U.S. Department of Ag­ riculture, as are agricultural quarantine in­ spectors. Most environmental health inspectors work for State and local governments. Most Federal regulatory inspectors work in regional and district offices throughout the United States. The Department of Defense em-  IfRCPiW  Kiss  \  It'AO! It  Inspectors insure compliance with safety regulations. ploys many quality control inspectors. The Treasury Department employs internal revenue officers, alcohol, tobacco, and firearms in­ spectors, and customs inspectors. Aviation safety inspectors work for the Federal Aviation Administration. The Department of LaboV em­ ploys wage-hour compliance officers. Occu­ pational safety and health inspectors and mine inspectors also work for the Department of Labor and for many State governments. Im­ migration inspectors are employed by the De­ partment of Justice. Like agricultural quaran­ tine inspectors, immigration and customs inspectors work at U.S. airports, seaports, and border crossing points, and at foreign airports and seaports. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Because of the diversity of functions, quali­ fications for inspector and compliance officer jobs differ greatly. Requirements are a com­ bination of education, experience, and a pass­ ing grade on a written examination. Employers generally prefer applicants with college train­ ing, including courses related to the job. Food inspectors must have related experi­ ence and pass an examination based on spe­ cialized knowledge. Aviation safety inspectors must have con­ siderable experience in aviation maintenance and knowledge of the industry and relevant Federal laws. In addition, FA A mechanic or pilot and medical certificates are required. Some also are required to have an FAA flight in­ structor rating. Many aviation safety inspectors have had flight training and mechanical training in the Armed Forces. No written examination is required. Applicants for mine safety inspector posi­ tions generally must have experience in mine safety, management, or supervision, or possess a skill such as that of an electrician (for mine  34/Occupational Outlook Handbook  electrical inspectors). In some cases, a general aptitude test may be required. Applicants for internal revenue officer jobs must have a bachelor’s degree or 3 years of business, legal, or investigative work experi­ ence that displays strong analytical ability. Some civil service examinations, including those for agricultural quarantine inspectors and agricultural commodity graders, rate applicants solely on their experience and education and require no written examination. Environmental health inspectors, called san­ itarians in many States, usually must have a bachelor’s degree in environmental health or in the physical or biological sciences. In most States, they are licensed by examining boards. All inspectors and compliance officers are trained in applicable laws and inspection pro­ cedures through a combination of classroom and on-the-job training. In general, people who want to enter this occupation should be able to accept responsibility and like detailed work. They should be neat and personable and able to express themselves well orally and in writ­ ing. Federal Government inspectors and com­ pliance officers whose job performance is sat­ isfactory advance through their career ladder to a specified full performance level. For po­ sitions above this level (usually supervisory positions), advancement is competitive, based on agency needs and individual merit. Ad­ vancement opportunities in State and local gov­ ernments and the private sector are often sim­ ilar to those in the Federal Government. Job Outlook Employment of inspectors and compliance of­ ficers as a group is expected to increase more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Employment growth is expected to be constrained by slow growth in government regulatory programs and in gov­ ernment spending. Most job openings will be to replace those who transfer to other occu­ pations, or retire or leave the labor force for other reasons. Employment of inspectors and compliance officers is seldom affected by general economic fluctuations. Most work in programs which en­ joy wide public support. As a result, they are less likely to lose their jobs than many other workers when government programs are cut. Earnings The median annual salary of inspectors and compliance officers, except construction, was $25,200 in 1986. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $15,400; the highest 10 percent earned at least $46,000. Most starting Federal salaries were around $14,800 a year in 1987. However, some in­ spectors and compliance officers—for exam­ ple, aviation safety officers and postal inspec­ tors—had higher starting salaries. In the Federal Government, the average an­ nual salary was somewhat higher—$30,400— in 1986. Depending upon the nature of the inspection or compliance activity, the average salary varied substantially—from $18,900 to  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Table 1. Salaries of Federal inspectors and compliance officers,  1986 Type of inspector  Salary  Patent classification examiners......... $53,600 Postal inspectors .................................. 46,800 Transportation inspectors—air, aviation, motor carrier, railroad, and highway safety.......................... 42,900 Securities compliance examiners___ 38,500 Consumer safety inspectors................. 38,500 Coal mine inspectors.......................... 38,400 Wage and hour compliance officials............................................. 35,700 Equal opportunity compliance officials............................................. 35,400 Agriculture, tobacco, and firearms inspectors.......................................... 31,800 Interval revenue officers..................... 29,700 Customs inspectors.............................. 28,100 Food and agricultural commodity inspectors......................................... 26,900 Immigration inspectors........................ 26,100 Environmental health and safety technicians........................................ 19,300  ment jobs is available from State civil service commissions, usually located in each State capital, or from local government offices. Information about jobs in private industry is available from the State Employment Service. It is listed under “Job Service” or “Employ­ ment” in the State government section of local telephone directories.  Management Analysts and Consultants (D.O.T. 161.117-014, .167-010, -014, -018, -022, .267­ 010, -018, -022, -026; and 375.267-026)  Nature of the Work A rapidly growing small company needs a bet­ ter system of control over inventories and ex­ penses. An established manufacturing com­ pany decides to relocate to another State and needs assistance coordinating the move, plan­ ning the new facility, and training new work­ ers. After acquiring a new division, a large manufacturer realizes that its corporate struc­ ture must be reorganized. A division chief of a government agency wants to know why the Source: U.S. Office of Personnel Management division’s contracts are always going over budget. These are just a few of the vast array $53,600. Table 1 presents average salaries for of organizational problems that management selected inspectors and compliance officers in analysts, as they are called in government agencies, and management consultants, as the Federal Government in 1986. Salaries of inspectors and compliance offi­ business firms refer to them, help solve. Al­ though their job titles may differ, their job cers in State and local governments and in private industry are generally lower than their duties are essentially the same. The work of management analysts and con­ Federal counterparts. sultants varies from employer to employer and According to a survey by the International Personnel Management Association, nonsu- from project to project. For example, some pervisory environmental health inspectors projects require several consultants to work working for selected U.S. cities and counties together, each specializing in one area; at other received average starting salaries of about times, they will work independently. In gen­ $19,300 in 1985; those working for State gov­ eral, analysts and consultants collect, review, ernments started at about $2,800 less. Expe­ and analyze data; make recommendations; and rienced environmental health inspectors work­ assist in the implementation of their proposal. Both public and private organizations use ing for State governments earned about $19,000 consultants for a variety of reasons: Some don’t in 1985. have adequate internal resources to handle a project; others rely on the consultant’s exper­ Related Occupations tise to determine what resources will be re­ Inspectors and compliance officers are respon­ quired—or problems encountered—if they sible for seeing that laws and regulations are obeyed. Revenue agents, construction and pursue a particular course of action; while oth­ building inspectors, fire marshals, State and ers want to get outside advice on how to resolve organizational problems that have already been local police officers, customs patrol officers, identified or to avoid troublesome problems customs special agents, and fish and game war­ that could arise. dens also enforce laws. Firms providing consulting services range in size from solo practitioners to large interna­ Sources of Additional Information tional organizations that employ hundreds of Information on Federal Government jobs is workers. These services usually are provided available from offices of the State employment on a contract basis—a company chooses a con­ service, area offices of the U.S. Office of Per­ sulting firm specializing in the area in which sonnel Management, and Federal Job Infor­ it needs assistance and then the two firms de­ mation Centers in large cities throughout the termine the conditions of the contract. These country. For information on a career as a spe­ include the proposed cost of the project, staff­ cific type of inspector or compliance officer, ing requirements, and the deadline. the Federal department or agency that employs Upon getting an assignment or contract, con­ them may also be contacted directly. sultants define the nature and extent of the Information about State and local govern­ project. During this phase of the job, they may  Managerial and Management-Related Occupations/35  analyze statistics and other types of data, such as annual revenues, employment, or expend­ itures; interview employees; or observe the op­ erations of the organizational unit on a day-to­ day basis. Next, they use their knowledge of manage­ ment systems and their expertise in a particular area to develop solutions. In the course of pre­ paring their recommendations, they must take into account the general nature of the business, the relationship the firm has with others in that industry, and the firm’s internal organization, as well as the information gained through data collection and analysis. Once they have decided on a course of ac­ tion, consultants usually write a report of their findings and recommendations which they present to the client. In addition to the written report, they often make formal oral presenta­ tions regarding their findings. For some proj­ ects, this is all that is required; for others, however, they may assist in the implementation of their suggestions. Management analysts in government agen­ cies use the same skills as their private-sector colleagues to advise managers in government on many types of issues—most of which are similar to the problems faced by private firms. For example, if an agency is planning to pur­ chase several personal computers, it first must determine which type to buy, given its budget and data processing needs. Management ana­ lysts would assess the various types of ma­ chines available and determine which best meets their department’s needs. Working Conditions Management analysts and consultants usually divide their time between their offices and their client’s operation. Although much of their time is spent indoors in clean, well-lighted offices, they may have to visit a client’s production facility where conditions may not be so fa­ vorable. They must follow established safety procedures when making field visits to sites where they may encounter potentially hazard­ ous conditions. Typically, analysts and consultants work at least 40 hours a week. Overtime is common, especially when deadlines must be met. In ad­ dition, because they must spend a significant portion of their time with clients, these workers may travel quite frequently. Self-employed consultants can set their workload and hours and work at home. On the other hand, their livelihood depends on their ability to maintain and expand their clientele, which can be difficult. The constant pressure of deadlines and client expectations can be very stressful. Occasion­ ally, consultants may face hostility from em­ ployees of the client’s organization, especially when a reorganization or reduction in force could be in the offing. As a result, they must be able to deal with people diplomatically. Employment Management analysts and consultants held about 126,000 jobs in 1986. About half of these workers were self-employed. Others worked  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  for Federal, State, and local governments. The majority of those working for the Federal Gov­ ernment were found in the Department of De­ fense. The remainder worked in the private sector for companies that provided consulting services. Management analysts and consultants are found throughout the country, but employment is concentrated in metropolitan areas.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement There are no universal educational require­ ments for entry level jobs in this field. How­ ever, employers prefer to hire those with a master’s degree in business or public admin­ istration or those with a bachelor’s degree and several years of appropriate work experience. Most government agencies and some firms hire those with a bachelor’s degree and no work experience as entry level analysts and con­ sultants. In addition, many entrants are career changers who were formerly mid- and upperlevel managers. Many fields of study provide a suitable for­ mal educational background for this occupation because of the diversity of problem areas ad­ dressed by management analysts and consult­ ants. These include most of the detailed fields within such major fields as business and man­ agement, computer and information sciences, and engineering. Backgrounds in fields within education, communications, marketing and distribution, and architecture and environmen­ tal design may also be sought by certain em­ ployers. Management analysts and consultants who are hired directly from school often participate in formal company training programs. These programs may include instruction on policies and procedures, computer systems and soft­ ware, and management practices and princi­ ples. Because of their previous industry ex­ perience, most of those who enter at midlevel do not participate in formal company training programs. However, regardless of back­ ground, these workers routinely attend con­ ferences to keep abreast of current develop­ ments in their field. Management analysts and consultants must have strong interpersonal skills and be able to work on a variety of projects. They should be able to analyze and interpret data, draw con­ clusions, and make sound recommendations based on this knowledge. They also must be able to communicate effectively orally and in writing. In large consulting firms, beginners usually start as a member of a consulting team. The team is responsible for the entire project and each consultant is assigned to a particular area. After 1 or 2 years of experience on a variety of projects, the consultant may be promoted to team leader—overseeing a project and su­ pervising entry level workers. From there, con­ sultants may advance into more senior posi­ tions; for example, they may be responsible for several teams of consultants. Those with exceptional skills may eventually become a  About half of all management analysts and consultants are self-employed. partner in the firm. Others with entrepreneurial ambition may open their own firm. Job Outlook Employment of management analysts and con­ sultants is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000 as industry and government increasingly rely on their expertise to improve the perfor­ mance of their organizations. Most job open­ ings, however, will result from the need to replace personnel who transfer to other fields or leave the labor force. Increased foreign competition has caused American industry to take a closer look at its operations. In a more competitive international market, firms cannot afford inefficiency and wasted resources or else they risk losing their share of the market. Management consultants are being increasingly relied upon to help re­ duce costs and streamline operations. Federal, State, and local agencies also are expected to expand their use of management analysts. In the era of growing budget deficits, analysts’ skills at identifying problems and im­ plementing cost reduction measures are ex­ pected to become increasingly important. Job opportunities are expected to be best for those with a graduate degree or industry ex­ pertise. Because many small consulting firms fail each year for lack of managerial expertise and clients, those interested in opening their own firm should have good organizational and marketing skills. Earnings Salaries for management analysts and con­ sultants vary widely by experience, education, and employer. In 1986, those who were wage and salary workers had median annual earnings of about $29,500. The middle 50 percent earned between $22,100 and $40,500. Ten percent earned less than $16,500, while 10 percent earned more than $51,700.  36/Occupational Outlook Handbook  In the Federal Government, management an­ alysts with a bachelor’s degree had a starting salary of $14,400 a year in 1986. Entrants with a superior academic record could begin at $17,800, while those with a master’s degree started at $22,400. The average salary for man­ agement analysts working in the Federal Gov­ ernment in 1986 was $32,100. Earnings of self-employed management consultants generally are considerably higher than those of salaried workers. Most self-em­ ployed management consultants charge a daily rate based on the type of project and its time requirements. Typical benefits for salaried analysts and consultants include health and life insurance, retirement plans, vacation and sick leave, profit sharing, and bonuses for'outstanding work. In addition, all travel expenses usually are reim­ bursed by their employer. Self-employed con­ sultants usually have to maintain an office and they do not receive employer-provided bene­ fits. Related Occupations Management analysts and consultants collect, review, and analyze data; make recommen­ dations; and assist in the implementation of their ideas. Others who utilize similar skills are managers, computer systems analysts, op­ erations research analysts, economists, and fi­ nancial analysts. Sources of Additional Information Information about career opportunities in man­ agement consulting is available from: The Association of Management Consulting Firms, 230 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10169. The Institute of Management Consultants, 19 West 44th Street, New York, NY 10036.  For information about a career as a State or local government management analyst, contact your State or local employment service. Persons interested in a management analyst position in the Federal Government can obtain information from; U.S. Office of Personnel Management, 1900 E St. NW., Washington, DC 20415.  Marketing, Advertising, and Public Relations Managers (D.O.T. 141.137; 159.167-022; 163.117-014, -018, -022, -026; .167-010, -018, -022; .267; 164.117-010, -014, -018; .167; 185.117-014, .157-010, -014; 187.167-162; 189.117-018)  Nature of the Work The fundamental objective of any firm is to market its products or services profitably. In very small firms, all marketing responsibilities may be assumed by the owner or chief exec­ utive officer. In large firms, which may offer  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  numerous products and services nationally or even worldwide, experienced marketing, ad­ vertising, and public relations managers co­ ordinate these and related activities. In large firms, the executive vice-president for marketing directs the overall marketing pol­ icy—including marketing strategy, sales, ad­ vertising, sales promotion, and public relations activities. (This occupation is included in the Handbook statement on general managers and top executives.) These activities are supervised by middle and supervisory managers who over­ see staffs of professionals and technicians. Marketing managers—also known as prod­ uct group managers—develop the firm’s de­ tailed marketing strategy. With the help of sub­ ordinates, including product managers and market research managers, they determine the demand for the firm’s products and services and identify potential consumers—for exam­ ple, business firms, wholesalers, retailers, gov­ ernment, or the general public. Marketing managers develop pricing strategy with an eye towards maximizing the firm’s share of the market and ultimately its profits. In collabo­ ration with sales, product, and other managers, they monitor trends that indicate the need for new products and services and oversee product development. Marketing managers work with advertising and sales promotion managers to best describe the firm’s products and services and sway potential users. Sales managers direct the firm’s sales pro­ gram. They assign sales territories and goals and establish training programs for their sales representatives. In large, multiproduct firms, they oversee regional and local sales managers and their staffs. Sales managers maintain con­ tact with dealers and distributors. They analyze sales statistics gathered by their staffs to de­ termine sales potential and inventory require­ ments and monitor the preferences of cus­ tomers to decide which products to develop and which to discontinue—information that is vital to the firm’s market research activities. Except in the largest firms, advertising and sales promotion staffs are generally small and serve as a liaison between the firm and the advertising or sales promotion agency to which most advertising or promotional functions are contracted out. Advertising managers oversee the account services, creative services, and me­ dia services departments. The account services department is managed by account executives, who assess the need for advertising and, in advertising agencies, maintain the accounts of clients. The creative services department— which develops the subject matter and pres­ entation of advertising—is supervised by a cre­ ative director, who oversees the copy chief and art director and their staffs. The media services department is supervised by the media director, who oversees planning groups which select the communication media—for example, radio, television, newspapers, magazines, or signs— to disseminate the advertising. Sales promotion managers—who supervise staffs of sales promotion specialists—direct sales promotion programs, which combine ad­ vertising with financial incentives to increase  sales of products and services. In an effort to establish closer contact with purchasers—deal­ ers, distributors, or consumers—sales pro­ motion programs may involve direct mail, cat­ alogs, exhibits, and special events. Financial incentives may include discounts, samples, gifts, and contests. Public relations managers—who supervise staffs of public relations specialists—direct publicity programs designed to promote, using any necessary communication media, the im­ age of the firm to various groups such as con­ sumers, stockholders, or the general public. For example, public relations managers may clarify or justify the firm’s point of view on health _or environmental issues to community or special interest groups. In large productoriented firms—such as motor vehicle manu­ facturers—they may evaluate advertising and sales promotion programs for compatibility with public relations efforts. In service-oriented firms—such as airlines—they may supervise many of the advertising and promotional ac­ tivities. Public relations managers may confer with labor relations managers to produce in­ ternal company communications—such as news about employee-management relations—and with financial managers to produce company reports. Public relations managers may assist company executives in drafting speeches, ar­ ranging interviews, and other forms of public contact. They may oversee company archives and respond to information requests. Working Conditions Marketing, advertising, and public relations managers are provided with offices close to top managers and to the departments they direct. Long hours, including evenings and weekends, are usual. Working under pressure is unavoid­ able as schedules change, problems arise, and deadlines and sales goals must be met. Mar­ keting, advertising, and public relations man­ agers meet frequently with other managers, the public, or government officials. Substantial travel may be involved. Forexample, attendance at meetings sponsored by associations or industries is often mandatory. Sales managers travel to national, regional, and local offices and to various dealers and dis­ tributors. Advertising and sales promotion managers may travel to meet with clients or representatives of communications media. Public relations managers may travel to meet with special interest groups or government of­ ficials. Job transfers between headquarters and regional offices are common—particularly among sales managers—and may disrupt fam­ ily life. Employment Marketing, advertising, and public relations managers held about 323,000 jobs in 1986. Although these managers are found in virtually every industry, about one-third were employed by motor vehicle dealers; advertising agencies; management, consulting, and public relations firms; department stores; computer and data processing services firms; and radio and tele­ vision broadcasting stations.  Managerial and Management-Related Occupations/37  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Most employers prefer that marketing, adver­ tising, and public relations managers have a broad liberal arts background. A bachelor’s degree in sociology, psychology, literature, or philosophy is acceptable. However, require­ ments vary depending upon the particular job. For marketing and sales management posi­ tions, some employers prefer a bachelor’s or master’s degree in business administration with an emphasis on marketing. Courses in business law, economics, accounting, finance, mathe­ matics, and statistics are also highly recom­ mended. In highly technical industries, such as aircraft and guided missile manufacturing, a bachelor’s degree in engineering or science combined with a master’s degree in business administration may be preferred. For advertis­ ing and sales promotion management posi­ tions, some employers prefer a bachelor’s de­ gree in advertising. The curriculum should include courses in marketing, consumer be­ havior, communications methods and tech­ nology, and visual arts courses—for example, art history and photography. For public rela­ tions management positions, some employers prefer a bachelor’s or master’s degree in public relations or journalism. The curriculum should include courses in advertising, business admin­ istration, public affairs, political science, and creative and technical writing. Familiarity with computerized word processing applications is important for many marketing, advertising, and public relations management positions. Most marketing, advertising, and public re­ lations management positions are filled by pro­ moting experienced staff or related profes­ sional or technical personnel—for example, sales representatives, purchasing agents, buy­ ers, advertising workers, and public relations specialists. In small firms, where the number of positions is limited, advancement to a man­ agement position may come slowly. In large firms, promotion may occur more quickly. Although experience, ability, and leadership are emphasized for promotion, advancement may be accelerated by participation in man­ agement training programs conducted by many large firms.-Many firms also provide their em­ ployees with continuing education opportuni­ ties, either in-house or at local colleges and universities, and encourage employee partici­ pation in seminars and conferences. In addi­ tion, numerous marketing and related associ­ ations, often in collaboration with colleges and universities, sponsor national or local training programs. Their schools, located throughout the country, deal with different phases of man­ agement activities. Persons enrolled attend ses­ sions on subjects such as brand and product management, international marketing, sales management evaluation, telemarketing and di­ rect sales, marketing communication, organi­ zational communication, and data processing systems procedures and management. Many firms pay all or part of the cost for those who successfully complete courses. Persons interested in becoming marketing, advertising, and public relations managers.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ■HU Marketing and sales managers develop the sales programs. should be mature, creative, highly motivated, resistant to stress, and flexible, yet decisive. The ability to communicate persuasively, both orally and in writing, with other managers, staff, and the public is vital. Marketing, ad-1 vertising, and public relations managers also j need tact, good judgment, and exceptional ability to establish and maintain effective per­ sonal relationships with supervisory and professional staff members and client firms. Because of the importance and high visibility of their jobs, marketing, advertising, and pub­ lic relations managers are often prime candi­ dates for advancement. Well-trained, experi­ enced, successful managers may be promoted to higher positions in their own or other firms. Some become top executives. Managers with extensive experience and sufficient capital may open their own management or consulting firms. Job Outlook Employment of marketing, advertising, and public relations managers is expected to in­ crease faster than the average for all occupa­ tions through the year 2000 as increasingly intense domestic and foreign competition in products and services offered consumers re­ quires greater marketing and promotional ef­ forts. In addition to rapid growth, many job openings will occur each year to replace man­ agers who move into top management positions or leave the labor force. However, the ample supply of experienced professional and tech­ nical personnel and recent college graduates seeking these management positions may result in substantial job competition. College grad­ uates with extensive experience who possess a high level of creativity and strong commu­ nications skills should have the best job op­ portunities. Projected employment growth varies by in­ dustry. For example, employment of market­ ing, advertising, and public relations managers is expected to grow the most rapidly in the data processing services industry in response to the  increasing use of computers. Much faster than average employment growth is also expected in other business services industries, including advertising agencies, public relations firms, and establishments offering direct mail, commer­ cial photography, art, and graphics services, as firms increasingly find it cost-efficient to contract out these services. Very rapid growth is also expected in the radio and television broadcasting industry as this communication medium is increasingly used, and in the travel, hotel, restaurant, and amusement and recrea­ tion services industries as personal incomes and leisure time increase. On the other hand, em­ ployment is expected to grow only about as fast as the average for all occupations in the educational services industry—in line with school enrollment projections—and in hospi­ tals as more medical care is provided by out­ patient care clinics and other health care es­ tablishments. Declining employment is projected in some manufacturing industries. Earnings The median annual salary of marketing, ad­ vertising, and public relations managers was $35,400 in 1986. The lowest 10 percent earned $ 17,700 or less, while the top 10 percent earned well over $52,500. Salaries between $75,000 and $100,000 are not uncommon. Many earn bonuses equal to 10 percent or more of their salaries. Salary levels vary substantially de­ pending upon the level of managerial respon­ sibility, length of service, and size and location of the firm. For sales managers, the extent of their sales territory is another important factor. Related Occupations Marketing, advertising, and public relations managers supervise the sale of products and services offered by their firms and the com­ munication of information about their firms’ activities. Other personnel involved with mar­ keting, advertising, and public relations in­ clude art directors, commercial and graphic  38/Occupational Outlook Handbook  artists, copy chiefs, copywriters, editors, lob­ byists, market research analysts, public rela­ tions specialists, sales promotion specialists, sales representatives, and technical writers. (Some of these occupations are discussed else­ where in the Handbook.) Sources of Additional Information For information about careers in sales and mar­ keting management, contact: Sales and Marketing Executives, International, 446 Statler Office Tower, Cleveland, OH 44115.  For information about careers in advertising management, contact: American Association of Advertising Agencies, 666 Third Ave., 13th Floor, New York, NY 10017. American Advertising Federation, 1400 K St. NW., Suite 1000, Washington, DC 20005.  Information about careers in sales promotion management is available from: Council of Sales Promotion Agencies, 176 Madison Ave., Fifth Floor, New York, NY 10016. Promotion Marketing Association of America, Inc., 322 Eighth Ave., Suite 1201, New York, NY 10001.  Information about careers in public relations management is available from: Public Relations Society of America, 33 Irving Place, New York, NY 10003.  Personnel, Training, and Labor Relations Specialists and Managers (D.O.T. 079.127:099.167-010; 166.067, .117, .167 except -046, .257, .267-014 through -046; 168.367-022' 169.107, .167-062, .207)  Nature of the Work Attracting the best employees available and matching them to the jobs they can do best is important for the success of any organization. But many enterprises are too large to permit close contact between management and em­ ployees. Instead, personnel and labor relations specialists and managers provide this link— helping management make effective use of em­ ployees’ skills, and helping employees find sat­ isfaction in their jobs and working conditions. Although some jobs in this field require only limited contact with people outside the office, most involve frequent contact. Dealing with people is an essential part of the job. In a small organization, one person can han­ dle all aspects of personnel administration. In contrast, in a large corporation, the top human resources executive—usually an executive vicepresident—develops and coordinates person­ nel policies and programs. (Executive vice­ presidents are included in the Handbook state­ ment on general managers and top executives.) These policies are implemented by a director of personnel relations and a director of indus­ trial relations.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  The director of personnel relations, also re­ ferred to as personnel manager, oversees sev­ eral departments—each headed by an experi­ enced manager—concerned with basic personnel activities—employment, compen­ sation, benefits, education and training, and employee welfare. Employment managers oversee the hiring and separation of employees. These activities require a range of specialists. Recruiters maintain contacts within the com­ munity and may travel extensively—usually to college campuses—to search for promising job applicants. Recruiters talk with applicants, and recommend those who appear qualified to fill vacancies. They may administer tests and check references. These workers need to be thor­ oughly familiar with the organization and its personnel policies to discuss wages, working conditions, and promotional opportunities with prospective employees. They also need to keep informed about equal employment opportunity (EEO) and affirmative action guidelines. EEO representatives or affirmative action coordinators handle this area in large organi­ zations. They investigate and resolve EEO grievances, examine corporate practices for possible violations, and compile and submit EEO statistical reports. Job analysts, sometimes called position clas­ sifiers, do very exacting work. They collect and examine detailed information about job duties to prepare job descriptions. These de­ scriptions explain the duties, training, and skills each job requires. Whenever a large organi­ zation introduces a new job or reviews existing ones, it calls upon the expert knowledge of the job analyst. Occupational analysts conduct research, generally in large firms. They are concerned with occupational classification systems and study the effects of industry and occupational trends upon worker relationships. They may serve as technical liaison between the firm and industry, government, and labor unions. Employer relations representatives—who usually work in government agencies—main­ tain working relationships with local employers and promote the use of public employment programs and services. Similarly, employment interviewers—sometimes called account rep­ resentatives, manpower development special­ ists, or personnel consultants—help match job­ seekers with employers. (For more information, see the statement on employment interviewers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Establishing and maintaining a firm’s pay system is the principal job of the compensation manager. Assisted by staff specialists, com­ pensation managers devise ways to ensure fair and equitable pay rates. They may conduct surveys to see how their rates compare with others and to see that the firm’s pay scale com­ plies with laws and regulations. Employee benefits managers handle the company’s employee benefits program, nota­ bly its health insurance and pension plans. Ex­ pertise in designing and administering benefits programs continues to gain in importance as pension and benefit plans increase in number  and complexity. Familiarity with health ben­ efits is a top priority at present, as more and more firms search for ways to respond to the pressures posed by the rising cost of health insurance for employees and retirees. In addition to health insurance and pension coverage, many firms offer their employees dental insurance, accidental death and dis­ ability insurance, auto insurance, homeown­ ers’ insurance, stock options, profit sharing, and thrift/savings plans. Benefits analysts and benefits administrators handle these programs. Training or, more broadly, human resource development is supervised by education and training managers. Increasingly, management recognizes that training offers a way of de­ veloping skills, enhancing productivity, and building loyalty to the firm. Training is widely accepted as a method of improving employee morale, but this is only one of the reasons for its growing importance. Other factors include the complexity of the work environment, the rapid pace of organizational and technological change, and the growing number of jobs in fields where new knowledge is constantly gen­ erated. In addition, advances in learning theory have provided insights into how adults learn, and how training can be organized to be most effective for adults. Training specialists are responsible for plan­ ning, organizing, and directing a wide range of training activities. Trainers conduct orien­ tation sessions and arrange on-the-job training for new employees. They help rank-and-file workers maintain and improve their job skills and possibly prepare for jobs requiring greater skill. They help supervisors improve their in­ terpersonal skills and deal effectively with em­ ployees. To help employees prepare for future responsibilities, they may set up individualized training plans to strengthen existing skills or to teach new skills. Training specialists in some companies set up programs designed to develop executive potential among employees in lower echelon positions. Planning and program development is an important part of the training specialist’s job. In order to identify and assess training needs within the firm, trainers may confer with man­ agers and supervisors or conduct surveys. They also periodically evaluate training effective­ ness. Depending on the size, goals, and nature of the organization, there may be considerable differences in trainers’ responsibilities and in the methods they use. Training methods in­ clude on-the-job training; “vestibule” schools, in which shop conditions are duplicated for trainees prior to putting them on the shop floor; apprenticeship training; classroom training; programmed instruction, which may involve interactive videos, videodiscs, and other com­ puter-aided instructional technologies; simu­ lators; conferences; and workshops. Employee welfare managers are responsible for a wide array of programs covering occu­ pational safety and health standards and prac­ tices; health promotion and physical fitness, medical examinations, and minor health treat­ ment, such as first aid; plant security; publi­  Managerial and Management-Related Occupations/39  cations; food service and recreation activities; van-pooling; employee suggestion systems; child care; and counseling services—an area of rapidly growing importance. Counseling may help employees deal with emotional disorders, alcoholism, or marital, family, consumer, le­ gal, and financial problems. Career counseling and second career counseling for employees approaching retirement age may also be pro­ vided. The director of industrial relations formu­ lates labor policy, oversees industrial labor re­ lations, and negotiates agreements resulting from disputes involving the firm. The increased attention to employee benefits and working conditions and proliferation of government la­ bor regulations have greatly expanded the scope of labor relations activities—which formerly concerned only the employees and managers of the firm. The duties of the director of in­ dustrial relations include advising and collab­ orating with the director of personnel relations and other managers and members of their staff, since all aspects of personnel policy—such as wages, benefits, pensions, and work prac­ tices—may be involved in drawing up a new or revised contract. Industrial labor relations programs are im­ plemented by labor relations managers and their staff. When a collective bargaining agreement is up for negotiation, labor relations specialists provide background information on behalf of management’s position, which requires famil­ iarity with economic and wage data as well as extensive knowledge of labor law and collec­ tive bargaining trends. The labor relations staff interprets and administers the contract with re­ spect to grievances, wages and salaries, em­ ployee welfare, health care, pensions, union and management practices, and other contrac­ tual stipulations. Dispute resolution—that is, attaining tacit or contractual agreements—has become in­ creasingly important as disputants attempt to avoid costly litigation, strikes, or other dis­ ruptions. Dispute resolution has also become more complex, involving employees, manage­ ment, unions, other firms, and government agencies. Specialists involved in dispute res­ olution must be highly knowledgeable and ex­ perienced, and often report to the director of industrial relations. Conciliators, or mediators, advise and counsel labor and management to prevent and, when necessary, resolve disputes over labor agreements or other labor relations issues. Arbitrators, sometimes known as um­ pires or referees, decide disputes and bind both labor and management to specific terms and conditions of labor contracts. Working Conditions Personnel work is office work. Generally, the work setting is clean, pleasant, comfortable, and free from excessive noise. Personnel and training specialists and managers usually work a standard 35- to 40-hour workweek. Labor relations specialists and managers, however, may work longer hours—particularly when contract agreements are being prepared and negotiated.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Although most personnel, training, and la­ bor relations specialists and managers work in the office, some travel extensively. For ex­ ample, recruiters regularly attend professional meetings and visit college campuses to inter­ view prospective employees. Employment Personnel, training, and labor relations spe­ cialists and managers held about 381,000 jobs in 1986. They were employed in virtually every industry. Specialists accounted for 230,000 po­ sitions; the rest were managers. About 10,000— mostly specialists—were self-employed. Over 85 percent of salaried jobs were in the private sector. Labor unions—the largest em­ ployer—accounted for 11 percent of all salar­ ied jobs. Other important employers include management, consulting, and public relations firms, educational institutions, hospitals, banks, personnel supply agencies, and department stores. Approximately 15 percent of salaried per­ sonnel, training, and labor relations specialists and managers worked for Federal, State, and local governments in 1986. They handled re­ cruitment, interviewing, job classification, training, salary administration, employee re­ lations, mediation, and related matters for the Nation’s 17 million public employees: Police officers, firefighters, sanitation workers, teach­ ers, hospital workers, and many others. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Because of the diversity of duties and level of responsibility, the educational backgrounds of personnel, training, and labor relations spe­ cialists and managers vary considerably. In fill­ ing entry level jobs, firms generally seek col­ lege graduates. Some employers prefer applicants who have majored in personnel administration or industrial and labor relations, while others look for college graduates with a technical or business background. Still others feel that a well-rounded liberal arts education is best. Many colleges and universities have pro­ grams leading to a degree in personnel and labor relations. Others offer degree programs in personnel administration or personnel man­ agement. Some offer degrees or certificates in training and development or compensation and benefits. Depending on the school, preparation for a career in human resource management may be obtained in departments of business administration, education, instructional tech­ nology, organizational development, human services, communication, or public adminis­ tration. Because an interdisciplinary background is appropriate for work in this area, a combination of courses in the social sciences, business, and behavioral sciences is useful. In some indus­ tries, a background in engineering or science is recommended. Prospective personnel spe­ cialists should take courses in principles of management, organization dynamics, and hu­ man relations. Other relevant courses include business administration, public administration,  Personnel specialist explaining company procedures to a new employee. psychology, sociology, political science, eco­ nomics, and statistics. Courses in labor law, collective bargaining, labor economics, labor history, and industrial psychology provide a valuable background for the prospective labor relations specialist. Graduate study in industrial or labor rela­ tions is becoming increasingly important for those seeking work in labor relations. A law degree seldom is required for entry level jobs, but many people responsible for contract ne­ gotiations are lawyers, and a combination of industrial relations courses and law is highly desirable. A degree in dispute resolution pro­ vides an excellent background for mediators, arbitrators, and related personnel. For many specialized jobs in this field, pre­ vious experience is an asset; for managerial positions, it is essential. Personnel adminis­ tration and human resource development re­ quire the ability to work with individuals as well as having a commitment to organizational goals. They also demand skills that may be developed in many ways—computer usage, selling, teaching, supervising, and volunteer­ ing, among others. In fact, the majority of personnel and labor relations jobs are filled by people previously employed in another occu­ pation. This field offers clerical workers op­ portunities for advancement to professional po­ sitions. However, more responsible positions may be filled by experienced individuals from other fields, including business, government, education, social services administration, and the military. Personnel, training, and labor relations spe­ cialists and managers should speak and write effectively and be able to work with or super­ vise people of all levels of education and ex­ perience as part of a team. They must be patient to cope with conflicting points of view and emotionally stable to deal with the unexpected and the unusual. The ability to function under pressure is essential. Integrity, fair-minded-  40/Occupational Outlook Handbook  ness, and a persuasive, congenial personality are important qualities. Entry level workers usually enter formal or on-the-job training programs, where they learn how to classify jobs, interview applicants, or administer employee benefits. Next, they are assigned to specific areas in the personnel de­ partment to gain experience. Later, they may advance to a managerial position, overseeing a major element of the personnel program— compensation or training, for example. Some workers leave for a more responsible job in another organization. Exceptional em­ ployees may be promoted to director of per­ sonnel or industrial relations, which can even­ tually lead to a top managerial or executive position. Others may join a consulting firm or open their own business. A Ph.D. is an asset for teaching, writing, or consulting work.  Corporate recognition of the importance of human resource development will spur de­ mand, however. Much greater investment in job-specific, employer-sponsored training and retraining is anticipated in the years ahead— a response to the increasing complexity of training programs, productivity concerns, the aging of the work force, and technological ad­ vances that can suddenly leave large numbers of employees with obsolete skills. Although the number of jobs in this field is projected to increase through the year 2000, most job openings will result from replacement needs. The job market is likely to remain com­ petitive in view of the abundant supply of col­ lege graduates and experienced workers with suitable qualifications.  Earnings The median annual salary of personnel, train­ Job Outlook ing, and labor relations specialists and man­ The number of personnel, training, and labor agers was $27,000 in 1986. The lowest 10 relations specialists and managers is expected percent earned under $14,400, while the high­ to grow about as fast as the average for all est 10 percent earned over $52,000. Median occupations through the year 2000. Most growth earnings of managers were $32,300; for spe­ will occur in the private sector as employers cialists, $25,200. Salaries vary widely and de­ try to provide effective training and employee pend upon the size and location of the firm and relations programs for an expanding work force. the nature of its business. Rapid employment growth is expected in man­ In 1986, according to a comprehensive sur­ agement and consulting as well as personnel vey conducted by Abbott, Langer, and Asso­ supply firms as businesses increasingly con­ ciates, the median annual salaries for selected tract out personnel functions or hire personnel personnel and labor relations occupations were: specialists on a contractual basis to meet the Labor relations managers, $46,800; training increasing cost and complexity of training and and organizational development managers, development programs. Fast growth is also ex­ $39,700; compensation and benefits managers, pected in health care, residential care, and re­ $38,700; safety specialists, $31,900; EEO/aflated industries to provide for a rapidly growing firmative action specialists, $27,300; and ben­ elderly population. Relatively little growth is efits planning analysts, $26,700. anticipated in public personnel administration. In the Federal Government, starting salaries Demand for personnel, training, and labor of personnel, training, and labor relations spe­ relations specialists and managers is governed cialists depended upon education and experi­ by the staffing needs of the firms where they ence. In 1987, persons with a bachelor’s degree work. A rapidly expanding business is likely or 3 years’ general experience in the personnel to hire additional personnel workers—either as field generally started at $14,800 a year. Those permanent employees or consultants—while a with a superior academic record or an addi­ business that is reducing its operations will tional year of specialized experience started at require fewer personnel workers. In any par­ $18,400 a year. Holders of a master’s degree ticular firm, the size and the job duties of the started at $22,500, and those with a doctorate human resources staff are determined by a va­ in a personnel field started at $27,200. There riety of factors, including the firm’s organi­ are no formal entry level requirements for man­ zational philosophy and goals, the labor inten­ agerial positions. Applicants must possess a sity and skill profile of the industry, the pace suitable combination of educational attain­ of technological change, government regula­ ment, experience, and record of accomplish­ tions, collective bargaining agreements, stan­ ment. dards of professional practice, and labor market In the Federal Government, the average an­ conditions. nual salary of personnel, training, and labor Other factors stimulate demand for person­ relations specialists and managers was $31,900 nel, training, and labor relations specialists and in 1986. Managers averaged $49,000, while managers. Legislation setting standards in oc­ specialists averaged $31,200. Generally, man­ cupational safety and health, equal employ­ agers and specialists involved in mediation, ment opportunity, and benefits has substan­ labor management relations, personnel man­ tially increased the amount of recordkeeping, agement, and related activities had substan­ analysis, and report writing in the personnel tially higher salaries than personnel involved area. Data gathering and analytical activities in routine activities such as classification, staff­ will increase as employers continue to review ing, and training. and evaluate their personnel policies and pro­ grams, but that probably will not generate many Related Occupations additional jobs because of offsetting produc­ All personnel, training, and labor relations oc­ tivity gains associated with the automation of cupations are closely related. Other workers personnel and payroll information. with skills and expertise in interpersonal re­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  lations include employment, rehabilitation, and college career planning and placement coun­ selors; lawyers; psychologists; sociologists; and teachers. These occupations are described else­ where in the Handbook. Sources of Additional Information For general information on careers in personnel and industrial relations, send a self-addressed, stamped, legal-sized envelope to: American Society for Personnel Administration, 606 N. Washington St., Alexandria, VA 22314.  Information on accreditation of generalists and specialists in the personnel and human re­ sources field is available from: Executive Director, Personnel Accreditation Insti­ tute, 606 N. Washington St., Alexandria, VA 22314.  For information about careers in employee training and development, contact: American Society for Training and Development, 1630 Duke St., Box 1443, Alexandria, VA 22313.  For information about careers and certifi­ cation in employee compensation, contact: American Compensation Association, 6619 Scotts­ dale Rd.. Scottsdale, AZ 85253.  Information about careers and certification in employee benefits is available from: International Foundation of Employee Benefit Plans, 18700 W. Bluemound Rd., Brookfield, WI 53005.  For information about careers in arbitration and other aspects of dispute resolution, contact: American Arbitration Association, 140 West 51st St., New York, NY 10020.  For information about academic programs in industrial relations, write to: Industrial Relations Research Association, 7226 So­ cial Science Bldg., 1180 Observatory Dr., Madison WI 53706.  Information about personnel careers in the health care industry is available from: American Society for Healthcare Human Resources Administration, 840 North Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, IL 60611.  For information about personnel and labor relations careers in government, contact: International Personnel Management Association, 1617 Duke St., Alexandria, VA 22314.  Property and Real Estate Managers (D.O.T. 186.117-042, -046, -058, and -062; .167-018. -030, -038, -042, -046, -062, and -066; 187.167-190; 189.157; 191.117-030 and -042 through -050).  Nature of the Work Many people own real estate primarily as their home, but, to businesses, real estate is more than simply the roof over one’s head and the ground under one’s feet. Real estate is a valu­ able asset—land and structures, such as office buildings, shopping centers, and apartment complexes—that can produce income and ap­ preciate in value over time if well managed.  Managerial and Management-Related Occupations/41  Real estate can be a source of income when its use is leased to others, but a substantial business expense when it must be leased from others. Property and real estate managers con­ trol income-producing commercial and resi­ dential properties, and manage the communal property and services of condominium and community associations. They also plan and direct the purchase, development, and disposal of real estate for businesses. The majority of property and real estate man­ agers work in the field of property manage­ ment. When owners of apartments, office buildings, retail and industrial properties, or condominiums lack the time or expertise to assume the day-to-day management of their real estate investments, they often hire a prop­ erty manager, or contract for one’s services with a real estate management company. Most property managers handle two or three prop­ erties simultaneously. Property managers act as the owners’ agent and adviser for the prop­ erty. They market vacant space to prospective tenants, through the use of a leasing agent, advertising, or by other means, and establish rental rates in light of prevailing local rates. They negotiate and prepare lease or rental agreements with tenants and collect their rent payments and other fees. Property managers direct the bookkeeping for the property, cred­ iting the owners’ accounts for rent received and dispersing checks for mortgage payments, taxes, insurance premium payments, payroll, and upkeep and maintenance costs. They also direct the preparation of financial statements and periodically report to the owners on the status of the property, occupancy rates, dates of lease expirations, and other matters. Property managers negotiate contracts for janitorial, security, groundskeeping, trash re­ moval, and other services. When contracts are awarded competitively, managers must solicit bids from several contractors and recommend to the owners which bid should be accepted. They monitor the performance of the contrac­ tors, and investigate and resolve complaints from tenants. Managers also purchase all sup­ plies and equipment needed for the property, and arrange for specialists to be brought in to perform any repairs that cannot be handled by the maintenance staff employed at the property. Property managers hire and, when neces­ sary, discharge the maintenance, stationary en­ gineering, and on-site management personnel employed at the property. At smaller proper­ ties, the property manager might employ only a building engineer who maintains the build­ ing’s heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems and performs other routine mainte­ nance and repair tasks. Larger properties re­ quire a sizable maintenance staff supervised by a full-time on-site or resident manager, who works under the direction of the property man­ ager. Although some on-site managers oversee large office buildings or shopping centers, most manage apartments. They train, supervise, and assign duties to the maintenance staff at a prop­ erty. Routinely, on-site managers inspect the grounds, facilities, and equipment, determine  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  what repairs and maintenance are needed, and assign workers to perform them. Occasionally, outside contractors are required, and the on­ site manager may obtain bids for the work and submit them to the property manager. On-site managers schedule routine service of the heat­ ing, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems and insure that the work of the maintenance staff and contract workers is up to standards or contract specifications. They also keep rec­ ords of labor and materials costs for operating the property and submit regular cost reports to the property manager or owners. They also may recruit candidates for vacant maintenance staff positions, interview the job applicants, and rec­ ommend a qualified candidate for employment to the property manager. Dealing with tenants is an important part of the work of on-site managers, particularly apartment managers. Apartment managers handle tenants’ requests for service or repairs and try to resolve complaints concerning other tenants or visitors. They show apartments available for rent to prospective tenants and explain the occupancy terms. They also are responsible for enforcing rules and lease re­ strictions, such as limitations on tenants’ own­ ership of pets or use of parking areas. Property and on-site managers employed by condominium and homeowner associations must be particularly adept at dealing with peo­ ple. Instead of tenants, they must deal on a daily basis with homeowners—members of the community association that employs the man­ ager. Hired by the volunteer board of directors of the association, the community association manager administers its daily affairs and over­ sees the maintenance of property and facilities that the homeowners own and use jointly through the association. Many community as­ sociations are small and do not require profes­ sional management, but managers of the larger condominiums have many of the same re­ sponsibilities as the managers of large apart­ ment complexes. Some homeowner associa­ tions encompass thousands of homes, and in addition to administering the associations’ fi­ nancial records, their managers may be re­ sponsible for the operation of community pools, golf courses, community centers, and the maintenance of landscaping, parking areas, and streets. Businesses employ real estate managers to locate, acquire, and develop real estate needed for their operations, and dispose of property no longer suited to their uses. Real estate man­ agers employed by corporations that operate chains of restaurants, apparel and grocery stores, and gasoline service stations locate sites well suited for these types of establishments, and arrange to purchase or lease the property from the owners. They select a site based on their assessment of factors such as property values, zoning, likely patterns of population growth, and traffic volume and patterns. They negotiate contracts for the purchase or lease of the prop­ erty, bargaining to secure the most beneficial terms for their company. Real estate managers periodically review their company’s real estate holdings, identifying properties which have be­  come less desirable locations for their type of business due to community development or changes in the composition of the population. They negotiate the sale or termination of the lease of properties selected for disposal. Real estate managers who work for land de­ velopment companies acquire land and plan the construction of shopping centers, houses and apartments, office buildings, or industrial parks. They negotiate with representatives of local government, other businesses, commu­ nity and public interest groups, and public util­ ities to eliminate obstacles to the development of the land and gain support for the planned project. It sometimes takes managers years to win approval for a project, and in the process they may modify the plans for the project many times. Once they are free to proceed with a project, managers negotiate short-term loans to finance the construction of the project, and later negotiate long-term permanent mortgage loans. They then contract with architectural firms to draw up detailed plans, and with con­ struction companies to build the project. Real estate managers also work as land and permit agents for companies engaged in mining and quarrying, oil exploration, and construct­ ing pipe and utility lines. They search public records to determine the owners of land which their companies have identified as being likely to contain oil, coal, or other mineral deposits, or which lie in the path of the planned pipe or utility line. They contact the landowners and negotiate the purchase of the land, or agree­ ments such as leases, options, rights-of-way, or royalty contracts that permit use of the land. They also may settle claims by landowners for damage resulting from the activities of their company. Working Conditions Property and real estate managers work in clean, well-lighted offices, but they usually spend a major portion of their time away from their desks. Property managers frequently visit the properties that they oversee, sometimes nearly on a daily basis when contractors are perform­ ing important repair or renovation work. On­ site apartment managers may spend a substan­ tial portion of their workday away from their office visiting the building engineer in the boiler room, checking up on the janitorial and main­ tenance staff, or investigating a problem re­ ported by a tenant. Many real estate managers spend the majority of their time away from home, traveling to company real estate hold­ ings or searching for properties that might be acquired. Property and real estate managers often must attend meetings in the evening with property owners, community association boards of di­ rectors, or civic groups with an interest in prop­ erty planned for development. Many apartment managers are required to live in the apartments where they work so that they are available to handle any emergency that occurs while they are normally off duty. They usually receive compensatory time off, however, for working at night or on weekends. Many apartment man­ agers receive time off during the week so that  42/Occupational Outlook Handbook  they are available on weekends to show apart­ ments to prospective tenants.  ministrative and communication abilities for manager jobs. On-site managers usually begin at a smaller Employment apartment complex, condominium, or com­ Property and real estate managers held about munity association, or as an assistant manager 128,000 jobs in 1986. Most worked for real at a large property or association. As they ac­ estate operators and lessors or for property quire experience working under the direction management firms. Others worked for real es­ of a property manager, they may advance by tate development companies, government transferring to positions with greater respon­ agencies that manage public buildings, cor­ sibility at larger properties. Persons who excel porations with extensive holdings of retail as on-site managers often transfer to assistant properties, real estate investors, and mining property manager positions where they can ac­ and oil companies. Many were self-employed quire experience handling a broader range of developers, apartment owner-managers, or property management responsibilities. owners of property management or full-service Although persons often advance to assistant , real estate brokerage firms that manage as well property manager positions on the strength of as sell real estate for clients. on-site management experience, employers are increasingly hiring inexperienced college grad­ Training, Other Qualifications, uates with bachelor’s or master’s degrees in and Advancement business administration, finance, or real estate Most employers prefer to hire college graduates for these jobs. Assistants work closely with a for property and real estate management po­ property manager and acquire experience per­ sitions. Degrees in business administration, fi­ forming a variety of management tasks, such nance, real estate, public administration, or as preparing financial statements, analyzing in­ related fields are preferred, but persons with surance coverage and risk options, marketing degrees in the liberal arts are often accepted. the property to prospective tenants, and col­ Good oral and written communication skills, lecting overdue rent payments. In time, many and an ability to deal tactfully with people are assistants advance to property manager posi­ essential. Most persons enter property and real tions. estate management as on-site apartment or The responsibilities and compensation of community association managers, or as assis­ property managers increase as they manage tants to property managers. Previous employ­ larger properties. Most property managers are ment as a real estate agent is an asset to apart­ responsible for two or three properties at a time, ment managers because it provides experience and as their careers advance they are gradually useful in showing apartments and dealing with entrusted with properties that are larger or whose people, as well as an understanding that an management is more complex. Many special­ attractive, well-maintained property can com­ ize in the management of one type of property, mand higher rental rates and result in less turn­ such as apartments, office buildings, condo­ over among tenants. In the past, many persons miniums and homeowner associations, or retail with backgrounds in stationary engineering properties. Managers who excel at marketing and building maintenance have advanced to properties to tenants may specialize in man­ apartment manager positions on the strength aging new properties, while those who are par­ of their knowledge of building mechanical sys­ ticularly knowledgeable about buildings and tems, but this is becoming uncommon as em­ their mechanical systems might specialize in ployers are placing greater emphasis on ad­ the management or older properties that require  College graduates are preferred for property management jobs.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  renovation or more frequent repairs. Some ex­ perienced property and real estate managers open their own property management or real estate firms. Persons most commonly enter real estate manager jobs by transferring from positions as property managers or real estate brokers. Real estate managers must be good negotiators, ad­ ept at persuading and handling people, and good at analyzing data to assess the fair value of property or its development potential. Re­ sourcefulness and creativity in arranging fi­ nancing are essential for managers who spec­ ialize in land development. Real estate managers may be required to hold a real estate broker’s license. Many property and real estate managers at­ tend short-term formal training programs con­ ducted by various professional and trade as­ sociations active in the real estate field. Employers send many managers to these pro­ grams to improve their management skills and expand their knowledge of specialized sub­ jects, such as the operation and maintenance of building mechanical systems, insurance and risk management, business and real estate law, and accounting and financial concepts. Many managers also participate in these pro­ grams to prepare themselves to advance to po­ sitions of greater responsibility in property and real estate management. In many cases, com­ pletion of these programs, together with meet­ ing job experience standards and achieving a satisfactory score on a written examination, leads to certification, or the formal award of a professional designation, by the sponsoring as­ sociation. Managers of public housing subsidized by the Federal Government are required to be cer­ tified, but many property and real estate man­ agers voluntarily earn a formal professional designation because it represents formal rec­ ognition of their achievements and status in the occupation. A number of organizations have such programs. The Institute of Real Estate Management awards the designations Ac­ credited Resident Manager and Certified Prop­ erty Manager, while the National Association of Home Builders awards the designation Reg­ istered Apartment Manager. The National Apartment Association confers the designa­ tions Certified Apartment Manager and Cer­ tified Apartment Property Supervisor. The Community Associations Institute bestows the designation Professional Community Associ­ ation Manager, while the Building Owners and Managers Institute International awards the designation Real Property Administrator. The International Association of Corporate Real Estate Executives confers the designations As­ sociate of Corporate Real Estate and Master of Corporate Real Estate. Job Outlook Employment of property and real estate man­ agers is projected to increase much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000. However, the majority of job openings are expected to occur as experienced managers transfer to other occupations or leave the labor  Managerial and Management-Related Occupations/43  force. Opportunities are expected to be best for persons with college degrees in business administration and related fields. The projected pattern of employment growth in the economy favors growth in the demand for office buildings, retail establishments, and apartments, and consequently growth in re­ quirements for property and real estate man­ agers. A large proportion of the new jobs cre­ ated over the 1986-2000 period are expected to be in wholesale and retail trade, finance, insurance, real estate, and the various service industries. Since establishments in these in­ dustries are the primary tenants of commercial properties, rapid growth of these industries is expected to require growth in the Nation’s sup­ ply of office and retail space. In addition, the expected rapid employment growth in retail trade should require growing numbers of real estate managers to acquire and develop prop­ erties for expanding restaurant, grocery, ap­ parel, and specialized merchandise chains. Growth in the Nation’s stock of apartments and houses should also require growing num­ bers of property and real estate managers. Al­ though the rate of new household formation is expected to decline somewhat over the 1986­ 2000 period as fewer young workers enter the labor force, the high cost of purchasing a home is expected to force a growing proportion of new households to delay leaving rental hous­ ing. In addition, developments of new houses are increasingly being organized with com­ munity or homeowner associations that provide community services and oversee jointly owned common areas, requiring professional man­ agement. A growing proportion of commercial and multiunit residential property owners are ex­ pected to entrust the management of their prop­ erties to a professional manager. Recent changes to income tax laws have greatly limited the tax benefits that property owners and investors can derive from unprofitable apartments and com­ mercial properties. To help properties become more profitable, more owners are expected to place their investments in the hands of property and real estate managers. Earnings Earnings of property and real estate managers vary greatly according to the level of their re­ sponsibility. A survey conducted by Huntress Real Estate Executive Search Inc. found that the middle third of the on-site apartment man­ agers surveyed had annual salaries averaging $24,800 in 1986, while the lowest third av­ eraged $16,600 a year and the highest third, $34,100 annually. Property managers had considerably higher earnings than on-site managers, according to the same survey. The middle third of property managers responsible for multiple apartment properties averaged $48,200 a year in 1986, while the lowest third averaged $39,800 and the highest third, $56,000 annually. Of prop­ erty managers responsible for shopping cen­ ters, the middle third earned $53,500, the low­ est third $44,200, and the highest third $60,500 annually. Of those who managed office build­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ings, the middle third earned $62,600, the low­ est third $44,100, and the highest third $70,200 annually. Earnings of corporate real estate managers were generally comparable to those of property managers, according to the same survey. Among those employed by fast-food and res­ taurant chains, the middle third of the lease negotiators and site selection representatives averaged $49,400 annually in 1986, while the lowest third averaged $40,400 and the highest third, $57,000 annually. The middle third of real estate directors earned $61,800 a year, while the lowest third earned $46,000 and the highest third, $95,000 annually. Among real estate managers employed by retail apparel chains, the middle third of the lease negotiators and site selection representatives averaged $53,000 a year, the lowest third $41,000, and the highest third $64,600. The middle third of real estate directors for retail apparel chains had an average annual salary of $59,300, while the lowest third earned $49,200 and the highest third, $74,000 annually. Community association managers received compensation comparable to on-site and prop­ erty managers employed by other types of properties. Property and real estate managers usually receive medical and health insurance paid by their employer. Many resident apart­ ment managers receive the use of an apartment as part of their compensation package. Property and real estate managers often are given the use of a company automobile, and managers employed in land development often receive a small percentage of ownership in projects that they develop. Related Occupations Property and real estate managers plan, or­ ganize, staff, and control the real estate op­ erations of businesses. Other workers who per­ form these functions in other fields include restaurant and food service managers, hotel and resort managers and assistants, health services managers, education administrators, and city managers. Sources of Additional Information General information about careers in property and real estate management and programs lead­ ing to the award of a professional designation in the field is available from: Apartment Owners and Managers Association of America, 65 Cherry Plaza, Watertown, CT 06795­ 0238. Building Owners and Managers Institute Interna­ tional, 1521 Ritchie Hwy., Arnold, MD 21012. Community Associations Institute, Suite 7, 1423 Po­ whatan St., Alexandria, VA 22314. Institute of Real Estate Management, 430 N. Mich­ igan Ave., Chicago IL 60611. International Association of Corporate Real Estate Executives, Suite 8, 471 Spencer Dr. South, West Palm Beach, FL 33409. National Apartment Association, Suite 804, 1101 14th St. NW., Washington, DC 20005. National Association of Home Builders, 15th & M Sts. NW., Washington, DC 20005.  Purchasing Agents and Managers (D.O.T. 162.117-018; .157-030, -034, and -038; .167 -022 and -030; 163.117-010; 169.167-054; 184.117-078; and 185.167-034)  Nature of the Work Purchasing agents and managers, often called industrial buyers, purchase the goods, mate­ rials, supplies, and services that are required by their organization. They insure that products are of suitable quality and sufficient quantity, secured at the right price, and available when needed. This is important because the flow of work—or even the entire production process— could be slowed or halted if the right materials, supplies, or equipment were not on hand when needed. Agents in industry and government buy raw materials, machinery, parts and components, furniture, business machines, vehicles, and of­ fice supplies, while media buyers purchase ad­ vertising time and space. Purchasing agents buy supplies when the stock on hand reaches a predetermined reorder point, when a department in the organization requisitions items it needs, or when market conditions are especially favorable. Purchas­ ing agents use computers to obtain up-to-date product and price listings, to keep track of inventory levels, to process routine orders, and to determine when to make purchases. Com­ puters are also used to maintain bidders’ lists, to record the history of vendor performance, and to issue purchase orders. The trend toward sole-source contracting, the use of a single sup­ plier for a wide variety of products, reduces the number of vendors an agent deals with. Increasingly, the agent’s main job will be to select the supplier who offers the best com­ bination of quality, service, and price. Solesource contracting does not prevail in the Fed­ eral Government, however, which in fact is moving in the opposite direction—towards en­ couraging greater competition among sup­ pliers. Purchasing agents and buyers use a variety of means to choose suppliers. They compare listings in catalogs, directories, and trade jour­ nals. They meet with salespersons to discuss items to be purchased, examine samples, and attend demonstrations of products and equip­ ment. Frequently, agents invite suppliers to bid on large orders and then select the lowest bidder from among those who meet purchasing and delivery date requirements. Sometimes, purchasing agents negotiate for custom-made products or specialized services. Increasingly, they enter into long-term con­ tracts with suppliers to guarantee future sup­ plies of goods at the negotiated price. In order to make this long-term commitment, purchas­ ing managers must carefully evaluate suppliers and take into account the future needs of the organization. Since purchasing agents and managers must thoroughly understand the characteristics and functions of the items they  44/Occupational Outlook Handbook  General Services Administration and the Vet­ erans Administration. Many purchasing agents work in organiza­ tions that have fewer than five employees in the purchasing department. Large business firms and government agencies, however, have much larger purchasing departments; some employ as many as 100 specialized purchasing agents. TVaining, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Although there are no universal educational requirements for entry level jobs, most large organizations require a college degree and pre­ fer applicants with a master’s degree in busi­ l;/ i‘X ness administration or management. Educational requirements vary by industry. The Federal Government seeks applicants with a college degree or 3 years of work experience. Companies that manufacture machinery or chemicals may prefer applicants with a tech­ V nical background, such as engineering or sci­ ence. Other companies hire business admin­ istration majors as trainees. Courses in Selecting suppliers who provide quality products at good prices is important. purchasing, accounting, economics, and sta­ purchase, they often must have considerable for arranging custodial, waste disposal, and tistics are helpful. Regardless of the field, fa­ technical knowledge. other contractual services. miliarity with computers is desirable. Many Successful purchasing agents and managers The mission of the organization also affects colleges and vocational-technical institutes of­ develop good business relationships with sup­ job duties. The purchasing department for a fer courses or degrees in purchasing. pliers in order to attain cost savings, favorable manufacturing firm will focus on the produc­ Many small companies require a bachelor’s payment terms, quick delivery on emergency tion process, for example, and act in such a degree; some, however, hire graduates of as­ orders, or help in obtaining scarce materials. manner as to maximize profits. In sharp con­ sociate degree and vocational education pro­ To negotiate these and other conditions, pur­ trast, a contract specialist for a government grams in purchasing for entry level jobs. They chasing agents and managers must possess good social services agency may contract primarily also may promote clerks or technicians in the communications skills, be able to work effec­ for support services under a predetermined purchasing department. Regardless of the size tively with others, and take high-pressure sit­ budget. of an organization, however, a college degree uations in stride. They also work closely with Purchasing policy influences day-to-day job is almost essential for advancement to man­ employees in their own organization. For ex­ duties, too. Some firms use centralized or joint agement positions. ample, they may discuss design of custom- purchasing arrangements, for example, while Whatever their educational background, be­ made products with company engineers, de­ others contract out the purchasing function to ginning purchasing agents and managers are fects in purchased goods with quality control a management consultant firm, referred to as enrolled in company training programs and technicians, or shipment problems with work­ a systems contractor. spend considerable time learning about com­ ers in the shipping department. pany operations and purchasing procedures. The nature of the work may differ according They work with experienced buyers to leant Working Conditions to the size and mission of the organization as Purchasing agents and managers generally work about commodities, prices, suppliers, and ne­ well as its purchasing policy. In large organ­ gotiating techniques. They may be assigned to izations, a distinction often is drawn between a standard 35- to 40-hour week. Some overtime production planning to learn about the pur­ may be necessary if, for example, the supply the work of a purchasing agent and that of a of critical materials runs short. Although they chasing system, inventory records, and storage purchasing manager. Purchasing agents and facilities. spend most of their time in the office, some buyers typically focus on routine purchasing Junior agents purchase standard and catalog agents and managers travel to suppliers, sem­ tasks, often specializing in a commodity or items. As they gain knowledge and experience, inars, or trade shows. group of related commodities—for example, they may be promoted to purchasing agent, steel, lumber, cotton, or petroleum products. then to senior purchasing agent. Senior agents Purchasing managers usually perform more Employment purchase highly complex, usually custom-made complex purchasing tasks, and may supervise Purchasing agents and managers held about items. a group of purchasing agents handling a num­ 418,000 jobs in 1986. More than a quarter of Purchasing agents must be able to analyze ber of related goods and services. all jobs were located in manufacturing, pri­ the technical data in suppliers’ proposals, make The Federal Government distinguishes be­ marily in the machinery and transportation buying decisions, and spend large amounts of tween purchasing agents and contract special­ equipment industries. Construction compa­ money responsibly. The job requires the ability ists. Currently, purchasing agents use simpli­ nies, hospitals, schools, and advertising firms to work independently and a good memory for fied purchasing methods to procure items under also are large employers of purchasing agents. details. In addition, a purchasing agent must be $25,000, for example, whereas contract spe­ Government agencies, primarily in the Federal able to get along well with people to balance cialists use sealed bidding and negotiated sector, provided over one-tenth of all jobs. the needs of personnel in the organization with agreements for more expensive contracts. Because of its complex and extensive pur­ budgetary constraints and to negotiate with sup­ In smaller organizations, the purchasing agent chasing requirements, the Department of De­ pliers. An agent may work with lawyers, con­ may be the only employee with purchasing fense employs the greatest number of pur­ tract administrators, and engineers and scien­ responsibilities. Usually, however, agents buy chasing agents and managers in the Federal tists when involved in complex procurements. a narrower range of goods, such as all raw Government. Other important Federal em­ A qualified purchasing agent may become materials or all office supplies, furniture, and ployers are the Departments of Agriculture, an assistant purchasing manager in charge of business machines. Many have responsibility Interior, and Transportation, as well as the a group of purchasing agents before advancing  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Managerial and Management-Related Occupations/45  to purchasing manager, director or vice pres­ ident of purchasing, or director or vice presi­ dent of materials management. At the top lev­ els, duties may overlap into other management functions such as production, planning, and marketing. This occupation is becoming increasingly professionalized and specialized. Continuing education is essential for advancement. Most agents participate in seminars offered by professional societies and take college courses in purchasing. Certification enhances one’s chances for top management positions. In private industry, the recognized mark of experience and professional competence is the designation Certified Purchasing Manager. It is conferred by the National Association of Purchasing Management, Inc., upon candi•dates who pass four examinations and meet educational and experience requirements. In State and local government, the indications of professional competence are the designations Professional Public Buyer (PPB) and Certified Public Purchasing Officer (CPPO), conferred by the National Institute of Governmental Pur­ chasing, Inc. The PPB is earned by passing a two-part written examination and meeting ed­ ucational and experience requirements. A can­ didate must meet more stringent basic require­ ments and pass a three-part written exam and an interview assessment to earn the CPPO. As more and more purchasing is conducted on a long-term basis, both private and public purchasing agents are specializing in contrac­ tual aspects of purchasing. The National Con­ tract Management Association confers the des­ ignations Certified Associate Contract Manager or Certified Professional Contract Manager upon those who meet educational and experience requirements and pass a written examination. These designations primarily apply to contract managers in the Federal Government and its suppliers.  of 2-year programs in purchasing should con­ tinue to find good opportunities, especially in small firms.  Job Outlook Employment of purchasing agents and man­ agers is expected to increase more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Computerization of purchasing coupled with an increased reliance on a small number of suppliers should boost the productivity of purchasing personnel. These changing busi­ ness practices will act to restrict future occu­ pational growth. However, new opportunities should arise as hospitals, schools, State and local governments, and other service-produc­ ing organizations increasingly recognize the importance of professional purchasers in re­ ducing costs. As in the past, however, most job openings will arise from the need to replace workers who leave their jobs. Many purchasing agents and managers transfer to other occupations, often sales or managerial positions. Others retire or leave the labor force for other reasons. Persons who have a master’s degree in busi­ ness administration and a bachelor’s degree in purchasing, or in engineering, science, or busi­ ness administration with courses in purchasing, should have the best opportunities. Graduates  Federal Acquisition Institute (VF), General Services Administration, 18th and F Sts. NW., Washington, DC 20405.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Earnings Median annual earnings for purchasing agents were slightly over $23,200 in 1986. The middle 50 percent earned between $17,000 and $31,700. The bottom 10 percent earned less than $13,400, and the top 10 percent earned more than $42,400. The middle 50 percent of purchasing managers earned between $24,400 and $43,600 in 1986. The average starting salary for purchasing agents in the private sector was $21,200 a year in 1986. Experienced workers earned between $26,400 and $33,600, and senior agents av­ eraged $41,300. In the Federal Government, beginning pur­ chasing agents who had college degrees earned $14,800 or $18,400 in 1987, depending on scholastic achievement and experience. Con­ tract specialists in the Federal Government av­ eraged $30,500 in 1986. Related Occupations Other workers who negotiate and contract to purchase equipment, supplies, or other mer­ chandise include retail and wholesale buyers, procurement services managers, and traffic managers. Sources of Additional Information Further information about careers in purchas­ ing and certification is available from: National Association of Purchasing Management, Inc., P.O. Box 418, Oradell, NJ 07649. National Institute of Governmental Purchasing, Inc., 115 Hillwood Ave., Falls Church, VA 22046. National Contract Management Association, 6728 Old McLean Village Dr., McLean, VA 22101.  For information concerning career oppor­ tunities in the Federal Government, contact:  Restaurant and Food Service Managers (D.O.T. 185.137; 187.161-010 and .167-026, -106, and -126; 319.137-014 and -018)  Nature of the Work Eating and drinking places range from restau­ rants that serve fast food to those that empha­ size elegant dining, and from school cafeterias to hospital food services. The cuisine offered, its price, and the setting in which it is consumed vary greatly, but the managers of these diverse establishments have many common responsi­ bilities. Efficient and profitable operation of restaurants and institutional food service fa­ cilities requires that managers and assistant managers select and appropriately price inter­ esting menu items, efficiently use food and  other supplies, achieve consistent quality in food preparation and service, recruit and train adequate numbers of workers, and painstak­ ingly attend to the various administrative as­ pects of the business. In most restaurants and institutional food service facilities, the manager is assisted by one or more assistant managers, depending on the size and business hours of the establish­ ment. In large establishments, as well as many others that offer fine dining, the management team consists of a general manager, one or more assistant managers, and an executive chef. The executive chef is responsible for the op­ eration of the kitchen, while the assistant man­ agers oversee service in the dining room and other areas of the operation; In some smaller restaurants, the executive chef may also be the general manager, and sometimes an owner. (For additional information on executive chefs, see the Handbook statement on chefs, cooks, and other kitchen workers.) In fast-food res­ taurants and other food service facilities that operate long hours, 7 days a week, the manager is aided by several assistant managers, each of whom supervises a shift of workers. Many restaurants change their menu only rarely, but other eating establishments change it frequently. Institutional food service facili­ ties and some restaurants offer a new menu every day .(Managers or executive chefs select menu items, taking into account the likely number of customers, the past popularity of various dishes, and considerations such as food left over from prior meals that should not be wasted, the need for variety on the menu, and the availability of foods due to seasonal and other factors. They analyze the recipes of the dishes to determine food, labor, and overhead costs and assign prices to the menu items. Menus must be developed far enough in advance to receive needed supplies in time. Ordering supplies and dealing with suppliers are important aspects of the work of restaurant and food service managers. On a daily basis, managers estimate food consumption, place or­ ders with suppliers, and schedule the delivery of fresh food and beverages. They receive and check the content of deliveries, evaluating the quality of meats, poultry, fish, fruits, vege­ tables, and baked goods. Managers meet or talk with sales representatives of restaurant suppliers to place orders to replenish stocks of tableware, linens, paper, cleaning supplies, cooking utensils, and furniture and fixtures. They also arrange for equipment repairs. Managers interview, hire, and, when nec­ essary, discharge workers. They familiarize newly hired workers with the establishment’s policies and practices and oversee their train­ ing. Managers schedule the work hours of em­ ployees, insuring that there are adequate num­ bers of workers present during busy periods, but not too many during slow periods, f Restaurant and food service managers su­ pervise the preparation of food in the kitchen and the serving of meals in the dining room. They oversee food preparation and cooking, checking the quality of the food and the sizes of portions to insure that dishes are prepared  46/Occupational Outlook Handbook  Many restaurant managers work nights and weekends. and garnished correctly and in a timely manner. They also investigate and resolve customers’ complaints about food quality or service. Dur­ ing busy periods, managers may roll up their sleeves and help with the cooking, clearing of tables, or other tasks. They direct the cleaning of the kitchen and dining areas and the washing of tableware, kitchen utensils, and equipment to maintain company and government sanita­ tion standards. They monitor workers and ob­ serve patrons on a continual basis to insure compliance with health and safety standards and local liquor regulations. Managers have a variety of administrative responsibilities. In larger establishments, much of this work is delegated to a bookkeeper, but in others, managers must keep accurate records of the hours and wages of employees, prepare the payroll, and do paperwork to comply with licensing laws and reporting requirements of tax, wage and hour, unemployment compen­ sation, and Social Security laws. They also must maintain records of the costs of supplies and equipment purchased and insure that ac­ counts with suppliers are paid on a regular basis. In addition, managers record the num­ ber, type, and cost of items sold to weed out dishes that are unpopular or less profitable. Many managers are able to ease the burden of recordkeeping and paperwork through the use of computers. Managers are among the first to arrive and the last to leave at night. At the conclusion of each day, or sometimes each shift, managers must tally the cash received and charge receipts and balance them against the record of sales. They are responsible for depositing the day’s income at the bank, or securing it in a safe place. Managers are also responsible for lock­ ing up and checking that ovens, grills, and lights are off and alarm systems switched on. Working Conditions Since evenings and weekends are popular din­ ing periods, night and weekend work is com­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  mon. However, many managers of institutional food service facilities work more conventional hours because factory and office cafeterias are often open only on weekdays for breakfast and lunch. Many restaurant and food service man­ agers work 50 hours or more per week. Managers often experience the pressure of simultaneously coordinating a wide range of activities. When problems occur, it is the re­ sponsibility of the manager to resolve them with minimal disruption to customers. The job can be hectic during peak dining hours, and dealing with irate customers or uncooperative employees can be particularly stressful. Employment Restaurant and food service managers held about 470,000 jobs in 1986. Most worked in eating and drinking establishments, but small num­ bers also were employed by educational insti­ tutions, hospitals, nursing and personal care facilities, department stores, and civic, social, and fraternal organizations. Nearly half were self-employed. Jobs are located throughout the country, but are most plentiful in large cities and tourist areas. TYaining, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Many restaurant and food service manager po­ sitions are filled by promoting experienced food and beverage preparation and service workers. Waiters, waitresses, chefs, and fast-food work­ ers who have demonstrated their potential for handling increased responsibility sometimes advance to assistant manager or management trainee jobs when openings occur. Executive chefs need extensive experience working as a chef, and general managers need experience working as an assistant. However, most food service management companies and national or regional restaurant chains also recruit man­ agement trainees from among the graduates of 2-year and 4-year college programs. Food ser­ vice and restaurant chains prefer to hire persons  with degrees in restaurant and institutional food service management, but they often hire grad­ uates with degrees in other fields who have demonstrated interest and aptitude. A bachelor’s degree in restaurant and food service management provides a particularly strong preparation for a career in this occu­ pation. In 1986, more than 130 colleges and universities offered 4-year programs in restau­ rant and hotel management or institutional food service management. For persons who do not want to pursue a 4-year degree, a good alternate background is provided by the more than 200 community and junior colleges, technical in­ stitutes, and other institutions that offer pro­ grams in these fields leading to an associate degree or other formal award below the bac­ calaureate. Both 2-year and 4-year programs provide instruction in subjects such as ac­ counting, business law and management, food planning and preparation, and nutrition. Some programs combine classroom and laboratory study with internships that provide on-the-job experience. In addition, more than 100 edu­ cational institutions offer culinary programs that provide food preparation training which can lead to a career as a cook or chef and provide a foundation for advancement to an executive chef position. Most employers emphasize personal quali­ ties. Restaurant and food service management can be demanding, so good health and stamina are important. Self-discipline, initiative, and leadership ability are essential. Managers must be able to solve problems and concentrate on details. They need good communication skills to deal with customers and suppliers, as well as to motivate and direct their subordinates. A neat and clean appearance is also required since managers are often in close personal contact with the public. Most restaurant chains and food service management companies have rigorous training programs for persons hired for management jobs. Through a combination of classroom and on-the-job training, trainees receive instruction and gain work experience in all aspects of the operations of a restaurant or institutional food service facility—food preparation, sanitation, security, company policies and procedures, personnel management, recordkeeping, and preparation of reports. Usually after 6 months or a year, trainees receive their first permanent assignment as an assistant manager. Willingness to relocate often is essential for advancement to positions with greater respon­ sibility. Managers advance to larger establish­ ments, or regional management positions with restaurant chains. Some managers eventually open their own eating and drinking establish­ ments. Others transfer to hotel management positions, since their restaurant or institutional food service management experience is a good background for food and beverage manager jobs at hotels and resorts. Job Outlook '® Employment of restaurant and food service managers is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations through the year  Managerial and Management-Related Occupations/47  2000. In addition to growth in demand for these managers, the need to replace managers who transfer to other occupations or stop working for a variety of reasons will create many new jobs. Job opportunities are expected to be best for persons with bachelor’s or associate degrees in restaurant and institutional food service management. Employment will increase with growth in the number of eating and drinking establish­ ments. Population growth, rising personal in­ comes, and increased leisure time will continue to produce growth in the number of meals con­ sumed outside the home. Also, continued growth in the number of families in which both spouses work should make dining out a more frequent and affordable convenience. Employment of managers in school and col­ lege cafeterias is expected to increase relatively slowly due to the anticipated slow growth in total student enrollments. However, growth of the number of elderly people is expected to result in rapid growth of food service manager jobs in nursing homes, residential care facili­ ties, and other health care institutions. Employment in eating and drinking estab­ lishments is not very sensitive to changes in economic conditions, so restaurant and food service managers are rarely laid off during hard times. However, competition among restau­ rants is always intense, and many restaurants do not survive.  largest restaurants and food service facilities. Annual bonus or incentive payments of most trainees ranged between $600 and $1,600 a year. Most restaurant and food service managers received free meals, sick leave, health and ac­ cident insurance, and 1 to 3 weeks of paid vacation a year, depending on length of ser­ vice.  Earnings Earnings of restaurant and food service man­ agers vary greatly according to the type and size of establishment. Based on a survey con­ ducted for the National Restaurant Association, their median base salary was estimated to be $22,400 a year in 1986, but managers of the largest restaurants and institutional food ser­ vice facilities often had annual salaries in ex­ cess of $40,000. Managers of fast-food res­ taurants had an estimated median base salary of $15,700 a year; managers of full-menu res­ taurants with table service, $22,000; and man­ agers of commercial and institutional cafete­ rias, $25,400 a year in 1986. Besides a salary, most managers received an annual bonus or incentive payment based on their performance. In 1986, most of these payments ranged be­ tween $3,000 and $7,500 a year. Executive chefs had an estimated median base salary of $22,700 a year in 1986, but those employed in the largest restaurants and insti­ tutional food service facilities often had base salaries over $35,000. Annual bonus or incen­ tive payments of most executive chefs ranged between $1,500 and $7,000 a year. The estimated median base salary of assis­ tant managers was $18,900 a year in 1986, but ranged from $13,100 in fast-food restaurants to over $28,700 in some of the largest restau­ rants and food service facilities. Annual iSonus or incentive payments of most assistant man­ agers ranged between $1,000 and $3,000 a year. Manager trainees had an estimated median base salary of $ 13,100 a year in 1986, but had salaries of more than $20,000 in some of the  Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and Institutional Ed­ ucation, 311 First St. NW., Washington, DC 20001.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Related Occupations Restaurant and food service managers direct the activities of business establishments that provide a service to customers. Other managers in businesses that sell goods or services to the general public include hotel managers and as­ sistants, health services administrators, retail store managers, and bank managers. Sources of Additional Information Information about job opportunities may be obtained from local employers and local offices of the State employment service. Career information about restaurant and food service managers and directories of 2- and 4year college programs in restaurant and food service management are available from: The Educational Foundation of the National Restau­ rant Association, Suite 2620, 20 North Wacker Dr., Chicago, IL 60606.  General information on hospitality careers may be obtained from:  For general career information and a direc­ tory of accredited private trade and technical schools offering programs in restaurant and food service management, write to: National Association of Trade and Technical Schools, P.O. Box 10429, Department BL, Rockville, MD 20850.  Underwriters (D.O.T. 169.167-058)  Nature of the Work Insurance companies assume billions of dollars in risks each year by transferring the risk of loss from their policyholders to themselves. Underwriters appraise and select the risks their company will insure. The underwriter must analyze information in insurance applications, reports from loss control consultants, medical reports, and actuarial studies (reports that de­ scribe the probability of insured loss) and then decide whether to issue a policy. An insurance company may lose business to competitors if the underwriter appraises risks too conserva­ tively, or it may have to pay more claims if the underwriting actions are too liberal. (The term “life underwriter” is increasingly used in referring to insurance sales workers; see the statement on insurance sales workers elsewhere in the Handbook for a discussion of that oc­ cupation.) When deciding that an applicant is an ac­  ceptable risk, an underwriter may outline the terms of the contract, including the amount of the premium. Underwriters frequently corre­ spond with policyholders, agents, and man­ agers about policy cancellations or other re­ quests for information. In addition, they sometimes accompany sales workers on ap­ pointments with prospective customers. Most underwriters specialize in one of three major categories of insurance: Life, property and liability, or health. They further specialize in group or individual policies. The property and liability underwriter specializes by type of risk insured, such as fire, automobile, marine, or workers’ compensation. In cases where cas­ ualty companies insure in a single "package” policy, covering various types of risks, the underwriter must be familiar with different lines of insurance. Some underwriters, called com­ mercial account underwriters, handle business insurance exclusively. They often evaluate a firm's entire operation in appraising its insur­ ance application. An increasing proportion of insurance sales are being made through group contracts. A standard group policy insures all persons in a specified group through a single contract at uniform premium rates, generally for life or health insurance protection. The group under­ writer analyzes the overall composition of the group to be sure that the total risk is not ex­ cessive. Another type of group policy provides members of a group—a labor union, for ex­ ample—with individual policies reflecting their individual needs. These generally are casualty policies, such as those covering automobiles. The casualty underwriter analyzes the appli­ cation of each group member and makes in­ dividual appraisals. Some group underwriters meet with union or employer representatives to discuss the types of policies available to their group. Working Conditions Underwriters have desk jobs that require no unusual physical activity. Their offices gen­ erally are comfortable and pleasant. Although some overtime may be required, the normal workweek is 35-40 hours. Underwriters oc­ casionally may attend meetings away from home for several days. Employment Insurance underwriters held about 99,000 jobs in 1986. Most life insurance underwriters were in home offices in a few large cities, such as New York, San Francisco, Chicago, Dallas, Philadelphia, and Hartford. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement For beginning underwriting jobs, most large insurance companies seek college graduates who have a degree in liberal arts or business admin­ istration, but a major in almost any field pro­ vides a good general background. Some small companies hire persons without a college de­ gree for underwriter trainee positions. In ad­ dition, some high school graduates who begin  ■  48/Occupational Outlook Handbook  V«t*f  Related Occupations Underwriters make decisions on the basis of financial data. Other workers with the same type of responsibility include auditors, loan officers, credit managers, and real estate ap­ praisers.  *. r  Underwriters appraise risks by examining relevant data. as underwriting clerks may be trained as un­ derwriters after they demonstrate an aptitude for the work. Underwriter trainees begin by evaluating routine applications under the close supervision of an experienced risk appraiser. They study claim files to become familiar with factors as­ sociated with certain types of losses. As they develop the necessary judgment, they are as­ signed policy applications that are more com­ plex and have a greater face value. Continuing education is necessary for the underwriter to advance. Insurance companies generally pay tuition for underwriting courses that their trainees successfully complete; some also offer salary increases. Independent study programs are available through the American Institute of Property and Liability Underwri­ ters, the American College of Life Underwri­ ters, the Academy of Life Underwriters, the Health Insurance Association of America, the Insurance Institute of America, and the Life Office Management Association. Experienced underwriters can qualify as a “fellow” of the Academy of Life Underwriters by passing a series of examinations and completing a paper on a topic in the underwriting field. Exami­ nations are given by the Institute of Home Of­ fice Underwriters and the Home Office Life Underwriters Association. Designation as a “fellow” is recognized as a mark of achieve­ ment in the underwriting field. Underwriting can be a satisfying career for persons who like working with detail and enjoy evaluating information. In addition, under­ writers must be able to make prompt decisions and communicate effectively. They must also be imaginative and aggressive, especially when they have to obtain information from outside sources. Experienced underwriters who complete courses of study may advance to chief under­ writer or underwriting manager. Some under­ writing managers are promoted to senior man­ agerial jobs.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  $35,200; commercial lines underwriting su­ pervisors earned $33,700 a year. Personal lines underwriting managers earned $46,800 a year and commercial lines underwriting managers, about $40,600. Most insurance companies have liberal va­ cation policies and other employee benefits. Almost all insurance companies provide em­ ployer-financed group life and retirement plans.  Job Outlook Employment of underwriters is expected to rise faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000 as insurance sales con­ tinue to expand. Most job openings, however, are expected to result from the need to replace underwriters who transfer to other occupations or stop working altogether. A number of factors underlie the expected growth in the volume and complexity of in­ surance and the resulting need for underwriters. Shifts in the age distribution of the population will result in a large increase in the number of people who assume career and family respon­ sibilities. People in this group have the greatest need for life and health insurance. They also need protection for homes, automobiles, and other valuables. A growing demand for insur­ ance coverage for working women also is ex­ pected. Growing security consciousness also should contribute to demand for more insur­ ance protection. New or expanding businesses will need protection for new plants and equip­ ment, insurance for workers’ compensation, and product liability. In addition, competition among insurance companies and changes in regulations affecting investment profits are ex­ pected to increase the need for underwriters. The increasing importance of employee ben­ efits also should result in more opportunities in this field. Since insurance is usually regarded as a ne­ cessity regardless of economic conditions, un­ derwriters are unlikely to be laid off during a recession. Earnings According to a survey of property and liability insurance companies, personal lines (noncom­ mercial) underwriters earned a median salary of $21,300 a year in 1986, while commercial lines underwriters earned $23,600 a year. Sen­ ior personal and commercial lines underwriters received a median salary of $28,600. Personal lines underwriting supervisors earned about  Sources of Additional Information General information about a career as an in­ surance underwriter is available from the home offices of many life insurance and property and liability insurance companies. Information about career opportunities as an underwriter also may be obtained from: American Council of Life Insurance, 10001 Penn­ sylvania Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20004. Insurance Information Institute, 110 William St., New York, NY 10038. Alliance of American Insurers, 1501 WoodfietdRd., Suite 400 West, Schaumburg, IL 60173.  Wholesale and Retail Buyers (D.O.T. 162.157-018 and -022)  Nature of the Work Wholesale and retail buyers expedite the de­ livery of goods from the producer to the con­ sumer by purchasing merchandise for imme­ diate resale. All buyers seek the best available merchandise at the lowest possible price, but day-to-day job duties vary by industry and range from the mundane to the glamorous. Wholesale grocery buyers may spend many hours deciding which brand of cereal should be promoted in the grocery stores they supply, while apparel buyers for department stores attend fashion shows abroad and buy thousands of dollars worth of designer clothes at a time. Wholesale and retail buyers are integral parts of a complex system of production, distribu­ tion, and merchandising that caters to the vast variety of consumer needs and desires. Whether they work in the corporate headquarters of a retailer or the main office of a wholesale-dis­ tributor, buyers usually specialize in acquiring one or two lines of merchandise. Wholesale buyers purchase goods directly from manufac­ turers or from other wholesale firms for resale to retail firms or to commercial establishments and other institutions. Retail buyers purchase goods from wholesale firms or directly from manufacturers for resale to the public. (Infor­ mation about purchasing agents—buyers who purchase goods and services for their firm’s  Managerial and Management-Related Occupations/49  internal use—can be found elsewhere in the Handbook.) Wholesale buyers must be familiar with the characteristics of the many commodities they purchase from both domestic and foreign man­ ufacturers—often by consulting catalogs and computerized directories. Moreover, they must be able to supply institutional buyers and retail purchasers in a timely and cost-effective man­ ner. Retail outlets may be located throughout the Nation and range in size from giant discount or department store chains to small “mom and pop” stores. Meeting their diverse needs re­ quires careful assessment of manufacturers’ productive capacity and the minimum inven­ tory level necessary for the wholesaler to promptly fill current and future orders from retailers and other commercial firms. Whole­ sale buyers often consult with retail buyers, who are in closer contact with the buying pub­ lic, to anticipate changes in consumer prefer­ ences. Retail buyers must know what motivates consumers to buy. Before ordering merchan­ dise, they study market research reports and monitor sales transactions to determine which products are in demand. They keep informed about changes in existing products and the de­ velopment of new ones, and also analyze eco­ nomic conditions and examine industry and trade publications. Retail buyers must possess good commu­ nications skills to work effectively with the many manufacturers and wholesale distributors in their industry. Buyers must be able to assess the resale value of goods after a brief inspection and make purchase decisions quickly. They discuss merchandising problems with whole­ sale buyers and store executives and discuss sales promotions with advertising personnel. They consult with assistant buyers and sales persons who are in daily contact with retail customers. Retail buyers may direct assistants who handle routine functions such as verifying shipment orders and monitoring inventory lev­ els—often by computer. Technical advances in computers and other business equipment have improved the effi­ ciency of all buyers. For example, computers not only give wholesale buyers instant access to the specifications of thousands of commod­ ities, their inventory records, and their retail­ ers’ purchase records, but also speed the se­ lection and ordering of merchandise directly from the manufacturer. Many retailers are linked through electronic purchasing systems to wholesale distributors or to their own company’s corporate head­ quarters. Some retailers are connected elec­ tronically to their suppliers, and order mer­ chandise directly from the manufacturer. These complex networks allow retailers to reorder goods electronically when supplies are low. This expedites the distribution of merchandise and decreases inventory storage costs. Computers also have taken over some of the routine tasks of retail buyers, enabling them to concentrate on more complex merchandising functions. For example, cash registers con­ nected to a computer, known as point-of-sale  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  tfifeS-sE  Buyers ensure that the types of goods consumers want are available. terminals, allow retail chains to maintain cen­ tralized, up-to-date sales and inventory rec­ ords, effectively eliminating the need for as­ sistant buyers on the sales floor. As a result, buying jobs in these chains are shifting from individual stores to corporate headquarters. Working Conditions Buyers often operate under great pressure since wholesale and retail trade establishments are highly competitive. They work in comfortable, well-lighted offices at stores or in corporate headquarters. Anticipating consumer prefer­ ences and ensuring that goods are in stock when they are needed require resourcefulness, good judgment, and self-confidence. Buyers also must be able to make decisions quickly and take risks. Buyers frequently work more than a 40-hour week because of special sales and conferences. They may have to work evenings and weekends to complete work on time. Substantial traveling is required, and most buyers spend at least several days a month on the road. Employment Wholesale and retail buyers held about 192,000 jobs in 1986. Most buyers work for department stores, apparel stores, grocery stores, machin­ ery wholesalers, electrical goods distributors, and grocery wholesalers. About two-thirds of the jobs are in retail firms. Although buyers work in all parts of the country, many are  located in major metropolitan areas, where wholesale-distributors and retail stores are con­ centrated. IVaining, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Firms prefer to hire applicants who are familiar with the merchandise they sell as well as with wholesaling and retailing practices. There are many ways to develop these skills, however, and no single route to a buying career is greatly preferred to others. Some firms promote qual­ ified employees from within the firm to assis­ tant buyer positions; others recruit and train college graduates and applicants who have completed postsecondary programs in market­ ing. Most employers use a combination of methods. Educational requirements for entry level buying positions tend to vary with the size of the organization. The largest stores and dis­ tributors seek applicants who have completed associate or bachelor’s degree programs in marketing and purchasing. Nonetheless, most firms that have buyer trainee programs accept college graduates from any field of study. Trainee programs combine classroom instruc­ tion in merchandising and purchasing with short rotations to jobs in areas such as sales, accounts receivable, and the stock room. This training introduces the new worker to retail or whole­ sale trade operations and the policies funda­ mental to merchandising and management.  50/Occupational Outlook Handbook  Most trainees begin by selling merchandise, supervising sales workers, checking invoices on material received, and keeping account of stock on hand, although widespread use of computers in both wholesale and retail trade has simplified many of these tasks. Trainees gradually assume buying responsibilities— usually working as assistant buyers for 2 or 3 years before becoming buyers. Experienced buyers may advance to merchandise manager; some advance to executive jobs such as general merchandise manager for distributors, depart­ ment stores, or chain stores. Membership in professional and trade as­ sociations is helpful in keeping abreast of im­ provements and changes in industry products and practices and can facilitate advancement to more responsible positions. Persons who wish to become buyers should be good at planning and decisionmaking and have an interest in merchandising. As more wholesalers and stores computerize buying functions, familiarity with computers will become increasingly important. Leadership ability and communications skills also are required to supervise assistant buyers and to deal effectively with manufacturers’ repre­ sentatives and store executives. Buyers need physical stamina and emotional stability to   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  keep up with the fast-paced nature of their work. Job Outlook Employment of buyers is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupa­ tions through the year 2000 as more wholesale and retail trade establishments automate and centralize their purchasing departments. Pro­ ductivity gains resulting from the increased use of computers to control inventory, maintain records, and reorder merchandise will be the principal factor restraining employment growth. Most job openings, therefore, will result from replacement needs, which occur as experienced buyers transfer to other occupations in sales or management, change careers, or stop working altogether. The number of qualified jobseekers will con­ tinue to exceed the number of openings because merchandising attracts many college gradu­ ates. Prospects are likely to be best for qualified applicants who enjoy the competitive, fast­ paced nature of merchandising. Earnings Median annual earnings of buyers were $20,700 is 1986. Most buyers earned between $14,600 and $29,000 a year. The lowest 10 percent  averaged less than $11,400, while the top 10 percent earned more than $41,300. A buyer’s income depends upon the amount and type of product purchased, the employer’s sales vol­ ume and, to some extent, the buyer’s seniority. Buyers for large wholesale distributors and for mass merchandisers such as discount or large chain department stores are among the most highly paid. Buyers often earn cash bonuses based on their performance and may receive discounts on merchandise bought from the employer. In addition, many firms have incentive plans, such as profit sharing and stock options. Related Occupations Workers in other occupations who need a knowledge of marketing and the ability to as­ sess consumer demand are retail sales workers, sales managers, comparison shoppers, manu­ facturers’ sales representatives, insurance sales agents, wholesale trade sales representatives, and travel agents. Sources of Additional Information General information about a career in retailing is available from: National Retail Merchants Association, 100 West 31st St., New York, NY 10001.  Engineers, Surveyors, and Architects Engineers Nature of the Work Engineers apply the theories and principles of science and mathematics to the economical so­ lution of practical technical problems. Often their work is the link between a scientific dis­ covery and its application. Engineers design machinery, products, systems, and processes for efficient and economical performance. They develop electric power, water supply, and waste disposal systems. They design industrial ma­ chinery and equipment for manufacturing goods, and heating, air-conditioning, and ven­ tilation equipment for more comfortable living. Engineers also develop equipment to probe outer space and the ocean depths; design defense and weapons systems for the Armed Forces; and design, plan, and supervise the construction of buildings, highways, and rapid transit systems. They also design and develop consumer prod­ ucts such as automobiles, home appliances, electronic home entertainment equipment, and systems for control and automation of manu­ facturing, business, and management pro­ cesses. Engineers must consider many factors in de­ veloping a new product. For example, in de­ veloping an industrial robot, engineers must determine the general way it will work; design and test all components; and fit them together in an integrated plan. They must then evaluate its overall effectiveness, cost, reliability, and safety. This process applies to products as dif­ ferent as lawnmowers, computers, military weapons, and toys. In addition to design and development, many engineers work in testing, production, opera­ tions, or maintenance. They supervise pro­ duction processes in factories, determine the causes of breakdowns, and test newly manu­ factured products to maintain quality. They also estimate the time and cost to complete projects. Some work in engineering adminis­ tration and management or in sales, where an engineering background enables them to dis­ cuss the technical aspects of a product and assist in planning its installation or use. (See the statement on manufacturers’ sales workers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Most engineers specialize; more than 25 ma­ jor specialties are recognized by professional societies. Within the major branches are nu­ merous subdivisions. Structural, hydraulic, and transportation engineering, for example, are subdivisions of civil engineering. Engineers also may specialize in one industry, such as motor vehicles, or in one field of technology,   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  such as propulsion or guidance systems. This section, which contains an overall discussion of engineering, is followed by separate state­ ments on 10 branches of the profession—aero­ space; chemical; civil; electrical and electron­ ics; industrial; mechanical; metallurgical, ceramic, and materials; mining; nuclear; and petroleum engineering. Engineers in each branch apply their knowl­ edge to many fields. Electrical and electronics engineers, for example, work in the medical, computer, missile guidance, or power distri­ bution fields. Because complex problems cut across traditional fields, engineers in one field often work closely with specialists in scientific, other engineering, and business occupations. Calculators and computers are often used by engineers to solve mathematical equations which describe how a machine, structure, or system operates. Many engineers also use com­ puter-aided design systems to produce and ana­ lyze designs. They also spend a great deal of time writing reports and consulting with other engineers. Complex projects require many en­ gineers, each working with a small part of the job. Supervisory engineers are responsible for major components or entire projects. Working Conditions Some engineers are at a desk in an office build­ ing almost all of the time but others work in  laboratories, industrial plants, or construction sites, where they inspect, supervise, or solve onsite problems. Engineers in branches such as civil engineering may work outdoors part of the time. A few engineers travel extensively to plants or construction sites. Employment In 1986, engineers held almost 1,371,000 jobs. Over one-half of all engineering jobs were lo­ cated in manufacturing industries—mostly in electrical and electronic equipment, machin­ ery, aircraft and parts, scientific instruments, chemicals, motor vehicles, fabricated metal products, and primary metals industries. In 1986, 470,000 jobs were in nonmanufacturing industries, primarily in engineering and archi­ tectural services and business and management consulting services, where firms designed con­ struction projects or did other engineering work on a contract basis for organizations in other parts of the economy. Engineers also worked in the communications, utilities, and construc­ tion industries. Federal, State, and local governments em­ ployed about 184,000 engineers. Over half were in the Federal Government, mainly in the De­ partments of Defense, Transportation, Agri­ culture, Interior, and Energy, and in the Na­ tional Aeronautics and Space Administration. Most engineers in State and local government  Almost one-third of all engineers are electrical engineers. Employment, 1986 (thousands) 0  50  100  150  200  250  300  350  400  450  500  Electrical Mechanical Civil Industrial Aerospace Chemical Petroleum Metallurgical1 Nuclear Mining Other includes ceramic and materials engineers. Source:  Bureau of Labor Statistics  51  52/Occupational Outlook Handbook  Table 1.  Degrees granted by engineering specialty, academic year 1984-85 Bachelor’s Master’s 1Doctor’s  Specialty Total............................................................................... Aerospace, aeronautical, and astronautical engineering.... Agricultural engineering........................................................... Architectural engineering......................................................... Bioengineering and biomedical engineering......................... Ceramic engineering................................................................ Chemical engineering.............................................................. Civil engineering...................................................................... Computer engineering.............................................................. Electrical, electronics, and communications enaineering .. Engineering and related technologies....................................  ......... 95,833 ......... 2,854 ......... 770 ......... 372 ......... 605 ......... 274 ......... 7,146 ......... 9,162 ......... 1,839 ......... 21,691 ......... 18,767  21,512 605 197 49 290 77 1,544 3,172 495 5,153 607  3,230 110 35 6 49 15 418 377 30 660 9  Engineering, general................................................................ Engineering mechanics............................................................. Engineering physics.................................................................. Engineering science.................................................................. Environmental health engineering .......................................... Geological engineering............................................................ Geophysical engineering ......................................................... Industrial engineering.............................................................. Materials engineering.............................................................. Mechanical engineering...........................................................  ......... 3,366 ......... 349 ......... 339 ......... 356 ......... 150 ......... 369 ......... 98 ......... 3,914 ......... 388 ......... 16,794  1,375 219 94 183 319 79 11 1,462 348 3,053  274 64 26 26 25 5 3 139 180 409  Metallurgical engineering......................................................... Mining and mineral engineering........................................... Naval architecture and marine engineering........................... Nuclear engineering.................................................................. Ocean engineering.................................................................... Petroleum engineering ............................................................ Systems engineering................................................................ Textile engineering.................................................................. Other engineering......................................................................  ......... ......... ......... ......... ......... ......... ......... ......... .........  251 92 101 290 85 265 143 8 945  88 10 9 85 24 24 20 4 106  613 462 595 401 130 1,719 263 29 2,018  Source: Center for Education Statistics  agencies worked in highway and public works departments. Some engineers are self-em­ ployed consultants. Besides the jobs described above, about 40,000 persons held engineering faculty po­ sitions in colleges and universities in 1986. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Engineers are employed in every State, in small and large cities, and in rural areas. Some branches of engineering are concentrated in particular industries and geographic areas, as discussed in statements later in this chapter. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree in engineering from an accredited engineering program is generally acceptable for beginning engineering jobs. College graduates with a degree in science or mathematics and experienced engineering technicians may also qualify for some engi­ neering jobs, especially in engineering spe­ cialties in high demand. Most engineering de­ grees are granted in branches such as electrical, mechanical, or civil engineering (table 1). However, engineers trained in one particular branch may work in another. This flexibility allows employers to meet staffing needs in new technologies and specialties in short supply. It   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  also allows engineers to shift to fields with better employment prospects, or ones that match their interests more closely. Many 2- or 4-year college programs in en­ gineering technology prepare students for prac­ tical design and production work rather than for jobs that require more theoretical scientific and mathematical knowledge. Graduates of such 4-year technology programs may get jobs sim­ ilar to those obtained by graduates with a bach­ elor’s degree in engineering. However, some employers regard them as having skills be­ tween those of a technician and an engineer. Graduate training is essential for engineering faculty positions but is not required for the majority of entry level engineering jobs. Many engineers obtain a master’s degree, however, because it often is desirable for learning new technology or for promotion. Nearly 260 colleges and universities offer a bachelor’s degree in engineering, and nearly 100 colleges offer a bachelor’s degree in en­ gineering technology. Although most institu­ tions offer programs in the larger branches of engineering, only a few offer some of the smaller specialties. Also, programs of the same title may vary in content. For example, some em­ phasize industrial practices, preparing students for a job in industry, while others are more theoretical and would be a better choice for  students preparing to take graduate work. Therefore, students should investigate curriculums carefully before selecting a college. Ad­ missions requirements for undergraduate en­ gineering schools include courses in advanced high school mathematics and the physical sci­ ences. In a typical 4-year college curriculum, the first 2 years are spent studying basic sciences— mathematics, physics, chemistry—introduc­ tory engineering, and the humanities, social sciences, and English. In the last 2 years, most courses are in engineering, usually with a con­ centration in one branch of engineering. Some programs offer a general engineering curric­ ulum; students then specialize in graduate school or on the job. Some engineering schools and 2-year col­ leges have entered into agreements whereby the 2-year college provides the initial engi­ neering education and the engineering school automatically admits students for their last 2 years. In addition, some engineering schools have arrangements whereby a student spends 3 years in a liberal arts college studying preen­ gineering subjects and 2 years in the engi­ neering school and receives a bachelor’s degree from each. Some colleges and universities offer 5-year master’s degree programs. Some 5- or even 6-year cooperative plans combine classroom study and practical work experience. In this way, in addition to gaining useful experience, students can finance part of their education. All 50 States and the District of Columbia require registration for engineers whose work may affect life, health, or property, or who offer their services to the public. In 1986, nearly 500,000 engineers were registered. Registra­ tion requires a degree from an accredited en­ gineering program, 4 years of relevant work experience, and passing a State examination. Some States will not register those with degrees in engineering technology. Beginning engineering graduates usually do routine work under the close supervision of experienced engineers and, in larger compa­ nies, may also receive formal classroom or seminar-type training. As they gain knowledge and experience, they are assigned more diffi­ cult tasks with greater independence to develop designs, solve problems, and make decisions. Engineers may become technical specialists or may supervise a staff or team of engineers and technicians. Some eventually become man­ agers or administrators within engineering; others leave engineering for managerial, man­ agement support, or sales jobs. (See the state­ ments on purchasing agents, manufacturers’ sales workers, personnel specialists, and com­ puter systems analysts elsewhere in the Hand­ book.) Some engineers obtain graduate degrees in business administration to improve advance­ ment opportunities; others obtain law degrees and become patent attorneys. Many high level executives in government and industry began their careers as engineers. Engineers should be able to work as part of a team and should have creativity, an analytical mind, and a capacity for detail. In addition.  Engineers, Surveyors, and Architects/53  engineers should be able to express themselves well—both orally and in writing. Job Outlook Employment opportunities for those with de­ grees in engineering have been good for a num­ ber of years and are expected to continue to be good through the year 2000. In addition, there should continue to be some opportunities for college graduates from related fields and for experienced technicians in certain engi­ neering jobs, although employers usually pre­ fer engineering graduates. In recent years, ac­ cording to the College Placement Council, engineering majors have received about half the on-campus job offers, even though they have made up less than 10 percent of graduates. Employment of engineers is expected to in­ crease faster than the average for all occupa­ tions through the year 2000. Although only a relatively small proportion of engineers leave the profession each year, most job openings will arise from replacement needs. Most re­ placement openings are created by engineers who transfer to management, sales, or other professional occupations rather than by engi­ neers who leave the labor force. Much of the projected growth in require­ ments for engineers will stem from the ex­ pected higher levels of investment to meet the demand for more goods and services and to increase productivity. More engineers also will be needed to develop and manufacture defenserelated products and to improve transportation facilities. Competitive pressures and advancing technology will force companies to improve and update product designs more rapidly than in the past, further adding to requirements. Some employers will continue to hire en­ gineering graduates for nonengineering jobs in management, sales, and computer science, usually in jobs in which an engineering back­ ground is helpful. Often employers prefer en­ gineering graduates for these positions. Most industries are less likely to lay off en­ gineers than other workers. Many engineers work on long-term research and development projects or in other activities which often con­ tinue even during recessions. However, in in­ dustries such as electronics and aerospace, large cutbacks in defense or research and develop­ ment may result in layoffs for engineers. New computer-aided design systems enable engineers to produce or modify designs much more rapidly than previously. This increased productivity might result in decreased em­ ployment opportunities for engineers doing more routine tasks. However, most of these systems have been used to improve the design process by allowing many more design vari­ ations to be produced and analyzed. Therefore, this technology is not expected to affect em­ ployment growth significantly. It is important for engineers to continue their education throughout their careers because their value to their employer depends on their knowledge of the latest technology. The pace of technological change varies by engineering specialty and industry. Engineers in high-tech­ nology areas such as advanced electronics or  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  aerospace may find that their knowledge be­ comes obsolete rapidly. Even those who con­ tinue their education are vulnerable to obso­ lescence if the particular technology or product they have specialized in becomes obsolete. En­ gineers whom employers consider not to have kept up may find themselves passed over for promotions and are particularly vulnerable to layoffs. On the other hand, it is often these high-technology areas that offer the greatest challenges, the most interesting work, and the highest salaries. Therefore, the choice of en­ gineering specialty and employer involves an assessment not only of the potential rewards but also of the risk of technological obsolesc­ ence later in one’s career. (The outlook for var­ ious branches is discussed in the separate state­ ments that follow this introductory section.) Earnings Starting salaries for engineers with the bach­ elor’s degree are significantly higher than start­ ing salaries of college gradautes in other fields. According to the College Placement Council, engineering graduates with a bachelor’s degree and no experience averaged about $27,900 a year in private industry in 1986; those with a master’s degree and no experience, $33,100 a year; and those with a Ph.D., $42,200. Starting offers for those with the bachelor’s degree vary by branch, as shown in the following tabulation.  Related Occupations Engineers apply the principles of physical sci­ ence and mathematics in their work. Other workers who use scientific and mathematical principles include physical scientists, life sci­ entists, mathematicians, engineering and sci­ ence technicians, and architects. Sources of Additional Information A number of engineering-related organizations provide information on engineering careers. The National Engineering Council for Guid­ ance (NECG), at 1420 King St., Suite 405, Alexandria, VA 22314, serves as a central dis­ tribution point for information from many of these organizations. NECG is supported by The National Society of Professional Engineers, The Accreditation Board for Engineering and Tech­ nology, The National Action Council for Mi­ norities in Engineering, The Society of Women Engineers, The American Association of En­ gineering Societies, The American Society for Engineering Education, and The Junior En­ gineering Technical Society. NECG distributes literature for most other engineering societies as well. To receive information, write NECG at the above address for an order form. Enclose a stamped, self-addressed business-size en­ velope. Societies representing many of the individ­ ual branches of engineering are listed in this chapter. Each can provide information about careers in the particular branch.  Petroleum engineering........................ $33,000 Chemical engineering.......................... 29,256 Electrical engineering......................... 28,368 Mechanical engineering....................... 27,864 Metallurgical engineering................... 27,864 Aeronautical engineering..................... 27,780 Nuclear engineering............................ 27,696 Industrial engineering.......................... 27,048 (D.O.T. 002.061 and .167) Engineering technology..................... 26,196 Mining engineering.............................. 25,956 Civil engineering.................................. 24,132 Nature of the Work As shown in the following tabulation, en­ Aerospace engineers design, develop, test, and gineers in private industry in 1986 averaged help produce commercial and military aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft. They develop new $27,866 at the most junior level, and $79,021 at senior managerial levels. Experienced mid­ technologies in commercial aviation, defense level engineers with no supervisory responsi­ systems, and space exploration, often special­ izing in areas like structural design, naviga­ bilities averaged $42,677. tional guidance and control, instrumentation Percent of Average and communication, or production methods. all engineers salary They also may specialize in one type of aero­ space product, such as passenger planes, heli­ Engineers I....... ... 6.8 $27,866 copters, spacecraft, or rockets. Engineers II....... ...12.0 31,194 Engineers III... ..24.4 35,715 Employment Engineers IV.... ..26.4 42,677 Engineers V .... ..18.8 50,769 Aerospace engineers held 53,000 jobs in 1986. Two-thirds were in the aircraft and parts and Engineers VI___ .. 8.8 58,883 Engineers VII... .. 2.3 68,602 guided missile and space vehicle manufactur­ ing industries. Federal Government agencies, Engineers VIII .. .. 0.5 79,021 primarily the Department of Defense and the In the Federal Government in 1986, most National Aeronautics and Space Administra­ engineers with a bachelor’s degree and no ex­ tion, provided almost 1 out of 6 jobs. Business perience could start at $18,710 or $23,170 a and engineering consulting firms, communi­ year, depending on their college records. Those cations equipment manufacturing firms, and with a master’s degree could start at $25,980, commercial airlines accounted for most of the and those having a Ph.D.degree could begin remainder. at $28,039. The average salary for engineers California, Washington, and Texas, States in the Federal Government was about $38,000 with large aerospace manufacturers, have the in 1986. most aerospace engineers.  Aerospace Engineers  54/Occupational Outlook Handbook  for engineering services or consulting firms— designing chemical plants or doing other work on a contract basis—and a small number worked for government agencies or as independent consultants.  rr i i  Aerospace engineers often specialize in areas  Job Outlook Employment of aerospace engineers is ex­ pected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2000. (Over the past decade, their employment grew very rapidly). The main reason is that Defense De­ partment expenditures for military aircraft, missiles, and other aerospace systems are not expected to grow much. Faster growth is ex­ pected in the civilian sector. Much of the pres­ ent fleet of airliners will be replaced with quiet­ er and more fuel-efficient aircraft and there will be increased demand for spacecraft, helicop­ ters, and business aircraft. Future growth of aerospace engineer employment could be lim­ ited because a higher proportion of engineers in aerospace manufacturing may be materials, mechanical, or electrical engineers. Most job openings will result from the need to replace aerospace engineers who transfer to other oc­ cupations or leave the labor force. Since a large proportion of aerospace en­ gineering jobs are defense related, cutbacks in defense spending can result in layoffs of aero­ space engineers.  Job Outlook Employment of chemical engineers is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all ft &• occupations through the year 2000. Most open­ & ;4 ings, however, will result from the need to replace chemical engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force.Although output of the chemical industry, where many chemical engineers are employed, C3 c: is expected to expand, employment of chemical engineers in this industry is not expected to increase much because of anticipated produc­ tivity improvements and bontracting out of chemical engineers’ work.fAreas relating to pharmaceuticals and biotechnology should provide better opportunities than other portions of the chemical industry. Most of the projected ______ such as structural design or production methods. growth in employment will be in nonmanu­ termine and test methods of manufacturing the facturing industries, especially service indus­ products, and supervise production. Chemical tries. The drop in oil prices has reduced oppor­ engineers also work in industries other than chemical manufacturing such as electronics tunities for chemical engineers in petroleum manufacturing or aircraft manufacturing. Be­ refining and energy-related industries as well cause the duties of chemical engineers cut across as for chemical engineers working in research many fields, they apply principles of chemis­ on alternative energy sources and energy con­ try, physics, mathematics, and mechanical and servation. Opportunities for chemical engi­ electrical engineering. They frequently spec­ neers in these areas will be limited until the ialize in a particular operation such as oxidation price of oil increases. or polymerization. Others specialize in a par­ ticular area such as pollution control or the Sources of Additional Information production of a specific product like plastics American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 345 East or rubber. 47th St., New York, NY 10017.  Employment Chemical engineers held 52,000 jobs in 1986. Over two-thirds were in manufacturing indus­ tries, primarily in the chemical, petroleum re­ fining, and related industries. One-fifth worked  American Chemical Society, Career Services, 1155 16th St. NW., Washington, DC 20036.  (See introductory part of this section for in­ formation on training requirements and earn­ ings.)  Sources of Additional Information American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., AIAA Student Programs, The Aerospace Cen­ ter, 370 L'Enfant Plaza, Washington, DC 20024.  (See introductory section of this chapter for discussion of training requirements and earn­ ings.)  Chemical Engineers (D O T. 008.061 and .167)_____________________  Nature of the Work Chemical engineers work in many phases of the production of chemicals and chemical prod­ ucts. They design equipment and plants, de­   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Chemical engineers discuss chemical production process.  Engineers, Surveyors, and Architects/55  vision of these areas—industrial robot control systems or aviation electronics, for example. Electrical and electronics engineers design new products, write performance requirements, and develop maintenance schedules. They also test equipment, solve operating problems, and es­ timate the time and cost of engineering proj­ ects. Employment Electrical and electronics engineers held 401,000 jobs in 1986, making it the largest branch of engineering. Most jobs were in firms that manufacture electrical and electronic equipment, business machines, professional and scientific equipment, and aircraft and parts. Engineering and business consulting firms, public utilities, and government agencies ac­ counted for most of the remaining jobs.  .  Civil engineers, like many other engineers, often work in large offices.  Civil Engineers (D.O.T. 005.061. .167 except -022; and 019.167-018)  Nature of the Work Civil engineers, who work in the oldest branch of engineering, design and supervise the con­ struction of roads, airports, tunnels, bridges, water supply and sewage systems, and build­ ings. Major specialties within civil engineering are structural, urban planning, hydraulic, en­ vironmental, construction, transportation, highway, and geotechnical engineering. Many civil engineers hold supervisory or administrative positions, ranging from super­ visor of a construction site to a city engineer. Others work as independent consultants. Employment Civil engineers held 199,000 jobs in 1986. Almost 40 percent of the jobs were in Federal, State, and local government agencies. Over one-third were in firms that provide engineer­ ing consulting services, primarily developing designs for new construction projects. The con­ struction industry, public utilities, railroads, and manufacturing industries accounted for most of the rest. Civil engineers usually are found in or near major industrial and commercial centers, often working at construction sites. Some projects are situated in remote areas or in foreign coun­ tries. In some jobs, civil engineers move from place to place to work on different projects. Job Outlook Employment of civil engineers is expected to increase faster than the average for all occu­ pations through the year 2000. Most job open­ ings, however, will result from the need to replace civil engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. A growing population and an expanding  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  economy will result in a need for more civil engineers to design and construct transporta­ tion systems, water resource and disposal sys­ tems, large buildings, and other structures. More civil engineers also will be needed to repair or replace existing roads, bridges, and other pub­ lic structures. Construction and related industries, includ­ ing those providing design services, employ many civil engineers. Employment opportun­ ities here may decrease during economic slow­ downs, when construction often is curtailed. Sources of Additional Information American Society of Civil Engineers, 345 E 47th St., New York, NY 10017.  (See introductory part of this section for in­ formation on training requirements and earn­ ings.)  Job Outlook Employment opportunities for electrical and electronics engineers are expected to be good through the year 2000 because employment is expected to increase much faster than the av­ erage for all occupations and shortages of elec­ trical engineering faculty and laboratory equip­ ment may act to restrict enrollments in electrical engineering programs. Despite rapid growth, however, the majority of job openings will result from the need to replace electrical and electronics engineers who transfer to other oc­ cupations or leave the labor force. Although increased demand by businesses and government for computers, communica­ tions equipment, and military electronics is ex­ pected to account for much of the projected employment growth, consumer demand for electrical and electronic goods and increased research and development on robots and other types of automation should create additional jobs. Since many electrical engineering jobs are defense related, cutbacks in defense spending  Electrical and Electronics Engineers (D.O.T. 003.061, .167, and .187)  Nature of the Work Electrical and electronics engineers design, de­ velop, test, and supervise the manufacture of electrical and electronic equipment. Electrical equipment includes power generating and transmission equipment used by electric util­ ities, and electric motors, machinery controls, and lighting and wiring in buildings, auto­ mobiles, and aircraft. Electronic equipment in­ cludes radar, computers, communications equipment, TV sets, and stereo components. The specialties of electrical and electronics engineers include several major areas—such as power distributing equipment, integrated circuits, computers, electrical equipment man­ ufacturing, or communications—or a subdi­  Electrical engineer reviews wiring diagram.  56/Occupational Outlook Handbook  could result in layoffs of electrical engineers. Furthermore, engineers who fail to keep up with the rapid changes in technology in some specialties risk technological obsolescence, which makes them more susceptible to layoffs or, at a minimum, likely to be passed over for advancement. Sources of Additional Information Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers/ United States Activities Board, 1111 19th St. NW„ Suite 608, Washington, DC 20036.  (See introductory part of this section for in­ formation on training requirements and earn­ ings.)  Industrial Engineers (D.O.T. 012.061 -018, .067, .167 except -022, -026, -034, -058, and -066, and .187)  Nature of the Work Industrial engineers determine the most effec­ tive ways for an organization to use the basic factors of production—people, machines, ma­ terials, information, and energy. They bridge the gap between management and operations, and are more concerned with people and meth­ ods of business organization than are engineers in other specialties, who generally work more with products or processes. To solve organizational, production, and re­ lated problems most efficiently, industrial en­ gineers design data processing systems and ap­ ply mathematical analysis such as operations research. They also develop management con­ trol systems to aid in financial planning and cost analysis, design production planning and control systems to coordinate activities and control product quality, and design or improve systems for the physical distribution of goods and services. Industrial engineers conduct sur­ veys to find plant locations with the best com­ bination of raw materials, transportation, and taxes. They also develop wage and salary administration systems and job evaluation pro­ grams. Many industrial engineers move into management positions because the work is closely related.  Industrial engineers design and supen'ise the installation of production systems. 2000. Most job openings, however, will result from the need to replace industrial engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Industrial growth, more complex business operations, and the greater use of automation both in factories and in offices underlie the projected employment growth. Jobs also will be created as firms seek to reduce costs and increase productivity through scientific man­ agement and safety engineering. Sources of Additional Information Institute oflndustrial Engineers. Inc., 25Technology Park/Atlanta, Norcross, GA 30092.  (See introductory part of this section for in­ formation on training requirements and earn­ ings.)  Mechanical Engineers (D.O.T. 007.061, .161-022, -034, and -038. .167-014, and .267)  Nature of the Work Mechanical engineers are concerned with the production, transmission, and use of mechan­ ical power and heat. They design and develop power-producing machines such as internal combustion engines, steam and gas turbines, and jet and rocket engines. They also design and develop power-using machines such as re­ frigeration and air-conditioning equipment, ro­ bots, machine tools, materials handling sys­ tems, and industrial production equipment. The work of mechanical engineers varies by  Employment Industrial engineers held about 117,000 jobs in 1986; over 4 out of 5 jobs were in manu­ facturing industries. Because their skills can be used in almost any type of organization, industrial engineers are more widely distrib­ uted among industries than other engineers. For example, some even work for insurance com­ panies, banks, hospitals, and retail organiza­ tions. Some work for government agencies or are independent consultants. Job Outlook Employment opportunities for industrial en­ gineers are expected to be good; their em­ ployment is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Mechanical engineers are increasingly using computer-aided design equipment.  Engineers, Surveyors, and Architects/57  industry and function. Many specialties have developed within the field, including motor vehicles; energy conversion systems; heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning; instrumen­ tation; and special machines for industries such as petroleum, rubber, plastics, and construc­ tion. Some mechanical engineers work in pro­ duction operations, maintenance, and technical sales. Many are administrators or managers. Employment Mechanical engineers held 233,000 jobs in 1986. Over 3 out of 5 jobs were in manufac­ turing—most in the machinery, transportation equipment, electrical equipment, and fabri­ cated metal products industries. Business and engineering consulting services and govern­ ment agencies provided most of the remaining jobs. Job Outlook Employment opportunities for mechanical en­ gineers are expected to be good. Their em­ ployment is expected to increase faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000 as the demand for machinery and machine tools grows and industrial machinery and pro­ cesses become increasingly complex. Despite this expected employment growth, however, most job openings will result from the need to replace mechanical engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Sources of Additional Information The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 345 E. 47th St., New York, NY 10017.  (See introductory part of this section for in­ formation on training requirements and earn­ ings.)  Metallurgical, Ceramic, and Materials Engineers  verting refined metals into final products. Mechanical metallurgists are concerned with processes such as casting, forging, rolling, and drawing metals to work and shape them. Ceramic engineers develop new ceramic ma­ terials and methods for making ceramic ma­ terials into useful products. Ceramics include all nonmetallic, inorganic materials which re­ quire the use of high temperature in their pro­ cessing. Ceramic engineers work on products as diverse as glassware, electronic compo­ nents, automobile and aircraft engine com­ ponents, brick, and tile. Materials engineers evaluate technical and economic factors to determine which of the many metals, plastics, ceramics, or other ma­ terials available is best for each application. Materials engineers also test and evaluate ma­ terials and develop new ones. Employment Metallurgical, ceramic, and materials engi­ neers held almost 18,000 jobs in 1986. Onefifth worked in metal-producing industries. They also worked in industries that manufacture air­ craft and parts, machinery, and electrical equipment, and in business and engineering consulting firms and government agencies. Job Outlook Employment of metallurgical, ceramic, and materials engineers is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Most job openings, however, will result from the need to replace engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. More metallurgical, ceramic, and materials engineers will be needed by the metalworking and other industries to develop new metals and alloys as well as to adapt current ones to new applications. For example, jet engines require metals that can withstand extreme heat. As the m  (D.O.T. 006.061; 011.061. .161, and .261-018; and 019.061-014)  Nature of the Work Metallurgical, ceramic, and materials engi­ neers develop new types of metals and other materials tailored to meet specific require­ ments—for example, materials that are heat resistant, strong but lightweight, or highly malleable. Most metallurgical engineers work in one of the three main branches of metallurgy—ex­ tractive or chemical, physical, and mechanical or process. Extractive metallurgists are con­ cerned with removing metals from ores, and refining and alloying them to obtain useful metal. Physical metallurgists deal with the na­ ture, structure, and physical properties of met­ als and their alloys, and with methods of con­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Metallurgical engineers use a microscope to examine how a metal sample broke.  supply of high-grade ores diminishes, more metallurgical engineers will be required to de­ velop new ways of recycling solid waste ma­ terials and processing low-grade ores now re­ garded as unprofitable to mine. More ceramic and materials engineers will be needed to develop improved materials and products, for example, ceramic automobile en­ gines, which are more fuel efficient than metal engines. Sources of Additional Information The Metallurgical Society of AIME, 420 Common­ wealth Dr., Warrendale, PA 15086. ASM International, Metals Park, OH 44073. American Ceramic Society, 757 Brooks Edge Plaza Dr., Westerville, OH 43081. National Institute of Ceramic Engineers, 757 Brooks Edge Plaza Dr., Westerville, OH 43081.  (See introductory part of this section for in­ formation on training requirements and earn­ ings.)  Mining Engineers (D.O.T. 010.061 except -018)  Nature of the Work Mining engineers find, extract, and prepare minerals for manufacturing industries to use. They design open pit and underground mines, supervise the construction of mine shafts and tunnels in underground operations, and devise methods for transporting minerals to process­ ing plants. Mining engineers are responsible for the safe and economical operation of mines, including ventilation, water supply, power, communications, and equipment maintenance. Some mining engineers work with geologists and metallurgical engineers to locate and ap­ praise new ore deposits. Others develop new mining equipment or direct mineral processing operations to separate minerals from the dirt, rock, and other materials they are mixed with. Mining engineers frequently specialize in the mining of one mineral, such as coal or copper. With increased emphasis on protecting the environment, many mining engineers have been working to solve problems related to land re­ clamation and water and air pollution. Employment Mining engineers held about 5,200 jobs in 1986. The mining industry provided over 3 out of 5 jobs. Other jobs were located in engineering consulting firms, government agencies, or in manufacturing industries. Mining engineers are usually employed at the location of mineral deposits, often near small communities. However, those in re­ search and development, management, con­ sulting, or sales often are located in metro­ politan areas.  58/Occupational Outlook Handbook  Employment Nuclear engineers held almost 14,000 jobs in 1986; almost one-fifth were in the Federal Gov­ ernment. Nearly half of all federally employed nuclear engineers were civilian employees of the Navy, about one-third worked for the Nu­ clear Regulatory Commission, and most of the rest worked for the Department of Energy or the Tennessee Valley Authority. Most nonfederally employed nuclear engineers worked for public utilities or engineering consulting com­ panies. Some worked for manufacturers of nu­ clear power equipment. Job Outlook Employment of nuclear engineers is expected to change little through the year 2000. Almost all job openings will result from the need to replace nuclear engineers who retire or leave the occupation. Despite the expected absence of growth, there are expected to be good op­ portunities for nuclear engineers because the number of new graduates with degrees in nu­ clear engineering is small and has been de­ clining recently. Because of concerns over the safety of nu­ clear power, few or no nuclear power plants are likely to be started before the year 2000. However, nuclear engineers will be needed to operate plants presently under construction. In addition, nuclear engineers will be needed to improve and enforce safety standards and to work in defense-related areas. Sources of Additional Information Employment of mining engineers is expected to remain level.  Job Outlook Employment of mining engineers is expected to remain level through the year 2000 due to expected low growth in demand for coal, met­ als, and other minerals. Most job openings will result from the need to replace the large pro­ portion of mining engineers who transfer to other occupations each year. In recent years, mining engineers have ex­ perienced poor employment opportunities be­ cause low prices for oil and metals have re­ duced coal, metal, and other mining. In the long run, prices of these commodities should increase to a level sufficient to increase output and employment opportunities, although the increase in demand for coal and, consequently, for mining engineers will depend, to a great extent, on the availability and price of other energy sources such as petroleum, natural gas, and nuclear energy as well as the price of coal in other countries. More technologically ad­ vanced mining systems and further enforce­ ment of mine health and safety regulations may also increase the need for mining engineers. As easily mined deposits are depleted, engi­ neers must devise more efficient methods for mining and processing low-grade ores. Em­ ployment opportunities also may rise as new alloys and new uses for minerals and metals increase the demand for less widely used ores.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Sources of Additional Information The Society of Mining Engineers of AIME, Caller Number D, Littleton, CO 80127.  American Nuclear Society, 555 North Kensington Ave., LaGrange Park, IL 60525. Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc., Public Affairs and Information Program, 7101 Wisconsin Ave., Wash­ ington, DC 20014.  (See introductory part of this section for in­ formation on training requirements and earn­ ings.)  (See introductory part of this section for in­ formation on training requirements and earn­ ings.)  Nuclear Engineers (D.O.T. 008.061-030; 015.061, .067. .137, and .167)  Nature of the Work Nuclear engineers design, develop, monitor, and operate nuclear power plants used to gen­ erate electricity and power Navy ships. They also conduct research on nuclear energy and radiation. For example, they may work on the nuclear fuel cycle—the production, handling, and use of nuclear fuel and the safe disposal of waste produced by nuclear energy—or on breeder reactors or fusion energy. Some spec­ ialize in the development of nuclear weapons; others develop industrial and medical uses for radioactive materials.  Many nuclear engineers work for public util­ ities or engineering consulting companies.  Engineers, Surveyors, and Architects/59  Petroleum Engineers (D.O.T. 010.061 except -014 and -026, .161-010 and -014, and .167)  Nature of the Work Most petroleum engineers explore and drill for oil and gas. Many petroleum engineers plan and supervise drilling operations. If the drilling is successful, petroleum engineers work to achieve the maximum profitable recovery of oil and gas from a petroleum reservoir by de­ termining and developing the most efficient production methods. Since only a small proportion of the oil and gas in a reservoir will flow out under natural forces, petroleum engineers develop and use various enhanced recovery methods, such as flooding the oilfield with water to force more of the oil out of the reservoir. The best methods in use today recover only about half the oil in a reservoir. Petroleum engineers work to find ways to increase this proportion. Employment Petroleum engineers held almost 22,000 jobs in 1986, mostly in the petroleum industry and closely allied fields. Employers include major oil companies and hundreds of smaller, inde­ pendent oil exploration, production, and ser­ vice companies. Engineering consulting firms, government agencies, oilfield services, and equipment suppliers also employ petroleum en­ gineers. Others work as independent consult­ ants. Most petroleum engineers work where oil and gas are found. Large numbers are em­ ployed in Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and California, including offshore sites. Also, many American petroleum engineers work overseas in oil-producing countries. Job Outlook Employment of petroleum engineers is ex­ pected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2000. With the drop in oil prices, domestic petroleum com­   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Petroleum engineer examines drilling data on an offshore drilling rig. panies have sharply curtailed exploration and production activities, resulting in poor em­ ployment opportunities for recent petroleum engineering graduates. In the long run, how­ ever, it appears likely that the price of oil will increase to a level sufficient to increase explo­ ration and production, which would imply im­ proved employment prospects for petroleum engineers. Despite this expected employment growth, most job openings will result from the  need to replace petroleum engineers who trans­ fer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Sources of Additional Information Society of Petroleum Engineers, P.O. Box 833836, Richardson, TX 75083.  (See introductory part of this section for in­ formation on training requirements and earn­ ings.)  Architects and surveyors Architects (D.O.T. 001.061-010 and .167-010)  Nature of the Work The design of a building involves far more than its appearance. Buildings must also be func­ tional, safe, and economical and must suit the needs of the people who use them. Architects take all these things into consideration when they design buildings. Architects provide a wide variety of profes­ sional services to individuals and organizations planning a building project. They may be in­ volved in all phases of development, from the initial discussion of general ideas with the client through construction. Their duties require a variety of skills—design, engineering, man­ agerial, and supervisory. The architect and client first discuss the pur­ poses , requirements, and cost of a project. Based on the discussions, the architect prepares a pro­ gram—a report specifying the requirements the design must meet. The architect then prepares drawings presenting ideas for meeting the client’s needs. After the initial proposals are discussed and accepted, the architect develops final construc­ tion documents. These documents show the floor plans, elevations, building sections, and other construction details. Accompanying these are drawings of the structural system; air-con­ ditioning, heating, and ventilating systems; electrical systems; plumbing; and possibly landscape plans. Architects also specify the building materials and, in some cases, the in­ terior furnishings. In developing designs, ar­ chitects follow building codes, zoning laws,  fire regulations, and other ordinances, such as those that require easy access by handicapped persons. Throughout the planning stage, the architect makes necessary changes. The architect may also assist the client in obtaining bids, selecting a contractor, and ne­ gotiating the construction contract. As con­ struction proceeds, the client may employ the architect to visit the building site to ensure that the contractor is following the design, using the specified materials, and meeting the spec­ ified standards for the quality of work. The job is not complete until all construction is fin­ ished, required tests are made, and construction costs are paid. Architects design a wide variety of build­ ings, such as churches, factories, hospitals, houses, office and apartment buildings, schools, and airport terminals. They also design mul­ tibuilding complexes such as urban renewal projects, college campuses, industrial parks, and new towns. Besides designing buildings, architects may select building sites, prepare cost and land-use studies, and do long-range planning for land development. On large projects or in large architectural firms, architects often specialize in one phase of the work, such as design or administering construction contracts. This often requires working with engineers, urban planners, in­ terior designers, landscape architects, and oth­ ers. Working Conditions Architects generally work in a comfortable en­ vironment. Most of their time is spent in offices advising clients, developing reports and draw­ ings, and working with other architects and engineers. However, they also often work at construction sites reviewing the progress of projects. Architects may work under great stress to meet deadlines, and working nights and week­ ends is common. Employment Architects held almost 84,000 jobs in 1986. Most jobs were in architectural firms—many of which employ fewer than five workers. Over one-third of all architects were self-employed. They practiced privately as partners in archi­ tectural firms or on their own. The remainder worked for builders, real estate developers, or other businesses that have large construction programs and for government agencies re­ sponsible for housing, planning, or community development such as the Departments of De­ fense, Interior, Housing and Urban Develop­ ment, and the General Services Administra­ tion. Most architects work in large cities, where many large architectural firms are located.  Architects spend much of their time consult­ ing with clients. 60   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement All States and the District of Columbia require individuals to be registered (licensed) before  they may call themselves architects or contract for providing architectural services. To qualify for the registration examination, a person gen­ erally must have at least a Bachelor of Archi­ tecture degree from a program accredited by the National Architectural Accrediting Board and 3 years of acceptable experience in an architect’s office. Many States have adopted standards for this 3-year period which are iden­ tical to the training and experience provided in the Intern Architect Development Program, an apprenticeship program for architects. Many architecture school graduates work in the field even though they are not registered. However, a registered architect is required to take legal responsibility for all work. In 1986, the National Architectural Ac­ crediting Board accredited the programs of 93 architecture schools. Most offer 5-year pro­ grams leading to the Bachelor of Architecture degree. Others offer 6-year Master of Archi­ tecture programs. In the 6-year programs, a non-professional bachelor’s degree is usually awarded after 4 years. Students also may trans­ fer to professional degree programs after com­ pleting a 2-year junior or community college program in architecture. Many architecture schools also offer graduate education for those who already have a bachelor's degree in ar­ chitecture or other areas. Although graduate education is not essential for practicing archi­ tects, it is desirable for research, teaching, and certain specialties. A typical college architec­ ture program includes courses in architectural history and theory, building design, including its technical and legal aspects, and science and liberal arts. Contrary to what many believe, persons planning a career in architecture do not nec­ essarily need a high level of artistic or drawing ability. Although architects must be able to make drawings of proposed buildings, this is a skill which can be taught to most people. However, architects do need the ability to vis­ ualize spatial relationships and should have a capacity for solving technical problems. Math­ ematical ability is also important. Architects must be prepared to work in a competitive environment where leadership and ability to work with others are important. Students who work for architects, engineers, or building con­ tractors during summer vacations can gain use­ ful experience. New graduates usually begin in architectural firms, where they assist in preparing architec­ tural plans. They also may administer con­ struction contracts; do research on building codes and materials; or write specifications for building materials, the method of installation, the quality of finishes, and many other related details. Graduates with degrees in architecture also enter other related fields such as graphic, interior, or industrial design, urban planning, civil engineering, or construction. In large firms, architects may advance to supervisory or managerial positions. Some ar-  Engineers, Surveyors, and Architects/61  chitects become partners in established firms. Often, however, the goal of many architects is to have their own firm. Job Outlook Employment of architects is expected to rise faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000, although growth in em­ ployment will be slower than in recent years. However, demand for architects is highly de­ pendent upon the level of construction, partic­ ularly of nonresidential structures such as office buildings and shopping centers. Although rapid growth in this area is expected, construction is sensitive to cyclical changes in the economy. During recessions or slow periods for construc­ tion, architects will face competition for job openings or clients, and layoffs may occur. Regardless of economic conditions, there will continue to be competition for jobs in the most prestigious firms which offer good potential for career advancement. Although the increas­ ing use of computer technologies such as com­ puter-aided design increases efficiency, em­ ployment is not expected to be adversely affected because computer technologies are being used to improve the quality of building designs rather than to reduce the need for ar­ chitects. Although employment is expected to rise faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000, most job openings are expected to arise as architects transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Earnings The median annual earnings for salaried ar­ chitects who worked full time were about $30,000 in 1986. The middle 50 percent earned between $21,700 and $37,600. The top 10 per­ cent earned more than $51,100 and the lowest 10 percent, less than $16,200. Architects who are partners in well-estab­ lished architectural firms or solo practitioners generally earn much more than their salaried employees, but their income may fluctuate due to changing business conditions. Architects may have difficulty getting established in their own practices and may go through a period when their expenses are greater than their income. In 1986, the average salary for architects working in the Federal Government was about $36,500. Related Occupations . Architects are concerned with the design and construction of buildings and related struc­ tures. Others who engage in similar work are landscape architects, building contractors, civil engineers, urban planners, interior designers, industrial designers, drafters, and surveyors. Sources of Additional Information General information about careers in architec­ ture can be obtained from: Director, Education Programs, The American Insti­ tute of Architects, 1735 New York Ave. NW.. Washington, DC 20006.  Specific questions on education for a career in architecture should be addressed to:  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  a.... :■ ■  The time landscape architects spend in their offices is balanced by time spent visiting project sites. The Association of Collegiate Schools of Architec­ ture, Inc., 1735 New York Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20006.  Information about licensing and examination can be obtained from: The National Council of Architectural Registration Boards, 1735 New York Ave. NW., Suite 700, Washington, DC 20006.  Landscape Architects (D.O.T. 001.061-018)  Nature of the Work Everyone enjoys attractively designed residen­ tial areas, public parks, college campuses, shopping centers, golf courses, parkways, and industrial parks. Landscape architects design these areas so that they are not only functional, but beautiful and environmentally appropriate as well. They may plan the location of build­ ings, roads, and walkways and the arrangement of flowers, shrubs, and trees and other features of open space. They also may redesign streets to limit automobile traffic and to improve pe­ destrian access and safety. Natural resource conservation and historic preservation are other important objectives to which landscape ar­ chitects may apply their knowledge of the en­ vironment as well as their design and artistic talents. Landscape architects are hired by many types of organizations—from real estate develop­ ment firms starting new projects to munici­ palities constructing airports or parks. They may be involved with the development of a site from its conception. Working with archi­ tects and engineers, they help determine the optimal arrangement of roads and buildings. Once these decisions are made, landscape ar­ chitects create detailed plans indicating new topography, vegetation, walkways, and land­ scape amenities.  In planning a site, landscape architects first consider the nature and purpose of the project and the funds available. They analyze the nat­ ural elements of the site, such as the climate, soil, slope of the land, drainage, and vegeta­ tion. They observe where sunlight falls on the site at different times of the day and examine the site from various angles. They assess the effect of existing buildings, roads, walkways, and utilities to the project. After studying and analyzing the site, they prepare sketches of what they feel the design should be. In order to account for the needs of the client as well as the conditions at the site, they may have to make numerous sketches. An increasing number of landscape architects are using computer-aided design systems to assist them in preparing their designs. Throughout all phases of the design, they consult with other professionals involved in the project. Once the landscape architects have completed their design, they prepare the pro­ posal for the client. They draw up detailed plans of the site that include written reports, sketches, models, photographs, land-use stud­ ies, and cost estimates. If the plans are ap­ proved, landscape architects prepare working drawings showing all existing and proposed features. They also outline in detail the meth­ ods of construction and draw up a list of nec­ essary materials. Although many landscape architects super­ vise the installation of their design, some are involved in the construction of the site. This usually is done by the developer or contractor. Some landscape architects work on a wide variety of projects. Others specialize in a par­ ticular area, such as residential development, historic landscape restoration, waterfront im­ provement projects, parks and playgrounds, or shopping centers. Still others work in regional planning and resource management; feasibil­ ity, environmental impact, and cost studies; or site construction. Landscape architects who work for govern­  62/Occupational Outlook Handbook  ment agencies do similar work at national parks, government buildings, and other governmentowned facilities. In addition, they may prepare environmental impact statements and studies on environmental issues such as land-use plan­ ning. Working Conditions Landscape architects spend much of their time in offices preparing drawings, models, and cost estimates and discussing projects with clients. But the time in the office is balanced by the time they spend outdoors, studying and plan­ ning sites and supervising landscape projects. Salaried employees in both government and landscape architectural firms usually work reg­ ular hours, although they may work overtime to meet a project deadline. Hours of self-em­ ployed landscape architects vary depending on the number of projects on which they are work­ ing. Employment Landscape architects held about 18,000 jobs in 1986. The majority worked for firms that provide landscape architecture services. Others were employed by architectural firms and con­ struction contractors. The Federal Government also employs these workers; most were found in the Departments of Agriculture, Interior, and Defense. About 1 of every 6 landscape archi­ tects was self-employed. Although they are found throughout the country, landscape architects are concentrated in areas with favorable weather conditions such as Florida, California, and Texas. TVaining, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree in landscape architecture, which takes 4 to 5 years, usually is the min­ imum educational requirement for entering the profession. Over the last few years, however, an increasing number have been entering the field with a master’s degree. In 1986, 45 colleges and universities offered 56 undergraduate and graduate programs in landscape architecture that were accredited by the American Society of Landscape Architects. College courses in this field include technical subjects such as surveying, landscape design and construction, computer techniques, struc­ tural design, and city and regional planning. Other courses include history of landscape ar­ chitecture, plant and soil science, geology, de­ sign and color theory, and general manage­ ment. In addition, most students at the undergraduate level take a year of prerequisite courses such as English, mathematics, and so­ cial science. Increasingly, students are par­ ticipating in cooperative work/study programs that combine academic credit with practical work experience. Thirty-nine States require landscape archi­ tects to be licensed. Licensing is based on the UNE (Uniform National Examination) and ad­ mission to the exam usually requires a degree from an accredited school plus 1 to 4 years of work experience. Over a 3-day period, ex­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  aminees are tested on all aspects relating to landscape architecture. In the Federal Government, candidates for entry positions should have a bachelor’s or master’s degree in landscape architecture. In addition, previous work experience is helpful when looking for a job because of keen com­ petition. The Federal Government does not re­ quire its landscape architects to be licensed. Persons planning a career in landscape ar­ chitecture should appreciate nature, be crea­ tive, and have artistic talent. They should take high school courses in mechanical or geo­ metrical drawing, art, botany, and mathemat­ ics. Good written and oral communication skills are important, because these workers must be able to convey their ideas to other professionals and their clients and make presentations before large groups. Those interested in starting their own firm should be skilled in small business management. New graduates usually begin by preparing project drawings and doing other simple draft­ ing work. After gaining experience, they help prepare specifications and construction details and handle other aspects of project design. After 2 or 3 years, they usually can carry a design through all stages of development. After sev­ eral years, they may become associates, and from there they may become partners or open their own offices.  in well-established firms may earn much more than their salaried employees, but their in­ comes may fluctuate with changing business conditions. Those entering the Federal Government with a bachelor’s degree in 1986 started at $14,800 or $18,400 a year, depending on their college records. Those having a master’s degree started at $18,400 or $22,500. In 1986, the average annual salary for all landscape architects in the Federal Government was about $36,600. Because many work for small firms or are self-employed, benefits tend to be less gen­ erous than those of other workers with similar skills who work for large organizations. With the exception of those who are self-employed, however, most landscape architects receive health insurance, paid vacations, and sick leave.  Job Outlook Employment of landscape architects is ex­ pected to increase much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000. De­ spite this growth, most job openings are ex­ pected to result from the need to replace ex­ perienced landscape architects who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. The level of new construction plays an im­ portant role in determining demand for land­ scape architects. Anticipated growth in con­ struction is expected to increase demand for landscape architectural services over the long run. Because of the cyclical nature of the con­ struction industry, however, landscape archi­ tects may be laid off during economic down­ turns. Other factors expected to contribute to the growth of landscape architects are the need to refurbish existing sites and increased city and environmental planning and historic preser­ vation. Although landscape architects are increas­ ingly using computer-aided design, employ­ ment is not expected to be affected because this technology will be used to create more and better designs rather than reduce the demand for landscape architects.  American Society of Landscape Architects, 1733 ” Connecticut Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20009.  Earnings According to limited data, graduates with a bachelor’s degree in landscape architecture usually started at about $18,000 in 1986; those with a master’s degree at about $22,000. Al­ though salaries for experienced landscape ar­ chitects varied by location and experience, they generally earned between $25,000 and $50,000 per year. In addition, those who are partners  Related Occupations Landscape architects use their knowledge of design theory and land use planning to develop a composite landscape project. Others whose work requires similar skills are architects, in­ terior and industrial designers, and urban and regional planners. Sources of Additional Information Additional information, including a list of col­ leges and universities offering accredited pro­ grams in landscape architecture, is available from:  Surveyors (D.O.T. 018.131, .167 except -022, .261, .262-010, .281; 024.061-014; and 184.167-026)  Nature of the Work This statement covers three groups of workers involved with measuring and mapping the earth’s surface. Land surveyors establish of­ ficial land and water boundaries, write descrip­ tions of land for deeds, leases, and other legal documents, and measure construction and min­ eral sites. They are assisted by survey tech­ nicians, who operate surveying instruments and collect information. Mapping scientists and other surveyors collect information for and pre­ pare maps and charts. Land surveyors manage one or more survey parties engaged in measuring distances, direc­ tions, and angles between points and elevations of points, lines, and contours on the earth’s surface. To establish official boundaries, they must be licensed by the State they work in. They plan the fieldwork, select survey refer­ ence points, and determine the precise location of natural and constructed features of the sur­ vey project area. They research legal records and look for evidence of previous boundaries. They record the results of the survey, verify the accuracy of data, and prepare plats, maps, and reports. The information needed by the land surveyor is gathered by a survey party. A typical survey  Engineers, Surveyors, and Architects/63  party is made up of the party chief and several survey technicians and helpers. The party chief, who may be either a land surveyor or a senior survey technician, leads the day-to-day work activities of the party. The party chief is as­ sisted by survey technicians, who adjust and operate surveying instruments such as the theo­ dolite (used to measure horizontal and vertical angles) and electronic distance measuring equipment. Survey technicians also record the data obtained from using these instruments into computers. Other survey technicians hold the vertical rods that the theodolite operator sights on to measure vertical distances. They may also hold measuring tapes and chains if elec­ tronic distance measuring equipment is not used. Survey technicians also compile notes and sketches. Some survey parties include workers who may be considered laborers or helpers rather than survey technicians. They clear brush from sight lines, pound stakes, carry equip­ ment, and perform other less skilled duties. The work of mapping scientists, like that of land surveyors, involves measuring, mapping, and charting the earth’s surface but generally concerns much larger areas. Unlike land sur­ veyors, many mapping scientists work mainly in offices and may seldom or never visit the sites they are mapping. Mapping scientists in­ clude workers in several occupations. Cartog­ raphers prepare maps using information pro­ vided by geodetic surveys, aerial photographs, and satellite data. Photogrammetrists prepare maps and drawings by measuring and inter­ preting aerial photographs, using analytical processes and mathematical formulas. Photo­ grammetrists are able to make detailed maps of areas that are inaccessible or difficult to survey by other methods. Mosaicists and map editors help develop and verify map contents from aerial photographs and other reference sources. Some surveyors perform specialized func­ tions. Geodetic surveyors use special high-ac­ curacy techniques, including satellite obser­ vations, to measure large areas of the earth’s surface. Geophysical prospecting surveyors mark sites for subsurface exploration, usually petroleum related. Marine surveyors survey harbors, rivers, and other bodies of water to determine shorelines, topography of the bot­ tom, water depth, and other features. Working Conditions Surveyors usually work an 8-hour day 5 days a week. Sometimes they work longer hours during the summer months, when weather and light conditions are most suitable for fieldwork. The work of land surveyors and technicians is active and sometimes strenuous. They often stand for long periods and walk long distances or climb hills with heavy packs of instruments and equipment. They also are exposed to all types of weather. Occasionally, they must commute long distances or find temporary housing near the survey site. They also spend considerable time on office duties, such as planning surveys and preparing reports, com­ putations, and maps. Most computations and map drafting are done by using a computer.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  A survey technician uses a theodolite to measure horizontal and vertical angles. Mapping scientists, in contrast, mainly work in offices and usually do not experience the variable working conditions of other surveyors. Employment Surveyors held about 94,000 jobs in 1986. En­ gineering, architectural, and surveying firms employ over one-half of all surveyors. Federal, State, and local government agencies employ about one-fourth. Major Federal Government employers are the U.S. Geological Survey, the Bureau of Land Management, the Army Corps of Engineers, the Forest Service, the National Ocean Survey, and the Defense Mapping Agency. Most surveyors in State and local gov­ ernment agencies work for highway depart­ ments and urban planning and redevelopment agencies. Construction firms, oil and gas ex­ traction companies, and public utilities also employ surveyors. About 8,000 surveyors were self-employed in 1986. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Most persons prepare for surveying work by combining postsecondary school courses in surveying with extensive on-the-job training. Some prepare by obtaining a college degree because some States now require a 4-year de­ gree to be licensed as a surveyor. A few 4year colleges offer bachelor’s degrees specif­ ically in surveying, while many others offer several courses in the field. Junior and com­  munity colleges, technical institutes, and vo­ cational schools offer 1-, 2-, and 3-year pro­ grams in surveying technology. High school students interested in a career in surveying should take courses in algebra, geometry, trigonometry, drafting, mechanical drawing, and computer science. High school graduates with no formal train­ ing in surveying usually start as a member of a survey crew. After several years of on-thejob experience and formal training in survey­ ing—either in an institutional program or from a correspondence school—workers may ad­ vance to survey technician, then to party chief, and finally to licensed surveyor (depending on State licensing requirements). Beginners with postsecondary school train­ ing in surveying can generally start as tech­ nicians. After gaining experience, they may advance through the technician ranks to land surveyor. Promotions to higher level positions often are based on written examinations as well as experience. Cartographers and photogrammetrists usu­ ally have a bachelor’s degree in engineering or a physical science, although it is possible to enter these jobs through experience as a photogrammetric or cartographic technician. Most cartographic and photogrammetry tech­ nicians have had some specialized postsec­ ondary school training. All 50 States license land surveyors. Re­ quirements for licensure vary among the States.  64/Occupational Outlook Handbook  Generally, the quickest route to licensure is a combination of 4 years of college, 2 to 4 years of experience, and passing the State licensing examination. As a prerequisite to licensure, some States now require a bachelor’s degree in surveying or in a closely related field such as civil engineering or forestry with courses in surveying. A few States allow such graduates to take the licensing examination without ex­ perience in the field. In most States, however, persons without a degree may qualify to take the examination after 5 to 12 years of surveying experience. Surveyors should have the ability to visu­ alize objects, distances, sizes, and other ab­ stract forms. Also, because mistakes can be very costly, surveyors must make mathemat­ ical calculations accurately while paying close attention to the smallest detail. Leadership qualities are important for surveyors who su­ pervise others. Members of a survey party must be in good physical condition to work outdoors and carry equipment over difficult terrain. They also need good eyesight, coordination, and hearing to communicate over great distances by hand or voice signals. Job Outlook Employment of surveyors is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2000. In addition to openings   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  arising from growth in the demand for these workers, many will result from the need to replace those who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. The anticipated growth in construction should create additional jobs for surveyors who lay out streets, shopping centers, housing devel­ opments, factories, office buildings, and rec­ reation areas. Construction and improvement of the Nation’s roads and highways also should create new surveying positions. However, em­ ployment may fluctuate from year to year be­ cause construction activity is highly sensitive to changes in economic conditions. Some growth in employment of mapping scientists and other surveyors may occur in private firms; little or no growth is expected in the Federal Government. Earnings In 1986, the median annual earnings for survey technicians who worked full time year round were about $19,800. The middle 50 percent earned between $15,600 and $26,400 a year; 10 percent earned less than $11,400 a year; and 10 percent earned more than $36,200. In 1987, high school graduates with little or no training or experience earned about $10,816 annually at entry level jobs on survey crews with the Federal Government. Those with 1 year of related postsecondary training earned $11,802. Those with an associate degree that  included courses in surveying generally started as instrument assistants with an annual salary of $13,248. The average annual salary for Fed­ eral surveying technicians in 1986 was $18,262. In 1987, persons starting as land surveyors or cartographers with the Federal Government earned $14,822 or $18,358 a year, depending on their qualifications. The average annual sal­ ary for Federal land surveyors in 1986 was $29,900 and, for cartographers, $30,900. Related Occupations Surveying is related to the work of civil en­ gineers and architects, since an accurate survey is the first step in a construction project. Map­ ping science and geodetic surveying are related to the work of geologists and geophysicists, who study the earth’s internal composition, surface, and atmosphere. Sources of Additional Information Information about career opportunities, licen­ sure requirements, and schools that offer train­ ing in surveying is available from: American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, 210 Little Falls St., Falls Church, VA 22046.  General information on careers in photogrammetry is available from: American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 210 Little Falls St.. Falls Church, VA 22046.  Natural, Computer, and Mathematical Scientists Computer, mathematical, and operations research occupations Actuaries (D.O.T. 020.167-010)  Nature of the Work Why do young drivers pay more for automobile insurance than older drivers'? How much should an insurance policy cost? How much should an organization contribute each year to its pen­ sion fund? Answers to these and similar ques­ tions are provided by actuaries, who design insurance and pension plans and keep informed on their operation to make sure that they are maintained on a sound financial basis. Actu­ aries assemble and analyze statistics to cal­ culate probabilities of death, sickness, injury, disability, unemployment, retirement, and property loss from accident, theft, fire, and other hazards. They use this information to determine the expected insured loss. For ex­ ample, they may calculate how many persons who are 21 years old today can be expected to die before age 65—the probability that an in­ sured person might die during this period is a risk to the company. They must make sure that the price charged for the insurance will enable the company to pay all claims and expenses as they occur. Finally, this price must be profit­ able and yet be competitive with other insur­ ance companies. In a similar manner, the ac­ tuary calculates premium rates and determines policy contract provisions for each type of in­ surance offered. Most actuaries specialize in either life and health insurance or property and liability (casualty) insurance; a growing num­ ber specialize in pension plans. To perform their duties effectively, actuaries must keep informed about general economic and social trends and legislative, health, and other developments that may affect insurance practices. Because of their broad knowledge of insurance, company actuaries may work in investment, group underwriting, or pension planning departments. Actuaries in executive positions help determine company policy. In that role, they may be called upon to explain complex technical matters to company exec­ utives, government officials, policyholders, and the public. They may testify before public agencies on proposed legislation affecting the  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  insurance business, for example, or explain intended changes in premium rates or contract provisions. They also may help companies de­ velop plans to enter new lines of business. The small number of actuaries who work for the Federal Government usually deal with a particular insurance or pension program, such as Social Security or life insurance for veterans and members of the Armed Forces. Actuaries in State government are usually employed by State insurance departments that regulate in­ surance companies, oversee the operations of State retirement or pension systems, handle unemployment insurance or workers’ compen­ sation problems, and assess the impact of pro­ posed legislation. They might determine whether the rates charged by an insurance com­ pany are proper or whether an employee bpnefit plan is financially sound. Consulting actuaries provide actuarial ad­ vice for a fee to various clients including in­ surance companies, corporations, hospitals, la­ bor unions, government agencies, and attorneys. Consulting actuaries set up pension and welfare plans, calculate future benefits, and determine the amount of employer contributions. Con­  sulting actuaries may be called upon to testify in court regarding the value of potential lifetime earnings lost by a person who has been disabled or killed in an accident, the current value of future pension benefits in divorce cases, or the calculation of automobile insurance rates. Ac­ tuaries who are enrolled under the provisions of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA) evaluate these pension plans and report on their financial soundness. Working Conditions Actuaries have desk jobs that require no un­ usual physical activity; their offices generally are comfortable and pleasant. They generally work between 35 and 40 hours a week except during busy periods, when overtime may be required, and they may be required to travel to branch offices of their company or to clients. Employment Actuaries held about 9,400 jobs in 1986. Many worked in insurance company headquarters in New York, Hartford, Chicago, Philadelphia, and Boston. Most of these worked for life insurance com-  Actuaries assemble and analyze statistical data to assess the insurer’s risk. 65  66/Occupational Outlook Handbook  panics; others worked for property and liability (casualty) companies. The number of actuaries employed by an insurance company depends on its volume of business and the types of insurance policies it offers. Large companies may employ over 100 actuaries; others, gen­ erally smaller companies, may rely instead on consulting firms, accounting firms, or rating bureaus (associations that supply actuarial data to member companies). Other actuaries work for private organizations administering inde­ pendent pension and welfare plans or for gov­ ernment agencies. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A good educational background for a beginning job in a large life or casualty company is a bachelor’s degree with a major in mathematics or statistics; a degree in actuarial science is even better. Some companies hire applicants with a major in engineering, economics, or business administration, provided the applicant has a working knowledge of mathematics, in­ cluding calculus, probability, and statistics. Courses in accounting, computer science, and insurance also are useful. Companies prefer well-rounded individuals with a liberal arts background, including social science and com­ munication, and a good technical and business background. Although only about 30 colleges and universities offer a degree in actuarial sci­ ence, hundreds of schools offer a degree in mathematics or statistics. A strong background in mathematics is es­ sential for persons interested in a career as an actuary. It is an advantage to pass, while still in school, one or more of the examinations offered by professional actuarial societies. Three societies sponsor programs leading to full professional status in their specialty. The So­ ciety of Actuaries gives 10 actuarial exami­ nations for the life and health insurance and pension field; the Casualty Actuarial Society gives 10 examinations for the property and liability field. Because the first parts of the examination series of each society cover sim­ ilar materials, students need not commit them­ selves to a specialty until they have taken three examinations. These test competence in sub­ jects such as linear algebra, numerical meth­ ods, operations research, probability, calculus, and statistics. These first few examinations help students evaluate their potential as actuaries, and those who pass usually have better op­ portunities for employment and higher starting salaries. The American Society of Pension Actuaries gives seven examinations covering the pension field. Membership status requires the passage of two actuarial exams. Fellowship status re­ quires the passage of three actuarial and two advanced consulting exams. Actuaries are encouraged to complete the entire series of examinations as soon as pos­ sible; completion generally takes from 5 to 10 years. Many students pass two or more actu­ arial examinations before graduating from col­ lege. Examinations are given twice each year. Extensive home study is required to pass the  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  advanced examinations; many actuaries study for several months to prepare for an exami­ nation. Actuaries who complete five exami­ nations in either the life insurance series or the pension series or seven examinations in the casualty series are awarded “associate” mem­ bership in their society. Those who pass an entire series receive full membership and the title “fellow.” Consulting pension actuaries who service private pension plans and certify their solvency must be enrolled by the Joint Board for the Enrollment of Actuaries. Applicants for en­ rollment must meet certain experience and ed­ ucation requirements as stipulated by the Joint Board. Beginning actuaries often rotate among jobs to learn various actuarial operations and dif­ ferent phases of insurance work. At first, they prepare tabulations for actuarial tables or per­ form other simple tasks. As they gain expe­ rience, they may supervise clerks, prepare cor­ respondence and reports, and do research. Advancement to more responsible work as assistant, associate, and chief actuary depends largely on job performance and the number of actuarial examinations passed. Actuaries who have a broad knowledge of the insurance, pen­ sion, and employee benefits fields often ad­ vance to top administrative and executive po­ sitions in underwriting, accounting, or data processing departments. Job Outlook Employment of actuaries is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Most job openings, however, are expected to arise each year to replace actuaries who transfer to other occu­ pations, or retire or stop working for other reasons. Job opportunities should be favorable for college graduates who have passed at least two actuarial examinations while still in school and have a strong mathematical and statistical background. Employment in this occupation is influenced by the volume of insurance sales and pension plans, which should continue to grow through the end of this century. Shifts in the age dis­ tribution of the population will result in a large increase in the number of people with estab­ lished careers and family responsibilities. This is the group that traditionally has accounted for the bulk of private insurance sales. As people live longer, they draw health and pension benefits for a longer period, and more actuaries are needed to recalculate the proba­ bilities of such factors as death, sickness, and length of retirement. As insurance companies branch out into more than one kind of insurance coverage, more actuaries will be needed to establish rates. Growth in new forms of pro­ tection, such as dental, legal, and kidnap in­ surance, also will stimulate demand. The in­ crease in the number of mergers and acquisitions and the passage of legislation on tax reform will spur demand for actuaries to evaluate the financial condition and investment portfolios of firms. As more States pass competitive rat­ ing laws, many companies that previously re­  lied on rating bureaus for actuarial data may create their own actuarial departments or use the services of consulting actuaries. The liability of companies for damage re­ sulting from their products has received much attention in recent years. Actuaries will con­ tinue to be involved in the development of product liability insurance, as well as medical malpractice and workers’ compensation cov­ erage. Insurance coverage is considered a necessity by most individuals and businesses, regardless of economic conditions. Therefore, actuaries are unlikely to be laid off during a recession. Earnings In 1986, new college graduates entering the life insurance field without having passed any actuarial exams averaged about $19,000$24,000, according to estimates by the Society of Actuaries. Beginners who had completed the first exam received between $21,000 and $25,000, and those who had passed the second exam averaged between $23,000 and $26,000, depending on geographic location. Insurance companies and consulting firms give merit increases to actuaries as they gain experience and pass examinations. Actuaries who became associates in 1986 averaged be­ tween $32,000 and $45,000 a year; actuaries who became fellows during that year averaged between $44,000 and $55,000. Fellows with additional years of experience can earn sub­ stantially more—top actuarial executives re­ ceived salaries of $60,000 a year and higher. Related Occupations Actuaries assemble and analyze statistics in their day-to-day work. Other workers whose jobs involve similar skills include mathema­ ticians, statisticians, economists, financial an­ alysts, and engineering analysts. Sources of Additional Information For facts about actuarial qualifications and op­ portunities, contact: American Academy of Actuaries, 1720 I St. NW., 7th Floor, Washington, DC 20006. American Society of Pension Actuaries, 2029 K St. NW., 4th Floor, Washington, DC 20006. Casualty Actuarial Society, One Penn Plaza, 250 West 34th St., New York, NY 10119. Society of Actuaries, 500 Park Blvd., Suite 440, Itasca, IL 60143.  Computer Systems Analysts (D.O.T. 012.167-066; 020.062-010, .067-010, and .224­ 010; and 109.067-010)  Nature of the Work Systems analysts plan and develop methods for computerizing business and scientific tasks or for improving computer systems already in use. They may work for the organization that wants to install a system or for a consulting firm that develops systems under contract.  Natural, Computer, and Mathematical Scientists/67  Analysts begin an assignment by discussing the data processing problem with managers or specialists to determine the exact nature of the problem and to break it down into its com­ ponent parts. If a retail chain wishes to com­ puterize its inventory system, for example, sys­ tems analysts will determine what information must be collected, how it is to be processed, and the type and frequency of reports to be produced. After they have defined the goals of the system, they use techniques such as math­ ematical model building, sampling, and cost accounting to plan the system. Once a design for the system has been de­ veloped, systems analysts prepare charts and diagrams that describe it in terms that managers and other users can understand. They also may prepare a cost-benefit and retum-on-investment analysis to help management decide whether the proposed system is satisfactory. If the system is accepted, systems analysts may determine what computer hardware and software will be needed to set up the system. They also prepare specifications for program­ mers to follow and work with them to “debug,” or eliminate errors from the system. (The work of computer programmers is described else­ where in the Handbook.) The analyst also would design any forms required to collect data and distribute information. Because the possible uses for computers are so varied and complex, analysts usually spec­ ialize in either business, scientific, or engi­ neering applications. Often, they have training or experience in the field in which they develop computer systems. Some analysts improve systems already in use by developing better procedures or adapt­ ing the system to handle additional types of data. Others do research, called advanced sys­ tems design, to devise new methods of systems analysis. A growing number of systems analysts are involved with connecting all the computers in an individual office, department, or establish­ ment. This “networking” has many variations; they may be called local area networks, wide area networks, or multiuser systems. A primary goal of networking is to allow users of micro­ computers (also known as personal computers or PC’s) to retrieve data from a mainframe computer and use it on their machine. This connection also allows data to be entered into the mainframe from the PC. Working Conditions Systems analysts work in offices in comfortable surroundings. They usually work about 40 hours a week—the same as other professional and office workers. Occasionally, however, eve­ ning or weekend work may be necessary to meet deadlines. Employment Systems analysts held about 331,000 jobs in 1986. Most systems analysts work in urban areas for data processing service firms, gov­ ernment agencies, insurance companies, banks, and firms that manufacture durable goods. Jobs for systems analysts are found through­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  iiiii  y  y  Systems analysts integrate hardware and software into a computer system. out the country. Compared to the total work force, a larger proportion of system analysts work in the Northeast and West, reflecting the concentration of computer manufacturing and data processing service firms in these regions. A small but growing number of systems an­ alysts are employed on a temporary basis. For example, a company installing a new computer system may need the services of several sys­ tems analysts just to get the system running. Because not all of them would be needed once the system is functioning, the company might contract either directly with the systems ana­ lysts themselves or with a temporary help agency. The company would contract for their services for the duration of the contract; tem­ porary jobs usually are for several months at least, and some last up to 2 years or more. TVaining, Other Qualifications, and Advancement There is no universally accepted way of pre­ paring for a job as a systems analyst because employers’ preferences depend on the work being done. However, college graduates al­ most always are sought for these jobs; and, for some of the more complex jobs, persons with graduate degrees are preferred. Employers usu­ ally want analysts with a background in ac­ counting or business management for work in a business environment, while a background in the physical sciences, applied mathematics, or engineering is preferred for work in scien­ tifically oriented organizations. Many employ­ ers seek applicants who have a degree in com­ puter science, information science, computer information systems, or data processing. Re­ gardless of college major, employers look for people who are familiar with programming lan­ guages. Courses in computer concepts, sys­ tems analysis, and data base management sys­ tems offer good preparation for a job in this field. Prior work experience is very important. The majority of persons entering this occupation  transfer from another occupation, such as en­ gineer, manager, or computer programmer. Systems analysts must be able to think log­ ically, have good communication skills, and like working with ideas and people. They often deal with a number of tasks simultaneously. The ability to concentrate and pay close atten­ tion to detail also is important. Although sys­ tems analysts often work independently, they also work in teams on large projects. They must be able to communicate effectively with tech­ nical personnel, such as programmers and managers, as well as with people who have no computer background. Technological advances come so rapidly in the computer field that continuous study is nec­ essary to keep skills up to date. Training usu­ ally takes the form of 1- and 2-week courses offered by employers and software vendors. Additional training may come from profes­ sional development seminars offered by professional computing societies. Certification is an indication of experience and professional competence. The designations Certified Data Processor and Certified Systems Professional are conferred by the Institute for Certification of Computer Professionals upon candidates who have 5 years of experience and who have passed a five-part examination. Systems analysts may be promoted to senior or lead systems analysts after several years of experience. Those who show leadership ability also can advance to jobs as managers of data processing departments. Systems analysts with several years of experience may start their own computer consulting firms. Job Outlook Employment of systems analysts is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000. The de­ mand for systems analysts is expected to rise as advances in technology lead to new appli­ cations for computers. Factory and office au­ tomation, advances in telecommunications  68/Occupational Outlook Handbook  technology, and scientific research are just a few areas where use of computer systems will expand. In addition, falling prices of computer hardware and software are inducing more small businesses to computerize their operations, thus stimulating demand for systems analysts. De­ spite this rapid growth in employment, most job openings will result from the need to re­ place workers who leave the occupation—al­ though a smaller proportion of systems analysts than of all professional workers leave their oc­ cupation each year. Most of the systems an­ alysts who leave the occupation transfer to other jobs such as manager or engineer. College graduates who have had courses in computer programming, systems analysis, and other data processing areas as well as training or experience in an applied field should enjoy the best prospects for employment. Persons without a college degree and college graduates unfamiliar with data processing will face stiff competition from the large number of expe­ rienced workers seeking jobs as systems ana­ lysts. Earnings Median annual earnings of systems analysts who worked full time in 1986 were about $32,800. The middle 50 percent earned be­ tween $25,600 and $41,300 a year. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $19,200; the high­ est tenth, more than $51,300. In the Federal Government, the entrance sal­ ary for recent college graduates with a bach­ elor’s degree was about $14,800 a year in 1987. The average annual salary for systems analysts in the Federal Government was about $32,700 in 1986. Systems analysts working in the Northeast had the highest earnings and those in the Mid­ west, the lowest. Salaries tend to be highest in mining and public utilities and lowest in finance, insurance, and real estate. Related Occupations Other workers who use logic and reasoning ability to solve problems are programmers, fi­ nancial analysts, urban planners, engineers, mathematicians, operations research analysts, scientists, and actuaries. Sources of Additional Information Further information about the occupation of systems analyst is available from; Association for Systems Management, 24587 Bagley Rd., Cleveland, OH 44138.  Mathematicians (D.O.T. 020.067-014, .187-018; 199.267-014)  Nature of the Work Mathematicians work in one of the oldest and most basic sciences. Mathematicians today are engaged in a wide variety of activities, ranging from the creation of new theories and tech­ niques to the translation of economic, scien­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ■  ....  r  •« T  / ■ ^ 1 f  M  ’-‘iJ  .. .'■VV's? -V ; I: II  l:jj : ; ■ aiisi  nitii  JlilUj  n Mathematicians develop quantitative models of economic interrelationships. tific, and managerial problems into mathe­ matical terms. Mathematical work falls into two broad classes: Theoretical (pure) mathematics; and applied mathematics. However, these classes are not sharply defined and often overlap. Theoretical mathematicians advance math­ ematical science by developing new principles and new relationships between existing prin­ ciples of mathematics. Although they seek to increase basic knowledge without necessarily considering its practical use, this pure and ab­ stract knowledge has been instrumental in pro­ ducing many scientific and engineering achievements. Applied mathematicians use mathematics to develop theories and techniques, such as math­ ematical modeling, to solve practical problems in business, government, engineering, and the natural and social sciences. For example, they may analyze the mathematical aspects of launching communications satellites, the ef­ fects of new drugs on disease, the aerodynamic characteristics of objects, and the distribution costs of businesses. Applied mathematicians use computers extensively to solve complex problems and to process large amounts of data. Much work in applied mathematics, how­ ever, is carried on by persons other than math­ ematicians. In fact, the number of workers us­ ing mathematical techniques is many times greater than the number actually designated as mathematicians. Working Conditions Mathematicians working for government agen­ cies and private firms have structured work schedules. They may work alone with only computers, calculators, and mathematical for­ mulas as company. Or they may be an integral part of a research team that includes engineers, computer scientists, and others. Deadlines, overtime work, special requests for informa­ tion, and travel to attend seminars or confer­ ences may be part of their jobs.  Mathematics faculty have flexible work schedules, dividing their time among teaching, research, consulting, and administrative re­ sponsibilities. Employment Mathematicians held about 20,000 jobs in 1986. In addition, about 29,000 persons held math­ ematics faculty positions in colleges and uni­ versities. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Most mathematicians worked in the govern­ ment—primarily Federal—and in service and manufacturing industries. The Department of Defense is the primary Federal employer of mathematicians. Smaller numbers work for the National Aeronautics and Space Administra­ tion and the Department of Commerce. Major employers within the services sector were mis­ cellaneous business services, including re­ search and development laboratories; educa­ tional services; computer and data processing services; noncommercial educational and re­ search organizations; and engineering, archi­ tectural, and surveying services. Within man­ ufacturing, the aircraft and office, computing, and accounting machine industries provided the most jobs. Many mathematicians also worked for banks, insurance companies, and public utilities. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement An advanced degree is the preferred require­ ment for beginning teaching jobs, as well as for most research positions. However, in most 4-year colleges and universities, the Ph.D. de­ gree is necessary for full faculty status. The master’s degree is generally the minimum re­ quirement for teaching jobs in 2-year and some small 4-year colleges. A bachelor’s degree is considered adequate preparation for some jobs in private industry and government. Individuals with this back­ ground usually assist senior mathematicians by  Natural, Computer, and Mathematical Scientists/69  performing computations and solving less ad­ vanced problems in applied mathematics. The majority of bachelor’s degree holders work in related fields such as computer science, where employment opportunities are rapidly expand­ ing. However, an advanced degree is a pre­ requisite for the more responsible positions. Many research positions require the doctorate. The bachelor’s degree in mathematics is of­ fered by most colleges and universities. Math­ ematics courses usually required for a degree are analytical geometry, calculus, differential equations, linear algebra, probability theory and statistics, mathematical analysis, numer­ ical analysis, modem algebra, and mathemat­ ical logic. Many colleges and universities urge or even require students majoring in mathe­ matics to take several courses in a field that uses or is closely related to mathematics, such as computer science, engineering, operations research, a physical science, or economics. A double major in mathematics and computer sci­ ence or mathematics and statistics is particu­ larly desirable. A prospective college mathe­ matics student should take as many mathematics courses as possible while in high school. About 470 colleges and universities offer the master’s degree in mathematics; over 200 also offer the Ph.D. In graduate school, students conduct research and take advanced courses, usually in a specific field of mathematics such as algebra, mathematical analysis, or geome­ try. For work in applied mathematics, training in the field in which the mathematics will be used is very important. Fields in which applied mathematics is used extensively include phys­ ics, actuarial science, engineering, and oper­ ations research; of increasing importance are computer and information science, business and industrial management, economics, statistics, chemistry and life sciences, and the behavioral sciences. Mathematicians should have substantial knowledge of computer programming since most complex mathematical computation is done by computer. Mathematicians need good reasoning abil­ ity, persistence, and the ability to apply basic principles to new types of problems. They must be able to communicate well since they often need to discuss the problem to be solved with nonmathematicians. Job Outlook Employment of mathematicians is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Most job openings, however, will arise from the need to replace experienced mathematicians who transfer to other occupations, or retire or leave the labor force for other reasons. The shortage of Ph.D.’s in mathematics is expected to continue, resulting in favorable employment opportunities. In industry, holders of the doctorate in applied mathematics have better employment prospects than their theo­ retically oriented colleagues. Holders of the doctorate in theoretical mathematics should continue to have good opportunities for teach­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ing and research jobs in colleges and univer­ sities. Industry and government agencies will need mathematicians for work in operations re­ search, mathematical modeling, aerodynam­ ics, numerical analysis, computer systems de­ sign and programming, information and data processing, applied mathematical physics, ro­ botics, market research, commercial surveys, and as consultants in industrial laboratories. Holders of a master’s degree in mathematics may have difficulty finding a job in college teaching or theoretical research. However, there will be many openings in related areas such as computer science and data processing. Bachelor’s degree holders in mathematics with a strong background—preferably a sec­ ond major—in computer science should have very good opportunities in computerized data processing activities in industry. Those who meet State certification requirements may be­ come high school mathematics teachers. (For additional information, see the statement on secondary school teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Earnings According to a 1986 College Placement Coun­ cil Survey, starting salary offers for mathe­ matics graduates with a bachelor’s degree av­ eraged about $24,400 a year; for those with a master’s degree, $30,600; and for new grad­ uates having the Ph.D., $39,500. Starting sal­ aries were generally higher in industry than in government or educational institutions. In the Federal Government in 1987, the av­ erage starting salary for mathematicians having the bachelor’s degree and no experience was either $14,800 or $18,400 a year, depending on their college records. Those with the mas­ ter’s degree averaged $22,500 or $27,200; and persons having the Ph.D. degree started at either $27,200 or $32,600. The average salary for all mathematicians in the Federal Government was about $38,100 in 1986. According to a 1985 survey by the National Science Foundation, the median annual salary of mathematicians with a doctoral degree was $41,800; in business and industry, $51,200; in educational institutions, $40,200; and in the Federal Government, $48,300. Related Occupations A degree in mathematics generally qualifies one to enter related occupations such as ac­ tuary, statistician, computer programmer, sys­ tems analyst, and operations research analyst. In addition, a strong background in mathe­ matics facilitates employment in fields such as engineering, economics, finance, and genetics. Sources of Additional Information Several brochures are available that give facts about the field of mathematics, including career opportunities, professional training, and col­ leges and universities with degree programs. Seeking Employment in the Mathematical Sciences is available for $2 from: American Mathematical Society, P.O. Box 6248, Providence, RI 02940.  Professional Opportunities in Mathematics is available for $2 from; Mathematical Association of America, 1529 18th St. NW., Washington, DC 20036.  For specific information on careers in ap­ plied mathematics, contact: Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 1400 Architects Building, 117 S. 17th St., Philadelphia, PA 19103.  For information on a career as a mathemat­ ical statistician, contact; Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 3401 Investment Blvd., No. 7, Hayward, CA 94545.  Information on Federal job opportunities is available from area offices of the State em­ ployment service and the U.S. Office of Per­ sonnel Management or from Federal Job In­ formation Centers located in various large cities throughout the country. For information about careers in noncollegiate academic institutions, contact: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1906 Association Dr., Reston, VA 22091.  Operations Research Analysts (D.O.T. 020.067-018)  Nature of the Work Each organization has its own way of doing things. But is it the best way? Operations re­ search analysts help organizations operate in the most efficient and effective manner. They accomplish this by applying the scientific method and mathematical principles to orga­ nizational problems so that managers can eval­ uate policy alternatives and choose the course of action that suits them best. Operations research analysts are problem solvers. The problems they tackle are for the most part those encountered in businesses or large organizations: Inventory control, person­ nel schedules, forecasting, resource allocation, product mix, and distribution systems. The method they use generally revolves about a mathematical model or set of equations that explains how things happen within the repre­ sented system. Models are simplified repre­ sentations that enable the analyst to break down systems into their component parts, assign nu­ merical values to each component, and ex­ amine the mathematical relationships between them. These values can be altered to determine what will happen to the system under different sets of circumstances. Different types of models include simulation, linear programming, and game theory models. Because many of these techniques have been computerized, analysts need to be able to write computer programs or use existing ones. The type of problem they usually handle varies by industry. For example, an analyst in a bank might deal with branch location, check processing, and personnel schedules, while an  70/Occupational Outlook Handbook  they work on projects that are of immediate interest to management. In these circum­ stances, analysts often are under pressure to meet deadlines and may work more than a 40hour week. The work is sedentary in nature, and very little physical strength or stamina is required. Employment Operations research analysts held about 38,000 jobs in 1986. Operations research analysts are employed in most industries. Major employers include manufacturers of chemicals, machin­ ery, and transportation equipment; firms pro­ viding transportation and telephone commu­ nications services; public utilities; banks; insurance agencies; and government agencies at all levels. Some analysts work for manage­ ment consulting agencies that develop opera­ tions research applications for firms that do not have an in-house operations research staff. Most analysts in the Federal Government work for the Armed Forces.  I . JS/'  Working to improve productivity and performance is the primary goal. analyst employed by a hospital would concen­ trate on a different set of problems—sched­ uling admissions, managing patient flow, as­ signing shifts, monitoring use of pharmacy and laboratory services, and forecasting demand for new hospital services. The role of the operations research analyst varies according to the structure and manage­ ment philosophy of the firm, and the operations research function is incorporated into organi­ zations in a variety of ways. Some firms cen­ tralize operations research in one department; others disperse operations research personnel throughout all divisions of the firm. Moreover, some operations research analysts specialize in one type of application; others are generalists. The degree of supervision also varies by organizational structure. In some organiza­ tions, analysts have a great deal of professional autonomy; other analysts are more closely su­ pervised. Operations research analysts work closely with managers, who have a wide va­ riety of support needs, and occasionally ana­ lysts must adapt their work to reflect these requirements. Regardless of the industry or structure of the organization, operations research entails a sim­ ilar set of procedures. Managers begin the pro­ cess by describing the symptoms of a problem to the analyst. The analyst then defines the problem, which sometimes is general in nature and at other times specific. For example, an operations research analyst for an auto man­ ufacturer may want to determine the best in­ ventory level for each of the materials for a new production process or, more specifically, to determine just how much steel should be stocked. After analysts define the problem, they learn everything they can about it. They typically begin by breaking down the problem into its component parts. They often create flow charts to pinpoint possible bottlenecks in a process. After this is done, they gather information about each part of the process. Usually this involves  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  consulting a wide variety of personnel. To de­ termine the most efficient amount of steel to be kept on hand, for example, operations re­ search analysts might talk with engineers about production levels; discuss purchasing arrange­ ments with industrial buyers; and examine data on storage costs provided by the accounting department. With this information in hand, the operations research analyst is ready to select the most appropriate analytical technique. For some problems, there may be several techniques that could be used. For other problems, there may be one standard model or technique that is used in all instances. In a few cases, the analyst must construct an original model to examine and explain the system. In almost all cases, the selected model must be modified to reflect the specific circumstances of the situation. A model for the inventory of steel, for ex­ ample, might take into account the amount of steel required to produce a unit of output, the projected level of output, the cost of steel, and storage costs. The analyst plugs in values for these variables and runs the program to produce the best inventory level consistent with these assumptions. The analyst would probably make several runs of the model in order to ascertain the best inventory level under different sets of assumptions. At this point, the operations research analyst presents the final work to management and may make a recommendation. Flowever, the man­ ager is given all of the runs and may request additional runs based on different assumptions. After reviewing the work, managers assume responsibility for the final decision. Once a decision has been reached, the analyst works with the staff to ensure successful implemen­ tation.  Working Conditions Operations research analysts generally work regular hours in an office environment. Usually  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Employers look for college graduates who have a strong background in quantitative methods, including computer programming. In 1986, about 120 colleges and universities offered de­ gree programs in operations research and re­ lated disciplines. Employers generally prefer applicants with a graduate degree in operations research or management science, business administration, computer science, or other quantitative disciplines. But those with a bach­ elor’s degree in operations research, mathe­ matics, statistics, economics, or other majors with a heavy emphasis on quantitative methods are considered fully qualified for entry level positions. Regardless of educational background or prior work experience, the employer usually plays a large role in the training process. New workers typically participate in on-the-job training programs—working closely with ex­ perienced workers until they become profi­ cient. Generally they help senior analysts gather information and run computer programs. The organization also sponsors skill improvement training for experienced workers—helping them keep up with new developments in operations research techniques as well as advances in computer science. Some analysts attend col­ lege and university classes on these subjects. Operations research analysts must be able to think logically and work well with people. Thus, employers prefer workers with good oral and written communication skills. The computer is an important tool for quantitative analysis, and programming experience in the scientific lan­ guages (Pascal and Fortran) is useful. Beginning analysts usually do routine work under the close supervision of experienced an­ alysts. As they gain knowledge and experience, they are assigned more complex tasks, with greater autonomy to design models and solve problems. Operations research analysts ad­ vance by assuming positions as technical spe­ cialists or supervisors. The skills acquired by  Natural, Computer, and Mathematical Scientists/71  operations research analysts are useful for up­ per level jobs in an organization, and experi­ enced analysts with leadership potential may leave the field altogether to assume nontech­ nical managerial or administrative positions.  Job Outlook Employment of operations research analysts is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000 due to the increasing importance of quantitative analysis in decisionmaking. In addition to jobs arising from the increased demand for these workers, many openings will occur each year as workers transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force altogether. More and more organizations are using op­ erations research techniques to improve pro­ ductivity and reduce costs. This reflects grow­ ing acceptance of a systematic approach to decisionmaking as well as more affordable computers, which give even small firms access to operations research applications. The inter­ play of these two trends should greatly stim­ ulate demand for these workers in the years ahead. Much of the job growth is expected to occur in the trade and service sectors, where firms have been slow to adopt operations research methods. Increasingly, however, firms in these sectors are coming to recognize that quanti­ tative analysis can achieve dramatic improve­ ments in operating efficiency and profitability. More retailers, for example, are using opera­ tions research to design store layouts, select the best store location, analyze customer char­ acteristics, and control inventory, among other things. Motel chains are beginning to utilize operations research analysis to improve their efficiency. For example, they analyze auto­ mobile traffic patterns and customer attitudes to determine location, size, and style of new motels. Firms in other service industries also are beginning to hire operations research an­ alysts, and this trend is expected to continue. Like other management support functions, op­ erations research is spread by its own success. When one firm in an industry increases pro­ ductivity by adopting a new procedure, its competitors usually follow. This competitive pressure will contribute to demand for opera­ tions research analysts. Demand should be strong in the manufac­ turing sector as firms expand existing opera­ tions research staffs in the face of growing foreign competition. More and more manu­ facturers are using mathematical models to study parts of the organization for the first time. For example, analysts will be needed to determine the best way to distribute finished products and to find out where sales offices should be based. In addition, increasing factory automation will require more operations research analysts to alter existing models or develop new ones for production layout, robotics installation, work schedules, and inventory control. Little change is expected in the number of operations research analysts working for the Federal Government.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Earnings Median annual earnings for operations research analysts were about $32,000 a year in 1986; the middle 50 percent earned between $25,700 and $41,400 annually. The top 10 percent earned over $51,700; the bottom 10 percent earned less than $20,800 a year. In the Federal Government, the starting an­ nual salary for operations research analysts was about $14,800 in 1987. Candidates with a su­ perior academic record could begin at $ 18,400. Operations research analysts employed by the Federal Government averaged $37,400 a year in 1986. Related Occupations Operations research analysts apply mathemat­ ical principles to industrial problems. Workers in other occupations that stress quantitative analysis include computer scientists, applied mathematicians, statisticians, and economists. Sources of Additional Information Information on career opportunities for oper­ ations research analysts and a booklet, Edu­ cational Programs in Operations Research, are available from: The Operations Research Society of America, Mount Royal and Guilford Ave., Baltimore, MD 21202.  For information on careers in the Armed Forces and Department of Defense, contact: Military Operations Research Society. 101 South Whiting St., Suite 202, Alexandria, VA 22304.  Statisticians (D.O.T. 020.067-022, ,167-026)  Nature of the Work Statistics deals with the collection, analysis, and presentation of numerical data. Statisti­ cians design, carry out, and interpret the nu­ merical results of surveys and experiments. In doing so, they apply their knowledge of sta­ tistical methods to a particular subject area, such as biology, economics, engineering, med­ icine, or psychology. They may use statistical techniques to predict population growth or eco­ nomic conditions, develop quality control tests for manufactured products, assess the nature of environmental problems, analyze legal and social problems, or help business managers and government officials make decisions and eval­ uate the results of new programs. Often statisticians are able to obtain accurate information about a group of people or things by surveying a small portion, called a sample, of the group. For example, to determine the size of the total audience, television rating ser­ vices ask only a few thousand families, rather than all viewers, what programs they watch. Statisticians decide where and how to get the data, determine the type and size of the sample group, and develop the survey questionnaire or reporting form. They also prepare instruc­ tions for workers who will collect and tabulate the data. Statisticians use computers exten­  sively to process large amounts of data for statistical modeling and graphic analysis. Since statistics are used in so many areas, it sometimes is difficult to distinguish statis­ ticians from specialists in other fields who use statistics. For example, a statistician working with data on economic conditions may have the title of economist. Working Conditions Statisticians usually work regular hours in of­ fices. Some statisticians may travel occasion­ ally to supervise or set up a survey, or to gather statistical data. Some may have fairly repetitive tasks, while others may have a variety of tasks, such as in designing experiments. Employment Statisticians held about 18.000 jobs in 1986. Most of these jobs were in industry, primarily in manufacturing, finance, and insurance com­ panies and in business service establishments such as consultants’ offices. The remaining jobs were in government, primarily at the Federal level. Federally employed statisticians were concentrated in the Departments of Commerce, Agriculture, Health and Human Services, De­ fense, and Labor. Others worked in hospitals, colleges and universities, and nonprofit organ­ izations. Although statisticians work in all parts of the country, most are in metropolitan areas such as New York; Washington, D.C.; and Los Angeles-Long Beach. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree with a major in statistics or mathematics is the minimum educational requirement for many beginning jobs in sta­ tistics. For other entry level statistical jobs, a bachelor’s degree with a major in an applied field such as economics or a life science and a minor in statistics is preferable. Teaching and research positions in institutions of higher ed­ ucation and some positions in private industry require a graduate degree in statistics. Over 60 colleges and universities offered bachelor’s degrees in statistics in 1986. Many other schools also offered degrees in mathe­ matics, operations research, psychology, and other fields which included a sufficient number of courses in statistics to qualify graduates for beginning positions. Required subjects for sta­ tistics majors include mathematics through dif­ ferential and integral calculus, statistical meth­ ods, and probability theory. Due to the increasing use of computers for statistical ap­ plications, a strong background in computer science is highly recommended; a double major in statistics and computer science is particularly desirable. For positions involving quality con­ trol, training in engineering or physical science is desirable. A background in biological or health science is useful in positions involving the preparation and testing of pharmaceutical products. For many market research, business analysis, and forecasting jobs, courses in eco­ nomics and business administration are help­ ful.  72/Occupational Outlook Handbook  ernment. Those who meet State certification requirements may become high school statis­ tics teachers, a newly emerging field. (For ad­ ditional information, see the statement on sec­ ondary school teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Master’s degree holders in statistics with a strong background in computer science should have very good employment opportunities as statisticians in computerized data processing activities and in research, particularly in private industry. Some may find teaching positions in junior colleges and small 4-year colleges. Ph.D.’s in statistics have excellent employ­ ment prospects, especially in large corpora­ tions and in colleges and universities—which increasingly are establishing separate depart­ ments of statistics or expanding them.  Statisticians analyze changes over time. In 1986, over 100 universities offered a mas­ ter’s degree program in statistics, and about 80 offered a doctoral degree program. Many other schools also offered graduate level courses in applied statistics for students majoring in bi­ ology, business, economics, education, engi­ neering, psychology, and other fields. Ac­ ceptance into graduate statistics programs does not require an undergraduate degree in statistics although a good mathematics background is essential. Beginning statisticians who have only the bachelor’s degree often spend much of their time doing routine work supervised by an ex­ perienced statistician. With experience, they may advance to positions of greater technical and supervisory responsibility. However, op­ portunities for promotion are best for those with advanced degrees. Job Outlook Employment opportunities for persons who combine training in statistics with knowledge of computer science or a field of application— such as biology, economics, or engineering— generally are expected to be favorable through the year 2000. Employment of statisticians is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations. Most openings are ex­ pected to result from the need to replace ex­ perienced statisticians who transfer to other occupations, or retire or leave the labor force for other reasons.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Private industry will require increasing num­ bers of statisticians to monitor productivity and quality in the manufacture of various products including pharmaceuticals, motor vehicles, chemicals, and food products. For example, pharmaceutical firms will need more statisti­ cians to assess the safety and effectiveness of the rapidly expanding number of drugs. In an effort to meet growing competition, motor ve­ hicle manufacturers will need more statisticians to monitor the quality of automobiles, trucks, and their components. Statisticians with knowledge of engineering and the physical sci­ ences will find jobs working with scientists and engineers in research and development. Busi­ ness firms will rely more heavily than in the past on statisticians to forecast sales, analyze business conditions, modernize accounting procedures, and help solve management prob­ lems. In addition, sophisticated statistical ser­ vices will increasingly be contracted out to consulting firms. Federal, State, and local government agen­ cies will need statisticians in fields such as agriculture, demography, consumer and pro­ ducer surveys, transportation, social security, health, education, energy conservation, and environmental quality control. Among graduates with a bachelor’s degree in statistics, those with a strong background in mathematics and computer science should have the best prospects of finding jobs related to their field of study in private industry or gov­  Earnings In the Federal Government in 1987, the average starting salary of statisticians who had the bachelor’s degree and no experience was 514,800 or $18,400 a year, depending on their college grades. Beginning statisticians with the master’s degree averaged $22,500 or $27,200. Those with the Ph.D. began at $27,200 or $32,600. The average annual salary for stat­ isticians in the Federal Government was about $39,400 in 1986. According to a 1985 survey by the National Science Foundation, the median annual salary of statisticians with a doctoral degree was about $43,700; in business and industry, $43,900; in educational institutions, $42,200; and in the Federal Government, $47,100. Salaries in private industry were generally lower than those in the Federal Government, according to the limited data available. Related Occupations People in numerous occupations work with sta­ tistics. Among them are actuaries, computer programmers, computer systems analysts, ed­ ucators, engineers, environmental scientists, financial analysts, health scientists, informa­ tion scientists, life scientists, mathematicians, operations researchers, physical scientists, and social scientists. Sources of Additional Information For information about career opportunities in statistics, contact: American Statistical Association, 1429 Duke St., Alexandria, VA 22314.  For information on a career as a mathemat­ ical statistician, contact: Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 3401 Investment Blvd., No. 7, Hayward, CA 94545.  Information on Federal job opportunities is available from area offices of the State em­ ployment service and the U.S. Office of Per­ sonnel Management or from Federal Job In­ formation Centers located in various large cities throughout the country. For information about careers in noncollegiate academic institutions, contact: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 1906 Association Dr., Reston, VA 22091.  Life scientists Agricultural Scientists (D.O.T. 040.061-010, -014, -018, -038, -042, and -058: 041.061-014, -018, -046, and -082, and .081)  Nature of the Work The work done by agricultural scientists has played an important part in the Nation's sharply rising agricultural productivity. Agricultural scientists study farm crops and animals and develop ways of improving their quantity and quality. They look for ways to increase yields with less labor, control pests and weeds more safely and effectively, and conserve soil and water. Agricultural science is closely related to bio­ logical science, and agricultural scientists use the principles of biology and other sciences to solve problems in agriculture. They often work with biological scientists on basic biological research and in applying to agriculture the ad­ vances in knowledge brought about by bio­ technology. Many agricultural scientists manage or ad­ minister research and development programs or manage marketing or production operations in companies that produce food products or agricultural chemicals, supplies, and machin­ ery. Many do research and development. Some agricultural scientists are consultants to busi­ ness firms or to government. Agricultural scientists usually specialize in one of the following areas. Agronomists (D.O.T. 040.061-010) study how field crops such as com, wheat, and cotton grow. They improve their quality and yield by developing new growth methods and by controlling dis­ eases, pests, and weeds. Some agronomists specialize in one crop or crop problem. Animal scientists (D.O.T. 040.061-014) do research on the selection, breeding, feeding, management, and health of domestic farm an­ imals. Dairy scientists (D.O.T. 040.061-018) and poultry scientists (D.O.T. 040.061-042) con­ duct research on the selection, breeding, feed­ ing, and management of dairy cattle and poul­ try. Food technologists (D.O.T. 041.081-010) study the chemical, physical, and biological nature of food to learn how to safely process, preserve, package, distribute, and store it. Some develop new products and others insure quality standards. Horticulturists (D.O.T. 040.061-038) work with fruit, vegetable, greenhouse, and nursery crops and ornamental plants. They seek im­ proved quality, yield, resistance to disease, and adaptability. Soil scientists (D.O.T. 040.061-058) study soil characteristics, map soil types, and deter­ - mine the best types of crops for each soil. They study the chemical and physical characteristics of soils and their responses to fertilizers, tillage practices, and crop rotation.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ”  .  ■  IteHiiSy  Agricultural scientists examine flowers of experimental sorghum Animal breeders (D.O.T. 041.061-014) and plant breeders (D.O.T. 041.061-082) select and breed plants and animals to develop and improve their economic or esthetic character­ istics. Entomologists (D.O.T. 041.061-046) study insects and their relation to plant and animal life. Apiculturists (D.O.T. 041.061-018) study the culture and breeding of bees. Working Conditions Agricultural scientists generally work regular hours in offices and laboratories. Some agri­ cultural scientists spend much time outdoors conducting research on farms or agricultural research stations.  Employment Agricultural scientists held over 28,000 jobs in 1986. In addition, about 18,000 persons held agricultural science faculty positions in col­ leges and universities. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Over one-third of all agricultural scientists work for Federal, State, or local governments. Over one-quarter worked for the Federal Gov­ ernment in 1986, mostly in the Department of Agriculture. In addition, large numbers worked for State governments at State agricultural col­ leges or agricultural research stations. Some worked for agricultural service companies; oth­ ers for seed companies, wholesale distributors, and food products companies. About 4,000 73  74/Occupational Outlook Handbook  agricultural scientists were self-employed in 1986, mainly as consultants. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Training requirements for agricultural scien­ tists depend on the specialty and the type of work performed. A Ph.D. degree in an agri­ cultural science specialty is usually required for college teaching, independent research, and for advancement to many administrative and management jobs. A master’s degree is suf­ ficient for some jobs in applied research. A bachelor's degree is adequate for some sales, production management, inspection, and other nonresearch jobs but, in some cases, promo­ tions may be limited. Degrees in related sci­ ences such as biology, chemistry, or physics or in related engineering specialties also may be acceptable for some agricultural science jobs. All States have at least one land-grant col­ lege which offers agricultural science degrees. Many other colleges and universities also offer some agricultural science courses. However, not every school offers all specialties. Ad­ vanced degree programs include classroom and fieldwork, laboratory research, and a thesis based on independent research. Agricultural scientists should be able to work independently or as part of a team and be able to communicate clearly and concisely, both orally and in writing. Agricultural scientists who have advanced degrees usually begin in research or teaching. With experience, they may advance to jobs such as supervisors of research programs or managers of other agriculture-related activi­ ties. Job Outlook Employment of agricultural scientists is ex­ pected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2000. In ad­ dition to jobs arising from growth in demand for these workers, many openings will occur as workers transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Employment in Federal agencies is not ex­ pected to grow much, but employment of ag­ ricultural scientists in private industry may grow rapidly as advances in biotechnology, such as recombinant DNA, are applied to agriculture. Employment opportunities in agricultural science for those with only a bachelor’s degree are limited. However, a bachelor’s degree in agricultural science is useful for occupations such as farmer or farm manager, cooperative extension service agent, agricultural products inspector, technician, landscape architect, or purchasing or sales agent for agricultural com­ modities or farm supplies, or for managerial jobs in businesses that deal with ranchers and farmers such as feed, fertilizer, seed, and farm equipment manufacturers, retailers or whole­ salers, and farm credit institutions. Earnings According to the College Placement Council, beginning salary offers for agricultural scien­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  tists with a bachelor’s degree averaged $19,200 a year in 1986. In the Federal Government in 1987, agri­ cultural scientists with a bachelor’s degree could start at $14,822 or $18,358 a year, depending on their college records. Those having a mas­ ter’s degree could start at $18,358 or $22,458, depending on their academic records or work experience; and those with a Ph.D. degree could begin at $27,172 or $32,567 a year. Agricul­ tural scientists in the Federal Government av­ eraged about $35,400 a year in 1986. Related Occupations The work of agricultural scientists is closely related to that of biologists and other natural scientists such as chemists and physicists. It is also related to agricultural production occu­ pations such as farmer and farm manager and cooperative extension service agent as well as to the work of foresters and conservation sci­ entists. Certain specialties of agricultural sci­ ence are also related to other occupations. For example, the work of animal scientists is re­ lated to that of veterinarians; horticulturists, to landscape architects; and soil scientists, to soil conservationists. Sources of Additional Information Information on careers in agricultural science is available from: Office of Higher Education Programs, U.S. De­ partment of Agriculture, Administration Building, 14th St. and Independence Ave. SW., Washington, DC 20250. American Society of Agronomy, 677 S. Segoe Rd., Madison, WI 53711. Crop Science Society of America, 677 S. Segoe Rd., Madison, WI 53711. Soil Science Society of America, 677 S. Segoe Rd., Madison, WI 53711.  For information on careers in horticultural science, send a stamped, self-addressed en­ velope to: American Society for Horticultural Science, 701 North Saint Asaph St., Alexandria, VA 22314.  Information on Federal job opportunities is available from local offices of State employ­ ment security agencies or offices of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management, located in major metropolitan areas.  Biological Scientists (D.O.T. 041.061, except -010, -014, -018, -046, -054, -070, -074, and -082)  Nature of the Work Biological scientists study living organisms and the relationship of animals and plants to their environment. Most specialize in some area such as ornithology (the study of birds) or micro­ biology (the study of microscopic organisms). About half of all biological scientists work in research and development. Some conduct basic research to increase knowledge of living organisms. Others, in applied research, use  knowledge provided by basic research to de­ velop new medicines, increase crop yields, and improve the environment. They apply research techniques and use laboratory equipment and computers. Much research, however, is per­ formed outside of laboratories. For example, a botanist may do research in the volcanic val­ leys of Alaska to see what plants grow there, or an ecologist may study how a forest area recovers after a fire. Other biological scientists work in manage­ ment or administration, for example planning and administering programs for testing foods and drugs or directing activities at zoos or bo­ tanical gardens. Some work as consultants to business firms or to government, while others test and inspect foods, drugs, and other prod­ ucts or write for technical publications. Some work in sales and service jobs for companies manufacturing chemicals or other technical products. (See the statements on manufactur­ ers’ sales representatives and wholesale trade sales workers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Advances in basic biological knowledge, es­ pecially in genetics, have resulted in a new technology called biotechnology. Biologists using this rapidly developing technology re­ combine the genetic material of animals or plants, causing life forms to do new things. The first application of this technology has been in the medical and pharmaceutical area. The human gene that codes for the production of insulin has been inserted into bacteria, causing them to produce human insulin. This insulin, used by diabetics, is much purer than insulin from animals, the only previous source. Many other substances not previously available in large quantities are starting to be produced by biotechnological means; some may be useful in treating cancer and other diseases. Advances in biotechnology have opened up research op­ portunities in almost all areas of biology, in­ cluding commercial applications in agriculture and the chemical industry. Most biological scientists who come under the broad category of biologist (D.O.T. 041.061-030) are further classified by the type of organism they study or by the specific ac­ tivity they perform, although recent advances in the understanding of basic life processes at the molecular and cellular level have blurred the traditional classifications. Biochemists (D.O.T. 041.061-026) study the chemical composition of living things. They try to understand the complex chemical com­ binations and reactions involved in metabo­ lism, reproduction, growth, and heredity. Much of the work in biotechnology is done by bio­ chemists because this technology involves un­ derstanding the complex chemistry of life. Botanists (D.O.T. 041.061-038) deal with plants and their environment. Some study all aspects of plant life, while others specialize in areas such as identification and classification of plants, the structure and function of plant parts, the biochemistry of plant processes, and the causes and cures of plant diseases. Microbiologists (D.O.T. 041.061-058) in­ vestigate the growth and characteristics of mi­ croscopic organisms such as bacteria, viruses,  Natural, Computer, and Mathematical Scientists/75  and molds. Medical microbiologists study the relationship between bacteria and disease or the effect of antibiotics on bacteria. Other mi­ crobiologists specialize in soil bacteriology (the study of the effect of microorganisms on soil fertility), virology (the study of viruses), or immunology (the study of mechanisms that fight infections). Many microbiologists are using biotechnology to advance knowledge of cell reproduction and human disease. Physiologists (D.O.T. 041.061-078) study life functions of plants and animals under nor­ mal and abnormal conditions. Physiologists may specialize in functions such as growth, repro­ duction, photosynthesis, respiration, or move­ ment, or in the physiology of a certain area or system of the body. Zoologists (D.O.T. 041.061-090) study an­ imals—their origin, behavior, diseases, and life processes. Some experiment with live an­ imals in controlled or natural surroundings while others dissect dead animals to study their struc­ ture. Zoologists are usually identified by the animal group studied—ornithologists (birds), mammalogists (mammals), herpetologists (reptiles), and ichthyologists (fish). Ecologists study the relationship between or­ ganisms and their environments and the effects of influences such as pollutants, rainfall, tem­ perature, and altitude on organisms. Agricultural scientists, who may also be classified as biological scientists, are included in a separate statement elsewhere in the Hand­ book.  Working Conditions Biological scientists generally work regular hours in offices, laboratories, or classrooms and usually are not exposed to unsafe or un­ healthy conditions. However, some work with dangerous organisms or toxic substances in the laboratory. They could be exposed if safety procedures are not followed. Many biological scientists such as botanists, ecologists, and zo­ ologists take field trips which involve strenuous physical activity and primitive living condi­ tions.  TYaining, Other Qualifications, and Advancement The Ph.D. degree generally is required for col­ lege teaching, independent research, and for advancement to administrative research posi­ tions and other management jobs. A master’s degree is sufficient for some jobs in applied research. The bachelor’s degree is adequate for some beginning jobs, but may not be for pro­ motion. Some graduates with a bachelor’s de­ gree start as biological scientists in testing and inspection, or get jobs related to biological science such as technical sales or service rep­ resentatives. Others become senior biological technicians, medical laboratory technologists and technicians or, with courses in education, high school biology teachers. (See the state­ ments on clinical laboratory technologists and technicians, science technicians, and second­ ary school teachers elsewhere in the Hand­ book.) Many with a bachelor’s degree in bi­ ology enter medical, dental, veterinary, or other health profession schools. Some enter a wide range of occupations with little or no connec­ tion to biology. Most colleges and universities offer bach­ elor’s degrees in biological science and many offer advanced degrees. Curriculums for ad­ vanced degrees often emphasize a subfield such as microbiology or botany but not all univer­ sities offer all curriculums. However, special­ ization on one life form is being deemphasized in favor of study of basic biochemical and ge­ netic life processes. Advanced degree pro­ grams include classroom and field work, lab­ oratory research, and a thesis. Biological scientists who have advanced degrees usually begin in research or teaching. With experience, they may become managers or administrators within biology; others leave biology for non­ technical managerial, administrative, and sales jobs. Biological scientists should be able to work independently or as part of a team and be able to communicate clearly and concisely, both orally and in writing. Those doing field re­ search in remote areas must have physical stamina.  Employment Biological scientists held 61,000 jobs in 1986. In addition, about 56,000 held biology faculty positions in colleges'and universities. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Over one-third of all biological scientists worked in private industry, mostly in com­ mercial research and development laboratories and the pharmaceutical ("chemical, and food industries. About one-fifth worked in nonfa­ culty positions in colleges and universities. Others worked for nonprofit research organi­ zations and foundations or hospitals. About one-fifth worked for the Federal Gov­ ernment, mainly in the Departments of Agri­ culture, Interior, and Defense, and in the Na­ tional Institutes of Health. State and local governments employed about 1 in 6. A few were self-employed.  Job Outlook Employment of biological scientists is ex­ pected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Most growth will be in private industry, primarily in genetic and biotechnical research and in pro­ duction—using newly developed biological methods. Efforts to preserve the environment should also result in growth. Employment of biologists is expected to grow slowly in gov­ ernment. In addition to jobs arising from growth in demand for biologists, openings will occur as biological scientists transfer to other occu­ pations or leave the labor force. Many persons with a bachelor's degree in biological science find jobs as science or en­ gineering technicians or health technologists and technicians. Some become high school bi­ ology teachers. However, they are usually re­ garded as teachers rather than biologists. Those with a doctorate in biological science may be-   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Many biological scientists work in laborato­ ries while engaged in basic research.  come college and university faculty. (See state­ ments on science and engineering technicians, health technologists and technicians, high school teachers, and college and university fac­ ulty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Biological scientists are less likely to lose their jobs during recessions than those in many other occupations since most are employed on long-term research projects or in agriculture, activities which are not much affected by eco­ nomic fluctuations.  Earnings According to the College Placement Council, beginning salary offers in private industry in 1986 averaged $19,000 a year for bachelor’s degree recipients in biological science. In the Federal Government in 1987, biolog­ ical scientists having a bachelor’s degree could begin at $14,822 or $18,358 a year, depending on their college records. Those having the mas­ ter’s degree could start at $18,358 or $22,458, depending on their academic records or work experience; those having the Ph.D. degree could begin at $27,172 or $32,567 a year. Biological scientists in the Federal Government averaged $37,200 a year in 1986.  Related Occupations Many other occupations deal with living or­ ganisms. These include the conservation oc­ cupations of forester, forestry technician, range manager, and soil conservationist, as well as agricultural scientist, soil scientist, oceanog­ rapher, and life science technician. The wide array of health occupations are all related to those in the biological sciences, as are occu­ pations dealing with raising plants and animals such as farmer and farm manager, animal breeder, landscape contractor, florist, nursery manager, and greenskeeper.  1 76/Occupational Outlook Handbook  Sources of Additional Information General information on careers in biological science is available from: American Institute of Biological Sciences, 730 11th St. NW., Washington, DC 20001-4584. American Physiological Society, Membership Ser­ vices Dept., 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20814. American Society of Zoologists, P.O. Box 2739, California Lutheran College, Thousand Oaks, CA 91360.  For information on careers in biochemistry, contact: American Society of Biological Chemists, 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20814.  For information on careers in botany, con­ tact: Dr. David L. Dilcher, Secretary, Botanical Society of America, Dept, of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405.  For information on careers in microbiology, contact: American Society for Microbiology, Office of Ed­ ucation and Professional Recognition, 1913 I St. NW., Washington, DC 20006.  Information on Federal job opportunities is available from local offices of State employ­ ment services or offices of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management, located in major met­ ropolitan areas.  Foresters and Conservation Scientists (D.O.T. 040.061-030, -034, -046, -050, -054, and -062, .261: and 049.127)  Nature of the Work Forests and rangelands serve a variety of needs: They provide habitats for wildlife, serve as sites for recreational activities, and supply lum­ ber, livestock forage, minerals, and water. For­ esters and conservation scientists manage, de­ velop, and help protect these and other natural resources. Foresters plan and supervise the growing, protection, and harvesting of trees. They map forest areas, estimate the amount of standing timber and future growth, and manage timber sales. Foresters also protect the trees from fire, harmful insects, and disease. Some foresters also protect wildlife and manage watersheds; develop and supervise campgrounds, parks, and grazing lands; and do research. Foresters in extension work provide information to forest owners and to the general public. Range managers, also called range conser­ vationists, range ecologists, or range scien­ tists, manage, improve, and protect rangelands to maximize their use without damaging the environment. Rangelands cover more than 1 billion acres of the United States, mostly in the Western States and Alaska. They contain many natural resources, including grass and  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  shrubs for animal grazing, wildlife habitats, water from vast watersheds, recreation facili­ ties, and valuable mineral and energy re­ sources. Rangelands also serve as areas for scientific study of the environment. Range managers help ranchers attain optimum live­ stock production by determining the number and kind of animals to graze, the grazing sys­ tem to use, and the best season for grazing. At the same time, however, they try to conserve the soil and vegetation for other uses such as wildlife habitats and outdoor recreation. Soil conservationists provide technical as­ sistance to farmers, ranchers, and others con­ cerned with the conservation of soil, water, and related natural resources. They develop programs that are designed to get the most productive use of land without damaging it. Soil conservationists do most of their work in the field. Conservationists visit areas with ero­ sion problems, find the source of the problem, and help land owners and managers develop programs to combat it. Foresters and conservation scientists often specialize in one area of work, such as timber management, outdoor recreation, urban for­ estry, or forest economics. Working Conditions Working conditions for foresters and conser­ vation scientists vary considerably. Their im­ age as solitary horseback riders singlchandedly protecting large areas of land far from civili­ zation no longer holds true. Modem foresters and conservation scientists spend a great deal of time working with people. They deal reg­ ularly with land owners, loggers, forestry tech­ nicians and aides, farmers, ranchers, govern­ ment officials, and the public. The work can still be physically demanding, though. Many foresters and conservation sci­ entists often work outdoors in all kinds of weather, sometimes in remote areas. To get to these areas, they use airplanes, helicopters, four-wheel drive vehicles, and horses, or walk. Foresters and conservation scientists also may work long hours fighting fires or in other emer­ gencies. Employment Foresters and conservation scientists held about 23,000 jobs in 1986. Over 50 percent of the salaried workers were in the Federal Govern­ ment, primarily in the Department of Agri­ culture’s Forest Service and Soil Conservation Service and in the Department of Interior’s Bureau of Land Management; 20 percent worked for State governments; and 6 percent worked for local governments. The remainder worked in private industry, mainly in the for­ estry industry. Others were employed by log­ ging and lumber companies and electric util­ ities. A few were self-employed either as consultants or forest owners. Most soil conservationists work for the De­ partment of Agriculture’s Soil Conservation Service. Others are employed by State gov­ ernments in their soil conservation districts. Although foresters and conservation scien­ tists work in every State, employment is con­  centrated in the Western and Southeastern States, where many national and private forests and parks are located and where most of the lumber and pulpwood producing forests are located. Range managers work almost entirely in the Western States, where most of the range­ land is located. Soil conservationists, on the other hand, are employed in almost every county in the country. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree in forestry is the minimum educational requirement for professional ca­ reers in forestry. However, due to keen job competition and the increasingly complex na­ ture of the forester’s work, many employers prefer graduates who hold advanced degrees. Jobs such as teaching and research require ad­ vanced degrees. In 1986, 55 colleges and universities offered bachelor’s or higher degrees in forestry; 47 of these were accredited by the Society of Amer­ ican Foresters. Curriculums stress liberal arts, communications skills, and computer science, as well as technical forestry subjects. Courses in forest economics and business administra­ tion supplement the student’s scientific and technical knowledge. Many colleges require students to complete a field session in a camp operated by the college. All schools encourage summer jobs that provide experience in forestry or conservation work. A bachelor’s degree in range management or range science is the usual minimum edu­ cational requirement for range managers. Graduate degrees in range management gen­ erally are required for teaching and research positions and may be helpful for advancement in other jobs. In 1986, 35 colleges and uni­ versities offered degrees in range management or range science. A number of other schools offered some courses in range management. Specialized range management courses com­ bine plant, animal, and soil sciences with prin­ ciples of ecology and resource management. Desirable electives include economics, for­ estry, hydrology, agronomy, wildlife, animal husbandry, computer science, and recreation. Very few colleges and universities offer de­ grees in soil conservation. Most soil conser­ vationists have degrees in agronomy, agricul­ tural education, or general agriculture; a few have degrees in related fields such as wildlife biology, forestry, and range management. Pro­ grams of study generally include 30 semester hours in natural resources or agriculture, in­ cluding at least 3 hours in soil science. In addition to meeting the intellectual de­ mands of forestry and conservation work, for­ esters and conservation scientists must enjoy working outdoors, be physically hardy, and be willing to move—often to remote places. They must also be able to work well with people and have good communication skills. Decisive­ ness, firmness, and tact are important in dis­ putes involving rights and uses of land and other natural resources. Recent forestry and range management grad­ uates usually work under the supervision of  Natural, Computer, and Mathematical Scientists/77 /fc'  Pi  started at $ 14,800 a year. Those with a master’s degree could start at $22,500. Holders of doc­ torates could start at $27,200 or, in research positions, at $32,600. In 1986, the average Federal salary for foresters was $32,800; for range conservationists, $28,500; and for soil conservationists, $29,600. Salaries in State and local government and in private industry were generally lower. Related Occupations Foresters and conservation scientists are not the only workers concerned with managing, developing, and protecting natural resources. Other workers with similar responsibilities in­ clude agricultural scientists, agricultural en­ gineers, biological scientists, farmers, farm managers, forest fire officers and aides, ranch­ ers, ranch managers, soil scientists, and wild­ life managers.  ■mJwm  'JeiSK  Foresters monitor reforestation activity. experienced foresters or range managers. After gaining experience, they may advance to more responsible positions. In the Federal Govern­ ment, an experienced forester may supervise an entire forest area, and may advance to re­ gional forest supervisor or to a top adminis­ trative position. In private industry, foresters start by learning the practical and administra­ tive aspects of the business. Many foresters work their way up to top managerial positions within their companies. Soil conservationists usually begin working within one county or conservation district and with experience may advance to the area. State, or national level. Also, soil conservationists can transfer to related occupations such as farm or ranch management advisor or land appraiser. Job Outlook Employment of foresters and conservation sci­ entists is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupations through the year 2000 due to budgetary constraints in govern­   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ment, where employment is highly concen­ trated. More foresters and range managers may be needed in private industry to ensure an in­ creasing output from forests and rangelands. Also, private owners of timberland and grazing land may employ more foresters and range managers as they recognize the need for—and the higher profitability of—improved forestry, logging, and range management practices. However, employment of soil conservationists is expected to change little through the year 2000 since the Federal Government, the major employer, is not expected to increase its em­ ployment of soil conservationists. Most job openings for foresters and conservation sci­ entists will be created by the need to replace those, who retire or transfer to other occupa­ tions. Earnings Most graduates entering the Federal Govern­ ment as foresters, range managers, or soil con­ servationists in 1987 with a bachelor’s degree  Sources of Additional Information General information about the forestry profes­ sion and lists of schools offering education in forestry are available from: Society of American Foresters, 5400 Grosvenor Lane, Bethesda, MD 20814. American Forestry Association, 1319 18th St. NW., Washington, DC 20036.  Information about a career as a range man­ ager as well as a list of schools offering training is available from: Society for Range Management, 2760 W. 5th Ave., Denver, CO 80204.  Information about careers in soil conserva­ tion is available from: National Association of Conservation Districts, 1025 Vermont Ave. NW., Washington, DC 2(3005.  For information about career opportunities in the Federal Government, contact: Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Department of the Interior, Room 3070, Washington, DC 20240. U.S. Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agricul­ ture, P.O. Box 96090, Washington, DC 20013. Soil Conservation Service, U.S. Department of Ag­ riculture, Room 6144, P.O. Box 2890, Washington, DC 20013.  Physical scientists Chemists (D.O.T. 022.061-010 and -014. .137-010 and .161-010)  Nature of the Work Although chemicals are often thought of as artificial or toxic substances, all physical things, both natural and manmade, are composed of chemicals. Chemists search for and put to prac­ tical use new knowledge about chemicals. Chemists have developed a tremendous variety of new and improved synthetic fibers, paints, adhesives, drugs, electronic components, lu­ bricants, and other products. They also develop processes which save energy and reduce pol­ lution, such as improved oil refining methods. Research on the chemistry of living things pro­ vides the basis for advances in medicine, ag­ riculture, and other areas. Most chemists work in research and devel­ opment. Much research is performed in lab­ oratories, but research chemists also work in offices when they do theoretical research or plan, record, and report on their research re­ sults. Some chemical research laboratories re­ semble high school chemical labs, but others arc large and may incorporate prototype chem­ ical manufacturing facilities as well as ad­ vanced equipment. Chemists may also do some of their research in a chemical plant or out­ doors—while gathering samples of pollutants, for example. In basic research, chemists investigate the properties, composition, and structure of mat­ ter and 'the laws that govern the combination of elements and reactions of substances. In applied research and development, they create new products or improve existing ones, often  3fcif:  w  ill h  Many chemists spend at least part of their time in the laboratory. 78   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  using knowledge gained from basic research. For example, synthetic rubber and plastics re­ sulted from research on small molecules un­ iting to form large ones (polymerization). Chemists also work in production and in­ spection in chemical manufacturing plants. They prepare instructions for plant workers which specify ingredients, mixing times, and tem­ peratures for each stage in the process. They also monitor automated processes to ensure proper product yield, and test samples to insure they meet industry and government standards. Chemists also record and report on test results. Others are marketing or sales representatives who sell and provide technical information on chemical products. Chemists often specialize in a subfield. An­ alytical chemists determine the structure, com­ position, and nature of substances and develop analytical techniques. They also identify the presence of chemical pollutants in air, water, and soil. Organic chemists study the chemistry of the vast number of carbon compounds. Many commercial products, such as drugs, plastics, and fertilizers, have been developed by organ­ ic chemists. Inorganic chemists study com­ pounds consisting mainly of elements other than carbon, such as those in electronic com­ ponents. Physical chemists study the physical characteristics of atoms and molecules and in­ vestigate how chemical reactions work. Their research may result in new and better energy sources. Biochemists, whose work encompasses both biology and chemistry, are included under biological scientists elsewhere in the Hand­ book.  Working Conditions Chemists usually work regular hours in offices and laboratories. Some are exposed to health or safety hazards when handling certain chem­ icals, but there is little risk if proper procedures are followed.  Employment Chemists held over 86,000 jobs in 1986. Over half of all chemists work for manufacturing firms—over one-half of these are in the chem­ ical manufacturing industry; the rest are scat­ tered throughout other manufacturing indus­ tries. Chemists also work for State and local governments, primarily in health and agricul­ ture, and for Federal agencies, chiefly the De­ partments of Defense, Health and Human Ser­ vices, and Agriculture. Some work for nonprofit research organizations. In addition, about 19,000 persons held chemistry faculty posi­ tions in colleges and universities in 1986. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Chemists are employed in all parts of the country, but they are concentrated in large in­ dustrial areas.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree with a major in chemistry or a related discipline is sufficient for many beginning jobs as a chemist. However, grad­ uate training is required for most research jobs, and most college teaching jobs require a Ph.D. degree. Beginning chemists should have a broad background in chemistry, with good laboratory skills. Many colleges and universities offer a bach­ elor’s degree program in chemistry. About 580 are approved by the American Chemical So­ ciety. In addition to required courses in ana­ lytical, inorganic, organic, and physical chem­ istry, undergraduates usually study biology, mathematics, physics, and liberal arts. Several hundred colleges and universities award advanced degrees in chemistry. Grad­ uate students generally specialize in a subfield of chemistry. Requirements for a master’s and doctor’s degree usually include a thesis based on independent research. Students planning careers as chemists should enjoy studying science and mathematics, and should like working with their hands building scientific apparatus and performing experi­ ments. Perseverance, curiosity, and the ability to concentrate on detail and to work indepen­ dently are essential: In government or industry, beginning chem­ ists with a bachelor’s degree analyze or test products, work in technical sales or services, or assist senior chemists in research and de­ velopment laboratories. Employers may have training and orientation programs which pro­ vide special knowledge needed for the em­ ployer’s type of work. Beginning chemists with a master’s degree can usually teach in a 2-year college or go into applied research in government or private in­ dustry. A Ph.D. generally is required for basic research, for 4-year college faculty positions, and for advancement to many administrative positions. Many people with a bachelor’s degree in chemistry enter other occupations in which a chemistry background is helpful, such as tech­ nical writers and manufacturers’ sales repre­ sentatives and wholesale trade sales workers in chemical marketing. Some enter medical, dental, veterinary, or other health profession schools. Others enter a wide range of occu­ pations with little or no connection to chem­ istry.  Job Outlook Employment of chemists is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupa­ tions through the year 2000. Although output of the chemical industry, where many chemists are employed, is expected to expand, employ­ ment of chemists in this industry is not expected to increase much because of anticipated pro­ ductivity improvements and more contracting  Natural, Computer, and Mathematical Scientists/79  out of chemists’ work. Areas relating to phar­ maceuticals and biotechnology should provide better opportunities than other portions of the chemical industry. In addition, the petroleum refining and most other manufacturing indus­ tries that employ chemists are expected to grow slowly, if at all. However, many openings will result as chemists transfer to other occupations or leave the occupation for other reasons. Chemistry graduates may become high school teachers. However, they usually are then re­ garded as science teachers rather than chemists. Others may qualify as engineers, especially if they have taken some courses in engineering. Those with a doctorate in chemistry may be­ come college and university faculty. (See state­ ments on secondary school teachers, engineers, and college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.)  Earnings According to the College Placement Council, chemists with a bachelor’s degree were offered starting salaries averaging $23,400 a year in 1986; those with a master’s degree, $28,000; and those with a Ph.D., $36,400. According to the American Chemical So­ ciety, median salaries of their members with a bachelor’s degree were $33,000 a year in 1986; with a master’s degree, $37,900; with a Ph.D., $47,800. In a Bureau of Labor Statistics survey, chemists in private industry averaged $22,500 a year in 1986 at the most junior level, and $74,600 at senior supervisory levels. Experi­ enced midlevel chemists with no supervisory responsibilities averaged $41,500. Depending on a person’s college record, the annual starting salary in the Federal Govern­ ment in early 1987 for an inexperienced chem­ ist with a bachelor’s degree was either $14,822 or $ 18,358. Those who had 2 years of graduate study began at $22,458 a year, and with a Ph.D. degree, $27,172 or $32,567. The av­ erage salary for all chemists in the Federal Government in 1986 was $38,600 a year.  Related Occupations The work of chemical engineers, occupational safety and health workers, agricultural scien­ tists, biological scientists, and chemical tech­ nicians is closely related to the work done by chemists. The work of other physical and life science occupations may also be similar to that of chemists.  Sources of Additional Information General information on career opportunities and earnings for chemists is available from; American Chemical Society, Career Services, 1155 16th St. NW., Washington, DC 20036.  Information on Federal job opportunities is available from local offices of State employ­ ment services or offices of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management, located in major met­ ropolitan areas.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Geologists and Geophysicists (DOT. 024,061 except -014, .161, and .167)  Nature of the Work Geologists and geophysicists study the physical aspects and history of the earth. They identify and examine surface rocks and buried rocks recovered by drilling; study information col­ lected by satellites, conduct geological sur­ veys, construct maps, and use instruments to measure the earth’s gravity and magnetic field. They also analyze information collected through seismic prospecting, which involves bouncing sound waves off deeply buried rock layers. Many geologists search for oil, natural gas, minerals, and underground water. Geologists and geophysicists examine chemical and physical properties of specimens in laboratories under controlled temperature and pressure. They may study fossil remains of animal and plant life or experiment with the flow of water and oil through rocks. Laboratory instruments used include X-ray diffractome­ ters, which determine the crystal structure of minerals, and petrographic microscopes, for study of rock and sediment samples. Earth­ quakes are located using seismographs, which measure small movements of the earth. Geologists and geophysicists also apply geo­ logical knowledge to engineering problems in constructing large buildings, dams, tunnels, and highways. Some administer and manage research and exploration programs and others become general managers in petroleum and mining companies. Geology and geophysics are closely related fields, but there are some major differences. Geologists study the composition, structure, and history of the earth’s crust. They try to find out how rocks were formed and what has happened to them since their formation. Geo­ physicists use the principles of physics and mathematics to study the earth’s internal com­ position, surface, and atmosphere and its mag­ netic, electrical, and gravitational forces. Geologists and geophysicists usually spec­ ialize. Geological oceanographers study the ocean bottom. They collect information using remote sensing devices aboard surface ships or underwater research craft. Physical oceanog­ raphers study the physical aspects of oceans such as currents and their interaction with the atmosphere. Geochemical oceanographers study the chemical composition, dissolved ele­ ments, and nutrients of oceans. Although bio­ logical scientists who study ocean life are also called oceanographers (as well as marine bi­ ologists), the work they do and the training they need are related to biology rather than geology or geophysics. (See the statement on biological scientists elsewhere in the Hand­ book.) Hydrologists study the distribution, cir­ culation, and physical properties of under­ ground and surface waters. They study the form and intensity of precipitation, its rate of infil­ tration into the soil, and its return to the ocean  and atmosphere. Mineralogists analyze and classify minerals and precious stones according to composition and structure. Paleontologists study fossils found in geological formations to trace the evolution of plant and animal life and the geologic history of the earth. Seismologists interpret data from seismographs and other in­ struments to locate earthquakes and earthquake faults. Stratigraphers study the distribution and arrangement of sedimentary rock layers by ex­ amining their fossil and mineral content. Me­ teorologists sometimes are classified as geo­ physical scientists. (See the statement on meteorologists elsewhere in the Handbook.) Working Conditions Most geologists and geophysicists divide their time between fieldwork and office or laboratory work. Geologists often travel to remote field sites by helicopter or jeep and cover large areas by foot. Exploration geologists and geophy­ sicists often work overseas or in remote areas, and geological and physical oceanographers may spend considerable time at sea. Employment Geologists and geophysicists held almost 44,000 jobs in 1986. In addition, about 8,500 persons held geology, geophysics, and oceanography faculty positions in colleges and universities. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) About one-half were in oil and gas com­ panies or oil and gas field service firms, many of which explore for oil and gas. Many other geologists worked for business service and consulting firms, which often provide services to oil and gas companies. About 1 geologist in 6 was self-employed; most were consultants to industry or government. The Federal Government employed about 6,600 geologists, geophysicists, oceanogra­ phers, and hydrologists in 1986. Three-fifths worked for the Department of the Interior in the U.S. Geological Survey, the Bureau of Mines, and the Bureau of Reclamation. Others worked for the Departments of Defense, Ag­ riculture, and Commerce. Some worked for State agencies such as State geological surveys and State departments of conservation. Geol­ ogists and geophysicists also worked for non­ profit research institutions and museums. Some were employed by American firms overseas for varying periods of time. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree in geology or geophysics is adequate for entry into some lower level geology jobs, but better jobs with good ad­ vancement potential usually require at least a master’s degree in geology or geophysics. Per­ sons with strong backgrounds in physics, math­ ematics, or computer science also may qualify for some geophysics jobs. A Ph D. degree is essential for most research positions. Over 500 colleges and universities offer a bachelor’s degree in geology or geophysics. Other programs offering training for beginning geophysicists include geophysical technology,  80/Occupational Outlook Handbook  it is difficult to predict when oil prices and exploration will increase. Some analysts expect the price of oil to increase enough by the early 1990’s to encourage more exploration. Not all employment in this occupation is tied to the oil industry. Geophysicists and ocean­ ographers in research on the environment, oceans, and climate may have better employ­ ment prospects than those in oil and gas ex­ ploration, at least until the price of oil in­ creases. There is continued concern and interest in how land, atmosphere, and oceans are re­ lated and how man’s activities affect them. However, much of this research is supported by the Federal Government. While the overall level of Federal spending is projected to grow, it is not clear whether spending for geological research will grow. Earnings Surveys by the College Placement Council in­ dicate that graduates with bachelor’s degrees in physical and earth sciences received an av­ erage starting offer of $19,200 a year in 1986. In the Federal Government in early 1987, geologists and geophysicists having a bache­ lor’s degree could begin at $ 14,822 or $18,358 a year, depending on their college records. Those having a master’s degree could start at $18,358 or $22,458 a year; those having the Ph.D. degree, at $27,172 or $32,567. In 1986, the average salary for geologists in the Federal Government was about $37,500 a year and for geophysicists, about $40,900 a year. Related Occupations Many geologists and geophysicists work in the petroleum and natural gas industry. This in­ dustry also employs many other workers in the scientific and technical aspects of petroleum and natural gas exploration and extraction, in­ cluding drafters, engineering technicians, sci­ ence technicians, petroleum engineers, and surveyors. Also, some physicists, chemists, and meteorologists, as well as mathematicians, computer scientists, and cartographers, do re­ lated work. A geologist examines rock samples. geophysical engineering, geophysical pros­ pecting, engineering geology, petroleum ge­ ology, and geodesy. In addition, more than 270 universities award advanced degrees in geology or geophysics. Geologists and geophysicists need to be able to work as part of a team. They should be curious, analytical, and able to communicate effectively. Those involved in fieldwork must have physical stamina. Geologists and geophysicists usually begin their careers in field exploration or as research assistants in laboratories. They are given more difficult assignments as they gain experience. Eventually they may be promoted to project leader, program manager, or other manage­ ment and research positions. Job Outlook Employment of geologists and geophysicists is expected to grow more slowly than the average  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  for all occupations through the year 2000. Most jobs for geologists and geophysicists are in or related to the petroleum industry, and, in par­ ticular, the exploration for oil and gas. This industry is subject to cyclical fluctuations, and exploration activities have been greatly re­ duced because of the drop in the price of oil; consequently, employment prospects for many geologists and geophysicists have been poor recently. Employment opportunities will re­ main poor until oil prices increase enough to make more exploration worthwhile. Since new sources of oil and gas must be found eventu­ ally, exploration activities will increase in the future. When this occurs, geologists and geo­ physicists probably will have excellent em­ ployment opportunities because many experi­ enced geologists and geophysicists have left the occupation and the number of degrees granted in geology probably will be greatly reduced until opportunities improve. However,  Sources of Additional Information Information on training and career opportun­ ities for geologists and a directory of college and university geoscience departments are available from: American Geological Institute, 4220 King St., Al­ exandria, VA 22302.  Information on training and career oppor­ tunities for geophysicists is available from: American Geophysical Union, 2000 Florida Ave. NW„ Washington, DC 20009. Society of Exploration Geophysicists, P.O. Box 70240, Tulsa, OK 74170.  A directory of college and university curriculums in oceanography is available from: Marine Technology Society, 2000 Florida Ave. NW, Suite 500, Washington. DC 20009.  Information on Federal job opportunities is available from local offices of State employ­ ment services or offices of the U.S. Office of  Natural, Computer, and Mathematical Scientists/81  Personnel Management located in major met­ ropolitan areas.  Meteorologists (D.O.T. 025.062-010)  Nature of the Work Meteorology is the study of the atmosphere, the air that surrounds the earth. Meteorologists study the atmosphere’s physical characteris­ tics, motions, and processes, and the way the atmosphere affects the rest of our environment. The best-known application of this knowledge is in forecasting the weather. However, weather information and meteorological research also are applied in air-pollution control, agriculture, air and sea transportation, and the study of trends in the earth’s climate. Meteorologists who forecast the weather, known professionally as operational or syn­ optic meteorologists, are the largest group of specialists. They study information on air pres­ sure, temperature, humidity, and wind veloc­ ity, and apply physical and mathematical re­ lationships to make short- and long-range weather forecasts. Their information comes from weather satellites and from remote sen­ sors and observers in many parts of the world. Meteorologists are aided in their forecasts by sophisticated computer models of the world’s atmosphere. Meteorologists interpret the re­ sults of these models to make short-term and local-area forecasts. Some meteorologists engage in research. Physical meteorologists study the atmo­ sphere’s chemical and physical properties and how these affect the transmission of light, sound, and radio waves. They also study fac­ tors affecting formation of clouds, rain, snow, and other weather phenomena. Climatologists analyze past records of wind, rainfall, sun­ shine, and temperature. Their studies are used to plan heating and cooling systems, design buildings, and aid in effective land utilization. Much meteorological research is centered on improving weather forecasting, mainly through building better computer models of how the atmosphere interacts with land and water sur­ faces. Working Conditions Jobs in weather stations, most of which operate around the clock 7 days a week, often involve night work and rotating shifts. Most stations are at airports or in or near cities; some are in isolated and remote areas. Meteorologists in smaller weather stations generally work alone; in larger ones, they work as part of a team. Meteorologists not doing forecasting work reg­ ular hours, usually in offices. Employment Meteorologists held about 5,600 jobs in 1986. In addition, about 1,000 persons held mete­ orology faculty positions in colleges and uni­ versities. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.)  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  A meteorologist examines a weather map while preparing a forecast. The largest employer of civilian meteorol­ ogists is the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), which employs about 1,800 meteorologists. About half of NOAA’s meteorologists work in the National Weather Service at stations in all parts of the United States and in a few foreign countries. The re­ mainder of NOAA’s meteorologists work mainly in research. The Department of Defense employs over 250 civilian meteorologists. Oth­ ers worked for private weather consultants, en­ gineering services firms, and nonprofit organ­ izations. In addition to civilian meteorologists, thou­ sands of members of the Armed Forces do forecasting and other meteorological work. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree with a major in meteor­ ology is the usual minimum requirement for beginning jobs in weather forecasting. How­ ever, employers prefer to hire those with an advanced degree, and an advanced degree is increasingly necessary for promotion. For research and college teaching and for many top level positions in other meteorolog­ ical activities, an advanced degree, preferably a Ph.D. in meteorology, is essential. People with graduate degrees in other sciences also may qualify if they have advanced courses in meteorology, physics, mathematics, and chemistry. Almost 100 colleges and universities offer degrees in meteorology. In addition, some de­ partments of physics, earth science, and geo­ physics offer many atmospheric science and related courses. Many programs combine the study of meteorology with another field, such as agriculture, engineering, or physics. Beginning meteorologists often do routine data collection, computation, or analysis and are given more difficult assignments as they gain experience. Experienced meteorologists may advance to various supervisory or admin­  istrative jobs. A few meteorologists establish their own weather consulting services. Job Outlook Employment of meteorologists is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000. The National Weather Service, which employs many meteorologists, plans to increase its employment of meteor­ ologists significantly, mainly in its field offices, to improve short-term and local-area weather forecasts. Although some of these additional jobs will be filled internally through the up­ grading of meteorological technicians, there still should be many more openings in the Na­ tional Weather Service in the next 5 to 10 years than there have been in the past. Employment of meteorologists in other parts of the Federal Government is not expected to increase. How­ ever, many new jobs will be created in private industry as more organizations recognize the value of private weather forecasting and me­ teorological services. Despite the projected faster-than-average growth, most of the job openings in this very small occupation will arise from the need to replace those who trans­ fer to other occupations or leave the labor force. Earnings The average salary for meteorologists em­ ployed by the Federal Government was $39,700 in 1986. In early 1987, meteorologists in the Federal Government with a bachelor’s degree and no experience received starting salaries of $14,822 or $18,358 a year, depending on their college grades. Those with a master’s degree could start at $18,358 or $22,458; those with the Ph.D. degree, at $27,172 or $32,567. Related Occupations Workers in other occupations concerned with the physical environment include oceanogra­ phers, geologists and geophysicists, and en­ vironmental engineers.  82/Occupational Outlook Handbook  Sources of Additional Information Information on career opportunities in mete­ orology is available from: American Meteorological Society, 45 Beacon St., Boston, MA 02108.  For facts about job opportunities with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminis­ tration, contact: NOAA Personnel Office, Room 706,6010 Executive Blvd., Rockville, MD 20852.  Physicists and Astronomers (D-O.T. 021.067-010, 023.061-010, -014, and .067-010)  Nature of the Work Physicists attempt to discover the most basic principles governing the structure and behavior of matter, the generation and transfer of en­ ergy, and the interaction of matter and energy. Some physicists use these principles in very theoretical areas, such as the nature of time and the origin of the universe, while others work in practical areas such as the development of advanced materials, electronic devices, and medical equipment. They design and perform experiments with lasers, cyclotrons, telescopes, mass spectrom­ eters, and other equipment. Based on obser­ vations and analysis, they formulate theories and laws to describe the forces of nature, such as gravity, electromagnetism, and nuclear in­ teractions. They also devise ways to apply the laws and theories to problems in nuclear en­ ergy, electronics, materials, communications, aerospace technology, and medical instrumen­ tation. Astronomy is sometimes considered a sub­ field of physics. Astronomers use the principles of physics and mathematics to answer ques­  tions about the fundamental nature of the uni­ verse, and about celestial bodies such as the sun, moon, planets, and stars. They may apply their knowledge to problems in navigation and space flight. Most physicists work in research and de­ velopment. Some do basic research to increase scientific knowledge. For example, they in­ vestigate the structure of the atom or the nature of gravity. Some physicists conduct applied research and develop new devices, products, and pro­ cesses. For instance, research in solid-state physics led to the development of transistors and then to integrated circuits used in calcu­ lators and computers. They also design re­ search equipment. This equipment often has additional unanticipated uses. For example, lasers (devices that amplify light and emit it in a highly directional, intense beam) are used in surgery; microwave devices are used for ovens; and measuring instruments can analyze blood or the chemical content of foods. A small number work in inspection, testing, quality control, and other production-related jobs in industry. Much physics research is done in small or medium-sized laboratories, where physicists work alone or in small groups. However, some experiments in nuclear, particle, and some other areas of physics require extremely large, ex­ pensive equipment such as atomic accelerators. Physicists in these subfields often work in large teams. Although physics research may require extensive experimentation, most research phy­ sicists spend much of their time in offices plan­ ning, recording, analyzing, and reporting on research. Physicists in theoretical research gen­ erally do not use research facilities. Almost all astronomers do research. They analyze large quantities of data and write sci­ entific papers on their findings. Most astron­ omers spend only a few weeks each year mak­ ing observations with telescopes, radio telescopes, and other instruments. Contrary to  £______ An astronomer prepares a telescope for an observation.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  the popular image, astronomers almost never make observations by looking through a tele­ scope because photographic and electronic ra­ diation detecting equipment is more effective than the human eye. Most physicists specialize in one subfield— elementary particle physics; nuclear physics; atomic and molecular physics; physics of con­ densed matter (solid-state physics); optics; acoustics; health physics; plasma physics; or the physics of fluids. Some specialize in a sub­ division of one of these subfields; for example, superconductivity, crystallography, or semi­ conductors within solid-state physics. How­ ever, since all physics involves the same fun­ damental principles, specialties may overlap, and physicists may switch from one subfield to another. Growing numbers of physicists work in combined fields such as biophysics, chemical physics, and geophysics. Furthermore, the practical applications of physicists' work in­ creasingly have merged with engineering. Working Conditions Physicists generally work regular hours in lab­ oratories and offices. Most physicists do not encounter unusual hazards in their work. Some physicists work away from home temporarily at national or international facilities with unique equipment such as particle accelerators; as­ tronomers who make observations may travel to observatories, which are usually in remote locations, and frequently work at night. Employment Physicists held over 22,000 jobs in 1986. In addition, about 14,000 persons held physics faculty positions in colleges and universities. (See the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) About onequarter of all physicists worked for independent research and development laboratories. The Federal Government, mostly the Departments of Defense, Energy, and Commerce, employed about one-fifth. Others worked in colleges and universities in nonfaculty positions and for electrical equipment manufacturers, noncom­ mercial research laboratories, engineering ser­ vices firms, and the aircraft and automobile industries. Although physicists are employed in all parts of the country, most are in areas that have heavy industrial concentrations and large re­ search and development laboratories. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Graduate training in physics or a closely related field is almost essential for most entry level jobs in physics. The doctorate usually is re­ quired for full faculty status at colleges and universities and for industrial or government jobs directing research and development pro­ grams. A doctorate is also the usual require­ ment for a job in astronomy. Those having master's degrees may qualify for some research jobs in private industry and in the Federal Government as well as for teach­ ing jobs in 2-year colleges. Those having bach­  Natural, Computer, and Mathematical Scientists/83  elor’s degrees may qualify for a few applied research and development jobs in private in­ dustry and in the Federal Government. Many become engineers or go into other scientific fields. (See statements on engineers, geologists and geophysicists, computer programmers, and computer systems analysts elsewhere in the Handbook.) About 750 colleges and universities offer a bachelor’s degree in physics. The undergrad­ uate program provides a broad background in the sciences and mathematics. Some typical physics courses are mechanics, electromagne­ tism, electronics, optics, thermodynamics, and atomic and molecular physics. About 250 colleges and universities offer advanced degrees in physics. Graduate stu­ dents usually concentrate in a subfield of phys­ ics. Many begin studying for their doctorates immediately after their bachelor’1; degree with­ out obtaining a master's degree. About 40 universities offer the Ph.D. degree in astronomy. Students take courses in astron­ omy, physics, and mathematics and, in some schools, work at an observatory. Students planning a career in physics should have an inquisitive mind, mathematical ability, imagination, and the ability to work on their own. Beginning physicists, especially without a Ph.D., often do routine work under the close supervision of more senior workers. After some experience, they are assigned more complex tasks and given more independence. Some ad­ vance to project leaders, research directors, or top managers. Physicists who develop new products or processes sometimes form their   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  own companies or join new firms to exploit their own ideas. Job Outlook Physicists with the Ph.D. should experience good employment opportunities by the late 1990’s. The employment of physicists is ex­ pected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Em­ ployment opportunities are expected to im­ prove as retirements increase. Many physicists and college and university physics faculty were hired during the 1960’s. They will begin re­ tiring in the late 1990’s. Furthermore, the num­ ber of Ph. D.’ s granted to U. S. citizens has been declining and is not expected to increase much by the year 2000. A large proportion of physicists are em­ ployed on defense-related projects. Changes in defense expenditures, especially for re­ search—on the Strategic Defense Initiative, for example—could have a major impact on the growth of jobs. Persons with only a bachelor’s degree in physics are not qualified to enter most physicist jobs. However, many find jobs as engineers, technicians, computer specialists, or high school physics teachers. (See the statements on these occupations elsewhere in the Handbook.) Earnings Starting salaries for physicists in private in­ dustry averaged about $31,200 a year in 1986 for those with a master’s degree and $42,500 for those with a Ph.D., according to an Amer­ ican Institute of Physics survey. Depending on their college records, physi­  cists with a bachelor’s degree could start in the Federal Government in early 1987 at either $14,822 or $18,358 a year. Beginning phy­ sicists having a master’s degree could start at $18,358 or $22,458, and those having the Ph.D. degree could begin at $27,172 or $32,567. Average earnings for all physicists in the Fed­ eral Government in 1986 were $45,600 a year. Starting salaries for college and university physics faculty with the Ph.D. averaged $29,500 in 1986, according to the American Institute of Physics. (See the statement on college and university teachers elsewhere in the Hand­ book.) Many faculty physicists supplement their regular incomes with consulting and research projects. Related Occupations Physics is closely related to other scientific occupations such as chemistry, geology, and geophysics. Engineers and engineering and science technicians also use the principles of physics in their work. Sources of Additional Information General information on career opportunities in physics is available from: American Institute of Physics, 335 East 45th St., New York. NY 10017. American Physical Society, 335 East 45th St., New York, NY 10017.  For a pamphlet containing information on careers in astronomy and on schools offering training in the field, send 35 cents to: Dr. Charles R. Tolbert, Education Officer, American Astronomical Society, Box 3818 University Station, Charlottesville, VA 22903.  Lawyers, Social Scientists, Social Workers, and Religious Workers Lawyers (D.O.T. 110)  Laws affect every aspect of our society. They regulate the entire spectrum of relationships among individuals, groups, businesses, and governments. They define rights as well as restrictions, covering such diverse activities as judging and punishing criminals, granting pat­ ents, drawing up business contracts, paying taxes, settling labor disputes, constructing buildings, and administering wills. Because social needs and attitudes are con­ tinually changing, the legal system that regu­ lates our social, political, and economic rela­ tionships also changes. Lawyers, also called attorneys, link the legal system and society. To perform this role, they must understand the world around them and be sensitive to the nu­ merous aspects of society that the law touches. They must comprehend not only the words of a particular statute, but the human circum­ stances it addresses as well. As our laws grow more complex, the work of lawyers takes on broader significance. Laws affect our lives in new ways as the legal system takes on regulatory tasks in areas such as trans­ portation, energy conservation, consumer pro­ tection, the environment, and social welfare. Lawyers interpret these laws, rulings, and reg­ ulations for individuals and businesses.  Nature of the Work In our society, lawyers act as both advocates and advisors. As advocates, they represent one of the opposing parties in criminal and civil trials by presenting arguments that support the client in a court of law. As advisors, lawyers counsel their clients as to their legal rights and obligations and suggest particular courses of action in business and personal matters. Whether acting as advocates or advisors, nearly all attorneys have certain activities in common. Probably the most fundamental ac­ tivities are the interpretation of the law and its application to a specific situation. This requires in-depth research into the purposes behind the applicable laws and into judicial decisions that have applied those laws to circumstances sim­ ilar to those currently faced by the client. Based on this research, attorneys advise clients on what actions would best serve their interests. A growing number of lawyers are using computers in legal research. While all lawyers continue to employ law libraries to prepare 84for FRASER Digitized https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  cases, some supplement their search of the con­ ventional printed sources with computer soft­ ware packages that automatically search the legal literature and identify legal texts that may be relevant to a specific subject. In litigation that involves many supporting documents, lawyers may also use computers to organize and index the material. Tax lawyers are also increasingly using computers to make tax com­ putations and explore alternative tax strategies for clients. Lawyers must deal with people in a cour­ teous, efficient manner and not disclose matters discussed in confidence with clients. They hold positions of great responsibility, and are ob­ ligated to adhere to strict rules of ethics. Finally, most lawyers write reports or briefs which must communicate clearly and pre­ cisely. The more detailed aspects of a lawyer’s job depend upon his or her field and position. While all licensed attorneys are allowed to represent parties in court, some appear in court more frequently than others. A few lawyers specialize in trial work. These lawyers need an exceptional ability to think quickly and speak with ease and authority, and must be thor­ oughly familiar with courtroom rules and strat­ egy. Trial lawyers still spend most of their time outside the courtroom conducting research, in­ terviewing clients and witnesses, and handling other details in preparation for trial. Although most lawyers deal with many dif­ ferent areas of the law, a significant number concentrate on one branch of law, such as ad­ miralty, probate, or international law. Com­ munications lawyers, for example, may rep­ resent radio and television stations in court and in their dealings with the Federal Communi­ cations Commission. They help established stations prepare and file license renewal ap­ plications, employment reports, and other doc­ uments required by the FCC on a regular basis. They also keep their clients informed of changes in FCC regulations. Communications lawyers help individuals or corporations buy or sell a station or establish a new one. Lawyers who represent public utilities be­ fore the Federal Energy Regulatory Commis­ sion and other Federal and State regulatory agencies handle matters involving utility rates. They develop strategy, arguments, and testi­ mony; prepare cases for presentation; and argue the case. These lawyers also inform clients about changes in regulations and give advice about the legality of their actions. Still other lawyers advise insurance com­ panies about the legality of insurance trans­ actions. They write insurance policies to con­  form with the law and to protect companies from unwarranted claims. They review claims filed against insurance companies and represent companies in court. Lawyers in private practice may concentrate on areas such as litigation, wills, trusts, con­ tracts, mortgages, titles, and leases. Some manage a person’s property as trustee or, as executor, see that provisions of a client’s will are carried out. Others handle only public in­ terest cases—civil or criminal—which have a potential impact extending well beyond the in­ dividual client. Attorneys hope to use these cases as a vehicle for legal and social reform. A lawyer may be employed full time by a single client. If the client is a corporation, the lawyer is known as house counsel and usually advises a company about legal questions that arise from its business activities. These ques­ tions might involve patents, government reg­ ulations, a business contract with another com­ pany, a property interest, or a collective bargaining agreement with a union. Attorneys employed at the various levels of government constitute still another category. Criminal lawyers may work for a State attorney general, a prosecutor or public defender, or a court. At the Federal level, attorneys may in­ vestigate cases for the Department of Justice or other agencies. Lawyers at every govern­ ment level help develop laws and programs, draft and interpret legislation, establish en­ forcement procedures, and argue cases. Other lawyers work for legal aid societies— private, nonprofit Corporations established to serve poor people in particular areas. These lawyers generally handle civil rather than crim­ inal cases. A relatively small number of trained attor­ neys work in law schools. Most are faculty members who specialize in one or more sub­ jects, while others serve as administrators. Some work full time in nonacademic settings and teach part time. (For additional information, see the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Working Conditions Lawyers do most of their work in offices, law libraries, and courtrooms. They sometimes meet in clients’ homes or places of business and, when necessary, in hospitals or prisons. They frequently travel to attend meetings; to gather evidence; and to appear before courts, legis­ lative bodies, and other authorities. Salaried lawyers in government and private corporations generally have structured work schedules. Lawyers in private practice may work  Lawyers, Social Scientists, Social Workers, and Religious Workers/85  irregular hours while conducting research, con­ ferring with clients, or preparing briefs during nonoffice hours. Lawyers often work long hours, and some regularly work considerably more than 40 hours per week. They are under particularly heavy pressure when a case is being tried. Preparation for court includes keeping abreast of the latest laws and judicial decisions. Although work generally is not seasonal, the work of tax lawyers and other specialists may be an exception. Since lawyers in private prac­ tice can determine their own workload, many stay in practice well beyond the usual retire­ ment age. Employment Lawyers held about 527,000 jobs in 1986. About four-fifths of them practiced privately, either in law firms or in solo practices. Most of the remaining lawyers held positions in gov­ ernment, the majority at the local level. In the Federal Government, lawyers are concentrated in the Departments of Justice, Treasury, and Defense, but they work for other Federal agen­ cies as well. Others are employed as house counsel by public utilities, banks, insurance companies, real estate agencies, manufacturing firms, welfare and religious organizations, and other business firms and nonprofit organiza­ tions. Some salaried lawyers also have part­ time independent practices; others work as law­ yers part time while in another occupation. Many people trained as attorneys are not employed as lawyers; they work as judges, law clerks, law school professors, and managers and administrators and in a variety of other occupations. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement To practice law in the courts of any State, a person must be licensed, or admitted to its bar, under rules established by the State’s supreme court. Nearly all States require that applicants for admission to the bar pass a written bar examination. Most States also require appli­ cants to pass a separate written ethics exami­ nation. Lawyers who have been admitted to the bar in one State occasionally may be ad­ mitted in another State without taking an ex­ amination if they meet that State’s standards of good moral character and have a specified period of legal experience. Federal courts and agencies set their own qualifications for those practicing before them. To qualify for the bar examination in most States, an applicant must complete at least 3 years of college and graduate from a law school approved by the American Bar Association (ABA) or the proper State authorities. (ABA approval signifies that the law school—partic­ ularly its library or faculty—meets certain standards developed by the association to pro­ mote quality legal education.) In 1986, the American Bar Association approved 176 law schools. Others were approved by State au­ thorities only. With certain exceptions, grad­ uates of schools not approved by the ABA generally are restricted to taking the bar ex­ amination and practicing in the State in which  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  I I  On the basis of legal research, lawyers interpret the law and its application to a case the school is located; most of these schools are in California. Seven States accept the study of law in a law office or in combination with study in a law school; only California accepts the study of law by correspondence as qualification for taking the bar examination. Several States require registration and approval of students by the State Board of Law Examiners, either before they enter law school or during the early years of legal study. Although there is no nationwide bar ex­ amination, 46 States, the District of Columbia, Guam, Saipan, and the Virgin Islands require the Multistate Bar Examination (MBE) as part of the State bar examination; the MBE is not required in Indiana, Iowa, Louisiana, and Washington. The MBE, covering issues of broad interest, is given in addition to a locally prepared part of the State bar examination. States vary in their use of MBE scores. The required college and law school edu­ cation usually takes 7 years of full-time study after high school—4 years of undergraduate study followed by 3 years in law school. Al­ though some law schools accept a very small number of students after 3 years of college, most require applicants to have a bachelor’s degree. To meet the needs of students who can attend only part time, a number of law schools have night or part-time divisions which usually require 4 years of study. In 1985, about oneeighth of all graduates of ABA-approved schools were part-time students. Preparation for a career as a lawyer really begins in college. Although there is no rec­ ommended "prelaw” major, the choice of an undergraduate program is important. Certain courses and activities are desirable because they give the student the skills needed to succeed both in law school and in the profession. Es­ sential skills—the ability to write, read and analyze, think logically, and communicate ver­ bally—are learned during high school and col­ lege. An undergraduate program that cultivates these skills while broadening the student’s view  of the world is desirable. Majors in the social sciences, natural sciences, and humanities all are suitable, although a student should not specialize too narrowly. Regardless of one’s major, courses in English, a foreign language, public speaking, government, philosophy, his­ tory, economics, mathematics, and computer science, among others, are useful. Students interested in a particular aspect of law may find related courses helpful; for ex­ ample, engineering and science courses for the prospective patent attorney, and accounting for the future tax lawyer. In addition, typing is advisable simply for convenience in law school and beyond, and because it facilitates use of computers. Acceptance by most law schools depends on the applicant’s ability to demonstrate an apti­ tude for the study of law, usually through good undergraduate grades, the college admission test, the Law School Admission Test (LSAT), the quality of the applicant’s undergraduate school, any prior work experience, and some­ times a personal interview. However, law schools vary in the weight that they place on each of these factors. Nearly all law schools require that applicants take the LSAT and submit a Law School Data Assembly Service Report, which contains cer­ tified copies of the applicants’ LSAT scores and undergraduate college transcript. Both are administered by the Law School Admissions Service. Competition for admission to many law schools is intense. Enrollments rose very rap­ idly during the early 1970's, with applicants far outnumbering available seats. Since then, law school enrollments have grown slowly and the number of applicants has declined slightly, but applicants to many law schools still greatly exceeed the number that can be admitted. En­ rollments are expected to remain at about their present level through the year 2000, and com­ petition for admission to some law schools is expected to ease somewhat. However, com-  86/Occupational Outlook Handbook  petition for admission to the more prestigious sue joint degree programs, which generally re­ Job Outlook quire an additional year. Joint degree programs Rapid growth in the Nation’s requirements for law schools will remain keen. lawyers is expected to bring job openings into During the first year or year and a half of are offered in a number of areas, including law law school, students generally study funda­ and business administration and law and public rough balance with the relatively stable number of law school graduates each year and result mental courses such as constitutional law, con­ administration. After graduation, lawyers must keep in­ in an easing of competition for jobs through tracts, property law, torts, judicial procedures, the year 2000. During the 1970’s, the annual and legal writing. In the remaining time, they formed about legal and nonlegal developments may elect specialized courses in fields such as that affect their practice. An attorney repre­ number of law school graduates more than dou­ tax, labor, or corporation law. Practical ex­ senting electronics manufacturers, for exam­ bled, even outpacing the rapid growth of jobs. perience often is acquired by participation in ple, must follow trade journals and the latest Although graduates with superior academic school-sponsored legal aid or legal clinic ac­ Federal regulations. Attorneys in the Depart­ records from well-regarded law schools con­ ment of State must remain well versed in cur­ tinued to enjoy excellent opportunities, most tivities , in the school ’ s moot court competitions rent events and international law, while divorce graduates encountered increasingly keen com­ in which students conduct appellate arguments, in practice trials under the supervision of ex­ lawyers read about the changing role of the petition for jobs. Growth in the yearly number perienced lawyers and judges, and through re­ family in modem society. Many law schools of law school graduates has tapered off during search and writing on legal issues for the and State and local bar associations provide the 1980’s, but, nevertheless, the number re­ continuing education courses that help lawyers mains at a level high enough to tax the econ­ school’s law journal. omy’s capacity to absorb them. The number In 1986, law students in the majority of States stay abreast of recent developments. The practice of law involves a great deal of of law school graduates is expected to continue were required to pass the Multistate Profes­ sional Responsibility Examination (MPRE), responsibility. Persons planning careers in law to remain near its present level through the year 2000, allowing employment growth to bring should like to work with people and be able which tests their knowledge of the ABA codes the job market for lawyers back into balance. on professional responsibility and judicial con­ to win the respect and confidence of their clients, Employment of lawyers has grown very rap­ duct. In some States, the MPRE may be taken associates, and the public. Integrity and hon­ during law school, usually after completing a esty are vital personal qualities. Perseverance idly since the early 1970’s, and is expected to and reasoning ability are essential to analyze continue to grow much faster than the average course on legal ethics. for all occupations through the year 2000. In­ A number of law schools have clinical pro­ complex cases and reach sound conclusions. grams where students gain legal experience Lawyers also need creativity when handling creased population and growing business ac­ tivity help sustain the strong growth in demand through practice trials and law school projects new and unique legal problems. for attorneys. This demand also will be spurred Most beginning lawyers start in salaried po­ under the supervision of practicing lawyers and law school faculty. Law school clinical pro­ sitions. Newly hired salaried attorneys usually by growth of legal action in such areas as em­ act as research assistants to experienced law­ ployee benefits, consumer protection, the en­ grams might include work in legal aid clinics, for example, or on the staff of legislative com­ yers or judges. After several years of progres­ vironment, and safety, and an anticipated in­ mittees. Part-time or summer clerkships in law sively responsible salaried employment, many crease in the use of legal services by middlefirms, government agencies, and corporate le­ lawyers are admitted to partnership in their income groups through legal clinics and pre­ gal departments also provide experience that firm, or go into practice for themselves. Some paid legal service programs. Employment growth of lawyers will con­ can be extremely valuable later on. Such train­ lawyers, after years of practice, become judges tinue to be concentrated in salaried jobs, as or full-time law school faculty or administra­ ing can provide references or lead directly to businesses and all levels of government employ a job after graduation, and can help students tors; a growing number have advanced degrees a growing number of staff attorneys, and as in other fields as well. decide what kind of practice best suits them. Some persons use their legal training in ad­ employment in the legal services industry is Clerkships also may be an important source of ministrative or managerial positions in various increasingly concentrated in larger law firms. financial aid. Graduates receive the degree of juris doctor departments of large corporations. A transfer The number of self-employed lawyers is ex­ (J.D.) or bachelor of law (LL.B.) as the first from a corporation’s legal department to an­ pected to decline as it becomes increasingly professional degree. Advanced law degrees may other department often is viewed as a way to difficult to establish a profitable small practice gain administrative experience and rise in the due to competition from larger law firms, the be desirable for those planning to specialize, growing complexity of law—which encour­ do research, or teach. Some law students pur­ ranks of management. ages specialization—and the cost of maintain­ ing up-to-date legal research materials. Turnover of jobs in this occupation is low The number of law degrees granted annually has increased very because its members are well paid and enjoy little since the mid-1970’s. considerable social status, and a substantial educational investment is required for entry. Law degrees (thousands) Nevertheless, most job openings will stem from the need to replace lawyers who transfer to other occupations or retire or stop working for other reasons. Large national and regional law firms will continue to be selective in hiring new lawyers for associate positions that offer the potential for partnership status. Graduates of prestigious law schools and those who rank high in their classes should have the best opportunities for such positions. Graduates of less prominent schools and those with lower scholastic ratings may experience difficulty in landing associate positions with partnership potential but should 1975- 1976experience an easing of competition for posi­ 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 tions with smaller law firms, and for salaried jobs on the legal staffs of corporations and Source: Center for Education Statistics government agencies. As in the past, some  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Lawyers, Social Scientists, Social Workers, and Religious Workers/87  graduates may continue to be forced to accept positions for which they are overqualifed or in areas outside their field of interest. They may have to enter fields where legal training is an asset but not normally a requirement. For ex­ ample, banks, insurance firms, real estate com­ panies, government agencies, and other or­ ganizations seek law graduates to fill many administrative, managerial, and business po­ sitions. Due to the competition for jobs, a law grad­ uate’s geographic mobility and work experi­ ence assume greater importance. The willing­ ness to relocate may be an advantage in getting a job, but to be licensed in a new State a lawyer may have to take an additional bar examina­ tion. In addition, employers increasingly seek graduates who have advanced law degrees and experience in a particular field such as tax, patent, or admiralty law. Establishing a new practice probably will continue to be best in small towns and ex­ panding suburban areas, as long as an active market for legal services already exists. In such communities, competition from larger estab­ lished law firms is likely to be less than in big cities, and new lawyers may find it easier to become known to potential clients; also, rent and other business costs are somewhat lower. Nevertheless, starting a new practice will re­ main an expensive and risky undertaking that should be weighed carefully. Most salaried po­ sitions will remain in urban areas where gov­ ernment agencies, law firms, and big corpo­ rations are concentrated. Some lawyers are adversely affected by cy­ clical swings in the economy. During reces­ sions, the demand for some discretionary legal services, such as planning estates, drafting wills, and handling real estate transactions, declines. Also, corporations are less likely to litigate cases when declining sales and profits result in budgetary restrictions. Although few law­ yers actually lose their jobs during these times,   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  earnings may decline for many. Some corpo­ rations and law firms will not hire new attor­ neys until business improves. Several factors, however, mitigate the overall impact of reces­ sions on lawyers. During recessions, individ­ uals and corporations face other legal prob­ lems, such as bankruptcies, foreclosures, and divorces, that require legal action. Further­ more, the continuous emergence of new laws and legal interpretations will create new op­ portunities for lawyers. Earnings Beginning attorneys in private industry aver­ aged nearly $31,000 in 1986. In the Federal Government, annual starting salaries for at­ torneys in 1987 were about $22,500 or $27,200, depending upon academic and personal qual­ ifications. Factors affecting the salaries offered to new graduates include: Academic record; type, size, and location of employers; and the desired specialized educational background. The field of law makes a difference, too. Patent lawyers, for example, generally are among the highest paid attorneys. Salaries of experienced attorneys also vary widely according to the type, size, and location of the employers. The average salary of the most experienced lawyers in private industry in 1986 was over $101,000. General attorneys in the Federal Government averaged around $46,000 a year in 1986; the relatively small number of patent attorneys in the Federal Gov­ ernment averaged around $55,400. Lawyers starting their own practice may need to work part time in other occupations during the first years to supplement their income. Lawyers on salary receive increases as they assume greater responsibility. Incomes of law­ yers in practice usually grow as their practices develop. Lawyers who are partners in law firms generally earn more than those who practice alone.  Related Occupations Legal training is useful in many other occu­ pations. Some of these are legal assistant, ar­ bitrator, hearing examiner, journalist, patent agent, title examiner, legislative assistant, lob­ byist, FBI special agent, political office holder, and corporate executive. Sources of Additional Information The American Bar Association annually pub­ lishes A Review ofLegal Education in the United States, which provides detailed information on each of the 176 law schools approved by the ABA, State requirements for admission to legal practice, a directory of State bar examination administrators, and other information on legal education. It may be purchased for $3.00 from the ABA. Free information on the bar exam­ ination, financial aid for law students, and law as a career may also be obtained from: Information Services, American Bar Association, 750 North Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, IL 60611.  Information on legal education and applying to law school is available from: Association of American Law Schools, 1 Dupont Circle NW„ Suite 370, Washington, DC 20036.  Information on the LSAT, the Law School Data Assembly Service, and financial aid for law students may be obtained from: Law School Admissions Service, Box 2000, New­ town, PA 18940.  The specific requirements for admission to the bar in a particular State may also be ob­ tained at the State capital from the clerk of the Supreme Court or the administrator of the State Board of Bar Examiners. For information on the job placement of law graduates and the legal profession in general, contact: National Association for Law Placement. Admin­ istrative Office, 440 First St. NW., Suite 302, Wash­ ington DC 20001.  Social scientists and urban planners Nature of the Work Social scientists study all aspects of human society—from the distribution of products and services to newly formed religious groups or plans for modem mass transportation systems. Social science research provides insights that help us understand the many different ways in which individuals and groups make decisions, exercise power, or respond to change. Through their studies and analyses, social scientists and urban planners assist educators, government officials, business leaders, and others in solv­ ing social, economic, and environmental prob­ lems. Research is a basic activity for many social scientists. They use established or newly dis­ covered methods to assemble a body of fact and theory that contributes to human knowl­ edge. Applied research usually is designed to produce information that will enable people to make better decisions or manage their affairs more effectively. Interviews and surveys are widely used to collect facts, opinions, or other information. Data collection takes many other forms, however, including living and working among the people studied; archeological and other field investigations; the analysis of his­ torical records and documents; experiments with human subjects or animals in a psychological laboratory; the administration of standardized tests and questionnaires; and the preparation and interpretation of maps and graphic mate­ rials. Regardless of their field of specialization, social scientists are concerned with some as­ pect of society, culture, or personality. Anthropologists study the way of life, re­ mains, language, and physical characteristics of people in all parts of the world; they compare the customs, values, and social patterns of dif­ ferent cultures. Anthropologists generally con­ centrate in one of four subfields; Cultural an­  thropology, archeology, linguistics, or physical anthropology. Most anthropologists specialize in cultural anthropology, studying the customs, cultures, and social lives of groups in a wide range of settings from nonindustrialized soci­ eties to modem urban cultures. Archeologists determine the characteristics and history of cul­ tures from the study of artifacts and other bur­ ied remains. Linguistic anthropologists study the role of language in various cultures. Phys­ ical anthropologists study the evolution of the human body and look for the earliest evidences of human life. Economists study the way we allocate our resources to produce a wide variety of goods and services. They conduct surveys and ana­ lyze data to determine public preferences for these goods and services. Most economists are concerned with the practical applications of economic policy in a particular area, such as finance, labor, agriculture, transportation, en­ ergy, or health. Others develop theories to ex­ plain economic phenomena such as unem­ ployment or inflation. Geographers study the interrelationship of humans and the environment. Geographers specialize, as a rule. Economic geographers deal with the geographic distribution of an area’s economic activities. Political geographers are concerned with the relationship of geography to political phenomena—local, national, and international. Physical geographers study physical processes on the earth and in the at­ mosphere. Urban geographers study cities and metropolitan areas, while regional geographers study the physical, climatic, economic, polit­ ical, and cultural characteristics of a particular region or area, which may range in size from a river basin to a State, country, or continent. Medical geographers study the effect of the environment on health. (Most occupational classification systems include geographers un­  The number of annual social science graduates with a bachelor’s degree has declined substantially more than the number with an advanced degree.  der physical scientists rather than social sci­ entists.) Historians research and analyze the past. Historians usually specialize in a specific coun­ try or geographic region; in a particular time period; or in a particular field, such as social, intellectual, political, or diplomatic history. Biographers collect detailed information on in­ dividuals. Genealogists trace family histories. Other historians help study and preserve ar­ chives and historic buildings and sites. Political scientists investigate the ways in which political power is organized, distributed, and used. They study a wide range of subjects such as Soviet-American relations, the beliefs and institutions of nations in Asia and Africa, the politics of a New England town or a major metropolis, and the decisions of the U.S. Su­ preme Court. Studying topics such as public opinion, political decisionmaking, and ideol­ ogy, they analyze the structure and operation of governments as well as informal political entities. Depending on the topic under study, a political scientist might conduct a public opinion survey, analyze election results, or analyze public documents. Psychologists, who constitute the largest so­ cial science occupation, study human behavior and use their expertise to counsel or advise individuals or groups. Their research also as­ sists advertisers, politicians, and others inter­ ested in influencing or motivating people. While clinical psychology is the largest specialty, psychologists specialize in many other fields such as counseling, experimental, social, or industrial psychology. Sociologists analyze the behavior of groups or social systems such as families, neighbor­ hoods, or clubs. Sociologists may specialize in a particular field such as criminology, rural sociology, or medical sociology. Urban and regional planners develop com­ prehensive plans and programs for the use of land for industrial and public sites. Planners prepare for situations that are likely to develop as a result of population growth or social and economic change.  Degrees awarded (thousands) 210  -  Bachelor’s  Master’s and doctor's  1970-71 71-72 72-73 73-74 74-75 75-76 76-77 77-78 78-79 79-80 80-81 81-82 82-83 83-84 84-85 85-86 Source: Center for Education Statistics  88   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Working Conditions Most social scientists have regular hours. While working alone behind a desk, they read and write research reports. Many experience the pressures of deadlines and tight schedules, and sometimes must work overtime. Their routine may be interrupted by telephone calls, letters to answer, special requests for information, meetings, or conferences. Travel may be nec­ essary to collect information or attend meet­ ings. Social scientists on foreign assignment must adjust to unfamiliar cultures and climates. Some social scientists do fieldwork. For ex­ ample, anthropologists, archeologists, and geographers often must travel to remote areas to live among the people they study or stay for long periods at the site of their investigations.  Lawyers, Social Scientists, Social Workers, and Religious Workers/89  Employment Social scientists held about 199,000 jobs in 1986. They work for a wide range of employ­ ers, including government agencies; research organizations and consulting firms; banks; se­ curities and commodities dealers; social service agencies; hospitals and other health facilities; and business firms. About 1 out of 4 social scientists is selfemployed and involved in counseling, con­ sulting, research, and related activities. In ad­ dition, many persons with graduate training in a social science discipline, usually a doctoral degree, are employed by colleges and univer­ sities, where they characteristically combine teaching with research and consulting. (For more information, see the Handbook statement on college and university faculty.) As a source of employment, the academic world is more important for graduates in anthropology, so­ ciology, or political science than for graduates in urban and regional planning or psychology. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement The Ph.D. or equivalent degree is a minimum requirement for most positions in colleges and universities and is important for advancement to many top level nonacademic posts. Grad­ uates with master’s degrees have more limited professional opportunities, although the situ­ ation varies a great deal by field. For example, job prospects for master’s degree holders in urban and regional planning are brighter than for master’s degree holders in sociology. Bach­ elor’s degree holders have very limited op­ portunities and in most social science occu­ pations do not qualify for “professional” positions. The bachelor’s degree does, how­ ever, provide a suitable background for many different kinds of “junior professional” jobs, such as research assistant, administrative aide, or management trainee. Training in statistics and mathematics is es­ sential for most social scientists. Mathematical and other quantitative research methods are increasingly used in economics, geography, political science, experimental psychology, and other fields. The ability to use computers for research purposes is a “must” in many disci­ plines. Depending on their jobs, social scientists and urban planners may need a wide range of per­ sonal characteristics. Because they constantly seek new information about people, things, and ideas, intellectual curiosity and creativity are two fundamental personal traits. The ability to think logically and methodically is important to a political scientist comparing the merits of various forms of government. The ability to analyze data is important to an economist studying proposals to reduce Federal budget deficits. Objectivity, openmindedness, and systematic work habits are important in all kinds of social science research. Perseverance is es­ sential for an anthropologist, who might spend years accumulating artifacts from an ancient civilization. Emotional stability and sensitivity are vital to a clinical psychologist working with mental patients. And, of course, written and  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  The number of annual graduates has declined in all social science fields except economics and international relations. Degrees awarded, all levels (thousands) 20  Psychology nm History  30  40  50  impum—  —  ] 1972-73 1985-86  Sociology Political science and government Economics and international relations Other \mmm  Source: Center for Education Statistics  oral communication skills are essential to all these workers. Job Outlook Employment of social scientists is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000, spurred primarily by rapid growth among psychologists and econ­ omists—the largest social science occupations. Most job openings, however, will result from the need to replace social scientists who trans­ fer to other occupations or stop working al­ together. Overall, the number of degrees awarded in the social sciences is expected to exceed job openings and result in strong competition for jobs. Prospects are generally better in disci­ plines such as economics, psychology, and ur­ ban and regional planning, which offer many opportunities in nonacademic settings. On the other hand, the predominance of academic em­ ployment in such disciplines as anthropology, history, political science, and sociology may cause problems for these specialists through the year 2000 as college enrollments decline. Compared to the past, few academic positions will be available, and efforts are continuing to acquaint new graduates in these fields with nonacademic career opportunities in areas such as marketing or administration and evaluation of social and economic programs. As in the past, top graduates of leading universities will have a decided advantage in competing for jobs, especially for the limited number of ac­ ademic jobs. Other considerations that affect employment opportunities in these occupations include degree level; specific skills and ex­ perience; desired work setting; salary require­ ments; and geographic mobility. Earnings Median annual earnings of all social scientists were about $29,600 in 1986. The middle 50 percent earned between $21,800 and $39,800 annually. The lowest 10 percent earned under  $15,000, while the highest 10 percent earned over $51,000. According to the College Placement Coun­ cil, persons with a bachelor’s degree in a social science field received starting offers averaging about $21,100 a year in 1986. According to a 1985 National Science Foun­ dation survey, the median annual salary of doc­ toral social scientists ranged from $37,200 to $46,100. In the Federal Government, social scientists with a bachelor’s degree and no experience could start at $14,800 or $18,400 a year in 1987, depending on their college records. Those with a master’s degree could start at $22,500, and those having a Ph.D. degree could begin at $27,200, while some individuals could start at $32,600. The average salary of all social scientists working for the Federal Government in 1986 was about $38,800. Related Occupations A number of fields that require training and personal qualities similar to those of various social science fields are covered elsewhere in the Handbook. These include lawyers, statis­ ticians, mathematicians, computer program­ mers, computer systems analysts, reporters and correspondents, social workers, religious workers, college and university faculty, and counselors. Sources of Additional Information For general information concerning the social sciences, contact: Consortium of Social Science Associations, 1200 17th St. NW., Suite 520, Washington, DC 20036.  More detailed information about econo­ mists, psychologists, sociologists, and urban and regional planners is presented in the Hand­ book statements that follow this introductory statement. Anthropology For information about careers, job openings,  90/Occupational Outlook Handbook  grants and fellowships, and schools that offer training in anthropology, and for a copy of Getting a Job Outside the Academy (special publication no. 14), contact: The American Anthropological Association, 1703 New Hampshire Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20009.  Archeology For information about careers in archeology, contact: Society for American Archaeology, 1511 KSt. NW., Suite 716, Washington, DC 20005. Archaeological Institute of America, P.O. Box 1901, Kenmore Station, Boston, MA 02215.  Geography Two pamphlets that provide information on careers and job openings for geographers— Geography-Tomorrow’s Career and Careers in Geography—and the annual publication list­ ing schools offering various programs in ge­ ography—A Guide to Departments of Geog­ raphy in the U.S. and Canada—may be obtained from: Association of American Geographers, 1710 16th St. NW., Washington, DC 20009.  History Information on careers and job openings for historians is available from: American Historical Association, 400 A St. SE., Washington, DC 20003.  General information on careers for historians is available from: Organization of American Historians, 112 North Bryan St., Bloomington, IN 47401.  For additional information on careers for his­ torians, send a self-addressed, stamped enve­ lope to: American Association for State and Local History, 172 Second Ave. N., Suite 102, Nashville, TN 37210.  Political Science Careers and the Study of Political Science: A Guide for Undergraduates is available for $2, with bulk rates for multiple copies, from: American Political Science Association, 1527 New Hampshire Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20036.  Programs in Public Affairs and Administra­ tion, a biennial directory that contains data on the academic content of programs, the student body, the format of instruction, and other in­ formation, may be purchased from: National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration, 1120 G St. NW., Suite 520, Washington, DC 20005.  Economists (D.O.T. 050.067)  Nature of the Work Economists study the ways a society uses scarce resources such as land, labor, raw materials, and machinery to produce goods and services. They analyze the costs and benefits of distrib­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  uting and consuming these goods and services. Their research might focus on topics such as energy costs, electronic components produc­ tion, farm prices, or imports. Some economists who are primarily theo­ reticians may develop theories through the use of mathematical models to explain the causes of business cycles and inflation or the effects of unemployment and tax policy. Most econ­ omists, however, are concerned with practical applications of economic policy in a particular area, such as finance, labor, agriculture, trans­ portation, energy, or health. They use their understanding of economic relationships to ad­ vise business firms, insurance companies, banks, securities firms, industry associations, labor unions, government agencies, and others. Depending on the topic under study, econ­ omists devise methods and procedures for ob­ taining data they need. For example, sampling techniques may be used to conduct a survey, and econometric modeling techniques may be used to develop projections. Preparing reports usually is an important part of the economist’s job. He or she may be called upon to review and analyze all the relevant data, prepare tables and charts, and write up the results in clear, concise language. Being able to present economic and statis­ tical concepts in a meaningful way is partic­ ularly important for economists whose research is policy directed. Market research analysts who work for business firms may be asked to provide management with information to make decisions on marketing and pricing of company products; to look at the advisability of adding new lines of merchandise, opening new branches, or diversifying the company’s op­ erations; to analyze the effect of changes in the tax laws; or to prepare economic and business forecasts. Business economists working for firms that carry on operations abroad may be asked to prepare forecasts of foreign economic conditions. Economists who work for government agen­ cies assess economic conditions in the United States and abroad and estimate the economic impact of specific changes in legislation or pub­ lic policy. For example, they may study how changes in the minimum wage affect teenage unemployment. Most government economists are in the fields of agriculture, business, fi­ nance, labor, transportation, utilities, urban economics, or international trade. For exam­ ple, economists in the U.S. Department of Commerce study domestic production, distri­ bution. and consumption of commodities or services; those in the Federal Trade Commis­ sion prepare industry analyses to assist in en­ forcing Federal statutes designed to eliminate unfair, deceptive, or monopolistic practices in interstate commerce; and those in the Bureau of Labor Statistics analyze data on prices, wages, employment, and productivity. Working Conditions Economists working for government agencies and private firms have structured work sched­ ules . They may work alone writing reports, pre­ paring statistical charts, and using computers  and calculators. Or they may be an integral part of a research team. Most work under pressure of deadlines and tight schedules, and some­ times must work overtime. Their routine may be interrupted by special requests for data, let­ ters, meetings, or conferences. Travel may be necessary to collect data or attend conferences. Economics faculty have flexible work sched­ ules, dividing their time among teaching, re­ search, consulting, and administrative respon­ sibilities. Employment Economists held about 37,000 jobs in 1986. Private industry—particularly economic and market research firms, management consulting firms, advertising firms, banks, and securities, investment, and insurance companies—em­ ployed over two-thirds of all salaried econo­ mists. The remainder were employed by a wide range of government agencies, primarily in the Federal Government. The Departments of La­ bor, Agriculture, and State are the largest Fed­ eral employers. About 1 out of every 5 econ­ omists runs his or her own consulting business. A number of economists combine a full-time job in government or business with part-time or consulting work in another setting. Employment of economists is concentrated in large cities. The largest numbers are in New York City and Washington, D.C. Some work abroad for companies with major international operations; for the Department of State and other U.S. Government agencies; and for in­ ternational organizations. Besides the jobs described above, an esti­ mated 22,000 persons held economics and marketing faculty positions in colleges and uni­ versities. (For information about this occupa­ tion, see the statement on college and univer­ sity faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.) Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree with a major in economics or marketing is sufficient for many beginning research, administrative, management trainee, and sales jobs. The undergraduate curriculum includes courses such as microeconomics, macroeconomics, business cycles, economic and business history, economic development of selected areas, money and banking, inter­ national economics, public finance, industrial organization, labor economics, comparative economic systems, economics of national plan­ ning, urban economic problems, marketing, and consumer behavior analysis. Courses in related disciplines, such as political science, psychology, organizational behavior, sociol­ ogy, finance, business law, and international relations, are suggested. Because of the im­ portance of quantitative skills to economists, courses in mathematics, business and eco­ nomic statistics, sampling theory and survey design, and computer science are highly rec­ ommended. Graduate training increasingly is required for most economist jobs and for advancement to more responsible positions. Areas of special­ ization at the graduate level include advanced  Lawyers, Social Scientists, Social Workers, and Religious Workers/91  economic theory, mathematical economics, econometrics, history of economic thought, and comparative economic systems and planning. Other areas include economic history, eco­ nomic development, environmental and natural resource economics, industrial organization, marketing, institutional economics, interna­ tional economics, labor economics, monetary economics, public finance, regional and urban economics, and social policy. Students should select graduate schools strong in specialties in which they are interested. Some schools help graduate students find internships or part-time employment in government agencies, eco­ nomic consulting firms, financial institutions, or market research firms. Work experience and contacts can be useful in testing career pref­ erences and learning about the job market for economists. In the Federal Government, candidates for entrance positions generally need a college de­ gree with a minimum of 21 semester hours of economics and 3 hours of statistics, account­ ing, or calculus. However, because competi­ tion is keen, additional education or experience may be required. For a job as a college instructor in many junior colleges and small 4-year schools, a master’s degree generally is the minimum re­ quirement. In some colleges and universities, however, a Ph.D. is necessary for appointment as an instructor. The Ph.D. and extensive pub­ lication are required for a professorship and for tenure, which are increasingly difficult to obtain. In government, industry, research organi­ zations, and consulting firms, economists who have a graduate degree usually can qualify for more responsible research and administrative positions. A Ph.D. is necessary for top posi­ tions in many organizations. Many corporation and government executives have a strong back­ ground in economics or marketing. Over 1,200 colleges and universities offer bachelor’s degree programs in economics and marketing; over 600, master’s; and about 130, doctoral programs. Persons considering careers as economists should be able to work accurately with detail since much time is spent on data analysis. Pa­ tience and persistence are necessary because economists may spend long hours on indepen­ dent study and problem solving. At the same time, they must be able to work well with others. Economists must be objective and sys­ tematic in their work and be able to express themselves effectively both orally and in writ­ ing. Creativity and intellectual curiosity are essential for success in this field, just as they are in other areas of scientific endeavor. Job Outlook Employment of economists is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Most job openings, however, will result from the need to replace experienced economists who transfer to other occupations, or retire or leave the labor force for other reasons. Opportunities should be best in manufac­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  turing, financial services, advertising agencies, research organizations, and consulting firms, reflecting the complexity of the domestic and international economies and increased reliance on quantitative methods of analyzing business trends, forecasting sales, and planning of pur­ chasing and production. The continued need for economic analyses by lawyers, accountants, engineers, health service administrators, urban and regional planners, environmental scien­ tists, and others will also increase the number of jobs for economists. Little or no change is expected in the employment of economists in the Federal Government—in line with the rate of growth projected for the Federal work force as a whole. Employment of economists in State and local government combined is expected to grow more slowly than the average. While courses in economics are increasingly popular, college enrollments are expected to decline through the year 2000—resulting in declining employment in colleges and universities. As a result, some highly qualified economics grad­ uates will enter nonacademic positions. A strong background in economic theory, statistics, and econometrics provides the tools for acquiring any specialty within the field. Those skilled in quantitative techniques and their application to economic modeling and forecasting and market research, including the use of computers, should have the best job opportunities. Persons who graduate with a bachelor’s de­ gree in economics through the year 2000 should face very keen competition for the limited num­ ber of economist positions for which they qual­ ify. However, many will find employment in government, industry, and business as man­ agement or sales trainees, or as research or administrative assistants. Those with strong backgrounds in mathematics, statistics, survey design, and computer science may be hired by private firms for market research work. Those who meet State certification requirements may become high school economics teachers. (For additional information, see the statement on secondary school teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.) Candidates who hold master’s degrees in economics face very strong competition, par­ ticularly for teaching positions in colleges and universities. However, some may gain posi­ tions in junior and community colleges. Those with a strong background in marketing and finance may have the best prospects in busi­ ness, banking, advertising, and management consulting firms. Ph.D.’s are likely to face competition for academic positions, although top graduates from leading universities should have little difficulty in acquiring teaching jobs. Some will have to accept jobs at smaller or lower paying insti­ tutions. Ph.D.’s should have favorable oppor­ tunities to work as economists in government, industry, educational and research organiza­ tions, and consulting firms. Earnings According to a 1986 salary survey by the Col­ lege Placement Council, persons with a bach-  Some economists study the interrelationships between industries.  elor’s degree in economics received an average starting salary of about $22,400 a year; in mar­ keting and distribution, about $19,300. Median annual earnings of full-time econ­ omists were about $36,600 in 1986. The median base salary of business econo­ mists in 1986 was $54,000, according to a survey by the National Association of Business Economists. Over one-fourth of those respond­ ing also had income from secondary employ­ ment. Economists in general administration and international economics commanded the high­ est salaries; those in market research and econ­ ometrics, the lowest. The highest paid business economists were in the securities and invest­ ment, retail and wholesale trade, and insurance industries; the lowest paid were in the edu­ cation, nonprofit research organization, and real estate industries. The Federal Government recognizes edu­ cation and experience in certifying applicants for entry level positions. In general, the en­ trance salary for economists having a bache­ lor’s degree averaged about $14,800 a year in 1987; however, those with superior academic records could begin at about $18,400. Those having a master’s degree could qualify for po­ sitions at an annual salary of about $22,500. Those with a Ph.D. could begin at about $27,200, while some individuals could start at $32,600. Economists in the Federal Govern­ ment averaged around $40,700 a year in 1986.  Related Occupations Economists are concerned with understanding and interpreting financial matters, among other subjects. Others with jobs in this area include financial managers, financial analysts, ac­ countants and auditors, underwriters, actuar­ ies, securities and financial services sales workers, credit analysts, loan officers, and budget officers.  92/Occupational Outlook Handbook  Sources of Additional Information For information on schools offering graduate training in economics, contact: American Economic Association, 1313 21st Ave. South, Nashville, TN 37212.  For information on careers in business eco­ nomics, contact: National Association of Business Economists, 28349 Chagrin Blvd., Suite 201, Cleveland, OH 44122.  For information about careers and salaries in market research, contact: American Marketing Association, 250 South Wacker Dr., Chicago, IL 60606.  For information about careers in noncollegiate academic institutions, contact: Joint Council on Economic Education, 2 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016.  Psychologists (D.O.T. 045.061, .067, .107-022, -026, -030, -034, and -046) ____________________  Nature of the Work Psychologists study human behavior and men­ tal processes to understand, explain, and change people’s behavior. Some research psycholo­ gists investigate the physical, cognitive, emo­ tional, or social aspects of human behavior. Other psychologists in applied fields counsel and conduct training programs; do market re­ search; or provide mental health services in hospitals, clinics, or private settings. Like other social scientists, psychologists collect and test data to formulate and check the validity of hypotheses. Research methods de­ pend on the topic under study. Psychologists may gather information through controlled lab­ oratory experiments; personality, perfor­ mance, aptitude, and intelligence tests; obser­ vation, interviews, and questionnaires; clinical studies; or surveys. Computers are widely used to record and analyze this information.  Psychologists usually specialize. Experi­ mental psychologists study behavior processes and work with human beings and animals such as rats, monkeys, and pigeons. Prominent areas of experimental research include motivation, thinking, learning and retention, sensory and perceptual processes, and genetic and neuro­ logical factors in behavior. Developmental psy­ chologists study the patterns and causes of be­ havioral change as people progress through life. Some concern themselves with behavior during infancy, childhood, and adolescence, while others study changes that take place during maturity and old age. Personality psychologists study human nature, individual differences, and the ways in which those differences develop. Social psychologists examine people’s inter­ actions with others and with the social envi­ ronment. Prominent areas of study include group behavior, leadership, attitudes, and interper­ sonal perception. Comparative psychologists study the behavior of humans and animals. Physiological psychologists study the relation­ ship of behavior to the biological and neuro­ logical functions of the body. Psychologists in the field of psychometrics develop and apply procedures for measuring psychological vari­ ables such as intelligence and personality. Clinical psychologists generally work in hospitals or clinics, or maintain their own prac­ tices. They help the mentally or emotionally disturbed adjust to life. They interview pa­ tients; give diagnostic tests; provide individual, family, and group psychotherapy; and design and implement behavior modification pro­ grams. Clinical psychologists may collaborate with physicians and other specialists in devel­ oping treatment programs. Some clinical psy­ chologists work in universities, where they train graduate students in the delivery of mental health services. Others administer community mental health programs. Counseling psychologists use several techniques, including interviewing and testing, to advise people on how to deal with problems of everyday living—personal, so­ cial, educational, or vocational. Educational  Clinical psychology accounts for over one-third of all doctoral degrees in psychology. Percent of doctoral degrees awarded by subfield, 1986 0  Clinical Counseling General Development Experimental Social School Industrial and organizational Educational Physiological Cognitive Other Source: National Research Council   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  10  20  30  40  psychologists design, develop, and evaluate educational programs. School psychologists work with teachers, parents, and administrators to resolve students’ learning and behavior problems. Industrial and organizational psy­ chologists apply psychological techniques to personnel administration, management, and marketing problems. They are involved in pol­ icy planning, applicant screening, training and development, psychological test research, counseling, and organizational development and analysis, among other activities. For ex­ ample, an industrial psychologist may work with management to develop better training programs and to reorganize the work setting to improve worker productivity. Engineering psychologists, often employed in factories and plants, develop and improve industrial prod­ ucts and human-machine systems. An engi­ neering psychologist might study the psycho­ logical and physiological effects on military personnel of using various weapons or the im­ pact on pilots and astronauts of operating air­ craft and space vehicles equipped with complex equipment. Community psychologists apply psychological knowledge to problems of urban and rural life. Consumer psychologists study the psychological factors that determine an in­ dividual’s behavior as a consumer of goods and services. Health psychologists counsel the public in health maintenance to help people avoid serious emotional or physical illness. Other areas of specialization include clinical neuropsychology, environmental psychology, forensic psychology, population psychology, psychology and the arts, history of psychology, psychopharmacology, and military and reha­ bilitation psychology. Working Conditions A psychologist’s specialty and place of em­ ployment determine working conditions. For example, clinical and counseling psychologists in private practice have pleasant, comfortable offices and set their own hours. However, they often have evening hours to accommodate their clients. Some employed in hospitals, nursing homes, and other health facilities often work evenings and weekends, while others in schools and clinics work regular hours. Psychologists employed by academic institutions divide their time among teaching, research, and adminis­ trative responsibilities. Some maintain part-time consulting practices as well. In contrast to the many psychologists who have flexible work schedules, some in government and private in­ dustry have more structured schedules. Read­ ing and writing research reports, they often work alone behind a desk. Many experience the pressures of deadlines, tight schedules, and overtime work. Their routine may be inter­ rupted frequently. Travel may be required to attend conferences or conduct research. Employment Psychologists held about 110,000 jobs in 1986. Educational institutions—primarily elemen­ tary and secondary schools—employed about one-third of all salaried psychologists in po­ sitions involving counseling, testing, special  Lawyers, Social Scientists, Social Workers, and Religious Workers/93  education, research, and administration. Hos­ pitals, clinics, rehabilitation centers, nursing homes, and other health facilities employed more than 1 out of 4 psychologists; government agencies at the Federal, State, and local levels, about 1 out of 6. The Veterans Administration, the Department of Defense, and the Public Health Service employ the overwhelming ma­ jority of psychologists employed by Federal agencies. Psychologists also work in social ser­ vice organizations, research organizations, management consulting firms, market research firms, and other businesses. After several years of experience, some psy­ chologists enter private practice or set up their own research or consulting firms. About twofifths of all psychologists are self-employed. Besides the jobs described above, an esti­ mated 19,000 persons held psychology faculty positions at colleges and universities. (For in­ formation about this occupation, see the state­ ment on college and university faculty else­ where in the Handbook.)  -  ■  School psychologists help children overcome adjustment problems. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A doctoral degree is generally required for em­ ployment as a psychologist, particularly in the academic world. People with doctorates in psy­ chology (Ph.D or Psy.D.—Doctor of Psy­ chology) qualify for a wide range of respon­ sible research, clinical, and counseling positions in universities, private industry, and govern­ ment. People with a master’s degree in psychology can administer and interpret tests as psycho­ logical assistants. Under the supervision of psychologists, they can conduct research in laboratories, counsel patients, or perform ad­ ministrative duties. They may teach in 2-year colleges or work as school psychologists or counselors. (See the Handbook statement on counselors.) People with a bachelor’s degree in psy­ chology are qualified to assist psychologists and other professionals in community mental health centers, vocational rehabilitation of­ fices, and correctional programs; to work as research or administrative assistants; and to take jobs as trainees in government or business. However, without additional academic train­ ing, their advancement opportunities are lim­ ited. In the Federal Government, candidates hav­ ing at least 24 semester hours in psychology and one course in statistics qualify for entry level positions. Competition for these jobs is keen, however. Clinical psychologists gener­ ally must have completed the Ph.D. or Psy.D. requirements and have served an internship; vocational and guidance counselors usually need 2 years of graduate study in counseling and 1 year of counseling experience. At least 1 year of full-time graduate study is needed to earn a master’s degree in psy­ chology. Requirements usually include prac­ tical experience in an applied setting or a mas­ ter’s thesis based on a research project. For example, a master’s degree in school psy­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  chology requires 2 years of course work and a 1-year internship. Three to five years of graduate work usually are required for a doctoral degree. The Ph.D. degree culminates in a dissertation based on original research. Courses in quantitative re­ search methods, which include the use of com­ puters, are an integral part of graduate study and usually necessary to complete the disser­ tation. The Psy.D., based on practical work and examinations rather than a dissertation, prepares students for clinical and other applied positions. In clinical or counseling psychology, the requirements for the doctoral degree gen­ erally include an additional year or more of internship or supervised experience. Competition for admission into graduate programs is keen. Some universities require an undergraduate major in psychology. Others prefer only basic psychology with courses in the biological, physical, and social sciences, statistics, and mathematics. Over 1,500 colleges and universities offer a bachelor’s degree program in psychology; about 400, a master’s; about 300, a Ph.D. In addition, about 30 professional schools of psychology— some affiliated with colleges or universities— offer the Psy.D. The American Psychological Association (APA) presently accredits Ph D. training programs in clinical, counseling, and school psychology as well as Psy.D. programs. In 1986, 143 colleges and universities offered fully approved programs in clinical psychology (including 13 Psy.D. programs); 47 in coun­ seling psychology; and 34 in school psychol­ ogy (including 3 Psy.D. programs). The Na­ tional Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, with the assistance of the National Association of School Psychologists, is also involved in the accreditation of advanced de­ gree programs in school psychology. APA also has accredited about 310 institutions that pro­ vide internships for doctoral students in clinical and counseling psychology. Although financial aid is difficult to obtain,  some universities award fellowships or schol­ arships or arrange for part-time employment. The Veterans Administration (VA) offers predoctoral traineeships to interns in VA hospitals, clinics, and related training agencies. The Na­ tional Science Foundation, the Department of Health and Human Services, the Armed Forces, and many other organizations also provide fi­ nancial aid. Psychologists who want to enter independent practice must meet certification or licensing requirements. In 1986, all States and the Dis­ trict of Columbia had such requirements. Li­ censing laws vary by State, but generally re­ quire a doctorate in psychology and 1 to 2 years of professional experience. In addition, most States require that applicants pass an exami­ nation. Most State boards administer a stand­ ardized test and, in many instances, additional oral or essay examinations. Some States certify those with master’s level training as psycho­ logical assistants or associates. Some States require continuing education for relicensure. Most States require that licensed or certified psychologists limit their practice to those areas in which they have developed professional competence through training and experience. The American Board of Professional Psy­ chology recognizes professional achievement by awarding diplomas primarily in clinical psy­ chology, clinical neuropsychology, and coun­ seling, forensic, industrial and organizational, and school psychology. Candidates need a doc­ torate in psychology, 5 years of experience, and professional endorsements; they also must pass an examination. Even more so than in other occupations, people pursuing a career in psychology must be emotionally stable, mature, and able to deal effectively with people. Sensitivity, compas­ sion, and the ability to lead and inspire others are particularly important for clinical work and counseling. Research psychologists should be able to do detailed work independently and as part of a team. Verbal and writing skills are  94/Occupational Outlook Handbook  Most recipients of doctoral degrees in psychology enter professional services. Percent of new doctoral degree recipients by activity, 1986 0  Professional services Research and development  10  20  30  40  50  i------------- 1--------------1--------------r _  ■ ; .  ■  ' ' '  .  :  '  ■'  'j S  ••■■■■  .""  60  '8 1  1  Teaching  All academic fields  Administration Other activities  Related Occupations Psychologists are trained to evaluate, counsel, and advise individuals and groups. Others who do this kind of work are psychiatrists, social workers, clergy, special education teachers, and counselors.  Activity unknown  Source: National Research Council  necessary to communicate research findings. Patience and perseverance are vital qualities because results from psychological treatment of patients or research often are long in coming.  Job Outlook Employment of psychologists is expected to increase faster than the average for all occu­ pations through the year 2000. Largely because of the substantial investment in training re­ quired to enter this specialized field, psychol­ ogists have a strong attachment to their oc­ cupation—only a relatively small proportion leave the profession each year. Nevertheless, most job openings are expected to result from replacement needs. Several factors may help maintain the de­ mand for psychologists: Increased emphasis on mental health maintenance in conjunction with the treatment of physical illness; public concern for the development of human resources, in­ cluding the growing elderly population; and increased testing and counseling of children. Changes in the level of government funding of these services could affect the demand for psy­ chologists. Some openings are likely to occur as psy­ chologists study the effectiveness of changes in health, education, military, law enforce­ ment, and consumer protection programs. Psy­ chologists also are increasingly studying the effects on people of technological advances in areas such as agriculture, energy, the conser­ vation and use of natural resources, and in­ dustrial automation. Because college enrollments are expected to decline through the year 2000, employment of psychologists in colleges and universities is expected to decline. As a result, there will be keen competition for academic positions. Al­ though outstanding Ph.D.’s from leading uni­ versities should have no difficulty in obtaining teaching jobs at top schools, a larger number of Ph.D.’s will be forced to take jobs at smaller or lower paying institutions. Some may accept part-time or temporary assignments with little  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  The Federal Government recognizes edu­ cation and experience in certifying applicants for entry level positions. In general, the av­ erage starting salary for psychologists having a bachelor’s degree was about $14,800 a year in 1987; those with superior academic records could begin at $18,400. Counseling psychol­ ogists with a master’s degree and 1 year of counseling experience could start at $22,500. Clinical psychologists having a Ph D. or Psy.D. degree and 1 year of internship could start at $27,200; some individuals could start at $32,600. The average salary for psychologists in the Federal Government was about $41,400 a year in 1986.  or no hope of gaining tenure. As a result, many highly qualified graduates are expected to enter independent practice or seek other nonaca­ demic jobs. Persons holding doctorates from leading uni­ versities in applied areas such as clinical, coun­ seling, health, industrial, and engineering psy­ chology should have particularly good prospects. Psychologists with extensive train­ ing in quantitative research methods and com­ puter science will have a competitive edge over applicants without this background. Most graduates with only a master’s degree in psychology will probably continue to en­ counter severe competition for the limited number of jobs for which they qualify. Grad­ uates of master’s degree programs in school psychology should have the best job prospects, as schools are expected to increase student counseling and mental health services. Some master’s degree holders may find jobs as psy­ chological assistants in community mental health centers. Bachelor’s degree holders can expect very few opportunities in this field. Some may find jobs as assistants in rehabilitation centers. Those who meet State certification requirements may become high school psychology teachers. (For more information, see the statement on sec­ ondary school teachers elsewhere in the Hand­ book.)  Earnings According to a 1985 survey by the National Science Foundation, the median annual salary of psychologists with a doctoral degree was about $39,500. In educational institutions, the median was about $37,600; in State govern­ ment, about $32,900; in local government, about $30,700; in hospitals and clinics, about $35,900; in other nonprofit organizations, about $32,400; and in business and industry, about $50,000. Ph.D. or Psy.D. psychologists in pri­ vate practice and in applied specialties gen­ erally have higher eamings than other psy­ chologists.  Sources of Additional Information For information on careers, educational re­ quirements, financial assistance, and licensing in all fields of psychology, contact: American Psychological Association, Educational Affairs Office, 1200 17th St. NW., Washington, DC 20036.  For information on careers, educational re­ quirements, and licensing of school psychol­ ogists, contact: National Association of School Psychologists, 1511 K St. NW., Suite 716, Washington, DC 20005.  Information about State licensing require­ ments is available from: The American Association of State Psychology Boards, P.O. Box 4389, Montgomery, AL 36103.  Information on traineeships and fellowships also is available from colleges and universities that have graduate departments of psychology.  Sociologists (D.O.T. 054)  Nature of the Work Sociologists study human society and social behavior by examining the groups and social institutions that people form. These include families, tribes, communities, and govern­ ments, as well as a variety of social, religious, political, business, and other organizations. Sociologists study the behavior and interaction of groups, trace their origin and growth, and analyze the influence of group activities on individual members. Some sociologists are concerned primarily with the characteristics of social groups and institutions. Others are more interested in the ways individuals are affected by the groups to which they belong. The numerous areas of specialization avail­ able to sociologists reflect the interdisciplinary  Lawyers, Social Scientists, Social Workers, and Religious Workers/95  nature of this field. These include social or­ ganization, social stratification and mobility, racial and ethnic relations, social psychology, urban sociology, rural sociology, political so­ ciology, industrial sociology, comparative so­ ciology, and sociological practice. Other spe­ cialties include medical sociology—the study of social factors that affect mental and public health; gerontology—the study of aging and the special problems of aged persons; envi­ ronmental sociology—the study of the effects of the physical environment and technology on people; and clinical sociology—therapy and intervention in social systems for assessment and change. Increasingly important areas of study such as demography—the study of the size, characteristics, and movement of popu­ lations—and criminology—the study of fac­ tors producing deviance from accepted legal and cultural norms—have emerged as inde­ pendent specialties. Sociological research, like other kinds of social science research, involves collecting in­ formation, assessing its validity, and analyzing the results. Sociologists usually conduct sur­ veys or engage in direct observation to gather data. For example, after providing for con­ trolled conditions, an organizational sociolo­ gist might test the effects of different styles of leadership on individuals in a small work group. A medical sociologist might study the inci­ dence of lung cancer in an area contaminated by industrial pollutants. Sociological research­ ers also evaluate the efficacy of different kinds of social programs. They might examine and evaluate particular programs of income assis­ tance, job training, or remedial education. In­ creasingly, sociologists utilize statistical and computer techniques in their research. The re­ sults of sociological research aid educators, lawmakers, administrators, and others inter­ ested in resolving social problems and for­ mulating public policy. Sociologists often work closely with community groups and members of other professions, including psychologists, physicians, economists, statisticians, urban and regional planners, political scientists, anthro­ pologists, law enforcement and criminal administration officials, and social workers. Some sociologists are primarily administra­ tors. They apply their professional knowledge in areas as diverse as intergroup relations, fam­ ily counseling, public opinion analysis, law enforcement, education, personnel administra­ tion, public relations, regional and community planning, and health services planning. They may, for example, administer social service programs in family and child welfare agencies or develop social policies and programs for government, community, youth, or religious organizations. A number of sociologists are employed as consultants. Using their expertise and research skills, they advise on such diverse problems as halfway houses and foster care for the men­ tally ill; ways of counseling ex-offenders; and market research for advertisers and manufac­ turers. Increasingly, sociologists are involved in the evaluation of social and welfare pro­ grams.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Working Conditions The work of sociologists generally includes much reading, research, and report writing. Sociologists working in government agencies and private firms have structured work sched­ ules, and many experience the pressures of deadlines, tight schedules, heavy workloads, and overtime. Their routine may be interrupted by numerous telephone calls, letters, requests for information, and meetings. Travel may be required to collect data for research projects or to attend professional conferences. Sociolo­ gists in private practice may work evenings and weekends to accommodate clients. Sociology faculty have more flexible work schedules, dividing their time between teach­ ing, research, consulting, and administrative responsibilities.  HUff  Employment Sociologists held several thousand jobs in 1986. Government agencies employ a significant pro­ portion of sociologists to deal with such sub­ jects as poverty, crime, public assistance, pop­ ulation policy, social rehabilitation, community development, mental health, racial and ethnic relations, and environmental impact studies. Sociologists in the Federal Government work primarily for the Departments of Agriculture, Interior, Health and Human Services, and De­ fense. Sociologists specializing in demography work for international organizations such as the World Bank, the United Nations, and the World Health Organization and Federal agen­ cies such as the Bureau of the Census. Soci­ ologists specializing in criminology work pri­ marily for law enforcement agencies in State and local government. Sociologists also hold managerial, research, and planning positions in research firms, consulting firms, educational institutions, corporations, professional and trade associations, hospitals, and welfare or other nonprofit organizations. Some sociologists have private practices in counseling, research, or consulting. Besides the jobs described above, about 13,000 persons held sociology faculty posi­ tions in colleges and universities. (For more information about this occupation, see the statement on college and university faculty elsewhere in the Handbook.)  TYaining, Other Qualifications, and Advancement The Ph.D. degree is required for appointment to permanent teaching and research positions in colleges and universities and is essential for many senior level positions in research insti­ tutes, consulting firms, corporations, and gov­ ernment agencies. As the job market gets tight­ er through the year 2000, a Ph.D. will be increasingly required for virtually all academic and professional sociologist positions. Sociologists with master’s degrees can qual­ ify for administrative and research positions in public agencies and private businesses. Train­ ing in research, statistical, and computer meth­ ods is an advantage in obtaining such positions. Advancement opportunities are more limited for master’s degree holders than for Ph.D.’s.  Sociologists assess the effects of population movements. Sociologists with master’s degrees may qualify for teaching positions in junior colleges and for some college instructorships. Bachelor’s degree holders in sociology often get jobs in related fields. Many work as social workers, counselors, or recreation workers in public and private welfare agencies. Others are employed as interviewers or as administrative or research assistants. Sociology majors with sufficient training in statistical and survey methods may qualify for positions as junior analysts or statisticians in business or research firms or government agencies. In the Federal Government, candidates gen­ erally need a college degree with 24 semester hours in sociology, including course work in theory and methods of social research. How­ ever, since competition for the limited number of positions is keen, advanced study in the field is highly recommended. About 185 colleges and universities offer doctoral degree programs in sociology; most of these also offer a master’s degree. In about 170 schools, the master’s is the highest degree offered, and about 850 schools have bachelor’s degree programs. Sociology departments offer a wide variety of courses including sociological theory, field methods, social statistics and quantitative methods, crime and deviance, so­ cial psychology, family and society, sex roles, population, social stratification, social control, small group analysis, urban sociology, rural sociology, social organizations, and sociology of religion, law, the arts, war, politics, edu­ cation, work and occupations, and mental health. Some departments of sociology have highly structured programs, while others are relatively unstructured and leave most course selection up to individual students. Departments have different requirements regarding foreign lan­ guage skills, courses in statistics, internships, and completion of a thesis for the master’s degree.  96/Occupational Outlook Handbook  The choice of a graduate school is important for people who want to become sociologists. Students should select a school that has ade­ quate research facilities and offers appropriate areas of specialization such as theory, demog­ raphy, clinical sociology, or quantitative meth­ ods. Opportunities to gain practical experience also may be available, and sociology depart­ ments may help place students in business or research firms and government agencies. Certification by the Sociological Practice Association (SPA) is necessary for some clin­ ical sociology positions. Certification require­ ments generally include at least 1 year of ex­ perience that demonstrates competence in clinical sociology, a doctorate or a master’s degree from an accredited school, and suc­ cessful demonstration of competency at SPAsponsored training workshops or conferences. The ability to work independently is im­ portant for sociologists. Intellectual curiosity is an essential trait; researchers must have in­ quiring minds and a desire to find explanations for the phenomena they observe. Like other social scientists, sociologists must be objective in gathering information about social institu­ tions and behavior; they need analytical skills in order to organize data effectively and reach valid conclusions; and they must be careful and systematic in their work. Because communi­ cating their findings to other people is an im­ portant part of the job, sociologists must be able to speak well and to write clearly and concisely.  Job Outlook Demand for sociologists should be spurred by research in various fields such as demography, criminology, and gerontology and by the need to evaluate and administer programs designed to cope with social and welfare problems. Most job openings, however, are expected to result from the need to replace sociologists who trans­ fer to other occupations, or retire or leave the labor force for other reasons. The number of persons who graduate with advanced degrees in sociology through the year 2000 is likely to greatly exceed the available job openings. Ph.D.’s will continue to face particularly keen competition for academic po­ sitions; Ph.D.’s from the most outstanding in­ stitutions will have an advantage in securing teaching jobs. An increasing proportion of Ph.D.’s will en­ ter nonacademic careers. Some may take re­ search and administrative positions in govern­ ment, research organizations, and business firms. Those well-trained in quantitative re­ search methods—including survey techniques, advanced statistics, and computer sciencewill have the widest choice of jobs. For ex­ ample, private firms that contract with the gov­ ernment to evaluate social programs and con­ duct other research increasingly seek sociologists with strong quantitative skills. De­ mand is expected to be much stronger for so­ ciologists with training in practice areas—such as clinical sociology, criminology, environ­ mental sociology, medical sociology, geron­ tology, and demography—than for specialists  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  in sociological theory. For example, additional demographers may be sought to help busi­ nesses plan marketing and advertising pro­ grams and to help developing countries analyze censuses, prepare population projections, and formulate long-range public planning pro­ grams. More criminologists may be sought to help reduce deviance from legally and socially accepted behavior in our society. More ger­ ontologists may be needed to help formulate programs for our expanding elderly population. Sociologists with training in other applied dis­ ciplines—such as public policy, public admin­ istration, and business administration—will be attractive to employers seeking managerial and administrative personnel. Persons with a master’s degree will find few, if any, academic positions, even in junior and community colleges. They also will face strong competition for the limited number of nona­ cademic positions open to them. Some may find research and administrative jobs in re­ search firms, business, and government. For example, sociologists with backgrounds in business and quantitative research methods may find opportunities in market research firms. Bachelor's degree holders will find fewer opportunities for jobs as professional sociol­ ogists. As in the past, many graduates will take positions as trainees and assistants in business, industry, and government. As with advanced degree holders, extensive training in quanti­ tative research methods provides these grad­ uates with the most marketable skills. Some may find positions in social welfare agencies. For those planning careers in law, journalism, business, social work, recreation, counseling, and other related disciplines, sociology pro­ vides an excellent background. Those who meet State certification requirements may become high school sociology teachers. (For more in­ formation, see the statement on secondary school teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.)  Earnings According to a 1985 survey by the National Science Foundation, the median annual salary of sociologists and anthropologists combined was $37,200. For those in educational insti­ tutions, it was $37,000, and in business and industry, $45,000. The Federal Government recognizes edu­ cation and experience in certifying applicants for entry level positions. In general, the av­ erage entrance salary for sociologists with a bachelor’s degree was about $14,800 or $18,400 a year in 1987, depending upon the applicant’s academic record. The starting salary for those with a master’s degree was about $22,500 a year, and for those with a Ph.D., about $27,200, while some individuals could start at $32,600. Sociologists in the Federal Government aver­ aged around $40,400 a year in 1986. In general, sociologists with the Ph.D. de­ gree earn substantially higher salaries than those without the doctoral degree. Some sociologists supplement their regular salaries with earnings from other sources, such as consulting or coun­ seling work.  Related Occupations Sociologists are not the only people whose jobs require an understanding of social processes and institutions. Others whose work demands such expertise include anthropologists, econ­ omists, geographers, historians, political sci­ entists, psychologists, urban and regional plan­ ners, reporters and correspondents, and social workers.  Sources of Additional Information Additional information on careers and graduate departments of sociology is available from: The American Sociological Association, 1722 N St. NW„ Washington, DC 20036.  For information about careers in demogra­ phy, contact: Population Association of America, 806 15th St. NW., Suite 640, Washington, DC 20005.  For information about careers in clinical and applied sociology, contact: Sociological Practice Association, RD2, Box 141A, Chester, NY 10918.  For information about careers in rural so­ ciology, contact: Rural Sociology Society, Department of Sociology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717.  For information about careers in criminol­ ogy, contact: American Society of Criminology, 1314 Kinnear Rd., Suite 212, Columbus, OH 43212.  Urban and Regional Planners (D.O.T. 188.167-110 and 199.167-014)  Nature of the Work Urban and regional planners, often called com­ munity or city planners, develop programs to provide for future growth and revitalization of urban, suburban, and rural communities and their regions. They help local officials make decisions on social, economic, and environ­ mental problems. Planners examine community facilities such as health clinics and schools to be sure these facilities can meet the demands placed upon them. They also keep abreast of the economic and legal issues involved in community de­ velopment or redevelopment and changes in housing and building codes or environmental regulations. Because suburban growth has in­ creased the need for traveling between suburbs and the urban center, the planner’s job often includes designing new transportation systems and parking facilities. Urban and regional planners prepare for sit­ uations that are likely to develop as a result of population growth or social and economic change. They estimate, for example, the com­ munity’s long-range needs for housing, trans­ portation, and business and industrial sites. Working within a framework set by the com­ munity government, they analyze and propose  Lawyers, Social Scientists, Social Workers, and Religious Workers/97  alternative ways to achieve more efficient and attractive urban areas. Before preparing plans for long-range com­ munity development, urban and regional plan­ ners prepare detailed studies that show the cur­ rent use of land for residential, business, and community purposes. These reports include such information as the location of streets, highways, water and sewer lines, schools, li­ braries, and cultural and recreational sites. They also provide information on the types of in­ dustries in the community, characteristics of the population, and employment and economic trends. With this information, urban and re­ gional planners propose ways of using unde­ veloped or underutilized land and design the layout of recommended buildings and other facilities such as subway stations. They also prepare materials that show how their programs can be carried out and what they will cost. As in many other fields, planners increasingly use computers to record and analyze information. Urban and regional planners often confer with land developers, civic leaders, and other public planning officials. They may prepare materials for community relations programs, speak at civic meetings, and appear before leg­ islative committees to explain their proposals. In large organizations, planners usually specialize in areas such as physical design, public transportation, community relations, and the renovation or reconstruction of rundown business districts. In small organizations, plan­ ners must be able to do several kinds of work.  Working Conditions Urban and regional planners spend most of their time in offices. To be familiar with areas that they are developing, however, they oc­ casionally spend time outdoors examining the features of the land under consideration for development, its current use, and the types of structures existing on it. Although most plan­ ners have a scheduled 40-hour workweek, they frequently attend evening or weekend meetings or public hearings with citizens’ groups.  Employment Urban and regional planners held about 20,000 jobs in 1986. Local government planning agen­ cies—city, county, or regional—employ 2 out of 3. An increasing proportion of public agency planners work in small jurisdictions with pop­ ulations under 50,000. Many are employed in State agencies that deal with housing, trans­ portation, or environmental protection. The largest Federal employers of this specialty are the Departments of Defense and Transporta­ tion. Many planners do consulting work, either part time in addition to a regular job, or full time for a firm that provides services to private developers or government agencies. Some planners work for architectural and surveying firms, consulting firms, or large land devel­ opers.  Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Employers often seek workers who have ad­ vanced training in urban or regional planning.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Urban and regional planners analyze the impact of changing highway systems. Most entry jobs in Federal, State, and local government agencies require 2 years of grad­ uate study in urban or regional planning, or the equivalent in work experience. Although the master’s degree in planning is the usual requirement at the entry level, some people who have a bachelor’s degree in city planning, architecture, or engineering may qualify for beginning positions. Courses in related disci­ plines such as demography, economics, fi­ nance, health administration, location theory, and management are highly recommended. In addition, familiarity with statistical techniques and computer usage is highly desirable. In 1986, about 80 colleges and universities offered a master’s degree program in urban or regional planning. Most of these programs have been accredited by the Planning Accreditation Board, which consists of representatives of the American Planning Association (APA), the American Institute of Certified Planners, and the Association of Collegiate Schools of Plan­ ning. Although students holding a bachelor’s degree in planning, architecture, or engineer­ ing may earn a master’s degree after 1 year, most graduate programs in planning require 2 years. Graduate students spend considerable time in studios, workshops, or laboratory courses learning to analyze and solve urban and regional planning problems and often are required to work in a planning office part time or during the summer.  Candidates for jobs in Federal, State, and local government agencies usually must pass civil service examinations to become eligible for appointment. The American Institute of Certified Plan­ ners, a branch of the APA, grants certification to individuals with the appropriate combination of education and professional experience who pass an examination. Data on APA member­ ship indicate that certified urban planners tend to hold the more responsible, better paying positions in their field. Planners must be able to think in terms of spatial relationships and visualize the effects of their plans and designs. They should be flexible and able to reconcile different view­ points to make constructive policy recommen­ dations. The ability to write clearly and effec­ tively is important. After a few years’ experience, urban and regional planners may advance to assignments requiring a high degree of independent judg­ ment such as designing the physical layout of a large development or recommending policy, program, and budget options. Some are pro­ moted to jobs as planning directors and spend a great deal of time meeting with officials in other organizations, speaking to civic groups, and supervising other professionals. Further advancement occurs through a transfer to a large city with more complex problems and greater responsibilities.  98/Occupational Outlook Handbook  Job Outlook Employment of urban and regional planners is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Most job openings will arise from the need to replace experienced planners who transfer to other oc­ cupations, or retire or leave the labor force for other reasons. Demand will be spurred primarily by the continuing importance of environmental, eco­ nomic, and energy production planning. Other factors contributing to the demand for urban and regional planners include interest in zoning and land-use planning in undeveloped and non­ metropolitan areas, including coastal areas; the need to replace old public facilities such as bridges, highways, and sewers; historic pres­ ervation and rehabilitation activities; central city redevelopment; and commercial devel­ opment to support suburban areas with rapidly growing populations. Demand for urban and regional planners var­ ies by region. For example, demand is cur­ rently strong in rapidly growing areas such as California and Florida. Job growth is expected to occur in smaller cities and towns in older areas—for example, in the Northeast and Mid­ west—undergoing preservation and redevel­ opment.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Graduates of leading institutions with ac­ credited planning programs should have very good job prospects. For other jobseekers, geo­ graphic mobility and the willingness to work in small towns or rural areas may be necessary. Earnings According to a 1985 survey by the APA, urban and regional planners earned a median annual salary of about $34,100. The median annual salary of planners in city, county, and other local governments was $31,100; in State gov­ ernments, $33,500; in private consulting firms, $40,100; in business, $40,100; and in nonprofit foundations, $34,100. For planners with over 10 years’ experience, county and joint city/ county agencies paid about $37,700 annually, while private businesses and consulting firms paid about $48,100. Directors of public plan­ ning agencies earned as much as $9,000 more than staff members at comparable levels of experience. Salaries of planners in large juris­ dictions may be as much as $10,000 a year higher than their counterparts in small juris­ dictions. Planners with a master’s degree were hired by the Federal Government at a starting average salary of $22,500 a year in 1987. In some cases, persons having less than 2 years of grad­  uate work could enter Federal service as interns at yearly salaries of about $14,800 or$18,400. Salaries of urban and regional planners em­ ployed by the Federal Government averaged $39,400 a year in 1986.  Related Occupations Urban and regional planners develop plans for the orderly growth of urban and rural com­ munities. Others whose work is related to the work of planners include architects, landscape architects, city managers, civil engineers, en­ vironmental engineers, geographers, and urban designers.  Sources of Additional Information Additional information on careers and salaries in urban and regional planning, a list of schools offering training, and job referrals are available from: American Planning Association, 1776 Massachusetts Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20036.  Information on schools offering training in urban and regional planning is also available from: Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning. Col­ lege of Design, Architecture, Art, and Planning, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221.  Social and recreation workers Human Services Workers (D.O.T. 195.267-014 and .367 except -026 and -030)  Nature of the Work “Human services worker” is a generic term for people who hold paraprofessional jobs in such diverse settings as group homes and halfway houses; correctional, mental retardation, and community mental health centers; family, child, and youth service agencies; and programs con­ cerned with alcoholism, drug abuse, family violence, and aging. Depending on the em­ ployment setting and the kinds of clients served there, job titles and duties vary a great deal. Examples of job titles are: Social service tech­ nician, case management aide, social work as­ sistant, residential counselor, alcoholism or drug abuse counselor, mental health technician, child abuse worker, community outreach worker, and gerontology aide. Despite differences in what they are called and what they do, all human services workers perform under the direction of professional staff. The amount of responsibility these workers as­ sume and the degree of supervision they receive vary a great deal, however. Some workers are on their own most of the time and have little direct supervision; others work under close di­ rection. Those employed in mental health set­ tings, for example, may be assigned to assist a treatment team made up of social workers, psychologists, and other human services professionals. Human services workers in community, mental health, or residential care settings pro­ vide direct services such as leading a group, organizing an activity, or offering individual counseling. They may handle some adminis­ trative support tasks, too. Specific job duties reflect organizational policy and staffing pat­ terns, as well as the worker’s educational prep­ aration and experience. Human services workers in social service agencies help clients through the red tape that surrounds many entitlement programs. First of all, this involves interviewing clients, assess­ ing their needs, and establishing their eligibility for services that are available in the commu­ nity. Recordkeeping is another important part of the job. Regardless of whether a manual or computerized system is used, client and agency files must be kept up to date and in order. Social work assistants often handle eligibil­ ity determination, a complex job. The assistant usually examines financial documents such as rent receipts and tax returns to determine whether the client is eligible for food stamps, Medicaid, or other welfare programs. Social work assistants also provide information on how to obtain needed services; arrange for trans­ portation and escort service, if necessary; and provide emotional and psychological support.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Case aides may transport or accompany clients to group meal sites, adult day care pro­ grams, or doctors’ offices. Aides also tele­ phone or visit clients’ homes, checking to be sure that needed services are being received. Some aides serve tenants of public housing projects. They provide information about reg­ ulations and services, and may at times help resolve disagreements between tenants and landlords. Interest in alternatives to institutional care for people who are frail, severely handicapped, mentally ill, or mentally retarded has brought forth a variety of community-based facilities and programs. These include neighborhood clinics, mental health centers, emergency shel­ ters, “drop-in” centers for drug abusers and the mentally ill, and group homes and halfway houses. Human services workers play a variety of roles in community settings such as these. They may organize and lead group activities, for example; assist clients in need of counseling or crisis intervention; or administer a food bank or emergency fuel program. Job duties vary, depending on the particular group of people receiving services. In a com­ munity mental health center, mental health technicians work directly with individual clients. They may help them master practical aspects of everyday living, for example, or teach them how to communicate more effectively and get along better with others. Technicians assist with a number of different treatment approaches, including music, art, and dance therapy, to­ gether with individual and group counseling. In addition to the personal contact with clients, human services workers in community mental health centers are responsible for keep­ ing records and informing and updating the professional staff about the clients’ condition. Monitoring progress is a typical job duty in all types of programs, whether for senior citizens, the mentally ill, or the developmentally dis­ abled. Halfway houses and group homes also serve adults who need some supervision or assistance on a day-to-day basis. These homes were orginally set up to give people with mental or physical impairments a chance to live in the community instead of in an institution. Cur­ rently, group homes for elderly persons are being launched in some communities. Activity programs at nearby community centers give residents a place to go during the day to meet people and participate in educational and re­ habilitative activities. In the evening, residents return to the group homes, where they live in a family-like setting with supervision and sup­ port from counselors and aides. Residential counselors take a close interest in each member of the group home. They have access to and may consult confidential records, confer with medical personnel, and talk with the client’s family in order to gain better insight into the client’s history and needs. These in­ terviews are conducted under the supervision  of professional social workers or psycholo­ gists. Counselors in group homes follow the in­ structions of professional staff when dealing with clients. The social worker, for example, may instruct residential staff to teach members of the group home how to prepare their own meals. It may be up to the counselor to decide how to involve every resident in all the nec­ essary steps, from menu planning and grocery shopping through cooking and cleanup. The amount of freedom the worker has in imple­ menting instructions depends on the worker’s experience and the policy of the organization. In one home, for example, the counselor may operate with relatively few guidelines, while in another a step-by-step plan must be adhered to. Residential counselors are responsible for keeping clients’ records up to date and re­ porting changes in behavior to the supervisor. The counselor must prepare oral and written reports on the condition and progress of each member of the residence. Residential coun­ selors may also be responsible for the financial management of the household, including doc­ umenting all household expenditures.  Working Conditions Working conditions vary. Human services workers in social service agencies generally spend part of the time in the office and the rest of the time in the field. Most work a 40-hour week. Some evening and weekend work may be necessary, but compensatory time off is usually granted. Human services workers in community-based settings move around a great deal in the course of a workweek. They may be inside one day and outdoors on a field visit the next. They, too, work a standard 40-hour week. Human services workers in residential set­ tings generally work in shifts. Because resi­ dents of group homes need supervision in the evening and at night, 7 days a week, evening and weekend hours are required. The work, while satisfying, can be emo­ tionally draining. Understaffing and lack of equipment add to the pressure. Turnover is reported to be high, especially among workers without academic preparation for this field.  Employment Human services workers held about 88,000 jobs in 1986. About one-third were employed by State and local governments, primarily in mental health centers, facilities and programs for the mentally retarded and developmentally disabled, and public welfare agencies. About one-fourth worked in agencies offering adult day care, group meals, crisis intervention, counseling, and other social services. Some supervised residents of group homes and half­ way houses. Human services workers also held jobs in clinics, community mental health cen­ ters, and psychiatric hospitals. 99  10O/Occupational Outlook Handbook  suffice for promotion to a supervisory position. In general, however, career advancement re­ quires a bachelor’s or master’s degree in coun­ seling, rehabilitation, social work, or a related field. Most employers encourage workers to further their education, and some are willing to pay part of the cost. In addition, many em­ ployers provide in-service training such as seminars and workshops.  SUfSjffiji  Job Outlook .  '/*V  if, i tn  mm ->  il  Patience, understanding, and caring are important traits.  IVaining, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Human services workers have a wide range of educational backgrounds. However, the kind of work they do and the amount of responsi­ bility entrusted to them often depend on formal educational attainment. Workers with a high school education or less are likely to perform clerical duties. Those with a college degree might be assigned to do direct counseling, co­ ordinate program activities, or manage a group home. While some employers hire high school graduates, most prefer applicants with college level preparation in human services, social work, or one of the social or behavioral sci­ ences. Some human services workers transfer from other occupations or enter the field on the basis of course work in psychology, sociology, rehabilitation, or special education. A strong desire to help others is an important consideration for a job as a human services worker. Individuals who show patience, un­ derstanding, and caring in their dealings with others are highly valued by employers. Other important personal traits include communica­ tion skills, a strong sense of responsibility, and the ability to manage time effectively. Hiring requirements in group homes tend to be more stringent than in other settings. In 1985, approximately 300 certificate and associate degree programs in human services or mental health were offered at community  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  and junior colleges, vocational-technical in­ stitutes, and other postsecondary institutions. In addition, about 150 programs offered a bachelor’s degree in human services. A small number of programs leading to master’s de­ grees in human services administration were offered as well. Generally speaking, academic programs in this field educate students for particular kinds of roles—an associate degree program might specialize in preparing students to work with developmentally disabled adults, for example. As is also the case in social work, rehabilitation counseling, and other practice-oriented disci­ plines, educators maintain continuing contact with local employers to keep up with their changing needs. Students are exposed early and often to the kinds of situations they may en­ counter on the job. Undergraduate and graduate programs typ­ ically include courses in psychology, sociol­ ogy, crisis intervention, family dynamics, ther­ apeutic interviewing, rehabilitation, and gerontology. Through classroom simulation and required internships, students develop skills in interviewing, observing, and recording behav­ ior; learn techniques of individual and group counseling; and are introduced to program planning. Formal education is almost always necessary for career advancement. In group homes, com­ pletion of a 1-year certificate in human services along with several years of experience may  Employment of human services workers is ex­ pected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Op­ portunities for qualified applicants are expected to be excellent, not only because of projected rapid growth in the occupation, but because of substantial replacement needs. Turnover among counselors in group homes is reported to be especially high. Employment prospects should be favorable in facilities and programs that serve the elderly, mentally impaired, or developmentally dis­ abled. Adult day care, a relatively new con­ cept, is expected to expand significantly due to very rapid growth in the number of people of advanced age, together with growing aware­ ness of the value of day programs for adults in need of supervision. While projected growth in the elderly pop­ ulation is the dominant factor in the anticipated expansion of adult day care, public response to the needs of people who are handicapped or mentally ill underlies anticipated employment growth in group homes and residential care facilities. As more and more mentally retarded or developmentally disabled individuals reach the age of 21 and thereby lose their eligibility for programs and services offered by the public schools, the need for community-based alter­ natives can be expected to grow. Pressures to respond to the needs of the chronically mentally ill can also be expected to persist. For many years, as deinstitutionalization has proceeded, chronic mental patients have been left to their own devices. If the movement to help the homeless and chronically mentally ill gains momentum, more community-based programs and group residences will be established, and demand for human services workers will in­ crease accordingly. Job prospects in public agencies are not as bright as they once were, due to anticipated budget constraints that may reduce the use of paraprofessionals for outreach, eligibility de­ termination, information and referral, and sim­ ilar tasks. State and local governments will remain a major employer of human services workers, however, and replacement needs alone will generate many job openings in the public sector. Because so many human services jobs in­ volve direct contact with people who are im­ paired and therefore vulnerable to exploitation, employers try to be selective in hiring. Ap­ plicants are screened for appropriate personal qualifications. Relevant academic preparation is generally required, and volunteer or work experience is preferred. Inasmuch as this is responsible and emotionally draining work  Lawyers, Social Scientists, Social Workers, and Religious Workers/101  which pays relatively poorly, qualified appli­ cants should have little difficulty finding em­ ployment. Earnings According to limited data available, starting salaries for human services workers ranged from $10,000 to $14,000 a year in 1987. Experi­ enced workers earned up to about $20,000 an­ nually, depending on the amount of experience and the employer. Related Occupations Workers in other occupations that require skills similar to those of human services workers include social workers, community outreach workers, religious workers, occupational ther­ apy assistants, physical therapy assistants and aides, psychiatric aides, and activity leaders. Sources of Additional Information Information on academic programs in human services may be found in most directories of 2- and 4-year colleges, available at libraries or career counseling centers. For information on programs and careers in human services, contact: National Organization for Human Service Education, National College of Education, 2840 Sheridan Rd., Evanston, IL 60201. Council for Standards in Human Service Education, Montgomery Community College, Blue Bell, PA 19422.  Information on job openings may be avail­ able from State employment service offices or directly from city, county, or State departments of health, mental health and mental retardation, and human resources.  Social Workers (D.O.T. 187.137-014; 189.267-010; 195.107-010 through -046, .137-010, .164-010, .167-010, -014, -030, and -034, .267-018, .367-018 and -026) ________  Nature of the Work Social workers help individuals, families, and groups cope with problems of every descrip­ tion. Mostly, however, they aid people who are overwhelmed by circumstances: The home­ less, the unemployed, the seriously ill, the be­ reaved. Among the major helping professions, social work is distinguished by a tradition of concern for the poor, the disadvantaged, and those too young or too old to fend for them­ selves. Through direct counseling and referral to other services, social workers help clients re­ build their lives. Through policymaking and advocacy, they help make society more re­ sponsive to people’s changing needs. Major areas of social work practice include child wel­ fare and family services, psychiatric and men­ tal health services, public assistance, medical social work, gerontological social work, school social work, community organization, plan­ ning and policy development, and social wel­ fare administration.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Social workers in child welfare and family services provide a wide array of services, de­ pending on the client’s needs and resources. Improving the well-being of children and youth is the traditional role of child welfare workers. They may advise parents on the care of hand­ icapped infants, counsel children and youth who have difficulties in social adjustment, or arrange homemaker service during a parent’s illness. If children have serious problems in school, child welfare workers may consult with parents, teachers, and counselors to identify underlying problems. Some social workers as­ sist single parents, counsel couples about adop­ tion, and help find homes for neglected or aban­ doned children. Child welfare workers also work in residential institutions for children and ad­ olescents. A growing number of social workers spec­ ialize in child or adult protective services. Those in child protective services investigate reported cases of abuse and neglect and intervene if necessary. They sometimes institute legal ac­ tion and remove the child from the home, plac­ ing the child, temporarily, in an emergency shelter or with a foster family. Social workers who specialize in adult protective services take similar steps on behalf of adults, typically bat­ tered wives, neglected or abused elderly, or mentally impaired individuals. Whenever a social worker helps an individ­ ual or a family in crisis, direct counseling is a major part of the job. This requires effective listening skills and facility in creating a climate of openness and trust. Several meetings with the client and others familiar with the situation may be necessary in order to establish all the relevant facts. Using their training in human behavior, personality theory, and group rela­ tions, social workers engaged in direct coun­ seling help clients bring their real concerns into the open and consider possible solutions. Often, the social worker provides concrete information in areas that are unfamiliar or be­ wildering to the client: Where to go for debt counseling; how to word a help-wanted ad for childcare or eldercare; how to apply for public assistance, disability benefits, or child support; where to report suspected cases of abuse; how to get an alcoholic admitted to a rehabilitation program. Case management and other coordinating activities represent an increasingly important job duty. Case management is directed at pull­ ing together the most appropriate package of services in consultation with the client and then following through to assure that needed ser­ vices—transportation, housing, or a sheltered workshop placement for a mentally retarded adult, for example—are actually provided. Once having determined what services would benefit the client, case managers may review eligibility requirements, fill out forms and ap­ plications, arrange for transportation or escort service, visit the client on a regular basis, and step in during emergencies. The mental health field attracts the most so­ cial workers. Much effort has gone into de­ veloping community residential facilities and an array of supportive services for the mentally  disabled—services such as outreach, crisis in­ tervention, social rehabilitation, and training in skills of everyday living, to name a few. Social workers provide these services in com­ munity mental health centers, outpatient psy­ chiatric clinics, emergency shelters, and “dropin” centers. Psychiatric social workers are also employed in State mental hospitals, Veterans Administration hospitals, for-profit psychiatric hospitals, substance abuse treatment facilities, and psychiatric units of general hospitals. Pro­ viding individual and group therapy for psy­ chiatric patients is one of their principal job duties. In addition, some social workers help plan for supportive services to ease patients’ return to the community. Medical social workers are trained to help patients and their families cope with devastat­ ing illnesses and handle problems that may stand in the way of recovery or rehabilitation. Most medical social workers are employed by hospitals to handle patient counseling or dis­ charge planning. A substantial number work in nursing homes, where they may help with the admissions process and direct the activities program in addition to counseling residents and their families. Some have jobs with group med­ ical practices, health maintenance organiza­ tions, rehabilitation centers, and hospices. Patient counseling—working with children suffering from a terminal illness, for exam­ ple—is handled differently from one hospital to the next. Generally, however, it is the re­ sponsibility of the social work department. This traditional role has expanded as technology has made it possible for very sick people to survive months or even years longer than they used to. In addition, the increasingly popular practice of assisting family caregivers has created new roles for hospital social workers, who have taken the lead in organizing support groups for families of patients suffering from cancer, Alz­ heimer’s disease, or other illnesses that impose a heavy burden on families. Discharge planning is an important part of the hospital social worker’s job. This has come about because hospitals are under financial pressure to release patients as soon as possible. Discharge planners arrange for the various ser­ vices—from meals-on-wheels to oxygen equipment—that make it possible to send pa­ tients home as soon as their medical condition warrants it. Other medical social work roles are evolv­ ing. In some hospitals, social workers under­ take primary care functions in departments of pediatrics or obstetrics. A few specialize in organ transplant procurements. Others work on interdisciplinary teams that specialize in eval­ uating certain kinds of patients—geriatric or transplant patients, for example. Social work­ ers are also involved in hospitals’ efforts to bring in business by offering new programs and services. Examples are adult day care, res­ pite care, hospice care, health screening and education, worksite wellness, and employee assistance programs. Some social workers specialize in treatment of criminal offenders. Correctional treatment specialists provide direct services for inmates  102/Occupational Outlook Handbook  the auspices of the Federal Government, the United Nations, or one of the voluntary inter­ national social service agencies.  a  -  Many new jobs will be in family service agencies. of penal or correctional institutions, while pro­ bation and parole officers help offenders who are eligible for parole readjust to society. They counsel on the social problems that arise on returning to family and community life, and also may help secure necessary education, training, employment, or community services. Juvenile and adult probation officers provide similar services to individuals sentenced by the court to probation as an alternative to prison. Industrial social work is another area of prac­ tice. Social workers employed by business firms run employee assistance programs, for the most part. They generally are located in the person­ nel department or health unit, and offer direct counseling to employees and their families, develop education programs, and provide in­ formation about community resources. Indus­ trial social workers typically counsel employ­ ees whose performance at work is affected by alcoholism, drug abuse, or emotional prob­ lems. In a few companies, employee assistance programs focus on other sources of stress; so­ cial workers may help employees investigate childcare or eldercare arrangements, for ex­ ample. A small but growing number of social work­ ers are in private practice. Most of these are clinical social workers who offer psychother­ apy or counseling to individuals, families, and groups. They might work with families of trou­ bled adolescents, help couples deal with mar­ ital difficulties, assist individuals experiencing job-related stress, or set up support groups for people coping with similar situations. Some private practitioners specialize in or­ ganizational consulting, and contract with business firms to counsel employees during plant closings, workforce reductions, or other stressful changes in the work environment. Still others consult for trade unions and develop educational, recreational, and service pro­ grams for active and retired members. A growing number of private practice social workers specialize in gerontological services.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Some run support groups for family caretakers or for the adult children of aging parents.Others provide geriatric case management services on a fee-for-service basis. They assess service needs and then advise elderly people or family members about the choices open to them in such areas as housing, transportation, and long­ term care. They coordinate and may monitor services, providing as much or as little assis­ tance as the client desires. In addition to their work with individual clients, gerontological social workers often serve as consultants for government agencies, community organiza­ tions, and business firms. They might evaluate existing programs for the elderly, for example, and advise on new programs and services. Working Conditions Most social workers have a 5-day, 35- to 40hour week. However, many, particularly in voluntary nonprofit agencies, work part time. Many work evenings and weekends to meet with clients, attend community meetings, and handle emergencies. Extra leave is generally granted for overtime. Because social workers often must visit clients or attend meetings, some travel may be necessary. Employment Social workers held about 365,000 jobs in 1986. About 2 out of 5 jobs were in State, county, or municipal government agencies; relatively few were in the Federal Government. Social workers in the public sector are employed pri­ marily in departments of human resources, so­ cial services, mental health, health, housing, education, and corrections. Those in the private sector work mostly for voluntary social service agencies, community and religious organiza­ tions, hospitals, nursing homes, and home health agencies. Although employment is concentrated in ur­ ban areas, many social workers work with rural families. A small number of American social workers serve in other parts of the world under  TYaining, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor’s degree is the minimum require­ ment for most professional positions in this field. Besides the bachelor’s in social work (BSW), undergraduate majors in psychology, sociology, and related fields satisfy hiring re­ quirements in many social service agencies. A master's degree in social work (MSW) is gen­ erally required for positions in the mental health field and is almost always necessary for su­ pervisory, administrative, or research posi­ tions. A doctorate in social work usually is required for teaching and is desirable for some research and administrative jobs. In 1987, there were 370 accredited BSW programs and nearly 100 MSW programs. BSW programs prepare graduates for direct service positions such as caseworker or group worker. Classroom instruction is offered in social work practice, social welfare policies, human be­ havior and the social environment, and social research methods. All accredited BSW pro­ grams require 400 hours of supervised field experience. An MSW degree is preferred for clinical positions and is a decided asset for advance­ ment to a supervisory position. It is essential for social workers in private practice. Two years of specialized study, including 900 hours of supervised field instruction, or internship, are required to earn a master’s degree in social work. Field placement affords an opportunity to test one’s suitability for social work practice. At the same time, the student may develop expertise in a specialized area and make per­ sonal contacts that later are helpful in securing a permanent job. Previous training in social work is not required for entry into a graduate program, but courses such as psychology, so­ ciology, economics, political science, history, social anthropology, and urban studies, as well as social work, are recommended. Some grad­ uate schools offer accelerated MSW programs for qualified applicants who have earned BSW degrees. A limited number of scholarships and fel­ lowships are available for graduate education. A few social welfare agencies grant workers educational leave to obtain graduate education. Career advancement usually takes the form of promotion to supervisor, administrator, or director, although some social workers go into teaching, research, or consulting. In addition to experience, which is essential, advancement generally requires additional graduate educa­ tion. Some schools of social work offer ad­ vanced practice certificate programs in spe­ cialized fields of practice like family counseling. More than 50 schools offer Ph.D. or DSW (Doctor of Social Work) programs for indi­ viduals interested in careers in research, teach­ ing, policy analysis, private practice, or con­ sulting. Social workers seeking to broaden their ca­ reer options are also pursuing graduate studies  Lawyers, Social Scientists, Social Workers, and Religious Workers/103  in related fields including human services reflecting differences in economic conditions, and emotional support. Social workers who administration, public administration, business budget priorities, and the tradition of p.iblic provide mental health counseling work either administration, health services administration, support for social welfare services. Among the in agency settings or as private practitioners. education, and law. A number of colleges and States, some have a long history of commit­ Demand in both areas is projected to grow universities offer joint degree programs. ment to publicly funded human services, while rapidly. Private practice offers variety, prestige, and others have had a more limited view of social Opportunities for social workers in private the potential for much higher pay than most welfare spending. Despite regional variations, practice will expand, not only because of grow­ agency jobs. Social workers who wish to ad­ State and local governments are expected to ing acceptance of private practice by the vance professionally without taking the super­ retain their importance as a leading employer profession and by the public at large, but be­ visory or administrative route often consider of social workers. Replacement needs alone cause of the anticipated availability of funding private practice. Ordinarily, this means clinical will generate many openings in this large sec­ from health insurance, from public sector con­ practice—counseling individuals or groups— tor. tracts, and from an increasingly affluent pop­ although some private practitioners specialize Substantial growth is projected for social ulation willing to pay for professional help in in organizational consulting. An MSW as well work jobs in voluntary agencies as well as in dealing with personal problems. The growing as sufficiently varied work experience to de­ the small for-profit sector. These will be case­ popularity of employee assistance programs is velop a network of contacts for referral pur­ work counseling and case management jobs, also expected to spur demand for private prac­ poses is usually a prerequisite for a career as for the most part. Projected employment growth titioners, some of whom provide social work a private practitioner. Entrepreneurial ability in this sector reflects the rapidly increasing services to corporations on a contract basis. is important for success in this rapidly devel­ number of older persons, on the one hand, and Entry into private practice does not guar­ oping but highly competitive field. stepped-up spending for child protective ser­ antee success. Private practitioners must be In 1987, 41 States had licensing or regis­ vices, on the other. able to market themselves to prospective pur­ tration laws regarding social work practice and Older people’s needs for social work ser­ chasers of their services such as schools, health the use of professional titles. Voluntary cer­ vices cut across distinctions of income and so­ care providers, corporations, or individuals. tification is offered by the National Association cial class. Death of a spouse, poor eyesight, a Moreover, they must be prepared to deal with of Social Workers (NASW), which grants the broken hip, or other characteristic losses of old competition from psychologists, psychiatric title ACSW (Academy of Certified Social age can overwhelm affluent people as well as nurses, counselors, and other mental health Workers) to those who qualify. For clinical those who are poor. Nonetheless, certain groups providers. social workers, professional credentials in­ of older people may require the services of a Prospects for hospital social workers should clude listing in the NASW Register of Clinical social worker more than others. This is par­ be favorable through the year 2000. A major Social Workers or in the Registry of Health ticularly true for people living alone, predom­ employment setting, hospitals provide about 1 Care Providers in Clinical Social Work. These inantly widows of advanced age, who fre­ out of every 10 social work jobs. Financing credentials are particularly important for social quently are in poor health and living on very and organizational changes have affected hir­ workers in private practice; some health in­ low incomes. ing practices in this sector. Because of the surance providers require them for reimburse­ Exceptionally rapid growth is projected in unprecedented emphasis on discharge plan­ the number of Americans over the age of 85 ning, the hospital social worker’s knowledge ment. Social workers should be emotionally ma­ in the years immediately ahead. This is ex­ of community resources has taken on new im­ ture, objective, and sensitive, and should pos­ pected to produce a sharp increase in social portance. Social workers in community-based sess a basic concern for people and their prob­ service needs and substantial growth in the programs for the elderly reportedly are being lems. They must be able to handle number of social work personnel involved in recruited for hospital social work jobs because responsibility, work independently, and main­ assisting the elderly and their adult children. of their knowledge of community programs. tain good working relationships with clients The demand for services provided by social The pivotal role of discharge planning in fa­ and coworkers. Volunteer, part-time, or sum­ workers will not be limited to the elderly, how­ cilitating early discharge is expected to sustain mer jobs as a social work aide offer ways of ever. Changes in society, the family, and the demand for hospital social workers despite pro­ testing one’s interest in pursuing a career in role of religion have made it more acceptable jected slow growth in the hospital industry as this field. to turn to mental health professionals instead a whole. of clergy or close family members for advice Home health care is an increasingly imporJob Outlook Employment of social workers is expected to Fewer people are completing formal preparation for a increase faster than the average for all occu­ pations through the year 2000 in response to career in social work. the needs of a growing and aging population. The need to replace social workers who leave Degrees from accredited programs (thousands) the occupation or stop working is expected to be the principal source of jobs, however. Demand for social workers is governed not only by the need for services, but also by the Master’s availability of funds to pay for these services. Due to anticipated budget constraints, pros­ pects in public agencies are not as bright as Bachelor’s they once were. Some public programs are likely to expand—notably child protective ser­ vices, services for the elderly, and communitybased services for the mentally retarded and chronically mentally ill. Others, however, may contract in the face of budgetary limitations. Programs most likely to be cut are public as­ sistance, State mental hospitals, and training 1975-76 76-77 77-78 78-79 79-80 80-81 81-82 82-83 83-84 84-85 schools for the mentally retarded. Source: Council on Social Work Education Job growth in public agencies will continue to be subject to considerable regional variation.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  104/Occupational Outlook Handbook  tant area of social work practice, not only be­ cause hospitals are moving to release patients more quickly, but because a large and growing number of people have impairments or disa­ bilities that make it difficult to live at home without some form of assistance. Social work­ ers determine what kind of assistance is most appropriate, establish the client’s eligibility for publicly funded in-home services, and super­ vise the aides who provide direct care. Demand for social workers is expected to grow in outpatient facilities, including health maintenance organizations (HMO’s) and re­ habilitation facilities that offer alcohol and drug abuse programs. Financing is not an obstacle, as a rule; HMO’s provide comprehensive care for a preestablished fee, and alcohol and drug rehabilitation programs often are covered by employers or by health insurance, although some patients pay their own costs. Services provided by social workers in HMO’s include counseling on teenage pregnancy, stress man­ agement, substance abuse, family planning, crisis intervention for cases of spouse or child abuse, assistance for the elderly, and case man­ agement. Job prospects for social workers vary a great deal. Opportunities differ depending upon ac­ ademic credentials, experience, and field of practice. Geographic location is a considera­ tion, too. Competition is keen in cities where training programs for social workers abound. At the same time, population growth in the Sunbelt States is spurring expansion of social service programs there, and some isolated rural areas are finding it difficult to attract and retain qualified staff. Trends in the number of individuals obtain­ ing degrees in social work may affect job pros­ pects. The number of individuals earning BSW and MSW degrees from accredited programs peaked in the late 1970’s and has declined since then, with a sharper drop in BSW degrees awarded than MSW degrees. In view of past trends in the proportion of college students majoring in social work, together with the im­ pending decrease in the college-age popula­ tion, the supply of formally prepared social workers is not likely to keep pace with antic­ ipated growth in social work positions. This does not imply a shortage of social workers, in view of the abundant supply of new college graduates, career changers, and reentrants who have the requisite education or experience. However, it does indicate that a larger proportion of social service positions will be filled by people without professional preparation. Competition for entry level human service jobs, which historically has been keen, would abate somewhat. As in the past, com­ petition will be keenest for social work posi­ tions offering the most favorable pay and ben­ efits. Earnings Salaries for social workers at all levels vary greatly by type of agency (private or public; Federal, State, or local) and geographic region, but generally are highest in large cities and in States with sizable urban populations. Private  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  practitioners, administrators, teachers, and re­ searchers often earn considerably more than other types of social workers. The average minimum salary for social case­ workers in public agencies (positions requiring a BSW) was about $16,700 in 1985, according to a survey conducted by the International Per­ sonnel Management Association; for casework supervisors (positions requiring an MSW), the average minimum salary was about $21,500. The average annual starting salary for social workers in hospitals and medical centers (po­ sitions requiring an MSW) was about $20,700 in 1986, according to a survey conducted by the University of Texas Medical Branch. The average salary for experienced social workers in these settings was about $27,300. In the Federal Government, social workers with an MSW started at $22,900 in 1986; those with a Ph D. or job experience may command a higher starting salary. Average earnings for social workers in the Federal service were $31,800 in 1986. Most social workers in the Federal Government are employed by the Vet­ erans Administration and the Departments of Health and Human Services, Education, Jus­ tice, and Interior. Related Occupations Through direct counseling or referral to other services, social workers help people solve a range of personal problems. Workers in oc­ cupations with similar duties include the clergy, counselors, counseling psychologists, and vo­ cational rehabilitation counselors. Sources of Additional Information Eor information about career opportunities in social work, contact: National Association of Social Workers, 7981 East­ ern Ave., Silver Spring, MD 20910.  The Council on Social Work Education pub­ lishes an annual Directory of Accredited S5W and MSW Programs. Price and ordering in­ formation for this and other CSWE publica­ tions is available from: Council on Social Work Education, 1744 R St. NW., Washington, DC 20009.  For information on doctoral programs in so­ cial work, contact: Group to Advance Doctoral Education in Social Work, c/o Barbara Shore, Ph.D., ACSW, School of Social Work, University of Pittsburgh, Rm. 2209, Cathe­ dral of Learning, Pittsburgh, PA 15260.  Recreation Workers (D.O.T. 153.137-010; 159.124-010; 187.137-010; 195.227-010 and -014; and 352.167-010)  Nature of the Work As leisure time in our lives increases, oppor­ tunities for organized recreation become more important. Recreation workers plan, organize, and direct activities that help people enjoy and benefit from leisure hours. They should not be confused with recreational therapists, who help  individuals recover or adjust to illness, dis­ ability, or specific social problems. (The work of recreational therapists is described else­ where in the Handbook.) Recreation programs, whether institution­ ally or community based, are as diverse as the people they serve. Employment settings range from pristine wilderness areas to health clubs in the city center. At local playgrounds and community centers, for example, recreation personnel organize and conduct a variety of leisure activities, including arts, crafts, fitness, and sports. Recreation workers are also em­ ployed by theme parks, tourist attractions, and firms that offer “getaway” vacations or adven­ ture trips. Other employment settings include parks, campgrounds, and recreational areas; schools, churches, and synagogues; retirement com­ munities, senior centers, and adult day care programs; military bases; and correctional in­ stitutions. Recreation personnel in industry organize and direct leisure activities and athletic pro­ grams for employees and their families such as bowling and softball leagues, social func­ tions, travel programs, discount services, and, to an increasing extent, exercise and fitness programs. These activities are generally for adults. Camp counselors lead and instruct campers in nature-oriented forms of recreation such as swimming, hiking, and horseback riding as well as outdoor education. They also provide campers with specialized instruction in a par­ ticular area such as music, drama, gymnastics, tennis, or computers. In resident camps, the staff must insure that the campers have ade­ quate living conditions. Recreation workers occupy a variety of po­ sitions at different levels of responsibility. Rec­ reation leaders provide face-to-face leadership and are responsible for a recreation program’s daily operation. They may give instruction in crafts, games, and sports; keep records; and maintain recreation facilities. Those who pro­ vide instruction in specialties such as art, mu­ sic, drama, swimming, or tennis may be called activity specialists. They often conduct classes and coach teams in the activity in which they specialize. Recreation leaders usually work un­ der a supervisor. Recreation supervisors plan programs to meet the needs of the population they serve; super­ vise recreation leaders, sometimes over an en­ tire region; and direct specialized activities. Working Conditions While the average workweek for recreation workers is 35-40 hours, people entering this field should expect some night work and ir­ regular hours. Work can be physically tiring. Recreation workers often spend much of their time outdoors and may work under a variety of weather conditions. Recreation supervisors may spend most of their time in an office. As is the case for anyone engaged in physical ac­ tivity, recreation workers risk physical injuries. The work setting for recreation workers may be anywhere from a vacation cruise ship to a  Lawyers, Social Scientists, Social Workers, and Religious Workers/105  woodland recreational park. Generally, em­ ployment follows overall population patterns; most jobs are in urban and suburban areas, where the majority of Americans live. Jobs in camping are found mostly in the less populated areas of the country because of the outdoor orientation of camping programs. Some camp workers receive room and board as part of their compensation.  t »■ fi  Employment Recreation workers held about 164,000 jobs in 1986. (This estimate does not include many summer workers.) More than half of the jobs were in government agencies, primarily in park and recreation departments at the municipal and county levels. State park systems employ some recreation workers, and the Federal Gov­ ernment employs a small number of recreation specialists, sports specialists, outdoor recrea­ tion planners, and recreation assistants and aides m ggp ■ for programs run by the Veterans Administra­ tion and the Departments of Defense and In­ terior. Nearly 20 percent of the jobs were in mem­ bership organizations with a civic, social, fra­ ternal, or religious orientation—the Boy Scouts, the Y.W.C.A., and Red Cross, for example. Approximately 12 percent were in programs run by social service organizations (senior cen­ ters and adult day care programs, for example) or in residential care facilities such as halfway houses, group homes, and institutions for de­ linquent youth. Other employers include commercial rec­ reation establishments, amusement parks, sports and entertainment centers, wilderness and sur­ vival enterprises, tourist attractions, vacation ■ \7 excursions, hotels and other resorts, camps, health spas, athletic clubs, apartment com­ plexes, and other settings. I The recreation field is characterized by an unusually large number of part-time, seasonal, and volunteer jobs. Some volunteers serve on local park and recreation boards and commis­ sions. The vast majority, however, serve as volunteer activity leaders at local playgrounds, or in youth organizations, camps, nursing Recreation workers help people of all ages enjoy their leisure time. homes, hospitals, senior centers, Y.M.C.A.’s, and other settings. Volunteer experience and specialized training in a particular field, such sidered minimum requirements for administra­ part-time work during school may lead to a as art, music, drama* or athletics, and some tors. However, increasing numbers are obtain­ full-time job. The largest number of paid em­ require special certification, such as holding a ing master’s degrees in parks and recreation as ployees in the recreation field are part-time or certificate in lifesaving to teach swimming. well as in related disciplines. Many persons in seasonal workers. Typical jobs include summer A bachelor’s degree is not always necessary. other disciplines, including social work, for­ camp counselors and playground leaders, life­ Some recreation positions are filled by high estry, and resource management, pursue grad­ guards, craft specialists, and after-school and school graduates, while others are filled by uate degrees in recreation. weekend recreation program leaders. Many jobs graduates of associate degree programs in parks In industrial recreation, or “employee ser­ and recreation, social work, and other human are filled by teachers and college students. vices” as this field is more commonly called, services disciplines. A number of jobs in this companies prefer applicants with a bachelor’s Training, Other Qualifications, % field are held by college students who work degree in recreation and a strong background part time while earning a degree. in business administration. and Advancement Most supervisors have a bachelor’s degree Educational requirements for jobs in this field In 1987, about 200 community and junior range from a high school diploma or less for and experience. Persons with academic prep­ colleges offered park and recreation programs many summer jobs to graduate education for aration in parks and recreation management, leading to an associate degree, and 300 colleges administrative positions in large public sys­ leisure studies, physical education, fitness and universities offered programs leading to a tems. Many applicants for full-time career po­ management, and related fields generally have bachelor’s, master’s, or Ph.D. degree. sitions arejcollege graduates with majors in better prospects for career advancement, al­ The Council on Accreditation, sponsored by recreation, leisure studiesj or physical educa­ though this varies from one employer to an­ the National Recreation and Park Association, tion, but a bachelor’s degree in any liberal arts other. has accredited 64 park and recreation curricA bachelor’s degree and experience are con­ ulums at the bachelor’s degree level. Ac­ field may be appropriate. Some jobs require  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  106/Occupational Outlook Handbook  credited programs provide broad exposure to the history, theory, and philosophy of park and recreation management. Courses are offered in community organization; supervision and administration; recreational needs of special populations such as the elderly or handicapped; and supervised fieldwork. Students have an opportunity to specialize in areas such as ther­ apeutic recreation, park management, outdoor recreation, industrial or commercial recreation, and camp management. The American Camping Association has de­ veloped a curriculum for camp director edu­ cation in colleges and universities. Many na­ tional youth associations offer training courses for camp directors at the local and regional levels. Persons planning recreation careers should be outgoing, good at motivating people, and sensitive to the needs of others. Good health and physical stamina are required. Activity planning calls for creativity and resourceful­ ness. Willingness to accept responsibility and the ability to exercise judgment are important qualities since recreation personnel often work alone. To increase their leadership skills and understanding of people, students are advised to obtain related work experience in high school and college. Such experience may help stu­ dents decide whether their interests really point to a human services career. Students also should talk to local park and recreation professionals, school guidance counselors, and others. Individuals contemplating careers in recre­ ation at the supervisory or administrative level should develop managerial skills. College courses in business, accounting, and personnel management are likely to be useful. Certification for this field is offered by the National Recreation and Park Association (NRPA) and the American Camping Associ­ ation. Over 30 States have adopted NRPA standards for park/recreation technicians and park/recreation professionals. The American Camping Association certifies individuals who meet their standards of professional compe­ tence, and so does the National Employee Ser­ vices and Recreation Association. Neither registration nor certification is usu­ ally required for employment or advancement in this field. However, employers faced with an abundance of qualified applicants are likely to give preference to those with professional credentials, experience, or both. Job Outlook Employment of recreation workers is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Factors pointing to future expansion of this field in­ clude a growing number of people with both leisure time and the money to purchase leisure services; increased interest in fitness and health; rising demand for recreational opportunities for   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  the elderly in senior centers and retirement communities; and more activity programs for special populations such as the mentally re­ tarded or developmentally disabled. As is gen­ erally the case, however, most job openings will result from replacement needs. Employment opportunities will be more fa­ vorable in some settings than others, a reflec­ tion of divergent prospects for industry growth. Much of the job growth will occur in the rapidly growing commercial recreation industry, com­ posed of amusement parks, athletic clubs, camps, sports clinics, and the like. Hiring prac­ tices in commercial recreation vary a great deal, and employer preference for applicants with formal training in recreation, physical educa­ tion, and related fields has not been clearly established. Demand for recreation workers is also ex­ pected to be strong in the fast-growing social services industry. Recreation workers will be needed to develop and lead activity programs in such settings as senior centers, halfway houses, children’s homes, and day care pro­ grams for the mentally retarded or develop­ mentally disabled. Hiring practices in social service agencies vary, too. Some jobs require course work or degrees in recreation, rehabil­ itation, or other human services fields, while others require only suitable personal qualifi­ cations and work experience. Overall job growth in local government is expected to be slow due to budget constraints, and local park and recreation departments are expected to do less hiring for permanent, full­ time positions than in the past. As a result, this sector's share of recreation worker employ­ ment will shrink by the end of the century. Nonetheless, opportunities will vary widely by region, since resources as well as priorities for public services differ from one community to another. Thus, hiring prospects for recreation personnel will be much better in some park and recreation departments than overall pro­ jections would suggest. Because the field is open to all college grad­ uates regardless of major, applications for ca­ reer positions in recreation greatly exceed the number of job openings. Keen competition for jobs is expected to continue. Individuals with both experience and formal training in recre­ ation are expected to have the best opportun­ ities for staff positions. Those with graduate degrees should have the best opportunities for supervisory or administrative positions. While the market for full-time career posi­ tions is expected to remain competitive, pros­ pects are much better for the very large number of temporary seasonal jobs. These positions, typically filled by high school or college-age individuals, do not generally require formal education in recreation or leisure studies, al­ though swimming, lifeguarding, skiing, and  similar skills may be necessary. Demand for seasonal workers is great, and job opportunities should be plentiful: employers are competing for their share of the vacationing student labor market, and salaries in recreation are not al­ ways competitive with those in other fields. Earnings Median annual earnings of recreation workers who worked full time in 1986 were about $12,000. The middle 50 percent earned be­ tween about $8,000 and $18,000. The lowest 10 percent earned about $7,000 or less. The top 10 percent earned about $28,000 or more. According to the American Camping As­ sociation, the average salary for camp directors was about $1,600 a month in municipally op­ erated camps in 1986. Salaries for camp di­ rectors in private camps were somewhat higher. Seasonally employed camp counselors earned between $200 and $800 a month. Room and board, however, were usually provided free of charge. The starting salary for recreation workers in the Federal Government was $14,821 a year in 1987. Most public and private recreation agencies provide vacation and other fringe benefits such as sick leave and hospital insurance. Related Occupations Recreation workers must exhibit leadership and sensitivity in dealing with people. Other oc­ cupations that require similar personal qualities include recreational therapists, social workers, parole officers, human relations counselors, school counselors, clinical and counseling psy­ chologists, and teachers. Sources of Additional Information Ordering information for materials describing careers and academic programs in recreation is available from: National Recreation and Park Association, 3101 Park Center Dr., Alexandria, VA 22302.  The NRPA also publishes a bulletin of job openings twice monthly. The American Association for Leisure and Recreation publishes information sheets on 25 separate careers in parks and recreation. For price and ordering information, contact: AALR, 1900 Association Dr., Reston, VA 22091.  For information on careers in employee ser­ vices and recreation, contact: National Employee Services and Recreation Asso­ ciation, 2400 South Downing St., Westchester, IL 60153.  For information on careers in camping and summer counselor opportunities, send request and postpaid return envelope to: American Camping Association, Bradford Woods, 5000 State Rd., 67 N, Martinsville, IN 46151.  Religious workers Protestant Ministers (D.O.T. 120.007)  Nature of the Work Protestant ministers lead their congregations in worship services and administer the various rites of the church, such as baptism, confir­ mation, and Holy Communion. They prepare and deliver sermons and give religious instruc­ tion. They also perform marriages; conduct funerals; counsel individuals who seek guid­ ance; visit the sick, aged, and handicapped at home and in the hospital; comfort the bereaved; and serve church members in other ways. Many Protestant ministers write articles for publi­ cation, give speeches, and engage in interfaith, community, civic, educational, and recrea­ tional activities sponsored by or related to the interests of the church. Some ministers teach in seminaries and colleges and universities. The services that ministers conduct differ among Protestant denominations and also among congregations within a denomination. In many denominations, ministers follow a tra­ ditional order of worship; in others, they adapt the services to the needs of youth and other groups within the congregation. Most services include Bible reading, hymn singing, prayers, and a sermon. In some denominations, Bible reading by a member of the congregation and individual testimonials may constitute a large part of the service. Ministers serving small congregations gen­ erally work personally with parishioners. Those serving large congregations have greater ad­ ministrative responsibilities and spend consid­ erable time working with committees, church officers, and staff, besides other duties. They may share specific aspects of the ministry with one or more associates or assistants, such as a minister of education who assists in educational programs for different age groups, or a minister of music. Working Conditions Ministers are “on call” for any serious troubles or emergencies that involve or affect members of their churches. They also may work long and irregular hours in administrative, educa­ tional, and community service activities. Many of the ministers’ duties are sedentary, such as reading or doing research in a study or a library to prepare sermons or write articles. In some denominations, ministers are reas­ signed by a central body to a new pastorate every few years. Employment In 1986, there were an estimated 429,000 Prot­ estant ministers, of whom 257,000 served in­ dividual congregations. Others worked in closely related fields such as chaplains in hos­ pitals, the Armed Forces, universities, and cor­   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  warn.  IBHHV  Ministers may counsel and solace church members through personal correspondence. rectional institutions. While there arc numer­ ous denominations, most ministers are employed by the five largest Protestant bod­ ies—Baptist, Methodist, Lutheran, Presbyter­ ian, and Episcopalian. AH cities and most towns in the United States have at least one Protestant church with a full­ time minister. Although most ministers are lo­ cated in urban areas, many serve two or more small congregations in less densely populated areas. Some small churches increasingly are employing part-time ministers who are semi­ nary students, retired ministers, or holders of secular jobs. Unpaid pastors serve other churches with tight budgets. Some churches employ specially trained members of the laity to conduct nonliturgical functions. Training and Other Qualifications Educational requirements for entry into the Protestant ministry vary greatly. Some denom­ inations have no formal educational require­ ments, and others ordain persons having var­ ious types of training in Bible colleges, Bible institutes, or liberal arts colleges. In 1986, about 140 American Protestant the­ ological schools were accredited by the As­ sociation of Theological Schools in the United States and Canada. These admit only students who have received a bachelor’s degree or its equivalent in liberal arts from an accredited college. Many denominations require a 3-year course of professional study in one of these accredited schools or seminaries after college graduation for the degree of master of divinity. Recommended preseminary or undergrad­ uate college courses include English, history, philosophy, natural sciences, social sciences, fine arts, music, religion, and foreign lan­ guages. These courses provide a knowledge of  modern social, cultural, and scientific insti­ tutions and problems. However, students con­ sidering theological study should contact, at the earliest possible date, their denominations and the schools to which they intend to apply, to learn how to prepare for the program they hope to enter. The standard curriculum for accredited the­ ological schools consists of four major cate­ gories: Biblical, historical, theological, and practical. Courses of a practical nature include pastoral care, preaching, religious education, and administration. Many accredited schools require that students work under the supervi­ sion of a faculty member or experienced min­ ister. Some institutions offer doctor of ministry degrees to students who have completed ad­ ditional study, usually 2 or more years, and served at least 2 years as a minister. Schol­ arships and loans are available for students of theological institutions. In general, each large denomination has its own school or schools of theology that reflect its particular doctrine, interests, and needs. However, many of these schools are open to students from other denominations. Several in­ terdenominational schools associated with uni­ versities give both undergraduate and graduate training covering a wide range of theological points of view. Persons who have denominational qualifi­ cations for the ministry usually are ordained after graduation from a seminary or after serv­ ing a probationary pastoral period. Denomi­ nations that do not require seminary training ordain clergy at various appointed times. For example, some Evangelical churches may or­ dain ministers with only a high school edu­ cation. Men and women entering the clergy often 107  108/Occupational Outlook Handbook  begin their careers as pastors of small congre­ gations or as assistant pastors in large churches. Job Outlook The increasing cost of operating churches is expected to result in limited growth in the de­ mand for ministers through the year 2000. However, growth in the number of persons being ordained also is expected to slow down. As a result, new graduates of theological schools are expected to face less competition for jobs than in the past. The supply-demand situation will vary among denominations and geographic regions. Ministers will still face keen com­ petition for more responsible positions serving large, urban congregations. Relatively favor­ able prospects are expected for ministers in Evangelical churches. Ministers willing to work part time or for smaller, rural congregations also should have relatively favorable oppor­ tunities. Most of the openings for ministers through the year 2000 will arise from the need to replace retirees and, to a lesser extent, those who leave the ministry. Employment alternatives for newly ordained Protestant ministers who are unable to find po­ sitions in parishes include working in youth counseling, family relations, and welfare, or­ ganizations; teaching in religious educational institutions; and serving as chaplains in the Armed Forces, hospitals, universities, and cor­ rectional institutions. Earnings Salaries of Protestant clergy vary substantially, depending on age, experience, denomination, size and wealth of congregation, and geo­ graphic location. Based on limited informa­ tion, the estimated average annual income of Protestant ministers was about $20,000 in 1986. In large, wealthier denominations, ministers averaged $25,000 or more. Fringe benefits, such as housing and transportation, may add as much as 25 percent to a minister’s annual salary. Increasingly, ministers with modest sal­ aries earn additional income from employment in secular occupations. Related Occupations Protestant ministers advise and counsel indi­ viduals and groups regarding their religious as well as personal, social, and vocational de­ velopment. Other occupations involved in this type of work include social workers, clinical and counseling psychologists, teachers, and counselors. Sources of Additional Information Persons who are interested in entering the Prot­ estant ministry should seek the counsel of a minister or church guidance worker. Each the­ ological school can supply information on ad­ mission requirements. Prospective ministers also should contact the ordination supervision body of their particular denomination for in­ formation on special requirements for ordi­ nation. Occupational information about the Prot­ estant ministry can also be obtained from:  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  National Council of Churches, Professional Church Leadership, Room 770, 475 Riverside Dr., New York, NY 10115.  Rabbis (D.O.T. 120.007)  Nature of the Work Rabbis are the spiritual leaders of their con­ gregations, and teachers and interpreters of Jewish law and tradition. They conduct relig­ ious services and deliver sermons on the Sab­ bath and on Jewish holidays. Like other clergy, rabbis conduct weddings and funeral services, visit the sick, help the poor, comfort the be­ reaved, supervise religious education pro­ grams, engage in interfaith activities, and in­ volve themselves in community affairs. Rabbis serving large congregations may spend considerable time in administrative du­ ties, working with their staffs and committees. Large congregations frequently have an asso­ ciate or assistant rabbi. Many assistant rabbis serve as educational directors. Rabbis serve either Orthodox, Conservative, Reform, or Reconstructionist congregations. Regardless of their particular point of view, all Jewish congregations preserve the substance of Jewish religious worship. Congregations differ in the extent to which they follow the traditional form of worship—for example, in the wearing of head coverings, the use of Hebrew as the language of prayer, or the use of instrumental music or a choir. The format of the worship service and, therefore, the ritual that the rabbi uses may vary even among congregations be­ longing to the same branch of Judaism. Rabbis also may write for religious and lay publications and teach in theological seminar­ ies, colleges, and universities. Working Conditions Rabbis work long hours and are “on call” to visit the sick, comfort the bereaved, and coun­ sel those who need it. Community and edu­ cational activities may also require long or ir­ regular hours. Some of their duties are intellectual and se­ dentary, such as studying religious texts, re­ searching and writing sermons and articles for publication, and preparing lectures for adult education. Rabbis have a good deal of independent au­ thority, since they have no formal hierarchy. They are responsible only to the board of trust­ ees of the congregations they serve. Employment In 1986, there were an estimated 6,500 prac­ ticing rabbis. Over 1,000 Orthodox rabbis served congregations, many of them relatively small. In addition, 850 Conservative, 800 Re­ form, and 75 Reconstructionist rabbis served congregations. Most of the rest taught in Jewish Studies programs at colleges and universities. Others worked as chaplains in the military ser­ vices, in hospitals and other institutions, or in  A rabbi explains the significance of a holy day observance. one of the many Jewish community service agencies. Although rabbis serve Jewish communities throughout the Nation, they are concentrated in major metropolitan areas with large Jewish populations. Training and Other Qualifications To become eligible for ordination as a rabbi, a student must complete a course of study in a seminary. Entrance requirements and the cur­ riculum depend upon the branch of Judaism with which the seminary is associated. About 35 seminaries educate and ordain Or­ thodox rabbis. The Rabbi Isaac Elchanan The­ ological Seminary and the Beth Medrash Govoha Seminary are representative of Orthodox seminaries. The former requires a bachelor’s degree for entry and has a formal 3-year or­ dination program. The latter has no formal ad­ mission requirements but may require more years of study for ordination. The training is rigorous. When students have become suffi­ ciently learned in the Talmud, the Bible, and other religious studies, they may be ordained with the approval of an authorized rabbi, acting either independently or as a representative of a rabbinical seminary. The Jewish Theological Seminary of Amer­ ica educates rabbis for the Conservative branch. The Hebrew Union College—Jewish Institute of Religion educates rabbis for the Reform branch. Both seminaries require the completion of a 4-year college course, as well as earlier preparation in Jewish studies, for admission to the rabbinical program leading to ordination. A student with a strong background in Jewish studies can complete the course at the Con­ servative seminary in 4 years; for other enrollees, the course may take as long as 6 years. Normally, 5 years of study are required to com­ plete the rabbinical course at the Reform sem­ inary, including 1 year of preparatory study in Jerusalem. Exceptionally well-prepared stu-  Lawyers, Social Scientists, Social Workers, and Religious Workers/109  dents can shorten this 5-year period to a min­ imum of 3 years. The Reconstructionist Rabbinical College educates rabbis in the newest branch of Ju­ daism. A bachelor’s degree is required for ad­ mission. The rabbinical program is based on a 5-year course of study which emphasizes, in each year, a period in the history of Jewish civilization. Graduates are awarded the title “Rabbi” and the Master of Arts in Hebrew Letters and, with special study, can earn the Doctor of Hebrew Letters degree. In general, the curriculums of Jewish the­ ological seminaries provide students with a comprehensive knowledge of the Bible, Tal­ mud, Rabbinic literature, Jewish history, the­ ology, and courses in education, pastoral psy­ chology, and public speaking. Students get extensive practical training in dealing with so­ cial problems in the community. Training for alternatives to the pulpit, such as leadership in community services and religious education, is increasingly stressed. Some seminaries grant advanced academic degrees in fields such as Biblical and Talmudic research. All Jewish theological seminaries make scholarships and loans available. Newly ordained rabbis usually begin as spiritual lead­ ers of small congregations, assistants to ex­ perienced rabbis, directors of Hillel Founda­ tions on college campuses, teachers in seminaries and other educational institutions, or chaplains in the Armed Forces. As a rule, experienced rabbis fill the pulpits of large and well-established Jewish congregations. Job Outlook The job outlook for rabbis is generally favor­ able in the four major branches of Judaism. Graduates of Orthodox seminaries who seek pulpits should have good opportunities as growth in enrollments slows and as many grad­ uates choose not to seek pulpits. Orthodox rab­ bis willing to work in small communities should have particularly good prospects. Conservative and Reform rabbis are ex­ pected to have good employment opportuni­ ties—primarily in areas with rapidly growing numbers of retirees. Reconstructionist rabbis are expected to have very good employment opportunities since membership is rapidly expanding. Many rabbis who do not seek a pulpit work for Jewish social service agencies. Others may teach in a religious educational institution or serve as chaplain in the Armed Forces or in hospitals, universities, or correctional institu­ tions. Earnings Income varies, depending on the size and fi­ nancial status of the congregation, as well as its denominational branch and geographic lo­ cation. Rabbis may earn additional income from gifts or fees for officiating at ceremonies such as bar mitzvahs and weddings. Based on limited information, annual av­ erage earnings of rabbis generally ranged from $25,000 to $75,000 in 1986, including fringe benefits.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Related Occupations Rabbis advise and counsel individuals and groups regarding their religious as well as per­ sonal, social, and vocational development. Other occupations involved in this type of work include social workers, clinical and counseling psychologists, teachers, and counselors. Sources of Additional Information Persons who are interested in becoming rabbis should discuss their plans for a vocation with a practicing rabbi. Information on the work of rabbis and allied occupations can be obtained from: The Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary, 2540 Amsterdam Ave., New York, NY 10033. (Or­ thodox) Beth Medrash Govoha Seminary, 626 Seventh St., Lakewood, NJ 08701. (Orthodox) The Jewish Theological Seminary of America, 3080 Broadway, New York, NY 10027. (Conservative) Hebrew Union College—Jewish Institute of Reli­ gion. Director of Admissions, at any one of three campuses: 1 W. 4th St., New York, NY 10012; 3101 Clifton Ave., Cincinnati, OH 45220; 3077 Univer­ sity Mall, Los Angeles, CA 90007. (Reform) Reconstructionist Rabbinical College, Church Rd. and Greenwood Ave., Wyncote, PA 19095.  Roman Catholic Priests (D.O.T. 120.007)  Nature of the Work Roman Catholic priests attend to the spiritual, pastoral, moral, and educational needs of the members of their church. They deliver ser­ mons, administer the sacraments, and preside at liturgical functions such as funeral services. They also comfort the sick, console and coun­ sel those in need of guidance, and assist the poor. In recent years, some priests have paid increasing attention to nonliturgical concerns such as human rights and social welfare. A priest’s day usually begins with morning meditation and Mass and may end with an individual counseling session or an evening visit to a hospital or home. Many priests direct and serve on church committees, work in civic and charitable organizations, and assist in com­ munity projects. The two main classifications of priests— diocesan (secular) and religious—have the same powers, acquired through ordination by a bishop. The differences lie in their way of life, their type of work, and the church authority to whom they are immediately subject. Diocesan priests generally work in parishes assigned by the bishop of their diocese. Religious priests generally work as part of a religious order, such as the Jesuits, Dominicans, or Franciscans. They may engage in specialized activities, such as teaching or missionary work, assigned by su­ periors of their order. Both religious and diocesan priests hold teaching and administrative posts in Catholic  seminaries, colleges and universities, and high schools. Priests attached to religious orders staff a large proportion of the church’s institutions of higher education and many high schools, whereas diocesan priests arc usually concerned with the parochial schools attached to parish churches and with diocesan high schools. The members of religious orders do most of the missionary work conducted by the Catholic Church in this country and abroad. Working Conditions Priests spend long and irregular hours working for the church and the community. Religious priests are assigned duties by their superiors in their particular orders. Some re­ ligious priests serve as missionaries in foreign countries, where they may live under difficult and primitive conditions. Some live a com­ munal life in monasteries, where they devote themselves to prayer, study, and assigned work. Diocesan priests are “on call” at all hours to serve their parishioners in emergencies. They also have many intellectual duties, including study of the scriptures and keeping abreast of current religious and secular events in order to prepare sermons. Diocesan priests are respon­ sible to the bishop of the diocese. Employment There were approximately 57,000 priests in 1986, according to the Official Catholic Di­ rectory. Over 19,000—primarily diocesan priests—served congregations as pastors. There are priests in nearly every city and town and in many rural communities. The majority are in metropolitan areas, where most Catholics reside. Large numbers of priests are located in communities near Catholic educational and other institutions. Training and Other Qualifications Preparation for the priesthood generally re­ quires 8 years of study beyond high school in one of about 230 seminaries. Preparatory study may begin in the first year of high school, at the college level, or in theological seminaries after college graduation. High school seminaries provide a college preparatory program that emphasizes English grammar, speech, literature, and social stud­ ies. Latin may be required and modem lan­ guages are encouraged. In growing Hispanic communities, knowledge of Spanish is man­ datory. The seminary college offers a liberal arts program stressing philosophy and reli­ gion, the study of man through the behavioral sciences and history, and the natural sciences and mathematics. In many college seminaries, a student may concentrate in any one of these fields. The remaining 4 years of preparation include sacred scripture; dogmatic, moral, and pastoral theology; homiletics (art of preaching); church history; liturgy (mass); and canon law. Field­ work experience usually is required; in recent years, this aspect of a priest’s training has been emphasized. Diocesan and religious priests at­ tend different major seminaries, where slight variations in the training reflect the differences  110/Occupational Outlook Handbook  meetings. Priests will continue to offer Mass, administer sacraments, and hear confession, but may be less involved in teaching and ad­ ministrative work.  A priest explains the wedding ceremony.  in their duties. Priests commit themselves not to marry. Postgraduate work in theology is offered at a number of American Catholic universities or at ecclesiastical universities around the world, particularly in Rome. Also, many priests do graduate work in fields unrelated to theology. Priests are encouraged by the Catholic Church to continue their studies, at least informally, after ordination. In recent years, continuing education for ordained priests has stressed so­ cial sciences, such as sociology and psychol­ ogyYoung men never are denied entry into sem­ inaries because of lack of funds. In seminaries for secular priests, scholarships or loans are available. Those in religious seminaries are financed by contributions of benefactors. A newly ordained secular priest usually works as an assistant pastor or curate. Newly ordained priests of religious orders are as­ signed to the specialized duties for which they are trained. Depending on the talents, inter­ ests, and experience of the individual, many   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  opportunities for greater responsibility exist within the church. Job Outlook More priests will be needed in the years ahead to provide for the spiritual, educational, and social needs of the increasing number of Cath­ olics. In recent years, the number of ordained priests has been insufficient to fill the needs of newly established parishes and other Catholic institutions, and to replace priests who retire, die, or leave the priesthood. This situation is likely to intensify if, as expected, seminary enrollments continue to decline and an increas­ ing proportion of priests retire. In response to the shortage of priests, certain traditional functions increasingly are being per­ formed by lay deacons and by teams of clergy and laity. Presently about 7,600 lay deacons have been ordained to preach and perform li­ turgical functions such as distributing Holy Communion and reading the gospel at the Mass. Teams of clergy and laity undertake nonliturgical functions such as hospital visits and  Earnings Diocesan priests’ salaries vary from diocese to diocese. Based on limited information, most salaries range from about $6,000 to $9,000 a year. The diocesan priest also may receive a car allowance, free room and board in the par­ ish rectory, and fringe benefits such as group insurance and retirement benefits. Religious priests take a vow of poverty and are supported by their religious order. Priests who do special work related to the church, such as teaching, usually receive a partial salary which is less than a lay person in the same position would receive. The dif­ ference between the usual salary for these jobs and the salary that the priest receives is called “contributed service.” In some of these situ­ ations, housing and related expenses may be provided; in other cases, the priest must make his own arrangements. Some priests doing spe­ cial work receive the same compensation that a lay person would receive. Related Occupations Roman Catholic priests advise and counsel in­ dividuals and groups regarding their religious as well as personal, social, and vocational de­ velopment. Other occupations involved in this type of work include social workers, clinical and counseling psychologists, teachers, and counselors. Sources of Additional Information Young men interested in entering the priest­ hood should seek the guidance and counsel of their parish priests. For information regarding the different religious orders and the secular priesthood, as well as a list of the seminaries which prepare students for the priesthood, con­ tact the diocesan Director of Vocations through the office of the local pastor or bishop. Occupational information about the Roman Catholic priesthood can also be obtained from: National Conference of Diocesan Vocation Direc­ tors, 1307 S. Wabash Ave., Chicago, IL 60605.  Teachers, Librarians, and Counselors Adult and Vocational Education Teachers (D.O.T. 075.127-010; 090.222; 097.227-010 and -014; 099.223, .227-014, -018, -026, and -030; 149.021; 150.027-014; 151.027-014; 152.021; 153.227-014; 159.227; 166.227; 239.227; 375.227; 621.221; 683.222; 689.222; 715.221; 740.221; 789.222; 806.227; and 919.223)  Nature of the Work More and more adults are participating in vo­ cational and adult education, not only to learn job skills, but also for personal enrichment. Vocational programs prepare adults for occu­ pations that do not require a college degree, such as automotive mechanic, computer op­ erator, cosmetologist, and medical assistant. In contrast, adult or continuing education pro­ grams offer courses not specifically intended to prepare for an occupation, such as basic education for school dropouts, cooking, danc­ ing, exercise and physical fitness, photogra­ phy, and the stock market. Adult and vocational education teachers may lecture in classrooms, and, depending on the subject, also give students hands-on experi­ ence—much like secondary school shop and home economics teachers. Generally, they demonstrate techniques, have students apply them, and provide criticism so students can learn from mistakes. For example, an instructor teaching automobile mechanics shows students how to repair cars, using all the necessary tools and equipment. Similarly, teachers of painting, photography, or ceramics demonstrate the techniques before having students apply them. Some instruct in the Adult Basic Education program, which covers reading, writing, and mathematics up to the eighth grade level for adults and English for non-English-speakers. This program prepares students to take the General Educational Development Examina­ tion (GED), which offers the equivalent of a high school diploma. Teachers in this program must be able to deal with students at different levels of development who may lack proper study habits and self-confidence and who may require more attention and patience than other students. These teachers may refer students for coun­ seling or job placement. Because many people who need adult basic education are reluctant to seek it out, teachers may also recruit par­ ticipants. Adult and vocational education teachers also prepare lessons and assignments, grade papers and do related paperwork, attend faculty and professional meetings, and stay abreast of de­ velopments in their field.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Working Conditions Teaching involves extended periods of stand­ ing and talking and can be both physically and mentally tiring. Teachers may face frustration with students who have difficulty learning, but they also can experience satisfaction when stu­ dents succeed. Many adult and vocational education teach­ ers teach part time. Many courses are offered at night or on weekends and range from 1-day minisessions to semester-long courses. Employment Adult and vocational education teachers held about 427,000 jobs in 1986. About half taught part time, a larger proportion than for other teachers, and many taught only intermittently. However, many of them also held other jobs, in many cases doing work related to the subject they taught. Adult and vocational teachers are employed by automotive repair, bartending, business, computer, electronics, medical technology, and similar schools and institutes; colleges and uni­ versities; dance studios; health clubs; busi­ nesses that provide formal training for their employees; job training centers; labor unions; and religious organizations. IVaining, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Training requirements vary widely by State and by subject. In general, teachers need work or other experience in their field, and a license or certificate in fields where these are usually re­  quired for full professional status. In some cases, a bachelor’s, master’s, or doctorate degree or other credential is required and in others, an acceptable portfolio of work. Most States and the District of Columbia require adult basic education teachers to have a bachelor’s degree from an approved teacher training program, and some require teacher certification. (See statements on elementary and secondary school teachers elsewhere in the Handbook.)  Adult and vocational education teachers should communicate and relate well with stu­ dents, enjoy working with them, and be able to motivate them. Adult basic education in­ structors, in particular, must be patient, un­ derstanding, and supportive to make students comfortable, develop trust, and help them bet­ ter understand their needs and aims. Some teachers advance to administrative po­ sitions in State departments of education, col­ leges and universities, and corporate training departments. (See statement on education ad­ ministrators elsewhere in the Handbook.) Job Outlook Employment of adult and vocational education teachers is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2000 as the demand for adult and vocational education programs continues to rise. Voca­ tional education teachers will be needed to train young adults for entry level jobs and to upgrade the skills of experienced workers who want to advance or switch fields or whose jobs have  mm.  .... “*  j  mm  fJ  Vocational education teachers prepare adults for occupations which do not require a college degree.  in  112/Occupational Outlook Handbook  been eliminated due to changing technology or business reorganization. Also contributing to the demand is the in­ creased participation by adults in part-time ed­ ucation. This participation has increased sub­ stantially during the past decade, reflecting the rise in the adult population and the growing emphasis on leisure time and self-improvement activities. Also, as it becomes more difficult to get a good job without basic academic skills, the demand for adult basic education programs should increase. The number of people 16 to 24 years old, the age group traditionally most likely to enroll in a vocational program, will decline through the year 2000. However, the need to train ex­ perienced workers, combined with more in­ tensive training requirements, is expected to offset this decline. Most job openings for adult and vocational educational teachers will stem from the need to replace persons who leave the occupation. Because many teach part time, their attachment to the occupation is weak and turnover is quite high. Opportunities will be best in fields such as computer technology, automotive mechan­ ics, and medical technology which offer very attractive job opportunities outside of teaching. Earnings In 1986, salaried adult and vocational educa­ tion teachers who usually worked full time av­ eraged $427 a week. The middle 50 percent earned between $295 and $572. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $213, while the top 10 percent earned more than $798. Earnings varied widely by subject, academic credentials, experience, and region of the country. Related Occupations Adult and vocational education teaching re­ quires a wide variety of skills and aptitudes, including organizational, administrative, and communication skills; the power to influence, motivate, and train others; and creativity. Workers in other occupations that require these aptitudes are other teachers, counselors, school administrators, public relations specialists, and employee development specialists. Sources of Additional Information Information on the Adult Basic Education pro­ gram and certification requirements is available from State departments of education. For information about vocational education teaching positions, contact State departments of vocational education. General information on adult and vocational education is available from: American Association for Adult and Continuing Ed­ ucation, 1112 16thSt. NW., Suite420, Washington, DC 20036. American Vocational Association, 1410 King St., Alexandria, VA 22314.  For information on other adult education teaching positions, contact departments of lo­ cal government, State adult education depart­ ments, schools, colleges and universities, and organizations such as the YMCA and YWCA.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Archivists and Curators (D.O.T. 101; 102 except .261-014 and .367-010; 109 except .067-010 and .137-010)  Nature of the Work Most of us like to get, fix up, arrange, and show off collections of things we like. Archi­ vists and curators do this for a living. They search for, acquire, analyze, catalog, restore, exhibit, maintain, and store items of lasting value. These may consist of historical docu­ ments, corporate records, art, coins, stamps, minerals, clothing, maps, live and preserved plants and animals, buildings, or historic sites. Archivists determine what portion of the vast amount of information produced by govern­ ment agencies, corporations, educational in­ stitutions, and other organizations should be made part of a historical record or put on ex­ hibit. They classify information so it may be located easily and determine whether it should be stored as original documents, on microfilm, or as computer records. Archives may be part of a library or museum or may be a separate unit. Most items in ar­ chives are documents, but photographs, blue­ prints, and other items also are stored. Archi­ vists often specialize in an area of history or technology so they can properly determine what should become part of the archives. Archivists may also specialize by type of record—for example, computerized information, photo­ graphs, or ancient documents. Curators manage collections in museums, zoos, aquariums, botanic gardens, and historic sites. They acquire items through purchases, gifts, field exploration, intermuseum loans, or, in the case of plants and animals, breeding. They often restore objects (such as works of art or historic items) to their original condition; this may require substantial historical and ar­ cheological research. Curators also plan and prepare attractive, interesting, and informative exhibits. Some curators plan and conduct museum education programs. Most museums, zoos, bo­ tanic gardens, and historic sites offer tours con­ ducted by instructors, guides, or docents (mu­ seum volunteers). Since many tours are composed of school groups, tours must be geared to the age of the students. Some mu­ seums conduct classes, workshops, or lectures for students or the general public which are conducted or arranged for by curators. Most curators specialize in fields such as zoology, art, or history. Those working in large institutions may be highly specialized. A large natural history museum, for example, would have specialists in birds, fishes, mammals, and dinosaurs. Furthermore, in large institu­ tions, most curators specialize in functions. Some restore or maintain the collection, while others perform administrative tasks, such as registrars, who are responsible for keeping track of and moving objects in the collection. In small institutions, with only one or a few cu­  rators, they are responsible for almost every­ thing. Working Conditions Archival work requires meticulous attention to detail. Many archivists work alone, generally in offices with only one or two other persons. Curators also usually work in offices. How­ ever, working conditions vary depending upon the type and size of museum. Little physical activity is required of many curators, but those who restore and install exhibits may climb, stretch, or lift, and those in zoos, botanical gardens, and other outdoor museums or historic sites walk a lot. Curators in large, heavily endowed mu­ seums may travel extensively to evaluate po­ tential additions to the collection and to or­ ganize exhibitions. Those in museums with very limited budgets may travel only occa­ sionally. Employment Archivists and curators held almost 8,300 jobs in 1986. Most were employed in museums, botanical gardens, and zoos. Most Federal ar­ chivists are employed in the National Archives and Records Administration; others manage military archives in the Department of Defense. Most Federal Government curators are em­ ployed in the Smithsonian Institution, in the military museums of the Department of De­ fense, and in archeological and other museums managed by the Department of Interior. All State governments have archival or historical records sections employing archivists. State and local governments have numerous historical museums, parks, and zoos employing curators. Some large corporations have archival or records centers, employing archivists to man­ age the growing volume of historical records required by law or necessary to the firms’ op­ erations. Religious and fraternal organizations, professional associations, and research firms also employ a few archivists and curators. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Employment as an archivist or curator gener­ ally requires graduate training and substantial practical or work experience. Many archivists and curators work in archives or museums while completing their formal education. Archivists usually earn undergraduate and graduate degrees in history or related fields, with courses in archival or library science. Most archivists have a master’s degree, and many have a doctorate or second master’s degree in library science. More than 70 colleges and uni­ versities offer courses or practical training in archival science; about 30 offer master’s de­ grees; and 10, doctorates. Continuing education is very important. Meetings, conferences, and workshops spon­ sored by the Society of American Archivists, the National Archives and Records Adminis­ tration, and other archival associations enable archivists to keep up with developments in their field such as the use of computers to store and access information.  Teachers, Librarians, and Counselors/113  Archivists need good eyesight to analyze deteriorated or poor quality printed matter, handwritten manuscripts, or photographs and films. Archivists also must be able to organize large amounts of information and write clear instructions for its retrieval and use. Many archival units are very small, with limited promotion opportunities. Advancement generally is through transferring to a larger unit with supervisory positions. Where an archive is part of a library or a museum, archivists may become librarians, manuscript curators, or managers of these organizations. The minimum requirements for employment as a curator are a bachelor’s degree in an ap­ propriate discipline of the museum’s spe­ cialty—for example, art, history, or archeol­ ogy—and experience in museum work. In most museums, a master’s degree in a related field is generally required, but employers prefer a doctorate. For some positions, an internship of full-time museum work supplemented by courses in museum practices is needed. Many students interested in museum work take courses or obtain a bachelor’s or master’s degree in museum studies (museology). About 60 colleges and universities offer undergrad­ uate courses in museum studies, nearly 40 grant the bachelor’s degree, and over 90 grant the master’s degree. However, many employers feel that, while museum studies are helpful, a thorough knowledge of the museum’s specialty is considered more important. Curatorial positions often require knowledge in a number of fields. For historic and artistic conservation, courses in chemistry, physics, and in painting and crafts are desirable. Since curators—particularly those in small mu­ seums—may have administrative and mana­ gerial responsibilities, courses in business administration and public relations also are rec­ ommended. Curators must be flexible because of their wide variety of duties. They need an aesthetic sense to design and present exhibits, and in small museums manual dexterity is needed to erect exhibits or restore objects. Leadership ability is important for museum directors, while public relations skills are valuable in increasing museum attendance and fundraising. Continuing education is also very important for curators; they attend conferences, meet­ ings, and workshops sponsored by the Amer­ ican Association of Museums, other museum associations, and by large museums such as the Smithsonian Institution. In large museums, curators may advance through several levels of responsibility, even­ tually to museum director. Curators in smaller museums often advance to larger ones. Indi­ vidual research and publications are important for advancement. Job Outlook Employment of archivists and curators is ex­ pected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Gov­ ernment archival activities are expected to grow slowly, but those in other areas are expected to grow faster. Museums, where curators are  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  concentrated, are expected to grow substan­ tially in response to increased public interest in art, history, technology, and culture. Con­ sequently, employment of curators is expected to grow more rapidly than employment of ar­ chivists. Despite the anticipated increase in the em­ ployment of curators, competition for jobs is expected to be keen. A job as a curator is attractive to many people, and many have the necessary subject knowledge, yet there are only a few openings. Consequently, candidates may have to work part time, or as an intern, or even as a volunteer assistant curator or research as­ sociate after completing their formal education, and substantial work experience in collection management, exhibit design, or restoration will be necessary for permanent status. Archivists can improve their job opportun­ ities by taking courses in library or information science. Some employment opportunities will arise in related fields such as librarian, records manager, collection manager, and manuscript curator. However, employment in these fields is expected to grow relatively slowly. Earnings Earnings of archivists and curators vary con­ siderably by type and size of employer. Av­ erage salaries in the Federal Government, for example, are much higher than those in relig­ ious organizations. Salaries of curators in large, well-funded museums may be several times higher than those in small ones. Salaries in the Federal Government depend upon education and experience. In 1987, in­ experienced archivists and curators with a bachelor’s degree started at $14,822, while those with some experience started at $18,358. Those with a master’s degree started at $22,458, and with a doctorate, $27,172 or $32,567. Ar­ chivists and curators employed by the Federal Government averaged about $35,800 a year in 1986. Related Occupations Archivists’ and curators’ interests in preser­ vation and display are shared by anthropolo­ gists, arborists, archeologists, artifacts con­ servators, botanists, ethnologists, folklorists, genealogists, historians, horticulturists, infor­ mation specialists, librarians, paintings resto­ rers, records managers, and zoologists. Sources of Additional Information Information about careers as an archivist and schools offering courses in archival science is available from: Society of American Archivists, 600 South Federal St., Suite 504, Chicago, IL 60605.  For general information about careers as a curator and schools offering courses in cura­ torial science, contact: American Association of Museums, 1225 1 St. NW., Suite 200, Washington, DC 20005.  For information about curatorial careers in botanical gardens, contact: American Association of Botanical Gardens and Ar­ boreta, P.O. Box 206, Swarthmore, PA 19081.  Employment as an archivist or curator gen­ erally requires graduate training. For information about conservation and preservation careers, contact: American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, 3545 Williamsburg Lane NW., Washington, DC 20008.  College and University Faculty (D.O.T. 090.227-010)  Nature of the Work College and university faculty teach and advise the more than 12 million full-time and part­ time college students and perform a significant part of our Nation’s research. They also study and meet with colleagues to keep up with de­ velopments in their field and consult with gov­ ernment, business, nonprofit, and community organizations. Faculty are generally organized into de­ partments, based on subject or field. They usu­ ally teach several different courses in their de­ partment—freshman composition, 18th century English literature, and modem fiction, for ex­ ample. They may instruct undergraduates, graduate students, or both. College and university faculty may give lec­ tures to several hundred students in large halls, lead small seminars, and supervise students in laboratories. They also prepare lectures, ex­ ercises, and laboratory experiments, grade ex­ ams and papers, and advise and work with students individually. In universities, they also counsel graduate students doing research. They may use closed-circuit and cable television, computers, and other teaching aids. Faculty keep up with developments in their field by reading current literature, talking to colleagues, and participating in professional conferences. They also do their own research  114/Occupational Outlook Handbook  In addition to teaching, many college faculty participate in professional activities and do research.  to expand knowledge in their field. They ex­ periment, collect and analyze data, and ex­ amine original documents, literature, and other source material. From this, they develop hypotheses, arrive at conclusions, and write about their findings in scholarly journals and books. Most faculty members serve on academic or administrative committees which deal with the policies of their institution, budgets, equipment purchases, and hiring. Some work with student organizations. Department heads generally have heavier administrative responsibilities. The amount of time spent on each of these activities varies by individual circumstance and type of institution. Faculty members at uni­ versities generally spend a significant part of their time doing research; those in 4-year col­ leges, somewhat less; and those in 2-year col­ leges, relatively little. However, the teaching load usually is heavier in 2-year colleges.  summer and school holidays, when they may teach or do research, travel, or pursue nona­ cademic interests. Faculty generally work more than 40 hours a week during the school year, less during the summer. College faculty have the opportunity to de­ velop and share ideas with colleagues and stu­ dents, teach and do research in their chosen field, and guide and counsel students—activ­ ities most find very attractive. On the other hand, budget constraints and the prospect of declining enrollments are making career ad­ vancement difficult, are leading to the replace­ ment of full-time and permanent positions with part-time and temporary ones, and are limiting research facilities and support services. In ad­ dition, faculty may experience a conflict be­ tween their responsibilities to teach students and the pressure to do research—“publish or perish.” This may be a particular problem for young faculty seeking advancement.  Working Conditions College faculty generally have flexible sched­ ules. They must be present for classes, usually 9 to 16 hours a week, and also for faculty meetings. Otherwise, they are relatively free to decide when and where they will work, and how much time to devote to course preparation, study, research, and other activities. They may work staggered hours and teach classes at night. They have even greater flexibility during the  Employment College and university faculty held about 754,000 jobs in 1986. Over 70 percent were in public institutions. Some part-timers, known as “adjunct fac­ ulty,” have primary jobs outside of academia— in government, private industry, or in nonprofit research—and teach “on the side.” Others want but can't find full-time jobs. Some of them work part time in more than one institution.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  TVaining, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Most full-time college and university faculty are in four academic ranks: Professors, asso­ ciate professors, assistant professors, and in­ structors. A small number are lecturers. Most faculty members are hired as instruc­ tors or assistant professors. Four-year colleges and universities generally hire doctoral degree holders for full-time long-term positions, but may hire master’s degree holders or doctoral candidates for part-time and temporary jobs. However, in some departments, such as art, music, and law, other qualifications may be appropriate. Doctoral programs usually take 4 to 7 years of full-time study beyond the bachelor’s de­ gree. Candidates usually specialize in a sub­ field of a discipline, for example, organic chemistry, counseling psychology, or Euro­ pean history, but also take courses covering the whole discipline. Programs include 20 or more increasingly specialized courses and sem­ inars plus comprehensive examinations on all major areas of the field. They also include a dissertation. This is a report on original re­ search to answer some significant question in the field; it sets forth an original hypothesis or proposes a model and tests it. Students in the natural sciences and engineering usually do laboratory work; in the humanities, they study original documents and other published ma­ terial. The dissertation, done under the guid­ ance of a faculty advisor, usually takes 1 or 2 years of full-time work. In some fields, particularly the natural sci­ ences, it is common to spend an additional 2 years on postdoctoral research and study before taking a faculty position. Advancement through the academic ranks in universities and 4-year colleges usually re­ quires a doctorate plus teaching experience, research, and publication. In 2-year colleges, a doctorate is helpful but is not generally re­ quired, and research and publication are less important. A major step in the traditional academic ca­ reer is attaining tenure. Newly hired faculty serve a certain period (usually 5-7 years) under temporary contracts. Then, their record of teaching, research, and overall contribution to the institution is reviewed; tenure is granted if the review is favorable and positions are avail­ able. With tenure, a professor cannot ordinarily be fired and is likely to continue with that institution throughout his or her career. Those denied tenure usually must leave. Tenure pro­ tects the faculty’s academic freedom—its abil­ ity to teach and conduct research without fear of being fired for advocating unpopular ideas. It also gives both faculty and institutions the stability needed for effective research and teaching. About two-thirds of full-time faculty are tenured, and many others are in the pro­ bationary period. Budget constraints and the prospect of declining enrollments have made tenure harder to get. Some full-time faculty are hired in non-tenure-track positions and are not even considered for tenure. College faculty need intelligence, inquiring  Teachers, Librarians, and Counselors/115  and analytical minds, and a strong desire to pursue and disseminate knowledge. They should be able to communicate clearly and logically, both orally and in writing. They need to be able to establish rapport with students and, as models for them, to be dedicated to the prin­ ciples of academic integrity and intellectual honesty. Finally, they need to be able to work in an environment where they receive little direct supervision.  Job Outlook Employment of college and university faculty is expected to decline through the mid-1990’s and then begin to increase. By the year 2000, however, the number of positions is still likely to be below the 1986 level. The demand for faculty depends primarily on enrollments—which depend largely on the size of the traditonal college-age (18-24) pop­ ulation and the proportion who attend college. Although enrollments were expected to decline in the early and mid-1980’s along with the decline in the traditional college-age popula­ tion, they did not because a higher proportion of this declining population attended college. The college-age population will continue to shrink through 1996, and, unless the proportion attending college continues to increase sharply, which seems unlikely, enrollments will drop. The number of older students may increase, but this will not significantly increase enroll­ ments. Faculty employment opportunities will, therefore, be limited for some time. Almost all job openings will result from replacement needs. However, by the late 1990’s, when to­ day’s high school graduates who pursue a doc­ torate begin to graduate, conditions should im­ prove. The leading edge of the baby-boom “echo” generation will reach college age and enrollments will begin to increase. Also, at about this time, faculty retirements should be­ gin to increase, as the large number of faculty hired during the 1960’s approaches retirement age. There has been keen competition for faculty jobs for some time, and this is likely to continue through the mid-1990’s. Many applicants may accept part-time or short-term academic ap­ pointments that offer little hope of tenure, and many will have to seek nonacademic positions. In some cases, these nonacademic positions will not require a master’s degree or a doc­ torate. Opportunities will be better in some insti­ tutions and in some fields: Business, engi­ neering, computer science, physical sciences, and mathematics, for example—largely be­ cause very attractive nonacademic jobs will be available for many potential faculty. Employ­ ment of college faculty is also related to the nonacademic job market through an “echo ef­ fect.” Good job prospects in a field—for ex­ ample, engineering in recent years—cause more students to enroll, increasing faculty needs in that field. On the other hand, a bad job mar­ ket—for liberal arts graduates, for example— discourages students and reduces demand for faculty.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  The college age population will begin to increase in the late 1990’s. Population 18 to 24 years of age (millions)  j—i—»—i__  i__ i___i___i  i  i  i  i  i  i  i  i  i  Source: Bureau ot the Census  Earnings Earnings vary according to faculty rank and type of institution and, in some cases, by field. Faculty in 4-year institutions earn higher sal­ aries, on the average, than those in 2-year schools. According to a 1986-87 survey by the American Association of University Profes­ sors, salaries for full-time faculty on 9-month contracts averaged $35,500; professors, $45,500; associate professors, $33,800; assis­ tant professors, $27,900; and instructors, $21,300. Those on 11- or 12-month contracts obviously earned more. In fields where there are high-paying nonacademic alternatives, no­ tably medicine and law but also engineering and business, earnings exceed these averages. In others, the liberal arts, for example, they are lower. Many faculty have added earnings, both dur­ ing the academic year and the summer, from consulting, teaching additional courses, re­ search, writing for publication, or other em­ ployment. Most college and university faculty enjoy some unique benefits, including access to cam­ pus facilities and tuition waivers for depen­ dents, housing and travel allowances, and paid sabbatical leaves. Related Occupations College and university faculty function both as teachers and researchers. They communicate information and ideas. Related occupations in­ clude: Elementary and secondary school teach­ ers, librarians, writers, consultants, lobbyists, trainers and employee development specialists, and policy analysts. Their research activities are often similar to those of their colleagues in industry, government, and nonprofit re­ search organizations. Sources of Additional Information Professional societies generally provide infor­ mation on employment opportunities in their fields. Names and addresses of these societies  appear in the statements elsewhere in the Hand­ book.  Counselors (D.O.T. 045.107-010, -014, -018, -038, -042, .117-010; 090.107-010; and 169.267.026)  Nature of the Work Counselors help people evaluate their interests and abilities and advise and assist them with personal, social, educational, and career prob­ lems and concerns. Their duties depend on the individuals they serve and the settings in which they work. School and college counselors use inter­ views, counseling sessions, tests, orothertools to help students understand their abilities, in­ terests, talents, and personality characteristics. They help translate these into realistic aca­ demic and career options. They may run career information centers and career education pro­ grams. High school counselors advise on col­ lege admission requirements, entrance exams, and financial aid, and on trade, technical school, and apprenticeship programs. They help stu­ dents find part-time and summer work and, for those who are not going to college, full-time jobs. They also help students understand and deal with their social, behavioral, and personal problems. They work with students individ­ ually, or, in cases where problems are wide­ spread, as in drug or alcohol abuse, in groups. Counselors consult and work with parents, teachers, school psychologists, school nurses, and social workers. Elementary school coun­ selors observe younger children during class­ room and play activities and confer with their teachers and parents to evaluate their strengths, problems, or special needs. College career planning and placement counselors help stu­ dents and alumni plan careers and locate jobs. Rehabilitation counselors help persons with  116/Occupational Outlook Handbook  ■ fc'Sj  itlli  When helping students in career choices, counselors often administer and evaluate tests.  disabilities become more self-sufficient and productive. They evaluate clients’ disabilities and potential for employment, and arrange for medical care, rehabilitation, occupational training, and job placement. They interview them and their families, evaluate school and medical reports, and confer with physicians, psychologists, occupational therapists, and employers. They then recommend a rehabili­ tation program and training to help them be­ come more independent and more employable. Employment counselors help individuals make wise career decisions. They help clients explore and evaluate their education, training, work history, interests, skills, personal traits, and physical capacities and may arrange for aptitude and achievement tests. They also help clients locate and apply for jobs. Mental health counselors help individuals deal with drug and alcohol abuse, family con­ flicts, including child and spouse abuse, sui­ cide, work problems, criminal behavior, and other problems. They also counsel rape vic­ tims, individuals and families trying to cope with illness and death, and people with emo­ tional problems. Mental health counselors may work closely with other specialists, including psychiatrists, psychologists, clinical social workers, and psychiatric nurses. Working Conditions Most school counselors work the traditional 9to 10-month school year with a 2- to 3-month vacation, although an increasing number are employed on lO'/i- or 11-month contracts. They generally have the same hours as teachers. Rehabilitation and employment counselors generally work a standard 40-hour week. Selfemployed counselors and those working in mental health and community agencies often work evenings to counsel clients who work during the day. College career planning and placement counselors may work long and ir­ regular hours during recruiting periods. Since privacy is essential for confidential and  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  frank discussions with clients, counselors usu­ ally have private offices. Employment Counselors held about 123,000 jobs in 1986. More than 2 out of 3 were in educational ser­ vices. Most of these worked in secondary schools; the rest worked in elementary schools and colleges and universities. Outside education settings, counselors worked in a wide variety of public and private establishments, including job training and vo­ cational rehabilitation centers, or in nonprofit organizations like Goodwill Industries and Lighthouse for the Blind. Some worked in cor­ rectional institutions and residential care fa­ cilities, such as halfway houses for offenders and group homes for children, the aged, and the disabled. Others worked in health facilities such as Veterans Administration hospitals; agencies that provide social, counseling, wel­ fare, or referral services; organizations en­ gaged in community improvement, social change, and neighborhood development; and those that deal with alcohol and drug addiction. TVaining, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Generally, a master’s degree in college student personnel counseling, elementary or secondary school counseling, rehabilitation counseling, agency or community counseling, counseling psychology, career counseling, or a related field is required. In some cases, individuals with a bachelor's degree in psychology, sociology, counseling, or rehabilitation services qualify for employment, particularly if they have had experience in social work, teaching, interview­ ing, job placement, psychology, or personnel. These individuals may not be eligible for cer­ tification or licensure, however. Graduate level counselor education pro­ grams are available in nearly 500 colleges and universities, usually in departments of edu­ cation or psychology. Courses include coun­  seling theory and techniques, assessment and evaluation, individual and group counseling, career development information, and com­ munity resources. One to two years of graduate study, including a period of supervised expe­ rience in counseling, are usually required for a master’s degree. Forty-eight programs are currently accredited by the Council for Accre­ ditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs. Twenty-five States require that counselors in private practice have a State license. Re­ quirements for these vary from State to State. Many counselors are voluntarily certified by the National Board for Certified Counselors (NBCC), which grants the credential “National Certified Counselor.” To be certified by NBCC, a counselor must hold a master’s degree in counseling, have at least 2 years of professional counseling experience, and pass a national written examination. Most States require public school counselors to have both counseling and teaching certifi­ cates. Depending on the State, a master’s de­ gree in counseling and 2 to 5 years of teaching experience may be required for a counseling certificate. State departments of education can provide specific information. Vocational and related rehabilitation agen­ cies generally require a master’s degree in re­ habilitation counseling, counseling and guid­ ance, or counseling psychology for rehabilitation counselor jobs. Some, however, may accept applicants with a bachelor’s degree in rehabilitation services, counseling, psy­ chology, or related fields. Experience in em­ ployment counseling, job development, psy­ chology, education, or social work may be helpful. About 30 colleges and universities offer a bachelor’s degree in rehabilitation services ed­ ucation. In 1987, the Council on Rehabilitation Education accredited 74 graduate programs in rehabilitation counseling. Usually, 2 years of study—including a period of supervised clin­ ical experience—are required for the master’s degree. In most State vocational rehabilitation agen­ cies, applicants must pass a written examina­ tion and be evaluated by a board of examiners. Many employers require rehabilitation coun­ selors to be certified. To become certified, counselors must meet educational and expe­ rience standards established by the Commis­ sion on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification, and pass a written examination. They are then designated as “Certified Rehabilitation Coun­ selors.” Some States require counselors in public em­ ployment offices to have a master’s degree; others accept a bachelor’s degree with appro­ priate counseling courses. Mental health counselors generally have a master’s degree or doctorate in mental health counseling, another area of counseling, or in psychology or social work. They are certified by the National Academy of Certified Clinical Mental Health Counselors. A master’s degree, a period of supervised internship, and an ex­ amination are required for certification. Al­  Teachers, Librarians, and Counselors/117  though this certification is voluntary, many States require a license for private practice. Some employers provide training for newly hired counselors. Many have work-study pro­ grams so that employed counselors can earn graduate degrees. Counselors must participate in graduate studies, workshops, institutes, and personal studies to maintain their certificates and licenses. Persons interested in counseling should have a strong interest in helping others and the ability to inspire respect, trust, and confidence. They should be able to work independently or as part of a team. Prospects for advancement vary by coun­ seling field. School counselors may move to a larger school; become directors or supervisors of counseling or pupil personnel services; or, with further graduate education, become coun­ seling psychologists or school administrators. (See statements on psychologists and education administrators elsewhere in the Handbook.) Rehabilitation, mental health, and employ­ ment counselors may become supervisors or administrators in their agencies. Some coun­ selors move into research, consulting, or col­ lege teaching, or go into private practice. Job Outlook Overall employment of counselors is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2000. Most job openings will result from the need to replace counselors who transfer to other fields or leave the labor force. Employment of school counselors, the larg­ est specialty area, is expected to grow more slowly than average—in line with projected enrollments. Faster than average growth is expected for mental health counselors and others who work with individuals with personal and social prob­ lems such as marital or other family difficulties, alcoholism, drug abuse, and aging. Private practice, community and social service agen­ cies, and human resource and employee assis­ tance programs in private industry are expected to grow rapidly. Employment of rehabilitation and employ­ ment counselors, who work primarily for State and local governments, is expected to increase about as fast as the average for all occupations. Earnings The average salary of school counselors in the 1986-87 academic year was $31,132, accord­ ing to the Educational Research Service. Sal­ aries were lowest in the Southeast and highest in the Far West. Some school counselors earn additional income working summers in the school system or in other jobs. Wage and salary earnings of rehabilitation, mental health, and employment counselors are usually somewhat lower than those of school counselors. Self-employed counselors who have established practices have the highest earnings. Related Occupations Counselors help people evaluate their interests, abilities, and disabilities, and deal with per­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  sonal, social, academic, and career problems. Others who help people in similar ways include college and student personnel workers, teach­ ers, personnel workers and managers, social workers, psychologists, psychiatrists, mem­ bers of the clergy, occupational and physical therapists, training and employee development specialists, and equal employment opportunity/ affirmative action specialists. Sources of Additional Information For general information about counselors, con­ tact: American Association for Counseling and Devel­ opment, 5999 Stevenson Ave., Alexandria, VA 22304.  For information on training programs ac­ credited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs, contact: Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs, American Association for Counseling and Development, 5999 Stevenson Ave., Alexandria, VA 22304.  For information on national certification re­ quirements and procedures, contact: National Board for Certified Counselors, 5999 Ste­ venson Ave., Alexandria, VA 22304.  State departments of education can supply information on colleges and universities that offer approved guidance and counseling train­ ing for State certification and licensure re­ quirements. State employment service offices have in­ formation about their job opportunities and en­ trance requirements. For information about rehabilitation coun­ seling, contact: National Rehabilitation Counseling Association, 633 So. Washington St., Alexandria, VA 22314. National Council on Rehabilitation Education, c/o Maddux O’Malley, Inc., 2921 Ermine Way, Farmers Branch, TX 75234.  A list of accredited graduate programs in rehabilitation counseling may be obtained from: Council on Rehabilitation Education, 185 North Wa­ bash St., Room 1617, Chicago, IL 60601.  For a list of federally funded programs of­ fering training in rehabilitation counseling, contact: Division of Resource Development, Rehabilitation Services Administration, U.S. Department of Edu­ cation, 330 C St. SW., Washington, DC 20202.  For information on certification require­ ments for rehabilitation counselors, contact: Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certifica­ tion, 1156 Shure Dr., Suite 350, Arlington Heights, IL 60004.  For information on certification require­ ments for mental health counselors, contact: National Academy of Certified Clinical Mental Health Counselors, 5999 Stevenson Ave., Alexandria VA 22304.  Kindergarten and Elementary School Teachers (DOT. 092.227-010, -014; 094.224-010, .227-010 through -022; 099.224-010)  Nature of the Work Kindergarten and elementary school teachers play a vital role in the development of children. What is learned and experienced during the early years can shape children’s views of them­ selves and the world, and affect later success or failure in school and work. Kindergarten and elementary school teach­ ers introduce children to numbers, language, science, and social studies. Teachers lecture and demonstrate to an entire class, and also provide individual attention as much as pos­ sible. Kindergarten teachers may use games, music, and artwork to teach basic skills, while elementary school teachers may use films, slides, and computers. They assign lessons, give tests, hear oral presentations, and oversee special projects. They maintain order in the classroom and instill good study habits and an appreciation for learning. Teachers observe and evaluate students’ per­ formance and potential, keep track of their so­ cial development and health, and discuss prob­ lems or progress with parents. They may also counsel pupils with academic or personal prob­ lems. Most elementary school teachers instruct one class of children in several subjects. In some schools, two or more teachers team teach and are jointly responsible for a group of students or for a particular subject. Some teach one subject—usually music, art, reading, science, arithmetic, or physical education—to a number of classes. Special education teachers work with children who are mentally retarded, emotion­ ally disturbed, learning disabled, or speech and hearing impaired. Some teachers work with very bright or “gifted” children, or with those who do not speak English. In addition to classroom activities, teachers plan lessons, prepare tests, grade papers, pre­ pare report cards, meet with parents, attend faculty meetings, and supervise extracurricular activities after school. Working Conditions Kindergarten and elementary school teachers spend most of their time moving about the classroom, often bending and kneeling to be at eye level with children. They may have to deal with disruptive children. On the other hand, introducing children to the joy of learning and seeing them gain new skills can be very re­ warding. Including activities outside the classroom, teachers work about 50 hours per week. Most elementary school teachers work a traditional 2-semester, 9- to 10-month school year with a 2- to 3-month vacation. Teachers on a 9- to 10-month schedule may teach in the summer  118/Occupational Outlook Handbook  •r  r  j-f  &  Kindergarten and elementary school teachers play a children.  session or take other jobs. Many enroll in col­ lege courses or workshops. Some teachers in year-round schools work 8-week sessions, are off 1 week between sessions, and have a long midwinter break. Most States have tenure laws that protect the jobs of teachers who have taught satisfactorily for a certain number of years, usually 3. Tenure is not a guarantee of job security, but it does provide some protection. Employment Kindergarten and elementary school teachers held about 1,527,000 jobs in 1986. More than 4 out of 5 worked in public schools. Most were in schools that have students in kindergarten through grade six; however, some taught in middle schools, where students are between the lower elementary grades and high school. Kindergarten and elementary school teach­  vital role in the development of  ers are distributed geographically much the same as the population. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement All States and the District of Columbia require public elementary school teachers to be cer­ tified. Usually certification is granted by the State board of education, the State superin­ tendent of education, or a certification advisory committee. Teachers may be certified to teach the early childhood grades (usually nursery school through the third grade); the elementary grades (grades one through six or eight); special ed­ ucation; or reading, music, or another subject. Requirements for regular certification vary by State. Generally, however, they include a bachelor’s degree and completion of an ap­ proved teacher education program. Training  The elementary school age population will increase from 1985 to 1996 and then start declining again. Population 5 to 13 years of age (millions)  - 32 I 30 - 28 I  1.1  II  I  Source: Bureau of the Census   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  I  I  til  I  I ...1...1...I...I.  .1- I 1 I. I I  programs for kindergarten and elementary school teachers include courses—generally de­ signed specifically for those preparing to teach—in mathematics, science, social sci­ ence, music, art, and literature, and prescribed professional education courses such as philos­ ophy of education, psychology of learning, and teaching methods. Students also do supervised practice teaching in an elementary school. A large number of States require a specific grade point average (GPA) in the coursework. States also issue emergency certificates to individuals who do not meet all requirements for a regular certificate when schools cannot hire enough teachers with regular certificates. Thirty-five States require applicants for cer­ tification to be tested for competency in basic skills, teaching skills, or subject matter. Al­ most all require additional education for re­ newal of a teacher’s certificate—many require a master’s degree. Information on certification is available from State departments of educa­ tion or superintendents of schools. Many States have reciprocity agreements that make it easier for teachers who are certified in one State to become certified in another. Kindergarten and elementary school teach­ ers should be organized, creative, dependable, and patient. They should be able to commu­ nicate with students and understand their ed­ ucational and emotional needs. Teachers may become supervisors or ad­ ministrators, although the number of these po­ sitions is limited. In some school systems, wellqualified experienced teachers can be ap­ pointed senior or mentor teachers, with higher pay and additional responsibilities. They guide and assist less experienced teachers while re­ taining most of their teaching responsibilities.  Job Outlook Employment of kindergarten and elementary school teachers is expected to grow about as fast as the average for all occupations through the year 2000 as enrollments increase and class sizes decline. Rising enrollments reflect the increase in births beginning in the mid-1970’s. Largely because of migration to the South and West, employment of teachers is expected to increase more in those regions and less in oth­ ers. However, most job openings will arise from the need to replace teachers who leave the occupation. Despite reports of teacher shortages in some districts in recent years, there have not been nationwide shortages. A fall 1983 survey by the U.S. Department of Education found that, in public schools, there were hardly any jobs for which a teacher could not be found, and that less than 2 percent of all teachers in public schools (1 percent of general elementary ed­ ucation teachers) were not certified in their field. More recent reports of teacher shortages in central cities do not necessarily show that general shortages have developed, since these areas have usually had difficulty attracting cer­ tified teachers. Based on projected job openings and ex­ pected supply, shortages are not likely through  Teachers, Librarians, and Counselors/119  the year 2000. Nevertheless, job opportunities should be good for well-qualified candidates. Hiring needs for elementary school teachers are expected to remain at current levels or in­ crease slightly through the early 1990’s and then begin to decline. Enrollments are expected to level off and then drop, reflecting a leveling off and then a drop in births some years earlier. At the same time, the supply of teachers is likely to increase in response to reports of job opportunities, greater public interest in edu­ cation, and higher salaries. In fact, enrollments in teacher education programs have already increased, and it appears that more former teachers have returned to teaching. If supply increases substantially, entry requirements are likely to rise, making it difficult for less qual­ ified applicants. Some central cities and rural areas have dif­ ficulty attracting teachers. Job prospects should continue to be better in these areas than in suburban schools. The number of teachers employed depends on State and local expenditures for education. The job outlook presented here assumes mod­ erate increases in these expenditures. Pressure from taxpayers to limit spending could result in fewer teachers than projected; pressures to increase spending to improve the quality of education could result in more. Earnings According to the National Education Associ­ ation, public elementary school teachers av­ eraged $24,762 a year in 1985-86. Generally, salaries were higher in the Mid-Atlantic and far western States. Eamings in private schools generally were lower. Some teachers earn extra income during the summer working in the school system or in other jobs. Most public school teachers belong to unions that bargain with school systems over wages, hours, and the terms and conditions of em­ ployment. Related Occupations Kindergarten and elementary school teaching requires a wide variety of skills and aptitudes, including organizational and administrative abilities; a talent for working with children; communication skills; the power to influence, motivate, and train others; creativity; and pa­ tience. Workers in other occupations that re­ quire some of these aptitudes include childcare attendants, trainers and employee development specialists, employment interviewers, librar­ ians, personnel specialists, public relations specialists, social workers, and counselors.  sions can be obtained from local or State af­ filiates of the National Education Association. A list of colleges and universities accredited by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education can be obtained from: National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Ed­ ucation, 1919 Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Suite 202, Washington, DC 20006.  Librarians (D.O.T. 100 except 100.167-010 and .367-018)  Nature of the Work Librarians make information available to peo­ ple. They collect, organize, and lend books, periodicals, films, records, videotapes, com­ puter tapes, cassettes, and other materials to all types of users. Library work is divided into two basic func­ tions: User services and technical services. Li­ brarians in user services—for example, ref­ erence and children’s librarians—help people find information. Librarians in technical ser­ vices such as acquisitions librarians and ca­ taloged acquire and prepare materials for use and deal less frequently with users. In small libraries, they generally handle all aspects of the work. They select, purchase, and process materials; publicize services; pro­ vide reference help; supervise the support staff; prepare the budget; and oversee other admin­ istrative matters. In large ones, librarians spec­ ialize in a single area, such as acquisitions, cataloging, bibliography, reference, circula­ tion, or administration. Or they may handle special collections. Building and maintaining a strong collection are essential activities in any library, large or small. Acquisitions librarians (D.O.T. 100.267­ 010) select and order books, periodicals, films, and other materials. They read book reviews.  publishers’ announcements, and catalogs to keep up with current literature. They deal with publishers and wholesalers of new books as well as with distributors of records, films, and other materials. A knowledge of book pub­ lishing and business acumen are important. After materials have been received, other librarians prepare them for use. Classifiers (D.O.T. 100.367-014) classify materials by subject matter. They skim through book re­ views, encyclopedias, and technical publica­ tions to determine the subject matter. They then assign classification numbers and descriptive headings. Catalogers (D.O.T. 100.387-010) describe books and other library materials in such a way that users can easily find them. They supervise assistants who prepare cards or other access tools that indicate the title, author, subject, publisher, date of publication, and lo­ cation in the library. Many libraries have com­ puterized their acquisition and cataloging func­ tions, and some have replaced large card catalogs with compact computer terminals to provide faster and greater availability of ma­ terials to the library user. This has greatly changed the nature of library work. Bibliographers (D.O.T. 100.367-010), who usually work in research libraries, compile lists of books, periodicals, articles, and audiovisual materials on particular subjects. They also rec­ ommend materials to be acquired. Special col­ lections librarians (D.O.T. 100.267-014) col­ lect and organize books, pamphlets, manuscripts, and other materials in a specific field, such as rare books, genealogy, or music. They may prepare reports and exhibits about important additions. Librarians are also classified according to the type of library in which they work: Public libraries, school library/media centers, aca­ demic (college and university) libraries, and special libraries. Public librarians serve people of all ages and from all walks of life, including persons who, because of physical handicaps, cannot  — a. a  sHHlit  Sources of Additional Information Information on certification requirements is available from local school systems and State departments of education. Information on teachers’ unions and edu­ cation-related issues can be obtained from: American Federation of Teachers, 555 New Jersey Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20001.  General information on the teaching profes­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Children's librarians often conduct special programs such as story hours.  c’i  120/Occupational Outlook Handbook  use conventional print materials. The profes­ sional staff of a large public library system includes the chief librarian, an assistant chief, and division heads who plan and coordinate the work of the entire system. The system also may include librarians who supervise branch libraries and specialists in acquisitions, cata­ loging, special collections, and user services. Some public librarians work with specific groups of readers. Children's librarians (D.O.T. 100.167-018) find materials children will enjoy and show children how to use the library. They may plan and conduct special programs such as story hours or film programs. They often work with school and community organizations. Adult services librarians handle materials suited for adults and may conduct education programs. Young adult librarians (D.O.T. 100.167-034) help junior and senior high school students select and use books and other materials. They may organize programs of interest to young adults, such as book or film discussions, concerts of recorded music, or computer clubs. They also may coordinate the library’s work with school programs. Com­ munity outreach librarians and bookmobile li­ brarians (D.O.T. 100.167-014) develop li­ brary services to meet the needs of underserved groups, such as residents of rural areas and migrant labor camps, inner city housing proj­ ects, or nursing homes. School librarians (D.O.T. 100.167-030), also called media specialists, teach students how to use the school library/media center. They show them how to find, evaluate, and use its resources and assist them with special assignments or projects. They also select, or­ der, and organize materials. They prepare lists of materials on certain subjects and help select materials for school programs. The library/me­ dia center is an integral part of a school’s in­ structional program. Librarians help teachers develop curricula, acquire materials for class­ room instruction, and sometimes team teach. They are often responsible for computer li­ braries. Academic librarians serve students, faculty, and researchers in colleges and universities. They work with faculty to ensure the library has reference materials needed for courses, maintain research collections, and assist stu­ dents and faculty in searching databases. Special librarians (D.O.T. 100.167-026) work in information centers or libraries main­ tained by government agencies and corpora­ tions, as well as by law firms, advertising agen­ cies, museums, professional associations, medical centers, and research laboratories. They build and arrange the organization’s informa­ tion resources, usually limited to subjects of particular interest to the organization. Special librarians may conduct literature searches, compile bibliographies, or prepare abstracts. A growing number of libraries are tied into remote data bases through their computer ter­ minals. More libraries arc also maintaining their own computerized data bases. These libraries may employ workers in a related occupation, information scientists (D O T. 109.067-010), who design information storage and retrieval  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  systems and develop procedures for collecting, organizing, interpreting, and classifying in­ formation. (See statement on computer system analysts elsewhere in the Handbook.) Working Conditions Libraries generally are busy, demanding places in which to work. Contact with people, which often is a major part of the job, can be taxing. Physically, the job may require much standing, stooping, bending, and reaching. Librarians typically work a 5-day, 35- to 40hour week. Public and college librarians may work some weekends and evenings. School librarians generally have the same schedules as teachers. A 35- to 40-hour week during normal business hours is common for special librarians. Employment Librarians held 136.000 jobs in 1986. About one-half of all jobs were in school libraries; the rest were in college and university, public, and special libraries. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A master’s degree in library science (M.L.S.) is necessary for positions in most public, ac­ ademic, and special libraries, and in many school systems. In the Federal Government, an M.L.S. degree or the equivalent in expe­ rience and education is needed. The number of bachelor's degrees in library science is small and declining. About 100 schools offered an M.L.S. in 1987, but most employers prefer graduates of the 52 schools accredited by the American Li­ brary Association. Most M.L.S. programs re­ quire a bachelor’s degree for entry. Any major is appropriate; a strong liberal arts background is desirable. A typical M.L.S. program includes basic courses in the foundations of librarianship, in­ cluding the history of books and printing, in­ tellectual freedom and censorship, and the role of libraries in society. Other basic courses cover material selection and processing; reference tools; and user services. Advanced courses in­ clude resources for children or young adults; classification, cataloging, indexing, and ab­ stracting; library administration; and library automation. Because so much library work is automated, many programs include courses in computers and information science. The M.L.S. program provides a general, all­ round preparation for library work, but some people specialize in a particular area such as archives, media, or library automation. A Ph.D. degree in library science is advantageous for college teaching or for a top administrative post in a college or university library or in a large library system. In special libraries or research libraries, a master's degree, doctorate, or professional degree in the subject specializa­ tion is highly desirable. State certification requirements for public school librarians vary widely. Most States re­ quire that school librarians be certified as teach­ ers and have courses in library science. In some  cases, an M.L.S. degree is needed. In many schools, the library has become the “learning resources center" and is staffed by media per­ sonnel with a variety of educational back­ grounds—library science, media resources, educational technology, or audiovisual com­ munications. State departments of education can provide information about specific require­ ments. Some States require certification of public librarians. State library agencies can provide information. Experienced librarians may advance to ad­ ministrative positions. A master’s degree in business or public administration may help. Job Outlook Employment of librarians is expected to grow more slowly than the average for all occupa­ tions through the year 2000. Nevertheless, a larger than average proportion of librarians are now at or will reach retirement age through 2000, thus creating many openings due to re­ placement needs. The number of graduates in library science has dropped to half the level of the mid-1970’s, prompting many States to mount recruitment efforts to attract people into the field, partic­ ularly in areas of strong demand—school li­ brarianship, children’s and young adult ser­ vices, and cataloging and other technical services. Opportunities will continue to be best in spe­ cial and research libraries, especially for li­ brarians with knowledge of scientific and tech­ nical fields including medicine, law, business, engineering, and the physical and life sciences. Individuals skilled in developing computerized library systems will also have better than av­ erage prospects because of the rapid growth of computers in library work. Foreign language skills are also desirable in many settings. Although more and more libraries are au­ tomated and librarians have to know how to use a computer, computers will not replace librarians. The judgment and knowledge of a professional librarian will still be needed. The demand for individuals with library skills is also expected to continue to be strong outside traditional library settings—in bibliographic cooperatives, regional information networks, and information search services. They employ systems analysts, database specialists, man­ agers, and researchers. Some of these jobs re­ quire a knowledge of both libraries and com­ puters; others, only a knowledge of libraries. Information management and information science, two related rapidly developing fields, are expected to offer many employment op­ portunities for those with backgrounds in in­ formation science and library automation. Most jobs will be with private corporations, con­ sulting firms, and information brokers who market information. Earnings Salaries of librarians vary by type, size, and location of library. Salaries of new graduates of M.L.S. pro­ grams accredited by the American Library As-  Teachers, Librarians, and Counselors/121  sociation averaged $20,874 in 1986, and ranged from $19,289 in public libraries to $23,348 in school libraries—where new graduates may be experienced teachers or librarians. In special libraries, they averaged $21,930. According to the Educational Research Ser­ vice, school librarians averaged $28,390 dur­ ing the 1986-87 school year. According to the Special Libraries Associ­ ation, the average salary for special librarians was $30,180 in 1986; for supervisory special librarians, $38,404. According to the Association of Research Libraries, the median salary for librarians in university libraries was $29,000 in 1987. Librarians in the Federal Government, in­ cluding supervisors, averaged about $35,000 in 1986. Related Occupations Librarians provide people with access to writ­ ten and recorded information, knowledge, and ideas. So do archivists, information scientists, museum curators, publishers’ representatives, research analysts, information brokers, and records managers. Sources of Additional Information Information on librarianship, including schol­ arships, loans, and accredited schools, may be obtained from: American Library Association, 50 East Huron St., Chicago, IL 60611.  For information on a career as a special li­ brarian, write to: Special Libraries Association, 1700 18th St. NW., Washington, DC 20009.  Material about a career in information sci­ ence may be obtained from: American Society for Information Science, 1424 16th St. NW., Washington, DC 20036.  Information on graduate schools of library and information science can be obtained from: Association for Library and Information Science Ed­ ucation, 471 Park Lane, State College, PA 16803.  Information on Federal assistance for library training is available from: Office of Educational Research and Improvement, Library Programs, U.S. Department of Education, 555 New Jersey Ave. NW., Room 402, Washington, DC 20208-1430.  Those interested in a position with the Li­ brary of Congress should write to: Personnel Office, Library of Congress, Washington, DC 20540.  For information on all other Federal Gov­ ernment jobs, write to: Office of Personnel Management, 1900 E St. NW., Washington, DC 20415.  State library agencies can furnish informa­ tion on State scholarships, requirements for certification, and career prospects. Several of these agencies maintain job “hotlines” which report current openings. State boards of edu­ cation can furnish information on certification requirements and job opportunities for school librarians.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  In addition to teaching classes, secondary school teachers may help students with academic or personal problems.  Secondary School Teachers (D.O.T. 091.221-010, .227-010; 094.224-010, .227-010 through -022; 099.244-010, and .227-022)  Nature of the Work Secondary school teachers help students move from childhood to adulthood. They help them delve more deeply into subjects introduced in elementary school and learn more about the world and about themselves. Secondary school teachers specialize in spe­ cific subject, such as English, Spanish, math­ ematics, history, or biology, in junior high or high school. They may teach a variety of re­ lated courses, for example, American history, contemporary American problems, and world geography. Special education teachers work with students who are mentally retarded, emo­ tionally disturbed, learning disabled, or speech and hearing impaired. Others work with very bright or “gifted” students. Teachers lecture and demonstrate to students, and may use films, slides, overhead projectors, and computers. They design their classroom presentations to meet student needs and abilities. They may also work with students individually. Teachers also assign lessons, give tests, and maintain class­ room discipline.  Science teachers also supervise laboratory work, and vocational education teachers give students “hands-on” experience with instru­ ments, tools, and machinery. In addition to classroom activities, second­ ary school teachers plan lessons, prepare tests, grade papers, prepare report cards, oversee study halls and homerooms, supervise extra­ curricular activities, and meet with parents and school staff. They also may help students deal with academic or personal problems, or choose courses, colleges, and careers. Teachers also participate in education conferences and work­ shops. Working Conditions Teaching involves long periods of standing and talking and may be stressful for those who deal with unmotivated and disrespectful students. On the other hand, seeing students develop and gain an appreciation of the joy of learning can be very rewarding. Including activities outside the classroom, teachers work about 50 hours a week. Most teachers work the traditional 9- to 10-month school year with a 2- to 3-month vacation. Teachers on a 9- to 10-month schedule may teach in summer sessions or take other jobs. Many enroll in college courses or workshops. Teachers in districts with a year-round schedule work 8 weeks, are on vacation for 1 week, and have a 5-week midwinter break.  122/Occupational Outlook Handbook  hours. Alternative certification programs are designed to ease teacher shortages in certain subjects or to attract more very capable people into teaching, regardless of their subject. States also issue emergency certificates to individuals who do not meet all requirements for a regular certificate when schools cannot hire enough teachers with regular certificates. Information on certification is available from State departments of education or school su­ perintendents. Many States have reciprocity agreements that make it easier for teachers cer­ tified in one State to become certified in an­ other. Secondary school teachers should be knowl­ edgeable in their subject and able to commu­ nicate with and motivate students. With additional preparation and certifica­ tion, teachers may move into positions as school librarians, reading specialists, curriculum spe­ cialists, or guidance counselors. Relatively few teachers become administrators or supervisors, since the number of positions is limited. How­ ever, in some systems, well-qualified experi­ enced teachers can become senior or mentor teachers, with higher pay and additional re­ sponsibilities. They guide and assist less ex­ perienced teachers while keeping most of their teaching responsibilities.  that there were hardly any positions in public schools for which a teacher could not be found, and less than 2 percent of public school teachers were not certified in their principal field of assignment. Reports of shortages of mathe­ matics and science teachers have been partic­ ularly widespread. Even for these subjects, the Department of Education survey found that only 2 or 3 percent of mathematics and science teachers in public schools were not certified to teach these subjects. More recent reports of shortages in central cities do not necessarily mean there are na­ tionwide shortages, since these districts have generally had the most difficulty attracting cer­ tified teachers. Much evidence about shortages is difficult to interpret, however, and several Federal Government studies of math and sci­ ence teachers have found that the data are in­ sufficient for assessing whether shortages exist. Based on projections of hiring needs and probable supply, general shortages are not likely to develop through the year 2000. Neverthe­ less, job prospects should be good for wellqualified applicants. Hiring needs for secondary school teacher are expected to increase by the early 1990’s. However, the supply of secondary school teachers is also expected to increase in response to reports of job opportunities, greater public interest in education, and higher salaries. In fact, enrollments in teachef training programs have already increased. More teachers should also be available from the pool of those certified but not now teaching, and from recently in­ stituted alternative certification programs, which are making it easier for knowledgeable people without education courses to enter the occu­ pation. If the supply increases significantly, entry requirements are likely to rise, making it difficult for less qualified applicants. Some central cities and rural areas have dif­ ficulty attracting teachers. Job prospects should continue to be better in these areas than in suburban schools. t The number of teachers employed depends on State and local expenditures for education. The job outlook presented here assumes mod­ erate increases in these expenditures. Pressures from taxpayers to limit spending could result in fewer teachers than projected; pressures to spend more to improve the quality of education could mean more.  Job Outlook Employment of secondary school teachers is expected to increase more slowly than the av­ erage for all occupations through the year 2000, as high school enrollments grow slightly and as class sizes decline. Largely because of mi­ gration to the South and West, employment of teachers is expected to increase more in those regions and less in others. Most job openings will arise from the need to replace teachers who leave the occupation. Despite reports of teacher shortages in some districts and in some subjects in recent years, there have not been general nationwide short­ ages. A survey conducted by the U.S. De­ partment of Education in the fall of 1983 found  Earnings According to the National Education Associ­ ation, public secondary school teachers aver­ aged $26,080 a year in 1985-86. Generally, salaries were higher in the Mid-Atlantic and far western States. Earnings in private schools generally were lower. Most public school teachers belong to unions that bargain with school systems over wages, hours, and the terms and conditions of em­ ployment. In some schools, teachers receive extra pay for coaching sports and working with students in extracurricular activities. Some teachers earn extra income during the summer working in the school system or in other jobs.  The high school age population will increase after 1990. Population 14 to 17 years of age (millions)  i  iii  it  i  i  i  i  Source: Bureau of the Census  Most States have tenure laws that protect the jobs of teachers who have taught satisfactorily for a certain number of years, normally 3. Ten­ ure is not a guarantee of job security, but it does provide some protection. Employment Secondary school teachers held about 1,128,000 jobs in 1986; more than 90 percent were in public schools. Employment is distributed geo­ graphically much the same as the population. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement All 50 States and the District of Columbia re­ quire public secondary school teachers to be certified. Certification is generally for one or several related subjects. Usually certification is granted by the State board of education, the State superintendent of education, or a certi­ fication advisory committee. Requirements for regular certificates vary by State. However, all States require a bachelor’s degree and completion of an approved teacher training program with a prescribed number of subject and education credits and supervised practice teaching in a secondary school. Ap­ plicants generally can have majors in the sub­ ject they plan to teach, along with education courses, or majors in education along with sub­ ject courses. A large number of States require a specific grade point average in the coursework. Thirty-five States require applicants for teacher certification to be tested for compe­ tency in basic skills, teaching skills, or subject matter. Almost all require additional education for renewal of the teachers’ certificate—many require a graduate degree. Many States offer alternative teacher certif­ icates to people who have college training in the subject they will teach, but do not have the necessary education courses required for a reg­ ular certificate. These teachers work under the close supervision of experienced educators while taking education courses outside school  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Teachers, Librarians, and Counselors/123  Related Occupations Secondary school teaching requires a wide va­ riety of skills and aptitudes, including orga­ nizational, administrative, and recordkeeping abilities; research and communication skills; the power to influence, motivate, and train oth­ ers; and creativity. Workers in other occupa­ tions requiring some of these aptitudes include: School administrators, counselors, trainers and employee development specialists, employ­ ment interviewers, librarians, public relations   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  representatives, sales representatives, and so­ cial workers. Sources of Additional Information Information on certification requirements and approved teacher training institutions is avail­ able from State departments of education. Information on teachers’ unions and edu­ cation-related issues may be obtained from: American Federation of Teachers, 555 New Jersey Ave. NW„ Washington, DC 20001.  General information on the teaching profes­ sions can be obtained from local or State af­ filiates of the National Education Association. A list of colleges and universities accredited by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education can be obtained from: National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Ed­ ucation, 1919 Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Suite 202, Washington, DC 20006.  Health Diagnosing and Treating Practitioners Chiropractors (D.O.T. 079.101-010)  Nature of the Work Chiropractic is a system of treatment based on the principle that a person’s health is deter­ mined largely by the nervous system, and that interference with this system impairs normal functions and lowers resistance to disease. The chiropractic approach to health care re­ flects a holistic view, one that stresses the pa­ tient’s overall health and well-being. In keep­ ing with this tradition, chiropractors encourage the use of natural, nondrug, nonsurgical health treatments. In cases where chiropractic care is inappropriate, chiropractors may refer patients to other health practitioners. They often rec­ ommend lifestyle changes—in eating and sleeping habits—to their patients. Like other health practitioners, chiropractors follow a standard routine to secure the infor­ mation needed for diagnosis and treatment: They take the patient’s medical history, conduct physical and neurological examinations, order laboratory tests, and take X-rays. They also employ a postural and spinal analysis unique to chiropractic diagnosis. The treatment depends on the diagnosis. In cases where the patient's difficulties can be traced to weakness of the musculoskeletal structure, for example, chiropractors treat pa­ tients by manually manipulating the spinal col­ umn. In addition to manipulation, chiroprac­  tors utilize physiological therapeutics such as water, light, massage, ultrasound, electric, and heat therapy. In addition, straps, tapes, braces, and other support mechanisms may be used as well as professional counseling. Chiropractors, like other health profession­ als, are subject to State laws and regulations that specify the types of services they may provide. Most States, for example, prohibit chiropractors from prescribing drugs and per­ forming surgery. Almost all chiropractors are solo or group practitioners. Depending on practice size, they may have administrative and financial respon­ sibilities in addition to treating patients. In larger offices, chiropractors may delegate these tasks to office managers. Working Conditions Chiropractors work in offices that are clean and comfortable. The average workweek is about 42 hours, usually including some evening and weekend time to accommodate patients who work. Because most chiropractors are self-em­ ployed, they can set their own hours. Employment In 1986, an estimated 32,000 persons practiced chiropractic. About 96 percent of active chi­ ropractors are in private practice. Although most are solo practitioners, a growing number prac­ tice in groups of three or more chiropractors. Group practices are popular since they allow practitioners to share personnel and to utilize office space and equipment more effectively. Some chiropractors hold salaried positions  Ok 1  .  Chiropractors work with patients of all ages. 124   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  with established practitioners or chiropractic clinics. A small number teach and conduct re­ search at chiropractic colleges. Chiropractors often locate in small com­ munities—half work in cities of 50,000 in­ habitants or less. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement All 50 States and the District of Columbia reg­ ulate the practice of chiropractic and grant li­ censes to chiropractors who meet educational requirements and pass a State board exami­ nation. Many States have reciprocity agree­ ments that permit chiropractors already li­ censed in another State to obtain a license without taking an examination. The scope of the practice permitted and the educational requirements for a license vary considerably from one State to another, but in general, State licensing boards require suc­ cessful completion of a 4-year chiropractic col­ lege course following 2 years of undergraduate education. Most State boards recognize only academic training in chiropractic colleges ac­ credited by the Council on Chiropractic Edu­ cation. Several States require that chiropractors pass a basic science examination, similar to that required for other health practitioners. Tests administered by the National Board of Chi­ ropractic Examiners are accepted by all State boards and the District of Columbia. State ex­ aminations may supplement the National Board tests depending on State requirements. To maintain licensure, 41 States require that chiropractors complete a specified number of hours of continuing education each year to re­ main current in the field. Continuing education programs are offered by chiropractic colleges, the American Chiropractic Association, Inter­ national Chiropractors Association, and State chiropractic associations. In 1987, 13 of the 15 chiropractic colleges in the United States were fully accredited by the Council on Chiropractic Education; the other 2 were candidates for accreditation. All chi­ ropractic colleges require applicants to have at least 2 years of undergraduate study, including courses in English, the social sciences, organic and inorganic chemistry, biology, physics, psychology, and mathematics. Chiropractic colleges emphasize courses in manipulation and spinal adjustments. All, however, offer a broader curriculum consisting of the basic and clinical sciences in addition to the chiropractic ones. During the first 2 years, most chiropractic colleges emphasize class­ room and laboratory work in basic science sub­ jects such as anatomy, spinal analysis, micro­ biology, pathology, physiology, and biochemistry. The last 2 years stress physical  Health Diagnosing and Treating Practitioners/125  and laboratory diagnosis, physiotherapy, and nutrition in addition to clinical experience. Stu­ dents completing chiropractic education eam the degree of Doctor of Chiropractic (D.C.). Chiropractic requires keen observation to detect physical abnormalities and considerable hand dexterity but not unusual strength or en­ durance. Persons desiring to become chiro­ practors should be able to work independently and handle responsibility. The ability to work with detail is important. Sympathy and un­ derstanding are desirable qualities for dealing effectively with patients. Newly licensed chiropractors have a number of options upon graduation: They can set up a new practice, purchase an established one, en­ ter into partnership with an established prac­ titioner, or take a salaried position with an established chiropractor to acquire the expe­ rience and the funds needed to open and equip an office. Job Outlook Prospects for chiropractors are expected to be very good through the year 2000 due to the growing use of chiropractic services. Demand for chiropractic is related to the ability of pa­ tients to pay, either directly or through health insurance, and to public acceptance of the profession, which appears to be growing. At present, newly graduated chiropractors are entering practice with little difficulty. How­ ever, the number of graduates from chiroprac­ tic colleges has increased fourfold since the early 1970’s, and enrollments are expected to continue to grow. As more students graduate, new chiropractors may encounter competition establishing a practice in areas where other practitioners already are located. Earnings In 1986, experienced chiropractors averaged about $55,000, after expenses, according to the American Chiropractic Association. In chi­ ropractic, as in other types of independent prac­ tice, earnings are relatively low in the begin­ ning. From the limited data available, new graduates who worked for established practi­ tioners earned about $20,000 a year in 1986. As in most other health professions, earnings are influenced by the characteristics and qual­ ifications of the practitioner, the number of years in practice, and geographic location. Related Occupations Chiropractors diagnose, treat, and work to pre­ vent diseases, disorders, and injuries. They emphasize the importance of the nervous sys­ tem for good health. Other professions re­ quiring similar skills include physicians, den­ tists, naturopathic doctors, optometrists, osteopathic physicians, podiatrists, and veter­ inarians. Sources of Additional Information The board of licensing in each State capital can supply information on State license re­ quirements for chiropractors. General information on chiropractic as a ca­ reer is available from:  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  American Chiropractic Association, 1701 Clarendon Blvd., Arlington, VA 22209. International Chiropractors Association, 1901 L St. NW., Suite 800, Washington, DC 20036.  For a list of chiropractic colleges, as well as general information on chiropractic as a ca­ reer, contact: Council on Chiropractic Education, 3209 Ingersoll Ave., Des Moines, IA 50312.  For information on requirements for admis­ sion to a specific chiropractic college, contact the admissions office.  Dentists (D.O.T. 072, except .117-010)  Nature of the Work Dentists diagnose and treat problems of the teeth and tissues of the mouth. To accomplish these tasks, they may take X-rays, place pro­ tective plastic sealants on childrens’ teeth, fill cavities, straighten teeth, repair fractured teeth, and treat gum disease. Dentists remove teeth only when necessary and may provide dentures to replace missing teeth. They also perform corrective surgery of the gums and supporting bones. Increasingly, dentists are concerned with preventing dental problems. In addition to cleaning teeth and providing instruction in flossing and other aspects of dental care, they may suggest ways to prevent dental disease. Although dentists spend most of their time with patients, they may devote some time to laboratory work such as making dentures and crowns. Usually, however, dentures and crowns are made by dental laboratory technicians in a commercial setting. Some dentists employ dental hygienists to clean patients’ teeth and provide instruction for patient self-care. Den­ tists may also employ other assistants to per­ form office work, assist in “chairside” duties, and provide therapeutic services under their supervision. (The work of dental hygienists, dental assistants, and dental laboratory tech­ nicians is described elsewhere in the Hand­ book.) Technological advances in dentistry affect the materials and techniques that dentists em­ ploy in their work. For example, dentists now use new composite materials to repair fractured or disfigured teeth. As new technologies are proven and adopted, the nature of dentistry will continue to change. Most dentists are general practitioners who provide many types of dental care; about 15 percent practice in one of the eight specialty areas recognized by the American Dental As­ sociation (ADA). The largest group of spe­ cialists are orthodontists, who straighten teeth. The next largest group, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, operate on the mouth and jaws. The remainder specialize in pediatric dentistry (dentistry for children); periodontics (treating the gums); prosthodontics (making artificial teeth or dentures); endodontics (root canal ther­ apy); public health dentistry (community dental  health); and oral pathology (diseases of the mouth). Since most dentists are in private practice, they are called upon to handle the business aspects of running an office in addition to di­ agnosing and treating dental disease. Dentists typically oversee a wide variety of adminis­ trative tasks, ranging from keeping the books to negotiating a lease for office space to buying new equipment. Sometimes they perform these tasks themselves, but often they delegate them to a member of the staff or hire an office man­ ager to make day-to-day decisions about staff, supplies, workflow, and the lease. Working Conditions Most dental offices are open 5 days a week, and some dentists have evening hours. Dentists who have offices in retail stores or work for franchised dental outlets may work weekends as well. Dentists usually work about 42 hours a week, although some spend more than 45 hours a week in the office. Dentists often work fewer hours as they grow older, and a considerable number continue in part-time practice well be­ yond the usual retirement age Employment Dentists held about 151,000 jobs in 1986. Be­ cause some dentists hold more than one job, the number of jobs exceeds the number of professionally active dentists—about 143,000 in 1986, according to the U.S. Public Health Service. Almost 9 out of 10 dentists are in private practice. Private practice, however, includes a wide variety of work settings and payment sys­ tems. Some dentists work in shopping malls; others contract with individual companies to provide dental services to a firm's employees. A growing number of dental practices contract their services to health maintenance organi­ zations. Of the dentists outside of private practice, about half do research, teach, or hold positions in dental schools. Others work in hospitals and clinics, or are dental interns, residents, or other advanced education students. About 2,000 ci­ vilian dentists work in the Federal service, pre­ dominantly in the hospitals and clinics of the Veterans Administration and the U.S. Public Health Service. lYaining, Other Qualifications, and Advancement All 50 States and the District of Columbia re­ quire dentists to be licensed. To qualify for a license in most States, a candidate must grad­ uate from a dental school approved by the Commission on Dental Accreditation and pass written and practical examinations. In 1986, candidates in 49 States and the District of Co­ lumbia could fulfill part of the State licensing requirementsmy passing a written examination given by the National Board of Dental Ex­ aminers. Most State licenses permit dentists to engage in both general and specialized prac­ tice. Currently, 16 States require dentists to obtain a specialty license before practicing as  126/Occupational Outlook Handbook  an associate basis for a year or two. This en­ ables them to gain experience and save money to equip an office of their own. Some dentists, however, purchase an established practice or open a new practice immediately after grad­ uation. A growing number of new graduates—cur­ rently about one-third—enroll in postgraduate training programs in approved hospitals or den­ tal schools. Dentists who enter the Armed Forces are commissioned as captains in the Army and Air Force and as lieutenants in the Navy. Graduates of recognized dental schools are eligible for positions in the Federal service and for com­ missions (equivalent to lieutenants in the Navy) in the U.S. Public Health Service.  The outlook for dentistry is competitive. a specialist. Requirements include 2 to 4 years of graduate education and, in some cases, com­ pletion of a special State examination. Extra education also is necessary in the other States, but the dental profession, not the State licen­ sing authority, regulates the specialist’s prac­ tice. To practice in a different State, a licensed dentist usually must pass that State’s exami­ nation. However, about 20 States grant licenses to dentists from other States on the basis of their credentials. Dentists who want to teach or do research usually spend an additional 2 to 4 years in advanced dental training in pro­ grams operated by dental schools, other insti­ tutions of higher education, and hospitals. Dental schools require a minimum of 3 to 4 years of college-level predental education. In fact, the overwhelming majority of dental stu­ dents are college graduates. Four out of five of the students entering dental schools in 1985 had a bachelor’s or master’s degree. Predental education must include courses in both the sci­ ences and humanities. All dental schools participate in a nationwide testing program, and, in selecting students, they consider scores earned on these tests along with the applicants’ overall grade point average (GPA), science course GPA, and information gathered through recommendations and inter­ views. Many State-supported dental schools give preference to residents of the State. Dental school generally lasts 4 academic years, although one institution condenses the  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  program into 3 calendar years, and another program lasts 5 years. Studies begin with class­ room instruction and laboratory work in basic sciences including anatomy, microbiology, biochemistry, and physiology. Courses in preclinical technique and beginning courses in clinical sciences also are provided at this time. During the last 2 years, the student gains prac­ tical experience by treating patients, usually in dental clinics. Most dental schools award the degree of Doctor of Dental Surgery (D.D.S). An equiv­ alent degree. Doctor of Dental Medicine (D.M.D.), is conferred by the rest. Earning a dental degree is a costly process, but financial aid is available from the Federal and State governments, health-related organ­ izations, industry, and dental schools. Many dental students rely on student loans to finance their professional training. Dentistry requires both manual skills and a high level of diagnostic ability. Dentists should have good visual memory, excellent judgment of space and shape, and a high degree of man­ ual dexterity, as well as scientific ability. Good business sense, self-discipline, and the ability to instill confidence are helpful for success in private practice. High school students who want to become dentists are advised to take courses in biology, chemistry, health, and mathemat­ ics. Dental school graduates typically launch their careers by working for established dentists on  Job Outlook Employment of dentists is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000 as changes in population size and structure boost demand for restorative dentistry. Responding to the dental care needs of the rapidly growing elderly population will become increasingly important to the profes­ sion, since future generations of elderly people are more likely to retain their teeth than was true in the past. Moreover, as the baby-boom generation matures, large numbers of middleaged Americans will be candidates for inten­ sive dental care. Unlike younger people, who have benefited from advances in dental health, people bom before the 1950’s tend to have intricate dental work that will require compli­ cated maintenance as they grow older. Also contributing to job growth for dentists are growing public awareness that regular den­ tal care helps prevent and control dental dis­ ease, and fairly widespread dental insurance, which makes it easier for people to purchase dental care. Because of the abundant supply of practi­ tioners, however, the private practice of den­ tistry is expected to remain competitive. Ex­ pansion of the capacity of the Nation’s dental schools during the 1960’s and 1970’s led to a marked increase in the number of new grad­ uates prepared to practice dentistry. Although enrollments have declined in recent years (see chart), it appears that more new graduates will enter the profession each year than will retire or otherwise leave dentistry. The amount of competition dentists are likely to encounter through the year 2000 is difficult to anticipate since enrollments cannot be pro­ jected with certainty. The recent downturn in first-year enrollments reflects a number of fac­ tors, including the rising cost of dental edu­ cation, lower returns on the investment in den­ tal education as greater competition for business dampens dentists’ earnings, and a smaller ap­ plicant pool. Enrollments are expected to con­ tinue to decline, which means that the supply of practicing dentists will grow more slowly than it has in the past. Nonetheless, an oversupply of dentists may develop or intensify in some localities, in the more densely populated.regions of the country in particular. Various market adjustments are  Health Diagnosing and Treating Practitioners/127  Dental school enrollments are declining, but the job outlook remains competitive. First-year enrollments (thousands) 7 6 5  6  should obtain the requirements for licensure from the board of dental examiners of the State where they plan to work. Prospective dental students should contact the office of student financial aid at the schools to which they apply for information on schol­ arships, grants, and loans, including Federal financial aid.  5  -  4  -  3  4 3  2  2  1  1  0  0 197677  197778  197879  1979 80  198081  1981 82  198283  198384  1984 85  198586  198687  Source: American Dental Association, Council on Dental Education  likely in those localities—increased evening and weekend office hours (although total hours may be reduced), more competitive fee struc­ tures, and less intensive use of dental assistants and dental hygienists, for example. To build clientele, dentists are likely to experiment with new ways of providing care and may, for ex­ ample, reach out to hitherto underserved groups. Educational advertising campaigns are being used to increase public awareness of the im­ portance of regular dental care. Aimed at that half of our population who are not under the regular care of a dentist, this strategy seeks to broaden the dental care market. Fluoridation of community water supplies and improved dental hygiene prevent tooth and gum disorders and preserve teeth that might otherwise be extracted. However, since the preserved teeth may need care in the future, these measures may increase rather than de­ crease the demand for dental care. Moreover, there will continue to be a need for dentists to teach in dental colleges, administer dental pub­ lic health programs, and serve in the Armed Forces. In a departure from the usual pattern, re­ placement needs create relatively few job open­ ing for dentists. This reflects the fact that den­ tists have a distinctive employment pattern: once having completed their training and en­ tered dental practice, they tend to work con­ tinuously until they reach retirement age. Some older dentists reduce their hours of work be­ cause of ill health or desire for leisure, but very few individuals leave dentistry to take up other careers. A comparable degree of occupational attachment is found in only a few other oc­ cupations, notably among other health prac­ titioners, who, like dentists, have a consider­ able investment in training.  cialists generally earn considerably more than general practitioners. The average income of dentists in general practice was about $59,000 a year in 1985, according to the limited in­ formation available. Those in specialty prac­ tices averaged about $100,000 a year. The location of the dental practice has a large influence on the dentist’s earnings. For ex­ ample, in high-income urban areas, dental ser­ vices are in great demand. However, a practice can be developed most quickly in small towns, where new dentists can become known easily and where they may face less competition from established practitioners. Although income in small towns may rise rapidly at first, over the long run, the level of earnings, like the cost of living, may be lower than it is in larger communities. Except for emergencies, dental work gen­ erally can be postponed. During periods of high unemployment and economic hardship, there­ fore, dentists tend to experience a reduction in the volume of work and lower earnings. How­ ever, insurance coverage somewhat dampens the impact of economic downturns on the de­ mand for dental care.  Earnings During the first year or two of practice, dentists often earn little more than the minimum needed to cover expenses, but their earnings usually rise rapidly as their practice develops. Spe­  American Association of Dental Schools, 1625 Mas­ sachusetts Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20036.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Related Occupations Dentists examine, diagnose, and treat various oral diseases and abnormalities. Others whose work involves personal contact and requires a long and rigorous period of scientific training include psychologists, optometrists, physi­ cians, veterinarians, and podiatrists. Sources of Additional Information For information on dentistry as a career and a list of accredited dental schools, contact: American Dental Association, Council on Dental Education. 211 E. Chicago Ave., Chicago, IL 60611.  The American Dental Association also will furnish a list of State boards of dental exam­ iners. Persons interested in practicing dentistry  Optometrists (DOT. 079.101-018)  Nature of the Work Over half the people in the United States wear glasses or contact lenses. Optometrists (doctors of optometry) provide much of the vision care these people need. Optometrists should not be confused with either ophthalmologists or dispensing opti­ cians. Ophthalmologists are physicians (doc­ tors of medicine or osteopathy) who specialize in medical diagnosis and treatment of vision disorders, especially diseases and injuries to the eye. Ophthalmologists may perform eye surgery and prescribe drugs or other eye treat­ ment, as well as lenses. Dispensing opticians fit and adjust eyeglasses and may in some States fit contact lenses according to prescriptions written by ophthalmologists or optometrists, but they do not examine eyes or prescribe treat­ ment. (See statements on physicians and dis­ pensing opticians elsewhere in the Handbook.) Optometrists are primary eye care providers who examine people’s eyes to diagnose and in some cases treat vision problems and eye dis­ ease. They also test to insure that the patient has proper depth and color perception and the ability to focus and coordinate the eyes. Op­ tometrists prescribe eyeglasses, contact lenses, vision therapy, and low-vision aids. In all but two States, Alaska and Maryland, optometrists may use drugs for diagnosis; in 19 of these States, they may also use drugs to treat eye diseases. When optometrists diagnose diseases requiring treatment beyond the optometric scope of practice, they arrange for consultation with the appropriate health care practitioners. Although most optometrists are in general practice, some specialize in work with the el­ derly or with children. Others work with par­ tially sighted persons, who use microscopic or telescopic lenses. Still others concentrate on contact lenses or vision therapy. Optometrists teach, do research, consult, and serve on health advisory committees of various kinds. Working Conditions Optometrists work in places—usually their own offices—that are clean, well lighted, and com­ fortable. The work requires a lot of attention to detail. Optometrists who are self-employed have considerable flexibility in setting their hours of work. They may offer Saturday or evening hours to suit the needs of their patients, and many practitioners choose to work over 40 hours a week.  128/Occupational Outlook Handbook  Employment Optometrists held about 37,000 jobs in 1986. The number of jobs is greater than the number of practicing optometrists because some op­ tometrists hold two jobs or maintain two of­ fices. For example, an optometrist may have a full-time private practice and also work part time in another practice, clinic, or vision care center. Although the majority of optometrists are in solo practice, a growing number are in part­ nership or group practices. This trend, espe­ cially pronounced among younger optome­ trists, is associated with education-related indebtedness and the high cost of setting up a solo practice. For the same reason, some op­ tometrists work as salaried employees in the offices of established practitioners. Salaried jobs with health maintenance organizations and the Veterans Administration are becoming more attractive. In recent years, some optometrists have cho­ sen to work in retail optical stores rather than operate a private practice. Optometrists who work in these vision care centers are not always salaried employees; recently, the trend has been for optometrists to buy franchises and operate as independent business owners rather than em­ ployees of the chain. Some optometrists teach in schools of op­ tometry. Others act as consultants to industrial safety programs, insurance companies, man­ ufacturers of ophthalmic products, and others. TVaining, Other Qualifications, and Advancement All States and the District of Columbia require that optometrists be licensed. Applicants for a license must have a Doctor of Optometry de­ gree from an accredited optometric school or college and pass a State board examination. In some States, applicants can substitute the ex­ amination of the National Board of Examiners in Optometry, given in the second, third, and fourth years of optometric school, for part or  all of the written State examination. Some States allow applicants to be licensed without lengthy examination if they have a license in another State. In 46 States, optometrists must earn con­ tinuing education credits in optometry to renew their licenses. The Doctor of Optometry degree requires completion of a 4-year professional degree pro­ gram at an accredited optometric school pre­ ceded by at least 2 or 3 years of preoptometric study at an accredited college or university (most optometry students hold a bachelor’s de­ gree). In 1987, 16 U.S. schools and colleges of optometry were accredited by the Council on Optometric Education of the American Op­ tometric Association. Requirements for admission to schools of optometry include courses in English, math­ ematics, physics, chemistry, and biology or zoology. Some schools require courses in psy­ chology, social studies, literature, philosophy, and foreign languages. All applicants must take the Optometric Admissions Test (OAT). Com­ petition for admission is keen. Because most optometrists are self-em­ ployed, business ability, self-discipline, and the ability to deal with patients tactfully are necessary for success. Optometrists wishing to teach or perform research may study for a master’s or Ph.D. degree in visual science, physiological optics, neurophysiology, public health, health admin­ istration, health information and communica­ tion, or health education. One-year postgrad­ uate clinical residency programs are available for optometrists who wish to specialize in cer­ tain aspects of optometry, including family practice optometry, pediatric optometry, ger­ iatric optometry, low-vision rehabilitation, vi­ sion training, contact lenses, hospital-based optometry, and primary care optometry. Job Outlook Employment of optometrists is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations  through the year 2000 due to anticipated changes in the size and age structure of the population. Of central importance is the maturing of the large baby-boom generation, together with very rapid growth in the elderly population in the years immediately ahead. Visits to both op­ tometrists and ophthalmologists are more fre­ quent for persons over the age of 45, reflecting the onset of vision problems in middle age and the increased likelihood of glaucoma, diabetes, and hypertension in old age. Greater recognition of the importance of vi­ sion care on the part of an increasingly welleducated population is expected to boost de­ mand for optometric services, as is the use of computers and video display terminals (VDT’s) in the workplace and at home. VDT's have been suspected of causing eyestrain and may aggravate vision problems, leading users to seek professional care. Clinical need alone does not govern demand for health care, however. In the case of op­ tometric services, demand is projected to rise sharply in part because of improved ability to pay. This is associated with rising per capita income, an increase in employee vision care plans, and a 1986 change in the Medicare law. Medicare now pays for certain eye care services provided by an optometrist (previously, only care by an ophthalmologist was reimbursable), a change that is expected to produce more busi­ ness for optometrists. Replacement needs are expected to produce additional job openings in the years ahead. In this occupation, replacement needs arise al­ most entirely from retirements and deaths. Op­ tometrists, like other health practitioners, have a strong attachment to their profession and gen­ erally remain in practice until they leave the labor force; few transfer to other occupations. Because one-fourth of all active optometrists are now between 50 and 64 years of age, it is likely that a large number of experienced prac­ titioners will leave the profession by the year 2000.  I-----------------Earnings According to the American Optometric As­ sociation, net earnings of new optometry grad­ uates in their first full year of practice averaged about $30,000 in 1986. Experienced opto­ metrists averaged about $60,000 annually. Incomes vary greatly, depending upon lo­ cation, specialization, and other factors. Op­ tometrists who start out by working on a sal­ aried basis tend to earn more money initially than optometrists who set up their own inde­ pendent practice. However, in the long run, those in private practice generally earn more than those employed by others.  Many optometrists hold more than one job.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Related Occupations Workers in other occupations who apply log­ ical thinking and scientific knowledge to pre­ vent, diagnose, and treat disease, disorders, or injuries in humans or animals are chiropractors, dentists, physicians, podiatrists, and veteri­ narians.  Health Diagnosing and Treating Practitioners/129  Sources of Additional Information For information on optometry as a career, write to: American Optometric Association, Student Recruit­ ment, 243 North Lindbergh Blvd., St. Louis, MO 63141.  Additional career information and a listing of accredited optometric educational institu­ tions, as well as required preoptometry courses, can be obtained from:  Physician specialists outnumber general practitioners. Percent of physicians by specialty group, 1985 Medical specialties: Internal medicine, pediatrics, etc.  Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry, 6110 Executive Blvd., Rockville, MD 20852.  The Board of Optometry in the capital of each State can supply information on licensing requirements. For information on admission requirements and sources of financial aid, contact individual optometry schools.  Surgical specialties:  |  General practice and family practice  General surgery, — orthopedic surgery, etc.  Other specialties: Psychiatry, anesthesiology, etc.  Physicians (D.O.T. 070, except .107-018 and .117-010, -014; and 071) ___________  Nature of the Work Physicians perform medical examinations, di­ agnose illnesses, and treat people who are suf­ fering from injury or disease. They also advise patients on maintaining good health. There are two types of physicians: the M.D.—Doctor of Medicine—and the D.O.—Doctor of Osteo­ pathy. Despite differences in training and phi­ losophy of treatment, both M.D.’s and D.O.’s use all accepted methods of treatment, includ­ ing drugs and surgery. Osteopathic physicians, however, place special emphasis on the mus­ culoskeletal system of the body—bones, mus­ cles, ligaments, and nerves. Physicians may be general practitioners or they may specialize in a particular field of med­ icine. Most D.O.'s are general practitioners or primary care providers; only about 25 percent are specialists. On the other hand, about 90 percent of the M.D.’s who provide patient care are specialists. (See chart.) The largest of the medical specialties for which there is graduate medical training are internal medicine, family medicine, general surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, psychiatry, pediatrics, radiology, anesthesiology, ophthalmology, pathology, and orthopedic surgery. Some of the primary care specialties have shown especially rapid growth—family practice, internal medicine, and pediatrics. Some physicians combine the practice of medicine with research or teaching in medical schools. Advances in medical technology in recent years have been many and dramatic. Liver and kidney transplants, laser surgery, and ultra­ sound and magnetic resonance imaging are but a few of these new technologies. Some are opening entirely new areas of medical practice; others are replacing traditional treatment meth­ ods. The emphasis on technology has implica­ tions for the way physicians are trained and the way they practice medicine. High-tech­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Source: American Medical Association  nology medicine requires extensive skills and training. Its dominant role in American medical care underlies the system of specialty medi­ cine, whereby most M.D.’s are specialists and subspecialists; a relatively small proportion are generalists such as family and general practi­ tioners. Further, the cost of technology is largely responsible for making the hospital the site of the most advanced medical care. Only hospitals and very large clinics or group medical prac­ tices can afford to purchase the most costly equipment. It is beyond the means of individual physicians or small groups. The shift from fee-for-service medicine to “managed care” is beginning to alter the prac­ tice environment as well. Examples of man­ aged care systems that set guidelines for med­ ical practice—limiting the kinds of tests physicians may order, for example—are health maintenance organizations (HMO’s), preferred provider organizations, and various “gate­ keeping” schemes. As the managed care con­ cept becomes more widespread, physicians will be subject to more constraints in exercising their professional judgment than traditionally has been the case.  such physicians resemble those of other phy­ sicians in group practice. A growing number of physicians hold sa­ laried positions. They may work for health maintenance organizations, clinics, or group practices, for example. Salaried physicians generally work a standard 40-hour week, al­ though some are moonlighters who hold an­ other job.  Employment Physicians (M.D.’s and D.O.’s) held about 491,000 patient care jobs in 1986. (An addi­ tional 44,000 M.D.’s were involved in non­ patient care activities including research, teaching, administration, and consulting for in­ surance companies or pharmaceutical firms, according to the American Medical Associa­ tion.) About 3 out of 5 patient care physicians are in office-based practice; nearly 1 in 5 is a med­ ical resident or full-time hospital staff member; and the remainder practice in a variety of set­ tings, including HMO’s, urgent care centers, surgicenters, public health clinics, schools, and prisons. While some physicians are solo practition­ ers, a growing number are partners or salaried employees of group practices. Sometimes or­ Working Conditions Physicians who practice alone or in small groups ganized as clinics and sometimes as a group generally work long, irregular hours. Most spe­ of physicians in the same or different special­ cialists work fewer hours each week than gen­ ties, medical groups can afford large outlays eral and family practitioners. As doctors ap­ for expensive medical equipment and realize proach retirement age, they may accept fewer other economies of scale. For this reason, and because such practices have the flexibility to new patients and tend to work shorter hours. However, many continue in practice well be­ adapt to changes in the health care environ­ ment, group practice is becoming increasingly yond 70 years of age. Physicians in group practice generally have important. The Northeast has the highest ratio of phy­ more regular hours, consult more with peers, and have more flexible work schedules than sicians to population; the South, the lowest. More than half of all D.O.’s practice in small solo practitioners. Contractual arrangements in the rapidly cities and towns and in rural areas. M.D.’s, evolving outpatient care sector vary enor­ on the other hand, tend to locate in urban areas, mously. A diagnostic imaging center, for ex­ close to hospital and educational centers. Some ample, may be operated by several radiologists rural areas remain underserved, although the as a group medical practice. Work patterns of situation is changing. Currently, more medical  130/Occupational Outlook Handbook  i§ Iljl  ■ i*  a 1 Mhm  V *  Gaining the patient’s confidence is important. students are being exposed to practice in rural communities with the direct support of edu­ cational centers and hospitals in more populous areas. Some rural areas offer physicians guar­ anteed minimum incomes to offset the rela­ tively low earnings typical in rural medical practice. Osteopathic physicians are located chiefly in those States that have osteopathic hospitals. In 1986, three-fifths of all D.O.’s were in Florida, Michigan, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Ohio, Texas, and Missouri. Fifteen States and the District of Columbia each had fewer than 50 osteopathic physicians in 1986. TVaining and Other Qualifications All States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico require physicians to be licensed. Licen­ sure requirements for both D.O.’s and M.D.’s include graduation from an accredited profes­ sional school, successful completion of a li­ censing examination, and, in most States, 1 or 2 years of supervised practice in an accredited graduate medical education program (intemship/residency). The licensing examination taken by most graduates of U.S. medical schools is the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) test that all States except Texas and Louisiana accept. Osteopathic graduates take the National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners (NBOME) test that all States ex­ cept Texas, Louisiana, and North Carolina ac­ cept.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Graduates of foreign medical schools gen­ erally begin practice in the United States after completing a U.S. hospital residency training program. To enter an approved residency, graduates of foreign medical schools usually must pass an examination administered by the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates and be certified by that organization. After 1 year of work in an approved residency, foreign medical graduates, as well as graduates of U.S. medical schools who have not taken the NBME or NBOME test, must take the Fed­ eration Licensure Examination (FLEX) that all jurisdictions accept. Although physicians li­ censed in one State usually can get a license to practice in another without further exami­ nation, some States limit reciprocity. Of the 127 accredited schools in the United States in which students can begin study for the M.D. degree, 126 award the degree of Doctor of Medicine (M.D.). One school offers a 2-year program in the basic medical sciences to students who transfer to another medical school for the last semesters of study. Fifteen schools of osteopathic medicine award the degree of Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.). The minimum educational requirement for entry to a medical or osteopathic school is nor­ mally 3 years of college; some schools require 4 years. Most applicants have at least a bach­ elor’s degree, however, and many have ad­ vanced degrees. A few medical schools offer  a combined college and medical school pro­ gram that lasts 6 years instead of the customary 8. Required premedical study includes under­ graduate work in English, physics, biology, and inorganic and organic chemistry. Students also should take courses in the humanities, mathematics, and the social sciences to acquire a broad general education. Studies have shown that medical students with undergraduate ma­ jors in the humanities do as well in their med­ ical studies as those who major in the sciences or a “premedical curriculum.” Medicine is a popular field of study, and applicants must compete for entry with highly motivated students who generally have ex­ celled in preprofessional education. Factors considered by the schools in admitting students include their academic record (largely the un­ dergraduate grade point average) and their scores on the Medical College Admission Test, which almost all applicants take. Consideration also is given to the applicant’s character, per­ sonality, and leadership qualities, as shown by personal interviews, letters of recommenda­ tion, and extracurricular activities. Osteopathic colleges give considerable weight to a favor­ able recommendation by an osteopathic phy­ sician familiar with the applicant’s back­ ground. Many State-supported schools give preference to State residents and, through for­ mal agreements, to residents of nearby States. Students spend the first semesters of medical school primarily in laboratories and classrooms learning basic medical sciences such as anat­ omy, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacol­ ogy, microbiology, and pathology. Students in some schools gain some clinical experience with patients during the first 2 years of study, learning to take case histories, perform ex­ aminations, and recognize symptoms. During the last semesters, students work under super­ vision in hospitals and clinics to learn the im­ portant aspects of acute, chronic, preventive, and rehabilitative care. Through required ro­ tations in internal medicine, obstetrics and gynecology, pediatrics, psychiatry, and sur­ gery, they gain experience in the diagnosis and treatment of illness. After graduation, almost all M.D.’s com­ plete 3 or 4 years of graduate medical education (residency). Nearly all D.O.’s serve a 12-month rotating internship which includes experience in surgery, pediatrics, internal medicine, and other specialties. Physicians seeking certification in a spe­ cialty spend from 3 to 6 years—depending on the specialty—in advanced residency training, followed by 2 years or more of practice in the specialty. Training in a medical specialty is lengthy and rigorous but virtually indispen­ sable in view of the enormous amount of in­ formation to be absorbed. Moreover, techno­ logically based medical practice requires such a high level of skill that an extensive period of supervised experience is necessary. Resi­ dency training may also be required to take a specialty board examination. Passing the ap­ propriate examination is the final step in be­ coming a board-certified M.D. or D.O.  Health Diagnosing and Treating Practitioners/131  Physicians who want to teach or do research may take graduate work leading to a master’s or Ph.D. degree in a field such as biochemistry or microbiology, or spend 1 year or more in a fellowship devoted to research and advanced clinical training in a specialty area. A physician’s training is very costly; in 1986, the average debt of newly graduated M.D.’s exceeded $33,000. Loans and scholarships are available from Federal, State, and local gov­ ernments, and from private sources. Persons who wish to become physicians must have a strong desire to serve the sick and in­ jured. They must be self-motivated and com­ petitive to survive the pressures of premedical and medical education and the demanding workload during the intemship/residency that follows medical school. They must study a great deal to keep up with the latest advances in medical science. Sincerity and a pleasant personality are helpful in gaining the confi­ dence of patients. Physicians should be emo­ tionally stable and able to make decisions in emergencies. Job Outlook Employment of physicians is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000 due to continued rapid expansion of the health services industry. Pop­ ulation growth and aging underlie future de­ mand for physicians, but widespread ability to pay for medical care, a consequence of health insurance and public programs such as Med­ icare and Medicaid, is the chief reason for projected job growth. Replacement needs account for fewer job openings than in most other occupations, be­ cause physicians exhibit very strong attach­ ment to their work. Once having completed training and entered medical practice, physi­ cians tend to remain in the profession until they retire. The supply of physicians is expected to ex­ ceed demand in the years ahead. The over­ supply originated in the 1960’s as enrollment levels in medical schools rose sharply—a de­ liberate, publicly subsidized response to the perceived shortage of medical personnel. Fed­ eral and State government support for the train­ ing of physicians has declined dramatically in recent years, and first-year enrollments have fallen slightly. Nonetheless, overall enrollment levels are more than sufficient to ensure an abundant supply of newly trained physicians through the year 2000. It seems likely that graduates of foreign med­ ical schools will continue to augment the sup­ ply of U.S.-trained physicians. Immigration laws were relaxed on several occasions in the past, making it easier for foreign nationals to enter graduate medical education programs and to immigrate permanently. At the same time, growing numbers of U.S. citizens undertook medical studies abroad. The resulting influx of foreign-trained physicians shows little sign of abating, despite efforts to discourage the entry of foreign medical graduates. The surplus of physicians will continue to affect patient load, earnings, geographic lo­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  High medical school enrollments have contributed to the competitive outlook for physicians. First-year enrollments (thousands)  197576  1976- 197777 78  1978- 197979 80  1980- 198181 82  198283  198384  198485  1985- 198686 87  Sources: Association of American Medical Colleges; American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine  cation, specialty choice, and practice setting. Thus, as the number of physicians increases, some communities may have too many phy­ sicians—leading to fewer patient visits per physician and correspondingly lower earnings. The oversupply of physicians in large metro­ politan areas may encourage some to move to rural areas that historically have been under­ served. Shortages are likely to persist in other areas—places that are too sparsely populated or too poor to attract doctors. Despite mounting concern about an oversuppply of physicians, it is not widely under­ stood that the outlook for medical subspecial­ ties varies a great deal. Agreement is widespread that more primary care physicians will be re­ quired in the future. Further, there is a pro­ nounced need for clinicians and faculty with expertise in geriatric medicine. Other areas of need include psychiatry, child psychiatry, physical medicine, and rehabilitation. On the other hand, some medical specialties will experience even greater competition in the future than they have in recent years. These specialties include many of the surgical sub­ specialties, such as neurosurgery and or­ thopedic surgery, as well as ophthalmology, pathology, and radiology. The specialty im­ balances mentioned above assume that spe­ cialty choices will not change markedly in the future. Decisions about the specialty to go into are governed by noneconomic factors, such as lifestyle and faculty role models, as well as by economic considerations. The choices of where and how to practice which newly trained physicians face are rad­ ically different from those of their predeces­ sors. Many new entrants to the profession will obtain salaried jobs in group medical practices, clinics, and health maintenance organizations. New graduates rarely can afford to start their own practice upon graduation due to the high cost of medical technology, the skyrocketing cost of malpractice insurance, and the burden of educational debt. Many young physicians prefer to work in large organizations in order  to have regular work hours and the opportunity for peer consultation. Together with the oversupply of physicians, changes in the organization and financing of health care will have an impact on practice patterns. Managed care arrangements such as HMO’s, for example, could reduce demand for physicians. This could come about if growth in the volume of physician services is con­ strained as a result of organizational efforts to reduce resource use, or through greater reliance on services provided by nonphysician care providers, notably physician assistants and nurse practitioners. Either of these developments would lead to fewer new jobs for physicians than currently anticipated. Earnings Physicians have among the highest average an­ nual earnings of any occupational group. Ac­ cording to the American Medical Association, average earnings, after expenses, for all phy­ sicians were about $106,300 in 1985; those under 36 years of age averaged $85,100. Earn­ ings vary according to specialty; the number of years in practice; geographic region; hours worked; and the physician’s skill, personality, and professional reputation. Self-employed physicians almost always earn more than those in salaried positions. According to a survey of office-based phy­ sicians conducted by Medical Economics, av­ erage earnings after expenses varied by spe­ cialty as shown in the accompanying table. Stipends of medical school graduates serving as residents in hospitals vary according to the type of residency, geographic area, and size of the hospital, but allowances of $20,000 to $24,000 a year are common. Many hospitals also provide full or partial room and board and other maintenance allowances to residents. Graduates who had completed approved 3year residencies but had no other medical ex­ perience received a starting salary at Veterans' Administration hospitals of about $44,400 a year in 1987. In addition, those working full  132/Occupational Outlook Handbook  I able 1. Median net practice income by medical specialty, 1986 Neurosurgeons................................... $203,570 Orthopedic surgeons......................... 182,640 ■'Plastic surgeons................................ 180,210 Thoracic surgeons............................ 156,480 Ophthalmologists.............................. 148,000 Radiologists........................................ 147,500 vGeneral surgeons.............................. 122,370 ' Internists........................................... 95,630 Psychiatrists ...................................... 86,670 N Family practitioners ......................... 86,430 Pediatricians...................................... 84,340 General practitioners......................... 72,840 Source: Medical Economics  time received up to $13,000 in other cash ben­ efits or special payments. Newly qualified physicians who establish their own practice must make a sizable financial investment to equip a modern office. During the first year or two of independent practice, physicians probably earn little more than the minimum needed to pay expenses. As a rule, however, their earnings rise rapidly as their practice develops. Related Occupations Physicians work to prevent, diagnose, and treat diseases, disorders, and injuries. Professionals in other occupations that require similar kinds of skill and critical judgment include audiol­ ogists, chiropractors, dentists, optometrists, podiatrists, speech pathologists, and veteri­ narians. Sources of Additional Information For a list of approved medical schools, as well as general information on premedical educa­ tion, financial aid, and medicine as a career, contact: American Medical Association, 535 N. Dearborn St., Chicago, 1L 60610. Association of American Medical Colleges. One Du­ pont Circle NW., Suite 200, Washington, DC 20036.  For general information on osteopathic med­ icine as a career, contact: American Osteopathic Association, Department of Public Relations. 142 East Ontario St.. Chicago, 1L 60611. American Association of Colleges of OsteopathicMedicine, 6110 Executive Blvd , Suite 405, Rock­ ville, MD 20852.  Information on Federal scholarships and loans is available from the directors of student fi­ nancial aid at schools of medicine and osteo­ pathic medicine. Persons who wish to practice medicine or osteopathic medicine in a particular State should inquire about licensure requirements directly from the board of examiners of that State.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Podiatrists (D.O.T. 079.101-022)  areas—with few podiatrists. In these areas, foot care is typically provided by primary care physicians and orthopedists.  TVaining, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Nature of the Work Most people fail to recognize the importance All States and the District of Columbia require of the foot until it is injured. Being unable to a license for the practice of podiatric medicine. Each State and jurisdiction defines its own li­ stand or move about easily is an inconvenience at the very least, but if the disability is per­ censing requirements. Generally, however, the applicant must be a graduate of an accredited manent, it can be a crushing blow. Podiatrists, also known as doctors of podiatric medicine college of podiatric medicine and pass written (DPM's), diagnose and treat disorders and dis­ and oral examinations. Some States permit ap­ plicants to substitute the examination of the eases of the foot and lower leg. Most podiatrists provide comprehensive foot National Board of Podiatric Examiners, given in the second and fourth years of podiatric care services and perform basic medical and surgical procedures. Some, however, focus their medical college, for part or all of the written State examination. Certain States grant reci­ practice on a specific patient group, such as procity to DPM’s who are licensed in another the elderly, or a specific field, such as sports State. injuries. The seven colleges of podiatric medicine are Podiatrists treat the major foot conditions: Corns and calluses, ingrown toenails, and bun­ located in California, Florida, Illinois, Iowa, ions. Other conditions treated by podiatrists New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio. Prereq­ uisites for admission include the completion of include hammertoes, ankle and foot injuries, at least 3 years of undergraduate study, an and foot complaints associated with diseases acceptable grade point average, and suitable such as diabetes. In diagnosing a foot problem, podiatrists may order X-rays and laboratory scores on the Medical College Admission Test tests. Depending on the diagnosis, they may (MCAT). Most entrants surpass the minimum recommend proper shoes, fit corrective de­ qualifications. Although well-qualified stu­ dents may be admitted after 3 years of under­ vices, prescribe drugs, order physical therapy, or perform surgery. Corrective surgery—per­ graduate study, that is the exception rather than the rule. In 1986-87, for example, all first-year formed in hospitals, outpatient surgery centers, clinics, or podiatrists' offices—is an increas­ students held at least a bachelor's degree. The average enrollee had an overall grade point ingly important part of podiatric practice. Going to a podiatrist for treatment of a foot average of “B” or better and had majored in biology, chemistry, or zoology. problem may be the entry point into the health Colleges of podiatric medicine offer a 4-year care system for some patients since clinical program whose core curriculum is similar to signs of diseases such as arthritis, diabetes, that in other schools of medicine. Classroom and heart disease may first appear in the foot. Podiatrists are trained to spot these and other instruction in basic sciences, including anat­ systemic diseases, and refer patients to other omy, chemistry, pathology, and pharmacol­ ogy, is given during the first 2 years. Third medical specialists when appropriate. and fourth year students have clinical rotations in different practice settings, including private Working Conditions practice, hospitals, and clinics. During these Podiatrists usually work independently in their rotations, they acquire clinical skills—learning own offices. They work about 37 hours a week, how to take general and podiatric histories, to on the average, but set their hours to suit their perform routine physical examinations, to in­ practice. Podiatrists who are employed in clin­ terpret tests and findings, to make diagnoses, ics may work nights and weekends. and to perform therapeutic procedures. Grad­ uates are awarded the degree of doctor of po­ Employment diatric medicine, DPM. Podiatrists held about 13,000 jobs in 1986. The Most graduates complete 1 to 3 years of vast majority of podiatrists are in private prac­ graduate education (cither a residency or a pretice. Traditionally, podiatrists have been solo ceptorship) after receiving the DPM degree. practitioners and most still are. Recently, how­ Competition for admission to residency pro­ ever, other practice arrangements such as part­ grams is keen. Since licensure provisions in nerships and group practices have begun to 11 States (Arizona, California, Georgia, Mary­ emerge. Some podiatrists are employed by hos­ land, Michigan, Minnesota, Nevada, New Jer­ pitals, nursing homes, clinics, health mainte­ sey, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, and Virginia) nance organizations, and podiatric medical col­ require completion of at least 1 year of post­ leges. The Veterans Administration and public graduate education, failure to secure a resi­ health departments employ podiatrists, too. dency may restrict a new DPM’s choice of Geographic imbalances are pronounced in practice location. podiatric medicine. This reflects the fact that Residency programs are hospital based. The most podiatry graduates establish their prac­ first-year resident receives advanced training tices in or near one of the seven States that in podiatric medicine and surgery and serves have colleges of podatric medicine. This has clinical rotations in anesthesiology, internal left large areas of the country—particularly the medicine, pathology, radiology, emergency South, the Southwest, and nonmetropolitan medicine, and orthopedic and general surgery.  Health Diagnosing and Treating Practitioners/133  Second- and third-year residencies provide more extensive training in a specialty, usually sur­ gery. There are three recognized certifying boards: The American Board of Podiatric Surgery, the American Board of Podiatric Orthopedics, and the American Board of Podiatric Public Health. Certification means that the DPM meets higher standards than those required for licensure. Each board has specific requirements, including ad­ vanced training, successful completion of writ­ ten and oral examinations, and experience as a practicing podiatrist. Persons planning a career in podiatry should have scientific aptitude, manual dexterity, and interpersonal skills. They must be able to ac­ quire scientific knowledge and stay abreast of new developments in the field of medicine; develop the motor functions and professional skills needed for clinical practice; and develop personal rapport and empathy with patients. A good business sense and congeniality are as­ sets, as in any medical profession. Most podiatrists are in private practice, which means that they are in fact running a small business. Depending upon the size of the prac­ tice, podiatrists may handle administrative and managerial duties personally, or delegate de­ cisionmaking in these areas to an office man­ ager.  Job Outlook Employment of podiatrists is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000 as more people turn to podiatrists for foot care. Very rapid growth in the population 65 years and over is expected to spur demand for podiatrists: Older people have more severe foot problems than younger ones. Moreover, the popularity of jogging, ten­ nis, racquetball, and other fast-moving sports will spur demand in the specialty of podiatric sports medicine. Because health insurance helps people pay  for podiatric care, widespread access to health insurance will contribute to increased demand in the years ahead—provided current benefit patterns are not altered substantially. Generally speaking. Medicare and most private health insurance programs cover acute medical and surgical foot services as well as diagnostic Xrays, fracture casts, and leg braces. Routine foot care—including the removal of corns and calluses—is not ordinarily paid for by health insurance. Health maintenance organizations and other prepaid plans may provide routine foot care, however. In addition to opportunities created by rapid growth in employment, many openings will result from the need to replace podiatrists who retire or stop working for other reasons. Op­ portunities for graduates to establish new prac­ tices, as well as to enter salaried positions, should be favorable. Earnings According to a survey conducted by Podiatry Management, the median net income of po­ diatrists was about $63,000 in 1986. Newly licensed podiatrists with less than 4 years of experience earned around $35,000. Income generally rises significantly as the practice grows. Newly licensed podiatrists hired by Veterans Administration hospitals earned start­ ing salaries between $27,200 and $32,600 in 1987. Related Occupations Podiatrists work to prevent, diagnose, and treat diseases, disorders, and injuries. Workers in other occupations that require similar skills in­ clude chiropractors, dentists, optometrists, physicians, and veterinarians. Sources of Additional Information For information on podiatric medicine as a ca­ reer, contact: American Podiatric Medical Association, 9312 Old Georgetown Rd., Bethesda, MD 20814-1621.  Information on colleges of podiatric medi­ cine, entrance requirements, curriculums, and student financial aid is available from: American Association of Colleges of Podiatric Med­ icine, 6110 Executive Blvd., Suite 204, Rockville, MD 20852.  For information about financial assistance programs administered by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, write to: Division of Student Assistance, Health Resources and Services Administration, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20857.  Veterinarians (D.O.T. 073. except .361-010)  Demand for podiatrists is expected to grow very rapidly.  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Nature of the Work Veterinarians care for pets and livestock, treat sporting animals, and protect the public from exposure to animal diseases. Many enter the field because they like working with animals.  Typically, veterinarians diagnose medical problems in their animal patients, perform sur­ gery, and prescribe and administer medicines and drugs. Most veterinarians engage in private practice and treat small companion animals such as dogs, cats, and birds. Many veterinarians concentrate on larger food animals or have a mixed practice of both large and small animals. Companion animal medicine encompasses the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of pet diseases—typically found in dogs and cats. Veterinarians in this field provide these ser­ vices in animal hospitals or clinics. Food animal veterinarians specialize in the health care needs of cattle, poultry, swine, fish, and sheep. They provide preventive care by advising ranchers and farmers on the proper care and management of livestock. The type of practice varies by geographic region. Veterinarians in rural areas are more likely to work with livestock and horses than those in metropolitan centers. Since pets are found everywhere, however, very few veter­ inarians work exclusively with large animals. A number of veterinarians engage in re­ search, food safety inspection, or education. It is not generally understood that veterinarians contribute to human as well as animal health care. Veterinarians may join physicians and scientists in carrying out research at an aca­ demic medical center, for example, and ex­ plore such topics as techniques of organ trans­ plantation or the efficacy of a new drug. Some veterinarians are in regulatory medi­ cine or public health. They inspect food, in­ vestigate outbreaks of disease, and work in scientific laboratories. Veterinarians help pre­ vent the outbreak and spread of animal dis­ eases, some of which—like rabies—can be transmitted to human beings. Protection of the population from environ­ mental hazards is a major concern of the small but significant number of veterinarians who specialize in toxicology or animal pathology. Although there have been impressive successes in controlling diseases transmitted through food animals, changing technology and more com­ plex methods of food production present new threats to food safety. Residues from herbi­ cides, pesticides, and antibiotics used in food production pose a particular problem. Scien­ tific advances in livestock production have, paradoxically, created a need for veterinarians capable of dealing with contamination of the food chain by toxic chemicals. Some veterinarians teach in veterinary col­ leges, work in zoos or animal laboratories, or engage in a combination of clinical and re­ search activities.  Working Conditions Veterinarians usually treat pet animals in hos­ pitals and clinics. Those in large animal prac­ tice usually work out of well-equipped mobile clinics and drive considerable distances be­ tween farms and ranches to care for their animal patients. Through their interaction with dis­ eased animals, veterinarians can be exposed to  134/Occupational Outlook Handbook  mm  :2TlV-M  Some veterinarians specialize in the care of large farm animals. injury, disease, and infection if precautions are Training, Other Qualifications, not exercised. and Advancement Those in private practice often work long All States and the District of Columbia require hours, and food animal veterinarians may work that veterinarians be licensed. To obtain a li­ outdoors in all kinds of weather. Self-employed cense, applicants must have a Doctor of Vet­ veterinarians set their own schedules and may erinary Medicine (D.V.M. or V.M.D.) degree work nights and weekends. from an accredited college of veterinary med­ icine and pass written and, in most States, oral State board proficiency examinations. Some Employment States issue licenses without further exami­ Veterinarians held 37,000 jobs in 1986. Most nation to veterinarians already licensed by an­ were in private practice. The Federal Govern­ other State. ment employed about 2,000 veterinarians in For veterinarians seeking positions in re­ civilian jobs, chiefly in the U.S. Department search and teaching, an additional master’s or of Agriculture and the U.S. Public Health Ser­ Ph D. degree usually is required. (About onevice. Other important employers of veterinar­ fifth of all students enrolled in veterinary pro­ ians are State and local governments, inter­ grams are pursuing advanced degrees.) In­ national health agencies, colleges of veterinary creasingly, academic positions require spe­ medicine, medical schools, research labora­ cialty board certification as well. Veterinarians tories, livestock farms, animal food compa­ who seek specialty board certification in a field nies, and pharmaceutical companies. such as pathology, preventive medicine, tox­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  icology, or laboratory animal medicine must complete an approved residency program, pass the board's examination, and meet any other board requirements. The D.V.M. or V.M.D. degree requires a minimum of 6 years of college consisting of at least 2 years of preveterinary study that em­ phasizes the physical and biological sciences and a 4-year professional degree program. Most successful applicants have completed 4 years of college. In addition to rigorous academic instruction, professional training includes con­ siderable practical experience in diagnosing and treating animal diseases, performing surgery, and performing laboratory work in anatomy, biochemistry, and other scientific and medical subjects. In 1987, all 27 colleges of veterinary med­ icine in the United States were accredited by the Council on Education of the American Vet­ erinary Medical Association (AVMA). Ad­ mission to these schools is highly competitive. Although the number of applicants has de­ creased in recent years, there are more qualified applicants than the schools can accept. Serious applicants usually need grades of “B” or better, especially in science courses; and some pro­ grams require applicants to take either the Vet­ erinary Aptitude Test, Medical College Ad­ mission Test, or the Graduate Record Examination. Experience in part-time or sum­ mer jobs working with animals is advanta­ geous. Colleges usually give preference to res­ idents of the State in which the college is located, because these schools are largely State sup­ ported. In the South and West, regional edu­ cational plans permit cooperating States with­ out veterinary schools to send students to designated regional schools. In other areas, colleges that accept out-of-State students give priority to applicants from nearby States that do not have veterinary schools. Veterinary medical education is expensive. However, students in veterinary programs are often able to obtain guaranteed student loans from the Federal Government to help meet ed­ ucational expenses. The average 1986 graduate had a debt of over $23,000. A small number of veterinarians receive their training in another country. To meet State li­ censure requirements, foreign-trained veteri­ narians must fulfill the English language and clinical evaluation requirements of the Edu­ cational Commission for Foreign Veterinary Graduates. About one-third of all applicants pass this examination. Most veterinarians begin as employees or partners in established practices. Those who can afford the substantial investment needed for drugs, instruments, and other startup costs may set up their own practices. An even greater investment is needed to open an animal hospital or purchase an established practice. Newly trained veterinarians may qualify for civilian jobs with the U.S. Government as meat and poultry inspectors, disease-control work­ ers, epidemiologists, research assistants, or commissioned officers in the U.S. Public Health Service. A license usually is not required for Federal employment.  Health Diagnosing and Treating Practitioners/! 35  Job Outlook Employment of veterinarians is expected to grow much faster than the average for all oc­ cupations through the year 2000, primarily be­ cause of demand for veterinary services. Mod­ est growth in the companion and food animal populations, emphasis on scientific methods of raising and breeding livestock and poultry, and continued support for public health and disease control programs will contribute to employ­ ment demand. Many veterinarians will find jobs arising from the need to replace those who stop working. Veterinary school enrollments have grown extremely fast over the last 20 years. Although enrollment levels are expected to decline slighty through the year 2000, the number of active veterinarians could exceed demand, resulting in increased competition for jobs, lower than anticipated earnings, or difficulty securing a salaried position. New veterinary school graduates are ex­ pected to encounter keen competition as they set out to establish a clinical practice. Estab­ lishing a large animal practice will be very difficult in some places because future growth   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  in the food animal population will be unevenly distributed. Demand for food animal veteri­ narians is expected to decline in some regions. The outlook is extremely good for veteri­ narians with specialty training, which generally involves at least 2 years of formal education beyond the basic veterinary medicine degree. Demand for specialists in toxicology, labora­ tory animal medicine, and pathology is ex­ pected to remain strong, as is the demand for faculty at colleges of veterinary medicine.  Earnings Newly graduated veterinarians working in pri­ vate practices of established veterinarians typ­ ically earned $20,000 to $22,000 in 1986, ac­ cording to the American Veterinary Medical Association. After 2 to 4 years, earnings rise significantly. The average net earnings of all veterinarians in private practice were about $43,000 in 1985. Newly graduated veterinarians employed by the Federal Government started at either $22,500 or $27,200 a year in 1987 depending on their academic record. The average annual  salary of veterinarians in the Federal Govern­ ment was $41,300 in 1987. Related Occupations Veterinarians use their professional training to prevent, diagnose, and treat diseases, disor­ ders, and injuries. Workers in other occupa­ tions who require similar skills are audiolo­ gists, chiropractors, dentists, optometrists, physicians, podiatrists, and speech patholo­ gists. Other occupations that involve working with animals include zoologists, marine biol­ ogists, and naturalists. Sources of Additional Information A pamphlet entitled Today’s Veterinarian dis­ cusses career opportunities in veterinary med­ icine and lists accredited colleges of veterinary medicine. A free copy may be obtained by submitting a request, together with a self-ad­ dressed, stamped, business-size envelope, to: American Veterinary Medical Association, 930 N. Meacham Rd., Schaumburg, IL 60196.  For information on scholarships, grants, and loans, contact the financial aid officer at the veterinary schools to which you wish to apply.  Registered Nurses, Pharmacists, Dietitians, Therapists, and Physician Assistants Dietitians and Nutritionists (D.O.T. 077 except .121-010)  Nature of the Work Dietitians, sometimes called nutritionists, are professionals trained in applying the principles of nutrition to food selection and meal prep­ aration, They counsel individuals and groups; set up and supervise food service systems for institutions such as hospitals, prisons, and schools; and promote sound eating habits through education and research. Major areas of specialization include clinical and com­ munity dietetics and administration. Dietitians also work in education and research. Clinical dietitians provide nutritional ser­ vices for patients in hospitals, nursing homes, clinics, or doctors’ offices. They assess pa­ tients’ nutritional needs, develop and imple­ ment nutrition programs, and evaluate and re­ port the results. Clinical dietitians confer with doctors and nurses about each patient in order to coordinate nutritional intake with other treat­ ments—medications in particular. These di­ etitians are sometimes called therapeutic dieti­ tians, a term that draws attention to the fact that they are chiefly concerned with treating the sick. Expanding knowledge in medical science has  Dietitians teach the basics of good nutrition 136  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  led to practice specialties in dietetics. Increas­ ingly, clinical dietitians specialize in such areas as management of obese patients, care of the critically ill, renal care, and diabetes care. Those who care for critically ill patients oversee the preparation of custom-mixed, high-nutrition formulas for patients who require tube or in­ travenous feedings. Dietitians who specialize in renal dietetics treat dialysis patients and other individuals with kidney problems; those who work with diabetics are responsible for estab­ lishing long-term nutritional care programs and a system for close monitoring. Aside from assessing nutritional needs and developing a plan of treatment for individual patients, clinical dietitians may also perform administrative and managerial duties. In a nursing home or small hospital, the dietitian may run the food service department. Community dietitians counsel individuals and groups on sound nutrition practices to prevent disease and to promote good health. Employed in such places as home health agencies, health maintenance organizations, and human service agencies that provide group and home-deliv­ ered meals, their job is to evaluate individual needs, establish nutritional care plans, and communicate the principles of good nutrition in a way individuals and their families can understand. An example of this is the concept of eating something every day from each of the four basic food groups. In addition to evaluating clients, dietitians  working in a home health setting may provide informal instruction on nutrition, grocery shop­ ping, or preparation of special infant formulas. In health maintenance organizations (HMO’s), dietitians provide nutritional counseling on a range of topics, from weight control to menu planning for diabetics. The dietitian may also collaborate with other HMO staff in conducting information sessions on such subjects as al­ coholism, smoking, or hypertension. Practice opportunities for clinical and com­ munity dietitians are becoming more diverse due to increased interest in nutrition and fitness on the part of the public and the medical profes­ sion alike. This new awareness has resulted in opportunities for private practitioners in areas such as food manufacturing, advertising, and marketing. Dietitians who work for food man­ ufacturers or grocery store chains may analyze the nutritional content of foods for labeling purposes or marketing efforts. They may also prepare literature for distribution to customers, students, or other interested parties. Dietitians employed by magazines may determine the nu­ tritional content of new recipes, analyze and report on the effectiveness of new diets, or report on important topics in nutrition such as the importance of dietary fiber or the value of vitamin supplements. Administrative dietitians are responsible for large-scale meal planning and preparation in such places as hospitals, company cafeterias, prisons, schools, and colleges and universities. They supervise the planning, preparation, and service of meals; select, train, and direct food service supervisors and workers; budget for and purchase food, equipment, and supplies; en­ force sanitary and safety regulations; and pre­ pare records and reports. Increasingly, dieti­ tians use computer programs to plan meals that satisfy nutritional requirements and are eco­ nomical at the same time. Dietitians who are directors of dietetic departments also decide on departmental policy; coordinate dietetic ser­ vices with the activities of other departments; and are responsible for the dietetic department budget, which in large organizations may amount to millions of dollars annually. Research dietitians usually are employed in academic medical centers or educational in­ stitutions, although some work in community health programs. Using established research methods and analytical techniques, they con­ duct studies in areas that range from basic sci­ ence to practical applications. Research di­ etitians may examine changes in the way the body uses food over the course of a lifetime, for example, or study the interaction of drugs  Registered Nurses, Pharmacists, Dietitians, Therapists, and Physician Assistants/137  and diet. They may investigate nutritional needs of persons with particular diseases, behavior modification as it relates to diet and nutrition, or applied topics such as food service systems and equipment. Often, research dietitians col­ laborate with life scientists, physicians, nurses, biomedical engineers, and researchers from other disciplines. Working Conditions Most dietitians work 40 hours a week. Those employed in hospitals sometimes work on weekends, while those in commercial food ser­ vices tend to have irregular hours. Dietitians and nutritionists spend much of their time in clean, well-lighted, and well-ventilated areas such as research laboratories, classrooms, or offices near food preparation areas. However, they may spend time in kitchens and serving areas that are often hot and steamy and where some light lifting may be required. Dietitians and nutritionists in clinical settings may be on their feet for most of the workday. Those in­ volved in consulting spend a significant amount of time traveling. Employment Dietitians and nutritionists held about 40,000 jobs in 1986. Hospitals and nursing homes are a major source of employment in this field, accounting for just over half of all jobs in 1986. Firms that provide food services for hospital patients on a contract basis employ a small but growing number of dietitians and nutritionists. Local government programs and schools, colleges, and universities provide over 15 per­ cent of dietitian jobs. Other jobs for dietitians are found in prison systems, hotel and restau­ rant chains, and companies that provide food service for their employees. Many dietitians work as consultants, either full time or part time. In addition to serving on the staff of a hospital, for example, a di­ etitian may be a consultant for another health care facility. Nursing homes use consultants or part-time workers to provide much of their di­ etetic supervision. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A bachelor's degree with a major in foods and nutrition or institution management is the basic educational requirement for this field. This de­ gree can be earned in about 270 colleges and universities, usually in departments of home economics or food and nutrition sciences. In addition to basic educational requirements, re­ quired college courses include foods, nutrition, institution management, chemistry, microbi­ ology, and physiology. Other important courses are mathematics, statistics, computer science, psychology, sociology, and economics. To qualify for professional credentials as a Registered Dietitian, the American Dietetic Association (ADA) recommends one of the following educational paths: Completion of a 4-year coordinated undergraduate program which includes 900 to 1,000 hours of clinical experience; completion of a bachelor’s degree from an approved program plus an accredited  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  dietetic internship; completion of a bachelor’s or master’s degree from an approved program and 6 months’ approved work experience. Internships last 6 to 12 months and combine clinical experience under a qualified dietitian with some classroom work. In 1987, 103 in­ ternship programs were accredited by the ADA. Coordinated undergraduate programs enable students to complete their clinical experience requirement while obtaining their bachelor’s degree. In 1987, 65 such programs were of­ fered in colleges and universities. These pro­ grams are accredited by the ADA. Experienced dietitians may advance to as­ sistant or associate director or director of a dietetic department. Advancement to higher level positions in teaching and research re­ quires graduate education; public health nutri­ tionists usually must earn a graduate degree. Graduate study in institutional or business administration is valuable to those interested in administrative dietetics. Clinical specialization offers another path to career advancement. Specialty areas for clin­ ical dietitians include kidney disease, diabetes, cancer, heart disease, pediatrics, and gerontolgy. Persons who plan to become dietitians or nutritionists should have organizational and ad­ ministrative ability as well as scientific apti­ tude, and should be able to work well with people. Among the courses recommended for high school students interested in careers as dietitians are home economics, business, bi­ ology, health, mathematics, communications, and chemistry. Computer courses are valuable since dietitians use them for planning meals, keeping inventory, and analyzing the nutri­ tional content of proposed diets. Job Outlook Employment of dietitians is expected to grow faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000 to meet the expanding need for individual and group meals in nursing homes, hospitals, retirement and life care com­ munities, and social service programs of var­ ious kinds. Most job openings, however, will result from the need to replace experienced workers who stop working or change occu­ pations. A number of experienced dietitians and nutritionists are moving into management positions in private industry, for example. The factors that underlie anticipated rapid expansion of the health services industry— population growth and aging, emphasis on health education and promotion of prudent life­ styles, and widespread ability to pay for care through public and private health insurance— will increase demand for dietitians and nutri­ tionists. Demand is also expected to grow in commercial settings, including catering firms, restaurant chains, and medical supply firms. In addition, dietitians and nutritionists will be needed to staff community health programs, to provide nutritional counseling for employersponsored wellness and fitness programs, and to conduct research in food and nutrition. Staffing flexibility can be facilitated by using full-time and part-time staff. For this reason,  opportunities for part-time employment should remain favorable. This will be especially true in nursing homes, where dietetic services are frequently provided for only a few hours each week. Opportunities will be best for individuals with experience and for those willing to re­ locate to areas of greatest demand. Earnings Entry level salaries of dietitians in hospitals averaged $20,400 a year in 1986, according to a national survey conducted by the Univer­ sity of Texas Medical Branch. The maximum salaries for dietitians in hospitals averaged about $26,600 a year. Salaries may vary by region. The starting salary in the Federal Govern­ ment for those with a bachelor’s degree was about $14,821 in 1987. The average Federal salary for dietitians was about $29,300 in 1986. Dietitians usually receive benefits such as paid vacations, sick leave, holidays, health in­ surance, and retirement benefits. Related Occupations Dietitians and nutritionists apply the principles of nutrition in a variety of situations. Workers with duties similar to those of administrative dietitians include food and home economists and food service managers. Nurses and health educators often provide services related to those of community dietitians. Sources of Additional Information For a list of academic programs and other in­ formation about preparing for a professional career in dietetics, contact: The American Dietetic Association. 208 South LaSalle St., Chicago, IL 60604-1003.  The U.S. Office of Personnel Management, Washington, DC 20415, has information on hiring requirements for dietitians in Federal hospitals and for public health nutritionists and dietitians in the U.S. Public Health Service. The Veterans Administration (VA) employs dietitians and maintains a list of eligible ap­ plicants. Graduates interested in VA positions may obtain application forms by calling, toll free, 800-368-6008. Residents of Virginia should call 800-552-3045. Those interested in a VA career as a dietitian are encouraged to visit the personnel office of any VA medical center.  Occupational Therapists (D.O.T. 076.121-010)  Nature of the Work Occupational therapists treat people who are mentally, physically, developmentally, or emotionally disabled. They employ a variety of techniques designed to help individuals de­ velop or maintain daily living skills, and to cope with the physical and emotional effects  138/Occupational Outlook Handbook  working in the wellness and health promotion areas. Often, the practice setting determines the age level and treatment needs of a thera­ pist’s patients. In home health care, for in­ stance, a growing number of referrals involve elderly patients with conditions such as ar­ thritis, cardiac problems, and hip and other fractures. The goal of occupational therapists working in public schools differs from that of therapists in other settings. Instead of emphasizing treat­ ment and rehabilitation, as is the case in med­ ically oriented settings, the emphasis in schools is on providing handicapped children with an education. Therapists accordingly render ser­ vices designed to facilitate handicapped chil­ dren’s participation in public school programs and activities. This may involve an initial eval­ uation of a child’s ability and the implications for learning; recommending special therapeutic HH activities; consulting with parents and teachers; modifiying classroom equipment or school fa­ cilities; and developing the functional, motor, and perceptual skills necessary for learning. Computers are used to improve letter recognition. Like teachers, these occupational therapists of disability. With support and direction from These assessments are then used as a basis for work regular school hours and participate in the therapist, patients learn (or relearn) many modifying goals and therapeutic procedures. teachers' meetings and other activities. of the “ordinary” tasks that are performed every A patient suffering short-term memory loss, Occupational therapists in mental health set­ day at home, at work, at school, and in the for instance, might be encouraged to make lists tings treat individuals who are mentally ill, community. The aim is to help them establish to aid recall. One with coordination problems mentally retarded, or emotionally disturbed. a lifestyle that is as independent, productive, might be given tasks to improve eye-hand co­ Among the emotional disorders that occupa­ and satisfying as possible. ordination. tional therapists encounter are alcoholism, drug Like other health professionals, occupa­ In addition to helping patients strengthen abuse, depression, eating disorders, and stresstional therapists often work as a member of a basic motor functions and reasoning abilities, related disorders. Therapists provide individual multidisciplinary team whose members may occupational therapists help patients master and group activities which simulate real-life include a physician, nurse, physical therapist, daily living skills. Helping severely disabled experiences to help people learn to cope with psychologist, rehabilitation counselor, and so­ individuals learn to cope with seemingly or­ the daily stresses of life and to manage their cial worker. Team members evaluate the pa­ dinary tasks such as getting dressed, using a work and leisure more effectively. These ac­ tient in terms of their individual specialties and bathroom, or driving a car requires sensitivity tivities may include crafts that require planning work together to develop goals that meet the as well as skill. Patients may be newly dis­ and time management skills, budgeting, shop­ patient’s needs. During the course of treatment, abled, as in the case of an accident victim who ping, meal preparation and homemaking, self­ team meetings are held to evaluate progress has suffered spinal cord injury, or they may care, and using community resources such as and modify the treatment plan, if necessary. have been disabled since infancy by a condition public transportation and service agencies. Activities of all kinds can be used for treat­ such as cerebral palsy or muscular dystrophy. Therapists may also take steps intended to ment purposes. When working with children, Therapists provide individuals with adaptive improve a patient’s attitude and self-esteem. for example, occupational therapists often use eauipment such as wheelchairs, splints, and As is generally the case in the rehabilitation toys. For adults, therapy may include anything aids for eating and dressing. They may design professions, occupational therapists also work from activities that strengthen muscles to using and make special equipment for disabled in­ to support a patient’s quest for independence. a computer. While some treatments may give dividuals and recommend changes in the home Concrete assistance might take the form of the appearance of recreation, all have a serious or work environment to facilitate functioning. helping an accident victim regain a revoked purpose. Working in the kitchen may produce Computer-aided adaptive equipment offers driver’s license, for example, or encouraging a cake, but the skills practiced include memory, the prospect of independence to some severely a socially isolated person to relate to people in sequencing, coordination, and safety precau­ disabled persons. Occupational therapists often a more appropriate manner. tions, which are important for independent liv­ work with rehabilitation engineers to develop Besides working with patients, occupational ing at home. Woodworking or leatherworking such special equipment. Examples are micro­ therapists may supervise student therapists, oc­ may help increase strength, endurance, and processing devices that permit paraplegic and cupational therapy assistants, volunteers, and dexterity. “Word find” games can help improve quadriplegic patients to communicate while auxiliary nursing workers. The chief occupa­ visual acuity and the ability to discern patterns. confined to a wheelchair or bed, help para­ tional therapist in a hospital may teach medical Computer programs have been designed to help plegics walk, and enable quadriplegics to op­ and nursing students the principles of occu­ patients improve cognitive skills, including de­ erate telephones and television sets. As such pational therapy. Many therapists supervise oc­ cisionmaking, abstract reasoning, and problem devices move out of the research and devel­ cupational therapy departments, coordinate pa­ solving, and perceptual skills such as periph­ opment stage, occupational therapists are in­ tient activities, or are consultants to public health eral vision and discrimination of letters, colors, volved in helping patients learn to use them. departments and mental health agencies. Some and shapes. All of these treatments are de­ Occupational therapists tend to work with a teach or conduct research in colleges and uni­ signed to foster independence at home and at particular disability or age group. Approxi­ versities. work. mately 3 out of 5 therapists work principally Keeping notes is an important part of an During each therapy session, patients are with persons who have physical disabilities; occupational therapist’s job. Some of the rec­ assessed by the therapist to determine the treat­ the rest work with patients who have psycho­ ords for which an occupational therapist may ment’s effectiveness as well as the progress logical, emotional, or developmental prob­ be responsible include an initial evaluation, made toward meeting the treatment’s goals. lems. A growing number of therapists are progress notes, reports to the physician, special  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Registered Nurses, Pharmacists, Dietitians, Therapists, and Physician Assistants/139  internal staff notes, Medicare records, and dis­ charge notes. Careful and complete documen­ tation is required for reimbursement by insur­ ance companies and Medicare.  Certification is available by examination occupations through the year 2000 due to an­ through the American Occupational Therapy ticipated demand in the areas of rehabilitation Certification Board, which awards the title of and long-term care. registered occupational therapist (OTR) to The number of people who need rehabili­ qualified applicants. tative services will rise as advances in medical Working Conditions In 1986, entry level education was offered technology continue to save lives that only a in 61 bachelor’s degree programs, 9 postbac­ few years ago would have been lost—children Although occupational therapists generally work a standard 40-hour week, they may occasion­ calaureate certificate programs for students with with birth defects, for example, and accident ally have to work evenings or weekends. Their a degree other than occupational therapy, and victims, a disproportionate number of whom 14 master’s degree programs. Most programs are teenagers and young adults. Further, as the work environment varies according to the set­ ting and available facilities. In a large reha­ are full time. However, a growing number of baby-boom generation begins to move into schools are developing weekend, self-paced, bilitation center, for example, the therapist may middle age, a period of high risk of heart dis­ work in a spacious room equipped with ma­ or part-time programs. ease and stroke, demand for cardiac rehabili­ chines, handtools, and other devices that often Coursework in occupational therapy pro­ tation programs is expected to increase mark­ generate noise. In a nursing home, the therapist grams includes physical, biological, and be­ edly. Finally, substantial growth is projected may work in a kitchen when using food prep­ havioral sciences and the application of oc­ for the population 85 years of age and above, aration as therapy. In a mental hospital, ther­ cupational therapy theory and skills. These an age group that suffers a very high incidence apists may work directly with patients in the programs also require students to complete suc­ of disabling conditions. Demand for occupational therapists will be ward. Wherever they work and whatever cessfully at least a 6-month supervised clinical equipment they use, they generally have ad­ internship following the classroom component affected in the years ahead by changes in the equate lighting and ventilation. The job can be of their training. way health care is delivered and paid for. Per­ Entry to educational programs is competi­ haps the foremost consequence of current and physically tiring because therapists are on their feet much of the time. Therapists must also tive, and applicants are screened carefully. Per­ anticipated changes in the payment system is face minor hazards. For example, occupational sons considering this profession should have a redefinition of the role of the hospital. In the therapists may develop backaches as a result above-average academic performance in bi­ future, more health services will be delivered of having to lift and move patients and equip­ ology, anatomy, psychology, and other high on an outpatient basis. This will affect occu­ school science courses. In addition to the phys­ pational therapy as well as other health profes­ ment. ical sciences, high school students interested sions. Employment in a career as an occupational therapist are Occupational therapists in general hospitals Occupational therapists held more than 29,000 advised to take courses in health, art, and the will treat patients more intensively, providing jobs in 1986. The largest number of jobs were social sciences. At least one occupational ther­ more therapy sessions over a shorter period of in hospitals, including a substantial number in apy program requires applicants to observe oc­ time than in the past. In addition, therapists rehabilitation and psychiatric hospitals. Em­ cupational therapists at work before being ac­ will be less likely to see a hospital patient ployment of occupational therapists in school cepted as students. The exposure is designed through an entire course of treatment. Instead, systems rose sharply in response to require­ to prevent any misconceptions a prospective they will evaluate and prepare patients for post­ ments established by the Education for All student might have about the occupation, and hospital care by therapists in outpatient therapy Handicapped Children Act of 1975. Today, is believed to help reduce the dropout rate. In clinics, rehabilitation facilities, nursing homes, school systems and schools for handicapped choosing among applicants, many educational or home health agencies. children are the second largest employer of programs weigh heavily any previous job and As hospitals strengthen their rehabilitation occupational therapists. Other major employ­ volunteer experience in a health care setting. programs, set up new “sub-acute” units, and ers include nursing homes, community mental College students who consider transferring from expand their outpatient clinics and home health health centers, adult day care programs, out­ another academic discipline to an occupational programs, hospital-based occupational thera­ patient clinics, and residential care facilities. therapy program in their sophomore or junior pists will find themselves working in a much A small but rapidly growing number of oc­ year need superior grades because competition broader range of settings than in the past, when cupational therapists are in private practice. for entrance to programs is more intense after they dealt almost exclusively with inpatients. Some are solo practitioners, while others are the freshman year. The greatly increased emphasis on outpatient in multispecialty group practices or consulting Persons considering this career must be able and ambulatory care is expected to sustain strong firms. They typically see patients referred to to work with people of all ages, temperaments, demand for occupational therapists in hospi­ them by physicians or other health profession­ and personalities. To gain patients’ confidence, tals. it is necessary to have a warm, friendly per­ als. Some of the new hospital jobs will be part­ Private practitioners also provide occupa­ sonality that inspires both trust and respect. It time or contract positions. Use of part-time tional therapy services on a contract or con­ is also necessary to have ingenuity and imag­ workers can provide more flexibility in sched­ sultant basis. Largely because of incentives in ination in adapting activities to individual needs. uling, enabling hospitals to increase or de­ the health care financing system, much of the The potential therapist also needs to be skilled, crease staff according to fluctuations in patient occupational therapy furnished in nursing patient, and resourceful in teaching, since pa­ load. Use of contract employees also contrib­ homes, adult day care programs, and home tients often have difficult learning problems. utes to flexibility in staffing: Some organiza­ health agencies is provided by contract rather Individuals working in the growing field of tions launch new programs with contract em­ home health care must be willing and able to ployees, not only to begin operations sooner, than by staff therapists. travel and adapt to the variety of work settings but to ensure maximum flexibility as the pro­ TVaining, Other Qualifications, one experiences when providing services in the gram evolves. home. and Advancement The number of occupational therapy posi­ Preparation for this field requires a bachelor's Newly graduated occupational therapists tions in the public schools rose sharply in the degree in occupational therapy. Twenty-five generally begin as staff therapists. Advance­ 1970’s as school districts throughout the Nation States, Puerto Rico, and the District of Co­ ment is chiefly to supervisory or administrative came into compliance with Federal legislation lumbia regulate the practice of occupational positions; some therapists pursue advanced ed­ that mandates special education programs for ucation to teach or conduct research. all handicapped children. The 1975 law also therapy through licensure or trademark laws. Applicants for a license must have a degree or requires “related services” such as diagnosis certificate from an accredited educational pro­ Job Outlook and evaluation of handicapping conditions, gram and pass a national certification exami­ Employment in this occupation is expected to transportation to and from school, and support increase much faster than the average for all nation. services (including physical and occupational   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  140/Occupational Outlook Handbook  therapy) that assist handicapped students in learning self-care and independent functioning. Employment of occupational therapists and other special education personnel in the public schools appears to have peaked; little growth in the number of these jobs is expected through the year 2000. Nonetheless, replacement needs are substantial, and these will continue to pro­ vide excellent opportunities for occupational therapists prepared to work with mentally or physically disabled children. Restructuring of the health industry is ex­ pected to create additional jobs for occupa­ tional therapists in private practice. Private practitioners often work on a contract basis, and treat patients in a wide range of settings including hospitals, nursing homes, rehabili­ tation centers, adult day care programs, group homes, and in industrial settings. Recent changes in the law may accelerate the move­ ment into private practice, since occupational therapists are now permitted to bill directly for services provided to Medicare beneficiaries. Previously, occupational therapists had to sub­ mit all Medicare billings through a Medicareapproved facility such as a hospital or home health agency. The home is emerging as an increasingly important practice site, not only because of changes in the way treatment is provided in hospitals, but because of the prevalence of functional disabilities among older persons, and consumer and insurer preference for health care in home or community-based settings. The home health field is expected to experience spectacular growth, and should provide very good opportunities for occupational therapists. Job prospects in occupational therapy are expected to be excellent through the year 2000. Enrollments in occupational therapy programs have leveled off in recent years, primarily be­ cause programs are operating at capacity. Sig­ nificant growth in the number of occupational therapy students appears unlikely at present, and, barring such growth, the number of grad­ uates is projected to fall short of job openings. Employers faced with a shortage of qualified applicants might respond by raising salaries, which should increase the supply of reentrants (trained occupational therapists who are not currently engaged in practice). They might also alter staffing patterns, making greater use of occupational therapy assistants, or substituting recreational, art, music, and other expressive therapists. Earnings Beginning salaries for occupational therapists in hospitals averaged about $21,000 a year in 1986, according to a national survey conducted by the University of Texas Medical Branch. Experienced occupational therapists earned an average of about $26,000; some administrators earned as much as $39,000. In 1987, the starting salary for therapists employed by the Federal Government, most of whom worked for the Veterans Administration, was $16,521 a year. Occupational therapists in supervisory positions could earn as much as $40,500 a year. The average salary paid oc­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  cupational therapists with the Federal Govern­ ment was about $25,000 in 1986. Salaries vary by school district for occu­ pational therapists employed in public schools. Some States classify occupational therapists as teachers and pay accordingly. According to the Center for Education Statistics, elementary school teachers earned an average of $24,762 a year during the 1985-86 school year. Sec­ ondary school teachers earned an average of $26,080 a year during the same time period. Related Occupations Occupational therapists use specialized knowl­ edge to help individuals return to their normal activities and achieve maximum indepen­ dence. Other workers performing similar duties include orthotists, prosthetists, physical ther­ apists, speech-language pathologists and au­ diologists, rehabilitation counselors, recrea­ tional therapists, art therapists, music therapists, and dance therapists. Sources of Additional Information For more information on occupational therapy as a career, a list of education programs, and requirements for certification, write to: American Occupational Therapy Association, P.O. Box 1725, 1383 Piccard Dr., Rockville, MD 20850.  Pharmacists (D O T. 074.161-010 and -014)  Nature of the Work Pharmacists advise health professionals and the public on the proper selection and use of med­ icines. The special knowledge of the phar­ macist is needed because of the complexity and potential side effects of the large and growing number of pharmaceutical products on the mar­ ket. In addition to providing information, phar­ macists dispense drugs and medicines pre­ scribed by physicians, podiatrists, and dentists. Pharmacists must understand the use, com­ position, and effects of drugs and how they are tested for purity and strength. Compounding— the actual mixing of ingredients to form pow­ ders, tablets, capsules, ointments, and solu­ tions—is now only a minuscule part of a phar­ macist’s practice, since most medicines are produced by pharmaceutical companies in the dosage and form used by the patient. Pharmacists practicing in community phar­ macies may have other duties. Besides dis­ pensing medicines, these pharmacists—espe­ cially those who are small-business owners— buy and sell nonhealth-related merchandise, hire and supervise personnel, and oversee the general operation of the pharmacy. Some phar­ macists, however, practice in community phar­ macies that dispense only medicines, medical supplies, and health accessories. Increasingly, pharmacists give advice about and provide du­ rable medical equipment and home health care supplies.  Widespread use of computers in retail stores allows pharmacists to create medication pro­ files for their customers. A medication profile is a computerized record of the customer’s drug therapy. Pharmacists use these profiles to in­ sure that harmful drug interactions do not occur and to monitor patient compliance with the doctor’s instructions—by comparing how long it takes the patient to finish the drug versus the recommended daily dosage. Pharmacists in hospitals and clinics dispense medications and advise the medical staff on the selection and effects of drugs. They may make sterile solutions, buy medical supplies, teach health professions students, and perform administrative duties. They also may be in­ volved in patient education, monitoring of drug regimens, and drug use evaluation. In addition, pharmacists work as consultants to the medical team on drug therapy and patient care. In some hospitals, they make hospital rounds with phy­ sicians—talking to patients and monitoring pharmaceutical use. Their role is crucial to safe, efficient, and proper therapeutic care. Some pharmacists prepare and dispense ra­ dioactive pharmaceuticals. Called radiophar­ macists or nuclear pharmacists, they apply the principles and practices of pharmacy and ra­ diochemistry to produce radioactive drugs that are used for patient diagnosis and therapy. Working Conditions Pharmacists usually work in a clean, welllighted, and well-ventilated area that resembles a small laboratory. Shelves are lined with hundreds of different drug products. In addi­ tion, some items are refrigerated and many substances (narcotics, depressants, and stim­ ulants) are kept under lock and key. Pharma­ cists spend a lot of time on their feet. When working with potentially dangerous pharma­ ceutical products, pharmacists must take the proper safety precautions, such as wearing gloves and masks and working with special protective equipment. Because pharmacies in many communities and hospitals are open around the clock, pharmacists in those settings may have to work evenings, nights, weekends, and holidays. Employment Pharmacists held 151,000 jobs in 1986. About 1 in 10 was self-employed. All of the others held salaried positions. The majority of phar­ macists practice in community pharmacies, which can be independently owned, part of a national drug store chain, or even part of a grocery or department store (see chart). Hospitals are the second largest employer of pharmacists. Health maintenance organiza­ tions (HMO’s), home health agencies, and clinics provide a relatively small but rapidly growing number of jobs. Pharmacy services in nursing homes generally are provided on a con­ sultant or contract basis rather than by staff pharmacists. Pharmacists employed by the Federal Gov­ ernment work chiefly in hospitals and clinics of the Veterans Administration and the U.S. Public Health Service. State and local health  Registered Nurses, Pharmacists, Dietitians, Therapists, and Physician Assistants/141  departments, pharmaceutical manufacturers, and professional associations also employ pharmacists. Some pharmacists hold more than one job. They may work a standard week in their pri­ mary work setting and work several hours a week in a secondary setting, as a consultant to a nursing home or clinic, for example. Although most rural areas and small towns have at least one pharmacy, most pharmacists practice in or near cities that have the largest populations. All States require a licensed phar­ macist to be in attendance during pharmacy hours. Self-employed pharmacists usually work more hours per week than those in salaried positions because of the additional responsi­ bility of managing a business. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement A license to practice pharmacy is required in all States, the District of Columbia, and U.S. territories. To obtain a license, one must grad­ uate from an accredited pharmacy program (a few States allow graduation rrom certain for­ eign pharmacy programs), pass a State board pvaminalirm  hp flypr 91 ,  demonstrate good  cEaracter, and—in all States—have a specified amount of practical experience or serve an in­ ternship under the supervision of a licensed pharmacist. Internships generally are served in a community or hospital pharmacy. In 1987, all States except California and Florida granted a license without reexamination to qualified pharmacists already licensed by another State. Many pharmacists are licensed to practice in more than one State. Many States require con­ tinuing education for license renewal. At least 5 years of study beyond high school are required to graduate from programs ac­ credited by the American Council on Phar­ maceutical Education in the 72 colleges of pharmacy. Five years are needed to obtain a Bachelor of Science (B.S.) or a Bachelor of Pharmacy (B.Pharm.) degree, the degrees re­ ceived by most graduates. A Doctor of Phar­ macy (Pharm.D.) degree normally requires 6 years, during which an intervening baccalau­ reate degree is not awarded. Students who al­ ready hold the baccalaureate degree may be admitted to Pharm.D. programs, but the com­ bined period of study is usually longer than 6 years. Most pharmacy schools offer the bac­ calaureate degree, and over one-third also offer the professional doctorate degree; eight schools offer only the latter. The Pharm.D. degree as well as the B.S. and B.Pharm. degrees may serve as the entry degree for licensure as a pharmacist. Admission requirements vary. A few col­ leges admit students directly from high school. Most colleges of pharmacy, however, require entrants to have completed 1 or 2 years of prepharmacy education in an accredited junior college, college, or university. A prepharmacy curriculum usually emphasizes mathematics and basic sciences, such as chemistry, biology, and physics, but also includes courses in the hu­ manities, social sciences, and business admin https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  M -i  Hospital pharmacy is a major practice specialty. istration. Because entry requirements vary among colleges of pharmacy, prepharmacy students should acquaint themselves with the requirements of the school they wish to attend. The bachelor’s degree in pharmacy is the minimum educational qualification for most positions in the profession. An increasing number of students are enrolled in advanced professional programs leading to the Pharm.D. de­  | gree. The Pharm.D. degree, which may be t either an entry level or graduate one, is in­ c creasingly important for clinical pharmacy \ work. A master’s orPh.D. degree in pharmacy < a related field usually is required for re­ or s search. and a Pharm.D.. master’s, or Ph.D. t usually is necessary for administrative or fac­ i ulty positions. Fifty-five colleges of pharmacy offer the  Most pharmacists work in drug stores or community pharmacies. Percent employed by work setting, 1985  Hospitals  Drug stores and community pharmacies  Source: National Association of Boards of Pharmacy  —I Other  142/Occupational Outlook Handbook  Master of Science degree and 48 offer the Ph.D. degree. Although a number of pharmacy grad­ uates interested in further training pursue an advanced degree in pharmacy, there are other options. Some enter I-or 2-year residency pro­ grams or fellowships. A pharmacy residency is an organized, directed, postgraduate training program in a defined area of pharmacy practice. A pharmacy fellowship is a directed, highly individualized program designed to prepare the participant to become an independent re­ searcher. Areas of special study include pharmaceutics and pharmaceutical chemistry (physical and chemical properties of drugs and dosage forms), pharmacology (effects of drugs on the body), pharmacognosy (drugs derived from plant or animal sources), hospital pharmacy, and phar­ macy administration. Courses in pharmacy administration are particularly helpful to phar­ macists in developing the skills needed to man­ age a community or institutional pharmacy. All colleges of pharmacy offer courses in pharmacy practice, designed to teach students the skills involved in compounding and dis­ pensing prescriptions, and to strengthen their understanding of professional ethics and re­ sponsibilities. In many cases, professional training increasingly emphasizes direct patient care as well as consultative services to other health professionals. Colleges of pharmacy also instruct students in the use of computers in the pharmacy. Com­ puters are used to create patient medication profiles, to file and record prescriptions, and for inventory control, billing, and other ad­ ministrative tasks. Pharmaceutical manufacturers, chain drug stores, State and national pharmacy associa­ tions, colleges of pharmacy, and other organ­ izations award scholarships annually to stu­ dents studying full time toward a degree in pharmacy. Prospective pharmacists should be orderly and accurate and have the ability to gain the confidence of clients and patients. Pharmacists often begin as employees in community pharmacies. After they gain ex­ perience and secure the necessary capital, they may become owners or part owners of phar­ macies. A pharmacist with experience in a chain drug store may advance to a managerial po­ sition, and later to a higher executive position within the company. Hospital pharmacists who have the necessary training and experience may advance to director of pharmacy service or to other administrative positions. Pharmacists in industry often have opportunities for advance­ ment in management, sales, research, quality control, advertising, production, packaging, and other areas. Some individuals put their pharmaceutical training to work in related fields. Experienced pharmacists may be hired as sales or service representatives by pharmaceutical manufac­ turers and wholesalers. They sell to community pharmacies and hospitals and inform physi­ cians about new drugs. Other pharmacists teach in colleges of pharmacy, supervise the man­ ufacture of pharmaceuticals, or are involved in  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  research and development. Pharmacists also edit or write technical articles for pharma­ ceutical journals. Some combine pharmaceut­ ical and legal training in jobs as patent lawyers or consultants on pharmaceutical and drug laws.  who leave the profession. In pharmacy, this generally means retirement, for pharmacists— like physicians and dentists—tend to remain in the field until they retire. Relatively few transfer to other lines of work.  Job Outlook Earnings Employment of pharmacists is expected to grow Salaries of pharmacists are influenced by the as fast as the average for all occupations through location, size, and type of employer; the ed­ the year 2000, largely due to the increased ucation and professional attributes of the phar­ pharmaceutical needs of a larger and older pop­ macist; and the duties and responsibilities of ulation. the position. Median annual earnings of full­ The increased number of middle-aged and time, salaried pharmacists were about $31,600 older people will spur demand in all practice in 1986; the middle 50 percent earned between settings. Projected rapid growth in the elderly $25,000 and $37,200. Ten percent earned less population is especially important since the than $19,100 and 10 percent, more than number of prescriptions influences demand for $41,500. pharmacists, and people over the age of 65 use Pharmacists working in chain drug stores twice as many prescription drugs, on the av­ had an average base salary of $32,200 per year, erage, as younger people. while pharmacists working in independent drug Other factors likely to increase demand for stores averaged $28,200, according to a survey pharmacists through the year 2000 include the by Drug Topics magazine. In general, the high­ likelihood of scientific advances that will make est salaries were paid on the West Coast. more drug products available for the preven­ The average starting salary for pharmacists tion, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases; new working in hospitals, medical schools, and developments in administering medication, such medical centers was about $26,700 a year in as skin patches and implantable pumps; well1986, according to a national survey by the informed consumers, increasingly sophisti­ University of Texas Medical Branch; experi­ cated about health care and avid for detailed enced pharmacists in these workplaces aver­ information about drugs and their conse­ aged about $36,100 a year. Pharmacists who quences; and improved health insurance cov­ do consulting work in addition to their primary erage for prescription drugs. job may have total earnings considerably higher Demand for pharmacists will be especially than this. Experienced pharmacists, particu­ strong in community pharmacies. Pharmacist larly owners or managers of pharmacies, often employment will increase with the expansion earn considerably more. of pharmacy services into nontraditional set­ The minimum entrance salary in the Federal tings such as grocery stores and department Government for a new graduate with a bach­ stores. At the same time, the number of tra­ elor’s degree from an approved pharmacy de­ ditional drug stores should continue to grow. gree program was about $22,500 a year in Employers in retail settings such as these prefer 1987. However, many graduates qualified for graduates of entry level degree programs in a beginning salary of $27,200 a year. Phar­ pharmacy. macists with additional years of experience may The number of pharmacists in hospitals is start at a higher salary. The average salary for expected to grow despite pressure from third- all federally employed pharmacists was about party payers to curtail hospital industry growth. $30,100 in 1987. The increased severity of the typical hospital According to a survey conducted by the patient’s illness, together with rapid strides in American Association of Colleges of Phar­ drug therapy, is likely to heighten demand for macy, average annual salaries of full-time fac­ clinical pharmacists in hospitals, HMO’s, and ulty in colleges of pharmacy during 1987 were other health care settings. as follows: Full professors, $57,900; associate Another factor pointing to solid job growth professors, $43,700; and assistant professors, for hospital pharmacists is the cost control ef­ $35,900. fort: Increasingly, pharmacists are being as­ signed to scrutinize the cost-effectiveness of Related Occupations pharmaceutical products. Employment pros­ Pharmacists dispense the prescription orders of pects will be especially good for applicants who physicians, dentists, and other health practi­ have a doctorate or who have completed re­ tioners and are responsible for selecting, com­ sidency training programs. pounding, dispensing, and preserving drugs and The job outlook for pharmacists is expected medicines. Workers in other professions re­ to be excellent. If current supply-demand trends quiring similar educational training and who persist, shortages are likely in some commu­ work with pharmaceutical compounds or per­ nities and practice settings. Shortages may de­ form related duties include scientists, phar­ velop in States with large concentrations of the maceutical chemists, and pharmacologists. elderly, for example. Employers unable to of­ fer competitive salaries—hospitals and Vet­ Sources of Additional Information erans Administration medical centers, in par­ Additional information on pharmacy as a ca­ ticular—may experience continued difficulty reer, preprofessional and professional require­ attracting and retaining clinical pharmacists. ments. programs offered by all the colleges of As in other occupations, most job openings pharmacy, and student financial aid is available will result from the need to replace pharmacists from:  Registered Nurses, Pharmacists, Dietitians, Therapists, and Physician Assistants/143 American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, 1426 Prince St., Alexandria, VA 22314.  General information on independent retail pharmacies is available from: National Association of Retail Druggists, 205 Daingerfield Road, Alexandria, VA 22314.  General information on the chain drug store industry is available from: National Association of Chain Drug Stores, Inc., 413 N. Lee St., P.O. Box 1417-D49, Alexandria, VA 22313.  Information about hospital pharmacy can be obtained from: American Society of Hospital Pharmacists, 4630 Montgomery Ave., Bethesda, MD 20814.  For a list of accredited colleges of pharmacy, contact: American Council on Pharmaceutical Education, 311 West Superior St., Chicago, IL 60610.  Information on requirements for licensure in a particular State is available from the Board of Pharmacy of the State or from: National Association of Boards of Pharmacy, O'Hare Corporate Center, 1300 Higgins Rd., Suite 103, Park Ridge, IL 60068.  Information on specific college entrance re­ quirements, curriculums, and financial aid is available from the dean of any college of phar­ macy.  Physical Therapists (D.O.T. 076.121-014)  Nature of the Work Physical therapists plan, organize, and admin­ ister treatment in order to restore functional mobility, relieve pain, and prevent or limit permanent disability for those suffering from a disabling injury or disease. Their patients may include accident or stroke victims and handicapped individuals. Among the condi­ tions likely to require treatment by a physical therapist are multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, nerve injuries, amputations, fractures, arthri­ tis, and heart disease, with patients varying in age from the newborn to the elderly. Therapists may treat patients with a wide variety of problems, or they may specialize. Specialty areas include pediatrics, geriatrics, orthopedics, sports medicine, neurology, and cardiopulmonary physical therapy. Since treatments may be prolonged, the full cooperation of the patient is very important. As a first step, therefore, a physical therapist must become familiar with a patient’s personal background as well as medical history, and make an effort to gain the patient’s trust and confidence. The quality of the therapist-patient relationship can make a big difference in the effectiveness of the treatment. Next, the physical therapist conducts an evaluation. Tests are performed and measure­ ments taken in order to determine a patient’s strengths, weaknesses, and ability to function. The exact nature of an evaluation, and the time  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  required to conduct one, depend upon the type and severity of the injury or impairment. For instance, football players with knee injuries usually require less evaluation time than au­ tomobile accident victims suffering from a va­ riety of injuries such as broken bones and head injuries. After reviewing the patient’s medical rec­ ords and completing the evaluation, the ther­ apist interprets the findings and develops a treatment plan, a process that requires a high level of clinical problem-solving skills. The goal is to help patients attain maximum func­ tional independence, muscle strength, and physical skills, while helping them adapt to what may be a drastic change in their physical abilities. In some settings, the treatment plan is de­ veloped on a team basis, with physicians, nurses, occupational therapists, or speech pa­ thologists contributing ideas from the perspec­ tive of their own discipline. Like other reha­ bilitation personnel, physical therapists are educated and trained to work as a member of a multidisciplinary team, and to participate ef­ fectively in team meetings where patient care plans are reviewed and services coordinated. Initial treatment may be nothing more than helping a bedridden patient become used to being in an upright position. Such patients of­ ten lose strength and flexibility in their limbs and trunk. A physical therapist may use a spe­ cial tilt-table to help rebuild leg strength by slowly raising a patient from a horizontal to a vertical position. Passive exercise is another technique that therapists use. Patients who have been immobile for long periods of time often become stiff in the joints, losing flexibility in muscles, connective tissues, and tendons. To regain flexibility, the patient relaxes while the therapist stretches and manipulates the pa­ tient’s extremities, according to the patient’s tolerance. Another portion of the treatment may include the application of heat, electricity, or ultrasound to relieve pain or improve the con­ dition of muscles or related tissues. Cold, light, and water may be used in other treatments, including the reduction of swelling and the treatment of bum patients. The therapist may introduce additional ther­ apeutic techniques designed to improve flexi­ bility, strength, endurance, and coordination. These may include resistance exercises with weights to stengthcn particular body parts, or gymnastic exercises designed to improve bal­ ance and coordination. For patients who may have suffered some permanent disability, the therapist may give instruction in the use of assistive devices and training on how to per­ form daily activities. To perform these duties, therapists must have detailed knowledge of hu­ man anatomy and physiology and know what steps to take in treating the effects of disease and injury. Therapists need to be sensitive and supportive as well as technically proficient since their patients, particularly those who are newly disabled, are likely to experience emotional as well as physical stress. Physical therapy can be more effective and progress faster if there is a coordinated effort  between the therapist, the patient, and the fam­ ily to establish and implement specific goals and a clearly understood treatment plan. This may require instruction on how to conduct pre­ scribed therapies at home. Patients and families may need specific training such as in the tech­ niques of muscle contraction and relaxation or in the care and use of braces or prosthetic ap­ pliances. As treatment progresses, physical therapists monitor and assess their patients in order to identify problems and evaluate progress. Pe­ riodic evaluations help the therapist to decide whether to continue, modify, or end a course of treatment. Physical therapists may provide the treatment personally or supervise the work of another therapist or a physical therapist as­ sistant. All physical therapists keep a variety of notes and records, including initial evaluations, daily progress notes, physician reports, internal staff notes, interdisciplinary conference notes, and discharge notes. Documentation must be main­ tained to track the patient’s progress and to identify areas requiring more or less attention in subsequent visits. Records are also kept for legal purposes; physical therapists are legally responsible for their actions whenever they evaluate a patient, plan a physical therapy pro­ gram, and carry it out. Finally, accurate records are needed for reimbursement purposes to jus­ tify the cost of each treatment billed. Working Conditions The working environment of physical thera­ pists varies from specially equipped physical therapy departments of hospitals or clinics to private homes where furniture may need to be moved to provide room for treatment. Thus, a physical therapist must be adaptable. Evening and weekend hours may be re­ quired, especially for those in private practice who must be available at times convenient for their patients. The job can be physically de­ manding. Duties may require the therapist to stoop, kneel, crouch, and stand for long periods of time. In addition, therapists must move equipment and help patients turn, stand, or walk. Physical therapy can be emotionally de­ manding, and the frustration that can result from seeing little or no improvement over time can contribute to stress. Employment Physical therapists held about 61,000 jobs in 1986; some jobs were part time. Hospitals were the largest single employer of physical therapists, providing more than a third of all jobs in 1986. Many other jobs in this field are in rehabilitation facilities, home health agencies, and nursing homes. These may be either salaried staff or contract positions. Therapists also work in residential facilities for handicapped children, school systems, clinics, health maintenance organizations, and physi­ cians’ offices. A substantial number of physical therapists are in private practice. (See chart.) Whether in solo practice, group practice, or associated with a consulting group, private practitioners  144/Occupational Outlook Handbook  ,,  *40* it  Physical therapy helps restore motor function, relieve pain, and limit disabilities. normally treat patients referred to them by phy­ sicians. (In 12 States, physical therapists treat patients who come directly to them without a physician referral.) Private practitioners also provide physical therapy services on a contract or consultant basis to institutions or organi­ zations such as nursing homes, home health agencies, adult day care programs, public schools, and hospitals. Some therapists teach, conduct research, or serve as consultants. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement All States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico require a li­ cense to practice physical therapy. Applicants must have a degree or certificate from an ac­ credited physical therapy educational program prior to taking the licensure examination. Three different types of programs provide  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  educational preparation for entry level jobs in this field: Baccalaureate degree programs in physical therapy; certificate (or second bac­ calaureate degree) programs for those who al­ ready hold a baccalaureate degree in another field, such as biology; and entry level master’s degree programs in physical therapy. In 1986, entry level training was offered in 94 bachelor’s degree programs, 6 certificate programs, and 13 master’s degree programs. One of the master’s degree programs is spon­ sored jointly by the U.S. Army and Baylor University; graduates are commissioned as of­ ficers in the Army. Currently, the minimum educational re­ quirement for entry into the profession is a bachelor’s degree. For a number of reasons, however, pressure is increasing to lengthen the educational process. Chief among these is the rapidly expanding body of knowledge which has enabled physical therapists to provide a  wider variety of therapy and rehabilitation ser­ vices. In addition, the expansion of services into home and community-based settings calls for additional training on how to treat patients in other than the traditional settings. For these reasons, many schools are expected to upgrade their entry level educational requirements from the baccalaureate to the master’s degree level. The physical therapy curriculum includes science courses such as anatomy, physiology, neuroanatomy, and neurophysiology; it also includes specialized courses such as biome­ chanics, human growth and development, manifestations of disease and trauma, and spe­ cific therapeutic procedures. Besides class­ room instruction, students receive supervised clinical experience in hospitals and other treat­ ment centers. Competition for entry to physical therapy programs is keen. Consequently, students in­ terested in enrolling in a physical therapy pro­ gram must attain superior grades in high school, especially in science courses. High school courses that are useful include health, biology, chemistry, social science, mathematics, and physics. Individuals who want to determine whether they have the personal qualities needed for this occupation are advised to volunteer for summer or part-time work in the physical ther­ apy department of a hospital or clinic. Indeed, such experience is required for admission to most education programs. Personal traits that physical therapists need include patience, tact, persuasiveness, re­ sourcefulness, and emotional stability to help patients and their families understand the treat­ ments and adjust to their handicaps. Physical therapists also should have manual dexterity and physical stamina. Graduate education is available for individ­ uals wishing to specialize in an area like the popular field of sports physical therapy. A graduate degree combined with clinical ex­ perience increases opportunities for advance­ ment, especially to teaching, research, and ad­ ministrative positions. Practicing physical therapists should expect to participate in additional education from time to time throughout their careers. Continuing education courses, workshops, and symposia are offered by professional associations, pri­ vate consultants, and colleges and universities. Occasional attendance at such sessions is cus­ tomary in physical therapy, as in the health professions in general. Continuing education is required by law to maintain licensure in Del­ aware, Georgia, Iowa, Kansas, Nevada, New Mexico, and Puerto Rico. Requirements vary by State. Job Outlook Employment of physical therapists is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000 in response to the rapidly growing need for rehabilitation and long-term care services. Advances in re­ habilitation medicine and therapeutic tech­ niques are likely to create additional demand. Other openings will result from replacement needs.  Registered Nurses, Pharmacists, Dietitians, Therapists, and Physician Assistants/145  Most new positions for physical therapists will result from the expansion of services for people with physical disabilities—a highly di­ verse group. It includes the elderly, whose number will rise sharply by the year 2000. Especially rapid growth is projected for the population age 85 and above, a group that suf­ fers a high incidence of disabling conditions such as arthritis or stroke. Also, some surgical procedures are more common among elderly patients. Anticipated increases in hip replace­ ments, knee replacements, and other surgical procedures used to treat diseased or arthritic joints, as well as other conditions, will heighten demand for postoperative physical therapy. As the baby-boom generation moves into middle age, a period of increased risk of heart disease and stroke, demand for cardiac reha­ bilitation programs is expected to rise sharply. Younger persons, too, will need physical ther­ apy. Advances in medical technology have saved lives that only a few years ago would have been lost: Children with severe birth de­ fects, for example, and car accident victims, a disproportionate number of whom are teen­ agers and young adults. Future biomedical de­ velopments are certain to permit even more people to survive traumas that in the past would have been fatal, thereby creating a need for rehabilitative care. Other factors likely to spur demand for phys­ ical therapy services include the growing im­ portance of sports medicine and widespread interest in health promotion. As more people engage in regular exercise programs, the num­ ber of injuries that require physical therapy treatment will grow as well. Industrial health programs are also growing in popularity. Var­ ious industries are employing physical thera­ pists to perform worksite evaluations, develop exercise programs, and teach safe work habits in hopes of reducing injuries in the workplace. Demand for physical therapists will be af­ fected in the years ahead by changes in the way health care is delivered and paid for. Per­ haps the foremost consequence of the new fi­ nancial environment is a redefinition of the role of the hospital. In an attempt to cut costs, hospitals are expanding outpatient services and reducing the length of inpatient hospital stays. As a result, services such as diagnostic work­ ups that formerly were provided in the course of a hospital stay are now provided on an out­ patient basis. Increasingly, patients will be hospitalized only for the most serious portion of an illness, a period when they will need intensive care. Physical therapists will be less likely than in the past to see a hospital patient through the entire course of treatment. Instead, they will refer patients for further care by physical ther­ apists in nursing homes, home health agencies, and outpatient rehabilitation facilities. As a means of capturing a share of the rapidly grow­ ing outpatient market, hospitals are expected to develop or expand their own outpatient re­ habilitation programs. The anticipated growth of hospital-based outpatient services is expected to cause hos­ pitals to remain a major employer of physical  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Physical therapists practice in a variety of settings. Percent employed by work setting, 1986  Private practice Hospitals  Nursing homes and home health agencies  Other Physicians’ offices Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics  therapists. Turnover will create many addi­ tional openings for hospital-based physical therapists as experienced therapists transfer to other practice settings or leave the profession altogether. Restructuring of the health industry, together with a continuation of favorable third-party reimbursement policies, will contribute to very rapid growth in the number of physical ther­ apists in private practice. Also expected to spur growth in the number of private practitioners is the practice of relying on contract personnel to provide therapeutic and rehabilitation ser­ vices in nursing homes and home health agen­ cies. Home health is an increasingly important area of practice, not only because of changes in the way treatment is provided in hospitals, but because of the prevalence of functional disabilities among older persons, and consumer preference for health care in home or com­ munity-based settings. The home health field is expected to experience spectacular growth by the year 2000, and should provide very good opportunities for physical therapists. Job prospects in physical therapy should continue to be excellent through the year 2000. New graduates are in great demand, and the number of people completing training pro­ grams is expected to fall short of that needed to fill job openings. Total enrollments in ac­ credited physical therapy programs have re­ mained relatively stable in recent years. If the number of graduates remains at current levels while demand for rehabilitation services con­ tinues to grow, prospects for jobseekers may become even more favorable than they are to­ day. Earnings Starting salaries in hospitals for new physical therapy graduates averaged about $22,000 a year in 1986, according to a national survey conducted by the University of Texas Medical Branch. In 1987, beginning therapists employed by  Schools  the Federal Government earned starting sala­ ries of $18,359 a year, while supervisory ther­ apists earned about $38,700. The average Fed­ eral salary paid therapists was about $26,400 annually in 1986. Related Occupations Physical therapists are concerned with the treatment and rehabilitation of persons with physical or mental disabilities or disorders. They may use general or specialized exercises, mas­ sage, heat, water, electricity, and various ther­ apeutic devices to help their patients gain in­ dependence. Others who do similar work include occupational therapists, speech-lan­ guage pathologists and audiologists, orthotists, prosthetists, respiratory therapists, chiroprac­ tors, and athletic trainers. Sources of Additional Information Additional information on a career as a physical therapist and a list of accredited educational programs in physical therapy are available from: American Physical Therapy Association, 1111 North Fairfax St., Alexandria, VA 22314.  Physician Assistants (D.O.T. 079.364-018)  Nature of the Work The occupation of physician assistant (PA) came into being during the mid-1960’s in response to a shortage of primary care physicians. PA's are trained to perform many of the essential but time-consuming tasks involved in patient care. They interview patients, take medical his­ tories, perform physical examinations, order laboratory tests, make tentative diagnoses, and prescribe appropriate treatments. Studies show they have the ability to care for over half of those who visit a primary care practitioner’s office in any one day. PA’s always work under the supervision of a licensed physician. Alter-  146/Occupational Outlook Handbook  Physician assistants work in a variety of settings. Distribution of employment, 1986  Hospitals  Physicians’ offices  Other f  1 Clinics  SOURCE: Association of Physician Assistant Programs  native titles sometimes used are MEDEX, sur­ geon’s assistant, child health associate, and physician associate. PA' s assist physicians in a variety of practice settings and specialty areas. The most impor­ tant practice settings are physicians’ offices, hospitals, and clinics. Leading specialties us­ ing PA’s arc family practice, internal medicine, general surgery, emergency medicine, pedi­ atrics, and orthopedic surgery. Working Conditions Although PA’s generally work in a comfort­ able, well-lighted environment, they must of­ ten stand for long periods and do considerable walking. The workweek and schedule vary according to practice setting. A few emergency room PA’s work 24-hour shifts twice weekly, and others work three 12-hour shifts each week. The workweek of PA’s who work in physi­ cians’ offices may include weekends, night hours, or early morning hospital rounds to visit patients. PA’s' in clinics usually work a 5-day, 44-hour week. Employment Physician assistants held about 26,000 jobs in 1986. PA’s most commonly work in officebased medical practices or in hospitals. A small but growing number work for health mainte­ nance organizations (HMO’s), public health clinics, and institutions such as prisons, re­ habilitation centers, nursing homes, and facil­ ities for the mentally retarded or disabled. Despite efforts to encourage physicians to practice where they are needed most, many rural areas and inner cities remain underserved. An estimated 40 percent of all PA’s provide health care to communities having less than 50,000 residents and where physicians may be in limited supply. Although most PA’s in medically under­ served areas are associated with physicians in private practice, some work in clinics, where a physician may be available just 1 or 2 days  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  each week. For the rest of the week, a PA working with one or more nurses, technicians, or medical assistants provides all health care services. PA’s in these remote clinics fre­ quently consult with the supervising physician by phone. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement In the early years of the occupation, informal training was not uncommon, but today, almost all States require that new PA’s complete an accredited, formal education program. Ap­ proximately 20,000 PA’s had completed such training by 1986. Currently, 51 educational programs for primary care physician assistants, including three programs for surgeon assis­ tants, are accredited by the Committee on Al­ lied Health Education and Accreditation (CAHEA) of the American Medical Association. Admission requirements vary, but 2 years of coursework at the college level in the arts and sciences or in one of the health professions is usually the minimum. About half of all ap­ plicants hold a bachelor’s or master’s degree. A background that includes “hands on” health care experience is almost essential for entry to these highly competitive programs. Most pro­ grams require applicants to have experience working directly with patients. Jobs that pro­ vide the requisite clinical experience range from nursing aide to medical technologist. The type of job is not particularly important; what counts is a background in direct patient contact. Educational programs are generally 2 years in length, although some are longer and a few are shorter. Most PA programs are located in medical schools, schools of allied health, or 4-year colleges; a few are sponsored by com­ munity colleges or are hospital based. Re­ gardless of the institutional sponsorship, most accredited PA programs have clinical teaching affiliations with academic health centers. PA education begins with a classroom or didactic phase that lasts 6 to 24 months. Class­ room instruction includes biochemistry, nutri­  tion, human anatomy, pathophysiology, mi­ crobiology, clinical pharmacology, clinical medicine, geriatric and home health care, bio­ psychosocial issues, disease prevention, and medical ethics. During the final 9 to 15 months of PA training, students obtain supervised ex­ perience in clinical practice which develops their entry level practitioners’ skills. Clinical training consists of a series of rotations of 6 to 8 weeks. These rotations include but are not limited to family practice, inpatient and am­ bulatory medicine, general surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, emergency medicine, internal medicine, ambulatory psychiatry, and pediat­ rics. Sometimes, one or more of the rotations are served under the “preceptorship” or su­ pervision of a physician who is seeking to hire a PA. This learning experience often leads to a permanent position. The number of PA programs that award a bachelor’s degree has been growing, and cur­ rently about two-thirds of the programs do so. The remaining programs offer a certificate and/ or an associate degree, or a master’s degree. MEDEX programs, which last about 18 months, are slightly shorter than other PA pro­ grams. MEDEX programs are designed for people who have had extensive patient-care experience, usually as medical corpsmen or registered nurses. This background allows for a shorter period of classroom training and in­ creased emphasis on clinical experience. MEDEX students usually gain most of their supervised clinical experience working with the physician who will hire them upon grad­ uation. Postgraduate education for PA’s, termed “PA residency training,” has developed since the mid-1970’s. Residency programs, as yet un­ accredited, are available in emergency medi­ cine, general surgery, critical care medicine, and neonatology. State laws and regulations govern the use of the title “physician assistant” and the scope of PA practice in all but a few States. Most States require that PA’s graduate from an AMA-accredited educational program. Currently, 38 States require that PA’s receive certification from the National Commission on Certification of Physician Assistants. This credential attests to clinical knowledge and basic competency; in 1986, about 17,000 PA’s had passed the written examination necessary to gain certifi­ cation. The PA’s scope of practice—the .duties he or she may perform—is determined in some States by the supervising physician and in oth­ ers by the State’s regulatory agency. There is some variation in State practice laws and reg­ ulations; therefore aspiring PA’s should care­ fully investigate the laws and regulations of the State Board of Medical Examiners or other agency in the States where they wish to prac­ tice. Individuals planning a career as a physician assistant should be conscientious and willing to study a great deal throughout their career to keep up with medical advances. They should exhibit leadership, self-confidence, and emo­ tional stability. A pleasant personality, pati-  Registered Nurses, Pharmacists, Dietitians, Therapists, and Physician Assistants/147  Physician assistants practice in a variety of settings. ence, and the ability to deal with all kinds of people are essential. Formal lines of advancement are evolving within this young profession. Some hospitals have created head PA positions. However, by the very nature of the profession, individual PA’s are supervised by physicians. Since a supervising physician shares responsibility for the quality of care rendered by the PA, this relationship must be a close one. Some PA’s pursue additional education to practice in a specialty area such as surgery, neonatology, or emergency medicine. Oth­ ers—as they attain greater clinical knowledge and experience—advance to added responsi­ bilities and higher earnings, although earnings generally level off within 7 or 8 years after graduation. Job Outlook Employment of PA’s is expected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000 due to anticipated ex­ pansion of the health services industry and greater reliance on PA’s to provide primary care and assist with complex medical and sur­ gical procedures. Prospects for newly trained PA’s appear excellent since demand is ex­ pected to outstrip supply. The occupation has already experienced tre­ mendous growth, considering that the number of PA’s was fewer than 100 in 1970. Public acceptance of PA’s, the high quality of PA services, and cost savings due to physicians’ delegation of routine tasks have all contributed to employment growth. However, past growth also reflects an expansion of the PA’s role: in the early years of the profession, physician assistants worked mostly in offices of family practitioners, but today they are found in in­ stitutional settings as well—not only in hos­ pitals and academic medical centers, but also in rural health clinics and prisons. Future changes in the health care sector also  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  augur well for PA employment. The greatly increased importance of HMO’s and group medical practices, for example, should lead to more jobs since PA’s are used in these settings. Employment opportunities may be enhanced by a recent change in Medicare coverage: phy­ sicians are now permitted to bill Medicare for services provided by their PA’s to hospital and nursing home patients. This change is expected to foster use of PA’s by office-based physi­ cians. In hospitals, too, employment of PA’s is expected to grow. Hospitals employ PA's to assist at surgery, perform diagnostic proce­ dures and comprehensive patient assessments, and aid in clinical research. In some areas, PA’s function as housestaff in place of medical residents. For a number of years, use of PA’s has been constrained by barriers to reimbursement by third-party payers, State laws restricting the kind of services they may perform, and un­ willingness on the part of many physicians to alter customary practice patterns. The situation has changed a great deal, although State laws regulating PA practice remain a constraint. Reimbursement barriers have begun to come down, however, and physicians’ attitudes have become more supportive. In many States, PA’s have the authority to make clinical decisions regarding treatment without the immediate supervision of a phy­ sician. In a few States, they are allowed to practice only where a licensed physician is present. Currently, 19 States allow PA’s to prescribe drugs, although some States prohibit PA’s from writing prescriptions altogether. Furthermore, laws regarding PA practice are under review in some States, where proposals to expand their scope of practice have aroused the opposition of other health providers. Earnings In 1986, physician assistants starting work in hospitals and medical centers averaged about $23,400, according to a national survey con­ ducted by the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston. The middle 50 percent started at $21,000 to $25,000 a year. The average salary of PA’s in all settings was about $27,500 in 1987. PA’s in HMO’s, hospitals, and physicians’ offices earn slightly more than those in clinics. Related Occupations Other health workers who provide direct pa­ tient care that requires a similar level of skill and training include nurse practitioners, phys­ ical therapists, occupational therapists, clinical psychologists, and speech and hearing clini­ cians. Sources of Additional Information For more information about the profession, send for the brochure, Physician Assistant, available free from: American Academy of Physician Assistants, 1117 North 19th St., Suite 300, Arlington, VA 22209.  Information on individual PA training pro­ grams also is available from: Association of Physician Assistant Programs, 950 North Washington St., Alexandria, VA 22313.  The Association’s publication. National Di­ rectory of Physician Assistant Programs, lists educational programs and describes each pro­ gram’s accreditation status, admission proce­ dures and requirements, and cost. Information on certification requirements is also given. Contact the association for price and ordering information. For eligibility requirements and a description of the Physician Assistant National Certifying Examination, write to: National Commission on Certification of Physician Assistants, Inc., 2845 Henderson Mill Rd. NE., At­ lanta, GA 30341.  Recreational Therapists (D.O.T. 076.124-014)  Nature of the Work Recreational therapists, also known as thera­ peutic recreation specialists, work with people who are mentally, physically, or emotionally disabled. They employ leisure activities as a form of treatment—much as other health prac­ titioners use surgery, drugs, nutrition, exer­ cise, or psychotherapy. Recreational therapists should not be confused with recreation work­ ers, who organize recreational activities for the purpose of enjoyment. (See the statement on recreation workers elsewhere in the Hand­ book.) Recreational therapists strive to minimize patients’ symptoms and to improve their phys­ ical, mental, and emotional well-being. En­ hancing the patient’s ability to take part in everyday life is the primary goal of recreational therapy; interesting and rewarding activities provide the means for working toward that goal. Activities employed by recreational thera­ pists are as varied as the interests and abilities of the people they serve. Therapists might, for example, organize athletic events, dances, arts and crafts, musical activities, trips to movies, field trips, or poetry readings. Apart from sheer enjoyment, such activities provide opportuni­ ties for exercise and social participation, and may also help relieve anxiety, build confi­ dence, or promote independence. . Recreational therapy is a relatively new field. Closely related to occupational therapy, it shares that profession’s view that ordinary activities can be used to put disabled persons on the road to improvement and, possibly, lead to full re­ covery. Together with the “expressive” ther­ apies—art, music, drama, and dance—rec­ reational therapy owes much to the discovery that soldiers suffering from battle fatigue, shock, and emotional trauma responded favorably to organized treatment programs. During World War II, for example, the Veterans Adminis-  148/Occupational Outlook Handbook  Recreational therapists must be good at working with people. tration (VA) organized medical recreational ac­ tivities in VA hospitals. Recreational therapists are found in a variety of settings, including mental hospitals, psy­ chiatric “day hospitals,” community mental health centers, nursing homes, adult day care programs, residential facilities for the mentally retarded, school systems, and prisons. The spe­ cifics of the job—the extent to which therapists work on their own or as a member of a mul­ tidisciplinary team, for example—vary with the employment setting and capacities of the patients or clients served. In hospitals and nursing homes, recreational therapists are usually located in the activities department or therapy department, together with therapists and their assistants from such dis­ ciplines as music, dance, art, and occupational therapy. They work on a team basis with these and other health professionals as they go about evaluating the patient, developing a coordi­ nated treatment plan, and periodically moni­ toring progress. Job responsibilities may also include directing the support staff. At times, it is the therapeutic assistant who actually con­ ducts recreational programs and spends the most time with the patients. Therapists need information about a pa­ tient’s physical, mental, and emotional status in order to set realistic goals and recommend suitable activities. Therefore, during the initial session in a hospital therapy department, the therapist might chat with the patient and family to put them at ease before directing the con­ versation toward the patient’s enthusiasms, hobbies, and interests. With that information in mind, the therapist then examines medical records, talks with other members of the staff, and observes the patient’s behavior—all in the interest of identifying activities that could be used as a basis for treatment. Progress may be slow; sometimes there is no progress at all. Recreational therapists un­ derstand this, and set goals accordingly. A pa­  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  tient having trouble socializing, for example, may express interest in chess but be over­ whelmed by the prospect of actually playing since that involves interaction with another per­ son. The therapist would proceed slowly, first letting the patient observe a game and then assigning a therapeutic assistant to serve as a chess partner for weeks or even months—as long as it took for the patient to gain the con­ fidence to seek out other patients as partners. Recreational therapists are careful to observe patients' reactions to the activities in which they are involved. The therapist might note, for example, that one patient participates in outdoor activities more enthusiastically than before; another is ready for activities that re­ quire teamwork; still another patient, formerly cooperative, has become combative and dis­ ruptive. Observations such as these provide the basis for the therapist’s periodic review of each patient’s activity program. The program is apt to be modified as the patient’s condition changes. Documentation is an important part of the recreational therapist’s job. Among the records therapists must keep are the initial evaluation, progress notes, reports to the physician, inter­ nal staff notes, Medicare records, and dis­ charge notes. These records are used to keep track of the patient’s condition, document treatment programs, and monitor progress. In nursing homes, recreational therapists evaluate residents’ capabilities much as they do in hospitals. They look at medical records, talk with residents to learn about their interests, and discuss each resident’s condition with other members of the staff. Often, the therapist groups residents according to common or shared in­ terests and ability levels, and then plans field trips, entertainment, singing, crafts, exercises, and other group activities. The therapist doc­ uments residents' responses to the activities and continually searches for ways of height­ ening residents’ enjoyment of recreational and  leisure activities, not just in the facility, but in the surrounding community as well. Because nursing home residents are likely to remain in the facility for months or even years, the activities program makes a big dif­ ference in the quality of their lives. Without the stimulation of interesting events, the daily routine of a nursing home can be monotonous and depressing, and residents are apt to dete­ riorate. In some nursing homes, recreational therapists direct the activities program. In other facilities, activities coordinators plan and carry out the program under the part-time supervision of a consultant who is either a recreational therapist or an occupational therapist. The therapist in a community setting might work in a day care program for the elderly, for example, or in a program for mentally retarded adults operated by a county recreation depart­ ment. No matter what the disability, recrea­ tional therapists in community settings face the added logistical challenge of arranging trans­ portation and escort services, if necessary, for prospective participants. Coordinating trans­ portation is less of a problem in hospitals and nursing homes, where clients are all under one roof. Developing therapeutic recreation pro­ grams in community settings accordingly re­ quires a large measure of organizational ability, flexibility, and ingenuity. Working Conditions Working conditions vary according to the em­ ployment setting, facilities available, and the activity being implemented. In a hospital, rec­ reational therapists might work in a ward or in a specially equipped activity room. In a nursing home, the recreational therapist might work in a room equipped with arts and crafts materials. In a community setting, the recreational therapist is likely to be in several different places in the course of a day or a week. In­ terviewing clients and planning events take place in an office, but when leading activities, the therapist might be in a gymnasium, outdoors on a nature walk, or in a swimming pool. In general, recreational therapists work in well-lighted, well-ventilated areas. The job may be physically tiring because therapists often are on their feet all day, and may have to lift and carry equipment. Recreational therapists gen­ erally work a standard 40-hour week, although weekend and evening hours occasionally are required. Therapists holding supervisory po­ sitions may be required to work overtime de­ pending upon the workload. Employment Recreational therapists held about 29,000 jobs in 1986.Three out of five worked in nursing homes, where they often hold the title of “ac­ tivities director.” Hospitals—chiefly psychi­ atric, rehabilitation, and other specialty hos­ pitals—are the second leading employer of recreational therapists. Other employers in­ clude community mental health centers, adult day care programs, residential facilities for the mentally retarded, and a variety of community programs for people with disabilities. A small number of therapists are self-em­  Registered Nurses, Pharmacists, Dietitians, Therapists, and Physician Assistants/149  ployed, providing recreational therapy services on a contract basis, for the most part. A selfemployed therapist might develop and oversee activities programs for several small nursing homes or community programs, for example. Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement Hiring requirements vary by employment set­ ting. A degree in therapeutic recreation (or in recreation with an emphasis on therapeutic rec­ reation) is the usual requirement for clinical positions in this field, found principally in hos­ pitals and mental health settings. In the past, individuals with degrees in psychology, soci­ ology, social work, and other human service fields were hired for clinical positions, but this is no longer the case. Increasingly, formal preparation in therapeutic recreation is ex­ pected. An associate degree or qualifying work ex­ perience satisfies hiring requirements for many nursing home jobs, since the position of ac­ tivities director has a recreational rather than a clinical focus. Nursing homes with strong therapy and rehabilitation programs, however, employ recreational therapists for clinical po­ sitions, and applicants for these jobs need de­ grees in therapeutic recreation. Five States—California, Georgia, Mary­ land, North Carolina, and Utah—regulate this profession. Licensure is required in Georgia and Utah; certification (or eligibility for cer­ tification) is required in Maryland’s long-term care facilities and California’s State hospitals; and titling is regulated in North Carolina. Certification is available through the Na­ tional Council for Therapeutic Recreation Cer­ tification (NCTRC), which awards credentials for therapeutic recreation specialists and ther­ apeutic recreation assistants. Many employers prefer to hire certified recreational therapists; some insist on the NCTRC credential. More than 170 programs in recreational ther­ apy are offered at the college or university level. As of 1986, 64 of these programs were accredited by the National Council on Accre­ ditation. Most of these are bachelor’s degree programs, although some are associate or mas­ ter’s degree programs. There are a few doctoral programs in therapeutic recreation. Entry level preparation for a job as a rec­ reational therapist is available at both the bach­ elor’s and master’s level. Associate degree pro­ grams do not ordinarily lead to therapist jobs. Instead, graduates qualify for hospital jobs as therapeutic assistants, or for nursing home jobs as activities specialists. A graduate degree is generally required for teaching, research, and administrative positions in this field. Academic programs in therapeutic recrea­ tion emphasize coursework in the physical, biological, and behavioral sciences and require 360 hours of internship under the supervision of a certified therapeutic recreation specialist. To put disabling and handicapping condi­ tions into context, these programs provide a solid foundation in human anatomy and phys­ iology. They deal with society’s response to disability as well as biological, psychological,  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  and social consequences for the disabled in­ dividual. In the realm of professional practice, courses deal with programming for special populations; assessment and referral proce­ dures; assistive techniques including self-help skills, signing, and orientation and mobility; adaptive devices and medical equipment; cur­ rent treatment approaches; legal issues in de­ livering services to special populations; and professional ethics. Persons considering this career must be able to work with people of all ages, temperaments, and personalities. To gain patients’ confidence, it is necessary to have good communications skills and a warm, friendly personality that inspires both trust and respect. In addition to these qualities, it is necessary to have ingenuity and imagination in adapting activities to in­ dividual needs. The potential therapist must be skilled, patient, and resourceful in teaching and dealing with patients. Good physical coordi­ nation is necessary when demonstrating or par­ ticipating in group activities. Newly graduated recreational therapists gen­ erally begin as staff therapists. Advancement is chiefly to supervisory or administrative po­ sitions. Some therapists teach, conduct re­ search, or do consulting work on a contract basis. Job Outlook Employment of recreational therapists is ex­ pected to grow much faster than the average for all occupations through the year 2000, chiefly because of anticipated expansion of long­ term care facilities and services. Future changes in the size and age structure of the population portend a substantial increase in the number of people with disabilities. Very rapid growth is projected for the population age 85 and above, a grou